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Sample records for intrahemispheric cortico-cortical connections

  1. Altered intrahemispheric structural connectivity in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome

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    Bastian Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS is a common developmental neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by tics and frequent psychiatric comorbidities, often causing significant disability. Tic generation has been linked to disturbed networks of brain areas involved in planning, controlling and execution of actions, particularly structural and functional disorders in the striatum and cortico–striato–thalamo–cortical loops. We therefore applied structural diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to characterize changes in intrahemispheric white matter connectivity in cortico-subcortical circuits engaged in motor control in 15 GTS patients without psychiatric comorbidities. White matter connectivity was analyzed by probabilistic fiber tractography between 12 predefined cortical and subcortical regions of interest. Connectivity values were combined with measures of clinical severity rated by the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS. GTS patients showed widespread structural connectivity deficits. Lower connectivity values were found specifically in tracts connecting the supplementary motor areas (SMA with basal ganglia (pre-SMA–putamen, SMA–putamen and in frontal cortico-cortical circuits. There was an overall trend towards negative correlations between structural connectivity in these tracts and YGTSS scores. Structural connectivity of frontal brain networks involved in planning, controlling and executing actions is reduced in adult GTS patients which is associated with tic severity. These findings are in line with the concept of GTS as a neurodevelopmental disorder of brain immaturity.

  2. Effect of electrocardiogram interference on cortico-cortical connectivity analysis and a possible solution.

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    Govindan, R B; Kota, Srinivas; Al-Shargabi, Tareq; Massaro, An N; Chang, Taeun; du Plessis, Adre

    2016-09-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals are often contaminated by the electrocardiogram (ECG) interference, which affects quantitative characterization of EEG. We propose null-coherence, a frequency-based approach, to attenuate the ECG interference in EEG using simultaneously recorded ECG as a reference signal. After validating the proposed approach using numerically simulated data, we apply this approach to EEG recorded from six newborns receiving therapeutic hypothermia for neonatal encephalopathy. We compare our approach with an independent component analysis (ICA), a previously proposed approach to attenuate ECG artifacts in the EEG signal. The power spectrum and the cortico-cortical connectivity of the ECG attenuated EEG was compared against the power spectrum and the cortico-cortical connectivity of the raw EEG. The null-coherence approach attenuated the ECG contamination without leaving any residual of the ECG in the EEG. We show that the null-coherence approach performs better than ICA in attenuating the ECG contamination without enhancing cortico-cortical connectivity. Our analysis suggests that using ICA to remove ECG contamination from the EEG suffers from redistribution problems, whereas the null-coherence approach does not. We show that both the null-coherence and ICA approaches attenuate the ECG contamination. However, the EEG obtained after ICA cleaning displayed higher cortico-cortical connectivity compared with that obtained using the null-coherence approach. This suggests that null-coherence is superior to ICA in attenuating the ECG interference in EEG for cortico-cortical connectivity analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Subcortical substrates of TMS induced modulation of the cortico-cortical connectivity

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    Groppa, Sergiu; Muthuraman, Muthuraman; Otto, Birte

    2013-01-01

    pulse TMS to the primary motor cortex (M1) of healthy subjects to interfere the cortical oscillatory activity recorded by simultaneous EEG and calculated the cortico-cortical coherence and power in the alpha and beta band. To study the structural substrate of the functional connectivity we performed...... diffusion tensor imaging and fractional anisotropy analysis (FA). To capture the pathways involved we applied probabilistic tractography to reconstruct the entire network. RESULTS: Suprathreshold TMS of M1 induced a consistent enhancement of interhemispheric cortico-cortical alpha band coherence that lasted...... ca. 175 ms. after the pulse has been applied. The changes were confined to the interhemispheric central EEG electrodes (i.e. C3-C4). There were no consistent changes in the beta band. Power analysis revealed a longer lasting increase in the beta band after TMS pulses. A cluster in the contralateral...

  4. Trade-off of cerebello-cortical and cortico-cortical functional networks for planning in 6-year-old children.

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    Kipping, Judy A; Margulies, Daniel S; Eickhoff, Simon B; Lee, Annie; Qiu, Anqi

    2018-05-03

    Childhood is a critical period for the development of cognitive planning. There is a lack of knowledge on its neural mechanisms in children. This study aimed to examine cerebello-cortical and cortico-cortical functional connectivity in association with planning skills in 6-year-olds (n = 76). We identified the cerebello-cortical and cortico-cortical functional networks related to cognitive planning using activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis on existing functional imaging studies on spatial planning, and data-driven independent component analysis (ICA) of children's resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI). We investigated associations of cerebello-cortical and cortico-cortical functional connectivity with planning ability in 6-year-olds, as assessed using the Stockings of Cambridge task. Long-range functional connectivity of two cerebellar networks (lobules VI and lateral VIIa) with the prefrontal and premotor cortex were greater in children with poorer planning ability. In contrast, cortico-cortical association networks were not associated with the performance of planning in children. These results highlighted the key contribution of the lateral cerebello-frontal functional connectivity, but not cortico-cortical association functional connectivity, for planning ability in 6-year-olds. Our results suggested that brain adaptation to the acquisition of planning ability during childhood is partially achieved through the engagement of the cerebello-cortical functional connectivity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cortico-cortical communication dynamics

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    Per E Roland

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available IIn principle, cortico-cortical communication dynamics is simple: neurons in one cortical area communicate by sending action potentials that release glutamate and excite their target neurons in other cortical areas. In practice, knowledge about cortico-cortical communication dynamics is minute. One reason is that no current technique can capture the fast spatio-temporal cortico-cortical evolution of action potential transmission and membrane conductances with sufficient spatial resolution. A combination of optogenetics and monosynaptic tracing with virus can reveal the spatio-temporal cortico-cortical dynamics of specific neurons and their targets, but does not reveal how the dynamics evolves under natural conditions. Spontaneous ongoing action potentials also spread across cortical areas and are difficult to separate from structured evoked and intrinsic brain activity such as thinking. At a certain state of evolution, the dynamics may engage larger populations of neurons to drive the brain to decisions, percepts and behaviors. For example, successfully evolving dynamics to sensory transients can appear at the mesoscopic scale revealing how the transient is perceived. As a consequence of these methodological and conceptual difficulties, studies in this field comprise a wide range of computational models, large-scale measurements (e.g., by MEG, EEG, and a combination of invasive measurements in animal experiments. Further obstacles and challenges of studying cortico-cortical communication dynamics are outlined in this critical review.

  6. Effects of dopaminergic treatment on functional cortico-cortical connectivity in Parkinson's disease

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    Zittel, S; Heinbokel, C; van der Vegt, J P M

    2015-01-01

    under chronic dopaminergic stimulation, but not in de novo PD patients at low stimulus intensities at an ISI of 4 ms. First-time exposure to levodopa exerts different effects on cortico-cortical pathways than chronic dopaminergic stimulation in PD, suggesting a change in the responsiveness of cortico...

  7. Intra-hemispheric intrinsic connectivity asymmetry and its relationships with handedness and language Lateralization.

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    Joliot, M; Tzourio-Mazoyer, N; Mazoyer, B

    2016-12-01

    Asymmetry in intra-hemispheric intrinsic connectivity, and its association with handedness and hemispheric dominance for language, were investigated in a sample of 290 healthy volunteers enriched in left-handers (52.7%). From the resting-state FMRI data of each participant, we derived an intra-hemispheric intrinsic connectivity asymmetry (HICA) matrix as the difference between the left and right intra-hemispheric matrices of intrinsic correlation computed for each pair of the AICHA atlas ROIs. We defined a similarity measure between the HICA matrices of two individuals as the correlation coefficient of their corresponding elements, and computed for each individual an index of intra-hemispheric intrinsic connectivity asymmetry as the average similarity measure of his HICA matrix to those of the other subjects of the sample (HICAs). Gaussian-mixture modeling of the age-corrected HICAs sample distribution revealed that two types of HICA patterns were present, one (Typical_HICA) including 92.4% of the participants while the other (Atypical_HICA) included only 7.6% of them, mostly left-handers. In addition, we investigated the relationship between asymmetry in intra-hemispheric intrinsic connectivity and language hemispheric dominance, including a potential effect of handedness on this relationship, thanks to an FMRI acquisition during language production from which an hemispheric functional lateralization index for language (HFLI) and a type of hemispheric dominance for language, namely leftward, ambilateral, or rightward, were derived for each individual. There was a significant association between the types of language hemispheric dominance and of intra-hemispheric intrinsic connectivity asymmetry, occurrence of Atypical_HICAs individuals being very high in the group of individuals rightward-lateralized for language (80%), reduced in the ambilateral group (19%) and rare in individuals leftward-lateralized for language (less than 3%). Quantitatively, we found a

  8. Exercise training reinstates cortico-cortical sensorimotor functional connectivity following striatal lesioning: Development and application of a subregional-level analytic toolbox for perfusion autoradiographs of the rat brain

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    Peng, Yu-Hao; Heintz, Ryan; Wang, Zhuo; Guo, Yumei; Myers, Kalisa; Scremin, Oscar; Maarek, Jean-Michel; Holschneider, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Current rodent connectome projects are revealing brain structural connectivity with unprecedented resolution and completeness. How subregional structural connectivity relates to subregional functional interactions is an emerging research topic. We describe a method for standardized, mesoscopic-level data sampling from autoradiographic coronal sections of the rat brain, and for correlation-based analysis and intuitive display of cortico-cortical functional connectivity (FC) on a flattened cortical map. A graphic user interface “Cx-2D” allows for the display of significant correlations of individual regions-of-interest, as well as graph theoretical metrics across the cortex. Cx-2D was tested on an autoradiographic data set of cerebral blood flow (CBF) of rats that had undergone bilateral striatal lesions, followed by 4 weeks of aerobic exercise training or no exercise. Effects of lesioning and exercise on cortico-cortical FC were examined during a locomotor challenge in this rat model of Parkinsonism. Subregional FC analysis revealed a rich functional reorganization of the brain in response to lesioning and exercise that was not apparent in a standard analysis focused on CBF of isolated brain regions. Lesioned rats showed diminished degree centrality of lateral primary motor cortex, as well as neighboring somatosensory cortex--changes that were substantially reversed in lesioned rats following exercise training. Seed analysis revealed that exercise increased positive correlations in motor and somatosensory cortex, with little effect in non-sensorimotor regions such as visual, auditory, and piriform cortex. The current analysis revealed that exercise partially reinstated sensorimotor FC lost following dopaminergic deafferentation. Cx-2D allows for standardized data sampling from images of brain slices, as well as analysis and display of cortico-cortical FC in the rat cerebral cortex with potential applications in a variety of autoradiographic and histologic

  9. Altered structural connectivity of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamic networks in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

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    Worbe, Yulia; Marrakchi-Kacem, Linda; Lecomte, Sophie; Valabregue, Romain; Poupon, Fabrice; Guevara, Pamela; Tucholka, Alan; Mangin, Jean-François; Vidailhet, Marie; Lehericy, Stephane; Hartmann, Andreas; Poupon, Cyril

    2015-02-01

    Gilles de la Tourette syndrome is a childhood-onset syndrome characterized by the presence and persistence of motor and vocal tics. A dysfunction of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical networks in this syndrome has been supported by convergent data from neuro-pathological, electrophysiological as well as structural and functional neuroimaging studies. Here, we addressed the question of structural integration of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical networks in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome. We specifically tested the hypothesis that deviant brain development in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome could affect structural connectivity within the input and output basal ganglia structures and thalamus. To this aim, we acquired data on 49 adult patients and 28 gender and age-matched control subjects on a 3 T magnetic resonance imaging scanner. We used and further implemented streamline probabilistic tractography algorithms that allowed us to quantify the structural integration of cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical networks. To further investigate the microstructure of white matter in patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome, we also evaluated fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity in these pathways, which are both sensitive to axonal package and to myelin ensheathment. In patients with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome compared to control subjects, we found white matter abnormalities in neuronal pathways connecting the cerebral cortex, the basal ganglia and the thalamus. Specifically, striatum and thalamus had abnormally enhanced structural connectivity with primary motor and sensory cortices, as well as paracentral lobule, supplementary motor area and parietal cortices. This enhanced connectivity of motor cortex positively correlated with severity of tics measured by the Yale Global Tics Severity Scale and was not influenced by current medication status, age or gender of patients. Independently of the severity of tics, lateral and medial orbito

  10. Mapping human brain networks with cortico-cortical evoked potentials

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    Keller, Corey J.; Honey, Christopher J.; Mégevand, Pierre; Entz, Laszlo; Ulbert, Istvan; Mehta, Ashesh D.

    2014-01-01

    The cerebral cortex forms a sheet of neurons organized into a network of interconnected modules that is highly expanded in humans and presumably enables our most refined sensory and cognitive abilities. The links of this network form a fundamental aspect of its organization, and a great deal of research is focusing on understanding how information flows within and between different regions. However, an often-overlooked element of this connectivity regards a causal, hierarchical structure of regions, whereby certain nodes of the cortical network may exert greater influence over the others. While this is difficult to ascertain non-invasively, patients undergoing invasive electrode monitoring for epilepsy provide a unique window into this aspect of cortical organization. In this review, we highlight the potential for cortico-cortical evoked potential (CCEP) mapping to directly measure neuronal propagation across large-scale brain networks with spatio-temporal resolution that is superior to traditional neuroimaging methods. We first introduce effective connectivity and discuss the mechanisms underlying CCEP generation. Next, we highlight how CCEP mapping has begun to provide insight into the neural basis of non-invasive imaging signals. Finally, we present a novel approach to perturbing and measuring brain network function during cognitive processing. The direct measurement of CCEPs in response to electrical stimulation represents a potentially powerful clinical and basic science tool for probing the large-scale networks of the human cerebral cortex. PMID:25180306

  11. Inter- and intrahemispheric connectivity differences when reading Japanese Kanji and Hiragana.

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    Kawabata Duncan, Keith J; Twomey, Tae; Parker Jones, 'Ōiwi; Seghier, Mohamed L; Haji, Tomoki; Sakai, Katsuyuki; Price, Cathy J; Devlin, Joseph T

    2014-06-01

    Unlike most languages that are written using a single script, Japanese uses multiple scripts including morphographic Kanji and syllabographic Hiragana and Katakana. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging with dynamic causal modeling to investigate competing theories regarding the neural processing of Kanji and Hiragana during a visual lexical decision task. First, a bilateral model investigated interhemispheric connectivity between ventral occipito-temporal (vOT) cortex and Broca's area ("pars opercularis"). We found that Kanji significantly increased the connection strength from right-to-left vOT. This is interpreted in terms of increased right vOT activity for visually complex Kanji being integrated into the left (i.e. language dominant) hemisphere. Secondly, we used a unilateral left hemisphere model to test whether Kanji and Hiragana rely preferentially on ventral and dorsal paths, respectively, that is, they have different intrahemispheric functional connectivity profiles. Consistent with this hypothesis, we found that Kanji increased connectivity within the ventral path (V1 ↔ vOT ↔ Broca's area), and that Hiragana increased connectivity within the dorsal path (V1 ↔ supramarginal gyrus ↔ Broca's area). Overall, the results illustrate how the differential processing demands of Kanji and Hiragana influence both inter- and intrahemispheric interactions.

  12. Dynamic causal modeling revealed dysfunctional effective connectivity in both, the cortico-basal-ganglia and the cerebello-cortical motor network in writers' cramp

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    Inken Rothkirch

    demonstrates abnormal reciprocal excitatory connectivity in the cortico-cerebellar circuitry. These results highlight the dysfunctional cerebello-cortical as well as basalganglio-cortical interaction in WC. Keywords: Dynamic causal modeling, Focal hand dystonia, Writer's cramp, Network disorder, Cerebellum

  13. Functional connectivity modeling of consistent cortico-striatal degeneration in Huntington's disease

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    Imis Dogan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a complex neuropsychiatric phenotype. In a recent meta-analysis we identified core regions of consistent neurodegeneration in premanifest HD in the striatum and middle occipital gyrus (MOG. For early manifest HD convergent evidence of atrophy was most prominent in the striatum, motor cortex (M1 and inferior frontal junction (IFJ. The aim of the present study was to functionally characterize this topography of brain atrophy and to investigate differential connectivity patterns formed by consistent cortico-striatal atrophy regions in HD. Using areas of striatal and cortical atrophy at different disease stages as seeds, we performed task-free resting-state and task-based meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM. MACM utilizes the large data source of the BrainMap database and identifies significant areas of above-chance co-activation with the seed-region via the activation-likelihood-estimation approach. In order to delineate functional networks formed by cortical as well as striatal atrophy regions we computed the conjunction between the co-activation profiles of striatal and cortical seeds in the premanifest and manifest stages of HD, respectively. Functional characterization of the seeds was obtained using the behavioral meta-data of BrainMap. Cortico-striatal atrophy seeds of the premanifest stage of HD showed common co-activation with a rather cognitive network including the striatum, anterior insula, lateral prefrontal, premotor, supplementary motor and parietal regions. A similar but more pronounced co-activation pattern, additionally including the medial prefrontal cortex and thalamic nuclei was found with striatal and IFJ seeds at the manifest HD stage. The striatum and M1 were functionally connected mainly to premotor and sensorimotor areas, posterior insula, putamen and thalamus. Behavioral characterization of the seeds confirmed that experiments

  14. Histologic Evaluation of Wound Healing After Ridge Preservation With Cortical, Cancellous, and Combined Cortico-Cancellous Freeze-Dried Bone Allograft: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

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    Demetter, Randy S; Calahan, Blaine G; Mealey, Brian L

    2017-09-01

    Cortical and cancellous mineralized freeze-dried bone allografts (FDBA) are available for use in alveolar ridge preservation after tooth extraction. There are currently no data regarding use of a combination 50%/50% cortico-cancellous FDBA compared with a 100% cortical or 100% cancellous FDBA in ridge preservation. The primary objective of this study is to dimensionally and histologically evaluate healing after ridge preservation in non-molar sites using 50%/50% cortico-cancellous FDBA versus 100% cortical and 100% cancellous FDBA. Sixty-six patients requiring extraction of a non-molar tooth were enrolled and randomized into three groups to receive ridge preservation with the following: 1) 100% cortical FDBA; 2) 100% cancellous FDBA; or 3) 50%/50% cortico-cancellous FDBA. After 18 to 20 weeks of healing, a biopsy was harvested, and an implant was placed. The alveolar ridge was measured pre- and postoperatively to evaluate change in ridge height and width. Percentages of vital bone, residual graft, and connective tissue (CT)/other were determined via histomorphometric analysis. Histomorphometric analysis revealed no significant differences among groups regarding percentage of vital bone or CT/other. The 100% cortical FDBA group had significantly greater residual graft material (P = 0.04). Dimensional analysis revealed no significant between-group differences in any parameter measured. To the best knowledge of the authors, this study offers the first histologic evidence demonstrating no significant difference in vital bone formation or dimensional changes among 50%/50% cortico-cancellous FDBA, 100% cortical FDBA, and 100% cancellous FDBA when used in ridge preservation of non-molar tooth sites.

  15. Three Types of Cortical L5 Neurons that Differ in Brain-Wide Connectivity and Function

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    Kim, Euiseok J.; Juavinett, Ashley L.; Kyubwa, Espoir M.; Jacobs, Matthew W.; Callaway, Edward M.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Cortical layer 5 (L5) pyramidal neurons integrate inputs from many sources and distribute outputs to cortical and subcortical structures. Previous studies demonstrate two L5 pyramid types: cortico-cortical (CC) and cortico-subcortical (CS). We characterize connectivity and function of these cell types in mouse primary visual cortex and reveal a new subtype. Unlike previously described L5 CC and CS neurons, this new subtype does not project to striatum [cortico-cortical, non-striatal (CC-NS)] and has distinct morphology, physiology and visual responses. Monosynaptic rabies tracing reveals that CC neurons preferentially receive input from higher visual areas, while CS neurons receive more input from structures implicated in top-down modulation of brain states. CS neurons are also more direction-selective and prefer faster stimuli than CC neurons. These differences suggest distinct roles as specialized output channels, with CS neurons integrating information and generating responses more relevant to movement control and CC neurons being more important in visual perception. PMID:26671462

  16. Tractographical model of the cortico-basal ganglia and corticothalamic connections: Improving Our Understanding of Deep Brain Stimulation.

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    Avecillas-Chasin, Josué M; Rascón-Ramírez, Fernando; Barcia, Juan A

    2016-05-01

    The cortico-basal ganglia and corticothalamic projections have been extensively studied in the context of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is known to modulate many of these pathways to produce the desired clinical effect. The aim of this work is to describe the anatomy of the main circuits of the basal ganglia using tractography in a surgical planning station. We used imaging studies of 20 patients who underwent DBS for movement and psychiatric disorders. We segmented the putamen, caudate nucleus (CN), thalamus, and subthalamic nucleus (STN), and we also segmented the cortical areas connected with these subcortical areas. We used tractography to define the subdivisions of the basal ganglia and thalamus through the generation of fibers from the cortical areas to the subcortical structures. We were able to generate the corticostriatal and corticothalamic connections involved in the motor, associative and limbic circuits. Furthermore, we were able to reconstruct the hyperdirect pathway through the corticosubthalamic connections and we found subregions in the STN. Finally, we reconstructed the cortico-subcortical connections of the ventral intermediate nucleus, the nucleus accumbens and the CN. We identified a feasible delineation of the basal ganglia and thalamus connections using tractography. These results could be potentially useful in DBS if the parcellations are used as targets during surgery. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Modulating transcallosal and intra-hemispheric brain connectivity with tDCS: Implications for interventions in Aphasia.

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    Zheng, Xin; Dai, Weiying; Alsop, David C; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2016-07-25

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can enhance or diminish cortical excitability levels depending on the polarity of the stimulation. One application of non-invasive brain-stimulation has been to modulate a possible inter-hemispheric disinhibition after a stroke. This disinhibition model has been developed mainly for the upper extremity motor system, but it is not known whether the language/speech-motor system shows a similar inter-hemispheric interaction. We aimed to examine physiological evidence of inter- and intra-hemispheric connectivity changes induced by tDCS of the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) using arterial-spin labeling (ASL) MRI. Using an MR-compatible DC-Stimulator, we applied anodal stimulation to the right IFG region of nine healthy adults while undergoing non-invasive cerebral blood flow imaging with arterial-spin labeling (ASL) before, during, and after the stimulation. All ASL images were then normalized and timecourses were extracted in regions of interest (ROIs), which were the left and right IFG regions, and the right supramarginal gyrus (SMG) in the inferior parietal lobule. Two additional ROIs (the right occipital lobe and the left fronto-orbital region) were taken as control regions. Using regional correlation coefficients as a surrogate marker of connectivity, we could show that inter-hemispheric connectivity (right IFG with left IFG) decreased significantly (p < 0.05; r-scores from 0.67 to 0.53) between baseline and post-stimulation, while the intra-hemispheric connectivity (right IFG with right SMG) increased significantly (p < 0.05;r-scores from 0.74 to 0.81). A 2 × 2 ANOVA found a significant main effect of HEMISPHERE (F(8) = 6.83, p < 0.01) and a significant HEMISPHERE-by-TIME interaction (F(8) = 4.24, p < 0.05) in connectivity changes. The correlation scores did not change significantly in the control region pairs (right IFG with right occipital and right IFG with left fronto-orbital) over

  18. Three Types of Cortical Layer 5 Neurons That Differ in Brain-wide Connectivity and Function.

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    Kim, Euiseok J; Juavinett, Ashley L; Kyubwa, Espoir M; Jacobs, Matthew W; Callaway, Edward M

    2015-12-16

    Cortical layer 5 (L5) pyramidal neurons integrate inputs from many sources and distribute outputs to cortical and subcortical structures. Previous studies demonstrate two L5 pyramid types: cortico-cortical (CC) and cortico-subcortical (CS). We characterize connectivity and function of these cell types in mouse primary visual cortex and reveal a new subtype. Unlike previously described L5 CC and CS neurons, this new subtype does not project to striatum [cortico-cortical, non-striatal (CC-NS)] and has distinct morphology, physiology, and visual responses. Monosynaptic rabies tracing reveals that CC neurons preferentially receive input from higher visual areas, while CS neurons receive more input from structures implicated in top-down modulation of brain states. CS neurons are also more direction-selective and prefer faster stimuli than CC neurons. These differences suggest distinct roles as specialized output channels, with CS neurons integrating information and generating responses more relevant to movement control and CC neurons being more important in visual perception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Cortico-cerebellar connectivity in Autism Spectrum Disorder: what do we know so far?

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    Alessandro eCrippa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD is renowned to be a connectivity disorder and a condition characterized by cerebellar involvement, the connectivity between the cerebellum and other cortical brain regions is particularly under-examined. Indeed, converging evidence has recently suggested that the cerebellum could play a key role in the etiopathogenesis of ASD, since cerebellar anomalies have been consistently reported in ASD from the molecular to the behavioral level, and damage to the cerebellum early in development has been linked with signs of autistic features. In addition, current data have shown that the cerebellum is a key structure not only for sensory-motor control, but also for higher functions, such as social cognition and emotion, through its extensive connections with cortical areas. The disruption of these circuits could be implicated in the wide range of autistic symptoms that the term spectrum connotes. In this review, we present and discuss the recent findings from imaging studies that investigated cortico-cerebellar connectivity in people with ASD. The literature is still too limited to allow for definitive conclusions; however, this brief review reveals substantial areas for future studies, underlining currently unmet research perspectives.

  20. A Laminar Organization for Selective Cortico-Cortical Communication

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    Rinaldo D. D’Souza

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The neocortex is central to mammalian cognitive ability, playing critical roles in sensory perception, motor skills and executive function. This thin, layered structure comprises distinct, functionally specialized areas that communicate with each other through the axons of pyramidal neurons. For the hundreds of such cortico-cortical pathways to underlie diverse functions, their cellular and synaptic architectures must differ so that they result in distinct computations at the target projection neurons. In what ways do these pathways differ? By originating and terminating in different laminae, and by selectively targeting specific populations of excitatory and inhibitory neurons, these “interareal” pathways can differentially control the timing and strength of synaptic inputs onto individual neurons, resulting in layer-specific computations. Due to the rapid development in transgenic techniques, the mouse has emerged as a powerful mammalian model for understanding the rules by which cortical circuits organize and function. Here we review our understanding of how cortical lamination constrains long-range communication in the mammalian brain, with an emphasis on the mouse visual cortical network. We discuss the laminar architecture underlying interareal communication, the role of neocortical layers in organizing the balance of excitatory and inhibitory actions, and highlight the structure and function of layer 1 in mouse visual cortex.

  1. Functional connectivity evidence of cortico-cortico inhibition in temporal lobe epilepsy.

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    Tracy, Joseph I; Osipowicz, Karol; Spechler, Philip; Sharan, Ashwini; Skidmore, Christopher; Doucet, Gaelle; Sperling, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Epileptic seizures can initiate a neural circuit and lead to aberrant neural communication with brain areas outside the epileptogenic region. We focus on interictal activity in focal temporal lobe epilepsy and evaluate functional connectivity (FC) differences that emerge as function of bilateral versus strictly unilateral epileptiform activity. We assess the strength of FC at rest between the ictal and non-ictal temporal lobes, in addition to whole brain connectivity with the ictal temporal lobe. Results revealed strong connectivity between the temporal lobes for both patient groups, but this did not vary as a function of unilateral versus bilateral interictal status. Both the left and right unilateral temporal lobe groups showed significant anti-correlated activity in regions outside the epileptogenic temporal lobe, primarily involving the contralateral (non-ictal/non-pathologic) hemisphere, with precuneus involvement prominent. The bilateral groups did not show this contralateral anti-correlated activity. This anti-correlated connectivity may represent a form of protective and adaptive inhibition, helping to constrain epileptiform activity to the pathologic temporal lobe. The absence of this activity in the bilateral groups may be indicative of flawed inhibitory mechanisms, helping to explain their more widespread epileptiform activity. Our data suggest that the location and build up of epilepsy networks in the brain are not truly random, and are not limited to the formation of strictly epileptogenic networks. Functional networks may develop to take advantage of the regulatory function of structures such as the precuneus to instantiate an anti-correlated network, generating protective cortico-cortico inhibition for the purpose of limiting seizure spread or epileptogenesis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The human dorsal premotor cortex facilitates the excitability of ipsilateral primary motor cortex via a short latency cortico-cortical route

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    Groppa, Sergiu; Schlaak, Boris H; Münchau, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    In non-human primates, invasive tracing and electrostimulation studies have identified strong ipsilateral cortico-cortical connections between dorsal premotor- (PMd) and the primary motor cortex (M1(HAND) ). Here, we applied dual-site transcranial magnetic stimulation (dsTMS) to left PMd and M1......(HAND) through specifically designed minicoils to selectively probe ipsilateral PMd-to-M1(HAND) connectivity in humans. A suprathreshold test stimulus (TS) was applied to M1(HAND) producing a motor evoked potential (MEP) of about 0.5 mV in the relaxed right first dorsal interosseus muscle (FDI......) facilitation did not change as a function of CS intensity. Even at higher intensities, the CS alone failed to elicit a MEP or a cortical silent period in the pre-activated FDI, excluding a direct spread of excitation from PMd to M1(HAND). No MEP facilitation was present while CS was applied rostrally over...

  3. Impaired visual short-term memory capacity is distinctively associated with structural connectivity of the posterior thalamic radiation and the splenium of the corpus callosum in preterm-born adults.

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    Menegaux, Aurore; Meng, Chun; Neitzel, Julia; Bäuml, Josef G; Müller, Hermann J; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter; Wohlschläger, Afra M; Finke, Kathrin; Sorg, Christian

    2017-04-15

    Preterm birth is associated with an increased risk for lasting changes in both the cortico-thalamic system and attention; however, the link between cortico-thalamic and attention changes is as yet little understood. In preterm newborns, cortico-cortical and cortico-thalamic structural connectivity are distinctively altered, with increased local clustering for cortico-cortical and decreased integrity for cortico-thalamic connectivity. In preterm-born adults, among the various attention functions, visual short-term memory (vSTM) capacity is selectively impaired. We hypothesized distinct associations between vSTM capacity and the structural integrity of cortico-thalamic and cortico-cortical connections, respectively, in preterm-born adults. A whole-report paradigm of briefly presented letter arrays based on the computationally formalized Theory of Visual Attention (TVA) was used to quantify parameter vSTM capacity in 26 preterm- and 21 full-term-born adults. Fractional anisotropy (FA) of posterior thalamic radiations and the splenium of the corpus callosum obtained by diffusion tensor imaging were analyzed by tract-based spatial statistics and used as proxies for cortico-thalamic and cortico-cortical structural connectivity. The relationship between vSTM capacity and cortico-thalamic and cortico-cortical connectivity, respectively, was significantly modified by prematurity. In full-term-born adults, the higher FA in the right posterior thalamic radiation the higher vSTM capacity; in preterm-born adults this FA-vSTM-relationship was inversed. In the splenium, higher FA was correlated with higher vSTM capacity in preterm-born adults, whereas no significant relationship was evident in full-term-born adults. These results indicate distinct associations between cortico-thalamic and cortico-cortical integrity and vSTM capacity in preterm-and full-term-born adults. Data suggest compensatory cortico-cortical fiber re-organization for attention deficits after preterm delivery

  4. Large-scale cortico-subcortical functional networks in focal epilepsies: The role of the basal ganglia

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    Eva Výtvarová

    2017-01-01

    Significance: Focal epilepsies affect large-scale brain networks beyond the epileptogenic zones. Cortico-subcortical functional connectivity disturbance was displayed in LTLE, FLE, and POLE. Significant changes in the resting-state functional connectivity between cortical and subcortical structures suggest an important role of the BG and thalamus in focal epilepsies.

  5. The cortical structure of consolidated memory: a hypothesis on the role of the cingulate-entorhinal cortical connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insel, Nathan; Takehara-Nishiuchi, Kaori

    2013-11-01

    Daily experiences are represented by networks of neurons distributed across the neocortex, bound together for rapid storage and later retrieval by the hippocampus. While the hippocampus is necessary for retrieving recent episode-based memory associations, over time, consolidation processes take place that enable many of these associations to be expressed independent of the hippocampus. It is generally thought that mechanisms of consolidation involve synaptic weight changes between cortical regions; or, in other words, the formation of "horizontal" cortico-cortical connections. Here, we review anatomical, behavioral, and physiological data which suggest that the connections in and between the entorhinal and cingulate cortices may be uniquely important for the long-term storage of memories that initially depend on the hippocampus. We propose that current theories of consolidation that divide memory into dual systems of hippocampus and neocortex might be improved by introducing a third, middle layer of entorhinal and cingulate allocortex, the synaptic weights within which are necessary and potentially sufficient for maintaining initially hippocampus-dependent associations over long time periods. This hypothesis makes a number of still untested predictions, and future experiments designed to address these will help to fill gaps in the current understanding of the cortical structure of consolidated memory. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cortico-Cortical Receptive Field Estimates in Human Visual Cortex

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    Koen V Haak

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Human visual cortex comprises many visual areas that contain a map of the visual field (Wandell et al 2007, Neuron 56, 366–383. These visual field maps can be identified readily in individual subjects with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI during experimental sessions that last less than an hour (Wandell and Winawer 2011, Vis Res 718–737. Hence, visual field mapping with fMRI has been, and still is, a heavily used technique to examine the organisation of both normal and abnormal human visual cortex (Haak et al 2011, ACNR, 11(3, 20–21. However, visual field mapping cannot reveal every aspect of human visual cortex organisation. For example, the information processed within a visual field map arrives from somewhere and is sent to somewhere, and visual field mapping does not derive these input/output relationships. Here, we describe a new, model-based analysis for estimating the dependence between signals in distinct cortical regions using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data. Just as a stimulus-referred receptive field predicts the neural response as a function of the stimulus contrast, the neural-referred receptive field predicts the neural response as a function of responses elsewhere in the nervous system. When applied to two cortical regions, this function can be called the cortico-cortical receptive field (CCRF. We model the CCRF as a Gaussian-weighted region on the cortical surface and apply the model to data from both stimulus-driven and resting-state experimental conditions in visual cortex.

  7. Connectivity-based parcellation reveals distinct cortico-striatal connectivity fingerprints in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsters, Joshua H; Mantini, Dante; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2018-04-15

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) has been associated with abnormal synaptic development causing a breakdown in functional connectivity. However, when measured at the macro scale using resting state fMRI, these alterations are subtle and often difficult to detect due to the large heterogeneity of the pathology. Recently, we outlined a novel approach for generating robust biomarkers of resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) using connectivity based parcellation of gross morphological structures to improve single-subject reproducibility and generate more robust connectivity fingerprints. Here we apply this novel approach to investigating the organization and connectivity strength of the cortico-striatal system in a large sample of ASD individuals and typically developed (TD) controls (N=130 per group). Our results showed differences in the parcellation of the striatum in ASD. Specifically, the putamen was found to be one single structure in ASD, whereas this was split into anterior and posterior segments in an age, IQ, and head movement matched TD group. An analysis of the connectivity fingerprints revealed that the group differences in clustering were driven by differential connectivity between striatum and the supplementary motor area, posterior cingulate cortex, and posterior insula. Our approach for analysing RS-fMRI in clinical populations has provided clear evidence that cortico-striatal circuits are organized differently in ASD. Based on previous task-based segmentations of the striatum, we believe that the anterior putamen cluster present in TD, but not in ASD, likely contributes to social and language processes. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Dynamic Causal Modeling of the Cortical Responses to Wrist Perturbations

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    Yuan Yang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical perturbations applied to the wrist joint typically evoke a stereotypical sequence of cortical and muscle responses. The early cortical responses (<100 ms are thought be involved in the “rapid” transcortical reaction to the perturbation while the late cortical responses (>100 ms are related to the “slow” transcortical reaction. Although previous studies indicated that both responses involve the primary motor cortex, it remains unclear if both responses are engaged by the same effective connectivity in the cortical network. To answer this question, we investigated the effective connectivity cortical network after a “ramp-and-hold” mechanical perturbation, in both the early (<100 ms and late (>100 ms periods, using dynamic causal modeling. Ramp-and-hold perturbations were applied to the wrist joint while the subject maintained an isometric wrist flexion. Cortical activity was recorded using a 128-channel electroencephalogram (EEG. We investigated how the perturbation modulated the effective connectivity for the early and late periods. Bayesian model comparisons suggested that different effective connectivity networks are engaged in these two periods. For the early period, we found that only a few cortico-cortical connections were modulated, while more complicated connectivity was identified in the cortical network during the late period with multiple modulated cortico-cortical connections. The limited early cortical network likely allows for a rapid muscle response without involving high-level cognitive processes, while the complexity of the late network may facilitate coordinated responses.

  9. Cortico-cortical connections of areas 44 and 45B in the macaque monkey.

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    Frey, Stephen; Mackey, Scott; Petrides, Michael

    2014-04-01

    In the human brain, areas 44 and 45 constitute Broca's region, the ventrolateral frontal region critical for language production. The homologues of these areas in the macaque monkey brain have been established by direct cytoarchitectonic comparison with the human brain. The cortical areas that project monosynaptically to areas 44 and 45B in the macaque monkey brain require clarification. Fluorescent retrograde tracers were placed in cytoarchitectonic areas 44 and 45B of the macaque monkey, as well as in the anterior part of the inferior parietal lobule and the superior temporal gyrus. The results demonstrate that ipsilateral afferent connections of area 44 arise from local frontal areas, including rostral premotor cortical area 6, from secondary somatosensory cortex, the caudal insula, and the cingulate motor region. Area 44 is strongly linked with the anterior inferior parietal lobule (particularly area PFG and the adjacent anterior intraparietal sulcus). Input from the temporal lobe is limited to the fundus of the superior temporal sulcus extending caudal to the central sulcus. There is also input from the sulcal part of area Tpt in the upper bank of the superior temporal sulcus. Area 45B shares some of the connections of area 44, but can be distinguished from area 44 by input from the caudal inferior parietal lobule (area PG) and significant input from the part of the superior temporal sulcus that extends anterior to the central sulcus. Area 45B also receives input from visual association cortex that is not observed in area 44. The results have provided a clarification of the relative connections of areas 44 and 45B of the ventrolateral frontal region which, in the human brain, subserves certain aspects of language processing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of Stress and Task Difficulty on Working Memory and Cortical Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yujin; Woo, Jihwan; Woo, Minjung

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated interactive effects of stress and task difficulty on working memory and cortico-cortical communication during memory encoding. Thirty-eight adolescent participants (mean age of 15.7 ± 1.5 years) completed easy and hard working memory tasks under low- and high-stress conditions. We analyzed the accuracy and reaction time (RT) of working memory performance and inter- and intrahemispheric electroencephalogram coherences during memory encoding. Working memory accuracy was higher, and RT shorter, in the easy versus the hard task. RT was shorter under the high-stress (TENS) versus low-stress (no-TENS) condition, while there was no difference in memory accuracy between the two stress conditions. For electroencephalogram coherence, we found higher interhemispheric coherence in all bands but only at frontal electrode sites in the easy versus the hard task. On the other hand, intrahemispheric coherence was higher in the left hemisphere in the easy (versus hard task) and higher in the right hemisphere (with one exception) in the hard (versus easy task). Inter- and intracoherences were higher in the low- versus high-stress condition. Significant interactions between task difficulty and stress condition were observed in coherences of the beta frequency band. The difference in coherence between low- and high-stress conditions was greater in the hard compared with the easy task, with lower coherence under the high-stress condition relative to the low-stress condition. Stress seemed to cause a decrease in cortical network communications between memory-relevant cortical areas as task difficulty increased.

  11. Altered resting state cortico-striatal connectivity in mild to moderate stage Parkinson’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngbin Kwak

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by dopamine depletion in the striatum. One consistent pathophysiological hallmark of PD is an increase in spontaneous oscillatory activity in the basal ganglia thalamocortical networks. We evaluated these effects using resting state functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI in mild to moderate stage Parkinson’s patients on and off L-DOPA and age-matched controls using six different striatal seed regions. We observed an overall increase in the strength of cortico-striatal functional connectivity in PD patients off L-DOPA compared to controls. This enhanced connectivity was down-regulated by L-DOPA as shown by an overall decrease in connectivity strength, particularly within motor cortical regions. We also performed a frequency content analysis of the BOLD signal time course extracted from the six striatal seed regions. PD off L-DOPA exhibited increased power in the frequency band 0.02 – 0.05 Hz compared to controls and to PD on L-DOPA. The L-DOPA associated decrease in the power of this frequency range modulated the L-DOPA associated decrease in connectivity strength between striatal seeds and the thalamus. In addition, the L-DOPA associated decrease in power in this frequency band also correlated with the L-DOPA associated improvement in cognitive performance. Our results demonstrate that PD and L-DOPA modulate striatal resting state BOLD signal oscillations and corticostriatal network coherence.

  12. Intrinsic Connections of the Core Auditory Cortical Regions and Rostral Supratemporal Plane in the Macaque Monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Brian H; Leccese, Paul A; Saleem, Kadharbatcha S; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Mullarkey, Matthew P; Fukushima, Makoto; Mishkin, Mortimer; Saunders, Richard C

    2017-01-01

    In the ventral stream of the primate auditory cortex, cortico-cortical projections emanate from the primary auditory cortex (AI) along 2 principal axes: one mediolateral, the other caudorostral. Connections in the mediolateral direction from core, to belt, to parabelt, have been well described, but less is known about the flow of information along the supratemporal plane (STP) in the caudorostral dimension. Neuroanatomical tracers were injected throughout the caudorostral extent of the auditory core and rostral STP by direct visualization of the cortical surface. Auditory cortical areas were distinguished by SMI-32 immunostaining for neurofilament, in addition to established cytoarchitectonic criteria. The results describe a pathway comprising step-wise projections from AI through the rostral and rostrotemporal fields of the core (R and RT), continuing to the recently identified rostrotemporal polar field (RTp) and the dorsal temporal pole. Each area was strongly and reciprocally connected with the areas immediately caudal and rostral to it, though deviations from strictly serial connectivity were observed. In RTp, inputs converged from core, belt, parabelt, and the auditory thalamus, as well as higher order cortical regions. The results support a rostrally directed flow of auditory information with complex and recurrent connections, similar to the ventral stream of macaque visual cortex. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  13. Associative cortico-cortical plasticity may affect ipsilateral finger opposition movements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzo, V; Bove, M; Naro, A

    2011-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that cortico-cortical paired associative stimulation (cc-PAS) can modulate interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) in the human brain. Here we further explored the after effects of cc-PAS on fine hand movements. Ten healthy right-handed volunteers received 90 paired...... transcranial stimuli to the right and left primary motor hand area (M1(HAND)) at an interstimulus interval (ISI) of 8 ms. We studied the after effects of cc-PAS on the performance of repetitive finger opposition movements of different complexity on both hands using a sensor-engineered glove. A quantitative...... evaluation of the following parameters was performed: Touch Duration (TD), Inter Tapping Interval (ITI) and Number of Errors (NE). We confirmed previous data by showing that left-to-right and right-to-left cc-PAS attenuated IHI. The new finding is that both left-to-right and right-to-left cc-PAS were able...

  14. Effective Connectivity of Cortical Sensorimotor Networks During Finger Movement Tasks: A Simultaneous fNIRS, fMRI, EEG Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, A R; Muthalib, M; Perrey, S; Galka, A; Granert, O; Wolff, S; Heute, U; Deuschl, G; Raethjen, J; Muthuraman, Muthuraman

    2016-09-01

    Recently, interest has been growing to understand the underlying dynamic directional relationship between simultaneously activated regions of the brain during motor task performance. Such directionality analysis (or effective connectivity analysis), based on non-invasive electrophysiological (electroencephalography-EEG) and hemodynamic (functional near infrared spectroscopy-fNIRS; and functional magnetic resonance imaging-fMRI) neuroimaging modalities can provide an estimate of the motor task-related information flow from one brain region to another. Since EEG, fNIRS and fMRI modalities achieve different spatial and temporal resolutions of motor-task related activation in the brain, the aim of this study was to determine the effective connectivity of cortico-cortical sensorimotor networks during finger movement tasks measured by each neuroimaging modality. Nine healthy subjects performed right hand finger movement tasks of different complexity (simple finger tapping-FT, simple finger sequence-SFS, and complex finger sequence-CFS). We focused our observations on three cortical regions of interest (ROIs), namely the contralateral sensorimotor cortex (SMC), the contralateral premotor cortex (PMC) and the contralateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). We estimated the effective connectivity between these ROIs using conditional Granger causality (GC) analysis determined from the time series signals measured by fMRI (blood oxygenation level-dependent-BOLD), fNIRS (oxygenated-O2Hb and deoxygenated-HHb hemoglobin), and EEG (scalp and source level analysis) neuroimaging modalities. The effective connectivity analysis showed significant bi-directional information flow between the SMC, PMC, and DLPFC as determined by the EEG (scalp and source), fMRI (BOLD) and fNIRS (O2Hb and HHb) modalities for all three motor tasks. However the source level EEG GC values were significantly greater than the other modalities. In addition, only the source level EEG showed a

  15. Contralateral cortico-ponto-cerebellar pathways reconstruction in humans in vivo: implications for reciprocal cerebro-cerebellar structural connectivity in motor and non-motor areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palesi, Fulvia; De Rinaldis, Andrea; Castellazzi, Gloria; Calamante, Fernando; Muhlert, Nils; Chard, Declan; Tournier, J Donald; Magenes, Giovanni; D'Angelo, Egidio; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M

    2017-10-09

    Cerebellar involvement in cognition, as well as in sensorimotor control, is increasingly recognized and is thought to depend on connections with the cerebral cortex. Anatomical investigations in animals and post-mortem humans have established that cerebro-cerebellar connections are contralateral to each other and include the cerebello-thalamo-cortical (CTC) and cortico-ponto-cerebellar (CPC) pathways. CTC and CPC characterization in humans in vivo is still challenging. Here advanced tractography was combined with quantitative indices to compare CPC to CTC pathways in healthy subjects. Differently to previous studies, our findings reveal that cerebellar cognitive areas are reached by the largest proportion of the reconstructed CPC, supporting the hypothesis that a CTC-CPC loop provides a substrate for cerebro-cerebellar communication during cognitive processing. Amongst the cerebral areas identified using in vivo tractography, in addition to the cerebral motor cortex, major portions of CPC streamlines leave the prefrontal and temporal cortices. These findings are useful since provide MRI-based indications of possible subtending connectivity and, if confirmed, they are going to be a milestone for instructing computational models of brain function. These results, together with further multi-modal investigations, are warranted to provide important cues on how the cerebro-cerebellar loops operate and on how pathologies involving cerebro-cerebellar connectivity are generated.

  16. Motor and cortico-striatal-thalamic connectivity alterations in intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eixarch, Elisenda; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Bargallo, Nuria; Batalle, Dafnis; Gratacos, Eduard

    2016-06-01

    .409 ± 0.046; P = .016) in both networks were observed in the intrauterine growth restriction group, with no differences in number of streamlines. More importantly, strong specific correlation was found between tractography-related metrics and its relative function in both networks in intrauterine growth restricted children. Motor network metrics were correlated specifically with motor scale results (fractional anisotropy: rho = 0.857; integrity: rho = 0.740); cortico-striatal-thalamic network metrics were correlated with cognitive (fractional anisotropy: rho = 0.793; integrity, rho = 0.762) and socioemotional scale (fractional anisotropy: rho = 0.850; integrity: rho = 0.877). These results support the existence of altered brain connectivity in intrauterine growth restriction demonstrated by altered connectivity in motor and cortico-striatal-thalamic networks, with reduced fractional anisotropy and integrity. The specific correlation between tractography-related metrics and neurodevelopmental outcomes in intrauterine growth restriction shows the potential to use this approach to develop imaging biomarkers to predict specific neurodevelopmental outcome in infants who are at risk because of intrauterine growth restriction and other prenatal diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Brain connectivity in pathological and pharmacological coma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quentin Noirhomme

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies in patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC tend to support the view that awareness is not related to activity in a single brain region but to thalamo-cortical connectivity in the frontoparietal network. Functional neuroimaging studies have shown preserved albeit disconnected low level cortical activation in response to external stimulation in patients in a vegetative state or unresponsive wakefulness syndrome. While activation of these primary sensory cortices does not necessarily reflect conscious awareness, activation in higher order associative cortices in minimally conscious state patients seems to herald some residual perceptual awareness. PET studies have identified a metabolic dysfunction in a widespread fronto-parietal global neuronal workspace in DOC patients including the midline default mode network, ‘intrinsic’ system, and the lateral frontoparietal cortices or ‘extrinsic system’. Recent studies have investigated the relation of awareness to the functional connectivity within intrinsic and extrinsic networks, and with the thalami in both pathological and pharmacological coma. In brain damaged patients, connectivity in all default network areas was found to be non-linearly correlated with the degree of clinical consciousness impairment, ranging from healthy controls and locked-in syndrome to minimally conscious, vegetative, coma and brain dead patients. Anesthesia-induced loss of consciousness was also shown to correlate with a global decrease in cortico-cortical and thalamo-cortical connectivity in both intrinsic and extrinsic networks, but not in auditory or visual networks. In anesthesia, unconsciousness was also associated with a loss of cross-modal interactions between networks. These results suggest that conscious awareness critically depends on the functional integrity of thalamo-cortical and cortico-cortical frontoparietal connectivity within and between intrinsic and extrinsic brain networks.

  18. Cortico-cortical white matter motor pathway microstructure is related to psychomotor retardation in major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Bracht

    Full Text Available Alterations of brain structure and function have been associated with psychomotor retardation in major depressive disorder (MDD. However, the association of motor behaviour and white matter integrity of motor pathways in MDD is unclear. The aim of the present study was to first investigate structural connectivity of white matter motor pathways in MDD. Second, we explore the relation of objectively measured motor activity and white matter integrity of motor pathways in MDD. Therefore, 21 patients with MDD and 21 healthy controls matched for age, gender, education and body mass index underwent diffusion tensor imaging and 24 hour actigraphy (measure of the activity level the same day. Applying a probabilistic fibre tracking approach we extracted connection pathways between the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC, the rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC, the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA, the SMA-proper, the primary motor cortex (M1, the caudate nucleus, the putamen, the pallidum and the thalamus. Patients had lower activity levels and demonstrated increased mean diffusivity (MD in pathways linking left pre-SMA and SMA-proper, and right SMA-proper and M1. Exploratory analyses point to a positive association of activity level and mean-fractional anisotropy in the right rACC-pre-SMA connection in MDD. Only MDD patients with low activity levels had a negative linear association of activity level and mean-MD in the left dlPFC-pre-SMA connection. Our results point to structural alterations of cortico-cortical white matter motor pathways in MDD. Altered white matter organisation of rACC-pre-SMA and dlPFC-pre-SMA pathways may contribute to movement initiation in MDD.

  19. "Hyperglutamatergic cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit" breaker drugs alleviate tics in a transgenic circuit model of Tourette׳s syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, Eric J; Bittner, Katie C; McGrath, Michael J; Parks, Clinton R; Burton, Frank H

    2015-12-10

    The brain circuits underlying tics in Tourette׳s syndrome (TS) are unknown but thought to involve cortico/amygdalo-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) loop hyperactivity. We previously engineered a transgenic mouse "circuit model" of TS by expressing an artificial neuropotentiating transgene (encoding the cAMP-elevating, intracellular A1 subunit of cholera toxin) within a small population of dopamine D1 receptor-expressing somatosensory cortical and limbic neurons that hyperactivate cortico/amygdalostriatal glutamatergic output circuits thought to be hyperactive in TS and comorbid obsessive-compulsive (OC) disorders. As in TS, these D1CT-7 ("Ticcy") transgenic mice׳s tics were alleviated by the TS drugs clonidine and dopamine D2 receptor antagonists; and their chronic glutamate-excited striatal motor output was unbalanced toward hyperactivity of the motoric direct pathway and inactivity of the cataleptic indirect pathway. Here we have examined whether these mice׳s tics are countered by drugs that "break" sequential elements of their hyperactive cortical/amygdalar glutamatergic and efferent striatal circuit: anti-serotonoceptive and anti-noradrenoceptive corticostriatal glutamate output blockers (the serotonin 5-HT2a,c receptor antagonist ritanserin and the NE alpha-1 receptor antagonist prazosin); agmatinergic striatothalamic GABA output blockers (the presynaptic agmatine/imidazoline I1 receptor agonist moxonidine); and nigrostriatal dopamine output blockers (the presynaptic D2 receptor agonist bromocriptine). Each drug class alleviates tics in the Ticcy mice, suggesting a hyperglutamatergic CSTC "tic circuit" could exist in TS wherein cortical/amygdalar pyramidal projection neurons׳ glutamatergic overexcitation of both striatal output neurons and nigrostriatal dopaminergic modulatory neurons unbalances their circuit integration to excite striatothalamic output and create tics, and illuminating new TS drug strategies. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by

  20. Improving Motor Corticothalamic Communication After Stroke Using Real-Time fMRI Connectivity-Based Neurofeedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liew, Sook-Lei; Rana, Mohit; Cornelsen, Sonja; Fortunato de Barros Filho, Marcos; Birbaumer, Niels; Sitaram, Ranganatha; Cohen, Leonardo G; Soekadar, Surjo R

    2016-08-01

    Two thirds of stroke survivors experience motor impairment resulting in long-term disability. The anatomical substrate is often the disruption of cortico-subcortical pathways. It has been proposed that reestablishment of cortico-subcortical communication relates to functional recovery. In this study, we applied a novel training protocol to augment ipsilesional cortico-subcortical connectivity after stroke. Chronic stroke patients with severe motor impairment were provided online feedback of blood-oxygenation level dependent signal connectivity between cortical and subcortical regions critical for motor function using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback. In this proof of principle study, 3 out of 4 patients learned to voluntarily modulate cortico-subcortical connectivity as intended. Our results document for the first time the feasibility and safety for patients with chronic stroke and severe motor impairment to self-regulate and augment ipsilesional cortico-subcortical connectivity through neurofeedback using real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging. © The Author(s) 2015.

  1. Detecting a cortical fingerprint of Parkinson’s disease for closed-loop neuromodulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin eKern

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent evidence suggests that deep brain stimulation (DBS of the subthalamic nucleus (STN in Parkinson’s disease (PD mediates its clinical effects by modulating cortical oscillatory activity, presumably via a direct cortico-subthalamic connection. This observation might pave the way for novel closed-loop approaches comprising a cortical sensor. Enhanced beta oscillations (13-35 Hz have been linked to the pathophysiology of PD and may serve as such a candidate marker to localize a cortical area reliably modulated by DBS. However, beta-oscillations are widely distributed over the cortical surface, necessitating an additional signal source for spotting the cortical area linked to the pathologically synchronized cortico-subcortical motor network.In this context, both cortico-subthalamic coherence and cortico-muscular coherence (CMC have been studied in PD patients. Whereas the former requires invasive recordings, the latter allows for non-invasive detection, but displays a rather distributed cortical synchronization pattern in motor tasks. This distributed cortical representation may conflict with the goal of detecting a cortical localization with robust biomarker properties which is detectable on a single subject basis. We propose that this limitation could be overcome when recording CMC at rest. We hypothesized that – unlike healthy subjects – PD would show CMC at rest owing to the enhanced beta oscillations observed in PD. By performing source space analysis of beta CMC recorded during resting-state magnetoencephalography, we provide preliminary evidence in one patient for a cortical hot spot that is modulated most strongly by subthalamic DBS. Such a spot would provide a prominent target region either for direct neuromodulation or for placing a potential sensor in closed-loop DBS approaches, a proposal that requires investigation in a larger cohort of PD patients.

  2. Intrinsic gray-matter connectivity of the brain in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Christine; Ronan, Lisa; Feng, Yue; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh; Ginestet, Cedric E; Brammer, Michael; Fletcher, Paul C; Bullmore, Edward T; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Williams, Steve; Loth, Eva; Murphy, Declan G M

    2013-08-06

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental conditions that are accompanied by atypical brain connectivity. So far, in vivo evidence for atypical structural brain connectivity in ASD has mainly been based on neuroimaging studies of cortical white matter. However, genetic studies suggest that abnormal connectivity in ASD may also affect neural connections within the cortical gray matter. Such intrinsic gray-matter connections are inherently more difficult to describe in vivo but may be inferred from a variety of surface-based geometric features that can be measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Here, we present a neuroimaging study that examines the intrinsic cortico-cortical connectivity of the brain in ASD using measures of "cortical separation distances" to assess the global and local intrinsic "wiring costs" of the cortex (i.e., estimated length of horizontal connections required to wire the cortex within the cortical sheet). In a sample of 68 adults with ASD and matched controls, we observed significantly reduced intrinsic wiring costs of cortex in ASD, both globally and locally. Differences in global and local wiring cost were predominantly observed in fronto-temporal regions and also significantly predicted the severity of social and repetitive symptoms (respectively). Our study confirms that atypical cortico-cortical "connectivity" in ASD is not restricted to the development of white-matter connections but may also affect the intrinsic gray-matter architecture (and connectivity) within the cortical sheet. Thus, the atypical connectivity of the brain in ASD is complex, affecting both gray and white matter, and forms part of the core neural substrates underlying autistic symptoms.

  3. Altered 13C glucose metabolism in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loop in the MK-801 rat model of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eyjolfsson, Elvar M; Nilsen, Linn Hege; Kondziella, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Using a modified MK-801 (dizocilpine) N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor hypofunction model for schizophrenia, we analyzed glycolysis, as well as glutamatergic, GABAergic, and monoaminergic neurotransmitter synthesis and degradation. Rats received an injection of MK-801 daily for 6 days...... in all regions. In conclusion, neurotransmitter metabolism in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loop is severely impaired in the MK-801 (dizocilpine) NMDA receptor hypofunction animal model for schizophrenia....

  4. Impaired development of cortico-striatal synaptic connectivity in a cell culture model of Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buren, Caodu; Parsons, Matthew P; Smith-Dijak, Amy; Raymond, Lynn A

    2016-03-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetically inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by a mutation in the gene encoding the huntingtin protein. This mutation results in progressive cell death that is particularly striking in the striatum. Recent evidence indicates that early HD is initially a disease of the synapse, in which subtle alterations in synaptic neurotransmission, particularly at the cortico-striatal (C-S) synapse, can be detected well in advance of cell death. Here, we used a cell culture model in which striatal neurons are co-cultured with cortical neurons, and monitored the development of C-S connectivity up to 21days in vitro (DIV) in cells cultured from either the YAC128 mouse model of HD or the background strain, FVB/N (wild-type; WT) mice. Our data demonstrate that while C-S connectivity in WT co-cultures develops rapidly and continuously from DIV 7 to 21, YAC128 C-S connectivity shows no significant growth from DIV 14 onward. Morphological and electrophysiological data suggest that a combination of pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms contribute to this effect, including a reduction in both the postsynaptic dendritic arborization and the size and replenishment rate of the presynaptic readily releasable pool of excitatory vesicles. Moreover, a chimeric culture strategy confirmed that the most robust impairment in C-S connectivity was only observed when mutant huntingtin was expressed both pre- and postsynaptically. In all, our data demonstrate a progressive HD synaptic phenotype in this co-culture system that may be exploited as a platform for identifying promising therapeutic strategies to prevent early HD-associated synaptopathy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Resting state functional MRI in Parkinson's disease: the impact of deep brain stimulation on 'effective' connectivity.

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    Kahan, Joshua; Urner, Maren; Moran, Rosalyn; Flandin, Guillaume; Marreiros, Andre; Mancini, Laura; White, Mark; Thornton, John; Yousry, Tarek; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Hariz, Marwan; Limousin, Patricia; Friston, Karl; Foltynie, Tom

    2014-04-01

    Depleted of dopamine, the dynamics of the parkinsonian brain impact on both 'action' and 'resting' motor behaviour. Deep brain stimulation has become an established means of managing these symptoms, although its mechanisms of action remain unclear. Non-invasive characterizations of induced brain responses, and the effective connectivity underlying them, generally appeals to dynamic causal modelling of neuroimaging data. When the brain is at rest, however, this sort of characterization has been limited to correlations (functional connectivity). In this work, we model the 'effective' connectivity underlying low frequency blood oxygen level-dependent fluctuations in the resting Parkinsonian motor network-disclosing the distributed effects of deep brain stimulation on cortico-subcortical connections. Specifically, we show that subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation modulates all the major components of the motor cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loop, including the cortico-striatal, thalamo-cortical, direct and indirect basal ganglia pathways, and the hyperdirect subthalamic nucleus projections. The strength of effective subthalamic nucleus afferents and efferents were reduced by stimulation, whereas cortico-striatal, thalamo-cortical and direct pathways were strengthened. Remarkably, regression analysis revealed that the hyperdirect, direct, and basal ganglia afferents to the subthalamic nucleus predicted clinical status and therapeutic response to deep brain stimulation; however, suppression of the sensitivity of the subthalamic nucleus to its hyperdirect afferents by deep brain stimulation may subvert the clinical efficacy of deep brain stimulation. Our findings highlight the distributed effects of stimulation on the resting motor network and provide a framework for analysing effective connectivity in resting state functional MRI with strong a priori hypotheses.

