Sample records for intramolecular hydrogen transfer

  1. Intramolecular Energy Transfer, Charge Transfer & Hydrogen Bond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ultrafast Dynamics of Chemical Reactions in Condensed Phase: Intramolecular Energy Transfer, Charge Transfer & Hydrogen Bond. Dipak K. Palit Radaition & Photochemistry Division Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Mumbai 400 085, India.

  2. Intramolecular Energy Transfer, Charge Transfer & Hydrogen Bond

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ultrafast Dynamics of Chemical Reactions in Condensed Phase: Intramolecular Energy Transfer, Charge Transfer & Hydrogen Bond · PowerPoint Presentation · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Slide 5 · Slide 6 · Slide 7 · Slide 8 · Slide 9 · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Slide 12 · Slide 13 · Slide 14 · Slide 15 · Slide 16 · Slide 17 · Slide 18 · Slide 19.

  3. Influence of Intramolecular Charge Transfer and Nuclear Quantum Effects on Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonds in Azopyrimidines. (United States)

    Bártová, Kateřina; Čechová, Lucie; Procházková, Eliška; Socha, Ondřej; Janeba, Zlatko; Dračínský, Martin


    Intramolecular hydrogen bonds (IMHBs) in 5-azopyrimidines are investigated by NMR spectroscopy and DFT computations that involve nuclear quantum effects. A series of substituted 5-phenylazopyrimidines with one or two hydrogen bond donors able to form IMHBs with the azo group is prepared by azo coupling. The barrier of interconversion between two rotamers of the compounds with two possible IMHBs is determined by variable temperature NMR spectroscopy and it is demonstrated that the barrier is significantly affected by intramolecular charge transfer. Through-hydrogen-bond scalar coupling is investigated in 15 N labeled compounds and the stability of the IMHBs is correlated with experimental NMR parameters and rationalized by path integral molecular dynamics simulations that involve nuclear quantum effects. Detailed information on the hydrogen bond geometry upon hydrogen-to-deuterium isotope exchange is obtained from a comparison of experimental and calculated NMR data.

  4. Regio-Selective Intramolecular Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange in Gas-Phase Electron Transfer Dissociation (United States)

    Hamuro, Yoshitomo


    Protein backbone amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) typically utilizes enzymatic digestion after the exchange reaction and before MS analysis to improve data resolution. Gas-phase fragmentation of a peptic fragment prior to MS analysis is a promising technique to further increase the resolution. The biggest technical challenge for this method is elimination of intramolecular hydrogen/deuterium exchange (scrambling) in the gas phase. The scrambling obscures the location of deuterium. Jørgensen's group pioneered a method to minimize the scrambling in gas-phase electron capture/transfer dissociation. Despite active investigation, the mechanism of hydrogen scrambling is not well-understood. The difficulty stems from the fact that the degree of hydrogen scrambling depends on instruments, various parameters of mass analysis, and peptide analyzed. In most hydrogen scrambling investigations, the hydrogen scrambling is measured by the percentage of scrambling in a whole molecule. This paper demonstrates that the degree of intramolecular hydrogen/deuterium exchange depends on the nature of exchangeable hydrogen sites. The deuterium on Tyr amide of neurotensin (9-13), Arg-Pro-Tyr-Ile-Leu, migrated significantly faster than that on Ile or Leu amides, indicating the loss of deuterium from the original sites is not mere randomization of hydrogen and deuterium but more site-specific phenomena. This more precise approach may help understand the mechanism of intramolecular hydrogen exchange and provide higher confidence for the parameter optimization to eliminate intramolecular hydrogen/deuterium exchange during gas-phase fragmentation.

  5. The role of hydrogen bonding in excited state intramolecular charge transfer. (United States)

    Chipem, Francis A S; Mishra, Anasuya; Krishnamoorthy, G


    Intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) that occurs upon photoexcitation of molecules is a vital process in nature and it has ample applications in chemistry and biology. The ICT process of the excited molecules is affected by several environmental factors including polarity, viscosity and hydrogen bonding. The effect of polarity and viscosity on the ICT processes is well understood. But, despite the fact that hydrogen bonding significantly influences the ICT process, the specific role of hydrogen bonding in the formation and stabilization of the ICT state is not unambiguously established. Some literature reports predicted that the hydrogen bonding of the solvent with a donor promotes the formation of a twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) state. Some other reports stated that it inhibits the formation of the TICT state. Alternatively, it was proposed that the hydrogen bonding of the solvent with an acceptor favors the TICT state. It is also observed that a dynamic equilibrium is established between the free and the hydrogen bonded ICT states. This perspective focuses on the specific role played by hydrogen bonding of the solvent with the donor and the acceptor, and by proton transfer in the ICT process. The utility of such influence in molecular recognition and anion sensing is discussed with a few recent literature examples in the end.

  6. Excited state intramolecular proton transfer in some tautomeric azo dyes and Schiff bases containing an intramolecular hydrogen bond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joshi, H.C.; Kamounah, F.S.; Gooijer, C.; van der Zwan, G.; Antonov, L.


    Photophysical properties of several basically important aromatic azodyes (1-phenylazo-2-naphthol and 2-phenylazo-1-naphthol) and Schiff bases (N-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthylmethylidene) aniline and N-(1-hydroxy-2-naphthylmethylidene) aniline) all containing an intramolecular hydrogen bond were studied by

  7. Intramolecular hydrogen bond in molecular and proton-transfer forms of Schiff bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filarowski, A.; Koll, A.; Karpfen, A.; Wolschann, P


    The force field and structural parameters modifications upon the formation of intramolecular hydrogen bond and proton transfer reaction in N-methyl-2-hydroxybenzylidene amine (HBZA) are determined on the basis of ab initio and DFT calculations. Reliability of the calculations is verified by comparing of the theoretical vibrational spectra with those experimentally determined in the gas phase. A model of resonance interactions is applied and the quantitative contribution of ortho-quinoid structure in the particular conformers is estimated. A comparison is also made to the systems without {pi}-electron coupling (Mannich bases)

  8. Use of Alkyl Ethers as Traceless Hydride Donors in Brønsted Acid-Catalyzed Intramolecular Hydrogen Atom Transfer. (United States)

    Gandamana, Dhika Aditya; Wang, Bin; Tejo, Ciputra; Bolte, Benoit; Gagosz, Fabien; Chiba, Shunsuke


    A new protocol for the deoxygenation of alcohols and the hydrogenation of alkenes under Brønsted acid catalysis has been developed. The method is based on the use of a benzyl or an isopropyl ether as a traceless hydrogen atom donor and involves an intramolecular hydride transfer as a key step that can be achieved in regio- and stereoselective manners. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Hydrogen bond strengthening induces fluorescence quenching of PRODAN derivative by turning on twisted intramolecular charge transfer (United States)

    Yang, Yonggang; Li, Donglin; Li, Chaozheng; Liu, YuFang; Jiang, Kai


    Researchers have proposed different effective mechanisms of hydrogen bonding (HB) on the fluorescence of 6-propionyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene (PRODAN) and its derivatives. Herein, excited state transition and dynamics analysis confirm that the fluorescence of PD (a derivative of PRODAN with ethyl replaced by 3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethylpropan) emits from the planar intramolecular charge transfer (PICT) state rather than twist ICT (TICT) state, because the fluorescence emission and surface hopping from the TICT state to the twist ground (T-S0) state is energy forbidden. Nevertheless, the strengthening of intramolecular-HB (intra-HB) and intermolecular-HB (inter-HB) of PD-(methanol)2 smooth the pathway of surface hopping from TICT to T-S0 state and the external conversion going to planar ground state by decreasing the energy difference of the two states. This smoothing changes the fluorescence state of PD-(methanol)2 to the TICT state in which fluorescence emission does not occur but surface hopping, leading to the partial fluorescence quenching of PD in methanol solvent. This conclusion is different from previous related reports. Moreover, the inter-HB strengthening of PD-methanol in PICT state induces the cleavage of intra-HB and a fluorescence red-shift of 54 nm compared to PD. This red-shift increases to 66 nm for PD-(methanol)2 for the strengthening of the one intra-HB and two inter-HBs. The dipole moments of PD-methanol and PD-(methanol)2 respectively increase about 10.3D and 8.1D in PICT state compared to PD. The synergistic effect of intra-HB and inter-HB induces partial quenching of PD in methanol solvent by turning on the TICT state and fluorescence red-shift. This work gives a reasonable description on the fluorescence red-shift and partial quenching of PD in methanol solvent, which will bring insight into the study of spectroscopic properties of molecules owning better spectral characteristics.

  10. A non-adiabatic quantum-classical dynamics study of the intramolecular excited state hydrogen transfer in ortho-nitrobenzaldehyde. (United States)

    Leyva, Verónica; Corral, Inés; Feixas, Ferran; Migani, Annapaola; Blancafort, Lluís; González-Vázquez, Jesús; González, Leticia


    Ab initio surface-hopping dynamics calculations have been performed to simulate the intramolecular excited state hydrogen transfer dynamics of ortho-nitrobenzaldehyde (o-NBA) in the gas phase from the electronic S(1) excited state. Upon UV excitation, the hydrogen is transferred from the aldehyde substituent to the nitro group, generating o-nitrosobenzoic acid through a ketene intermediate. The semiclassical propagations show that the deactivation from the S(1) is ultrafast, in agreement with the experimental measurements, which detect the ketene in less than 400 fs. The trajectories show that the deactivation mechanism involves two different conical intersections. The first one, a planar configuration with the hydrogen partially transferred, is responsible for the branching between the formation of a biradical intermediate and the regeneration of the starting material. The conversion of the biradical to the ketene corresponds to the passage through a second intersection region in which the ketene group is formed.

  11. Structural and medium effects on the reactions of the cumyloxyl radical with intramolecular hydrogen bonded phenols. The interplay between hydrogen-bonding and acid-base interactions on the hydrogen atom transfer reactivity and selectivity. (United States)

    Salamone, Michela; Amorati, Riccardo; Menichetti, Stefano; Viglianisi, Caterina; Bietti, Massimo


    A time-resolved kinetic study on the reactions of the cumyloxyl radical (CumO(•)) with intramolecularly hydrogen bonded 2-(1-piperidinylmethyl)phenol (1) and 4-methoxy-2-(1-piperidinylmethyl)phenol (2) and with 4-methoxy-3-(1-piperidinylmethyl)phenol (3) has been carried out. In acetonitrile, intramolecular hydrogen bonding protects the phenolic O-H of 1 and 2 from attack by CumO(•) and hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) exclusively occurs from the C-H bonds that are α to the piperidine nitrogen (α-C-H bonds). With 3 HAT from both the phenolic O-H and the α-C-H bonds is observed. In the presence of TFA or Mg(ClO4)2, protonation or Mg(2+) complexation of the piperidine nitrogen removes the intramolecular hydrogen bond in 1 and 2 and strongly deactivates the α-C-H bonds of the three substrates. Under these conditions, HAT to CumO(•) exclusively occurs from the phenolic O-H group of 1-3. These results clearly show that in these systems the interplay between intramolecular hydrogen bonding and Brønsted and Lewis acid-base interactions can drastically influence both the HAT reactivity and selectivity. The possible implications of these findings are discussed in the framework of the important role played by tyrosyl radicals in biological systems.

  12. Efficient Estimators for Quantum Instanton Evaluation of theKinetic Isotope Effects: Application to the Intramolecular HydrogenTransfer in Pentadiene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanicek, Jiri; Miller, William H.


    The quantum instanton approximation is used to compute kinetic isotope effects for intramolecular hydrogen transfer in cis-1,3-pentadiene. Due to the importance of skeleton motions, this system with 13 atoms is a simple prototype for hydrogen transfer in enzymatic reactions. The calculation is carried out using thermodynamic integration with respect to the mass of the isotopes and a path integral Monte Carlo evaluation of relevant thermodynamic quantities. Efficient 'virial' estimators are derived for the logarithmic derivatives of the partition function and the delta-delta correlation functions. These estimators require significantly fewer Monte Carlo samples since their statistical error does not increase with the number of discrete time slices in the path integral. The calculation treats all 39 degrees of freedom quantum-mechanically and uses an empirical valence bond potential based on a modified general AMBER force field.

  13. Structural, intramolecular hydrogen bonding and vibrational studies ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The harmonic oscillator model of aromaticity (HOMA) index elucidated the impact of hydrogen bond- ing in the ring. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding energy has been calculated from topological study. The low wavenumber vibrational modes obtained from experimental FT-Raman spectrum also supported the presence.

  14. Structural, intramolecular hydrogen bonding and vibrational studies ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The harmonic oscillator model of aromaticity (HOMA) index elucidated the impact of hydrogen bond- ing in the ring. Intramolecular hydrogen ... (Figure 3). The total ener- gies obtained for these possible conformers are listed in Table 1. ..... Structure, Reactivity and Intermolecular Forces: An. Euristic Interpretation by Means of ...

  15. Excited-state intramolecular hydrogen transfer (ESIHT) of 1,8-Dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (DHAQ) characterized by ultrafast electronic and vibrational spectroscopy and computational modeling

    KAUST Repository

    Mohammed, Omar F.


    We combine ultrafast electronic and vibrational spectroscopy and computational modeling to investigate the photoinduced excited-state intramolecular hydrogen-transfer dynamics in 1,8-dihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (DHAQ) in tetrachloroethene, acetonitrile, dimethyl sulfoxide, and methanol. We analyze the electronic excited states of DHAQ with various possible hydrogen-bonding schemes and provide a general description of the electronic excited-state dynamics based on a systematic analysis of femtosecond UV/vis and UV/IR pump-probe spectroscopic data. Upon photoabsorption at 400 nm, the S 2 electronic excited state is initially populated, followed by a rapid equilibration within 150 fs through population transfer to the S 1 state where DHAQ exhibits ESIHT dynamics. In this equilibration process, the excited-state population is distributed between the 9,10-quinone (S2) and 1,10-quinone (S1) states while undergoing vibrational energy redistribution, vibrational cooling, and solvation dynamics on the 0.1-50 ps time scale. Transient UV/vis pump-probe data in methanol also suggest additional relaxation dynamics on the subnanosecond time scale, which we tentatively ascribe to hydrogen bond dynamics of DHAQ with the protic solvent, affecting the equilibrium population dynamics within the S2 and S1 electronic excited states. Ultimately, the two excited singlet states decay with a solvent-dependent time constant ranging from 139 to 210 ps. The concomitant electronic ground-state recovery is, however, only partial because a large fraction of the population relaxes to the first triplet state. From the similarity of the time scales involved, we conjecture that the solvent plays a crucial role in breaking the intramolecular hydrogen bond of DHAQ during the S2/S1 relaxation to either the ground or triplet state. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  16. Kinetic evidence for the formation of discrete 1,4-dehydrobenzene intermediates. Trapping by inter- and intramolecular hydrogen atom transfer and observation of high-temperature CIDNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockhart, Thomas P. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Comita, Paul B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Bergman, Robert G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States)


    Upon heating, alkyl-substituted cis-1,2-diethynyl olefins undergo cyclization to yield reactive 1,4-dehydrobenzenes; the products isolated may be derived from either unimolecular or bimolecular reactions of the intermediate. (Z)-4,5-Diethynyl-4-octene (4) undergoes rearrangement to yield 2,3-di-n-propyl-1,4-dehydrobenzene (17). Solution pyrolysis of 4 in inert aromatic solvents produces three unimolecular products, (Z)-dodeca-4,8-diyn-6-ene (7), benzocyclooctene (9), and o-allyl-n-propylbenzene (10), in high yield. When 1,4-cyclohexadiene is added to the pyrolysis solution as a trapping agent, high yields of the reduced product o-di-n-propylbenzene (12) are obtained. The kinetics of solution pyrolysis of 4 in the presence and absence of trapping agent establish that 2,3-di-n-propyl-1,4-dehydrobenzene is a discrete intermediate on the pathway leading to products. When the reaction was run in the heated probe of an NMR spectrometer, CIDNP was observed in 10. This observation, along with kinetic and chemical trapping evidence, indicates the presence of two additional intermediates, formed from 17 by sequential intramolecular [1,5] hydrogen transfer, on the pathway to products. The observation of CIDNP, coupled with the reactivity exhibited by 17 and the other two intermediates, implicate a biradical description of these molecules. Biradical 17 has been estimated to have a lifetime of about 10-9 s at 200°C and to lie in a well of about 5 kcal/mol with respect to the lowest energy unimolecular pathway ([1,5] hydrogen transfer). Ring opening (expected to be the lowest energy process for 1,4-dehydrobenzenes in which intramolecular hydrogen transfer is unlikely) to the isomeric diethynyl olefin 7 appears to have an activation enthalpy of about 10 kcal/moL Upon thermal reaction in the gas phase (400°C) or in solution in inert solvents (Z)-hexa-2,3-diethyl-1,5-diyn-3-ene (5) rearranges in good yield to the isomeric diethynyl olefin (Z)-deca-3,7-diyn-5-ene (8

  17. Structural, intramolecular hydrogen bonding and vibrational studies ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An extensive theoretical study on the molecular structure and vibrational analysis of 3-amino-4- methoxy benzamide (3A4MBA) was undertaken using density functional theoretical (DFT) method. The possibility of formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonding was identified from structural parameter analysis and confirmed ...

  18. Structural, intramolecular hydrogen bonding and vibrational studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An extensive theoretical study on the molecular structure and vibrational analysis of 3-amino-4- methoxy benzamide (3A4MBA) was undertaken using density functional theoretical (DFT) method. The possibility of formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonding was identified from structural parameter analysis and confirmed ...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    A density matrix evolution (DME) method (Berendsen, H. J. C.; Mavri, J. J. Phys. Chem. the preceding paper in this issue) in combination with classical molecular dynamics simulation was applied to calculate the rate of proton tunneling in the intramolecular double-well hydrogen bond of hydrogen

  20. Solvent control of intramolecular proton transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manolova, Y.; Marciniak, Heinz; Tschierlei, S.


    of molecules in the enol and zwitterionic proton transfer (PT) form exists in the ground state. However, the zwitterion is the energetically favored one in the electronically excited state. Optical excitation of the enol form results in intramolecular proton transfer and formation of the PT form within 1.4 ps...

  1. Intramolecularly Hydrogen-Bonded Polypyrroles as Electro-Optical Sensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nicholson, Jesse


    We have developed a new class of polypyrroles bearing both hydrogen-bond acceptor and hydrogen-donor groups such that the intramolecular hydrogen bonding holds the system planar enhancing conjugation...

  2. Intramolecular electron transfer in laccases. (United States)

    Farver, Ole; Wherland, Scot; Koroleva, Olga; Loginov, Dmitry S; Pecht, Israel


    Rate constants and activation parameters have been determined for the internal electron transfer from type 1 (T1) to type 3 (T3) copper ions in laccase from both the fungus Trametes hirsuta and the lacquer tree Rhus vernicifera, using the pulse radiolysis method. The rate constant at 298 K and the enthalpy and entropy of activation were 25 ± 1 s(-1), 39.7 ± 5.0 kJ·mol(-1) and -87 ± 9 J·mol(-1) ·K(-1) for the fungal enzyme and 1.1 ± 0.1 s(-1), 9.8 ± 0.2 kJ·mol(-1) and -211 ± 3 J·mol(-1) ·K(-1) for the tree enzyme. The initial reduction of the T1 site by pulse radiolytically produced radicals was direct in the case of T. hirsuta laccase, but occured indirectly via a disulfide radical in R. vernicifera. The equilibrium constant that characterizes the electron transfer from T1 to T3 copper ions was 0.4 for T. hirsuta laccase and 1.5 for R. vernicifera laccase, leading to full reduction of the T1 site occurring at 2.9 ± 0.2 electron equivalents for T. hirsuta and 4 electron equivalents for R. vernicifera laccase. These results were compared with each other and with those for the same process in other multicopper oxidases, ascorbate oxidase and Streptomyces coelicolor laccase, using available structural information and electron transfer theory. © 2011 The Authors Journal compilation © 2011 FEBS.

  3. Specific Features of Intramolecular Proton Transfer Reaction in Schiff Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Koll


    Full Text Available Abstract: The differences between the intramolecular proton transfer in Mannich and Schiff bases are discussed. The tautomeric forms being in equilibrium in both types of molecules are seriously different. In Mannich bases there are in equilibrium the forms of phenols and phenolates. In Schiff bases each of tautomers is strongly influenced by resonance between zwitterionic and keto structures. Despite the common opinion that the proton transfer forms in compounds with internal π-electronic coupling are mainly keto forms it is shown in this work, that in Schiff bases the content of keto structure is slightly less than zwitterionic one. Almost equal participation of both forms leads to effective resonance between them and stabilization of intramolecular hydrogen bond in this way.

  4. Intramolecular energy transfer reactions in polymetallic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersen, J.


    This report is concerned with intramolecular, energy-transfer reactions. The concept of preparing synthetically a complex molecular species, capable of absorbing a photon at one metal center (antenna fragment), transferring that energy to a second metal center (reactive fragment) via a bridging ligand was first reported by our group in 1979. It is now apparent that a major emphasis in inorganic chemistry in the future will involve these types of molecular ensembles. Complexes discussed include Rh, Ru, and Cu complexes. 23 refs., 14 tabs.

  5. Excited state Intramolecular Proton Transfer in Anthralin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Andersen, Kristine B.; Spanget-Larsen, Jens


    Quantum chemical calculations performed on anthralin (1,8-dihydroxy-9(10H)-anthracenone) predict the possibility of an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer process. Fluorescence excitation and emission spectra of the compound dissolved in n-hexane at ambient temperature results...... in an unusually large fluorescence Stokes shift of 10500 cm−1. The emission appears as a broad band with a maximum at 17500 cm−1 and is characterized by a low and nearly temperature-independent quantum yield. The results are interpreted as an indication of a large equilibrium geometry change upon excitation...

  6. Excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) in dihydroxyphenyl anthracenes. (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Hsuan; Wan, Peter


    The photochemistry of three 9-(dihydroxyphenyl)anthracenes 6-8 was studied in neat CH(3)CN and selected organic solvents, to investigate excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) from the phenol to the anthracene moiety. In D(2)O-CH(3)CN mixtures, the observed deuterium exchange of 6-8 is consistent with water-mediated (formal) ESIPT process from the ortho phenolic OH to the 10'-position of the anthracene ring, giving rise to quinone methide (QM) intermediates 12-14. There is no ESIPT for the corresponding methoxy-substituted compounds. Introduction of an extra hydroxyl group onto the phenol ring at different positions led to a range of deuterium exchange quantum yields (Φ = 0.03 to 0.15). In addition to the anticipated ESIPT process to the 10'-position, in neat CH(3)CN and other organic solvents, 6 (but not 7 or 8) undergoes a clean photocyclization to give bridged product 19 in quantitative yield. The mechanism of this unique photocyclization may involve a direct ESIPT or a 1,4-hydrogen transfer from the ortho phenolic OH to the 9'-position of the anthracene ring, generating a zwitterion (20) or diradical (21) intermediate, respectively, followed by ring closure. Fluorescence studies of 6 in various solvents show the existence of both local excited and intramolecular charge transfer states whereas only the former was present for 7 and 8, offering a possible rationalization for the photocyclization pathway.

  7. Fluorescence and Intramolecular Energy Transfer in Polyphenylene Dendrimers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Daojun; Feyter, Steven De; Cotlet, Mircea; Stefan, Alina; Wiesler, Uwe-Martin; Herrmann, Andreas; Grebel-Koehler, Dörthe; Qu, Jianqiang; Müllen, Klaus; Schryver, Frans C. De


    The fluorescence of polyphenylene dendrimers and the intramolecular energy transfer in polyphenylene dendrimers containing a perylenediimide core have been investigated in this paper. Polyphenylene dendrimers composed of tens or hundreds of out-of-plane twisted phenyl units exhibit strong

  8. Evaluation of intramolecular charge transfer state of 4-N, N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    intermediate charge transfer (TICT) model.2 Evidence suggests that the intramolecular TICT process from a donor to an acceptor could be achieved by a twist- ing motion of the donor moiety that promotes initially generated locally excited (LE) state to an energeti- cally relaxed charge transfer state (CT).2–6,8,13 Besides.

  9. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding and tautomerism in Schiff bases ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N and keto-amine, O…H-N forms) in this series. The molecular structure of 8 has been determined crystallographically, and observed that the compound is in the form of phenol-imine, defined by the strong intramolecular [O-H…N = 1.72(3), 1.81(2) Å] hydrogen bonds. Compound 8 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group ...

  10. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding in myricetin and myricitrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vojta, Danijela; Dominkovic, Katarina; Miljanic, Snezana


    The molecular structures of myricetin (3,3’,4’,5,5’,7-hexahydroxyflavone; MCE) and myricitrin (myricetin 3-O-rhamnoside; MCI) are investigated by quantum chemical calculations (B3LYP/6-311G**). Two preferred molecular rotamers of MCI are predicted, corresponding to different conformations of the O......-rhamnoside subunit. The rotamers are characterized by different hydrogen bonded cross-links between the hydroxy groups of the rhamnoside substituent and the parent MCE moiety. The predicted OH stretching frequencies are compared with vibrational spectra of MCE and MCI recorded for the sake of this investigation (IR...

  11. Structure and Intramolecular Proton Transfer of Alanine Radical Cations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gab Yong


    The structures of the four lowest alanine conformers, along with their radical cations and the effect of ionization on the intramolecular proton transfer process, are studied using the density functional theory and MP2 method. The energy order of the radical cations of alanine differs from that of the corresponding neutral conformers due to changes in the basicity of the NH 2 group upon ionization. Ionization favors the intramolecular proton transfer process, leading to a proton-transferred radical-cation structure, [NH 3 + -CHCH 3 -COO·], which contrasts with the fact that a proton-transferred zwitterionic conformer is not stable for a neutral alanine in the gas phase. The energy barrier during the proton transfer process is calculated to be about 6 kcal/mol

  12. Excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction in 4-(1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. Excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction of 4-(1-azetidinyl) benzonitrile (P4C) in deuterated and normal methanol, ethanol and acetonitrile has been studied in order to investigate the solvent isotope effects on reaction rates and yields. These quantities (reaction rates and yields) along with several.

  13. Excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction of 4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) molecule with an extra hetero atom in its donor moiety has been synthesized in order to investigate how ICT reaction is affected by hetero atom replacement. Photo-physical and photo-dynamical properties of this molecule, 4-(morpholenyl)benzonitrile (M6C), have been studied in 20 ...

  14. and Di-hydration on the Intramolecular Proton Transfers and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of the isomers did not change the stability trend, so that the tri-keto isomer was the most stable isomer among the hydrated and non-hydrated isomers. The activation energies (Ea) of the intramolecular proton transfers. (tautomerisms) and energy barriers of H-rotations around its C-O axis in enolic isomers were calculated.

  15. The intramolecular electron transfer between copper sites of nitrite reductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Eady, R R; Abraham, Z H


    The intramolecular electron transfer (ET) between the type 1 Cu(I) and the type 2 Cu(II) sites of Alcaligenes xylosoxidans dissimilatory nitrite reductase (AxNiR) has been studied in order to compare it with the analogous process taking place in ascorbate oxidase (AO). This internal process is in...

  16. Excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction in 4-(1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction of 4-(1-azetidinyl) benzonitrile (P4C) in deuterated and normal methanol, ethanol and acetonitrile has been studied in order to investigate the solvent isotope effects on reaction rates and yields. These quantities (reaction rates and yields) along with several other ...

  17. Effects of acid concentration on intramolecular charge transfer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of P4C molecule.7 Temperature-assisted aggregation of alcohol has also been observed by following the fluo- rescence response of the same solute.20 Electrolyte- induced modulation of intramolecular charge transfer rate of P4C molecule in pure solvent has been explored and a non-monotonic dependence observed.18.

  18. Some Brief Notes on Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucjan Sobczyk


    Full Text Available A review of selected literature data related to intramolecular hydrogen bonding in ortho-hydroxyaryl Schiff bases, ortho-hydroxyaryl ketones, ortho-hydroxyaryl amides, proton sponges and ortho-hydroxyaryl Mannich bases is presented. The paper reports on the application of experimental spectroscopic measurements (IR and NMR and quantum-mechanical calculations for investigations of the proton transfer processes, the potential energy curves, tautomeric equilibrium, aromaticity etc. Finally, the equilibrium between the intra- and inter-molecular hydrogen bonds in amides is discussed.

  19. Unusual Intramolecular Hydrogen Transfer in 3,5-Di(triphenylethylenyl) BODIPY Synthesis and 1,2-Migratory Shift in Subsequent Scholl Type Reaction

    KAUST Repository

    Chua, Ming Hui


    The straightforward synthesis of 3,5-di(triphenylethylenyl) BODIPYs 1–3 from the condensation of 2-(triphenylethylenyl) pyrrole with aryl aldehydes are surprisingly found to produce side products that are hydrogenated at one of the two triphenylethylene substituents. It was also observed that the subsequent Scholl type reaction of 1 resulted in a “1,2-migratory shift” of one triphenylethylene substituent in addition to a ring closing reaction. Preliminary investigations, including DFT calculations and isolation of intermediates, were conducted to study these unusual observations on BODIPY chemistry.

  20. Altering intra- to inter-molecular hydrogen bonding by dimethylsulfoxide: A TDDFT study of charge transfer for coumarin 343 (United States)

    Liu, Xiaochun; Yin, Hang; Li, Hui; Shi, Ying


    DFT and TDDFT methods were carried out to investigate the influences of intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonding on excited state charge transfer for coumarin 343 (C343). Intramolecular hydrogen bonding is formed between carboxylic acid group and carbonyl group in C343 monomer. However, in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) solution, DMSO 'opens up' the intramolecular hydrogen bonding and forms solute-solvent intermolecular hydrogen bonded C343-DMSO complex. Analysis of frontier molecular orbitals reveals that intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) occurs in the first excited state both for C343 monomer and complex. The results of optimized geometric structures indicate that the intramolecular hydrogen bonding interaction is strengthened while the intermolecular hydrogen bonding is weakened in excited state, which is confirmed again by monitoring the shifts of characteristic peaks of infrared spectra. We demonstrated that DMSO solvent can not only break the intramolecular hydrogen bonding to form intermolecular hydrogen bonding with C343 but also alter the mechanism of excited state hydrogen bonding strengthening.

  1. Detection of a transient intramolecular hydrogen bond using 1JNH scalar couplings (United States)

    Xiang, ShengQi; Zweckstetter, Markus


    Hydrogen bonds are essential for the structure, stability and folding of proteins. The identification of intramolecular hydrogen bonds, however, is challenging, in particular in transiently folded states. Here we studied the presence of intramolecular hydrogen bonds in the folding nucleus of the coiled-coil structure of the GCN4 leucine zipper. Using one-bond 1JNH spin-spin coupling constants and hydrogen/deuterium exchange, we demonstrate that a transient intramolecular hydrogen bond is present in the partially helical folding nucleus of GCN(16-31). The data demonstrate that 1JNH couplings are a sensitive tool for the detection of transient intramolecular hydrogen bonds in challenging systems where the effective/useable protein concentration is low. This includes peptides at natural abundance but also uniformly labeled biomolecules that are limited to low concentrations because of precipitation or aggregation.

  2. Human ceruloplasmin. Intramolecular electron transfer kinetics and equilibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Bendahl, L; Skov, L K


    Pulse radiolytic reduction of disulfide bridges in ceruloplasmin yielding RSSR(-) radicals induces a cascade of intramolecular electron transfer (ET) processes. Based on the three-dimensional structure of ceruloplasmin identification of individual kinetically active disulfide groups and type 1 (T1...... and indeed electron equilibration between T1A and the trinuclear copper center in the domain 1-6 interface takes place with a rate constant of 2.9 +/- 0.6 s(-1). The equilibrium constant is 0.17. Following reduction of T1A Cu(II), another ET process takes place between RSSR(-) and T1B copper(II) of domain 4...

  3. Structural factors influencing the intramolecular charge transfer and photoinduced electron transfer in tetrapyrazinoporphyrazines. (United States)

    Novakova, Veronika; Hladík, Petr; Filandrová, Tereza; Zajícová, Ivana; Krepsová, Veronika; Miletin, Miroslav; Lenčo, Juraj; Zimcik, Petr


    A series of unsymmetrical tetrapyrazinoporphyrazines (TPyzPzs) from the group of azaphthalocyanines with one peripherally attached amino substituent (donor) were synthesized, and their photophysical properties (fluorescence quantum yield and singlet oxygen quantum yield) were determined. The synthesized TPyzPzs were expected to undergo intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) as the main pathway for deactivating their excited states. Several structural factors were found to play a critical role in ICT efficiency. The substituent in the ortho position to the donor center significantly influences the ICT, with tert-butylsulfanyl and butoxy substituents inducing the strongest ICTs, whereas chloro, methyl, phenyl, and hydrogen substituents in this position reduce the efficiency. The strength of the donor positively influences the ICT efficiency and correlates well with the oxidation potential of the amines used as the substituents on the TPyzPz as follows: n-butylamine ICT (with conjugated donors and acceptors) in the TPyzPz also proved to be much stronger than a photoinduced electron transfer in which the donor and the acceptor are connected through an aliphatic linker.

  4. The Nature of the Intramolecular Charge Transfer State in Peridinin (United States)

    Wagner, Nicole L.; Greco, Jordan A.; Enriquez, Miriam M.; Frank, Harry A.; Birge, Robert R.


    Experimental and theoretical evidence is presented that supports the theory that the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) state of peridinin is an evolved state formed via excited-state bond-order reversal and solvent reorganization in polar media. The ICT state evolves in ICT state are generated via mixing of the “11Bu+” ionic state and the lowest-lying “21Ag–” covalent state. The resulting ICT state is primarily 1Bu+-like in character and exhibits not only a large oscillator strength but an unusually large doubly excited character. In most solvents, two populations exist in equilibrium, one with a lowest-lying ICT ionic state and a second with a lowest-lying “21Ag–” covalent state. The two populations are separated by a small barrier associated with solvent relaxation and cavity formation. PMID:23528091

  5. Intramolecular electron transfer in single-site-mutated azurins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Skov, L K; Pascher, T


    . Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 86, 6968-6972]. The RSSR- radical produced in the above reaction was reoxidized in a slower intramolecular electron-transfer process (30-70 s-1 at 298 K) concomitant with a further reduction of the Cu(II) ion. The temperature dependence of the latter rates was determined...... and used to derive information on the possible effects of the mutations. The substitution of residue Phe114, situated on the opposite side of Cu relative to the disulfide, by Ala resulted in a rate increase by a factor of almost 2. By assuming that this effect is only due to an increase in driving force......Single-site mutants of the blue, single-copper protein, azurin, from Pseudomonas aeruginosa were reduced by CO2- radicals in pulse radiolysis experiments. The single disulfide group was reduced directly by CO2- with rates similar to those of the native protein [Farver, O., & Pecht, I. (1989) Proc...

  6. Intramolecular electron transfer in Pseudomonas aeruginosa cd(1) nitrite reductase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, Ole; Brunori, Maurizio; Cutruzzolà, Francesca


    The cd(1) nitrite reductases, which catalyze the reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide, are homodimers of 60 kDa subunits, each containing one heme-c and one heme-d(1). Heme-c is the electron entry site, whereas heme-d(1) constitutes the catalytic center. The 3D structure of Pseudomonas aeruginosa...... nitrite reductase has been determined in both fully oxidized and reduced states. Intramolecular electron transfer (ET), between c and d(1) hemes is an essential step in the catalytic cycle. In earlier studies of the Pseudomonas stutzeri enzyme, we observed that a marked negative cooperativity...... is controlling this internal ET step. In this study we have investigated the internal ET in the wild-type and His369Ala mutant of P. aeruginosa nitrite reductases and have observed similar cooperativity to that of the Pseudomonas stutzeri enzyme. Heme-c was initially reduced, in an essentially diffusion...

  7. Influence of intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonding on the fluorescence decay time of indigo derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, S.; Lill, E.; Hefferle, P.; Doerr, F.


    It is well known that both intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonding can lead to drastic changes in the lifetime of the first excited singlet state. By employing a synchronously pumped, mode-locked dye-laser for excitation in connection with a continuously operated streak camera for detection, the solvent-dependent fluorescence decay times of several indigo derivatives were determined with high temporal resolution (approx. 5 ps with deconvolution). It is found that in indigo dyes intramolecular hydrogen bonding gives rise to a strong fluorescence quenching; intermolecular hydrogen bonding can also provide a channel for fast radiationless deactivation in those derivatives in which the former are not present. (author)

  8. Intramolecular charge transfer effects on 3-aminobenzoic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalin, T. [Department of Chemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Chidambaram 608 002, Tamil Nadu (India); Rajendiran, N. [Department of Chemistry, Annamalai University, Annamalainagar, Chidambaram 608 002, Tamil Nadu (India)], E-mail:


    Effect of solvents, buffer solutions of different pH and {beta}-cyclodextrin on the absorption and fluorescence spectra of 3-aminobenzoic acid (3ABA) have been investigated. The solid inclusion complex of 3ABA with {beta}-CD is discussed by UV-Vis, fluorimetry, semiempirical quantum calculations (AM1), FT-IR, {sup 1}H NMR and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The thermodynamic parameters ({delta}H, {delta}G and {delta}S) of the inclusion process are also determined. The experimental results indicated that the inclusion processes is an exothermic and spontaneous. The large Stokes shift emission in solvents with 3ABA are correlated with different solvent polarity scales suggest that, 3ABA molecule is more polar in the S{sub 1} state. Solvent, {beta}-CD studies and excited state dipole moment values confirms that the presence of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) in 3ABA. Acidity constants for different prototropic equilibria of 3ABA in the S{sub 0} and S{sub 1} states are calculated. {beta}-Cyclodextrin studies shows that 3ABA forms a 1:1 inclusion complex with {beta}-CD. {beta}-CD studies suggest COOH group present in non-polar part and amino group present in hydrophilic part of the {beta}-CD cavity. A mechanism is proposed to explain the inclusion process.

  9. Dynamics of the excited state intramolecular charge transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, T.; Kim, C.H.


    The 6-dodecanoyl-2-dimethylaminonaphtalene (laurdan), a derivative of 6-propanoyl- 2-dimethylaminonaphthalene (prodan), has been used as a fluorescent probe in cell imaging, especially in visualizing the lipid rafts by the generalized polarization (GP) images, where GP=(I 440 -I 490 )/(I 440 +I 490 ) with I being the fluorescence intensity. The fluorescence spectrum of laurdan is sensitive to its dipolar environment due to the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) process in S 1 state, which results in a dual emission from the locally excited (LE) and the ICT states. The ICT process and the solvation of the ICT state are very sensitive to the dipolar nature of the environment. In this work, the ICT of laurdan in ethanol has been studied by femtosecond time resolved fluorescence (TRF), especially TRF spectra measurement without the conventional spectral reconstruction method. TRF probes the excited states exclusively, a unique advantage over the pump/probe transient absorption technique, although time resolution of the TRF is generally lower than transient absorption and the TRF spectra measurement was possible only though the spectral reconstruction. Over the years, critical advances in TRF technique have been made in our group to achieve <50 fs time resolution with direct full spectra measurement capability. Detailed ICT and the subsequent solvation processes can be visualized unambiguously from the TRF spectra. Fig. 1 shows the TRF spectra of laurdan in ethanol at several time delays. Surprisingly, two bands at 433 and 476 nm are clearly visible in the TRF spectra of laurdan even at T = 0 fs. As time increases, the band at 476 nm shifts to the red while its intensity increases. The band at 433 nm also shifts slightly to the red, but loses intensity as time increases. The intensity of the 476 nm band reaches maximum at around 5 ps, where it is roughly twice as intense as that at 0 fs, and stays constant until lifetime decay is noticeable. The spectra were fit by

  10. Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding in (2-Hydroxybenzoyl)benzoylmethane Enol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarke Knud Vilster; Winther, Morten; Spanget-Larsen, Jens


    , and the dienol form of 1,3-dibenzoylacetone. But in these examples the two H-bonds are equivalent, while in the case of OHDBM they are chemically different, involving one enolic and one phenolic hydroxy group. OHDBM is thus an interesting model compound with two competing H-bonds to the same carbonyl group......In the stable enol tautomer of the title compound (OHDBM), one carbonyl group is flanked by two β-hydroxy groups, giving rise to bifold intramolecular H-bonding. A similar situation is found in other β,β'-dihydroxy carbonyl compounds like chrysazin, anthralin, 2,2'-dihydroxybenzophenone...

  11. Intramolecular hydrogen bond: Can it be part of the basis set of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IMHB appears in one of the equivalent complete VIC basis sets, its RFC could be used as a measure of bond strength parameter. Keywords. Hydrogen bond; intramolecular; relaxed force constant; normal mode analysis; bond strength parameter. 1. Introduction. The advantages of the compliance constants (the inverse.

  12. Isotope effects on chemical shifts in the study of intramolecular hydrogen bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik


    The paper deals with the use of isotope effects on chemical shifts in characterizing intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Both so-called resonance-assisted (RAHB) and non-RAHB systems are treated. The importance of RAHB will be discussed. Another very important issue is the borderline between “static” ...

  13. Effect of intramolecular hydrogen bonding and electron donation on substituted anthrasemiquinone characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, H.; Mukherjee, T.


    The acid-base and redox characteristics of the semiquinones of a number of hydroxy and amino-substituted anthraquinones have been investigated. Results are explained on the basis of electron-donating properties and intramolecular hydrogen bond forming capabilities of the substituents. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  14. On prediction of OH stretching frequencies in intramolecularly hydrogen bonded systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Spanget-Larsen, Jens


    OH stretching frequencies are investigated for a series of non-tautomerizing systems with intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Effective OH stretching wavenumbers are predicted by the application of empirical correlation procedures based on the results of B3LYP/6-31G(d) theoretical calculations in the ...

  15. Estimating the energy of intramolecular hydrogen bonds from1H NMR and QTAIM calculations. (United States)

    Afonin, Andrei V; Vashchenko, Alexander V; Sigalov, Mark V


    The values of the downfield chemical shift of the bridge hydrogen atom were estimated for a series of compounds containing an intramolecular hydrogen bond O-HO, O-HN, O-HHal, N-HO, N-HN, C-HO, C-HN and C-HHal. Based on these values, the empirical estimation of the hydrogen bond energy was obtained by using known relationships. For the compounds containing an intramolecular hydrogen bond, the DFT B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method was used both for geometry optimization and for QTAIM calculations of the topological parameters (electron density ρ BCP and the density of potential energy V in the critical point of the hydrogen bond). The calculated geometric and topological parameters of hydrogen bonds were also used to evaluate the energy of the hydrogen bond based on the equations from the literature. Comparison of calibrating energies from the 1 H NMR data with the energies predicted by calculations showed that the most reliable are the linear dependence on the topological ρ BCP and V parameters. However, the correct prediction of the hydrogen bond energy is determined by proper fitting of the linear regression coefficients. To obtain them, new linear relationships were found between the calculated ρ BCP and V parameters and the hydrogen bond energies obtained from empirical 1 H NMR data. These relationships allow the comparison of the energies of different types of hydrogen bonds for various molecules and biological ensembles.

  16. The first strand transfer during HIV-1 reverse transcription can occur either intramolecularly or intermolecularly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wamel, J. L.; Berkhout, B.


    Reverse transcription is a complicated process that involves at least two cDNA transfer reactions to produce a full-length copy DNA of the retroviral RNA genome. Because one retrovirus particle contains two identical genomic RNA molecules, the transfers can occur in an intramolecular or

  17. Molecular structure and intramolecular hydrogen bonding in 2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (RCP) in the RAHB ring are valuable parameters for describing the bond. Positive values of Laplacian at .... RCP, and (d) Laplacian of total electronic density at RCP. shared interactions such as covalent bonds. In the lat- ..... ing vibrations with hydrogen bond strength have been known for a long time.53,54. The calculated.

  18. NMR and IR investigations of strong intramolecular hydrogen bonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul Erik; Spanget-Larsen, Jens


    For the purpose of this review, strong hydrogen bonds have been defined on the basis of experimental data, such as OH stretching wavenumbers, vOH, and OH chemical shifts, dOH (in the latter case after correction for ring current effects). Limits for O–H···Y systems are taken as 2800 > vOH > 1800 ...

  19. Theoretical Investigation of Intramolecular Hydrogen Shift Reactions in 3-Methyltetrahydrofuran (3-MTHF) Oxidation. (United States)

    Parab, Prajakta R; Sakade, Naoki; Sakai, Yasuyuki; Fernandes, Ravi; Heufer, K Alexander


    3-Methyltetrahydrofuran (3-MTHF) is proposed to be a promising fuel component among the cyclic oxygenated species. To have detailed insight of its combustion kinetics, intramolecular hydrogen shift reactions for the ROO to QOOH reaction class are studied for eight ROO isomers of 3-MTHF. Rate constants of all possible reaction paths that involve formation of cyclic transition states are computed by employing the CBS-QB3 composite method. A Pitzer-Gwinn-like approximation has been applied for the internal rotations in reactants, products, and transition states for the accurate treatment of hindered rotors. Calculated relative barrier heights highlight that the most favorable reaction channel proceeds via a six membered transition state, which is consistent with the computed rate constants. Comparing total rate constants in ROO isomers of 3-MTHF with the corresponding isomers of methylcyclopentane depicts faster kinetics in 3-MTHF than methylcyclopentane reflecting the effect of ring oxygen on the intramolecular hydrogen shift reactions.

  20. Triplet-Triplet Energy Transfer Study in Hydrogen Bonding Systems. (United States)

    Wang, Zhijia; Zhao, Jianzhang; Guo, Song


    The 2,6-diiodoBodipy-styrylBodipy hydrogen bonding system was prepared to study the effect of hydrogen bonding on the triplet-triplet-energy-transfer (TTET) process. 2,6-DiiodoBodipy linked with N-acetyl-2,6-diaminopyridine (D-2) was used as the triplet energy donor, and the styrylBodipy connected with thymine (A-1) was used as triplet energy acceptor, thus the TTET process was established upon photoexcitation. The photophysical processes of the hydrogen bonding system were studied with steady-state UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, fluorescence lifetime measurement and nanosecond time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopies. The TTET of the intramolecular/hydrogen bonding/intermolecular systems were compared through nanosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. The TTET process of the hydrogen bonding system is faster and more efficient (kTTET = 6.9 × 10(4) s(-1), ΦTTET = 94.0%) than intermolecular triplet energy transfer (kTTET = 6.0 × 10(4) s(-1), ΦTTET = 90.9%), but slower and less efficient than intramolecular triplet energy transfer (kTTET > 10(8) s(-1)). These results are valuable for designing self-assembly triplet photosensitizers and for the study of the TTET process of hydrogen bonding systems.

  1. Theoretical study on the excited-state intramolecular proton-transfer reaction of 10-hydroxybenzo[h]quinoline in methanol and cyclohexane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Meng [Department of Chemistry, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); State Key Lab of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Zhao, Jinfeng [Department of Physics, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); State Key Lab of Molecular Reaction Dynamics, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Dalian 116023 (China); Cui, Yanling; Wang, Qianyu [Department of Physics, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Dai, Yumei [Normal College, Shenyang University, Shenyang 110044 (China); Song, Peng, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China); Xia, Lixin, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Liaoning University, Shenyang 110036 (China)


    The dynamics of the excited-state intramolecular proton-transfer (ESIPT) reaction of 10-hydroxybenzoquinoline (HBQ) in different solvents, have been investigated based on the time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) in detail. Upon excitation, the intramolecular hydrogen bond between the hydroxyl and phenanthrene functionality is significantly strengthened in the S{sub 1} state, which can be used as a reasonable tendency for facilitating the ESIPT process. In addition, the calculated vertical excitation energies in the S{sub 0} state and S{sub 1} state reproduce the experimental UV–vis absorbance and fluorescence emission spectra well. Through calculating the fluorescence spectra of the HBQ chromophore, two outcomes for this chromophore were found in the S{sub 1} state, which demonstrates that the ESIPT process occurs. The potential energy curves have been calculated to account for the mechanism of the proton-transfer process in the excited-state. As a result, the barrierless ESIPT process can occur in the S{sub 1} state with proton transfer from the O atom to the N atom. And maybe the ESIPT process is easier in methanol solvent due to the higher potential energy difference. - Highlights: • The hydrogen bond between the hydroxyl and phenanthrene is strengthened. • The hydrogen bond facilitates the proton transfer from the hydroxyl group to the N atom. • The spontaneous excited-state intramolecular proton transfer reaction can be observed.

  2. NMR and IR Investigations of Strong Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul Erik Hansen


    Full Text Available For the purpose of this review, strong hydrogen bonds have been defined on the basis of experimental data, such as OH stretching wavenumbers, νOH, and OH chemical shifts, δOH (in the latter case, after correction for ring current effects. Limits for O–H···Y systems are taken as 2800 > νOH > 1800 cm−1, and 19 ppm > δOH > 15 ppm. Recent results as well as an account of theoretical advances are presented for a series of important classes of compounds such as β-diketone enols, β-thioxoketone enols, Mannich bases, proton sponges, quinoline N-oxides and diacid anions. The O···O distance has long been used as a parameter for hydrogen bond strength in O–H···O systems. On a broad scale, a correlation between OH stretching wavenumbers and O···O distances is observed, as demonstrated experimentally as well as theoretically, but for substituted β-diketone enols this correlation is relatively weak.

  3. TDDFT study on excited state intramolecular proton transfer mechanism in 2-amino-3-(2‧-benzazolyl)-quinolines (United States)

    Jia, Xueli; Li, Chaozheng; Li, Donglin; Liu, Yufang


    The intramolecular proton transfer reaction of the 2-amino-3-(2‧-benzoxazolyl)-quinoline (ABO) and 2-amino-3-(2‧-benzothiazolyl)-quinoline (ABT) molecules in both S0 and S1 states at B3LYP/6-311 ++G(d,p) level in ethanol solvent have been studied to reveal the deactivation mechanism of the tautomers of the two molecules from the S1 state to the S0 state. The results show that the tautomers of ABO and ABT molecules may return to the S0 state by emitting fluorescence. In addition, the bond lengths, angles and infrared spectra are analyzed to confirm the hydrogen bonds strengthened upon photoexcitation, which can facilitate the proton transfer process. The frontier molecular orbitals (MOs) and natural bond orbital (NBO) are also calculated to indicate the intramolecular charge transfer which can be used to explore the tendency of ESIPT reaction. The potential energy surfaces of the ABO and ABT molecules in the S0 and S1 states have been constructed. According to the energy potential barrier of 9.12 kcal/mol for ABO molecule and 5.96 kcal/mol for ABT molecule, it can be indicated that the proton transfer may occur in the S1 state.

  4. Electron capture dissociation proceeds with a low degree of intramolecular migration of peptide amide hydrogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, Kasper D; Adams, Christopher M; Zubarev, Roman A


    ECD using peptides with a unique selective deuterium incorporation. Our results show that only limited amide hydrogen migration occurs upon ECD, provided that vibrational excitation prior to the electron capture event is minimized. Peptide ions that are excessively vibrationally excited......Hydrogen (1H/2H) exchange combined with mass spectrometry (HX-MS) has become a recognized method for the analysis of protein structural dynamics. Presently, the incorporated deuterons are typically localized by enzymatic cleavage of the labeled proteins and single residue resolution is normally...... only obtained for a few residues. Determination of site-specific deuterium levels by gas-phase fragmentation in tandem mass spectrometers would greatly increase the applicability of the HX-MS method. The biggest obstacle in achieving this goal is the intramolecular hydrogen migration (i.e., hydrogen...

  5. Symmetry-breaking intramolecular charge transfer in the excited state of meso-linked BODIPY dyads

    KAUST Repository

    Whited, Matthew T.


    We report the synthesis and characterization of symmetric BODIPY dyads where the chromophores are attached at the meso position, using either a phenylene bridge or direct linkage. Both molecules undergo symmetry-breaking intramolecular charge transfer in the excited state, and the directly linked dyad serves as a visible-light-absorbing analogue of 9,9′-bianthryl.

  6. Tunable excited-state intramolecular proton transfer reactions with Nsbnd H or Osbnd H as a proton donor: A theoretical investigation (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Wen, Keke; Feng, Songyan; Yuan, Huijuan; An, Beibei; Zhu, Qiuling; Guo, Xugeng; Zhang, Jinglai


    Excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) reactions occurring in the S1 state for five molecules, which possess five/six-membered ring intramolecular Nsbnd H···N or Osbnd H···N hydrogen bonds bearing quinoline or 2-phenylpyridine moiety, have been described in detail by the time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) approach using the B3LYP hybrid functional. For the five molecules, the constrained potential energy profiles along the ESIPT reactions show that proton transfer is barrierless in molecules possessing six-membered ring intramolecular H-bonds, which is smoother than that with certain barriers in five-membered ring H-bonding systems. For the latter, chemical modification by a more strong acid group can lower the ESIPT barrier significantly, which harnesses the ESIPT reaction from a difficult type to a fast one. The energy barrier of the ESIPT reaction depends on the intensity of the intramolecular H-bond, which can be measured with the topological descriptors by topology analysis of the bond critical point (BCP) of the intramolecular H-bond. It is found that when the value of electron density ρ(r) at BCP is bigger than 0.025 a.u., the corresponding molecule might go through an ultrafast and barrierless ESIPT process, which opens a new scenario to explore the ESIPT reactions.

  7. Transfer hydrogenation in open-shell nucleotides - a theoretical survey. (United States)

    Achrainer, Florian; Zipse, Hendrik


    The potential of a larger number of sugar models to act as dihydrogen donors in transfer hydrogenation reactions has been quantified through the calculation of hydrogenation energies of the respective oxidized products. Comparison of the calculated energies to hydrogenation energies of nucleobases shows that many sugar fragment radicals can reduce pyrimidine bases such as uracil in a strongly exothermic fashion. The most potent reducing agent is the C3' ribosyl radical. The energetics of intramolecular transfer hydrogenation processes has also been calculated for a number of uridinyl radicals. The largest driving force for such a process is found for the uridin-C3'-yl radical, whose rearrangement to the C2'-oxidized derivative carrying a dihydrouracil is predicted to be exothermic by 61.1 kJ/mol in the gas phase.

  8. Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding Involving Organic Fluorine: NMR Investigations Corroborated by DFT-Based Theoretical Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar Mishra


    Full Text Available The combined utility of many one and two dimensional NMR methodologies and DFT-based theoretical calculations have been exploited to detect the intramolecular hydrogen bond (HB in number of different organic fluorine-containing derivatives of molecules, viz. benzanilides, hydrazides, imides, benzamides, and diphenyloxamides. The existence of two and three centered hydrogen bonds has been convincingly established in the investigated molecules. The NMR spectral parameters, viz., coupling mediated through hydrogen bond, one-bond NH scalar couplings, physical parameter dependent variation of chemical shifts of NH protons have paved the way for understanding the presence of hydrogen bond involving organic fluorine in all the investigated molecules. The experimental NMR findings are further corroborated by DFT-based theoretical calculations including NCI, QTAIM, MD simulations and NBO analysis. The monitoring of H/D exchange with NMR spectroscopy established the effect of intramolecular HB and the influence of electronegativity of various substituents on the chemical kinetics in the number of organic building blocks. The utility of DQ-SQ technique in determining the information about HB in various fluorine substituted molecules has been convincingly established.

  9. Vibrational Spectroscopy of Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonds in the Infrared and Near-Infrared Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Sidsel Dahl

    and 1,4-diaminobutane). Experimentally, the hydrogen bonds have been studied with vibrational spectroscopy in the infrared and near-infrared regions. The focus is primarily on spectra recorded in the near-infrared regions, which in these studies are dominated by O-H and N-H stretching overtones....... Overtone spectra have been recorded with intracavity laser photoacoustic laser spectroscopy and conventional long path absorption spectroscopy. Theoretically, a combination of electronic structure calculations and local mode models have been employed to guide the assignment of bands in the vibrational......,4-diaminobutane, no sign of intramolecular N-H···N hydrogen bonds were identified in the overtone spectra. However, theoretical analyzes indicate that intramolecular N-H···N hydrogen bonds are present in all three diamines if two hydrogen atoms on one of the methylene groups are substituted with triuoromethyl...

  10. Intramolecular migration of amide hydrogens in protonated peptides upon collisional activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Gårdsvoll, Henrik; Ploug, Michael


    if collision-induced dissociation (CID) should provide reliable site-specific information from (1)H/(2)H exchange experiments. We have explored a series of unique, regioselectively deuterium-labeled peptides as model systems to probe for intramolecular amide hydrogen migration under low-energy collisional...... are protected against exchange with the solvent, while the amide hydrogens of the nonbinding sequences exchange rapidly with the solvent. We have utilized such long-lived complexes to generate peptides labeled with deuterium in either the binding or nonbinding region, and the expected regioselectivity...... of this labeling was confirmed after pepsin proteolysis. CID of such deuterated peptides, [M + 2H](2+), yielded fragment ions (b- and y-ions) having a deuterium content that resemble the theoretical values calculated for 100% scrambling. Thus, complete randomization of all hydrogen atoms attached to nitrogen...

  11. On Hydrogen Bonding in the Intramolecularly Chelated Taitomers of Enolic Malondialdehyde and its Mono- and Dithio-Analogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Lars; Duus, Fritz


    The intramolecular hydrogen bondings in enolic malondialdehyde and it mono- and dithio-analogues have been evaluated by a semiempricial SCF–MO–CNDO method. The calculations predict that the hydrogen bonds play an important part in the stabilities of malondialdehyde and monothiomalondialdehyde...

  12. Visible absorbing croconium dyes with intramolecular hydrogen bonding: A combined experimental and computational study (United States)

    Prabhakar, Ch.; Promila; Tripathi, Anuj; Bhanuprakash, K.; Jayathirtharao, V.


    Croconium molecules CR1-CR4 with break-in conjugation (Csbnd N Bonding) was synthesized by condensation of croconic acid and arylamines. By using combined experimental and theoretical methods like UV-visible spectra, DFT and TDDFT studies, we have characterized electronic absorption properties. The reported molecules are having absorption in visible region ranging from 450 to 550 nm with large extinction coefficient (2.5-5.0 × 104 M-1 cm-1). We find that CR2 and CR4 are showing 50 to 100 nm red shifted absorption than CR1 and CR3. This red shift is possibly due to presence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding in CR2 and CR4. Further this is supported by DFT studies, in case of CR2 and CR4 shows strong intramolecular hydrogen bonding between oxygen of carboxylate group (at ortho position of phenyl ring) and hydrogen of nitrogen attached to the central croconate ring. It is also observed that, there is small diradicaloid character in these molecules. This study is helpful in design and synthesis of new croconium dyes which are useful in materials applications.

  13. Photoinduced intramolecular charge-transfer reactions in 4-amino-3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    primary amino group, shows dual emission in polar solvents. Absorption and emission ... for understanding the primary processes of vision ... demonstrated ICT in some fluoro-substituted amino benzonitrile deriva- tive and very recently Stalin et al. 10–12 reported charge-transfer reaction in p-amino benzoic acid, 3-.

  14. Pulse radiolytic and electrochemical investigations of intramolecular electron transfer in carotenoporphyrins and carotenoporphyrin-quinone triads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, E.J.; Lexa, D.; Bensasson, R.V.; Gust, D.; Moore, T.A.; Moore, A.L.; Liddell, P.A.; Nemeth, G.A.


    Thermodynamic and kinetic aspects of intramolecular electron-transfer reactions in carotenoporphyrin dyads and carotenoid-porphyrin-quinone triads have been studied by using pulse radiolysis and cyclic voltammetry. Rapid (<1 μs) electron transfer from carotenoid radical anions to attached porphyrins has been inferred. Carotenoid cations, on the other hand, do not readily accept electrons from attached porphyrins or pyropheophorbides. Electrochemical studies provide the thermodynamic basis for these observations and also allow estimation of the energetics of photoinitiated two-step electron transfer and two-step charge recombination in triad models for photosynthetic charge separation

  15. Intramolecular electron transfer in single-site-mutated azurins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Skov, L K; Pascher, T


    and used to derive information on the possible effects of the mutations. The substitution of residue Phe114, situated on the opposite side of Cu relative to the disulfide, by Ala resulted in a rate increase by a factor of almost 2. By assuming that this effect is only due to an increase in driving force...... is apparently only marginally involved in electron transfer in wild-type azurin. Pathway calculations also suggest that a longer, through-backbone path is more efficient than the shorter one involving Trp48. The former pathway yields an exponential decay factor, beta, of 6.6 nm-1. Another mutation, raising...

  16. Excited-state intramolecular proton transfer in 3-hyroxyflavone isolated in solid argon: fluorescence and fluorescence-excitation spectra and tautomer fluorescence rise time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, B.; Ernsting, N.P.


    The fluorescence properties of 3-hydroxyflavone isolated in solid argon at 15 K have been investigated. Upon electronic excitation the molecules undergo rapid intramolecular proton transfer. No fluorescence from the excited state of the normal form of the molecule could be detected. Perturbations due to hydrogen-bonding impurities which produce serious experimental problems in hydrocarbon glasses are largely suppressed in argon matrices. The rise of the green fluorescence of the tautomer was studied with excitation pulses of 230-fs duration and streak camera detection. An apparent tautomer fluorescence rise time of 2.7 ps was obtained by deconvolution. A comparative measurement of the dye coumarine 6 yielded an apparent fluorescence rise time of 2.5 ps, which can be entirely attributed to the group velocity dispersion of the streak camera optics. This indicates a rate constant for excited-state intramolecular proton transfer in 3-hydroxyflavone of greater than 10/sup 12/ s/sup -1/.

  17. Deuterium isotope effect on the intramolecular electron transfer in Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O.; Zhang, Jingdong; Chi, Qijin


    rather than negative. Isotope effects are, however, also inherent in the nuclear reorganization Gibbs free energy and in the tunneling factor for the electron transfer process. A slightly larger thermal protein expansion in H2O than in D2O (0.001 nm K-1) is sufficient both to account for the activation......Intramolecular electron transfer in azurin in water and deuterium oxide has been studied over a broad temperature range. The kinetic deuterium isotope effect, k(H)/k(D), is smaller than unity (0.7 at 298 K), primarily caused by the different activation entropies in water (-56.5 J K-1 mol(-1...

  18. Dynamics of excited-state intramolecular proton transfer reactions in piroxicam. Role of triplet states (United States)

    Cho, Dae Won; Kim, Yong Hee; Yoon, Minjoong; Jeoung, Sae Chae; Kim, Dongho


    The picosecond time-resolved fluorescence and transient absorption behavior of piroxicam at room temperature are reported. The keto tautomer in the excited singlet state ( 1K*) formed via the fast intramolecular proton transfer (≈ 20 ps) is observed. The short-lived (7.5 ns) triplet state of keto tauomer ( 3K*) is generated from 1K * in toluene whereas it is hardly observed in ethanol. Consequently, rapid reverse proton transfer takes place from 3K * to the enol triplet state ( 3E *.

  19. Intramolecular electron transfer through a bridging carboxylate group coordinated to two cobalt(III)-ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieghardt, K.


    Reduction of the binuclear μ-p-nitrobenzoato -di-μ-hydroxo -bis[triammine cobalt(III)] cation with (CH 3 ) 2 COH radicals yields a radical cation with the p-nitrobenzoato radical being coordinated to two cobalt(III) ions at the carboxylic group. The unprotonated form of this species undergoes intramolecular electron transfer producing Co(II) (k = (3.3 +- 0.3). x 10 3 s -1 ). The role of the carboxylate group in the intramolecular electron transfer process is tentatively assessed in terms of an intramolecular outer-sphere reaction because of lack of overlap of the donor orbitals (π) and the acceptor orbital (sigma). The protonated form of the radical cation (pKsub(a) = 2.5) disproportionates via a bimolecular process without production of Co(II). The effect of two coordinated Co(III) ions as compared to only one on the properties of the nitrobenzoate radical anion are discussed. (orig.) 891 HK 892 GM [de

  20. Long-range intramolecular electron transfer in aromatic radical anions and binuclear transition metal complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuznetsov, A. M.; Ulstrup, Jens


    radicals containing two aromatic end groups connected by a flexible polymethylene chain or a rigid cyclohexane frame is thus trapped on either aromatic end group, and ET between these groups can be detected by ESR techniques. Intramolecular ET also occurs in binuclear transition metal complexes in which......, and for intramolecular and inner sphere ET for transition metal complexes. The Journal of Chemical Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute of Physics....... the coupling between the metal centers [(Ru(II)/Ru(III) and Ru(II)/Co(III) couples] is sufficiently weak (class I or II mixed valence compounds). The ET mechanism can involve either direct transfer between the donor and acceptor groups or a higher order mechanism in which ET proceeds through intermediate...

  1. The origin of enantioselectivity in the l-threonine-derived phosphine-sulfonamide catalyzed aza-Morita-Baylis-Hillman reaction: Effects of the intramolecular hydrogen bonding

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, Richmond


    l-Threonine-derived phosphine-sulfonamide 4 was identified as the most efficient catalyst to promote enantioselective aza-Morita-Baylis-Hillman (MBH) reactions, affording the desired aza-MBH adducts with excellent enantioselectivities. Density functional theory (DFT) studies were carried out to elucidate the origin of the observed enantioselectivity. The importance of the intramolecular N-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding interaction between the sulfonamide and enolate groups was identified to be crucial in inducing a high degree of stereochemical control in both the enolate addition to imine and the subsequent proton transfer step, affording aza-MBH reactions with excellent enantioselectivity. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. On the nature of intramolecular vibrational energy transfer in dense molecular environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benten, Rebekka S. von [Institut fuer Physikalische Chemie der Universitaet Goettingen, Tammannstrasse 6, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany); Abel, Bernd, E-mail: [Wilhelm-Ostwald-Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universitaet Leipzig, Linne-Strasse 2, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany)


    Graphical abstract: Mechanisms of IVR in multi-tiers of intramolecular energy levels in different molecular environments are investigated. - Abstract: Transient femtosecond-IR-pump-UV-absorption probe-spectroscopy has been employed to shed light on the nature of intramolecular vibrational energy transfer (IVR) in dense molecular environments ranging from the diluted gas phase to the liquid. A general feature in our experiments and those of others is that IVR proceeds via multiple timescales if overtones or combination vibrations of high frequency modes are excited. It has been found that collisions enhance IVR if its (slower) timescales can compete with collisions. This enhancement is, however, much more weaker and rather inefficient as opposed to the effect of collisions on intermolecular energy transfer which is well known. In a series of experiments we found that IVR depends not significantly on the average energy transferred in a collision but rather on the number of collisions. The collisions are much less efficient in affecting IVR than VET. We conclude that collision induced broadening of vibrational energy levels reduces the energy gaps and enhances existing couplings between tiers. The present results are an important step forward to rationalize and understand apparently different and not consistent results from different groups on different molecular systems between gas and liquid phases.

  3. Intramolecular proton transfer and tunnelling reactions of hydroxyphenylbenzoxazole derivatives in Xenon at 15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walla, Peter J. [Max-Planck-Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Department 010, Spectroscopy and Photochemical Kinetics, Am Fassberg 11, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany) and Department for Biophysical Chemistry, Technical University of Brunswick, Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Hans-Sommerstr. 10, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany)]. E-mail:; Nickel, Bernhard [Max-Planck-Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Department 010, Spectroscopy and Photochemical Kinetics, Am Fassberg 11, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany)


    We investigated the site dependence and the tunnelling processes of the intramolecular proton and deuteron transfer in the triplet state of the compounds 2-(2'-hydroxy-4'-methylphenyl)benzoxazole (m-MeHBO) and 2-(2'-hydroxy-3'-methylphenyl)benzoxazoles (o-MeHBO) and their deuterio-oxy analogues in a solid xenon matrix. After singlet excitation there occurs an ultrafast intramolecular enol {yields} keto proton transfer and subsequent intersystem crossing mainly to the keto triplet state. In the triplet state of m-MeHBO, the proton transfer back to the lower enol triplet state is governed by tunnelling processes. In o-MeHBO, however, the enol triplet state is higher and therefore normally no tunnel reaction can be observed. Because of the external heavy atom-effect in a xenon matrix, we were able to investigate the reverse enol-keto-tunnelling after exciting directly the enol triplet state of deuterated o-MeHBO. The time constants of the reverse enol-keto tautomerization are similar to those of the normal keto-enol tautomerization. In a xenon matrix, the observed site-selective phosphorescence spectra are very well-resolved vibrationally. This allowed the study of the tunnel rates in different well-defined sites. The vibrational energies obtained in the spectra are in good agreement with vibrational energies found in resonant Raman and IR spectra of 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)benzoxazole (HBO)

  4. A Critical Check for the Role of Resonance in Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonding. (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Huaiyu; Wu, Wei; Mo, Yirong


    Although resonance-assisted H-bonds (RAHBs) are well recognized, the role of π resonance in RAHBs is controversial, as the seemingly enhanced H-bonds in unsaturated compounds may result from the constraints imposed by the σ skeleton. Herein the block-localized wave function (BLW) method, which can derive optimal yet resonance-quenched structures with related physiochemical properties, was employed to examine the correlation between π resonance and the strength of intramolecular RAHBs. Examination of a series of paradigmatic molecules with RAHBs and their saturated analogues showed that it is inappropriate to compare a conjugated system with its saturated counterpart, as they may have quite different σ frameworks. Nevertheless, comparison between a conjugated system and its resonance-quenched (i.e., electron-localized) state, which have identical σ skeletons, shows that in all studied cases, π resonance unanimously reduces the bonding distance by 0.111-0.477 Å, strengthens the bonding by 40-56 %, and redshifts the D-H vibrational frequency by 104-628 cm -1 . Furthermore, there is an excellent correlation between hydrogen-bonding strength and the classical Coulomb attraction between the hydrogen-bond donor and the acceptor, which suggests that the dominant role of the electrostatic interaction in H-bonds and RAHBs originates from the charge flow from H-bond donors to acceptors through π conjugation. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding in 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde: IR spectrum and quantum chemical calculations (United States)

    Moosavi-Tekyeh, Zainab; Taherian, Fatemeh; Tayyari, Sayyed Faramarz


    The structural parameters, and vibrational frequencies of 5-nitrosalicylaldehyde (5NSA) were studied by the FT-IR and Raman spectra and the quantum chemical calculations carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory in order to investigate the intramolecular hydrogen bonding (IHB) present in its structure. The strength and nature of IHB in the optimized structure of 5NSA were studied in detail by means of the atoms in molecules (AIM) and the natural bond orbital (NBO) approaches. The results obtained were then compared with the corresponding data for its parent molecule, salicylaldehyde (SA). Comparisons made between the geometrical structures for 5NSA and SA, their OH/OD stretching and out-of-plane bending modes, their enthalpies for the hydrogen bond, and their AIM parameters demonstrated a stronger H-bonding in 5NSA compared with that in SA. The calculated binding enthalpy (ΔHbind) for 5NSA was -10.92 kcal mol-1. The observed νOH and γOH appeared at about 3120 cm-1 and 786 cm-1 respectively. The stretching frequency shift of H-bond formation was 426 cm-1 which is consistent with ΔHbind and the strength of H-bond in 5NSA. The delocalization energies and electron delocalization indices derived by the NBO and AIM approaches indicate that the resonance effects were responsible for the stronger IHB in 5NSA than in SA.

  6. Redox-Tag Processes: Intramolecular Electron Transfer and Its Broad Relationship to Redox Reactions in General. (United States)

    Okada, Yohei; Chiba, Kazuhiro


    Explosive growth in the use of open shell reactivity, including neutral radicals and radical ions, in the field of synthetic organic chemistry has been observed in the past decade, particularly since the advent of ruthenium complexes in 2008. These complexes generally induce single-electron transfer (SET) processes via visible-light absorption. Additionally, recent significant advancements in organic electrochemistry involving SET processes to provide open shell reactivity offer a complementary method to traditional polarity-driven reactions described by two-electron transfer processes. In this Review, we highlight the importance of intramolecular SET processes in the field of synthetic organic chemistry, which seem to be more elusive than the intermolecular versions, since they are net redox-neutral and thus cannot simply be regarded as oxidations or reductions. Such intramolecular SET processes can rationally be understood in combination with concomitant bond formations and/or cleavages, and are regulated by a structural motif that we call a "redox tag." In order to describe modern radical-driven reactions involving SET processes, we focus on a classical formalism in which electrons are treated as particles rather than waves, which offers a practical yet powerful approach to explain and/or predict synthetic outcomes.

  7. Characteristics of Intramolecular Charge Transfer by J-Aggregates in Merocyanine Dye LB Films. (United States)

    Yang, Chang Heon; Kwon, Young-Soo; Shin, Hoon-Kyu


    In this study, for the development of future molecular electronic devices, we have investigated the characteristics of the aggregates of Langmuir-Blodgett films. The characteristics of intramolecular charge transfer by J-aggregates in merocyanine dye LB films have been studied experimentally by using UV irradiation and heat treatment. In addition to intramolecular charge transfer, we also studied the conjugation and energy changes of the molecules. In case a dye is thinned by LB method, the alkyl chain is often displaced in order to form a mono-molecular film with ease. Since the molecular association form is often made by self-organization of molecules themselves, in case the dye and the alkyl chain are strongly bonded by the covalent bond, it may be said that the properties of the LB film to be built up are almost determined at the time of synthesis of film-forming molecules. Meanwhile, since, in case LB film is fabricated by the diffusion absorption method, the cohesive force between the water-soluble dye and the surface-active mono-molecular film is electrostatic, the dye molecule can move relatively freely on the air/water interface, which may be regarded as a two-dimensional crystal growth process.

  8. Influence of Intramolecular Charge Transfer and Nuclear Quantum Effects on Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonds in Azopyrimidines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bártová, Kateřina; Čechová, Lucie; Procházková, Eliška; Socha, Ondřej; Janeba, Zlatko; Dračínský, Martin


    Roč. 82, č. 19 (2017), s. 10350-10359 ISSN 0022-3263 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-11223S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : pyrimidines * NMR spectroscopy * DFT calculations Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 4.849, year: 2016

  9. Evidence of lactim-lactam photo-tautomerization through four-member intramolecular hydrogen bonded network in 5-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-nicotinonitrile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samanta, Anuva; Guchhait, Nikhil


    Lactim-lactam isomerisation behavior through proton transfer process at the strained four-member intramolecular H-bonded ring in 5-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-nicotinonitrile (FP2HN) has been elaborately investigated by steady state absorption and emission, time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations by the Density Functional Theory (DFT) method. Irrespective of the nature of the solvents, FP2HN exists as lactim (FP2HN) and lactam form (FP3PN) in the ground state. The observed large Stokes shifted emission band corresponds to the spectroscopic signature of lactim→lactam conversion by excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) reaction across the four member H-bonded network. The ESIPT reaction is found to be suppressed in the basic medium due to the formation of anionic species. The effect of increase of temperature on the spectral behavior and hence the calculated thermodynamic parameters (K tau 0 , ΔG 0 , ΔH 0 , ΔS 0 ) indicate spontaneous lactim→lactam isomerisation process. The spectral behavior of the studied molecule has been compared with its parent molecule, 2-hydroxypyridine (2HP) and 5-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-hydroxypyridine (FP2HP). Structural calculations and potential energy curves along the proton transfer coordinate by the DFT method have been successfully employed to correlate the experimental findings. - Highlights: • Lactim lactam photo-isomerisation across four-member intramolecular hydrogen bond. • ESIPT reaction in 5-(4-fluorophenyl)-2-hydroxy-nicotinonitrile. • Steady state and time resolved spectroscopy. • Suppression of ESIPT in the basic medium. • Experimental spectral findings corroborate well DFT calculation results

  10. Hydroxyalkoxy radicals: importance of intramolecular hydrogen bonding on chain branching reactions in the combustion and atmospheric decomposition of hydrocarbons. (United States)

    Davis, Alexander C; Francisco, Joseph S


    During both the atmospheric oxidation and combustion of volatile organic compounds, sequential addition of oxygen can lead to compounds that contain multiple hydrogen-bonding sites. The presence of two or more of these sites on a hydrocarbon introduces the possibility of intramolecular H-bonding, which can have a stabilizing effect on the reactants, products, and transition states of subsequent reactions. The present work compares the absolute energies of two sets of conformations, those that contain intramolecular H-bonds and those that lack intramolecular H-bonds, for each reactant, product, and transition state species in the 1,2 through 1,7 H-migrations and Cα-Cβ, Cα-H, and Cα-OH-bond scission reactions in the n-hydroxyeth-1-oxy through n-hydroxyhex-1-oxy radicals, for n ranging from 1 to 6. The difference in energy between the two conformations represents the balance between the stabilizing effects of H-bonds and the steric cost of bringing the two H-bonding sites together. The effect of intramolecular H-bonding and the OH group is assessed by comparing the net intramolecular H-bond stabilization energies, the reaction enthalpies, and barrier heights of the n-hydroxyalkoxy radical reactions with the corresponding alkoxy radicals values. The results suggest that there is a complex dependence on the location of the two H-bonding groups, the location of the abstraction or bond scission, and the shape of the transition state that dictates the extent to which intramolecular H-bonding effects the relative importance of H-migration and bond scission reactions for each n-hydroxyalkoxy radical. These findings have important implications for future studies on hydrocarbons with multiple H-bonding sites.

  11. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange in spiro cyclic ketones: a search for intramolecular catalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, R.C.L.


    The synthesis and characterization of 1'-hydroxy-3',3'-dimethylspiro[cyclohexane-1,2'-indan]-4-one (17b), 1'-amino-3',3'-dimethylspiro[cyclohexane-1,2'-indan]4-one (6a), 1'-N,N-dimethylamino-3',3'-dimethylspiro[cyclohexane-1,2'-indan]-4-one (6c) and 1'-[N-ethyl-α(d 2 )-amino]-3'-3'-dimethylspiro[cyclohexane-1,2'-indan]-4-one (6b) are described. The hydrogen-deuterium exchange reactions of aminoketones 6b and 6c with CH 3 OD are too fast to be followed by the mass spectrometric methodology. However, the H/D exchange between hydroxyketone 17b and CH 3 OD is shown to be intramolecularly catalyzed under both basic and neutral conditions. The rate constant for the exchange of C(3)-axial-H in 17b is 35 times greater than the rate constant for the exchange of an axial α-H in 4-t-butylcyclohexanone

  12. An excited-state intramolecular photon transfer fluorescence probe for localizable live cell imaging of cysteine (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Chen, Wen; Liu, Si-Jia; Jiang, Jian-Hui


    Small molecule probes suitable for selective and specific fluorescence imaging of some important but low-concentration intracellular reactive sulfur species such as cysteine (Cys) pose a challenge in chemical biology. We present a readily available, fast-response fluorescence probe CHCQ-Ac, with 2-(5‧-chloro-2-hydroxyl-phenyl)-6-chloro-4(3 H)-quinazolinone (CHCQ) as the fluorophore and acrylate group as the functional moiety, that enables high-selectivity and high-sensitivity for detecting Cys in both solution and biological system. After specifically reacted with Cys, the probe undergoes a seven-membered intramolecular cyclization and released the fluorophore CHCQ with excited-state intramolecular photon transfer effect. A highly fluorescent, insoluble aggregate was then formed to facilitate high-sensitivity and high-resolution imaging. The results showed that probe CHCQ-Ac affords a remarkably large Stokes shift and can detect Cys under physiological pH condition with no interference from other analytes. Moreover, this probe was proved to have excellent chemical stability, low cytotoxicity and good cell permeability. Our design of this probe provides a novel potential tool to visualize and localize cysteine in bioimaging of live cells that would greatly help to explore various Cys-related physiological and pathological cellular processes in cell biology and diagnostics.

  13. Deuterium isotope effect on the intramolecular electron transfer in Pseudomonas aeruginosa azurin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O.; Zhang, Jingdong; Chi, Qijin


    -0' is also different, yielding entropy changes of -57 J K-1 mol-l in water and -84 J K-1 mol(-1) in deuterium oxide. The driving force difference of 10 mV is in keeping with the kinetic isotope effect, but the contribution to DeltaS(double dagger) from the temperature dependence of E-0' is positive......Intramolecular electron transfer in azurin in water and deuterium oxide has been studied over a broad temperature range. The kinetic deuterium isotope effect, k(H)/k(D), is smaller than unity (0.7 at 298 K), primarily caused by the different activation entropies in water (-56.5 J K-1 mol(-1...... entropy difference and to compensate for the different temperature dependencies of E-0'. Thus, differences in driving force and thermal expansion appear as the most straightforward rationale for the observed isotope effect....

  14. Cp*Rh(III)/Bicyclic Olefin Cocatalyzed C-H Bond Amidation by Intramolecular Amide Transfer. (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Gensch, Tobias; Lerchen, Andreas; Daniliuc, Constantin G; Glorius, Frank


    A bicyclic olefin was discovered as a cocatalyst in a Cp*Rh(III)-catalyzed C-H bond amidation proceeding by an intramolecular amide transfer in N-phenoxyacetamide derivatives. Combining experimental and theoretical studies, we propose that the olefin promotes a Rh(III) intermediate to undergo oxidative addition into the O-N bond to form a Rh(V) nitrenoid species and subsequently direct the nitrenoid to add to the ortho position. The amide directing group plays a dual role as a cleavable coordinating moiety as well as an essential coupling partner for the C-H amidation. This methodology was successfully applied to the late-stage diversification of natural products and a marketed drug under mild conditions.

  15. Photophysical Model of 10-Hydroxybenzo[h]quinoline: Internal Conversion and Excited State Intramolecular Proton Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Junghwa; Joo, Taiha [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)


    Photophysics of 10-hydroxybenzo[h]quinoline (HBQ) has been in controversy, in particular, on the nature of the electronic states before and after the excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT), even though the dynamics and mechanism of the ESIPT have been well established. We report highly time resolved fluorescence spectra over the full emission frequency regions of the enol and keto isomers and the anisotropy in time domain to determine the accurate rates of the population decay, spectral relaxation and anisotropy decay of the keto isomer. We have shown that the ∼300 fs component observed frequently in ESIPT dynamics arises from the S{sub 2}→S{sub 1} internal conversion in the reaction product keto isomer and that the ESIPT occurs from the enol isomer in S{sub 1} state to the keto isomer in S{sub 2} state.

  16. Intramolecular energy transfer at donor-acceptor interactions in model and biological membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umarova, Fatima T.


    Intramolecular triplet-triplet energy transfer between molecules of sensibilisator and photochrome for registration of protein interactions in the membrane preparation of Na,K-ATPase was investigated. Erythrosinithiocyanate (ERITC) was used as the triplet label of sensibilisator, and 4-acetoamido-4 -isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2 disullfonic acid (SITS) was used as the photochrome label. Na,K-ATPase preparations were covalently bound with ERITC in active centre of enzyme, and SITS molecules were covalently bound by NH2-groups. In model system, in chymotrypsinogene molecule, SITS and ERITC labels were used also. The cis-trans-isomerization of SITS was initiated by triplet-triplet energy transfer from light excited ERITC molecule to photochrome. The kinetics of isomerization was recorded by the SITS fluorescence measurements. The constant of rate of triplet-triplet energy transfer from ERITC to cis-isomers of SITS in Na,K-ATPase was determined as (3-7)x10 3 M -1 s -1 , and in model system it equals 1x 10 7 M 1 s -1 . The value of energy transfer between loos molecules of erythrosine and SITS in buffer solution equaled to 7x10 7 M -1 s -1 . This drop of R m y in the membrane preparation of Na,K-ATPase at 10 4 reflected the decrease in the frequency of label collisions caused by the increase in the media viscosity and steric hindrances. (author)

  17. Reaction Coordinate, Free Energy, and Rate of Intramolecular Proton Transfer in Human Carbonic Anhydrase II. (United States)

    Paul, Sanjib; Paul, Tanmoy Kumar; Taraphder, Srabani


    The role of structure and dynamics of an enzyme has been investigated at three different stages of its function including the chemical event it catalyzes. A one-pot computational method has been designed for each of these stages on the basis of classical and/or quantum mechanical-molecular mechanical molecular dynamics and transition path sampling simulations. For a pair of initial and final states A and B separated by a high free-energy barrier, using a two-stage selection process, several collective variables (CVs) are identified that can delineate A and B. However, these CVs are found to exhibit strong cross-coupling over the transition paths. A set of mutually orthogonal order parameters is then derived from these CVs and an optimal reaction coordinate, r, determined applying half-trajectory likelihood maximization along with a Bayesian information criterion. The transition paths are also used to project the multidimensional free energy surface and barrier crossing dynamics along r. The proposed scheme has been applied to the rate-determining intramolecular proton transfer reaction of the well-known enzyme human carbonic anhydrase II. The potential of mean force, F( r), in the absence of the chemical step is found to reproduce earlier results on the equilibrium population of two side-chain orientations of key residue His-64. Estimation of rate constants, k, from mean first passage times for the three different stages of catalysis shows that the rate-determining step of intramolecular proton transfer occurs with k ≃ 1.0 × 10 6 s -1 , in close agreement with known experimental results.

  18. Modeling and computations of the intramolecular electron transfer process in the two-heme protein cytochrome c4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natzmutdinov, Renat R.; Bronshtein, Michael D.; Zinkicheva, Tamara T.


    The di-heme protein Pseudomonas stutzeri cytochrome c4 (cyt c4) has emerged as a useful model for studying long-range protein electron transfer (ET). Recent experimental observations have shown a dramatically different pattern of intramolecular ET between the two heme groups in different local...

  19. The effect of driving force on intramolecular electron transfer in proteins. Studies on single-site mutated azurins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Skov, L K; van de Kamp, M


    An intramolecular electron-transfer process has previously been shown to take place between the Cys3--Cys26 radical-ion (RSSR-) produced pulse radiolytically and the Cu(II) ion in the blue single-copper protein, azurin [Farver, O. & Pecht, I. (1989) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 86, 6868-6972]. To fu...

  20. Environment-sensitive quinolone demonstrating long-lived fluorescence and unusually slow excited-state intramolecular proton transfer kinetics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zamotaiev, O. M.; Shvadchak, Volodymyr; Sych, T. P.; Melnychuk, N. A.; Yushchenko, Dmytro A.; Mely, Y.; Pivovarenko, V. G.


    Roč. 4, č. 3 (2016), č. článku 034004. ISSN 2050-6120 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : quinolone * fluorescent probes * local polarity * hydration * excited-state intramolecular proton transfer * kinetics Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.656, year: 2016

  1. The Intramolecular Hydrogen Bond N-H···S in 2,2'-Diaminodiphenyl Disulfide: Experimental and Computational Thermochemistry. (United States)

    Ramos, Fernando; Flores, Henoc; Hernández-Pérez, Julio M; Sandoval-Lira, Jacinto; Camarillo, E Adriana


    The intramolecular hydrogen bond of the N-H···S type has been investigated sparingly by thermochemical and computational methods. In order to study this interaction, the standard molar enthalpies of formation in gaseous phase of diphenyl disulfide, 2,2'-diaminodiphenyl disulfide and 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl disulfide at T = 298.15 K were determined by experimental thermochemical methods and computational calculations. The experimental enthalpies of formation in gas-phase were obtained from enthalpies of formation in crystalline phase and enthalpies of sublimation. Enthalpies of formation in crystalline phase were obtained using rotatory bomb combustion calorimetry. By thermogravimetry, enthalpies of vaporization were obtained, and by combining them with enthalpies of fusion, the enthalpies of sublimation were calculated. The Gaussian-4 procedure and the atomization method were applied to obtain enthalpies of formation in gas-phase of the compounds under study. Theoretical and experimental values are in good agreement. Through natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis and a topological analysis of the electronic density, the intramolecular hydrogen bridge (N-H···S) in the 2,2'-diaminodiphenyl disulfide was confirmed. Finally, an enthalpic difference of 11.8 kJ·mol -1 between the 2,2'-diaminodiphenyl disulfide and 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl disulfide was found, which is attributed to the intramolecular N-H···S interaction.

  2. Synthetic use of the primary kinetic isotope effect in hydrogen atom transfer 2: generation of captodatively stabilised radicals. (United States)

    Wood, Mark E; Bissiriou, Sabine; Lowe, Christopher; Windeatt, Kim M


    Using C-3 di-deuterated morpholin-2-ones bearing N-2-iodobenzyl and N-3-bromobut-3-enyl radical generating groups, only products derived from the more stabilised C-3, rather than the less stabilised C-5 translocated radicals, were formed after intramolecular 1,5-hydrogen atom transfer, suggesting that any kinetic isotope effect present was not sufficient to offset captodative stabilisation.

  3. Modeling and computations of the intramolecular electron transfer process in the two-heme protein cytochrome c4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natzmutdinov, Renat R.; Bronshtein, Michael D.; Zinkicheva, Tamara T.


    ligands in both low- and high-spin states by structure-optimized DFT. The computations enable estimating the intramolecular reorganization energy of the ET process for different combinations of low- and high-spin heme couples. Environmental reorganization free energies, work terms (‘‘gating’’) and driving...... performed computational modeling of the intramolecular ET process by a combination of density functional theory (DFT) and quantum mechanical charge transfer theory to disclose reasons for this difference. We first address the electronic structures of the model heme core with histidine and methionine axial...

  4. Effect of solvent on proton location and dynamic behavior in short intramolecular hydrogen bonds studied by molecular dynamics simulations and NMR experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Yukie, E-mail:; Masuda, Yuichi


    Highlights: • MD simulations were performed to study dynamics of strong hydrogen bonds. • Nuclear magnetic relaxation times of proton were measured in solution. • The hydrogen bond of dibenzoylmethane enol is asymmetric in methanol solution. • Formation or breakage of intermolecular hydrogen bonds can trigger proton transfer. • Dimethylsulfoxide may form a bifurcated hydrogen bond with a hydrogen-bonded system. - Abstract: Hydrogen phthalate anion has a short strong O–H–O hydrogen bond (H-bond). According to previous experimental studies, the H-bond is asymmetric and two tautomers are interconverted in aqueous solutions. In the present study, the effects of polar solvents on the H-bond in a zwitterionic hydrogen phthalate derivative 1 were investigated by quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The analyses of the trajectories for the methanol solution showed that the H-bonding proton tends to be located closer to the carboxylate group that forms fewer intermolecular H-bonds, than to the other carboxylate group and that the intramolecular proton transfer in 1 is triggered by the breakage and/or formation of an intermolecular H-bond. The enol form of dibenzoylmethane (2) also has a short H-bond, and the OH bond is reported to be rather long (>1.1 Å) in the crystal. In the present study, the effects of the solvent on the H-bond in 2 were investigated by molecular orbital (MO) calculations, MD simulations and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations for 2 in vacuum indicated that the barrier height for the intramolecular proton transfer is almost the same as the zero-point energy of the vibrational ground state, resulting in broad distribution of the proton density along the H-bond, owing to the nuclear quantum effect. The OH distances were determined in CCl{sub 4}, acetonitrile, and dimethylsulfoxide solutions from the magnetic dipolar interactions between the {sup 17

  5. Emission Spectroscopy as a Probe into Photoinduced Intramolecular Electron Transfer in Polyazine Bridged Ru(II,Rh(III Supramolecular Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen J. Brewer


    Full Text Available Steady-state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy are valuable tools to probe photochemical processes of metal-ligand, coordination complexes. Ru(II polyazine light absorbers are efficient light harvesters absorbing in the UV and visible with emissive 3MLCT excited states known to undergo excited state energy and electron transfer. Changes in emission intensity, energy or band-shape, as well as excited state lifetime, provide insight into excited state dynamics. Photophysical processes such as intramolecular electron transfer between electron donor and electron acceptor sub-units may be investigated using these methods. This review investigates the use of steady-state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy to measure excited state intramolecular electron transfer in polyazine bridged Ru(II,Rh(III supramolecular complexes. Intramolecular electron transfer in these systems provides for conversion of the emissive 3MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge transfer excited state to a non-emissive, but potentially photoreactive, 3MMCT (metal-to-metal charge transfer excited state. The details of the photophysics of Ru(II,Rh(III and Ru(II,Rh(III,Ru(II systems as probed by steady-state and time-resolved emission spectroscopy will be highlighted.

  6. Twisted intramolecular charge transfer investigation of semi organic L-Glutamic acid hydrochloride single crystal for organic light-emitting and optical limiting applications (United States)

    Joy, Lija K.; George, Merin; Alex, Javeesh; Aravind, Arun; Sajan, D.; Vinitha, G.


    Single crystals of L-Glutamic acid hydrochloride (LGHCl) were grown by slow evaporation solution technique and good crystalline perfection was confirmed by Powder X-ray diffraction studies. The complete vibrational studies of the compound were analyzed by FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-visible spectra combined with Normal Coordinate Analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force field methodology and density functional theory (DFT). Twisted Intramolecular Charge Transfer (ICT) occurs due to the presence of strong ionic intra-molecular Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonding was confirmed by Hirshfeld Surface analysis. The existence of intermolecular Nsbnd H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds due to the interaction between the lone pair of oxygen with the antibonding orbital was established by NBO analysis. The Z-scan result indicated that the title molecule exhibits saturable absorption behavior. The attractive third-order nonlinear properties suggest that LGHCl can be a promising candidate for the design and development devices for optical limiting applications. LGHCL exhibits distinct emission in the blue region of the fluorescence lifetime which proves to be a potential candidate for blue- Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) fabrication.

  7. Spectroscopic and theoretical investigations on intramolecular charge transfer phenomenon in 1-3-dioxolane derivative (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Luo, Yijing; Sun, Shanshan; Zhang, Guangqing


    High fluorescence quantum yield (FQY) and large Stokes shift (SS) cannot be easily achieved simultaneously by traditional PICT or TICT fluorescent probe. However, an 1-3-dioxolane derivative named 5-methyl-8,9-dihydro-5H-[1,3]dioxolo[4,5-b]carbazol-6(7H)-one (MDDCO) features both high FQY and large SS. The purpose of this study is to search the mechanism behind this phenomenon by theoretical method. Simulated structure changes and charge transfer suggest ICT process in MDDCO is similar to PLICT (Planarized Intramolecular Charge Transfer) process. Calculated UV-Vis spectra and fluorescence spectra show that PLICT-like state (S1 state) of MDDCO leads to large SS. Computed transient-absorption spectra and radiative decay rates indicate that PLICT-like state is key factor for high FQY of MDDCO. These findings suggest that PLICT-like state in 1,3-dioxolane derivatives can achieve both large SS and high FQY, which presents a new method for high-performance fluorescent probe design.

  8. Heat-transfer data for hydrogen (United States)

    Mc Carthy, J. R.; Miller, W. S.; Okuda, A. S.; Seader, J. D.


    Information is given regarding experimental heat-transfer data compiled for the turbulent flow of hydrogen within straight, electrically heated, round cross section tubes. Tube materials, test conditions, parameters studied, and generalized conclusions are presented.

  9. Collisional activation by MALDI tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry induces intramolecular migration of amide hydrogens in protonated peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas J D; Bache, Nicolai; Roepstorff, Peter


    -specific information about the incorporation of deuterium into peptides and proteins in solution. Using a unique set of peptides with their carboxyl-terminal half labeled with deuterium we have shown unambiguously that hydrogen (1H/2H) scrambling is such a dominating factor during low energy collisional activation...... of doubly protonated peptides that the original regioselective deuterium pattern of these peptides is completely erased (Jørgensen, T. J. D., Gårdsvoll, H., Ploug, M., and Roepstorff, P. (2005) Intramolecular migration of amide hydrogens in protonated peptides upon collisional activation. J. Am. Chem. Soc...... randomization among all exchangeable sites (i.e. all N- and O-linked hydrogens) also occurs upon high energy collisional activation of singly protonated peptides. This intense proton/deuteron traffic precludes the use of MALDI tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry to obtain reliable information...

  10. Intra-molecular Charge Transfer and Electron Delocalization in Non-Fullerene Organic Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Qinghe; Zhao, Donglin; Goldey, Matthew B.; Filatov, Alexander S.; Sharapov, Valerii; Colon, Yamil; Cai, Zhengxu; Jiang, Xuanfeng; Wang, Junpeng; Chen, Wei; de Pablo, Juan; Galli, Giulia; Yu, Luping


    Two types of electron acceptors were synthesized by coupling two kinds of electron-rich cores with four equivalent perylene diimides (PDIs) at the a position. With fully aromatic cores, TPB and TPSe have pi-orbitals spread continuously over the whole aromatic conjugated backbone, unlike TPC and TPSi, which contain isolated PDI units due to the use of a tetrahedron carbon or silicon linker. Density functional theory calculations of the projected density of states showed that the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) for TPB are localized in separate regions of space. Further, the LUMO of TPB shows a greater contribution from the orbitals belonging to the connective core of the molecules than that of TPC. Overall, the properties of the HOMO and LUMO point at increased intra-molecular delocalization of negative charge carriers for TPB and TPSe than for TPC and TPSi and hence at a more facile intra-molecular charge transfer for the former. The film absorption and emission spectra showed evidences for the inter -molecular electron delocalization in TPB and TPSe, which is consistent with the network structure revealed by X-ray diffraction studies on single crystals of TPB. These features benefit the formation of charge transfer states and/or facilitate charge transport. Thus, higher electron mobility and higher charge dissociation probabilities under J(sc) condition were observed in blend films of TPB:PTB7-Th and TPSe:PTB7-Th than those in TPC:PTB7Th and TPSi:PTB7-Th blend films. As a result, the J(sc) and fill factor values of 15.02 mA/cm(2), 0.58 and 14.36 mA/cm(2), 0.55 for TPB- and TPSe-based solar cell are observed, whereas those for TPC and TPSi are 11.55 mA/cm2, 0.47 and 10.35 mA/cm(2), 0.42, respectively.

  11. Energy Transfer to the Hydrogen Bond in the (H2O)2+ H2O Collision. (United States)

    Shin, H K


    Trajectory procedures are used to study the collision between the vibrationally excited H 2 O and the ground-state (H 2 O) 2 with particular reference to energy transfer to the hydrogen bond through the inter- and intramolecular pathways. In nearly 98% of the trajectories, energy transfer processes occur on a subpicosecond scale (≤0.7 ps). The H 2 O transfers approximately three-quarters of its excitation energy to the OH stretches of the dimer. The first step of the intramolecular pathway in the dimer involves a near-resonant first overtone transition from the OH stretch to the bending mode. The energy transfer probability in the presence of the 1:2 resonance is 0.61 at 300 K. The bending mode then redistributes its energy to low-frequency intermolecular vibrations in a series of small excitation steps, with the pathway which results in the hydrogen-bonding modes gaining most of the available energy. The hydrogen bonding in ∼50% of the trajectories ruptures on vibrational excitation, leaving one quantum in the bend of the monomer fragment. In a small fraction of trajectories, the duration of collision is longer than 1 ps, during which the dimer and H 2 O form a short-lived complex through a secondary hydrogen bond, which undergoes large amplitude oscillations.

  12. Heat conduction in chain polymer liquids: molecular dynamics study on the contributions of inter- and intramolecular energy transfer. (United States)

    Ohara, Taku; Yuan, Tan Chia; Torii, Daichi; Kikugawa, Gota; Kosugi, Naohiro


    In this paper, the molecular mechanisms which determine the thermal conductivity of long chain polymer liquids are discussed, based on the results observed in molecular dynamics simulations. Linear n-alkanes, which are typical polymer molecules, were chosen as the target of our studies. Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of bulk liquid n-alkanes under a constant temperature gradient were performed. Saturated liquids of n-alkanes with six different chain lengths were examined at the same reduced temperature (0.7T(c)), and the contributions of inter- and intramolecular energy transfer to heat conduction flux, which were identified as components of heat flux by the authors' previous study [J. Chem. Phys. 128, 044504 (2008)], were observed. The present study compared n-alkane liquids with various molecular lengths at the same reduced temperature and corresponding saturated densities, and found that the contribution of intramolecular energy transfer to the total heat flux, relative to that of intermolecular energy transfer, increased with the molecular length. The study revealed that in long chain polymer liquids, thermal energy is mainly transferred in the space along the stiff intramolecular bonds. This finding implies a connection between anisotropic thermal conductivity and the orientation of molecules in various organized structures with long polymer molecules aligned in a certain direction, which includes confined polymer liquids and self-organized structures such as membranes of amphiphilic molecules in water.

  13. Benzothiazoline: versatile hydrogen donor for organocatalytic transfer hydrogenation. (United States)

    Zhu, Chen; Saito, Kodai; Yamanaka, Masahiro; Akiyama, Takahiko


    CONSPECTUS: The asymmetric reduction of ketimines is an important method for the preparation of amines in optically pure form. Inspired by the biological system using NAD(P)H, Hantzsch ester has been extensively employed as a hydrogen donor in combination with chiral phosphoric acid for the transfer hydrogenation of ketimines to furnish amines with high to excellent enantioselectivities. We focused on 2-substituted benzothiazoline as a hydrogen donor in the phosphoric acid catalyzed transfer hydrogenation reaction of ketimines for the following reasons: (1) benzothiazoline is readily prepared just by mixing 2-aminobenzenethiol and aldehyde, (2) both reactivity (hydrogen donating ability) and enantioselectivity would be controlled by tuning the 2-substituent of benzothiazoline, and (3) benzothiazoline can be stored in a refrigerator under inert atmosphere without conceivable decomposition. Both the 2-position of benzothiazoline and the 3,3'-position of phosphoric acid are tunable in order to achieve excellent enantioselectivity. Benzothiazoline proved to be useful hydrogen donor in combination with chiral phosphoric acid for the transfer hydrogenation reaction of ketimine derivatives to afford the corresponding amines with high to excellent enantioselectivities by tuning the 2-substituent of benzothiazoline. Ketimines derived from acetophenone, propiophenone, α-keto ester, trifluoromethyl ketone, and difluoromethyl ketone derivatives proved to be suitable substrates. Benzothiazoline could be generated in situ starting from 2-aminobenzenethiol and aromatic aldehyde in the presence of ketimine and chiral phosphoric acid and successfully worked in the sequential transfer hydrogenation reaction. The reductive amination of dialkyl ketones also proceeded with high enantioselectivities. Use of 2-deuterated benzothiazoline led to the formation of α-deuterated amines with excellent enantioselectivities. The kinetic isotope effect (kH/kC = 3.8) was observed in the

  14. Transfer Hydrogenation in Open-Shell Nucleotides — A Theoretical Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Achrainer


    Full Text Available The potential of a larger number of sugar models to act as dihydrogen donors in transfer hydrogenation reactions has been quantified through the calculation of hydrogenation energies of the respective oxidized products. Comparison of the calculated energies to hydrogenation energies of nucleobases shows that many sugar fragment radicals can reduce pyrimidine bases such as uracil in a strongly exothermic fashion. The most potent reducing agent is the C3' ribosyl radical. The energetics of intramolecular transfer hydrogenation processes has also been calculated for a number of uridinyl radicals. The largest driving force for such a process is found for the uridin-C3'-yl radical, whose rearrangement to the C2'-oxidized derivative carrying a dihydrouracil is predicted to be exothermic by 61.1 kJ/mol in the gas phase.

  15. Contribution of inter- and intramolecular energy transfers to heat conduction in liquids. (United States)

    Torii, Daichi; Nakano, Takeo; Ohara, Taku


    The molecular dynamics expression of heat flux, originally derived by Irving and Kirkwood [J. Chem. Phys. 18, 817 (1950)] for pairwise potentials, is generalized in this paper for systems with many-body potentials. The original formula consists of a kinetic part and a potential part, and the latter term is found in the present study to be expressible as a summation of contributions from all the many-body potentials defined in the system. The energy transfer among a set of sites for which a many-body potential is defined is discussed and evaluated by the rate of increase in the kinetic energy of each site due to the potential, and its accumulation over all the potentials in the system is shown to make up the potential part of the generalized expression. A molecular dynamics simulation for liquid n-octane was performed to demonstrate the applicability of the new expression obtained in this study to measure the heat flux and to elucidate the contributions of inter- and intramolecular potentials to heat conduction.

  16. Absence of Intramolecular Singlet Fission in Pentacene-Perylenediimide Heterodimers: The Role of Charge Transfer State. (United States)

    Wang, Long; Wu, Yishi; Chen, Jianwei; Wang, Lanfen; Liu, Yanping; Yu, Zhenyi; Yao, Jiannian; Fu, Hongbing


    A new class of donor-acceptor heterodimers based on two singlet fission (SF)-active chromophores, i.e., pentacene (Pc) and perylenediimide (PDI), was developed to investigate the role of charge transfer (CT) state on the excitonic dynamics. The CT state is efficiently generated upon photoexcitation. However, the resulting CT state decays to different energy states depending on the energy levels of the CT state. It undergoes extremely rapid deactivation to the ground state in polar CH 2 Cl 2 , whereas it undergoes transformation to a Pc triplet in nonpolar toluene. The efficient triplet generation in toluene is not due to SF but CT-mediated intersystem crossing. In light of the energy landscape, it is suggested that the deep energy level of the CT state relative to that of the triplet pair state makes the CT state actually serve as a trap state that cannot undergoes an intramolecular singlet fission process. These results provide guidance for the design of SF materials and highlight the requisite for more widely applicable design principles.

  17. Ruthenium-modified cytochrome c: temperature dependence of the rate of intramolecular electron transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isied, S.S.; Kuehn, C.; Worosila, G.


    The ruthenium-modified horse heart cytochrome c, Ru(III)-cyt c(III), where the ruthenium is bound to the histidines-33 residue has been synthesized and characterized by ruthenium analysis, UV-vis and CD spectra, and differential pulse polarography and cyclic voltammetry. The intermediate Ru(III)-cyt c(III) has been generated by pulse-radioanalysis with use of four different radicals, CO 2 -., (CH 3 )COH., (CH 2 OH) 3 CCHOH, and -OCCH(OH)C(OH)CO 2 -. The rate of intramolecular electron transfer within the Ru(III)-cyt c(III) complex and its temperature dependence were determined over a 40 0 C temperature range with the CO 2 -. radical. At 25 0 C, these values are k/sub u/=53 +/- s/sup -1/ (pH 7.01 M phosphate buffer, 0.1 M NaHCO 2 ), ΔH/sup +/=3.5 +/- 0.2 kcal mol/sup -1/, and ΔS/sup +/=-39 +/- 1 eu

  18. Photoinduced symmetry-breaking intramolecular charge transfer in a quadrupolar pyridinium derivative. (United States)

    Carlotti, Benedetta; Benassi, Enrico; Spalletti, Anna; Fortuna, Cosimo G; Elisei, Fausto; Barone, Vincenzo


    We report here a joint experimental and theoretical study of a quadrupolar, two-branched pyridinium derivative of interest as a potential non-linear optical material. The spectral and photophysical behaviour of this symmetric system is greatly affected by the polarity of the medium. A very efficient photoinduced intramolecular charge transfer, surprisingly more efficient than in the dipolar asymmetric analogue, is found to occur by femtosecond resolved transient absorption spectroscopy. TD-DFT calculations are in excellent agreement with these experimental findings and predict large charge displacements in the molecular orbitals describing the ground state and the lowest excited singlet state. The theoretical study also revealed that in highly polar media the symmetry of the excited state is broken giving a possible explanation to the fluorescence and transient absorption spectra resembling those of the one-branched analogous compound in the same solvents. The present study may give an important insight into the excited state deactivation mechanism of cationic (donor-π-acceptor-π-donor)(+) quadrupolar compounds characterised by negative solvatochromism, which are expected to show significant two-photon absorption (TPA). Moreover, the water solubility of the investigated quadrupolar system may represent an added value in view of the most promising applications of TPA materials in biology and medicine.

  19. On the Possibility of Uphill Intramolecular Electron Transfer in Multicopper Oxidases: Electrochemical and Quantum Chemical Study of Bilirubin Oxidase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shleev, S.; Andoralov, V.; Falk, M.; Reimann, C. T.; Ruzgas, T.; Srnec, Martin; Ryde, U.; Rulíšek, Lubomír


    Roč. 24, č. 7 (2012), s. 1524-1540 ISSN 1040-0397 Grant - others:7th Framework Program(XE) NMP4-SL-2009-229255 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : bilirubin oxidase * intramolecular electron transfer * rate-limiting catalytic step * reorganization energy * QM/MM calculations Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.817, year: 2012

  20. Intramolecular energy transfer and the driving mechanisms for large-amplitude collective motions of clusters (United States)

    Yanao, Tomohiro; Koon, Wang Sang; Marsden, Jerrold E.


    This paper uncovers novel and specific dynamical mechanisms that initiate large-amplitude collective motions in polyatomic molecules. These mechanisms are understood in terms of intramolecular energy transfer between modes and driving forces. Structural transition dynamics of a six-atom cluster between a symmetric and an elongated isomer is highlighted as an illustrative example of what is a general message. First, we introduce a general method of hyperspherical mode analysis to analyze the energy transfer among internal modes of polyatomic molecules. In this method, the (3n-6) internal modes of an n-atom molecule are classified generally into three coarse level gyration-radius modes, three fine level twisting modes, and (3n-12) fine level shearing modes. We show that a large amount of kinetic energy flows into the gyration-radius modes when the cluster undergoes structural transitions by changing its mass distribution. Based on this fact, we construct a reactive mode as a linear combination of the three gyration-radius modes. It is shown that before the reactive mode acquires a large amount of kinetic energy, activation or inactivation of the twisting modes, depending on the geometry of the isomer, plays crucial roles for the onset of a structural transition. Specifically, in a symmetric isomer with a spherical mass distribution, activation of specific twisting modes drives the structural transition into an elongated isomer by inducing a strong internal centrifugal force, which has the effect of elongating the mass distribution of the system. On the other hand, in an elongated isomer, inactivation of specific twisting modes initiates the structural transition into a symmetric isomer with lower potential energy by suppressing the elongation effect of the internal centrifugal force and making the effects of the potential force dominant. This driving mechanism for reactions as well as the present method of hyperspherical mode analysis should be widely applicable to

  1. Mechanically induced intramolecular electron transfer in a mixed-valence molecular shuttle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, J. C.; Fahrenbach, A. C.; Dyar, S. M.; Frasconi, M.; Giesener, M. A.; Zhu, Z.; Liu, Z.; Hartlieb, K. J.; Carmieli, R.; Wasielewski, M. R.; Stoddart, J. F.


    The kinetics and thermodynamics of intramolecular electron transfer (IET) can be subjected to redox control in a bistable [2]rotaxane comprised of a dumbbell component containing an electron-rich 1,5-dioxynaphthalene (DNP) unit and an electron-poor phenylene-bridged bipyridinium (P-BIPY2+) unit and a cyclobis (paraquat-p-phenylene) (CBPQT4+) ring component. The [2]rotaxane exists in the ground-state co-conformation (GSCC) wherein the CBPQT4+ ring encircles the DNP unit. Reduction of the CBPQT4+ leads to the CBPQT2(•+) diradical dication while the P-BIPY2+ unit is reduced to its P-BIPY•+ radical cation. A radical-state co-conformation (RSCC) results from movement of the CBPQT2(•+) ring along the dumbbell to surround the P-BIPY•+ unit. This shuttling event induces IET to occur between the pyridinium redox centers of the P-BIPY•+ unit, a property which is absent between these redox centers in the free dumbbell and in the 1:1 complex formed between the CBPQT2(•+) ring and the radical cation of methyl-phenylene-viologen (MPV•+). Using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, the process of IET was investigated by monitoring the line broadening at varying temperatures and determining the rate constant (kET = 1.33 × 107 s-1) and activation energy (ΔG‡ = 1.01 kcal mol-1) for electron transfer. These values were compared to the corresponding values predicted, using the optical absorption spectra and Marcus–Hush theory.

  2. Air-water transfer of hydrogen sulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yongsiri, C.; Vollertsen, J.; Rasmussen, M. R.


    The emissions process of hydrogen sulfide was studied to quantify air–water transfer of hydrogen sulfide in sewer networks. Hydrogen sulfide transfer across the air–water interface was investigated at different turbulence levels (expressed in terms of the Froude number) and pH using batch...... experiments. By means of the overall mass–transfer coefficient (KLa), the transfer coefficient of hydrogen sulfide (KLaH2S), referring to total sulfide, was correlated to that of oxygen (KLaO2) (i.e., the reaeration coefficient). Results demonstrate that both turbulence and pH in the water phase play...... a significant role for KLaH2S. An exponential expression is a suitable representation for the relationship between KLaH2S and the Froude number at all pH values studied (4.5 to 8.0). Because of the dissociation of hydrogen sulfide, KLaH2S increased with decreasing pH at a constant turbulence level. Relative...

  3. Excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction in nonaqueous electrolyte solutions: temperature dependence. (United States)

    Pradhan, Tuhin; Gazi, Harun Al Rasid; Biswas, Ranjit


    Temperature dependence of the excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction of 4-(1-azetidinyl)benzonitrile (P4C) in ethyl acetate (EA), acetonitrile (ACN), and ethanol at several concentrations of lithium perchlorate (LiClO(4)) has been investigated by using the steady state and time resolved fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. The temperature range considered is 267-343 K. The temperature dependent spectral peak shifts and reaction driving force (-DeltaG(r)) in electrolyte solutions of these solvents can be explained qualitatively in terms of interaction between the reactant molecule and ion-atmosphere. Time resolved studies indicate that the decay kinetics of P4C is biexponential, regardless of solvents, LiClO(4) concentrations, and temperatures considered. Except at higher electrolyte concentrations in EA, reaction rates in solutions follow the Arrhenius-type temperature dependence where the estimated activation energy exhibits substantial electrolyte concentration dependence. The average of the experimentally measured activation energies in these three neat solvents is found to be in very good agreement with the predicted value based on data in room temperature solvents. While the rate constant in EA shows a electrolyte concentration induced parabolic dependence on reaction driving force (-DeltaG(r)), the former in ethanol and ACN increases only linearly with the increase in driving force (-DeltaG(r)). The data presented here also indicate that the step-wise increase in solvent reorganization energy via sequential addition of electrolyte induces the ICT reaction in weakly polar solvents to crossover from the Marcus inverted region to the normal region.

  4. Organocatalytic asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of imines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Johannes G.; Mrsic, Natasa; Mršić, Nataša


    The asymmetric organocatalytic transfer hydrogenation of imines can be accomplished in good yields with high enantioselectivities through the use of BINOL-derived phosphoric acids as catalysts and Hantzsch esters or benzothiazoles as the hydride source. The same method can also be applied to the

  5. Hydrogen/deuterium transfer in coal liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronauer, D.C.; McNeil, R.I.; Young, D.C.; Ruberto, R.G.


    Reactions have been made with deuterium-labelled solvent (d 4 - and d 12 -tetralin) and both Powhatan bituminous (Pittsburgh Seam) coal and model compounds under coal liquefaction conditions to study hydrogen transfer mechanisms. Powhatan coal liquefies quickly. Hydrogen transfer from the solvent to the reaction products continues throughout the heating period (up to 60 min). Significant hydrogen/deuterium exchange occurs and this strongly affects the distribution of deuterium in the products and also affects the extent of conversion as measured by the amount of THF-insoluble material. Increased deuteration of the solvent leads to decreased conversion. This exchange is enhanced by heavy aromatic species and by the presence of mineral matter and unconverted coal solids. (author)

  6. The effect of intramolecular quantum modes on free energy relationships for electron transfer reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulstrup, Jens; Jortner, Joshua


    -frequency intramolecular degrees of feedom on the free energy relationship for series of closely related reactions was investigated for various model systems involving displacement of potential energy surfaces, frequency shift, and anharmonicity effects. The free energy plots are generally found to pass through a maximum...... and to be asymmetric with a slower decrease in the transition probability with increasing energy of reaction. For high-frequency intramolecular modes this provides a rationalization of the experimental observation of ''activationless'' regions. Isotope effects are discussed as also are the oscillatory free energy...

  7. Discovery of molluscicidal and cercaricidal activities of 3-substituted quinazolinone derivatives by a scaffold hopping approach using a pseudo-ring based on the intramolecular hydrogen bond formation. (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Zheng, Lv-Yin; Li, Yong-Dong; Wu, Ren-Miao; Chen, Qiang; Yang, Ding-Qiao; Fan, Xiao-Lin


    Discovery of novel topological agents against Oncomelania hupensis snails and cercariae remains a significant challenge in current Schistosomiasis control. A pseudo-ring formed from salicylanilide by an intramolecular hydrogen bond led to the discovery of 3-substituted quinazolinone derivatives which showed a potent molluscicidal and cercaricidal activities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Photophysical properties and excited state intramolecular proton transfer in 2-hydroxy-5-[(E)-(4-methoxyphenyl)diazenyl]benzoic acid in homogeneous solvents and micro-heterogeneous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gashnga, Pynsakhiat Miki; Singh, T. Sanjoy; Baul, Tushar S. Basu; Mitra, Sivaprasad


    A systematic study on the photophysical properties and excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) behavior of 2-hydroxy-5-[(E)-(4-methoxyphenyl)diazenyl]benzoic acid, is reported using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy in homogeneous solvents as well as in different micro-heterogeneous environments. Depending on the nature of intramolecular hydrogen bond (IHB), the salicylic acid derivative may exist in two different ground state conformers (I and II). Structure I having IHB between the carbonyl oxygen and phenolic hydrogen can undergo ESIPT upon excitation as evidenced by largely Stokes-shifted fluorescence at ∼455 nm; whereas, normal fluorescence in the blue side of the spectrum (∼410 nm) is due to the spontaneous emission from conformer II. The results in homogeneous solvents were compared with those in bio-mimicking environments of β-cyclodextrin (CD) and surfactants. The intensity of the ESIPT fluorescence increases substantially upon encapsulation of the probe into the cyclodextrin as well as micellar nano-cavities. Detailed analysis of the spectroscopic data indicates that the probe forms 1:1 complex with CD in aqueous medium. Binding constant of the probe with the micelles as well as critical micelle concentration was obtained from the variation of fluorescence intensity on increasing concentration of different surfactants in aqueous medium. -- Highlights: • Steady state and time resolved fluorescence study on ESIPT in HMBA. • Dual fluorescence corresponding to the pro- and non-ESIPT structures. • Modulation of ESIPT fluorescence in micro-heterogeneous environments. • 1:1 stoichiometry for interaction with cyclodextrin. • Calculation of binding constant and other physico-chemical properties from fluorescence titration data in surfactants

  9. Effect of structural changes in sesquifulvalene on the intramolecular charge transfer and nonlinear polarizations a theoretical study (United States)

    Nandi, P. K.; Mandal, K.; Kar, T.


    Ab initio HF calculations of the ground state structural parameters, and the time dependent HF (TDHF) calculations of static nonlinear polarizabilities have been performed for a number of sesquifulvalene derivatives. The calculated NLO parameters show a good correlation with the hardness parameters. The nature of hetero-atoms and their positions can strongly influence the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) interactions and the nonlinear polarizations of sesquifulvalene. Nonlinear polarizabilities in the twisted structures have been found to depend both on the energy barrier to twist and the transition energy corresponding to the twisted ICT (TICT) state characterized by the HOMO → LUMO transition.

  10. Intramolecular photoinduced proton transfer in 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)benzazole family: A TD-DFT quantum chemical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roohi, Hossein, E-mail:; Mohtamedifar, Nafiseh; Hejazi, Fahemeh


    Highlights: • PBE1PBE/TD method was used to study the ESIPT process in the benzazole family. • Potential energy curves in ground and excited states were calculated. • Effect of substitution in benzazole ring on the ESIPT process was investigated. • In contrast to S{sub 0} state, keto form of the molecules can be formed at the S{sub 1} state. • The photophysical properties of the compounds were calculated. - Abstract: In this work, intramolecular photoinduced proton transfer in 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)benzazole family (HBO, HBI and HBT) was investigated using TD-DFT calculations at PBE1PBE/6-311++G(2d,2p) level of theory. The potential energy surfaces were employed to explore the proton transfer reactions in both states. In contrast to the ground state, photoexcitation from S{sub 0} state to S{sub 1} one encourages the operation of the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer process. Structural parameters, H-bonding energy, absorption and emission bands, vertical excitation and emission energies, oscillator strength, fluorescence rate constant, dipole moment, atomic charges and electron density at critical points were calculated. Molecular orbital analysis shows that vertical S{sub 0} → S{sub 1} transition in the studied molecules corresponds essentially to the excitation from HOMO (π) to LUMO (π{sup ∗}). Our calculated results are in good agreement with the experimental observations.

  11. CMPO-calix[4]arenes with spacer containing intramolecular hydrogen bonding: effect of local rigidification on solvent extraction toward f-block elements. (United States)

    Chu, Hongzhu; He, Lutao; Jiang, Qian; Fang, Yuyu; Jia, Yiming; Yuan, Xiangyang; Zou, Shuliang; Li, Xianghui; Feng, Wen; Yang, Yuanyou; Liu, Ning; Luo, Shunzhong; Yang, Yanqiu; Yang, Liang; Yuan, Lihua


    To understand intramolecular hydrogen bonding in effecting liquid-liquid extraction behavior of CMPO-calixarenes, three CMPO-modified calix[4]arenes (CMPO-CA) 5a-5c with hydrogen-bonded spacer were designed and synthesized. The impact of spacer rotation that is hindered by introduction of intramolecular hydrogen bonding upon extraction of La(3+), Eu(3+), Yb(3+), Th(4+), and UO2(2+) has been examined. The results show that 5b and 5c containing only one hydrogen bond with a less hindered rotation spacer extract La(3+) more efficiently than 5a containing two hydrogen bonds with a more hindered rotation spacer, demonstrating the importance of local rigidification of spacer in the design of extractants in influencing the coordination environment. The large difference in extractability between La(3+) and Yb(3+) (or Eu(3+)) by 5b (or 5c), and the small difference by 5a, suggests intramolecular hydrogen bonding do exert pronounced influence upon selective extraction of light and heavy lanthanides. Log-log plot analysis indicates a 1:1, 2:1 and 1:1 stoichiometry (ligand/metal) for the extracted complex formed between 5b and La(3+), Th(4+), UO2(2+), respectively. Additionally, their corresponding acyclic analogs 7a-7c exhibit negligible extraction toward these metal ions. These results reveal the possibility of selective extraction via tuning local chelating surroundings of CMPO-CA by aid of intramolecular hydrogen bonding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Visualizing the non-equilibrium dynamics of photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer with femtosecond X-ray pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canton, Sophie E.; Kjær, Kasper S.; Vankó, György


    Ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer preceding energy equilibration still poses many experimental and conceptual challenges to the optimization of photoconversion since an atomic-scale description has so far been beyond reach. Here we combine femtosecond transient optical absorption spectrosc...... states is a key mechanistic feature. The present study demonstrates the extensive potential of femtosecond X-ray techniques as diagnostics of non-adiabatic electron transfer processes in synthetic and biological systems, and some directions for future studies, are outlined....... as compared with storage ring facilities, these measurements constitute the first X-ray-based visualization of a non-equilibrated intramolecular electron transfer process over large interatomic distances. Experimental and theoretical results establish that mediation through electronically excited molecular...

  13. Strategies to enhance the excitation energy-transfer efficiency in a light-harvesting system using the intra-molecular charge transfer character of carotenoids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yukihira, Nao [Department of Applied Chemistry for Environment; School of Science and Technology; Kwansei Gakuin University; Sanda; Japan; Sugai, Yuko [Department of Applied Chemistry for Environment; School of Science and Technology; Kwansei Gakuin University; Sanda; Japan; Fujiwara, Masazumi [Department of Applied Chemistry for Environment; School of Science and Technology; Kwansei Gakuin University; Sanda; Japan; Kosumi, Daisuke [Institute of Pulsed Power Science; Kumamoto University; Kumamoto; Japan; Iha, Masahiko [South Product Co. Ltd.; Uruma-shi; Japan; Sakaguchi, Kazuhiko [Department of Chemistry; Graduate School of Science; Osaka City University; Osaka 558-8585; Japan; Katsumura, Shigeo [Department of Chemistry; Graduate School of Science; Osaka City University; Osaka 558-8585; Japan; Gardiner, Alastair T. [Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre; University of Glasgow; 126 University Place; Glasgow, G12 8QQ; UK; Cogdell, Richard J. [Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre; University of Glasgow; 126 University Place; Glasgow, G12 8QQ; UK; Hashimoto, Hideki [Department of Applied Chemistry for Environment; School of Science and Technology; Kwansei Gakuin University; Sanda; Japan


    Fucoxanthin is a carotenoid that is mainly found in light-harvesting complexes from brown algae and diatoms. Due to the presence of a carbonyl group attached to polyene chains in polar environments, excitation produces an excited intra-molecular charge transfer. This intra-molecular charge transfer state plays a key role in the highly efficient (~95%) energy-transfer from fucoxanthin to chlorophyllain the light-harvesting complexes from brown algae. In purple bacterial light-harvesting systems the efficiency of excitation energy-transfer from carotenoids to bacteriochlorophylls depends on the extent of conjugation of the carotenoids. In this study we were successful, for the first time, in incorporating fucoxanthin into a light-harvesting complex 1 from the purple photosynthetic bacterium,Rhodospirillum rubrumG9+ (a carotenoidless strain). Femtosecond pump-probe spectroscopy was applied to this reconstituted light-harvesting complex in order to determine the efficiency of excitation energy-transfer from fucoxanthin to bacteriochlorophyllawhen they are bound to the light-harvesting 1 apo-proteins.

  14. Unusual intramolecular CHO hydrogen bonding interaction between a sterically bulky amide and uranyl oxygen. (United States)

    Kannan, Shanmugaperumal; Kumar, Mukesh; Sadhu, Biswajit; Jaccob, Madhavan; Sundararajan, Mahesh


    The selective separation of toxic heavy metals such as uranyl can be accomplished using ligands with stereognostic hydrogen bonding interactions to the uranyl oxo group, as proposed by Raymond and co-workers (T. S. Franczyk, K. R. Czerwinski and K. N. Raymond, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1992, 114, 8138-8146). Recently, several ligands possessing this weak interaction have been proposed involving the hydrogen bonding of NH and OH based moieties with uranyl oxygen. We herein report the structurally and spectroscopically characterized CHO hydrogen bonding using a sterically bulky amide based ligand. In conjunction with experiments, electronic structure calculations are carried out to understand the structure, binding and the strength of the CHO hydrogen bonding interactions. This weak interaction is mainly due to the steric effect caused by a bulky substituent around the donor group which has direct relevance in designing novel ligands in nuclear waste management processes. Although the kinetics are very slow, the ligand is also highly selective to uranyl in the presence of other interfering ions such as lanthanides.

  15. Photoswitchable Intramolecular Hydrogen Bonds in 5-Phenylazopyrimidines Revealed By In Situ Irradiation NMR Spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházková, Eliška; Čechová, Lucie; Kind, J.; Janeba, Zlatko; Thiele, C. M.; Dračínský, Martin


    Roč. 24, č. 2 (2018), s. 492-498 ISSN 0947-6539 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-11223S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : azopyrimidines * heterocycles * hydrogen bonds * NMR spectroscopy * UV/Vis in situ irradiation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry OBOR OECD: Physical chemistry Impact factor: 5.317, year: 2016

  16. Hydrogen transfer reaction on rare earth oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minachev, Kh.M.; Atal'yan, O.K.; Markov, M.A.


    The ketone reduction by alcohols is studied on a large group of rare earth oxides. The reactions of octanol-2 with cyclohexan one, n. butanol with dipropyl ketone and acetone have been chosen for a model. It has been shown that La,Nd,Sm,Gd,Dy,Er and Y oxides are active in the reactions of hydrogen transfer from n. butanol to dipropyl ketone and acetone and from octanol-2 to cyclohexanone the last reaction being the most selective. The comparative reactivity of ketones-acceptors of hydrogen at their interaction with n. butanol is in conformity with the values of their normal oxidative potentials. By addition of ketone to n. butanol the general degree of catalytic transformation of the latter increases and the selectivity in ketonization ratio decreases. It has been established that catalyst activity increases with the temperature rise

  17. Separation of planar rotamers through intramolecular hydrogen bonding in polysubstituted 5-nitrosopyrimidines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čechová, Lucie; Procházková, Eliška; Císařová, I.; Dračínský, Martin; Janeba, Zlatko


    Roč. 50, č. 94 (2014), s. 14892-14895 ISSN 1359-7345 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102015046; GA ČR GA13-24880S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : hydrogen bonds * 5-nitrosopyrimidines * NMR spectroscopy Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 6.834, year: 2014

  18. Tunable differentiation of tertiary C-H bonds in intramolecular transition metal-catalyzed nitrene transfer reactions. (United States)

    Corbin, Joshua R; Schomaker, Jennifer M


    Metal-catalyzed nitrene transfer reactions are an appealing and efficient strategy for accessing tetrasubstituted amines through the direct amination of tertiary C-H bonds. Traditional catalysts for these reactions rely on substrate control to achieve site-selectivity in the C-H amination event; thus, tunability is challenging when competing C-H bonds have similar steric or electronic features. One consequence of this fact is that the impact of catalyst identity on the selectivity in the competitive amination of tertiary C-H bonds has not been well-explored, despite the potential for progress towards predictable and catalyst-controlled C-N bond formation. In this communication, we report investigations into tunable and site-selective nitrene transfers between tertiary C(sp 3 )-H bonds using a combination of transition metal catalysts, including complexes based on Ag, Mn, Rh and Ru. Particularly striking was the ability to reverse the selectivity of nitrene transfer by a simple change in the identity of the N-donor ligand supporting the Ag(i) complex. The combination of our Ag(i) catalysts with known Rh 2 (ii) complexes expands the scope of successful catalyst-controlled intramolecular nitrene transfer and represents a promising springboard for the future development of intermolecular C-H N-group transfer methods.

  19. A novel chalcone-analogue as an optical sensor based on ground and excited states intramolecular charge transfer: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fayed, Tarek A. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Tanta University, 31527-Tanta (Egypt)], E-mail:


    Steady-state absorption and emission spectroscopic techniques as well as semiempirical quantum calculations at the AM1 and ZINDO/S levels have been used to investigate the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) behaviour of a novel chalcone namely; 1-(2-pyridyl)-5-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-penta-2,4-diene-1-one, DMAC. The ground state DMAC has a significant ICT character and a great sensitivity to the hydrogen bond donating ability of the medium as reflected from the change of the absorption spectra in pure and mixed organic solvents. On the other hand, its excited singlet state exhibits high ICT characters as manifested by the drastic solvatochromic effects. These results are consistent with the data of charge density calculations in both the ground and excited state, which indicates enhancement of the charge transfer from the dimethyl-amino group to the carbonyl oxygen upon excitation. Also, the dipole moment calculations indicates a highly dipolar excited singlet state ({delta}{mu} {sub eg} = 15.5 D). The solvent dependence of the fluorescence quantum yield of DMAC was interpreted on the basis of positive and negative solvatokinetic as well as the hydrogen bonding effects. Incorporation of the 2-pyridyl group in the chemical structure of the present DMAC led to design of a potential optical sensor for probing acidity of the medium and metal cations such as Zn{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+} and Hg{sup 2+}. This was concluded from the high acidochromic and metallochromic behaviour of DMAC on adding such cations to its acetonitrile solutions.

  20. Conformational properties of oxazole-amino acids: effect of the intramolecular N-H···N hydrogen bond. (United States)

    Siodłak, Dawid; Staś, Monika; Broda, Małgorzata A; Bujak, Maciej; Lis, Tadeusz


    Oxazole ring occurs in numerous natural peptides, but conformational properties of the amino acid residue containing the oxazole ring in place of the C-terminal amide bond are poorly recognized. A series of model compounds constituted by the oxazole-amino acids occurring in nature, that is, oxazole-alanine (L-Ala-Ozl), oxazole-dehydroalanine (ΔAla-Ozl), and oxazole-dehydrobutyrine ((Z)-ΔAbu-Ozl), was investigated using theoretical calculations supported by FTIR and NMR spectra and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. It was found that the main feature of the studied oxazole-amino acids is the stable conformation β2 with the torsion angles φ and ψ of -150°, -10° for L-Ala-Ozl, -180°, 0° for ΔAla-Ozl, and -120°, 0° for (Z)-ΔAbu-Ozl, respectively. The conformation β2 is stabilized by the intramolecular N-H···N hydrogen bond and predominates in the low polar environment. In the case of the oxazole-dehydroamino acids, the π-electron conjugation that is spread on the oxazole ring and C(α)═C(β) double bond is an additional stabilizing interaction. The tendency to adopt the conformation β2 clearly decreases with increasing the polarity of environment, but still the oxazole-dehydroamino acids are considered to be more rigid and resistant to conformational changes.