  6. Cortical Thinning and Altered Cortico-Cortical Structural Covariance of the Default Mode Network in Patients with Persistent Insomnia Symptoms.

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    Suh, Sooyeon; Kim, Hosung; Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Joo, Eunyeon; Shin, Chol

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that structural abnormalities in insomnia may be linked with alterations in the default-mode network (DMN). This study compared cortical thickness and structural connectivity linked to the DMN in patients with persistent insomnia (PI) and good sleepers (GS). The current study used a clinical subsample from the longitudinal community-based Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES). Cortical thickness and structural connectivity linked to the DMN in patients with persistent insomnia symptoms (PIS; n = 57) were compared to good sleepers (GS; n = 40). All participants underwent MRI acquisition. Based on literature review, we selected cortical regions corresponding to the DMN. A seed-based structural covariance analysis measured cortical thickness correlation between each seed region of the DMN and other cortical areas. Association of cortical thickness and covariance with sleep quality and neuropsychological assessments were further assessed. Compared to GS, cortical thinning was found in PIS in the anterior cingulate cortex, precentral cortex, and lateral prefrontal cortex. Decreased structural connectivity between anterior and posterior regions of the DMN was observed in the PIS group. Decreased structural covariance within the DMN was associated with higher PSQI scores. Cortical thinning in the lateral frontal lobe was related to poor performance in executive function in PIS. Disrupted structural covariance network in PIS might reflect malfunctioning of antero-posterior disconnection of the DMN during the wake to sleep transition that is commonly found during normal sleep. The observed structural network alteration may further implicate commonly observed sustained sleep difficulties and cognitive impairment in insomnia. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  7. Bipolar mood state reflected in cortico-amygdala resting state connectivity: A cohort and longitudinal study.

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    Brady, Roscoe O; Margolis, Allison; Masters, Grace A; Keshavan, Matcheri; Öngür, Dost

    2017-08-01

    Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI), we previously compared cohorts of bipolar I subjects in a manic state to those in a euthymic state to identify mood state-specific patterns of cortico-amygdala connectivity. Our results suggested that mania is reflected in the disruption of emotion regulation circuits. We sought to replicate this finding in a group of subjects with bipolar disorder imaged longitudinally across states of mania and euthymia METHODS: We divided our subjects into three groups: 26 subjects imaged in a manic state, 21 subjects imaged in a euthymic state, and 10 subjects imaged longitudinally across both mood states. We measured differences in amygdala connectivity between the mania and euthymia cohorts. We then used these regions of altered connectivity to examine connectivity in the longitudinal bipolar group using a within-subjects design. Our findings in the mania vs euthymia cohort comparison were replicated in the longitudinal analysis. Bipolar mania was differentiated from euthymia by decreased connectivity between the amygdala and pre-genual anterior cingulate cortex. Mania was also characterized by increased connectivity between amygdala and the supplemental motor area, a region normally anti-correlated to the amygdala in emotion regulation tasks. Stringent controls for movement effects limited the number of subjects in the longitudinal sample. In this first report of rsfMRI conducted longitudinally across mood states, we find that previously observed between-group differences in amygdala connectivity are also found longitudinally within subjects. These results suggest resting state cortico-amygdala connectivity is a biomarker of mood state in bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Resting-State Connectivity Predicts Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesias in Parkinson's Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herz, Damian M.; Haagensen, Brian N.; Nielsen, Silas H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Levodopa-induced dyskinesias are a common side effect of dopaminergic therapy in PD, but their neural correlates remain poorly understood. Objectives: This study examines whether dyskinesias are associated with abnormal dopaminergic modulation of resting-state cortico-striatal connect......Background: Levodopa-induced dyskinesias are a common side effect of dopaminergic therapy in PD, but their neural correlates remain poorly understood. Objectives: This study examines whether dyskinesias are associated with abnormal dopaminergic modulation of resting-state cortico......-striatal connectivity. Methods: Twelve PD patients with peak-of-dose dyskinesias and 12 patients without dyskinesias were withdrawn from dopaminergic medication. All patients received a single dose of fast-acting soluble levodopa and then underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging before any...... dyskinesias emerged. Levodopa-induced modulation of cortico-striatal resting-state connectivity was assessed between the putamen and the following 3 cortical regions of interest: supplementary motor area, primary sensorimotor cortex, and right inferior frontal gyrus. These functional connectivity measures...

  9. Inhibitory Control in the Cortico-Basal Ganglia-Thalamocortical Loop: Complex Regulation and Interplay with Memory and Decision Processes.

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    Wei, Wei; Wang, Xiao-Jing

    2016-12-07

    We developed a circuit model of spiking neurons that includes multiple pathways in the basal ganglia (BG) and is endowed with feedback mechanisms at three levels: cortical microcircuit, corticothalamic loop, and cortico-BG-thalamocortical system. We focused on executive control in a stop signal task, which is known to depend on BG across species. The model reproduces a range of experimental observations and shows that the newly discovered feedback projection from external globus pallidus to striatum is crucial for inhibitory control. Moreover, stopping process is enhanced by the cortico-subcortical reverberatory dynamics underlying persistent activity, establishing interdependence between working memory and inhibitory control. Surprisingly, the stop signal reaction time (SSRT) can be adjusted by weights of certain connections but is insensitive to other connections in this complex circuit, suggesting novel circuit-based intervention for inhibitory control deficits associated with mental illness. Our model provides a unified framework for inhibitory control, decision making, and working memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Intrinsic connectivity networks from childhood to late adolescence: Effects of age and sex

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    Cristina Solé-Padullés

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There is limited evidence on the effects of age and sex on intrinsic connectivity of networks underlying cognition during childhood and adolescence. Independent component analysis was conducted in 113 subjects aged 7–18; the default mode, executive control, anterior salience, basal ganglia, language and visuospatial networks were identified. The effect of age was examined with multiple regression, while sex and ‘age × sex’ interactions were assessed by dividing the sample according to age (7–12 and 13–18 years. As age increased, connectivity in the dorsal and ventral default mode network became more anterior and posterior, respectively, while in the executive control network, connectivity increased within frontoparietal regions. The basal ganglia network showed increased engagement of striatum, thalami and precuneus. The anterior salience network showed greater connectivity in frontal areas and anterior cingulate, and less connectivity of orbitofrontal, middle cingulate and temporoparietal regions. The language network presented increased connectivity of inferior frontal and decreased connectivity within the right middle frontal and left inferior parietal cortices. The visuospatial network showed greater engagement of inferior parietal and frontal cortices. No effect of sex, nor age by sex interactions was observed. These findings provide evidence of strengthening of cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical networks across childhood and adolescence.

  11. Age-related decline in functional connectivity of the vestibular cortical network.

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    Cyran, Carolin Anna Maria; Boegle, Rainer; Stephan, Thomas; Dieterich, Marianne; Glasauer, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    In the elderly, major complaints include dizziness and an increasing number of falls, possibly related to an altered processing of vestibular sensory input. In this study, we therefore investigate age-related changes induced by processing of vestibular sensory stimulation. While previous functional imaging studies of healthy aging have investigated brain function during task performance or at rest, we used galvanic vestibular stimulation during functional MRI in a task-free sensory stimulation paradigm to study the effect of healthy aging on central vestibular processing, which might only become apparent during stimulation processing. Since aging may affect signatures of brain function beyond the BOLD-signal amplitude-such as functional connectivity or temporal signal variability--we employed independent component analysis and partial least squares analysis of temporal signal variability. We tested for age-associated changes unrelated to vestibular processing, using a motor paradigm, voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging. This allows us to control for general age-related modifications, possibly originating from vascular, atrophic or structural connectivity changes. Age-correlated decreases of functional connectivity and increases of BOLD--signal variability were associated with multisensory vestibular networks. In contrast, no age-related functional connectivity changes were detected in somatosensory networks or during the motor paradigm. The functional connectivity decrease was not due to structural changes but to a decrease in response amplitude. In synopsis, our data suggest that both the age-dependent functional connectivity decrease and the variability increase may be due to deteriorating reciprocal cortico-cortical inhibition with age and related to multimodal vestibular integration of sensory inputs.

  12. Intrahemispheric theta rhythm desynchronization impairs working memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseichuk, Ivan; Pabel, Stefanie Corinna; Antal, Andrea; Paulus, Walter

    2017-01-01

    There is a growing interest in large-scale connectivity as one of the crucial factors in working memory. Correlative evidence has revealed the anatomical and electrophysiological players in the working memory network, but understanding of the effective role of their connectivity remains elusive. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study we aimed to identify the causal role of theta phase connectivity in visual-spatial working memory. The frontoparietal network was over- or de-synchronized in the anterior-posterior direction by multi-electrode, 6 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS). A decrease in memory performance and increase in reaction time was caused by frontoparietal intrahemispheric desynchronization. According to the diffusion drift model, this originated in a lower signal-to-noise ratio, known as the drift rate index, in the memory system. The EEG analysis revealed a corresponding decrease in phase connectivity between prefrontal and parietal areas after tACS-driven desynchronization. The over-synchronization did not result in any changes in either the behavioral or electrophysiological levels in healthy participants. Taken together, we demonstrate the feasibility of manipulating multi-site large-scale networks in humans, and the disruptive effect of frontoparietal desynchronization on theta phase connectivity and visual-spatial working memory.

  13. Abnormal inter- and intra-hemispheric integration in male paranoid schizophrenia: a graph-theoretical analysis.

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    Chen, Jianhuai; Yao, Zhijian; Qin, Jiaolong; Yan, Rui; Hua, Lingling; Lu, Qing

    2015-06-25

    The human brain is a complex network of regions that are structurally interconnected by white matter (WM) tracts. Schizophrenia (SZ) can be conceptualized as a disconnection syndrome characterized by widespread disconnections in WM pathways. To assess whether or not anatomical disconnections are associated with disruption of the topological properties of inter- and intra-hemispheric networks in SZ. We acquired the diffusion tensor imaging data from 24 male patients with paranoid SZ during an acute phase of their illness and from 24 healthy age-matched male controls. The brain FA-weighted (fractional anisotropy-weighted) structural networks were constructed and the inter- and intra-hemispheric integration was assessed by estimating the average characteristic path lengths (CPLs) between and within the left and right hemisphere networks. The mean CPLs for all 18 inter-and intra-hemispheric CPLs assessed were longer in the SZ patient group than in the control group, but only some of these differences were significantly different: the CPLs for the overall inter-hemispheric and the left and right intra-hemispheric networks; the CPLs for the interhemisphere subnetworks of the frontal lobes, temporal lobes, and subcortical structures; and the CPL for the intra- frontal subnetwork in the right hemisphere. Among the 24 patients, the CPL of the inter-frontal subnetwork was positively associated with negative symptom severity, but this was the only significant result among 72 assessed correlations, so it may be a statistical artifact. Our findings suggest that the integrity of intra- and inter-hemispheric WM tracts is disrupted in males with paranoid SZ, supporting the brain network disconnection model (i.e., the (')connectivity hypothesis(')) of schizophrenia. Larger studies with less narrowly defined samples of individuals with schizophrenia are needed to confirm these results.

  14. Intralaminar and medial thalamic influence on cortical synchrony, information transmission and cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri B Saalmann

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The intralaminar and medial thalamic nuclei are part of the higher-order thalamus, which receives little sensory input, and instead forms extensive cortico-thalamo-cortical pathways. The large mediodorsal thalamic nucleus predominantly connects with the prefrontal cortex, the adjacent intralaminar nuclei connect with fronto-parietal cortex, and the midline thalamic nuclei connect with medial prefrontal cortex and medial temporal lobe. Taking into account this connectivity pattern, it is not surprising that the intralaminar and medial thalamus has been implicated in a variety of cognitive functions, including memory processing, attention and orienting, as well as reward-based behavior. This review addresses how the intralaminar and medial thalamus may regulate information transmission in cortical circuits. A key neural mechanism may involve intralaminar and medial thalamic neurons modulating the degree of synchrony between different groups of cortical neurons according to behavioral demands. Such a thalamic-mediated synchronization mechanism may give rise to large-scale integration of information across multiple cortical circuits, consequently influencing the level of arousal and consciousness. Overall, the growing evidence supports a general role for the higher-order thalamus in the control of cortical information transmission and cognitive processing.

  15. Classification of single normal and Alzheimer’s disease individuals from cortical sources of resting state EEG rhythms

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    Claudio eBabiloni

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown abnormal power and functional connectivity of resting state electroencephalographic (EEG rhythms in groups of Alzheimer’s disease (AD compared to healthy elderly (Nold subjects. Here we tested the best classification rate of 120 AD patients and 100 matched Nold subjects using EEG markers based on cortical sources of power and functional connectivity of these rhythms. EEG data were recorded during resting state eyes-closed condition. Exact low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (eLORETA estimated the power and functional connectivity of cortical sources in frontal, central, parietal, occipital, temporal, and limbic regions. Delta (2-4 Hz, theta (4-8 Hz, alpha 1 (8-10.5 Hz, alpha 2 (10.5-13 Hz, beta 1 (13-20 Hz, beta 2 (20-30 Hz, and gamma (30-40 Hz were the frequency bands of interest. The classification rates of interest were those with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC higher than 0.7 as a threshold for a moderate classification rate (i.e. 70%. Results showed that the following EEG markers overcame this threshold: (i central, parietal, occipital, temporal, and limbic delta/alpha 1 current density; (ii central, parietal, occipital temporal, and limbic delta/alpha 2 current density; (iii frontal theta/alpha 1 current density; (iv occipital delta/alpha 1 inter-hemispherical connectivity; (v occipital-temporal theta/alpha 1 right and left intra-hemispherical connectivity; and (vi parietal-limbic alpha 1 right intra-hemispherical connectivity. Occipital delta/alpha 1 current density showed the best classification rate (sensitivity of 73.3%, specificity of 78%, accuracy of 75.5%, and AUROC of 82%. These results suggest that EEG source markers can classify Nold and AD individuals with a moderate classification rate higher than 80%.

  16. High-order motor cortex in rats receives somatosensory inputs from the primary motor cortex via cortico-cortical pathways.

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    Kunori, Nobuo; Takashima, Ichiro

    2016-12-01

    The motor cortex of rats contains two forelimb motor areas; the caudal forelimb area (CFA) and the rostral forelimb area (RFA). Although the RFA is thought to correspond to the premotor and/or supplementary motor cortices of primates, which are higher-order motor areas that receive somatosensory inputs, it is unknown whether the RFA of rats receives somatosensory inputs in the same manner. To investigate this issue, voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging was used to assess the motor cortex in rats following a brief electrical stimulation of the forelimb. This procedure was followed by intracortical microstimulation (ICMS) mapping to identify the motor representations in the imaged cortex. The combined use of VSD imaging and ICMS revealed that both the CFA and RFA received excitatory synaptic inputs after forelimb stimulation. Further evaluation of the sensory input pathway to the RFA revealed that the forelimb-evoked RFA response was abolished either by the pharmacological inactivation of the CFA or a cortical transection between the CFA and RFA. These results suggest that forelimb-related sensory inputs would be transmitted to the RFA from the CFA via the cortico-cortical pathway. Thus, the present findings imply that sensory information processed in the RFA may be used for the generation of coordinated forelimb movements, which would be similar to the function of the higher-order motor cortex in primates. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Forebrain deletion of αGDI in adult mice worsens the pre-synaptic deficit at cortico-lateral amygdala synaptic connections.

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    Veronica Bianchi

    Full Text Available The GDI1 gene encodes αGDI, which retrieves inactive GDP-bound RAB from membranes to form a cytosolic pool awaiting vesicular release. Mutations in GDI1 are responsible for X-linked Intellectual Disability. Characterization of the Gdi1-null mice has revealed alterations in the total number and distribution of hippocampal and cortical synaptic vesicles, hippocampal short-term synaptic plasticity and specific short-term memory deficits in adult mice, which are possibly caused by alterations of different synaptic vesicle recycling pathways controlled by several RAB GTPases. However, interpretation of these studies is complicated by the complete ablation of Gdi1 in all cells in the brain throughout development. In this study, we generated conditionally gene-targeted mice in which the knockout of Gdi1 is restricted to the forebrain, hippocampus, cortex and amygdala and occurs only during postnatal development. Adult mutant mice reproduce the short-term memory deficit previously reported in Gdi1-null mice. Surprisingly, the delayed ablation of Gdi1 worsens the pre-synaptic phenotype at cortico-amygdala synaptic connections compared to Gdi1-null mice. These results suggest a pivotal role of αGDI via specific RAB GTPases acting specifically in forebrain regions at the pre-synaptic sites involved in memory formation.

  18. Inhibition of Cathepsins B Induces Neuroprotection Against Secondary Degeneration in Ipsilateral Substantia Nigra After Focal Cortical Infarction in Adult Male Rats

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    Xialin Zuo

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability in the world. In general, recovery from stroke is incomplete. Accumulating evidences have shown that focal cerebral infarction leads to dynamic trans-neuronal degeneration in non-ischemic remote brain regions, with the disruption of connections to synapsed neurons sustaining ischemic insults. Previously, we had reported that the ipsilateral striatum, thalamus degenerated in succession after permanent distal branch of middle cerebral artery occlusion (dMCAO in Sprague-Dawley (SD rats and cathepsin (Cath B was activated before these relay degeneration. Here, we investigate the role of CathB in the secondary degeneration of ipsilateral substantia nigra (SN after focal cortical infarction. We further examined whether the inhibition of CathB with L-3-trans-(Propyl-carbamoyloxirane-2-carbonyl-L-isoleucyl-L-proline methyl ester (CA-074Me would attenuate secondary degeneration through enhancing the cortico-striatum-nigral connections and contribute to the neuroprotective effects. Our results demonstrated that secondary degeneration in the ipsilateral SN occurred and CathB was upregulated in the ipsilateral SN after focal cortical infarction. The inhibition of CathB with CA-074Me reduced the neuronal loss and gliosis in the ipsilateral SN. Using biotinylated dextran amine (BDA or pseudorabies virus (PRV 152 as anterograde or retrograde tracer to trace striatum-nigral and cortico-nigral projections pathway, CA-074Me can effectively enhance the cortico-striatum-nigral connections and exert neuroprotection against secondary degeneration in the ipsilateral SN after cortical ischemia. Our study suggests that the lysosomal protease CathB mediates the secondary damage in the ipsilateral SN after dMCAO, thus it can be a promising neuroprotective target for the rehabilitation of stroke patients.

  19. Passive language mapping combining real-time oscillation analysis with cortico-cortical evoked potentials for awake craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Yukie; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Kapeller, Christoph; Prueckl, Robert; Takeuchi, Fumiya; Anei, Ryogo; Ritaccio, Anthony; Guger, Christoph; Kamada, Kyousuke

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE Electrocortical stimulation (ECS) is the gold standard for functional brain mapping; however, precise functional mapping is still difficult in patients with language deficits. High gamma activity (HGA) between 80 and 140 Hz on electrocorticography is assumed to reflect localized cortical processing, whereas the cortico-cortical evoked potential (CCEP) can reflect bidirectional responses evoked by monophasic pulse stimuli to the language cortices when there is no patient cooperation. The authors propose the use of "passive" mapping by combining HGA mapping and CCEP recording without active tasks during conscious resections of brain tumors. METHODS Five patients, each with an intraaxial tumor in their dominant hemisphere, underwent conscious resection of their lesion with passive mapping. The authors performed functional localization for the receptive language area, using real-time HGA mapping, by listening passively to linguistic sounds. Furthermore, single electrical pulses were delivered to the identified receptive temporal language area to detect CCEPs in the frontal lobe. All mapping results were validated by ECS, and the sensitivity and specificity were evaluated. RESULTS Linguistic HGA mapping quickly identified the language area in the temporal lobe. Electrical stimulation by linguistic HGA mapping to the identified temporal receptive language area evoked CCEPs on the frontal lobe. The combination of linguistic HGA and frontal CCEPs needed no patient cooperation or effort. In this small case series, the sensitivity and specificity were 93.8% and 89%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The described technique allows for simple and quick functional brain mapping with higher sensitivity and specificity than ECS mapping. The authors believe that this could improve the reliability of functional brain mapping and facilitate rational and objective operations. Passive mapping also sheds light on the underlying physiological mechanisms of language in the human brain.

  20. Dense neuron clustering explains connectivity statistics in cortical microcircuits.

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    Vladimir V Klinshov

    Full Text Available Local cortical circuits appear highly non-random, but the underlying connectivity rule remains elusive. Here, we analyze experimental data observed in layer 5 of rat neocortex and suggest a model for connectivity from which emerge essential observed non-random features of both wiring and weighting. These features include lognormal distributions of synaptic connection strength, anatomical clustering, and strong correlations between clustering and connection strength. Our model predicts that cortical microcircuits contain large groups of densely connected neurons which we call clusters. We show that such a cluster contains about one fifth of all excitatory neurons of a circuit which are very densely connected with stronger than average synapses. We demonstrate that such clustering plays an important role in the network dynamics, namely, it creates bistable neural spiking in small cortical circuits. Furthermore, introducing local clustering in large-scale networks leads to the emergence of various patterns of persistent local activity in an ongoing network activity. Thus, our results may bridge a gap between anatomical structure and persistent activity observed during working memory and other cognitive processes.

  1. Disrupted Thalamus White Matter Anatomy and Posterior Default Mode Network Effective Connectivity in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment

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    Thomas Alderson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer’s disease (AD and its prodromal state amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI are characterized by widespread abnormalities in inter-areal white matter fiber pathways and parallel disruption of default mode network (DMN resting state functional and effective connectivity. In healthy subjects, DMN and task positive network interaction are modulated by the thalamus suggesting that abnormal task-based DMN deactivation in aMCI may be a consequence of impaired thalamo-cortical white matter circuitry. Thus, this article uses a multimodal approach to assess white matter integrity between thalamus and DMN components and associated effective connectivity in healthy controls (HCs relative to aMCI patients. Twenty-six HC and 20 older adults with aMCI underwent structural, functional and diffusion MRI scanning using the high angular resolution diffusion-weighted acquisition protocol. The DMN of each subject was identified using independent component analysis (ICA and resting state effective connectivity was calculated between thalamus and DMN nodes. White matter integrity changes between thalamus and DMN were investigated with constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD tractography. Significant structural deficits in thalamic white matter projection fibers to posterior DMN components posterior cingulate cortex (PCC and lateral inferior parietal lobe (IPL were identified together with significantly reduced effective connectivity from left thalamus to left IPL. Crucially, impaired thalamo-cortical white matter circuitry correlated with memory performance. Disrupted thalamo-cortical structure was accompanied by significant reductions in IPL and PCC cortico-cortical effective connectivity. No structural deficits were found between DMN nodes. Abnormal posterior DMN activity may be driven by changes in thalamic white matter connectivity; a view supported by the close anatomical and functional association of thalamic nuclei effected by AD pathology and

  2. Surgery of language-eloquent tumors in patients not eligible for awake surgery: the impact of a protocol based on navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation on presurgical planning and language outcome, with evidence of tumor-induced intra-hemispheric plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffa, Giovanni; Quattropani, Maria C; Scibilia, Antonino; Conti, Alfredo; Angileri, Filippo Flavio; Esposito, Felice; Sindorio, Carmela; Cardali, Salvatore Massimiliano; Germanò, Antonino; Tomasello, Francesco

    2018-05-01

    Awake surgery and intraoperative monitoring represent the gold standard for surgery of brain tumors located in the perisylvian region of the dominant hemisphere due to their ability to map and preserve the language network during surgery. Nevertheless, in some cases awake surgery is not feasible. This could increase the risk of postoperative language deficit. Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) and nTMS-based DTI fiber tracking (DTI-FT) provide a preoperative mapping and reconstruction of the cortico-subcortical language network. This can be used to plan and guide the surgical strategy to preserve the language function. The objective if this study is to describe the impact of a non-invasive preoperative protocol for mapping the language network through the nTMS and nTMS-based DTI-FT in patients not eligible for awake surgery and thereby operated under general anesthesia for suspected language-eloquent brain tumors. We reviewed clinical data of patients not eligible for awake surgery and operated under general anaesthesia between 2015 and 2016. All patients underwent nTMS language cortical mapping and nTMS-based DTI-FT of subcortical language fascicles. The nTMS findings were used to plan and guide the maximal safe resection of the tumor. The impact on postoperative language outcome and the accuracy of the nTMS-based mapping in predicting language deficits were evaluated. Twenty patients were enrolled in the study. The nTMS-based reconstruction of the language network was successful in all patients. Interestingly, we observed a significant association between tumor localization and the cortical distribution of the nTMS errors (p = 0.004), thereby suggesting an intra-hemispheric plasticity of language cortical areas, probably induced by the tumor itself. The nTMS mapping disclosed the true-eloquence of lesions in 12 (60%) of all suspected cases. In the remaining 8 cases (40%) the suspected eloquence of the lesion was disproved. The n

  3. Low-frequency hippocampal-cortical activity drives brain-wide resting-state functional MRI connectivity.

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    Chan, Russell W; Leong, Alex T L; Ho, Leon C; Gao, Patrick P; Wong, Eddie C; Dong, Celia M; Wang, Xunda; He, Jufang; Chan, Ying-Shing; Lim, Lee Wei; Wu, Ed X

    2017-08-15

    The hippocampus, including the dorsal dentate gyrus (dDG), and cortex engage in bidirectional communication. We propose that low-frequency activity in hippocampal-cortical pathways contributes to brain-wide resting-state connectivity to integrate sensory information. Using optogenetic stimulation and brain-wide fMRI and resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI), we determined the large-scale effects of spatiotemporal-specific downstream propagation of hippocampal activity. Low-frequency (1 Hz), but not high-frequency (40 Hz), stimulation of dDG excitatory neurons evoked robust cortical and subcortical brain-wide fMRI responses. More importantly, it enhanced interhemispheric rsfMRI connectivity in various cortices and hippocampus. Subsequent local field potential recordings revealed an increase in slow oscillations in dorsal hippocampus and visual cortex, interhemispheric visual cortical connectivity, and hippocampal-cortical connectivity. Meanwhile, pharmacological inactivation of dDG neurons decreased interhemispheric rsfMRI connectivity. Functionally, visually evoked fMRI responses in visual regions also increased during and after low-frequency dDG stimulation. Together, our results indicate that low-frequency activity robustly propagates in the dorsal hippocampal-cortical pathway, drives interhemispheric cortical rsfMRI connectivity, and mediates visual processing.

  4. More consistently altered connectivity patterns for cerebellum and medial temporal lobes than for amygdala and striatum in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning ePeters

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brain architecture can be divided into a cortico-thalamic system and modulatory ‘subcortical-cerebellar’ systems containing key structures such as striatum, medial temporal lobes (MTLs, amygdala, and cerebellum. Subcortical-cerebellar systems are known to be altered in schizophrenia. In particular, intrinsic functional brain connectivity (iFC between these systems has been consistently demonstrated in patients. While altered connectivity is known for each subcortical-cerebellar system separately, it is unknown whether subcortical-cerebellar systems’ connectivity patterns with the cortico-thalamic system are comparably altered across systems, i.e., if separate subcortical-cerebellar systems’ connectivity patterns are consistent across patients. Methods: To investigate this question, 18 patients with schizophrenia (3 unmedicated, 15 medicated with atypical antipsychotics and 18 healthy controls were assessed by resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. Independent component analysis of fMRI data revealed cortical intrinsic brain networks (NWs with time courses representing proxies for cortico-thalamic system activity. Subcortical-cerebellar systems’ activity was represented by fMRI-based time courses of selected regions-of-interest (ROIs (i.e., striatum, MTL, amygdala, cerebellum. Correlation analysis among ROI- and NWs-time courses yielded individual connectivity matrices (i.e. connectivity between NW and ROIs (allROIs-NW, separateROI-NW, only NWs (NWs-NWs, and only ROIs (allROIs-allROIs as main outcome measures, which were classified by support-vector-machine-based leave-one-out cross-validation. Differences in classification accuracy were statistically evaluated for consistency across subjects and systems. Results: Correlation matrices based on allROIs-NWs yielded 91% classification accuracy, which was significantly superior to allROIs-allROIs and NWs-NWs (56% and 74%, respectively. Considering separate

  5. Subthalamic stimulation modulates cortical motor network activity and synchronization in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, Rosa; Govindan, Rathinaswamy B.; Scholten, Marlieke; Naros, Georgios; Ramos-Murguialday, Ander; Bunjes, Friedemann; Meisner, Christoph; Plewnia, Christian; Krüger, Rejko

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic modulations of large-scale network activity and synchronization are inherent to a broad spectrum of cognitive processes and are disturbed in neuropsychiatric conditions including Parkinson’s disease. Here, we set out to address the motor network activity and synchronization in Parkinson’s disease and its modulation with subthalamic stimulation. To this end, 20 patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease with subthalamic nucleus stimulation were analysed on externally cued right hand finger movements with 1.5-s interstimulus interval. Simultaneous recordings were obtained from electromyography on antagonistic muscles (right flexor digitorum and extensor digitorum) together with 64-channel electroencephalography. Time-frequency event-related spectral perturbations were assessed to determine cortical and muscular activity. Next, cross-spectra in the time-frequency domain were analysed to explore the cortico-cortical synchronization. The time-frequency modulations enabled us to select a time-frequency range relevant for motor processing. On these time-frequency windows, we developed an extension of the phase synchronization index to quantify the global cortico-cortical synchronization and to obtain topographic differentiations of distinct electrode sites with respect to their contributions to the global phase synchronization index. The spectral measures were used to predict clinical and reaction time outcome using regression analysis. We found that movement-related desynchronization of cortical activity in the upper alpha and beta range was significantly facilitated with ‘stimulation on’ compared to ‘stimulation off’ on electrodes over the bilateral parietal, sensorimotor, premotor, supplementary-motor, and prefrontal areas, including the bilateral inferior prefrontal areas. These spectral modulations enabled us to predict both clinical and reaction time improvement from subthalamic stimulation. With ‘stimulation on’, interhemispheric cortico-cortical

  6. Disrupted cortical connectivity theory as an explanatory model for autism spectrum disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana, Rajesh K.; Libero, Lauren E.; Moore, Marie S.

    2011-12-01

    Recent findings of neurological functioning in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) point to altered brain connectivity as a key feature of its pathophysiology. The cortical underconnectivity theory of ASD (Just et al., 2004) provides an integrated framework for addressing these new findings. This theory suggests that weaker functional connections among brain areas in those with ASD hamper their ability to accomplish complex cognitive and social tasks successfully. We will discuss this theory, but will modify the term underconnectivity to ‘disrupted cortical connectivity’ to capture patterns of both under- and over-connectivity in the brain. In this paper, we will review the existing literature on ASD to marshal supporting evidence for hypotheses formulated on the disrupted cortical connectivity theory. These hypotheses are: 1) underconnectivity in ASD is manifested mainly in long-distance cortical as well as subcortical connections rather than in short-distance cortical connections; 2) underconnectivity in ASD is manifested only in complex cognitive and social functions and not in low-level sensory and perceptual tasks; 3) functional underconnectivity in ASD may be the result of underlying anatomical abnormalities, such as problems in the integrity of white matter; 4) the ASD brain adapts to underconnectivity through compensatory strategies such as overconnectivity mainly in frontal and in posterior brain areas. This may be manifested as deficits in tasks that require frontal-parietal integration. While overconnectivity can be tested by examining the cortical minicolumn organization, long-distance underconnectivity can be tested by cognitively demanding tasks; and 5) functional underconnectivity in brain areas in ASD will be seen not only during complex tasks but also during task-free resting states. We will also discuss some empirical predictions that can be tested in future studies, such as: 1) how disrupted connectivity relates to cognitive impairments in skills

  7. Thalamo-Cortical Disruption Contributes to Short-Term Memory Deficits in Patients with Medial Temporal Lobe Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voets, Natalie L; Menke, Ricarda A L; Jbabdi, Saad; Husain, Masud; Stacey, Richard; Carpenter, Katherine; Adcock, Jane E

    2015-11-01

    Short-term (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) have largely been considered as separate brain systems reflecting fronto-parietal and medial temporal lobe (MTL) functions, respectively. This functional dichotomy has been called into question by evidence of deficits on aspects of working memory in patients with MTL damage, suggesting a potentially direct hippocampal contribution to STM. As the hippocampus has direct anatomical connections with the thalamus, we tested the hypothesis that damage to thalamic nuclei regulating cortico-cortical interactions may contribute to STM deficits in patients with hippocampal dysfunction. We used diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging-based tractography to identify anatomical subdivisions in patients with MTL epilepsy. From these, we measured resting-state functional connectivity with detailed cortical divisions of the frontal, temporal, and parietal lobes. Whereas thalamo-temporal functional connectivity reflected LTM performance, thalamo-prefrontal functional connectivity specifically predicted STM performance. Notably, patients with hippocampal volume loss showed thalamic volume loss, most prominent in the pulvinar region, not detected in patients with normal hippocampal volumes. Aberrant thalamo-cortical connectivity in the epileptic hemisphere was mirrored in a loss of behavioral association with STM performance specifically in patients with hippocampal atrophy. These findings identify thalamo-cortical disruption as a potential mechanism contributing to STM deficits in the context of MTL damage. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Disrupted cortical connectivity theory as an explanatory model for autism spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana, Rajesh K; Libero, Lauren E; Moore, Marie S

    2011-12-01

    Recent findings of neurological functioning in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) point to altered brain connectivity as a key feature of its pathophysiology. The cortical underconnectivity theory of ASD (Just et al., 2004) provides an integrated framework for addressing these new findings. This theory suggests that weaker functional connections among brain areas in those with ASD hamper their ability to accomplish complex cognitive and social tasks successfully. We will discuss this theory, but will modify the term underconnectivity to 'disrupted cortical connectivity' to capture patterns of both under- and over-connectivity in the brain. In this paper, we will review the existing literature on ASD to marshal supporting evidence for hypotheses formulated on the disrupted cortical connectivity theory. These hypotheses are: 1) underconnectivity in ASD is manifested mainly in long-distance cortical as well as subcortical connections rather than in short-distance cortical connections; 2) underconnectivity in ASD is manifested only in complex cognitive and social functions and not in low-level sensory and perceptual tasks; 3) functional underconnectivity in ASD may be the result of underlying anatomical abnormalities, such as problems in the integrity of white matter; 4) the ASD brain adapts to underconnectivity through compensatory strategies such as overconnectivity mainly in frontal and in posterior brain areas. This may be manifested as deficits in tasks that require frontal-parietal integration. While overconnectivity can be tested by examining the cortical minicolumn organization, long-distance underconnectivity can be tested by cognitively demanding tasks; and 5) functional underconnectivity in brain areas in ASD will be seen not only during complex tasks but also during task-free resting states. We will also discuss some empirical predictions that can be tested in future studies, such as: 1) how disrupted connectivity relates to cognitive impairments in skills such

  9. Dehydroepiandrosterone impacts working memory by shaping cortico-hippocampal structural covariance during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Vi; Wu, Mia; Lew, Jimin; Albaugh, Matthew D; Botteron, Kelly N; Hudziak, James J; Fonov, Vladimir S; Collins, D Louis; Campbell, Benjamin C; Booij, Linda; Herba, Catherine; Monnier, Patricia; Ducharme, Simon; McCracken, James T

    2017-12-01

    Existing studies suggest that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) may be important for human brain development and cognition. For example, molecular studies have hinted at the critical role of DHEA in enhancing brain plasticity. Studies of human brain development also support the notion that DHEA is involved in preserving cortical plasticity. Further, some, though not all, studies show that DHEA administration may lead to improvements in working memory in adults. Yet these findings remain limited by an incomplete understanding of the specific neuroanatomical mechanisms through which DHEA may impact the CNS during development. Here we examined associations between DHEA, cortico-hippocampal structural covariance, and working memory (216 participants [female=123], age range 6-22 years old, mean age: 13.6 +/-3.6 years, each followed for a maximum of 3 visits over the course of 4 years). In addition to administering performance-based, spatial working memory tests to these children, we also collected ecological, parent ratings of working memory in everyday situations. We found that increasingly higher DHEA levels were associated with a shift toward positive insular-hippocampal and occipito-hippocampal structural covariance. In turn, DHEA-related insular-hippocampal covariance was associated with lower spatial working memory but higher overall working memory as measured by the ecological parent ratings. Taken together with previous research, these results support the hypothesis that DHEA may optimize cortical functions related to general attentional and working memory processes, but impair the development of bottom-up, hippocampal-to-cortical connections, resulting in impaired encoding of spatial cues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Cortical Connectivity of the Prefrontal Cortex in the Monkey Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeterian, Edward H.; Pandya, Deepak N.; Tomaiuolo, Francesco; Petrides, Michael

    2011-01-01

    One dimension of understanding the functions of the prefrontal cortex is knowledge of cortical connectivity. We have surveyed three aspects of prefrontal cortical connections: local projections (within the frontal lobe), the termination patterns of long association (post-Rolandic) projections, and the trajectories of major fiber pathways. The local connections appear to be organized in relation to dorsal (hippocampal origin) and ventral (paleocortical origin) architectonic trends. According to the proposal of a dual origin of the cerebral cortex, cortical areas can be traced as originating from archicortex (hippocampus) on the one hand, and paleocortex, on the other hand, in a stepwise manner (e.g., Sanides, 1969; Pandya and Yeterian, 1985). Prefrontal areas within each trend are connected with less architectonically differentiated areas, and, on the other hand, with more differentiated areas. Such organization may allow for the systematic exchange of information within each architectonic trend. The long connections of the prefrontal cortex with post-Rolandic regions seem to be organized preferentially in relation to dorsal and ventral prefrontal architectonic trends. Prefrontal areas are connected with post-Rolandic auditory, visual and somatosensory association areas, and with multimodal and paralimbic regions. This long connectivity likely works in conjunction with local connections to serve prefrontal cortical functions. The afferent and efferent connections of the prefrontal cortex with post-Rolandic regions are conveyed by specific long association pathways. These pathways as well appear to be organized in relation to dorsal and ventral prefrontal architectonic trends. Finally, although prefrontal areas have preferential connections in relation to dual architectonic trends, it is clear that there are interconnections between and among areas in each trend, which may provide a substrate for the overall integrative function of the prefrontal cortex. Prefrontal

  11. Quantifying indices of short- and long-range white matter connectivity at each cortical vertex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Carmela Padula

    Full Text Available Several neurodevelopmental diseases are characterized by impairments in cortical morphology along with altered white matter connectivity. However, the relationship between these two measures is not yet clear. In this study, we propose a novel methodology to compute and display metrics of white matter connectivity at each cortical point. After co-registering the extremities of the tractography streamlines with the cortical surface, we computed two measures of connectivity at each cortical vertex: the mean tracts' length, and the proportion of short- and long-range connections. The proposed measures were tested in a clinical sample of 62 patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS and 57 typically developing individuals. Using these novel measures, we achieved a fine-grained visualization of the white matter connectivity patterns at each vertex of the cortical surface. We observed an intriguing pattern of both increased and decreased short- and long-range connectivity in 22q11DS, that provides novel information about the nature and topology of white matter alterations in the syndrome. We argue that the method presented in this study opens avenues for additional analyses of the relationship between cortical properties and patterns of underlying structural connectivity, which will help clarifying the intrinsic mechanisms that lead to altered brain structure in neurodevelopmental disorders.

  12. Longitudinal Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) Analysis of the Developmental Changes of Tourette Syndrome Reveal Reduced Diffusion in the Cortico-Striato-Thalamo-Cortical Pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debes, Nanette; Jeppesen, Signe; Raghava, Jayachandra Mitta

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence that cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical pathways are involved in Tourette syndrome. We performed a longitudinal imaging study in 22 patients and 21 healthy controls in order to examine the development of tics and its correlation with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings....... Patients were divided in a group with persisting and a group with remission of tics. We found a decrease in volume of left putamen in controls, but not in patients. We found changes in mean diffusivity between patients and controls in right caudate nucleus, thalamus, and frontal lobe. In contrast...... to controls, parallel and perpendicular diffusivity decreased in patients and were most pronounced in the patients with persisting tics compared to those with remission. The findings suggest that the development of the brain in patients with remission resembles the normal development more than in patients...

  13. Do not resonate with actions: sentence polarity modulates cortico-spinal excitability during action-related sentence reading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Tullio Liuzza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Theories of embodied language suggest that the motor system is differentially called into action when processing motor-related versus abstract content words or sentences. It has been recently shown that processing negative polarity action-related sentences modulates neural activity of premotor and motor cortices. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We sought to determine whether reading negative polarity sentences brought about differential modulation of cortico-spinal motor excitability depending on processing hand-action related or abstract sentences. Facilitatory paired-pulses Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (pp-TMS was applied to the primary motor representation of the right-hand and the recorded amplitude of induced motor-evoked potentials (MEP was used to index M1 activity during passive reading of either hand-action related or abstract content sentences presented in both negative and affirmative polarity. Results showed that the cortico-spinal excitability was affected by sentence polarity only in the hand-action related condition. Indeed, in keeping with previous TMS studies, reading positive polarity, hand action-related sentences suppressed cortico-spinal reactivity. This effect was absent when reading hand action-related negative polarity sentences. Moreover, no modulation of cortico-spinal reactivity was associated with either negative or positive polarity abstract sentences. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that grammatical cues prompting motor negation reduce the cortico-spinal suppression associated with affirmative action sentences reading and thus suggest that motor simulative processes underlying the embodiment may involve even syntactic features of language.

  14. Cortical functional connectivity decodes subconscious, task-irrelevant threat-related emotion processing

    OpenAIRE

    Pantazatos, Spiro P.; Talati, Ardesheer; Pavlidis, Paul; Hirsch, Joy

    2012-01-01

    It is currently unclear to what extent cortical structures are required for and engaged during subconscious processing of biologically salient affective stimuli (i.e. the ‘low-road’ vs. ‘many-roads’ hypotheses). Here we show that cortical-cortical and cortical-subcortical functional connectivity (FC) contain substantially more information, relative to subcortical-subcortical FC (i.e. ‘subcortical alarm’ and other limbic regions), that predicts subliminal fearful face processing within individ...

  15. Sharpened cortical tuning and enhanced cortico-cortical communication contribute to the long-term neural mechanisms of visual motion perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nihong; Bi, Taiyong; Zhou, Tiangang; Li, Sheng; Liu, Zili; Fang, Fang

    2015-07-15

    Much has been debated about whether the neural plasticity mediating perceptual learning takes place at the sensory or decision-making stage in the brain. To investigate this, we trained human subjects in a visual motion direction discrimination task. Behavioral performance and BOLD signals were measured before, immediately after, and two weeks after training. Parallel to subjects' long-lasting behavioral improvement, the neural selectivity in V3A and the effective connectivity from V3A to IPS (intraparietal sulcus, a motion decision-making area) exhibited a persistent increase for the trained direction. Moreover, the improvement was well explained by a linear combination of the selectivity and connectivity increases. These findings suggest that the long-term neural mechanisms of motion perceptual learning are implemented by sharpening cortical tuning to trained stimuli at the sensory processing stage, as well as by optimizing the connections between sensory and decision-making areas in the brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Abnormalities of hippocampal-cortical connectivity in temporal lobe epilepsy patients with hippocampal sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenjing; He, Huiguang; Lu, Jingjing; Wang, Chunheng; Li, Meng; Lv, Bin; Jin, Zhengyu

    2011-03-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is the most common damage seen in the patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). In the present study, the hippocampal-cortical connectivity was defined as the correlation between the hippocampal volume and cortical thickness at each vertex throughout the whole brain. We aimed to investigate the differences of ipsilateral hippocampal-cortical connectivity between the unilateral TLE-HS patients and the normal controls. In our study, the bilateral hippocampal volumes were first measured in each subject, and we found that the ipsilateral hippocampal volume significantly decreased in the left TLE-HS patients. Then, group analysis showed significant thinner average cortical thickness of the whole brain in the left TLE-HS patients compared with the normal controls. We found significantly increased ipsilateral hippocampal-cortical connectivity in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, the right cingulate gyrus and the left parahippocampal gyrus of the left TLE-HS patients, which indicated structural vulnerability related to the hippocampus atrophy in the patient group. However, for the right TLE-HS patients, no significant differences were found between the patients and the normal controls, regardless of the ipsilateral hippocampal volume, the average cortical thickness or the patterns of hippocampal-cortical connectivity, which might be related to less atrophies observed in the MRI scans. Our study provided more evidence for the structural abnormalities in the unilateral TLE-HS patients.

  17. Different Mode of Afferents Determines the Frequency Range of High Frequency Activities in the Human Brain: Direct Electrocorticographic Comparison between Peripheral Nerve and Direct Cortical Stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Kobayashi

    Full Text Available Physiological high frequency activities (HFA are related to various brain functions. Factors, however, regulating its frequency have not been well elucidated in humans. To validate the hypothesis that different propagation modes (thalamo-cortical vs. cortico-coritcal projections, or different terminal layers (layer IV vs. layer II/III affect its frequency, we, in the primary somatosensory cortex (SI, compared HFAs induced by median nerve stimulation with those induced by electrical stimulation of the cortex connecting to SI. We employed 6 patients who underwent chronic subdural electrode implantation for presurgical evaluation. We evaluated the HFA power values in reference to the baseline overriding N20 (earliest cortical response and N80 (late response of somatosensory evoked potentials (HFA(SEP(N20 and HFA(SEP(N80 and compared those overriding N1 and N2 (first and second responses of cortico-cortical evoked potentials (HFA(CCEP(N1 and HFA(CCEP(N2. HFA(SEP(N20 showed the power peak in the frequency above 200 Hz, while HFA(CCEP(N1 had its power peak in the frequency below 200 Hz. Different propagation modes and/or different terminal layers seemed to determine HFA frequency. Since HFA(CCEP(N1 and HFA induced during various brain functions share a similar broadband profile of the power spectrum, cortico-coritcal horizontal propagation seems to represent common mode of neural transmission for processing these functions.

  18. Plasticity of premotor cortico-muscular coherence in severely impaired stroke patients with hand paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardinelli, Paolo; Laer, Leonard; Ortiz, Erick; Braun, Christoph; Gharabaghi, Alireza

    2017-01-01

    Motor recovery in severely impaired stroke patients is often very limited. To refine therapeutic interventions for regaining motor control in this patient group, the functionally relevant mechanisms of neuronal plasticity need to be detected. Cortico-muscular coherence (CMC) may provide physiological and topographic insights to achieve this goal. Synchronizing limb movements to motor-related brain activation is hypothesized to reestablish cortico-motor control indexed by CMC. In the present study, right-handed, chronic stroke patients with right-hemispheric lesions and left hand paralysis participated in a four-week training for their left upper extremity. A brain-robot interface turned event-related beta-band desynchronization of the lesioned sensorimotor cortex during kinesthetic motor-imagery into the opening of the paralyzed hand by a robotic orthosis. Simultaneous MEG/EMG recordings and individual models from MRIs were used for CMC detection and source reconstruction of cortico-muscular connectivity to the affected finger extensors before and after the training program. The upper extremity-FMA of the patients improved significantly from 16.23 ± 6.79 to 19.52 ± 7.91 (p = 0.0015). All patients showed significantly increased CMC in the beta frequency-band, with a distributed, bi-hemispheric pattern and considerable inter-individual variability. The location of CMC changes was not correlated to the severity of the motor impairment, the motor improvement or the lesion volume. Group analysis of the cortical overlap revealed a common feature in all patients following the intervention: a significantly increased level of ipsilesional premotor CMC that extended from the superior to the middle and inferior frontal gyrus, along with a confined area of increased CMC in the contralesional premotor cortex. In conclusion, functionally relevant modulations of CMC can be detected in patients with long-term, severe motor deficits after a brain-robot assisted

  19. The coevolution of play and the cortico-cerebellar system in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerney, Max; Smaers, Jeroen B; Schoenemann, P Thomas; Dunn, Jacob C

    2017-10-01

    Primates are some of the most playful animals in the natural world, yet the reason for this remains unclear. One hypothesis posits that primates are so playful because playful activity functions to help develop the sophisticated cognitive and behavioural abilities that they are also renowned for. If this hypothesis were true, then play might be expected to have coevolved with the neural substrates underlying these abilities in primates. Here, we tested this prediction by conducting phylogenetic comparative analyses to determine whether play has coevolved with the cortico-cerebellar system, a neural system known to be involved in complex cognition and the production of complex behaviour. We used phylogenetic generalised least squares analyses to compare the relative volume of the largest constituent parts of the primate cortico-cerebellar system (prefrontal cortex, non-prefrontal heteromodal cortical association areas, and posterior cerebellar hemispheres) to the mean percentage of time budget spent in play by a sample of primate species. Using a second categorical data set on play, we also used phylogenetic analysis of covariance to test for significant differences in the volume of the components of the cortico-cerebellar system among primate species exhibiting one of three different levels of adult-adult social play. Our results suggest that, in general, a positive association exists between the amount of play exhibited and the relative size of the main components of the cortico-cerebellar system in our sample of primate species. Although the explanatory power of this study is limited by the correlational nature of its analyses and by the quantity and quality of the data currently available, this finding nevertheless lends support to the hypothesis that play functions to aid the development of cognitive and behavioural abilities in primates.

  20. Changes in basal ganglia processing of cortical input following magnetic stimulation in Parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Hadass; Moran, Anan; Belelovsky, Katya; Bronfeld, Maya; Korngreen, Alon; Bar-Gad, Izhar

    2012-12-01

    Parkinsonism is associated with major changes in neuronal activity throughout the cortico-basal ganglia loop. Current measures quantify changes in baseline neuronal and network activity but do not capture alterations in information propagation throughout the system. Here, we applied a novel non-invasive magnetic stimulation approach using a custom-made mini-coil that enabled us to study transmission of neuronal activity throughout the cortico-basal ganglia loop in both normal and parkinsonian primates. By magnetically perturbing cortical activity while simultaneously recording neuronal responses along the cortico-basal ganglia loop, we were able to directly investigate modifications in descending cortical activity transmission. We found that in both the normal and parkinsonian states, cortical neurons displayed similar multi-phase firing rate modulations in response to magnetic stimulation. However, in the basal ganglia, large synaptically driven stereotypic neuronal modulation was present in the parkinsonian state that was mostly absent in the normal state. The stimulation-induced neuronal activity pattern highlights the change in information propagation along the cortico-basal ganglia loop. Our findings thus point to the role of abnormal dynamic activity transmission rather than changes in baseline activity as a major component in parkinsonian pathophysiology. Moreover, our results hint that the application of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in human patients of different disorders may result in different neuronal effects than the one induced in normal subjects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Abnormal Gray Matter Shape, Thickness, and Volume in the Motor Cortico-Subcortical Loop in Idiopathic Rapid Eye Movement Sleep Behavior Disorder: Association with Clinical and Motor Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayel, Shady; Postuma, Ronald B; Montplaisir, Jacques; Bedetti, Christophe; Brambati, Simona; Carrier, Julie; Monchi, Oury; Bourgouin, Pierre-Alexandre; Gaubert, Malo; Gagnon, Jean-François

    2018-02-01

    Idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) is a major risk factor for Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. Anatomical gray matter abnormalities in the motor cortico-subcortical loop areas remain under studied in iRBD patients. We acquired T1-weighted images and administrated quantitative motor tasks in 41 patients with polysomnography-confirmed iRBD and 41 healthy subjects. Cortical thickness and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses were performed to investigate local cortical thickness and gray matter volume changes, vertex-based shape analysis to investigate shape of subcortical structures, and structure-based volumetric analyses to investigate volumes of subcortical and brainstem structures. Cortical thickness analysis revealed thinning in iRBD patients in bilateral medial superior frontal, orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate cortices, and the right dorsolateral primary motor cortex. VBM results showed lower gray matter volume in iRBD patients in the frontal lobes, anterior cingulate gyri, and caudate nucleus. Shape analysis revealed extensive surface contraction in the external and internal segments of the left pallidum. Clinical and motor impaired features in iRBD were associated with anomalies of the motor cortico-subcortical loop. In summary, iRBD patients showed numerous gray matter structural abnormalities in the motor cortico-subcortical loop, which are associated with lower motor performance and clinical manifestations of iRBD. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Anti-correlated cortical networks of intrinsic connectivity in the rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Adam J; Gass, Natalia; Sartorius, Alexander; Risterucci, Celine; Spedding, Michael; Schenker, Esther; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Weber-Fahr, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    In humans, resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in the default mode network (DMN) are temporally anti-correlated with those from a lateral cortical network involving the frontal eye fields, secondary somatosensory and posterior insular cortices. Here, we demonstrate the existence of an analogous lateral cortical network in the rat brain, extending laterally from anterior secondary sensorimotor regions to the insular cortex and exhibiting low-frequency BOLD fluctuations that are temporally anti-correlated with a midline "DMN-like" network comprising posterior/anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices. The primary nexus for this anti-correlation relationship was the anterior secondary motor cortex, close to regions that have been identified with frontal eye fields in the rat brain. The anti-correlation relationship was corroborated after global signal removal, underscoring this finding as a robust property of the functional connectivity signature in the rat brain. These anti-correlated networks demonstrate strong anatomical homology to networks identified in human and monkey connectivity studies, extend the known preserved functional connectivity relationships between rodent and primates, and support the use of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging as a translational imaging method between rat models and humans.

  3. Cortical connective field estimates from resting state fMRI activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gravel, Nicolas; Harvey, Ben; Nordhjem, Barbara; Haak, Koen V.; Dumoulin, Serge O.; Renken, Remco; Curcic-Blake, Branisalava; Cornelissen, Frans W.

    2014-01-01

    One way to study connectivity in visual cortical areas is by examining spontaneous neural activity. In the absence of visual input, such activity remains shaped by the underlying neural architecture and, presumably, may still reflect visuotopic organization. Here, we applied population connective

  4. A selective involvement of putamen functional connectivity in youth with internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Soon-Beom; Harrison, Ben J; Dandash, Orwa; Choi, Eun-Jung; Kim, Seong-Chan; Kim, Ho-Hyun; Shim, Do-Hyun; Kim, Chang-Dai; Kim, Jae-Won; Yi, Soon-Hyung

    2015-03-30

    Brain cortico-striatal circuits have consistently been implicated in the pathology of addiction related disorders. We applied a reliable seed-based analysis of the resting-state brain activity to comprehensively delineate the subdivisions of striatal functional connectivity implicated in internet gaming disorder. Among twelve right-handed male adolescents with internet gaming disorder and 11 right-handed and gender-matched healthy controls, we examined group differences in the functional connectivity of dorsal and ventral subdivisions of the caudate nucleus and putamen, as well as the association of these connectivity indices with behavioral measures of internet use. Adolescents with internet gaming disorder showed significantly reduced dorsal putamen functional connectivity with the posterior insula-parietal operculum. More time spent playing online games predicted significantly greater functional connectivity between the dorsal putamen and bilateral primary somatosensory cortices in adolescents with internet gaming disorder, and significantly lower functional connectivity between the dorsal putamen and bilateral sensorimotor cortices in healthy controls. The dorsal putamen functional connectivity was significantly and specifically different in adolescents with internet gaming disorder. The findings suggest a possible biomarker of internet gaming disorder. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Connections underlying the synthesis of cognition, memory, and emotion in primate prefrontal cortices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbas, H

    2000-07-15

    Distinct domains of the prefrontal cortex in primates have a set of connections suggesting that they have different roles in cognition, memory, and emotion. Caudal lateral prefrontal areas (areas 8 and 46) receive projections from cortices representing early stages in visual or auditory processing, and from intraparietal and posterior cingulate areas associated with oculomotor guidance and attentional processes. Cortical input to areas 46 and 8 is complemented by projections from the thalamic multiform and parvicellular sectors of the mediodorsal nucleus associated with oculomotor functions and working memory. In contrast, caudal orbitofrontal areas receive diverse input from cortices representing late stages of processing within every unimodal sensory cortical system. In addition, orbitofrontal and caudal medial (limbic) prefrontal cortices receive robust projections from the amygdala, associated with emotional memory, and from medial temporal and thalamic structures associated with long-term memory. Prefrontal cortices are linked with motor control structures related to their specific roles in central executive functions. Caudal lateral prefrontal areas project to brainstem oculomotor structures, and are connected with premotor cortices effecting head, limb and body movements. In contrast, medial prefrontal and orbitofrontal limbic cortices project to hypothalamic visceromotor centers for the expression of emotions. Lateral, orbitofrontal, and medial prefrontal cortices are robustly interconnected, suggesting that they participate in concert in central executive functions. Prefrontal limbic cortices issue widespread projections through their deep layers and terminate in the upper layers of lateral (eulaminate) cortices, suggesting a predominant role in feedback communication. In contrast, when lateral prefrontal cortices communicate with limbic areas they issue projections from their upper layers and their axons terminate in the deep layers, suggesting a role in

  6. Cortical Reorganization after Hand Immobilization: The beta qEEG Spectral Coherence Evidences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortuna, Marina; Teixeira, Silmar; Machado, Sérgio; Velasques, Bruna; Bittencourt, Juliana; Peressutti, Caroline; Budde, Henning; Cagy, Mauricio; Nardi, Antonio E.; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that hand immobilization is associated with various changes in the brain. Indeed, beta band coherence is strongly related to motor act and sensitive stimuli. In this study we investigate the electrophysiological and cortical changes that occur when subjects are submitted to hand immobilization. We hypothesized that beta coherence oscillations act as a mechanism underlying inter- and intra-hemispheric changes. As a methodology for our study fifteen healthy individuals between the ages of 20 and 30 years were subjected to a right index finger task before and after hand immobilization while their brain activity pattern was recorded using quantitative electroencephalography. This analysis revealed that hand immobilization caused changes in frontal, central and parietal areas of the brain. The main findings showed a lower beta-2 band in frontal regions and greater cortical activity in central and parietal areas. In summary, the coherence increased in the frontal, central and parietal cortex, due to hand immobilization and it adjusted the brains functioning, which had been disrupted by the procedure. Moreover, the brain adaptation upon hand immobilization of the subjects involved inter- and intra-hemispheric changes. PMID:24278213

  7. Connectivities and synchronous firing in cortical neuronal networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, L.C.; Sano, M.; Lai, P.-Y.; Chan, C.K.

    2004-01-01

    Network connectivities (k-bar) of cortical neural cultures are studied by synchronized firing and determined from measured correlations between fluorescence intensities of firing neurons. The bursting frequency (f) during synchronized firing of the networks is found to be an increasing function of k-bar. With f taken to be proportional to k-bar, a simple random model with a k-bar dependent connection probability p(k-bar) has been constructed to explain our experimental findings successfully

  8. Brain Events Underlying Episodic Memory Changes in Aging: A Longitudinal Investigation of Structural and Functional Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjell, Anders M; Sneve, Markus H; Storsve, Andreas B; Grydeland, Håkon; Yendiki, Anastasia; Walhovd, Kristine B

    2016-03-01

    Episodic memories are established and maintained by close interplay between hippocampus and other cortical regions, but degradation of a fronto-striatal network has been suggested to be a driving force of memory decline in aging. We wanted to directly address how changes in hippocampal-cortical versus striatal-cortical networks over time impact episodic memory with age. We followed 119 healthy participants (20-83 years) for 3.5 years with repeated tests of episodic verbal memory and magnetic resonance imaging for quantification of functional and structural connectivity and regional brain atrophy. While hippocampal-cortical functional connectivity predicted memory change in young, changes in cortico-striatal functional connectivity were related to change in recall in older adults. Within each age group, effects of functional and structural connectivity were anatomically closely aligned. Interestingly, the relationship between functional connectivity and memory was strongest in the age ranges where the rate of reduction of the relevant brain structure was lowest, implying selective impacts of the different brain events on memory. Together, these findings suggest a partly sequential and partly simultaneous model of brain events underlying cognitive changes in aging, where different functional and structural events are more or less important in various time windows, dismissing a simple uni-factorial view on neurocognitive aging. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Cortical and limbic excitability in rats with absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolmacheva, E.A.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Chepurnov, S.A.; Kaminskij, Y.; Mares, P.