  1. Spectroscopic studies of the intramolecular hydrogen bonding in o-hydroxy Schiff bases, derived from diaminomaleonitrile, and their deprotonation reaction products (United States)

    Szady-Chełmieniecka, Anna; Kołodziej, Beata; Morawiak, Maja; Kamieński, Bohdan; Schilf, Wojciech


    The structural study of five Schiff bases derived from diaminomaleonitrile (DAMN) and 2-hydroxy carbonyl compounds was performed using 1H, 13C and 15N NMR methods in solution and in the solid state as well. ATR-FTIR and X-Ray spectroscopies were used for confirmation of the results obtained by NMR method. The imine obtained from DAMN and benzaldehyde was synthesized as a model compound which lacks intramolecular hydrogen bond. Deprotonation of all synthesized compounds was done by treating with tetramethylguanidine (TMG). NMR data revealed that salicylidene Schiff bases in DMSO solution exist as OH forms without intramolecular hydrogen bonds and independent on the substituents in aromatic ring. In the case of 2-hydroxy naphthyl derivative, the OH proton is engaged into weak intramolecular hydrogen bond. Two of imines (salDAMN and 5-BrsalDAMN) exist in DMSO solution as equilibrium mixtures of two isomers (A and B). The structures of equilibrium mixture in the solid state have been studied by NMR, ATR-FTIR and X-Ray methods. The deprotonation of three studied compounds (salDAMN, 5-BrsalDAMN, and 5-CH3salDAMN) proceeded in two different ways: deprotonation of oxygen atom (X form) or of nitrogen atom of free primary amine group of DAMN moiety (Y form). For 5-NO2salDAMN and naphDAMN only one form (X) was observed.

  2. Intramolecular B/N frustrated Lewis pairs and the hydrogenation of carbon dioxide. (United States)

    Courtemanche, Marc-André; Pulis, Alexander P; Rochette, Étienne; Légaré, Marc-André; Stephan, Douglas W; Fontaine, Frédéric-Georges


    The FLP species 1-BR2-2-NMe2-C6H4 (R = 2,4,6-Me3C6H2, 2,4,5-Me3C6H2) reacts with H2 in sequential hydrogen activation and protodeborylation reactions to give (1-BH2-2-NMe2-C6H4)2. While reacts with H2/CO2 to give formyl, acetal and methoxy-derivatives, reacts with H2/CO2 to give C6H4(NMe2)(B(2,4,5-Me3C6H2)O)2CH2. The mechanism of CO2 reduction is considered.

  3. The Effect of Substituent Position on Excited State Intramolecular Proton Transfer in Benzoxazinone Derivatives: Experiment and DFT Calculation. (United States)

    Bian, Gao-Feng; Guo, Yun; Lv, Xiao-Jing; Zhang, Cheng


    The preparation and the photophysical behaviour of two benzoxazinone derivatives isomers 2-(1-hydroxynaphthalen-2-yl)-4H-benzo[e][1, 3]oxazin-4-one(1) and 2-(3-hydroxynaphthalen-2-yl)-4H-benzo[e][1, 3]oxazin-4-one(2) designed for displaying were reported. The effect of substituent position and solvent effect on the excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) dynamics and the spectroscopic properties were investigated using a combined theoretical (i.e., time-dependent density function theory (DFT)) and experimental (i.e., steady-state absorption and emission spectra and time-resolved fluorescence spectra) study. The results showed that compound 1 would facilitate ESIPT process and favored the keto tautomer emission, while compound 2 suppressed the ESIPT process and favored the enol emission.

  4. Photoinduced Ultrafast Intramolecular Excited-State Energy Transfer in the Silylene-Bridged Biphenyl and Stilbene (SBS) System: A Nonadiabatic Dynamics Point of View. (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Huang, Jing; Du, Likai; Lan, Zhenggang


    The photoinduced intramolecular excited-state energy-transfer (EET) process in conjugated polymers has received a great deal of research interest because of its important role in the light harvesting and energy transport of organic photovoltaic materials in photoelectric devices. In this work, the silylene-bridged biphenyl and stilbene (SBS) system was chosen as a simplified model system to obtain physical insight into the photoinduced intramolecular energy transfer between the different building units of the SBS copolymer. In the SBS system, the vinylbiphenyl and vinylstilbene moieties serve as the donor (D) unit and the acceptor (A) unit, respectively. The ultrafast excited-state dynamics of the SBS system was investigated from the point of view of nonadiabatic dynamics with the surface-hopping method at the TDDFT level. The first two excited states (S1 and S2) are characterized by local excitations at the acceptor (vinylstilbene) and donor (vinylbiphenyl) units, respectively. Ultrafast S2-S1 decay is responsible for the intramolecular D-A excitonic energy transfer. The geometric distortion of the D moiety play an essential role in this EET process, whereas the A moiety remains unchanged during the nonadiabatic dynamics simulation. The present work provides a direct dynamical approach to understand the ultrafast intramolecular energy-transfer dynamics in SBS copolymers and other similar organic photovoltaic copolymers.

  5. Síntese de novas bases de tröger, fluorescentes via transferência protônica intramolecular no estado excitado (ESIPT)


    Carlos Alberto Miranda Abella


    Neste trabalho, realizou-se a síntese e a caracterização de quatro novas bases de Tröger. Estes compostos pertencem à classe de heterociclos 2-hidroxifenibenzazóis, que caracterizam-se por apresentar uma forte emissão de fluorescência, devido à reação de transferência protônica intramolecular no estado excitado -ESIPT- por eles sofrrida quando excitados por luz ultravioleta. Os heterociclos sintetizadosapesentam ligações de hidrogênio intramolecular entrte o nitrogênio azólico e a hidroxila f...

  6. Capture and transfer of pions in hydrogenous materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, D.S.


    Pionic hydrogen is a short-lived exotic hydrogen isotope in which a negative pion replaces the atomic electron. The formation and subsequent interactions of pionic hydrogen are discussed, with emphasis on the process of pion transfer. Recent results using the pion charge-exchange reaction (π - , π 0 ) obtained at TRIUMF are reviewed. (Author) (35 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.)

  7. Definition of an intramolecular Eu-to-Eu energy transfer within a discrete [Eu2L] complex in solution. (United States)

    Nonat, Aline; Regueiro-Figueroa, Martín; Esteban-Gómez, David; de Blas, Andrés; Rodríguez-Blas, Teresa; Platas-Iglesias, Carlos; Charbonnière, Loïc J


    -to-Eu energy-transfer process. A mathematical model was developed to interpret the experimental data, leading to energy-transfer rates of 0.98 ms(-1) for the transfer from the site with q=0 to that with q=2 and vice versa. Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations performed at the B3LYP level were used to investigate the conformation of the complex in solution, and to estimate the intermetallic distance, which provided Förster radii (R(0)) values of 8.1 Å for the energy transfer from site I to site II, and 6.8 Å for the reverse energy transfer. These results represent the first evidence of an intramolecular energy-transfer equilibrium between two identical lanthanide cations within a discrete molecular complex in solution. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Ultrafast intramolecular charge transfer in tetrapyrazinoporphyrazines controls the quantum yields of fluorescence and singlet oxygen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, V.; Zimčík, P.; Miletín, M.; Váchová, L.; Kopecký, K.; Lang, Kamil; Chábera, P.; Polívka, T.


    Roč. 12, č. 11 (2010), s. 2555-2563 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/1424 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : photoinduced electron-transfer * phthalocyanine -fullerene ensembles * nonlinear-optical properties Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.454, year: 2010

  9. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Bjarke Knud Vilster; Winther, Morten; Spanget-Larsen, Jens


    The vibrational structure of the title compound (DBM) was investigated by FTIR spectroscopy in liquid solutions, by FTIR linear dichroism (LD) measurements, and by Raman spectroscopy. The results were supported by the application of theoretical model calculations and analyzed with particular atte...

  10. The effect of driving force on intramolecular electron transfer in proteins. Studies on single-site mutated azurins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Skov, L K; van de Kamp, M


    these substitutions are not in the microenvironment separating the electron donor and acceptor, they were expected to affect the LRET rate because of their effect on the redox potential of the copper site and thus on the driving force of the reaction, as well as on the reorganization energies of the copper site....... The rate of intramolecular electron transfer from RSSR- to Cu(II) in the wild-type P. aeruginosa azurin (delta G degrees = -68.9 kJ/mol) has previously been determined to be 44 +/- 7 s-1 at 298 K, pH 7.0. The [M44K]azurin mutant (delta G degrees = -75.3 kJ/mol) was now found to react considerably faster (k...... = 134 +/- 12 s-1 at 298 K, pH 7.0) while the [H35Q]azurin mutant (delta G degrees = -65.4 kJ/mol) exhibits, within experimental error, the same specific rate (k = 52 +/- 11 s-1, 298 K, pH 7.0) as that of the wild-type azurin. From the temperature dependence of these LRET rates the following activation...

  11. Transition Metal Donor-Peptide-Acceptor Complexes: From Intramolecular Electron Transfer Reactions to the Study of Reactive Intermediates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isied, Stephan S.


    The trans-polyproline (PII) oligomers (Figure 1) are unusually rigid peptide structures which have been extensively studied by our group for peptide mediated intramolecular electron transfer (ET) at long distances. We have previously studied ET across a series of metal ion donor (D) acceptor (A) oligoproline peptides with different distances, driving forces and reorganizational energies. The majority of these experiments involve generating the ET intermediate using pulse radiolysis methods, although more recently photochemical methods are also used. Results of these studies showed that ET across peptides can vary by more than twelve orders of magnitude. Using ruthenium bipyridine donors, ET reaction rate constants across several proline residues (n = 4 - 9) occurred in the millisecond (ms) to {micro}s timescale, thus limiting the proline peptide conformational motions to only minor changes (far smaller than the large changes that occur on the ms to sec timescale, such as trans to cis proline isomerization). The present report describes our large data base of experimental results for D-peptide-A complexes in terms of a model where the involvement of both superexchange and hopping (hole and electron) mechanisms account for the long range ET rate constants observed. Our data shows that the change from superexchange to hopping mechanisms occurs at different distances depending on the type of D and A and their interactions with the peptides. Our model is also consistent with generalized models for superexchange and hopping which have been put forward by a number of theoretical groups to account for long range ET phenomena.

  12. The low-lying πσ* state and its role in the intramolecular charge transfer of aminobenzonitriles and aminobenzethyne

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae-Kwang; Fujiwara, Takashige; Kofron, William G.; Zgierski, Marek Z.; Lim, Edward C.


    Electronic absorption spectra of the low-lying ππ* and πσ* states of several aminobenzonitriles and 4-dimethylaminobenzethyne have been studied by time-resolved transient absorption and time-dependent density functional theory calculation. In acetonitrile, the lifetime of the πσ*-state absorption is very short (picoseconds or subpicosecond) for molecules that exhibit intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), and very long (nanoseconds) for those that do not. Where direct comparison of the temporal characteristics of the πσ*-state and the ICT-state transients could be made, the formation rate of the ICT state is identical to the decay rate of the πσ* state within the experimental uncertainty. These results are consistent with the πσ*-mediated ICT mechanism, L a (ππ*)→πσ*→ICT, in which the decay rate of the πσ* state is determined by the rate of the solvent-controlled πσ*→ICT charge-shift reaction. The ππ*→πσ* state crossing does not occur in 3-dimethylaminobenzonitrile or 2-dimethylaminobenzonitrile, as predicted by the calculation, and 4-aminobenzonitrile and 4-dimethylaminobenzethyne does not exhibit the ICT reaction, consistent with the higher energy of the ICT state relative to the πσ* state

  13. Tandem ring-closing metathesis/transfer hydrogenation: practical chemoselective hydrogenation of alkenes. (United States)

    Connolly, Timothy; Wang, Zhongyu; Walker, Michael A; McDonald, Ivar M; Peese, Kevin M


    An operationally simple chemoselective transfer hydrogenation of alkenes using ruthenium metathesis catalysts is presented. Of great practicality, the transfer hydrogenation reagents can be added directly to a metathesis reaction and effect hydrogenation of the product alkene in a single pot at ambient temperature without the need to seal the vessel to prevent hydrogen gas escape. The reduction is applicable to a range of alkenes and can be performed in the presence of aryl halides and benzyl groups, a notable weakness of Pd-catalyzed hydrogenations. Scope and mechanistic considerations are presented.

  14. Linear approaches to intramolecular Förster resonance energy transfer probe measurements for quantitative modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc R Birtwistle

    Full Text Available Numerous unimolecular, genetically-encoded Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET probes for monitoring biochemical activities in live cells have been developed over the past decade. As these probes allow for collection of high frequency, spatially resolved data on signaling events in live cells and tissues, they are an attractive technology for obtaining data to develop quantitative, mathematical models of spatiotemporal signaling dynamics. However, to be useful for such purposes the observed FRET from such probes should be related to a biological quantity of interest through a defined mathematical relationship, which is straightforward when this relationship is linear, and can be difficult otherwise. First, we show that only in rare circumstances is the observed FRET linearly proportional to a biochemical activity. Therefore in most cases FRET measurements should only be compared either to explicitly modeled probes or to concentrations of products of the biochemical activity, but not to activities themselves. Importantly, we find that FRET measured by standard intensity-based, ratiometric methods is inherently non-linear with respect to the fraction of probes undergoing FRET. Alternatively, we find that quantifying FRET either via (1 fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM or (2 ratiometric methods where the donor emission intensity is divided by the directly-excited acceptor emission intensity (denoted R(alt is linear with respect to the fraction of probes undergoing FRET. This linearity property allows one to calculate the fraction of active probes based on the FRET measurement. Thus, our results suggest that either FLIM or ratiometric methods based on R(alt are the preferred techniques for obtaining quantitative data from FRET probe experiments for mathematical modeling purposes.

  15. Formation of C–C Bonds via Iridium-Catalyzed Hydrogenation and Transfer Hydrogenation (United States)

    Bower, John F.; Krische, Michael J.


    The formation of C–C bonds via catalytic hydrogenation and transfer hydrogenation enables carbonyl and imine addition in the absence of stoichiometric organometallic reagents. In this review, iridium-catalyzed C–C bond-forming hydrogenations and transfer hydrogenations are surveyed. These processes encompass selective, atom-economic methods for the vinylation and allylation of carbonyl compounds and imines. Notably, under transfer hydrogenation conditions, alcohol dehydrogenation drives reductive generation of organoiridium nucleophiles, enabling carbonyl addition from the aldehyde or alcohol oxidation level. In the latter case, hydrogen exchange between alcohols and π-unsaturated reactants generates electrophile–nucleophile pairs en route to products of hydro-hydroxyalkylation, representing a direct method for the functionalization of carbinol C–H bonds. PMID:21822399

  16. Liquid hydrogen transfer pipes and level regulation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquet, M.; Prugne, P.; Roubeau, P.


    Describes: 1) Transfer pipes - Plunging rods in liquid hydrogen Dewars; transfer pipes: knee-joint system for quick and accurate positioning of plunging Dewar rods; system's rods: combined valve and rod; valves are activated either by a bulb pressure or by a solenoid automatically or hand controlled. The latter allows intermittent filling. 2) Level regulating systems: Level bulbs: accurate to 1 or 4 m; maximum and minimum level bulbs: automatic control of the liquid hydrogen valve. (author) [fr

  17. A molecular dynamics study of intramolecular proton transfer reaction of malonaldehyde in solutions based upon mixed quantum-classical approximation. I. Proton transfer reaction in water. (United States)

    Yamada, Atsushi; Kojima, Hidekazu; Okazaki, Susumu


    In order to investigate proton transfer reaction in solution, mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics calculations have been carried out based on our previously proposed quantum equation of motion for the reacting system [A. Yamada and S. Okazaki, J. Chem. Phys. 128, 044507 (2008)]. Surface hopping method was applied to describe forces acting on the solvent classical degrees of freedom. In a series of our studies, quantum and solvent effects on the reaction dynamics in solutions have been analysed in detail. Here, we report our mixed quantum-classical molecular dynamics calculations for intramolecular proton transfer of malonaldehyde in water. Thermally activated proton transfer process, i.e., vibrational excitation in the reactant state followed by transition to the product state and vibrational relaxation in the product state, as well as tunneling reaction can be described by solving the equation of motion. Zero point energy is, of course, included, too. The quantum simulation in water has been compared with the fully classical one and the wave packet calculation in vacuum. The calculated quantum reaction rate in water was 0.70 ps(-1), which is about 2.5 times faster than that in vacuum, 0.27 ps(-1). This indicates that the solvent water accelerates the reaction. Further, the quantum calculation resulted in the reaction rate about 2 times faster than the fully classical calculation, which indicates that quantum effect enhances the reaction rate, too. Contribution from three reaction mechanisms, i.e., tunneling, thermal activation, and barrier vanishing reactions, is 33:46:21 in the mixed quantum-classical calculations. This clearly shows that the tunneling effect is important in the reaction.

  18. Production of dimethylfuran from hydroxymethylfurfural through catalytic transfer hydrogenation with ruthenium supported on carbon. (United States)

    Jae, Jungho; Zheng, Weiqing; Lobo, Raul F; Vlachos, Dionisios G


    RuC ees' transfer: Transfer hydrogenation using alcohols as hydrogen donors and supported ruthenium catalysts results in the selective conversion of hydroxymethylfurfural to dimethylfuran (>80% yield). During transfer hydrogenation, the hydrogen produced from alcohols is utilized in the hydrogenation of hydroxymethylfurfural. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Comparison of the proton-transfer paths in hydrogen bonds from theoretical potential-energy surfaces and the concept of conservation of bond order III. O-H-O hydrogen bonds. (United States)

    Majerz, Irena; Olovsson, Ivar


    The quantum-mechanically derived reaction coordinates (QMRC) for the proton transfer in O-H-O hydrogen bonds have been derived from ab initio calculations of potential-energy surfaces. A comparison is made between the QMRC and the corresponding bond-order reaction coordinates (BORC) derived by applying the Pauling bond order concept together with the principle of conservation of bond order. In agreement with earlier results for N-H-N(+) hydrogen bonds there is virtually perfect agreement between the QMRC and BORC curves for intermolecular O-H-O hydrogen bonds. For intramolecular O-H-O hydrogen bonds, the donor and acceptor parts of the molecule impose strong constraints on the O···O distance and the QMRC does not follow the BORC relation in the whole range. The neutron-determined proton positions are located close to the theoretically calculated potential-energy minima, and where the QMRC and the BORC curves coincide with each other. The results confirm the universal character of intermolecular hydrogen bonds: BORC is identical with QMRC and the proton can be moved from donor to acceptor keeping its valency equal to 1. The shape of PES for intramolecular hydrogen bonds is more complex as it is sensitive to the geometry of the molecule as well as of the hydrogen bridge. This journal is © the Owner Societies 2010

  20. Approach to Interfacial and Intramolecular Electron Transfer of the Diheme Protein Cytochrome c(4) Assembled on Au(111) Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chi, Qijin; Zhang, Jingdong; Taner, Arslan


    protein Pseudomonas stutzeri cytochrome c(4) has been a target for intramolecular, interheme ET. We report here voltammetric and in situ scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) data for P. stutzeri cyt c(4) at single-crystal, atomically planar Au(111)-electrode surfaces modified by variable-length omega...... direction and a single two-ET peak in the anodic direction. Intramolecular, interheme ET with high, 8,000-30,000 s(-1), rate constants is notably an essential part of this mechanism. The high rate constants are in striking contrast to ET reactions of P. stutzeri cyt c4 with small reaction partners...... in homogeneous solution for which kinetic analysis clearly testifies to electrostatic cooperative effects but no intramolecular, interheme ET higher than 0.1-10 s(-1). This difference suggests a strong gating feature of the process. On the basis of the three-dimensional structure of P. stutzeri cyt c(4), gating...

  1. Heat transfer analysis of liquid piston compressor for hydrogen applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kermani, Nasrin Arjomand; Rokni, Masoud


    A hydrogen compression technology using liquid as the compression piston is investigated from heat transfer point of view. A thermodynamic model, simulating a single compression stroke, is developed to investigate the heat transfer phenomena inside the compression chamber. The model is developed...

  2. Binding of the Respiratory Chain Inhibitor Antimycin to theMitochondrial bc1 Complex: A New Crystal Structure Reveals an AlteredIntramolecular Hydrogen-Bonding Pattern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Li-shar; Cobessi, David; Tung, Eric Y.; Berry, Edward A.


    Antimycin A (antimycin), one of the first known and most potent inhibitors of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, binds to the quinone reduction site of the cytochrome bc1 complex.Structure-activity-relationship studies have shown that the N-formylamino-salicyl-amide group is responsible for most of the binding specificity, and suggested that a low pKa for the phenolic OH group and an intramolecular H-bond between that OH and the carbonyl O of the salicylamide linkage are important. Two previous X-ray structures of antimycin bound to vertebrate bc1 complex gave conflicting results. A new structure reported here of the bovine mitochondrial bc1 complex at 2.28Angstrom resolution with antimycin bound, allows us for the first time to reliably describe the binding of antimycin and shows that the intramolecular hydrogen bond described in solution and in the small-molecule structure is replaced by one involving the NH rather than carbonyl O of the amide linkage, with rotation of the amide group relative to the aromatic ring. The phenolic OH and formylamino N form H-bonds with conserved Asp228 of cyt b, and the formylamino O H-bonds via a water molecule to Lys227. A strong density the right size and shape for a diatomic molecule is found between the other side of the dilactone ring and the alpha-A helix.

  3. Binding of the respiratory chain inhibitor antimycin to the mitochondrial bc1 complex: a new crystal structure reveals an altered intramolecular hydrogen-bonding pattern. (United States)

    Huang, Li-Shar; Cobessi, David; Tung, Eric Y; Berry, Edward A


    Antimycin A (antimycin), one of the first known and most potent inhibitors of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, binds to the quinone reduction site of the cytochrome bc1 complex. Structure-activity relationship studies have shown that the N-formylamino-salicyl-amide group is responsible for most of the binding specificity, and suggested that a low pKa for the phenolic OH group and an intramolecular H-bond between that OH and the carbonyl O of the salicylamide linkage are important. Two previous X-ray structures of antimycin bound to vertebrate bc1 complex gave conflicting results. A new structure reported here of the bovine mitochondrial bc1 complex at 2.28 A resolution with antimycin bound, allows us for the first time to reliably describe the binding of antimycin and shows that the intramolecular hydrogen bond described in solution and in the small-molecule structure is replaced by one involving the NH rather than carbonyl O of the amide linkage, with rotation of the amide group relative to the aromatic ring. The phenolic OH and formylamino N form H-bonds with conserved Asp228 of cytochrome b, and the formylamino O H-bonds via a water molecule to Lys227. A strong density, the right size and shape for a diatomic molecule is found between the other side of the dilactone ring and the alphaA helix.

  4. Muon transfer from muonic hydrogen to heavier atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dupays, A.


    This work concerns muon transfer from muonic hydrogen to heavier atoms. Recently, a method of measurement of the hyperfine structure of ground-state muonic hydrogen based on the collision energy dependence of the muon transfer rate to oxygen has been proposed. This proposal is based on measurements which where performed at the Paul Scherrer Institute in the early nineties which indicate that the muon transfer from muonic hydrogen to oxygen increases by a factor of 4 going from thermal to 0.12 eV energies. The motivation of our calculations was to confirm this behaviour. To study the collision energy dependence of the muon transfer rate, we have used a time-independent close-coupling method. We have set up an hyperspherical elliptic formalism valid for nonzero total angular momentum which allows accurate computations of state-to-state reactive and charge exchange processes. We have applied this formalism to muon-transfer process to oxygen and neon. The comparison with experimental results is in both cases excellent. Finally, the neon transfer rate dependence with energy suggests to use neon instead of oxygen to perform a measurement of the hyperfine structure of muonic hydrogen. The results of accurate calculations of the muon transfer rates from muonic protium and deuterium atoms to nitrogen, oxygen and neon are also reported. Very good agreement with measured rates is obtained and for the three systems, the isotopic effect is perfectly reproduced. (author)

  5. Magnetically Recoverable Supported Ruthenium Catalyst for Hydrogenation of Alkynes and Transfer Hydrogenation of Carbonyl Compounds (United States)

    A ruthenium (Ru) catalyst supported on magnetic nanoparticles (NiFe2O4) has been successfully synthesized and used for hydrogenation of alkynes at room temperature as well as transfer hydrogenation of a number of carbonyl compounds under microwave irradiation conditions. The cata...

  6. Gas Requirements in Pressurized Transfer of Liquid Hydrogen (United States)

    Gluck, D. F.; Kline, J. F.


    Of late, liquid hydrogen has become a very popular fuel for space missions. It is being used in such programs as Centaur and Saturn. Furthermore, hydrogen is the ideal working fluid for nuclear powered space vehicles currently under development. In these applications, liquid hydrogen fuel is generally transferred to the combustion chamber by a combination of pumping and pressurization. The pump forces the liquid propellant from the fuel tank to the combustion chamber; gaseous pressurant holds tank pressure sufficiently high to prevent cavitation at the pump inlet and to maintain the structural rigidity of the tank. The pressurizing system, composed of pressurant, tankage, and associated hardware can be a large portion of the total vehicle weight. Pressurant weight can be reduced by introducing the pressurizing gas at temperatures substantially greater than those of liquid hydrogen. Heat and mass transfer processes thereby induced complicate gas requirements during discharge. These requirements must be known to insure proper design of the pressurizing system. The aim of this paper is to develop from basic mass and energy transfer processes a general method to predict helium and hydrogen gas usage for the pressurized transfer of liquid hydrogen. This required an analytical and experimental investigation, the results of which are described in this paper.

  7. Intramolecular Rotation through Proton Transfer: [Fe(eta(5)-C5H4CO2-)(2)] Versus [(eta(5)-C5H4CO2-)Fe(eta(5)-C5H4CO2H)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xue B.; Dai, Bing; Woo, Hin-koon; Wang, Lai S.


    We report a photoelectron spectroscopic study of doubly charged (?5C5H4CO2-)Fe(?5-C5H4CO2-) (1) and singly charged (?5C5H4CO2-)Fe(?5C5H4CO2H) (2). It is shown that strong intramolecular coulomb repulsion keeps 1 in the trans-form, in which the two ?CO2- groups on the cyclopentadienyl ligands are oriented opposite to each other, whereas 2 assumes the cis-form owing to a strong intramolecular H-bond. We estimate a rotational barrier of 1.4 eV for 1 and 0.6 eV for 2. A proton transfer to 1 would result in a 112? intramolecular rotation, whereas deportation of 2 would result in a similar intramolecular rotation. Thus 1 and 2 form a model molecular rotor system, controlled by a proton transfer.

  8. The roles of polycarboxylates in Cr(VI)/sulfite reaction system: Involvement of reactive oxygen species and intramolecular electron transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Bo, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580, Shandong (China); School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Qingdao University of Technology, Qingdao 266033 (China); Wang, Xianli; Liu, Yukun [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580, Shandong (China); Wang, Zhaohui [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Southern Cross GeoScience, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW 2480 (Australia); Zheng, Jingtang, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580, Shandong (China); Wu, Mingbo, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing, China University of Petroleum, Qingdao 266580, Shandong (China)


    Highlights: • The formations of SO{sub 4}·{sup −} and OH·, involve in Cr(VI) reduction induced by S(IV). • Affinity of polycarboxylate to Cr(VI) accelerates Cr(VI) reduction rate. • Polycarboxylates can act as electron donors for Cr(VI) reduction retrenching S(IV). • Only oxalate can enhance the formations of SO{sub 4}·{sup −} and OH· in Cr(VI)/S(IV) system. - Abstract: In this study, the effects of polycarboxylates on both Cr(VI) reduction and S(IV) consumption in Cr(VI)/S(IV) system was investigated in acidic solution. Under aerobic condition, the productions of reactive oxygen species (ROS), i.e., SO{sub 4}·{sup −} and OH·, have been confirmed in S(IV) reducing Cr(VI) process by using electron spin resonance and fluorescence spectrum techniques, leading to the excess consumption of S(IV). However, when polycarboxylates (oxalic, citric, malic and tartaric acid) were present in Cr(VI)/S(IV) system, the affinity of polycarboxylates to CrSO{sub 6}{sup 2−} can greatly promote the reduction of Cr(VI) via expanding the coordination of Cr(VI) species from tetrahedron to hexahedron. Besides, as alternatives to S(IV), these polycarboxylates can also act as electron donors for Cr(VI) reduction via intramolecular electron transfer reaction, which is dependent on the energies of the highest occupied molecular orbital of these polycarboxylates. Notably, the variant electron donating capacity of these polycarboxylates resulted in different yield of ROS and therefore the oxidation efficiencies of other pollutants, e.g., rhodamine B and As(III). Generally, this study does not only shed light on the mechanism of S(IV) reducing Cr(VI) process mediated by polycarboxylates, but also provides an escalated, cost-effective and green strategy for the remediation of Cr(VI) using sulfite as a reductant.

  9. Does formal intramolecular transfer of an acidic deuterium to a site of halogen-lithium exchange show that lithium-halogen exchange is faster than loss of the acidic deuterium? Evidence in favor of an alternative mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beak, P.; Musick, T.J.; Chen, C.


    Reactions in which there is formal intramolecular transfer of an acidic deuterium to a site of halogen-lithium exchange could be interpreted to show that initial halogen-lithium exchange occurs faster than loss of the acidic deuterium. However studies of the competition between halogen-metal-deuterium loss for N-deuterio-N-alkyl-o, -m-, and -p-halobenzimides are not consistent with that mechanism. They suggest an alternative in which initial loss of the acidic deuterium is followed by halogen-lithium exchange to give a dilithiated intermediate. Deuterium transfer to the site of halogen-lithium exchange then occurs by reaction of the dilithiated species intermolecularly with unreacted N-deuteriated amide. The halogen-lithium exchange is faster than complete mixing of the reactants and can occur either in an initially formed deprotonated complex or in a transient high local concentration of organolithium reagent. Evidence for both possibilities is provided. Two reactions from the literature in which halogen-lithium exchange appears to be faster than transfer of an acidic hydrogen have been reinvestigated and found to be interpretable in terms of similar sequences

  10. Synthesis, spectral behaviour and photophysics of donor-acceptor kind of chalcones: Excited state intramolecular charge transfer and fluorescence quenching studies (United States)

    Pannipara, Mehboobali; Asiri, Abdullah M.; Alamry, Khalid A.; Arshad, Muhammad N.; El-Daly, Samy A.


    The spectral and photophysical properties of two chalcones containing electron donating and accepting groups with intramolecular charge transfer characteristics were synthesized and characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and X-ray crystallography. Both compounds show very strong solvent polarity dependent changes in their photophysical characteristics, namely, remarkable red shift in the emission spectra with increasing solvent polarity, large change in Stokes shift, significant reduction in the fluorescence quantum yield; indicating that the fluorescence states of these compounds are of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) character. The solvent effect on the photophysical parameters such as singlet absorption, molar absorptivity, oscillator strength, dipole moment, fluorescence spectra, and fluorescence quantum yield of both compounds have been investigated comprehensively. For both dyes, Lippert-Mataga and Reichardt's correlations were used to estimate the difference between the excited and ground state dipole moments (Δμ). The interactions of dyes with colloidal silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were also studied in ethanol using steady state fluorescence quenching measurements. The fluorescence quenching data reveal that dynamic quenching and energy transfer play a major role in the fluorescence quenching of dyes by Ag NPs.

  11. Intermolecular Hydrogen Transfer in Isobutane Hydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Sugahara


    Full Text Available Electron spin resonance (ESR spectra of butyl radicals induced with γ-ray irradiation in the simple isobutane (2-methylpropane hydrate (prepared with deuterated water were investigated. Isothermal annealing results of the γ-ray-irradiated isobutane hydrate reveal that the isobutyl radical in a large cage withdraws a hydrogen atom from the isobutane molecule through shared hexagonal-faces of adjacent large cages. During this “hydrogen picking” process, the isobutyl radical is apparently transformed into a tert-butyl radical, while the sum of isobutyl and tert-butyl radicals remains constant. The apparent transformation from isobutyl to tert-butyl radicals is an irreversible first-order reaction and the activation energy was estimated to be 35 ± 3 kJ/mol, which was in agreement with the activation energy (39 ± 5 kJ/mol of hydrogen picking in the γ-ray-irradiated propane hydrate with deuterated water.

  12. Transfer Hydrogenation: Employing a Simple, In Situ Prepared Catalytic System

    KAUST Repository

    Ang, Eleanor Pei Ling


    Transfer hydrogenation has been recognized to be an important synthetic method in both academic and industrial research to obtain valuable products including alcohols. Transition metal catalysts based on precious metals, such as Ru, Rh and Ir, are typically employed for this process. In recent years, iron-based catalysts have attracted considerable attention as a greener and more sustainable alternative since iron is earth abundant, inexpensive and non-toxic. In this work, a combination of iron disulfide with chelating bipyridine ligand was found to be effective for the transfer hydrogenation of a variety of ketones to the corresponding alcohols in the presence of a simple base. It provided a convenient and economical way to conduct transfer hydrogenation. A plausible role of sulfide next to the metal center in facilitating the catalytic reaction is demonstrated.

  13. Mechanism of Pd(NHC)-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation of alkynes. (United States)

    Hauwert, Peter; Boerleider, Romilda; Warsink, Stefan; Weigand, Jan J; Elsevier, Cornelis J


    The transfer semihydrogenation of alkynes to (Z)-alkenes shows excellent chemo- and stereoselectivity when using a zerovalent palladium(NHC)(maleic anhydride)-complex as precatalyst and triethylammonium formate as hydrogen donor. Studies on the kinetics under reaction conditions showed a broken positive order in substrate and first order in catalyst and hydrogen donor. Deuterium-labeling studies on the hydrogen donor showed that both hydrogens of formic acid display a primary kinetic isotope effect, indicating that proton and hydride transfers are separate rate-determining steps. By monitoring the reaction with NMR, we observed the presence of a coordinated formate anion and found that part of the maleic anhydride remains coordinated during the reaction. From these observations, we propose a mechanism in which hydrogen transfer from coordinated formate anion to zerovalent palladium(NHC)(MA)(alkyne)-complex is followed by migratory insertion of hydride, after which the product alkene is liberated by proton transfer from the triethylammonium cation. The explanation for the high selectivity observed lies in the competition between strongly coordinating solvent and alkyne for a Pd(alkene)-intermediate.

  14. Probing hydrogen bonding interactions and proton transfer in proteins (United States)

    Nie, Beining

    Scope and method of study. Hydrogen bonding is a fundamental element in protein structure and function. Breaking a single hydrogen bond may impair the stability of a protein. It is therefore important to probe dynamic changes in hydrogen bonding interactions during protein folding and function. Time-resolved Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy is highly sensitive to hydrogen bonding interactions. However, it lacks quantitative correlation between the vibrational frequencies and the number, type, and strength of hydrogen bonding interactions of ionizable and polar residues. We employ quantum physics theory based ab initio calculations to study the effects of hydrogen bonding interactions on vibrational frequencies of Asp, Glu, and Tyr residues and to develop vibrational spectral markers for probing hydrogen bonding interactions using infrared spectroscopy. In addition, proton transfer process plays a crucial role in a wide range of energy transduction, signal transduction, and enzymatic reactions. We study the structural basis for proton transfer using photoactive yellow protein as an excellent model system. Molecular dynamics simulation is employed to investigate the structures of early intermediate states. Quantum theory based ab initio calculations are used to study the impact of hydrogen bond interactions on proton affinity and proton transfer. Findings and conclusions. Our extensive density function theory based calculations provide rich structural, spectral, and energetic information on hydrogen bonding properties of protonated side chain groups of Asp/Glu and Tyr. We developed vibrational spectral markers and 2D FTIR spectroscopy for structural characterization on the number and the type of hydrogen bonding interactions of the COOH group of Asp/Glu and neutral phenolic group of Tyr. These developments greatly enhance the power of time-resolved FTIR spectroscopy as a major experimental tool for structural characterization of functionally important

  15. Ultrafast intramolecular charge transfer with N-(4-cyanophenyl)carbazole. Evidence for a LE precursor and dual LE + ICT fluorescence. (United States)

    Galievsky, Victor A; Druzhinin, Sergey I; Demeter, Attila; Mayer, Peter; Kovalenko, Sergey A; Senyushkina, Tamara A; Zachariasse, Klaas A


    The photophysics of N-(4-cyanophenyl)carbazole (NP4CN) was investigated by using absorption and fluorescence spectra, picosecond fluorescence decays, and femtosecond transient absorption. In the nonpolar n-hexane as well as in the polar solvent acetonitrile (MeCN), a locally excited (LE) state is detected, as a precursor for the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) state. A LE → ICT reaction time τ(2) at 22 °C of 0.95 ps in ethyl cyanide (EtCN) and 0.32 ps in MeCN is determined from the decay of the LE excited state absorption (ESA) maximum around 620 nm. In the ESA spectrum of NP4CN in n-hexane at a pump-probe delay time of 100 ps, an important contribution of the LE band remains alongside the ICT band, in contrast to what is observed in EtCN and MeCN. This shows that a LE ⇄ ICT equilibrium is established in this solvent and the ICT reaction time of 0.5 ps is equal to the reciprocal of the sum of the forward and backward ICT rate constants 1/(k(a) + k(d)). In the photostationary S(0) → S(n) absorption spectrum of NP4CN in n-hexane and MeCN, an additional CT absorption band appears, absent in the sum of the spectra of its electron donor (D) and acceptor (A) subgroups carbazole and benzonitrile. This CT band is located at an energy of ∼4000 cm(-1) lower than for N-phenylcarbazole (NPC), due to the larger electron affinity of the benzonitrile moiety of NP4CN than the phenyl subunit of NPC. The fluorescence spectrum of NP4CN in n-hexane at 25 °C mainly consists of a structured LE emission, with a small ICT admixture, indicating that a LE → ICT reaction just starts to occur under these conditions. In di-n-pentyl ether (DPeE) and di-n-butyl ether (DBE), a LE emission is found upon cooling at the high-energy edge of the ICT fluorescence band, caused by the onset of dielectric solvent relaxation. This is not the case in more polar solvents, such as diethyl ether (DEE) and MeCN, in which a structureless ICT emission band fully overlaps the strongly quenched LE

  16. Intramolecular interactions in dimedone and phenalen-1,3-dione adducts of 2(4)-pyridinecarboxaldehyde: Enol-enol and ring-chain tautomerism, strong hydrogen bonding, zwitterions (United States)

    Sigalov, Mark; Shainyan, Bagrat; Krief, Pnina; Ushakov, Igor; Chipanina, Nina; Oznobikhina, Larisa


    The 2:1 adducts of dimedone and phenalen-1,3-dione with 2- and 4-pyridine carboxaldehyde, in spite of similar chemical behavior of their diketone precursors, have quite different tautomeric structure both in solid state and in solution. 2,2'-(Pyridin-2-ylmethanediyl)-bis(5,5-dimethyl-cyclohexane-1,3-dione) 5 exists as an equilibrium mixture of its dienol tautomer 5а' with two intramolecular H-bonds ОН⋯О dbnd С and OH ⋯N and the epimeric products of its reversible cyclization, that is, 4a-hydroxy-9-(pyridin-2-yl)-2,3,4,4a,6,7,9,9a-octahydro-5-H-xanthene-1,8-diones 5b (major) and 5c (minor), the latter appears only in polar media like DMSO. 2,2'-(Pyridin-4-ylmethanediyl)bis(5,5-dimethylcyclohexane-1,3-dione) 4, like other 2:1 dimedone-aldehyde adducts, both in solution and in solid state exists as dienol with two intramolecular H-bonds ОН ⋯О dbnd С. 4-[Bis(1H-phenalen-1,3(2H)-dione)methyl]pyridine 6 in nonpolar media like chloroform exists as dienol, but crystallizes from this solvent as zwitter-ion 6b with one very strong ionic hydrogen bond O sbnd H ⋯O sbnd and protonated pyridine nitrogen. The same zwitterion is formed in polar media (DMSO). For 2-[bis(1H-phenalen-1,3(2H)-dione)-methyl]-pyridine 7, fast exchange between its dienol tautomer 7a and zwitter-ion 7b occurs even in CD2Cl2, whereas in DMSO the equilibrium shifts towards zwitter-ion 7b.

  17. Enantioselective organocatalytic partial transfer hydrogenation of lactone-fused quinolines. (United States)

    Aillerie, Alexandre; de Talancé, Vincent Lemau; Moncomble, Aurélien; Bousquet, Till; Pélinski, Lydie


    The first enantioselective synthesis of 4-aza-podophyllotoxin derivatives by partial transfer hydrogenation of lactone-fused quinolines was achieved using a chiral Brønsted acid catalyst. This reaction was extended to a large scope of substrates with good yields and enantioselectivities.

  18. Microscale Synthesis of Chiral Alcohols via Asymmetric Catalytic Transfer Hydrogenation (United States)

    Peeters, Christine M.; Deliever, Rik; De Vos, Dirk


    Synthesis of pure enantiomers is a key issue in industry, especially in areas connected to life sciences. Catalytic asymmetric synthesis has emerged as a powerful and practical tool. Here we describe an experiment on racemic reduction and asymmetric reduction via a catalytic hydrogen transfer process. Acetophenone and substituted acetophenones are…

  19. The Immobilization of a Transfer Hydrogenation Catalyst on Colloidal Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravensteijn, Bas G P|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/338806008; Schild, Dirk Jan; Kegel, Willem K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/113729464; Klein Gebbink, Robertus J M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/166032646


    In this paper, we report a new synthetic procedure to immobilize a transfer hydrogenation catalyst on the surface of colloidal polystyrene particles. Using supports of colloidal dimensions allows for combining a relatively high surface area for catalyst binding, mobility of the catalyst, and facile

  20. Current Topics in the Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation of Imines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Januščák, J.; Václavík, Jiří; Šot, P.; Pecháček, J.; Vilhanová, B.; Kuzma, Marek; Kačer, P.


    Roč. 109, č. 7 (2015), s. 492-498 ISSN 0009-2770 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/12/1276; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1509 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : asymmetric transfer hydrogenation * ruthenium * isoquinoline Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.279, year: 2015

  1. Hydrogen transfer reaction of cyclohexanone with 2-propanol ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Addition of ceria into zinc oxide was found to increase the catalytic activity for hydrogen transfer reaction. The catalytic activity also depended on the method of preparation. Citrate process results in uniformly dispersed mixed oxide with higher catalytic activity. Keywords. Cyclohexanone; ceria; ZnO; diffuse reflectance; EPR.

  2. Dimerization of HNO in aqueous solution: an interplay of solvation effects, fast acid-base equilibria, and intramolecular hydrogen bonding? (United States)

    Fehling, Carsten; Friedrichs, Gernot


    The recent unraveling of the rather complex acid-base equilibrium of nitroxyl (HNO) has stimulated a renewed interest in the significance of HNO for biology and pharmacy. HNO plays an important role in enzymatic mechanisms and is discussed as a potential therapeutic agent against heart failure. A cumbersome property for studying HNO reactions, its fast dimerization leading to the rapid formation of N(2)O, is surprisingly far from being well understood. It prevents isolation and limits intermediate concentrations of nitroxyl in solution. In this study, a new mechanism for the HNO dimerization reaction in aqueous solution has been theoretically derived on the basis of DFT calculations. Detailed analysis of the initial reaction step suggests a reversal of the cis-trans isomer preference in solution compared to the corresponding gas phase reaction. In contrast to a gas phase derived model based on intramolecular rearrangement steps, an acid-base equilibrium model is in agreement with previous experimental findings and, moreover, explains the fundamental differences between the well studied gas phase reaction and the solvent reaction in terms of polarity, cis-trans isomerizations, and acidities of the intermediates. In the case of cis-hyponitrous acid, the calculated pK(a) values of the acid-base equilibria were found to be significantly different from the corresponding experimental value of the stable trans isomer. Under physiological conditions, N(2)O formation is dominated by the decomposition of the unstable monoanion cis-N(2)O(2)H(-) rather than that of the commonly stated cis-HONNOH.

  3. Modulation of dual fluorescence in a 3-hydroxyquinolone dye by perturbation of its intramolecular proton transfer with solvent polarity and basicity. (United States)

    Yushchenko, Dmytro A; Shvadchak, Volodymyr V; Bilokin', Mykhailo D; Klymchenko, Andrey S; Duportail, Guy; Mély, Yves; Pivovarenko, Vasyl G


    A representative of a new class of dyes with dual fluorescence due to an excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) reaction, namely 1-methyl-2-(4-methoxy)phenyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone (QMOM), has been studied in a series of solvents covering a large range of polarity and basicity. A linear dependence of the logarithm of its two bands intensity ratio, log(I(N*)/I(T*)), upon the solvent polarity expressed as a function of the dielectric constant, (epsilon- 1)/(2epsilon + 1), is observed for a series of protic solvents. A linear dependence for log(I(N*)/I(T*)) is also found in aprotic solvents after taking into account the solvent basicity. In contrast, the positions of the absorption and the two emission bands of QMOM do not noticeably depend on the solvent polarity and basicity, indicating relatively small changes in the transition moment of QMOM upon excitation and emission. Time-resolved experiments in acetonitrile, ethyl acetate and dimethylformamide suggest an irreversible ESIPT reaction for this dye. According to the time-resolved data, an increase of solvent basicity results in a dramatic decrease of the ESIPT rate constant, probably due to the disruption of the intramolecular H-bond of the dye by the basic solvent. Due to this new sensor property, 3-hydroxyquinolones are promising candidates for the development of a new generation of environment-sensitive fluorescence dyes for probing interactions of biomolecules.

  4. Morphological transition of the host-structure influences solvent-relaxation: A wavelength-selective fluorescence exploration through environment-sensitive intramolecular charge transfer photophysics (United States)

    Paul, Bijan Kumar; Guchhait, Nikhil


    Here, we report the modulation of photo-induced intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) photophysics of N,N-dimethylaminonaphthyl-acrylo-nitrile (DMANAN) associated with sphere-to-rod structural transition of SDS micelles induced by increasing ionic strength of the medium. Emphasis is rendered on the exploration of solvent-relaxation associated with this transition on the basis of wavelength-selective fluorescence technique which includes monitoring of red-edge excitation shift (REES) and excitation/emission anisotropy profiles. Based on micropolarity determination and organization of solvent water around the probe microenvironment we argue that the present results advocate for rod-shaped micelles to be a better mimic for membrane bilayers than spherical micelles.

  5. Geometrical criteria versus quantum chemical criteria for assessment of intramolecular hydrogen bond (IMHB) interaction: A computational comparison into the effect of chlorine substitution on IMHB of salicylic acid in its lowest energy ground state conformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Bijan Kumar; Guchhait, Nikhil


    Highlights: ► Intramolecular hydrogen bonding (IMHB) in salicylic acid and its chloro derivatives. ► A complex effect of +R and −I effect of chlorine substituents on IMHB energy. ► Interplay between IMHB energy and aromaticity. ► Directional nature of IMHB from quantum chemical assessment. ► Quantum chemical treatment vs. geometrical criteria to assess weak interaction. - Abstract: Density functional theory based computational study has been performed to characterize intramolecular hydrogen bonding (IMHB) interaction in a series of salicylic acid derivatives varying in chlorine substitution on the benzene ring. The molecular systems studied are salicylic acid, 5-chlorosalicylic acid, 3,5-dichlorosalicylic acid and 3,5,6-tricholorosalicylic acid. Major emphasis is rendered on the analysis of IMHB interaction by calculation of electron density ρ(r) and Laplacian ∇ 2 ρ(r) at the bond critical point using atoms-in-molecule theory. Topological features, energy densities based on ρ(r) through perturbing the intramolecular H-bond distances suggest that at equilibrium geometry the IMHB interaction develops certain characteristics typical of covalent interaction. The interplay between aromaticity and resonance-assisted hydrogen bonding (RAHB) is discussed using both geometrical and magnetic criteria as the descriptors of aromaticity. The optimized geometry features, molecular electrostatic potential map analysis are also found to produce a consensus view in relation with the formation of RAHB in these systems

  6. Thorium and uranium redox-active ligand complexes; reversible intramolecular electron transfer in U(dpp-BIAN)2/ U(dpp-BIAN)2(THE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schelter, Eric John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Wu, Ruilian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scott, Brian L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, Joe D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batista, Enrique R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morris, David E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kiplinger, Jaqueline L [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Actinide complexes of the redox-active ligand dpp-BIAN{sup 2-} (dpp-BIAN = bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)acenaphthylene), An(dpp-BIAN){sub 2}(THF){sub n} (An = Th, n = 1; An = U, n = 0, 1) have been prepared. Solid-state magnetic and single-crystal X-ray data for U(dpp-BIAN){sub 2}(THF){sub n} show when n = 0, the complex exists in an f{sup 2}-{pi}*{sup 4} configuration; whereas an intramolecular electron transfer occurs for n = 1, resulting in an f{sup 3}-{pi}*{sup 3} ground configuration. The magnetic data also indicate that interconversion between the two forms of the complex is possible, limited only by the ability of THF vapor to penetrate the solid on cooling of the sample. Spectroscopic data indicate the complex exists solely in the f{sup 2}-{pi}*{sup 4} form in solution, evidenced by the appearance of only small changes in the electronic absorption spectra of the U(dpp-BIAN){sub 2} complex on titration with THF and by measurement of the solution magnetic moment m d{sub 8}-tetrahydrofuran using Evans method. Electrochemistry of the complexes is reported, with small differences observed in wave potentials between metals and in the presence of THF. These data represent the first example of a well-defined, reversible intramolecular electron transfer in an f-element complex and the second example of oxidation state change through dative interaction with a metal ion.

  7. Direct Observation of a Photochemical Alkyne-Allene Reaction and of a Twisted and Rehybridized Intramolecular Charge-Transfer State in a Donor-Acceptor Dyad. (United States)

    Dereka, Bogdan; Svechkarev, Denis; Rosspeintner, Arnulf; Tromayer, Maximilian; Liska, Robert; Mohs, Aaron M; Vauthey, Eric


    The excited-state dynamics of an aniline-triazine electron donor-acceptor dyad with an alkyne spacer has been investigated using a combination of ultrafast broadband mid-IR and visible transient absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. The transient IR data reveal the occurrence of an efficient alkyne to allene isomerization of the spacer with a time constant increasing from a few hundreds of femtoseconds to a few picoseconds with solvent viscosity. This process is faster than the vibrational cooling of the Franck-Condon excited state, indicative of nonequilibrium dynamics. The transient electronic absorption and fluorescence data evidence that this transformation is accompanied by a charge separation between the donor and the acceptor subunits. The allene character of the spacer implies an orthogonal orientation of the donor and acceptor moieties, similar to that proposed for twisted intramolecular charge-transfer states. Such states are often invoked in the excited-state dynamics of donor-acceptor dyads, but their involvement could never be unambiguously evidenced spectroscopically. The alkyne-allene isomerization involves not only a torsional motion but also a bending of the molecule due to the sp to sp 2 rehybridization of one of the alkyne carbon atoms. This twisted and rehybridized intramolecular charge transfer ("TRICT") state decays back to the planar and linear alkyne ground state on a time scale decreasing from a few hundred to ten picoseconds upon going from weakly to highly polar solvents. The different solvent dependencies reveal that the dynamics of the allene buildup are controlled by the structural changes, whereas the decay is limited by the charge recombination step.

  8. Non-typical fluorescence studies of excited and ground state proton and hydrogen transfer

    KAUST Repository

    Gil, Michał


    Fluorescence studies of tautomerization have been carried out for various systems that exhibit single and double proton or hydrogen translocation in various environments, such as liquid and solid condensed phases, ultracold supersonic jets, and finally, polymer matrices with single emitters.We focus on less explored areas of application of fluorescence for tautomerization studies, using porphycene, a porphyrin isomer, as an example. Fluorescence anisotropy techniques allow investigations of self-exchange reactions, where the reactant and product are formally identical. Excitation with polarized light makes it possible to monitor tautomerization in single molecules and to detect their three-dimensional orientation. Analysis of fluorescence from single vibronic levels of jet-isolated porphycene not only demonstrates coherent tunneling of two internal protons, but also indicates that the process is vibrational mode-specific. Next, we present bifunctional proton donoracceptor systems, molecules that are able, depending on the environment, to undergo excited state single intramolecular or double intermolecular proton transfer. For molecules that have donor and acceptor groups located in separate moieties linked by a single bond, excited state tautomerization can be coupled to mutual twisting of the two subunits.

  9. Pulse radiolysis studies of intramolecular electron transfer in model peptides and proteins. 7. Trp -> TyrO radical transformation in hen egg-white lysozyme. Effects of pH, temperature, Trp62 oxidation and inhibitor binding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bobrowski, K.; Holcman, J.; Poznanski, J.


    Intramolecular long-range electron transfer (LRET) in hen egg-white lysozyme (HEWL) accompanying Trp --> TyrO radical transformation was investigated in aqueous solution by pulse radiolysis as a function of pH (5.2-7.4) and temperature (283-328K). The reaction was induced by highly selective...

  10. Intramolecular competition between n-pair and π-pair hydrogen bonding: Microwave spectrum and internal dynamics of the pyridine–acetylene hydrogen-bonded complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackenzie, Rebecca B.; Dewberry, Christopher T.; Leopold, Kenneth R.; Coulston, Emma; Cole, George C.; Legon, Anthony C.; Tew, David P.


    a-type rotational spectra of the hydrogen-bonded complex formed from pyridine and acetylene are reported. Rotational and 14 N hyperfine constants indicate that the complex is planar with an acetylenic hydrogen directed toward the nitrogen. However, unlike the complexes of pyridine with HCl and HBr, the acetylene moiety in HCCH—NC 5 H 5 does not lie along the symmetry axis of the nitrogen lone pair, but rather, forms an average angle of 46° with the C 2 axis of the pyridine. The a-type spectra of HCCH—NC 5 H 5 and DCCD—NC 5 H 5 are doubled, suggesting the existence of a low lying pair of tunneling states. This doubling persists in the spectra of HCCD—NC 5 H 5 , DCCH—NC 5 H 5 , indicating that the underlying motion does not involve interchange of the two hydrogens of the acetylene. Single 13 C substitution in either the ortho- or meta-position of the pyridine eliminates the doubling and gives rise to separate sets of spectra that are well predicted by a bent geometry with the 13 C on either the same side (“inner”) or the opposite side (“outer”) as the acetylene. High level ab initio calculations are presented which indicate a binding energy of 1.2 kcal/mol and a potential energy barrier of 44 cm −1 in the C 2v configuration. Taken together, these results reveal a complex with a bent hydrogen bond and large amplitude rocking of the acetylene moiety. It is likely that the bent equilibrium structure arises from a competition between a weak hydrogen bond to the nitrogen (an n-pair hydrogen bond) and a secondary interaction between the ortho-hydrogens of the pyridine and the π electron density of the acetylene

  11. Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Asymmetric Hydrogenation and Transfer Hydrogenation: Sustainable Chemistry to Access Bioactive Molecules. (United States)

    Ayad, Tahar; Phansavath, Phannarath; Ratovelomanana-Vidal, Virginie


    Over the last few decades, the development of new and highly efficient synthetic methods to obtain chiral compounds has become an increasingly important and challenging research area in modern synthetic organic chemistry. In this account, we review recent work from our laboratory toward the synthesis of valuable chiral building blocks through transition-metal-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation and transfer hydrogenation of C=O, C=N and C=C bonds. Application to the synthesis of biologically relevant products is also described. © 2016 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Unique photophysical behavior of 2,2'-bipyridine-3,3'-diol in DMSO-water binary mixtures: potential application for fluorescence sensing of Zn2+ based on the inhibition of excited-state intramolecular double proton transfer. (United States)

    Mandal, Sarthak; Ghosh, Surajit; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Kuchlyan, Jagannath; Sarkar, Nilmoni


    In this work we have investigated the anomalous behavior of DMSO-water binary mixtures using 2,2'-bipyridine-3,3'-diol (BP(OH)2) as a microenvironment-sensitive excited-state-intramolecular-double-proton-transfer (ESIDPT) probe. Here we present results on the UV-vis absorption and fluorescence properties of BP(OH)2 in the binary solutions. DMSO-water binary mixtures at various compositions are an intriguing hydrogen bonded system, where DMSO acts to diminish the hydrogen bonding ability of water with the dissolved solutes. As a result, we observe unusual changes in the photophysical properties of BP(OH)2 with increasing DMSO content in complete correlation with the prior simulation and experimental results on the solvent structures and dynamics. The fluorescence quantum yield and fluorescence lifetime of BP(OH)2 depend strongly on the DMSO content and become maximum at very low mole fraction (∼0.12) of DMSO. The anomalous behavior at this particular region likely arises from the enhanced pair hydrophobicity of the medium as demonstrated by Bagchi and co-workers (Banerjee, S.; Roy, S.; Bagchi, B. J. Phys. Chem. B 2010, 114, 12875-12882). In addition we have also shown the utilization of BP(OH)2 as a potential Zn(2+)-selective fluorescent sensor in a 1:1 DMSO-water binary mixture useful for biological applications. We observed highly enhanced fluorescence emission of BP(OH)2 selectively for binding with the Zn(2+) metal ion. Moreover, the fluorescence emission maximum of BP(OH)2-Zn(2+) is significantly blue-shifted with a reduced Stokes shift due to the inhibition of the ESIDPT process of BP(OH)2 through strong coordination.

  13. Intramolecular competition between n-pair and π-pair hydrogen bonding: Microwave spectrum and internal dynamics of the pyridine–acetylene hydrogen-bonded complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackenzie, Rebecca B.; Dewberry, Christopher T.; Leopold, Kenneth R., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of Minnesota, 207 Pleasant St., SE, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Coulston, Emma; Cole, George C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Exeter, Stocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QD (United Kingdom); Legon, Anthony C., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:; Tew, David P., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantock’s Close, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom)


    a-type rotational spectra of the hydrogen-bonded complex formed from pyridine and acetylene are reported. Rotational and {sup 14}N hyperfine constants indicate that the complex is planar with an acetylenic hydrogen directed toward the nitrogen. However, unlike the complexes of pyridine with HCl and HBr, the acetylene moiety in HCCH—NC{sub 5}H{sub 5} does not lie along the symmetry axis of the nitrogen lone pair, but rather, forms an average angle of 46° with the C{sub 2} axis of the pyridine. The a-type spectra of HCCH—NC{sub 5}H{sub 5} and DCCD—NC{sub 5}H{sub 5} are doubled, suggesting the existence of a low lying pair of tunneling states. This doubling persists in the spectra of HCCD—NC{sub 5}H{sub 5}, DCCH—NC{sub 5}H{sub 5}, indicating that the underlying motion does not involve interchange of the two hydrogens of the acetylene. Single {sup 13}C substitution in either the ortho- or meta-position of the pyridine eliminates the doubling and gives rise to separate sets of spectra that are well predicted by a bent geometry with the {sup 13}C on either the same side (“inner”) or the opposite side (“outer”) as the acetylene. High level ab initio calculations are presented which indicate a binding energy of 1.2 kcal/mol and a potential energy barrier of 44 cm{sup −1} in the C{sub 2v} configuration. Taken together, these results reveal a complex with a bent hydrogen bond and large amplitude rocking of the acetylene moiety. It is likely that the bent equilibrium structure arises from a competition between a weak hydrogen bond to the nitrogen (an n-pair hydrogen bond) and a secondary interaction between the ortho-hydrogens of the pyridine and the π electron density of the acetylene.

  14. Solvent-dependent excited-state hydrogen transfer and intersystem crossing in 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl)-benzothiazole

    KAUST Repository

    Aly, Shawkat Mohammede


    The excited-state intramolecular hydrogen transfer (ESIHT) of 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl) benzothiazole (HBT) has been investigated in a series of nonpolar, polar aprotic, and polar protic solvents. A variety of state-of-the-art experimental methods were employed, including femto- and nanosecond transient absorption and fluorescence upconversion spectroscopy with broadband capabilities. We show that the dynamics and mechanism of ESIHT of the singlet excited HBT are strongly solvent-dependent. In nonpolar solvents, the data demonstrate that HBT molecules adopt a closed form stabilized by O-H⋯N chelated hydrogen bonds with no twisting angle, and the photoinduced H transfer occurs within 120 fs, leading to the formation of a keto tautomer. In polar solvents, owing to dipole-dipole cross talk and hydrogen bonding interactions, the H transfer process is followed by ultrafast nonradiative deactivation channels, including ultrafast internal conversion (IC) and intersystem crossing (ISC). This is likely to be driven by the twisting motion around the C-C bond between the hydroxyphenyl and thiazole moieties, facilitating the IC back to the enol ground state or to the keto triplet state. In addition, our femtosecond time-resolved fluorescence experiments indicate, for the first time, that the lifetime of the enol form in ACN is approximately 280 fs. This observation indicates that the solvent plays a crucial role in breaking the H bond and deactivating the excited state of the HBT. Interestingly, the broadband transient absorption and fluorescence up-conversion data clearly demonstrate that the intermolecular proton transfer from the excited HBT to the DMSO solvent is about 190 fs, forming the HBT anion excited state.

  15. Do resonance-assisted intramolecular halogen bonds exist without a charge transfer and a sigma-hole?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pandiyan, B. V.; Deepa, Palanisamy; Kolandaivel, P.


    Roč. 17, č. 41 (2015), s. 27496-27508 ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : ab initio * hydrogen bonds * noncovalent interactions Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.449, year: 2015

  16. Charge transfer in proton-hydrogen collisions under Debye plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, Arka [Department of Mathematics, Burdwan University, Golapbag, Burdwan 713 104, West Bengal (India); Kamali, M. Z. M. [Centre for Foundation Studies in Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ghoshal, Arijit, E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, Burdwan University, Golapbag, Burdwan 713 104, West Bengal (India); Department of Mathematics, Kazi Nazrul University, B.C.W. Campus, Asansol 713 304, West Bengal (India); Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ratnavelu, K. [Department of Mathematics, Kazi Nazrul University, B.C.W. Campus, Asansol 713 304, West Bengal (India)


    The effect of plasma environment on the 1s → nlm charge transfer, for arbitrary n, l, and m, in proton-hydrogen collisions has been investigated within the framework of a distorted wave approximation. The effect of external plasma has been incorporated using Debye screening model of the interacting charge particles. Making use of a simple variationally determined hydrogenic wave function, it has been possible to obtain the scattering amplitude in closed form. A detailed study has been made to investigate the effect of external plasma environment on the differential and total cross sections for electron capture into different angular momentum states for the incident energy in the range of 20–1000 keV. For the unscreened case, our results are in close agreement with some of the most accurate results available in the literature.

  17. Fluorescent Chemosensors with Varying Degrees of Intramolecular Charge Transfer for Detection of a Nerve Agent Mimic in Solutions and in Vapor. (United States)

    Cai, Yuan-Chao; Li, Chen; Song, Qin-Hua


    Nerve agents are highly toxic organophosphorus compounds, and their possible use in terrorist attacks has led to increasing interest in the development of reliable and accurate methods to detect these lethal chemicals. In this paper, we have prepared six 6-aminoquinolines with various N-substituents as chemosensors for a nerve-agent mimic diethylchlorophosphate (DCP). The chemosensors with the nucleophilic pyridine-N atom as the active site detect DCP via a catalytic hydrolysis approach to form the protonated sensor. The nucleophilicity of the pyridine-N atom depends on the donating ability of the 6-amine group, which affects the intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) character of sensors and the protonated sensors, leading to different fluorescence-response modes. The effects of the ICT character on the sensing property have been clarified. Among these charge transfer sensors, the sensor 3 displays ratiometric fluorescence response to DCP and a low limit of detection (8 nM). Furthermore, a facile testing strip with 3 has been fabricated with poly(ethylene oxide) for real-time selective monitoring of DCP vapor.

  18. Visualizing the non-equilibrium dynamics of photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer with femtosecond X-ray pulses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canton, Sophie E.; Kjær, Kasper S.; Vankó, György


    Ultrafast photoinduced electron transfer preceding energy equilibration still poses many experimental and conceptual challenges to the optimization of photoconversion since an atomic-scale description has so far been beyond reach. Here we combine femtosecond transient optical absorption spectrosc...

  19. Recent Developments in the Area of Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Walsgrove


    Full Text Available The use of an enantiomerically pure amino alcohol, coupled to a transfer hydrogenation process, in the asymmetric catalysis of the reduction of ketones to alcohols, is described. The process works well for unfunctionalised ketones, affording e.e.s of up to 98%, and excellent conversions. We have recently extended, for the first time in this application, the scope of the methodology to the reductions of a-heteroatom substituted substrates, through the use of the appropriate protecting groups on each atom.

  20. Theoretical studies of π-electron delocalization and localization on intramolecular proton transfer in the ground state (United States)

    Peng, Hongliang; Huang, Pengru; Yi, Pinggui; Xu, Fen; Sun, Lixian


    Proton transfer processes of 15 benzimidazole compounds are studied by density functional theory methods, and natural orbital energy index (NOEI) is introduced. Here, NOEI and nucleus independent chemical shift (NICS) are applied to estimate the π-electron localization and delocalization, respectively. Proton transfer potential energy surfaces are calculated to explore these processes, and the results show that the changes of the π-electron delocalization of the phenyl (pyridyl) is the main factors for the stability of keto form. There is high correlation between the π-electron delocalization and the proton transfer barrier. When the π-electron localization is considered, the regression increases the correlation coefficient, increasing from 0.9663 to 0.9864. NOEI index is sensitive to π-electron localization; it is a beneficial and useful complement to NICS.

  1. Highly enantioselective hydrogenation of N-aryl imines derived from acetophenones by using Ru-pybox complexes under hydrogenation or transfer hydrogenation conditions in isopropanol. (United States)

    Menéndez-Pedregal, Estefanía; Vaquero, Mónica; Lastra, Elena; Gamasa, Pilar; Pizzano, Antonio


    The asymmetric reduction of N-aryl imines derived from acetophenones by using Ru complexes bearing both a pybox (2,6-bis(oxazoline)pyridine) and a monodentate phosphite ligand has been described. The catalysts show good activity with a diverse range of substrates, and deliver the amine products in very high levels of enantioselectivity (up to 99 %) under both hydrogenation and transfer hydrogenation conditions in isopropanol. From deuteration studies, a very different labeling is observed under hydrogenation and transfer hydrogenation conditions, which demonstrates the different nature of the hydrogen source in both reactions. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Failures of TDDFT in describing the lowest intramolecular charge-transfer excitation in para-nitroaniline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Janus J.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Mikkelsen, Kurt Valentin


    We investigate the failure of Time{Dependent Density Functional Theory (TDDFT) with the CAM{B3LYP exchange{correlation (xc) functional coupled to the Polarizable Embedding (PE) scheme (PE-CAM-B3LYP) in reproducing the solvatochromic shift of the lowest intense charge{transfer excitation in para{n...