    2004-01-01

    The classical cortico-reticular theory on absence epilepsy suggests that a hyperexcitable cortex is a precondition for the occurrence of absence seizures. In the present experiment seizure thresholds and characteristics of cortical and limbic epileptic afterdischarges (AD) were determined in a

  10. Early development of synchrony in cortical activations in the human.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolen, N; Dereymaeker, A; Räsänen, O; Jansen, K; Vervisch, J; Matic, V; Naulaers, G; De Vos, M; Van Huffel, S; Vanhatalo, S

    2016-05-13

    Early intermittent cortical activity is thought to play a crucial role in the growth of neuronal network development, and large scale brain networks are known to provide the basis for higher brain functions. Yet, the early development of the large scale synchrony in cortical activations is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the early intermittent cortical activations seen in the human scalp EEG show a clear developmental course during the last trimester of pregnancy, the period of intensive growth of cortico-cortical connections. We recorded scalp EEG from altogether 22 premature infants at post-menstrual age between 30 and 44 weeks, and the early cortical synchrony was quantified using recently introduced activation synchrony index (ASI). The developmental correlations of ASI were computed for individual EEG signals as well as anatomically and mathematically defined spatial subgroups. We report two main findings. First, we observed a robust and statistically significant increase in ASI in all cortical areas. Second, there were significant spatial gradients in the synchrony in fronto-occipital and left-to-right directions. These findings provide evidence that early cortical activity is increasingly synchronized across the neocortex. The ASI-based metrics introduced in our work allow direct translational comparison to in vivo animal models, as well as hold promise for implementation as a functional developmental biomarker in future research on human neonates. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Non-concomitant cortical structural and functional alterations in sensorimotor areas following incomplete spinal cord injury

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    Yu Pan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain plasticity, including anatomical changes and functional reorganization, is the physiological basis of functional recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI. The correlation between brain anatomical changes and functional reorganization after SCI is unclear. This study aimed to explore whether alterations of cortical structure and network function are concomitant in sensorimotor areas after incomplete SCI. Eighteen patients with incomplete SCI (mean age 40.94 ± 14.10 years old; male:female, 7:11 and 18 healthy subjects (37.33 ± 11.79 years old; male:female, 7:11 were studied by resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Gray matter volume (GMV and functional connectivity were used to evaluate cortical structure and network function, respectively. There was no significant alteration of GMV in sensorimotor areas in patients with incomplete SCI compared with healthy subjects. Intra-hemispheric functional connectivity between left primary somatosensory cortex (BA1 and left primary motor cortex (BA4, and left BA1 and left somatosensory association cortex (BA5 was decreased, as well as inter-hemispheric functional connectivity between left BA1 and right BA4, left BA1 and right BA5, and left BA4 and right BA5 in patients with SCI. Functional connectivity between both BA4 areas was also decreased. The decreased functional connectivity between the left BA1 and the right BA4 positively correlated with American Spinal Injury Association sensory score in SCI patients. The results indicate that alterations of cortical anatomical structure and network functional connectivity in sensorimotor areas were non-concomitant in patients with incomplete SCI, indicating the network functional changes in sensorimotor areas may not be dependent on anatomic structure. The strength of functional connectivity within sensorimotor areas could serve as a potential imaging biomarker for assessment and prediction of sensory function in patients with incomplete SCI

  12. The vomeronasal cortex - afferent and efferent projections of the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Castellanos, Nicolás; Pardo-Bellver, Cecília; Martínez-García, Fernando; Lanuza, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Most mammals possess a vomeronasal system that detects predominantly chemical signals of biological relevance. Vomeronasal information is relayed to the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB), whose unique cortical target is the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala. This cortical structure should therefore be considered the primary vomeronasal cortex. In the present work, we describe the afferent and efferent connections of the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala in female mice, using anterograde (biotinylated dextranamines) and retrograde (Fluorogold) tracers, and zinc selenite as a tracer specific for zinc-enriched (putative glutamatergic) projections. The results show that the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala is strongly interconnected not only with the rest of the vomeronasal system (AOB and its target structures in the amygdala), but also with the olfactory system (piriform cortex, olfactory-recipient nuclei of the amygdala and entorhinal cortex). Therefore, the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala probably integrates olfactory and vomeronasal information. In addition, the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala shows moderate interconnections with the associative (basomedial) amygdala and with the ventral hippocampus, which may be involved in emotional and spatial learning (respectively) induced by chemical signals. Finally, the posteromedial cortical nucleus of the amygdala gives rise to zinc-enriched projections to the ventrolateral septum and the ventromedial striatum (including the medial islands of Calleja). This pattern of intracortical connections (with the olfactory cortex and hippocampus, mainly) and cortico-striatal excitatory projections (with the olfactory tubercle and septum) is consistent with its proposed nature as the primary vomeronasal cortex. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Network dynamics of human face perception.

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    Cihan Mehmet Kadipasaoglu

    Full Text Available Prevailing theories suggests that cortical regions responsible for face perception operate in a serial, feed-forward fashion. Here, we utilize invasive human electrophysiology to evaluate serial models of face-processing via measurements of cortical activation, functional connectivity, and cortico-cortical evoked potentials. We find that task-dependent changes in functional connectivity between face-selective regions in the inferior occipital (f-IOG and fusiform gyrus (f-FG are bidirectional, not feed-forward, and emerge following feed-forward input from early visual cortex (EVC to both of these regions. Cortico-cortical evoked potentials similarly reveal independent signal propagations between EVC and both f-IOG and f-FG. These findings are incompatible with serial models, and support a parallel, distributed network underpinning face perception in humans.

  14. Causal Link between the Cortico-Rubral Pathway and Functional Recovery through Forced Impaired Limb Use in Rats with Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Akimasa; Isa, Kaoru; Umeda, Tatsuya; Kobayashi, Kazuto; Kobayashi, Kenta; Hida, Hideki

    2016-01-01

    Intensive rehabilitation is believed to induce use-dependent plasticity in the injured nervous system; however, its causal relationship to functional recovery is unclear. Here, we performed systematic analysis of the effects of forced use of an impaired forelimb on the recovery of rats after lesioning the internal capsule with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Forced limb use (FLU) group rats exhibited better recovery of skilled forelimb functions and their cortical motor area with forelimb representation was restored and enlarged on the ipsilesional side. In addition, abundant axonal sprouting from the reemerged forelimb area was found in the ipsilateral red nucleus after FLU. To test the causal relationship between the plasticity in the cortico-rubral pathway and recovery, loss-of-function experiments were conducted using a double-viral vector technique, which induces selective blockade of the target pathway. Blockade of the cortico-rubral tract resulted in deficits of the recovered forelimb function in FLU group rats. These findings suggest that the cortico-rubral pathway is a substrate for recovery induced by intensive rehabilitation after ICH. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The research aimed at determining the causal linkage between reorganization of the motor pathway induced by intensive rehabilitative training and recovery after stroke. We clarified the expansion of the forelimb representation area of the ipsilesional motor cortex by forced impaired forelimb use (FLU) after lesioning the internal capsule with intracerebral hemorrhaging (ICH) in rats. Anterograde tracing showed robust axonal sprouting from the forelimb area to the red nucleus in response to FLU. Selective blockade of the cortico-rubral pathway by the novel double-viral vector technique clearly revealed that the increased cortico-rubral axonal projections had causal linkage to the recovery of reaching movements induced by FLU. Our data demonstrate that the cortico-rubral pathway is responsible for the

  15. Altered cortico-striatal-thalamic connectivity in relation to spatial working memory capacity in children with ADHD

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    Kathryn L. Mills

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD captures a heterogeneous group of children, who are characterized by a range of cognitive and behavioral symptoms. Previous resting state functional connectivity (rs-fcMRI studies have sought to understand the neural correlates of ADHD by comparing connectivity measurements between those with and without the disorder, focusing primarily on cortical-striatal circuits mediated by the thalamus. To integrate the multiple phenotypic features associated with ADHD and help resolve its heterogeneity, it is helpful to determine how specific circuits relate to unique cognitive domains of the ADHD syndrome. Spatial working memory has been proposed as a key mechanism in the pathophysiology of ADHD.Methods: We correlated the rs-fcMRI of five thalamic regions of interest with spatial span working memory scores in a sample of 67 children aged 7-11 years (ADHD and typically developing children; TDC. In an independent dataset, we then examined group differences in thalamo-striatal functional connectivity between 70 ADHD and 89 TDC (7-11 years from the ADHD-200 dataset. Thalamic regions of interest were created based on previous methods that utilize known thalamo-cortical loops and rs-fcMRI to identify functional boundaries in the thalamus.Results/Conclusions: Using these thalamic regions, we found atypical rs-fcMRI between specific thalamic groupings with the basal ganglia. To identify the thalamic connections that relate to spatial working memory in ADHD, only connections identified in both the correlational and comparative analyses were considered. Multiple connections between the thalamus and basal ganglia, particularly between medial and anterior dorsal thalamus and the putamen, were related to spatial working memory and also altered in ADHD. These thalamo-striatal disruptions may be one of multiple atypical neural and cognitive mechanisms that relate to the ADHD clinical phenotype.

  16. Disrupted Cortical Connectivity as an Explanatory Model for Autism Spectrum Disorder

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    Jenniefer Drude Borup

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to explain the theory of Disrupted Cortical Connectivity and discuss whether or not it can integrate the following three theories: Theory of Mind, Executive Functioning, and Weak Central Coherence that dominate the field of autism spectrum disorder research. Due to a lack of existing literature discussing this potential integration, we have consequentially undertaken such an endeavour. In our opinion, integration appears to be possible since this explanatory model can account for difficulties in both social cognition and executive functioning commonly found in autism spectrum disorder. Moreover, the theory of Disrupted Cortical Connectivity could be described as an extension of the theory of Weak Central Coherence.

  17. Connectomic Insights into Topologically Centralized Network Edges and Relevant Motifs in the Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingrui eXia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available White matter (WM tracts serve as important material substrates for information transfer across brain regions. However, the topological roles of WM tracts in global brain communications and their underlying microstructural basis remain poorly understood. Here, we employed diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and graph-theoretical approaches to identify the pivotal WM connections in human whole-brain networks and further investigated their wiring substrates (including WM microstructural organization and physical consumption and topological contributions to the brain’s network backbone. We found that the pivotal WM connections with highly topological-edge centrality were primarily distributed in several long-range cortico-cortical connections (including the corpus callosum, cingulum and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus and some projection tracts linking subcortical regions. These pivotal WM connections exhibited high levels of microstructural organization indicated by diffusion measures (the fractional anisotropy, the mean diffusivity and the axial diffusivity and greater physical consumption indicated by streamline lengths, and contributed significantly to the brain’s hubs and the rich-club structure. Network motif analysis further revealed their heavy participations in the organization of communication blocks, especially in routes involving inter-hemispheric heterotopic and extremely remote intra-hemispheric systems. Computational simulation models indicated the sharp decrease of global network integrity when attacking these highly centralized edges. Together, our results demonstrated high building-cost consumption and substantial communication capacity contributions for pivotal WM connections, which deepens our understanding of the topological mechanisms that govern the organization of human connectomes.

  18. The effect of binaural beats on verbal working memory and cortical connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchene, Christine; Abaid, Nicole; Moran, Rosalyn; Diana, Rachel A; Leonessa, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Synchronization in activated regions of cortical networks affect the brain's frequency response, which has been associated with a wide range of states and abilities, including memory. A non-invasive method for manipulating cortical synchronization is binaural beats. Binaural beats take advantage of the brain's response to two pure tones, delivered independently to each ear, when those tones have a small frequency mismatch. The mismatch between the tones is interpreted as a beat frequency, which may act to synchronize cortical oscillations. Neural synchrony is particularly important for working memory processes, the system controlling online organization and retention of information for successful goal-directed behavior. Therefore, manipulation of synchrony via binaural beats provides a unique window into working memory and associated connectivity of cortical networks. In this study, we examined the effects of different acoustic stimulation conditions during an N-back working memory task, and we measured participant response accuracy and cortical network topology via EEG recordings. Six acoustic stimulation conditions were used: None, Pure Tone, Classical Music, 5 Hz binaural beats, 10 Hz binaural beats, and 15 Hz binaural beats. We determined that listening to 15 Hz binaural beats during an N-Back working memory task increased the individual participant's accuracy, modulated the cortical frequency response, and changed the cortical network connection strengths during the task. Only the 15 Hz binaural beats produced significant change in relative accuracy compared to the None condition. Listening to 15 Hz binaural beats during the N-back task activated salient frequency bands and produced networks characterized by higher information transfer as compared to other auditory stimulation conditions.

  19. High frequency deep brain stimulation attenuates subthalamic and cortical rhythms in Parkinson’s disease

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    Diane eWhitmer

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson’s disease (PD is marked by excessive synchronous activity in the beta (8-35 Hz band throughout the cortico-basal ganglia network. The optimal location of high frequency deep brain stimulation (HF DBS within the subthalamic nucleus (STN region and the location of maximal beta hypersynchrony are currently matters of debate. Additionally, the effect of STN HF DBS on neural synchrony in functionally connected regions of motor cortex is unknown and of great interest. Scalp EEG studies demonstrated that stimulation of the STN can activate motor cortex antidromically, but the spatial specificity of this effect has not been examined. The present study examined the effect of STN HF DBS on neural synchrony within the cortico-basal ganglia network in patients with PD. We measured local field potentials dorsal to and within the STN of PD patients, and additionally in the motor cortex in a subset of these patients. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to guide the placement of subdural cortical surface electrodes over the DTI-identified origin of the hyperdirect pathway between motor cortex and the STN. The results demonstrated that local beta power was attenuated during HF DBS both dorsal to and within the STN. The degree of attenuation was monotonic with increased DBS voltages in both locations, but this voltage-dependent effect was greater in the central STN than dorsal to the STN (p < 0.05. Cortical signals over the estimated origin of the hyperdirect pathway also demonstrated attenuation of beta hypersynchrony during DBS dorsal to or within STN, whereas signals from non-specific regions of motor cortex were not attenuated. The spatially specific suppression of beta synchrony in the motor cortex support the hypothesis that DBS may treat Parkinsonism by reducing excessive synchrony in the functionally connected sensorimotor network.

  20. Groupwise connectivity-based parcellation of the whole human cortical surface using watershed-driven dimension reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefranc, Sandrine; Roca, Pauline; Perrot, Matthieu; Poupon, Cyril; Le Bihan, Denis; Mangin, Jean-François; Rivière, Denis

    2016-05-01

    Segregating the human cortex into distinct areas based on structural connectivity criteria is of widespread interest in neuroscience. This paper presents a groupwise connectivity-based parcellation framework for the whole cortical surface using a new high quality diffusion dataset of 79 healthy subjects. Our approach performs gyrus by gyrus to parcellate the whole human cortex. The main originality of the method is to compress for each gyrus the connectivity profiles used for the clustering without any anatomical prior information. This step takes into account the interindividual cortical and connectivity variability. To this end, we consider intersubject high density connectivity areas extracted using a surface-based watershed algorithm. A wide validation study has led to a fully automatic pipeline which is robust to variations in data preprocessing (tracking type, cortical mesh characteristics and boundaries of initial gyri), data characteristics (including number of subjects), and the main algorithmic parameters. A remarkable reproducibility is achieved in parcellation results for the whole cortex, leading to clear and stable cortical patterns. This reproducibility has been tested across non-overlapping subgroups and the validation is presented mainly on the pre- and postcentral gyri. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Reduced Language Connectivity in Pediatric Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh N., Sepeta; Louise J., Croft; Lauren A., Zimmaro; Elizabeth S., Duke; Virginia K., Terwilliger; Benjamin E., Yerys; Xiaozhen., You; Chandan J., Vaidya; William D., Gaillard; Madison M., Berl

    2014-01-01

    Objective Functional connectivity (FC) among language regions is decreased in adults with epilepsy compared to controls, but less is known about FC in children with epilepsy. We sought to determine if language FC is reduced in pediatric epilepsy, and examined clinical factors that associate with language FC in this population. Methods We assessed FC during an age-adjusted language task in children with left-hemisphere focal epilepsy (n=19) compared to controls (n=19). Time series data were extracted for three left ROIs and their right homologues: inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and Wernicke's area (WA) using SPM8. Associations between FC and factors such as cognitive performance, language dominance, and epilepsy duration were assessed. Results Children with epilepsy showed decreased interhemispheric connectivity compared to controls, particularly between core left language regions (IFG, WA) and their right hemisphere homologues, as well as decreased intrahemispheric right frontal FC. Increased intrahemispheric FC between left IFG and left WA was a positive predictor of language skills overall, and naming ability in particular. FC of language areas was not affected by language dominance, as the effects remained when only examining study participants with left language dominance. Overall FC did not differ according to duration of epilepsy or age of onset. Significance FC during a language task is reduced in children, similar to findings in adults. In specific, children with left focal epilepsy demonstrated decreased interhemispheric FC in temporal and frontal language connections and decreased intrahemispheric right frontal FC. These differences were present near the onset of epilepsy. Greater FC between left language centers is related to better language ability. Our results highlight that connectivity of language areas has a developmental pattern and is related to cognitive ability. PMID:25516399

  2. Evidence of functional connectivity between auditory cortical areas revealed by amplitude modulation sound processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguin, Marie; Le Bouquin-Jeannès, Régine; Faucon, Gérard; Chauvel, Patrick; Liégeois-Chauvel, Catherine

    2007-02-01

    The human auditory cortex includes several interconnected areas. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in auditory cortical functions requires a detailed knowledge of neuronal connectivity between functional cortical regions. In human, it is difficult to track in vivo neuronal connectivity. We investigated the interarea connection in vivo in the auditory cortex using a method of directed coherence (DCOH) applied to depth auditory evoked potentials (AEPs). This paper presents simultaneous AEPs recordings from insular gyrus (IG), primary and secondary cortices (Heschl's gyrus and planum temporale), and associative areas (Brodmann area [BA] 22) with multilead intracerebral electrodes in response to sinusoidal modulated white noises in 4 epileptic patients who underwent invasive monitoring with depth electrodes for epilepsy surgery. DCOH allowed estimation of the causality between 2 signals recorded from different cortical sites. The results showed 1) a predominant auditory stream within the primary auditory cortex from the most medial region to the most lateral one whatever the modulation frequency, 2) unidirectional functional connection from the primary to secondary auditory cortex, 3) a major auditory propagation from the posterior areas to the anterior ones, particularly at 8, 16, and 32 Hz, and 4) a particular role of Heschl's sulcus dispatching information to the different auditory areas. These findings suggest that cortical processing of auditory information is performed in serial and parallel streams. Our data showed that the auditory propagation could not be associated to a unidirectional traveling wave but to a constant interaction between these areas that could reflect the large adaptive and plastic capacities of auditory cortex. The role of the IG is discussed.

  3. No association of cortical amyloid load and EEG connectivity in older people with subjective memory complaints

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    Stefan Teipel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in functional connectivity of cortical networks have been observed in resting-state EEG studies in healthy aging as well as preclinical and clinical stages of AD. Little information, however, exists on associations between EEG connectivity and cortical amyloid load in people with subjective memory complaints. Here, we determined the association of global cortical amyloid load, as measured by florbetapir-PET, with functional connectivity based on the phase-lag index of resting state EEG data for alpha and beta frequency bands in 318 cognitively normal individuals aged 70–85 years with subjective memory complaints from the INSIGHT-preAD cohort. Within the entire group we did not find any significant associations between global amyloid load and phase-lag index in any frequency band. Assessing exclusively the subgroup of amyloid-positive participants, we found enhancement of functional connectivity with higher global amyloid load in the alpha and a reduction in the beta frequency bands. In the amyloid-negative participants, higher amyloid load was associated with lower connectivity in the low alpha band. However, these correlations failed to reach significance after controlling for multiple comparisons. The absence of a strong amyloid effect on functional connectivity may represent a selection effect, where individuals remain in the cognitively normal group only if amyloid accumulation does not impair cortical functional connectivity.

  4. The effect of binaural beats on verbal working memory and cortical connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchene, Christine; Abaid, Nicole; Moran, Rosalyn; Diana, Rachel A.; Leonessa, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    Objective. Synchronization in activated regions of cortical networks affect the brain’s frequency response, which has been associated with a wide range of states and abilities, including memory. A non-invasive method for manipulating cortical synchronization is binaural beats. Binaural beats take advantage of the brain’s response to two pure tones, delivered independently to each ear, when those tones have a small frequency mismatch. The mismatch between the tones is interpreted as a beat frequency, which may act to synchronize cortical oscillations. Neural synchrony is particularly important for working memory processes, the system controlling online organization and retention of information for successful goal-directed behavior. Therefore, manipulation of synchrony via binaural beats provides a unique window into working memory and associated connectivity of cortical networks. Approach. In this study, we examined the effects of different acoustic stimulation conditions during an N-back working memory task, and we measured participant response accuracy and cortical network topology via EEG recordings. Six acoustic stimulation conditions were used: None, Pure Tone, Classical Music, 5 Hz binaural beats, 10 Hz binaural beats, and 15 Hz binaural beats. Main results. We determined that listening to 15 Hz binaural beats during an N-Back working memory task increased the individual participant’s accuracy, modulated the cortical frequency response, and changed the cortical network connection strengths during the task. Only the 15 Hz binaural beats produced significant change in relative accuracy compared to the None condition. Significance. Listening to 15 Hz binaural beats during the N-back task activated salient frequency bands and produced networks characterized by higher information transfer as compared to other auditory stimulation conditions.

  5. Functional connectivity of the dorsal striatum in female musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji eTanaka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The dorsal striatum (caudate/putamen is a node of the cortico-striato-pallido-thalamo-cortical (CSPTC motor circuit, which plays a central role in skilled motor learning, a critical feature of musical performance. The dorsal striatum receives input from a large part of the cerebral cortex, forming a hub in the cortical-subcortical network. This study sought to examine how the functional network of the dorsal striatum differs between musicians and nonmusicians.Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI data were acquired from female university students majoring in music and nonmusic disciplines. The data were subjected to graph theoretical analysis and functional connectivity analysis. The graph theoretical analysis of the entire brain revealed that the degree, which represents the number of connections, of the bilateral putamen was significantly lower in musicians than in nonmusicians. The functional connectivity analysis indicated that compared with nonmusicians, musicians had significantly decreased connectivity between the left putamen and bilateral frontal operculum and between the left caudate nucleus and cerebellum. In conclusion, compared with nonmusicians, female musicians have a smaller functional network of the dorsal striatum, with decreased connectivity. These data are consistent with previous anatomical studies reporting a reduced volume of the dorsal striatum in musicians and ballet dancers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study suggesting that long-term musical training results in a less extensive or selective functional network of the dorsal striatum.

  6. Increased overall cortical connectivity with syndrome specific local decreases suggested by atypical sleep-EEG synchronization in Williams syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombos, Ferenc; Bódizs, Róbert; Kovács, Ilona

    2017-07-21

    Williams syndrome (7q11.23 microdeletion) is characterized by specific alterations in neurocognitive architecture and functioning, as well as disordered sleep. Here we analyze the region, sleep state and frequency-specific EEG synchronization of whole night sleep recordings of 21 Williams syndrome and 21 typically developing age- and gender-matched subjects by calculating weighted phase lag indexes. We found broadband increases in inter- and intrahemispheric neural connectivity for both NREM and REM sleep EEG of Williams syndrome subjects. These effects consisted of increased theta, high sigma, and beta/low gamma synchronization, whereas alpha synchronization was characterized by a peculiar Williams syndrome-specific decrease during NREM states (intra- and interhemispheric centro-temporal) and REM phases of sleep (occipital intra-area synchronization). We also found a decrease in short range, occipital connectivity of NREM sleep EEG theta activity. The striking increased overall synchronization of sleep EEG in Williams syndrome subjects is consistent with the recently reported increase in synaptic and dendritic density in stem-cell based Williams syndrome models, whereas decreased alpha and occipital connectivity might reflect and underpin the altered microarchitecture of primary visual cortex and disordered visuospatial functioning of Williams syndrome subjects.

  7. Electrophysiological Evidences of Organization of Cortical Motor Information in the Basal Ganglia

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    Hirokazu Iwamuro

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, the many developments in the treatment of movement disorders such as Parkinson disease and dystonia have enhanced our understanding on organization of the basal ganglia, and this knowledge has led to other advances in the field. According to many electrophysiological and anatomical findings, it is considered that motor information from different cortical areas is processed through several cortico-basal ganglia loops principally in a parallel fashion and somatotopy from each cortical area is also well preserved in each loop. Moreover, recent studies suggest that not only the parallel processing but also some convergence of information occur through the basal ganglia. Information from cortical areas whose functions are close to each other tends to converge in the basal ganglia. The cortico-basal ganglia loops should be comprehended more as a network rather than as separated subdivisions. However, the functions of this convergence still remain unknown. It is important even for clinical doctors to be well informed about this kind of current knowledge because some symptoms of movement disorders may be explained by disorganization of the information network in the basal ganglia.

  8. Negative symptoms in schizophrenia are associated with aberrant striato-cortical connectivity in a rewarded perceptual decision-making task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckless, Greg E; Andreassen, Ole A; Server, Andres; Østefjells, Tiril; Jensen, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Negative symptoms in schizophrenia have been associated with structural and functional changes in the prefrontal cortex. They often persist after treatment with antipsychotic medication which targets, in particular, the ventral striatum (VS). As schizophrenia has been suggested to arise from dysfunctional connectivity between neural networks, it is possible that residual aberrant striato-cortical connectivity in medicated patients plays a role in enduring negative symptomology. The present study examined the relationship between striato-cortical connectivity and negative symptoms in medicated schizophrenia patients. We manipulated motivation in a perceptual decision-making task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Comparing healthy controls (n = 21) and medicated patients with schizophrenia (n = 18) we investigated how motivation-mediated changes in VS activation affected functional connectivity with the frontal cortex, and how changes in connectivity strength from the neutral to motivated condition related to negative symptom severity. A pattern of aberrant striato-cortical connectivity was observed in the presence of intact VS, but altered left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) motivation-mediated activation in patients. The more severe the patient's negative symptoms, the less the connectivity strength between the right VS and left IFG changed from the neutral to the motivated condition. Despite aberrant striato-cortical connectivity and altered recruitment of the left IFG among patients, both patients and healthy controls adopted a more liberal response strategy in the motivated compared to the neutral condition. The present findings suggest that there is a link between dysfunctional striato-cortical connectivity and negative symptom severity, and offer a possible explanation as to why negative symptoms persist after treatment with antipsychotics.

  9. Functional mapping of thalamic nuclei and their integration into cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical loops via ultra-high resolution imaging- From animal anatomy to in vivo imaging in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coraline D. Metzger

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The thalamus, a crucial node in the well-described cortico-striatal-thalamo-cortical circuits, has been the focus of functional and structural imaging studies investigating human emotion, cognition and memory. Invasive work in animals and post-mortem investigations have revealed the rich cytoarchitectonics and functional specificity of the thalamus. Given current restrictions in the spatial resolution of non-invasive imaging modalities, there is, however, a translational gap between functional and structural information on these circuits in humans and animals as well as between histological and cellular evidence and their relationship to psychological functioning.With the advance of higher field strengths for MR approaches, better spatial resolution is now available promising to overcome this conceptual problem.We here review these two levels, which exist for both neuroscientific and clinical investigations, and then focus on current attempts to overcome conceptual boundaries of these observations with the help of high-resolution imaging.

  10. Joint cross-correlation analysis reveals complex, time-dependent functional relationship between cortical neurons and arm electromyograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Katie Z.; Lebedev, Mikhail A.

    2014-01-01

    Correlation between cortical activity and electromyographic (EMG) activity of limb muscles has long been a subject of neurophysiological studies, especially in terms of corticospinal connectivity. Interest in this issue has recently increased due to the development of brain-machine interfaces with output signals that mimic muscle force. For this study, three monkeys were implanted with multielectrode arrays in multiple cortical areas. One monkey performed self-timed touch pad presses, whereas the other two executed arm reaching movements. We analyzed the dynamic relationship between cortical neuronal activity and arm EMGs using a joint cross-correlation (JCC) analysis that evaluated trial-by-trial correlation as a function of time intervals within a trial. JCCs revealed transient correlations between the EMGs of multiple muscles and neural activity in motor, premotor and somatosensory cortical areas. Matching results were obtained using spike-triggered averages corrected by subtracting trial-shuffled data. Compared with spike-triggered averages, JCCs more readily revealed dynamic changes in cortico-EMG correlations. JCCs showed that correlation peaks often sharpened around movement times and broadened during delay intervals. Furthermore, JCC patterns were directionally selective for the arm-reaching task. We propose that such highly dynamic, task-dependent and distributed relationships between cortical activity and EMGs should be taken into consideration for future brain-machine interfaces that generate EMG-like signals. PMID:25210153

  11. Structural plasticity of remote cortical brain regions is determined by connectivity to the primary lesion in subcortical stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bastian; Schulz, Robert; Bönstrup, Marlene; Hummel, Friedhelm C; Sedlacik, Jan; Fiehler, Jens; Gerloff, Christian; Thomalla, Götz

    2015-09-01

    Cortical atrophy as demonstrated by measurement of cortical thickness (CT) is a hallmark of various neurodegenerative diseases. In the wake of an acute ischemic stroke, brain architecture undergoes dynamic changes that can be tracked by structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies as soon as 3 months after stroke. In this study, we measured changes of CT in cortical areas connected to subcortical stroke lesions in 12 patients with upper extremity paresis combining white-matter tractography and semi-automatic measurement of CT using the Freesurfer software. Three months after stroke, a significant decrease in CT of -2.6% (median, upper/lower boundary of 95% confidence interval -4.1%/-1.1%) was detected in areas connected to ischemic lesions, whereas CT in unconnected cortical areas remained largely unchanged. A cluster of significant cortical thinning was detected in the superior frontal gyrus of the stroke hemisphere using a surface-based general linear model correcting for multiple comparisons. There was no significant correlation of changes in CT with clinical outcome parameters. Our results show a specific impact of subcortical lesions on distant, yet connected cortical areas explainable by secondary neuro-axonal degeneration of distant areas.

  12. Maturation of Cortico-Subcortical Structural Networks-Segregation and Overlap of Medial Temporal and Fronto-Striatal Systems in Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walhovd, Kristine B; Tamnes, Christian K; Bjørnerud, Atle; Due-Tønnessen, Paulina; Holland, Dominic; Dale, Anders M; Fjell, Anders M

    2015-07-01

    The brain consists of partly segregated neural circuits within which structural convergence and functional integration occurs during development. The relationship of structural cortical and subcortical maturation is largely unknown. We aimed to study volumetric development of the hippocampus and basal ganglia (caudate, putamen, pallidum, accumbens) in relation to volume changes throughout the cortex. Longitudinal MRI data were obtained across a mean interval of 2.6 years in 85 participants with an age range of 8-19 years at study start. Left and right subcortical changes were related to cortical change vertex-wise in the ipsilateral hemisphere with general linear models with age, sex, interval between scans, and mean cortical volume change as covariates. Hippocampal-cortical change relationships centered on parts of the Papez circuit, including entorhinal, parahippocampal, and isthmus cingulate areas, and lateral temporal, insular, and orbitofrontal cortices in the left hemisphere. Basal ganglia-cortical change relationships were observed in mostly nonoverlapping and more anterior cortical areas, all including the anterior cingulate. Other patterns were unique to specific basal ganglia structures, including pre-, post-, and paracentral patterns relating to putamen change. In conclusion, patterns of cortico-subcortical development as assessed by morphometric analyses in part map out segregated neural circuits at the macrostructural level. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Attention modulates hemispheric differences in functional connectivity: Evidence from MEG recordings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Gootjes (Liselotte); A. Bouma (Anke); J.W. van Strien (Jan); P. Scheltens (Philip); C.J. Stam

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThe present study examined intrahemispheric functional connectivity during rest and dichotic listening in 8 male and 9 female healthy young adults measured with magnetoencephalography (MEG). Generalized synchronization within the separate hemispheres was estimated by means of the

  14. Attention modulates hemispheric differences in functional connectivity : Evidence from MEG recordings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gootjes, L; Bouma, A; Van Strien, JW; Scheltens, P; Stam, CJ

    The present study examined intrahemispheric functional connectivity during rest and dichotic listening in 8 male and 9 female healthy Young adults measured with magnetoencephalography (MEG). Generalized synchronization within the separate hemispheres was estimated by means of the synchronization

  15. Rich-Club Organization in Effective Connectivity among Cortical Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimono, Masanori; Ito, Shinya; Yeh, Fang-Chin; Timme, Nicholas; Myroshnychenko, Maxym; Lapish, Christopher C.; Tosi, Zachary; Hottowy, Pawel; Smith, Wesley C.; Masmanidis, Sotiris C.; Litke, Alan M.; Sporns, Olaf; Beggs, John M.

    2016-01-01

    The performance of complex networks, like the brain, depends on how effectively their elements communicate. Despite the importance of communication, it is virtually unknown how information is transferred in local cortical networks, consisting of hundreds of closely spaced neurons. To address this, it is important to record simultaneously from hundreds of neurons at a spacing that matches typical axonal connection distances, and at a temporal resolution that matches synaptic delays. We used a 512-electrode array (60 μm spacing) to record spontaneous activity at 20 kHz from up to 500 neurons simultaneously in slice cultures of mouse somatosensory cortex for 1 h at a time. We applied a previously validated version of transfer entropy to quantify information transfer. Similar to in vivo reports, we found an approximately lognormal distribution of firing rates. Pairwise information transfer strengths also were nearly lognormally distributed, similar to reports of synaptic strengths. Some neurons transferred and received much more information than others, which is consistent with previous predictions. Neurons with the highest outgoing and incoming information transfer were more strongly connected to each other than chance, thus forming a “rich club.” We found similar results in networks recorded in vivo from rodent cortex, suggesting the generality of these findings. A rich-club structure has been found previously in large-scale human brain networks and is thought to facilitate communication between cortical regions. The discovery of a small, but information-rich, subset of neurons within cortical regions suggests that this population will play a vital role in communication, learning, and memory. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Many studies have focused on communication networks between cortical brain regions. In contrast, very few studies have examined communication networks within a cortical region. This is the first study to combine such a large number of neurons (several

  16. Rich-Club Organization in Effective Connectivity among Cortical Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, Sunny; Shimono, Masanori; Ito, Shinya; Yeh, Fang-Chin; Timme, Nicholas; Myroshnychenko, Maxym; Lapish, Christopher C; Tosi, Zachary; Hottowy, Pawel; Smith, Wesley C; Masmanidis, Sotiris C; Litke, Alan M; Sporns, Olaf; Beggs, John M

    2016-01-20

    The performance of complex networks, like the brain, depends on how effectively their elements communicate. Despite the importance of communication, it is virtually unknown how information is transferred in local cortical networks, consisting of hundreds of closely spaced neurons. To address this, it is important to record simultaneously from hundreds of neurons at a spacing that matches typical axonal connection distances, and at a temporal resolution that matches synaptic delays. We used a 512-electrode array (60 μm spacing) to record spontaneous activity at 20 kHz from up to 500 neurons simultaneously in slice cultures of mouse somatosensory cortex for 1 h at a time. We applied a previously validated version of transfer entropy to quantify information transfer. Similar to in vivo reports, we found an approximately lognormal distribution of firing rates. Pairwise information transfer strengths also were nearly lognormally distributed, similar to reports of synaptic strengths. Some neurons transferred and received much more information than others, which is consistent with previous predictions. Neurons with the highest outgoing and incoming information transfer were more strongly connected to each other than chance, thus forming a "rich club." We found similar results in networks recorded in vivo from rodent cortex, suggesting the generality of these findings. A rich-club structure has been found previously in large-scale human brain networks and is thought to facilitate communication between cortical regions. The discovery of a small, but information-rich, subset of neurons within cortical regions suggests that this population will play a vital role in communication, learning, and memory. Significance statement: Many studies have focused on communication networks between cortical brain regions. In contrast, very few studies have examined communication networks within a cortical region. This is the first study to combine such a large number of neurons (several

  17. Lifespan anxiety is reflected in human amygdala cortical connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ye; Xu, Ting; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The amygdala plays a pivotal role in processing anxiety and connects to large‐scale brain networks. However, intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) between amygdala and these networks has rarely been examined in relation to anxiety, especially across the lifespan. We employed resting‐state functional MRI data from 280 healthy adults (18–83.5 yrs) to elucidate the relationship between anxiety and amygdala iFC with common cortical networks including the visual network, somatomotor network, dorsal attention network, ventral attention network, limbic network, frontoparietal network, and default network. Global and network‐specific iFC were separately computed as mean iFC of amygdala with the entire cerebral cortex and each cortical network. We detected negative correlation between global positive amygdala iFC and trait anxiety. Network‐specific associations between amygdala iFC and anxiety were also detectable. Specifically, the higher iFC strength between the left amygdala and the limbic network predicted lower state anxiety. For the trait anxiety, left amygdala anxiety–connectivity correlation was observed in both somatomotor and dorsal attention networks, whereas the right amygdala anxiety–connectivity correlation was primarily distributed in the frontoparietal and ventral attention networks. Ventral attention network exhibited significant anxiety–gender interactions on its iFC with amygdala. Together with findings from additional vertex‐wise analysis, these data clearly indicated that both low‐level sensory networks and high‐level associative networks could contribute to detectable predictions of anxiety behaviors by their iFC profiles with the amygdala. This set of systems neuroscience findings could lead to novel functional network models on neural correlates of human anxiety and provide targets for novel treatment strategies on anxiety disorders. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1178–1193, 2016. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping

  18. Morphological brain measures of cortico-limbic inhibition related to resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Arpana; Love, Aubrey; Kilpatrick, Lisa A; Labus, Jennifer S; Bhatt, Ravi; Chang, Lin; Tillisch, Kirsten; Naliboff, Bruce; Mayer, Emeran A

    2017-09-01

    Resilience is the ability to adequately adapt and respond to homeostatic perturbations. Although resilience has been associated with positive health outcomes, the neuro-biological basis of resilience is poorly understood. The aim of the study was to identify associations between regional brain morphology and trait resilience with a focus on resilience-related morphological differences in brain regions involved in cortico-limbic inhibition. The relationship between resilience and measures of affect were also investigated. Forty-eight healthy subjects completed structural MRI scans. Self-reported resilience was measured using the Connor and Davidson Resilience Scale. Segmentation and regional parcellation of images was performed to yield a total of 165 regions. Gray matter volume (GMV), cortical thickness, surface area, and mean curvature were calculated for each region. Regression models were used to identify associations between morphology of regions belonging to executive control and emotional arousal brain networks and trait resilience (total and subscales) while controlling for age, sex, and total GMV. Correlations were also conducted between resilience scores and affect scores. Significant associations were found between GM changes in hypothesized brain regions (subparietal sulcus, intraparietal sulcus, amygdala, anterior mid cingulate cortex, and subgenual cingulate cortex) and resilience scores. There were significant positive correlations between resilience and positive affect and negative correlations with negative affect. Resilience was associated with brain morphology of regions involved in cognitive and affective processes related to cortico-limbic inhibition. Brain signatures associated with resilience may be a biomarker of vulnerability to disease. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Asymmetric Engagement of Amygdala and Its Gamma Connectivity in Early Emotional Face Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tai-Ying; Chen, Yong-Sheng; Hsieh, Jen-Chuen; Chen, Li-Fen

    2015-01-01

    The amygdala has been regarded as a key substrate for emotion processing. However, the engagement of the left and right amygdala during the early perceptual processing of different emotional faces remains unclear. We investigated the temporal profiles of oscillatory gamma activity in the amygdala and effective connectivity of the amygdala with the thalamus and cortical areas during implicit emotion-perceptual tasks using event-related magnetoencephalography (MEG). We found that within 100 ms after stimulus onset the right amygdala habituated to emotional faces rapidly (with duration around 20–30 ms), whereas activity in the left amygdala (with duration around 50–60 ms) sustained longer than that in the right. Our data suggest that the right amygdala could be linked to autonomic arousal generated by facial emotions and the left amygdala might be involved in decoding or evaluating expressive faces in the early perceptual emotion processing. The results of effective connectivity provide evidence that only negative emotional processing engages both cortical and subcortical pathways connected to the right amygdala, representing its evolutional significance (survival). These findings demonstrate the asymmetric engagement of bilateral amygdala in emotional face processing as well as the capability of MEG for assessing thalamo-cortico-limbic circuitry. PMID:25629899

  20. Altered functional connectivity differs in stroke survivors with impaired touch sensation following left and right hemisphere lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Goodin

    Full Text Available One in two survivors experience impairment in touch sensation after stroke. The nature of this impairment is likely associated with changes associated with the functional somatosensory network of the brain; however few studies have examined this. In particular, the impact of lesioned hemisphere has not been investigated. We examined resting state functional connectivity in 28 stroke survivors, 14 with left hemisphere and 14 with right hemisphere lesion, and 14 healthy controls. Contra-lesional hands showed significantly decreased touch discrimination. Whole brain functional connectivity (FC data was extracted from four seed regions, i.e. primary (S1 and secondary (S2 somatosensory cortices in both hemispheres. Whole brain FC maps and Laterality Indices (LI were calculated for subgroups. Inter-hemispheric FC was greater in healthy controls compared to the combined stroke cohort from the left S1 seed and bilateral S2 seeds. The left lesion subgroup showed decreased FC, relative to controls, from left ipsi-lesional S1 to contra-lesional S1 and to distributed temporal, occipital and parietal regions. In comparison, the right lesion group showed decreased connectivity from contra-lesional left S1 and bilateral S2 to ipsi-lesional parietal operculum (S2, and to occipital and temporal regions. The right lesion group also showed increased intra-hemispheric FC from ipsi-lesional right S1 to inferior parietal regions compared to controls. In comparison to the left lesion group, those with right lesion showed greater intra-hemispheric connectivity from left S1 to left parietal and occipital regions and from right S1 to right angular and parietal regions. Laterality Indices were significantly greater for stroke subgroups relative to matched controls for contra-lesional S1 (left lesion group and contra-lesional S2 (both groups. We provide evidence of altered functional connectivity within the somatosensory network, across both hemispheres, and to other

  1. Unimodal primary sensory cortices are directly connected by long-range horizontal projections in the rat sensory cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jimmy eStehberg

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Research based on functional imaging and neuronal recordings in the barrel cortex subdivision of primary somatosensory cortex (SI of the adult rat has revealed novel aspects of structure-function relationships in this cortex. Specifically, it has demonstrated that single whisker stimulation evokes subthreshold neuronal activity that spreads symmetrically within gray matter from the appropriate barrel area, crosses cytoarchitectural borders of SI and reaches deeply into other unimodal primary cortices such as primary auditory (AI and primary visual (VI. It was further demonstrated that this spread is supported by a spatially matching underlying diffuse network of border-crossing, long-range projections that could also reach deeply into AI and VI. Here we seek to determine whether such a network of border-crossing, long-range projections is unique to barrel cortex or characterizes also other primary, unimodal sensory cortices and therefore could directly connect them. Using anterograde (BDA and retrograde (CTb tract-tracing techniques, we demonstrate that such diffuse horizontal networks directly and mutually connect VI, AI and SI. These findings suggest that diffuse, border-crossing axonal projections connecting directly primary cortices are an important organizational motif common to all major primary sensory cortices in the rat. Potential implications of these findings for topics including cortical structure-function relationships, multisensory integration, functional imaging and cortical parcellation are discussed.

  2. Acquisition, Analyses and Interpretation of fMRI Data: A Study on the Effective Connectivity in Human Primary Auditory Cortices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Nazlim Yusoff; Mazlyfarina Mohamad; Khairiah Abdul Hamid

    2011-01-01

    A study on the effective connectivity characteristics in auditory cortices was conducted on five healthy Malay male subjects with the age of 20 to 40 years old using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), statistical parametric mapping (SPM5) and dynamic causal modelling (DCM). A silent imaging paradigm was used to reduce the scanner sound artefacts on functional images. The subjects were instructed to pay attention to the white noise stimulus binaurally given at intensity level of 70 dB higher than the hearing level for normal people. Functional specialisation was studied using Matlab-based SPM5 software by means of fixed effects (FFX), random effects (RFX) and conjunction analyses. Individual analyses on all subjects indicate asymmetrical bilateral activation between the left and right auditory cortices in Brodmann areas (BA)22, 41 and 42 involving the primary and secondary auditory cortices. The three auditory areas in the right and left auditory cortices are selected for the determination of the effective connectivity by constructing 9 network models. The effective connectivity is determined on four out of five subjects with the exception of one subject who has the BA22 coordinates located too far from BA22 coordinates obtained from group analysis. DCM results showed the existence of effective connectivity between the three selected auditory areas in both auditory cortices. In the right auditory cortex, BA42 is identified as input centre with unidirectional parallel effective connectivities of BA42→BA41and BA42→BA22. However, for the left auditory cortex, the input is BA41 with unidirectional parallel effective connectivities of BA41→BA42 and BA41→BA22. The connectivity between the activated auditory areas suggests the existence of signal pathway in the auditory cortices even when the subject is listening to noise. (author)

  3. Disturbed cortico-amygdalar functional connectivity as pathophysiological correlate of working memory deficits in bipolar affective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegmayer, Katharina; Usher, Juliana; Trost, Sarah; Henseler, Ilona; Tost, Heike; Rietschel, Marcella; Falkai, Peter; Gruber, Oliver

    2015-06-01

    Patients suffering from bipolar affective disorder show deficits in working memory functions. In a previous functional magnetic resonance imaging study, we observed an abnormal hyperactivity of the amygdala in bipolar patients during articulatory rehearsal in verbal working memory. In the present study, we investigated the dynamic neurofunctional interactions between the right amygdala and the brain systems that underlie verbal working memory in both bipolar patients and healthy controls. In total, 18 euthymic bipolar patients and 18 healthy controls performed a modified version of the Sternberg item-recognition (working memory) task. We used the psychophysiological interaction approach in order to assess functional connectivity between the right amygdala and the brain regions involved in verbal working memory. In healthy subjects, we found significant negative functional interactions between the right amygdala and multiple cortical brain areas involved in verbal working memory. In comparison with the healthy control subjects, bipolar patients exhibited significantly reduced functional interactions of the right amygdala particularly with the right-hemispheric, i.e., ipsilateral, cortical regions supporting verbal working memory. Together with our previous finding of amygdala hyperactivity in bipolar patients during verbal rehearsal, the present results suggest that a disturbed right-hemispheric "cognitive-emotional" interaction between the amygdala and cortical brain regions underlying working memory may be responsible for amygdala hyperactivation and affects verbal working memory (deficits) in bipolar patients.

  4. Comparing Intrinsic Connectivity Models for the Primary Auditory Cortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Khairiah Abdul; Yusoff, Ahmad Nazlim; Mohamad, Mazlyfarina; Hamid, Aini Ismafairus Abd; Manan, Hanani Abd

    2010-07-01

    This fMRI study is about modeling the intrinsic connectivity between Heschl' gyrus (HG) and superior temporal gyrus (STG) in human primary auditory cortices. Ten healthy male subjects participated and required to listen to white noise stimulus during the fMRI scans. Two intrinsic connectivity models comprising bilateral HG and STG were constructed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and dynamic causal modeling (DCM). Group Bayes factor (GBF), positive evidence ratio (PER) and Bayesian model selection (BMS) for group studies were used in model comparison. Group results indicated significant bilateral asymmetrical activation (puncorr < 0.001) in HG and STG. Comparison results showed strong evidence of Model 2 as the preferred model (STG as the input center) with GBF value of 5.77 × 1073 The model is preferred by 6 out of 10 subjects. The results were supported by BMS results for group studies. One-sample t-test on connection values obtained from Model 2 indicates unidirectional parallel connections from STG to bilateral HG (p<0.05). Model 2 was determined to be the most probable intrinsic connectivity model between bilateral HG and STG when listening to white noise.

  5. Altered functional connectivity differs in stroke survivors with impaired touch sensation following left and right hemisphere lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodin, Peter; Lamp, Gemma; Vidyasagar, Rishma; McArdle, David; Seitz, Rüdiger J; Carey, Leeanne M

    2018-01-01

    One in two survivors experience impairment in touch sensation after stroke. The nature of this impairment is likely associated with changes associated with the functional somatosensory network of the brain; however few studies have examined this. In particular, the impact of lesioned hemisphere has not been investigated. We examined resting state functional connectivity in 28 stroke survivors, 14 with left hemisphere and 14 with right hemisphere lesion, and 14 healthy controls. Contra-lesional hands showed significantly decreased touch discrimination. Whole brain functional connectivity (FC) data was extracted from four seed regions, i.e. primary (S1) and secondary (S2) somatosensory cortices in both hemispheres. Whole brain FC maps and Laterality Indices (LI) were calculated for subgroups. Inter-hemispheric FC was greater in healthy controls compared to the combined stroke cohort from the left S1 seed and bilateral S2 seeds. The left lesion subgroup showed decreased FC, relative to controls, from left ipsi-lesional S1 to contra-lesional S1 and to distributed temporal, occipital and parietal regions. In comparison, the right lesion group showed decreased connectivity from contra-lesional left S1 and bilateral S2 to ipsi-lesional parietal operculum (S2), and to occipital and temporal regions. The right lesion group also showed increased intra-hemispheric FC from ipsi-lesional right S1 to inferior parietal regions compared to controls. In comparison to the left lesion group, those with right lesion showed greater intra-hemispheric connectivity from left S1 to left parietal and occipital regions and from right S1 to right angular and parietal regions. Laterality Indices were significantly greater for stroke subgroups relative to matched controls for contra-lesional S1 (left lesion group) and contra-lesional S2 (both groups). We provide evidence of altered functional connectivity within the somatosensory network, across both hemispheres, and to other networks in stroke

  6. Associação entre o ângulo de Norberg, o percentual de cobertura da cabeça femoral, o índice cortical e o ângulo de inclinação em cães com displasia coxofemoral Associations among Norberg angle, percentage of femoral head coverage, cortico-medullary index, and femoral inclination angle in dogs with hip dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.L.T. Vieira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas 386 radiografias da articulação coxofemoral, sendo 220 de cães da raça Pastor Alemão, 112 machos e 108 fêmeas, e 166 da raça Labrador Retriever, 69 machos e 97 fêmeas. As radiografias foram classificadas segundo o grau de displasia coxofemoral (DCF, e foram mensurados o ângulo de inclinação, o ângulo de Norberg, o índice cortical e o percentual de cobertura da cabeça femoral de ambos os lados. As variáveis foram associadas mediante análise estatística multivariada de componentes principais. As variáveis índice cortical e ângulo de inclinação foram inversamente associadas. A raça Pastor Alemão apresentou valores de índice cortical e graus de DCF mais baixos em relação à raça Labrador Retriever. Maior ângulo de inclinação foi associado a menor ângulo de Norberg e menor percentual de cobertura. Animais mais velhos apresentaram menor ângulo de Norberg, menor porcentagem de cobertura e maior grau de DCF. Nas fêmeas, foram observados menor porcentagem de cobertura, menor ângulo de Norberg e maior grau de DCF. Pode-se concluir que o ângulo de inclinação e o índice cortical não demonstraram associação com a DCF.A total of 386 radiographs of the pelvis were evaluated, being 220 of German Shepherd dogs (112 males and 108 females and 166 of Labrador Retrievers (69 males and 97 females. The radiographs were degree classified regarding the of hip dysplasia (DHD. The Norberg and inclination angles, the cortico-medullary index, and the percentage coverage of the femoral head were measured and associated using multivariate statistical technique (principal component analysis. The cortico-medullary index and the inclination angle were inversely associated. The results indicated that German Shepherd Dogs showed lower cortico-medullary index and DHD compared with Labrador Retrievers. The higher the inclination angle, the lower the Norberg angle and percentage coverage of the femoral head. It was observed

  7. Group analyses of connectivity-based cortical parcellation using repeated k-means clustering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nanetti, Luca; Cerliani, Leonardo; Gazzola, Valeria; Renken, Remco; Keysers, Christian

    2009-01-01

    K-means clustering has become a popular tool for connectivity-based cortical segmentation using Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) data. A sometimes ignored issue is, however, that the output of the algorithm depends on the initial placement of starting points, and that different sets of starting

  8. The time-course of cortico-limbic neural responses to air hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Andrew P; Evans, Karleyton C; Reed, Jeffrey D; Moosavi, Shakeeb H; Banzett, Robert B

    2014-12-01

    Several studies have mapped brain regions associated with acute dyspnea perception. However, the time-course of brain activity during sustained dyspnea is unknown. Our objective was to determine the time-course of neural activity when dyspnea is sustained. Eight healthy subjects underwent brain blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic imaging (BOLD-fMRI) during mechanical ventilation with constant mild hypercapnia (∼ 45 mm Hg). Subjects rated dyspnea (air hunger) via visual analog scale (VAS). Tidal volume (V(T)) was alternated every 90 s between high VT (0.96 ± 0.23 L) that provided respiratory comfort (12 ± 6% full scale) and low V(T) (0.48 ± 0.08 L) which evoked air hunger (56 ± 11% full scale). BOLD signal was extracted from a priori brain regions and combined with VAS data to determine air hunger related neural time-course. Air hunger onset was associated with BOLD signal increases that followed two distinct temporal profiles within sub-regions of the anterior insula, anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortices (cortico-limbic circuitry): (1) fast, BOLD signal peak 40s. BOLD signal during air hunger offset followed fast and slow temporal profiles symmetrical, but inverse (signal decreases) to the time-courses of air hunger onset. We conclude that differential cortico-limbic circuit elements have unique contributions to dyspnea sensation over time. We suggest that previously unidentified sub-regions are responsible for either the acute awareness or maintenance of dyspnea. These data enhance interpretation of previous studies and inform hypotheses for future dyspnea research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Memories of attachment hamper EEG cortical connectivity in dissociative patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farina, Benedetto; Speranza, Anna Maria; Dittoni, Serena; Gnoni, Valentina; Trentini, Cristina; Vergano, Carola Maggiora; Liotti, Giovanni; Brunetti, Riccardo; Testani, Elisa; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated cortical connectivity modifications by electroencephalography (EEG) lagged coherence analysis, in subjects with dissociative disorders and in controls, after retrieval of attachment memories. We asked thirteen patients with dissociative disorders and thirteen age- and sex-matched healthy controls to retrieve personal attachment-related autobiographical memories through adult attachment interviews (AAI). EEG was recorded in the closed eyes resting state before and after the AAI. EEG lagged coherence before and after AAI was compared in all subjects. In the control group, memories of attachment promoted a widespread increase in EEG connectivity, in particular in the high-frequency EEG bands. Compared to controls, dissociative patients did not show an increase in EEG connectivity after the AAI. Conclusions: These results shed light on the neurophysiology of the disintegrative effect of retrieval of traumatic attachment memories in dissociative patients.

  10. Thalamo–cortical network underlying deep brain stimulation of centromedian thalamic nuclei in intractable epilepsy: a multimodal imaging analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim SH

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Seong Hoon Kim,1 Sung Chul Lim,1 Dong Won Yang,1 Jeong Hee Cho,1 Byung-Chul Son,2 Jiyeon Kim,3 Seung Bong Hong,4 Young-Min Shon4 1Department of Neurology, 2Department of Neurosurgery, Catholic Neuroscience Institute, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, 3Department of Neurology, Korea University Ansan Hospital, College of Medicine, Korea University, Ansan, 4Department of Neurology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Republic of Korea Objective: Deep brain stimulation (DBS of the centromedian thalamic nucleus (CM can be an alternative treatment option for intractable epilepsy patients. Since CM may be involved in widespread cortico-subcortical networks, identification of the cortical sub-networks specific to the target stimuli may provide further understanding on the underlying mechanisms of CM DBS. Several brain structures have distinguishing brain connections that may be related to the pivotal propagation and subsequent clinical effect of DBS.Methods: To explore core structures and their connections relevant to CM DBS, we applied electroencephalogram (EEG and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to 10 medically intractable patients – three generalized epilepsy (GE and seven multifocal epilepsy (MFE patients unsuitable for resective surgery. Spatiotemporal activation pattern was mapped from scalp EEG by delivering low-frequency stimuli (5 Hz. Structural connections between the CM and the cortical activation spots were assessed using DTI.Results: We confirmed an average 72% seizure reduction after CM DBS and its clinical efficiency remained consistent during the observation period (mean 21 months. EEG data revealed sequential source propagation from the anterior cingulate, followed by the frontotemporal regions bilaterally. In addition, maximal activation was found in the left cingulate gyrus and the right medial frontal cortex during the right and left CM stimulation, respectively

  11. Topology and graph theory applied to cortical anatomy may help explain working memory capacity for three or four simultaneous items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Robert B

    2003-04-15

    associativity among all combinations requires exponentially proliferating intersections. Beyond four, serpentine subpatch shapes are required, which could easily lead to pathologies of omission or commission. As hypothesized by many researchers, the binding of the widely distributed cortical modules that represent a given chunk may involve synchrony or coherence of a single EEG frequency. Elsewhere, I have conjectured that such a binding frequency for a single chunk may bear a harmonic relationship with the additional EEG frequencies that are simultaneously binding the other WM chunks. Other possible mechanisms of binding have also been hypothesized. Whatever the mechanism, the many attributes of a moment's complement of three or four WM chunks must generally have an accidental relationship with the spatial distribution of the cortical feature analyzers that must be activated to represent those attributes. Therefore, the cortex may need, and have, comprehensive anatomical connections of each of its modules for representing an attribute (or of small redundant module groupings) with every other. If such whole-part cortico-cortical connections are somehow exploited not only to fully represent each cognitive chunk in its bound-together attributes, but also to bring the major business of intensive WM information processing down to the level of local circuits, in the sorts of topological patterning hypothesized here, there may be two adaptive results: (1) Time and other economies would be achieved in the reduction of activity in distant cortico-cortical connections to lower-energy global orchestration, or binding processes. (2) The piecemeal local topological limit to four subpatches would be writ large, across the entire cortex, preventing an unconstrained combinatorial explosion of associations among all attributes of all three or four simultaneously active chunks. Such hypothetical convergence to foci in local subpatch interactions might take place primarily in association cortex

  12. Enhanced limbic/impaired cortical-loop connection onto the hippocampus of NHE rats: Application of resting-state functional connectivity in a preclinical ADHD model.

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    Zoratto, F; Palombelli, G M; Ruocco, L A; Carboni, E; Laviola, G; Sadile, A G; Adriani, W; Canese, R

    2017-08-30

    Due to a hyperfunctioning mesocorticolimbic system, Naples-High-Excitability (NHE) rats have been proposed to model for the meso-cortical variant of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Compared to Naples Random-Bred (NRB) controls, NHE rats show hyperactivity, impaired non-selective attention (Aspide et al., 1998), and impaired selective spatial attention (Ruocco et al., 2009a, 2014). Alteration in limbic functions has been proposed; however, resulting unbalance among forebrain areas has not been assessed yet. By resting-state functional Magnetic-Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in vivo, we investigated the connectivity of neuronal networks belonging to limbic vs. cortical loops in NHE and NRB rats (n=10 each). Notably, resting-state fMRI was applied using a multi-slice sagittal, gradient-echo sequence. Voxel-wise connectivity maps at rest, based on temporal correlation among fMRI time-series, were computed by seeding the hippocampus (Hip), nucleus accumbens (NAcc), dorsal striatum (dStr), amygdala (Amy) and dorsal/medial prefrontal cortex (PFC), both hemispheres. To summarize patterns of altered connection, clearly directional connectivity was evident within the cortical loop: bilaterally and specularly, from orbital and dorsal PFCs through dStr and hence towards Hip. Such network communication was reduced in NHE rats (also, with less mesencephalic/pontine innervation). Conversely, enhanced network activity emerged within the limbic loop of NHE rats: from left PFC, both through the NAcc and directly, to the Hip (all of which received greater ventral tegmental innervation, likely dopamine). Together with tuned-down cortical loop, this potentiated limbic loop may serve a major role in controlling ADHD-like behavioral symptoms in NHE rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Rehabilitation-triggered cortical plasticity after stroke: in vivo imaging at multiple scales (Conference Presentation)

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    Allegra Mascaro, Anna Letizia; Conti, Emilia; Lai, Stefano; Spalletti, Cristina; Di Giovanna, Antonino Paolo; Alia, Claudia; Panarese, Alessandro; Sacconi, Leonardo; Micera, Silvestro; Caleo, Matteo; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2017-02-01

    Neurorehabilitation protocols based on the use of robotic devices provide a highly repeatable therapy and have recently shown promising clinical results. Little is known about how rehabilitation molds the brain to promote motor recovery of the affected limb. We used a custom-made robotic platform that provides quantitative assessment of forelimb function in a retraction test. Complementary imaging techniques allowed us to access to the multiple facets of robotic rehabilitation-induced cortical plasticity after unilateral photothrombotic stroke in mice Primary Motor Cortex (Caudal Forelimb Area - CFA). First, we analyzed structural features of vasculature and dendritic reshaping in the peri-infarct area with two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Longitudinal analysis of dendritic branches and spines of pyramidal neurons suggests that robotic rehabilitation promotes the stabilization of peri-infarct cortical excitatory circuits, which is not accompanied by consistent vascular reorganization towards pre-stroke conditions. To investigate if this structural stabilization was linked to functional remapping, we performed mesoscale wide-field imaging on GCaMP6 mice while performing the motor task on the robotic platform. We revealed temporal and spatial features of the motor-triggered cortical activation, shining new light on rehabilitation-induced functional remapping of the ipsilesional cortex. Finally, by using an all-optical approach that combines optogenetic activation of the contralesional hemisphere and wide-field functional imaging of peri-infarct area, we dissected the effect of robotic rehabilitation on inter-hemispheric cortico-cortical connectivity.

  14. Structural and effective connectivity in focal epilepsy

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    Christopher S. Parker

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with medically-refractory focal epilepsy may be candidates for neurosurgery and some may require placement of intracranial EEG electrodes to localise seizure onset. Assessing cerebral responses to single pulse electrical stimulation (SPES may give diagnostically useful data. SPES produces cortico-cortical evoked potentials (CCEPs, which infer effective brain connectivity. Diffusion-weighted images and tractography may be used to estimate structural brain connectivity. This combination provides the opportunity to observe seizure onset and its propagation throughout the brain, spreading contiguously along the cortex explored with electrodes, or non-contiguously. We analysed CCEPs and diffusion tractography in seven focal epilepsy patients and reconstructed the effective and structural brain networks. We aimed to assess the inter-modal similarity of the networks at a large scale across the cortex, the effective and structural connectivity of the ictal-onset zone, and investigate potential mechanisms of non-contiguous seizure spread. We found a significant overlap between structural and effective networks. Effective network CCEP amplitude, baseline variation, and outward connectivity was higher at ictal-onset zones, while structural connection strength within the ictal-onset zone tended to be higher. These findings support the concept of hyperexcitable cortex being associated with seizure generation. The high prevalence of structural and effective connections from the ictal-onset zone to sites of non-contiguous spread suggests that macroscopic structural and effective connections are plausible routes for non-contiguous seizure spread.

  15. Dynamic change of global and local information processing in propofol-induced loss and recovery of consciousness.

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    Martin M Monti

    Full Text Available Whether unique to humans or not, consciousness is a central aspect of our experience of the world. The neural fingerprint of this experience, however, remains one of the least understood aspects of the human brain. In this paper we employ graph-theoretic measures and support vector machine classification to assess, in 12 healthy volunteers, the dynamic reconfiguration of functional connectivity during wakefulness, propofol-induced sedation and loss of consciousness, and the recovery of wakefulness. Our main findings, based on resting-state fMRI, are three-fold. First, we find that propofol-induced anesthesia does not bear differently on long-range versus short-range connections. Second, our multi-stage design dissociated an initial phase of thalamo-cortical and cortico-cortical hyperconnectivity, present during sedation, from a phase of cortico-cortical hypoconnectivity, apparent during loss of consciousness. Finally, we show that while clustering is increased during loss of consciousness, as recently suggested, it also remains significantly elevated during wakefulness recovery. Conversely, the characteristic path length of brain networks (i.e., the average functional distance between any two regions of the brain appears significantly increased only during loss of consciousness, marking a decrease of global information-processing efficiency uniquely associated with unconsciousness. These findings suggest that propofol-induced loss of consciousness is mainly tied to cortico-cortical and not thalamo-cortical mechanisms, and that decreased efficiency of information flow is the main feature differentiating the conscious from the unconscious brain.

  16. Beyond cytoarchitectonics: the internal and external connectivity structure of the caudate nucleus.

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    Sonja A Kotz

    Full Text Available While there is ample evidence on the functional and connectional differentiation of the caudate nucleus (CN, less is known about its potential microstructural subdivisions. However, this latter aspect is critical to the local information processing capabilities of the tissue. We applied diffusion MRI, a non-invasive in vivo method that has great potential for the exploration of the brain structure-behavior relationship, in order to characterize the local fiber structure in gray matter of the CN. We report novel evidence of a functionally meaningful structural tri-partition along the anterior-posterior axis of this region. The connectivity of the CN subregions is in line with connectivity evidence from earlier invasive studies in animal models. In addition, histological validation using polarized light imaging (PLI confirms these results, corroborating the notion that cortico-subcortico-cortical loops involve microstructurally differentiated regions in the caudate nucleus. Methodologically speaking, the comparison with advanced analysis of diffusion MRI shows that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI yields a simplified view of the CN fiber architecture which is refined by advanced high angular resolution imaging methods.

  17. Multimodal Imaging of Brain Connectivity Using the MIBCA Toolbox: Preliminary Application to Alzheimer's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, André Santos; Lacerda, Luís Miguel; Silva, Nuno André da; Ferreira, Hugo Alexandre

    2015-06-01

    The Multimodal Imaging Brain Connectivity Analysis (MIBCA) toolbox is a fully automated all-in-one connectivity analysis toolbox that offers both pre-processing, connectivity, and graph theory analysis of multimodal images such as anatomical, diffusion, and functional MRI, and PET. In this work, the MIBCA functionalities were used to study Alzheimer's Disease (AD) in a multimodal MR/PET approach. Materials and Methods: Data from 12 healthy controls, and 36 patients with EMCI, LMCI and AD (12 patients for each group) were obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database (adni.loni.usc.edu), including T1-weighted (T1-w), Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) data, and 18F-AV-45 (florbetapir) dynamic PET data from 40-60 min post injection (4x5 min). Both MR and PET data were automatically pre-processed for all subjects using MIBCA. T1-w data was parcellated into cortical and subcortical regions-of-interest (ROIs), and the corresponding thicknesses and volumes were calculated. DTI data was used to compute structural connectivity matrices based on fibers connecting pairs of ROIs. Lastly, dynamic PET images were summed, and the relative Standard Uptake Values calculated for each ROI. Results: An overall higher uptake of 18F-AV-45, consistent with an increased deposition of beta-amyloid, was observed for the AD group. Additionally, patients showed significant cortical atrophy (thickness and volume) especially in the entorhinal cortex and temporal areas, and a significant increase in Mean Diffusivity (MD) in the hippocampus, amygdala and temporal areas. Furthermore, patients showed a reduction of fiber connectivity with the progression of the disease, especially for intra-hemispherical connections. Conclusion: This work shows the potential of the MIBCA toolbox for the study of AD, as findings were shown to be in agreement with the literature. Here, only structural changes and beta-amyloid accumulation were considered. Yet, MIBCA is further able to

  18. Regional vulnerability of longitudinal cortical association connectivity

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    Rafael Ceschin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Preterm born children with spastic diplegia type of cerebral palsy and white matter injury or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL, are known to have motor, visual and cognitive impairments. Most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI studies performed in this group have demonstrated widespread abnormalities using averaged deterministic tractography and voxel-based DTI measurements. Little is known about structural network correlates of white matter topography and reorganization in preterm cerebral palsy, despite the availability of new therapies and the need for brain imaging biomarkers. Here, we combined novel post-processing methodology of probabilistic tractography data in this preterm cohort to improve spatial and regional delineation of longitudinal cortical association tract abnormalities using an along-tract approach, and compared these data to structural DTI cortical network topology analysis. DTI images were acquired on 16 preterm children with cerebral palsy (mean age 5.6 ± 4 and 75 healthy controls (mean age 5.7 ± 3.4. Despite mean tract analysis, Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS and voxel-based morphometry (VBM demonstrating diffusely reduced fractional anisotropy (FA reduction in all white matter tracts, the along-tract analysis improved the detection of regional tract vulnerability. The along-tract map-structural network topology correlates revealed two associations: (1 reduced regional posterior–anterior gradient in FA of the longitudinal visual cortical association tracts (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, optic radiation, posterior thalamic radiation correlated with reduced posterior–anterior gradient of intra-regional (nodal efficiency metrics with relative sparing of frontal and temporal regions; and (2 reduced regional FA within frontal–thalamic–striatal white matter pathways (anterior limb/anterior thalamic radiation, superior longitudinal fasciculus and cortical spinal tract

  19. The Effect of Binaural Beats on Visuospatial Working Memory and Cortical Connectivity.

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    Christine Beauchene

    Full Text Available Binaural beats utilize a phenomenon that occurs within the cortex when two different frequencies are presented separately to each ear. This procedure produces a third phantom binaural beat, whose frequency is equal to the difference of the two presented tones and which can be manipulated for non-invasive brain stimulation. The effects of binaural beats on working memory, the system in control of temporary retention and online organization of thoughts for successful goal directed behavior, have not been well studied. Furthermore, no studies have evaluated the effects of binaural beats on brain connectivity during working memory tasks. In this study, we determined the effects of different acoustic stimulation conditions on participant response accuracy and cortical network topology, as measured by EEG recordings, during a visuospatial working memory task. Three acoustic stimulation control conditions and three binaural beat stimulation conditions were used: None, Pure Tone, Classical Music, 5Hz binaural beats, 10Hz binaural beats, and 15Hz binaural beats. We found that listening to 15Hz binaural beats during a visuospatial working memory task not only increased the response accuracy, but also modified the strengths of the cortical networks during the task. The three auditory control conditions and the 5Hz and 10Hz binaural beats all decreased accuracy. Based on graphical network analyses, the cortical activity during 15Hz binaural beats produced networks characteristic of high information transfer with consistent connection strengths throughout the visuospatial working memory task.

  20. The Effect of Binaural Beats on Visuospatial Working Memory and Cortical Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchene, Christine; Abaid, Nicole; Moran, Rosalyn; Diana, Rachel A; Leonessa, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Binaural beats utilize a phenomenon that occurs within the cortex when two different frequencies are presented separately to each ear. This procedure produces a third phantom binaural beat, whose frequency is equal to the difference of the two presented tones and which can be manipulated for non-invasive brain stimulation. The effects of binaural beats on working memory, the system in control of temporary retention and online organization of thoughts for successful goal directed behavior, have not been well studied. Furthermore, no studies have evaluated the effects of binaural beats on brain connectivity during working memory tasks. In this study, we determined the effects of different acoustic stimulation conditions on participant response accuracy and cortical network topology, as measured by EEG recordings, during a visuospatial working memory task. Three acoustic stimulation control conditions and three binaural beat stimulation conditions were used: None, Pure Tone, Classical Music, 5Hz binaural beats, 10Hz binaural beats, and 15Hz binaural beats. We found that listening to 15Hz binaural beats during a visuospatial working memory task not only increased the response accuracy, but also modified the strengths of the cortical networks during the task. The three auditory control conditions and the 5Hz and 10Hz binaural beats all decreased accuracy. Based on graphical network analyses, the cortical activity during 15Hz binaural beats produced networks characteristic of high information transfer with consistent connection strengths throughout the visuospatial working memory task.

  1. Functional localization and effective connectivity of cortical theta and alpha oscillatory activity during an attention task

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    Yuichi Kitaura

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this paper is to investigate cortical electric neuronal activity as an indicator of brain function, in a mental arithmetic task that requires sustained attention, as compared to the resting state condition. The two questions of interest are the cortical localization of different oscillatory activities, and the directional effective flow of oscillatory activity between regions of interest, in the task condition compared to resting state. In particular, theta and alpha activity are of interest here, due to their important role in attention processing. Methods: We adapted mental arithmetic as an attention ask in this study. Eyes closed 61-channel EEG was recorded in 14 participants during resting and in a mental arithmetic task (“serial sevens subtraction”. Functional localization and connectivity analyses were based on cortical signals of electric neuronal activity estimated with sLORETA (standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography. Functional localization was based on the comparison of the cortical distributions of the generators of oscillatory activity between task and resting conditions. Assessment of effective connectivity was based on the iCoh (isolated effective coherence method, which provides an appropriate frequency decomposition of the directional flow of oscillatory activity between brain regions. Nine regions of interest comprising nodes from the dorsal and ventral attention networks were selected for the connectivity analysis. Results: Cortical spectral density distribution comparing task minus rest showed significant activity increase in medial prefrontal areas and decreased activity in left parietal lobe for the theta band, and decreased activity in parietal-occipital regions for the alpha1 band. At a global level, connections among right hemispheric nodes were predominantly decreased during the task condition, while connections among left hemispheric nodes were predominantly increased. At more

  2. Increased cortical-limbic anatomical network connectivity in major depression revealed by diffusion tensor imaging.

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    Peng Fang

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging studies have reported significant functional and structural differences between depressed patients and controls. Little attention has been given, however, to the abnormalities in anatomical connectivity in depressed patients. In the present study, we aim to investigate the alterations in connectivity of whole-brain anatomical networks in those suffering from major depression by using machine learning approaches. Brain anatomical networks were extracted from diffusion magnetic resonance images obtained from both 22 first-episode, treatment-naive adults with major depressive disorder and 26 matched healthy controls. Using machine learning approaches, we differentiated depressed patients from healthy controls based on their whole-brain anatomical connectivity patterns and identified the most discriminating features that represent between-group differences. Classification results showed that 91.7% (patients=86.4%, controls=96.2%; permutation test, p<0.0001 of subjects were correctly classified via leave-one-out cross-validation. Moreover, the strengths of all the most discriminating connections were increased in depressed patients relative to the controls, and these connections were primarily located within the cortical-limbic network, especially the frontal-limbic network. These results not only provide initial steps toward the development of neurobiological diagnostic markers for major depressive disorder, but also suggest that abnormal cortical-limbic anatomical networks may contribute to the anatomical basis of emotional dysregulation and cognitive impairments associated with this disease.

  3. White Matter Structural Connectivity Is Not Correlated to Cortical Resting-State Functional Connectivity over the Healthy Adult Lifespan

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    Adrian Tsang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Structural connectivity (SC of white matter (WM and functional connectivity (FC of cortical regions undergo changes in normal aging. As WM tracts form the underlying anatomical architecture that connects regions within resting state networks (RSNs, it is intuitive to expect that SC and FC changes with age are correlated. Studies that investigated the relationship between SC and FC in normal aging are rare, and have mainly compared between groups of elderly and younger subjects. The objectives of this work were to investigate linear SC and FC changes across the healthy adult lifespan, and to define relationships between SC and FC measures within seven whole-brain large scale RSNs. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI data were acquired from 177 healthy participants (male/female = 69/108; aged 18–87 years. Forty cortical regions across both hemispheres belonging to seven template-defined RSNs were considered. Mean diffusivity (MD, fractional anisotropy (FA, mean tract length, and number of streamlines derived from DTI data were used as SC measures, delineated using deterministic tractography, within each RSN. Pearson correlation coefficients of rs-fMRI-obtained BOLD signal time courses between cortical regions were used as FC measure. SC demonstrated significant age-related changes in all RSNs (decreased FA, mean tract length, number of streamlines; and increased MD, and significant FC decrease was observed in five out of seven networks. Among the networks that showed both significant age related changes in SC and FC, however, SC was not in general significantly correlated with FC, whether controlling for age or not. The lack of observed relationship between SC and FC suggests that measures derived from DTI data that are commonly used to infer the integrity of WM microstructure are not related to the corresponding changes in FC within RSNs. The possible temporal lag between SC and FC will need to be addressed

  4. Audiovisual integration in hemianopia: A neurocomputational account based on cortico-collicular interaction.

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    Magosso, Elisa; Bertini, Caterina; Cuppini, Cristiano; Ursino, Mauro

    2016-10-01

    Hemianopic patients retain some abilities to integrate audiovisual stimuli in the blind hemifield, showing both modulation of visual perception by auditory stimuli and modulation of auditory perception by visual stimuli. Indeed, conscious detection of a visual target in the blind hemifield can be improved by a spatially coincident auditory stimulus (auditory enhancement of visual detection), while a visual stimulus in the blind hemifield can improve localization of a spatially coincident auditory stimulus (visual enhancement of auditory localization). To gain more insight into the neural mechanisms underlying these two perceptual phenomena, we propose a neural network model including areas of neurons representing the retina, primary visual cortex (V1), extrastriate visual cortex, auditory cortex and the Superior Colliculus (SC). The visual and auditory modalities in the network interact via both direct cortical-cortical connections and subcortical-cortical connections involving the SC; the latter, in particular, integrates visual and auditory information and projects back to the cortices. Hemianopic patients were simulated by unilaterally lesioning V1, and preserving spared islands of V1 tissue within the lesion, to analyze the role of residual V1 neurons in mediating audiovisual integration. The network is able to reproduce the audiovisual phenomena in hemianopic patients, linking perceptions to neural activations, and disentangles the individual contribution of specific neural circuits and areas via sensitivity analyses. The study suggests i) a common key role of SC-cortical connections in mediating the two audiovisual phenomena; ii) a different role of visual cortices in the two phenomena: auditory enhancement of conscious visual detection being conditional on surviving V1 islands, while visual enhancement of auditory localization persisting even after complete V1 damage. The present study may contribute to advance understanding of the audiovisual dialogue

  5. Dose-dependent effects of theta burst rTMS on cortical excitability and resting-state connectivity of the human motor system.

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    Nettekoven, Charlotte; Volz, Lukas J; Kutscha, Martha; Pool, Eva-Maria; Rehme, Anne K; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fink, Gereon R; Grefkes, Christian

    2014-05-14

    Theta burst stimulation (TBS), a specific protocol of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), induces changes in cortical excitability that last beyond stimulation. TBS-induced aftereffects, however, vary between subjects, and the mechanisms underlying these aftereffects to date remain poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether increasing the number of pulses of intermittent TBS (iTBS) (1) increases cortical excitability as measured by motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) and (2) alters functional connectivity measured using resting-state fMRI, in a dose-dependent manner. Sixteen healthy, human subjects received three serially applied iTBS blocks of 600 pulses over the primary motor cortex (M1 stimulation) and the parieto-occipital vertex (sham stimulation) to test for dose-dependent iTBS effects on cortical excitability and functional connectivity (four sessions in total). iTBS over M1 increased MEP amplitudes compared with sham stimulation after each stimulation block. Although the increase in MEP amplitudes did not differ between the first and second block of M1 stimulation, we observed a significant increase after three blocks (1800 pulses). Furthermore, iTBS enhanced resting-state functional connectivity between the stimulated M1 and premotor regions in both hemispheres. Functional connectivity between M1 and ipsilateral dorsal premotor cortex further increased dose-dependently after 1800 pulses of iTBS over M1. However, no correlation between changes in MEP amplitudes and functional connectivity was detected. In summary, our data show that increasing the number of iTBS stimulation blocks results in dose-dependent effects at the local level (cortical excitability) as well as at a systems level (functional connectivity) with a dose-dependent enhancement of dorsal premotor cortex-M1 connectivity. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/346849-11$15.00/0.

  6. Inter-areal causal interactions in the gamma and beta frequency bands define a functional hierarchy in the primate visual system

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    Vezoli, J.; Bastos, A.; Bosman, C.; Schoffelen, J.M.; Oostenveld, R.; Weerd, P. De; Kennedy, H.; Fries, P.

    2013-01-01

    Cortico-cortical connectivity has been shown to be hierarchically organized such that bottom-up and top-down information are conveyed through the well-defined feedforward and feedback counter-streams, respectively. It remains however unclear what mechanisms the cortex might use to functionally

  7. Thalamo-cortical activation and connectivity during response preparation in adults with persistent and remitted ADHD.

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    Clerkin, Suzanne M; Schulz, Kurt P; Berwid, Olga G; Fan, Jin; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Tang, Cheuk Y; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2013-09-01

    The neural correlates of stimulus-driven processes, such as response preparation, have been posited to be associated with the onset of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) while being distinct from the neural mechanisms associated with recovery. The authors tested this hypothesis in adults with remitted and persistent ADHD. Thirty-eight young adults who were diagnosed with combined-type ADHD in childhood (probands) and 32 carefully matched comparison subjects were followed longitudinally and scanned with functional MRI while performing an event-related cued reaction time task. Probands were characterized as individuals with persistent or remitted ADHD. Differences in thalamo-cortical activation and functional connectivity during response preparation between comparison subjects and probands and between individuals with persistent ADHD and those with remitted ADHD were assessed by contrasting neural activation and functional connectivity during cue or noncue events. Probands exhibited less cue-related activation than comparison subjects in the thalamus, anterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, inferior parietal lobe, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex despite similar overall patterns of activation. There were no differences in activation between individuals in the remitted ADHD group and those in the persistent ADHD group in any hypothesized regions. However, cue-related functional connectivity between the right thalamus and brainstem was greater in comparison subjects relative to probands, and cue-related connectivity was greater between the right thalamus and prefrontal regions in individuals with remitted ADHD relative to those with persistent ADHD. Decreased thalamo-cortical activation during response preparation was present in adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood regardless of symptom remission in adulthood, and may be partly driven by less functional coordination between the brainstem and thalamus. Greater functional integration of the

  8. High-Degree Neurons Feed Cortical Computations.

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    Nicholas M Timme

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent work has shown that functional connectivity among cortical neurons is highly varied, with a small percentage of neurons having many more connections than others. Also, recent theoretical developments now make it possible to quantify how neurons modify information from the connections they receive. Therefore, it is now possible to investigate how information modification, or computation, depends on the number of connections a neuron receives (in-degree or sends out (out-degree. To do this, we recorded the simultaneous spiking activity of hundreds of neurons in cortico-hippocampal slice cultures using a high-density 512-electrode array. This preparation and recording method combination produced large numbers of neurons recorded at temporal and spatial resolutions that are not currently available in any in vivo recording system. We utilized transfer entropy (a well-established method for detecting linear and nonlinear interactions in time series and the partial information decomposition (a powerful, recently developed tool for dissecting multivariate information processing into distinct parts to quantify computation between neurons where information flows converged. We found that computations did not occur equally in all neurons throughout the networks. Surprisingly, neurons that computed large amounts of information tended to receive connections from high out-degree neurons. However, the in-degree of a neuron was not related to the amount of information it computed. To gain insight into these findings, we developed a simple feedforward network model. We found that a degree-modified Hebbian wiring rule best reproduced the pattern of computation and degree correlation results seen in the real data. Interestingly, this rule also maximized signal propagation in the presence of network-wide correlations, suggesting a mechanism by which cortex could deal with common random background input. These are the first results to show that the extent to

  9. Cytoarchitecture and cortical connections of the posterior cingulate and adjacent somatosensory fields in the rhesus monkey.

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    Morecraft, R J; Cipolloni, P B; Stilwell-Morecraft, K S; Gedney, M T; Pandya, D N

    2004-01-26

    The cytoarchitecture and connections of the caudal cingulate and medial somatosensory areas were investigated in the rhesus monkey. There is a stepwise laminar differentiation starting from retrosplenial area 30 towards the isocortical regions of the medial parietal cortex. This includes a gradational emphasis on supragranular laminar organization and general reduction of the infragranular neurons as one proceeds from area 30 toward the medial parietal regions, including areas 3, 1, 2, 5, 31, and the supplementary sensory area (SSA). This trend includes a progressive increase in layer IV neurons. Area 23c in the lower bank and transitional somatosensory area (TSA) in the upper bank of the cingulate sulcus appear as nodal points. From area 23c and TSA the architectonic progression can be traced in three directions: one culminates in areas 3a and 3b (core line), the second in areas 1, 2, and 5 (belt line), and the third in areas 31 and SSA (root line). These architectonic gradients are reflected in the connections of these regions. Thus, cingulate areas (30, 23a, and 23b) are connected with area 23c and TSA on the one hand and have widespread connections with parieto-temporal, frontal, and parahippocampal (limbic) regions on the other. Area 23c has connections with areas 30, 23a and b, and TSA as well as with medial somatosensory areas 3, 1, 2, 5, and SSA. Area 23c also has connections with parietotemporal, frontal, and limbic areas similar to areas 30, 23a, and 23b. Area TSA, like area 23c, has connections with areas 3, 1, 2, 5, and SSA. However, it has only limited connections with the parietotemporal and frontal regions and none with the parahippocampal gyrus. Medial area 3 is mainly connected to medial and dorsal sensory areas 3, 1, 2, 5, and SSA and to areas 4 and 6 as well as to supplementary (M2 or area 6m), rostral cingulate (M3 or areas 24c and d), and caudal cingulate (M4 or areas 23c and d) motor cortices. Thus, in parallel with the architectonic gradient

  10. The Functional Organization and Cortical Connections of Motor Cortex in Squirrels

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    Cooke, Dylan F.; Padberg, Jeffrey; Zahner, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Despite extraordinary diversity in the rodent order, studies of motor cortex have been limited to only 2 species, rats and mice. Here, we examine the topographic organization of motor cortex in the Eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) and cortical connections of motor cortex in the California ground squirrel (Spermophilus beecheyi). We distinguish a primary motor area, M1, based on intracortical microstimulation (ICMS), myeloarchitecture, and patterns of connectivity. A sensorimotor area between M1 and the primary somatosensory area, S1, was also distinguished based on connections, functional organization, and myeloarchitecture. We term this field 3a based on similarities with area 3a in nonrodent mammals. Movements are evoked with ICMS in both M1 and 3a in a roughly somatotopic pattern. Connections of 3a and M1 are distinct and suggest the presence of a third far rostral field, termed “F,” possibly involved in motor processing based on its connections. We hypothesize that 3a is homologous to the dysgranular zone (DZ) in S1 of rats and mice. Our results demonstrate that squirrels have both similar and unique features of M1 organization compared with those described in rats and mice, and that changes in 3a/DZ borders appear to have occurred in both lineages. PMID:22021916

  11. Increased cortical thickness and altered functional connectivity of the right superior temporal gyrus in left-handers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meiling; Chen, Heng; Wang, Junping; Liu, Feng; Wang, Yifeng; Lu, Fengmei; Yu, Chunshui; Chen, Huafu

    2015-01-01

    Altered structure in the temporal cortex has been implicated in the variable language laterality of left-handers (LH). The neuroanatomy of language lateralization and the corresponding synchronous functional connectivity (FC) in handedness cohorts are not, however, fully understood. We used structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data to investigate the effect of altered cortical thickness on FC in LH and right-handers (RH). Whole-brain cortical thickness was calculated and compared between the LH and RH. We observed increased cortical thickness in the right superior temporal gyrus (STG) in the LH. A further FC analysis was conducted between the right STG and the remaining voxels in the brain. Compared with RH, the LH showed significantly higher FC in the left STG, right occipital cortex, and lower FC in the left inferior frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus. Our findings suggest that LH have atypical connectivity in the language network, with an enhanced role of the STG, findings which provide novel insights into the structural and functional substrates underlying the atypical language development of left-handed individuals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Developmental Connectivity and Molecular Phenotypes of Unique Cortical Projection Neurons that Express a Synapse-Associated Receptor Tyrosine Kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kast, Ryan J; Wu, Hsiao-Huei; Levitt, Pat

    2017-11-28

    The complex circuitry and cell-type diversity of the cerebral cortex are required for its high-level functions. The mechanisms underlying the diversification of cortical neurons during prenatal development have received substantial attention, but understanding of neuronal heterogeneity is more limited during later periods of cortical circuit maturation. To address this knowledge gap, connectivity analysis and molecular phenotyping of cortical neuron subtypes that express the developing synapse-enriched MET receptor tyrosine kinase were performed. Experiments used a MetGFP transgenic mouse line, combined with coexpression analysis of class-specific molecular markers and retrograde connectivity mapping. The results reveal that MET is expressed by a minor subset of subcerebral and a larger number of intratelencephalic projection neurons. Remarkably, MET is excluded from most layer 6 corticothalamic neurons. These findings are particularly relevant for understanding the maturation of discrete cortical circuits, given converging evidence that MET influences dendritic elaboration and glutamatergic synapse maturation. The data suggest that classically defined cortical projection classes can be further subdivided based on molecular characteristics that likely influence synaptic maturation and circuit wiring. Additionally, given that MET is classified as a high confidence autism risk gene, the data suggest that projection neuron subpopulations may be differentially vulnerable to disorder-associated genetic variation. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. The Neural Circuits that Generate Tics in Gilles de la Tourette Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhishun; Maia, Tiago V.; Marsh, Rachel; Colibazzi, Tiziano; Gerber, Andrew; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study neural activity and connectivity within cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits and to reveal circuit-based neural mechanisms that govern tic generation in Tourette syndrome. Method We acquired fMRI data from 13 participants with Tourette syndrome and 21 controls during spontaneous or simulated tics. We used independent component analysis with hierarchical partner matching to isolate neural activity within functionally distinct regions of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits. We used Granger causality to investigate causal interactions among these regions. Results We found that the Tourette group exhibited stronger neural activity and interregional causality than controls throughout all portions of the motor pathway including sensorimotor cortex, putamen, pallidum, and substania nigra. Activity in these areas correlated positively with the severity of tic symptoms. Activity within the Tourette group was stronger during spontaneous tics than during voluntary tics in somatosensory and posterior parietal cortices, putamen, and amygdala/hippocampus complex, suggesting that activity in these regions may represent features of the premonitory urges that generate spontaneous tic behaviors. In contrast, activity was weaker in the Tourette group than in controls within portions of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits that exert top-down control over motor pathways (caudate and anterior cingulate cortex), and progressively less activity in these regions accompanied more severe tic symptoms, suggesting that faulty activity in these circuits may fail to control tic behaviors or the premonitory urges that generate them. Conclusions Our findings taken together suggest that tics are caused by the combined effects of excessive activity in motor pathways and reduced activation in control portions of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits. PMID:21955933

  14. Reorganization and stability for motor and language areas using cortical stimulation: case example and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Sandra; Komisarow, Jordan M; Gallentine, William; Mikati, Mohamad A; Bonner, Melanie J; Kranz, Peter G; Haglund, Michael M; Grant, Gerald

    2013-11-26

    The cerebral organization of language in epilepsy patients has been studied with invasive procedures such as Wada testing and electrical cortical stimulation mapping and more recently with noninvasive neuroimaging techniques, such as functional MRI. In the setting of a chronic seizure disorder, clinical variables have been shown to contribute to cerebral language reorganization underscoring the need for language lateralization and localization procedures. We present a 14-year-old pediatric patient with a refractory epilepsy disorder who underwent two neurosurgical resections of a left frontal epileptic focus separated by a year. He was mapped extraoperatively through a subdural grid using cortical stimulation to preserve motor and language functions. The clinical history and extensive workup prior to surgery is discussed as well as the opportunity to compare the cortical maps for language, motor, and sensory function before each resection. Reorganization in cortical tongue sensory areas was seen concomitant with a new zone of ictal and interictal activity in the previous tongue sensory area. Detailed neuropsychological data is presented before and after any surgical intervention to hypothesize about the extent of reorganization between epochs. We conclude that intrahemispheric cortical plasticity does occur following frontal lobe resective surgery in a teenager with medically refractory seizures.

  15. Reorganization and Stability for Motor and Language Areas Using Cortical Stimulation: Case Example and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Serafini

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The cerebral organization of language in epilepsy patients has been studied with invasive procedures such as Wada testing and electrical cortical stimulation mapping and more recently with noninvasive neuroimaging techniques, such as functional MRI. In the setting of a chronic seizure disorder, clinical variables have been shown to contribute to cerebral language reorganization underscoring the need for language lateralization and localization procedures. We present a 14-year-old pediatric patient with a refractory epilepsy disorder who underwent two neurosurgical resections of a left frontal epileptic focus separated by a year. He was mapped extraoperatively through a subdural grid using cortical stimulation to preserve motor and language functions. The clinical history and extensive workup prior to surgery is discussed as well as the opportunity to compare the cortical maps for language, motor, and sensory function before each resection. Reorganization in cortical tongue sensory areas was seen concomitant with a new zone of ictal and interictal activity in the previous tongue sensory area. Detailed neuropsychological data is presented before and after any surgical intervention to hypothesize about the extent of reorganization between epochs. We conclude that intrahemispheric cortical plasticity does occur following frontal lobe resective surgery in a teenager with medically refractory seizures.

  16. Long-Lasting Crossmodal Cortical Reorganization Triggered by Brief Postnatal Visual Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collignon, Olivier; Dormal, Giulia; de Heering, Adelaide; Lepore, Franco; Lewis, Terri L; Maurer, Daphne

    2015-09-21

    Animal and human studies have demonstrated that transient visual deprivation early in life, even for a very short period, permanently alters the response properties of neurons in the visual cortex and leads to corresponding behavioral visual deficits. While it is acknowledged that early-onset and longstanding blindness leads the occipital cortex to respond to non-visual stimulation, it remains unknown whether a short and transient period of postnatal visual deprivation is sufficient to trigger crossmodal reorganization that persists after years of visual experience. In the present study, we characterized brain responses to auditory stimuli in 11 adults who had been deprived of all patterned vision at birth by congenital cataracts in both eyes until they were treated at 9 to 238 days of age. When compared to controls with typical visual experience, the cataract-reversal group showed enhanced auditory-driven activity in focal visual regions. A combination of dynamic causal modeling with Bayesian model selection indicated that this auditory-driven activity in the occipital cortex was better explained by direct cortico-cortical connections with the primary auditory cortex than by subcortical connections. Thus, a short and transient period of visual deprivation early in life leads to enduring large-scale crossmodal reorganization of the brain circuitry typically dedicated to vision. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Functional connectivity-based parcellation and connectome of cortical midline structures in the mouse: a perfusion autoradiography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holschneider, Daniel P; Wang, Zhuo; Pang, Raina D

    2014-01-01

    Rodent cortical midline structures (CMS) are involved in emotional, cognitive and attentional processes. Tract tracing has revealed complex patterns of structural connectivity demonstrating connectivity-based integration and segregation for the prelimbic, cingulate area 1, retrosplenial dysgranular cortices dorsally, and infralimbic, cingulate area 2, and retrosplenial granular cortices ventrally. Understanding of CMS functional connectivity (FC) remains more limited. Here we present the first subregion-level FC analysis of the mouse CMS, and assess whether fear results in state-dependent FC changes analogous to what has been reported in humans. Brain mapping using [(14)C]-iodoantipyrine was performed in mice during auditory-cued fear conditioned recall and in controls. Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was analyzed in 3-D images reconstructed from brain autoradiographs. Regions-of-interest were selected along the CMS anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral axes. In controls, pairwise correlation and graph theoretical analyses showed strong FC within each CMS structure, strong FC along the dorsal-ventral axis, with segregation of anterior from posterior structures. Seed correlation showed FC of anterior regions to limbic/paralimbic areas, and FC of posterior regions to sensory areas-findings consistent with functional segregation noted in humans. Fear recall increased FC between the cingulate and retrosplenial cortices, but decreased FC between dorsal and ventral structures. In agreement with reports in humans, fear recall broadened FC of anterior structures to the amygdala and to somatosensory areas, suggesting integration and processing of both limbic and sensory information. Organizational principles learned from animal models at the mesoscopic level (brain regions and pathways) will not only critically inform future work at the microscopic (single neurons and synapses) level, but also have translational value to advance our understanding of human brain

  18. Functional connectivity-based parcellation and connectome of cortical midline structures in the mouse: a perfusion autoradiography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel P Holschneider

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Rodent cortical midline structures (CMS are involved in emotional, cognitive and attentional processes. Tract tracing has revealed complex patterns of structural connectivity demonstrating connectivity-based integration and segregation for the prelimbic, cingulate area 1, retrosplenial dysgranular cortices dorsally, and infralimbic, cingulate area 2, and retrosplenial granular cortices ventrally. Understanding of CMS functional connectivity (FC remains more limited. Here we present the first subregion-level FC analysis of the mouse CMS, and assess whether fear results in state-dependent FC changes analogous to what has been reported in humans. Brain mapping using [14C]-iodoantipyrine was performed in mice during auditory-cued fear conditioned recall and in controls. Regional cerebral blood flow was analyzed in 3-D images reconstructed from brain autoradiographs. Regions-of-interest were selected along the CMS anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral axes. In controls, pairwise correlation and graph theoretical analyses showed strong FC within each CMS structure, strong FC along the dorsal-ventral axis, with segregation of anterior from posterior structures. Seed correlation showed FC of anterior regions to limbic/paralimbic areas, and FC of posterior regions to sensory areas--findings consistent with functional segregation noted in humans. Fear recall increased FC between the cingulate and retrosplenial cortices, but decreased FC between dorsal and ventral structures. In agreement with reports in humans, fear recall broadened FC of anterior structures to the amygdala and to somatosensory areas, suggesting integration and processing of both limbic and sensory information. Organizational principles learned from animal models at the mesoscopic level (brain regions and pathways will not only critically inform future work at the microscopic (single neurons and synapses level, but also have translational value to advance our understanding of human brain

  19. Brain state-dependence of electrically evoked potentials monitored with head-mounted electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrew G; Fetz, Eberhard E

    2012-11-01

    Inferring changes in brain connectivity is critical to studies of learning-related plasticity and stimulus-induced conditioning of neural circuits. In addition, monitoring spontaneous fluctuations in connectivity can provide insight into information processing during different brain states. Here, we quantified state-dependent connectivity changes throughout the 24-h sleep-wake cycle in freely behaving monkeys. A novel, head-mounted electronic device was used to electrically stimulate at one site and record evoked potentials at other sites. Electrically evoked potentials (EEPs) revealed the connectivity pattern between several cortical sites and the basal forebrain. We quantified state-dependent changes in the EEPs. Cortico-cortical EEP amplitude increased during slow-wave sleep, compared to wakefulness, while basal-cortical EEP amplitude decreased. The results demonstrate the utility of using portable electronics to document state-dependent connectivity changes in freely behaving primates.

  20. Cortico-hippocampal systems involved in memory and cognition: the PMAT framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Maureen; Libby, Laura A; Ranganath, Charan

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we review evidence that the cortical pathways to the hippocampus appear to extend from two large-scale cortical systems: a posterior medial (PM) system that includes the parahippocampal cortex and retrosplenial cortex, and an anterior temporal (AT) system that includes the perirhinal cortex. This "PMAT" framework accounts for differences in the anatomical and functional connectivity of the medial temporal lobes, which may underpin differences in cognitive function between the systems. The PM and AT systems make distinct contributions to memory and to other cognitive domains, and convergent findings suggest that they are involved in processing information about contexts and items, respectively. In order to support the full complement of memory-guided behavior, the two systems must interact, and the hippocampal and ventromedial prefrontal cortex may serve as sites of integration between the two systems. We conclude that when considering the "connected hippocampus," inquiry should extend beyond the medial temporal lobes to include the large-scale cortical systems of which they are a part. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Human brain networks in physiological aging: a graph theoretical analysis of cortical connectivity from EEG data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, Fabrizio; Miraglia, Francesca; Bramanti, Placido; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2014-01-01

    Modern analysis of electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms provides information on dynamic brain connectivity. To test the hypothesis that aging processes modulate the brain connectivity network, EEG recording was conducted on 113 healthy volunteers. They were divided into three groups in accordance with their ages: 36 Young (15-45 years), 46 Adult (50-70 years), and 31 Elderly (>70 years). To evaluate the stability of the investigated parameters, a subgroup of 10 subjects underwent a second EEG recording two weeks later. Graph theory functions were applied to the undirected and weighted networks obtained by the lagged linear coherence evaluated by eLORETA on cortical sources. EEG frequency bands of interest were: delta (2-4 Hz), theta (4-8 Hz), alpha1 (8-10.5 Hz), alpha2 (10.5-13 Hz), beta1 (13-20 Hz), beta2 (20-30 Hz), and gamma (30-40 Hz). The spectral connectivity analysis of cortical sources showed that the normalized Characteristic Path Length (λ) presented the pattern Young > Adult>Elderly in the higher alpha band. Elderly also showed a greater increase in delta and theta bands than Young. The correlation between age and λ showed that higher ages corresponded to higher λ in delta and theta and lower in the alpha2 band; this pattern reflects the age-related modulation of higher (alpha) and decreased (delta) connectivity. The Normalized Clustering coefficient (γ) and small-world network modeling (σ) showed non-significant age-modulation. Evidence from the present study suggests that graph theory can aid in the analysis of connectivity patterns estimated from EEG and can facilitate the study of the physiological and pathological brain aging features of functional connectivity networks.

  2. The neural circuits that generate tics in Tourette's syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhishun; Maia, Tiago V; Marsh, Rachel; Colibazzi, Tiziano; Gerber, Andrew; Peterson, Bradley S

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine neural activity and connectivity within cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits and to reveal circuit-based neural mechanisms that govern tic generation in Tourette's syndrome. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from 13 individuals with Tourette's syndrome and 21 healthy comparison subjects during spontaneous or simulated tics. Independent component analysis with hierarchical partner matching was used to isolate neural activity within functionally distinct regions of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits. Granger causality was used to investigate causal interactions among these regions. The Tourette's syndrome group exhibited stronger neural activity and interregional causality than healthy comparison subjects throughout all portions of the motor pathway, including the sensorimotor cortex, putamen, pallidum, and substantia nigra. Activity in these areas correlated positively with the severity of tic symptoms. Activity within the Tourette's syndrome group was stronger during spontaneous tics than during voluntary tics in the somatosensory and posterior parietal cortices, putamen, and amygdala/hippocampus complex, suggesting that activity in these regions may represent features of the premonitory urges that generate spontaneous tic behaviors. In contrast, activity was weaker in the Tourette's syndrome group than in the healthy comparison group within portions of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits that exert top-down control over motor pathways (the caudate and anterior cingulate cortex), and progressively less activity in these regions accompanied more severe tic symptoms, suggesting that faulty activity in these circuits may result in their failure to control tic behaviors or the premonitory urges that generate them. Our findings, taken together, suggest that tics are caused by the combined effects of excessive activity in motor pathways and reduced activation in control portions of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical

  3. Resting state cortico-cerebellar functional connectivity networks: A comparison of anatomical and self-organizing map approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Bernard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The cerebellum plays a role in a wide variety of complex behaviors. In order to better understand the role of the cerebellum in human behavior, it is important to know how this structure interacts with cortical and other subcortical regions of the brain. To date, several studies have investigated the cerebellum using resting-state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI; Buckner et al., 2011; Krienen & Buckner, 2009; O’Reilly et al., 2009. However, none of this work has taken an anatomically-driven approach. Furthermore, though detailed maps of cerebral cortex and cerebellum networks have been proposed using different network solutions based on the cerebral cortex (Buckner et al., 2011, it remains unknown whether or not an anatomical lobular breakdown best encompasses the networks of the cerebellum. Here, we used fcMRI to create an anatomically-driven cerebellar connectivity atlas. Timecourses were extracted from the lobules of the right hemisphere and vermis. We found distinct networks for the individual lobules with a clear division into motor and non-motor regions. We also used a self-organizing map algorithm to parcellate the cerebellum. This allowed us to investigate redundancy and independence of the anatomically identified cerebellar networks. We found that while anatomical boundaries in the anterior cerebellum provide functional subdivisions of a larger motor grouping defined using our self-organizing map algorithm, in the posterior cerebellum, the lobules were made up of sub-regions associated with distinct functional networks. Together, our results indicate that the lobular boundaries of the human cerebellum are not indicative of functional boundaries, though anatomical divisions can be useful, as is the case of the anterior cerebellum. Additionally, driving the analyses from the cerebellum is key to determining the complete picture of functional connectivity within the structure.

  4. Abnormal synchrony and effective connectivity in patients with schizophrenia and auditory hallucinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Iglesia-Vaya, Maria; Escartí, Maria José; Molina-Mateo, Jose; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Gadea, Marien; Castellanos, Francisco Xavier; Aguilar García-Iturrospe, Eduardo J.; Robles, Montserrat; Biswal, Bharat B.; Sanjuan, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Auditory hallucinations (AH) are the most frequent positive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. Hallucinations have been related to emotional processing disturbances, altered functional connectivity and effective connectivity deficits. Previously, we observed that, compared to healthy controls, the limbic network responses of patients with auditory hallucinations differed when the subjects were listening to emotionally charged words. We aimed to compare the synchrony patterns and effective connectivity of task-related networks between schizophrenia patients with and without AH and healthy controls. Schizophrenia patients with AH (n = 27) and without AH (n = 14) were compared with healthy participants (n = 31). We examined functional connectivity by analyzing correlations and cross-correlations among previously detected independent component analysis time courses. Granger causality was used to infer the information flow direction in the brain regions. The results demonstrate that the patterns of cortico-cortical functional synchrony differentiated the patients with AH from the patients without AH and from the healthy participants. Additionally, Granger-causal relationships between the networks clearly differentiated the groups. In the patients with AH, the principal causal source was an occipital–cerebellar component, versus a temporal component in the patients without AH and the healthy controls. These data indicate that an anomalous process of neural connectivity exists when patients with AH process emotional auditory stimuli. Additionally, a central role is suggested for the cerebellum in processing emotional stimuli in patients with persistent AH. PMID:25379429

  5. Remodeling of Sensorimotor Brain Connectivity in Gpr88-Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefin, Tanzil Mahmud; Mechling, Anna E; Meirsman, Aura Carole; Bienert, Thomas; Hübner, Neele Saskia; Lee, Hsu-Lei; Ben Hamida, Sami; Ehrlich, Aliza; Roquet, Dan; Hennig, Jürgen; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Kieffer, Brigitte Lina; Harsan, Laura-Adela

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that orchestrated gene activity and expression support synchronous activity of brain networks. However, there is a paucity of information on the consequences of single gene function on overall brain functional organization and connectivity and how this translates at the behavioral level. In this study, we combined mouse mutagenesis with functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine whether targeted inactivation of a single gene would modify whole-brain connectivity in live animals. The targeted gene encodes GPR88 (G protein-coupled receptor 88), an orphan G protein-coupled receptor enriched in the striatum and previously linked to behavioral traits relevant to neuropsychiatric disorders. Connectivity analysis of Gpr88-deficient mice revealed extensive remodeling of intracortical and cortico-subcortical networks. Most prominent modifications were observed at the level of retrosplenial cortex connectivity, central to the default mode network (DMN) whose alteration is considered a hallmark of many psychiatric conditions. Next, somatosensory and motor cortical networks were most affected. These modifications directly relate to sensorimotor gating deficiency reported in mutant animals and also likely underlie their hyperactivity phenotype. Finally, we identified alterations within hippocampal and dorsal striatum functional connectivity, most relevant to a specific learning deficit that we previously reported in Gpr88 -/- animals. In addition, amygdala connectivity with cortex and striatum was weakened, perhaps underlying the risk-taking behavior of these animals. This is the first evidence demonstrating that GPR88 activity shapes the mouse brain functional and structural connectome. The concordance between connectivity alterations and behavior deficits observed in Gpr88-deficient mice suggests a role for GPR88 in brain communication.

  6. Decreased functional connectivity and disrupted neural network in the prefrontal cortex of affective disorders: A resting-state fNIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Huilin; Xu, Jie; Li, Jiangxue; Peng, Hongjun; Cai, Tingting; Li, Xinge; Wu, Shijing; Cao, Wei; He, Sailing

    2017-10-15

    Affective disorders (AD) have been conceptualized as neural network-level diseases. In this study, we utilized functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate the spontaneous hemodynamic activities in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of the AD patients with or without medications. 42 optical channels were applied to cover the superior frontal gyrus (SFG), middle frontal gyrus (MFG), and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), which constitute one of the most important affective networks of the brain. We performed resting-state measurements on 28 patients who were diagnosed as having AD and 30 healthy controls (HC). Raw fNIRS data were preprocessed with independent component analysis (ICA) and a band-pass filter to remove artifacts and physiological noise. By systematically analyzing the intra-regional, intrahemispheric, and interhemispheric connectivities based on the spontaneous oscillations of Δ[HbO], our results indicated that patients with AD exhibited significantly reduced intra-regional and symmetrically interhemispheric connectivities in the PFC when compared to HC. More specifically, relative to HC, AD patients showed significantly lower locally functional connectivity in the right IFG, and poor long-distance connectivity between bilateral IFG. In addition, AD patients without medication presented more disrupted cortical organizations in the PFC, and the severity of self-reported symptoms of depression was negatively correlated with the strength of intra-regional and symmetrically interhemispheric connectivity in the PFC. Regarding the measuring technique, fNIRS has restricted measurement depth and spatial resolution. During the study, the subgroups of AD, such as major depressive disorder, bipolar, comorbidity, or non-comorbidity, dosage of psychotropic drugs, as well as different types of pharmacological responses were not distinguished and systematically compared. Furthermore, due to the limitation of the research design, it was still not very clear how

  7. Multi-factorial modulation of hemispheric specialization and plasticity for language in healthy and pathological conditions: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie; Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Jobard, Gael; Mazoyer, Bernard; Baciu, Monica

    2017-01-01

    This review synthesizes anatomo-functional variability of language hemispheric representation and specialization (hemispheric specialization for language, HSL) as well as its modulation by several variables (demographic, anatomical, developmental, genetic, clinical, and psycholinguistic) in physiological and pathological conditions. The left hemisphere (LH) dominance for language, observed in approximately 90% of healthy individuals and in 70% of patients, is grounded by intra-hemispheric connections mediated by associative bundles such as the arcuate fasciculus and inter-hemispheric transcallosal connections mediated by the corpus callosum that connects homotopic regions of the left and right hemispheres (RH). In typical brains, inter-hemispheric inhibition, exerted from the LH to the RH, permits the LH to maintain language dominance. In pathological conditions, inter- and intra-hemispheric inhibition is decreased, inducing modifications on the degree of HSL and of language networks. HSL evaluation is classically performed in clinical practice with the Wada test and electro-cortical stimulation, gold standard methods. The advent of functional neuroimaging has allowed a more detailed assessment of the language networks and their lateralization, consistent with the results provided by the gold standard methods. In the first part, we describe anatomo-functional support for HSL in healthy conditions, its developmental course, its relationship with cognitive skills, and the various modulatory factors acting on HSL. The second section is devoted to the assessment of HSL in patients with focal and drug-resistant epilepsy (FDRE). FDRE is considered a neurological model associated with patterns of language plasticity, both before and after surgery: FDRE patients show significant modification of language networks induced by changes mediated by transcallosal connections (explaining inter-hemispheric patterns of language reorganization) or collateral connections (explaining

  8. Modulation of task-related cortical connectivity in the acute and subacute phase after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lisbeth H.; Zibrandtsen, Ivan C.; Wienecke, Troels

    2018-01-01

    The functional relevance of cortical reorganization post-stroke is still not well understood. In this study, we investigated task-specific modulation of cortical connectivity between neural oscillations in key motor regions during the early phase after stroke. EEG and EMG recordings were examined...... from 15 patients and 18 controls during a precision grip task using the affected hand. Each patient attended two sessions in the acute and subacute phase (median of 3 and 34 days) post-stroke. Dynamic causal modelling (DCM) for induced responses was used to investigate task-specific modulations...... of oscillatory couplings in a bilateral network comprising supplementary motor area (SMA), dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and primary motor cortex (M1). Fourteen models were constructed for each subject, and the input induced by the experimental manipulation (task) was set to inferior parietal lobule (IPL...

  9. Effects of homeostatic constraints on associative memory storage and synaptic connectivity of cortical circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio eChapeton

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of learning and long-term memory storage on synaptic connectivity is not completely understood. In this study, we examine the effects of associative learning on synaptic connectivity in adult cortical circuits by hypothesizing that these circuits function in a steady-state, in which the memory capacity of a circuit is maximal and learning must be accompanied by forgetting. Steady-state circuits should be characterized by unique connectivity features. To uncover such features we developed a biologically constrained, exactly solvable model of associative memory storage. The model is applicable to networks of multiple excitatory and inhibitory neuron classes and can account for homeostatic constraints on the number and the overall weight of functional connections received by each neuron. The results show that in spite of a large number of neuron classes, functional connections between potentially connected cells are realized with less than 50% probability if the presynaptic cell is excitatory and generally a much greater probability if it is inhibitory. We also find that constraining the overall weight of presynaptic connections leads to Gaussian connection weight distributions that are truncated at zero. In contrast, constraining the total number of functional presynaptic connections leads to non-Gaussian distributions, in which weak connections are absent. These theoretical predictions are compared with a large dataset of published experimental studies reporting amplitudes of unitary postsynaptic potentials and probabilities of connections between various classes of excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the cerebellum, neocortex, and hippocampus.

  10. Cortical Signatures of Dyslexia and Remediation: An Intrinsic Functional Connectivity Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Maki S.; Di Martino, Adriana; Kelly, Clare; Jutagir, Devika R.; Sunshine, Jessica; Schwartz, Susan J.; Castellanos, Francisco X.; Milham, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    This observational, cross-sectional study investigates cortical signatures of developmental dyslexia, particularly from the perspective of behavioral remediation. We employed resting-state fMRI, and compared intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) patterns of known reading regions (seeds) among three dyslexia groups characterized by (a) no remediation (current reading and spelling deficits), (b) partial remediation (only reading deficit remediated), and (c) full remediation (both reading and spelling deficits remediated), and a group of age- and IQ-matched typically developing children (TDC) (total N = 44, age range = 7–15 years). We observed significant group differences in iFC of two seeds located in the left posterior reading network – left intraparietal sulcus (L.IPS) and left fusiform gyrus (L.FFG). Specifically, iFC between L.IPS and left middle frontal gyrus was significantly weaker in all dyslexia groups, irrespective of remediation status/literacy competence, suggesting that persistent dysfunction in the fronto-parietal attention network characterizes dyslexia. Additionally, relative to both TDC and the no remediation group, the remediation groups exhibited stronger iFC between L.FFG and right middle occipital gyrus (R.MOG). The full remediation group also exhibited stronger negative iFC between the same L.FFG seed and right medial prefrontal cortex (R.MPFC), a core region of the default network These results suggest that behavioral remediation may be associated with compensatory changes anchored in L.FFG, which reflect atypically stronger coupling between posterior visual regions (L.FFG-R.MOG) and greater functional segregation between task-positive and task-negative regions (L.FFG-R.MPFC). These findings were bolstered by significant relationships between the strength of the identified functional connections and literacy scores. We conclude that examining iFC can reveal cortical signatures of dyslexia with particular promise for monitoring

  11. Staging of cortical and deep grey matter functional connectivity changes in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meijer, Kim A; Eijlers, Anand J C; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Schoonheim, Menno M

    2018-02-01

    Functional connectivity is known to increase as well as decrease throughout the brain in multiple sclerosis (MS), which could represent different stages of the disease. In addition, functional connectivity changes could follow the atrophy pattern observed with disease progression, that is, moving from the deep grey matter towards the cortex. This study investigated when and where connectivity changes develop and explored their clinical and cognitive relevance across different MS stages. A cohort of 121 patients with early relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), 122 with late RRMS and 53 with secondary progressive MS (SPMS) as well as 96 healthy controls underwent MRI and neuropsychological testing. Functional connectivity changes were investigated for (1) within deep grey matter connectivity, (2) connectivity between the deep grey matter and cortex and (3) within-cortex connectivity. A post hoc regional analysis was performed to identify which regions were driving the connectivity changes. Patients with late RRMS and SPMS showed increased connectivity of the deep grey matter, especially of the putamen and palladium, with other deep grey matter structures and with the cortex. Within-cortex connectivity was decreased, especially for temporal, occipital and frontal regions, but only in SPMS relative to early RRMS. Deep grey matter connectivity alterations were related to cognition and disability, whereas within-cortex connectivity was only related to disability. Increased connectivity of the deep grey matter became apparent in late RRMS and further increased in SPMS. The additive effect of cortical network degeneration, which was only seen in SPMS, may explain the sudden clinical deterioration characteristic to this phase of the disease. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Double-dissociation between the mechanism leading to impulsivity and inattention in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A resting-state functional connectivity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanefuji, Masafumi; Craig, Michael; Parlatini, Valeria; Mehta, Mitul A; Murphy, Declan G; Catani, Marco; Cerliani, Leonardo; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Two core symptoms characterize Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) subtypes: inattentiveness and hyperactivity-impulsivity. While previous brain imaging research investigated ADHD as if it was a homogenous condition, its two core symptoms may originate from different brain mechanisms. We, therefore, hypothesized that the functional connectivity of cortico-striatal and attentional networks would be different between ADHD subtypes. We studied 165 children (mean age 10.93 years; age range, 7-17 year old) diagnosed as having ADHD based on their revised Conner's rating scale score and 170 typical developing individuals (mean age 11.46 years; age range, 7-17 year old) using resting state functional fMRI. Groups were matched for age, IQ and head motion during the MRI acquisition. We fractionated the ADHD group into predominantly inattentive, hyperactive-impulsive and combined subtypes based on their revised Conner's rating scale score. We then analyzed differences in resting state functional connectivity of the cortico-striatal and attentional networks between these subtypes. We found a double dissociation of functional connectivity in the cortico-striatal and ventral attentional networks, reflecting the subtypes of the ADHD participants. Particularly, the hyperactive-impulsive subtype was associated with increased connectivity in cortico-striatal network, whereas the inattentive subtype was associated with increased connectivity in the right ventral attention network. Our study demonstrated for the first time a right lateralized, double dissociation between specific networks associated with hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattentiveness in ADHD children, providing a biological basis for exploring symptom dimensions and revealing potential targets for more personalized treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Estimates of segregation and overlap of functional connectivity networks in the human cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, B T Thomas; Krienen, Fenna M; Chee, Michael W L; Buckner, Randy L

    2014-03-01

    The organization of the human cerebral cortex has recently been explored using techniques for parcellating the cortex into distinct functionally coupled networks. The divergent and convergent nature of cortico-cortical anatomic connections suggests the need to consider the possibility of regions belonging to multiple networks and hierarchies among networks. Here we applied the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) model and spatial independent component analysis (ICA) to solve for functionally coupled cerebral networks without assuming that cortical regions belong to a single network. Data analyzed included 1000 subjects from the Brain Genomics Superstruct Project (GSP) and 12 high quality individual subjects from the Human Connectome Project (HCP). The organization of the cerebral cortex was similar regardless of whether a winner-take-all approach or the more relaxed constraints of LDA (or ICA) were imposed. This suggests that large-scale networks may function as partially isolated modules. Several notable interactions among networks were uncovered by the LDA analysis. Many association regions belong to at least two networks, while somatomotor and early visual cortices are especially isolated. As examples of interaction, the precuneus, lateral temporal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex and posterior parietal cortex participate in multiple paralimbic networks that together comprise subsystems of the default network. In addition, regions at or near the frontal eye field and human lateral intraparietal area homologue participate in multiple hierarchically organized networks. These observations were replicated in both datasets and could be detected (and replicated) in individual subjects from the HCP. © 2013.

  14. Cortico-muscular coherence on artifact corrected EEG-EMG data recorded with a MRI scanner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuraman, M; Galka, A; Hong, V N; Heute, U; Deuschl, G; Raethjen, J

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous recording of electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides great potential for studying human brain activity with high temporal and spatial resolution. But, due to the MRI, the recorded signals are contaminated with artifacts. The correction of these artifacts is important to use these signals for further spectral analysis. The coherence can reveal the cortical representation of peripheral muscle signal in particular motor tasks, e.g. finger movements. The artifact correction of these signals was done by two different algorithms the Brain vision analyzer (BVA) and the Matlab FMRIB plug-in for EEGLAB. The Welch periodogram method was used for estimating the cortico-muscular coherence. Our analysis revealed coherence with a frequency of 5Hz in the contralateral side of the brain. The entropy is estimated for the calculated coherence to get the distribution of coherence in the scalp. The significance of the paper is to identify the optimal algorithm to rectify the MR artifacts and as a first step to use both these signals EEG and EMG in conjunction with MRI for further studies.

  15. [Peripheral facial nerve lesion induced long-term dendritic retraction in pyramidal cortico-facial neurons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urrego, Diana; Múnera, Alejandro; Troncoso, Julieta

    2011-01-01

    Little evidence is available concerning the morphological modifications of motor cortex neurons associated with peripheral nerve injuries, and the consequences of those injuries on post lesion functional recovery. Dendritic branching of cortico-facial neurons was characterized with respect to the effects of irreversible facial nerve injury. Twenty-four adult male rats were distributed into four groups: sham (no lesion surgery), and dendritic assessment at 1, 3 and 5 weeks post surgery. Eighteen lesion animals underwent surgical transection of the mandibular and buccal branches of the facial nerve. Dendritic branching was examined by contralateral primary motor cortex slices stained with the Golgi-Cox technique. Layer V pyramidal (cortico-facial) neurons from sham and injured animals were reconstructed and their dendritic branching was compared using Sholl analysis. Animals with facial nerve lesions displayed persistent vibrissal paralysis throughout the five week observation period. Compared with control animal neurons, cortico-facial pyramidal neurons of surgically injured animals displayed shrinkage of their dendritic branches at statistically significant levels. This shrinkage persisted for at least five weeks after facial nerve injury. Irreversible facial motoneuron axonal damage induced persistent dendritic arborization shrinkage in contralateral cortico-facial neurons. This morphological reorganization may be the physiological basis of functional sequelae observed in peripheral facial palsy patients.