  3. An intramolecular charge transfer state of carbonyl carotenoids: implications for excited state dynamics of apo-carotenals and retinal

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polívka, Tomáš; Kaligotla, S.; Chábera, P.; Frank, H.A.


    Roč. 13, č. 22 (2011), s. 1463-9076 ISSN 1463-9076 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : carotenoid * retinal * excited-state dynamics * charge-transfer state Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 3.573, year: 2011

  4. Competing intramolecular N-H⋯O=C hydrogen bonds and extended intermolecular network in 1-(4-chlorobenzoyl)-3-(2-methyl-4-oxopentan-2-yl) thiourea analyzed by experimental and theoretical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeed, Aamer, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Khurshid, Asma [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Jasinski, Jerry P. [Department of Chemistry, Keene State College, 229 Main Street Keene, NH 03435-2001 (United States); Pozzi, C. Gustavo; Fantoni, Adolfo C. [Instituto de Física La Plata, Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, 49 y 115, La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Erben, Mauricio F., E-mail: [CEQUINOR (UNLP, CONICET-CCT La Plata), Departamento de Química, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 962, (1900) La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    Highlights: • Two distinct N-H⋯O=C intramolecular competing hydrogen bonds are feasible in the title molecule. • Crystal structures and vibrational properties were determined. • The C=O and C=S double bonds of the acyl-thiourea group are mutually oriented in opposite directions. • A strong hyperconjugative lpO1 → σ{sup ∗}(N2-H) remote interaction was detected. • Topological analysis reveals a Cl⋯N interaction playing a relevant role in crystal packing. - Abstract: The synthesis of a novel 1-acyl-thiourea species (C{sub 14}H{sub 17}N{sub 2}O{sub 2}SCl), has been tailored in such a way that two distinct N-H⋯O=C intramolecular competing hydrogen bonds are feasible. The X-ray structure analysis as well as the vibrational (FT-IR and FT-Raman) data reveal that the S conformation is preferred, with the C=O and C=S bonds of the acyl-thiourea group pointing in opposite directions. The preference for the intramolecular N-H⋯O=C hydrogen bond within the -C(O)NHC(S)NH- core is confirmed. The Natural Bond Orbital and the Atom in Molecule approaches demonstrate that a strong hyperconjugative lpO → σ{sup ∗}(N-H) remote interaction between the acyl and the thioamide N-H groups is responsible for the stabilization of the S conformation. Intermolecular interactions have been characterized in the periodic system electron density and the topological analysis reveals the presence of an extended intermolecular network in the crystal, including a Cl⋯N interaction playing a relevant role in crystal packing.

  5. Excited-state inter- and intramolecular proton transfer in methyl 3-hydroxy-2-quinoxalinate: effects of solvent and acid or base concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogra, S.K.


    Absorption, fluorescence excitation and fluorescence spectroscopy, combined with time-dependent spectroscopy and semi-empirical (AM1) and density functional theory using Gaussian 98 program calculations have been used to study the effects of solvent and acid or base concentration on the spectral characteristics of methyl 3-hydroxy-2-quinoxalinate (M3HQ). M3HQ is present as enol in less polar solvents and as keto in polar media. In non-polar solvents, large Stokes shifted fluorescence band is assigned to the phototautomer, formed by the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer, whereas fluorescence is only observed from keto in the polar solvents. In aqueous and polar solvents the monocation (MC5/MC6) is formed by protonating the carbonyl oxygen atom in the ground (S 0 ) and the first excited singlet states (S 1 ). Dication is formed by protonating one of ?N- atom of MC5/MC6. Monoanion is formed by deprotonating the phenolic proton of enol in the basic solution. pK a values for different prototropic equilibriums were determined in S 0 and S 1 states and discussed

  6. External Electric Field Effects on Excited-State Intramolecular Proton Transfer in 4'-N,N-Dimethylamino-3-hydroxyflavone in Poly(methyl methacrylate) Films. (United States)

    Furukawa, Kazuki; Hino, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Norifumi; Awasthi, Kamlesh; Nakabayashi, Takakazu; Ohta, Nobuhiro; Sekiya, Hiroshi


    The external electric field effects on the steady-state electronic spectra and excited-state dynamics were investigated for 4'-N,N-(dimethylamino)-3-hydroxyflavone (DMHF) in a poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) film. In the steady-state spectrum, dual emission was observed from the excited states of the normal (N*) and tautomer (T*) forms. Application of an external electric field of 1.0 MV·cm(-1) enhanced the N* emission and reduced the T* emission, indicating that the external electric field suppressed the excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT). The fluorescence decay profiles were measured for the N* and T* forms. The change in the emission intensity ratio N*/T* induced by the external electric field is dominated by ESIPT from the Franck-Condon excited state of the N* form and vibrational cooling in potential wells of the N* and T* forms occurring within tens of picoseconds. Three manifolds of fluorescent states were identified for both the N* and T* forms. The excited-state dynamics of DMHF in PMMA films has been found to be very different from that in solution due to intermolecular interactions in a rigid environment.

  7. A comprehensive spectroscopic and computational investigation of intramolecular proton transfer in the excited states of 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyl) benzoxazole and its derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Padalkar, Vikas S. [Tinctorial Chemistry Group, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400019 (India); Ramasami, Ponnadurai, E-mail: [Computational Chemistry Group, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Réduit (Mauritius); Sekar, Nagaiyan, E-mail: [Tinctorial Chemistry Group, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400019 (India)


    The excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) fluorescence of the 2-(2′ hydroxyphenyl) benzoxazole (HBO) and its derivatives with NO{sub 2} as electron acceptor and NH{sub 2} as electron donor at the 4 and 5 position of benzoxazole ring was studied by spectroscopic and computational methods. The changes in the electronic transition, energy levels, and orbital diagrams of the HBO derivatives were investigated using the DFT computations and they were correlated with the experimental spectral emission. The benzoxazole derivatives are fluorescent under UV-light in solution. Photophysical properties of the compounds were also studied in solvents of different polarities. Experimental absorption and emission wavelengths are in agreement with those computed with a deviation ranging between 0 and 50%. The computational methods have been useful for molecular understanding of the transitions responsible for the fluorescent spectra. -- Highlights: • Experimental photophysical properties of 2-substituted benzoxazoles in different solvents have been studied and compared with the computational data. • Compounds show dual emission due to ESIPT process and was supported by DFT and TD-DFT computations. • Experimental results and computational results are in good agreements.

  8. CNN pincer ruthenium catalysts for hydrogenation and transfer hydrogenation of ketones: experimental and computational studies. (United States)

    Baratta, Walter; Baldino, Salvatore; Calhorda, Maria José; Costa, Paulo J; Esposito, Gennaro; Herdtweck, Eberhardt; Magnolia, Santo; Mealli, Carlo; Messaoudi, Abdelatif; Mason, Sax A; Veiros, Luis F


    Reaction of [RuCl(CNN)(dppb)] (1-Cl) (HCNN=2-aminomethyl-6-(4-methylphenyl)pyridine; dppb=Ph2 P(CH2 )4 PPh2 ) with NaOCH2 CF3 leads to the amine-alkoxide [Ru(CNN)(OCH2 CF3 )(dppb)] (1-OCH2 CF3 ), whose neutron diffraction study reveals a short RuO⋅⋅⋅HN bond length. Treatment of 1-Cl with NaOEt and EtOH affords the alkoxide [Ru(CNN)(OEt)(dppb)]⋅(EtOH)n (1-OEt⋅n EtOH), which equilibrates with the hydride [RuH(CNN)(dppb)] (1-H) and acetaldehyde. Compound 1-OEt⋅n EtOH reacts reversibly with H2 leading to 1-H and EtOH through dihydrogen splitting. NMR spectroscopic studies on 1-OEt⋅n EtOH and 1-H reveal hydrogen bond interactions and exchange processes. The chloride 1-Cl catalyzes the hydrogenation (5 atm of H2 ) of ketones to alcohols (turnover frequency (TOF) up to 6.5×10(4) h(-1) , 40 °C). DFT calculations were performed on the reaction of [RuH(CNN')(dmpb)] (2-H) (HCNN'=2-aminomethyl-6-(phenyl)pyridine; dmpb=Me2 P(CH2 )4 PMe2 ) with acetone and with one molecule of 2-propanol, in alcohol, with the alkoxide complex being the most stable species. In the first step, the Ru-hydride transfers one hydrogen atom to the carbon of the ketone, whereas the second hydrogen transfer from NH2 is mediated by the alcohol and leads to the key "amide" intermediate. Regeneration of the hydride complex may occur by reaction with 2-propanol or with H2 ; both pathways have low barriers and are alcohol assisted. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Application of transient infrared spectroscopy to intramolecular energy transfer in [(phen) (CO)[sub 3]Re[sup I](NC) Ru[sup II](CN) (bpy)[sub 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoonover, J.R.; Myer, T.J. (Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States)); Gordon, K.C.; Woodruff, W.H.; Peterson, K.A.; Dyer, R.B. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Argazzi, R.; Bignozzi, C.A. (Universita di Ferrara (Italy))


    Significant advances have been made in the design and characterization of molecular assemblies, which, when photolyzed, undergo intramolecular electron or energy transfer. Time-resolved resonance Raman spectroscopy has been successfully applied to the study of excited states and molecular assemblies, but time-resolved infrared spectroscopy is particularly well-suited for complexes containing ligands such as CO or CN. Unlike the transient Raman experiment, infrared spectroscopy does not rely on resonance enhancement in the excited state since the metal-CO and -CN stretching vibrations have high oscillator strengths, providing high sensitivity. We describe here a novel application of the technique to the elucidation of intramolecular energy transfer in the ligand-bridged complex [(phen)(CO)[sub 3]Re[sup I](NC) Ru[sup II](CN) (bpy)[sub 2

  10. Twisted intra-molecular charge transfer investigations of semiorganic triglycine phosphate single crystal for non linear optical applications (United States)

    Meera, M. R.; Joselin Beaula, T.; Rayar, S. L.; Bena Jothy, V.


    NLO materials are gaining importance in technologies such as optical communication, optical computing and dynamic image processing. Many NLO crystals grown by mixing amino acids with various organic and inorganic acids have been reported in the literature. Hence, glycine mixed semi-organic material will be of special interest as a fundamental building block to develop many complex crystals with improved NLO properties. A semi organic Single crystal of Triglycine Phosphate (TGP) which was grown and spectral analysis have been using FTIR and Raman spectral analysis. Natural Bond Orbital Analysis and the atomic natural charges are also predicted. HOMO LUMO energy gap value suggests the possibility of charge transfer within the molecule.

  11. Two states are not enough: quantitative evaluation of the valence-bond intramolecular charge-transfer model and its use in predicting bond length alternation effects. (United States)

    Jarowski, Peter D; Mo, Yirong


    The structural weights of the canonical resonance contributors used in the Two-state valence-bond charge-transfer model, neutral (N, R1) and ionic (VB-CT, R2), to the ground states and excited states of a series of linear dipolar intramolecular charge-transfer chromophores containing a buta-1,3-dien-1,4-diyl bridge have been computed by using the block-localized wavefunction (BLW) method at the B3LYP/6-311+G(d) level to provide the first quantitative assessment of this simple model. Ground- and excited-state analysis reveals surprisingly low ground-state structural weights for the VB-CT resonance form using either this Two-state model or an expanded Ten-state model. The VB-CT state is found to be more prominent in the excited state. Individual resonance forms were structurally optimized to understand the origins of the bond length alternation (BLA) of the bridging unit. Using a Wheland energy-based weighting scheme, the weighted average of the optimized bond lengths with the Two-state model was unable to reproduce the BLA features with values 0.04 to 0.02 Å too large compared to the fully delocalized (FD) structure (BLW: ca. -0.13 to -0.07 Å, FD: ca. -0.09 to -0.05 Å). Instead, an expanded Ten-state model fit the BLA values of the FD structure to within only 0.001 Å of FD. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Ruthenium supported on magnetic nanoparticles: An efficient and recoverable catalyst for hydrogenation of alkynes and transfer hydrogenation of carbonyl compounds (United States)

    Ruthenium supported on surface modified magnetic nanoparticles (NiFe2O4) has been successfully synthesized and applied for hydrogenation of alkynes at room temperature as well as transfer hydrogenation of a number of carbonyl compounds under microwave irradiation conditions. The ...

  13. The Enhanced Intramolecular Energy Transfer and Strengthened ff Luminescence of a Stable Helical Eu Complex in Ionic Liquids. (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yuki; Ishii, Ayumi; Inazuka, Yudai; Yajima, Naho; Kawaguchi, Shogo; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Hasegawa, Miki


    The luminescence of a Eu complex (EuL) is enhanced by stabilization of the coordination structure in highly viscous ionic liquids. The EuL was found to maintain a stable single helical structure both in organic solvents and in the ionic liquids [BMIM][PF₆] and [EMIM][PF₆]. A colorless solution of EuL dissolved in [BMIM][PF₆] exhibits bright red luminescence with a quantum yield of 32.3%, a value that is much higher than that in acetonitrile (12%). Estimated rate constants for the energy relaxation pathway indicate that the energy transfer efficiency is enhanced in [BMIM][PF₆] as a result of the suppression of molecular fluctuations in the ligands. Additionally, a highly luminescent helical structure is preserved in [EMIM][PF₆] up to 120 °C.

  14. Dendritic multiporphyrin arrays as light-harvesting antennae: effects of generation number and morphology on intramolecular energy transfer. (United States)

    Choi, Myung-Seok; Aida, Takuzo; Yamazaki, Tomoko; Yamazaki, Iwao


    A series of star- and cone-shaped dendritic multiporphyrin arrays, (nPZn)4PFB and (nPZn)1PFB, respectively, that contain energy-donating dendritic zinc porphyrin (PZn) wedges of different numbers (n = 1, 3, and 7) of the PZn units, attached to an energy-accepting free-base porphyrin (PFB) core, were synthesized by a convergent growth approach. For the cone-shaped series ((nPZn)1PFB), the efficiency of energy transfer (phi ENT) from the photoexcited PZn units to the focal PFB core, as evaluated from the fluorescence lifetimes of the PZn units, considerably decreased as the generation number increased: (1PZn)1PFB (86%), (3PZn)1PFB (66%), and (7PZn)1PFB (19%). In sharp contrast, the star-shaped series ((nPZn)4PFB) all showed high phi ENT values: (1PZn)4PFB (87%), (3PZn)4PFB (80%), and (7PZn)4PFB (71%). Energy transfer efficiencies of (3PZn)4-ester-PFB, (1PZn)4-ester-PFB, and (3PZn)1-ester-PFB, whose dendritic PZn wedges are connected by an ester linkage to the PFB core, were almost comparable to those of the corresponding ether-linked versions. Fluorescence depolarization (P) studies showed much lower P values for star-shaped (7PZn)4PFB and (3PZn)4PFB than cone-shaped (7PZn)1PFB and (3PZn)1PFB, respectively, indicating a highly efficient energy migration among the PZn units in the star-shaped series. Such a morphology-assisted photochemical event is probably responsible for the excellent light-harvesting activity of large (7PZn)4PFB molecules.

  15. Intramolecular Association within the SAFT Framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Ane Søgaard; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Chapman, Walter G.


    the contribution to the Helmholtz free energy from association (inter- as well as intramolecularly) at equilibrium. Sear and Jackson rederived the contribution to the Helmholtz free energy from association from the theory by Wertheim [J. Stat. Phys. 42 (3–4), 459 (1986)] with inclusion of intramolecular...... association, and using this approach we obtain an expression for the Helmholtz free energy that is valid also at non-equilibrium states (with respect to hydrogen bonds), which is very useful when calculating derivatives.......A general theory for modelling intramolecular association within the SAFT framework is proposed. Sear and Jackson [Phys. Rev. E. 50 (1), 386 (1994)] and Ghonasgi and Chapman [J. Chem. Phys. 102 (6), 2585 (1995)] have previously extended SAFT to include intramolecular association for chains with two...

  16. Extensive reduction in back electron transfer in twisted intramolecular charge-transfer (TICT) coumarin-dye-sensitized TiO(2) nanoparticles/film: a femtosecond transient absorption study. (United States)

    Debnath, Tushar; Maity, Partha; Lobo, Hyacintha; Singh, Balvant; Shankarling, Ganapati S; Ghosh, Hirendra N


    We report the synthesis, characterization, and optical and electrochemical properties of two structurally similar coumarin dyes (C1 and C2). These dyes have been deployed as sensitizers in TiO2 nanoparticles and thin films, and the effect of molecular structure on interfacial electron-transfer dynamics has been studied. Steady-state optical absorption, emission, and time-resolved emission studies on both C1 and C2, varying the polarity of the solvent and the solution pH, suggest that both photoexcited dyes exist in a locally excited (LE) state in solvents of low polarity. In highly polar solvents, however, C1 exists in an intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) state, whereas C2 exists in both ICT and twisted intramolecular charge-transfer (TICT) states, their populations depending on the degree of polarity of the solvent and the pH of the solution. We have employed femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy to monitor the charge-transfer dynamics in C1- and C2-sensitized TiO2 nanoparticles and thin films. Electron injection has been confirmed by direct detection of electrons in the conduction band of TiO2 nanoparticles and of radical cations of the dyes in the visible and near-IR regions of the transient absorption spectra. Electron injection in both the C1/TiO2 and C2/TiO2 systems has been found to be pulse-width limited (<100 fs); however, back-electron-transfer (BET) dynamics has been found to be slower in the C2/TiO2 system than in the C1/TiO2 system. The involvement of TICT states in C2 is solely responsible for the higher electron injection yield as well as the slower BET process compared to those in the C1/TiO2 system. Further pH-dependent experiments on C1- and C2-sensitized TiO2 thin films have corroborated the participation of the TICT state in the slower BET process in the C2/TiO2 system. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Intramolecular ex vivo Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET of Dihydropyridine Receptor (DHPR β1a Subunit Reveals Conformational Change Induced by RYR1 in Mouse Skeletal Myotubes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Bhattacharya

    Full Text Available The dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR β1a subunit is essential for skeletal muscle excitation-contraction coupling, but the structural organization of β1a as part of the macromolecular DHPR-ryanodine receptor type I (RyR1 complex is still debatable. We used fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET to probe proximity relationships within the β1a subunit in cultured skeletal myotubes lacking or expressing RyR1. The fluorescein biarsenical reagent FlAsH was used as the FRET acceptor, which exhibits fluorescence upon binding to specific tetracysteine motifs, and enhanced cyan fluorescent protein (CFP was used as the FRET donor. Ten β1a reporter constructs were generated by inserting the CCPGCC FlAsH binding motif into five positions probing the five domains of β1a with either carboxyl or amino terminal fused CFP. FRET efficiency was largest when CCPGCC was positioned next to CFP, and significant intramolecular FRET was observed for all constructs suggesting that in situ the β1a subunit has a relatively compact conformation in which the carboxyl and amino termini are not extended. Comparison of the FRET efficiency in wild type to that in dyspedic (lacking RyR1 myotubes revealed that in only one construct (H458 CCPGCC β1a -CFP FRET efficiency was specifically altered by the presence of RyR1. The present study reveals that the C-terminal of the β1a subunit changes conformation in the presence of RyR1 consistent with an interaction between the C-terminal of β1a and RyR1 in resting myotubes.

  18. Excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) emission of hydroxyphenylimidazopyridine: computational study on enhanced and polymorph-dependent luminescence in the solid state. (United States)

    Shigemitsu, Yasuhiro; Mutai, Toshiki; Houjou, Hirohiko; Araki, Koji


    Although 2-(2'-hydroxyphenyl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyridine (HPIP) is only weakly fluorescent in solution, two of its crystal polymorphs in which molecules are packed as stacked pairs and in nearly coplanar conformation exhibit bright excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) luminescence of different colors (blue-green and yellow). In order to clarify the enhanced and polymorph-dependent luminescence of HPIP in the solid state, the potential energy surfaces (PESs) of HPIP in the ground (S(0)) and excited (S(1)) states were analyzed computationally by means of ab initio quantum chemical calculations. The calculations reproduced the experimental photophysical properties of HPIP in solution, indicating that the coplanar keto form in the first excited (S(1)) state smoothly approaches the S(0)/S(1) conical intersection (CI) coupled with the twisting motion of the central C-C bond. The S(1)-S(0) energy gap of the keto form became sufficiently small at the torsion angle of 60°, and the corresponding CI point was found at 90°. Since a minor role of the proximity effect was indicated experimentally and theoretically, the observed emission enhancement of the HPIP crystals was ascribed to the following two factors: (1) suppression of efficient radiationless decay via the CI by fixing the torsion angle at the nearly coplanar conformation of the molecules in the crystals and (2) inhibition of excimer formation resulting from the lower excited level of the S(1)-keto state compared to the S(0)-S(1) excitation energy in the enol form. However, the fluorescence color difference between the two crystal polymorphs having slightly different torsion angles was not successfully reproduced, even at the MS-CASPT2 level of theory.

  19. Mechanism of hydrogen peroxide dismutation by a dimanganese catalase mimic: dominant role of an intramolecular base on substrate binding affinity and rate acceleration. (United States)

    Boelrijk, A E; Dismukes, G C


    Several modifications of the manganese coordination environment and oxidation states of a family of synthetic dimanganese complexes have been introduced in search of the structural features that promote high rates of hydrogen peroxide dismutation (catalase activity). The X-ray structure of reduced catalase (T thermophilus) reveals a dimanganese(II,II) site linked by three bridges: mu 13-glutamate-, mu-OH-, and mu-OH2. The roles of a bridging hydroxide vs mu-aqua and the carboxylate have been examined in the reduced Mn2(II,II) complexes, [(L1,2)Mn2(mu-O2CCH3)(mu-X)]2+ for X- = OH- (7A) or X = H2O (1-4), and their oxidized Mn2(III,III) analogues, [(L1,2)Mn2(mu-O)(O2CCH3)(OH)]+ (6) (L1 is N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-methylenebenzamidazolyl)-1,3-diaminopropan- 2-ol, and L2 is the tetrakis-N-ethylated analogue of L1, which has all amine protons replaced by ethyl groups). The steady-state catalase rate is first-order in concentration of both substrate and reduced catalyst and saturates at high peroxide concentrations in all cases, confirming peroxide/catalyst complex formation. No catalyst decomposition is seen after > 2000 turnovers. Catalysis proceeds via a ping-pong mechanism between the Mn2(II,II/III,III) redox states, involving complexes 6 and 7A/7A'. The Mn2(III,IV) oxidation state was not active in catalase activity. Replacement of the mu-aqua bridge by mu-hydroxide eliminates a kinetic lag phase in production of the O2 product, increases the affinity for substrate peroxide in the rate-limiting step as seen by a 5-fold. decrease in the Michaelis constant (KM), and accelerates the maximum rate (kcat) by 65-fold The kinetic and spectroscopic data are consistent with substrate deprotonation by the hydroxide bridge, yielding a hydroperoxyl bridge coordinated between the Mn ions (mu, eta 2 geometry, "end-on") as the basis for catalysis: mu-OH- + H2O2-->mu-O2H- + H2O. Binding of a second hydroxide ion to 7A causes a further increase in kcat by 4-fold with no further change in

  20. Microscale Enhancement of Heat and Mass Transfer for Hydrogen Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drost, Kevin [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Jovanovic, Goran [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Paul, Brian [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States)


    The document summarized the technical progress associated with OSU’s involvement in the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence. OSU focused on the development of microscale enhancement technologies for improving heat and mass transfer in automotive hydrogen storage systems. OSU’s key contributions included the development of an extremely compact microchannel combustion system for discharging hydrogen storage systems and a thermal management system for adsorption based hydrogen storage using microchannel cooling (the Modular Adsorption Tank Insert or MATI).

  1. Asymmetric transfer hydrogenation by synthetic catalysts in cancer cells (United States)

    Coverdale, James P. C.; Romero-Canelón, Isolda; Sanchez-Cano, Carlos; Clarkson, Guy J.; Habtemariam, Abraha; Wills, Martin; Sadler, Peter J.


    Catalytic anticancer metallodrugs active at low doses could minimize side-effects, introduce novel mechanisms of action that combat resistance and widen the spectrum of anticancer-drug activity. Here we use highly stable chiral half-sandwich organometallic Os(II) arene sulfonyl diamine complexes, [Os(arene)(TsDPEN)] (TsDPEN, N-(p-toluenesulfonyl)-1,2-diphenylethylenediamine), to achieve a highly enantioselective reduction of pyruvate, a key intermediate in metabolic pathways. Reduction is shown both in aqueous model systems and in human cancer cells, with non-toxic concentrations of sodium formate used as a hydride source. The catalytic mechanism generates selectivity towards ovarian cancer cells versus non-cancerous fibroblasts (both ovarian and lung), which are commonly used as models of healthy proliferating cells. The formate precursor N-formylmethionine was explored as an alternative to formate in PC3 prostate cancer cells, which are known to overexpress a deformylase enzyme. Transfer-hydrogenation catalysts that generate reductive stress in cancer cells offer a new approach to cancer therapy.

  2. Effects of delocalization on intrinsic barriers for H-atom transfer: Implications for the radical hydrogen transfer reaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camaioni, D.M.; Autrey, S.T.; Ferris, K.F.; Franz, J.A.


    PM3 calculations of transition states (TS) for both normal H-atom transfer and radical hydrogen transfer (RHT) reactions of a a wide-variety of hydrocarbon structures have enabled development of quantitative structure-reactivity relationships. Results indicate that activation barriers for RHT reactions are large enough that thermoneutral and endothermic reactions should not compete with alternative multistep pathways.

  3. Studies on catalysis by molten metals. X. Hydrogen transfer reactions between alcohols and ketones on liquid indium catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, A.; Ogino, Y.


    Hydrogen transfer reactions between alcohols and ketones were studied on liquid indium catalyst by using a pulse reaction technique, and a plausible reaction model is proposed to explain the experimental results including deuterium isotope effects. Further, the stereoselectivity observed in the transfer hydrogenation of methylcyclohexanones and the selectivities observed in the transfer hydrogenation of unsaturated ketones are discussed in terms of the proposed model

  4. Characterization by time-resolved UV/Vis and infrared absorption spectroscopy of an intramolecular charge-transfer state in an organic electron-donor-bridge-acceptor system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hviid, L.; Verhoeven, J.W.; Brouwer, A.M.; Paddon-Row, M.N.; Yang, J.


    A long-lived intramolecular charge-separated state in an electron-donor-acceptor molecule is characterized by time-resolved visible and infrared absorption spectroscopy. Bands that can be assigned to the negatively charged acceptor chromophore can be clearly observed in the time-resolved IR

  5. Selective Complexation of Cyanide and Fluoride Ions with Ammonium Boranes: A Theoretical Study on Sensing Mechanism Involving Intramolecular Charge Transfer and Configurational Changes. (United States)

    Bhat, Haamid R; Jha, Prakash C


    The anion binding selectivity and the recognition mechanism of two isomeric boranes, namely, 4-[bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)boranyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaniline ([p-(Mes 2 B)C 6 H 4 (NMe 3 )] + , 1, where "Mes" represents mesitylene and "Me" represents methyl) and 2-[bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)boranyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaniline ([o-(Mes 2 B)C 6 H 4 (NMe 3 )] + , 2) has been investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and time dependent-density functional theory (TD-DFT) methods. Natural population analysis indicates that the central boron atoms in 1 and 2 are the most active centers for nucleophilic addition of anions. The negative magnitude of free energy changes (ΔG) reveals that out of CN - , F - , Cl - , Br - , NO 3 - , and HSO 4 - only the binding of CN - and F - with 1 and 2 is thermodynamically feasible and spontaneous. In addition, the calculated binding energies reveal that the CN - is showing lesser binding affinity than F - both with 1 and 2, while other ions, viz. NO 3 - , HSO 4 - , Br - , and Cl - , either do not bind at all or show very insignificant binding energy. The first excited states (S 1 ) of 1 and 2 are shown to be the local excited states with π → σ* transition by frontier molecular orbital analysis, whereas fourth excited states (S 4 ) of 4-[bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)boranyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaniline cyanide ([p-(Mes 2 B)C 6 H 4 (NMe 3 )] CN, 1CN, the cyano form of 1) and 4-[bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)boranyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaniline fluoride ([p-(Mes 2 B)C 6 H 4 (NMe 3 )] F, 1F, the fluoro form of 1) and fifth excited state (S 5 ) of 2-[bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)boranyl]-N,N,N-trimethylaniline fluoride ([o-(Mes 2 B)C 6 H 4 (NMe 3 )] F, 2F, the fluoro form of 2) are charge separation states that are found to be responsible for the intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) process. The synergistic effect of ICT and partial configuration changes induce fluorescence quenching in 1CN, 1F, and 2F after a significant internal conversion (IC) from S 4 and

  6. NMR of proteins (4Fe-4S): structural properties and intramolecular electron transfer; RMN de proteines (4Fe-4S): proprietes structurales et transfert electronique intramoleculaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, J.G.


    NMR started to be applied to Fe-S proteins in the seventies. Its use has recently been enlarged as the problems arising from the paramagnetic polymetallic clusters ware overcome. Applications to [4Fe-4S] are presented herein. The information derived thereof deepens the understanding of the redox properties of these proteins which play a central role in the metabolism of bacterial cells. The secondary structure elements and the overall folding of Chromatium vinosum ferredoxin (Cv Fd) in solution have been established by NMR. The unique features of this sequence have been shown to fold as an {alpha} helix at the C-terminus and as a loop between two cysteines ligand of one cluster: these two parts localize in close proximity from one another. The interaction between nuclear and electronic spins is a source of additional structural information for (4Fe-AS] proteins. The conformation of the cysteine-ligands, as revealed by the Fe-(S{sub {gamma}}-C{sub {beta}}-H{sub {beta}})Cys dihedral angles, is related to the chemical shifts of the signals associated with the protons of these residues. The longitudinal relaxation times of the protons depend on their distance to the cluster. A quantitative relationship has been established and used to show that the solution structure of the high-potential ferredoxin from Cv differs significantly from the crystal structure around Phe-48. Both parameters (chemical shifts and longitudinal relaxation times) give also insight into the electronic and magnetic properties of the [4Fe-4S] clusters. The rate of intramolecular electron transfer between the two [4FE-4S] clusters of ferredoxins has been measured by NMR. It is far slower in the case of Cv Fd than for shorter ferredoxins. The difference may be associated with changes in the magnetic and/or electronic properties of one cluster. The strong paramagnetism of the [4Fe-4S] clusters, which originally limited the applicability of NMR to proteins containing these cofactors, has been proven



    Huang, Li-shar; Cobessi, David; Tung, Eric Y.; Berry, Edward A.


    Antimycin A (antimycin), one of the first known and most potent inhibitors of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, binds to the quinone reduction site of the cytochrome bc1 complex. Structure-activity-relationship studies have shown that the N-formylamino-salicyl-amide group is responsible for most of the binding specificity, and suggested that a low pKa for the phenolic OH group and an intramolecular H-bond between that OH and the carbonyl O of the salicylamide linkage are important. Tw...

  8. The Effect of Neighboring Methionine Residue on Tyrosine Nitration & Oxidation in Peptides Treated with MPO, H2O2, & NO2- or Peroxynitrite and Bicarbonate: Role of Intramolecular Electron-Transfer Mechanism? (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Zielonka, Jacek; Sikora, Adam; Joseph, Joy; Xu, Yingkai; Kalyanaraman, B.


    Recent reports suggest that intramolecular electron-transfer reactions can profoundly affect the site and specificity of tyrosyl nitration and oxidation in peptides and proteins. Here we investigated the effects of methionine on tyrosyl nitration and oxidation induced by myeloperoxidase (MPO), H2O2 and NO2- and peroxynitrite (ONOO-) or ONOO- and bicarbonate (HCO3-) in model peptides, tyrosylmethionine (YM), tyrosylphenylalanine (YF) and tyrosine. Nitration and oxidation products of these peptides were analysed by HPLC with UV/Vis and fluorescence detection, and mass spectrometry; radical intermediates were identified by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-spin-trapping. We have previously shown (Zhang et al., J. Biol. Chem. (2005) 280, 40684-40698) that oxidation and nitration of tyrosyl residue was inhibited in tyrosylcysteine(YC)-type peptides as compared to free tyrosine. Here we show that methionine, another sulfur-containing amino acid, does not inhibit nitration and oxidation of a neighboring tyrosine residue in the presence of ONOO- (or ONOOCO2-) or MPO/H2O2/NO2- system. Nitration of tyrosyl residue in YM was actually stimulated under the conditions of in situ generation of ONOO- (formed by reaction of superoxide with nitric oxide during SIN-1 decomposition), as compared to YF, YC and tyrosine. The dramatic variations in tyrosyl nitration profiles caused by methionine and cysteine residues have been attributed to differences in the direction of intramolecular electron transfer mechanism in these peptides. Further confirmation of HPLC data analysis was obtained by steady-state radiolysis and photolysis experiments. Potential implications of the intramolecular electron-transfer mechanism in mediating selective nitration of protein tyrosyl groups are discussed. PMID:19056332

  9. Comparison methods between methane and hydrogen combustion for useful transfer in furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiea, V.V.


    The advantages and disadvantages of hydrogen use by industrial combustion are critically presented. Greenhouse effect due natural water vapors from atmosphere and these produced by hydrogen industrial combustion is critically analyzed, together with problems of gas fuels containing hydrogen as the relative largest component. A comparison method between methane and hydrogen combustion for pressure loss in burner feeding pipe, is conceived. It is deduced the ratio of radiation useful heat transfer characteristics and convection heat transfer coefficients from combustion gases at industrial furnaces and heat recuperators for hydrogen and methane combustion, establishing specific comparison methods. Using criterial equations special processed for convection heat transfer determination, a calculation generalizing formula is established. The proposed comparison methods are general valid for different gaseous fuels. (author)

  10. Iron Phthalocyanine as New Efficient Catalyst for Catalytic Transfer Hydrogenation of Simple Aldehydes and Ketones

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bata, P.; Notheisz, F.; Klusoň, Petr; Zsigmond, A.


    Roč. 29, JAN 2015 (2015), s. 45-49 ISSN 0268-2605 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : heterogenized complexes * catalytic transfer hydrogenation * reusable catalyst Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.452, year: 2015

  11. Hydrogen-bond dynamics and proton transfer in nanoconfinement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Loop, T.H.


    Proton transfer is of fundamental importance to both biology and chemistry. Much is known about proton transfer in large water volumes but often proton transfer reactions take place in very small nanometer sized volumes for example between lipid layers and in proton channels in mitochondria and

  12. Transition-metal-catalyzed hydrogen-transfer annulations: access to heterocyclic scaffolds. (United States)

    Nandakumar, Avanashiappan; Midya, Siba Prasad; Landge, Vinod Gokulkrishna; Balaraman, Ekambaram


    The ability of hydrogen-transfer transition-metal catalysts, which enable increasingly rapid access to important structural scaffolds from simple starting materials, has led to a plethora of research efforts on the construction of heterocyclic scaffolds. Transition-metal-catalyzed hydrogen-transfer annulations are environmentally benign and highly atom-economical as they release of water and hydrogen as by-product and utilize renewable feedstock alcohols as starting materials. Recent advances in this field with respect to the annulations of alcohols with various nucleophilic partners, thus leading to the formation of heterocyclic scaffolds, are highlighted herein. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Hydrogen Bonding in the Electronic Excited State (United States)

    Zhao, Guang-Jiu; Han, Ke-Li; DICP1101 Group Team


    Here, I will give a talk on our recent advances in electronic excited-state hydrogen-bonding dynamics and the significant role of excited-state hydrogen bonding on internal conversion (IC), electronic spectral shifts (ESS), photoinduced electron transfer (PET), fluorescence quenching (FQ), intramolecular charge transfer (ICT), and metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT). The combination of various spectroscopic experiments with theoretical calculations has led to tremendous progress in excited-state hydrogen-bonding research. We first demonstrated that intermolecular hydrogen bond in excited state can be greatly strengthened or weakened for many chromophores. We have also clarified that intermolecular hydrogen-bond strengthening and weakening correspond to red-shifts and blue-shifts, respectively, in the electronic spectra. Moreover, radiationless deactivations (via IC, PET, ICT, MLCT, and so on) can be dramatically influenced by excited-state hydrogen bonding. GJZ and KLH thank the NSFC (Nos: 20903094 and 20833008) for financial support.

  14. Osmium pyme complexes for fast hydrogenation and asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of ketones. (United States)

    Baratta, Walter; Ballico, Maurizio; Del Zotto, Alessandro; Siega, Katia; Magnolia, Santo; Rigo, Pierluigi


    The osmium compound trans,cis-[OsCl2(PPh3)2(Pyme)] (1) (Pyme=1-(pyridin-2-yl)methanamine), obtained from [OsCl2(PPh3)3] and Pyme, thermally isomerizes to cis,cis-[OsCl2(PPh3)(2)(Pyme)] (2) in mesitylene at 150 degrees C. Reaction of [OsCl2(PPh3)3] with Ph2P(CH2)(4)PPh2 (dppb) and Pyme in mesitylene (150 degrees C, 4 h) leads to a mixture of trans-[OsCl2(dppb)(Pyme)] (3) and cis-[OsCl2(dppb)(Pyme)] (4) in about an 1:3 molar ratio. The complex trans-[OsCl2(dppb)(Pyet)] (5) (Pyet=2-(pyridin-2-yl)ethanamine) is formed by reaction of [OsCl2(PPh3)3] with dppb and Pyet in toluene at reflux. Compounds 1, 2, 5 and the mixture of isomers 3/4 efficiently catalyze the transfer hydrogenation (TH) of different ketones in refluxing 2-propanol and in the presence of NaOiPr (2.0 mol %). Interestingly, 3/4 has been proven to reduce different ketones (even bulky) by means of TH with a remarkably high turnover frequency (TOF up to 5.7 x 10(5) h(-1)) and at very low loading (0.05-0.001 mol %). The system 3/4 also efficiently catalyzes the hydrogenation of many ketones (H2, 5.0 atm) in ethanol with KOtBu (2.0 mol %) at 70 degrees C (TOF up to 1.5 x 10(4) h(-1)). The in-situ-generated catalysts prepared by the reaction of [OsCl2(PPh3)3] with Josiphos diphosphanes and (+/-)-1-alkyl-substituted Pyme ligands, promote the enantioselective TH of different ketones with 91-96 % ee (ee=enantiomeric excess) and with a TOF of up to 1.9 x 10(4) h(-1) at 60 degrees C.

  15. Heat transfer comparison between methane and hydrogen in a spark ignited engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierens, Roger; Demuynck, Joachim; Paepe, Michel de; Verhelst, Sebastian [Ghent Univ. (Belgium)


    Hydrogen is one of the alternative fuels which are being investigated at Ghent University. NO{sub x} emissions will occur at high engine loads and they are a constraint for power and efficiency optimization. The formation of NO{sub x} emissions is temperature dependent. Consequently, the heat transfer from the burning gases to the cylinder walls has to be accurately modelled if precise computer calculations of the emissions are wanted. Several engine heat transfer models exist but they have been cited to be inaccurate for hydrogen. We have measured the heat flux in a spark ignited engine with a commercially available heat flux sensor. This paper investigates the difference between the heat transfer of hydrogen and a fossil fuel, in this case methane. Measurements with the same indicated power output are compared and the effect of the heat loss on the indicated efficiency is investigated. The power output of hydrogen combustion is lowered by burning lean in contrast to using a throttle in the case of methane. Although the peak in the heat flux of hydrogen is 3 times higher compared to methane for a high engine power output, the indicated efficiency is only 3% lower. The heat loss for hydrogen at a low engine load is smaller than that of methane which results in a higher indicated efficiency. The richness of the hydrogen-air mixture has a great influence on the heat transfer process in contrast to the in-cylinder mass in the case of methane. (orig.)

  16. Catalytic transfer hydrogenation/hydrogenolysis for reductive upgrading of furfural and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural. (United States)

    Scholz, David; Aellig, Christof; Hermans, Ive


    The sequential transfer hydrogenation/hydrogenolysis of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural to 2-methylfuran and 2,5-dimethylfuran was studied over in situ reduced, Fe2 O3 -supported Cu, Ni, and Pd catalysts, with 2-propanol as hydrogen donor. The remarkable activity of Pd/Fe2 O3 in both transfer hydrogenation/hydrogenolysis is attributed to a strong metal-support interaction. Selectivity towards hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis, decarbonylation, and ring-hydrogenation products is shown to strongly depend on the Pd loading. A significant enhancement in yield to 62%, of 2-methylfuran and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran was observed under continuous flow conditions. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Bimetallic promotion of cooperative hydrogen transfer and heteroatom removal in coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisch, J.J.


    The ultimate objective of this research is to uncover new catalytic processes for the liquefaction of coal and for upgrading coal-derived fuels by removing undesirable organosulfur, organonitrogen and organooxygen constituents. Basic to both the liquefaction of coal and the purification of coal liquids is the transfer of hydrogen from such sources as dihydrogen, metal hydrides or partially reduced aromatic hydrocarbons to the extensive aromatic rings in coal itself or to aromatic sulfides, amines or ethers. Accordingly, this study is exploring how such crucial hydrogen-transfer processes might be catalyzed by soluble, low-valent transition metal complexes and/or Lewis acids under moderate conditions of temperature and pressure. By learning the mechanism whereby H{sub 2}, metal hydrides or partially hydrogenated aromatics do transfer hydrogen to model aromatic compounds, with the aid of homogeneous, bimetallic catalysts, we hope to identify new methods for producing superior fuels from coal.

  18. Synthesis and Catalytic Hydrogen Transfer Reaction of Ruthenium(II) Complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Jung Ik; Kim, Aram; Noh, Hui Bog; Lee, Hyun Ju; Shim, Yoon Bo; Park, Kang Hyun


    The ruthenium(II) complex [Ru(bpy) 2 -(PhenTPy)] was synthesized, and used for the transfer hydrogenation of ketones and the desired products were obtained in good yield. Based on the presented results, transition-metal complexes can be used as catalysts for a wide range of organic transformations. The relationship between the electro-reduction current density and temperature are being examined in this laboratory. Attempts to improve the catalytic activity and determine the transfer hydrogenation mechanism are currently in progress. The catalytic hydrogenation of a ketone is a basic and critical process for making many types of alcohols used as the final products and precursors in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical, flavor, fragrance, materials, and fine chemicals industries. The catalytic hydrogenation process developed by Noyori is a very attractive process. Formic acid and 2-propanol have been used extensively as hydrogenation sources. The advantage of using 2-propanol as a hydrogen source is that the only side product will be acetone, which can be removed easily during the workup process. Hydrogen transfer (HT) catalysis, which generates alcohols through the reduction of ketones, is an attractive protocol that is used widely. Ruthenium(II) complexes are the most useful catalysts for the hydrogen transfer (HT) of ketones. In this method, a highly active catalytic system employs a transition metal as a catalyst to synthesize alcohols, and is a replacement for the hydrogen-using hydrogenation process. The most active system is based on Ru, Rh and Ir, which includes a nitrogen ligand that facilitates the formation of a catalytically active hydride and phosphorus

  19. Synthesis and Catalytic Hydrogen Transfer Reaction of Ruthenium(II) Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Jung Ik; Kim, Aram; Noh, Hui Bog; Lee, Hyun Ju; Shim, Yoon Bo; Park, Kang Hyun [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    The ruthenium(II) complex [Ru(bpy){sub 2}-(PhenTPy)] was synthesized, and used for the transfer hydrogenation of ketones and the desired products were obtained in good yield. Based on the presented results, transition-metal complexes can be used as catalysts for a wide range of organic transformations. The relationship between the electro-reduction current density and temperature are being examined in this laboratory. Attempts to improve the catalytic activity and determine the transfer hydrogenation mechanism are currently in progress. The catalytic hydrogenation of a ketone is a basic and critical process for making many types of alcohols used as the final products and precursors in the pharmaceutical, agrochemical, flavor, fragrance, materials, and fine chemicals industries. The catalytic hydrogenation process developed by Noyori is a very attractive process. Formic acid and 2-propanol have been used extensively as hydrogenation sources. The advantage of using 2-propanol as a hydrogen source is that the only side product will be acetone, which can be removed easily during the workup process. Hydrogen transfer (HT) catalysis, which generates alcohols through the reduction of ketones, is an attractive protocol that is used widely. Ruthenium(II) complexes are the most useful catalysts for the hydrogen transfer (HT) of ketones. In this method, a highly active catalytic system employs a transition metal as a catalyst to synthesize alcohols, and is a replacement for the hydrogen-using hydrogenation process. The most active system is based on Ru, Rh and Ir, which includes a nitrogen ligand that facilitates the formation of a catalytically active hydride and phosphorus.

  20. Transfer of π- from hydrogen to deuterium in H2O + D2O mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanislaus, S.; Measday, D.F.; Vetterli, D.; Weber, P.; Aniol, K.A.; Harston, M.R.; Armstrong, D.S.


    The transfer of stopping π - mesons from hydrogen to deuterium has been investigated in mixtures of H 2 O+D 2 O as a function of D 2 O concentration. The concentration dependence of the transfer probability is similar to that observed for the gas mixtures of H 2 and D 2 but slightly more transfer is found for H 2 O+D 2 O. (Author) 17 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs

  1. Muon transfer from muonic hydrogen to heavier atoms; Transfert de charge muonique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupays, A


    This work concerns muon transfer from muonic hydrogen to heavier atoms. Recently, a method of measurement of the hyperfine structure of ground-state muonic hydrogen based on the collision energy dependence of the muon transfer rate to oxygen has been proposed. This proposal is based on measurements which where performed at the Paul Scherrer Institute in the early nineties which indicate that the muon transfer from muonic hydrogen to oxygen increases by a factor of 4 going from thermal to 0.12 eV energies. The motivation of our calculations was to confirm this behaviour. To study the collision energy dependence of the muon transfer rate, we have used a time-independent close-coupling method. We have set up an hyperspherical elliptic formalism valid for nonzero total angular momentum which allows accurate computations of state-to-state reactive and charge exchange processes. We have applied this formalism to muon-transfer process to oxygen and neon. The comparison with experimental results is in both cases excellent. Finally, the neon transfer rate dependence with energy suggests to use neon instead of oxygen to perform a measurement of the hyperfine structure of muonic hydrogen. The results of accurate calculations of the muon transfer rates from muonic protium and deuterium atoms to nitrogen, oxygen and neon are also reported. Very good agreement with measured rates is obtained and for the three systems, the isotopic effect is perfectly reproduced. (author)

  2. Transfer hydrogenation reactions catalyzed by chiral half-sandwich ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chiral ruthenium half-sandwich complexes were prepared using a chelating diamine made from proline with a phenyl, ethyl, or benzyl group, instead of hydrogen on one of the coordinating arms. Three of these complexes were obtained as single diastereoisomers and their configuration identified by X-ray crystallography.

  3. Thermal Stress Analysis for a Transfer Line of Hydrogen Moderator in J-Parc (United States)

    Tatsumoto, H.; Teshigawara, M.; Aso, T.; Ohtsu, K.; Maekawa, F.; Kato, T.


    An intense spallation neutron source (JSNS) driven by a 1-MW proton beam was constructed, as one of the main experimental facilities in J-PARC. In JSNS, supercritical hydrogen (1.5 MPa, 20 K) was selected as a moderator material. Three kinds of hydrogen moderator are installed (coupled, decoupled, and poisoned) to provide pulsed neutron beam with higher neutronic performance. The moderators contain cryogenic hydrogen transfer lines located in a radioactive area. Therefore, the transfer lines should be designed to have minimum pipe size and elbow-type bend sections to reduce the potential for radiation dose by radiation streaming. The design should also consider mechanical stress concentrations, deformation, and touching between the pipes due to the thermal shrinkage at the cryogenic hydrogen temperature. A FEM code analysis determined the appropriate locations of piping supporting spacers to keep the thermal stress below the allowable stress and to also avoid touching between the pipes.

  4. Molecularly Defined Manganese Pincer Complexes for Selective Transfer Hydrogenation of Ketones. (United States)

    Perez, Marc; Elangovan, Saravanakumar; Spannenberg, Anke; Junge, Kathrin; Beller, Matthias


    For the first time an easily accessible and well-defined manganese N,N,N-pincer complex catalyzes the transfer hydrogenation of a broad range of ketones with good to excellent yields. This cheap earth abundant-metal based catalyst provides access to useful secondary alcohols without the need of hydrogen gas. Preliminary investigations to explore the mechanism of this transformation are also reported. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Green Synthesis of (R)-Terbutaline for Recyclable Catalytic Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation in Ionic Liquids. (United States)

    Uchimoto, Hitomi; Ikeda, Miki; Tanida, Saori; Ohhashi, Kayo; Chihara, Yoshiko; Shigeta, Takashi; Arimitsu, Kenji; Yamashita, Masayuki; Nishide, Kiyoharu; Kawasaki, Ikuo


    We synthesize optically active (R)-terbutaline 2, which is an anti-asthmatic drug, through recyclable catalytic asymmetric transfer hydrogenation (RCATH). Various chloroketones 4 were prepared and RCATH was performed on them. The products exhibit moderate to high enantioselectivity. In particular, the hydrogenation of acyl substituted substrates 4c yields chiral secondary alcohols 5c in good yield and enantioselectivity. Furthermore, (R)-terbutaline 2 can be synthesized in one step from the resulting secondary alcohol 5 without racemization.

  6. Insights into the Hydrogen-Atom Transfer of the Blue Aroxyl. (United States)

    Bächle, Josua; Marković, Marijana; Kelterer, Anne-Marie; Grampp, Günter


    An experimental and theoretical study on hydrogen-atom transfer dynamics in the hydrogen-bonded substituted phenol/phenoxyl complex of the blue aroxyl (2,4,6-tri-tert-butylphenoxyl) is presented. The experimental exchange dynamics is determined in different organic solvents from the temperature-dependent alternating line-width effect in the continuous-wave ESR spectrum. From bent Arrhenius plots, effective tunnelling contributions with parallel heavy-atom motion are concluded. To clarify the transfer mechanism, reaction paths for different conformers of the substituted phenol/phenoxyl complex are modelled theoretically. Various DFT and post-Hartree-Fock methods including multireference methods are applied. From the comparison of experimental and theoretical data it is concluded that the system favours concerted hydrogen-atom transfer along a parabolic reaction path caused by heavy-atom motion. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Intramolecular and nonlinear dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.J. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)


    Research in this program focuses on three interconnected areas. The first involves the study of intramolecular dynamics, particularly of highly excited systems. The second area involves the use of nonlinear dynamics as a tool for the study of molecular dynamics and complex kinetics. The third area is the study of the classical/quantum correspondence for highly excited systems, particularly systems exhibiting classical chaos.

  8. Mass and heat transfer on B7 ordered packing in hydrogen isotope separation by distillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croitoru, Cornelia; Pop, Floarea; Titescu, Gheorghe; Stefanescu, Ioan; Trancota, Dan; Peculea, Marius


    This work presents theoretical and experimental data referring to mass and heat transfer on B7 ordered packing in deuterium isotope separation by distillation. The first part is devoted to the study of mass transfer in hydrogen isotopic distillation while the second one treats the mass and heat transfer in water isotopic distillation. A stationary mathematical model for the mass and heat transfer was developed based on multitubular column model with wet wall. This model allowed the calculation starting from theoretical data of the ordered packing efficiency, expressed by the transfer unit height, TUH. Also, from theoretical data the mass and heat transfer coefficients were determined. A test of the mathematical model was performed with the experimental data obtained from two laboratory installations for hydrogen isotope separation by distillation. From the first installation, experimental data concerning the B7 ordered packing efficiency were obtained for the deuterium separation by cryogenic distillation at the - 250 deg C level. With the second one data referring to the mass and heat transfer on the same packing were obtained for the deuterium separation by water distillation under vacuum at the 60 deg C level. The values of TUH, mass and heat transfer coefficients as theoretically evaluate and experimentally checked are in agreement with the respective values obtained in separation processes in chemical industry. This is the fact which endorses utilization of the model of multitubular column with wet wall for describing the transfer processes in distillation columns equipped with B7 ordered packing

  9. Isotope effects in hydrogen atom transfers. 9. Neighboring group participation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, E.S.; Shen, C.C.


    The tritium isotope effects in hydrogen abstraction by bromine atoms from HC(Me) 2 CH 2 X have been measured in the photobromination reaction by a technique which measures the specific activity of the HBr product. At 1 0 C and with the reverse reaction suppressed or irrelevant the values for k/sub H//k/sub T/ are 3.9, 8.2, and 11.6 for X = CH 3 , Cl, and Br, respectively. An isotope effect of 3.5 for X = H was also measured, but the contribution of the reverse reaction was not established. The relatively large isotope effect for X = Br is interpreted in terms of a weakening of the CH bond by neighboring bromine participation. The smaller effect of chlorine may correspond to a minor participation, but the unfavorable inductive effect of the chlorine is also a factor. The case of X = Br is the microscopic reverse of the addition of HBr to 2-methylpropene, and the results are compared with isotope effects in the addition to HBr to olefins. The measurement of isotope effect is, within some described limitations, a convenient and general method for detecting neighboring group participation in hydrogen atom abstractions

  10. Vibrational energy transfer in hydrogen liquid and its isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gale, G.M.; Delalande, C.


    The transfer of vibrational energy (V-V) from H 2 to isotopic impurities (HD or D 2 ) has been studied in the liquid state, between 15 and 30 K. The subsequent ralaxation (V-T) of the excited impurity by the H 2 liquid host has also been measured and contrasted with the vibrational relaxation behaviour of pure H 2 and D 2 liquids. The isothermal density dependence of both V-V and V-T transfer has been investigated in the fluid state at 30 K. High density relaxation rates are also compared to the data in the pure gases and to other available gas phase results. Measurements in the solid, near the triple-point temperature, are equally reported for each process studied. (Auth.)

  11. In tandem or alone: a remarkably selective transfer hydrogenation of alkenes catalyzed by ruthenium olefin metathesis catalysts. (United States)

    Zieliński, Grzegorz Krzysztof; Samojłowicz, Cezary; Wdowik, Tomasz; Grela, Karol


    A system for transfer hydrogenation of alkenes, composed of a ruthenium metathesis catalyst and HCOOH, is presented. This operationally simple system can be formed directly after a metathesis reaction to effect hydrogenation of the metathesis product in a single-pot. These hydrogenation conditions are applicable to a wide range of alkenes and offer remarkable selectivity.

  12. Hydrogen Transfer during Liquefaction of Elbistan Lignite to Biomass; Total Reaction Transformation Approach (United States)

    Koyunoglu, Cemil; Karaca, Hüseyin


    Given the high cost of the tetraline solvent commonly used in liquefaction, the use of manure with EL is an important factor when considering the high cost of using tetraline as a hydrogen transfer source. In addition, due to the another cost factor which is the catalyst prices, red mud (commonly used, produced as a byproduct in the production of aluminium) is reduced cost in the work of liquefaction of coal, biomass, even coal combined biomass, corresponding that making the EL liquefaction an agenda for our country is another important factor. Conditions for liquefaction experiments conducted for hydrogen transfer from manure to coal; Catalyst concentration of 9%, liquid/solid ratio of 3/1, reaction time of 60 min, fertilizer/lignite ratio of 1/3, and the reaction temperature of 400 °C, the stirred speed of 400 rpm and the initial nitrogen pressure of 20 bar was fixed. In order to demonstrate the hydrogen, transfer from manure to coal, coal is used solely, by using tetraline (also known as a hydrogen carrier) and distilled water which is not hydrogen donor as a solvent in the co-liquefaction of experiments, and also the liquefaction conditions are carried out under an inert (N2) gas atmosphere. According to the results of the obtained liquefaction test; using tetraline solvent the total liquid product conversion percentage of the oil + gas conversion was 38.3 %, however, the results of oil+gas conversion obtained using distilled water and EL combined with manure the total liquid product conversion percentage was 7.4 %. According to the results of calorific value and elemental analysis, only the ratio of (H/C)atomic of coal obtained by using tetraline increased with the liquefaction of manure and distilled water. The reason of the increase in the amount of hydrogen due to hydrogen transfer from the manure on the solid surface of the coal, and also on the surface of the inner pore of the coal during the liquefaction, brings about the evaluation of the coal as a

  13. Understanding the role of water in aqueous ruthenium-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation of ketones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlova, A.; Meijer, E.J.


    We report an accurate computational study of the role of water in transfer hydrogenation of formaldehyde with a ruthenium-based catalyst using a water-specific model. Our results suggest that the reaction mechanism in aqueous solution is significantly different from that in the gas phase or in

  14. Magnetic Silica-Supported Ruthenium Nanoparticles: An Efficient Catalyst for Transfer Hydrogenation of Carbonyl Compounds (United States)

    One-pot synthesis of ruthenium nanoparticles on magnetic silica is described which involve the in situ generation of magnetic silica (Fe3O4@ SiO2) and ruthenium nano particles immobilization; the hydration of nitriles and transfer hydrogenation of carbonyl compounds occurs in hi...

  15. Laboratory Measurements of Charge Transfer on Atomic Hydrogen at Thermal Energies (United States)

    Havener, C. C.; Vane, C. R.; Krause, H. F.; Stancil, P. C.; Mroczkowski, T.; Savin, D. W.


    We describe our ongoing program to measure velocity dependent charge transfer (CT) cross sections for selected ions on atomic hydrogen using the ion-aloin merged-beams apparatus at Oak Ridge Natioiial Laboralory. Our focus is on those ions for which CT plays an important role in determining the ionization structure, line emis sion, and thermal structure of observed cosmic photoionized plasmas.

  16. Efficient Energy Transfer in Supramolecular, Hydrogen-Bonded Polypyridylruthenium-Osmium Complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rau, Sven; Schäfer, Bernhard; Schebesta, Sebastian; Grüßing, André; Poppitz, Wolfgang; Walther, Dirk; Duati, Marco; Browne, Wesley R.; Vos, Johannes G.

    Hydrogen bond association between ruthenium bibenzimidazole and carboxylated polypyridylosmium complexes results in stable supramolecular aggregates. The determined stability constant of logK approximate to 6 +/- 0.3 allows efficient energy transfer from the ruthenium to the osmium moiety. (C)

  17. Asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of 1-phenyl dihydroisoquinolines using Ru(II) diamine catalysts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přech, J.; Václavík, J.; Šot, P.; Pecháček, J.; Vilhanová, B.; Januščák, J.; Syslová, K.; Pažout, R.; Maixner, J.; Zápal, Jakub; Kuzma, Marek; Kačer, P.


    Roč. 36, JUN 2013 (2013), s. 67-70 ISSN 1566-7367 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/1497; GA ČR GAP106/12/1276 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Asymmetric transfer hydrogen ation * N-alkylsulfonyl * Dihydroisoquinoline Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 3.320, year: 2013

  18. A simple iridicycle catalyst for efficient transfer hydrogenation of N-heterocycles in water. (United States)

    Talwar, Dinesh; Li, Ho Yin; Durham, Emma; Xiao, Jianliang


    A cyclometalated iridium complex is shown to catalyse the transfer hydrogenation of various nitrogen heterocycles, including but not limited to quinolines, isoquinolines, indoles and pyridinium salts, in an aqueous solution of HCO2H/HCO2Na under mild conditions. The catalyst shows excellent functional-group compatibility and high turnover number (up to 7500), with catalyst loadings as low as 0.01 mol % being feasible. Mechanistic investigation of the quinoline reduction suggests that the transfer hydrogenation proceeds via both 1,2- and 1,4-addition pathways, with the catalytic turnover being limited by the step of hydride transfer. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Catalytic Transfer Hydrogenation of Biomass-Derived Carbonyls over Hafnium-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks. (United States)

    Rojas-Buzo, Sergio; García-García, Pilar; Corma, Avelino


    A series of highly crystalline, porous, hafnium-based metal-organic frameworks (Hf-MOFs) have been shown to catalyze the transfer hydrogenation reaction of levulinic ester to produce γ-valerolactone by using isopropanol as a hydrogen donor. The results are compared with their zirconium-based counterparts. The role of the metal center in Hf-MOFs has been identified and reaction parameters optimized. NMR studies using isotopically labeled isopropanol provide evidence that the transfer hydrogenation occurs through a direct intermolecular hydrogen transfer route. The catalyst, Hf-MOF-808, can be recycled several times with only a minor decrease in catalytic activity. The generality of the procedure has been demonstrated by accomplishing the transformation with aldehydes, ketones, and α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. The combination of Hf-MOF-808 with the Brønsted-acidic Al-Beta zeolite gives the four-step one-pot transformation of furfural to γ-valerolactone in good yield of 75 %. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Hydrogen-transfer and charge-transfer in photochemical and radiation induced reactions. Progress report, November 1, 1975--October 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, S.G.


    The relative importance of light absorption, quenching of triplet, and hydrogen transfer repair has been examined in retardation by mercaptans of photoreduction of aromatic ketones by alcohols. In the reduction of benzophenone by 2-propanol, retardation is efficient and, after correction for the first two effects, is due entirely to hydrogen-transfer repair, as indicated by deuterium labeling. In reduction of acetophenone by α-methylbenzyl alcohol, repair by hydrogen transfer is also operative. In reduction of benzophenone by benzhydrol, retardation is less efficient and is due to quenching, as the ketyl radical does not abstract hydrogen from mercaptan rapidly in competition with coupling. Deuterium isotope effects are discussed in terms of competitive reactions. Photoreduction of benzophenone by 2-butylamine and by triethylamine is retarded by aromatic mercaptans and disulfides. Of the retardation not due to light absorption and triplet quenching by the sulfur compounds, half is due to hydrogen-transfer repair, as indicated by racemization and deuterium labeling. The remainder is attributed to quenching by the sulfur compound of the charge-transfer-complex intermediate. Photoreduction by primary and secondary amines, but not by tertiary amines, is accelerated by aliphatic mercaptans. The acceleration is attributed to catalysis of hydrogen transfer by the mercaptan in the charge-transfer complex. The effect is large in hydrocarbon solvent, less in polar organic solvents and absent in water

  1. A Selective and Functional Group-Tolerant Ruthenium-Catalyzed Olefin Metathesis/Transfer Hydrogenation Tandem Sequence Using Formic Acid as Hydrogen Source. (United States)

    Zieliński, Grzegorz K; Majtczak, Jarosława; Gutowski, Maciej; Grela, Karol


    A ruthenium-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation of olefins utilizing formic acid as a hydrogen donor is described. The application of commercially available alkylidene ruthenium complexes opens access to attractive C(sp3)-C(sp3) bond formation in an olefin metathesis/transfer hydrogenation sequence under tandem catalysis conditions. High chemoselectivity of the developed methodology provides a remarkable synthetic tool for the reduction of various functionalized alkenes under mild reaction conditions. The developed methodology is applied for the formal synthesis of the drugs pentoxyverine and bencyclane.

  2. UV-light-induced hydrogen transfer in guanosine-guanosine aggregates. (United States)

    Hunger, Katharina; Buschhaus, Laura; Biemann, Lars; Braun, Michaela; Kovalenko, Sergey; Improta, Roberto; Kleinermanns, Karl


    Aggregates of a lipophilic guanine (G) derivative have been studied in n-hexane by femtosecond-to-microsecond UV-visible broadband transient absorption, stationary infrared and UV-visible spectroscopy and by quantum chemical calculations. We report the first time-resolved spectroscopic detection of hydrogen transfer in GG aggregates, which leads to (G-H)(·) radicals by means of G(+)G(-) charge transfer followed by proton transfer. These radicals show a characteristic electronic spectrum in the range 300-550 nm. The calculated superimposed spectrum of the species that result from NH⋅⋅⋅N proton transfer agrees best with the experimental spectrum. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Hydrogen transfer in Pb–Li forced convection flow with permeable wall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukada, Satoshi, E-mail:; Muneoka, Taiki; Kinjyo, Mao; Yoshimura, Rhosuke; Katayama, Kazunari


    Highlights: • The paper presents experimental and analytical results of Pb–Li eutectic alloy forced convection flow. • Analytical results are in good agreement with ones of hydrogen permeation in Pb–Li forced convection flow. • The results are useful for the design of liquid blanket of fusion reactors. - Abstract: Transient- or steady-state hydrogen permeation from a primary fluid of Li{sub 17}Pb{sub 83} (Pb–Li) through a permeable tube of Inconel-625 alloy to a secondary Ar purge is investigated experimentally under a forced convection flow in a dual cylindrical tube system. Results of the overall hydrogen permeation flux are correlated in terms of diffusivity, solubility and an average axial velocity of Pb–Li and diffusivity and solubility of the solid wall. Analytical solutions under proper assumptions are derived to simulate the transient- and steady-state rates of the overall hydrogen permeation, and close agreement is obtained between experiment and analysis. Two things are clarified from the comparison: (i) how the steady-state permeation rate is affected by the mass-transfer properties and the average velocity of Pb–Li and the properties of Inconel-625, and (ii) how its transient behavior is done by the diffusivity of the two materials. The results obtained here will give important information to estimate or to analyze the tritium transfer rate in fluidized Pb–Li blankets of DEMO or the future commercial fusion reactors.

  4. Diastereo- and Enantioselective Iridium Catalyzed Carbonyl (α-Cyclopropyl)allylation via Transfer Hydrogenation. (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Ryosuke; Hong, Suckchang; Krische, Michael J


    The first examples of diastereo- and enantioselective carbonyl α-(cyclopropyl)allylation are reported. Under the conditions of iridium catalyzed transfer hydrogenation using the chiral precatalyst (R)-Ir-I modified by SEGPHOS, carbonyl α-(cyclopropyl)allylation may be achieved with equal facility from alcohol or aldehyde oxidation levels. This methodology provides a conduit to hitherto inaccessible inaccessible enantiomerically enriched cyclopropane-containing architectures. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange of weak carbon acids under phase-transfer catalysis conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldman, D.; Halpern, M.; Rabinovitz, M.