  16. Alterations in Cortical Sensorimotor Connectivity following Complete Cervical Spinal Cord Injury: A Prospective Resting-State fMRI Study.

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    Akinwunmi Oni-Orisan

    Full Text Available Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI studies have demonstrated alterations during task-induced brain activation in spinal cord injury (SCI patients. The interruption to structural integrity of the spinal cord and the resultant disrupted flow of bidirectional communication between the brain and the spinal cord might contribute to the observed dynamic reorganization (neural plasticity. However, the effect of SCI on brain resting-state connectivity patterns remains unclear. We undertook a prospective resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI study to explore changes to cortical activation patterns following SCI. With institutional review board approval, rs-fMRI data was obtained in eleven patients with complete cervical SCI (>2 years post injury and nine age-matched controls. The data was processed using the Analysis of Functional Neuroimages software. Region of interest (ROI based analysis was performed to study changes in the sensorimotor network using pre- and post-central gyri as seed regions. Two-sampled t-test was carried out to check for significant differences between the two groups. SCI patients showed decreased functional connectivity in motor and sensory cortical regions when compared to controls. The decrease was noted in ipsilateral, contralateral, and interhemispheric regions for left and right precentral ROIs. Additionally, the left postcentral ROI demonstrated increased connectivity with the thalamus bilaterally in SCI patients. Our results suggest that cortical activation patterns in the sensorimotor network undergo dynamic reorganization following SCI. The presence of these changes in chronic spinal cord injury patients is suggestive of the inherent neural plasticity within the central nervous system.

  17. Cortical drive of low-frequency oscillations in the human nucleus accumbens during action selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenner, Max-Philipp; Litvak, Vladimir; Rutledge, Robb B; Zaehle, Tino; Schmitt, Friedhelm C; Voges, Jürgen; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Dolan, Raymond J

    2015-07-01

    The nucleus accumbens is thought to contribute to action selection by integrating behaviorally relevant information from multiple regions, including prefrontal cortex. Studies in rodents suggest that information flow to the nucleus accumbens may be regulated via task-dependent oscillatory coupling between regions. During instrumental behavior, local field potentials (LFP) in the rat nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex are coupled at delta frequencies (Gruber AJ, Hussain RJ, O'Donnell P. PLoS One 4: e5062, 2009), possibly mediating suppression of afferent input from other areas and thereby supporting cortical control (Calhoon GG, O'Donnell P. Neuron 78: 181-190, 2013). In this report, we demonstrate low-frequency cortico-accumbens coupling in humans, both at rest and during a decision-making task. We recorded LFP from the nucleus accumbens in six epilepsy patients who underwent implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes. All patients showed significant coherence and phase-synchronization between LFP and surface EEG at delta and low theta frequencies. Although the direction of this coupling as indexed by Granger causality varied between subjects in the resting-state data, all patients showed a cortical drive of the nucleus accumbens during action selection in a decision-making task. In three patients this was accompanied by a significant coherence increase over baseline. Our results suggest that low-frequency cortico-accumbens coupling represents a highly conserved regulatory mechanism for action selection. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Selective increase of auditory cortico-striatal coherence during auditory-cued Go/NoGo discrimination learning.

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    Andreas L. Schulz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Goal directed behavior and associated learning processes are tightly linked to neuronal activity in the ventral striatum. Mechanisms that integrate task relevant sensory information into striatal processing during decision making and learning are implicitly assumed in current reinforcementmodels, yet they are still weakly understood. To identify the functional activation of cortico-striatal subpopulations of connections during auditory discrimination learning, we trained Mongolian gerbils in a two-way active avoidance task in a shuttlebox to discriminate between falling and rising frequency modulated tones with identical spectral properties. We assessed functional coupling by analyzing the field-field coherence between the auditory cortex and the ventral striatum of animals performing the task. During the course of training, we observed a selective increase of functionalcoupling during Go-stimulus presentations. These results suggest that the auditory cortex functionally interacts with the ventral striatum during auditory learning and that the strengthening of these functional connections is selectively goal-directed.

  19. An autoradiographic analysis of the cortical connections of the pallidal and cerebellar zones within the feline motor thalamus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wensel, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    The feline motor thalamus relays both basal ganglia and cerebellar inputs to the motor cortex. This complex is classically subdivided into three nuclei: the ventroanterior nucleus (VA), the ventrolateral nucleus (VL), and the ventromedial nucleus (VM). Poor correlation between recognized patterns of cortical and subcortical connectivity and traditional boundaries used to distinguish these nuclei complicate the elucidation of the role they play in the elaboration of motor behavior. The recent demonstration of complementarity for the pallidothalamic and dentatothalamic projections to the motor thalamus of the cat provided the foundation for a revision of these nuclear borders to reflect differences in subcortical connectivity. Using a revised topography, this study analyzed the afferent and efferent connections of the feline VA and VL through the application of both anterograde and retrograde tracing techniques. The extent of the cerebellothalamic projection, as revealed by the bidirectional transport of WGA-HRP, was used to demarcate the boundary between VA and VL. Injections of tritiated amino acids into VA and VL allowed for the autoradiographic tracing of their cortical projections. Autoradiography was also used to demonstrate the distributions of corticothalamic projections from selected pericruciate and posterior parietal subfields to the motor thalamus

  20. The relationship between level of processing and hippocampal-cortical functional connectivity during episodic memory formation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schott, Björn H; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Wimber, Maria; Fenker, Daniela B; Zierhut, Kathrin C; Seidenbecher, Constanze I; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Walter, Henrik; Düzel, Emrah; Richardson-Klavehn, Alan

    2013-02-01

    New episodic memory traces represent a record of the ongoing neocortical processing engaged during memory formation (encoding). Thus, during encoding, deep (semantic) processing typically establishes more distinctive and retrievable memory traces than does shallow (perceptual) processing, as assessed by later episodic memory tests. By contrast, the hippocampus appears to play a processing-independent role in encoding, because hippocampal lesions impair encoding regardless of level of processing. Here, we clarified the neural relationship between processing and encoding by examining hippocampal-cortical connectivity during deep and shallow encoding. Participants studied words during functional magnetic resonance imaging and freely recalled these words after distraction. Deep study processing led to better recall than shallow study processing. For both levels of processing, successful encoding elicited activations of bilateral hippocampus and left prefrontal cortex, and increased functional connectivity between left hippocampus and bilateral medial prefrontal, cingulate and extrastriate cortices. Successful encoding during deep processing was additionally associated with increased functional connectivity between left hippocampus and bilateral ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and right temporoparietal junction. In the shallow encoding condition, on the other hand, pronounced functional connectivity increases were observed between the right hippocampus and the frontoparietal attention network activated during shallow study processing. Our results further specify how the hippocampus coordinates recording of ongoing neocortical activity into long-term memory, and begin to provide a neural explanation for the typical advantage of deep over shallow study processing for later episodic memory. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Active learning of cortical connectivity from two-photon imaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; Dunson, David; Sapiro, Guillermo; Ringach, Dario

    2018-01-01

    Understanding how groups of neurons interact within a network is a fundamental question in system neuroscience. Instead of passively observing the ongoing activity of a network, we can typically perturb its activity, either by external sensory stimulation or directly via techniques such as two-photon optogenetics. A natural question is how to use such perturbations to identify the connectivity of the network efficiently. Here we introduce a method to infer sparse connectivity graphs from in-vivo, two-photon imaging of population activity in response to external stimuli. A novel aspect of the work is the introduction of a recommended distribution, incrementally learned from the data, to optimally refine the inferred network. Unlike existing system identification techniques, this “active learning” method automatically focuses its attention on key undiscovered areas of the network, instead of targeting global uncertainty indicators like parameter variance. We show how active learning leads to faster inference while, at the same time, provides confidence intervals for the network parameters. We present simulations on artificial small-world networks to validate the methods and apply the method to real data. Analysis of frequency of motifs recovered show that cortical networks are consistent with a small-world topology model. PMID:29718955

  2. Active learning of cortical connectivity from two-photon imaging data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martín A Bertrán

    Full Text Available Understanding how groups of neurons interact within a network is a fundamental question in system neuroscience. Instead of passively observing the ongoing activity of a network, we can typically perturb its activity, either by external sensory stimulation or directly via techniques such as two-photon optogenetics. A natural question is how to use such perturbations to identify the connectivity of the network efficiently. Here we introduce a method to infer sparse connectivity graphs from in-vivo, two-photon imaging of population activity in response to external stimuli. A novel aspect of the work is the introduction of a recommended distribution, incrementally learned from the data, to optimally refine the inferred network. Unlike existing system identification techniques, this "active learning" method automatically focuses its attention on key undiscovered areas of the network, instead of targeting global uncertainty indicators like parameter variance. We show how active learning leads to faster inference while, at the same time, provides confidence intervals for the network parameters. We present simulations on artificial small-world networks to validate the methods and apply the method to real data. Analysis of frequency of motifs recovered show that cortical networks are consistent with a small-world topology model.

  3. Multimodal Imaging Brain Connectivity Analysis (MIBCA toolbox

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    Andre Santos Ribeiro

    2015-07-01

    -hemispheric symmetry and an intra-hemispheric modularity associated with structural data, whilst functional data presented lower inter-hemispheric symmetry and a high inter-hemispheric modularity. Furthermore, when testing for differences between two subgroups (40 years old adults we observed a significant reduction in the volume and thickness, and an increase in the mean diffusivity of most of the subcortical/cortical regions.Conclusion. While bridging the gap between the high numbers of packages and tools widely available for the neuroimaging community in one toolbox, MIBCA also offers different possibilities for combining, analysing and visualising data in novel ways, enabling a better understanding of the human brain.

  4. Spatial integration and cortical dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, C D; Das, A; Ito, M; Kapadia, M; Westheimer, G

    1996-01-23

    Cells in adult primary visual cortex are capable of integrating information over much larger portions of the visual field than was originally thought. Moreover, their receptive field properties can be altered by the context within which local features are presented and by changes in visual experience. The substrate for both spatial integration and cortical plasticity is likely to be found in a plexus of long-range horizontal connections, formed by cortical pyramidal cells, which link cells within each cortical area over distances of 6-8 mm. The relationship between horizontal connections and cortical functional architecture suggests a role in visual segmentation and spatial integration. The distribution of lateral interactions within striate cortex was visualized with optical recording, and their functional consequences were explored by using comparable stimuli in human psychophysical experiments and in recordings from alert monkeys. They may represent the substrate for perceptual phenomena such as illusory contours, surface fill-in, and contour saliency. The dynamic nature of receptive field properties and cortical architecture has been seen over time scales ranging from seconds to months. One can induce a remapping of the topography of visual cortex by making focal binocular retinal lesions. Shorter-term plasticity of cortical receptive fields was observed following brief periods of visual stimulation. The mechanisms involved entailed, for the short-term changes, altering the effectiveness of existing cortical connections, and for the long-term changes, sprouting of axon collaterals and synaptogenesis. The mutability of cortical function implies a continual process of calibration and normalization of the perception of visual attributes that is dependent on sensory experience throughout adulthood and might further represent the mechanism of perceptual learning.

  5. Transient and sustained cortical activity elicited by connected speech of varying intelligibility

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    Tiitinen Hannu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The robustness of speech perception in the face of acoustic variation is founded on the ability of the auditory system to integrate the acoustic features of speech and to segregate them from background noise. This auditory scene analysis process is facilitated by top-down mechanisms, such as recognition memory for speech content. However, the cortical processes underlying these facilitatory mechanisms remain unclear. The present magnetoencephalography (MEG study examined how the activity of auditory cortical areas is modulated by acoustic degradation and intelligibility of connected speech. The experimental design allowed for the comparison of cortical activity patterns elicited by acoustically identical stimuli which were perceived as either intelligible or unintelligible. Results In the experiment, a set of sentences was presented to the subject in distorted, undistorted, and again in distorted form. The intervening exposure to undistorted versions of sentences rendered the initially unintelligible, distorted sentences intelligible, as evidenced by an increase from 30% to 80% in the proportion of sentences reported as intelligible. These perceptual changes were reflected in the activity of the auditory cortex, with the auditory N1m response (~100 ms being more prominent for the distorted stimuli than for the intact ones. In the time range of auditory P2m response (>200 ms, auditory cortex as well as regions anterior and posterior to this area generated a stronger response to sentences which were intelligible than unintelligible. During the sustained field (>300 ms, stronger activity was elicited by degraded stimuli in auditory cortex and by intelligible sentences in areas posterior to auditory cortex. Conclusions The current findings suggest that the auditory system comprises bottom-up and top-down processes which are reflected in transient and sustained brain activity. It appears that analysis of acoustic features occurs

  6. Posterior Thalamic Nucleus Modulation of Tactile Stimuli Processing in Rat Motor and Primary Somatosensory Cortices

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    Diana Casas-Torremocha

    2017-09-01

    cortical layers also diminishes M1wk and S1BF responses. This effect is most pronounced in the superficial layers of both areas, known to be the main source and target of their reciprocal cortico-cortical connections.

  7. Differential effects of motor cortical excitability and plasticity in young and old individuals: a Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS study

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    Shahid eBashir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with changes in the motor system that, over time, can lead to functional impairments and contribute negatively to the ability to recover after brain damage. Unfortunately, there are still many questions surrounding the physiological mechanisms underlying these impairments. We examined cortico-spinal excitability and plasticity in a young cohort (age range: 19-31 and an elderly cohort (age range: 47-73 of healthy right-handed individuals using navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS. Subjects were evaluated with a combination of physiological (motor evoked potentials (MEPs, motor threshold (MT, intracortical inhibition (ICI, intracortical facilitation (ICF, and silent period (SP and behavioral (reaction time (RT, pinch force, 9 hole peg task (HPT measures at baseline and following one session of low-frequency (1 Hz navigated repetitive TMS (rTMS to the right (non-dominant hemisphere.In the young cohort, the inhibitory effect of 1 Hz rTMS was significantly in the right hemisphere and a significant facilitatory effect was noted in the unstimulated hemisphere. Conversely, in the elderly cohort, we report only a trend toward a facilitatory effect in the unstimulated hemisphere, suggesting reduced cortical plasticity and interhemispheric commuinication. To this effect, we show that significant differences in hemispheric cortico-spinal excitability were present in the elderly cohort at baseline, with significantly reduced cortico-spinal excitability in the right hemisphere as compared to the left hemisphere. A correlation analysis revealed no significant relationship between cortical thickness of the selected region of interest and MEPs in either young or old subjects prior to and following rTMS. When combined with our preliminary results, further research into this topic could lead to the development of neurophysiological markers pertinent to the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of neurological

  8. Effective Connectivity Hierarchically Links Temporoparietal and Frontal Areas of the Auditory Dorsal Stream with the Motor Cortex Lip Area during Speech Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Takenobu; Restle, Julia; Ziemann, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    A left-hemispheric cortico-cortical network involving areas of the temporoparietal junction (Tpj) and the posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) is thought to support sensorimotor integration of speech perception into articulatory motor activation, but how this network links with the lip area of the primary motor cortex (M1) during speech…

  9. The origins of thalamic inputs to grasp zones in frontal cortex of macaque monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Gharbawie, Omar A.; Stepniewska, Iwona; Kaas, Jon H.

    2015-01-01

    The hand representation in primary motor cortex (M1) is instrumental to manual dexterity in primates. In Old World monkeys, rostral and caudal aspects of the hand representation are located in the precentral gyrus and the anterior bank of the central sulcus, respectively. We previously reported the organization of the cortico-cortical connections of the grasp zone in rostral M1. Here we describe the organization of thalamocortical connections that were labeled from the same tracer injections....

  10. Deafferentation-Induced Plasticity of Visual Callosal Connections: Predicting Critical Periods and Analyzing Cortical Abnormalities Using Diffusion Tensor Imaging

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    Jaime F. Olavarria

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Callosal connections form elaborate patterns that bear close association with striate and extrastriate visual areas. Although it is known that retinal input is required for normal callosal development, there is little information regarding the period during which the retina is critically needed and whether this period correlates with the same developmental stage across species. Here we review the timing of this critical period, identified in rodents and ferrets by the effects that timed enucleations have on mature callosal connections, and compare it to other developmental milestones in these species. Subsequently, we compare these events to diffusion tensor imaging (DTI measurements of water diffusion anisotropy within developing cerebral cortex. We observed that the relationship between the timing of the critical period and the DTI-characterized developmental trajectory is strikingly similar in rodents and ferrets, which opens the possibility of using cortical DTI trajectories for predicting the critical period in species, such as humans, in which this period likely occurs prenatally. Last, we discuss the potential of utilizing DTI to distinguish normal from abnormal cerebral cortical development, both within the context of aberrant connectivity induced by early retinal deafferentation, and more generally as a potential tool for detecting abnormalities associated with neurodevelopmental disorders.

  11. Functional connectivity of motor cortical network in patients with brachial plexus avulsion injury after contralateral cervical nerve transfer: a resting-state fMRI study

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    Yu, Aihong; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Liang, Wei; Bai, Rongjie [The 4th Medical College of Peking University, Department of Radiology, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Xicheng Qu, Beijing (China); Wang, Shufeng; Xue, Yunhao; Li, Wenjun [The 4th Medical College of Peking University, Department of Hand Surgery, Beijing Jishuitan Hospital, Beijing (China)

    2017-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to assess the functional connectivity of the motor cortical network in patients with brachial plexus avulsion injury (BPAI) after contralateral C7 nerve transfer, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI). Twelve patients with total brachial plexus root avulsion underwent RS-fMRI after contralateral C7 nerve transfer. Seventeen healthy volunteers were also included in this fMRI study as controls. The hand motor seed regions were defined as region of interests in the bilateral hemispheres. The seed-based functional connectivity was calculated in all the subjects. Differences in functional connectivity of the motor cortical network between patients and healthy controls were compared. The inter-hemispheric functional connectivity of the M1 areas was increased in patients with BPAI compared with the controls. The inter-hemispheric functional connectivity between the supplementary motor areas was reduced bilaterally. The resting-state inter-hemispheric functional connectivity of the bilateral M1 areas is altered in patients after contralateral C7 nerve transfer, suggesting a functional reorganization of cerebral cortex. (orig.)

  12. Functional connectivity of motor cortical network in patients with brachial plexus avulsion injury after contralateral cervical nerve transfer: a resting-state fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Aihong; Cheng, Xiaoguang; Liang, Wei; Bai, Rongjie; Wang, Shufeng; Xue, Yunhao; Li, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the functional connectivity of the motor cortical network in patients with brachial plexus avulsion injury (BPAI) after contralateral C7 nerve transfer, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI). Twelve patients with total brachial plexus root avulsion underwent RS-fMRI after contralateral C7 nerve transfer. Seventeen healthy volunteers were also included in this fMRI study as controls. The hand motor seed regions were defined as region of interests in the bilateral hemispheres. The seed-based functional connectivity was calculated in all the subjects. Differences in functional connectivity of the motor cortical network between patients and healthy controls were compared. The inter-hemispheric functional connectivity of the M1 areas was increased in patients with BPAI compared with the controls. The inter-hemispheric functional connectivity between the supplementary motor areas was reduced bilaterally. The resting-state inter-hemispheric functional connectivity of the bilateral M1 areas is altered in patients after contralateral C7 nerve transfer, suggesting a functional reorganization of cerebral cortex. (orig.)

  13. Analysing coupling architecture in the cortical EEG of a patient with unilateral cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornilov, Maksim V.; Baas, C. Marjolein; van Rijn, Clementina M.; Sysoev, Ilya V.

    2016-04-01

    The detection of coupling presence and direction between cortical areas from the EEG is a popular approach in neuroscience. Granger causality method is promising for this task, since it allows to operate with short time series and to detect nonlinear coupling or coupling between nonlinear systems. In this study EEG multichannel data from adolescent children, suffering from unilateral cerebral palsy were investigated. Signals, obtained in rest and during motor activity of affected and less affected hand, were analysed. The changes in inter-hemispheric and intra-hemispheric interactions were studied over time with an interval of two months. The obtained results of coupling were tested for significance using surrogate times series. In the present proceeding paper we report the data of one patient. The modified nonlinear Granger causality is indeed able to reveal couplings within the human brain.

  14. Communication and Wiring in the Cortical Connectome

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    Julian eBudd

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In cerebral cortex, the huge mass of axonal wiring that carries information between near and distant neurons is thought to provide the neural substrate for cognitive and perceptual function. The goal of mapping the connectivity of cortical axons at different spatial scales, the cortical connectome, is to trace the paths of information flow in cerebral cortex. To appreciate the relationship between the connectome and cortical function, we need to discover the nature and purpose of the wiring principles underlying cortical connectivity. A popular explanation has been that axonal length is strictly minimized both within and between cortical regions. In contrast, we have hypothesized the existence of a multi-scale principle of cortical wiring where to optimise communication there is a trade-off between spatial (construction and temporal (routing costs. Here, using recent evidence concerning cortical spatial networks we critically evaluate this hypothesis at neuron, local circuit, and pathway scales. We report three main conclusions. First, the axonal and dendritic arbor morphology of single neocortical neurons may be governed by a similar wiring principle, one that balances the conservation of cellular material and conduction delay. Second, the same principle may be observed for fibre tracts connecting cortical regions. Third, the absence of sufficient local circuit data currently prohibits any meaningful assessment of the hypothesis at this scale of cortical organization. To avoid neglecting neuron and microcircuit levels of cortical organization, the connectome framework should incorporate more morphological description. In addition, structural analyses of temporal cost for cortical circuits should take account of both axonal conduction and neuronal integration delays, which appear mostly of the same order of magnitude. We conclude the hypothesized trade-off between spatial and temporal costs may potentially offer a powerful explanation for

  15. Abnormal functional connectivity of brain network hubs associated with symptom severity in treatment-naive patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder: A resting-state functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lin; Meng, Chun; Jiang, Ying; Tang, Qunfeng; Wang, Shuai; Xie, Xiyao; Fu, Xiangshuai; Jin, Chunhui; Zhang, Fuquan; Wang, Jidong

    2016-04-03

    Abnormal brain networks have been observed in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, detailed network hub and connectivity changes remained unclear in treatment-naive patients with OCD. Here, we sought to determine whether patients show hub-related connectivity changes in their whole-brain functional networks. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data and voxel-based graph-theoretic analysis to investigate functional connectivity strength and hubs of whole-brain networks in 29 treatment-naive patients with OCD and 29 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Correlation analysis was applied for potential associations with OCD symptom severity. OCD selectively targeted brain regions of higher functional connectivity strength than the average including brain network hubs, mainly distributed in the cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) circuits and additionally parietal, occipital, temporal and cerebellar regions. Moreover, affected functional connectivity strength in the cerebellum, the medial orbitofrontal cortex and superior occipital cortex was significantly associated with global OCD symptom severity. Our results provide the evidence about OCD-related brain network hub changes, not only in the CSTC circuits but more distributed in whole brain networks. Data suggest that whole brain network hub analysis is useful for understanding the pathophysiology of OCD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Chronic stress disrupts neural coherence between cortico-limbic structures

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    João Filipe Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress impairs cognitive function, namely on tasks that rely on the integrity of cortico-limbic networks. To unravel the functional impact of progressive stress in cortico-limbic networks we measured neural activity and spectral coherences between the ventral hippocampus (vHIP and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC in rats subjected to short term (STS and chronic unpredictable stress (CUS. CUS exposure consistently disrupted the spectral coherence between both areas for a wide range of frequencies, whereas STS exposure failed to trigger such effect. The chronic stress-induced coherence decrease correlated inversely with the vHIP power spectrum, but not with the mPFC power spectrum, which supports the view that hippocampal dysfunction is the primary event after stress exposure. Importantly, we additionally show that the variations in vHIP-to-mPFC coherence and power spectrum in the vHIP correlated with stress-induced behavioral deficits in a spatial reference memory task. Altogether, these findings result in an innovative readout to measure, and follow, the functional events that underlie the stress-induced reference memory impairments.

  17. [Psychotherapy of Depression as Neurobiological Process - Evidence from Neuroimaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubart, Antonie; Hohagen, Fritz; Zurowski, Bartosz

    2018-06-01

    Research on neurobiological effects of psychotherapy in depression facilitates the improvement of treatment strategies. The cortico-limbic dysregulation model serves as a framework for numerous studies on neurobiological changes in depression. In this model, depression is described as hypoactivation of dorsal cortical brain regions in conjunction with hyperactivation of ventral paralimbic regions. This assumption has been supported by various studies of structural and functional brain abnormalities in depression. However, also regions not included in the original cortico-limbic dysregulation model, such as the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, seem to play an important role in depression. Functional connectivity studies of depression have revealed an enhanced connectivity within the so-called default mode network which is involved in self-referential thinking. Studies also point to a normalization of limbic and cortical brain activity, especially in the anterior cingulate cortex, during psychotherapy. Some neurobiological markers like the activity of the anterior cingulate cortex, striatum and insula as well as hippocampal volume have been proposed to predict treatment response on a group-level. The activity of the anterior insula appears to be a candidate bio-marker for differential indication for psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy. The cortico-limbic dysregulation model and following research have inspired new forms of treatment for depression like deep brain stimulation of the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, neurofeedback and attention training. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Does an intraneural interface short-term implant for robotic hand control modulate sensorimotor cortical integration? An EEG-TMS co-registration study on a human amputee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreri, F; Ponzo, D; Vollero, L; Guerra, A; Di Pino, G; Petrichella, S; Benvenuto, A; Tombini, M; Rossini, L; Denaro, L; Micera, S; Iannello, G; Guglielmelli, E; Denaro, V; Rossini, P M

    2014-01-01

    Following limb amputation, central and peripheral nervous system relays partially maintain their functions and can be exploited for interfacing prostheses. The aim of this study is to investigate, for the first time by means of an EEG-TMS co-registration study, whether and how direct bidirectional connection between brain and hand prosthesis impacts on sensorimotor cortical topography. Within an experimental protocol for robotic hand control, a 26 years-old, left-hand amputated male was selected to have implanted four intrafascicular electrodes (tf-LIFEs-4) in the median and ulnar nerves of the stump for 4 weeks. Before tf-LIFE-4s implant (T0) and after the training period, once electrodes have been removed (T1), experimental subject's cortico-cortical excitability, connectivity and plasticity were tested via a neuronavigated EEG-TMS experiment. The statistical analysis clearly demonstrated a significant modulation (with t-test p < 0.0001) of EEG activity between 30 and 100 ms post-stimulus for the stimulation of the right hemisphere. When studying individual latencies in that time range, a global amplitude modulation was found in most of the TMS-evoked potentials; particularly, the GEE analysis showed significant differences between T0 and T1 condition at 30 ms (p < 0.0404), 46 ms (p < 0.0001) and 60 ms (p < 0.007) latencies. Finally, also a clear local decrement in N46 amplitude over C4 was evident. No differences between conditions were observed for the stimulation of the left hemisphere. The results of this study confirm the hypothesis that bidirectional neural interface could redirect cortical areas -deprived of their original input/output functions- toward restorative neuroplasticity. This reorganization strongly involves bi-hemispheric networks and intracortical and transcortical modulation of GABAergic inhibition.

  19. Uncrossed cortico-muscular projections in humans are abundant to facial muscles of the upper and lower face, but may differ between sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Urs; Hess, Christian W; Rösler, Kai M

    2005-01-01

    It is a popular concept in clinical neurology that muscles of the lower face receive predominantly crossed cortico-bulbar motor input, whereas muscles of the upper face receive additional ipsilateral, uncrossed input. To test this notion, we used focal transcranial magnetic brain stimulation to quantify crossed and uncrossed cortico-muscular projections to 6 different facial muscles (right and left Mm. frontalis, nasalis, and orbicularis oris) in 36 healthy right-handed volunteers (15 men, 21 women, mean age 25 years). Uncrossed input was present in 78% to 92% of the 6 examined muscles. The mean uncrossed: crossed response amplitude ratios were 0.74/0.65 in right/left frontalis, 0.73/0.59 in nasalis, and 0.54/0.71 in orbicularis oris; ANOVA p>0.05). Judged by the sizes of motor evoked potentials, the cortical representation of the 3 muscles was similar. The amount of uncrossed projections was different between men and women, since men had stronger left-to-left projections and women stronger right-to-right projections. We conclude that the amount of uncrossed pyramidal projections is not different for muscles of the upper from those of the lower face. The clinical observation that frontal muscles are often spared in central facial palsies must, therefore, be explained differently. Moreover, gender specific lateralization phenomena may not only be present for higher level behavioural functions, but may also affect simple systems on a lower level of motor hierarchy.

  20. The hippocampus remains activated over the long term for the retrieval of truly episodic memories.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Harand

    Full Text Available The role of the hippocampus in declarative memory consolidation is a matter of intense debate. We investigated the neural substrates of memory retrieval for recent and remote information using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. 18 young, healthy participants learned a series of pictures. Then, during two fMRI recognition sessions, 3 days and 3 months later, they had to determine whether they recognized or not each picture using the "Remember/Know" procedure. Presentation of the same learned images at both delays allowed us to track the evolution of memories and distinguish consistently episodic memories from those that were initially episodic and then became familiar or semantic over time and were retrieved without any contextual detail. Hippocampal activation decreased over time for initially episodic, later semantic memories, but remained stable for consistently episodic ones, at least in its posterior part. For both types of memories, neocortical activations were observed at both delays, notably in the ventromedial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices. These activations may reflect a gradual reorganization of memory traces within neural networks. Our data indicate maintenance and strengthening of hippocampal and cortico-cortical connections in the consolidation and retrieval of episodic memories over time, in line with the Multiple Trace theory (Nadel and Moscovitch, 1997. At variance, memories becoming semantic over time consolidate through strengthening of cortico-cortical connections and progressive disengagement of the hippocampus.

  1. Auditory cortical and hippocampal-system mismatch responses to duration deviants in urethane-anesthetized rats.

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    Timo Ruusuvirta

    Full Text Available Any change in the invariant aspects of the auditory environment is of potential importance. The human brain preattentively or automatically detects such changes. The mismatch negativity (MMN of event-related potentials (ERPs reflects this initial stage of auditory change detection. The origin of MMN is held to be cortical. The hippocampus is associated with a later generated P3a of ERPs reflecting involuntarily attention switches towards auditory changes that are high in magnitude. The evidence for this cortico-hippocampal dichotomy is scarce, however. To shed further light on this issue, auditory cortical and hippocampal-system (CA1, dentate gyrus, subiculum local-field potentials were recorded in urethane-anesthetized rats. A rare tone in duration (deviant was interspersed with a repeated tone (standard. Two standard-to-standard (SSI and standard-to-deviant (SDI intervals (200 ms vs. 500 ms were applied in different combinations to vary the observability of responses resembling MMN (mismatch responses. Mismatch responses were observed at 51.5-89 ms with the 500-ms SSI coupled with the 200-ms SDI but not with the three remaining combinations. Most importantly, the responses appeared in both the auditory-cortical and hippocampal locations. The findings suggest that the hippocampus may play a role in (cortical manifestation of MMN.

  2. Group analyses of connectivity-based cortical parcellation using repeated k-means clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanetti, Luca; Cerliani, Leonardo; Gazzola, Valeria; Renken, Remco; Keysers, Christian

    2009-10-01

    K-means clustering has become a popular tool for connectivity-based cortical segmentation using Diffusion Weighted Imaging (DWI) data. A sometimes ignored issue is, however, that the output of the algorithm depends on the initial placement of starting points, and that different sets of starting points therefore could lead to different solutions. In this study we explore this issue. We apply k-means clustering a thousand times to the same DWI dataset collected in 10 individuals to segment two brain regions: the SMA-preSMA on the medial wall, and the insula. At the level of single subjects, we found that in both brain regions, repeatedly applying k-means indeed often leads to a variety of rather different cortical based parcellations. By assessing the similarity and frequency of these different solutions, we show that approximately 256 k-means repetitions are needed to accurately estimate the distribution of possible solutions. Using nonparametric group statistics, we then propose a method to employ the variability of clustering solutions to assess the reliability with which certain voxels can be attributed to a particular cluster. In addition, we show that the proportion of voxels that can be attributed significantly to either cluster in the SMA and preSMA is relatively higher than in the insula and discuss how this difference may relate to differences in the anatomy of these regions.

  3. Characterization of the spatial structure of local functional connectivity using multi-distance average correlation measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macia, Didac; Pujol, Jesus; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; Martínez-Vilavella, Gerard; Martín-Santos, Rocío; Deus, Joan

    2018-04-24

    There is ample evidence from basic research in neuroscience of the importance of local cortico-cortical networks. Millimetric resolution is achievable with current functional MRI (fMRI) scanners and sequences, and consequently a number of "local" activity similarity measures have been defined to describe patterns of segregation and integration at this spatial scale. We have introduced the use of Iso-Distant local Average Correlation (IDAC), easily defined as the average fMRI temporal correlation of a given voxel with other voxels placed at increasingly separated iso-distant intervals, to characterize the curve of local fMRI signal similarities. IDAC curves can be statistically compared using parametric multivariate statistics. Furthermore, by using RGB color-coding to display jointly IDAC values belonging to three different distance lags, IDAC curves can also be displayed as multi-distance IDAC maps. We applied IDAC analysis to a sample of 41 subjects scanned under two different conditions, a resting state and an auditory-visual continuous stimulation. Multi-distance IDAC mapping was able to discriminate between gross anatomo-functional cortical areas and, moreover, was sensitive to modulation between the two brain conditions in areas known to activate and de-activate during audio-visual tasks. Unlike previous fMRI local similarity measures already in use, our approach draws special attention to the continuous smooth pattern of local functional connectivity.

  4. Simulation of cortico-basal ganglia oscillations and their suppression by closed loop deep brain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Peadar F; Lowery, Madeleine M

    2013-07-01

    A new model of deep brain stimulation (DBS) is presented that integrates volume conduction effects with a neural model of pathological beta-band oscillations in the cortico-basal ganglia network. The model is used to test the clinical hypothesis that closed-loop control of the amplitude of DBS may be possible, based on the average rectified value of beta-band oscillations in the local field potential. Simulation of closed-loop high-frequency DBS was shown to yield energy savings, with the magnitude of the energy saved dependent on the strength of coupling between the subthalamic nucleus and the remainder of the cortico-basal ganglia network. When closed-loop DBS was applied to a strongly coupled cortico-basal ganglia network, the stimulation energy delivered over a 480 s period was reduced by up to 42%. Greater energy reductions were observed for weakly coupled networks, as the stimulation amplitude reduced to zero once the initial desynchronization had occurred. The results provide support for the application of closed-loop high-frequency DBS based on electrophysiological biomarkers.

  5. Engineering a thalamo-cortico-thalamic circuit on SpiNNaker: a preliminary study towards modelling sleep and wakefulness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basabdatta Sen Bhattacharya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a preliminary study of a thalamo-cortico-thalamic (TCT implementation on SpiNNaker (Spiking Neural Network architecture, a brain inspired hardware platform designed to incorporate the inherent biological properties of parallelism, fault tolerance and energy efficiency. These attributes make SpiNNaker an ideal platform for simulating biologically plausible computational models. Our focus in this work is to design a TCT framework that can be simulated on SpiNNaker to mimic dynamical behaviour similar to Electroencephalogram (EEG time and power-spectra signatures in sleep-wake transition. The scale of the model is minimised for simplicity in this proof-of-concept study; thus the total number of spiking neurons is approximately 1000 and represents a `mini-column' of the thalamocortical tissue. All data on model structure, synaptic layout and parameters is inspired from previous studies and abstracted at a level that is appropriate to the aims of the current study as well as computationally suitable for model simulation on a small 4-chip SpiNNaker system. The initial results from selective deletion of synaptic connectivity parameters in the model show similarity with EEG time series characteristics of sleep and wakefulness. These observations provide a positive perspective and a basis for future implementation of a very large scale biologically plausible model of thalamo-cortico-thalamic interactivity---the essential brain circuit that regulates the biological sleep-wake cycle and associated EEG rhythms.

  6. Functional connectivity structure of cortical calcium dynamics in anesthetized and awake mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Patrick W; Brier, Lindsey M; Bauer, Adam Q; Baxter, Grant A; Kraft, Andrew W; Reisman, Matthew D; Bice, Annie R; Snyder, Abraham Z; Lee, Jin-Moo; Culver, Joseph P

    2017-01-01

    The interplay between hemodynamic-based markers of cortical activity (e.g. fMRI and optical intrinsic signal imaging), which are an indirect and relatively slow report of neural activity, and underlying synaptic electrical and metabolic activity through neurovascular coupling is a topic of ongoing research and debate. As application of resting state functional connectivity measures is extended further into topics such as brain development, aging and disease, the importance of understanding the fundamental physiological basis for functional connectivity will grow. Here we extend functional connectivity analysis from hemodynamic- to calcium-based imaging. Transgenic mice (n = 7) expressing a fluorescent calcium indicator (GCaMP6) driven by the Thy1 promoter in glutamatergic neurons were imaged transcranially in both anesthetized (using ketamine/xylazine) and awake states. Sequential LED illumination (λ = 454, 523, 595, 640nm) enabled concurrent imaging of both GCaMP6 fluorescence emission (corrected for hemoglobin absorption) and hemodynamics. Functional connectivity network maps were constructed for infraslow (0.009-0.08Hz), intermediate (0.08-0.4Hz), and high (0.4-4.0Hz) frequency bands. At infraslow and intermediate frequencies, commonly used in BOLD fMRI and fcOIS studies of functional connectivity and implicated in neurovascular coupling mechanisms, GCaMP6 and HbO2 functional connectivity structures were in high agreement, both qualitatively and also quantitatively through a measure of spatial similarity. The spontaneous dynamics of both contrasts had the highest correlation when the GCaMP6 signal was delayed with a ~0.6-1.5s temporal offset. Within the higher-frequency delta band, sensitive to slow wave sleep oscillations in non-REM sleep and anesthesia, we evaluate the speed with which the connectivity analysis stabilized and found that the functional connectivity maps captured putative network structure within time window lengths as short as 30 seconds

  7. Subthalamic nucleus high-frequency stimulation restores altered electrophysiological properties of cortical neurons in parkinsonian rat.

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    Bertrand Degos

    Full Text Available Electrophysiological recordings performed in parkinsonian patients and animal models have confirmed the occurrence of alterations in firing rate and pattern of basal ganglia neurons, but the outcome of these changes in thalamo-cortical networks remains unclear. Using rats rendered parkinsonian, we investigated, at a cellular level in vivo, the electrophysiological changes induced in the pyramidal cells of the motor cortex by the dopaminergic transmission interruption and further characterized the impact of high-frequency electrical stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus, a procedure alleviating parkinsonian symptoms. We provided evidence that a lesion restricted to the substantia nigra pars compacta resulted in a marked increase in the mean firing rate and bursting pattern of pyramidal neurons of the motor cortex. These alterations were underlain by changes of the electrical membranes properties of pyramidal cells including depolarized resting membrane potential and increased input resistance. The modifications induced by the dopaminergic loss were more pronounced in cortico-striatal than in cortico-subthalamic neurons. Furthermore, subthalamic nucleus high-frequency stimulation applied at parameters alleviating parkinsonian signs regularized the firing pattern of pyramidal cells and restored their electrical membrane properties.

  8. Novel electrophysiological approaches to clinical epilepsy. Diagnosis and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Kyoko; Matsumoto, Riki; Ikeda, Akio; Kinoshita, Masako

    2011-01-01

    Seizure onset zone (SOZ) is currently defined by ictal epileptiform discharges, which are most commonly recorded as regional low-voltage fast waves or repetitive spikes. Interictal epileptiform discharges, on the other hand, are not specific enough for SOZ as they are recorded at zones other than the SOZ; they are also recorded from areas that do not generate the ictal pattern and from areas to which ictal discharges propagate. Besides spikes and sharp waves, a novel index of human epileptogenicity has been investigated in association with wide-band electroencephalography (EEG) analysis. We primarily noted the following during clinical neurophysiological analysis for clinical epilepsy. Recent development of digital EEG technology enabled us to record wide-band EEG in a clinical setting. Thus, high frequency (>200 Hz) and low frequency (<1 Hz) components can be reliably recorded using subdural electrodes. Direct current shift, slow shift, ripple, and fast ripple can be well delineated, and they will be potentially useful in the diagnosis and management of epileptic patients. Fiber tractography (morphological parameter) and cortico-cortical-evoked potentials with single cortical stimulation (electrophysiological parameter) elucidated cortico-cortical connections in human brain. The data thus obtained can help us understand the mechanism of seizure propagation and normal cortical functional connectivity. Non-invasive simultaneous recording of EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provided information on the roles of deep brain structures associated with scalp-recorded epileptiform discharges. Interventional neurophysiology can shed light on the non-pharmacological treatment of epilepsy. In this report, we discuss these novel electrophysiological approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of clinical epilepsy. (author)

  9. Glutamate concentration in the medial prefrontal cortex predicts resting-state cortical-subcortical functional connectivity in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niall W Duncan

    Full Text Available Communication between cortical and subcortical regions is integral to a wide range of psychological processes and has been implicated in a number of psychiatric conditions. Studies in animals have provided insight into the biochemical and connectivity processes underlying such communication. However, to date no experiments that link these factors in humans in vivo have been carried out. To investigate the role of glutamate in individual differences in communication between the cortex--specifically the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC--and subcortical regions in humans, a combination of resting-state fMRI, DTI and MRS was performed. The subcortical target regions were the nucleus accumbens (NAc, dorsomedial thalamus (DMT, and periaqueductal grey (PAG. It was found that functional connectivity between the mPFC and each of the NAc and DMT was positively correlated with mPFC glutamate concentrations, whilst functional connectivity between the mPFC and PAG was negatively correlated with glutamate concentration. The correlations involving mPFC glutamate and FC between the mPFC and each of the DMT and PAG were mirrored by correlations with structural connectivity, providing evidence that the glutamatergic relationship may, in part, be due to direct connectivity. These results are in agreement with existing results from animal studies and may have relevance for MDD and schizophrenia.

  10. Partial Correlation-Based Retinotopically Organized Resting-State Functional Connectivity Within and Between Areas of the Visual Cortex Reflects More Than Cortical Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Debra Ann; Lam, Jack; Lewis, Lindsay B; Carbonell, Felix; Mendola, Janine D; Shmuel, Amir

    2016-02-01

    Numerous studies have demonstrated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-based resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) between cortical areas. Recent evidence suggests that synchronous fluctuations in blood oxygenation level-dependent fMRI reflect functional organization at a scale finer than that of visual areas. In this study, we investigated whether RSFCs within and between lower visual areas are retinotopically organized and whether retinotopically organized RSFC merely reflects cortical distance. Subjects underwent retinotopic mapping and separately resting-state fMRI. Visual areas V1, V2, and V3, were subdivided into regions of interest (ROIs) according to quadrants and visual field eccentricity. Functional connectivity (FC) was computed based on Pearson's linear correlation (correlation), and Pearson's linear partial correlation (correlation between two time courses after the time courses from all other regions in the network are regressed out). Within a quadrant, within visual areas, all correlation and nearly all partial correlation FC measures showed statistical significance. Consistently in V1, V2, and to a lesser extent in V3, correlation decreased with increasing eccentricity separation. Consistent with previously reported monkey anatomical connectivity, correlation/partial correlation values between regions from adjacent areas (V1-V2 and V2-V3) were higher than those between nonadjacent areas (V1-V3). Within a quadrant, partial correlation showed consistent significance between regions from two different areas with the same or adjacent eccentricities. Pairs of ROIs with similar eccentricity showed higher correlation/partial correlation than pairs distant in eccentricity. Between dorsal and ventral quadrants, partial correlation between common and adjacent eccentricity regions within a visual area showed statistical significance; this extended to more distant eccentricity regions in V1. Within and between quadrants, correlation decreased

  11. Electrocorticography reveals beta desynchronization in the basal ganglia-cortical loop during rest tremor in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasim, Salman E; de Hemptinne, Coralie; Swann, Nicole C; Miocinovic, Svjetlana; Ostrem, Jill L; Starr, Philip A

    2016-02-01

    The pathophysiology of rest tremor in Parkinson's disease (PD) is not well understood, and its severity does not correlate with the severity of other cardinal signs of PD. We hypothesized that tremor-related oscillatory activity in the basal-ganglia-thalamocortical loop might serve as a compensatory mechanism for the excessive beta band synchronization associated with the parkinsonian state. We recorded electrocorticography (ECoG) from the sensorimotor cortex and local field potentials (LFP) from the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in patients undergoing lead implantation for deep brain stimulation (DBS). We analyzed differences in measures of network synchronization during epochs of spontaneous rest tremor, versus epochs without rest tremor, occurring in the same subjects. The presence of tremor was associated with reduced beta power in the cortex and STN. Cortico-cortical coherence and phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) decreased during rest tremor, as did basal ganglia-cortical coherence in the same frequency band. Cortical broadband gamma power was not increased by tremor onset, in contrast to the movement-related gamma increase typically observed at the onset of voluntary movement. These findings suggest that the cortical representation of rest tremor is distinct from that of voluntary movement, and support a model in which tremor acts to decrease beta band synchronization within the basal ganglia-cortical loop. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Somatostatin-expressing inhibitory interneurons in cortical circuits

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    Iryna Yavorska

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cortical inhibitory neurons exhibit remarkable diversity in their morphology, connectivity, and synaptic properties. Here, we review the function of somatostatin-expressing (SOM inhibitory interneurons, focusing largely on sensory cortex. SOM neurons also comprise a number of subpopulations that can be distinguished by their morphology, input and output connectivity, laminar location, firing properties, and expression of molecular markers. Several of these classes of SOM neurons show unique dynamics and characteristics, such as facilitating synapses, specific axonal projections, intralaminar input, and top-down modulation, which suggest possible computational roles. SOM cells can be differentially modulated by behavioral state depending on their class, sensory system, and behavioral paradigm. The functional effects of such modulation have been studied with optogenetic manipulation of SOM cells, which produces effects on learning and memory, task performance, and the integration of cortical activity. Different classes of SOM cells participate in distinct disinhibitory circuits with different inhibitory partners and in different cortical layers. Through these disinhibitory circuits, SOM cells help encode the behavioral relevance of sensory stimuli by regulating the activity of cortical neurons based on subcortical and intracortical modulatory input. Associative learning leads to long-term changes in the strength of connectivity of SOM cells with other neurons, often influencing the strength of inhibitory input they receive. Thus despite their heterogeneity and variability across cortical areas, current evidence shows that SOM neurons perform unique neural computations, forming not only distinct molecular but also functional subclasses of cortical inhibitory interneurons.

  13. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) as a Tool for Early Diagnosis and Prognostication in Cortico-Basal Ganglia Degeneration (CBD) Syndromes: Review of Literature and Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issac, Thomas Gregor; Chandra, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami; Nagaraju, B C

    2016-01-01

    Cortico basal degeneration (CBD) of the brain is a rare progressive neurodegenerative disease which encompasses unique neuropsychiatric manifestations. Early diagnosis is essential for initiating proper treatment and favorable outcome. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), a well-known technique for assessment of cortical excitatory and inhibitory properties. It was suggested that in a degenerative disease like CBD which involves the cortex as well as the subcortical structures, comparing both hemispheres, a differential pattern in TMS can be obtained which would help in early identification, prognostication and early therapeutic intervention. We describe a case of CBD with corroborative clinical and imaging picture wherein single pulse TMS was used over both the hemispheres measuring the following parameters of interest which included: Motor Threshold (MT), Central Motor Conduction Time (CMCT) and Silent Period (SP). Differential patterns of MT, CMCT and SP was obtained by stimulating over both the hemispheres with the affected hemisphere showing significantly reduced MT and prolonged CMCT implying early impairment of cortical and subcortical structures thereby revealing the potential application of TMS being utilized in a novel way for early detection and prognostication in CBD syndromes.

  14. Inter-individual variability in cortical excitability and motor network connectivity following multiple blocks of rTMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettekoven, Charlotte; Volz, Lukas J; Leimbach, Martha; Pool, Eva-Maria; Rehme, Anne K; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fink, Gereon R; Grefkes, Christian

    2015-09-01

    The responsiveness to non-invasive neuromodulation protocols shows high inter-individual variability, the reasons of which remain poorly understood. We here tested whether the response to intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) - an effective repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) protocol for increasing cortical excitability - depends on network properties of the cortical motor system. We furthermore investigated whether the responsiveness to iTBS is dose-dependent. To this end, we used a sham-stimulation controlled, single-blinded within-subject design testing for the relationship between iTBS aftereffects and (i) motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) as well as (ii) resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in 16 healthy subjects. In each session, three blocks of iTBS were applied, separated by 15min. We found that non-responders (subjects not showing an MEP increase of ≥10% after one iTBS block) featured stronger rsFC between the stimulated primary motor cortex (M1) and premotor areas before stimulation compared to responders. However, only the group of responders showed increases in rsFC and MEPs, while most non-responders remained close to baseline levels after all three blocks of iTBS. Importantly, there was still a large amount of variability in both groups. Our data suggest that responsiveness to iTBS at the local level (i.e., M1 excitability) depends upon the pre-interventional network connectivity of the stimulated region. Of note, increasing iTBS dose did not turn non-responders into responders. The finding that higher levels of pre-interventional connectivity precluded a response to iTBS could reflect a ceiling effect underlying non-responsiveness to iTBS at the systems level. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Functional roles of 10 Hz alpha-band power modulating engagement and disengagement of cortical networks in a complex visual motion task.

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    Kunjan D Rana

    Full Text Available Alpha band power, particularly at the 10 Hz frequency, is significantly involved in sensory inhibition, attention modulation, and working memory. However, the interactions between cortical areas and their relationship to the different functional roles of the alpha band oscillations are still poorly understood. Here we examined alpha band power and the cortico-cortical interregional phase synchrony in a psychophysical task involving the detection of an object moving in depth by an observer in forward self-motion. Wavelet filtering at the 10 Hz frequency revealed differences in the profile of cortical activation in the visual processing regions (occipital and parietal lobes and in the frontoparietal regions. The alpha rhythm driving the visual processing areas was found to be asynchronous with the frontoparietal regions. These findings suggest a decoupling of the 10 Hz frequency into separate functional roles: sensory inhibition in the visual processing regions and spatial attention in the frontoparietal regions.

  16. Alpha spectral power and coherence in the patients with mild cognitive impairment during a three-level working memory task

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The functional relationship between calculated alpha band spectral power and inter-/intra-hemispheric coherence during a three-level working memory task of patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) was investigated. Methods:Subjects included 35 MCI patients according to the DSM-Ⅳ criteria (mean age: 62.3, SD: 6.5) and 34 healthy controls (mean age:57.4, SD: 4.0) were selected from the community at large. All subjects performed a simple calculation and recall task with three levels of working memory load while electroencephalograph (EEG) signal was recorded. The spectral EEG power was computed over alphal (8.0~10.0 Hz) and alpha2 (10.5~13.0 Hz) frequency bands and was compared between rest stage and working memory processing stage by two-way ANOVA. Post hoc testing analyzed the differences between each two levels of working memory load during task processing. The inter-hemisphere EEG coherence of frontal (F3-F4), central (C3-C4), parietal (P3-P4), temporal (T5-T6) as well as occipital (O1-O2) was compared between MCI patients and normal controls. The EEG signals from F3-C3,F4-C4, C3-P3, C4-P4, P3-O1, P4-O2, T5-C3, T6-C4, T5-P3 and T6-P4 electrode pairs resulted from the intra-hemispheric action for alphal and alpha2 frequency bands. Result: There was significantly higher EEG power from MCI patients than from normal controls both at rest and during working memory processing. Significant differences existed between rest condition and three-level working memory tasks (P<0.001). The inter- and intra-hemispheric coherence during working memory tasks showed a "drop to rise" tendency compared to that at rest condition. There was significantly higher coherence in MCI patients than in the controls.When task difficulties increased, the cortical connectivity of intra-hemispheric diminished while the inter-hemispheric connectivity dominantly maintained the cognitive processing in MCI patients. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that the

  17. [Cortical functional connectivity during retention of affective pictures in working memory: EEG-source theta coherence analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machinskaya, R I; Rozovskaya, R I; Kurgansky, A V; Pechenkova, E V

    2016-01-01

    A pattern of cortical functional connectivity in the source space was studied in a group of right-handed adult participants (N = 44:17 women, 27 men, aged M = 29.61 ± 6.45 years) who retained in their working memory (WM) traces of realistic pictures of positive, neutral, and negative emotional valence while in their working memory (WM) while performing same different task in which participants had to compare an etalon picture against a target picture that followed after a specified delay. A coherence (COH) between pairs of cortical sources chosen in advance according to fMRI data was estimated in the theta frequency range for the period of time preceding the etalon stimulus, distinct sets of functional links are found. The links of the first type that presumably reflect the involvement of sustained attention were between the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, the prefrontal areas, and temporal areas of the right hemispheres. When compared to the rest period, links of this type showed strengthening not only during the retention period but also during the period preceding the etalon picture. The links of the second type presumably reflecting a progressive neocortex-to-hippocampus functional integration with increasing memory load and strengthened exclusively during retention period. Those links were between parietal, temporal and prefrontal cortices in the lateral surface of both hemispheres with the additional inclusion of the posterior cingulate cortex and the medial parietal cortex in the left hemisphere. An impact of emotional valence onto the strength and topography of the functional links of the second type was found. In the left hemisphere, an increase in the strength of cortical interaction was more pronounced for pictures of positive valence than for pictures of either neutral or negative valences. When compared to the pictures of neutral valence, the retention of pictorial information of both positive and negative valence showed some extraneous integration

  18. Correlating subcortical interhemispheric connectivity and cortical hemispheric dominance in brain tumor patients: A repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollmann, Nico; Ille, Sebastian; Tussis, Lorena; Maurer, Stefanie; Hauck, Theresa; Negwer, Chiara; Bauer, Jan S; Ringel, Florian; Meyer, Bernhard; Krieg, Sandro M

    2016-02-01

    The present study aims to investigate the relationship between transcallosal interhemispheric connectivity (IC) and hemispheric language lateralization by using a novel approach including repetitive navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), hemispheric dominance ratio (HDR) calculation, and rTMS-based diffusion tensor imaging fiber tracking (DTI FT). 31 patients with left-sided perisylvian brain lesions underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and rTMS language mapping. Cortical language-positive rTMS spots were used to calculate HDRs (HDR: quotient of the left-sided divided by right-sided naming error rates for corresponding left- and right-sided cortical regions) and to create regions of interest (ROIs) for DTI FT. Then, fibers connecting the rTMS-based ROIs of both hemispheres were tracked, and the correlation of IC to HDRs was calculated via Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rs). Fibers connecting rTMS-based ROIs of both hemispheres were detected in 12 patients (38.7%). Within the patients in which IC was detected, the mean number of subcortical IC fibers ± standard deviation (SD) was 138.0 ± 346.5 (median: 7.5; range: 1-1,217 fibers). Regarding rs for the correlation of HDRs and fiber numbers of patients that showed IC, only moderate correlation was revealed. Our approach might be beneficial and technically feasible for further investigation of the relationship between IC and language lateralization. However, only moderate correlation was revealed in the present study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A new framework for cortico-striatal plasticity: behavioural theory meets in vitro data at the reinforcement-action interface.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin N Gurney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Operant learning requires that reinforcement signals interact with action representations at a suitable neural interface. Much evidence suggests that this occurs when phasic dopamine, acting as a reinforcement prediction error, gates plasticity at cortico-striatal synapses, and thereby changes the future likelihood of selecting the action(s coded by striatal neurons. But this hypothesis faces serious challenges. First, cortico-striatal plasticity is inexplicably complex, depending on spike timing, dopamine level, and dopamine receptor type. Second, there is a credit assignment problem-action selection signals occur long before the consequent dopamine reinforcement signal. Third, the two types of striatal output neuron have apparently opposite effects on action selection. Whether these factors rule out the interface hypothesis and how they interact to produce reinforcement learning is unknown. We present a computational framework that addresses these challenges. We first predict the expected activity changes over an operant task for both types of action-coding striatal neuron, and show they co-operate to promote action selection in learning and compete to promote action suppression in extinction. Separately, we derive a complete model of dopamine and spike-timing dependent cortico-striatal plasticity from in vitro data. We then show this model produces the predicted activity changes necessary for learning and extinction in an operant task, a remarkable convergence of a bottom-up data-driven plasticity model with the top-down behavioural requirements of learning theory. Moreover, we show the complex dependencies of cortico-striatal plasticity are not only sufficient but necessary for learning and extinction. Validating the model, we show it can account for behavioural data describing extinction, renewal, and reacquisition, and replicate in vitro experimental data on cortico-striatal plasticity. By bridging the levels between the single synapse and

  20. Cortico-medullary continuity in bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation mimicking osteochondroma on imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rybak, Leon D.; Abramovici, Luigia; Steiner, German C.; Kenan, Samuel; Posner, Martin A.; Bonar, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    Bizarre parosteal osteochondromatous proliferation (BPOP), or Nora's lesion, is an unusual surface-based lesion of bone found most commonly in the hands and feet. In the original description of the lesion and in all publications that followed, one of the key imaging characteristics used to define this entity was the lack of cortico-medullary continuity with the underlying bone. The authors present 4 unique cases of pathologically proven BPOP in which cortico-medullary continuity with the underlying bone was demonstrated on imaging. It is believed that florid reactive periostitis, BPOP and turret osteochondroma may reflect points along the same continuum with trauma the likely inciting event. The authors suggest that, given this continuum, it may be possible to have BPOP lesions demonstrating overlapping imaging features with osteochondroma. If this is the case, strict adherence to the standard imaging criterion of lack of continuity between the lesion and the underlying bone may lead to misdiagnosis of these unusual cases of BPOP as osteochondromas. (orig.)

  1. Autism: reduced connectivity between cortical areas involved in face expression, theory of mind, and the sense of self.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wei; Rolls, Edmund T; Gu, Huaguang; Zhang, Jie; Feng, Jianfeng

    2015-05-01

    Whole-brain voxel-based unbiased resting state functional connectivity was analysed in 418 subjects with autism and 509 matched typically developing individuals. We identified a key system in the middle temporal gyrus/superior temporal sulcus region that has reduced cortical functional connectivity (and increased with the medial thalamus), which is implicated in face expression processing involved in social behaviour. This system has reduced functional connectivity with the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which is implicated in emotion and social communication. The middle temporal gyrus system is also implicated in theory of mind processing. We also identified in autism a second key system in the precuneus/superior parietal lobule region with reduced functional connectivity, which is implicated in spatial functions including of oneself, and of the spatial environment. It is proposed that these two types of functionality, face expression-related, and of one's self and the environment, are important components of the computations involved in theory of mind, whether of oneself or of others, and that reduced connectivity within and between these regions may make a major contribution to the symptoms of autism. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  2. Underlying neural alpha frequency patterns associated with intra-hemispheric inhibition during an interhemispheric transfer task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Dack, Stephanie L; Kraus, Brian; Walter, Zachary; Smith, Shelby; Cadle, Chelsea

    2018-05-18

    Interhemispheric transfer measured via differences in right- or left-handed motoric responses to lateralized visual stimuli, known as the crossed-uncrossed difference (CUD), is one way of identifying patterns of processing that are vital for understanding the transfer of neural signals. Examination of interhemispheric transfer by means of the CUD is not entirely explained by simple measures of response time. Multiple processes contribute to wide variability observed in CUD reaction times. Prior research has suggested that intra-hemispheric inhibitory processes may be involved in regulation of speed of transfer. Our study examined electroencephalography recordings and time-locked alpha frequency activity while 18 participants responded to lateralized targets during performance of the Poffenberger Paradigm. Our results suggest that there are alpha frequency differences at fronto-central lateral electrodes based on target, hand-of-response, and receiving hemisphere. These findings suggest that early motoric inhibitory mechanisms may help explain the wide range of variability typically seen with the CUD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Neural substrates of decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broche-Pérez, Y; Herrera Jiménez, L F; Omar-Martínez, E

    2016-06-01

    Decision-making is the process of selecting a course of action from among 2 or more alternatives by considering the potential outcomes of selecting each option and estimating its consequences in the short, medium and long term. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) has traditionally been considered the key neural structure in decision-making process. However, new studies support the hypothesis that describes a complex neural network including both cortical and subcortical structures. The aim of this review is to summarise evidence on the anatomical structures underlying the decision-making process, considering new findings that support the existence of a complex neural network that gives rise to this complex neuropsychological process. Current evidence shows that the cortical structures involved in decision-making include the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). This process is assisted by subcortical structures including the amygdala, thalamus, and cerebellum. Findings to date show that both cortical and subcortical brain regions contribute to the decision-making process. The neural basis of decision-making is a complex neural network of cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical connections which includes subareas of the PFC, limbic structures, and the cerebellum. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Music training is associated with cortical synchronization reflected in EEG coherence during verbal memory encoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Mei-chun; Chan, Agnes S.; Liu, Ying; Law, Derry; Wong, Christina W. Y.

    2017-01-01

    Music training can improve cognitive functions. Previous studies have shown that children and adults with music training demonstrate better verbal learning and memory performance than those without such training. Although prior studies have shown an association between music training and changes in the structural and functional organization of the brain, there is no concrete evidence of the underlying neural correlates of the verbal memory encoding phase involved in such enhanced memory performance. Therefore, we carried out an electroencephalography (EEG) study to investigate how music training was associated with brain activity during the verbal memory encoding phase. Sixty participants were recruited, 30 of whom had received music training for at least one year (the MT group) and 30 of whom had never received music training (the NMT group). The participants in the two groups were matched for age, education, gender distribution, and cognitive capability. Their verbal and visual memory functions were assessed using standardized neuropsychological tests and EEG was used to record their brain activity during the verbal memory encoding phase. Consistent with previous studies, the MT group demonstrated better verbal memory than the NMT group during both the learning and the delayed recall trials in the paper-and-pencil tests. The MT group also exhibited greater learning capacity during the learning trials. Compared with the NMT group, the MT group showed an increase in long-range left and right intrahemispheric EEG coherence in the theta frequency band during the verbal memory encoding phase. In addition, their event-related left intrahemispheric theta coherence was positively associated with subsequent verbal memory performance as measured by discrimination scores. These results suggest that music training may modulate the cortical synchronization of the neural networks involved in verbal memory formation. PMID:28358852

  5. Music training is associated with cortical synchronization reflected in EEG coherence during verbal memory encoding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Chun Cheung

    Full Text Available Music training can improve cognitive functions. Previous studies have shown that children and adults with music training demonstrate better verbal learning and memory performance than those without such training. Although prior studies have shown an association between music training and changes in the structural and functional organization of the brain, there is no concrete evidence of the underlying neural correlates of the verbal memory encoding phase involved in such enhanced memory performance. Therefore, we carried out an electroencephalography (EEG study to investigate how music training was associated with brain activity during the verbal memory encoding phase. Sixty participants were recruited, 30 of whom had received music training for at least one year (the MT group and 30 of whom had never received music training (the NMT group. The participants in the two groups were matched for age, education, gender distribution, and cognitive capability. Their verbal and visual memory functions were assessed using standardized neuropsychological tests and EEG was used to record their brain activity during the verbal memory encoding phase. Consistent with previous studies, the MT group demonstrated better verbal memory than the NMT group during both the learning and the delayed recall trials in the paper-and-pencil tests. The MT group also exhibited greater learning capacity during the learning trials. Compared with the NMT group, the MT group showed an increase in long-range left and right intrahemispheric EEG coherence in the theta frequency band during the verbal memory encoding phase. In addition, their event-related left intrahemispheric theta coherence was positively associated with subsequent verbal memory performance as measured by discrimination scores. These results suggest that music training may modulate the cortical synchronization of the neural networks involved in verbal memory formation.

  6. Music training is associated with cortical synchronization reflected in EEG coherence during verbal memory encoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Mei-Chun; Chan, Agnes S; Liu, Ying; Law, Derry; Wong, Christina W Y

    2017-01-01

    Music training can improve cognitive functions. Previous studies have shown that children and adults with music training demonstrate better verbal learning and memory performance than those without such training. Although prior studies have shown an association between music training and changes in the structural and functional organization of the brain, there is no concrete evidence of the underlying neural correlates of the verbal memory encoding phase involved in such enhanced memory performance. Therefore, we carried out an electroencephalography (EEG) study to investigate how music training was associated with brain activity during the verbal memory encoding phase. Sixty participants were recruited, 30 of whom had received music training for at least one year (the MT group) and 30 of whom had never received music training (the NMT group). The participants in the two groups were matched for age, education, gender distribution, and cognitive capability. Their verbal and visual memory functions were assessed using standardized neuropsychological tests and EEG was used to record their brain activity during the verbal memory encoding phase. Consistent with previous studies, the MT group demonstrated better verbal memory than the NMT group during both the learning and the delayed recall trials in the paper-and-pencil tests. The MT group also exhibited greater learning capacity during the learning trials. Compared with the NMT group, the MT group showed an increase in long-range left and right intrahemispheric EEG coherence in the theta frequency band during the verbal memory encoding phase. In addition, their event-related left intrahemispheric theta coherence was positively associated with subsequent verbal memory performance as measured by discrimination scores. These results suggest that music training may modulate the cortical synchronization of the neural networks involved in verbal memory formation.

  7. Deafferentation in thalamic and pontine areas in severe traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laouchedi, M; Galanaud, D; Delmaire, C; Fernandez-Vidal, S; Messé, A; Mesmoudi, S; Oulebsir Boumghar, F; Pélégrini-Issac, M; Puybasset, L; Benali, H; Perlbarg, V

    2015-07-01

    Severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) is characterized mainly by diffuse axonal injuries (DAI). The cortico-subcortical disconnections induced by such fiber disruption play a central role in consciousness recovery. We hypothesized that these cortico-subcortical deafferentations inferred from diffusion MRI data could differentiate between TBI patients with favorable or unfavorable (death, vegetative state, or minimally conscious state) outcome one year after injury. Cortico-subcortical fiber density maps were derived by using probabilistic tractography from diffusion tensor imaging data acquired in 24 severe TBI patients and 9 healthy controls. These maps were compared between patients and controls as well as between patients with favorable (FO) and unfavorable (UFO) 1-year outcome to identify the thalamo-cortical and ponto-thalamo-cortical pathways involved in the maintenance of consciousness. Thalamo-cortical and ponto-thalamo-cortical fiber density was significantly lower in TBI patients than in healthy controls. Comparing FO and UFO TBI patients showed thalamo-cortical deafferentation associated with unfavorable outcome for projections from ventral posterior and intermediate thalamic nuclei to the associative frontal, sensorimotor and associative temporal cortices. Specific ponto-thalamic deafferentation in projections from the upper dorsal pons (including the reticular formation) was also associated with unfavorable outcome. Fiber density of cortico-subcortical pathways as measured from diffusion MRI tractography is a relevant candidate biomarker for early prediction of one-year favorable outcome in severe TBI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Alternative Splicing of AMPA subunits in Prefrontal Cortical Fields of Cynomolgus Monkeys following Chronic Ethanol Self-Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen eAcosta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional impairment of the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex underlies deficits in executive control that characterize addictive disorders, including alcohol addiction. Previous studies indicate that alcohol alters glutamate neurotransmission and one substrate of these effects may be through the reconfiguration of the subunits constituting ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR complexes. Glutamatergic transmission is integral to cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical communication and alcohol-induced changes in the abundance of the receptor subunits and/or their splice variants may result in critical functional impairments of prefrontal cortex in alcohol dependence. To this end, the effects of chronic ethanol self-administration on glutamate receptor ionotropic AMPA (GRIA subunit variant and kainate (GRIK subunit mRNA expression were studied in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC of male cynomolgus monkeys. In DLPFC, total AMPA splice variant expression and total kainate receptor subunit expression were significantly decreased in alcohol drinking monkeys. Expression levels of GRIA3 flip and flop and GRIA4 flop mRNAs in this region were positively correlated with daily ethanol intake and blood ethanol concentrations averaged over the six months prior to necropsy. In OFC, AMPA subunit splice variant expression was reduced in the alcohol treated group. GRIA2 flop mRNA levels in this region were positively correlated with daily ethanol intake and blood ethanol concentrations averaged over the six months prior to necropsy. Results from these studies provide further evidence of transcriptional regulation of iGluR subunits in the primate brain following chronic alcohol self-administration. Additional studies examining the cellular localization of such effects in the framework of primate prefrontal cortical circuitry are warranted.

  9. Regional variation of white matter development in the cat brain revealed by ex vivo diffusion MR tractography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Guangping; Das, Avilash; Hayashi, Emiko; Chen, Qin; Takahashi, Emi

    2016-11-01

    Three-dimensional reconstruction of developing fiber pathways is essential to assessing the developmental course of fiber pathways in the whole brain. We applied diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI) tractography to five juvenile ex vivo cat brains at postnatal day (P) 35, when the degree of myelination varies across brain regions. We quantified diffusion properties (fractional anisotropy [FA] and apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC]) and other measurements (number, volume, and voxel count) on reconstructed pathways for projection (cortico-spinal and thalamo-cortical), corpus callosal, limbic (cingulum and fornix), and association (cortico-cortical) pathways, and characterized regional differences in maturation patterns by assessing diffusion properties. FA values were significantly higher in cortico-cortical pathways within the right hemisphere compared to those within the left hemisphere, while the other measurements for the cortico-cortical pathways within the hemisphere did not show asymmetry. ADC values were not asymmetric in both types of pathways. Interestingly, tract count and volume were significantly larger in the left thalamo-cortical pathways compared to the right thalamo-cortical pathways. The bilateral thalamo-cortical pathways showed high FA values compared to the other fiber pathways. On the other hand, ADC values did not show any differences across pathways studied. These results demonstrate that DSI tractography successfully depicted regional variations of white matter tracts during development when myelination is incomplete. Low FA and high ADC values in the cingulum bundle suggest that the cingulum bundle is less mature than the others at this developmental stage. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Acupuncture analgesia involves modulation of pain-induced gamma oscillations and cortical network connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Michael; Schröder, Sven; Meyer-Hamme, Gesa; Lorenz, Jürgen; Friedrichs, Sunja; Nolte, Guido; Gerloff, Christian; Engel, Andreas K

    2017-11-24

    Recent studies support the view that cortical sensory, limbic and executive networks and the autonomic nervous system might interact in distinct manners under the influence of acupuncture to modulate pain. We performed a double-blind crossover design study to investigate subjective ratings, EEG and ECG following experimental laser pain under the influence of sham and verum acupuncture in 26 healthy volunteers. We analyzed neuronal oscillations and inter-regional coherence in the gamma band of 128-channel-EEG recordings as well as heart rate variability (HRV) on two experimental days. Pain ratings and pain-induced gamma oscillations together with vagally-mediated power in the high-frequency bandwidth (vmHF) of HRV decreased significantly stronger during verum than sham acupuncture. Gamma oscillations were localized in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), mid-cingulate cortex (MCC), primary somatosensory cortex and insula. Reductions of pain ratings and vmHF-power were significantly correlated with increase of connectivity between the insula and MCC. In contrast, connectivity between left and right PFC and between PFC and insula correlated positively with vmHF-power without a relationship to acupuncture analgesia. Overall, these findings highlight the influence of the insula in integrating activity in limbic-saliency networks with vagally mediated homeostatic control to mediate antinociception under the influence of acupuncture.

  11. Altered structural brain changes and neurocognitive performance in pediatric HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh K. Yadav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric HIV patients often suffer with neurodevelopmental delay and subsequently cognitive impairment. While tissue injury in cortical and subcortical regions in the brain of adult HIV patients has been well reported there is sparse knowledge about these changes in perinatally HIV infected pediatric patients. We analyzed cortical thickness, subcortical volume, structural connectivity, and neurocognitive functions in pediatric HIV patients and compared with those of pediatric healthy controls. With informed consent, 34 perinatally infected pediatric HIV patients and 32 age and gender matched pediatric healthy controls underwent neurocognitive assessment and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI on a 3 T clinical scanner. Altered cortical thickness, subcortical volumes, and abnormal neuropsychological test scores were observed in pediatric HIV patients. The structural network connectivity analysis depicted lower connection strengths, lower clustering coefficients, and higher path length in pediatric HIV patients than healthy controls. The network betweenness and network hubs in cortico-limbic regions were distorted in pediatric HIV patients. The findings suggest that altered cortical and subcortical structures and regional brain connectivity in pediatric HIV patients may contribute to deficits in their neurocognitive functions. Further, longitudinal studies are required for better understanding of the effect of HIV pathogenesis on brain structural changes throughout the brain development process under standard ART treatment.

  12. Linking DMN connectivity to episodic memory capacity: What can we learn from patients with medial temporal lobe damage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia McCormick

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational models predict that focal damage to the Default Mode Network (DMN causes widespread decreases and increases of functional DMN connectivity. How such alterations impact functioning in a specific cognitive domain such as episodic memory remains relatively unexplored. Here, we show in patients with unilateral medial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE that focal structural damage leads indeed to specific patterns of DMN functional connectivity alterations, specifically decreased connectivity between both medial temporal lobes (MTLs and the posterior part of the DMN and increased intrahemispheric anterior–posterior connectivity. Importantly, these patterns were associated with better and worse episodic memory capacity, respectively. These distinct patterns, shown here for the first time, suggest that a close dialogue between both MTLs and the posterior components of the DMN is required to fully express the extensive repertoire of episodic memory abilities.

  13. Studying hemispheric lateralization during a Stroop task through near-infrared spectroscopy-based connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Sun, Jinyan; Sun, Bailei; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui

    2014-05-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a developing and promising functional brain imaging technology. Developing data analysis methods to effectively extract meaningful information from collected data is the major bottleneck in popularizing this technology. In this study, we measured hemodynamic activity of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) during a color-word matching Stroop task using NIRS. Hemispheric lateralization was examined by employing traditional activation and novel NIRS-based connectivity analyses simultaneously. Wavelet transform coherence was used to assess intrahemispheric functional connectivity. Spearman correlation analysis was used to examine the relationship between behavioral performance and activation/functional connectivity, respectively. In agreement with activation analysis, functional connectivity analysis revealed leftward lateralization for the Stroop effect and correlation with behavioral performance. However, functional connectivity was more sensitive than activation for identifying hemispheric lateralization. Granger causality was used to evaluate the effective connectivity between hemispheres. The results showed increased information flow from the left to the right hemispheres for the incongruent versus the neutral task, indicating a leading role of the left PFC. This study demonstrates that the NIRS-based connectivity can reveal the functional architecture of the brain more comprehensively than traditional activation, helping to better utilize the advantages of NIRS.

  14. Impulse control disorder in PD: A lateralized monoaminergic frontostriatal disconnection syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premi, E; Pilotto, A; Garibotto, V; Bigni, B; Turrone, R; Alberici, A; Cottini, E; Poli, L; Bianchi, M; Formenti, A; Cosseddu, M; Gazzina, S; Magoni, M; Bertoli, M; Paghera, B; Borroni, B; Padovani, A

    2016-09-01

    Impulse Control Disorder symptoms (ICD) in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been recently associated by magnetic Resonance imaging with impaired cortico-striatal connectivity, especially between left putamen and frontal associative areas. 84 patients entered the study (21 PD-ICD+ and 64 PD-ICD-) and underwent DATSCAN imaging. The striatal tracer uptake was evaluated using BRASS software (Hermes, Sweden). The whole-brain analysis was performed with Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM). PD-ICD+ showed a significant reduction of left putaminal and left inferior frontal gyrus tracer uptake compared to PD-ICD-. Functional covariance analysis using left putamen as the seed point showed that, in contrast to ICD-patients, ICD+ patients had no functional covariance with contralateral basal ganglia and ipsilateral cingulate cortex, as index of an impaired inter- and intra-hemispheric dopamine binding in PD-ICD+. the results support and expand the concept of a functional disconnection syndrome linked to ICD symptoms in PD patients through an asymmetric molecular frontostriatal network breakdown with left basal ganglia as central hub. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Long-range GABAergic connections distributed throughout the neocortex and their possible function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuaki eTamamaki

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Features and functions of long range GABAergic projection neurons in the developing cerebral cortex have been reported previously, although until now their significance in the adult cerebral cortex has remained uncertain. The septo-hippocampal circuit is one exception – in this system, long range mature GABAergic projection neurons have been well analyzed and their contribution to the generation of theta-oscillatory behavior in the hippocampus has been documented. To have a clue to the function of the GABAergic projection neurons in the neocortex, we view the long range GABAergic projections those participating in the cortico-cortical, cortico-fugal, and afferent projections in the cerebral cortex. Then, we consider the possibility that the GABAergic projection neurons are involved in the generation, modification, and/or synchronization of oscillations in mature neocortical neuron activity. When markers that identify the GABAergic projection neurons are examined in anatomical and developmental studies, it is clear that neuronal NO synthetase (nNOS-immunoreactivity can readily identify GABAergic projection fibers (i.e. those longer than 1.5 mm. To elucidate the role of the GABAergic projection neurons in the neocortex, it will be necessary to clarify the network constructed by nNOS-positive GABAergic projection neurons and their postsynaptic targets. Thus, our long-range goals will be to label and manipulate (including deleting the GABAergic projection neurons using genetic tools driven by a nNOS promoter. We recognize that this may be a complex endeavor, as most excitatory neurons in the murine neocortex express nNOS transiently. Nevertheless, additional studies characterizing long range GABAergic projection neurons will have great value to the overall understanding of mature cortical function.

  16. Improved diagnostic accuracy of Alzheimer's disease by combining regional cortical thickness and default mode network functional connectivity: Validated in the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ji Eun; Park, Bum Woo; Kim, Sang Joon; Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong Gon; Jung, Seung Jung; Oh, Joo Young; Shim, Woo Hyun; Lee, Jae Hong; Roh, Jee Hoon

    2017-01-01

    To identify potential imaging biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease by combining brain cortical thickness (CThk) and functional connectivity and to validate this model's diagnostic accuracy in a validation set. Data from 98 subjects was retrospectively reviewed, including a study set (n = 63) and a validation set from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (n = 35). From each subject, data for CThk and functional connectivity of the default mode network was extracted from structural T1-weighted and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Cortical regions with significant differences between patients and healthy controls in the correlation of CThk and functional connectivity were identified in the study set. The diagnostic accuracy of functional connectivity measures combined with CThk in the identified regions was evaluated against that in the medial temporal lobes using the validation set and application of a support vector machine. Group-wise differences in the correlation of CThk and default mode network functional connectivity were identified in the superior temporal (p < 0.001) and supramarginal gyrus (p = 0.007) of the left cerebral hemisphere. Default mode network functional connectivity combined with the CThk of those two regions were more accurate than that combined with the CThk of both medial temporal lobes (91.7% vs. 75%). Combining functional information with CThk of the superior temporal and supramarginal gyri in the left cerebral hemisphere improves diagnostic accuracy, making it a potential imaging biomarker for Alzheimer's disease

  17. Motor thalamus integration of cortical, cerebellar and basal ganglia information: implications for normal and parkinsonian conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clémentine eBosch-Bouju

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Motor thalamus (Mthal is implicated in the control of movement because it is strategically located between motor areas of the cerebral cortex and motor-related subcortical structures, such as the cerebellum and basal ganglia (BG. The role of BG and cerebellum in motor control has been extensively studied but how Mthal processes inputs from these two networks is unclear. Specifically, there is considerable debate about the role of BG inputs on Mthal activity. This review summarises anatomical and physiological knowledge of the Mthal and its afferents and reviews current theories of Mthal function by discussing the impact of cortical, BG and cerebellar inputs on Mthal activity. One view is that Mthal activity in BG and cerebellar-receiving territories is primarily driven by glutamatergic inputs from the cortex or cerebellum, respectively, whereas BG inputs are modulatory and do not strongly determine Mthal activity. This theory is steeped in the assumption that the Mthal processes information in the same way as sensory thalamus, through interactions of modulatory inputs with a single driver input. Another view, from BG models, is that BG exert primary control on the BG-receiving Mthal so it effectively relays information from BG to cortex. We propose a new super-integrator theory where each Mthal territory processes multiple driver or driver-like inputs (cortex and BG, cortex and cerebellum, which are the result of considerable integrative processing. Thus, BG and cerebellar Mthal territories assimilate motivational and proprioceptive motor information previously integrated in cortico-BG and cortico-cerebellar networks, respectively, to develop sophisticated motor signals that are transmitted in parallel pathways to cortical areas for optimal generation of motor programmes. Finally, we briefly review the pathophysiological changes that occur in the BG in parkinsonism and generate testable hypotheses about how these may affect processing of inputs

  18. Spatial integration and cortical dynamics.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilbert, C D; Das, A; Ito, M; Kapadia, M; Westheimer, G

    1996-01-01

    Cells in adult primary visual cortex are capable of integrating information over much larger portions of the visual field than was originally thought. Moreover, their receptive field properties can be altered by the context within which local features are presented and by changes in visual experience. The substrate for both spatial integration and cortical plasticity is likely to be found in a plexus of long-range horizontal connections, formed by cortical pyramidal cells, which link cells wi...

  19. Sex differences of gray matter morphology in cortico-limbic-striatal neural system in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingtao; Chen, Kaiyuan; Womer, Fay; Jiang, Wenyan; Luo, Xingguang; Driesen, Naomi; Liu, Jie; Blumberg, Hilary; Tang, Yanqing; Xu, Ke; Wang, Fei

    2013-06-01

    Sex differences are observed in both epidemiological and clinical aspects of major depressive disorder (MDD). The cortico-limbic-striatal neural system, including the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, hippocampus, and striatum, have shown sexually dimorphic morphological features and have been implicated in the dysfunctional regulation of mood and emotion in MDD. In this study, we utilized a whole-brain, voxel-based approach to examine sex differences in the regional distribution of gray matter (GM) morphological abnormalities in medication-naïve participants with MDD. Participants included 29 medication-naïve individuals with MDD (16 females and 13 males) and 33 healthy controls (HC) (17 females and 16 males). Gray matter morphology of the cortico-limbic-striatal neural system was examined using voxel-based morphometry analyzes of high-resolution structural magnetic resonance imaging scans. The main effect of diagnosis and interaction effect of diagnosis by sex on GM morphology were statistically significant (p sex-related patterns of abnormalities within the cortico-limbic-strial neural system, such as predominant prefrontal-limbic abnormalities in MDD females vs. predominant prefrontal-striatal abnormalities in MDD males, suggest differences in neural circuitry that may mediate sex differences in the clinical presentation of MDD and potential targets for sex-differentiated treatment of the disorder. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Corticolimbic functional connectivity in adolescents with bipolar disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Wang

    Full Text Available Convergent evidence supports regional dysfunction within a corticolimbic neural system that subserves emotional processing and regulation in adolescents and adults with bipolar disorder (BD, with abnormalities prominent within the amygdala and its major anterior paralimbic cortical connection sites including ventral anterior cingulate, orbitofrontal, insular and temporopolar cortices. Recent studies of adults with BD demonstrate abnormalities in the functional connectivity between the amygdala and anterior paralimbic regions suggesting an important role for the connections between these regions in the development of the disorder. This study tests the hypothesis that these functional connectivity abnormalities are present in adolescents with BD. Fifty-seven adolescents, twenty-one with BD and thirty-six healthy comparison (HC adolescents, participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging while processing emotional face stimuli. The BD and HC groups were compared in the strength of functional connectivity from amygdala to the anterior paralimbic cortical regions, and explored in remaining brain regions. Functional connectivity was decreased in the BD group, compared to the HC group, during processing of emotional faces in ventral anterior cingulate (VACC, orbitofrontal, insular and temporopolar cortices (p<0.005. Orbitofrontal and VACC findings for the happy condition, and additionally right insula for the neutral condition, survived multiple comparison correction. Exploratory analyses did not reveal additional regions of group differences. This study provides evidence for decreased functional connectivity between the amygdala and anterior paralimbic cortices in adolescents with BD. This suggests that amygdala-anterior paralimbic connectivity abnormalities are early features of BD that emerge at least by adolescence in the disorder.

  1. High-conductance states in a mean-field cortical network model

    CERN Document Server

    Lerchner, A; Hertz, J

    2004-01-01

    Measured responses from visual cortical neurons show that spike times tend to be correlated rather than exactly Poisson distributed. Fano factors vary and are usually greater than 1 due to the tendency of spikes being clustered into bursts. We show that this behavior emerges naturally in a balanced cortical network model with random connectivity and conductance-based synapses. We employ mean field theory with correctly colored noise to describe temporal correlations in the neuronal activity. Our results illuminate the connection between two independent experimental findings: high conductance states of cortical neurons in their natural environment, and variable non-Poissonian spike statistics with Fano factors greater than 1.

  2. Cerebro-cerebellar connectivity is increased in primary lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meoded, Avner; Morrissette, Arthur E; Katipally, Rohan; Schanz, Olivia; Gotts, Stephen J; Floeter, Mary Kay

    2015-01-01

    Increased functional connectivity in resting state networks was found in several studies of patients with motor neuron disorders, although diffusion tensor imaging studies consistently show loss of white matter integrity. To understand the relationship between structural connectivity and functional connectivity, we examined the structural connections between regions with altered functional connectivity in patients with primary lateral sclerosis (PLS), a long-lived motor neuron disease. Connectivity matrices were constructed from resting state fMRI in 16 PLS patients to identify areas of differing connectivity between patients and healthy controls. Probabilistic fiber tracking was used to examine structural connections between regions of differing connectivity. PLS patients had 12 regions with increased functional connectivity compared to controls, with a predominance of cerebro-cerebellar connections. Increased functional connectivity was strongest between the cerebellum and cortical motor areas and between the cerebellum and frontal and temporal cortex. Fiber tracking detected no difference in connections between regions with increased functional connectivity. We conclude that functional connectivity changes are not strongly based in structural connectivity. Increased functional connectivity may be caused by common inputs, or by reduced selectivity of cortical activation, which could result from loss of intracortical inhibition when cortical afferents are intact.

  3. Early hypersynchrony in juvenile PINK1-/- motor cortex is rescued by antidromic stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain eCARRON

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In Parkinson’s disease, cortical networks show enhanced synchronized activity but whether this precedes motor signs is unknown. We investigated this question in PINK1-/- mice, a genetic rodent model of the PARK6 variant of familial Parkinson’s disease which shows impaired spontaneous locomotion at 16 months. We used two-photon calcium imaging and whole-cell patch clamp in slices from juvenile (P14-P21 wild-type or PINK1-/- mice. We designed a horizontal tilted cortico-subthalamic slice where the only connection between cortex and subthalamic nucleus (STN is the hyperdirect cortico-subthalamic pathway. We report excessive correlation and synchronization in PINK1-/- M1 cortical networks 15 months before motor impairment. The percentage of correlated pairs of neurons and their strength of correlation were higher in the PINK1-/- M1 than in the wild type network and the synchronized network events involved a higher percentage of neurons. Both features were independent of thalamo-cortical pathways, insensitive to chronic levodopa treatment of pups, but totally reversed by antidromic invasion of M1 pyramidal neurons by axonal spikes evoked by high frequency stimulation (HFS of the STN. Our study describes an early excess of synchronization in the PINK1-/- cortex and suggests a potential role of antidromic activation of cortical interneurons in network desynchronization. Such backward effect on interneurons activity may be of importance for HFS-induced network desynchronization.

  4. Cortical-Cortical Interactions And Sensory Information Processing in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-30

    significant development for disseminating the results of biomedical research in our lifetime." Sir Paul Nurse , Cancer Research UK Your research papers...of the evidence for local cortical over-connectivity is anecdotal. Belmonte and colleagues suggested the co-morbidity with epilepsy that is highly...Tomma-Halme J, Lahti-Nuuttila P, Service E, Virsu V: Rate of information segregation in developmentally dyslexic children . Brain Lang 2000, 75:66-81

  5. Repeated Acute Oral Exposure to Cannabis sativa Impaired Neurocognitive Behaviours and Cortico-hippocampal Architectonics in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, A; Ajao, M S; Akinola, O B; Ajibola, M I; Ibrahim, A; Amin, A; Abdulmajeed, W I; Lawal, Z A; Ali-Oluwafuyi, A

    2017-03-06

    The most abused illicit drug in both the developing and the developed world is Cannabis disposing users to varying forms of personality disorders. However, the effects of cannabis on cortico-hippocampal architecture and cognitive behaviours still remain elusive.  The present study investigated the neuro-cognitive implications of oral cannabis use in rats. Eighteen adult Wistar rats were randomly grouped to three. Saline was administered to the control rats, cannabis (20 mg/kg) to the experimental group I, while Scopolamine (1 mg/kg. ip) was administered to the last group as a standard measure for the cannabis induced cognitive impairment. All treatments lasted for seven consecutive days. Open Field Test (OFT) was used to assess locomotor activities, Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) for anxiety-like behaviour, and Y maze paradigm for spatial memory and data subjected to ANOVA and T test respectively. Thereafter, rats were sacrificed and brains removed for histopathological studies. Cannabis significantly reduced rearing frequencies in the OFT and EPM, and increased freezing period in the OFT. It also reduced percentage alternation similar to scopolamine in the Y maze, and these effects were coupled with alterations in the cortico-hippocampal neuronal architectures. These results point to the detrimental impacts of cannabis on cortico-hippocampal neuronal architecture and morphology, and consequently cognitive deficits.

  6. High-conductance states in a mean-field cortical network model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerchner, Alexander; Ahmadi, Mandana; Hertz, John

    2004-01-01

    cortical network model with random connectivity and conductance-based synapses. We employ mean-field theory with correctly colored noise to describe temporal correlations in the neuronal activity. Our results illuminate the connection between two independent experimental findings: high-conductance states......Measured responses from visual cortical neurons show that spike times tend to be correlated rather than exactly Poisson distributed. Fano factors vary and are usually greater than 1, indicating a tendency toward spikes being clustered. We show that this behavior emerges naturally in a balanced...... of cortical neurons in their natural environment, and variable non-Poissonian spike statistics with Fano factors greater than 1. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  7. Left dorso-lateral repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation affects cortical excitability and functional connectivity, but does not impair cognition in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shajahan, Polash M; Glabus, Mike F; Steele, J Douglas; Doris, Alan B; Anderson, Kay; Jenkins, Jenny A; Gooding, Patricia A; Ebmeier, Klaus P

    2002-06-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has been used for over a decade to investigate cortical function. More recently, it has been employed to treat conditions such as major depression. This study was designed to explore the effects of differential treatment parameters, such as stimulation frequency. In addition, the data were examined to determine whether a change in connectivity occurred following TMS. Fifteen patients with major depression were entered into a combined imaging and treatment experiment with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Brain perfusion during a verbal fluency task was compared between pre- and poststimulation conditions. Patients were then treated with 80% of motor threshold for a total of 10 days, using 5000 stimuli at 5, 10 or 20 Hz. Tests of cortical excitability and neuropsychological tests were done throughout the trial. Patients generally improved with treatment. There was no perceptible difference between stimulation frequencies, which may have reflected low study power. An increase in rostral anterior cingulate activation after the treatment day was associated with increased functional connectivity in the dorso-lateral frontal loop on the left and the limbic loop on both sides. No noticeable deterioration in neuropsychological function was observed. TMS at the stimulation frequencies used seems to be safe over a course of 5000 stimuli. It appears to have an activating effect in anterior limbic structures and increase functional connectivity in the neuroanatomical networks under the stimulation coil within an hour of stimulation.

  8. Connectivity-based parcellation of the thalamus explains specific cognitive and behavioural symptoms in patients with bilateral thalamic infarct.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Serra

    Full Text Available A novel approach based on diffusion tractography was used here to characterise the cortico-thalamic connectivity in two patients, both presenting with an isolated bilateral infarct in the thalamus, but exhibiting partially different cognitive and behavioural profiles. Both patients (G.P. and R.F. had a pervasive deficit in episodic memory, but only one of them (R.F. suffered also from a dysexecutive syndrome. Both patients had an MRI scan at 3T, including a T1-weighted volume. Their lesions were manually segmented. T1-volumes were normalised to standard space, and the same transformations were applied to the lesion masks. Nineteen healthy controls underwent a diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI scan. Their DTI data were normalised to standard space and averaged. An atlas of Brodmann areas was used to parcellate the prefrontal cortex. Probabilistic tractography was used to assess the probability of connection between each voxel of the thalamus and a set of prefrontal areas. The resulting map of corticothalamic connections was superimposed onto the patients' lesion masks, to assess whether the location of the thalamic lesions in R.F. (but not in G. P. implied connections with prefrontal areas involved in dysexecutive syndromes. In G.P., the lesion fell within areas of the thalamus poorly connected with prefrontal areas, showing only a modest probability of connection with the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC. Conversely, R.F.'s lesion fell within thalamic areas extensively connected with the ACC bilaterally, with the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and with the left supplementary motor area. Despite a similar, bilateral involvement of the thalamus, the use of connectivity-based segmentation clarified that R.F.'s lesions only were located within nuclei highly connected with the prefrontal cortical areas, thus explaining the patient's frontal syndrome. This study confirms that DTI tractography is a useful tool to examine in vivo the effect of focal

  9. Cortical brain connectivity evaluated by graph theory in dementia: a correlation study between functional and structural data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, Fabrizio; Miraglia, Francesca; Curcio, Giuseppe; Altavilla, Riccardo; Scrascia, Federica; Giambattistelli, Federica; Quattrocchi, Carlo Cosimo; Bramanti, Placido; Vernieri, Fabrizio; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2015-01-01

    A relatively new approach to brain function in neuroscience is the "functional connectivity", namely the synchrony in time of activity in anatomically-distinct but functionally-collaborating brain regions. On the other hand, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a recently developed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based technique with the capability to detect brain structural connection with fractional anisotropy (FA) identification. FA decrease has been observed in the corpus callosum of subjects with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI, an AD prodromal stage). Corpus callosum splenium DTI abnormalities are thought to be associated with functional disconnections among cortical areas. This study aimed to investigate possible correlations between structural damage, measured by MRI-DTI, and functional abnormalities of brain integration, measured by characteristic path length detected in resting state EEG source activity (40 participants: 9 healthy controls, 10 MCI, 10 mild AD, 11 moderate AD). For each subject, undirected and weighted brain network was built to evaluate graph core measures. eLORETA lagged linear connectivity values were used as weight of the edges of the network. Results showed that callosal FA reduction is associated to a loss of brain interhemispheric functional connectivity characterized by increased delta and decreased alpha path length. These findings suggest that "global" (average network shortest path length representing an index of how efficient is the information transfer between two parts of the network) functional measure can reflect the reduction of fiber connecting the two hemispheres as revealed by DTI analysis and also anticipate in time this structural loss.

  10. Towards a comprehensive atlas of cortical connections in a primate brain: Mapping tracer injection studies of the common marmoset into a reference digital template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majka, Piotr; Chaplin, Tristan A; Yu, Hsin-Hao; Tolpygo, Alexander; Mitra, Partha P; Wójcik, Daniel K; Rosa, Marcello G P

    2016-08-01

    The marmoset is an emerging animal model for large-scale attempts to understand primate brain connectivity, but achieving this aim requires the development and validation of procedures for normalization and integration of results from many neuroanatomical experiments. Here we describe a computational pipeline for coregistration of retrograde tracing data on connections of cortical areas into a 3D marmoset brain template, generated from Nissl-stained sections. The procedure results in a series of spatial transformations that are applied to the coordinates of labeled neurons in the different cases, bringing them into common stereotaxic space. We applied this procedure to 17 injections, placed in the frontal lobe of nine marmosets as part of earlier studies. Visualizations of cortical patterns of connections revealed by these injections are supplied as Supplementary Materials. Comparison between the results of the automated and human-based processing of these cases reveals that the centers of injection sites can be reconstructed, on average, to within 0.6 mm of coordinates estimated by an experienced neuroanatomist. Moreover, cell counts obtained in different areas by the automated approach are highly correlated (r = 0.83) with those obtained by an expert, who examined in detail histological sections for each individual. The present procedure enables comparison and visualization of large datasets, which in turn opens the way for integration and analysis of results from many animals. Its versatility, including applicability to archival materials, may reduce the number of additional experiments required to produce the first detailed cortical connectome of a primate brain. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2161-2181, 2016. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Real-time parallel processing of grammatical structure in the fronto-striatal system: a recurrent network simulation study using reservoir computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinaut, Xavier; Dominey, Peter Ford

    2013-01-01

    Sentence processing takes place in real-time. Previous words in the sentence can influence the processing of the current word in the timescale of hundreds of milliseconds. Recent neurophysiological studies in humans suggest that the fronto-striatal system (frontal cortex, and striatum--the major input locus of the basal ganglia) plays a crucial role in this process. The current research provides a possible explanation of how certain aspects of this real-time processing can occur, based on the dynamics of recurrent cortical networks, and plasticity in the cortico-striatal system. We simulate prefrontal area BA47 as a recurrent network that receives on-line input about word categories during sentence processing, with plastic connections between cortex and striatum. We exploit the homology between the cortico-striatal system and reservoir computing, where recurrent frontal cortical networks are the reservoir, and plastic cortico-striatal synapses are the readout. The system is trained on sentence-meaning pairs, where meaning is coded as activation in the striatum corresponding to the roles that different nouns and verbs play in the sentences. The model learns an extended set of grammatical constructions, and demonstrates the ability to generalize to novel constructions. It demonstrates how early in the sentence, a parallel set of predictions are made concerning the meaning, which are then confirmed or updated as the processing of the input sentence proceeds. It demonstrates how on-line responses to words are influenced by previous words in the sentence, and by previous sentences in the discourse, providing new insight into the neurophysiology of the P600 ERP scalp response to grammatical complexity. This demonstrates that a recurrent neural network can decode grammatical structure from sentences in real-time in order to generate a predictive representation of the meaning of the sentences. This can provide insight into the underlying mechanisms of human cortico

  12. Modulation of fronto-parietal connections during the rubber hand illusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karabanov, Anke Ninija; Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Christensen, Mark Schram

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that parieto-frontal connections play a role in adjusting body ownership during the Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI). Using a motor version of the rubber hand illusion paradigm, we applied single-site and dual-site transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate...... and during three RHI conditions: a) agency and ownership, b) agency but no ownership and c) neither agency nor ownership. Parietal-motor communication differed among experimental conditions. The induction of action ownership was associated with an inhibitory parietal-to-motor connectivity, which...... cortico-spinal and parietal-frontal connectivity during perceived rubber hand ownership. Healthy volunteers received a conditioning TMS pulse over left anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) and a test TMS pulse over left primary motor cortex (M1). Motor Evoked Potentials (MEPs) were recorded at rest...

  13. Influences of brain development and ageing on cortical interactive networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chengyu; Guo, Xiaoli; Jin, Zheng; Sun, Junfeng; Qiu, Yihong; Zhu, Yisheng; Tong, Shanbao

    2011-02-01

    To study the effect of brain development and ageing on the pattern of cortical interactive networks. By causality analysis of multichannel electroencephalograph (EEG) with partial directed coherence (PDC), we investigated the different neural networks involved in the whole cortex as well as the anterior and posterior areas in three age groups, i.e., children (0-10 years), mid-aged adults (26-38 years) and the elderly (56-80 years). By comparing the cortical interactive networks in different age groups, the following findings were concluded: (1) the cortical interactive network in the right hemisphere develops earlier than its left counterpart in the development stage; (2) the cortical interactive network of anterior cortex, especially at C3 and F3, is demonstrated to undergo far more extensive changes, compared with the posterior area during brain development and ageing; (3) the asymmetry of the cortical interactive networks declines during ageing with more loss of connectivity in the left frontal and central areas. The age-related variation of cortical interactive networks from resting EEG provides new insights into brain development and ageing. Our findings demonstrated that the PDC analysis of EEG is a powerful approach for characterizing the cortical functional connectivity during brain development and ageing. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Intra- and interregional cortical interactions related to sharp-wave ripples and dentate spikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headley, Drew B; Kanta, Vasiliki; Paré, Denis

    2017-02-01

    The hippocampus generates population events termed sharp-wave ripples (SWRs) and dentate spikes (DSs). While little is known about DSs, SWR-related hippocampal discharges during sleep are thought to replay prior waking activity, reactivating the cortical networks that encoded the initial experience. During slow-wave sleep, such reactivations likely occur during up-states, when most cortical neurons are depolarized. However, most studies have examined the relationship between SWRs and up-states measured in single neocortical regions. As a result, it is currently unclear whether SWRs are associated with particular patterns of widely distributed cortical activity. Additionally, no such investigation has been carried out for DSs. The present study addressed these questions by recording SWRs and DSs from the dorsal hippocampus simultaneously with prefrontal, sensory (visual and auditory), perirhinal, and entorhinal cortices in naturally sleeping rats. We found that SWRs and DSs were associated with up-states in all cortical regions. Up-states coinciding with DSs and SWRs exhibited increased unit activity, power in the gamma band, and intraregional gamma coherence. Unexpectedly, interregional gamma coherence rose much more strongly in relation to DSs than to SWRs. Whereas the increase in gamma coherence was time locked to DSs, that seen in relation to SWRs was not. These observations suggest that SWRs are related to the strength of up-state activation within individual regions throughout the neocortex but not so much to gamma coherence between different regions. Perhaps more importantly, DSs coincided with stronger periods of interregional gamma coherence, suggesting that they play a more important role than previously assumed. Off-line cortico-hippocampal interactions are thought to support memory consolidation. We surveyed the relationship between hippocampal sharp-wave ripples (SWRs) and dentate spikes (DSs) with up-states across multiple cortical regions. SWRs and

  15. Extensive cortical rewiring after brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancause, Numa; Barbay, Scott; Frost, Shawn B; Plautz, Erik J; Chen, Daofen; Zoubina, Elena V; Stowe, Ann M; Nudo, Randolph J

    2005-11-02

    Previously, we showed that the ventral premotor cortex (PMv) underwent neurophysiological remodeling after injury to the primary motor cortex (M1). In the present study, we examined cortical connections of PMv after such lesions. The neuroanatomical tract tracer biotinylated dextran amine was injected into the PMv hand area at least 5 months after ischemic injury to the M1 hand area. Comparison of labeling patterns between experimental and control animals demonstrated extensive proliferation of novel PMv terminal fields and the appearance of retrogradely labeled cell bodies within area 1/2 of the primary somatosensory cortex after M1 injury. Furthermore, evidence was found for alterations in the trajectory of PMv intracortical axons near the site of the lesion. The results suggest that M1 injury results in axonal sprouting near the ischemic injury and the establishment of novel connections within a distant target. These results support the hypothesis that, after a cortical injury, such as occurs after stroke, cortical areas distant from the injury undergo major neuroanatomical reorganization. Our results reveal an extraordinary anatomical rewiring capacity in the adult CNS after injury that may potentially play a role in recovery.

  16. Human-Specific Cortical Synaptic Connections and Their Plasticity: Is That What Makes Us Human?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Lourenço

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One outstanding difference between Homo sapiens and other mammals is the ability to perform highly complex cognitive tasks and behaviors, such as language, abstract thinking, and cultural diversity. How is this accomplished? According to one prominent theory, cognitive complexity is proportional to the repetition of specific computational modules over a large surface expansion of the cerebral cortex (neocortex. However, the human neocortex was shown to also possess unique features at the cellular and synaptic levels, raising the possibility that expanding the computational module is not the only mechanism underlying complex thinking. In a study published in PLOS Biology, Szegedi and colleagues analyzed a specific cortical circuit from live postoperative human tissue, showing that human-specific, very powerful excitatory connections between principal pyramidal neurons and inhibitory neurons are highly plastic. This suggests that exclusive plasticity of specific microcircuits might be considered among the mechanisms endowing the human neocortex with the ability to perform highly complex cognitive tasks.

  17. Quadri-Pulse Theta Burst Stimulation using Ultra-High Frequency Bursts - A New Protocol to Induce Changes in Cortico-Spinal Excitability in Human Motor Cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Nikolai H; Gleich, Bernhard; Gattinger, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    Patterned transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) such as theta burst stimulation (TBS) or quadri-pulse stimulation (QPS) can induce changes in cortico-spinal excitability, commonly referred to as long-term potentiation (LTP)-like and long-term depression (LTD)-like effects in human motor cortex (M...... of sinusoidal TMS pulses elicited either a posterior-anterior (PA) or anterior-posterior (AP) directed current in M1. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded before and after qTBS to probe changes in cortico-spinal excitability. PA-qTBS at 666 Hz caused a decrease in PA-MEP amplitudes, whereas AP...... in cortico-spinal excitability. Induced current direction in the brain appears to be relevant when qTBS targets I-wave periodicity, corroborating that high-fidelity spike timing mechanisms are critical for inducing bi-directional plasticity in human M1....

  18. Speaking-related changes in cortical functional connectivity associated with assisted and spontaneous recovery from developmental stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kell, Christian A; Neumann, Katrin; Behrens, Marion; von Gudenberg, Alexander W; Giraud, Anne-Lise

    2018-03-01

    We previously reported speaking-related activity changes associated with assisted recovery induced by a fluency shaping therapy program and unassisted recovery from developmental stuttering (Kell et al., Brain 2009). While assisted recovery re-lateralized activity to the left hemisphere, unassisted recovery was specifically associated with the activation of the left BA 47/12 in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex. These findings suggested plastic changes in speaking-related functional connectivity between left hemispheric speech network nodes. We reanalyzed these data involving 13 stuttering men before and after fluency shaping, 13 men who recovered spontaneously from their stuttering, and 13 male control participants, and examined functional connectivity during overt vs. covert reading by means of psychophysiological interactions computed across left cortical regions involved in articulation control. Persistent stuttering was associated with reduced auditory-motor coupling and enhanced integration of somatosensory feedback between the supramarginal gyrus and the prefrontal cortex. Assisted recovery reduced this hyper-connectivity and increased functional connectivity between the articulatory motor cortex and the auditory feedback processing anterior superior temporal gyrus. In spontaneous recovery, both auditory-motor coupling and integration of somatosensory feedback were normalized. In addition, activity in the left orbitofrontal cortex and superior cerebellum appeared uncoupled from the rest of the speech production network. These data suggest that therapy and spontaneous recovery normalizes the left hemispheric speaking-related activity via an improvement of auditory-motor mapping. By contrast, long-lasting unassisted recovery from stuttering is additionally supported by a functional isolation of the superior cerebellum from the rest of the speech production network, through the pivotal left BA 47/12. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Functional Connectivity of Human Chewing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, A.; Ichesco, E.; Schutt, R.; Myers, C.; Peltier, S.; Gerstner, G.E.

    2013-01-01

    Mastication is one of the most important orofacial functions. The neurobiological mechanisms of masticatory control have been investigated in animal models, but less so in humans. This project used functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) to assess the positive temporal correlations among activated brain areas during a gum-chewing task. Twenty-nine healthy young-adults underwent an fcMRI scanning protocol while they chewed gum. Seed-based fcMRI analyses were performed with the motor cortex and cerebellum as regions of interest. Both left and right motor cortices were reciprocally functionally connected and functionally connected with the post-central gyrus, cerebellum, cingulate cortex, and precuneus. The cerebellar seeds showed functional connections with the contralateral cerebellar hemispheres, bilateral sensorimotor cortices, left superior temporal gyrus, and left cingulate cortex. These results are the first to identify functional central networks engaged during mastication. PMID:23355525

  20. Thalamus and Language: What do we know from vascular and degenerative pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretti, Rita; Caruso, Paola; Crisman, Elena; Gazzin, Silvia

    2018-01-01

    Language is a complex cognitive task that is essential in our daily life. For decades, researchers have tried to understand the different role of cortical and subcortical areas in cerebral language representations and language processing. Language-related cortical zones are richly interconnected with other cortical regions (particularly via myelinated fibre tracts), but they also participate in subcortical feedback loops within the basal ganglia (caudate nucleus and putamen) and thalamus. The most relevant thalamic functions are the control and adaptation of cortico-cortical connectivity and bandwidth for information exchange. Despite having the knowledge of thalamic and basal ganglionic involvement in linguistic operations, the specific functions of these subcortical structures remain rather controversial. The aim of this study is to better understand the role of thalamus in language network, exploring the functional configuration of basal network components. The language specificity of subcortical supporting activity and the associated clinical features in thalamic involvement are also highlighted.

  1. Regulation of transport in the connecting tubule and cortical collecting duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staruschenko, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    The central goal of this overview article is to summarize recent findings in renal epithelial transport, focusing chiefly on the connecting tubule (CNT) and the cortical collecting duct (CCD). Mammalian CCD and CNT are involved in fine tuning of electrolyte and fluid balance through reabsorption and secretion. Specific transporters and channels mediate vectorial movements of water and solutes in these segments. Although only a small percent of the glomerular filtrate reaches the CNT and CCD, these segments are critical for water and electrolyte homeostasis since several hormones, e.g. aldosterone and arginine vasopressin, exert their main effects in these nephron sites. Importantly, hormones regulate the function of the entire nephron and kidney by affecting channels and transporters in the CNT and CCD. Knowledge about the physiological and pathophysiological regulation of transport in the CNT and CCD and particular roles of specific channels/transporters has increased tremendously over the last two decades. Recent studies shed new light on several key questions concerning the regulation of renal transport. Precise distribution patterns of transport proteins in the CCD and CNT will be reviewed, and their physiological roles and mechanisms mediating ion transport in these segments will be also covered. Special emphasis will be given to pathophysiological conditions appearing as a result of abnormalities in renal transport in the CNT and CCD. PMID:23227301

  2. Hemispheric connectivity and the visual-spatial divergent-thinking component of creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Dana W; Bhadelia, Rafeeque A; Billings, Rebecca L; Fulwiler, Carl; Heilman, Kenneth M; Rood, Kenneth M J; Gansler, David A

    2009-08-01

    Divergent thinking is an important measurable component of creativity. This study tested the postulate that divergent thinking depends on large distributed inter- and intra-hemispheric networks. Although preliminary evidence supports increased brain connectivity during divergent thinking, the neural correlates of this characteristic have not been entirely specified. It was predicted that visuospatial divergent thinking would correlate with right hemisphere white matter volume (WMV) and with the size of the corpus callosum (CC). Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analyses and the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT) were completed among 21 normal right-handed adult males. TTCT scores correlated negatively with the size of the CC and were not correlated with right or, incidentally, left WMV. Although these results were not predicted, perhaps, as suggested by Bogen and Bogen (1988), decreased callosal connectivity enhances hemispheric specialization, which benefits the incubation of ideas that are critical for the divergent-thinking component of creativity, and it is the momentary inhibition of this hemispheric independence that accounts for the illumination that is part of the innovative stage of creativity. Alternatively, decreased CC size may reflect more selective developmental pruning, thereby facilitating efficient functional connectivity.

  3. Improved diagnostic accuracy of Alzheimer's disease by combining regional cortical thickness and default mode network functional connectivity: Validated in the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging initiative set

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Eun; Park, Bum Woo; Kim, Sang Joon; Kim, Ho Sung; Choi, Choong Gon; Jung, Seung Jung; Oh, Joo Young; Shim, Woo Hyun [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Hong; Roh, Jee Hoon [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-11-15

    To identify potential imaging biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease by combining brain cortical thickness (CThk) and functional connectivity and to validate this model's diagnostic accuracy in a validation set. Data from 98 subjects was retrospectively reviewed, including a study set (n = 63) and a validation set from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (n = 35). From each subject, data for CThk and functional connectivity of the default mode network was extracted from structural T1-weighted and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Cortical regions with significant differences between patients and healthy controls in the correlation of CThk and functional connectivity were identified in the study set. The diagnostic accuracy of functional connectivity measures combined with CThk in the identified regions was evaluated against that in the medial temporal lobes using the validation set and application of a support vector machine. Group-wise differences in the correlation of CThk and default mode network functional connectivity were identified in the superior temporal (p < 0.001) and supramarginal gyrus (p = 0.007) of the left cerebral hemisphere. Default mode network functional connectivity combined with the CThk of those two regions were more accurate than that combined with the CThk of both medial temporal lobes (91.7% vs. 75%). Combining functional information with CThk of the superior temporal and supramarginal gyri in the left cerebral hemisphere improves diagnostic accuracy, making it a potential imaging biomarker for Alzheimer's disease.

  4. Suppression of motor cortical excitability in anesthetized rats by low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Muller

    Full Text Available Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS is a widely-used method for modulating cortical excitability in humans, by mechanisms thought to involve use-dependent synaptic plasticity. For example, when low frequency rTMS (LF rTMS is applied over the motor cortex, in humans, it predictably leads to a suppression of the motor evoked potential (MEP, presumably reflecting long-term depression (LTD -like mechanisms. Yet how closely such rTMS effects actually match LTD is unknown. We therefore sought to (1 reproduce cortico-spinal depression by LF rTMS in rats, (2 establish a reliable animal model for rTMS effects that may enable mechanistic studies, and (3 test whether LTD-like properties are evident in the rat LF rTMS setup. Lateralized MEPs were obtained from anesthetized Long-Evans rats. To test frequency-dependence of LF rTMS, rats underwent rTMS at one of three frequencies, 0.25, 0.5, or 1 Hz. We next tested the dependence of rTMS effects on N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR, by application of two NMDAR antagonists. We find that 1 Hz rTMS preferentially depresses unilateral MEP in rats, and that this LTD-like effect is blocked by NMDAR antagonists. These are the first electrophysiological data showing depression of cortical excitability following LF rTMS in rats, and the first to demonstrate dependence of this form of cortical plasticity on the NMDAR. We also note that our report is the first to show that the capacity for LTD-type cortical suppression by rTMS is present under barbiturate anesthesia, suggesting that future neuromodulatory rTMS applications under anesthesia may be considered.

  5. Response variability in balanced cortical networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerchner, Alexander; Ursta, C.; Hertz, J.

    2006-01-01

    We study the spike statistics of neurons in a network with dynamically balanced excitation and inhibition. Our model, intended to represent a generic cortical column, comprises randomly connected excitatory and inhibitory leaky integrate-and-fire neurons, driven by excitatory input from an external...

  6. Sensory Entrainment Mechanisms in Auditory Perception: Neural Synchronization Cortico-Striatal Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameiro-Barbosa, Catia M; Geiser, Eveline

    2016-01-01

    The auditory system displays modulations in sensitivity that can align with the temporal structure of the acoustic environment. This sensory entrainment can facilitate sensory perception and is particularly relevant for audition. Systems neuroscience is slowly uncovering the neural mechanisms underlying the behaviorally observed sensory entrainment effects in the human sensory system. The present article summarizes the prominent behavioral effects of sensory entrainment and reviews our current understanding of the neural basis of sensory entrainment, such as synchronized neural oscillations, and potentially, neural activation in the cortico-striatal system.

  7. Sensory Entrainment Mechanisms in Auditory Perception: Neural Synchronization Cortico-Striatal Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameiro-Barbosa, Catia M.; Geiser, Eveline

    2016-01-01

    The auditory system displays modulations in sensitivity that can align with the temporal structure of the acoustic environment. This sensory entrainment can facilitate sensory perception and is particularly relevant for audition. Systems neuroscience is slowly uncovering the neural mechanisms underlying the behaviorally observed sensory entrainment effects in the human sensory system. The present article summarizes the prominent behavioral effects of sensory entrainment and reviews our current understanding of the neural basis of sensory entrainment, such as synchronized neural oscillations, and potentially, neural activation in the cortico-striatal system. PMID:27559306

  8. K -shell decomposition reveals hierarchical cortical organization of the human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahav, Nir; Ksherim, Baruch; Havlin, Shlomo; Ben-Simon, Eti; Maron-Katz, Adi; Cohen, Reuven

    2016-01-01

    In recent years numerous attempts to understand the human brain were undertaken from a network point of view. A network framework takes into account the relationships between the different parts of the system and enables to examine how global and complex functions might emerge from network topology. Previous work revealed that the human brain features ‘small world’ characteristics and that cortical hubs tend to interconnect among themselves. However, in order to fully understand the topological structure of hubs, and how their profile reflect the brain’s global functional organization, one needs to go beyond the properties of a specific hub and examine the various structural layers that make up the network. To address this topic further, we applied an analysis known in statistical physics and network theory as k-shell decomposition analysis. The analysis was applied on a human cortical network, derived from MRI/DSI data of six participants. Such analysis enables us to portray a detailed account of cortical connectivity focusing on different neighborhoods of inter-connected layers across the cortex. Our findings reveal that the human cortex is highly connected and efficient, and unlike the internet network contains no isolated nodes. The cortical network is comprised of a nucleus alongside shells of increasing connectivity that formed one connected giant component, revealing the human brain’s global functional organization. All these components were further categorized into three hierarchies in accordance with their connectivity profile, with each hierarchy reflecting different functional roles. Such a model may explain an efficient flow of information from the lowest hierarchy to the highest one, with each step enabling increased data integration. At the top, the highest hierarchy (the nucleus) serves as a global interconnected collective and demonstrates high correlation with consciousness related regions, suggesting that the nucleus might serve as a

  9. Horizontal integration and cortical dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, C D

    1992-07-01

    We have discussed several results that lead to a view that cells in the visual system are endowed with dynamic properties, influenced by context, expectation, and long-term modifications of the cortical network. These observations will be important for understanding how neuronal ensembles produce a system that perceives, remembers, and adapts to injury. The advantage to being able to observe changes at early stages in a sensory pathway is that one may be able to understand the way in which neuronal ensembles encode and represent images at the level of their receptive field properties, of cortical topographies, and of the patterns of connections between cells participating in a network.