    A practical method for hydrogen-deuterium exchange is obtained via extractive hydroxide ion initiated phase-transfer catalysis. The reaction of NaOD/D 2 O system allows the easy production of compounds that otherwise would require very strong bases and aprotic solvents. The strong basicity of OD - anion is attributable to its relative freedom from water molecules when OD - is extracted into the depth of the organic layer. 22 references, 1 table

  6. Ruthenium(II) pincer complexes with oxazoline arms for efficient transfer hydrogenation reactions

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Tao


    Well-defined P NN CN pincer ruthenium complexes bearing both strong phosphine and weak oxazoline donors were developed. These easily accessible complexes exhibit significantly better catalytic activity in transfer hydrogenation of ketones compared to their PN 3P analogs. These reactions proceed under mild and base-free conditions via protonation- deprotonation of the \\'NH\\' group in the aromatization-dearomatization process. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhancing the output current of a CdTe solar cell via a CN-free hydrocarbon luminescent down-shifting fluorophore with intramolecular energy transfer and restricted internal rotation characteristics. (United States)

    Li, Yilin; Olsen, Joseph; Dong, Wen-Ji


    A CN-free hydrocarbon fluorophore (Perylene-TPE) was synthesized as a new luminescent down-shifting (LDS) material. Its photophysical properties in both the solution state and the solid state were studied. The unity fluorescence quantum yield of Perylene-TPE observed in its solid state is considered to be from the characteristics of intramolecular energy transfer (IET) and restricted internal rotation (RIR). This is supported by the results from theoretical calculations and spectroscopic measurements. For the photovoltaic application of Perylene-TPE, a theoretical modeling study suggests that using the LDS film of Perylene-TPE may increase the output short circuit current density (Jsc) of a CdTe solar cell by 2.95%, enhance the spectral response of a CdTe solar cell at 400 nm by 41%, and shift the incident solar photon distribution from short-wavelength (500 nm). Experimentally, placing a LDS film of Perylene-TPE on a CdTe solar cell can enhance its output Jsc by as high as 3.30 ± 0.31%, which is comparable to the current commercially available LDS material – Y083 (3.28% ± 0.37%).

  8. Intramolecular charge transfer of 4-(dimethylamino)benzonitrile probed by time-resolved fluorescence and transient absorption: No evidence for two ICT states and a πσ* reaction intermediate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachariasse, Klaas A.; Druzhinin, Sergey I.; Senyushkina, Tamara; Kovalenko, Sergey A.


    For the double exponential fluorescence decays of the locally excited (LE) and intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) states of 4-(dimethylamino)benzonitrile (DMABN) in acetonitrile (MeCN) the same times τ 1 and τ 2 are observed. This means that the reversible LE ICT reaction, starting from the initially excited LE state, can be adequately described by a two state mechanism. The most important factor responsible for the sometimes experimentally observed differences in the nanosecond decay time, with τ 1 (LE) 1 (ICT), is photoproduct formation. By employing a global analysis of the LE and ICT fluorescence response functions with a time resolution of 0.5 ps/channel in 1200 channels reliable kinetic and thermodynamic data can be obtained. The arguments presented in the literature in favor of a πσ* state with a bent CN group as an intermediate in the ICT reaction of DMABN are discussed. From the appearance of an excited state absorption (ESA) band in the spectral region between 700 and 800 nm in MeCN for N,N-dimethylanilines with CN, Br, F, CF 3 , and C(=O)OC 2 H 2 p-substituents, it is concluded that this ESA band cannot be attributed to a πσ * state, as only the C-C≡N group can undergo the required 120 deg. bending.

  9. Study of reactive transfer of hydrogen within intact clay-rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didier, M.


    Hydrogen gas will be produced by anaerobic corrosion of radioactive waste containers in the geological repository. This gas could affect the geological layer (Callovo-Oxfordian) stability, first due to its reductive capacity and then also due to its continuous production for about 100,000 years. The local pressure increase could affect the properties of hydro-gaseous dynamic of hydrogen transfers. The reductive capacity of H 2 could change the redox properties of the Callovo-Oxfordian and the barrier hydraulic properties, and therefore (1) its mineralogy, (2) the speciation of outgoing radionuclides and (3) their transfer. Moreover, if the hydrogen gas transport is difficult within the geological layer, the pressure increase could cause cracking and create preferential pathways for radionuclides migration. An experimental device was developed to measure the entry pressure of H 2 (g) and transport parameters as permeability and diffusion coefficient through the CO x . The entry pressure is estimated to be between 49 and 63 bar. Knowing that the maximum expected pressure is about 80 bar, there may therefore be a displacement of hydrogen gas into the water saturated clay-rock. Moreover, for a saturation greater than 0.90 and at T = 23 C, permeability is measured to be close to 10 -23 m 2 and the diffusion coefficient to be as low as 10 -12 m 2 .s -1 . Therefore hydrogen gas will move slowly in the geological layer, for example it will take about 31,710 years to go through one meter of clay-rock by diffusion. These transport parameters are found to depend mainly on the sample water saturation and not much on temperature. Regarding hydrogen reactivity, under conditions close to those in the storage, H 2 will reduce up to 9 wt% of structural Fe (III) at 90 C and PH 2 = 5 bar. This reaction is not complete and hydrogen gas will mainly sorb on the material, with a sorption up to 0.05 wt% at 90 C and PH 2 = 0.45 bar. This process depends strongly on the water saturation of

  10. Revised Theoretical Model on Enantiocontrol in Phosphoric Acid Catalyzed H-Transfer Hydrogenation of Quinoline. (United States)

    Pastor, Julien; Rezabal, Elixabete; Voituriez, Arnaud; Betzer, Jean-François; Marinetti, Angela; Frison, Gilles


    The enantioselective H-transfer hydrogenation of quinoline by Hantzsch ester is a relevant example of Brønsted acid catalyzed cascade reactions, with phosphoric acid being a privileged catalyst. The generally accepted mechanism points out the hydride transfer step as the rate- and stereodetermining step, however computations based on these models do not totally fit with experimental observations. We hereby present a computational study that enlightens the stereochemical outcome and quantitatively reproduces the experimental enantiomeric excesses in a series of H-transfer hydrogenations. Our calculations suggest that the high stereocontrol usually attained with BINOL-derived phosphoric acids results mostly from the steric constraints generated by an aryl substituent of the catalyst, which hinders the access of the Hantzsch ester to the catalytic site and enforces approach through a specific way. It relies on a new model involving the preferential assembly of one of the stereomeric complexes formed by the chiral phosphoric acid and the two reaction partners. The stereodetermining step thus occurs prior to the H-transfer step.

  11. Reactivity of hydropersulfides toward the hydroxyl radical unraveled: disulfide bond cleavage, hydrogen atom transfer, and proton-coupled electron transfer. (United States)

    Anglada, Josep M; Crehuet, Ramon; Adhikari, Sarju; Francisco, Joseph S; Xia, Yu


    Hydropersulfides (RSSH) are highly reactive as nucleophiles and hydrogen atom transfer reagents. These chemical properties are believed to be key for them to act as antioxidants in cells. The reaction involving the radical species and the disulfide bond (S-S) in RSSH, a known redox-active group, however, has been scarcely studied, resulting in an incomplete understanding of the chemical nature of RSSH. We have performed a high-level theoretical investigation on the reactions of the hydroxyl radical (˙OH) toward a set of RSSH (R = -H, -CH 3 , -NH 2 , -C(O)OH, -CN, and -NO 2 ). The results show that S-S cleavage and H-atom abstraction are the two competing channels. The electron inductive effect of R induces selective ˙OH substitution at one sulfur atom upon S-S cleavage, forming RSOH and ˙SH for the electron donating groups (EDGs), whereas producing HSOH and ˙SR for the electron withdrawing groups (EWGs). The H-Atom abstraction by ˙OH follows a classical hydrogen atom transfer (hat) mechanism, producing RSS˙ and H 2 O. Surprisingly, a proton-coupled electron transfer (pcet) process also occurs for R being an EDG. Although for RSSH having EWGs hat is the leading channel, S-S cleavage can be competitive or even dominant for the EDGs. The overall reactivity of RSSH toward ˙OH attack is greatly enhanced with the presence of an EDG, with CH 3 SSH being the most reactive species found in this study (overall rate constant: 4.55 × 10 12 M -1 s -1 ). Our results highlight the complexity in RSSH reaction chemistry, the extent of which is closely modulated by the inductive effect of the substituents in the case of the oxidation by hydroxyl radicals.

  12. Discovery of S···C≡N Intramolecular Bonding in a Thiophenylcyanoacrylate-Based Dye: Realizing Charge Transfer Pathways and Dye···TiO 2 Anchoring Characteristics for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, Jacqueline M. [Cavendish; ISIS; Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Department; Blood-Forsythe, Martin A. [Cavendish; Lin, Tze-Chia [Cavendish; Pattison, Philip [Swiss; Gong, Yun [Cavendish; Vázquez-Mayagoitia, Álvaro [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Waddell, Paul G. [Cavendish; Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering, Australian Nuclear Science; Zhang, Lei [Cavendish; Koumura, Nagatoshi [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565, Japan; Mori, Shogo [Division


    Donor-pi-acceptor dyes containing thiophenyl pi-conjugated units and cyanoacrylate acceptor groups are among the best-performing organic chromophores used in dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) applications. Yet, the molecular origins of their high photovoltaic output have remained unclear until now. This synchrotron-based X-ray diffraction study elucidates these origins for the high-performance thiophenylcyanoacrylate-based dye MK-2 (7.7% DSC device efficiency) and its molecular building block, MK-44. The crystal structures of MK-2 and MK-44 are both determined, while a high-resolution charge-density mapping of the smaller molecule was also possible, enabling the nature of its bonding to be detailed. A strong S center dot center dot center dot C equivalent to N intramolecular interaction is discovered, which bears a bond critical point, thus proving that this interaction should be formally classified as a chemical bond. A topological analysis of the pi-conjugated portion of MK-44 shows that this S center dot center dot center dot C equivalent to N bonding underpins the highly efficient intramolecular charge transfer(ICT) in thiophenylcyanoacrylate dyes. This manifests as two bipartite ICT pathways bearing carboxylate and nitrile end points. In turn, these pathways dictate a preferred COO/CN anchoring mode for the dye as it adsorbs onto TiO2 surfaces, to form the dye TiO2 interface that constitutes the DSC working electrode. These results corroborate a recent proposal that all cyanoacrylate groups anchor onto TiO2 in this COO/CN binding configuration. Conformational analysis of the MK-44 and MK-2 crystal structures reveals that this S center dot center dot center dot C equivalent to N bonding will persist in MK-2. Accordingly, this newly discovered bond affords a rational explanation for the attractive photovoltaic properties of,MK-2. More generally, this study provides the first unequivocal evidence for an S center dot center dot center dot C equivalent to N

  13. Kinetics and the mass transfer mechanism of hydrogen sulfide removal by biochar derived from rice hull. (United States)

    Shang, Guofeng; Liu, Liang; Chen, Ping; Shen, Guoqing; Li, Qiwu


    The biochar derived from rice hull was evaluated for its abilities to remove hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from gas phase. The surface area and pH of the biochar were compared. The biochar derived from rice hull was evaluated for its abilities to remove hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from gas phase. The surface area and pH of the biochar were compared. The different pyrolysis temperature has great influence on the adsorption of H2S. At the different pyrolysis temperature, the H2S removal efficiency of rice hull-derived biochar was different. The adsorption capacities of biochar were 2.09 mg·g(-1), 2.65 mg·g(-1), 16.30 mg·g(-1), 20.80 mg·g(-1), and 382.70 mg·g(-1), which their pyrolysis temperatures were 100 °C, 200 °C, 300 °C, 400 °C and 500 °C respectively. Based on the Yoon-Nelson model, it analyzed the mass transfer mechanism of hydrogen sulfide adsorption by biochar. The paper focuses on the biochar derived from rice hull-removed hydrogen sulfide (H2S) from gas phase. The surface area and pH of the biochar were compared. The different pyrolysis temperatures have great influence on the adsorption of H2S. At the different pyrolysis temperatures, the H2S removal efficiency of rice hull-derived biohar was different. The adsorption capacities of biochar were 2.09, 2.65, 16.30, 20.80, and 382.70 mg·g(-1), and their pyrolysis temperatures were 100, 200, 300, 400, and 500 °C, respectively. Based on the Yoon-Nelson model, the mass transfer mechanism of hydrogen sulfide adsorption by biochar was analyzed.

  14. Liquid oxygen/liquid hydrogen boost/vane pump for the advanced orbit transfer vehicles auxiliary propulsion system (United States)

    Gluzek, F.; Mokadam, R. G.; To, I. H.; Stanitz, J. D.; Wollschlager, J.


    A rotating, positive displacement vane pump with an integral boost stage was designed to pump saturated liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen for auxiliary propulsion system of orbit transfer vehicle. This unit is designed to ingest 10% vapor by volume, contamination free liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen. The final pump configuration and the predicted performance are included.

  15. Spanning four mechanistic regions of intramolecular proton-coupled electron transfer in a Ru(bpy)3(2+)-tyrosine complex. (United States)

    Irebo, Tania; Zhang, Ming-Tian; Markle, Todd F; Scott, Amy M; Hammarström, Leif


    Proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) from tyrosine (TyrOH) to a covalently linked [Ru(bpy)(3)](2+) photosensitizer in aqueous media has been systematically reinvestigated by laser flash-quench kinetics as a model system for PCET in radical enzymes and in photochemical energy conversion. Previous kinetic studies on Ru-TyrOH molecules (Sjödin et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2000, 122, 3932; Irebo et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 15462) have established two mechanisms. Concerted electron-proton (CEP) transfer has been observed when pH 10. Here we compare the PCET rates and kinetic isotope effects (k(H)/k(D)) of four Ru-TyrOH molecules with varying Ru(III/II) oxidant strengths over a pH range of 1-12.5. On the basis of these data, two additional mechanistic regimes were observed and identified through analysis of kinetic competition and kinetic isotope effects (KIE): (i) a mechanism dominating at low pH assigned to a stepwise electron-first PCET and (ii) a stepwise proton-first PCET with OH(-) as proton acceptor that dominates around pH = 10. The effect of solution pH and electrochemical potential of the Ru(III/II) oxidant on the competition between the different mechanisms is discussed. The systems investigated may serve as models for the mechanistic diversity of PCET reactions in general with water (H(2)O, OH(-)) as primary proton acceptor.

  16. Enhanced luminescence of rare-earth Tb (III obtained by mixing of Gd (III in a fumarate complex and intra-molecular energy transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah M.D.


    Full Text Available Trivalent lanthanide ions display fascinating optical properties. Therefore, the rare-earth complexes of terbium fumarate heptahydrate and GdTb fumarate heptahydrate were grown by using a single gel diffusion technique. The crystals were characterized by different physicochemical techniques of characterization. UV-Vis and photoluminescence spectrophotometric experiments were carried out to study the optical properties of the grown crystals. Under various excitations (339 nm, 350 nm or 368 nm the terbium fumarate complex emitted characteristic (4f-4f green emission of Tb3+ (5D4-7FJ, J = 6, 5, 4 and 3, respectively. Luminescence spectra showed that Gd3+ ions in the mixed complex have not affected the luminescence emission peak positions, but remarkably increased the luminescent intensities of the terbium complex. The energy-transfer mechanism between the ligand and the central Tb3+ ions and from the Gd3+ to the Tb3+ was discussed.

  17. Numerical simulation of coupled heat and mass transfer in metal hydride-based hydrogen storage reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muthukumar, P.; Ramana, S. Venkata


    In this paper, a numerical investigation of two-dimensional heat and mass transfer during absorption of hydrogen in a cylindrical metal hydride bed containing MmNi 6.4 Al 0.4 is presented. By considering the variation in cooling fluid temperature along the axial direction (variable wall temperature), the changes in hydrogen concentration, hydride equilibrium pressure, and average hydride bed temperature at different axial locations are presented. The average bed temperature profiles and hydrogen storage capacities at different supply pressures showed good agreement with the experimental data reported in the literature. As the absorption progresses, the change in cooling fluid temperature along the axial direction is found to decrease and becomes unchanged at the end of the absorption process. The effect of variable wall temperature on hydrogen absorption rate for different supply pressures and hydride bed thicknesses are presented. The effect of variable wall temperature on absorption time is found to be significant for the hydride beds of thickness of above 7.5 mm. For a supply pressure of 20 bar, the maximum difference in absorption time between variable wall temperature and constant wall temperature boundary conditions is about 300 s for 17.5 mm bed thickness

  18. Comparative investigation of surface transfer doping of hydrogen terminated diamond by high electron affinity insulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verona, C.; Marinelli, Marco; Verona-Rinati, G. [Dip. di Ingegneria Industriale, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata,” Via del Politecnico 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Ciccognani, W.; Colangeli, S.; Limiti, E. [Dip. di Ingegneria Elettronica, Università di Roma “Tor Vergata,” Via del Politecnico 1, I-00133 Roma (Italy)


    We report on a comparative study of transfer doping of hydrogenated single crystal diamond surface by insulators featured by high electron affinity, such as Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, WO{sub 3}, V{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and MoO{sub 3}. The low electron affinity Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was also investigated for comparison. Hole transport properties were evaluated in the passivated hydrogenated diamond films by Hall effect measurements, and were compared to un-passivated diamond films (air-induced doping). A drastic improvement was observed in passivated samples in terms of conductivity, stability with time, and resistance to high temperatures. The efficiency of the investigated insulators, as electron accepting materials in hydrogenated diamond surface, is consistent with their electronic structure. These surface acceptor materials generate a higher hole sheet concentration, up to 6.5 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2}, and a lower sheet resistance, down to 2.6 kΩ/sq, in comparison to the atmosphere-induced values of about 1 × 10{sup 13} cm{sup −2} and 10 kΩ/sq, respectively. On the other hand, hole mobilities were reduced by using high electron affinity insulator dopants. Hole mobility as a function of hole concentration in a hydrogenated diamond layer was also investigated, showing a well-defined monotonically decreasing trend.

  19. Coupling of protein motions and hydrogen transfer during catalysis by Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase. (United States)

    Swanwick, Richard S; Maglia, Giovanni; Tey, Lai-hock; Allemann, Rudolf K


    The enzyme DHFR (dihydrofolate reductase) catalyses hydride transfer from NADPH to, and protonation of, dihydrofolate. The physical basis of the hydride transfer step catalysed by DHFR from Escherichia coli has been studied through the measurement of the temperature dependence of the reaction rates and the kinetic isotope effects. Single turnover experiments at pH 7.0 revealed a strong dependence of the reaction rates on temperature. The observed relatively large difference in the activation energies for hydrogen and deuterium transfer led to a temperature dependence of the primary kinetic isotope effects from 3.0+/-0.2 at 5 degrees C to 2.2+/-0.2 at 40 degrees C and an inverse ratio of the pre-exponential factors of 0.108+/-0.04. These results are consistent with theoretical models for hydrogen transfer that include contributions from quantum mechanical tunnelling coupled with protein motions that actively modulate the tunnelling distance. Previous work had suggested a coupling of a remote residue,Gly121, with the kinetic events at the active site. However, pre-steady-state experiments at pH 7.0 with the mutant G121V-DHFR, in which Gly121 was replaced with valine, revealed that the chemical mechanism of DHFR catalysis was robust to this replacement. The reduced catalytic efficiency of G121V-DHFR was mainly a consequence of the significantly reduced pre-exponential factors, indicating the requirement for significant molecular reorganization during G121V-DHFR catalysis. In contrast, steady-state measurements at pH 9.5, where hydride transfer is rate limiting, revealed temperature-independent kinetic isotope effects between 15 and 35 degrees C and a ratio of the pre-exponential factors above the semi-classical limit, suggesting a rigid active site configuration from which hydrogen tunnelling occurs. The mechanism by which hydrogen tunnelling in DHFR is coupled with the environment appears therefore to be sensitive to pH.

  20. Enantioselective Iridium Catalyzed Carbonyl Allylation from the Alcohol Oxidation Level via Transfer Hydrogenation: Minimizing Pre-Activation for Synthetic Efficiency (United States)

    Han, Soo Bong; Kim, In Su; Krische, Michael J.


    Existing methods for enantioselective carbonyl allylation, crotylation and tert-prenylation require stoichiometric generation of pre-metallated nucleophiles and often employ stoichiometric chiral modifiers. Under the conditions of transfer hydrogenation employing an ortho-cyclometallated iridium C,O-benzoate catalyst, enantioselective carbonyl allylations, crotylations and tert-prenylations are achieved in the absence of stoichiometric metallic reagents or stoichiometric chiral modifiers. Moreover, under transfer hydrogenation conditions, primary alcohols function dually as hydrogen donors and aldehyde precursors, enabling enantioselective carbonyl addition directly from the alcohol oxidation level. PMID:20024203

  1. Natural spectroscopic hydrogen isotope transfer in alcohol dehydrogenase-catalysed reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Li Zhang; Pionnier, S.


    The enantiomeric purity of natural α-mono deuterated enantiomers, (R) and (S)ethanol-1-d 1 , in the alcohol produced by sugar fermentation with yeast was studied by 2 H NMR using their esters derived from optical mandelic acid. The results of isotope tracing experiments show that the transfer pathways of the two eantiotopic hydrogens of the methylene group are different. It was observed that (S)-deuterium comes only from the medium water. The (R)-deuterium transferred by NADH in alcohol dehydrogenase reduction of the acetaldehyde is complex origin. Some of them originates from carbon bound hydrogen of the sugar, especially from C(4) position of glucose and most of them comes from water. Only a small portion of the NADH deuterium is incorporated indirectly from water through enzyme catalysed exchange between the pro-S site of NADH and flavin. When a carbonyl compound (ethyl acetoacetate) was reduced under the same conditions during the alcoholic fermentation, among the NADH-transferred deuterium, only a small portion comes from water while most comes from the unexchangeable positions of the glucose. (author)

  2. Bimetallic promotion of cooperative hydrogen transfer and heteroatom removal in coal liquefaction. Quarterly summary, June 1, 1991--August 31, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eisch, J.J.


    The ultimate objective of this research is to uncover new catalytic processes for the liquefaction of coal and for upgrading coal-derived fuels by removing undesirable organosulfur, organonitrogen and organooxygen constituents. Basic to both the liquefaction of coal and the purification of coal liquids is the transfer of hydrogen from such sources as dihydrogen, metal hydrides or partially reduced aromatic hydrocarbons to the extensive aromatic rings in coal itself or to aromatic sulfides, amines or ethers. Accordingly, this study is exploring how such crucial hydrogen-transfer processes might be catalyzed by soluble, low-valent transition metal complexes and/or Lewis acids under moderate conditions of temperature and pressure. By learning the mechanism whereby H{sub 2}, metal hydrides or partially hydrogenated aromatics do transfer hydrogen to model aromatic compounds, with the aid of homogeneous, bimetallic catalysts, we hope to identify new methods for producing superior fuels from coal.

  3. Understanding the role of water in aqueous ruthenium-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation of ketones. (United States)

    Pavlova, Anna; Meijer, Evert Jan


    We report an accurate computational study of the role of water in transfer hydrogenation of formaldehyde with a ruthenium-based catalyst using a water-specific model. Our results suggest that the reaction mechanism in aqueous solution is significantly different from that in the gas phase or in methanol solution. Previous theoretical studies have shown a concerted hydride and proton transfer in the gas phase (M. Yamakawa, H. Ito, R. Noyori, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2000, 122, 1466-1478;J.-W. Handgraaf, J. N. H. Reek, E. J. Meijer, Organometallics 2003, 22, 3150-3157; D. A. Alonso, P. Brandt, S. J. M. Nordin, P. G. Andersson, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1999, 121, 9580-9588; D. G. I. Petra, J. N. H. Reek, J.-W. Handgraaf, E. J. Meijer, P. Dierkes, P. C. J. Kamer, J. Brussee, H. E. Schoemaker, P. W. N. M. van Leeuwen, Chem. Eur. J. 2000, 6, 2818-2829), whereas a delayed, solvent-mediated proton transfer has been observed in methanol solution (J.-W. Handgraaf, E. J. Meijer, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 3099-3103). In aqueous solution, a concerted transition state is observed, as in the previous studies. However, only the hydride is transferred at that point, whereas the proton is transferred later by a water molecule instead of the catalyst. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Sensitive non-radioactive determination of aminotransferase stereospecificity for C-4' hydrogen transfer on the coenzyme. (United States)

    Jomrit, Juntratip; Summpunn, Pijug; Meevootisom, Vithaya; Wiyakrutta, Suthep


    A sensitive non-radioactive method for determination of the stereospecificity of the C-4' hydrogen transfer on the coenzymes (pyridoxal phosphate, PLP; and pyridoxamine phosphate, PMP) of aminotransferases has been developed. Aminotransferase of unknown stereospecificity in its PLP form was incubated in (2)H(2)O with a substrate amino acid resulted in PMP labeled with deuterium at C-4' in the pro-S or pro-R configuration according to the stereospecificity of the aminotransferase tested. The [4'-(2)H]PMP was isolated from the enzyme protein and divided into two portions. The first portion was incubated in aqueous buffer with apo-aspartate aminotransferase (a reference si-face specific enzyme), and the other was incubated with apo-branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase (a reference re-face specific enzyme) in the presence of a substrate 2-oxo acid. The (2)H at C-4' is retained with the PLP if the aminotransferase in question transfers C-4' hydrogen on the opposite face of the coenzyme compared with the reference aminotransferase, but the (2)H is removed if the test and reference aminotransferases catalyze hydrogen transfer on the same face. PLP formed in the final reactions was analyzed by LC-MS/MS for the presence or absence of (2)H. The method was highly sensitive that for the aminotransferase with ca. 50 kDa subunit molecular weight, only 2mg of the enzyme was sufficient for the whole test. With this method, the use of radioactive substances could be avoided without compromising the sensitivity of the assay. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hydrogen peroxide elimination from C4a-hydroperoxyflavin in a flavoprotein oxidase occurs through a single proton transfer from flavin N5 to a peroxide leaving group. (United States)

    Sucharitakul, Jeerus; Wongnate, Thanyaporn; Chaiyen, Pimchai


    C4a-hydroperoxyflavin is found commonly in the reactions of flavin-dependent monooxygenases, in which it plays a key role as an intermediate that incorporates an oxygen atom into substrates. Only recently has evidence for its involvement in the reactions of flavoprotein oxidases been reported. Previous studies of pyranose 2-oxidase (P2O), an enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of pyranoses using oxygen as an electron acceptor to generate oxidized sugars and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), have shown that C4a-hydroperoxyflavin forms in P2O reactions before it eliminates H(2)O(2) as a product (Sucharitakul, J., Prongjit, M., Haltrich, D., and Chaiyen, P. (2008) Biochemistry 47, 8485-8490). In this report, the solvent kinetic isotope effects (SKIE) on the reaction of reduced P2O with oxygen were investigated using transient kinetics. Our results showed that D(2)O has a negligible effect on the formation of C4a-hydroperoxyflavin. The ensuing step of H(2)O(2) elimination from C4a-hydroperoxyflavin was shown to be modulated by an SKIE of 2.8 ± 0.2, and a proton inventory analysis of this step indicates a linear plot. These data suggest that a single-proton transfer process causes SKIE at the H(2)O(2) elimination step. Double and single mixing stopped-flow experiments performed in H(2)O buffer revealed that reduced flavin specifically labeled with deuterium at the flavin N5 position generated kinetic isotope effects similar to those found with experiments performed with the enzyme pre-equilibrated in D(2)O buffer. This suggests that the proton at the flavin N5 position is responsible for the SKIE and is the proton-in-flight that is transferred during the transition state. The mechanism of H(2)O(2) elimination from C4a-hydroperoxyflavin is consistent with a single proton transfer from the flavin N5 to the peroxide leaving group, possibly via the formation of an intramolecular hydrogen bridge.

  6. Mesoporous Silica-Supported Sulfonyldiamine Ligand for Microwave-Assisted Transfer Hydrogenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen M. Sarkar


    Full Text Available N-Sulfonyl-1,2-diamine ligands, derived from 1,2-diaminocyclohexane and 1,2-diaminopropane, were immobilized onto mesoporous SBA-15 silica. The SBA-15-supported sulfonyldiamine-Ru complex was prepared in situ under microwave heating at 60 W for 3 min. The prepared sulfonyldiamine-Ru complex was used as an efficient catalyst for the transfer hydrogenation of ketones to the corresponding secondary alcohols. The heterogeneous complex showed extremely high catalytic activity with 99% conversion rate under microwave heating condition. The complexes were regenerated by simple filtration and reused two times without significant loss of activity.

  7. Some recent results on μ-transfer in systems with bound hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, J.D.; Mausner, L.F.; Orth, C.J.; Schillaci, M.E.; Naumann, R.A.; Schmidt, G.


    Preliminary results are given for two sets of experiments conducted in order to obtain information on the role of bound hydrogen in possible μ transfer processes by comparisons of muonic Lyman spectra. Muonic x-ray intensity patterns of Cl in CCl 4 , CH 2 Cl 2 and a CCl 4 + C 8 H 18 mixture. Secondly the same type of experiment was performed but with F as the test element. Muonic x-ray spectra of the normal and deutero forms of a compound were compared

  8. Ionization and Charge Transfer of Atomic Hydrogen by Highly Charged Ions (United States)

    Ding, Bao-Wei; Hu, Bi-Tao


    Cross sections for charge transfer and ionization of atomic hydrogen by highly charged ions Aq+ (q = 6-9) are evaluated using a simple and classical method based on the previous works by Bohr and Lindhard [K. Dan. Vidensk. Selsk. Mat. Fys. Medd 28 (1954) No 7], Brandt [Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 214 (1983) 93] and Ben-Itzhak et al. [J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 26 (1993) 1711]. It is proved that the present calculations are feasible to some extent in comparison with available experimental data and quantum calculations.

  9. Bane of Hydrogen-Bond Formation on the Photoinduced Charge-Transfer Process in Donor–Acceptor Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Alsam, Amani Abdu


    Controlling the ultrafast dynamical process of photoinduced charge transfer at donor acceptor interfaces remains a major challenge for physical chemistry and solar cell communities. The process is complicated by the involvement of other complex dynamical processes, including hydrogen bond formation, energy transfer, and solvation dynamics occurring on similar time scales. In this study, we explore the remarkable impact of hydrogen-bond formation on the interfacial charge transfer between a negatively charged electron donating anionic porphyrin and a positively charged electron accepting pi-conjugated polymer, as a model system in solvents with different polarities and capabilities for hydiogen bonding using femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Unlike the conventional understanding of the key role of hydrogen bonding in promoting the charge-transfer process, our steadystate and time-resolved results reveal that the intervening hydrogen-bonding environment and, consequently, the probable longer spacing between the donor and acceptor molecules significantly hinders the charge-transfer process between them. These results show that site-specific hydrogen bonding and geometric considerations between donor and acceptor can be exploited to control both the charge-transfer dynamics and its efficiency not only at donor acceptor interfaces but also in complex biological systems.

  10. The π-Tetrel Bond and its Influence on Hydrogen Bonding and Proton Transfer. (United States)

    Wei, Yuanxin; Li, Qingzhong; Scheiner, Steve


    The positive region that lies above the plane of F 2 TO (T=C and Si) interacts with malondialdehyde (MDA), which contains an intramolecular H-bond. The T atom of F 2 TO can lie either in the MDA molecular plane, forming a T⋅⋅⋅O tetrel bond, or F 2 TO can stack directly above MDA in a parallel arrangement. The former structure is more stable than the latter, and in either case, F 2 SiO engages in a much stronger interaction than does F 2 CO, reaching nearly 200 kJ mol -1 . The π-tetrel bond strengthens/weakens the MDA H-bond when the bond is formed to the hydroxyl/carbonyl group of MDA, and causes an accompanying inhibition/promotion of proton transfer within this H-bond; this effect is stronger for F 2 SiO. These same aspects can be tuned by substituents placed on any of the C atoms of MDA, although their effects are not fully correlated with the electron-withdrawing or electron-releasing properties of the substituent. A new type of π-π tetrel bond occurs when the π-hole on the T atom of F 2 TO approaches the middle carbon atom of MDA from above, and a similar configuration is also found between F 2 TO and benzene. Evidence for extensive C⋅⋅⋅C π-π tetrel bonding in crystal materials is presented. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Microscopic models for proton transfer in water and strongly hydrogen-bonded complexes with a single-well proton potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuznetsov, A.M.; Ulstrup, Jens


    A new mechanism and formalism for proton transfer in donor-acceptor complexes with long hydrogen bonds introduced recently [1], is applied to a proton transfer in liquid water. "Structural diffusion" of hydroxonium ions is regarded as totally adiabatic process, with synchronous hindered translation...... of two closest water molecules to and from the reaction complex as crucial steps. The water molecules induce a "gated" shift of the proton from the donor to the acceptor in the double-well potential with simultaneous breaking/formation of hydrogen bonds between these molecules and the proton donor...... and acceptor. The short-range and long-range proton transfer as "structural diffusion" of Zundel complexes is also considered. The theoretical formalism is illustrated with the use of Morse, exponential, and harmonic molecular potentials. This approach is extended to proton transfer in strongly hydrogen...

  12. Dependence of Vibronic Coupling on Molecular Geometry and Environment: Bridging Hydrogen Atom Transfer and Electron–Proton Transfer (United States)


    The rate constants for typical concerted proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions depend on the vibronic coupling between the diabatic reactant and product states. The form of the vibronic coupling is different for electronically adiabatic and nonadiabatic reactions, which are associated with hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) and electron–proton transfer (EPT) mechanisms, respectively. Most PCET rate constant expressions rely on the Condon approximation, which assumes that the vibronic coupling is independent of the nuclear coordinates of the solute and the solvent or protein. Herein we test the Condon approximation for PCET vibronic couplings. The dependence of the vibronic coupling on molecular geometry is investigated for an open and a stacked transition state geometry of the phenoxyl-phenol self-exchange reaction. The calculations indicate that the open geometry is electronically nonadiabatic, corresponding to an EPT mechanism that involves significant electronic charge redistribution, while the stacked geometry is predominantly electronically adiabatic, corresponding primarily to an HAT mechanism. Consequently, a single molecular system can exhibit both HAT and EPT character. The dependence of the vibronic coupling on the solvent or protein configuration is examined for the soybean lipoxygenase enzyme. The calculations indicate that this PCET reaction is electronically nonadiabatic with a vibronic coupling that does not depend significantly on the protein environment. Thus, the Condon approximation is shown to be valid for the solvent and protein nuclear coordinates but invalid for the solute nuclear coordinates in certain PCET systems. These results have significant implications for the calculation of rate constants, as well as mechanistic interpretations, of PCET reactions. PMID:26412613

  13. Liquid-Phase Catalytic Transfer Hydrogenation of Furfural over Homogeneous Lewis Acid-Ru/C Catalysts. (United States)

    Panagiotopoulou, Paraskevi; Martin, Nickolas; Vlachos, Dionisios G


    The catalytic performance of homogeneous Lewis acid catalysts and their interaction with Ru/C catalyst are studied in the catalytic transfer hydrogenation of furfural by using 2-propanol as a solvent and hydrogen donor. We find that Lewis acid catalysts hydrogenate the furfural to furfuryl alcohol, which is then etherified with 2-propanol. The catalytic activity is correlated with an empirical scale of Lewis acid strength and exhibits a volcano behavior. Lanthanides are the most active, with DyCl3 giving complete furfural conversion and a 97 % yield of furfuryl alcohol at 180 °C after 3 h. The combination of Lewis acid and Ru/C catalysts results in synergy for the stronger Lewis acid catalysts, with a significant increase in the furfural conversion and methyl furan yield. Optimum results are obtained by using Ru/C combined with VCl3 , AlCl3 , SnCl4 , YbCl3 , and RuCl3 . Our results indicate that the combination of Lewis acid/metal catalysts is a general strategy for performing tandem reactions in the upgrade of furans. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. A novel carbohydrate labeling method utilizing transfer hydrogenation-mediated reductive amination. (United States)

    Kovács, Zsuzsanna; Papp, Gábor; Horváth, Henrietta; Joó, Ferenc; Guttman, András


    One of the most frequently used high-resolution glycan analysis methods in the biopharmaceutical and biomedical fields is capillary electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence (CE-LIF) detection. Glycans are usually labeled by reductive amination with a charged fluorophore containing a primary amine, which reacts with the aldehyde group at the reducing end of the glycan structures. In this reaction, first a Schiff base is formed that is reduced to form a stable conjugate by a hydrogenation reagent, such as sodium cyanoborohydride. In large scale biopharmaceutical applications, such as clone selection for glycoprotein therapeutics, hundreds of reactions are accomplished simultaneously, so the HCN generated in the process poses a safety concern. To alleviate this issue, here we propose catalytic hydrogen transfer from formic acid catalyzed by water-soluble iridium(III)- and ruthenium(II)-phosphine complexes as a novel alternative to hydrogenation. The easily synthesized water-soluble iridium(III) and the ruthenium(II) hydrido complexes showed high catalytic activity in carbohydrate labeling. This procedure is environmentally friendly and reduces the health risks for the industry. Using carbohydrate standards, oligosaccharides released from glycoproteins with highly sialylated (fetuin), high mannose (ribonuclease B) and mixed sialo and neutral (human plasma) N-glycans, we demonstrated similar labeling efficiencies for iridium(III) dihydride to that of the conventionally used sodium cyanoborohydride based reaction. The derivatization reaction time was less than 20min with no bias towards the above mentioned specific glycan structures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Excitation and charge transfer in low-energy hydrogen atom collisions with neutral oxygen (United States)

    Barklem, P. S.


    Excitation and charge transfer in low-energy O+H collisions is studied; it is a problem of importance for modelling stellar spectra and obtaining accurate oxygen abundances in late-type stars including the Sun. The collisions have been studied theoretically using a previously presented method based on an asymptotic two-electron linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) model of ionic-covalent interactions in the neutral atom-hydrogen-atom system, together with the multichannel Landau-Zener model. The method has been extended to include configurations involving excited states of hydrogen using an estimate for the two-electron transition coupling, but this extension was found to not lead to any remarkably high rates. Rate coefficients are calculated for temperatures in the range 1000-20 000 K, and charge transfer and (de)excitation processes involving the first excited S-states, 4s.5So and 4s.3So, are found to have the highest rates. Data are available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to ( or via The data are also available at http://

  16. Manganese-Oxygen Intermediates in O-O Bond Activation and Hydrogen-Atom Transfer Reactions. (United States)

    Rice, Derek B; Massie, Allyssa A; Jackson, Timothy A


    Biological systems capitalize on the redox versatility of manganese to perform reactions involving dioxygen and its derivatives superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and water. The reactions of manganese enzymes influence both human health and the global energy cycle. Important examples include the detoxification of reactive oxygen species by manganese superoxide dismutase, biosynthesis by manganese ribonucleotide reductase and manganese lipoxygenase, and water splitting by the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II. Although these enzymes perform very different reactions and employ structurally distinct active sites, manganese intermediates with peroxo, hydroxo, and oxo ligation are commonly proposed in catalytic mechanisms. These intermediates are also postulated in mechanisms of synthetic manganese oxidation catalysts, which are of interest due to the earth abundance of manganese. In this Account, we describe our recent efforts toward understanding O-O bond activation pathways of Mn III -peroxo adducts and hydrogen-atom transfer reactivity of Mn IV -oxo and Mn III -hydroxo complexes. In biological and synthetic catalysts, peroxomanganese intermediates are commonly proposed to decay by either Mn-O or O-O cleavage pathways, although it is often unclear how the local coordination environment influences the decay mechanism. To address this matter, we generated a variety of Mn III -peroxo adducts with varied ligand environments. Using parallel-mode EPR and Mn K-edge X-ray absorption techniques, the decay pathway of one Mn III -peroxo complex bearing a bulky macrocylic ligand was investigated. Unlike many Mn III -peroxo model complexes that decay to oxo-bridged-Mn III Mn IV dimers, decay of this Mn III -peroxo adduct yielded mononuclear Mn III -hydroxo and Mn IV -oxo products, potentially resulting from O-O bond activation of the Mn III -peroxo unit. These results highlight the role of ligand sterics in promoting the formation of mononuclear products and mark an important

  17. The contrasting catalytic efficiency and cancer cell antiproliferative activity of stereoselective organoruthenium transfer hydrogenation catalysts. (United States)

    Fu, Ying; Sanchez-Cano, Carlos; Soni, Rina; Romero-Canelon, Isolda; Hearn, Jessica M; Liu, Zhe; Wills, Martin; Sadler, Peter J


    The rapidly growing area of catalytic ruthenium chemistry has provided new complexes with potential as organometallic anticancer agents with novel mechanisms of action. Here we report the anticancer activity of four neutral organometallic Ru(II) arene N-tosyl-1,2-diphenylethane-1,2-diamine (TsDPEN) tethered transfer hydrogenation catalysts. The enantiomers (R,R)-[Ru(η(6)-C6H5(CH2)3-TsDPEN-N-Me)Cl] (8) and (S,S)-[Ru(η(6)-C6H5(CH2)3-TsDPEN-N-Me)Cl] (8a) exhibited higher potency than cisplatin against A2780 human ovarian cancer cells. When the N-methyl was replaced by N-H, i.e. to give (R,R)-[Ru(η(6)-Ph(CH2)3-TsDPEN-NH)Cl] (7) and (S,S)-[Ru(η(6)-Ph(CH2)3-TsDPEN-NH)Cl] (7a), respectively, anticancer activity decreased >5-fold. Their antiproliferative activity appears to be linked to their ability to accumulate in cells, and their mechanism of action might involve inhibition of tubulin polymerisation. This appears to be the first report of the potent anticancer activity of tethered Ru(II) arene complexes, and the structure-activity relationship suggests that the N-methyl substituents are important for potency. In the National Cancer Institute 60-cancer-cell-line screen, complexes 8 and 8a exhibited higher activity than cisplatin towards a broad range of cancer cell lines. Intriguingly, in contrast to their potent anticancer properties, complexes 8/8a are poor catalysts for asymmetric transfer hydrogenation, whereas complexes 7/7a are effective asymmetric hydrogenation catalysts.

  18. Intermolecular hydrogen transfer catalyzed by a flavodehydrogenase, bakers' yeast flavocytochrome b2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urban, P.; Lederer, F.


    Bakers yeast flavocytochrome b2 is a flavin-dependent L-2-hydroxy acid dehydrogenase which also exhibits transhydrogenase activity. When a reaction takes place between [2- 3 H]lactate and a halogenopyruvate, tritium is found in water and at the halogenolactate C2 position. When the halogenopyruvate undergoes halide ion elimination, tritium is also found at the C3 position of the resulting pyruvate. The amount tau of this intermolecular tritium transfer depends on the initial keto acid-acceptor concentration. At infinite acceptor concentration, extrapolation yields a maximal transfer of 97 +/- 11%. This indicates that the hydroxy acid-derived hydrogen resides transiently on enzyme monoprotic heteroatoms and that exchange with bulk solvent occurs only at the level of free reduced enzyme. Using a minimal kinetic scheme, the rate constant for hydrogen exchange between Ered and solvent is calculated to be on the order of 10(2) M-1 S-1, which leads to an estimated pK approximately equal to 15 for the ionization of the substrate-derived proton while on the enzyme. It is suggested that this hydrogen could be shared between the active site base and Flred N5 anion. It is furthermore shown that some tritium is incorporated into the products when the transhydrogenation is carried out in tritiated water. Finally, with [2-2H]lactate-reduced enzyme, a deuterium isotope effect is observed on the rate of bromopyruvate disappearance. Extrapolation to infinite bromopyruvate concentration yields DV = 4.4. An apparent inverse isotope effect is determined for bromide ion elimination. These results strengthen the idea that oxidoreduction and elimination pathways involve a common carbanionic intermediate

  19. Analysis of phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors by bottom-up electron-transfer dissociation hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry


    Masson, Glenn R.; Maslen, Sarah L.; Williams, Roger L.


    Until recently, one of the major limitations of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) was the peptide-level resolution afforded by proteolytic digestion. This limitation can be selectively overcome through the use of electron-transfer dissociation to fragment peptides in a manner that allows the retention of the deuterium signal to produce hydrogen/deuterium exchange tandem mass spectrometry (HDX-MS/MS). Here, we describe the application of HDX-MS/MS to structurally screen in...

  20. Insights into the Intramolecular Properties of η6-Arene-Ru-Based Anticancer Complexes Using Quantum Calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo A. Adeniyi


    Full Text Available The factors that determine the stability and the effects of noncovalent interaction on the η6-arene ruthenium anticancer complexes are determined using DFT method. The intramolecular and intra-atomic properties were computed for two models of these half-sandwich ruthenium anticancer complexes and their respective hydrated forms. The results showed that the stability of these complexes depends largely on the network of hydrogen bonds (HB, strong nature of charge transfer, polarizability, and electrostatic energies that exist within the complexes. The hydrogen bonds strength was found to be related to the reported anticancer activities and the activation of the complexes by hydration. The metal–ligand bonds were found to be closed shell systems that are characterised by high positive Laplacian values of electron density. Two of the complexes are found to be predominantly characterised by LMCT while the other two are predominately characterised by MLCT.

  1. Efficient and Adaptive Methods for Computing Accurate Potential Surfaces for Quantum Nuclear Effects: Applications to Hydrogen-Transfer Reactions. (United States)

    DeGregorio, Nicole; Iyengar, Srinivasan S


    We present two sampling measures to gauge critical regions of potential energy surfaces. These sampling measures employ (a) the instantaneous quantum wavepacket density, an approximation to the (b) potential surface, its (c) gradients, and (d) a Shannon information theory based expression that estimates the local entropy associated with the quantum wavepacket. These four criteria together enable a directed sampling of potential surfaces that appears to correctly describe the local oscillation frequencies, or the local Nyquist frequency, of a potential surface. The sampling functions are then utilized to derive a tessellation scheme that discretizes the multidimensional space to enable efficient sampling of potential surfaces. The sampled potential surface is then combined with four different interpolation procedures, namely, (a) local Hermite curve interpolation, (b) low-pass filtered Lagrange interpolation, (c) the monomial symmetrization approximation (MSA) developed by Bowman and co-workers, and (d) a modified Shepard algorithm. The sampling procedure and the fitting schemes are used to compute (a) potential surfaces in highly anharmonic hydrogen-bonded systems and (b) study hydrogen-transfer reactions in biogenic volatile organic compounds (isoprene) where the transferring hydrogen atom is found to demonstrate critical quantum nuclear effects. In the case of isoprene, the algorithm discussed here is used to derive multidimensional potential surfaces along a hydrogen-transfer reaction path to gauge the effect of quantum-nuclear degrees of freedom on the hydrogen-transfer process. Based on the decreased computational effort, facilitated by the optimal sampling of the potential surfaces through the use of sampling functions discussed here, and the accuracy of the associated potential surfaces, we believe the method will find great utility in the study of quantum nuclear dynamics problems, of which application to hydrogen-transfer reactions and hydrogen

  2. Hydrogen atom transfer reactions in thiophenol: photogeneration of two new thione isomers. (United States)

    Reva, Igor; Nowak, Maciej J; Lapinski, Leszek; Fausto, Rui


    Photoisomerization reactions of monomeric thiophenol have been investigated for the compound isolated in low-temperature argon matrices. The initial thiophenol population consists exclusively of the thermodynamically most stable thiol form. Phototransformations were induced by irradiation of the matrices with narrowband tunable UV light. Irradiation at λ > 290 nm did not induce any changes in isolated thiophenol molecules. Upon irradiation at 290-285 nm, the initial thiol form of thiophenol converted into its thione isomer, cyclohexa-2,4-diene-1-thione. This conversion occurs by transfer of an H atom from the SH group to a carbon atom at the ortho position of the ring. Subsequent irradiation at longer wavelengths (300-427 nm) demonstrated that this UV-induced hydrogen-atom transfer is photoreversible. Moreover, upon irradiation at 400-425 nm, the cyclohexa-2,4-diene-1-thione product converts, by transfer of a hydrogen atom from the ortho to para position, into another thione isomer, cyclohexa-2,5-diene-1-thione. The latter thione isomer is also photoreactive and is consumed if irradiated at λ atom-transfer isomerization reactions dominate the unimolecular photochemistry of thiophenol confined in a solid argon matrix. A set of low-intensity infrared bands, observed in the spectra of UV irradiated thiophenol, indicates the presence of a phenylthiyl radical with an H- atom detached from the SH group. Alongside the H-atom-transfer and H-atom-detachment processes, the ring-opening photoreaction occurred in cyclohexa-2,4-diene-1-thione by the cleavage of the C-C bond at the alpha position with respect to the thiocarbonyl C[double bond, length as m-dash]S group. The resulting open-ring conjugated thioketene adopts several isomeric forms, differing by orientations around single and double bonds. The species photogenerated upon UV irradiation of thiophenol were identified by comparison of their experimental infrared spectra with the spectra theoretically calculated for

  3. Concerted hydrogen atom and electron transfer mechanism for catalysis by lysine-specific demethylase. (United States)

    Yu, Tao; Higashi, Masahiro; Cembran, Alessandro; Gao, Jiali; Truhlar, Donald G


    We calculate the free energy profile for the postulated hydride transfer reaction mechanism for the catalysis of lysine demethylation by lysine-specific demethylase LSD1. The potential energy surface is obtained by using combined electrostatically embedded multiconfiguration molecular mechanics (EE-MCMM) and single-configuration molecular mechanics (MM). We employ a constant valence bond coupling term to obtain analytical energies and gradients of the EE-MCMM subsystem, which contains 45 quantum mechanics (QM) atoms and which is parametrized with density functional calculations employing specific reaction parameters obtained by matching high-level wave function calculations. In the MM region, we employ the Amber ff03 and TIP3P force fields. The free energy of activation at 300 K is calculated by molecular dynamics (MD) umbrella sampling on a system with 102,090 atoms as the maximum of the free energy profile along the reaction coordinate as obtained by the weighted histogram analysis method with 17 umbrella sampling windows. This yields a free energy of activation of only 10 kcal/mol, showing that the previously postulated direct hydride transfer reaction mechanism is plausible, although we find that it is better interpreted as a concerted transfer of a hydrogen atom and an electron.

  4. Palladium-Catalyzed Atom-Transfer Radical Cyclization at Remote Unactivated C(sp3 )-H Sites: Hydrogen-Atom Transfer of Hybrid Vinyl Palladium Radical Intermediates. (United States)

    Ratushnyy, Maxim; Parasram, Marvin; Wang, Yang; Gevorgyan, Vladimir


    A novel mild, visible-light-induced palladium-catalyzed hydrogen atom translocation/atom-transfer radical cyclization (HAT/ATRC) cascade has been developed. This protocol involves a 1,5-HAT process of previously unknown hybrid vinyl palladium radical intermediates, thus leading to iodomethyl carbo- and heterocyclic structures. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Hydrodehalogenation of alkyl iodides with base-mediated hydrogenation and catalytic transfer hydrogenation: application to the asymmetric synthesis of N-protected α-methylamines. (United States)

    Mandal, Pijus K; Birtwistle, J Sanderson; McMurray, John S


    We report a very mild synthesis of N-protected α-methylamines from the corresponding amino acids. Carboxyl groups of amino acids are reduced to iodomethyl groups via hydroxymethyl intermediates. Reductive deiodination to methyl groups is achieved by hydrogenation or catalytic transfer hydrogenation under alkaline conditions. Basic hydrodehalogenation is selective for the iodomethyl group over hydrogenolysis-labile protecting groups, such as benzyloxycarbonyl, benzyl ester, benzyl ether, and 9-fluorenyloxymethyl, thus allowing the conversion of virtually any protected amino acid into the corresponding N-protected α-methylamine.

  6. Protein hydrogen exchange measured at single-residue resolution by electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, Kasper D; Zehl, Martin; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard


    Because of unparalleled sensitivity and tolerance to protein size, mass spectrometry (MS) has become a popular method for measuring the solution hydrogen (1H/2H) exchange (HX) of biologically relevant protein states. While incorporated deuterium can be localized to different regions by pepsin...... proteolysis of the labeled protein, the assignment of deuteriums to individual residues is typically not obtained, thereby limiting a detailed understanding of HX and the dynamics of protein structure. Here we use gas-phase fragmentation of peptic peptides by electron transfer dissociation (ETD) to measure...... the HX of individual amide linkages in the amyloidogenic protein beta2-microglobulin. A comparison of the deuterium levels of 60 individual backbone amides of beta2-microglobulin measured by HX-ETD-MS analysis to the corresponding values measured by NMR spectroscopy shows an excellent correlation...

  7. Transfer hydrogenation catalysis in cells as a new approach to anticancer drug design (United States)

    Soldevila-Barreda, Joan J.; Romero-Canelón, Isolda; Habtemariam, Abraha; Sadler, Peter J.


    Organometallic complexes are effective hydrogenation catalysts for organic reactions. For example, Noyori-type ruthenium complexes catalyse reduction of ketones by transfer of hydride from formate. Here we show that such catalytic reactions can be achieved in cancer cells, offering a new strategy for the design of safe metal-based anticancer drugs. The activity of ruthenium(II) sulfonamido ethyleneamine complexes towards human ovarian cancer cells is enhanced by up to 50 × in the presence of low non-toxic doses of formate. The extent of conversion of coenzyme NAD+ to NADH in cells is dependent on formate concentration. This novel reductive stress mechanism of cell death does not involve apoptosis or perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potentials. In contrast, iridium cyclopentadienyl catalysts cause cancer cell death by oxidative stress. Organometallic complexes therefore have an extraordinary ability to modulate the redox status of cancer cells. PMID:25791197

  8. Hydrogen transfer experiments and modelization in clay rocks for radioactive waste deep geological repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulin, P.


    Gases will be generated by corrosion of high radioactive waste containers in deep geological repositories. A gas phase will be generated. Gas pressure will build up and penetrated the geological formation. If gases do not penetrate the geological barrier efficiently, the pressure build up may create a risk of fracturing and of creation of preferential pathways for radionuclide migration. The present work focuses on Callovo-Oxfordian argillites characterisation. An experiment, designed to measure very low permeabilities, was used with hydrogen/helium and analysed using the Dusty Gas Model. Argillites close to saturation have an accessible porosity to gas transfer that is lower than 0,1% to 1% of the porosity. Analysis of the Knudsen effect suggests that this accessible network should be made of 50 nm to 200 nm diameter pores. The permeabilities values were integrated to an ANDRA operating model. The model showed that the maximum pressure expected near the repository would be 83 bar. (author)

  9. CH···π interactions do not contribute to hydrogen transfer catalysis by glycerol dehydratase. (United States)

    Liu, Yuemin; Gallo, August A; Xu, Wu; Bajpai, Rakesh; Florián, Jan


    The role of the nonbonded CH···π interaction in the hydrogen abstraction from glycerol by the coenzyme B(12)-independent glycerol dehydratase (GDH) was examined using the QM/MM (ONIOM), MP2, and CCSD(T) methods. The studied CH···π interaction included the hydrogen atom of the -C(2)H(OH)- group of the glycerol substrate and the tyrosine-339 residue of the dehydratase. A contribution of this interaction to the stabilization of the transition state for the transfer of a hydrogen atom from the adjacent terminal C(1)H(2)(OH) group to cysteine 433 was determined by ab initio HF, MP2, and CCSD(T) calculations with the aug-cc-pvDZ basis set for the corresponding methane/benzene, methanol/phenol, and glycerol radical/phenol subsystems. The calculated CH···π distance, defined as the distance between the H atom and the center of the phenol ring, shortened from 2.62 to 2.52 Å upon going from the ground- to the transition-state of the GDH-catalyzed reaction. However, this shortening was not accompanied by the expected lowering of the CH···π interaction free energy. Instead, this interaction remained weak (about -1 kcal/mol) along the entire reaction coordinate. Additionally, the mutual orientation of the CH group and the phenol ring did not change significantly during the reaction. These results suggest that the phenol group of the tyrosine-339 does not contribute to lowering the activation barrier in the enzyme, but do not exclude the possibility that tyrosine 339 facilitates proper orientation of glycerol for the electrostatic catalysis, or inhibits side-reactions of the reactive glycerol radical intermediate.

  10. Evaluation of industrially applied heat-transfer fluids as liquid organic hydrogen carrier systems. (United States)

    Brückner, Nicole; Obesser, Katharina; Bösmann, Andreas; Teichmann, Daniel; Arlt, Wolfgang; Dungs, Jennifer; Wasserscheid, Peter


    Liquid organic hydrogen carrier (LOHC) systems offer a very attractive method for the decentralized storage of renewable excess energy. In this contribution, industrially well-established heat-transfer oils (typically sold under trade names, e.g., Marlotherm) are proposed as a new class of LOHC systems. It is demonstrated that the liquid mixture of isomeric dibenzyltoluenes (m.p. -39 to -34 °C, b.p. 390 °C) can be readily hydrogenated to the corresponding mixture of perhydrogenated analogues by binding 6.2 wt% of H2. The liquid H2 -rich form can be stored and transported similarly to diesel fuel. It readily undergoes catalytic dehydrogenation at temperatures above 260 °C, which proves its applicability as a reversible H2 carrier. The presented LOHC systems are further characterized by their excellent technical availability at comparably low prices, full registration of the H2 -lean forms, and excellent thermal stabilities. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Sulfonamides as new hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) catalysts for photoredox allylic and benzylic C-H arylations. (United States)

    Tanaka, Hirotaka; Sakai, Kentaro; Kawamura, Atsushi; Oisaki, Kounosuke; Kanai, Motomu


    A catalytic amount of a sterically and electronically tuned diarylsulfonamide promoted allylic and benzylic C-H arylations in cooperation with a visible light photoredox catalyst. This is the first example of the catalytic use of a sulfonamidyl radical to promote the hydrogen atom transfer process.

  12. Pinpointing changes in higher-order protein structure by hydrogen/deuterium exchange coupled to electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, Kasper Dyrberg


    This Feature describes the use of electron transfer dissociation (ETD) to analyze the hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) of proteins at increased spatial resolution down to the level of individual residues. A practical overview of how to couple ETD to the classical bottom-up HDX-MS workflow is given...

  13. Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation of Ketones with Modified Grubbs Metathesis Catalysts : On the Way to a Tandem Process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renom-Carrasco, Marc; Gajewski, Piotr; Pignataro, Luca; de Vries, Johannes G.; Piarulli, Umberto; Gennari, Cesare; Lefort, Laurent


    Herein, we report the successful transformation of a 1(st) generation Grubbs metathesis catalyst into an asymmetric transfer hydrogenation (ATH) catalyst. Upon addition of a chiral amine ligand, an alcohol and a base, the 1(st) generation Hoveyda-Grubbs catalyst (HG-I) was found to promote the

  14. Revisiting the Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley Reduction: A Sustainable Protocol for Transfer Hydrogenation of Aldehydes and Ketones (United States)

    The metal-catalyzed transfer hydrogenation of carbonyl compounds has received much interest because of the immense number of opportunities that exist to prepare high-value products. This reaction is featured in numerous multi-step organic syntheses and is arguably the most import...

  15. Palladium-catalysed transfer hydrogenation of alkenes in the presence of zinc powder and various organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.B. Masesane


    Full Text Available Catalytic transfer hydrogenation using palladium(II chloride, zinc powder and various organic acids proved effective for the reduction of a variety of alkenes at ambient temperature and atmospheric pressure. The method was found to be convenient, economical and uses a stable nonpyrophoric catalyst.

  16. Strong isotope effects on the charge transfer in slow collisions of He2+ with atomic hydrogen, deuterium, and tritium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolterfoht, N.; Cabrera-Trujillo, R.; Oehrn, Y.; Deumens, E.; Hoekstra, R.; Sabin, J. R.


    Probabilities and cross sections for charge transfer by He2+ impact on atomic hydrogen (H), deuterium (D), and tritium (T) at low collision energies are calculated. The results are obtained using an ab initio theory, which solves the time-dependent Schrodinger equation. For the H target, excellent

  17. Analysis of the radical hydrogen transfer pathway for cleaving strong bonds in coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autrey, S.T.; Camaioni, D.M.; Ferris, K.F.; Franz, J.A.


    Hydrogen transfer processes involving radical intermediates are of key importance in the liquefaction of coal. While the primary function of donor solvents is to transfer H{lg_bullet} to coal-derived radicals that form when weak bonds are cleaved thermolytically, growing evidence suggests that the donor solvent can play a role in promoting cleavage of strong {alpha}-bonds. McMillen and Malhotra have explained the results in terms of a single-step mechanism referred to as radical H-transfer (RHT). Mechanistic kinetic models have been used to suggest the importance of RHT pathways in anthracene- and pyrene-based solvent systems. However, we question the reliability of these approaches because little experimental data exists to support the 16.5 kcal/mol intrinsic barriers they assume for RHT reactions. Unambiguous evidence for RHT is very difficult to obtain experimentally because at the temperatures required to activate the RHT reaction, a suite of multistep reactions can occur, which yield the same products, i.e. H-elimination from hydroaryl radicals followed by ipso addition. For this reason, we have sought to gain insight to barrier heights for RHT from theory. This paper reports our use of Marcus theory in combination with ab initio and semiempirical molecular orbital methods to show how the intrinsic barriers for RHT reactions depend on structural and thermodynamic properties of the reacting partners. In addition, reactions thought to be mediated by RHT are reexamined using mechanistic kinetic modeling (MKM) to determine the extent to which these reactions can be explained by conventional pathways.

  18. Mechanism of Action of Sulforaphane as a Superoxide Radical Anion and Hydrogen Peroxide Scavenger by Double Hydrogen Transfer: A Model for Iron Superoxide Dismutase. (United States)

    Prasad, Ajit Kumar; Mishra, P C


    The mechanism of action of sulforaphane as a scavenger of superoxide radical anion (O2(•-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was investigated using density functional theory (DFT) in both gas phase and aqueous media. Iron superoxide dismutase (Fe-SOD) involved in scavenging superoxide radical anion from biological media was modeled by a complex consisting of the ferric ion (Fe(3+)) attached to three histidine rings. Reactions related to scavenging of superoxide radical anion by sulforaphane were studied using DFT in the presence and absence of Fe-SOD represented by this model in both gas phase and aqueous media. The scavenging action of sulforaphane toward both superoxide radical anion and hydrogen peroxide was found to involve the unusual mechanism of double hydrogen transfer. It was found that sulforaphane alone, without Fe-SOD, cannot scavenge superoxide radical anion in gas phase or aqueous media efficiently as the corresponding reaction barriers are very high. However, in the presence of Fe-SOD represented by the above-mentioned model, the scavenging reactions become barrierless, and so sulforaphane scavenges superoxide radical anion by converting it to hydrogen peroxide efficiently. Further, sulforaphane was found to scavenge hydrogen peroxide also very efficiently by converting it into water. Thus, the mechanism of action of sulforaphane as an excellent antioxidant has been unravelled.

  19. Cu/MgAl(2)O(4) as bifunctional catalyst for aldol condensation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and selective transfer hydrogenation. (United States)

    Pupovac, Kristina; Palkovits, Regina


    Copper supported on mesoporous magnesium aluminate has been prepared as noble-metal-free solid catalyst for aldol condensation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural with acetone, followed by hydrogenation of the aldol condensation products. The investigated mesoporous spinels possess high activity as solid-base catalysts. Magnesium aluminate exhibits superior activity compared to zinc and cobalt-based aluminates, reaching full conversion and up to 81 % yield of the 1:1 aldol product. The high activity can be correlated to a higher concentration of basic surface sites on magnesium aluminate. Applying continuous regeneration, the catalysts can be recycled without loss of activity. Focusing on the subsequent hydrogenation of aldol condensation products, Cu/MgAl2 O4 allows a selective hydrogenation and CO bond cleavage, delivering 3-hydroxybutyl-5-methylfuran as the main product with up to 84 % selectivity avoiding ring saturation. Analysis of the hydrogenation activity reveals that the reaction proceeds in the following order: CC>CO>CO cleavage>ring hydrogenation. Comparable activity and selectivity can be also achieved utilizing 2-propanol as solvent in the transfer hydrogenation, providing the possibility for partial recycling of acetone and optimization of the hydrogen management. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Hydrogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M.


    A transcript is presented of a speech on the history of the development of hydrogenation of coal and tar. Apparently the talk had been accompanied by the showing of photographic slides, but none of the pictures were included with the report. In giving the history, Dr. Pier mentioned the dependence of much of the development of hydrogenation upon previous development in the related areas of ammonia and methanol syntheses, but he also pointed out several ways in which equipment appropriate for hydrogenation differed considerably from that used for ammonia and methanol. Dr. Pier discussed the difficulties encountered with residue processing, design of the reaction ovens, manufacture of ovens and preheaters, heating of reaction mixtures, development of steels, and development of compressor pumps. He described in some detail his own involvement in the development of the process. In addition, he discussed the development of methods of testing gasolines and other fuels. Also he listed some important byproducts of hydrogenation, such as phenols and polycyclic aromatics, and he discussed the formation of iso-octane fuel from the butanes arising from hydrogenation. In connection with several kinds of equipment used in hydrogenation (whose pictures were being shown), Dr. Pier gave some of the design and operating data.

  1. Visible-Light-Enhanced Ring Opening of Cycloalkanols Enabled by Brønsted Base-Tethered Acyloxy Radical Induced Hydrogen Atom Transfer-Electron Transfer. (United States)

    Zhao, Rong; Yao, Yuan; Zhu, Dan; Chang, Denghu; Liu, Yang; Shi, Lei


    A metal-free ring opening/halogenation of cycloalkanols, which combines both PPO/TBAX oxidant system and blue LEDs irradiation, is presented. This method produces diverse γ, δ, and even more remotely halogenated ketones in moderate to excellent yields under mild conditions. Interestingly, experimental and computational studies demonstrate the novel ring size-dependent concerted/stepwise (four-/five- to eight-membered rings) hydrogen atom transfer-electron transfer induced by Brønsted base-tethered acyloxy radical, which indicates distinct advantages brought by the cyclic structure of diacyl peroxides.