  10. Functional connectivity of the ventral tegmental area and avolition in subjects with schizophrenia: a resting state functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Giulia Maria; Stanziano, Mario; Papa, Michele; Mucci, Armida; Prinster, Anna; Soricelli, Andrea; Galderisi, Silvana

    2018-04-10

    Avolition, a deficit in goal-directed behavior, is a key aspect of negative symptoms. It is highly prevalent in schizophrenia and is associated to poor functional outcome and to measures of real life motivation, indicating that central to the concept is the lack of interest and motivation. In this study we tested the hypothesis that avolition is related to altered connectivity within dopaminergic cortico-striatal circuits involved in motivation processes. Since dopamine input to these circuits derives mostly from the ventro-tegmental area (VTA), we investigated the relationships between the resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) of the VTA and avolition in twenty-six subjects with schizophrenia (SCZ), treated with second-generation antipsychotics only, compared to twenty-two healthy controls (HC). SCZ, in comparison to HC, showed significantly reduced RS-FC of the VTA with bilateral ventro-lateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), bilateral insular cortex (IC) and right (R) lateral occipital complex (LOC) and increased RS-FC of the VTA with bilateral dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Significant negative correlations were found between avolition and RS-FC of the VTA with the bilateral IC, R VLPFC and R LOC. According to our findings, avolition is linked to a disconnectivity of the VTA from several key cortical regions involved in the integration of value information with action selection. These findings are in line with translational animal models of "auto-activation apathy". Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  11. Altered functional connectivity of the language network in ASD: Role of classical language areas and cerebellum☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verly, Marjolein; Verhoeven, Judith; Zink, Inge; Mantini, Dante; Peeters, Ronald; Deprez, Sabine; Emsell, Louise; Boets, Bart; Noens, Ilse; Steyaert, Jean; Lagae, Lieven; De Cock, Paul; Rommel, Nathalie; Sunaert, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    The development of language, social interaction and communicative skills is remarkably different in the child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Atypical brain connectivity has frequently been reported in this patient population. However, the neural correlates underlying their disrupted language development and functioning are still poorly understood. Using resting state fMRI, we investigated the functional connectivity properties of the language network in a group of ASD patients with clear comorbid language impairment (ASD-LI; N = 19) and compared them to the language related connectivity properties of 23 age-matched typically developing children. A verb generation task was used to determine language components commonly active in both groups. Eight joint language components were identified and subsequently used as seeds in a resting state analysis. Interestingly, both the interregional and the seed-based whole brain connectivity analysis showed preserved connectivity between the classical intrahemispheric language centers, Wernicke's and Broca's areas. In contrast however, a marked loss of functional connectivity was found between the right cerebellar region and the supratentorial regulatory language areas. Also, the connectivity between the interhemispheric Broca regions and modulatory control dorsolateral prefrontal region was found to be decreased. This disruption of normal modulatory control and automation function by the cerebellum may underlie the abnormal language function in children with ASD-LI. PMID:24567909

  12. Functional connectivity and neuronal variability of resting state activity in bipolar disorder--reduction and decoupling in anterior cortical midline structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magioncalda, Paola; Martino, Matteo; Conio, Benedetta; Escelsior, Andrea; Piaggio, Niccolò; Presta, Andrea; Marozzi, Valentina; Rocchi, Giulio; Anastasio, Loris; Vassallo, Linda; Ferri, Francesca; Huang, Zirui; Roccatagliata, Luca; Pardini, Matteo; Northoff, Georg; Amore, Mario

    2015-02-01

    The cortical midline structures seem to be involved in the modulation of different resting state networks, such as the default mode network (DMN) and salience network (SN). Alterations in these systems, in particular in the perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (PACC), seem to play a central role in bipolar disorder (BD). However, the exact role of the PACC, and its functional connections to other midline regions (within and outside DMN) still remains unclear in BD. We investigated functional connectivity (FC), standard deviation (SD, as a measure of neuronal variability) and their correlation in bipolar patients (n = 40) versus healthy controls (n = 40), in the PACC and in its connections in different frequency bands (standard: 0.01-0.10 Hz; Slow-5: 0.01-0.027 Hz; Slow-4: 0.027-0.073 Hz). Finally, we studied the correlations between FC alterations and clinical-neuropsychological parameters and we explored whether subgroups of patients in different phases of the illness present different patterns of FC abnormalities. We found in BD decreased FC (especially in Slow-5) from the PACC to other regions located predominantly in the posterior DMN (such as the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and inferior temporal gyrus) and in the SN (such as the supragenual anterior cingulate cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex). Second, we found in BD a decoupling between PACC-based FC and variability in the various target regions (without alteration in variability itself). Finally, in our subgroups explorative analysis, we found a decrease in FC between the PACC and supragenual ACC (in depressive phase) and between the PACC and PCC (in manic phase). These findings suggest that in BD the communication, that is, information transfer, between the different cortical midline regions within the cingulate gyrus does not seem to work properly. This may result in dysbalance between different resting state networks like the DMN and SN. A deficit in the anterior DMN-SN connectivity

  13. Increased precuneus connectivity during propofol sedation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaolin; Li, Shi-Jiang; Hudetz, Anthony G

    2014-02-21

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in human participants, we show that sedation by propofol to the point of lost overt responsiveness during the performance of an auditory verbal memory task unexpectedly increases functional connectivity of the precuneus with cortical regions, particularly the dorsal prefrontal and visual cortices. After recovery of consciousness, functional connectivity returns to a pattern similar to that observed during the wakeful baseline. In the context of a recent proposal that highlights the uncoupling of consciousness, connectedness, and responsiveness in general anesthesia, the increased precuneus functional connectivity under propofol sedation may reflect disconnected endogenous mentation or dreaming that continues at a reduced level of metabolic activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The role of pulvinar in the transmission of information in the visual hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Nelson; van Vreeswijk, Carl

    2012-01-01

    VISUAL RECEPTIVE FIELD (RF) ATTRIBUTES IN VISUAL CORTEX OF PRIMATES HAVE BEEN EXPLAINED MAINLY FROM CORTICAL CONNECTIONS: visual RFs progress from simple to complex through cortico-cortical pathways from lower to higher levels in the visual hierarchy. This feedforward flow of information is paired with top-down processes through the feedback pathway. Although the hierarchical organization explains the spatial properties of RFs, is unclear how a non-linear transmission of activity through the visual hierarchy can yield smooth contrast response functions in all level of the hierarchy. Depending on the gain, non-linear transfer functions create either a bimodal response to contrast, or no contrast dependence of the response in the highest level of the hierarchy. One possible mechanism to regulate this transmission of visual contrast information from low to high level involves an external component that shortcuts the flow of information through the hierarchy. A candidate for this shortcut is the Pulvinar nucleus of the thalamus. To investigate representation of stimulus contrast a hierarchical model network of ten cortical areas is examined. In each level of the network, the activity from the previous layer is integrated and then non-linearly transmitted to the next level. The arrangement of interactions creates a gradient from simple to complex RFs of increasing size as one moves from lower to higher cortical levels. The visual input is modeled as a Gaussian random input, whose width codes for the contrast. This input is applied to the first area. The output activity ratio among different contrast values is analyzed for the last level to observe sensitivity to a contrast and contrast invariant tuning. For a purely cortical system, the output of the last area can be approximately contrast invariant, but the sensitivity to contrast is poor. To account for an alternative visual processing pathway, non-reciprocal connections from and to a parallel pulvinar like structure

  15. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Targeting Primary Motor Versus Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortices: Proof-of-Concept Study Investigating Functional Connectivity of Thalamocortical Networks Specific to Sensory-Affective Information Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankarasubramanian, Vishwanath; Cunningham, David A; Potter-Baker, Kelsey A; Beall, Erik B; Roelle, Sarah M; Varnerin, Nicole M; Machado, Andre G; Jones, Stephen E; Lowe, Mark J; Plow, Ela B

    2017-04-01

    The pain matrix is comprised of an extensive network of brain structures involved in sensory and/or affective information processing. The thalamus is a key structure constituting the pain matrix. The thalamus serves as a relay center receiving information from multiple ascending pathways and relating information to and from multiple cortical areas. However, it is unknown how thalamocortical networks specific to sensory-affective information processing are functionally integrated. Here, in a proof-of-concept study in healthy humans, we aimed to understand this connectivity using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting primary motor (M1) or dorsolateral prefrontal cortices (DLPFC). We compared changes in functional connectivity (FC) with DLPFC tDCS to changes in FC with M1 tDCS. FC changes were also compared to further investigate its relation with individual's baseline experience of pain. We hypothesized that resting-state FC would change based on tDCS location and would represent known thalamocortical networks. Ten right-handed individuals received a single application of anodal tDCS (1 mA, 20 min) to right M1 and DLPFC in a single-blind, sham-controlled crossover study. FC changes were studied between ventroposterolateral (VPL), the sensory nucleus of thalamus, and cortical areas involved in sensory information processing and between medial dorsal (MD), the affective nucleus, and cortical areas involved in affective information processing. Individual's perception of pain at baseline was assessed using cutaneous heat pain stimuli. We found that anodal M1 tDCS and anodal DLPFC tDCS both increased FC between VPL and sensorimotor cortices, although FC effects were greater with M1 tDCS. Similarly, anodal M1 tDCS and anodal DLPFC tDCS both increased FC between MD and motor cortices, but only DLPFC tDCS modulated FC between MD and affective cortices, like DLPFC. Our findings suggest that M1 stimulation primarily modulates FC of sensory networks

  16. Resting-state functional under-connectivity within and between large-scale cortical networks across three low-frequency bands in adolescents with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xujun; Chen, Heng; He, Changchun; Long, Zhiliang; Guo, Xiaonan; Zhou, Yuanyue; Uddin, Lucina Q; Chen, Huafu

    2017-10-03

    Although evidence is accumulating that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with disruption of functional connections between and within brain networks, it remains largely unknown whether these abnormalities are related to specific frequency bands. To address this question, network contingency analysis was performed on brain functional connectomes obtained from 213 adolescent participants across nine sites in the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange (ABIDE) multisite sample, to determine the disrupted connections between and within seven major cortical networks in adolescents with ASD at Slow-5, Slow-4 and Slow-3 frequency bands and further assess whether the aberrant intra- and inter-network connectivity varied as a function of ASD symptoms. Overall under-connectivity within and between large-scale intrinsic networks in ASD was revealed across the three frequency bands. Specifically, decreased connectivity strength within the default mode network (DMN), between DMN and visual network (VN), ventral attention network (VAN), and between dorsal attention network (DAN) and VAN was observed in the lower frequency band (slow-5, slow-4), while decreased connectivity between limbic network (LN) and frontal-parietal network (FPN) was observed in the higher frequency band (slow-3). Furthermore, weaker connectivity within and between specific networks correlated with poorer communication and social interaction skills in the slow-5 band, uniquely. These results demonstrate intrinsic under-connectivity within and between multiple brain networks within predefined frequency bands in ASD, suggesting that frequency-related properties underlie abnormal brain network organization in the disorder. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Are the Symptoms of Parkinsonism Cortical in Origin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon W. Arbuthnott

    Full Text Available We present three reasons to suspect that the major deleterious consequence of dopamine loss from the striatum is a cortical malfunction. We suggest that it is cortex, rather than striatum, that should be considered as the source of the debilitating symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD since: 1. Cortical synapses onto striatal dendritic spines are lost in PD. 2. All known treatments of the symptoms of PD disrupt beta oscillations. Oscillations that are also disrupted following antidromic activation of cortical neurons. 3. The final output of basal ganglia directly modulates thalamic connections to layer I of frontal cortical areas, regions intimately associated with motor behaviour.These three reasons combined with evidence that the current summary diagram of the basal ganglia involvement in PD is imprecise at best, suggest that a re-orientation of the treatment strategies towards cortical, rather than striatal malfunction, is overdue. Keywords: Parkinson's disease, Deep brain stimulation, Layer I, Motor cortex

  18. Organization of anti-phase synchronization pattern in neural networks: what are the key factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong eLi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Anti-phase oscillation has been widely observed in cortical neuralnetwork. Elucidating the mechanism underlying the organization ofanti-phase pattern is of significance for better understanding morecomplicated pattern formations in brain networks. In dynamicalsystems theory, the organization of anti-phase oscillation patternhas usually been considered to relate to time-delay in coupling.This is consistent to conduction delays in real neural networks inthe brain due to finite propagation velocity of action potentials.However, other structural factors in cortical neural network, suchas modular organization (connection density and the coupling types(excitatory or inhibitory, could also play an important role. Inthis work, we investigate the anti-phase oscillation patternorganized on a two-module network of either neuronal cell model orneural mass model, and analyze the impact of the conduction delaytimes, the connection densities, and coupling types. Our resultsshow that delay times and coupling types can play key roles in thisorganization. The connection densities may have an influence on thestability if an anti-phase pattern exists due to the other factors.Furthermore, we show that anti-phase synchronization of slowoscillations can be achieved with small delay times if there isinteraction between slow and fast oscillations. These results aresignificant for further understanding more realistic spatiotemporaldynamics of cortico-cortical communications.

  19. Individual renal function study using dynamic computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Yutaka; Kiya, Keiichi; Suzuki, Yoshiharu

    1990-01-01

    Dynamic CT scans of individual kindneys were obtained after an intravenous bolus injection of contrast agent. Time-density curves measured from the renal cortex, medulla and pelvis revealed the changes in density produced by the contrast agent reflecting the differential phase of renal function. Renal cortical density increased rapidly after bolus administration and then renal medullary and pelvic density increased continuously. In analyzing time-density curve, the cortico-medullary junction time, which is the time when the cortical and medullary curves cross was 57±8 seconds in patients with normal renal function. The cortico-medullary junction time was delayed in patient with decreased glomerular filtration rate. The cortico-pelvic junction time, which is the time when the cortical and pelvic curves cross was 104±33 seconds in patients with normal renal function. The cortico-pelvic junction time was delayed in patients with declined urinary concentrating capacity. In patients with unilateral renal agenesis and patients who were treated surgically by ureteral sprits, the relationship between individual renal functions and these junction times was examined. As a result of study there were inversely significant correlations between C-M junction time and unilateral GFR and between C-P junction time and urinary concentrating capacity. These studies indicate that dynamic CT scanning is an effective way that individual renal function can be monitored and evaluated. (author)

  20. Alpha band cortico-muscular coherence occurs in healthy individuals during mechanically-induced tremor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Budini

    Full Text Available The present work aimed at investigating the effects of mechanically amplified tremor on cortico-muscular coherence (CMC in the alpha band. The study of CMC in this specific band is of particular interest because this coherence is usually absent in healthy individuals and it is an aberrant feature in patients affected by pathological tremors; understanding its mechanisms is therefore important. Thirteen healthy volunteers (23±4 years performed elbow flexor sustained contractions both against a spring load and in isometric conditions at 20% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC. Spring stiffness was selected to induce instability in the stretch reflex servo loop. 64 EEG channels, surface EMG from the biceps brachii muscle and force were simultaneously recorded. Contractions against the spring resulted in greater fluctuations of the force signal and EMG amplitude compared to isometric conditions (p<.05. During isometric contractions CMC was systematically found in the beta band and sporadically observed in the alpha band. However, during the contractions against the spring load, CMC in the alpha band was observed in 12 out of 13 volunteers. Partial directed coherence (PDC revealed an increased information flow in the EMG to EEG direction in the alpha band (p<.05. Therefore, coherence in the alpha band between the sensory-motor cortex and the biceps brachii muscle can be systematically induced in healthy individuals by mechanically amplifying tremor. The increased information flow in the EMG to EEG direction may reflect enhanced afferent activity from the muscle spindles. These results may contribute to the understanding of the presence of alpha band CMC in tremor related pathologies by suggesting that the origin of this phenomenon may not only be at cortical level but may also be affected by spinal circuit loops.

  1. Population coding in sparsely connected networks of noisy neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Bryan P; Orchard, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between population coding and spatial connection statistics in networks of noisy neurons. Encoding of sensory information in the neocortex is thought to require coordinated neural populations, because individual cortical neurons respond to a wide range of stimuli, and exhibit highly variable spiking in response to repeated stimuli. Population coding is rooted in network structure, because cortical neurons receive information only from other neurons, and because the information they encode must be decoded by other neurons, if it is to affect behavior. However, population coding theory has often ignored network structure, or assumed discrete, fully connected populations (in contrast with the sparsely connected, continuous sheet of the cortex). In this study, we modeled a sheet of cortical neurons with sparse, primarily local connections, and found that a network with this structure could encode multiple internal state variables with high signal-to-noise ratio. However, we were unable to create high-fidelity networks by instantiating connections at random according to spatial connection probabilities. In our models, high-fidelity networks required additional structure, with higher cluster factors and correlations between the inputs to nearby neurons.

  2. Population Coding in Sparsely Connected Networks of Noisy Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Patrick Tripp

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between population coding and spatial connection statistics in networks of noisy neurons. Encoding of sensory information in the neocortex is thought to require coordinated neural populations, because individual cortical neurons respond to a wide range of stimuli, and exhibit highly variable spiking in response to repeated stimuli. Population coding is rooted in network structure, because cortical neurons receive information only from other neurons, and because the information they encode must be decoded by other neurons, if it is to affect behaviour. However, population coding theory has often ignored network structure, or assumed discrete, fully-connected populations (in contrast with the sparsely connected, continuous sheet of the cortex. In this study, we model a sheet of cortical neurons with sparse, primarily local connections, and find that a network with this structure can encode multiple internal state variables with high signal-to-noise ratio. However, in our model, although connection probability varies with the distance between neurons, we find that the connections cannot be instantiated at random according to these probabilities, but must have additional structure if information is to be encoded with high fidelity.

  3. Development of Brain EEG Connectivity across Early Childhood: Does Sleep Play a Role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique K. LeBourgeois

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sleep has beneficial effects on brain function and learning, which are reflected in plastic changes in the cortex. Early childhood is a time of rapid maturation in fundamental skills—e.g., language, cognitive control, working memory—that are predictive of future functioning. Little is currently known about the interactions between sleep and brain maturation during this developmental period. We propose coherent electroencephalogram (EEG activity during sleep may provide unique insight into maturational processes of functional brain connectivity. Longitudinal sleep EEG assessments were performed in eight healthy subjects at ages 2, 3 and 5 years. Sleep EEG coherence increased across development in a region- and frequency-specific manner. Moreover, although connectivity primarily decreased intra-hemispherically across a night of sleep, an inter-hemispheric overnight increase occurred in the frequency range of slow waves (0.8–2 Hz, theta (4.8–7.8 Hz and sleep spindles (10–14 Hz, with connectivity changes of up to 20% across a night of sleep. These findings indicate sleep EEG coherence reflects processes of brain maturation—i.e., programmed unfolding of neuronal networks—and moreover, sleep-related alterations of brain connectivity during the sensitive maturational window of early childhood.

  4. Integrated mechanisms of anticipation and rate-of-change computations in cortical circuits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel D Puccini

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Local neocortical circuits are characterized by stereotypical physiological and structural features that subserve generic computational operations. These basic computations of the cortical microcircuit emerge through the interplay of neuronal connectivity, cellular intrinsic properties, and synaptic plasticity dynamics. How these interacting mechanisms generate specific computational operations in the cortical circuit remains largely unknown. Here, we identify the neurophysiological basis of both the rate of change and anticipation computations on synaptic inputs in a cortical circuit. Through biophysically realistic computer simulations and neuronal recordings, we show that the rate-of-change computation is operated robustly in cortical networks through the combination of two ubiquitous brain mechanisms: short-term synaptic depression and spike-frequency adaptation. We then show how this rate-of-change circuit can be embedded in a convergently connected network to anticipate temporally incoming synaptic inputs, in quantitative agreement with experimental findings on anticipatory responses to moving stimuli in the primary visual cortex. Given the robustness of the mechanism and the widespread nature of the physiological machinery involved, we suggest that rate-of-change computation and temporal anticipation are principal, hard-wired functions of neural information processing in the cortical microcircuit.

  5. Diversity of Cortico-descending Projections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Innocenti, Giorgio M; Caminiti, Roberto; Rouiller, Eric M

    2018-01-01

    The axonal composition of cortical projections originating in premotor, supplementary motor (SMA), primary motor (a4), somatosensory and parietal areas and descending towards the brain stem and spinal cord was characterized in the monkey with histological tract tracing, electron microscopy (EM) a...

  6. Can musical training influence brain connectivity? Evidence from diffusion tensor MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Emma; Schaefer, Rebecca S; Bastin, Mark E; Roberts, Neil; Overy, Katie

    2014-06-10

    In recent years, musicians have been increasingly recruited to investigate grey and white matter neuroplasticity induced by skill acquisition. The development of Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DT-MRI) has allowed more detailed investigation of white matter connections within the brain, addressing questions about the effect of musical training on connectivity between specific brain regions. Here, current DT-MRI analysis techniques are discussed and the available evidence from DT-MRI studies into differences in white matter architecture between musicians and non-musicians is reviewed. Collectively, the existing literature tends to support the hypothesis that musical training can induce changes in cross-hemispheric connections, with significant differences frequently reported in various regions of the corpus callosum of musicians compared with non-musicians. However, differences found in intra-hemispheric fibres have not always been replicated, while findings regarding the internal capsule and corticospinal tracts appear to be contradictory. There is also recent evidence to suggest that variances in white matter structure in non-musicians may correlate with their ability to learn musical skills, offering an alternative explanation for the structural differences observed between musicians and non-musicians. Considering the inconsistencies in the current literature, possible reasons for conflicting results are offered, along with suggestions for future research in this area.

  7. Altered functional connectivity of the language network in ASD: Role of classical language areas and cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolein Verly

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of language, social interaction and communicative skills is remarkably different in the child with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. Atypical brain connectivity has frequently been reported in this patient population. However, the neural correlates underlying their disrupted language development and functioning are still poorly understood. Using resting state fMRI, we investigated the functional connectivity properties of the language network in a group of ASD patients with clear comorbid language impairment (ASD-LI; N = 19 and compared them to the language related connectivity properties of 23 age-matched typically developing children. A verb generation task was used to determine language components commonly active in both groups. Eight joint language components were identified and subsequently used as seeds in a resting state analysis. Interestingly, both the interregional and the seed-based whole brain connectivity analysis showed preserved connectivity between the classical intrahemispheric language centers, Wernicke's and Broca's areas. In contrast however, a marked loss of functional connectivity was found between the right cerebellar region and the supratentorial regulatory language areas. Also, the connectivity between the interhemispheric Broca regions and modulatory control dorsolateral prefrontal region was found to be decreased. This disruption of normal modulatory control and automation function by the cerebellum may underlie the abnormal language function in children with ASD-LI.

  8. Mapping cortical mesoscopic networks of single spiking cortical or sub-cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Dongsheng; Vanni, Matthieu P; Mitelut, Catalin C; Chan, Allen W; LeDue, Jeffrey M; Xie, Yicheng; Chen, Andrew Cn; Swindale, Nicholas V; Murphy, Timothy H

    2017-02-04

    Understanding the basis of brain function requires knowledge of cortical operations over wide-spatial scales, but also within the context of single neurons. In vivo, wide-field GCaMP imaging and sub-cortical/cortical cellular electrophysiology were used in mice to investigate relationships between spontaneous single neuron spiking and mesoscopic cortical activity. We make use of a rich set of cortical activity motifs that are present in spontaneous activity in anesthetized and awake animals. A mesoscale spike-triggered averaging procedure allowed the identification of motifs that are preferentially linked to individual spiking neurons by employing genetically targeted indicators of neuronal activity. Thalamic neurons predicted and reported specific cycles of wide-scale cortical inhibition/excitation. In contrast, spike-triggered maps derived from single cortical neurons yielded spatio-temporal maps expected for regional cortical consensus function. This approach can define network relationships between any point source of neuronal spiking and mesoscale cortical maps.

  9. Strong Functional Connectivity among Homotopic Brain Areas Is Vital for Motor Control in Unilateral Limb Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Pengxu; Zhang, Zuting; Lv, Zeping; Jing, Bin

    2017-01-01

    The mechanism underlying brain region organization for motor control in humans remains poorly understood. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, right-handed volunteers were tasked to maintain unilateral foot movements on the right and left sides as consistently as possible. We aimed to identify the similarities and differences between brain motor networks of the two conditions. We recruited 18 right-handed healthy volunteers aged 25 ± 2.3 years and used a whole-body 3T system for magnetic resonance (MR) scanning. Image analysis was performed using SPM8, Conn toolbox and Brain Connectivity Toolbox. We determined a craniocaudally distributed, mirror-symmetrical modular structure. The functional connectivity between homotopic brain areas was generally stronger than the intrahemispheric connections, and such strong connectivity led to the abovementioned modular structure. Our findings indicated that the interhemispheric functional interaction between homotopic brain areas is more intensive than the interaction along the conventional top-down and bottom-up pathways within the brain during unilateral limb movement. The detected strong interhemispheric horizontal functional interaction is an important aspect of motor control but often neglected or underestimated. The strong interhemispheric connectivity may explain the physiological phenomena and effects of promising therapeutic approaches. Further accurate and effective therapeutic methods may be developed on the basis of our findings.

  10. Recurrent cortico-cortical Interactions in neural disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamme, V.A.F.; Pletson, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    The cerebral cortex consists of a large number of areas, each subserving a more or less distinct function. This view has its roots in the early work of Penfield, and today is reflected in the body of functional MRI literature describing the regions of the brain that are activated during particular

  11. Longitudinal development of cortical thickness, folding, and fiber density networks in the first 2 years of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jingxin; Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Shi, Feng; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H; Shen, Dinggang

    2014-08-01

    Quantitatively characterizing the development of cortical anatomical networks during the early stage of life plays an important role in revealing the relationship between cortical structural connection and high-level functional development. The development of correlation networks of cortical-thickness, cortical folding, and fiber-density is systematically analyzed in this article to study the relationship between different anatomical properties during the first 2 years of life. Specifically, longitudinal MR images of 73 healthy subjects from birth to 2 year old are used. For each subject at each time point, its measures of cortical thickness, cortical folding, and fiber density are projected to its cortical surface that has been partitioned into 78 cortical regions. Then, the correlation matrices for cortical thickness, cortical folding, and fiber density at each time point can be constructed, respectively, by computing the inter-regional Pearson correlation coefficient (of any pair of ROIs) across all 73 subjects. Finally, the presence/absence pattern (i.e., binary pattern) of the connection network is constructed from each inter-regional correlation matrix, and its statistical and anatomical properties are adopted to analyze the longitudinal development of anatomical networks. The results show that the development of anatomical network could be characterized differently by using different anatomical properties (i.e., using cortical thickness, cortical folding, or fiber density). Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Altered Cortico-Striatal Connectivity in Offspring of Schizophrenia Patients Relative to Offspring of Bipolar Patients and Controls.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Solé-Padullés

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia (SZ and bipolar disorder (BD share clinical features, genetic risk factors and neuroimaging abnormalities. There is evidence of disrupted connectivity in resting state networks in patients with SZ and BD and their unaffected relatives. Resting state networks are known to undergo reorganization during youth coinciding with the period of increased incidence for both disorders. We therefore focused on characterizing resting state network connectivity in youth at familial risk for SZ or BD to identify alterations arising during this period. We measured resting-state functional connectivity in a sample of 106 youth, aged 7-19 years, comprising offspring of patients with SZ (N = 27, offspring of patients with BD (N = 39 and offspring of community control parents (N = 40. We used Independent Component Analysis to assess functional connectivity within the default mode, executive control, salience and basal ganglia networks and define their relationship to grey matter volume, clinical and cognitive measures. There was no difference in connectivity within any of the networks examined between offspring of patients with BD and offspring of community controls. In contrast, offspring of patients with SZ showed reduced connectivity within the left basal ganglia network compared to control offspring, and they showed a positive correlation between connectivity in this network and grey matter volume in the left caudate. Our findings suggest that dysconnectivity in the basal ganglia network is a robust correlate of familial risk for SZ and can be detected during childhood and adolescence.

  13. Examining the volume efficiency of the cortical architecture in a multi-processor network model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruppin, E; Schwartz, E L; Yeshurun, Y

    1993-01-01

    The convoluted form of the sheet-like mammalian cortex naturally raises the question whether there is a simple geometrical reason for the prevalence of cortical architecture in the brains of higher vertebrates. Addressing this question, we present a formal analysis of the volume occupied by a massively connected network or processors (neurons) and then consider the pertaining cortical data. Three gross macroscopic features of cortical organization are examined: the segregation of white and gray matter, the circumferential organization of the gray matter around the white matter, and the folded cortical structure. Our results testify to the efficiency of cortical architecture.

  14. Abnormal resting-state functional connectivity of the left caudate nucleus in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yunhui; Juhás, Michal; Greenshaw, Andrew J; Hu, Qiang; Meng, Xin; Cui, Hongsheng; Ding, Yongzhuo; Kang, Lu; Zhang, Yubo; Wang, Yuhua; Cui, Guangcheng; Li, Ping

    2016-06-03

    Altered brain activities in the cortico-striato-thalamocortical (CSTC) circuitry are implicated in the pathophysiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, whether the underlying changes occur only within this circuitry or in large-scale networks is still not thoroughly understood. This study performed voxel-based functional connectivity analysis on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from thirty OCD patients and thirty healthy controls to investigate whole-brain intrinsic functional connectivity patterns in OCD. Relative to the healthy controls, OCD patients showed decreased functional connectivity within the CSTC circuitry but increased functional connectivity in other brain regions. Furthermore, decreased left caudate nucleus-thalamus connectivity within the CSTC circuitry was positively correlated with the illness duration of OCD. This study provides additional evidence that CSTC circuitry may play an essential role and alteration of large-scale brain networks may be involved in the pathophysiology of OCD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mechanisms of interactive specialization and emergence of functional brain circuits supporting cognitive development in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battista, Christian; Evans, Tanya M.; Ngoon, Tricia J.; Chen, Tianwen; Chen, Lang; Kochalka, John; Menon, Vinod

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive development is thought to depend on the refinement and specialization of functional circuits over time, yet little is known about how this process unfolds over the course of childhood. Here we investigated growth trajectories of functional brain circuits and tested an interactive specialization model of neurocognitive development which posits that the refinement of task-related functional networks is driven by a shared history of co-activation between cortical regions. We tested this model in a longitudinal cohort of 30 children with behavioral and task-related functional brain imaging data at multiple time points spanning childhood and adolescence, focusing on the maturation of parietal circuits associated with numerical problem solving and learning. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed selective strengthening as well as weakening of functional brain circuits. Connectivity between parietal and prefrontal cortex decreased over time, while connectivity within posterior brain regions, including intra-hemispheric and inter-hemispheric parietal connectivity, as well as parietal connectivity with ventral temporal occipital cortex regions implicated in quantity manipulation and numerical symbol recognition, increased over time. Our study provides insights into the longitudinal maturation of functional circuits in the human brain and the mechanisms by which interactive specialization shapes children's cognitive development and learning.

  16. Slicing, sampling, and distance-dependent effects affect network measures in simulated cortical circuit structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, Daniel C; Triesch, Jochen

    2014-01-01

    The neuroanatomical connectivity of cortical circuits is believed to follow certain rules, the exact origins of which are still poorly understood. In particular, numerous nonrandom features, such as common neighbor clustering, overrepresentation of reciprocal connectivity, and overrepresentation of certain triadic graph motifs have been experimentally observed in cortical slice data. Some of these data, particularly regarding bidirectional connectivity are seemingly contradictory, and the reasons for this are unclear. Here we present a simple static geometric network model with distance-dependent connectivity on a realistic scale that naturally gives rise to certain elements of these observed behaviors, and may provide plausible explanations for some of the conflicting findings. Specifically, investigation of the model shows that experimentally measured nonrandom effects, especially bidirectional connectivity, may depend sensitively on experimental parameters such as slice thickness and sampling area, suggesting potential explanations for the seemingly conflicting experimental results.

  17. Longitudinal Development of Cortical Thickness, Folding, and Fiber Density Networks in the First 2 Years of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Nie, Jingxin; Li, Gang; Wang, Li; Shi, Feng; Lin, Weili; Gilmore, John H.; Shen, Dinggang

    2013-01-01

    Quantitatively characterizing the development of cortical anatomical networks during the early stage of life plays an important role in revealing the relationship between cortical structural connection and high-level functional development. The development of correlation networks of cortical-thickness, cortical folding, and fiber-density is systematically analyzed in this article to study the relationship between different anatomical properties during the first 2 years of life. Specifically, ...

  18. Abnormal Development of the Earliest Cortical Circuits in a Mouse Model of Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagode, Daniel A; Meng, Xiangying; Winkowski, Daniel E; Smith, Ed; Khan-Tareen, Hamza; Kareddy, Vishnupriya; Kao, Joseph P Y; Kanold, Patrick O

    2017-01-31

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) involves deficits in speech and sound processing. Cortical circuit changes during early development likely contribute to such deficits. Subplate neurons (SPNs) form the earliest cortical microcircuits and are required for normal development of thalamocortical and intracortical circuits. Prenatal valproic acid (VPA) increases ASD risk, especially when present during a critical time window coinciding with SPN genesis. Using optical circuit mapping in mouse auditory cortex, we find that VPA exposure on E12 altered the functional excitatory and inhibitory connectivity of SPNs. Circuit changes manifested as "patches" of mostly increased connection probability or strength in the first postnatal week and as general hyper-connectivity after P10, shortly after ear opening. These results suggest that prenatal VPA exposure severely affects the developmental trajectory of cortical circuits and that sensory-driven activity may exacerbate earlier, subtle connectivity deficits. Our findings identify the subplate as a possible common pathophysiological substrate of deficits in ASD. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Untangling cortico-striatal connectivity and cross-frequency coupling in L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovana eBelic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We simultaneously recorded local field potentials in the primary motor cortex and sensorimotor striatum in awake, freely behaving, 6-OHDA lesioned hemi-parkinsonian rats in order to study the features directly related to pathological states such as parkinsonian state and levodopa-induced dyskinesia. We analysed the spectral characteristics of the obtained signals and observed that during dyskinesia the most prominent feature was a relative power increase in the high gamma frequency range at around 80 Hz, while for the parkinsonian state it was in the beta frequency range. Here we show that during both pathological states effective connectivity in terms of Granger causality is bidirectional with an accent on the striatal influence on the cortex. In the case of dyskinesia, we also found a high increase in effective connectivity at 80 Hz. In order to further understand the 80- Hz phenomenon, we performed cross-frequency analysis and observed characteristic patterns in the case of dyskinesia but not in the case of the parkinsonian state or the healthy state. We noted a large decrease in the modulation of the amplitude at 80 Hz by the phase of low frequency oscillations (up to ~10 Hz across both structures in the case of dyskinesia. This may suggest a lack of coupling between the low frequency activity of the recorded network and the group of neurons active at ~80 Hz.

  20. Changes in resting-state functional connectivity after stroke in a mouse brain lacking extracellular matrix components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattromani, Miriana Jlenia; Hakon, Jakob; Rauch, Uwe; Bauer, Adam Q; Wieloch, Tadeusz

    2018-04-01

    experimental groups did not present significant differences in infarct size. Two weeks after PT, a general down-scaling of regional RS-FC as well as the number of regional functional connections was visible for all cortical regions and most notable in the somatosensory areas of both Q4 and wild-type mice. Q4 mice exhibited higher intrahemispheric RS-FC in contralesional sensory and motor cortices compared to control mice. We propose that the lack of growth inhibiting ECM components in the Q4 mice potentially worsen behavioral outcome in the early phase after stroke, but subsequently facilitates modulation of contralesional RS-FC which is relevant for recovery of sensory motor function. We conclude that Q4 mice represent a valuable model to study how the elimination of ECM genes compromises neuronal function and plasticity mechanisms after stroke. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The processing of lexical ambiguity in healthy ageing and Parkinson׳s disease: role of cortico-subcortical networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketteler, Simon; Ketteler, Daniel; Vohn, René; Kastrau, Frank; Schulz, Jörg B; Reetz, Kathrin; Huber, Walter

    2014-09-18

    Previous neuroimaging studies showed that correct resolution of lexical ambiguity relies on the integrity of prefrontal and inferior parietal cortices. Whereas prefrontal brain areas were associated with executive control over semantic selection, inferior parietal areas were linked with access to modality-independent representations of semantic memory. Yet insufficiently understood is the contribution of subcortical structures in ambiguity processing. Patients with disturbed basal ganglia function such as Parkinson׳s disease (PD) showed development of discourse comprehension deficits evoked by lexical ambiguity. To further investigate the engagement of cortico-subcortical networks functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) was monitored during ambiguity resolution in eight early PD patients without dementia and 14 age- and education-matched controls. Participants were required to relate meanings to a lexically ambiguous target (homonym). Each stimulus consisted of two words arranged on top of a screen, which had to be attributed to a homonym at the bottom. Brain activity was found in bilateral inferior parietal (BA 39), right middle temporal (BA 21/22), left middle frontal (BA 10) and bilateral inferior frontal areas (BA 45/46). Extent and amplitude of activity in the angular gyrus changed depending on semantic association strength that varied between conditions. Less activity in the left caudate was associated with semantic integration deficits in PD. The results of the present study suggest a relationship between subtle language deficits and early stages of basal ganglia dysfunction. Uncovering impairments in ambiguity resolution may be of future use in the neuropsychological assessment of non-motor deficits in PD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Nonrandom network connectivity comes in pairs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Z. Hoffmann

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Overrepresentation of bidirectional connections in local cortical networks has been repeatedly reported and is a focus of the ongoing discussion of nonrandom connectivity. Here we show in a brief mathematical analysis that in a network in which connection probabilities are symmetric in pairs, Pij = Pji, the occurrences of bidirectional connections and nonrandom structures are inherently linked; an overabundance of reciprocally connected pairs emerges necessarily when some pairs of neurons are more likely to be connected than others. Our numerical results imply that such overrepresentation can also be sustained when connection probabilities are only approximately symmetric.

  3. The cortical focus in childhood absence epilepsy; evidence from nonlinear analysis of scalp EEG recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrigiannis, Ptolemaios G; Zhao, Yifan; He, Fei; Billings, Stephen A; Baster, Kathleen; Rittey, Chris; Yianni, John; Zis, Panagiotis; Wei, Hualiang; Hadjivassiliou, Marios; Grünewald, Richard

    2018-03-01

    To determine the origin and dynamic characteristics of the generalised hyper-synchronous spike and wave (SW) discharges in childhood absence epilepsy (CAE). We applied nonlinear methods, the error reduction ratio (ERR) causality test and cross-frequency analysis, with a nonlinear autoregressive exogenous (NARX) model, to electroencephalograms (EEGs) from CAE, selected with stringent electro-clinical criteria (17 cases, 42 absences). We analysed the pre-ictal and ictal strength of association between homologous and heterologous EEG derivations and estimated the direction of synchronisation and corresponding time lags. A frontal/fronto-central onset of the absences is detected in 13 of the 17 cases with the highest ictal strength of association between homologous frontal followed by centro-temporal and fronto-central areas. Delays consistently in excess of 4 ms occur at the very onset between these regions, swiftly followed by the emergence of "isochronous" (0-2 ms) synchronisation but dynamic time lag changes occur during SW discharges. In absences an initial cortico-cortical spread leads to dynamic lag changes to include periods of isochronous interhemispheric synchronisation, which we hypothesize is mediated by the thalamus. Absences from CAE show ictal epileptic network dynamics remarkably similar to those observed in WAG/Rij rats which guided the formulation of the cortical focus theory. Copyright © 2017 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of global cortical networks in early infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homae, Fumitaka; Watanabe, Hama; Otobe, Takayuki; Nakano, Tamami; Go, Tohshin; Konishi, Yukuo; Taga, Gentaro

    2010-04-07

    Human cognition and behaviors are subserved by global networks of neural mechanisms. Although the organization of the brain is a subject of interest, the process of development of global cortical networks in early infancy has not yet been clarified. In the present study, we explored developmental changes in these networks from several days to 6 months after birth by examining spontaneous fluctuations in brain activity, using multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy. We set up 94 measurement channels over the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital regions of the infant brain. The obtained signals showed complex time-series properties, which were characterized as 1/f fluctuations. To reveal the functional connectivity of the cortical networks, we calculated the temporal correlations of continuous signals between all the pairs of measurement channels. We found that the cortical network organization showed regional dependency and dynamic changes in the course of development. In the temporal, parietal, and occipital regions, connectivity increased between homologous regions in the two hemispheres and within hemispheres; in the frontal regions, it decreased progressively. Frontoposterior connectivity changed to a "U-shaped" pattern within 6 months: it decreases from the neonatal period to the age of 3 months and increases from the age of 3 months to the age of 6 months. We applied cluster analyses to the correlation coefficients and showed that the bilateral organization of the networks begins to emerge during the first 3 months of life. Our findings suggest that these developing networks, which form multiple clusters, are precursors of the functional cerebral architecture.

  5. Cortical Divergent Projections in Mice Originate from Two Sequentially Generated, Distinct Populations of Excitatory Cortical Neurons with Different Initial Axonal Outgrowth Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatanaka, Yumiko; Namikawa, Tomohiro; Yamauchi, Kenta; Kawaguchi, Yasuo

    2016-05-01

    Excitatory cortical neurons project to various subcortical and intracortical regions, and exhibit diversity in their axonal connections. Although this diversity may develop from primary axons, how many types of axons initially occur remains unknown. Using a sparse-labeling in utero electroporation method, we investigated the axonal outgrowth of these neurons in mice and correlated the data with axonal projections in adults. Examination of lateral cortex neurons labeled during the main period of cortical neurogenesis (E11.5-E15.5) indicated that axonal outgrowth commonly occurs in the intermediate zone. Conversely, the axonal direction varied; neurons labeled before E12.5 and the earliest cortical plate neurons labeled at E12.5 projected laterally, whereas neurons labeled thereafter projected medially. The expression of Ctip2 and Satb2 and the layer destinations of these neurons support the view that lateral and medial projection neurons are groups of prospective subcortical and callosal projection neurons, respectively. Consistently, birthdating experiments demonstrated that presumptive lateral projection neurons were generated earlier than medial projection neurons, even within the same layer. These results suggest that the divergent axonal connections of excitatory cortical neurons begin from two types of primary axons, which originate from two sequentially generated distinct subpopulations: early-born lateral (subcortical) and later-born medial (callosal) projection neuron groups. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Multispectral brain morphometry in Tourette syndrome persisting into adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Davide; Cavanna, Andrea E.; Hutton, Chloe; Orth, Michael; Robertson, Mary M.; Critchley, Hugo D.; Frackowiak, Richard S.

    2010-01-01

    Tourette syndrome is a childhood-onset neuropsychiatric disorder with a high prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity and obsessive-compulsive disorder co-morbidities. Structural changes have been found in frontal cortex and striatum in children and adolescents. A limited number of morphometric studies in Tourette syndrome persisting into adulthood suggest ongoing structural alterations affecting frontostriatal circuits. Using cortical thickness estimation and voxel-based analysis of T1- and diffusion-weighted structural magnetic resonance images, we examined 40 adults with Tourette syndrome in comparison with 40 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Patients with Tourette syndrome showed relative grey matter volume reduction in orbitofrontal, anterior cingulate and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices bilaterally. Cortical thinning extended into the limbic mesial temporal lobe. The grey matter changes were modulated additionally by the presence of co-morbidities and symptom severity. Prefrontal cortical thickness reduction correlated negatively with tic severity, while volume increase in primary somatosensory cortex depended on the intensity of premonitory sensations. Orbitofrontal cortex volume changes were further associated with abnormal water diffusivity within grey matter. White matter analysis revealed changes in fibre coherence in patients with Tourette syndrome within anterior parts of the corpus callosum. The severity of motor tics and premonitory urges had an impact on the integrity of tracts corresponding to cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical connections. Our results provide empirical support for a patho-aetiological model of Tourette syndrome based on developmental abnormalities, with perturbation of compensatory systems marking persistence of symptoms into adulthood. We interpret the symptom severity related grey matter volume increase in distinct functional brain areas as evidence of ongoing structural plasticity. The convergence of

  7. Modulating Brain Connectivity by Simultaneous Dual-Mode Stimulation over Bilateral Primary Motor Cortices in Subacute Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jungsoo Lee

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS has been used for the modulation of stroke patients’ motor function. Recently, more challenging approaches have been studied. In this study, simultaneous stimulation using both rTMS and tDCS (dual-mode stimulation over bilateral primary motor cortices (M1s was investigated to compare its modulatory effects with single rTMS stimulation over the ipsilesional M1 in subacute stroke patients. Twenty-four patients participated; 12 participants were assigned to the dual-mode stimulation group while the other 12 participants were assigned to the rTMS-only group. We assessed each patient’s motor function using the Fugl-Meyer assessment score and acquired their resting-state fMRI data at two times: prior to stimulation and 2 months after stimulation. Twelve healthy subjects were also recruited as the control group. The interhemispheric connectivity of the contralesional M1, interhemispheric connectivity between bilateral hemispheres, and global efficiency of the motor network noticeably increased in the dual-mode stimulation group compared to the rTMS-only group. Contrary to the dual-mode stimulation group, there was no significant change in the rTMS-only group. These data suggested that simultaneous dual-mode stimulation contributed to the recovery of interhemispheric interaction than rTMS only in subacute stroke patients. This trial is registered with NCT03279640.

  8. Task-rest modulation of basal ganglia connectivity in mild to moderate Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Sullivan, Edith V; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Huang, Neng C; Poston, Kathleen L; Bronte-Stewart, Helen M; Schulte, Tilman

    2015-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with abnormal synchronization in basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. We tested whether early PD patients without demonstrable cognitive impairment exhibit abnormal modulation of functional connectivity at rest, while engaged in a task, or both. PD and healthy controls underwent two functional MRI scans: a resting-state scan and a Stroop Match-to-Sample task scan. Rest-task modulation of basal ganglia (BG) connectivity was tested using seed-to-voxel connectivity analysis with task and rest time series as conditions. Despite substantial overlap of BG-cortical connectivity patterns in both groups, connectivity differences between groups had clinical and behavioral correlates. During rest, stronger putamen-medial parietal and pallidum-occipital connectivity in PD than controls was associated with worse task performance and more severe PD symptoms suggesting that abnormalities in resting-state connectivity denote neural network dedifferentiation. During the executive task, PD patients showed weaker BG-cortical connectivity than controls, i.e., between caudate-supramarginal gyrus and pallidum-inferior prefrontal regions, that was related to more severe PD symptoms and worse task performance. Yet, task processing also evoked stronger striatal-cortical connectivity, specifically between caudate-prefrontal, caudate-precuneus, and putamen-motor/premotor regions in PD relative to controls, which was related to less severe PD symptoms and better performance on the Stroop task. Thus, stronger task-evoked striatal connectivity in PD demonstrated compensatory neural network enhancement to meet task demands and improve performance levels. fMRI-based network analysis revealed that despite resting-state BG network compromise in PD, BG connectivity to prefrontal, premotor, and precuneus regions can be adequately invoked during executive control demands enabling near normal task performance.

  9. [Spatial organization of bioelectrical brain activity in epilepsy and amenorrhea of central genesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avakian, G N; Oleĭnikova, O M; Nerobkova, L N; Dovletkhanova, E R; Mitrofanov, A A; Gusev, E I

    2002-01-01

    The study aimed at modification of co-herent analysis (CA), as a mathematical method for EEG data processing for objective evaluation of bioelectric brain activity spatial organization in women with epilepsy and secondary amenorrhea of central genesis. One hundred sixty one women (30 with epilepsy, 116 with amenorrhea and 115 controls aged 15 to 41 years) have been examined. Characteristic changes of cortico-cortical inter- and intra-hemisphere relations for patients with catamenial (CTM) and noncatamenial (NCTM) epilepsy in different menstrual cycle terms were found. The most distinct changes were detected in theta-activity analysis. In the beginning of menstrual cycle, the patients with CTM epilepsy exhibited higher CA indices in theta-rhythm range in all right hemisphere pairs studied. On the contrary, patients with NCTM epilepsy exhibited lower CA indices mainly in the right brain hemisphere. alpha-rhythm spatial organization analysis in the same patients showed similar correlations, but they were better expressed in alpha-rhythm generation zone: in the beginning of menstrual cycle CA indices were high in patients with CTM epilepsy and low in those with NCTM epilepsy. Comparing to controls, patients with secondary amenorrhea of central genesis showed most distinct changes in theta-activity towards the CA indices increase in the majority of the leads. In patients with epilepsy and amenorrhea, CA indices of right brain hemisphere and intra-central temporal lead pairs were lower than in patients with amenorrhea without epilepsy by both alpha- and theta-rhythms.

  10. Slicing, sampling, and distance-dependent effects affect network measures in simulated cortical circuit structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Carl Miner

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The neuroanatomical connectivity of cortical circuits is believed to follow certain rules, the exact origins of which are still poorly understood. In particular, numerous nonrandom features, such as common neighbor clustering, overrepresentation of reciprocal connectivity, and overrepresentation of certain triadic graph motifs have been experimentally observed in cortical slice data. Some of these data, particularly regarding bidirectional connectivity are seemingly contradictory, and the reasons for this are unclear. Here we present a simple static geometric network model with distance-dependent connectivity on a realistic scale that naturally gives rise to certain elements of these observed behaviors, and may provide plausible explanations for some of the conflicting findings. Specifically, investigation of the model shows that experimentally measured nonrandom effects, especially bidirectional connectivity, may depend sensitively on experimental parameters such as slice thickness and sampling area, suggesting potential explanations for the seemingly conflicting experimental results.

  11. Organization of Anti-Phase Synchronization Pattern in Neural Networks: What are the Key Factors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Zhou, Changsong

    2011-01-01

    Anti-phase oscillation has been widely observed in cortical neural network. Elucidating the mechanism underlying the organization of anti-phase pattern is of significance for better understanding more complicated pattern formations in brain networks. In dynamical systems theory, the organization of anti-phase oscillation pattern has usually been considered to relate to time delay in coupling. This is consistent to conduction delays in real neural networks in the brain due to finite propagation velocity of action potentials. However, other structural factors in cortical neural network, such as modular organization (connection density) and the coupling types (excitatory or inhibitory), could also play an important role. In this work, we investigate the anti-phase oscillation pattern organized on a two-module network of either neuronal cell model or neural mass model, and analyze the impact of the conduction delay times, the connection densities, and coupling types. Our results show that delay times and coupling types can play key roles in this organization. The connection densities may have an influence on the stability if an anti-phase pattern exists due to the other factors. Furthermore, we show that anti-phase synchronization of slow oscillations can be achieved with small delay times if there is interaction between slow and fast oscillations. These results are significant for further understanding more realistic spatiotemporal dynamics of cortico-cortical communications. PMID:22232576

  12. Altered cortical hubs in functional brain networks in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xujing; Zhang, Jiuquan; Zhang, Youxue; Chen, Heng; Li, Rong; Wang, Jian; Chen, Huafu

    2015-11-01

    Cortical hubs are highly connected nodes in functional brain networks that play vital roles in the efficient transfer of information across brain regions. Although altered functional connectivity has been found in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the changing pattern in functional network hubs in ALS remains unknown. In this study, we applied a voxel-wise method to investigate the changing pattern of cortical hubs in ALS. Through resting-state fMRI, we constructed whole-brain voxel-wise functional networks by measuring the temporal correlations of each pair of brain voxels and identified hubs using the graph theory method. Specifically, a functional connectivity strength (FCS) map was derived from the data on 20 patients with ALS and 20 healthy controls. The brain regions with high FCS values were regarded as functional network hubs. Functional hubs were found mainly in the bilateral precuneus, parietal cortex, medial prefrontal cortex, and in several visual regions and temporal areas in both groups. Within the hub regions, the ALS patients exhibited higher FCS in the prefrontal cortex compared with the healthy controls. The FCS value in the significantly abnormal hub regions was correlated with clinical variables. Results indicated the presence of altered cortical hubs in the ALS patients and could therefore shed light on the pathophysiology mechanisms underlying ALS.

  13. Task-and phase-related changes in cortico-muscular coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masakado, Yoshihisa; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2008-01-01

    -level tonic dorsiflexion. In all subjects coherence disappeared during the ramp phase for both isometric and quasi-isotonic contraction. Coherence at other frequencies was also not observed in any of the subjects during the ramp phase. During the hold phase at the stronger level of contraction coherence...... reappeared quickly and had the same size as at the low level of contraction. However, a significantly larger level of coherence was found during quasi-isotonic than during the isometric contraction. This demonstrates that cortico-muscular coherence in the 15-35 Hz frequency band is phase- and task......-related. The decrease in 15-35 Hz coherence during the ramp phase may be related to event-related desynchronization of EEG activity. The larger level of coherence during quasi-isotonic contraction may reflect a higher demand of precise control of the joint position. It may also reflect a greater need for binding...

  14. Disturbed Interhemispheric Functional Connectivity Rather than Structural Connectivity in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongfeng Qi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that irritable bowel syndrome (IBS—a relapsing functional bowel disorder—presents with disrupted brain connections. However, little is known about the alterations of interhemispheric functional connectivity and underlying structural connectivity in IBS. This study combined resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI to investigate changes in interhemispheric coordination in IBS patients. Resting-state functional and structural magnetic resonance images were acquired from 65 IBS patients and 67 healthy controls (matched for age, sex and educational level. Interhemispheric voxel-mirrored homotopic connectivity (VMHC was calculated and compared between groups. Homotopic regions showing abnormal VMHC in patients were targeted as regions of interest for analysis of DTI tractography. The fractional anisotropy, fiber number, and fiber length were compared between groups. Statistical analysis was also performed by including anxiety and depression as covariates to evaluate their effect. A Pearson correlation analysis between abnormal interhemispheric connectivity and clinical indices of IBS patients was performed. Compared to healthy controls, IBS patients had higher interhemispheric functional connectivity between bilateral thalami, cuneus, posterior cingulate cortices, lingual gyri and inferior occipital/cerebellum lobes, as well as lower interhemispheric functional connectivity between bilateral ventral anterior cingulate cortices (vACC and inferior parietal lobules (IPL. The inclusion of anxiety and depression as covariates abolished VMHC difference in vACC. Microstructural features of white matter tracts connecting functionally abnormal regions did not reveal any differences between the groups. VMHC values in vACC negatively correlated with the quality of life scores of patients. In conclusion, this study provides preliminary evidence of the disrupted

  15. Mutation of Semaphorin-6A disrupts limbic and cortical connectivity and models neurodevelopmental psychopathology.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2011-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism are characterised by cellular disorganisation and dysconnectivity across the brain and can be caused by mutations in genes that control neurodevelopmental processes. To examine how neurodevelopmental defects can affect brain function and behaviour, we have comprehensively investigated the consequences of mutation of one such gene, Semaphorin-6A, on cellular organisation, axonal projection patterns, behaviour and physiology in mice. These analyses reveal a spectrum of widespread but subtle anatomical defects in Sema6A mutants, notably in limbic and cortical cellular organisation, lamination and connectivity. These mutants display concomitant alterations in the electroencephalogram and hyper-exploratory behaviour, which are characteristic of models of psychosis and reversible by the antipsychotic clozapine. They also show altered social interaction and deficits in object recognition and working memory. Mice with mutations in Sema6A or the interacting genes may thus represent a highly informative model for how neurodevelopmental defects can lead to anatomical dysconnectivity, resulting, either directly or through reactive mechanisms, in dysfunction at the level of neuronal networks with associated behavioural phenotypes of relevance to psychiatric disorders. The biological data presented here also make these genes plausible candidates to explain human linkage findings for schizophrenia and autism.

  16. Mean field methods for cortical network dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, J.; Lerchner, Alexander; Ahmadi, M.

    2004-01-01

    We review the use of mean field theory for describing the dynamics of dense, randomly connected cortical circuits. For a simple network of excitatory and inhibitory leaky integrate- and-fire neurons, we can show how the firing irregularity, as measured by the Fano factor, increases...... with the strength of the synapses in the network and with the value to which the membrane potential is reset after a spike. Generalizing the model to include conductance-based synapses gives insight into the connection between the firing statistics and the high- conductance state observed experimentally in visual...

  17. Stroke rehabilitation using noninvasive cortical stimulation: aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylius, Veit; Zouari, Hela G; Ayache, Samar S; Farhat, Wassim H; Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal

    2012-08-01

    Poststroke aphasia results from the lesion of cortical areas involved in the motor production of speech (Broca's aphasia) or in the semantic aspects of language comprehension (Wernicke's aphasia). Such lesions produce an important reorganization of speech/language-specific brain networks due to an imbalance between cortical facilitation and inhibition. In fact, functional recovery is associated with changes in the excitability of the damaged neural structures and their connections. Two main mechanisms are involved in poststroke aphasia recovery: the recruitment of perilesional regions of the left hemisphere in case of small lesion and the acquisition of language processing ability in homotopic areas of the nondominant right hemisphere when left hemispheric language abilities are permanently lost. There is some evidence that noninvasive cortical stimulation, especially when combined with language therapy or other therapeutic approaches, can promote aphasia recovery. Cortical stimulation was mainly used to either increase perilesional excitability or reduce contralesional activity based on the concept of reciprocal inhibition and maladaptive plasticity. However, recent studies also showed some positive effects of the reinforcement of neural activities in the contralateral right hemisphere, based on the potential compensatory role of the nondominant hemisphere in stroke recovery.

  18. Strong Functional Connectivity among Homotopic Brain Areas Is Vital for Motor Control in Unilateral Limb Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengxu Wei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism underlying brain region organization for motor control in humans remains poorly understood. In this functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI study, right-handed volunteers were tasked to maintain unilateral foot movements on the right and left sides as consistently as possible. We aimed to identify the similarities and differences between brain motor networks of the two conditions. We recruited 18 right-handed healthy volunteers aged 25 ± 2.3 years and used a whole-body 3T system for magnetic resonance (MR scanning. Image analysis was performed using SPM8, Conn toolbox and Brain Connectivity Toolbox. We determined a craniocaudally distributed, mirror-symmetrical modular structure. The functional connectivity between homotopic brain areas was generally stronger than the intrahemispheric connections, and such strong connectivity led to the abovementioned modular structure. Our findings indicated that the interhemispheric functional interaction between homotopic brain areas is more intensive than the interaction along the conventional top–down and bottom–up pathways within the brain during unilateral limb movement. The detected strong interhemispheric horizontal functional interaction is an important aspect of motor control but often neglected or underestimated. The strong interhemispheric connectivity may explain the physiological phenomena and effects of promising therapeutic approaches. Further accurate and effective therapeutic methods may be developed on the basis of our findings.

  19. Role of altered cerebello-thalamo-cortical network in the neurobiology of essential tremor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenka, Abhishek; Bhalsing, Ketaki Swapnil; Jhunjhunwala, Ketan [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Department of Neurology, Bangalore, Karnataka (India); National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Bangalore, Karnataka (India); Panda, Rajanikant; Saini, Jitender; Bharath, Rose Dawn [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Department of Neuroimaging and Interventional Radiology, Bangalore, Karnataka (India); Naduthota, Rajini M.; Yadav, Ravi; Pal, Pramod Kumar [National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences, Department of Neurology, Bangalore, Karnataka (India)

    2017-02-15

    Essential tremor (ET) is the most common movement disorder among adults. Although ET has been recognized as a mono-symptomatic benign illness, reports of non-motor symptoms and non-tremor motor symptoms have increased its clinical heterogeneity. The neural correlates of ET are not clearly understood. The aim of this study was to understand the neurobiology of ET using resting state fMRI. Resting state functional MR images of 30 patients with ET and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were obtained. The functional connectivity of the two groups was compared using whole-brain seed-to-voxel-based analysis. The ET group had decreased connectivity of several cortical regions especially of the primary motor cortex and the primary somatosensory cortex with several right cerebellar lobules compared to the controls. The thalamus on both hemispheres had increased connectivity with multiple posterior cerebellar lobules and vermis. Connectivity of several right cerebellar seeds with the cortical and thalamic seeds had significant correlation with an overall score of Fahn-Tolosa-Marin tremor rating scale (FTM-TRS) as well as the subscores for head tremor and limb tremor. Seed-to-voxel resting state connectivity analysis revealed significant alterations in the cerebello-thalamo-cortical network in patients with ET. These alterations correlated with the overall FTM scores as well as the subscores for limb tremor and head tremor in patients with ET. These results further support the previous evidence of cerebellar pathology in ET. (orig.)

  20. Role of altered cerebello-thalamo-cortical network in the neurobiology of essential tremor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenka, Abhishek; Bhalsing, Ketaki Swapnil; Jhunjhunwala, Ketan; Panda, Rajanikant; Saini, Jitender; Bharath, Rose Dawn; Naduthota, Rajini M.; Yadav, Ravi; Pal, Pramod Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Essential tremor (ET) is the most common movement disorder among adults. Although ET has been recognized as a mono-symptomatic benign illness, reports of non-motor symptoms and non-tremor motor symptoms have increased its clinical heterogeneity. The neural correlates of ET are not clearly understood. The aim of this study was to understand the neurobiology of ET using resting state fMRI. Resting state functional MR images of 30 patients with ET and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy controls were obtained. The functional connectivity of the two groups was compared using whole-brain seed-to-voxel-based analysis. The ET group had decreased connectivity of several cortical regions especially of the primary motor cortex and the primary somatosensory cortex with several right cerebellar lobules compared to the controls. The thalamus on both hemispheres had increased connectivity with multiple posterior cerebellar lobules and vermis. Connectivity of several right cerebellar seeds with the cortical and thalamic seeds had significant correlation with an overall score of Fahn-Tolosa-Marin tremor rating scale (FTM-TRS) as well as the subscores for head tremor and limb tremor. Seed-to-voxel resting state connectivity analysis revealed significant alterations in the cerebello-thalamo-cortical network in patients with ET. These alterations correlated with the overall FTM scores as well as the subscores for limb tremor and head tremor in patients with ET. These results further support the previous evidence of cerebellar pathology in ET. (orig.)