  2. Transfer Hydrogenation of Alkenes Using Ethanol Catalyzed by a NCP Pincer Iridium Complex: Scope and Mechanism. (United States)

    Wang, Yulei; Huang, Zhidao; Leng, Xuebing; Zhu, Huping; Liu, Guixia; Huang, Zheng


    The first general catalytic approach to effecting transfer hydrogenation (TH) of unactivated alkenes using ethanol as the hydrogen source is described. A new NCP-type pincer iridium complex ( BQ -NC O P)IrHCl containing a rigid benzoquinoline backbone has been developed for efficient, mild TH of unactivated C-C multiple bonds with ethanol, forming ethyl acetate as the sole byproduct. A wide variety of alkenes, including multisubstituted alkyl alkenes, aryl alkenes, and heteroatom-substituted alkenes, as well as O- or N-containing heteroarenes and internal alkynes, are suitable substrates. Importantly, the ( BQ -NC O P)Ir/EtOH system exhibits high chemoselectivity for alkene hydrogenation in the presence of reactive functional groups, such as ketones and carboxylic acids. Furthermore, the reaction with C 2 D 5 OD provides a convenient route to deuterium-labeled compounds. Detailed kinetic and mechanistic studies have revealed that monosubstituted alkenes (e.g., 1-octene, styrene) and multisubstituted alkenes (e.g., cyclooctene (COE)) exhibit fundamental mechanistic difference. The OH group of ethanol displays a normal kinetic isotope effect (KIE) in the reaction of styrene, but a substantial inverse KIE in the case of COE. The catalysis of styrene or 1-octene with relatively strong binding affinity to the Ir(I) center has ( BQ -NC O P)Ir I (alkene) adduct as an off-cycle catalyst resting state, and the rate law shows a positive order in EtOH, inverse first-order in styrene, and first-order in the catalyst. In contrast, the catalysis of COE has an off-cycle catalyst resting state of ( BQ -NC O P)Ir III (H)[O(Et)···HO(Et)···HOEt] that features a six-membered iridacycle consisting of two hydrogen-bonds between one EtO ligand and two EtOH molecules, one of which is coordinated to the Ir(III) center. The rate law shows a negative order in EtOH, zeroth-order in COE, and first-order in the catalyst. The observed inverse KIE corresponds to an inverse equilibrium

  3. Photochemical hydrogen-deuterium exchange reaction of tryptophan: the role in nonradiative decay of singlet tryptophan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, I.; Sugiyama, H.; Yamamoto, A.; Muramatsu, S.; Matsuura, T.


    The mechanism of nonradiative decay of singlet excited tryptophan (Trp) in aqueous solution was investigated by a highly selective photosubstitution of the C-4 hydrogen of Trp with deuterium of solvent D 2 O. It was concluded that intramolecular proton transfer from the α-ammonia group giving rise to formation of a protonated species plays an important role in the nonradiative decay of singlet Trp at neutral pH. 11 references, 1 figure

  4. Nanoscale Layer Transfer by Hydrogen Ion-Cut Processing: A Brief Review Through Recent U.S. Patents. (United States)

    Lee, Benjamin T-H


    A hydrogen-based Ion-Cut layer-transfer technique, the so-called Ion-Cut or Smart-Cut processing, has been used in transferring a semiconductor membrane onto a desired substrate to reveal unique characteristics on a nanoscale size and to build functional electronic and photonic devices that are used for specific purposes. For example, the sub-100 nm thick silicon membrane transferred onto an insulator became a key substrate for fabricating nanoscale integrated circuit (IC) devices. Recent U.S. patents have exhibited integration of various thinning approaches requiring precision of a few nanometers in fabricating large-area semiconductor nanomembranes, especially for silicon. This paper reviews published patents and work on fabricating sub-100 nm silicon membranes with welldefined features without a chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) thinning process. This included material analysis leads to ultraprecision thickness in the sub-100 nm region. This paper combines an analysis of peer-reviewed articles and issued patents using focused review keywords of hydrogen implantation, wafer bonding, and layer splitting. The quality of selected patents was appraised based on the authors' 20-year research experience in the field of ultrathin silicon layer-transfer technology. The paper covered more than 10 U.S. patents that have been filed on hydrogen-based Ion-Cut layer-transfer techniques. These patents described approaches for inserting hydrogen ions to split at a well-defined location and then transfer the as-split silicon membrane at the nanoscale thickness onto a desired substrate. Hydrogen-trap sites, implantation energy, and interface of the distinct doped regions could define the layer-split location. The insertion of high-dose hydrogen ions could be thoroughly achieved by ion implantation, plasma ion immersion implantation (PIII), plasma diffusion, and electrolysis. The article concludes with the discussion of the patent-orientated review of layer-transfer techniques

  5. Catalytic Transfer Hydrogenation of Furfural to 2-Methylfuran and 2-Methyltetrahydrofuran over Bimetallic Copper-Palladium Catalysts. (United States)

    Chang, Xin; Liu, An-Feng; Cai, Bo; Luo, Jin-Yue; Pan, Hui; Huang, Yao-Bing


    The catalytic transfer hydrogenation of furfural to the fuel additives 2-methylfuran (2-MF) and 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF) was investigated over various bimetallic catalysts in the presence of the hydrogen donor 2-propanol. Of all the as-prepared catalysts, bimetallic Cu-Pd catalysts showed the highest catalytic activities towards the formation of 2-MF and 2-MTHF with a total yield of up to 83.9 % yield at 220 °C in 4 h. By modifying the Pd ratios in the Cu-Pd catalyst, 2-MF or 2-MTHF could be obtained selectively as the prevailing product. The other reaction conditions also had a great influence on the product distribution. Mechanistic studies by reaction monitoring and intermediate conversion revealed that the reaction proceeded mainly through the hydrogenation of furfural to furfuryl alcohol, which was followed by deoxygenation to 2-MF in parallel to deoxygenation/ring hydrogenation to 2-MTHF. Finally, the catalyst showed a high reactivity and stability in five catalyst recycling runs, which represents a significant step forward toward the catalytic transfer hydrogenation of furfural. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Two-State Intramolecular Charge Transfer (ICT) with 3,5-Dimethyl-4-(dimethylamino)benzonitrile (MMD) and Its Meta-Isomer mMMD. Ground State Amino Twist Not Essential for ICT. (United States)

    Druzhinin, Sergey I; Galievsky, Victor A; Demeter, Attila; Kovalenko, Sergey A; Senyushkina, Tamara; Dubbaka, Srinivas R; Knochel, Paul; Mayer, Peter; Grosse, Christian; Stalke, Dietmar; Zachariasse, Klaas A


    From X-ray structure analysis, amino twist angles of 90.0° for 2,4-dimethyl-3-(dimethylamino)benzonitrile (mMMD), 82.7° for 4-(di-tert-butylamino)benzonitrile (DTABN), and 88.7° for 6-cyanobenzoquinuclidine (CBQ) are determined, all considerably larger than the 57.4° of 3,5-dimethyl-4-(dimethylamino)benzonitrile (MMD). This large twist leads to lengthening of the amino-phenyl bond, 143.5 pm (mMMD), 144.1 pm (DTABN), 144.6 pm (CBQ), and 141.4 pm (MMD), as compared with 136.5 pm for the planar 4-(dimethylamino)benzonitrile (DMABN). As a consequence, the electronic coupling between the amino and phenyl subgroups in mMMD, DTABN, CBQ, and MMD is much weaker than in DMABN, as seen from the strongly reduced molar absorption coefficients. The fluorescence spectrum of MMD in n-hexane at 25 °C consists of two emissions, from a locally excited (LE) and an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) state, with a fluorescence quantum yield ratio Φ'(ICT)/Φ(LE) of 12.8. In MeCN, a single ICT emission is found. With mMMD in n-hexane, in contrast, only LE fluorescence is observed, whereas the spectrum in MeCN originates from the ICT state. These differences are also seen from the half-widths of the overall fluorescence bands, which in n-hexane are larger for MMD than for mMMD, decreasing with solvent polarity for MMD and increasing for mMMD, reflecting the disappearance of LE and the onset of ICT in the overall spectra, respectively. From solvatochromic measurements the dipole moments μe(ICT) of MMD (16 D) and mMMD (15 D) are obtained. Femtosecond excited state absorption (ESA) spectra at 22 °C, together with the dual (LE + ICT) fluorescence, reveal that MMD in n-hexane undergoes a reversible LE ⇄ ICT reaction, with LE as the precursor, with a forward rate constant ka = 5.6 × 10(12) s(-1) and a back-reaction kd ∼ 0.05 × 10(12) s(-1). With MMD in the strongly polar solvent MeCN, ICT is faster: ka = 10 × 10(12) s(-1). In the case of mMMD in n-hexane, the ESA spectra show

  7. Temperature-dependent kinetics of charge transfer, hydrogen-atom transfer, and hydrogen-atom expulsion in the reaction of CO+ with CH4 and CD4. (United States)

    Melko, Joshua J; Ard, Shaun G; Johnson, Ryan S; Shuman, Nicholas S; Guo, Hua; Viggiano, Albert A


    We have determined the rate constants and branching ratios for the reactions of CO(+) with CH4 and CD4 in a variable-temperature selected ion flow tube. We find that the rate constants are collisional for all temperatures measured (193-700 K for CH4 and 193-500 K for CD4). For the CH4 reaction, three product channels are identified, which include charge transfer (CH4(+) + CO), H-atom transfer (HCO(+) + CH3), and H-atom expulsion (CH3CO(+) + H). H-atom transfer is slightly preferred to charge transfer at low temperature, with the charge-transfer product increasing in contribution as the temperature is increased (H-atom expulsion is a minor product for all temperatures). Analogous products are identified for the CD4 reaction. Density functional calculations on the CO(+) + CH4 reaction were also conducted, revealing that the relative temperature dependences of the charge-transfer and H-atom transfer pathways are consistent with an initial charge transfer followed by proton transfer.

  8. One-pot Reductive Amination of carbonyl Compounds with Nitro Compounds by Transfer Hydrogenation over Co-Nxas catalyst. (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Zhang, Zehui


    A new method was developed for the synthesis of secondary amines through the one-pot reductive amination of carbonyl compounds with nitro compounds using formic acid as the hydrogen donor over a heterogeneous non-noble-metal catalyst (Co-N x /C-800-AT, generated by the pyrolysis of the cobalt phthalocyanine/silica composite at 800°C under a N 2 atmosphere and subsequent etching by HF). Both nitrogen and cobalt were of considerable importance in the transfer hydrogenation reactions with formic acid. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Hydrogen. (United States)

    Bockris, John O'M


    The idea of a "Hydrogen Economy" is that carbon containing fuels should be replaced by hydrogen, thus eliminating air pollution and growth of CO₂ in the atmosphere. However, storage of a gas, its transport and reconversion to electricity doubles the cost of H₂ from the electrolyzer. Methanol made with CO₂ from the atmosphere is a zero carbon fuel created from inexhaustible components from the atmosphere. Extensive work on the splitting of water by bacteria shows that if wastes are used as the origin of feed for certain bacteria, the cost for hydrogen becomes lower than any yet known. The first creation of hydrogen and electricity from light was carried out in 1976 by Ohashi et al. at Flinders University in Australia. Improvements in knowledge of the structure of the semiconductor-solution system used in a solar breakdown of water has led to the discovery of surface states which take part in giving rise to hydrogen (Khan). Photoelectrocatalysis made a ten times increase in the efficiency of the photo production of hydrogen from water. The use of two electrode cells; p and n semiconductors respectively, was first introduced by Uosaki in 1978. Most photoanodes decompose during the photoelectrolysis. To avoid this, it has been necessary to create a transparent shield between the semiconductor and its electronic properties and the solution. In this way, 8.5% at 25 °C and 9.5% at 50 °C has been reached in the photo dissociation of water (GaP and InAs) by Kainthla and Barbara Zeleney in 1989. A large consortium has been funded by the US government at the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Nathan Lewis. The decomposition of water by light is the main aim of this group. Whether light will be the origin of the post fossil fuel supply of energy may be questionable, but the maximum program in this direction is likely to come from Cal. Tech.

  10. Hydrogen Atom Transfer by a High-Valent Nickel-Chloride Complex. (United States)

    Mondal, Prasenjit; Pirovano, Paolo; Das, Ankita; Farquhar, Erik R; McDonald, Aidan R


    Oxo-metal-halide moieties have often been implicated as C-H bond activating oxidants with the terminal oxo-metal entity identified as the electrophilic oxidant. The electrophilic reactivity of metal-halide species has not been investigated. We have prepared a high-valent nickel-halide complex [Ni III (Cl)(L)] (2, L = N,N'-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-2,6-pyridinedicarboxamide) by one-electron oxidation of a [Ni II (Cl)(L)] - precursor. 2 was characterized using electronic absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance, and X-ray absorption spectroscopies and mass spectrometry. 2 reacted readily with substrates containing either phenolic O-H or hydrocarbon C-H bonds. Analysis of the Hammett, Evans-Polanyi, and Marcus relationships between the determined rate constants and substrate pK a , X-H bond dissociation energy, and oxidation potential, respectively, was performed. Through this analysis, we found that 2 reacted by a hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) mechanism. Our findings shine light on enzymatic high-valent oxo-metal-halide oxidants and open new avenues for oxidative halogenation catalyst design.

  11. Dinuclear Tetrapyrazolyl Palladium Complexes Exhibiting Facile Tandem Transfer Hydrogenation/Suzuki Coupling Reaction of Fluoroarylketone

    KAUST Repository

    Dehury, Niranjan


    Herein, we report an unprecedented example of dinuclear pyrazolyl-based Pd complexes exhibiting facile tandem catalysis for fluoroarylketone: Tetrapyrazolyl di-palladium complexes with varying Pd-Pd distances efficiently catalyze the tandem reaction involving transfer hydrogenation of fluoroarylketone to the corresponding alcohol and Suzuki-Miyaura cross coupling reaction of the resulting fluoroarylalcohol under moderate reaction conditions, to biaryl alcohol. The complex with the shortest Pd-Pd distance exhibits the highest tandem activity among its di-metallic analogues, and exceeds in terms of activity and selectivity the analogous mononuclear compound. The kinetics of the reaction indicates clearly that reductive transformation of haloarylketone into haloaryalcohol is the rate determining step in the tandem reaction. Interestingly while fluoroarylketone undergoes the multistep tandem catalysis, the chloro- and bromo-arylketones undergo only a single step C-C coupling reaction resulting in biarylketone as the final product. Unlike the pyrazole based Pd compounds, the precursor PdCl2 and the phosphine based relevant complexes (PPh3)2PdCl2 and (PPh3)4Pd are found to be unable to exhibit the tandem catalysis.

  12. Crystallography aided by atomic core-level binding energies: proton transfer versus hydrogen bonding in organic crystal structures. (United States)

    Stevens, Joanna S; Byard, Stephen J; Seaton, Colin C; Sadiq, Ghazala; Davey, Roger J; Schroeder, Sven L M


    Ionic bond or hydrogen bridge? Brønsted proton transfer to nitrogen acceptors in organic crystals causes strong N1s core-level binding energy shifts. A study of 15 organic cocrystal and salt systems shows that standard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) can be used as a complementary method to X-ray crystallography for distinguishing proton transfer from H-bonding in organic condensed matter. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Salt-assisted clean transfer of continuous monolayer MoS2 film for hydrogen evolution reaction (United States)

    Cho, Heung-Yeol; Nguyen, Tri Khoa; Ullah, Farman; Yun, Jong-Won; Nguyen, Cao Khang; Kim, Yong Soo


    The transfer of two-dimensional (2D) materials from one substrate to another is challenging but of great importance for technological applications. Here, we propose a facile etching and residue-free method for transferring a large-area monolayer MoS2 film continuously grown on a SiO2/Si by chemical vapor deposition. Prior to synthesis, the substrate is dropped with water- soluble perylene-3, 4, 9, 10-tetracarboxylic acid tetrapotassium salt (PTAS). The as-grown MoS2 on the substrate is simply dipped in water to quickly dissolve PTAS to yield the MoS2 film floating on the water surface, which is subsequently transferred to the desired substrate. The morphological, optical and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic results show that our method is useful for fast and clean transfer of the MoS2 film. Specially, we demonstrate that monolayer MoS2 film transferred onto a conducting substrate leads to excellent performance for hydrogen evolution reaction with low overpotential (0.29 V vs the reversible hydrogen electrode) and Tafel slope (85.5 mV/decade).

  14. Hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John O’M. Bockris


    Full Text Available The idea of a “Hydrogen Economy” is that carbon containing fuels should be replaced by hydrogen, thus eliminating air pollution and growth of CO2 in the atmosphere. However, storage of a gas, its transport and reconversion to electricity doubles the cost of H2 from the electrolyzer. Methanol made with CO2 from the atmosphere is a zero carbon fuel created from inexhaustible components from the atmosphere. Extensive work on the splitting of water by bacteria shows that if wastes are used as the origin of feed for certain bacteria, the cost for hydrogen becomes lower than any yet known. The first creation of hydrogen and electricity from light was carried out in 1976 by Ohashi et al. at Flinders University in Australia. Improvements in knowledge of the structure of the semiconductor-solution system used in a solar breakdown of water has led to the discovery of surface states which take part in giving rise to hydrogen (Khan. Photoelectrocatalysis made a ten times increase in the efficiency of the photo production of hydrogen from water. The use of two electrode cells; p and n semiconductors respectively, was first introduced by Uosaki in 1978. Most photoanodes decompose during the photoelectrolysis. To avoid this, it has been necessary to create a transparent shield between the semiconductor and its electronic properties and the solution. In this way, 8.5% at 25 °C and 9.5% at 50 °C has been reached in the photo dissociation of water (GaP and InAs by Kainthla and Barbara Zeleney in 1989. A large consortium has been funded by the US government at the California Institute of Technology under the direction of Nathan Lewis. The decomposition of water by light is the main aim of this group. Whether light will be the origin of the post fossil fuel supply of energy may be questionable, but the maximum program in this direction is likely to come from Cal. Tech.

  15. Role of aromatic structure in pathways of hydrogen transfer and bond cleavage in coal liquefaction: Theoretical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz, J.A.; Autrey, T.; Camaioni, D.M. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Watts, J.D.; Bartlett, R.J. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Quantum Theory Project


    The mechanisms by which strong carbon-carbon bonds between aromatic rings and side chains are cleaved under hydropyrolysis conditions remain a subject of wide interest to fuel science. Recently, the authors have studied in detail an alternate pathway for hydrogen atom transfer to {pi}-systems, radical hydrogen transfer (RHT). RHT is the direct, bimolecular transfer of hydrogen from the {beta}-position of an organic radical to the target {pi}-system. In the initial theoretical study, they examined the reaction ethyl radical + ethylene = ethylene + ethyl at the spin-projected UMP2/6-31G** level of theory. Recently, they have used a calibrated ROHF-MNDO-PM3 method to predict thermoneutral RHT barriers for hydrogen transfer between hydroaryl radicals and the corresponding arene. Because of the inherent limitations of semiempirical methods such as ROHF-MNDO-PM3, they have extended the initial work with the ethyl + ethylene study to examine this reaction at the ROHF-MBPT[2]-6-31G** and ROHF-CCSD[T]-6-31G** levels of ab initio theory. The primary objective was to determine how intrinsic RHT barriers change with conjugative stabilization of the radicals. The spin-restricted ROHF approach has been applied to study several RHT reactions, and they present completed ROHF results for the ethyl + ethylene system and preliminary results for the methallyl + butadiene system. The methallyl + butadiene system serves as a model for highly stabilized hydroaryl radicals: the methallyl radical exhibits a C-H bond strength of 46.5 kcal/mol compared to 9-hydroanthracenyl, 43.1 kcal/mol.

  16. Stepwise vs concerted excited state tautomerization of 2-hydroxypyridine: Ammonia dimer wire mediated hydrogen/proton transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esboui, Mounir, E-mail: [Laboratoire de Spectroscopie Atomique, Moléculaire et Applications, Département de Physique, Faculté des Sciences de Tunis, 2092 Tunis (Tunisia); Technical and Vocational Training Corporation, Hail College of Technology, P.O. Box 1960, Hail 81441 (Saudi Arabia)


    The stepwise and concerted excited state intermolecular proton transfer (PT) and hydrogen transfer (HT) reactions in 2-hydroxypyridine-(NH{sub 3}){sub 2} complex in the gas phase under Cs symmetry constraint and without any symmetry constraints were performed using quantum chemical calculations. It shows that upon excitation, the hydrogen bonded in 2HP-(NH{sub 3}){sub 2} cluster facilitates the releasing of both hydrogen and proton transfer reactions along ammonia wire leading to the formation of the 2-pyridone tautomer. For the stepwise mechanism, it has been found that the proton and the hydrogen may transfer consecutively. These processes are distinguished from each other through charge translocation analysis and the coupling between the motion of the proton and the electron density distribution along ammonia wire. For the complex under Cs symmetry, the excited state HT occurs on the A″({sup 1}πσ{sup ∗}) and A′({sup 1}nσ{sup ∗}) states over two accessible energy barriers along reaction coordinates, and excited state PT proceeds mainly through the A′({sup 1}ππ{sup ∗}) and A″({sup 1}nπ{sup ∗}) potential energy surfaces. For the unconstrained complex, potential energy profiles show two {sup 1}ππ{sup ∗}-{sup 1}πσ{sup ∗} conical intersections along enol → keto reaction path indicating that proton and H atom are localized, respectively, on the first and second ammonia of the wire. Moreover, the concerted excited state PT is competitive to take place with the stepwise process, because it proceeds over low barriers of 0.14 eV and 0.11 eV with respect to the Franck-Condon excitation of enol tautomer, respectively, under Cs symmetry and without any symmetry constraints. These barriers can be probably overcome through tunneling effect.

  17. Approximate constants of motion for classically chaotic vibrational dynamics - Vague tori, semiclassical quantization, and classical intramolecular energy flow (United States)

    Shirts, R. B.; Reinhardt, W. P.


    Substantial short time regularity, even in the chaotic regions of phase space, is found for what is seen as a large class of systems. This regularity manifests itself through the behavior of approximate constants of motion calculated by Pade summation of the Birkhoff-Gustavson normal form expansion; it is attributed to remnants of destroyed invariant tori in phase space. The remnant torus-like manifold structures are used to justify Einstein-Brillouin-Keller semiclassical quantization procedures for obtaining quantum energy levels, even in the absence of complete tori. They also provide a theoretical basis for the calculation of rate constants for intramolecular mode-mode energy transfer. These results are illustrated by means of a thorough analysis of the Henon-Heiles oscillator problem. Possible generality of the analysis is demonstrated by brief consideration of classical dynamics for the Barbanis Hamiltonian, Zeeman effect in hydrogen and recent results of Wolf and Hase (1980) for the H-C-C fragment.

  18. Theoretical exploration of the mechanism of riboflavin formation from 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine: nucleophilic catalysis, hydride transfer, hydrogen atom transfer, or nucleophilic addition? (United States)

    Breugst, Martin; Eschenmoser, Albert; Houk, K N


    The cofactor riboflavin is biochemically synthesized by a constitutionally intricate process in which two molecules of 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine react with each other to form one molecule of the cofactor and one molecule of 5-amino-6-(ribitylamino)uracil. Remarkably, this complex molecular transformation also proceeds non-enzymatically in boiling aqueous solution at pH 7.3. Four different mechanistic pathways for this transformation (nucleophilic catalysis, hydride transfer, hydrogen atom transfer, and a nucleophilic addition mechanism) have now been analyzed by density functional theory [M06-2X/def2-TZVPP/CPCM//M06-2X/6-31+G(d,p)/IEFPCM]. On the basis of these computational results, a so far unpublished nucleophilic addition mechanism is the lowest energy pathway yielding riboflavin. The previously proposed mechanism involving nucleophilic catalysis is higher in energy but is still a viable alternative for an enzyme-catalyzed process assisted by suitably positioned catalytic groups. Pathways involving the transfer of a hydride ion or of a hydrogen atom are predicted to proceed through higher energy transition states and intermediates.

  19. Symmetry of intramolecular quantum dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Burenin, Alexander V


    The main goal of this book is to give a systematic description of intramolecular quantum dynamics on the basis of only the symmetry principles. In this respect, the book has no analogs in the world literature. The obtained models lead to a simple, purely algebraic, scheme of calculation and are rigorous in the sense that their correctness is limited only to the correct choice of symmetry of the internal dynamics. The book is basically intended for scientists working in the field of molecular spectroscopy, quantum and structural chemistry.

  20. ARGAZ: a new device for experimental study of the coupling between hydrogen production and hydrogen transfer through saturated Callovian-Oxfordian argillite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imbert, C.; Bataillon, C.; Touze, G.; Vigier, P.; Talandier, J.


    Document available in extended abstract form only. A specific experimental device has been designed to produce hydrogen at the metal-argillite interface by electrochemistry. The target is for one hand to reproduce the production of hydrogen occurring when a metal is corroded by the water contained in the porosity of the mud-stone. On the other hand, the transfer of the hydrogen through the mud-stone can be studied. The specific features of the experiment are the following: - Hydrogen is generated inside a cell by electrochemistry, at the interface between the argillite and a metallic surface; no gas injection is required; - Electrochemistry gives the possibility to control the hydrogen production rate; - Hydrogen generation implies water consumption: the water comes from the porosity of the bulk argillite, near the interface; - That one-dimensional experiment has been built around a cylindrical sample of bulk and undamaged argillite coming from the Callovian-Oxfordian formation. Inside the device a cylindrical sample of argillite is placed above a nickel plate. Around the argillite, a ring of compacted bentonite ensures a mechanical confinement. When saturated, the bentonite will apply a swelling pressure close to the total pressure encountered by the sample in the geological formation. The hydrogen is generated at the interface nickel-argillite. The nickel plate is one of the two electrodes required for electrochemistry. At the top face of bentonite, iron electrode is used to close the electrical circuit. The hydrogen produced at the bottom face of the mud-stone is expected to go across the argillite towards the top face. A porous plate connected with a sampling bottle allows the capture of hydrogen. The argillite sample has a diameter of 50 mm, and a height of 50 mm. It is obtained by over-coring a core sample, and by a careful machining leading to a perfect geometry and surface quality. The production rate of hydrogen can be calculated from the current intensity

  1. Role of the sulfonamide moiety of Ru(II) half-sandwich complexes in the asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of 3,4-dihydroisoquinolines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matuška, O.; Zápal, J.; Hrdličková, R.; Mikoška, M.; Pecháček, J.; Vilhanová, B.; Václavík, Jiří; Kuzma, M.; Kačer, P.


    Roč. 118, č. 1 (2016), s. 215-222 ISSN 1878-5190 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : ruthenium * asymmetric transfer hydrogenation * dihydroisoquinolines * sulfonamide Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.264, year: 2016

  2. Heat transfer in pool boiling liquid neon, deuterium and hydrogen, and critical heat flux in forced convection of liquid neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astruc, J.M.


    In the first part, free-convection and nucleate pool boiling heat transfer (up to burn-out heat flux) between a platinum wire of 0.15 mm in diameter in neon, deuterium and hydrogen has been studied at atmospheric pressure. These measurements were continued in liquid neon up to 23 bars (Pc ≅ 26.8 b). Film boiling heat transfer coefficients have been measured in pool boiling liquid neon at atmospheric pressure with three heating wires (diameters 0.2, 0.5, 2 mm). All the results have been compared with existing correlations. The second part is devoted to measurements of the critical heat flux limiting heat transfer with small temperature differences between the wall and the liquid neon flowing inside a tube (diameters 3 x 3.5 mm) heated by joule effect on 30 cm of length. Influences of flow stability, nature of electrical current, pressure, mass flow rate and subcooling are shown. In conclusion, the similarity of the heat transfer characteristics in pool boiling as well as in forced convection of liquid neon and hydrogen is emphasized. (author) [fr

  3. Catalytic transfer hydrogenation for stabilization of bio-oil oxygenates: reduction of p-cresol and furfural over bimetallic Ni-Cu catalysts using isopropanol (United States)

    Transfer hydrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation of model bio-oil compounds (p-cresol and furfural) and bio-oils derived from biomass via traditional pyrolysis and tail-gas reactive pyrolysis (TGRP) were conducted. Mild batch reaction conditions were employed, using isopropanol as a hydrogen donor over...

  4. Microsolvation and the Effects of Non-Covalent Interactions on Intramolecular Dynamics (United States)

    Foguel, Lidor; Vealey, Zachary; Vaccaro, Patrick


    Physicochemical processes brought about by non-covalent interactions between neighboring molecules are undeniably of crucial importance in the world around us, being responsible for effects ranging from the subtle (yet precise) control of biomolecular recognition events to the very existence of condensed phases. Of particular interest is the differential ability of distinct non-covalent forces, such as those mediated by dispersion-dominated aryl (π-π) coupling and electrostatically-driven hydrogen bonding, to affect unimolecular transformations by altering potential surface topographies and the nature of reaction coordinates. A concerted experimental and computational investigation of "microsolvation" (solvation at the molecular level) has been undertaken to elucidate the site-specific coupling between solute and solvent degrees of freedom, as well as attendant consequences for the efficiency and pathway of intrinsic proton-transfer dynamics. Targeted species have been synthesized in situ under "cold" supersonic free-jet expansion conditions (T_{rot} ≈ 1-2K) by complexing an active (proton-transfer) substrate with various ligands (e.g., water isotopologs and benzene derivatives) for which competing interaction mechanisms can lead to unique binding motifs. A series of fluorescence-based spectroscopic measurements have been performed on binary adducts formed with the prototypical 6-hydroxy-2-formylfulvene (HFF) system, where a quasi-linear intramolecular O-H...O bond and a zero-point energy that straddles the proton-transfer barrier crest synergistically yield the largest tunneling-induced splitting ever reported for the ground electronic state of an isolated neutral molecule. Such characteristics afford a localized metric for unraveling incipient changes in unimolecular reactivity, with comparison of experimentally observed and quantum-chemical predicted rovibronic landscapes serving to discriminate complexes built upon electrostatic (hydrogen-bonding) and

  5. Technology Development for Hydrogen Propellant Storage and Transfer at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) (United States)

    Youngquist, Robert; Starr, Stanley; Krenn, Angela; Captain, Janine; Williams, Martha


    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is a major user of liquid hydrogen. In particular, NASA's John F. Kennedy (KSC) Space Center has operated facilities for handling and storing very large quantities of liquid hydrogen (LH2) since the early 1960s. Safe operations pose unique challenges and as a result NASA has invested in technology development to improve operational efficiency and safety. This paper reviews recent innovations including methods of leak and fire detection and aspects of large storage tank health and integrity. We also discuss the use of liquid hydrogen in space and issues we are addressing to ensure safe and efficient operations should hydrogen be used as a propellant derived from in-situ volatiles.

  6. Phonon driven proton transfer in crystals with short strong hydrogen bonds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fontaine-Vive, F.; Johnson, M.R.; Kearley, G.J.; Cowan, J.A.; Howard, J.A.K.; Parker, S.F.


    Recent work on understanding why protons migrate with increasing temperature in short, strong hydrogen bonds is extended here to three more organic, crystalline systems. Inelastic neutron scattering and density functional theory based simulations are used to investigate structure, vibrations, and

  7. Analysis of phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors by bottom-up electron-transfer dissociation hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Masson, Glenn R; Maslen, Sarah L; Williams, Roger L


    Until recently, one of the major limitations of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) was the peptide-level resolution afforded by proteolytic digestion. This limitation can be selectively overcome through the use of electron-transfer dissociation to fragment peptides in a manner that allows the retention of the deuterium signal to produce hydrogen/deuterium exchange tandem mass spectrometry (HDX-MS/MS). Here, we describe the application of HDX-MS/MS to structurally screen inhibitors of the oncogene phosphoinositide 3-kinase catalytic p110α subunit. HDX-MS/MS analysis is able to discern a conserved mechanism of inhibition common to a range of inhibitors. Owing to the relatively minor amounts of protein required, this technique may be utilised in pharmaceutical development for screening potential therapeutics. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Peptide-Driven Charge-Transfer Organogels Built from Synergetic Hydrogen Bonding and Pyrene-Naphthalenediimide Donor-Acceptor Interactions. (United States)

    Bartocci, Silvia; Berrocal, José Augusto; Guarracino, Paola; Grillaud, Maxime; Franco, Lorenzo; Mba, Miriam


    The peptide-driven formation of charge transfer (CT) supramolecular gels featuring both directional hydrogen-bonding and donor-acceptor (D-A) complexation is reported. Our design consists of the coassembly of two dipeptide-chromophore conjugates, namely diphenylalanine (FF) dipeptide conveniently functionalized at the N-terminus with either a pyrene (Py-1, donor) or naphthalene diimide (NDI-1, acceptor). UV/Vis spectroscopy confirmed the formation of CT complexes. FTIR and 1 H NMR spectroscopy studies underlined the pivotal role of hydrogen bonding in the gelation process, and electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements unraveled the advantage of preorganized CT supramolecular architectures for charge transport over solutions containing non-coassembled D and A molecular systems. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Production of hydrogen by electron transfer catalysis using conventional and photochemical means (United States)

    Rillema, D. P.


    Alternate methods of generating hydrogen from the sulfuric acid thermal or electrochemical cycles are presented. A number of processes requiring chemical, electrochemical or photochemical methods are also presented. These include the design of potential photoelectrodes and photocatalytic membranes using Ru impregnated nafion tubing, and the design of experiments to study the catalyzed electrolytic formation of hydrogen and sulfuric acid from sulfur dioxide and water using quinones as catalysts. Experiments are carried out to determine the value of these approaches to energy conversion.

  10. Development of Novel Electrode Materials for the Electrocatalysis of Oxygen-Transfer and Hydrogen-Transfer Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Brett Kimball [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Throughout this thesis, the fundamental aspects involved in the electrocatalysis of anodic O-transfer reactions and cathodic H-transfer reactions have been studied. The investigation into anodic O-transfer reactions at undoped and Fe(III)[doped MnO2 films] revealed that MnO2 film electrodes prepared by a cycling voltammetry deposition show improved response for DMSO oxidation at the film electrodes vs. the Au substrate. Doping of the MnO2 films with Fe(III) further enhanced electrode activity. Reasons for this increase are believed to involve the adsorption of DMSO by the Fe(III) sites. The investigation into anodic O-transfer reactions at undoped and Fe(III)-doped RuO2 films showed that the Fe(III)-doped RuO2-film electrodes are applicable for anodic detection of sulfur compounds. The Fe(III) sites in the Fe-RuO2 films are speculated to act as adsorption sites for the sulfur species while the Ru(IV) sites function for anodic discharge of H2O to generate the adsorbed OH species. The investigation into cathodic H-transfer reactions, specifically nitrate reduction, at various pure metals and their alloys demonstrated that the incorporation of metals into alloy materials can create a material that exhibits bifunctional properties for the various steps involved in the overall nitrate reduction reaction. The Sb10Sn20Ti70, Cu63Ni37 and Cu25Ni75 alloy electrodes exhibited improved activity for nitrate reduction as compared to their pure component metals. The Cu63Ni37 alloy displayed the highest activity for nitrate reduction. The final investigation was a detailed study of the electrocatalytic activity of cathodic H-transfer reactions (nitrate reduction) at various compositions of Cu-Ni alloy electrodes. Voltammetric response for NO3- at the Cu-Ni alloy electrode is superior to

  11. Surprisingly Mild Enolate-Counterion-Free Pd(0)-Catalyzed Intramolecular Allylic Alkylations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madec, David; Prestat, Guillaume; Martini, Elisabetta


    Palladium-catalyzed intramolecular allylic alkylations of unsaturated EWG-activated amides can take place under phase-transfer conditions or in the presence of a crown ether. These new reaction conditions are milder and higher yielding than those previously reported. A rationalization for such an......Palladium-catalyzed intramolecular allylic alkylations of unsaturated EWG-activated amides can take place under phase-transfer conditions or in the presence of a crown ether. These new reaction conditions are milder and higher yielding than those previously reported. A rationalization...

  12. Determination of Backbone Amide Hydrogen Exchange Rates of Cytochrome c Using Partially Scrambled Electron Transfer Dissociation Data. (United States)

    Hamuro, Yoshitomo; E, Sook Yen


    The technological goal of hydrogen/deuterium exchange-mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) is to determine backbone amide hydrogen exchange rates. The most critical challenge to achieve this goal is obtaining the deuterium incorporation in single-amide resolution, and gas-phase fragmentation may provide a universal solution. The gas-phase fragmentation may generate the daughter ions which differ by a single amino acid and the difference in deuterium incorporations in the two analogous ions can yield the deuterium incorporation at the sub-localized site. Following the pioneering works by Jørgensen and Rand, several papers utilized the electron transfer dissociation (ETD) to determine the location of deuterium in single-amide resolution. This paper demonstrates further advancement of the strategy by determining backbone amide hydrogen exchange rates, instead of just determining deuterium incorporation at a single time point, in combination with a wide time window monitoring. A method to evaluate the effects of scrambling and to determine the exchange rates from partially scrambled HDX-ETD-MS data is described. All parent ions for ETD fragmentation were regio-selectively scrambled: The deuterium in some regions of a peptide ion was scrambled while that in the other regions was not scrambled. The method determined 31 backbone amide hydrogen exchange rates of cytochrome c in the non-scrambled regions. Good fragmentation of a parent ion, a low degree of scrambling, and a low number of exchangeable hydrogens in the preceding side chain are the important factors to determine the exchange rate. The exchange rates determined by the HDX-MS are in good agreement with those determined by NMR. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  13. Determination of Backbone Amide Hydrogen Exchange Rates of Cytochrome c Using Partially Scrambled Electron Transfer Dissociation Data (United States)

    Hamuro, Yoshitomo; E, Sook Yen


    The technological goal of hydrogen/deuterium exchange-mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) is to determine backbone amide hydrogen exchange rates. The most critical challenge to achieve this goal is obtaining the deuterium incorporation in single-amide resolution, and gas-phase fragmentation may provide a universal solution. The gas-phase fragmentation may generate the daughter ions which differ by a single amino acid and the difference in deuterium incorporations in the two analogous ions can yield the deuterium incorporation at the sub-localized site. Following the pioneering works by Jørgensen and Rand, several papers utilized the electron transfer dissociation (ETD) to determine the location of deuterium in single-amide resolution. This paper demonstrates further advancement of the strategy by determining backbone amide hydrogen exchange rates, instead of just determining deuterium incorporation at a single time point, in combination with a wide time window monitoring. A method to evaluate the effects of scrambling and to determine the exchange rates from partially scrambled HDX-ETD-MS data is described. All parent ions for ETD fragmentation were regio-selectively scrambled: The deuterium in some regions of a peptide ion was scrambled while that in the other regions was not scrambled. The method determined 31 backbone amide hydrogen exchange rates of cytochrome c in the non-scrambled regions. Good fragmentation of a parent ion, a low degree of scrambling, and a low number of exchangeable hydrogens in the preceding side chain are the important factors to determine the exchange rate. The exchange rates determined by the HDX-MS are in good agreement with those determined by NMR. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. A numerical study on the heat transfer characteristics of a hydrogen storage material with inserted heat pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Hark; Boo, Joon Hong [Korea Aerospace Univ., Goyang (Korea, Republic of)


    A numerical analysis was conducted to predict the effect of inserted heat pipes on the heat transfer characteristics of Metal Hydride(MH), which inherently has extremely low thermal conductivity. In order to increase the effective conductivity of MH material the most efficient insert configuration is to be identified. Less than two hours of transient time is of concern when decreasing or increasing the temperature for absorption and discharge of hydrogen gas. Commercial softwares were employed to predict the transient as well as steady-state temperature distribution of the MH material with inserted heat transfer enhancing tube or heat pipes. The numerical results were compared and analyzed from the view point of temperature uniformity and transient period.

  15. Hydrogen-bond-dynamics-based switching of conductivity and magnetism: a phase transition caused by deuterium and electron transfer in a hydrogen-bonded purely organic conductor crystal. (United States)

    Ueda, Akira; Yamada, Shota; Isono, Takayuki; Kamo, Hiromichi; Nakao, Akiko; Kumai, Reiji; Nakao, Hironori; Murakami, Youichi; Yamamoto, Kaoru; Nishio, Yutaka; Mori, Hatsumi


    A hydrogen bond (H-bond) is one of the most fundamental and important noncovalent interactions in chemistry, biology, physics, and all other molecular sciences. Especially, the dynamics of a proton or a hydrogen atom in the H-bond has attracted increasing attention, because it plays a crucial role in (bio)chemical reactions and some physical properties, such as dielectricity and proton conductivity. Here we report unprecedented H-bond-dynamics-based switching of electrical conductivity and magnetism in a H-bonded purely organic conductor crystal, κ-D3(Cat-EDT-TTF)2 (abbreviated as κ-D). This novel crystal κ-D, a deuterated analogue of κ-H3(Cat-EDT-TTF)2 (abbreviated as κ-H), is composed only of a H-bonded molecular unit, in which two crystallographically equivalent catechol-fused ethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene (Cat-EDT-TTF) skeletons with a +0.5 charge are linked by a symmetric anionic [O···D···O](-1)-type strong H-bond. Although the deuterated and parent hydrogen systems, κ-D and κ-H, are isostructural paramagnetic semiconductors with a dimer-Mott-type electronic structure at room temperature (space group: C2/c), only κ-D undergoes a phase transition at 185 K, to change to a nonmagnetic insulator with a charge-ordered electronic structure (space group: P1). The X-ray crystal structure analysis demonstrates that this dramatic switching of the electronic structure and physical properties originates from deuterium transfer or displacement within the H-bond accompanied by electron transfer between the Cat-EDT-TTF π-systems, proving that the H-bonded deuterium dynamics and the conducting TTF π-electron are cooperatively coupled. Furthermore, the reason why this unique phase transition occurs only in κ-D is qualitatively discussed in terms of the H/D isotope effect on the H-bond geometry and potential energy curve.

  16. Effect of cooperative hydrogen bonding in azo-hydrazone tautomerism of azo dyes. (United States)

    Ozen, Alimet Sema; Doruker, Pemra; Aviyente, Viktorya


    Azo-hydrazone tautomerism in azo dyes has been modeled by using density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory. The most stable tautomer was determined both for model compounds and for azo dyes Acid Orange 7 and Solvent Yellow 14. The effects of the sulfonate group substitution and the replacement of the phenyl group with naphthyl on the tautomer stability and on the behavior in solvent have been discussed. Intramolecular hydrogen bond energies have been estimated for the azo and hydrazone tautomers to derive a relationship between the tautomer stability and the hydrogen bond strength. The transition structures for proton transfer displayed resonance assisted strong hydrogen bonding properties within the framework of the electrostatic-covalent hydrogen bond model (ECHBM). Evolution of the intramolecular hydrogen bond with changing structural and environmental factors during the tautomeric conversion process has been studied extensively by means of the atoms-in-molecules (AIM) analysis of the electron density. The bulk solvent effect was examined using the self-consistent reaction field model. Special solute-solvent interactions were further investigated by means of quantum mechanical calculations after defining the first-solvation shell by molecular dynamics simulations. The effect of cooperative hydrogen bonding with solvent molecules on the tautomer stability has been discussed.

  17. 2D heat and mass transfer modeling of methane steam reforming for hydrogen production in a compact reformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Meng


    Highlights: ► A heat and mass transfer model is developed for a compact reformer. ► Hydrogen production from methane steam reforming is simulated. ► Increasing temperature greatly increases the reaction rates at the inlet. ► Temperature in the downstream is increased at higher rate of heat supply. ► Larger permeability enhances gas flow and reaction rates in the catalyst layer. - Abstract: Compact reformers (CRs) are promising devices for efficient fuel processing. In CRs, a thin solid plate is sandwiched between two catalyst layers to enable efficient heat transfer from combustion duct to the reforming duct for fuel processing. In this study, a 2D heat and mass transfer model is developed to investigate the fundamental transport phenomenon and chemical reaction kinetics in a CR for hydrogen production by methane steam reforming (MSR). Both MSR reaction and water gas shift reaction (WGSR) are considered in the numerical model. Parametric simulations are performed to examine the effects of various structural/operating parameters, such as pore size, permeability, gas velocity, temperature, and rate of heat supply on the reformer performance. It is found that the reaction rates of MSR and WGSR are the highest at the inlet but decrease significantly along the reformer. Increasing the operating temperature raises the reaction rates at the inlet but shows very small influence in the downstream. For comparison, increasing the rate of heat supply raises the reaction rates in the downstream due to increased temperature. A high gas velocity and permeability facilitates gas transport in the porous structure thus enhances reaction rates in the downstream of the reformer.

  18. Ultrafast forward and backward electron transfer dynamics of coumarin 337 in hydrogen-bonded anilines as studied with femtosecond UV-pump/IR-probe spectroscopy. (United States)

    Ghosh, Hirendra N; Verma, Sandeep; Nibbering, Erik T J


    Femtosecond infrared spectroscopy is used to study both forward and backward electron transfer (ET) dynamics between coumarin 337 (C337) and the aromatic amine solvents aniline (AN), N-methylaniline (MAN), and N,N-dimethylaniline (DMAN), where all the aniline solvents can donate an electron but only AN and MAN can form hydrogen bonds with C337. The formation of a hydrogen bond with AN and MAN is confirmed with steady state FT-IR spectroscopy, where the C═O stretching vibration is a direct marker mode for hydrogen bond formation. Transient IR absorption measurements in all solvents show an absorption band at 2166 cm(-1), which has been attributed to the C≡N stretching vibration of the C337 radical anion formed after ET. Forward electron transfer dynamics is found to be biexponential with time constants τ(ET)(1) = 500 fs, τ(ET)(2) = 7 ps in all solvents. Despite the presence of hydrogen bonds of C337 with the solvents AN and MAN, no effect has been found on the forward electron transfer step. Because of the absence of an H/D isotope effect on the forward electron transfer reaction of C337 in AN, hydrogen bonds are understood to play a minor role in mediating electron transfer. In contrast, direct π-orbital overlap between C337 and the aromatic amine solvents causes ultrafast forward electron transfer dynamics. Backward electron transfer dynamics, in contrast, is dependent on the solvent used. Standard Marcus theory explains the observed backward electron transfer rates.

  19. Hirshfeld atom refinement for modelling strong hydrogen bonds. (United States)

    Woińska, Magdalena; Jayatilaka, Dylan; Spackman, Mark A; Edwards, Alison J; Dominiak, Paulina M; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Nishibori, Eiji; Sugimoto, Kunihisa; Grabowsky, Simon


    High-resolution low-temperature synchrotron X-ray diffraction data of the salt L-phenylalaninium hydrogen maleate are used to test the new automated iterative Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) procedure for the modelling of strong hydrogen bonds. The HAR models used present the first examples of Z' > 1 treatments in the framework of wavefunction-based refinement methods. L-Phenylalaninium hydrogen maleate exhibits several hydrogen bonds in its crystal structure, of which the shortest and the most challenging to model is the O-H...O intramolecular hydrogen bond present in the hydrogen maleate anion (O...O distance is about 2.41 Å). In particular, the reconstruction of the electron density in the hydrogen maleate moiety and the determination of hydrogen-atom properties [positions, bond distances and anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs)] are the focus of the study. For comparison to the HAR results, different spherical (independent atom model, IAM) and aspherical (free multipole model, MM; transferable aspherical atom model, TAAM) X-ray refinement techniques as well as results from a low-temperature neutron-diffraction experiment are employed. Hydrogen-atom ADPs are furthermore compared to those derived from a TLS/rigid-body (SHADE) treatment of the X-ray structures. The reference neutron-diffraction experiment reveals a truly symmetric hydrogen bond in the hydrogen maleate anion. Only with HAR is it possible to freely refine hydrogen-atom positions and ADPs from the X-ray data, which leads to the best electron-density model and the closest agreement with the structural parameters derived from the neutron-diffraction experiment, e.g. the symmetric hydrogen position can be reproduced. The multipole-based refinement techniques (MM and TAAM) yield slightly asymmetric positions, whereas the IAM yields a significantly asymmetric position.

  20. Complementary Strategies for Directed C(sp3)-H Functionalization: A Comparison of Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Activation, Hydrogen Atom Transfer, and Carbene/Nitrene Transfer. (United States)

    Chu, John C K; Rovis, Tomislav


    The functionalization of C(sp 3 )-H bonds streamlines chemical synthesis by allowing the use of simple molecules and providing novel synthetic disconnections. Intensive recent efforts in the development of new reactions based on C-H functionalization have led to its wider adoption across a range of research areas. This Review discusses the strengths and weaknesses of three main approaches: transition-metal-catalyzed C-H activation, 1,n-hydrogen atom transfer, and transition-metal-catalyzed carbene/nitrene transfer, for the directed functionalization of unactivated C(sp 3 )-H bonds. For each strategy, the scope, the reactivity of different C-H bonds, the position of the reacting C-H bonds relative to the directing group, and stereochemical outcomes are illustrated with examples in the literature. The aim of this Review is to provide guidance for the use of C-H functionalization reactions and inspire future research in this area. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Loss of ammonia during electron-transfer dissociation of deuterated peptides as an inherent gauge of gas-phase hydrogen scrambling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rand, Kasper D; Zehl, Martin; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard


    we utilize the abundant loss of ammonia upon ETD of peptide ions as a universal reporter of positional randomization of the exchangeable hydrogens (hydrogen scrambling) during HX-ETD experiments. We show that the loss of ammonia from peptide ions proceeds without depletion of deuterium when employing......The application of electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) to obtain single-residue resolution in hydrogen exchange-mass spectrometry (HX-MS) experiments has recently been demonstrated. For such measurements, it is critical to ensure that the level of gas-phase hydrogen scrambling is negligible. Here...... detected by a depletion of deuterium when deuterated ammonia is lost from peptides during ETD. This straightforward method requires no modifications to the experimental workflow and has the great advantage that the occurrence of hydrogen scrambling can be directly detected in the actual peptides analyzed...

  2. Direct electron transfer biosensor for hydrogen peroxide carrying nanocomplex composed of horseradish peroxidase and Au-nanoparticle – Characterization and application to bienzyme systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuke Okawa


    Full Text Available A reagentless electrochemical biosensor for hydrogen peroxide was fabricated. The sensor carries a monolayer of nanocomplex composed of horseradish peroxidase and Au-nanoparticle, and responds to hydrogen peroxide through the highly efficient direct electron transfer at a mild electrode potential without any soluble mediator. Formation of the nanocomplex was studied with visible spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography. The sensor performance was analyzed based on a hydrodynamic electrochemical technique and enzyme kinetics. The sensor was applied to fabrication of sensors for glucose and uric acid through further modification of the nanocomplex-carrying electrode with the corresponding hydrogen peroxide-generating oxidases, glucose oxidase and urate oxidase, respectively.

  3. Self-Ignition Behavior of Propane-Air Mixtures with Hydrogen Addition in Catalytic Micro-Channels Coupling Reduced-Order Kinetic Model and Heat Transfer


    Junjie Chen


    Hydrogen-assisted self-ignition of propane-air mixtures under ambient condition were carried out in platinum-coated micro-channels, using a two-dimensional model with reduced-order reaction schemes, heat conduction in the solid walls, convection and surface radiation heat transfer. The self-ignition behavior of the hydrogen-propane mixed fuel is compared for the case of heated feed is analyzed. Simulations indicate that hydrogen can successfully cause self-ignition of propane-air mixtures in ...

  4. Deprotonation of flavonoids severely alters the thermodynamics of the hydrogen atom transfer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klein, E.; Rimarčík, J.; Senajová, E.; Vagánek, A.; Lengyel, Jozef


    Roč. 1085, JUN 2016 (2016), s. 7-17 ISSN 2210-271X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-14082S Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Primary antioxidant * Flavonoid * dft * Bond dissociation enthalpy * Sequential proton-loss electron-transfer Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.549, year: 2016

  5. Efficient transfer hydrogenation reaction Catalyzed by a dearomatized PN 3P ruthenium pincer complex under base-free Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    He, Lipeng


    A dearomatized complex [RuH(PN 3P)(CO)] (PN 3PN, N′-bis(di-tert-butylphosphino)-2,6-diaminopyridine) (3) was prepared by reaction of the aromatic complex [RuH(Cl)(PN 3P)(CO)] (2) with t-BuOK in THF. Further treatment of 3 with formic acid led to the formation of a rearomatized complex (4). These new complexes were fully characterized and the molecular structure of complex 4 was further confirmed by X-ray crystallography. In complex 4, a distorted square-pyramidal geometry around the ruthenium center was observed, with the CO ligand trans to the pyridinic nitrogen atom and the hydride located in the apical position. The dearomatized complex 3 displays efficient catalytic activity for hydrogen transfer of ketones in isopropanol. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of power transfer efficiency for a high power inductively coupled radio-frequency hydrogen ion source (United States)

    Jain, P.; Recchia, M.; Cavenago, M.; Fantz, U.; Gaio, E.; Kraus, W.; Maistrello, A.; Veltri, P.


    Neutral beam injection (NBI) for plasma heating and current drive is necessary for International Thermonuclear Experimental reactor (ITER) tokamak. Due to its various advantages, a radio frequency (RF) driven plasma source type was selected as a reference ion source for the ITER heating NBI. The ITER relevant RF negative ion sources are inductively coupled (IC) devices whose operational working frequency has been chosen to be 1 MHz and are characterized by high RF power density (˜9.4 W cm-3) and low operational pressure (around 0.3 Pa). The RF field is produced by a coil in a cylindrical chamber leading to a plasma generation followed by its expansion inside the chamber. This paper recalls different concepts based on which a methodology is developed to evaluate the efficiency of the RF power transfer to hydrogen plasma. This efficiency is then analyzed as a function of the working frequency and in dependence of other operating source and plasma parameters. The study is applied to a high power IC RF hydrogen ion source which is similar to one simplified driver of the ELISE source (half the size of the ITER NBI source).

  7. Single step synthesis of gold-amino acid composite, with the evidence of the catalytic hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reaction, for the electrochemical recognition of Serotonin (United States)

    Choudhary, Meenakshi; Siwal, Samarjeet; Nandi, Debkumar; Mallick, Kaushik


    A composite architecture of amino acid and gold nanoparticles has been synthesized using a generic route of 'in-situ polymerization and composite formation (IPCF)' [1,2]. The formation mechanism of the composite has been supported by a model hydrogen atom (H•≡H++e-) transfer (HAT) type of reaction which belongs to the proton coupled electron transfer (PCET) mechanism. The 'gold-amino acid composite' was used as a catalyst for the electrochemical recognition of Serotonin.

  8. Heat and momentum transfer from an atmospheric argon hydrogen plasma jet to spherical particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaessen, P.H.M.


    In this thesis the author describes the energy and momentum transfer from the plasma jet to the spray particles. This is done both experimentally and theoretically. Also the internal energy process of the recombining plasma is discussed. All elastic and inelastic collisional and radiative processes, as well as transport effects within the plasma are considered. In the next section, the so called passive spectroscopy is treated. It describes the diagnostics of electron density and temperature measurement, as well as the investigation on heat content of the particles. Spatially resolved electron density and temperature profiles are presented. Next, the active spectroscopy, i.e. the laser Doppler anemometer is dealt with. With this diagnostic, axial spray-particle velocities inside the plasma jet were determined. The author also presents heat and momentum transfer modelling of the plasma, related to the plasma particle interaction. Finally, a one dimensional model verification is made, using the experimentally determined particle velocity and plasma temperature profiles. (Auth.)

  9. Catalytic solar thermochemical processing for enhance heat transfer and emission-free production of hydrogen


    Ibrik, Karim; Al-Meer, Mariam; Ozalp, Nesrin


    Solar thermochemical processing offers production of many commodities via reduced or completely eliminated emission footprint. Although solar reactor design and flow configuration play key role in process efficiency, use of right catalyst further enhances the overall efficiency. Our research efforts to explain the physical phenomenon behind the increase of the overall efficiency via catalyst addition showed that there is a direct effect on the heat transfer which in turn effects methane decom...

  10. Dynamics of Reactions Involving Hydrogen Atom or Proton Transfer Symmetric Case. (United States)


    rates; tunneling; atom and proton transfer. 20 ABSTRACT ( ContInuo an revese side It necoee.,y and idenlify by block moibor) / C_ -3 A method is... improve the understanding of the dynamics of the reaction and facilitate its computational treatment. If a quasi-constant of the motion does exist for a...neglect of nonadiabatic effects and (ii) use of polar coordinates to treat the dynamics. Each could be improved , e. g. , in (i) by including perturbatively

  11. One-pot reduction of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural via hydrogen transfer from supercritical methanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Søndergaard; Barta, Katalin; Anastas, Paul T.


    Catalytic conversion of HMF to valuable chemicals was achieved over a Cu-doped porous metal oxide in supercritical methanol. The hydrotalcite catalyst precursor is prepared following simple synthetic procedures, using inexpensive and earth-abundant starting materials in aqueous solutions. The hyd......Catalytic conversion of HMF to valuable chemicals was achieved over a Cu-doped porous metal oxide in supercritical methanol. The hydrotalcite catalyst precursor is prepared following simple synthetic procedures, using inexpensive and earth-abundant starting materials in aqueous solutions....... The hydrogen equivalents needed for the reductive deoxygenation of HMF originate from the solvent itself upon its reforming. Dimethylfuran, dimethyltetrahydrofuran and 2-hexanol were obtained in good yields. At milder reaction temperatures, a combined yield (DMF + DMTHF) of 58% was achieved. Notably...

  12. The role of interspecies hydrogen transfer on thermophilic protein and amino acid metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oerlygsson, J.


    The dynamics of thermophilic protein (peptone) degradation to fatty acids was followed in small-scale, semi-continuous, steady state, thermophilic enrichment cultures under methanogenic conditions. Although only 4-9% of the carbon was recovered in methane, methanogenesis was crucial both for the complete hydrolysis of peptone and the degradation of the amino acids released. Under non-methanogenic conditions, the degradation of the branched-chain amino acids alanine, methionine and phenylalanine, all known to be deaminated oxidatively, was partly inhibited. The degradation under these conditions was probably due to the Stickland reaction. During the degradation of several different amino acids with these peptone enrichment cultures, large differences were found in both deamination rates and in amounts degraded between methanogenic and non-methanogenic conditions. Leucine, valine and alanine were completely degraded only under methanogenic conditions and at relatively low rates. Serine, threonine, cysteine and methionine were degraded under both methanogenic and non-methanogenic conditions. However, deamination rates were 1.3 to 2.2 times higher during methanogenesis. A Clostridium sp. strain P2, was isolated from one of the semi-continuously peptone-fed enrichment cultures. Like in mixed cultures, the degradation of the branched-chain amino acids by this isolate was dependent on hydrogen removal. During growth on glucose, fructose and mannose, strain P2 produced substantial amounts of L-alanine as a fermentation product. Pyruvate was the source of alanine, and the formation of the latter was strongly influenced by ammonium. The partial pressure of hydrogen was of less importance for the formation of alanine than was the concentration of ammonia. 101 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  13. Microscopic mechanism of electron transfer through the hydrogen bonds between carboxylated alkanethiol molecules connected to gold electrodes

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Yang


    © 2014 AIP Publishing LLC. The atomic structure and the electron transfer properties of hydrogen bonds formed between two carboxylated alkanethiol molecules connected to gold electrodes are investigated by employing the non-equilibrium Green\\'s function formalism combined with density functional theory. Three types of molecular junctions are constructed, in which one carboxyl alkanethiol molecule contains two methylene, -CH2, groups and the other one is composed of one, two, or three -CH2 groups. Our calculations show that, similarly to the cases of isolated carboxylic acid dimers, in these molecular junctions the two carboxyl, -COOH, groups form two H-bonds resulting in a cyclic structure. When self-interaction corrections are explicitly considered, the calculated transmission coefficients of these three H-bonded molecular junctions at the Fermi level are in good agreement with the experimental values. The analysis of the projected density of states confirms that the covalent Au-S bonds localized at the molecule-electrode interfaces and the electronic coupling between -COOH and S dominate the low-bias junction conductance. Following the increase of the number of the -CH2 groups, the coupling between -COOH and S decreases deeply. As a result, the junction conductance decays rapidly as the length of the H-bonded molecules increases. These findings not only provide an explanation to the observed distance dependence of the electron transfer properties of H-bonds, but also help the design of molecular devices constructed through H-bonds.

  14. New insight into the role of a base in the mechanism of imine transfer hydrogenation on a Ru(II) half-sandwich complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuzma, Marek; Václavík, J.; Novák, Petr; Přech, J.; Januščák, J.; Červený, J.; Pecháček, J.; Šot, P.; Vilhanová, B.; Matoušek, V.; Goncharova, I.; Urbanová, M.; Kačer, P.


    Roč. 42, č. 14 (2013), s. 5174-5182 ISSN 1477-9226 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA104/09/1497; GA ČR GAP106/12/1276 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : LIGAND BIFUNCTIONAL CATALYSIS * RUTHENIUM HYDRIDE COMPLEXES * ASYMMETRIC TRANSFER HYDROGENATION Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 4.097, year: 2013

  15. RET: a computer code for solution of space-time dependent heat and mass transfer problem associated with metal hydrogen storage beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Osery, I.A.


    The computer code RET is developed for the solution of space-time dependent heat and mass transfer problem associated with a cylindrical metal hydride hydrogen storage bed where the heat transfer fluid is passing through a coaxial pipe. An approximate analytical solution is proposed on the assumption that an interface exists separating the completely reacted and unreacted zones and that heat is exhanged only at the interface. The bed is assumed initially at its equilibrium reaction temperature. The temperature distribution in the reacted zone is assumed of steady state type. The code gives as functions of time, the location of the reaction front, the cumulative reacted hydrogen, and the rate of hydrogen reaction. A listing of RET-code in FORTRAN is provided together with input data requirements and output facilities.

  16. Proton Transfer and Low-Barrier Hydrogen Bonding: a Shifting Vibrational Landscape Dictated by Large Amplitude Tunneling (United States)

    Vealey, Zachary; Foguel, Lidor; Vaccaro, Patrick


    Our fundamental understanding of synergistic hydrogen-bonding and proton-transfer phenomena has been advanced immensely by studies of model systems in which the coherent transduction of hydrons is mediated by two degenerate equilibrium configurations that are isolated from one another by a potential barrier of substantial height. This topography advantageously affords unambiguous signatures for the underlying state-resolved dynamics in the form of tunneling-induced spectral bifurcations, the magnitudes of which encode both the overall efficacy and the detailed mechanism of the unimolecular transformation. As a prototypical member of this class of compounds, 6-hydroxy-2-formylfulvene (HFF) supports an unusual quasi-linear O-H...O \\leftrightarrow O...H-O reaction coordinate that presents a minimal impediment to proton migration - a situation commensurate with the concepts of low-barrier hydrogen bonding (which are characterized by great strength, short distance, and a vanishingly small barrier for hydron migration). A variety of fluorescence-based, laser-spectroscopic probes have been deployed in a cold supersonic free-jet expansion to explore the vibrational landscape and anomalously large tunneling-induced shifts that dominate the ˜{X}^{1}A_{1} potential-energy surface of HFF, thus revealing the most rapid proton tunneling ever reported for a molecular ground state (τ_{pt}≤120fs). The surprising efficiency of such tunneling-mediated processes stems from proximity of the zero-point level to the barrier crest and produces a dramatic alteration in the canonical pattern of vibrational features that reflects, in part, the subtle transition from quantum-mechanical barrier penetration to classical over-the-barrier dynamics. The ultrafast proton-transfer regime that characterizes the ˜{X}^{1}A_{1} manifold will be juxtaposed against analogous findings for the lowest-lying singlet excited state ˜{A}^{1}B_{2} (π*←π), where a marked change in the nature of the

  17. Application to processing system using intra-molecular BRET (United States)

    Otsuji, Tomomi; Okuda-Ashitaka, Emiko; Kojima, Satoshi; Akiyama, Hidehumi; Ito, Seiji; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro


    Luciferases are used as the reporter gene for promoter activity, whereas a green fluorescent protein (GFP) is used as marker for cellular function and localization. Recently, bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) between luciferase and YFP is used for analysis of inter-molecular reaction such as ligand-receptor in the living cells. The neuropeptides nocistatin (NST) and nociceptin/orphanin FQ (Noc/OFQ) are derived from the same precursor protein, while NST exhibits antagonism against Noc/OFQ-actions. In this study, we attempt an intra-molecular BRET system for monitoring dynamic biological process of the production of NST and Noc/OFQ in the living cells. At first, we constructed a fusion protein (Rluc-GFP) covalently linking luciferase (Renilla luciferase; Rluc) to Aequorea GFP as an intra-molecular BRET partner. Furthermore, we inserted constructs of mouse NST and Noc/OFQ (Rluc-m-GFP) or bovine NST and Noc/OFQ (Rluc-b-GFP) containing a proteolytic cleavage motif (Lys-Arg) within Rluc-GFP. When these constructions were transfected into Cos7 cells, all fusion proteins had luciferase activity and specific fluorescence. Luminescence spectra of Rluc-GFP, Rluc-m-GFP and Rluc-b-GFP fusion proteins with DeepBlueC as a substrate showed two peaks centered at 400 nm and 510 nm, whereas Rluc showed one peak centered at 400 nm. These results indicate that the proteolytic cleavage motif inserted fusion proteins between luciferase and GFP are available for intra-molecular BRET systems at first step.

  18. Stepwise Hydrogen Atom and Proton Transfers in Dioxygen Reduction by Aryl-Alcohol Oxidase. (United States)

    Carro, Juan; Ferreira, Patricia; Martínez, Angel T; Gadda, Giovanni


    The mechanism of dioxygen reduction by the flavoenzyme aryl-alcohol oxidase was investigated with kinetic isotope, viscosity, and pL (pH/pD) effects in rapid kinetics experiments by stopped-flow spectrophotometry of the oxidative half-reaction of the enzyme. Double mixing of the enzyme in a stopped-flow spectrophotometer with [α- 2 H 2 ]- p-methoxybenzyl alcohol and oxygen at varying aging times established a slow rate constant of 0.0023 s -1 for the wash-out of the D atom from the N5 atom of the reduced flavin. Thus, the deuterated substrate could be used to probe the cleavage of the N-H bond of the reduced flavin in the oxidative half-reaction. A significant and pH-independent substrate kinetic isotope effect (KIE) of 1.5 between pH 5.0 and 8.0 demonstrated that H transfer is partially limiting the oxidative half-reaction of the enzyme; a negligible solvent KIE of 1.0 between pD 5.0 and 8.0 proved a fast H + transfer reaction that does not contribute to determining the flavin oxidation rates. Thus, a mechanism for dioxygen reduction in which the H atom originating from the reduced flavin and a H + from a solvent exchangeable site are transferred in separate kinetic steps is proposed. The spectroscopic and kinetic data presented also showed a lack of stabilization of transient flavin intermediates. The substantial differences in the mechanistic details of O 2 reduction by aryl-alcohol oxidase with respect to other alcohol oxidases like choline oxidase, pyranose 2-oxidase, and glucose oxidase further demonstrate the high level of versatility of the flavin cofactor in flavoenzymes.

  19. Oxidation levels differentially impact melanocytes: low versus high concentration of hydrogen peroxide promotes melanin synthesis and melanosome transfer. (United States)

    Tang, Luyan; Li, Jian; Lin, Xiao; Wu, Wenyu; Kang, Kefei; Fu, Wenwen


    UVB light can generate potentially harmful hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in vivo, but it can also promote the beneficial proliferation and migration of melanocytes. The successful use of UVB monotherapy for treatment of vitiligo suggests that H(2)O(2) may have a biphasic effect on melanin synthesis and melanosome transfer. To study the beneficial role of H(2)O(2) on melanogenesis and melanosome transport in living melanocytes and keratinocytes. A co-culture system model was constructed using the primary human melanocytes and keratinocytes. The MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay was used to determine cell proliferation, NaOH was used to determine the melanin content, and real-time PCR was used to determine tyrosinase expression. Western blot was used to determine Rab-27A and protease-activated receptor 2 (PAR-2) expression. This study demonstrated that tyrosinase was activated by low concentrations of H(2)O(2) (≤0.3 mM); however, this activity was downregulated by high concentrations of H(2)O(2) (>0.3 mM). Activation of high levels of melanin synthesis was induced when cells were treated with low concentrations of H(2)O(2) (0.3 mM). Further observation using an in vitro co-culture system of fluorescein (carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester, CFDA-SE)-labeled melanocytes and keratinocytes indicated that melanosome transfer occurred in normal human epidermal melanocytes. Fluorescence microscopy revealed increased melanosome transfer into keratinocytes treated with 0.3 mM H(2)O(2) in the co-culture compared to the control. Examination of melanosomes in the keratinocytes by flow cytometry confirmed these results. Furthermore, treatment with H(2)O(2) (0.3 mM) upregulated the expression of Rab-27A and PAR-2, significant proteins involved in melanosome transfer, according to Western blot. These results confirmed that low concentration levels of H(2)O(2) play a major role in the regulation of human pigmentation by increasing

  20. Transferring metallic nano-island on hydrogen passivated silicon surface for nano-electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, J; Troadec, C; Joachim, C


    In a planar configuration, precise positioning of ultra-flat metallic nano-islands on semiconductor surface opens a way to construct nanostructures for atomic scale interconnects. Regular triangular Au nano-islands have been grown on atomically flat MoS 2 substrates and manipulated by STM to form nanometer gap metal-pads connector for single molecule electronics study. The direct assembly of regular shaped metal nano-islands on H-Si(100) is not achievable. Here we present how to transfer Au triangle nano-islands from MoS 2 onto H-Si(100) in a clean manner. In this experiment, clean MoS 2 substrates are patterned as array of MoS 2 pillars with height of 8 μm. The Au triangle nano-islands are grown on top of the pillars. Successful printing transfer of these Au nano-islands from the MoS 2 pillars to the H-Si(100) is demonstrated.

  1. Electrochemical studies of a reconstituted photosynthetic electron-transfer chain or towards a biomimetic photoproduction of hydrogen; Etudes electrochimiques de chaines de transfert d'electrons photosynthetiques ou vers une photoproduction biomimetique d'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourmond, V


    The aim of this work is to find an efficient process to convert solar energy into hydrogen. The electrons transfers in reconstituted photosynthetic chains have been particularly studied with the aims 1)in one hand, to better understand the interactions of the different molecules of the photosynthetic chain in order to optimize the changes of the entire organisms for hydrogen production 2)in another hand, to insert the hydrogenases in a photosynthetic chain and then to photo reduce them in order to obtain kinetic data to better understand how it works. (O.M.)

  2. Half-sandwich rhodium(III) transfer hydrogenation catalysts: Reduction of NAD(+) and pyruvate, and antiproliferative activity. (United States)

    Soldevila-Barreda, Joan J; Habtemariam, Abraha; Romero-Canelón, Isolda; Sadler, Peter J


    Organometallic complexes have the potential to behave as catalytic drugs. We investigate here Rh(III) complexes of general formula [(Cp(x))Rh(N,N')(Cl)], where N,N' is ethylenediamine (en), 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) or N-(2-aminoethyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzenesulfonamide (TfEn), and Cp(x) is pentamethylcyclopentadienyl (Cp*), 1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetramethylcyclopentadienyl (Cp(xPh)) or 1-biphenyl-2,3,4,5-tetramethyl cyclopentadienyl (Cp(xPhPh)). These complexes can reduce NAD(+) to NADH using formate as a hydride source under biologically-relevant conditions. The catalytic activity decreased in the order of N,N-chelated ligand bpy > phen > en with Cp* as the η(5)-donor. The en complexes (1-3) became more active with extension to the Cp(X) ring, whereas the activity of the phen (7-9) and bpy (4-6) compounds decreased. [Cp*Rh(bpy)Cl](+) (4) showed the highest catalytic activity, with a TOF of 37.4±2h(-1). Fast hydrolysis of the chlorido complexes 1-10 was observed by (1)H NMR (hydrogenation reactions was highly dependent on the nature of the chelating ligand and the Cp(x) ring. Competition reactions between NAD(+) and pyruvate for reduction by formate catalysed by 4 showed a preference for reduction of NAD(+). The antiproliferative activity of complex 3 towards A2780 human ovarian cancer cells increased by up to 50% when administered in combination with non-toxic doses of formate, suggesting that transfer hydrogenation can induce reductive stress in cancer cells. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of hydrogen absorption in amorphous Ni-P electrodes on double layer capacitance and charge transfer coefficient of hydrogen evolution reaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paseka, Ivo


    Roč. 44, č. 25 (1999), s. 4551-4558 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/96/1320 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4032918 Keywords : hydrogen absorption * hydrogen evolution * Amorphous alloys * Nickel phosphorus electrodes Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.325, year: 1999

  4. Photoswitchable Intramolecular H-Stacking of Perylenebisimide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jiaobing; Kulago, Artem; Browne, Wesley R.; Feringa, Ben L.


    Dynamic control over the formation of H- or J-type aggregates of chromophores is of fundamental importance for developing responsive organic optoelectronic materials. In this study, the first example of photoswitching between a nonstacked and an intramolecularly H-stacked arrangement of

  5. Theoretical study of intramolecular hydrogen bonding in the halo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    both proton donor and proton acceptor groups, which may be of various kinds of functional groups, are located in the same molecule. Interaction of these functional groups may .... and molecular reactivity are described by total elec- tronic density, ρ(r), and its ..... Values of Q (Å) and HOMA indices for AIP and its derivatives ...

  6. Theoretical study of intramolecular hydrogen bonding in the halo ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    enaminoimine ring increases. However, the low regres- sion coefficient for IHB energy correlation with Q value indicates that Q is not a good descriptor for IHB strength. Another geometrical parameter for description of π-electron delocalization is harmonic oscillator measure of aromaticity (HOMA). This factor is defined in ...

  7. Molecular structure and intramolecular hydrogen bonding in 2 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 126; Issue 4 ... To understand the substitution effects on the nature of IHB and the electronic structure of the chelated ring system, the vibrational frequencies, 1H chemical shift, topological parameters, natural bond orders and natural charges over atoms involved in the ...

  8. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding and tautomerism in Schiff bases ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    -amine (O...H–N) tautomers. .... hexane were dried by standard methods prior to use. Melting points were measured on a Gallenkamp ap- ... Standard Bruker pulse programs. 42 were used in the entire experiment. FTIR spectra were recorded ...

  9. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding and tautomerism in Schiff bases ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    . 46. For the assignments of aromatic protons and carbons, we re-synthesized 5, 6, 9–11 and 13 and obtained the detailed NMR spectra of all the compounds for comparision .... graphic information file (CIF) is provided in the supplementary ...

  10. Hydrogen transfer in the formation and destruction of retrograde products in coal conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillen, D.F.; Malhotra, R. [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)


    The conversion of coals to volatiles or liquids during pyrolysis and liquefaction is notoriously limited by the formation of retrograde products. Analysis of literature data for coals with grafted structures and for polymeric coal models demonstrates that the formation of volatile products from these materials does not correlate primarily with the weakness of the original bonding but correlates with the facility for retrogressive reaction. This analysis suggests further that simple recombination of resonance-stabilized radicals does not tend to yield true retrograde products, except in the case of aryloxy radicals. For pure hydrocarbon structural elements, radical addition to aromatic systems appears to be a key class of retrograde reactions, where the key factor is the kinetics of radical or H-atom loss from a cyclohexadienyl intermediate. We have used a mechanistic numerical model with a detailed set of radical reactions and thermochemically based kinetic parameters operating on a limited set of hydrocarbon structures to delineate important factors in mitigating retrograde processes. This showed that, not only the cleavage of critical bonds in the original coal structures but also the net prevention of retrogression may be due to the H-transfer-induced cleavage of strong bonds.

  11. Thermal-Hydraulic Analyses of Heat Transfer Fluid Requirements and Characteristics for Coupling A Hydrogen Production Plant to a High-Temperature Nuclear Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. B. Davis; C. H. Oh; R. B. Barner; D. F. Wilson


    The Department of Energy is investigating the use of high-temperature nuclear reactors to produce hydrogen using either thermochemical cycles or high-temperature electrolysis. Although the hydrogen production processes are in an early stage of development, coupling either of these processes to the hightemperature reactor requires both efficient heat transfer and adequate separation of the facilities to assure that off-normal events in the production facility do not impact the nuclear power plant. An intermediate heat transport loop will be required to separate the operations and safety functions of the nuclear and hydrogen plants. A next generation high-temperature reactor could be envisioned as a single-purpose facility that produces hydrogen or a dual-purpose facility that produces hydrogen and electricity. Early plants, such as the proposed Next Generation Nuclear Plant, may be dual-purpose facilities that demonstrate both hydrogen and efficient electrical generation. Later plants could be single-purpose facilities. At this stage of development, both single- and dual-purpose facilities need to be understood. Seven possible configurations for a system that transfers heat between the nuclear reactor and the hydrogen and/or electrical generation plants were identified. These configurations included both direct and indirect cycles for the production of electricity. Both helium and liquid salts were considered as the working fluid in the intermediate heat transport loop. Methods were developed to perform thermalhydraulic and cycle-efficiency evaluations of the different configurations and coolants. The thermalhydraulic evaluations estimated the sizes of various components in the intermediate heat transport loop for the different configurations. The relative sizes of components provide a relative indication of the capital cost associated with the various configurations. Estimates of the overall cycle efficiency of the various configurations were also determined. The

  12. Automated Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Electron Transfer Dissociation High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Measured at Single-Amide Resolution (United States)

    Landgraf, Rachelle R.; Chalmers, Michael J.; Griffin, Patrick R.


    Hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) is a well established method for the measurement of solution-phase deuterium incorporation into proteins, which can provide insight into protein conformational mobility. However, most HDX measurements are constrained to regions of the protein where pepsin proteolysis allows detection at peptide resolution. Recently, single-amide resolution deuterium incorporation has been achieved by limiting gas-phase scrambling in the mass spectrometer. This was accomplished by employing a combination of soft ionization and desolvation conditions coupled with the radical-driven fragmentation technique electron transfer dissociation (ETD). Here, a hybrid LTQ-Orbitrap XL is systematically evaluated for its utility in providing single-amide deuterium incorporation for differential HDX analysis of a nuclear receptor upon binding small molecule ligands. We are able to show that instrumental parameters can be optimized to minimize scrambling and can be incorporated into an established and fully automated HDX platform making differential single-amide HDX possible for bottom-up analysis of complex systems. We have applied this system to determine differential single amide resolution HDX data for the peroxizome proliferator activated receptor bound with two ligands of interest.

  13. Catalytic Transfer Hydrogenation of Furfural to Furfuryl Alcohol over Nitrogen-Doped Carbon-Supported Iron Catalysts. (United States)

    Li, Jiang; Liu, Jun-Ling; Zhou, Hong-Jun; Fu, Yao


    Iron-based heterogeneous catalysts, which were generally prepared by pyrolysis of iron complexes on supports at elevated temperature, were found to be capable of catalyzing the transfer hydrogenation of furfural (FF) to furfuryl alcohol (FFA). The effects of metal precursor, nitrogen precursor, pyrolysis temperature, and support on catalytic performance were examined thoroughly, and a comprehensive study of the reaction parameters was also performed. The highest selectivity of FFA reached 83.0 % with a FF conversion of 91.6 % under the optimal reaction condition. Catalyst characterization suggested that iron cations coordinated by pyridinic nitrogen functionalities were responsible for the enhanced catalytic activity. The iron catalyst could be recycled without significant loss of catalytic activity for five runs, and the destruction of the nitrogen-iron species, the presence of crystallized Fe2 O3 phase, and the pore structure change were the main reasons for catalyst deactivation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Enhancement of atom transfer in different surface chemistry of hydrogenated vs. fluorinated tribromobenzene on Ag(111) and Cu(111) (United States)

    Cecily mary glory, D.; Sambathkumar, K.; Madivanane, R.; Rajkamal, N.; Venkatachalapathy, M.


    Systematic interactions of hydrogenated & fluorinated tribromobenzene on Ag and Cu surfaces. First bromine dehalogenation takes place right upon adsorption due to catalytic properties of Ag. Different adsorption geometries of monomers and dimmers of 1,3,5-tribromo-2,4,6-trifluoro-benzene(TBFB) and 1,3,5-tribromobenzene(TBB). DFT calculations of the Csbnd Br binding energy dependent on the amount of remaining bromine atoms for both TBFB and TBB were performed. The experiments were performed at low temperature of 80 K.STM measurements where performed for of TBFB and TBB. STM show adsorbed molecules in a loose arrangement of molecules. NBO analysis the stability of the molecule arising within hyper-conjugative interactions. The HOMO and LUMO energies and electronic charge transfer (ECT) confirms that electronic transition. High field indicates that this molecule exhibit considerable electrical conductivity in atomic charges. The ESP map is found to be positive within the molecule. The negative charges have a tendency to drift from left to right. The computed thermodynamic parameters like heat capacities (Cºp,m), entropies (Sºm) and enthalpies changes (Hºm) are used for various electrical field.

  15. Design of a genetic algorithm for the simulated evolution of a library of asymmetric transfer hydrogenation catalysts. (United States)

    Vriamont, Nicolas; Govaerts, Bernadette; Grenouillet, Pierre; de Bellefon, Claude; Riant, Olivier


    A library of catalysts was designed for asymmetric-hydrogen transfer to acetophenone. At first, the whole library was submitted to evaluation using high-throughput experiments (HTE). The catalysts were listed in ascending order, with respect to their performance, and best catalysts were identified. In the second step, various simulated evolution experiments, based on a genetic algorithm, were applied to this library. A small part of the library, called the mother generation (G0), thus evolved from generation to generation. The goal was to use our collection of HTE data to adjust the parameters of the genetic algorithm, in order to obtain a maximum of the best catalysts within a minimal number of generations. It was namely found that simulated evolution's results depended on the selection of G0 and that a random G0 should be preferred. We also demonstrated that it was possible to get 5 to 6 of the ten best catalysts while investigating only 10 % of the library. Moreover, we developed a double algorithm making this result still achievable if the evolution started with one of the worst G0.

  16. Theoretical Modelling for the Ground State Rotamerisation and Excited State Intramolecular Proton Transfer of 2-(2’-hydroxyphenyloxazole, 2-(2’-hydroxyphenylimidazole, 2-(2’-hydroxyphenylthiazole and Their Benzo Analogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin Chattopadhyay


    Full Text Available Abstract: Two series of compounds, one comprising of 2-(2′-hydroxyphenylbenzoxazole (HBO, 2-(2′-hydroxyphenylbenzimidazole (HBI, 2-(2′-hydroxyphenylbenzothiazole (HBT, and the other of 2-(2′-hydroxyphenyloxazole (HPO, 2-(2′-hydroxyphenylimidazole (HPI and 2-(2′-hydroxyphenylthiazole (HPT are susceptible to ground state rotamerization as well as excited state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT reactions. Some of these compounds show experimental evidence of the existence of two ground state conformers. Out of these two one undergoes ESIPT reaction leading to the formation of the tautomer. The two photophysical processes, in combination, result in the production of a number of fluorescence bands each one of which corresponding to a particular species. Semiempirical AM1-SCI calculations have been performed to rationalize the photophysical behaviour of the compounds. The calculations suggest that for the first series of compounds, two rotational isomers are present in the ground state of HBO and HBI while HBT has a single conformer under similar circumstances. For the molecules of the other series existence of rotamers depends very much on the polarity of the environment. The potential energy curves (PEC for the ESIPT process in different electronic states of the molecules have been generated theoretically. The simulated PECs reveal that for all these systems the IPT reaction is unfavourable in the ground state but feasible, both kinetically and thermodynamically, in the S1 as well as T1 states.

  17. Structural and molecular basis of the peroxynitrite-mediated nitration and inactivation of Trypanosoma cruzi iron-superoxide dismutases (Fe-SODs) A and B: disparate susceptibilities due to the repair of Tyr35 radical by Cys83 in Fe-SODB through intramolecular electron transfer. (United States)

    Martinez, Alejandra; Peluffo, Gonzalo; Petruk, Ariel A; Hugo, Martín; Piñeyro, Dolores; Demicheli, Verónica; Moreno, Diego M; Lima, Analía; Batthyány, Carlos; Durán, Rosario; Robello, Carlos; Martí, Marcelo A; Larrieux, Nicole; Buschiazzo, Alejandro; Trujillo, Madia; Radi, Rafael; Piacenza, Lucía


    Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, contains exclusively iron-dependent superoxide dismutases (Fe-SODs) located in different subcellular compartments. Peroxynitrite, a key cytotoxic and oxidizing effector biomolecule, reacted with T. cruzi mitochondrial (Fe-SODA) and cytosolic (Fe-SODB) SODs with second order rate constants of 4.6 ± 0.2 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) and 4.3 ± 0.4 × 10(4) M(-1) s(-1) at pH 7.4 and 37 °C, respectively. Both isoforms are dose-dependently nitrated and inactivated by peroxynitrite. Susceptibility of T. cruzi Fe-SODA toward peroxynitrite was similar to that reported previously for Escherichia coli Mn- and Fe-SODs and mammalian Mn-SOD, whereas Fe-SODB was exceptionally resistant to oxidant-mediated inactivation. We report mass spectrometry analysis indicating that peroxynitrite-mediated inactivation of T. cruzi Fe-SODs is due to the site-specific nitration of the critical and universally conserved Tyr(35). Searching for structural differences, the crystal structure of Fe-SODA was solved at 2.2 Å resolution. Structural analysis comparing both Fe-SOD isoforms reveals differences in key cysteines and tryptophan residues. Thiol alkylation of Fe-SODB cysteines made the enzyme more susceptible to peroxynitrite. In particular, Cys(83) mutation (C83S, absent in Fe-SODA) increased the Fe-SODB sensitivity toward peroxynitrite. Molecular dynamics, electron paramagnetic resonance, and immunospin trapping analysis revealed that Cys(83) present in Fe-SODB acts as an electron donor that repairs Tyr(35) radical via intramolecular electron transfer, preventing peroxynitrite-dependent nitration and consequent inactivation of Fe-SODB. Parasites exposed to exogenous or endogenous sources of peroxynitrite resulted in nitration and inactivation of Fe-SODA but not Fe-SODB, suggesting that these enzymes play distinctive biological roles during parasite infection of mammalian cells.

  18. Enhancing Reactivity and Site-Selectivity in Hydrogen Atom Transfer from Amino Acid C-H Bonds via Deprotonation. (United States)

    Pipitone, Luca Maria; Carboni, Giulia; Sorrentino, Daniela; Galeotti, Marco; Salamone, Michela; Bietti, Massimo


    A kinetic study on the reactions of the cumyloxyl radical (CumO • ) with N-Boc-protected amino acids in the presence of the strong organic base DBU has been carried out. CO 2 H deprotonation increases the electron density at the α-C-H bonds activating these bonds toward HAT to the electrophilic CumO • strongly influencing the intramolecular selectivity. The implications of these results are discussed in the framework of HAT-based aliphatic C-H bond functionalization of amino acids and peptides.

  19. Rational construction of multiple interfaces in ternary heterostructure for efficient spatial separation and transfer of photogenerated carriers in the application of photocatalytic hydrogen evolution (United States)

    Shi, Jian-Wen; Ma, Dandan; Zou, Yajun; Fan, Zhaoyang; Shi, Jinwen; Cheng, Linhao; Ji, Xin; Niu, Chunming


    The design of efficient and stable photocatalyst plays a critical role in the photocatalytic hydrogen evolution from water splitting. Herein, we develop a novel ZnS/CdS/ZnO ternary heterostructure by the in-situ sulfuration of CdS/ZnO, which includes four contact interfaces: CdS-ZnS interface, ZnS-ZnO interface, CdS-ZnO interface and ZnS-CdS-ZnO ternary interface, forming three charge carrier-transfer modes (type-I, type-II and direct Z-scheme) through five carrier-transfer pathways. As a result, the separation and transfer of photoexcited electron-hole pairs are promoted significantly, resulting in a high hydrogen evolution rate of 44.70 mmol h-1 g-1, which is 2, 3.7 and 8 times higher than those of binary heterostructures, CdS/ZnO, CdS/ZnS and ZnS/ZnO, respectively, and 26.5, 280 and 298 times higher than those of single CdS, ZnO and ZnS, respectively. As a counterpart ternary heterostructure, CdS/ZnS/ZnO contains only two interfaces: CdS-ZnS interface and ZnS-ZnO interface, which form two charge carrier-transfer modes (type-I and type-II) through two carrier-transfer pathways, leading to its much lower hydrogen evolution rate (27.25 mmol h-1 g-1) than ZnS/CdS/ZnO ternary heterostructure. This work is relevant for understanding the charge-transfer pathways between multi-interfaces in multicomponent heterojunctions.

  20. b-Cyclodextrin-assisted intervalence charge transfer in mixed- valent

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    The study of intramolecular electron transfer in redox active binuclear transition metal complexes is of great fundamental importance and is an area of contemporary research interest. Though there are many reports on the role of bridging ligands (BL) in tuning metal–metal interactions and intramolecular electron transfers in ...

  1. Intramolecular and Transannular Diels-Alder Reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanner, David Ackland; Ascic, Erhad


    Few reactions can compete with the Diels-Alder (DA) [4+2] cycloaddition for the rapid and efficient generation of molecular complexity. The DA reaction is atom-economic and stereospecific, as well as diastereo- and regioselective. The intramolecular version (IMDA) of the DA cycloaddition and its...... and dienophile, methods for acceleration of IMDA reactions (such as use of high pressure) and catalysis (using oxophilic or carbophilic metal complexes, Brønsted acids, and enzymes). The use of furans as diene components (IMDAF), intramolecular hetero-DA (IMHDA) and IMDA reactions with inverse electron demand...... are also covered. Applications of IMDA to asymmetric synthesis (from substrate control through to enantioselective catalysis, including organocatalysis) are presented, along with tandem sequences involving IMDA cycloaddition. A theme pervading the whole chapter is the use of IMDA reactions for the total...

  2. Role of the sulfonamide moiety of Ru(II) half-sandwich complexes in the asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of 3,4-dihydroisoquinolines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matuška, O.; Zápal, Jakub; Hrdličková, R.; Mikoška, M.; Pecháček, J.; Vilhanová, B.; Václavík, Jiří; Kuzma, Marek; Kačer, P.


    Roč. 118, č. 1 (2016), s. 215-222 ISSN 1878-5190 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP106/12/1276; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-08992S; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1509 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Ruthenium * Asymmetric transfer hydrogenation * Dihydroisoquinolines Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.264, year: 2016

  3. Coumarin or benzoxazinone bearing benzimidazolium and bis(benzimidazolium) salts; involvement in transfer hydrogenation of acetophenone derivatives and hCA inhibition


    Mert Olgun Karataş; Serkan Dayan; Nilgün Kayacı; Çiğdem Bilen; Emre Yavuz; Nahit Gencer; Bülent Alıcı; Nilgün Ozpozan Kalaycıoğlu; Oktay Arslan


    Four new salts of benzimidazolium and bis(benzimidazolium) which include coumarin or benzoxazinone moieties were synthesized and the structures of the newly synthesized compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectral analyses such as 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HSQC, IR, LC-MS and elemental analysis. Benzimidazolium salts were used intensively as N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) precursors in the various catalytic reactions such as transfer hydrogenation (TH), C-H bond activation, Heck, Suzuki reaction e...

  4. Intramolecular Energy Relaxation and Statistical Rate Theory


    Okitsugu, KAJIMOTO; Department of Chemistry, Kyoto University


    Statistical rate theory is essentially based on the state counting without any restrictions other than the energy and the angular momentum conservation. In this work, two kinds of restrictions are introduced into the statistical theory. The first restriction is related to the intramolecular energy flow within the reacting molecular system. The excess energy of reaction is made distributed with some bias favoring a specific degree of freedom. That is, the statistical weight of each product sta...

  5. Active Site Dynamical Effects in the Hydrogen Transfer Rate-limiting Step in the Catalysis of Linoleic Acid by Soybean Lipoxygenase-1 (SLO-1): Primary and Secondary Isotope Contributions. (United States)

    Phatak, Prasad; Venderley, Jordan; Debrota, John; Li, Junjie; Iyengar, Srinivasan S


    Using ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) simulations that facilitate the treatment of rare events, we probe the active site participation in the rate-determining hydrogen transfer step in the catalytic oxidation of linoleic acid by soybean lipoxygenase-1 (SLO-1). The role of two different active site components is probed. (a) On the hydrogen atom acceptor side of the active site, the hydrogen bonding propensity between the acceptor side hydroxyl group, which is bound to the iron cofactor, and the backbone carboxyl group of isoleucine (residue number 839) is studied toward its role in promoting the hydrogen transfer event. Primary and secondary (H/D) isotope effects are also probed and a definite correlation with subtle secondary H/D isotope effects is found. With increasing average nuclear kinetic energy, the increase in transfer probability is enhanced due to the presence of the hydrogen bond between the backbone carbonyl of I839 and the acceptor oxygen. Further increase in average nuclear kinetic energy reduces the strength of this secondary hydrogen bond which leads to a deterioration in hydrogen transfer rates and finally embrances an Arrhenius-like behavior. (b) On the hydrogen atom donor side, the coupling between vibrational modes predominantly localized on the donor-side linoleic acid group and the reactive mode is probed. There appears to be a qualitative difference in the coupling between modes that belong to linoleic acid and the hydrogen transfer mode, for hydrogen and deuterium transfer. For example, the donor side secondary hydrogen atom is much more labile (by nearly a factor of 5) during deuterium transfer as compared to the case for hydrogen transfer. This appears to indicate a greater coupling between the modes belonging to the linoleic acid scaffold and the deuterium transfer mode and also provides a new rationalization for the abnormal (nonclassical) secondary isotope effect results obtained by Knapp, Rickert, and Klinman in J. Am. Chem. Soc

  6. Investigation of the Mechanism of Electron Capture and Electron Transfer Dissociation of Peptides with a Covalently Attached Free Radical Hydrogen Atom Scavenger. (United States)

    Sohn, Chang Ho; Yin, Sheng; Peng, Ivory; Loo, Joseph A; Beauchamp, J L


    The mechanisms of electron capture and electron transfer dissociation (ECD and ETD) are investigated by covalently attaching a free-radical hydrogen atom scavenger to a peptide. The 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidin-l-oxyl (TEMPO) radical was chosen as the scavenger due to its high hydrogen atom affinity (ca. 280 kJ/mol) and low electron affinity (ca. 0.45 ev), and was derivatized to the model peptide, FQX TEMPO EEQQQTEDELQDK. The X TEMPO residue represents a cysteinyl residue derivatized with an acetamido-TEMPO group. The acetamide group without TEMPO was also examined as a control. The gas phase proton affinity (882 kJ/mol) of TEMPO is similar to backbone amide carbonyls (889 kJ/mol), minimizing perturbation to internal solvation and sites of protonation of the derivatized peptides. Collision induced dissociation (CID) of the TEMPO tagged peptide dication generated stable odd-electron b and y type ions without indication of any TEMPO radical induced fragmentation initiated by hydrogen abstraction. The type and abundance of fragment ions observed in the CID spectra of the TEMPO and acetamide tagged peptides are very similar. However, ECD of the TEMPO labeled peptide dication yielded no backbone cleavage. We propose that a labile hydrogen atom in the charge reduced radical ions is scavenged by the TEMPO radical moiety, resulting in inhibition of N-C α backbone cleavage processes. Supplemental activation after electron attachment (ETcaD) and CID of the charge-reduced precursor ion generated by electron transfer of the TEMPO tagged peptide dication produced a series of b + H (b H ) and y + H (y H ) ions along with some c ions having suppressed intensities, consistent with stable O-H bond formation at the TEMPO group. In summary, the results indicate that ECD and ETD backbone cleavage processes are inhibited by scavenging of a labile hydrogen atom by the localized TEMPO radical moiety. This observation supports the conjecture that ECD and ETD processes involve long

  7. Three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded structures in the hydrated proton-transfer salts of isonipecotamide with the dicarboxylic oxalic and adipic acid homologues. (United States)

    Smith, Graham; Wermuth, Urs D


    The structures of the 1:1 hydrated proton-transfer compounds of isonipecotamide (piperidine-4-carboxamide) with oxalic acid, 4-carbamoylpiperidinium hydrogen oxalate dihydrate, C6H13N2O(+)·C2HO4(-)·2H2O, (I), and with adipic acid, bis(4-carbamoylpiperidinium) adipate dihydrate, 2C6H13N2O(+)·C6H8O4(2-)·2H2O, (II), are three-dimensional hydrogen-bonded constructs involving several different types of enlarged water-bridged cyclic associations. In the structure of (I), the oxalate monoanions give head-to-tail carboxylic acid O-H···O(carboxyl) hydrogen-bonding interactions, forming C(5) chain substructures which extend along a. The isonipecotamide cations also give parallel chain substructures through amide N-H···O hydrogen bonds, the chains being linked across b and down c by alternating water bridges involving both carboxyl and amide O-atom acceptors and amide and piperidinium N-H···O(carboxyl) hydrogen bonds, generating cyclic R4(3)(10) and R3(2)(11) motifs. In the structure of (II), the asymmetric unit comprises a piperidinium cation, half an adipate dianion, which lies across a crystallographic inversion centre, and a solvent water molecule. In the crystal structure, the two inversion-related cations are interlinked through the two water molecules, which act as acceptors in dual amide N-H···O(water) hydrogen bonds, to give a cyclic R4(2)(8) association which is conjoined with an R4(4)(12) motif. Further N-H···O(water), water O-H···O(amide) and piperidinium N-H···O(carboxyl) hydrogen bonds give the overall three-dimensional structure. The structures reported here further demonstrate the utility of the isonipecotamide cation as a synthon for the generation of stable hydrogen-bonded structures. The presence of solvent water molecules in these structures is largely responsible for the non-occurrence of the common hydrogen-bonded amide-amide dimer, promoting instead various expanded cyclic hydrogen-bonding motifs.

  8. Heat transfer characteristics evaluation of heat exchangers of mock-up test facility with full-scale reaction tube for HTTR hydrogen production system (Contract research)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Akira; Ohashi, Hirofumi; Kato, Michio; Hayashi, Koji; Aita, Hideki; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Inaba, Yoshitomo; Takada, Shoji; Morisaki, Norihiro; Sakaki, Akihiro; Maeda, Yukimasa; Sato, Hiroyuki; Inagaki, Yoshiyuki; Hanawa, Hiromi; Fujisaki, Katsuo; Yonekawa, Hideo


    Connection of hydrogen production system by steam reforming of methane to the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) of the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) has been surveyed until now. Mock-up test facility of this steam reforming system with full-scale reaction tube was constructed in FY 2001 and hydrogen of 120 Nm 3 /h was successfully produced in overall performance test. Totally 7 times operational tests were performed from March 2002 to December 2004. A lot of operational test data on heat exchanges were obtained in these tests. In this report specifications and structures of steam reformer, steam superheater, steam generator, condenser, helium gas cooler, feed gas heater and feed gas superheater were described. Heat transfer correlation equations for inside and outside tube were chosen from references. Spreadsheet programs were newly made to evaluate heat transfer characteristics from measured test data such as inlet and outlet temperature pressure and flow-rate. Overall heat-transfer coefficients obtained from the experimental data were compared and evaluated with the calculated values with heat transfer correlation equation. As a result, actual measurement values of all heat exchangers gave close agreement with the calculated values with correlation equations. Thermal efficiencies of the heat exchangers were adequate as they were well accorded with design value. (author)

  9. Long-range intramolecular electron transfer in azurins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farver, O; Pecht, I


    The Cu(II) sites of azurins, the blue single copper proteins, isolated from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Alcaligenes spp. (Iwasaki) are reduced by CO2- radicals, produced by pulse radiolysis, in two distinct reaction steps: (i) a fast bimolecular phase, at the rates (5.0 +/- 0.8) x 10(8) M-1.s-1 (P....... aeruginosa) and (6.0 +/- 1.0) x 10(8) M-1.s-1 (Alcaligenes); (ii) a slow unimolecular phase with specific rates of 44 +/- 7 s-1 in the former and 8.5 +/- 1.5 s-1 for the latter (all at 298 K, 0.1 M ionic strength). Concomitant with the fast reduction of Cu(II), the single disulfide bridge linking cysteine-3...... their conserved disulfide bridge and the Cu(II) sites....

  10. Decomposition reactions of bifenox anion radical involving intramolecular electron transfer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hromadová, Magdaléna; Mořkovská, Petra; Pospíšil, Lubomír; Giannarelli, S.


    Roč. 582, 1-2 (2005), s. 156-164 ISSN 0022-0728 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC D15.10; GA ČR GP203/02/P082; GA ČR GA203/03/0821 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : bifenox * nitro-group reduction * double - layer effect Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.223, year: 2005

  11. and Di-hydration on the Intramolecular Proton Transfers and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sonnenberg J L, Hada M, Ehara M, Toyota K, Fukuda. R, Hasegawa J, Ishida M, Nakajima T, Honda Y, Kitao. O, Nakai H, Vreven T, Montgomery J A, Jr., Peralta J E,. Ogliaro F, Bearpark M, Heyd J J, Brothers E, Kudin. K N, Staroverov V N, Kobayashi R, Normand J,. Raghavachari K, Rendell A, Burant J C, Iyengar S S,.

  12. Effects of acid concentration on intramolecular charge transfer ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    was ∼450 ps when we used a 299 nm laser diode (PLS-. 8-2-232, PicoQuant) as excitation source having pulse width ∼500 ps. In the present study and also in many previous studies,16–20 the short time constants obtained from LE fluorescence .... ports the experimental large blue shift in absorption and. P4C. Protonated ...

  13. Photoinduced intramolecular charge-transfer reactions in 4-amino-3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Introduction. Since the first observation of dual fluorescence from .... Triple distilled water was used for making all aqueous solutions. 2.2 Steady-state and time-resolved spectral measurements. Absorption and emission spectra of AMBME were recorded on a ... a fuel injector and is controlled by a home-made pulsed valve ...

  14. Excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction in 4-(1 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    The organization of the rest of the paper is as fol- lows. Experimental details are given in ... found to be bi-exponential functions of time with one short and one long time constants, the decay in non-polar solvents (such as hexane or heptane) was single-exponential with only one long time constant. In addition, the short time ...

  15. Excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction of 4 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    In spite of the above discus- sion, conclusions drawn from this work remain un- altered as the calculation of average equilibrium constant (Keq) involves only the amplitudes of the decay components, not the reaction time constants. 4. Conclusion. To summarize, the replacement of the carbon atom para to the nitrogen atom ...

  16. Excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction in non-aqueous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is found to produce a linear increase of confined solvent viscosity but leads to a non-monotonic electrolyte concentration ... The observed huge reduction in reaction rate constant is attributed to the effects of decreased solution polarity, enhanced vis- .... twisting mode while reacting inside a confined pool. We have used the ...

  17. Evaluation of intramolecular charge transfer state of 4-N, N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ground state optimized structure of DMACA is pla- nar, and almost without any twisting between N,N- dimethylamino group to the phenyl moiety (scheme 1). The ground state dipole-moment of DMACA in vac- uum was found to be 7.4 D. However, we have detected a larger ground state dipole-moment in polar aprotic.

  18. Excited state intramolecular charge transfer reaction in non-aqueous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    is found to produce a linear increase of confined solvent viscosity but leads to a non-monotonic electrolyte concentration dependence of average .... does not participate in specific solute–solvent (such as. H-bondng) interaction.55–57 ..... tional resistance arising from the longer-ranged solute– solvent dipolar interaction and ...

  19. Photoinduced intramolecular charge-transfer reactions in 4-amino-3 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amrita Chakraborty1 Samiran Kar1 2 D N Nath3 Nikhil Guchhait1. Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92, A.P.C. Road, Kolkata 700 009; CHEMGEN Pharma International, Dr. Siemens Street, Bolck GP, Sector V, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700 091; Department of Physical Chemistry, Indian Association for the ...

  20. Transfer of the 1-pro-R and the 1-pro-S hydrogen atoms of ethanol in metabolic reductions in vivo. (United States)

    Cronholm, T; Fors, C


    The transfer of deuterium from [1 R-2H]ethanol and [1 S-2H]-ethanol to reduced metabolites of administered compounds was measured in female rats provided with bile fistulas. Administered cyclohexanone was reduced to cyclohexanol, and in this reduction hydrogen was transferred only from the 1-pro-R position of the ethanol. The deuterium content in the cyclohexanol was about 67% of that in the ethanol. In the reduction of the 17-oxo group in 3beta-hydroxy-5alpha-androstan-17-one, hydrogen was transferred both from the 1-pro-R position and the 1-pro-S position, resulting in degrees of labelling that were about 25% and 2%, respectively, of those in the specific positions of the ethanols. The 1-pro-R and 1-pro-S positions of ethanol contributed about 9% and 5%, respectively, of the 3beta hydrogen in lithocholic acid formed from 3-oxo-5beta-cholanoic acid. The results indicate that alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase do not share a common pool of NAD, and that NADH formed during acetaldehyde oxidation is utilized for reductions in the cytosol to a smaller extent than the NADH formed in the alcohol dehydrogenase reaction. This result supports the concept that aldehyde oxidation is mainly an intramitochondrial process. The relatively extensive utilization of the 1-pro-S hydrogen of ethanol in the reduction of 3-oxo-5beta-cholanoic acid, that is probably NADPH-dependent, indicates that cytosolic NADPH may be produced from malate or isocitrate formed intramitochondrially.

  1. Intramolecular Barbier reaction in water: cyclopentane and cyclohexane ring closure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Zinc or indium promoted intramolecular Barbier reactions of aldehydes containing a suitably positioned allylic or propargylic halide unit afford unsaturated cyclic alcohols in moderate yields.

  2. Femtosecond laser studies of ultrafast intramolecular processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, C. [Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA (United States)


    The goal of this research is to better understand the detailed mechanisms of chemical reactions by observing, directly in time, the dynamics of fundamental chemical processes. In this work femtosecond laser pulses are used to initiate chemical processes and follow the progress of these processes in time. The authors are currently studying ultrafast internal conversion and subsequent intramolecular relaxation in unsaturated hydrocarbons. In addition, the authors are developing nonlinear optical techniques to prepare and monitor the time evolution of specific vibrational motions in ground electronic state molecules.

  3. Recyclable Earth-Abundant Metal Nanoparticle Catalysts for Selective Transfer Hydrogenation of Levulinic Acid to Produce γ-Valerolactone. (United States)

    Gowda, Ravikumar R; Chen, Eugene Y-X


    Nanoparticles (NPs) derived from earth-abundant metal(0) carbonyls catalyze conversion of bio-derived levulinic acid into γ-valerolactone in up to 93% isolated yield. This sustainable and green route uses non-precious metal catalysts and can be performed in aqueous or ethanol solution without using hydrogen gas as the hydrogen source. Generation of metal NPs using microwave irradiation greatly enhances the rate of the conversion, enables the use of ethanol as both solvent and hydrogen source without forming the undesired ethyl levulinate, and affords recyclable polymer-stabilized NPs. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Nanotube Adsorption for the Capture and Re-liquefaction of Hydrogen Biol-Off During Tanker Transfer Operations, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal discloses an innovative, economically feasible technique to capture and re-liquefy the hydrogen boil-off by using carbon nanotube adsorption prior to...

  5. Stereo-specificity for pro-(R) hydrogen of NAD(P)H during enzyme-catalyzed hydride transfer to CL-20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Halasz, Annamaria; Hawari, Jalal


    A dehydrogenase from Clostridium sp. EDB2 and a diaphorase from Clostridium kluyveri were reacted with CL-20 to gain insights into the enzyme-catalyzed hydride transfer to CL-20, and the enzyme's stereo-specificity for either pro-R or pro-S hydrogens of NAD(P)H. Both enzymes biotransformed CL-20 at rates of 18.5 and 24 nmol/h/mg protein, using NADH and NADPH as hydride-source, respectively, to produce a N-denitrohydrogenated product with a molecular weight of 393 Da. In enzyme kinetics studies using reduced deuterated pyridine nucleotides, we found a kinetic deuterium isotopic effect of 2-fold on CL-20 biotransformation rate using dehydrogenase enzyme against (R)NADD as a hydride-source compared to either (S)NADD or NADH. Whereas, in case of diaphorase, the kinetic deuterium isotopic effect of about 1.5-fold was observed on CL-20 biotransformation rate using (R)NADPD as hydride-source. In a comparative study with LC-MS, using deuterated and non-deuterated NAD(P)H, we found a positive mass-shift of 1 Da in the N-denitrohydrogenated product suggesting the involvement of a deuteride (D - ) transfer from NAD(P)D. The present study thus revealed that both dehydrogenase and diaphorase enzymes from the two Clostridium species catalyzed a hydride transfer to CL-20 and showed stereo-specificity for pro-R hydrogen of NAD(P)H

  6. A colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent probe for sulfite based on an intramolecular cleavage mechanism. (United States)

    Hou, Peng; Chen, Song; Voitchovsky, Kislon; Song, Xiangzhi


    A colorimetric and ratiometric fluorescent sulfite probe, the levulinate of 4-hydroxynaphthalimide, was successfully synthesized from 4-hydroxy-naphthalimide and levulinic acid. Through sulfite-mediated intramolecular cleavage, the probe was converted into 4-hydroxynaphthalimide, which when excited at 450 nm, displayed a large Stokes shift due to the intramolecular charge transfer process. The probe exhibited high selectivity and sensitivity towards sulfite over other typical anionic species (F(-), Cl(-), Br(-), I(-), HPO(4)(2-), SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-), AcO(-), ClO(4)(-), HCO(3)(-)) in HEPES-buffered solution (25 mm, pH 7.4, 50% acetonitrile, v/v). Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. A concise, efficient synthesis of sugar-based benzothiazoles through chemoselective intramolecular C-S coupling

    KAUST Repository

    Shen, Chao


    Sugar-based benzothiazoles are a new class of molecules promising for many biological applications. Here, we have synthesized a wide range of sugar-based benzothiazoles from readily accessible glycosyl thioureas by chemoselective, palladium-catalyzed C-S coupling reactions. Corroborated by theoretical calculations, a mechanistic investigation indicates that the coordination to the palladium by a pivaloyl carbonyl group and the presence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding play important roles in the efficiency and chemoselectivity of reaction. These fluorescent glycoconjugates can be observed to readily enter mammalian tumor cells and exhibit potential in vitro antitumor activity. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2012.

  8. Path-integral calculation of the second virial coefficient including intramolecular flexibility effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garberoglio, Giovanni, E-mail: [Interdisciplinary Laboratory for Computational Science (LISC), FBK-CMM and University of Trento, via Sommarive 18, I-38123 Povo (Italy); Jankowski, Piotr [Department of Quantum Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Nicolaus Copernicus University, Gagarina 7, PL-87-100 Toruń (Poland); Szalewicz, Krzysztof [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware 19716 (United States); Harvey, Allan H. [Applied Chemicals and Materials Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305-3337 (United States)


    We present a path-integral Monte Carlo procedure for the fully quantum calculation of the second molecular virial coefficient accounting for intramolecular flexibility. This method is applied to molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and deuterium (D{sub 2}) in the temperature range 15–2000 K, showing that the effect of molecular flexibility is not negligible. Our results are in good agreement with experimental data, as well as with virials given by recent empirical equations of state, although some discrepancies are observed for H{sub 2} between 100 and 200 K.

  9. Hydrogen-Transfer-Mediated Direct β-Alkylation of Aryl-1,8-naphthyridines with Alcohols under Transition Metal Catalyst Free Conditions. (United States)

    Xiong, Biao; Zhang, Shudi; Jiang, Huanfeng; Zhang, Min


    By employing abundant and sustainable alcohols as the alkylating reagents, a new and direct alkylation method has been demonstrated. This method enables the selective alkylation of the less substituted pyridyl ring at the β-site of aryl-1,8-naphthyridines, affording the desired products in moderate to excellent yields upon isolation. The method proceeds under transition-metal-free conditions in an atom- and step-economic fashion and liberates water as the sole byproduct. Mechanistic investigations suggest the reaction undergoes a hydrogen-transfer-mediated alkylation mode.

  10. Probing the Conformational and Functional Consequences of Disulfide Bond Engineering in Growth Hormone by Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry Coupled to Electron Transfer Dissociation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seger, Signe T; Breinholt, Jens; Faber, Johan H


    Human growth hormone (hGH), and its receptor interaction, is essential for cell growth. To stabilize a flexible loop between helices 3 and 4, while retaining affinity for the hGH receptor, we have engineered a new hGH variant (Q84C/Y143C). Here, we employ hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass...... ranging effects, stabilizing a short α-helix quite distant from the mutation sites, but also rendering a part of the α-helical hGH core slightly more dynamic. In the regions where the hGH variant exhibits a different deuterium uptake than the wild type protein, electron transfer dissociation (ETD...

  11. Mechanisms of free-radical reactions. XXI. Stereoselectivity of the hydrogen abstraction and chlorine transfer stages in the free-radical chlorination of norbornane by (dichloroiodo) arenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dneprovskii, A.S.; Pertsikov, B.Z.


    The free-radical chlorination of stereospecifically deuterated norbornane by (dichloroiodo) arenes was studied by the method of competing reactions and by PMR and mass spectroscopy. The hydrogen abstraction stage is realized with preferential cleavage of the exo-C-H bond. exo-2-Chloronorbornane is formed preferentially at the stage of transfer of the chlorine atom to the 2-norbornyl radical. The nature of the stereoselectivity in both stages and the relationships governing its variation with variation in the structure of the chlorinating agent are determined by steric interactions which appear in the transition state

  12. UV-Vis Action Spectroscopy Reveals a Conformational Collapse in Hydrogen-Rich Dinucleotide Cation Radicals. (United States)

    Korn, Joseph A; Urban, Jan; Dang, Andy; Nguyen, Huong T H; Tureček, František


    We report the generation of deoxyriboadenosine dinucleotide cation radicals by gas-phase electron transfer to dinucleotide dications and their noncovalent complexes with crown ether ligands. Stable dinucleotide cation radicals of a novel hydrogen-rich type were generated and characterized by tandem mass spectrometry and UV-vis photodissociation (UVPD) action spectroscopy. Electron structure theory analysis indicated that upon electron attachment the dinucleotide dications underwent a conformational collapse followed by intramolecular proton migrations between the nucleobases to give species whose calculated UV-vis absorption spectra matched the UVPD action spectra. Hydrogen-rich cation radicals generated from chimeric riboadenosine 5'-diesters gave UVPD action spectra that pointed to novel zwitterionic structures consisting of aromatic π-electron anion radicals intercalated between stacked positively charged adenine rings. Analogies with DNA ionization are discussed.

  13. Experimental and theoretical investigations of energy transfer and hydrogen-bond breaking in small water and HCl clusters. (United States)

    Samanta, Amit K; Czakó, Gábor; Wang, Yimin; Mancini, John S; Bowman, Joel M; Reisler, Hanna


    Water is one of the most pervasive molecules on earth and other planetary bodies; it is the molecule that is searched for as the presumptive precursor to extraterrestrial life. It is also the paradigm substance illustrating ubiquitous hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) in the gas phase, liquids, crystals, and amorphous solids. Moreover, H-bonding with other molecules and between different molecules is of the utmost importance in chemistry and biology. It is no wonder, then, that for nearly a century theoreticians and experimentalists have tried to understand all aspects of H-bonding and its influence on reactivity. It is somewhat surprising, therefore, that several fundamental aspects of H-bonding that are particularly important for benchmarking theoretical models have remained unexplored experimentally. For example, even the binding strength between two gas-phase water molecules has never been determined with sufficient accuracy for comparison with high-level electronic structure calculations. Likewise, the effect of cooperativity (nonadditivity) in small H-bonded networks is not known with sufficient accuracy. An even greater challenge for both theory and experiment is the description of the dissociation dynamics of H-bonded small clusters upon acquiring vibrational excitation. This is because of the long lifetimes of many clusters, which requires running classical trajectories for many nanoseconds to achieve dissociation. In this Account, we describe recent progress and ongoing research that demonstrates how the combined and complementary efforts of theory and experiment are enlisted to determine bond dissociation energies (D0) of small dimers and cyclic trimers of water and HCl with unprecedented accuracy, describe dissociation dynamics, and assess the effects of cooperativity. The experimental techniques rely on IR excitation of H-bonded X-H stretch vibrations, measuring velocity distributions of fragments in specific rovibrational states, and determining product

  14. Influence of hydrogen bonding in the ground and the excited states of the isomers of the β-carboline anhydrobase (N 2-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) in aprotic solvents (United States)

    Sánchez-Coronilla, Antonio; Balón, Manuel; Muñoz, María A.; Carmona, Carmen


    The ground and excited state hydrogen bonding interactions between N 2-methyl-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole, BCA, and 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoropropan-2-ol, HFIP, are comparatively studied in the aprotic solvents cyclohexane and toluene by absorption, steady state and time resolved fluorescence measurements. The different photophysical behaviours of the BCA-HFIP hydrogen bond complexes in these solvents definitively confirm the existence of two ground state BCA isomers. As previously proposed [A. Sánchez-Coronilla, C. Carmona, M.A. Muñoz, M. Balón, Chem. Phys. 327 (2006) 70.] we assume quinoid, Q, and zwitterionic, Z, structures for these isomers. Upon excitation, the hydrogen bond adducts of each isomer give dual fluorescence emitting from their locally excited states, LE, and from their intramolecular charge transfer states, ICT. In the hydrogen bond adducts of the Q form, the ICT process is favoured while it is disfavoured for the corresponding adducts of the Z form. The implication that these results could have on the current mechanistic interpretation of the excited state intramolecular proton transfer and phototautomerism of the betacarbolines is discussed.

  15. Controllable growth and transfer of monolayer MoS2 on Au foils and its potential application in hydrogen evolution reaction. (United States)

    Shi, Jianping; Ma, Donglin; Han, Gao-Feng; Zhang, Yu; Ji, Qingqing; Gao, Teng; Sun, Jingyu; Song, Xiuju; Li, Cong; Zhang, Yanshuo; Lang, Xing-You; Zhang, Yanfeng; Liu, Zhongfan


    Controllable synthesis of monolayer MoS2 is essential for fulfilling the application potentials of MoS2 in optoelectronics and valleytronics, etc. Herein, we report the scalable growth of high quality, domain size tunable (edge length from ∼ 200 nm to 50 μm), strictly monolayer MoS2 flakes or even complete films on commercially available Au foils, via low pressure chemical vapor deposition method. The as-grown MoS2 samples can be transferred onto arbitrary substrates like SiO2/Si and quartz with a perfect preservation of the crystal quality, thus probably facilitating its versatile applications. Of particular interest, the nanosized triangular MoS2 flakes on Au foils are proven to be excellent electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction, featured by a rather low Tafel slope (61 mV/decade) and a relative high exchange current density (38.1 μA/cm(2)). The excellent electron coupling between MoS2 and Au foils is considered to account for the extraordinary hydrogen evolution reaction activity. Our work reports the synthesis of monolayer MoS2 when introducing metal foils as substrates, and presents sound proof that monolayer MoS2 assembled on a well selected electrode can manifest a hydrogen evolution reaction property comparable with that of nanoparticles or few-layer MoS2 electrocatalysts.

  16. Synthesis and use of an asymmetric transfer hydrogenation catalyst based on iron(II) for the synthesis of enantioenriched alcohols and amines. (United States)

    Zuo, Weiwei; Morris, Robert H


    The catalytic hydrogenation of prochiral ketones and imines is an advantageous approach to the synthesis of enantioenriched alcohols and amines, respectively, which are two classes of compounds that are highly prized in pharmaceutical, fragrance and flavoring chemistry. This hydrogenation reaction is generally carried out using ruthenium-based catalysts. Our group has developed an alternative synthetic route that is based on the environmentally friendlier iron-based catalysis. This protocol describes the three-part synthesis of trans-[amine(imine)diphosphine]chlorocarbonyliron(II) tetrafluoroborate templated by iron salts and starting from commercially available chemicals, which provides the precatalyst for the efficient asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of ketones and imines. The use of the enantiopure (S,S) catalyst to reduce prochiral ketones to the (R)-alcohol in good to excellent yields and enantioenrichment is also detailed, as well as the reduction to the amine in very high yield and enantiopurity of imines substituted at the nitrogen with the N-(diphenylphosphinoyl) group (-P(O)Ph2). Although the best ruthenium catalysts provide alcohols in higher enantiomeric excess (ee) than the iron complex catalyst used in this protocol, they do so on much longer time scales or at higher catalyst loadings. This protocol can be completed in 2 weeks.

  17. Unusual non-bifunctional mechanism for Co-PNP complex catalyzed transfer hydrogenation governed by the electronic configuration of metal center. (United States)

    Hou, Cheng; Jiang, Jingxing; Li, Yinwu; Zhang, Zhihan; Zhao, Cunyuan; Ke, Zhuofeng


    The mimic of hydrogenases has unleashed a myriad of bifunctional catalysts, which are widely used in the catalytic hydrogenation of polar multiple bonds. With respect to ancillary ligands, the bifunctional mechanism is generally considered to proceed via the metal-ligand cooperation transition state. Inspired by the interesting study conducted by Hanson et al. (Chem Commun., 2013, 49, 10151), we present a computational study of a distinctive example, where a Co(II)-PNP catalyst with an ancillary ligand exhibits efficient transfer hydrogenation through a non-bifunctional mechanism. Both the bifunctional and non-bifunctional mechanisms are discussed. The calculated results, which are based on a full model of the catalyst, suggest that the inner-sphere non-bifunctional mechanism is more favorable (by ∼11 kcal mol(-1)) than the outer-sphere bifunctional mechanism, which is in agreement with the experimental observations. The origin of this mechanistic preference of the Co(II)-PNP catalyst can be attributed to its preference for the square planar geometry. A traditional bifunctional mechanism is less plausible for Co(II)-PNP due to the high distortion energy caused by the change in electronic configuration with the varied ligand field. Considering previous studies that focus on the development of ligands more often, this computational study indicates that the catalytic hydrogenation mechanism is controlled not only by the structure of the ligand but also by the electronic configuration of the metal center.

  18. Role of hydrogen-bonding and photoinduced electron transfer (PET) on the interaction of resorcinol based acridinedione dyes with Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumaran, Rajendran, E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, Dwaraka Doss Goverdhan Doss, Vaishnav College (Autonomous), 833, Gokul Bagh, E.V.R. Periyar Road, Arumbakkam, Chennai 600106, Tamil Nadu (India); Vanjinathan, Mahalingam [Department of Chemistry, Dwaraka Doss Goverdhan Doss, Vaishnav College (Autonomous), 833, Gokul Bagh, E.V.R. Periyar Road, Arumbakkam, Chennai 600106, Tamil Nadu (India); Ramamurthy, Perumal [National Centre for Ultrafast Processes, University of Madras, Taramani Campus Chennai 600113, Tamil Nadu (India)


    Resorcinol based acridinedione (ADDR) dyes are a class of laser dyes and have structural similarity with purine derivatives, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) analogs. These dyes are classified into photoinduced electron transfer (PET) and non-photoinduced electron transfer dyes, and the photophysical properties of family of these dyes exhibiting PET behavior are entirely different from that of non-PET dyes. The PET process in ADDR dyes is governed by the solvent polarity such that an ADDR dye exhibits PET process through space in an aprotic solvent like acetonitrile and does not exhibit the same in protic solvents like water and methanol. A comparison on the fluorescence emission, lifetime and nature of interaction of various ADDR dyes with a large globular protein like Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) was carried out in aqueous solution. The interaction of PET based ADDR dyes with BSA in water is found to be largely hydrophobic, but hydrogen-bonding interaction of BSA with dye molecule influences the fluorescence emission of the dye and shifts the emission towards red region. Fluorescence spectral studies reveal that the excited state properties of PET based ADDR dyes are largely influenced by the addition of BSA. The microenvironment around the dye results in significant change in the fluorescence lifetime and emission. Fluorescence enhancement with a red shift in the emission results after the addition of BSA to ADDR dyes containing free amino hydrogen in the 10th position of basic acridinedione dye. The amino hydrogen (N–H) in the 10th position of ADDR dye is replaced by methyl group (N–CH{sub 3}), a significant decrease in the fluorescence intensity with no apparent shift in the emission maximum was observed after the addition of BSA. The nature of interaction between ADDR dyes with BSA is hydrogen-bonding and the dye remains unbound even at the highest concentration of BSA. Circular Dichroism (CD) studies show that the addition of dye to BSA results in

  19. Role of hydrogen-bonding and photoinduced electron transfer (PET) on the interaction of resorcinol based acridinedione dyes with Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaran, Rajendran; Vanjinathan, Mahalingam; Ramamurthy, Perumal


    Resorcinol based acridinedione (ADDR) dyes are a class of laser dyes and have structural similarity with purine derivatives, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) analogs. These dyes are classified into photoinduced electron transfer (PET) and non-photoinduced electron transfer dyes, and the photophysical properties of family of these dyes exhibiting PET behavior are entirely different from that of non-PET dyes. The PET process in ADDR dyes is governed by the solvent polarity such that an ADDR dye exhibits PET process through space in an aprotic solvent like acetonitrile and does not exhibit the same in protic solvents like water and methanol. A comparison on the fluorescence emission, lifetime and nature of interaction of various ADDR dyes with a large globular protein like Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) was carried out in aqueous solution. The interaction of PET based ADDR dyes with BSA in water is found to be largely hydrophobic, but hydrogen-bonding interaction of BSA with dye molecule influences the fluorescence emission of the dye and shifts the emission towards red region. Fluorescence spectral studies reveal that the excited state properties of PET based ADDR dyes are largely influenced by the addition of BSA. The microenvironment around the dye results in significant change in the fluorescence lifetime and emission. Fluorescence enhancement with a red shift in the emission results after the addition of BSA to ADDR dyes containing free amino hydrogen in the 10th position of basic acridinedione dye. The amino hydrogen (N–H) in the 10th position of ADDR dye is replaced by methyl group (N–CH 3 ), a significant decrease in the fluorescence intensity with no apparent shift in the emission maximum was observed after the addition of BSA. The nature of interaction between ADDR dyes with BSA is hydrogen-bonding and the dye remains unbound even at the highest concentration of BSA. Circular Dichroism (CD) studies show that the addition of dye to BSA results in a

  20. When Do Strongly Coupled Diradicals Show Strongly Coupled Reactivity? Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Hydrogen Atom Transfer Reactions of Palladium and Platinum Bis(iminosemiquinone) Complexes. (United States)

    Conner, Kyle M; Arostegui, AnnaMaria C; Swanson, Daniel D; Brown, Seth N


    The 2,2'-biphenylene-bridged bis(iminosemiquinone) complexes ( t BuClip)M [ t BuClipH 4 = 4,4'-di- tert-butyl- N, N'-bis(3,5-di- tert-butyl-2-hydroxyphenyl)-2,2'-diaminobiphenyl; M = Pd, Pt] can be reduced to the bis(aminophenoxide) complexes ( t BuClipH 2 )M by reaction with hydrazobenzene (M = Pd) or by catalytic hydrogenation (M = Pt). The palladium complex with one aminophenoxide ligand and one iminosemiquinone ligand, ( t BuClipH)Pd, is generated by comproportionation of ( t BuClip)Pd with ( t BuClipH 2 )Pd in a process that is both slow (0.06 M -1 s -1 in toluene at 23 °C) and only modestly favorable ( K com = 1.9 in CDCl 3 ), indicating that both N-H bonds have essentially the same bond strength. The mono(iminoquinone) complex ( t BuClipH)Pt has not been observed, indicating that the platinum analogue shows no tendency to comproportionate ( K com < 0.1). The average bond dissociation free energies (BDFE) of the complexes have been established by equilibration with suitably substituted hydrazobenzenes, and the palladium bis(iminosemiquinone) is markedly more oxidizing than the platinum compound, with hydrogen transfer from ( t BuClipH 2 )Pt to ( t BuClip)Pd occurring with Δ G° = -8.9 kcal mol -1 . The palladium complex ( t BuClipH 2 )Pd reacts with nitroxyl radicals in two observable steps, with the first hydrogen transfer taking place slightly faster than the second. In the platinum analogue, the first hydrogen transfer is much slower than the second, presumably because the N-H bond in the monoradical complex ( t BuClipH)Pt is unusually weak. Using driving force-rate correlations, it is estimated that this bond has a BDFE of 55.1 kcal mol -1 , which is 7.1 kcal mol -1 weaker than that of the first N-H bond in ( t BuClipH 2 )Pt. The two radical centers in the platinum, but not the palladium, complex thus act in concert with each other and display a strong thermodynamic bias toward two-electron reactivity. The greater thermodynamic and kinetic coupling in

  1. Asymmetric Transfer Hydrogenation of 1-Aryl-3,4-Dihydroisoquinolines Using a Cp*Ir(TsDPEN) Complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Václavíková Vilhanová, B.; Budinská, Alena; Václavík, Jiří; Matoušek, V.; Kuzma, M.; Červený, L.


    Roč. 2017, č. 34 (2017), s. 5131-5134 ISSN 1434-193X Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : 1-aryl-3,4-dihydroisoquinolines * asymmetric synthesis * hydrogenation * iridium * phosphoric acid Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 2.834, year: 2016

  2. Field-controlled electron transfer and reaction kinetics of the biological catalytic system of microperoxidase-11 and hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongki Choi


    Full Text Available Controlled reaction kinetics of the bio-catalytic system of microperoxidase-11 and hydrogen peroxide has been achieved using an electrostatic technique. The technique allowed independent control of 1 the thermodynamics of the system using electrochemical setup and 2 the quantum mechanical tunneling at the interface between microperoxidase-11 and the working electrode by applying a gating voltage to the electrode. The cathodic currents of electrodes immobilized with microperoxidase-11 showed a dependence on the gating voltage in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, indicating a controllable reduction reaction. The measured kinetic parameters of the bio-catalytic reduction showed nonlinear dependences on the gating voltage as the result of modified interfacial electron tunnel due to the field induced at the microperoxidase-11-electrode interface. Our results indicate that the kinetics of the reduction of hydrogen peroxide can be controlled by a gating voltage and illustrate the operation of a field-effect bio-catalytic transistor, whose current-generating mechanism is the conversion of hydrogen peroxide to water with the current being controlled by the gating voltage.

  3. Open-shell pair interaction energy decomposition analysis (PIEDA): formulation and application to the hydrogen abstraction in tripeptides. (United States)

    Green, Mandy C; Fedorov, Dmitri G; Kitaura, Kazuo; Francisco, Joseph S; Slipchenko, Lyudmila V


    An open-shell extension of the pair interaction energy decomposition analysis (PIEDA) within the framework of the fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method is developed. The open-shell PIEDA method allows the analysis of inter- and intramolecular interactions in terms of electrostatic, exchange-repulsion, charge-transfer, dispersion, and optional polarization energies for molecular systems with a radical or high-spin fragment. Taking into account the low computational cost and scalability of the FMO and PIEDA methods, the new scheme provides a means to characterize the stabilization of radical and open-shell sites in biologically relevant species. The open-shell PIEDA is applied to the characterization of intramolecular interactions in capped trialanine upon hydrogen abstraction (HA) at various sites on the peptide. Hydrogen abstraction reaction is the first step in the oxidative pathway initiated by reactive oxygen or nitrogen species, associated with oxidative stress. It is found that HA results in significant geometrical reorganization of the trialanine peptide. Depending on the HA site, terminal interactions in the radical fold conformers may become weaker or stronger compared to the parent molecule, and often change the character of the non-covalent bonding from amide stacking to hydrogen bonding.

  4. Automated Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Electron Transfer Dissociation High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Measured at Single-Amide Resolution


    Landgraf, Rachelle R.; Chalmers, Michael J.; Griffin, Patrick R.


    Hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) is a well established method for the measurement of solution-phase deuterium incorporation into proteins, which can provide insight into protein conformational mobility. However, most HDX measurements are constrained to regions of the protein where pepsin proteolysis allows detection at peptide resolution. Recently, single-amide resolution deuterium incorporation has been achieved by limiting gas-phase scrambling in the mass spectrometer....

  5. Site-specific analysis of gas-phase hydrogen/deuterium exchange of peptides and proteins by electron transfer dissociation. (United States)

    Rand, Kasper D; Pringle, Steven D; Morris, Michael; Brown, Jeffery M


    To interpret the wealth of information contained in the hydrogen/deuterium exchange (HDX) behavior of peptides and proteins in the gas-phase, analytical tools are needed to resolve the HDX of individual exchanging sites. Here we show that ETD can be combined with fast gas-phase HDX in ND(3) gas and used to monitor the exchange of side-chain hydrogens of individual residues in both small peptide ions and larger protein ions a few milliseconds after electrospray. By employing consecutive traveling wave ion guides in a mass spectrometer, peptide and protein ions were labeled on-the-fly (0.1-10 ms) in ND(3) gas and subsequently fragmented by ETD. Fragment ions were separated using ion mobility and mass analysis enabled the determination of the gas-phase deuterium uptake of individual side-chain sites in a range of model peptides of different size and sequence as well as two proteins; cytochrome C and ubiquitin. Gas-phase HDX-ETD experiments on ubiquitin ions ionized from both denaturing and native solution conditions suggest that residue-specific HDX of side-chain hydrogens is sensitive to secondary and tertiary structural features occurring in both near-native and unfolded gas-phase conformers present shortly after electrospray. The described approach for online gas-phase HDX and ETD paves the way for making mass spectrometry techniques based on gas-phase HDX more applicable in bioanalytical research.

  6. Chirality Transfer and Modulation in LB Films Derived From the Diacetylene/Melamine Hydrogen-Bonded Complex. (United States)

    Zhu, Yu; Xu, Yangyang; Zou, Gang; Zhang, Qijin


    Introduction of hydrogen-bonding interaction into π-conjugated systems is a promising strategy, since the highly selective and directional hydrogen-bonding can increase the binding strength, provide enhanced stability to the assemblies, and position the π-conjugated molecules in a desired arrangement. The helical packing of the rigid melamine cores seems to play a dominating role in the subsequent formation of the peripheral helical PDA backbone. The polymerized Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films exhibited reversible colorimetric and chiroptical changes during repeated heating-cooling cycles, which should be ascribed to the strong hydrogen-bonding interaction between the carboxylic acid and the melamine core. Further, the closely helical packing of the melamine cores could be destroyed upon exposure to HCl or NH(3) gas, whereas the peripheral helical polyaniline and polydiacetylene (PDA) backbone exhibited excellent stability. Although similar absorption changes could be observed for the films upon exposure to HCl or NH(3) gas, their distinct circular dichroism (CD) responses enabled us to distinguish the above two stimuli. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Spectroscopic investigation and computational analysis of charge transfer hydrogen bonded reaction between 3-aminoquinoline with chloranilic acid in 1:1 stoichiometric ratio (United States)

    Al-Ahmary, Khairia M.; Alenezi, Maha S.; Habeeb, Moustafa M.


    Charge transfer hydrogen bonded reaction between the electron donor (proton acceptor) 3-aminoquinoline with the electron acceptor (proton donor) chloranilic acid (H2CA) has been investigated experimentally and theoretically. The experimental work included the application of UV-vis spectroscopy to identify the charge transfer band of the formed complex, its molecular composition as well as estimating its formation constants in different solvent included acetonitrile (AN), methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH) and chloroform (CHL). It has been recorded the presence of new absorption bands in the range 500-550 nm attributing to the formed complex. The molecular composition of the HBCT complex was found to be 1:1 (donor:acceptor) in all studied solvents based on continuous variation and photometric titration methods. In addition, the calculated formation constants from Benesi-Hildebrand equation recorded high values, especially in chloroform referring to the formation of stable HBCT complex. Infrared spectroscopy has been applied for the solid complex where formation of charge and proton transfer was proven in it. Moreover, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopies were used to characterize the formed complex where charge and proton transfers were reconfirmed. Computational analysis included the use of GAMESS computations as a package of ChemBio3D Ultr12 program were applied for energy minimization and estimation of the stabilization energy for the produced complex. Also, geometrical parameters (bond lengths and bond angles) of the formed HBCT complex were computed and analyzed. Furthermore, Mullikan atomic charges, molecular potential energy surface, HOMO and LUMO molecular orbitals as well as assignment of the electronic spectra of the formed complex were presented. A full agreement between experimental and computational analysis has been found especially in the existence of the charge and proton transfers and the assignment of HOMO and LUMO molecular orbitals in the formed complex as

  8. Hydrogen bonding to carbonyl hydride complex Cp*Mo(PMe(3))(2)(CO)H and its role in proton transfer. (United States)

    Dub, Pavel A; Filippov, Oleg A; Belkova, Natalia V; Daran, Jean-Claude; Epstein, Lina M; Poli, Rinaldo; Shubina, Elena S


    The interaction of the carbonyl hydride complex Cp*Mo(PMe(3))(2)(CO)H with Brønsted (fluorinated alcohols, (CF(3))(n)CH(3-n)OH (n = 1-3), and CF(3)COOH) and Lewis (Hg(C(6)F(5))(2), BF(3).OEt(2)) acids was studied by variable temperature IR and NMR ((1)H, (31)P, (13)C) spectroscopies in combination with DFT/B3LYP calculations. Among the two functionalities potentially capable of the interaction - carbonyl and hydride ligands - the first was found to be the preferential binding site for weak acids, yielding CO...HOR or CO...Hg complexes as well as CO...(HOR)(2) adducts. For stronger proton donors ((CF(3))(3)COH, CF(3)COOH) hydrogen-bonding to the hydride ligand can be revealed as an intermediate of the proton transfer reaction. Whereas proton transfer to the CO ligand is not feasible, protonation of the hydride ligand yields an (eta(2)-H(2)) complex. Above 230 K dihydrogen evolution is observed leading to decomposition. Among the decomposition products compound [Cp*Mo(PMe(3))(3)(CO)](+)[(CF(3))(3)CO.2HOC(CF(3))(3)](-) resulting from a phosphine transfer reaction was characterized by X-ray diffraction. Reaction with BF(3).OEt(2) was found to produce [Cp*Mo(PMe(3))(2)(CO)BF(4)] via initial attack of the hydride ligand.

  9. Acid-Base Bifunctional Zirconium N-Alkyltriphosphate Nanohybrid for Hydrogen Transfer of Biomass-Derived Carboxides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hu; He, Jian; Riisager, Anders


    sites, and their catalytic activity in converting biomass-derived carbonyl compounds to corresponding alcohols in 2-propanol. Particularly, a quantitative yield of furfuryl alcohol (FFA) was obtained from furfural (FUR) over organotriphosphate-zirconium hybrid (ZrPN) under mild conditions. The presence...... of Lewis basic sites adjacent to acid sites with an appropriate base/acid site ratio (1:0.7) in ZrPN significantly improved the yield of FFA. Mechanistic studies for the transformation of FUR to FFA with ZrPN in 2-propanol-d(8) evidently indicate CTH reaction proceeding via a direct intermolecular hydrogen...

  10. In-situ biogas upgrading in thermophilic granular UASB reactor: key factors affecting the hydrogen mass transfer rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassani, Ilaria; Kougias, Panagiotis; Angelidaki, Irini


    Biological biogas upgrading coupling CO2 with external H2 to form biomethane opens new avenues for sustainable biofuel production. For developing this technology, efficient H2 to liquid transfer is fundamental. This study proposes an innovative setup for in-situ biogas upgrading converting the CO...

  11. Fast approximate radiative transfer method for visualizing the fine structure of prominences in the hydrogen H alpha line

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Heinzel, Petr; Gunár, S.; Anzer, U.


    Roč. 579, July (2015), A16/1-A16/6 ISSN 0004-6361 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/0906 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 328138 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : radiative transfer * Sun * filaments Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.378, year: 2014

  12. Effect of polarized radiative transfer on the Hanle magnetic field determination in prominences: Analysis of hydrogen H alpha line observations at Pic-du-Midi (United States)

    Bommier, V.; Deglinnocenti, E. L.; Leroy, J. L.; Sahal-Brechot, S.


    The linear polarization of the Hydrogen H alpha line of prominences has been computed, taking into account the effect of a magnetic field (Hanle effect), of the radiative transfer in the prominence, and of the depolarization due to collisions with the surrounding electrons and protons. The corresponding formalisms are developed in a forthcoming series of papers. In this paper, the main features of the computation method are summarized. The results of computation have been used for interpretation in terms of magnetic field vector measurements from H alpha polarimetric observations in prominences performed at Pic-du-Midi coronagraph-polarimeter. Simultaneous observations in one optically thin line (He I D(3)) and one optically thick line (H alpha) give an opportunity for solving the ambiguity on the field vector determination.

  13. Well-Steered Charge-Carrier Transfer in 3D Branched CuxO/ZnO@Au Heterostructures for Efficient Photocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution. (United States)

    Zhou, Gang; Xu, Xiaoyong; Ding, Tao; Feng, Bing; Bao, Zhijia; Hu, Jingguo


    Multi-component hetero-nanostructures exhibit multifunctional properties or synergistic performance and are thus considered as attractive materials for energy conversion applications. There is a long-standing demand to construct more sophisticated heterostructures for steering charge-carrier flow in semiconductor systems. Herein we fabricate a large-scale quantity of three-dimensional (3D) branched CuxO/ZnO@Au heterostructure consisting of CuO nanowires (NWs) and grafted ZnO nanodisks (NDs) decorated with Au nanoparticles via sequential hierarchical assemblies. This treelike hetero-nanostructure ensures well-steered transfer of photogenerated electrons to the exposed ZnO NDs, while holes to the CuO backbone NWs with concerted efforts from multi-node p-n junctions, polar ZnO facets, and Au plasmon, resulting in the significantly enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen evolution performance.

  14. A 2-(2’-pyridylquinoline ruthenium(II complex as an active catalyst for the transfer hydrogenation of ketones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharopoulos Nikolaos


    Full Text Available The ruthenium(II complex cis-[RuCl2(PPh32(L1] (1 where L1 = 2-(2’-pyridylquinoline was obtained in high yield from the reaction of [RuCl2(PPh33] with L1. The new compound was characterized by different spectroscopic methods including FT-IR, UV-Vis, NMR (1H, 31P spectroscopy along with a mass spectrometric analysis (ESI-MS and conductivity measurements. 31P NMR spectroscopy provided evidence that the two PPh3 ligands are orientated trans to each other in an octahedral environment. Complex (1 was tested in the transfer hydrogenation of various ketones in 2-propanol at 82 oC. The catalytic activity of (1 displayed quantitative conversions for benzophenone and 4-chloroacetophenone.

  15. Proton transfer and hydrogen bonding in the organic solid state: a combined XRD/XPS/ssNMR study of 17 organic acid-base complexes. (United States)

    Stevens, Joanna S; Byard, Stephen J; Seaton, Colin C; Sadiq, Ghazala; Davey, Roger J; Schroeder, Sven L M


    The properties of nitrogen centres acting either as hydrogen-bond or Brønsted acceptors in solid molecular acid-base complexes have been probed by N 1s X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) as well as (15)N solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) spectroscopy and are interpreted with reference to local crystallographic structure information provided by X-ray diffraction (XRD). We have previously shown that the strong chemical shift of the N 1s binding energy associated with the protonation of nitrogen centres unequivocally distinguishes protonated (salt) from hydrogen-bonded (co-crystal) nitrogen species. This result is further supported by significant ssNMR shifts to low frequency, which occur with proton transfer from the acid to the base component. Generally, only minor chemical shifts occur upon co-crystal formation, unless a strong hydrogen bond is formed. CASTEP density functional theory (DFT) calculations of (15)N ssNMR isotropic chemical shifts correlate well with the experimental data, confirming that computational predictions of H-bond strengths and associated ssNMR chemical shifts allow the identification of salt and co-crystal structures (NMR crystallography). The excellent agreement between the conclusions drawn by XPS and the combined CASTEP/ssNMR investigations opens up a reliable avenue for local structure characterization in molecular systems even in the absence of crystal structure information, for example for non-crystalline or amorphous matter. The range of 17 different systems investigated in this study demonstrates the generic nature of this approach, which will be applicable to many other molecular materials in organic, physical, and materials chemistry.

  16. The Third Dimension of a More O'Ferrall-Jencks Diagram for Hydrogen Atom Transfer in the Isoelectronic Hydrogen Exchange Reactions of (PhX)(2)H(•) with X = O, NH, and CH(2). (United States)

    Cembran, Alessandro; Provorse, Makenzie R; Wang, Changwei; Wu, Wei; Gao, Jiali


    A critical element in theoretical characterization of the mechanism of proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) reactions, including hydrogen atom transfer (HAT), is the formulation of the electron and proton localized diabatic states, based on which a More O'Ferrall-Jencks diagram can be represented to determine the step-wise and concerted nature of the reaction. Although the More O'Ferrall-Jencks diabatic states have often been used empirically to develop theoretical models for PCET reactions, the potential energy surfaces for these states have never been determined directly based on first principles calculations using electronic structure theory. The difficulty is due to a lack of practical method to constrain electron and proton localized diabatic states in wave function or density functional theory calculations. Employing a multistate density functional theory (MSDFT), in which the electron and proton localized diabatic configurations are constructed through block-localization of Kohn-Sham orbitals, we show that distinction between concerted proton-electron transfer (CPET) and HAT, which are not distinguishable experimentally from phenomenological kinetic data, can be made by examining the third dimension of a More O'Ferrall-Jencks diagram that includes both the ground and excited state potential surfaces. In addition, we formulate a pair of effective two-state valence bond models to represent the CPET and HAT mechanisms. We found that the lower energy of the CPET and HAT effective diabatic states at the intersection point can be used as an energetic criterion to distinguish the two mechanisms. In the isoelectronic series of hydrogen exchange reaction in (PhX)(2)H(•), where X = O, NH, and CH(2), there is a continuous transition from a CPET mechanism for the phenoxy radical-phenol pair to a HAT process for benzyl radical and toluene, while the reaction between PhNH(2) and PhNH(•) has a mechanism intermediate of CPET and HAT. The electronically nonadiabatic

  17. Intramolecular stable isotope distributions detect plant metabolic responses on century time scales (United States)

    Schleucher, Jürgen; Ehlers, Ina; Augusti, Angela; Betson, Tatiana


    vast majority of crop species. To access century time scales, we traced this metabolic signal in historic material of two crop species during the past 100 years and find the same response as predicted from the greenhouse experiments. This allows estimating how much photorespiration has been reduced due to the anthropogenic CO2 emission during the 20th century, and shows that plants have not acclimated to increasing [CO2] during more than 100 generations. In summary, we demonstrate that metabolic responses of plants to environmental changes create intramolecular isotope signals. These signals can be identified in manipulation experiments and can be retrieved from plant archives. The isotope abundance of each intramolecular position is set by specific isotope fractionations, such as enzyme isotope effects or hydrogen exchange with xylem water (Augusti et al., Chem. Geol. 2008). Therefore it may be possible to simultaneously reconstruct several physiologic or climate signals from an archive of a single molecule. The principles governing intramolecular isotope distributions are general for all metabolites and isotopes (D, 13C), therefore intramolecular isotope distributions can multiply the information content of paleo archives. In particular, they allow extraction of metabolic information on long time scales, thereby connecting plant physiology with paleo research.

  18. Anomalous H/D isotope effect in hydrogen bonded systems: H-bonded cyclic structures and transfers of protons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marechal, Y.


    The systematic H/D substitution is a precious tool to obtain information on the dynamics of H-bonds. It is particularly useful in IR spectroscopy where H-bonds are at the origin of particularly intense and specific bands and where the particularly great value for the m D /m H ratio ensures strongly marked effects. In most H-bonded systems the effects of these substitutions are normal, in the sense that they are at the origin of bands having intensities, centers (of intensity) and widths smaller in D-bonds by a factor close to √2 as compared to H-bonds. In some systems as carboxylic acid dimers, however, anomalous ratios of intensities are found upon such a substitution. Their origin is still obscure. Experimental results suggest that such anomalous ratios have much to do with the cyclic structure of these systems. It leads to stressing an important property of H-bonded cyclic structures which is that they seem necessary for having transfers of protons between molecules through H-bonds in a neutral aqueous medium (p H =7) at room temperature. The mechanism of such transfers of protons is still poorly known, but these transfers are now suspected to play a fundamental role in such widespread reactions as hydrolysis, peptide synthesis, etc... which may make them soon appear as being a crucial basic mechanism for reactivity of aqueous systems, particularly biological systems

  19. A luminescent lanthanide coordination polymer based on energy transfer from metal to metal for hydrogen peroxide detection. (United States)

    Zeng, Hui-Hui; Zhang, Li; Rong, Lian-Qing; Liang, Ru-Ping; Qiu, Jian-Ding


    A bimetal lanthanide coordination polymer nanoparticle (ATP-Ce/Tb-Tris CPNs) with good biocompatibility was synthesized in Tris-HCl buffer using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) molecules as the bridge ligands. The large absorption cross section and suitable emission energy of Ce 3+ matching to the adsorption energy of Tb 3+ ( 4 f n ) results in the efficient energy transfer from Ce 3+ to Tb 3+ , thus the synthesized ATP-Ce/Tb-Tris CPNs exhibit the characteristic green emission of Tb 3+ . Such energy transfer from metal to metal in fluorescent lanthanide coordination polymer nanoparticles (Ln-CPNs) has been demonstrated. It is found that the oxidation of Ce 3+ in ATP-Ce/Tb-Tris CNPs to Ce 4+ would interrupt the energy transfer from Ce 3+ to Tb 3+ , leading to fluorescence quenching of Tb 3+ . On the basis of this quenching mechanism, ATP-Ce/Tb-Tris CPNs has been successfully used to detect reactive oxygen H 2 O 2 with detection limit as low as 2nM. If glucose oxidase is present in the system, glucose can be determined using the ATP-Ce/Tb-Tris CNPs nanosensor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Structural and Kinetic Evidence for an Extended Hydrogen-Bonding Network in Catalysis of Methyl Group Transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doukov,T.; Hemmi, H.; Drennan, C.; Ragsdale, S.


    The methyltetrahydrofolate (CH{sub 3}-H{sub 4}folate) corrinoid-ironsulfur protein (CFeSP) methyltransferase (MeTr) catalyzes transfer of the methyl group of CH3-H4folate to cob(I)amide. This key step in anaerobic CO and CO{sub 2} fixation is similar to the first half-reaction in the mechanisms of other cobalamin-dependent methyltransferases. Methyl transfer requires electrophilic activation of the methyl group of CH{sub 3}-H{sub 4}folate, which includes proton transfer to the N5 group of the pterin ring and poises the methyl group for reaction with the Co(I) nucleophile. The structure of the binary CH{sub 3}-H{sub 4}folate/MeTr complex (revealed here) lacks any obvious proton donor near the N5 group. Instead, an Asn residue and water molecules are found within H-bonding distance of N5. Structural and kinetic experiments described here are consistent with the involvement of an extended H-bonding network in proton transfer to N5 of the folate that includes an Asn (Asn-199 in MeTr), a conserved Asp (Asp-160), and a water molecule. This situation is reminiscent of purine nucleoside phosphorylase, which involves protonation of the purine N7 in the transition state and is accomplished by an extended H-bond network that includes water molecules, a Glu residue, and an Asn residue (Kicska, G. A., Tyler, P. C., Evans, G. B., Furneaux, R. H., Shi, W., Fedorov, A., Lewandowicz, A., Cahill, S. M., Almo, S. C., and Schramm, V. L. (2002) Biochemistry 41, 14489-14498). In MeTr, the Asn residue swings from a distant position to within H-bonding distance of the N5 atom upon CH{sub 3}-H{sub 4}folate binding. An N199A variant exhibits only {approx}20-fold weakened affinity for CH{sub 3}-H{sub 4}folate but a much more marked 20,000-40,000-fold effect on catalysis, suggesting that Asn-199 plays an important role in stabilizing a transition state or high energy intermediate for methyl transfer.

  1. Hydrogen Peroxide Involved Anodic Charge Transfer and Electrochemiluminescence of All-Inorganic Halide Perovskite CsPbBr3 Nanocrystals in an Aqueous Medium. (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Long, Xiaoyan; Shen, Dazhong; Zou, Guizheng; Zhang, Bin; Wang, Huaisheng


    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) involved anodic charge transfer and electrochemiluminescence (ECL) of all-inorganic halide perovskite CsPbBr 3 nanocrystals (NCs) were investigated in an aqueous medium with hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) as the model. CsPbBr 3 NCs could be electrochemically oxidized to positively charged states by injecting holes onto the highest occupied molecular orbitals and could be chemically reduced to negatively charged states by injecting electrons onto the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals by ROS. The charge transfer between CsPbBr 3 NCs of oxidative and reductive states could bring out monochromatic ECL with onset around +0.8 V, maximum emission around 519 nm, and a full width at half-maximum around 20 nm. H 2 O 2 could selectively enhance the anodic ECL of CsPbBr 3 NCs, which not only opened a way to design a bioprocess-involved photovoltaic device with CsPbBr 3 NCs but also was promising for color-selective ECL biosensing.

  2. Charge-transfer collisions of multicharged ions with atomic and molecular hydrogen: measurements with low-energy accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phaneuf, R.A.; Meyer, F.W.; Crandall, D.H.


    Electron-capture cross sections for O/sup +q/ + H → O/sup +q-1/ + H + and O/sup +q/ + H 2 → O/sup +q-1/ + H 2 + are shown for projectile energies from 10 to 1300 keV. At low energies the cross sections are determined by details of the quasi-molecule potential; at higher energies momentum transfer becomes the dominant mechanism, and the cross sections fall off similarly. Results with other projectiles are described briefly. 1 figure

  3. Spectroscopic characterization of hydrogen-bonded proton transfer complex between 4-aminopyridine with 2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenol in different solvents and solid state. (United States)

    Al-Ahmary, Khairia M; Al-Solmy, Eman A; Habeeb, Moustafa M


    Proton transfer reaction between the proton donor 2,6-dichloro-4-nitrophenol (DCNP) with the proton acceptor 4-aminopyridine (4APy) has been investigated spectrophotometrically in different solvents included the aprotic solvent acetonitrile (MeCN), the protic one methanol (MeOH) and a mixture consists of 50% acetonitrile+50% dichloroethane (ANDC). The proton transfer complex is produced instantaneously with deep yellow color and absorption maxima in the range 395-425nm. The composition of the complex was characterized spectrophotometrically to be 1:1 in all solvent proving that the solvent has no effect on the complex stoichiometry. The proton transfer formation constant has been estimated by using Benesi-Hildebrand equation where the highest value was recorded in the mixture ANDC. This proofs the high stability of the complex in less polar solvent as a result of the high stability of the complex ground state. The solid complex has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis to be 1:2 [(proton donor) (proton acceptor)2]. The obtained solid complex was analyzed by infrared spectroscopy where two broad band's at 3436 and 2500cm(-1) characterized for asymmetric NHN(+) hydrogen bond were identified. Molecular modeling utilizing GAMESS computations as a package of ChemBio3D Ultra12 program was carried out where asymmetric NHN(+) was explored with NN bond distance 2.77Å. The computations showed a difference in molecular geometry of the complex compared with reactants especially bond lengths, bond angles and distances of close contact. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. In-situ biogas upgrading in thermophilic granular UASB reactor: key factors affecting the hydrogen mass transfer rate. (United States)

    Bassani, Ilaria; Kougias, Panagiotis G; Angelidaki, Irini


    Biological biogas upgrading coupling CO 2 with external H 2 to form biomethane opens new avenues for sustainable biofuel production. For developing this technology, efficient H 2 to liquid transfer is fundamental. This study proposes an innovative setup for in-situ biogas upgrading converting the CO 2 in the biogas into CH 4 , via hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. The setup consisted of a granular reactor connected to a separate chamber, where H 2 was injected. Different packing materials (rashig rings and alumina ceramic sponge) were tested to increase gas-liquid mass transfer. This aspect was optimized by liquid and gas recirculation and chamber configuration. It was shown that by distributing H 2 through a metallic diffuser followed by ceramic sponge in a separate chamber, having a volume of 25% of the reactor, and by applying a mild gas recirculation, CO 2 content in the biogas dropped from 42 to 10% and the final biogas was upgraded from 58 to 82% CH 4 content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Formation and characterization of a reactive chromium(v)-oxo complex: mechanistic insight into hydrogen-atom transfer reactions. (United States)

    Kotani, Hiroaki; Kaida, Suzue; Ishizuka, Tomoya; Sakaguchi, Miyuki; Ogura, Takashi; Shiota, Yoshihito; Yoshizawa, Kazunari; Kojima, Takahiko


    A mononuclear Cr(v)-oxo complex, [Cr V (O)(6-COO - -tpa)](BF 4 ) 2 ( 1 ; 6-COO - -tpa = N , N -bis(2-pyridylmethyl)- N -(6-carboxylato-2-pyridylmethyl)amine) was prepared through the reaction of a Cr(iii) precursor complex with iodosylbenzene as an oxidant. Characterization of 1 was achieved using ESI-MS spectrometry, electron paramagnetic resonance, UV-vis, and resonance Raman spectroscopies. The reduction potential ( E red ) of 1 was determined to be 1.23 V vs. SCE in acetonitrile based on analysis of the electron-transfer (ET) equilibrium between 1 and a one-electron donor, [Ru II (bpy) 3 ] 2+ (bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine). The reorganization energy ( λ ) of 1 was also determined to be 1.03 eV in ET reactions from phenol derivatives to 1 on the basis of the Marcus theory of ET. The smaller λ value in comparison with that of an Fe(iv)-oxo complex (2.37 eV) is caused by the small structural change during ET due to the dπ character of the electron-accepting LUMO of 1 . When benzyl alcohol derivatives (R-BA) with different oxidation potentials were employed as substrates, corresponding aldehydes were obtained as the 2e - -oxidized products in moderate yields as determined from 1 H NMR and GC-MS measurements. One-step UV-vis spectral changes were observed in the course of the oxidation reactions of BA derivatives by 1 and a kinetic isotope effect (KIE) was observed in the oxidation reactions for deuterated BA derivatives at the benzylic position as substrates. These results indicate that the rate-limiting step is a concerted proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) from substrate to 1 . In sharp contrast, in the oxidation of trimethoxy-BA ( E ox = 1.22 V) by 1 , trimethoxy-BA radical cation was observed by UV-vis spectroscopy. Thus, it was revealed that the mechanism of the oxidation reaction changed from one-step PCET to stepwise ET-proton transfer (ET/PT), depending on the redox potentials of R-BA.

  6. Tetrapeptide-coumarin conjugate 3D networks based on hydrogen-bonded charge transfer complexes: gel formation and dye release. (United States)

    Guo, Zongxia; Gong, Ruiying; Jiang, Yi; Wan, Xiaobo


    Oligopeptide-based derivatives are important synthons for bio-based functional materials. In this article, a Gly-(L-Val)-Gly-(L-Val)-coumarin (GVGV-Cou) conjugate was synthesized, which forms 3D networks in ethanol. The gel nanostructures were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM and TEM. It is suggested that the formation of charge transfer (CT) complexes between the coumarin moieties is the main driving force for the gel formation. The capability of the gel to encapsulate and release dyes was explored. Both Congo Red (CR) and Methylene Blue (MB) can be trapped in the CT gel matrix and released over time. The present gel might be used as a functional soft material for guest encapsulation and release.

  7. Hydrogen atom scrambling in selectively labeled anionic peptides upon collisional activation by MALDI tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Nicolai; Rand, Kasper Dyrberg; Roepstorff, Peter


    We have previously shown that peptide amide hydrogens undergo extensive intramolecular migration (i.e., complete hydrogen scrambling) upon collisional activation of protonated peptides (Jørgensen et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 2785-2793). The occurrence of hydrogen scrambling enforces severe...

  8. Direct electron transfer of glucose oxidase and dual hydrogen peroxide and glucose detection based on water-dispersible carbon nanotubes derivative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hsiao-Chien [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Cell Biology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, 250, Wuxing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Tu, Yi-Ming; Hou, Chung-Che [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Chang Gung University, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Rd., Tao-Yuan 33302, Taiwan (China); Lin, Yu-Chen [Wah Hong industrial Co. Ltd., 6 Lixing St., Guantian Dist., Tainan City 72046,Taiwan (China); Chen, Ching-Hsiang [Graduate Institute of Applied Science and Technology, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, 43 Keelung Rd., Sec. 4, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China); Yang, Kuang-Hsuan, E-mail: [Department of Food and Beverage Management, Vanung University, 1, Van Nung Rd., Shuei-Wei Li, Chung-Li City 32061, Taiwan (China)


    Highlights: • Dual hydrogen peroxide and glucose sensor. • Direct electrochemistry of glucose oxidase used MWCNT-Py/GC electrode. • Change sensing function by adjusting pH value. - Abstract: A water-dispersible multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) derivative, MWCNTs-1-one-dihydroxypyridine (MWCNTs-Py) was synthesis via Friedel–Crafts chemical acylation. Raman spectra demonstrated the conjugated level of MWCNTs-Py was retained after this chemical modification. MWCNTs-Py showed dual hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and glucose detections without mutual interference by adjusting pH value. It was sensitive to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in acidic solution and displayed the high performances of sensitivity, linear range, response time and stability; meanwhile it did not respond to H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in neutral solution. In addition, this positively charged MWCNTs-Py could adsorb glucose oxidase (GOD) by electrostatic attraction. MWCNTs-Py-GOD/GC electrode showed the direct electron transfer (DET) of GOD with a pair of well-defined redox peaks, attesting the bioactivity of GOD was retained due to the non-destroyed immobilization. The high surface coverage of active GOD (3.5 × 10{sup −9} mol cm{sup −2}) resulted in exhibiting a good electrocatalytic activity toward glucose. This glucose sensor showed high sensitivity (68.1 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}) in a linear range from 3 μM to 7 mM in neutral buffer solution. The proposed sensor could distinguish H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and glucose, thus owning high selectivity and reliability.

  9. Intramolecular stabilization of a catalytic [FeFe]-hydrogenase mimic investigated by experiment and theory. (United States)

    Pandey, Indresh Kumar; Natarajan, Mookan; Faujdar, Hemlata; Hussain, Firasat; Stein, Matthias; Kaur-Ghumaan, Sandeep


    The mono-substituted complex [Fe2(CO)5(μ-naphthalene-2-thiolate)2(P(PhOMe-p)3)] was prepared taking after the structural principles from both [NiFe] and [FeFe]-hydrogenase enzymes. Crystal structures are reported for this complex and the all carbonyl analogue. The bridging naphthalene thiolates resemble μ-bridging cysteine amino acids. One of the naphthyl moieties forms π-π stacking interactions with the terminal bulky phosphine ligand in the crystal structure and in calculations. This interaction stabilizes the reduced and protonated forms during electrocatalytic proton reduction in the presence of acetic acid and hinders the rotation of the phosphine ligand. The intramolecular π-π stabilization, the electrochemistry and the mechanism of the hydrogen evolution reaction were investigated using computational approaches.

  10. Orbital-optimized coupled-electron pair theory and its analytic gradients: Accurate equilibrium geometries, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and hydrogen transfer reactions (United States)

    Bozkaya, Uǧur; Sherrill, C. David


    Orbital-optimized coupled-electron pair theory [or simply "optimized CEPA(0)," OCEPA(0), for short] and its analytic energy gradients are presented. For variational optimization of the molecular orbitals for the OCEPA(0) method, a Lagrangian-based approach is used along with an orbital direct inversion of the iterative subspace algorithm. The cost of the method is comparable to that of CCSD [O(N6) scaling] for energy computations. However, for analytic gradient computations the OCEPA(0) method is only half as expensive as CCSD since there is no need to solve the λ2-amplitude equation for OCEPA(0). The performance of the OCEPA(0) method is compared with that of the canonical MP2, CEPA(0), CCSD, and CCSD(T) methods, for equilibrium geometries, harmonic vibrational frequencies, and hydrogen transfer reactions between radicals. For bond lengths of both closed and open-shell molecules, the OCEPA(0) method improves upon CEPA(0) and CCSD by 25%-43% and 38%-53%, respectively, with Dunning's cc-pCVQZ basis set. Especially for the open-shell test set, the performance of OCEPA(0) is comparable with that of CCSD(T) (ΔR is 0.0003 Å on average). For harmonic vibrational frequencies of closed-shell molecules, the OCEPA(0) method again outperforms CEPA(0) and CCSD by 33%-79% and 53%-79%, respectively. For harmonic vibrational frequencies of open-shell molecules, the mean absolute error (MAE) of the OCEPA(0) method (39 cm-1) is fortuitously even better than that of CCSD(T) (50 cm-1), while the MAEs of CEPA(0) (184 cm-1) and CCSD (84 cm-1) are considerably higher. For complete basis set estimates of hydrogen transfer reaction energies, the OCEPA(0) method again exhibits a substantially better performance than CEPA(0), providing a mean absolute error of 0.7 kcal mol-1, which is more than 6 times lower than that of CEPA(0) (4.6 kcal mol-1), and comparing to MP2 (7.7 kcal mol-1) there is a more than 10-fold reduction in errors. Whereas the MAE for the CCSD method is only 0.1 kcal

  11. Hydrogen Bonding to Alkanes: Computational Evidence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammerum, Steen; Olesen, Solveig Gaarn


    The structural, vibrational, and energetic properties of adducts of alkanes and strong cationic proton donors were studied with composite ab initio calculations. Hydrogen bonding in [D-H+ H-alkyl] adducts contributes to a significant degree to the interactions between the two components, which...... are stronger in adducts of isobutane and in adducts of stronger acids. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding in protonated long-chain alcohols manifests itself in the same manner as intermolecular hydrogen bonding and can be equally strong. Udgivelsesdato: 12 juni 2009...

  12. Reaction-based probe for hydrogen sulfite: dual-channel and good ratiometric response. (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaohong; He, Ping; Zhong, Zhicheng; Liang, Guijie


    We designed and synthesized a new series of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) molecules (compounds T1, T2 and T3) by attaching various electron-donating thiophene groups to the triphenylamine backbone with aldehyde group as the electron acceptor. Based on the nucleophilic addition reaction between hydrogen sulfite and aldehyde, all compounds could act as ratiometric optical probe for hydrogen sulfite and displayed efficient chromogenic and fluorogenic signaling. Upon the addition of hydrogen sulfite anions, probe T3 displayed apparent fluorescent color changes from yellowish-green to blue, with a large emission wavelength shift (Δλ = 120 nm). T3 responded to hydrogen sulfite with high sensitivity and the detection limit was determined to be as low as 0.9 μM. At the same time, apparent changes in UV-vis spectra could also be observed. By virtue of the special nucleophilic addition reaction with aldehyde, T3 displayed high selectivity over other anions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Telescoped Process to Manufacture 6,6,6-Trifluorofucose via Diastereoselective Transfer Hydrogenation: Scalable Access to an Inhibitor of Fucosylation Utilized in Monoclonal Antibody Production. (United States)

    Achmatowicz, Michal M; Allen, John G; Bio, Matthew M; Bartberger, Michael D; Borths, Christopher J; Colyer, John T; Crockett, Richard D; Hwang, Tsang-Lin; Koek, Jan N; Osgood, Stephen A; Roberts, Scott W; Swietlow, Aleksander; Thiel, Oliver R; Caille, Seb


    IgG1 monoclonal antibodies with reduced glycan fucosylation have been shown to improve antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) by allowing more effective binding of the Fc region of these proteins to T cells receptors. Increased in vivo efficacy in animal models and oncology clinical trials has been associated with the enhanced ADCC provided by these engineered mAbs. 6,6,6-Trifluorofucose (1) is a new inhibitor of fucosylation that has been demonstrated to allow the preparation of IgG1 monoclonal antibodies with lower fucosylation levels and thus improve the ADCC of these proteins. A new process has been developed to support the preparation of 1 on large-scale for wide mAb manufacture applications. The target fucosylation inhibitor (1) was synthesized from readily available d-arabinose in 11% overall yield and >99.5/0.5 dr (diastereomeric ratio). The heavily telescoped process includes seven steps, two crystallizations as purification handles, and no chromatography. The key transformation of the sequence involves the diastereoselective preparation of the desired trifluoromethyl-bearing alcohol in >9/1 dr from a trimethylsilylketal intermediate via a ruthenium-catalyzed tandem ketal hydrolysis-transfer hydrogenation process.

  14. Sites involved in intra- and interdomain allostery associated with the activation of factor VIIa pinpointed by hydrogen-deuterium exchange and electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Song, Hongjian; Olsen, Ole H; Persson, Egon; Rand, Kasper D


    Factor VIIa (FVIIa) is a trypsin-like protease that plays an important role in initiating blood coagulation. Very limited structural information is available for the free, inactive form of FVIIa that circulates in the blood prior to vascular injury and the molecular details of its activity enhancement remain elusive. Here we have applied hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry coupled to electron transfer dissociation to pinpoint individual residues in the heavy chain of FVIIa whose conformation and/or local interaction pattern changes when the enzyme transitions to the active form, as induced either by its cofactor tissue factor or a covalent active site inhibitor. Identified regulatory residues are situated at key sites across one continuous surface of the protease domain spanning the TF-binding helix across the activation pocket to the calcium binding site and are embedded in elements of secondary structure and at the base of flexible loops. Thus these residues are optimally positioned to mediate crosstalk between functional sites in FVIIa, particularly the cofactor binding site and the active site. Our results unambiguously show that the conformational allosteric activation signal extends to the EGF1 domain in the light chain of FVIIa, underscoring a remarkable intra- and interdomain allosteric regulation of this trypsin-like protease. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Influence of geometrical non-uniformities of LaNi5 metal hydride bed on its structure and heat and mass transfer at hydrogen absorption (United States)

    Blinov, D. V.; Dunikov, D. O.; Kazakov, A. N.; Romanov, I. A.


    We perform cycling of a 500 g bed of La0.9Ce0.1Ni5 intermetallic compound in vertical and horizontal orientations with measurements of PCT isotherms, and further XRD and SEM investigation of bed structure. Significant decrease in equilibrium absorption pressure is observed in vertical orientation of the bed from 1.58 to 1.36 MPa at 333K, and from 2.68 to 2.51 MPa at 353K, accompanied by evident particle segregation by the bed height and densification at a bottom with formation of a robust agglomerate of small particles (reactor RSP-8 with 1 kg of La0.9Ce0.1Ni5 also show considerable non-uniformity of pressure inside the bed. If the reactor is charged from the top the hydrogen pressure at the bottom is lower on 0.2-0.3 MPa, which results in earlier occurrence of heat and mass transfer crisis.

  16. Investigation of glutathione-derived electrostatic and hydrogen-bonding interactions and their role in defining Grx5 [2Fe-2S] cluster optical spectra and transfer chemistry. (United States)

    Sen, Sambuddha; Bonfio, Claudia; Mansy, Sheref S; Cowan, J A


    Human glutaredoxin 5 (Grx5) is one of the core components of the Isc (iron-sulfur cluster) assembly and trafficking machinery, and serves as an intermediary cluster carrier, putatively delivering cluster from the Isu scaffold protein to target proteins. The tripeptide glutathione is intimately involved in this role, providing cysteinyl coordination to the iron center of the Grx5-bound [2Fe-2S] cluster. Grx5 has a well-defined glutathione-binding pocket with protein amino acid residues providing many ionic and hydrogen binding contacts to the bound glutathione. In this report, we investigated the importance of these interactions in cluster chirality and exchange reactivity by systematically perturbing the crucial contacts by use of natural and non-natural amino acid substitutions to disrupt the binding contacts from both the protein and glutathione. Native Grx5 could be reconstituted with all of the glutathione analogs used, as well as other thiol ligands, such as DTT or L-cysteine, by in vitro chemical reconstitution, and the holo proteins were found to transfer [2Fe-2S] cluster to apo ferredoxin 1 at comparable rates. However, the circular dichroism spectra of these derivatives displayed prominent differences that reflect perturbations in local cluster chirality. These studies provided a detailed molecular understanding of glutathione-protein interactions in holo Grx5 that define both cluster spectroscopy and exchange chemistry.

  17. Vacancy-induced initial decomposition of condensed phase NTO via bimolecular hydrogen transfer mechanisms at high pressure: a DFT-D study. (United States)

    Liu, Zhichao; Wu, Qiong; Zhu, Weihua; Xiao, Heming


    Density functional theory with dispersion-correction (DFT-D) was employed to study the effects of vacancy and pressure on the structure and initial decomposition of crystalline 5-nitro-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3-one (β-NTO), a high-energy insensitive explosive. A comparative analysis of the chemical behaviors of NTO in the ideal bulk crystal and vacancy-containing crystals under applied hydrostatic compression was considered. Our calculated formation energy, vacancy interaction energy, electron density difference, and frontier orbitals reveal that the stability of NTO can be effectively manipulated by changing the molecular environment. Bimolecular hydrogen transfer is suggested to be a potential initial chemical reaction in the vacancy-containing NTO solid at 50 GPa, which is prior to the C-NO2 bond dissociation as its initiation decomposition in the gas phase. The vacancy defects introduced into the ideal bulk NTO crystal can produce a localized site, where the initiation decomposition is preferentially accelerated and then promotes further decompositions. Our results may shed some light on the influence of the molecular environments on the initial pathways in molecular explosives.

  18. Deformed transition-state theory: Deviation from Arrhenius behavior and application to bimolecular hydrogen transfer reaction rates in the tunneling regime. (United States)

    Carvalho-Silva, Valter H; Aquilanti, Vincenzo; de Oliveira, Heibbe C B; Mundim, Kleber C


    A formulation is presented for the application of tools from quantum chemistry and transition-state theory to phenomenologically cover cases where reaction rates deviate from Arrhenius law at low temperatures. A parameter d is introduced to describe the deviation for the systems from reaching the thermodynamic limit and is identified as the linearizing coefficient in the dependence of the inverse activation energy with inverse temperature. Its physical meaning is given and when deviation can be ascribed to quantum mechanical tunneling its value is calculated explicitly. Here, a new derivation is given of the previously established relationship of the parameter d with features of the barrier in the potential energy surface. The proposed variant of transition state theory permits comparison with experiments and tests against alternative formulations. Prescriptions are provided and implemented to three hydrogen transfer reactions: CH 4  + OH → CH 3  + H 2 O, CH 3 Cl + OH → CH 2 Cl + H 2 O and H 2  + CN → H + HCN, widely investigated both experimentally and theoretically. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Coumarin or benzoxazinone bearing benzimidazolium and bis(benzimidazolium salts; involvement in transfer hydrogenation of acetophenone derivatives and hCA inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mert Olgun Karataş


    Full Text Available Four new salts of benzimidazolium and bis(benzimidazolium which include coumarin or benzoxazinone moieties were synthesized and the structures of the newly synthesized compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectral analyses such as 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, HSQC, IR, LC-MS and elemental analysis. Benzimidazolium salts were used intensively as N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC precursors in the various catalytic reactions such as transfer hydrogenation (TH, C-H bond activation, Heck, Suzuki reaction etc. With the prospect of potential NHC precursor properties of the synthesized compounds, they were employed in the (TH reaction of p-substitute acetophenones (acetophenone, p-methyl acetophenone, p-chloro acetophenone and good yields were observed. Coumarin compounds are known as inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase and inhibition effects of the synthesized compounds on human carbonic anhydrases (hCA were investigated as in vitro. The in vitro results demonstrated that all compounds inhibited hCA I and hCA II activity. Among the synthesized compounds 1,4-bis(1-((6,8-dimethyl-2H-chromen-2-one-4-ylmethylbenzimidazolium-3-ylbutane dichloride was found to be the most active IC50= 5.55 mM and 6.06 mM for hCA I and hCA II, respectively.

  20. Preparation of CN x /Carbon Nanotube Intramolecular Junctions by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preparation of CN x /Carbon Nanotube Intramolecular Junctions by Switching Gas Sources in Continuous Chemical Vapour Deposition. ... nanotubes were observed, and such different structures at both sides of the junctions indicated some interesting properties and offered potential applications for future nanodevices.

  1. Electron paramagnetic resonance evidence for the occurrence of hydrogen and/or proton transfer between C7, C8 and C11 n-alkanes and their cations in irradiated CCl3F matrices at 77 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luyckx, G.; Ceulemans, J.


    After γ-irradiation of heptane and octane at low concentration in CCI 3 F at 77 K, only the EPR spectrum of the corresponding radical cations is observed. At higher concentrations, the spectrum of alkyl radicals also appears. Clear alkyl radical features are also observed after irradiation of 1 mol% undecane in CCI 3 F. In contrast, alkane radical cations but no alkyl radicals are observed after irradiation of heptane, octane and undecane in CCI 3 CF 3 and other saturated chlorofluorocarbon matrices at concentrations where alkyl radicals are already very prominent in CCI 3 F. Different mechanisms for the formation of these alkyl radicals are considered, viz. direct radiolysis of the alkane solutes, formation as a result of electronic excitation energy transfer and formation via the corresponding alkane radical cations that are formed by hole transfer from matrix cations. In the latter case, unimolecular deprotonation, charge neutralization by electron tunnelling and hydrogen/proton transfer with alkane molecules are taken into consideration. It is concluded that the hydrogen/proton transfer reaction (RH dot+ + RH→R dot + RH + 2 ) mainly accounts for the observed alkyl radicals. The results further indicate that in CCI 3 F at 77 K alkanes are present as small aggregates, to which hole transfer from matrix cations still occurs efficiently. (author)

  2. Hydrogen energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)


    This book consists of seven chapters, which deals with hydrogen energy with discover and using of hydrogen, Korean plan for hydrogen economy and background, manufacturing technique on hydrogen like classification and hydrogen manufacture by water splitting, hydrogen storage technique with need and method, hydrogen using technique like fuel cell, hydrogen engine, international trend on involving hydrogen economy, technical current for infrastructure such as hydrogen station and price, regulation, standard, prospect and education for hydrogen safety and system. It has an appendix on related organization with hydrogen and fuel cell.

  3. A Reactive Manganese(IV)-Hydroxide Complex: A Missing Intermediate in Hydrogen Atom Transfer by High-Valent Metal-Oxo Porphyrinoid Compounds. (United States)

    Zaragoza, Jan Paulo T; Siegler, Maxime A; Goldberg, David P


    High-valent metal-hydroxide species are invoked as critical intermediates in both catalytic, metal-mediated O 2 activation (e.g., by Fe porphyrin in Cytochrome P450) and O 2 production (e.g., by the Mn cluster in Photosystem II). However, well-characterized mononuclear M IV (OH) complexes remain a rarity. Herein we describe the synthesis of Mn IV (OH)(ttppc) (3) (ttppc = tris(2,4,6-triphenylphenyl) corrole), which has been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The large steric encumbrance of the ttppc ligand allowed for isolation of 3. The complexes Mn V (O)(ttppc) (4) and Mn III (H 2 O)(ttppc) (1·H 2 O) were also synthesized and structurally characterized, providing a series of Mn complexes related only by the transfer of hydrogen atoms. Both 3 and 4 abstract an H atom from the O-H bond of 2,4-di- tert-butylphenol (2,4-DTBP) to give a radical coupling product in good yield (3 = 90(2)%, 4 = 91(5)%). Complex 3 reacts with 2,4-DTBP with a rate constant of k 2 = 2.73(12) × 10 4 M -1 s -1 , which is ∼3 orders of magnitude larger than 4 ( k 2 = 17.4(1) M -1 s -1 ). Reaction of 3 with a series of para-substituted 2,6-di- tert-butylphenol derivatives (4-X-2,6-DTBP; X = OMe, Me, tBu, H) gives rate constants in the range k 2 = 510(10)-36(1.4) M -1 s -1 and led to Hammett and Marcus plot correlations. Together with kinetic isotope effect measurements, it is concluded that O-H cleavage occurs by a concerted H atom transfer (HAT) mechanism and that the Mn IV (OH) complex is a much more powerful H atom abstractor than the higher-valent Mn V (O) complex, or even some Fe IV (O) complexes.

  4. Nonheme Fe(IV) Oxo Complexes of Two New Pentadentate Ligands and Their Hydrogen-Atom and Oxygen-Atom Transfer Reactions. (United States)

    Mitra, Mainak; Nimir, Hassan; Demeshko, Serhiy; Bhat, Satish S; Malinkin, Sergey O; Haukka, Matti; Lloret-Fillol, Julio; Lisensky, George C; Meyer, Franc; Shteinman, Albert A; Browne, Wesley R; Hrovat, David A; Richmond, Michael G; Costas, Miquel; Nordlander, Ebbe


    Two new pentadentate {N5} donor ligands based on the N4Py (N4Py = N,N-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)-N-bis(2-pyridyl)methylamine) framework have been synthesized, viz. [N-(1-methyl-2-benzimidazolyl)methyl-N-(2-pyridyl)methyl-N-(bis-2-pyridyl methyl)amine] (L(1)) and [N-bis(1-methyl-2-benzimidazolyl)methyl-N-(bis-2-pyridylmethyl)amine] (L(2)), where one or two pyridyl arms of N4Py have been replaced by corresponding (N-methyl)benzimidazolyl-containing arms. The complexes [Fe(II)(CH3CN)(L)](2+) (L = L(1) (1); L(2) (2)) were synthesized, and reaction of these ferrous complexes with iodosylbenzene led to the formation of the ferryl complexes [Fe(IV)(O)(L)](2+) (L = L(1) (3); L(2) (4)), which were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy, high resolution mass spectrometry, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Complexes 3 and 4 are relatively stable with half-lives at room temperature of 40 h (L = L(1)) and 2.5 h (L = L(2)). The redox potentials of 1 and 2, as well as the visible spectra of 3 and 4, indicate that the ligand field weakens as ligand pyridyl substituents are progressively substituted by (N-methyl)benzimidazolyl moieties. The reactivities of 3 and 4 in hydrogen-atom transfer (HAT) and oxygen-atom transfer (OAT) reactions show that both complexes exhibit enhanced reactivities when compared to the analogous N4Py complex ([Fe(IV)(O)(N4Py)](2+)), and that the normalized HAT rates increase by approximately 1 order of magnitude for each replacement of a pyridyl moiety; i.e., [Fe(IV)(O)(L(2))](2+) exhibits the highest rates. The second-order HAT rate constants can be directly related to the substrate C-H bond dissociation energies. Computational modeling of the HAT reactions indicates that the reaction proceeds via a high spin transition state.

  5. Voltage Losses in Organic Solar Cells: Understanding the Contributions of Intramolecular Vibrations to Nonradiative Recombinations

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Xiankai


    The large voltage losses usually encountered in organic solar cells significantly limit the power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of these devices, with the result that the current highest PCE values in single-junction organic photovoltaic remain smaller than for other solar cell technologies, such as crystalline silicon or perovskite solar cells. In particular, the nonradiative recombinations to the electronic ground state from the lowest-energy charge-transfer (CT) states at the donor-acceptor interfaces in the active layer of organic devices, are responsible for a significant part of the voltage losses. Here, to better comprehend the nonradiative voltage loss mechanisms, a fully quantum-mechanical rate formula is employed within the framework of time-dependent perturbation theory, combined with density functional theory. The objective is to uncover the specific contributions of intramolecular vibrations to the CT-state nonradiative recombinations in several model systems, which include small-molecule and polymer donors as well as fullerene and nonfullerene acceptors.

  6. Peptide Inhibitor of Complement C1 (PIC1) demonstrates antioxidant activity via single electron transport (SET) and hydrogen atom transfer (HAT). (United States)

    Gregory Rivera, Magdielis; Hair, Pamela S; Cunnion, Kenji M; Krishna, Neel K


    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are natural byproducts of oxidative respiration that are toxic to organs and tissues. To mitigate ROS damage, organisms have evolved a variety of antioxidant systems to counteract these harmful molecules, however in certain pathological conditions these protective mechanisms can be overwhelmed. We have recently demonstrated that Peptide Inhibitor of Complement C1 (PIC1) mitigates peroxidase activity of the heme bearing proteins myeloperoxidase, hemoglobin, and myoglobin through a reversible process. To determine if this property of PIC1 was antioxidant in nature, we tested PIC1 in a number of well-established antioxidant assays. PIC1 showed dose-dependent antioxidant activity in a total antioxidant (TAC) assay, hydroxyl radical antioxidant capacity (HORAC) assay, oxygen radical antioxidant capacity (ORAC) assay as well as the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) assay to screen for PIC1 antioxidant activity in human plasma. The antioxidant activity of PIC1 in the TAC assay, as well as the HORAC/ORAC assay demonstrated that this peptide acts via the single electron transport (SET) and hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) mechanisms, respectively. Consistent with this mechanism of action, PIC1 did not show activity in a metal chelating activity (MCA) assay. PIC1 contains two vicinal cysteine residues and displayed similar antioxidant activity to the well characterized cysteine-containing tripeptide antioxidant molecule glutathione (GSH). Consistent with the role of the cysteine residues in the antioxidant activity of PIC1, oxidation of these residues significantly abrogated antioxidant activity. These results demonstrate that in addition to its described complement inhibiting activity, PIC1 displays in vitro antioxidant activity.

  7. Monoiron hydrogenase catalysis: hydrogen activation with the formation of a dihydrogen, Fe-H(delta-)...H(delta+)-O, bond and methenyl-H4MPT+ triggered hydride transfer. (United States)

    Yang, Xinzheng; Hall, Michael B


    A fully optimized resting state model with a strong Fe-H(delta-)...H(delta+)-O dihydrogen bond for the active site of the third type of hydrogenase, [Fe]-hydrogenase, is proposed from density functional theory (DFT) calculations on the reformulated active site from the recent X-ray crystal structure study of C176A (Cys176 was mutated to an alanine) mutated [Fe]-hydrogenase in the presence of dithiothreitol. The computed vibrational frequencies for this new active site model possess an average error of only +/-4.5 cm(-1) with respect to the wild-type [Fe]-hydrogenase. Based on this resting state model, a new mechanism with the following unusual aspects for hydrogen activation catalyzed by [Fe]-hydrogenase is also proposed from DFT calculations. (1) Unexpected dual pathways for H(2) cleavage with proton transfer to Cys176-sulfur or 2-pyridinol's oxygen for the formation and regeneration of the resting state with an Fe-H(delta-)...H(delta+)-O dihydrogen bond before the appearance of methenyl-H(4)MPT(+) (MPT(+)). (2) The strong dihydrogen bond in this resting state structure prevents D(2)/H(2)O exchange. (3) Only upon the arrival of MPT(+) with its strong hydride affinity can D(2)/H(2)O exchange take place as the arrival of MPT(+) triggers the breaking of the strong Fe-H(delta-)...H(delta+)-O dihydrogen bond by taking a hydride from the iron center and initiating the next H(2) (D(2)) cleavage. This new mechanism is completely different than that previously proposed (J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 14036) which was based on an active site model related to an earlier crystal structure. Here, Fe's role is H(2) capture and hydride formation without MPT(+) while the pyridone's special role involves the protection of the hydride by the dihydrogen bond.

  8. Refinement of labile hydrogen positions based on DFT calculations of 1H NMR chemical shifts: comparison with X-ray and neutron diffraction methods. (United States)

    Siskos, Michael G; Choudhary, M Iqbal; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P


    Numerous gas phase electron diffraction, ultra-fast electron diffraction, X-ray and neutron diffraction experiments on β-dicarbonyl compounds exhibiting enol-enol tautomeric equilibrium, with emphasis on acetylacetone and dibenzoylmethane, have so far been reported with conflicting results on the structural details of the O-HO intramolecular hydrogen bond and resulted in alternative hypotheses on the intramolecular hydrogen bond potential function either a double minimum potential corresponding to two tautomeric forms in equilibrium or a single symmetrical one. We demonstrate herein, firstly, that the DFT calculated OH 1 H NMR chemical shifts of acetylacetone and dibenzoylmethane exhibit a strong linear dependence on the computed OO hydrogen bond length of ∼-50 ppm Å -1 and as a function of the O-HO bond angle of ∼1 ppm per degree, upon the transfer of the hydrogen atom from the ground state toward the transition state. Secondly, the refinement of labile hydrogen atomic positions in intramolecular hydrogen bonds based on the root-mean-square deviation between experimentally determined and DFT calculated 1 H NMR chemical shifts in solution can provide high resolution structures of O-H and O(H)O bond lengths and O-HO bond angles with an accuracy of ∼10 -2 Å and ∼0.5°, respectively. Thirdly, the calculated 1 H NMR chemical shifts in solution of the two ground state tautomers in equilibrium of acetylacetone and dibenzoylmethane are in excellent agreement with the experimental value, even for moderate basis sets for energy minimization. In contrast, the single symmetrical structure in a strongly delocalized system is a transition state with calculated 1 H NMR chemical shifts which strongly deviate from the experimental value. Fourth, the DFT calculated ground state O-H bond lengths of acetylacetone and dibenzoylmethane are in quantitative agreement with the literature data which take into account the effect of quantum nuclear motion. The DFT structural

  9. Hydrogen bonds and antiviral activity of benzaldehyde derivatives (United States)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Belkov, M. V.; Shadyro, O. I.; Brinkevich, S. D.; Samovich, S. N.


    We have obtained the Fourier transform IR spectra of solutions of benzaldehyde derivatives having different antiviral activities against a herpes virus. We observe a correlation between the presence of hydrogen bonds in the benzaldehyde molecules and the appearance of antiviral properties in the compounds. For compounds having antiviral activity, we have obtained spectral data suggesting the existence of hydrogen bonds of the type C=OṡṡṡH-O and O-HṡṡṡO in the molecules. When the hydrogen atom in the hydroxyl groups are replaced by a methyl group, no intramolecular hydrogen bonds are formed and the compounds lose their antiviral activity.

  10. Comments on liquid hydrogen absorbers for MICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, Michael A.


    This report describes the heat transfer problems associatedwith a liquid hydrogen absorber for the MICE experiment. This reportdescribes a technique for modeling heat transfer from the outside world,to the abosrber case and in its vacuum vessel, to the hydrogen and theninto helium gas at 14 K. Also presented are the equation for freeconvection cooling of the liquid hydrogen in the absorber.

  11. SUPPORTING INFORMATION Transfer hydrogenation reactions ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    HPLC Chromatogram S28-S42. Figure S1: Mass spectrum of C4. ESI-HRMS: m/z calculated for [C15H26N2RuCl]+: 371.0827 [M-Cl]+; found: 371.0828. Figure S2: Mass spectrum of C3. ESI-HRMS: m/z calculated for [C22H32N2RuCl]+: 461.1297 [M-Cl]+; found: 461.1298. Figure S3: Mass spectrum of C2. ESI-HRMS: m/z ...

  12. Mechanism of Intramolecular Rhodium- and Palladium-Catalyzed Alkene Alkoxyfunctionalizations

    KAUST Repository

    Vummaleti, Sai V. C.


    Density functional theory calculations have been used to investigate the reaction mechanism for the [Rh]-catalyzed intramolecular alkoxyacylation ([Rh] = [RhI(dppp)+] (dppp, 1,3-bis(diphenylphosphino)propane) and [Pd]/BPh3 dual catalytic system assisted intramolecular alkoxycyanation ([Pd] = Pd-Xantphos) using acylated and cyanated 2-allylphenol derivatives as substrates, respectively. Our results substantially confirm the proposed mechanism for both [Rh]- and [Pd]/ BPh3-mediated alkoxyfunctionalizations, offering a detailed geometrical and energetical understanding of all the elementary steps. Furthermore, for the [Rh]-mediated alkoxyacylation, our observations support the hypothesis that the quinoline group of the substrate is crucial to stabilize the acyl metal complex and prevent further decarbonylation. For [Pd]/BPh3-catalyzed alkoxycyanation, our findings clarify how the Lewis acid BPh3 cocatalyst accelerates the only slow step of the reaction, corresponding to the oxidative addition of the cyanate O-CN bond to the Pd center. © 2015 American Chemical Society.

  13. Activation of the C-H bond: catalytic hydroxylation of hydrocarbons by new cobaltic alkylperoxydic complexes; selective and catalytic cycloalkane dehydrogenation in presence of uranium for hydrogen transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brazi, E.


    The aim of the thesis is to improve efficiency and selectivity of chemical reactions for alkane transformations. In the first part decomposition of hydroperoxides and hydrocarbon hydroxylation by cobalt complexes is studied. In the second part cycloalkanes are dehydrogenated into aromatics with a Pt catalyst, trapping hydrogen by uranium. Uranium hydride UH 3 can yield very pure hydrogen at reasonable temperature [fr

  14. Hydrogen bonding, solvent exchange, and coupled proton and electron transfer in the oxidation and reduction of redox-active tyrosine Y(Z) in Mn-depleted core complexes of photosystem II. (United States)

    Diner, B A; Force, D A; Randall, D W; Britt, R D


    The redox-active tyrosines, Y(Z) and Y(D), of Photosystem II are oxidized by P680+ to the neutral tyrosyl radical. This oxidation thus involves the transfer of the phenolic proton as well as an electron. It has recently been proposed that tyrosine Y(Z) might replace the lost proton by abstraction of a hydrogen atom or a proton from a water molecule bound to the manganese cluster, thereby increasing the driving force for water oxidation. To compare and contrast with the intact system, we examine here, in a simplified Mn-depleted PSII core complex, isolated from a site-directed mutant of Synechocystis PCC 6803 lacking Y(D), the role of proton transfer in the oxidation and reduction of Y(Z). We show how the oxidation and reduction rates for Y(Z), the deuterium isotope effect on these rates, and the Y(Z)* - Y(Z) difference spectra all depend on pH (from 5.5 to 9.5). This simplified system allows examination of electron-transfer processes over a broader range of pH than is possible with the intact system and with more tractable rates. The kinetic isotope effect for the oxidation of P680+ by Y(Z) is maximal at pH 7.0 (3.64). It decreases to lower pH as charge recombination, which shows no deuterium isotope, starts to become competitive with Y(Z) oxidation. To higher pH, Y(Z) becomes increasingly deprotonated to form the tyrosinate, the oxidation of which at pH 9.5 becomes extremely rapid (1260 ms(-1)) and no longer limited by proton transfer. These observations point to a mechanism for the oxidation of Y(Z) in which the tyrosinate is the species from which the electron occurs even at lower pH. The kinetics of oxidation of Y(Z) show elements of rate limitation by both proton and electron transfer, with the former dominating at low pH and the latter at high pH. The proton-transfer limitation of Y(Z) oxidation at low pH is best explained by a gated mechanism in which Y(Z) and the acceptor of the phenolic proton need to form an electron/proton-transfer competent complex in

  15. Ultrafast vibrational population transfer dynamics in 2-acetylcyclopentanone studied by 2D IR spectroscopy. (United States)

    Park, Sungnam; Ji, Minbiao


    2-Acetylcyclopentanone (2-ACP), which is a β-dicarbonyl compound, undergoes keto-enol isomerization, and its enol tautomers are stabilized by a cyclic intramolecular hydrogen bond. 2-ACP (keto form) has symmetric and asymmetric vibrational modes of the two carbonyl groups at 1748 and 1715 cm(-1) , respectively, which are well separated from the carbonyl modes of its enol tautomers in the FTIR spectrum. We have investigated 2-ACP dissolved in carbon tetrachloride by 2D IR spectroscopy and IR pump-probe spectroscopy. Vibrational population transfer dynamics between the two carbonyl modes were observed by 2D IR spectroscopy. To extract the population exchange dynamics (i.e., the down- and uphill population transfer rate constants), we used the normalized volumes of the cross-peaks with respect to the diagonal peaks at the same emission frequency and the survival and conditional probability functions. As expected, the downhill population transfer time constant (3.2 ps) was measured to be smaller than the uphill population transfer time constant (3.8 ps). In addition, the vibrational population relaxation dynamics of the two carbonyl modes were observed to be the same within the experimental error and were found to be much slower than vibrational population transfer between two carbonyl modes. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Photoinduced electron transfer in some photosensitive molecules ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Semiconductor; photocatalytic; photosensitive molecule; intramolecular charge transfer; TiO2/Y-zeolite. 1. Introduction. The consumption of energy has grown exponentially over the last two decades due to rapid industrialization and better living standards throughout the world. Among the various forms of energy available ...

  17. Photoinduced electron transfer in some photosensitive molecules ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Abstract. An intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) molecule, p-N,N-dimethyl- aminobenzoic acid (DMABA) has been studied in zeolite and colloidal media. The ratio of ICT to normal emission (ICT/LE) is greatly enhanced in zeolites compared to that in polar solvents. The ICT emission of DMABA was quenched by increasing ...

  18. Photoinduced electron transfer in some photosensitive molecules ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) molecule, -N,N-dimethylaminobenzoic acid (DMABA) has been studied in zeolite and colloidal media. The ratio of ICT to normal emission (ICT/LE) is greatly enhanced in zeolites compared to that in polar solvents. The ICT emission of DMABA was quenched by increasing the ...

  19. High-performance liquid chromatographic method to evaluate the hydrogen atom transfer during reaction between 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical and antioxidants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudier, Ariane; Tournebize, Juliana [CITHEFOR - EA 3452, Faculte de Pharmacie, Nancy-Universite, 5 Rue Albert Lebrun, BP 80403, 54001 Nancy Cedex (France); Bartosz, Grzegorz [Department of Molecular Biophysics, University of Lodz, Lodz (Poland); El Hani, Safae; Bengueddour, Rachid [Laboratoire de Nutrition et Sante, Biology Department, Faculty of Sciences, Ibn Tofail University, Kenitra (Morocco); Sapin-Minet, Anne [CITHEFOR - EA 3452, Faculte de Pharmacie, Nancy-Universite, 5 Rue Albert Lebrun, BP 80403, 54001 Nancy Cedex (France); Leroy, Pierre, E-mail: [CITHEFOR - EA 3452, Faculte de Pharmacie, Nancy-Universite, 5 Rue Albert Lebrun, BP 80403, 54001 Nancy Cedex (France)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical and its product measurement by HPLC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lowest limit of detection by monitoring 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adsorption problem of the radical on HPLC parts have been pointed out. - Abstract: 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH{center_dot}) is a stable nitrogen centred radical widely used to evaluate direct radical scavenging properties of various synthetic or natural antioxidants (AOs). The bleaching rate of DPPH{center_dot} absorbance at 515 nm is usually monitored for this purpose. In order to avoid the interference of complex coloured natural products used as antioxidant supplements or cosmetics, HPLC systems have been reported as alternative techniques to spectrophotometry. They also rely upon measurement of DPPH{center_dot} quenching rate and none of them permits to identify and measure 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazine (DPPH-H), the reduced product of DPPH{center_dot} resulting from hydrogen atom transfer (HAT), which is the main mechanism of the reaction between DPPH{center_dot} and AOs. We presently report an HPLC method devoted to the simultaneous measurement of DPPH{center_dot} and DPPH-H. Both were fully separated on a C18 column eluted with acetonitrile-10 mM ammonium citrate buffer pH 6.8 (70:30, v/v) and detected at 330 nm. Adsorption process of DPPH{center_dot} onto materials of the HPLC system was pointed out. Consequently, the linearity range observed for DPPH{center_dot} was restricted, thus a much lower limit of detection was obtained for DPPH-H than for DPPH{center_dot} using standards (0.02 and 14 {mu}M, respectively). The method was applied to three commonly used AOs, i.e. Trolox{sup Registered-Sign }, ascorbic acid and GSH, and compared with spectrophotometry. Further application to complex matrices (cell culture media, vegetal extracts) and nanomaterials demonstrated (i) its usefulness because of

  20. 4-Hydroxy-1-naphthaldehydes: proton transfer or deprotonation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manolova, Y; Kurteva, V; Antonov, L


    . For 4-hydroxy-3-(piperidin-1-ylmethyl)-1-naphthaldehyde (a Mannich base) an intramolecular proton transfer involving the OH group and the piperidine nitrogen occurs. In acetonitrile the equilibrium is predominantly at the OH-form, whereas in methanol the proton transferred tautomer is the preferred form...