  1. Auditory and visual connectivity gradients in frontoparietal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Rodrigo M; Hellyer, Peter J; Wise, Richard J S; Leech, Robert

    2017-01-01

    A frontoparietal network of brain regions is often implicated in both auditory and visual information processing. Although it is possible that the same set of multimodal regions subserves both modalities, there is increasing evidence that there is a differentiation of sensory function within frontoparietal cortex. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in humans was used to investigate whether different frontoparietal regions showed intrinsic biases in connectivity with visual or auditory modalities. Structural connectivity was assessed with diffusion tractography and functional connectivity was tested using functional MRI. A dorsal-ventral gradient of function was observed, where connectivity with visual cortex dominates dorsal frontal and parietal connections, while connectivity with auditory cortex dominates ventral frontal and parietal regions. A gradient was also observed along the posterior-anterior axis, although in opposite directions in prefrontal and parietal cortices. The results suggest that the location of neural activity within frontoparietal cortex may be influenced by these intrinsic biases toward visual and auditory processing. Thus, the location of activity in frontoparietal cortex may be influenced as much by stimulus modality as the cognitive demands of a task. It was concluded that stimulus modality was spatially encoded throughout frontal and parietal cortices, and was speculated that such an arrangement allows for top-down modulation of modality-specific information to occur within higher-order cortex. This could provide a potentially faster and more efficient pathway by which top-down selection between sensory modalities could occur, by constraining modulations to within frontal and parietal regions, rather than long-range connections to sensory cortices. Hum Brain Mapp 38:255-270, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Task-Rest Modulation of Basal Ganglia Connectivity in Mild to Moderate Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M.; Sullivan, Edith V.; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Huang, Neng C.; Poston, Kathleen L.; Bronte-Stewart, Helen M.; Schulte, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is associated with abnormal synchronization in basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical loops. We tested whether early PD patients without demonstrable cognitive impairment exhibit abnormal modulation of functional connectivity at rest, while engaged in a task, or both. PD and healthy controls underwent two functional MRI scans: a resting-state scan and a Stroop Match-to-Sample task scan. Rest-task modulation of basal ganglia (BG) connectivity was tested using seed-to-voxel connectivity analysis with task and rest time series as conditions. Despite substantial overlap of BG–cortical connectivity patterns in both groups, connectivity differences between groups had clinical and behavioral correlates. During rest, stronger putamen–medial parietal and pallidum–occipital connectivity in PD than controls was associated with worse task performance and more severe PD symptoms suggesting that abnormalities in resting-state connectivity denote neural network dedifferentiation. During the executive task, PD patients showed weaker BG-cortical connectivity than controls, i.e., between caudate–supramarginal gyrus and pallidum–inferior prefrontal regions, that was related to more severe PD symptoms and worse task performance. Yet, task processing also evoked stronger striatal–cortical connectivity, specifically between caudate–prefrontal, caudate–precuneus, and putamen–motor/premotor regions in PD relative to controls, which was related to less severe PD symptoms and better performance on the Stroop task. Thus, stronger task-evoked striatal connectivity in PD demonstrated compensatory neural network enhancement to meet task demands and improve performance levels. fMRI-based network analysis revealed that despite resting-state BG network compromise in PD, BG connectivity to prefrontal, premotor, and precuneus regions can be adequately invoked during executive control demands enabling near normal task performance. PMID:25280970

  3. Default network connectivity in medial temporal lobe amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Scott M; Salat, David H; Verfaellie, Mieke

    2012-10-17

    There is substantial overlap between the brain regions supporting episodic memory and the default network. However, in humans, the impact of bilateral medial temporal lobe (MTL) damage on a large-scale neural network such as the default mode network is unknown. To examine this issue, resting fMRI was performed with amnesic patients and control participants. Seed-based functional connectivity analyses revealed robust default network connectivity in amnesia in cortical default network regions such as medial prefrontal cortex, posterior medial cortex, and lateral parietal cortex, as well as evidence of connectivity to residual MTL tissue. Relative to control participants, decreased posterior cingulate cortex connectivity to MTL and increased connectivity to cortical default network regions including lateral parietal and medial prefrontal cortex were observed in amnesic patients. In contrast, somatomotor network connectivity was intact in amnesic patients, indicating that bilateral MTL lesions may selectively impact the default network. Changes in default network connectivity in amnesia were largely restricted to the MTL subsystem, providing preliminary support from MTL amnesic patients that the default network can be fractionated into functionally and structurally distinct components. To our knowledge, this is the first examination of the default network in amnesia.

  4. Regional vulnerability of longitudinal cortical association connectivity: Associated with structural network topology alterations in preterm children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceschin, Rafael; Lee, Vince K; Schmithorst, Vince; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Preterm born children with spastic diplegia type of cerebral palsy and white matter injury or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), are known to have motor, visual and cognitive impairments. Most diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies performed in this group have demonstrated widespread abnormalities using averaged deterministic tractography and voxel-based DTI measurements. Little is known about structural network correlates of white matter topography and reorganization in preterm cerebral palsy, despite the availability of new therapies and the need for brain imaging biomarkers. Here, we combined novel post-processing methodology of probabilistic tractography data in this preterm cohort to improve spatial and regional delineation of longitudinal cortical association tract abnormalities using an along-tract approach, and compared these data to structural DTI cortical network topology analysis. DTI images were acquired on 16 preterm children with cerebral palsy (mean age 5.6 ± 4) and 75 healthy controls (mean age 5.7 ± 3.4). Despite mean tract analysis, Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) demonstrating diffusely reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) reduction in all white matter tracts, the along-tract analysis improved the detection of regional tract vulnerability. The along-tract map-structural network topology correlates revealed two associations: (1) reduced regional posterior-anterior gradient in FA of the longitudinal visual cortical association tracts (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, inferior longitudinal fasciculus, optic radiation, posterior thalamic radiation) correlated with reduced posterior-anterior gradient of intra-regional (nodal efficiency) metrics with relative sparing of frontal and temporal regions; and (2) reduced regional FA within frontal-thalamic-striatal white matter pathways (anterior limb/anterior thalamic radiation, superior longitudinal fasciculus and cortical spinal tract) correlated with

  5. Differences in hemispherical thalamo-cortical causality analysis during resting-state fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anwar, Abdul Rauf; Muthalib, Makii; Perrey, Stephane; Wolff, Stephan; Deuschl, Guunther; Heute, Ulrich; Muthuraman, Muthuraman

    2014-01-01

    Thalamus is a very important part of the human brain. It has been reported to act as a relay for the messaging taking place between the cortical and sub-cortical regions of the brain. In the present study, we analyze the functional network between both hemispheres of the brain with the focus on thalamus. We used conditional Granger causality (CGC) and time-resolved partial directed coherence (tPDC) to investigate the functional connectivity. Results of CGC analysis revealed the asymmetry between connection strengths of the bilateral thalamus. Upon testing the functional connectivity of the default-mode network (DMN) at low-frequency fluctuations (LFF) and comparing coherence vectors using Spearman's rank correlation, we found that thalamus is a better source for the signals directed towards the contralateral regions of the brain, however, when thalamus acts as sink, it is a better sink for signals generated from ipsilateral regions of the brain.

  6. Cortical sensorimotor alterations classify clinical phenotype and putative genotype of spasmodic dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistella, G; Fuertinger, S; Fleysher, L; Ozelius, L J; Simonyan, K

    2016-10-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia (SD), or laryngeal dystonia, is a task-specific isolated focal dystonia of unknown causes and pathophysiology. Although functional and structural abnormalities have been described in this disorder, the influence of its different clinical phenotypes and genotypes remains scant, making it difficult to explain SD pathophysiology and to identify potential biomarkers. We used a combination of independent component analysis and linear discriminant analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate brain organization in different SD phenotypes (abductor versus adductor type) and putative genotypes (familial versus sporadic cases) and to characterize neural markers for genotype/phenotype categorization. We found abnormal functional connectivity within sensorimotor and frontoparietal networks in patients with SD compared with healthy individuals as well as phenotype- and genotype-distinct alterations of these networks, involving primary somatosensory, premotor and parietal cortices. The linear discriminant analysis achieved 71% accuracy classifying SD and healthy individuals using connectivity measures in the left inferior parietal and sensorimotor cortices. When categorizing between different forms of SD, the combination of measures from the left inferior parietal, premotor and right sensorimotor cortices achieved 81% discriminatory power between familial and sporadic SD cases, whereas the combination of measures from the right superior parietal, primary somatosensory and premotor cortices led to 71% accuracy in the classification of adductor and abductor SD forms. Our findings present the first effort to identify and categorize isolated focal dystonia based on its brain functional connectivity profile, which may have a potential impact on the future development of biomarkers for this rare disorder. © 2016 EAN.

  7. Reduced Gyrification Is Related to Reduced Interhemispheric Connectivity in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, Dienke J.; Merchán-Naranjo, Jessica; Martínez, Kenia; Pina-Camacho, Laura; Balsa, Ivan; Boada, Leticia; Schnack, Hugo; Oranje, Bob; Desco, Manuel; Arango, Celso; Parellada, Mara; Durston, Sarah; Janssen, Joost

    2015-01-01

    Objective Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been associated with atypical cortical gray and subcortical white matter development. Neurodevelopmental theories postulate that a relation between cortical maturation and structural brain connectivity may exist. We therefore investigated the

  8. Disruption of structural covariance networks for language in autism is modulated by verbal ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharda, Megha; Khundrakpam, Budhachandra S; Evans, Alan C; Singh, Nandini C

    2016-03-01

    The presence of widespread speech and language deficits is a core feature of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). These impairments have often been attributed to altered connections between brain regions. Recent developments in anatomical correlation-based approaches to map structural covariance offer an effective way of studying such connections in vivo. In this study, we employed such a structural covariance network (SCN)-based approach to investigate the integrity of anatomical networks in fronto-temporal brain regions of twenty children with ASD compared to an age and gender-matched control group of twenty-two children. Our findings reflected large-scale disruption of inter and intrahemispheric covariance in left frontal SCNs in the ASD group compared to controls, but no differences in right fronto-temporal SCNs. Interhemispheric covariance in left-seeded networks was further found to be modulated by verbal ability of the participants irrespective of autism diagnosis, suggesting that language function might be related to the strength of interhemispheric structural covariance between frontal regions. Additionally, regional cortical thickening was observed in right frontal and left posterior regions, which was predicted by decreasing symptom severity and increasing verbal ability in ASD. These findings unify reports of regional differences in cortical morphology in ASD. They also suggest that reduced left hemisphere asymmetry and increased frontal growth may not only reflect neurodevelopmental aberrations but also compensatory mechanisms.

  9. Source analysis of beta-synchronisation and cortico-muscular coherence after movement termination based on high resolution electroencephalography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthuraman Muthuraman

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that post-movement beta synchronization (PMBS and cortico-muscular coherence (CMC during movement termination relate to each other and have similar role in sensorimotor integration. We calculated the parameters and estimated the sources of these phenomena.We measured 64-channel EEG simultaneously with surface EMG of the right first dorsal interosseus muscle in 11 healthy volunteers. In Task1, subjects kept a medium-strength contraction continuously; in Task2, superimposed on this movement, they performed repetitive self-paced short contractions. In Task3 short contractions were executed alone. Time-frequency analysis of the EEG and CMC was performed with respect to the offset of brisk movements and averaged in each subject. Sources of PMBS and CMC were also calculated.High beta power in Task1, PMBS in Task2-3, and CMC in Task1-2 could be observed in the same individual frequency bands. While beta synchronization in Task1 and PMBS in Task2-3 appeared bilateral with contralateral predominance, CMC in Task1-2 was strictly a unilateral phenomenon; their main sources did not differ contralateral to the movement in the primary sensorimotor cortex in 7 of 11 subjects in Task1, and in 6 of 9 subjects in Task2. In Task2, CMC and PMBS had the same latency but their amplitudes did not correlate with each other. In Task2, weaker PMBS source was found bilaterally within the secondary sensory cortex, while the second source of CMC was detected in the premotor cortex, contralateral to the movement. In Task3, weaker sources of PMBS could be estimated in bilateral supplementary motor cortex and in the thalamus. PMBS and CMC appear simultaneously at the end of a phasic movement possibly suggesting similar antikinetic effects, but they may be separate processes with different active functions. Whereas PMBS seems to reset the supraspinal sensorimotor network, cortico-muscular coherence may represent the recalibration of cortico-motoneuronal and

  10. Source analysis of beta-synchronisation and cortico-muscular coherence after movement termination based on high resolution electroencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuraman, Muthuraman; Tamás, Gertrúd; Hellriegel, Helge; Deuschl, Günther; Raethjen, Jan

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesized that post-movement beta synchronization (PMBS) and cortico-muscular coherence (CMC) during movement termination relate to each other and have similar role in sensorimotor integration. We calculated the parameters and estimated the sources of these phenomena.We measured 64-channel EEG simultaneously with surface EMG of the right first dorsal interosseus muscle in 11 healthy volunteers. In Task1, subjects kept a medium-strength contraction continuously; in Task2, superimposed on this movement, they performed repetitive self-paced short contractions. In Task3 short contractions were executed alone. Time-frequency analysis of the EEG and CMC was performed with respect to the offset of brisk movements and averaged in each subject. Sources of PMBS and CMC were also calculated.High beta power in Task1, PMBS in Task2-3, and CMC in Task1-2 could be observed in the same individual frequency bands. While beta synchronization in Task1 and PMBS in Task2-3 appeared bilateral with contralateral predominance, CMC in Task1-2 was strictly a unilateral phenomenon; their main sources did not differ contralateral to the movement in the primary sensorimotor cortex in 7 of 11 subjects in Task1, and in 6 of 9 subjects in Task2. In Task2, CMC and PMBS had the same latency but their amplitudes did not correlate with each other. In Task2, weaker PMBS source was found bilaterally within the secondary sensory cortex, while the second source of CMC was detected in the premotor cortex, contralateral to the movement. In Task3, weaker sources of PMBS could be estimated in bilateral supplementary motor cortex and in the thalamus. PMBS and CMC appear simultaneously at the end of a phasic movement possibly suggesting similar antikinetic effects, but they may be separate processes with different active functions. Whereas PMBS seems to reset the supraspinal sensorimotor network, cortico-muscular coherence may represent the recalibration of cortico-motoneuronal and spinal systems.

  11. Disturbed functional connectivity of cortical activation during semantic discrimination in patients with schizophrenia and subjects at genetic high-risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobo; Branch, Craig A; Nierenberg, Jay; Delisi, Lynn E

    2010-03-01

    Schizophrenia has a strong genetic component that is relevant to the understanding of the pathophysiology of the syndrome. Thus, recent investigations have shifted from studies of diagnosed patients with schizophrenia to examining their unaffected relatives. Previous studies found that during language processing, relatives thought to be at genetic high-risk for the disorder exhibit aberrant functional activation in regions of language processing, specifically in the left inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area). However, functional connectivity among the regions involved in language pathways is not well understood. In this study, we examined the functional connectivity between a seed located in Broca's area and the remainder of the brain during a visual lexical decision task, in 20 schizophrenia patients, 21 subjects at genetic high risk for the disorder and 21 healthy controls. Both the high-risk subjects and patients showed significantly reduced activation correlations between seed and regions related to visual language processing. Compared to the high-risk subjects, the schizophrenia patients showed even fewer regions that were correlated with the seed regions. These results suggest that there is aberrant functional connectivity within cortical language circuitry in high-risk subjects and patients with schizophrenia. Broca's area, which is one of the important regions for language processing in healthy controls, had a significantly reduced role in the high-risk subjects and patients with schizophrenia. Our findings are consistent with the existence of an underlying biological disturbance that begins in genetically at risk individuals and progresses to a greater extent in those who eventually develop schizophrenia.

  12. Cortical hubs form a module for multisensory integration on top of the hierarchy of cortical networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka Zamora-López

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sensory stimuli entering the nervous system follow particular paths of processing, typically separated (segregated from the paths of other modal information. However, sensory perception, awareness and cognition emerge from the combination of information (integration. The corticocortical networks of cats and macaque monkeys display three prominent characteristics: (i modular organisation (facilitating the segregation, (ii abundant alternative processing paths and (iii the presence of highly connected hubs. Here, we study in detail the organisation and potential function of the cortical hubs by graph analysis and information theoretical methods. We find that the cortical hubs form a spatially delocalised, but topologically central module with the capacity to integrate multisensory information in a collaborative manner. With this, we resolve the underlying anatomical substrate that supports the simultaneous capacity of the cortex to segregate and to integrate multisensory information.

  13. Connecting to create: expertise in musical improvisation is associated with increased functional connectivity between premotor and prefrontal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Ana Luísa; de Manzano, Örjan; Fransson, Peter; Eriksson, Helene; Ullén, Fredrik

    2014-04-30

    Musicians have been used extensively to study neural correlates of long-term practice, but no studies have investigated the specific effects of training musical creativity. Here, we used human functional MRI to measure brain activity during improvisation in a sample of 39 professional pianists with varying backgrounds in classical and jazz piano playing. We found total hours of improvisation experience to be negatively associated with activity in frontoparietal executive cortical areas. In contrast, improvisation training was positively associated with functional connectivity of the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, dorsal premotor cortices, and presupplementary areas. The effects were significant when controlling for hours of classical piano practice and age. These results indicate that even neural mechanisms involved in creative behaviors, which require a flexible online generation of novel and meaningful output, can be automated by training. Second, improvisational musical training can influence functional brain properties at a network level. We show that the greater functional connectivity seen in experienced improvisers may reflect a more efficient exchange of information within associative networks of importance for musical creativity.

  14. The role of Long-Range Connectivity for the Characterization of the Functional-Anatomical Organization of the Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas R Knösche

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This review focuses on the role of long-range connectivity as one element of brain structure that is of key importance for the functional-anatomical organization of the cortex. In this context, we discuss the putative guiding principles for mapping brain function and structure onto the cortical surface. Such mappings reveal a high-degree of functional-anatomical segregation. Given that brain regions frequently maintain characteristic connectivity profiles and the functional repertoire of a cortical area is closely related to its anatomical connections, long-range connectivity may be used to define segregated cortical areas. This methodology is called connectivity-based parcellation.Within this framework, we investigate different techniques to estimate connectivity profiles with emphasis given to non-invasive methods based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI and diffusion tractography. Cortical parcellation is then defined based on similarity between diffusion tractograms, and different clustering approaches are discussed.We conclude that the use of non-invasively acquired connectivity estimates to characterize the functional-anatomical organization of the brain is a valid, relevant and necessary endeavor. Current and future developments in dMRI technology, tractography algorithms and models of the similarity structure hold great potential for a substantial improvement and enrichment of the results of the technique.

  15. The role of long-range connectivity for the characterization of the functional-anatomical organization of the cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knösche, Thomas R; Tittgemeyer, Marc

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the role of long-range connectivity as one element of brain structure that is of key importance for the functional-anatomical organization of the cortex. In this context, we discuss the putative guiding principles for mapping brain function and structure onto the cortical surface. Such mappings reveal a high degree of functional-anatomical segregation. Given that brain regions frequently maintain characteristic connectivity profiles and the functional repertoire of a cortical area is closely related to its anatomical connections, long-range connectivity may be used to define segregated cortical areas. This methodology is called connectivity-based parcellation. Within this framework, we investigate different techniques to estimate connectivity profiles with emphasis given to non-invasive methods based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) and diffusion tractography. Cortical parcellation is then defined based on similarity between diffusion tractograms, and different clustering approaches are discussed. We conclude that the use of non-invasively acquired connectivity estimates to characterize the functional-anatomical organization of the brain is a valid, relevant, and necessary endeavor. Current and future developments in dMRI technology, tractography algorithms, and models of the similarity structure hold great potential for a substantial improvement and enrichment of the results of the technique.

  16. Dopamine-Related Disruption of Functional Topography of Striatal Connections in Unmedicated Patients With Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horga, Guillermo; Cassidy, Clifford M; Xu, Xiaoyan; Moore, Holly; Slifstein, Mark; Van Snellenberg, Jared X; Abi-Dargham, Anissa

    2016-08-01

    Despite the well-established role of striatal dopamine in psychosis, current views generally agree that cortical dysfunction is likely necessary for the emergence of psychotic symptoms. The topographic organization of striatal-cortical connections is central to gating and integration of higher-order information, so a disruption of such topography via dysregulated dopamine could lead to cortical dysfunction in schizophrenia. However, this hypothesis remains to be tested using multivariate methods ascertaining the global pattern of striatal connectivity and without the confounding effects of antidopaminergic medication. To examine whether the pattern of brain connectivity across striatal subregions is abnormal in unmedicated patients with schizophrenia and whether this abnormality relates to psychotic symptoms and extrastriatal dopaminergic transmission. In this multimodal, case-control study, we obtained resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 18 unmedicated patients with schizophrenia and 24 matched healthy controls from the New York State Psychiatric Institute. A subset of these (12 and 17, respectively) underwent positron emission tomography with the dopamine D2 receptor radiotracer carbon 11-labeled FLB457 before and after amphetamine administration. Data were acquired between June 16, 2011, and February 25, 2014. Data analysis was performed from September 1, 2014, to January 11, 2016. Group differences in the striatal connectivity pattern (assessed via multivariable logistic regression) across striatal subregions, the association between the multivariate striatal connectivity pattern and extrastriatal baseline D2 receptor binding potential and its change after amphetamine administration, and the association between the multivariate connectivity pattern and the severity of positive symptoms evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Of the patients with schizophrenia (mean [SEM] age, 35.6 [11.8] years), 9 (50%) were male and 9

  17. Growth of cortical neuronal network in vitro: Modeling and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, P.-Y.; Jia, L. C.; Chan, C. K.

    2006-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis and theoretical growth models to account for recent experimental data on the growth of cortical neuronal networks in vitro [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 088101 (2004)]. The experimentally observed synchronized firing frequency of a well-connected neuronal network is shown to be proportional to the mean network connectivity. The growth of the network is consistent with the model of an early enhanced growth of connection, but followed by a retarded growth once the synchronized cluster is formed. Microscopic models with dominant excluded volume interactions are consistent with the observed exponential decay of the mean connection probability as a function of the mean network connectivity. The biological implications of the growth model are also discussed

  18. Alterations in visual cortical activation and connectivity with prefrontal cortex during working memory updating in major depressive disorder.

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    Le, Thang M; Borghi, John A; Kujawa, Autumn J; Klein, Daniel N; Leung, Hoi-Chung

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the impacts of major depressive disorder (MDD) on visual and prefrontal cortical activity as well as their connectivity during visual working memory updating and related them to the core clinical features of the disorder. Impairment in working memory updating is typically associated with the retention of irrelevant negative information which can lead to persistent depressive mood and abnormal affect. However, performance deficits have been observed in MDD on tasks involving little or no demand on emotion processing, suggesting dysfunctions may also occur at the more basic level of information processing. Yet, it is unclear how various regions in the visual working memory circuit contribute to behavioral changes in MDD. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 18 unmedicated participants with MDD and 21 age-matched healthy controls (CTL) while they performed a visual delayed recognition task with neutral faces and scenes as task stimuli. Selective working memory updating was manipulated by inserting a cue in the delay period to indicate which one or both of the two memorized stimuli (a face and a scene) would remain relevant for the recognition test. Our results revealed several key findings. Relative to the CTL group, the MDD group showed weaker postcue activations in visual association areas during selective maintenance of face and scene working memory. Across the MDD subjects, greater rumination and depressive symptoms were associated with more persistent activation and connectivity related to no-longer-relevant task information. Classification of postcue spatial activation patterns of the scene-related areas was also less consistent in the MDD subjects compared to the healthy controls. Such abnormalities appeared to result from a lack of updating effects in postcue functional connectivity between prefrontal and scene-related areas in the MDD group. In sum, disrupted working memory updating in MDD was revealed by

  19. Increased Alpha Band Functional Connectivity Following the Quadrato Motor Training: A Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Lasaponara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Quadrato Motor Training (QMT is a new training paradigm, which was found to increase cognitive flexibility, creativity and spatial cognition. In addition, QMT was reported to enhance inter- and intra-hemispheric alpha coherence as well as Fractional Anisotropy (FA in a number of white matter pathways including corpus callosum. Taken together, these results seem to suggest that electrophysiological and structural changes induced by QMT may be due to an enhanced interplay and communication of the different brain areas within and between the right and the left hemisphere. In order to test this hypothesis using the exact low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (eLORETA, we estimated the current neural density and lagged linear connectivity (LLC of the alpha band in the resting state electroencephalography (rsEEG recorded with open (OE and closed eyes (CE at three different time points, following 6 and 12 weeks of daily QMT. Significant changes were observed for the functional connectivity. In particular, we found that limbic and fronto-temporal alpha connectivity in the OE condition increased after 6 weeks, while it enhanced at the CE condition in occipital network following 12-weeks of daily training. These findings seem to show that the QMT may have dissociable long-term effects on the functional connectivity depending on the different ways of recording rsEEG. OE recording pointed out a faster onset of Linear Lag Connectivity modulations that tend to decay as quickly, while CE recording showed sensible effect only after the complete 3-months training.

  20. Functional neuroanatomy of tics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, Irene; Schneider, Frank; Shah, N Jon

    2013-01-01

    The therapeutic success of haloperidol in the treatment of Tourette syndrome (TS) put an end to the discussion about a "hysteric" or "neurotic" origin of TS. The cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuit has been identified as an underlying neurobiological correlate of TS. In this review we explore the main findings of structural alterations in TS including cortical areas, basal ganglia, hippocampus, amygdala, midbrain, and cerebellum. Based on the structural changes we examine the functional pattern described by the findings of fMRI and (15)O-PET/(18)FDG PET investigations. From the neuroimaging findings a cortical origin of the generation of tics is indicated. Future research on the neuronal footprint of TS should be directed towards addressing the question of which patterns of connectivity distinguish individuals in whom tics disappear during early adulthood from those in whom the tics persist. The understanding of this pathomechanism could provide a key on how to influence dysconnectivity in TS, for example, by more specific pharmaceutical intervention or by individually adopted EEG and/or fMRI neurofeedback. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Alterations in Normal Aging Revealed by Cortical Brain Network Constructed Using IBASPM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wan; Yang, Chunlan; Shi, Feng; Wang, Qun; Wu, Shuicai; Lu, Wangsheng; Li, Shaowu; Nie, Yingnan; Zhang, Xin

    2018-04-16

    Normal aging has been linked with the decline of cognitive functions, such as memory and executive skills. One of the prominent approaches to investigate the age-related alterations in the brain is by examining the cortical brain connectome. IBASPM is a toolkit to realize individual atlas-based volume measurement. Hence, this study seeks to determine what further alterations can be revealed by cortical brain networks formed by IBASPM-extracted regional gray matter volumes. We found the reduced strength of connections between the superior temporal pole and middle temporal pole in the right hemisphere, global hubs as the left fusiform gyrus and right Rolandic operculum in the young and aging groups, respectively, and significantly reduced inter-module connection of one module in the aging group. These new findings are consistent with the phenomenon of normal aging mentioned in previous studies and suggest that brain network built with the IBASPM could provide supplementary information to some extent. The individualization of morphometric features extraction deserved to be given more attention in future cortical brain network research.

  2. Family Nurture Intervention in preterm infants alters frontal cortical functional connectivity assessed by EEG coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, M M; Grieve, P G; Stark, R I; Isler, J R; Hofer, M A; Yang, J; Ludwig, R J; Welch, M G

    2015-07-01

    To assess the impact of Family Nurture Intervention (FNI) on cortical function in preterm infants at term age. Family Nurture Intervention is a NICU-based intervention designed to establish emotional connection between mothers and preterm infants. Infants born at 26-34 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) were divided into two groups, standard care (SC, N = 49) and FNI (FNI, N = 56). Infants had EEG recordings of ~one hour duration with 124 lead nets between 37 and 44 weeks PMA. Coherence was measured between all pairs of electrodes in ten frequency bands. Data were summarised both within and between 12 regions during two sleep states (active, quiet). Coherence levels were negatively correlated with PMA age in both groups. As compared to SC infants, FNI infants showed significantly lower levels of EEG coherence (1-18 Hz) largely within and between frontal regions. Coherence in FNI infants was decreased in regions where we previously found robust increases in EEG power. As coherence decreases with age, results suggest that FNI may accelerate brain maturation particularly in frontal brain regions, which have been shown in research by others to be involved in regulation of attention, cognition and emotion regulation; domains deficient in preterm infants. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Multimodal MR-imaging reveals large-scale structural and functional connectivity changes in profound early blindness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Corinna M.; Hirsch, Gabriella V.; Zajac, Lauren; Koo, Bang-Bon; Collignon, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    In the setting of profound ocular blindness, numerous lines of evidence demonstrate the existence of dramatic anatomical and functional changes within the brain. However, previous studies based on a variety of distinct measures have often provided inconsistent findings. To help reconcile this issue, we used a multimodal magnetic resonance (MR)-based imaging approach to provide complementary structural and functional information regarding this neuroplastic reorganization. This included gray matter structural morphometry, high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) of white matter connectivity and integrity, and resting state functional connectivity MRI (rsfcMRI) analysis. When comparing the brains of early blind individuals to sighted controls, we found evidence of co-occurring decreases in cortical volume and cortical thickness within visual processing areas of the occipital and temporal cortices respectively. Increases in cortical volume in the early blind were evident within regions of parietal cortex. Investigating white matter connections using HARDI revealed patterns of increased and decreased connectivity when comparing both groups. In the blind, increased white matter connectivity (indexed by increased fiber number) was predominantly left-lateralized, including between frontal and temporal areas implicated with language processing. Decreases in structural connectivity were evident involving frontal and somatosensory regions as well as between occipital and cingulate cortices. Differences in white matter integrity (as indexed by quantitative anisotropy, or QA) were also in general agreement with observed pattern changes in the number of white matter fibers. Analysis of resting state sequences showed evidence of both increased and decreased functional connectivity in the blind compared to sighted controls. Specifically, increased connectivity was evident between temporal and inferior frontal areas. Decreases in functional connectivity were observed

  4. Altered cortical anatomical networks in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Bin; He, Huiguang; Lu, Jingjing; Li, Wenjing; Dai, Dai; Li, Meng; Jin, Zhengyu

    2011-03-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is one of the most common epilepsy syndromes with focal seizures generated in the left or right temporal lobes. With the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), many evidences have demonstrated that the abnormalities in hippocampal volume and the distributed atrophies in cortical cortex. However, few studies have investigated if TLE patients have the alternation in the structural networks. In the present study, we used the cortical thickness to establish the morphological connectivity networks, and investigated the network properties using the graph theoretical methods. We found that all the morphological networks exhibited the small-world efficiency in left TLE, right TLE and normal groups. And the betweenness centrality analysis revealed that there were statistical inter-group differences in the right uncus region. Since the right uncus located at the right temporal lobe, these preliminary evidences may suggest that there are topological alternations of the cortical anatomical networks in TLE, especially for the right TLE.

  5. The changing roles of neurons in the cortical subplate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Friedlander

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurons may serve different functions over the course of an organism’s life. Recent evidence suggests that cortical subplate neurons including those that reside in the white matter may perform longitudinal multi-tasking at different stages of development. These cells play a key role in early cortical development in coordinating thalamocortical reciprocal innervation. At later stages of development, they become integrated within the cortical microcircuitry. This type of longitudinal multi-tasking can enhance the capacity for information processing by populations of cells serving different functions over the lifespan. Subplate cells are initially derived when cells from the ventricular zone underlying the cortex migrate to the cortical preplate that is subsequently split by the differentiating neurons of the cortical plate with some neurons locating in the marginal zone and others settling below in the subplate (SP. While the cortical plate neurons form most of the cortical layers (layers 2-6, the marginal zone neurons form layer 1 and the SP neurons become interstitial cells of the white matter as well as forming a compact sublayer along the bottom of layer 6. After serving as transient innervation targets for thalamocortical axons, most of these cells die and layer 4 neurons become innervated by thalamic axons. However, 10-20% survives, remaining into adulthood along the bottom of layer 6 and as a scattered population of interstitial neurons in the white matter. Surviving subplate cells’ axons project throughout the overlying laminae, reaching layer 1 and issuing axon collaterals within white matter and in lower layer 6. This suggests that they participate in local synaptic networks, as well. Moreover, they receive excitatory and inhibitory synaptic inputs, potentially monitoring outputs from axon collaterals of cortical efferents, from cortical afferents and/or from each other. We explore our understanding of the functional connectivity of

  6. The Multiple Correspondence Analysis Method and Brain Functional Connectivity: Its Application to the Study of the Non-linear Relationships of Motor Cortex and Basal Ganglia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Sabate, Clara; Morales, Ingrid; Sanchez, Alberto; Rodriguez, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    The complexity of basal ganglia (BG) interactions is often condensed into simple models mainly based on animal data and that present BG in closed-loop cortico-subcortical circuits of excitatory/inhibitory pathways which analyze the incoming cortical data and return the processed information to the cortex. This study was aimed at identifying functional relationships in the BG motor-loop of 24 healthy-subjects who provided written, informed consent and whose BOLD-activity was recorded by MRI methods. The analysis of the functional interaction between these centers by correlation techniques and multiple linear regression showed non-linear relationships which cannot be suitably addressed with these methods. The multiple correspondence analysis (MCA), an unsupervised multivariable procedure which can identify non-linear interactions, was used to study the functional connectivity of BG when subjects were at rest. Linear methods showed different functional interactions expected according to current BG models. MCA showed additional functional interactions which were not evident when using lineal methods. Seven functional configurations of BG were identified with MCA, two involving the primary motor and somatosensory cortex, one involving the deepest BG (external-internal globus pallidum, subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigral), one with the input-output BG centers (putamen and motor thalamus), two linking the input-output centers with other BG (external pallidum and subthalamic nucleus), and one linking the external pallidum and the substantia nigral. The results provide evidence that the non-linear MCA and linear methods are complementary and should be best used in conjunction to more fully understand the nature of functional connectivity of brain centers.

  7. Brain Connectivity and Visual Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Emily L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Emerging hypotheses suggest that efficient cognitive functioning requires the integration of separate, but interconnected cortical networks in the brain. Although task-related measures of brain activity suggest that a frontoparietal network is associated with the control of attention, little is known regarding how components within this distributed network act together or with other networks to achieve various attentional functions. This review considers both functional and structural studies of brain connectivity, as complemented by behavioral and task-related neuroimaging data. These studies show converging results: The frontal and parietal cortical regions are active together, over time, and identifiable frontoparietal networks are active in relation to specific task demands. However, the spontaneous, low-frequency fluctuations of brain activity that occur in the resting state, without specific task demands, also exhibit patterns of connectivity that closely resemble the task-related, frontoparietal attention networks. Both task-related and resting-state networks exhibit consistent relations to behavioral measures of attention. Further, anatomical structure, particularly white matter pathways as defined by diffusion tensor imaging, places constraints on intrinsic functional connectivity. Lastly, connectivity analyses applied to investigate cognitive differences across individuals in both healthy and diseased states suggest that disconnection of attentional networks is linked to deficits in cognitive functioning, and in extreme cases, to disorders of attention. Thus, comprehensive theories of visual attention and their clinical translation depend on the continued integration of behavioral, task-related neuroimaging, and brain connectivity measures. PMID:23597177

  8. Molecular Correlates of Cortical Network Modulation by Long-Term Sensory Experience in the Adult Rat Barrel Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallès, Astrid; Granic, Ivica; De Weerd, Peter; Martens, Gerard J. M.

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of cortical network connectivity is crucial for an adaptive response to experience. In the rat barrel cortex, long-term sensory stimulation induces cortical network modifications and neuronal response changes of which the molecular basis is unknown. Here, we show that long-term somatosensory stimulation by enriched environment…

  9. Network connectivity and individual responses to brain stimulation in the human motor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas-Morales, Lizbeth; Volz, Lukas J; Michely, Jochen; Rehme, Anne K; Pool, Eva-Maria; Nettekoven, Charlotte; Eickhoff, Simon B; Fink, Gereon R; Grefkes, Christian

    2014-07-01

    The mechanisms driving cortical plasticity in response to brain stimulation are still incompletely understood. We here explored whether neural activity and connectivity in the motor system relate to the magnitude of cortical plasticity induced by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Twelve right-handed volunteers underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during rest and while performing a simple hand motor task. Resting-state functional connectivity, task-induced activation, and task-related effective connectivity were assessed for a network of key motor areas. We then investigated the effects of intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) on motor-evoked potentials (MEP) for up to 25 min after stimulation over left primary motor cortex (M1) or parieto-occipital vertex (for control). ITBS-induced increases in MEP amplitudes correlated negatively with movement-related fMRI activity in left M1. Control iTBS had no effect on M1 excitability. Subjects with better response to M1-iTBS featured stronger preinterventional effective connectivity between left premotor areas and left M1. In contrast, resting-state connectivity did not predict iTBS aftereffects. Plasticity-related changes in M1 following brain stimulation seem to depend not only on local factors but also on interconnected brain regions. Predominantly activity-dependent properties of the cortical motor system are indicative of excitability changes following induction of cortical plasticity with rTMS. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Intrinsic connections and architectonics of posterior parietal cortex in the rhesus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandya, D.N.; Seltzer, B.

    1982-01-01

    By means of autoradiographic and ablation-degeneration techniques, the intrinsic cortical connections of the posterior parietal cortex in the rhesus monkey were traced and correlated with a reappraisal of cerebral architectonics. Two major rostral-to-caudal connectional sequences exist. One begins in the dorsal postcentral gyrus (area 2) and proceeds, through architectonic divisions of the superior parietal lobule (areas PE and PEc), to a cortical region on the medial surface of the parietal lobe (area PGm). This area has architectonic features similar to those of the caudal inferior parietal lobule (area PG). The second sequence begins in the ventral post/central gyrus (area 2) and passes through the rostral inferior parietal lobule (areas PG and PFG) to reach the caudal inferior parietal lobule (area PG). Both the superior parietal lobule and the rostral inferior parietal lobule also send projections to various other zones located in the parietal opercular region, the intraparietal sulcus, and the caudalmost portion of the cingulate sulcus. Areas PGm and PG, on the other hand, project to each other, to the cingulate region, to the caudalmost portion of the superior temporal gyrus, and to the upper bank of the superior temporal sulcus. Finally, a reciprocal sequence of connections, directed from caudal to rostral, links together many of the above-mentioned parietal zones. With regard to the laminar pattern of termination, the rostral-to-caudal connections are primarily distributed in the form of cortical ''columns'' while the caudal-to-rostral connections are found mainly over the first cortical cell layer

  11. Differential Motor and Prefrontal Cerebello-Cortical Network Development: Evidence from Multimodal Neuroimaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Jessica A.; Orr, Joseph M.; Mittal, Vijay A.

    2015-01-01

    While our understanding of cerebellar structural development through adolescence and young adulthood has expanded, we still lack knowledge of the developmental patterns of cerebellar networks during this critical portion of the lifespan. Volume in lateral posterior cerebellar regions associated with cognition and the prefrontal cortex develops more slowly, reaching their peak volume in adulthood, particularly as compared to motor Lobule V. We predicted that resting state functional connectivity of the lateral posterior regions would show a similar pattern of development during adolescence and young adulthood. That is, we expected to see changes over time in Crus I and Crus II connectivity with the cortex, but no changes in Lobule V connectivity. Additionally, we were interested in how structural connectivity changes in cerebello-thalamo-cortical white matter are related to changes in functional connectivity. A sample of 23 individuals between 12 and 21 years old underwent neuroimaging scans at baseline and 12-months later. Functional networks of Crus I and Crus II showed significant connectivity decreases over 12-months, though there were no differences in Lobule V. Furthermore, these functional connectivity changes were correlated with increases in white matter structural integrity in the corresponding cerebello-thalamo-cortical white matter tract. We suggest that these functional network changes are due to both later pruning in the prefrontal cortex as well as further development of the white matter tracts linking these brain regions. PMID:26391125

  12. Diffusion Tensor Imaging of Human Cerebellar Pathways and their Interplay with Cerebral Macrostructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer eKeser

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Cerebellar white matter connections to the central nervous system are classified functionally into the spinocerebellar, vestibulocerebellar, and cerebrocerebellar subdivisions. The Spinocerebellar (SC pathways project from spinal cord to cerebellum, whereas the vestibulocerebellar (VC pathways project from vestibular organs of the inner ear. Cerebrocerebellar connections are composed of feed forward and feedback connections between cerebrum and cerebellum including the cortico-ponto-cerebellar (CPC pathways being of cortical origin and the dentate-rubro-thalamo-cortical (DRTC pathway being of cerebellar origin. In this study we systematically quantified the whole cerebellar system connections using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI. Ten right-handed healthy subjects (7 males and 3 females, age range 20-51 years were studied. DT-MRI data were acquired with a voxel size = 2mm x 2mm x 2 mm at a 3.0 Tesla clinical MRI scanner. The DT-MRI data were prepared and analyzed using anatomically-guided deterministic tractography methods to reconstruct the SC, DRTC, fronto-ponto-cerebellar (FPC, parieto-ponto-cerebellar (PPC, temporo-ponto-cerebellar (TPC and occipito-ponto-cerebellar (OPC. The DTI-attributes or the cerebellar tracts along with their cortical representation (Brodmann areas were presented in standard Montréal Neurological Institute space. All cerebellar tract volumes were quantified and correlated with volumes of cerebral cortical, subcortical gray matter (GM, cerebral white matter (WM and cerebellar GM, and cerebellar WM. On our healthy cohort, the ratio of total cerebellar GM-to-WM was ~ 3.29 ± 0.24, whereas the ratio of cerebral GM-to-WM was approximately 1.10 ± 0.11. The sum of all cerebellar tract volumes is ~ 25.8 ± 7.3 mL, or a percentage of 1.52 ± 0.43 of the total intracranial volume.

  13. Cortical Plasticity Induction by Pairing Subthalamic Nucleus Deep-Brain Stimulation and Primary Motor Cortical Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udupa, Kaviraja; Bahl, Nina; Ni, Zhen; Gunraj, Carolyn; Mazzella, Filomena; Moro, Elena; Hodaie, Mojgan; Lozano, Andres M; Lang, Anthony E; Chen, Robert

    2016-01-13

    Noninvasive brain stimulation studies have shown abnormal motor cortical plasticity in Parkinson's disease (PD). These studies used peripheral nerve stimulation paired with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to primary motor cortex (M1) at specific intervals to induce plasticity. Induction of cortical plasticity through stimulation of the basal ganglia (BG)-M1 connections has not been studied. In the present study, we used a novel technique of plasticity induction by repeated pairing of deep-brain stimulation (DBS) of the BG with M1 stimulation using TMS. We hypothesize that repeated pairing of subthalamic nucleus (STN)-DBS and M1-TMS at specific time intervals will lead to plasticity in the M1. Ten PD human patients with STN-DBS were studied in the on-medication state with DBS set to 3 Hz. The interstimulus intervals (ISIs) between STN-DBS and TMS that produced cortical facilitation were determined individually for each patient. Three plasticity induction conditions with repeated pairings (180 times) at specific ISIs (∼ 3 and ∼ 23 ms) that produced cortical facilitation and a control ISI of 167 ms were tested in random order. Repeated pairing of STN-DBS and M1-TMS at short (∼ 3 ms) and medium (∼ 23 ms) latencies increased M1 excitability that lasted for at least 45 min, whereas the control condition (fixed ISI of 167 ms) had no effect. There were no specific changes in motor thresholds, intracortical circuits, or recruitment curves. Our results indicate that paired-associative cortical plasticity can be induced by repeated STN and M1 stimulation at specific intervals. These results show that STN-DBS can modulate cortical plasticity. We introduced a new experimental paradigm to test the hypothesis that pairing subthalamic nucleus deep-brain stimulation (STN-DBS) with motor cortical transcranial magnetic stimulation (M1-TMS) at specific times can induce cortical plasticity in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). We found that repeated pairing of STN

  14. Preferential effect of isoflurane on top-down vs. bottom-up pathways in sensory cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raz, Aeyal; Grady, Sean M; Krause, Bryan M; Uhlrich, Daniel J; Manning, Karen A; Banks, Matthew I

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism of loss of consciousness (LOC) under anesthesia is unknown. Because consciousness depends on activity in the cortico-thalamic network, anesthetic actions on this network are likely critical for LOC. Competing theories stress the importance of anesthetic actions on bottom-up "core" thalamo-cortical (TC) vs. top-down cortico-cortical (CC) and matrix TC connections. We tested these models using laminar recordings in rat auditory cortex in vivo and murine brain slices. We selectively activated bottom-up vs. top-down afferent pathways using sensory stimuli in vivo and electrical stimulation in brain slices, and compared effects of isoflurane on responses evoked via the two pathways. Auditory stimuli in vivo and core TC afferent stimulation in brain slices evoked short latency current sinks in middle layers, consistent with activation of core TC afferents. By contrast, visual stimuli in vivo and stimulation of CC and matrix TC afferents in brain slices evoked responses mainly in superficial and deep layers, consistent with projection patterns of top-down afferents that carry visual information to auditory cortex. Responses to auditory stimuli in vivo and core TC afferents in brain slices were significantly less affected by isoflurane compared to responses triggered by visual stimuli in vivo and CC/matrix TC afferents in slices. At a just-hypnotic dose in vivo, auditory responses were enhanced by isoflurane, whereas visual responses were dramatically reduced. At a comparable concentration in slices, isoflurane suppressed both core TC and CC/matrix TC responses, but the effect on the latter responses was far greater than on core TC responses, indicating that at least part of the differential effects observed in vivo were due to local actions of isoflurane in auditory cortex. These data support a model in which disruption of top-down connectivity contributes to anesthesia-induced LOC, and have implications for understanding the neural basis of consciousness.

  15. Altered cortical communication in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blain-Moraes, Stefanie; Mashour, George A; Lee, Heonsoo; Huggins, Jane E; Lee, Uncheol

    2013-05-24

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a disorder associated primarily with the degeneration of the motor system. More recently, functional connectivity studies have demonstrated potentially adaptive changes in ALS brain organization, but disease-related changes in cortical communication remain unknown. We recruited individuals with ALS and age-matched controls to operate a brain-computer interface while electroencephalography was recorded over three sessions. Using normalized symbolic transfer entropy, we measured directed functional connectivity from frontal to parietal (feedback connectivity) and parietal to frontal (feedforward connectivity) regions. Feedback connectivity was not significantly different between groups, but feedforward connectivity was significantly higher in individuals with ALS. This result was consistent across a broad electroencephalographic spectrum (4-35 Hz), and in theta, alpha and beta frequency bands. Feedback connectivity has been associated with conscious state and was found to be independent of ALS symptom severity in this study, which may have significant implications for the detection of consciousness in individuals with advanced ALS. We suggest that increases in feedforward connectivity represent a compensatory response to the ALS-related loss of input such that sensory stimuli have sufficient strength to cross the threshold necessary for conscious processing in the global neuronal workspace. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cortical Network Dynamics of Perceptual Decision-Making in the Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eSiegel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Goal-directed behavior requires the flexible transformation of sensory evidence about our environment into motor actions. Studies of perceptual decision-making have shown that this transformation is distributed across several widely separated brain regions. Yet, little is known about how decision-making emerges from the dynamic interactions among these regions. Here, we review a series of studies, in which we characterized the cortical network interactions underlying a perceptual decision process in the human brain. We used magnetoencephalography (MEG to measure the large-scale cortical population dynamics underlying each of the sub-processes involved in this decision: the encoding of sensory evidence and action plan, the mapping between the two, and the attentional selection of task-relevant evidence. We found that these sub-processes are mediated by neuronal oscillations within specific frequency ranges. Localized gamma-band oscillations in sensory and motor cortices reflect the encoding of the sensory evidence and motor plan. Large-scale oscillations across widespread cortical networks mediate the integrative processes connecting these local networks: Gamma- and beta-band oscillations across frontal, parietal and sensory cortices serve the selection of relevant sensory evidence and its flexible mapping onto action plans. In sum, our results suggest that perceptual decisions are mediated by oscillatory interactions within overlapping local and large-scale cortical networks.

  17. Left frontal meningioangiomatosis associated with type IIIc focal cortical dysplasia causing refractory epilepsy and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Alexandre; Mellerio, Charles; Lechapt-Zalcman, Emmanuelle; Still, Megan; Zerah, Michel; Bourgeois, Marie; Pallud, Johan

    2018-03-29

    We report the surgical management of a lesional drug-resistant epilepsy caused by a meningioangiomatosis associated with a type IIIc focal cortical dysplasia located in the left supplementary motor area in a young male patient. A first anatomical-based partial surgical resection was performed at 11 years old under general anaesthesia without intraoperative mapping, which allowed for postoperative seizure control (Engel IA) for six years. The patient then presented with intractable right sensatory and aphasic focal onset seizures despite two appropriate antiepileptic drugs. A second functional-based surgical resection was performed using intraoperative cortico-subcortical functional mapping with direct electrical stimulation under awake conditions. A complete surgical resection was performed and a left partial supplementary motor area syndrome was observed. At six postoperative months, the patient is seizure free (Engel IA) with an ongoing decrease in antiepileptic drug therapy. Intraoperative functional brain mapping can be applied to preserve the brain function and networks around a meningioangiomatosis to facilitate the resection of potentially epileptogenic perilesional dysplastic cortex and to tailor the extent of resection to functional boundaries. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Age related changes in striatal resting state functional connectivity in autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarthi ePadmanabhan

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing the nature of developmental change is critical to understanding the mechanisms that are impaired in complex neurodevelopment disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD and, pragmatically, may allow us to pinpoint periods of plasticity when interventions are particularly useful. Although aberrant brain development has long been theorized as a characteristic feature of ASD, the neural substrates have been difficult to characterize, in part due to a lack of developmental data and to performance confounds. To address these issues, we examined the development of intrinsic functional connectivity with resting state fMRI from late childhood to early adulthood (8-36 years, using a seed based functional connectivity method with the striatum. Overall, we found that both groups show decreases in cortico-striatal circuits over age. However, when controlling for age, ASD participants showed increased connectivity with parietal cortex and decreased connectivity with prefrontal cortex relative to TD participants. In addition, ASD participants showed aberrant age-related changes in connectivity with anterior aspects of cerebellum, and posterior temporal regions (e.g. fusiform gyrus, inferior and superior temporal gyri. In sum, we found prominent differences in the development of striatal connectivity in ASD, most notably, atypical development of connectivity in striatal networks that may underlie cognitive and social reward processing. Our findings highlight the need to identify the biological mechanisms of perturbations in brain reorganization over development, which also may help clarify discrepant findings in the literature.

  19. Sensory experience regulates cortical inhibition by inducing IGF1 in VIP neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardinly, A R; Spiegel, I; Patrizi, A; Centofante, E; Bazinet, J E; Tzeng, C P; Mandel-Brehm, C; Harmin, D A; Adesnik, H; Fagiolini, M; Greenberg, M E

    2016-03-17

    Inhibitory neurons regulate the adaptation of neural circuits to sensory experience, but the molecular mechanisms by which experience controls the connectivity between different types of inhibitory neuron to regulate cortical plasticity are largely unknown. Here we show that exposure of dark-housed mice to light induces a gene program in cortical vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-expressing neurons that is markedly distinct from that induced in excitatory neurons and other subtypes of inhibitory neuron. We identify Igf1 as one of several activity-regulated genes that are specific to VIP neurons, and demonstrate that IGF1 functions cell-autonomously in VIP neurons to increase inhibitory synaptic input onto these neurons. Our findings further suggest that in cortical VIP neurons, experience-dependent gene transcription regulates visual acuity by activating the expression of IGF1, thus promoting the inhibition of disinhibitory neurons and affecting inhibition onto cortical pyramidal neurons.

  20. Population coding in sparsely connected networks of noisy neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Tripp, Bryan P.; Orchard, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between population coding and spatial connection statistics in networks of noisy neurons. Encoding of sensory information in the neocortex is thought to require coordinated neural populations, because individual cortical neurons respond to a wide range of stimuli, and exhibit highly variable spiking in response to repeated stimuli. Population coding is rooted in network structure, because cortical neurons receive information only from other neurons, and be...

  1. No Association between Cortical Gyrification or Intrinsic Curvature and Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adolescents and Young Adults

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    Natalie J. Forde

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies have highlighted subcortical, cortical, and structural connectivity abnormalities associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD. Gyrification investigations of the cortex have been inconsistent and largely negative, potentially due to a lack of sensitivity of the previously used morphological parameters. The innovative approach of applying intrinsic curvature analysis, which is predictive of gyrification pattern, to the cortical surface applied herein allowed us greater sensitivity to determine whether the structural connectivity abnormalities thus far identified at a centimeter scale also occur at a millimeter scale within the cortical surface. This could help identify neurodevelopmental processes that contribute to ADHD. Structural MRI datasets from the NeuroIMAGE project were used [n = 306 ADHD, n = 164 controls, and n = 148 healthy siblings of individuals with ADHD (age in years, mean(sd; 17.2 (3.4, 16.8 (3.2, and 17.7 (3.8, respectively]. Reconstructions of the cortical surfaces were computed with FreeSurfer. Intrinsic curvature (taken as a marker of millimeter-scale surface connectivity and local gyrification index were calculated for each point on the surface (vertex with Caret and FreeSurfer, respectively. Intrinsic curvature skew and mean local gyrification index were extracted per region; frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, cingulate, and insula. A generalized additive model was used to compare the trajectory of these measures between groups over age, with sex, scanner site, total surface area of hemisphere, and familiality accounted for. After correcting for sex, scanner site, and total surface area no group differences were found in the developmental trajectory of intrinsic curvature or local gyrification index. Despite the increased sensitivity of intrinsic curvature, compared to gyrification measures, to subtle morphological abnormalities of the cortical surface we found

  2. Functional networks in parallel with cortical development associate with executive functions in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jidan; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Ta, Anh Tuan; Yap, Kar Lai; Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; Meaney, Michael J; Qiu, Anqi

    2014-07-01

    Children begin performing similarly to adults on tasks requiring executive functions in late childhood, a transition that is probably due to neuroanatomical fine-tuning processes, including myelination and synaptic pruning. In parallel to such structural changes in neuroanatomical organization, development of functional organization may also be associated with cognitive behaviors in children. We examined 6- to 10-year-old children's cortical thickness, functional organization, and cognitive performance. We used structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to identify areas with cortical thinning, resting-state fMRI to identify functional organization in parallel to cortical development, and working memory/response inhibition tasks to assess executive functioning. We found that neuroanatomical changes in the form of cortical thinning spread over bilateral frontal, parietal, and occipital regions. These regions were engaged in 3 functional networks: sensorimotor and auditory, executive control, and default mode network. Furthermore, we found that working memory and response inhibition only associated with regional functional connectivity, but not topological organization (i.e., local and global efficiency of information transfer) of these functional networks. Interestingly, functional connections associated with "bottom-up" as opposed to "top-down" processing were more clearly related to children's performance on working memory and response inhibition, implying an important role for brain systems involved in late childhood. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Increased intrinsic brain connectivity between pons and somatosensory cortex during attacks of migraine with aura

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Anders; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Larsson, Henrik B W

    2017-01-01

    The neurological disturbances of migraine aura are caused by transient cortical dysfunction due to waves of spreading depolarization that disrupt neuronal signaling. The effects of these cortical events on intrinsic brain connectivity during attacks of migraine aura have not previously been......-based approach focusing on cortical visual areas and areas involved in migraine pain, and a data-driven independent component analysis approach to detect changes in intrinsic brain signaling during attacks. In addition, we performed the analyses after mirroring the MRI data according to the side of perceived......-sided pain. For aura-side normalized data, we found increased connectivity during attacks between visual area V5 and the lower middle frontal gyrus in the symptomatic hemisphere (peak voxel: P = 0.0194, (x, y, z) = (40, 40, 12). The present study provides evidence of altered intrinsic brain connectivity...

  4. Impaired insula functional connectivity associated with persistent pain perception in patients with complex regional pain syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Joon Hwan; Lee, Do-Hyeong; Lee, Kyung-Jun; Lee, Won Joon; Moon, Jee Youn; Kim, Yong Chul

    2017-01-01

    Given that the insula plays a contributory role in the perception of chronic pain, we examined the resting-state functional connectivity between the insular cortex and other brain regions to investigate neural underpinnings of persisting perception of background pain in patients with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). A total of 25 patients with CRPS and 25 matched healthy controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging at rest. With the anterior and posterior insular cortices as seed regions, we compared the strength of the resting-state functional connectivity between the two groups. Functional connectivity between the anterior and posterior insular cortices and the postcentral and inferior frontal gyri, cingulate cortices was reduced in patients with CRPS compared with controls. Additionally, greater reductions in functional connectivity between the anterior insula and right postcentral gyrus were associated with more severe sensory pain in patients with CRPS (short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire sensory subscores, r = -.517, P = .023). The present results imply a possible role of the insula in aberrant processing of pain information in patients with CRPS. The findings suggest that a functional derangement of the connection between one of the somatosensory cortical functions of perception and one of the insular functions of awareness can play a significant role in the persistent experience of regional pain that is not confined to a specific nerve territory. PMID:28692702

  5. Comparison of Electroencephalography (EEG) Coherence between Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) without Comorbidity and MDD Comorbid with Internet Gaming Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youh, Joohyung; Hong, Ji Sun; Han, Doug Hyun; Chung, Un Sun; Min, Kyoung Joon; Lee, Young Sik; Kim, Sun Mi

    2017-07-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has many comorbid psychiatric problems including major depressive disorder (MDD). In the present study, we compared the neurobiological differences between MDD without comorbidity (MDD-only) and MDD comorbid with IGD (MDD+IGD) by analyzing the quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG) findings. We recruited 14 male MDD+IGD (mean age, 20.0 ± 5.9 years) and 15 male MDD-only (mean age, 20.3 ± 5.5 years) patients. The electroencephalography (EEG) coherences were measured using a 21-channel digital EEG system and computed to assess synchrony in the frequency ranges of alpha (7.5-12.5 Hz) and beta (12.5-35.0 Hz) between the following 12 electrode site pairs: inter-hemispheric (Fp1-Fp2, F7-F8, T3-T4, and P3-P4) and intra-hemispheric (F7-T3, F8-T4, C3-P3, C4-P4, T5-O1, T6-O2, P3-O1, and P4-O2) pairs. Differences in inter- and intra-hemispheric coherence values for the frequency bands between groups were analyzed using the independent t-test. Inter-hemispheric coherence value for the alpha band between Fp1-Fp2 electrodes was significantly lower in MDD+IGD than MDD-only patients. Intra-hemispheric coherence value for the alpha band between P3-O1 electrodes was higher in MDD+IGD than MDD-only patients. Intra-hemispheric coherence values for the beta band between F8-T4, T6-O2, and P4-O2 electrodes were higher in MDD+IGD than MDD-only patients. There appears to be an association between decreased inter-hemispheric connectivity in the frontal region and vulnerability to attention problems in the MDD+IGD group. Increased intra-hemisphere connectivity in the fronto-temporo-parieto-occipital areas may result from excessive online gaming. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  6. Comparison of Electroencephalography (EEG) Coherence between Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) without Comorbidity and MDD Comorbid with Internet Gaming Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) has many comorbid psychiatric problems including major depressive disorder (MDD). In the present study, we compared the neurobiological differences between MDD without comorbidity (MDD-only) and MDD comorbid with IGD (MDD+IGD) by analyzing the quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG) findings. We recruited 14 male MDD+IGD (mean age, 20.0 ± 5.9 years) and 15 male MDD-only (mean age, 20.3 ± 5.5 years) patients. The electroencephalography (EEG) coherences were measured using a 21-channel digital EEG system and computed to assess synchrony in the frequency ranges of alpha (7.5–12.5 Hz) and beta (12.5–35.0 Hz) between the following 12 electrode site pairs: inter-hemispheric (Fp1–Fp2, F7–F8, T3–T4, and P3–P4) and intra-hemispheric (F7–T3, F8–T4, C3–P3, C4–P4, T5–O1, T6–O2, P3–O1, and P4–O2) pairs. Differences in inter- and intra-hemispheric coherence values for the frequency bands between groups were analyzed using the independent t-test. Inter-hemispheric coherence value for the alpha band between Fp1–Fp2 electrodes was significantly lower in MDD+IGD than MDD-only patients. Intra-hemispheric coherence value for the alpha band between P3–O1 electrodes was higher in MDD+IGD than MDD-only patients. Intra-hemispheric coherence values for the beta band between F8–T4, T6–O2, and P4–O2 electrodes were higher in MDD+IGD than MDD-only patients. There appears to be an association between decreased inter-hemispheric connectivity in the frontal region and vulnerability to attention problems in the MDD+IGD group. Increased intra-hemisphere connectivity in the fronto-temporo-parieto-occipital areas may result from excessive online gaming. PMID:28581274

  7. Intermittent Theta-Burst Stimulation of the Lateral Cerebellum Increases Functional Connectivity of the Default Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzan, Faranak; Eldaief, Mark C.; Schmahmann, Jeremy D.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral cortical intrinsic connectivity networks share topographically arranged functional connectivity with the cerebellum. However, the contribution of cerebellar nodes to distributed network organization and function remains poorly understood. In humans, we applied theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation, guided by subject-specific connectivity, to regions of the cerebellum to evaluate the functional relevance of connections between cerebellar and cerebral cortical nodes in different networks. We demonstrate that changing activity in the human lateral cerebellar Crus I/II modulates the cerebral default mode network, whereas vermal lobule VII stimulation influences the cerebral dorsal attention system. These results provide novel insights into the distributed, but anatomically specific, modulatory impact of cerebellar effects on large-scale neural network function. PMID:25186750

  8. Intrinsic brain connectivity related to age in young and middle aged adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Hampson

    Full Text Available Age-related variations in resting state connectivity of the human brain were examined from young adulthood through middle age. A voxel-based network measure, degree, was used to assess age-related differences in tissue connectivity throughout the brain. Increases in connectivity with age were found in paralimbic cortical and subcortical regions. Decreases in connectivity were found in cortical regions, including visual areas and the default mode network. These findings differ from those of recent developmental studies examining earlier growth trajectories, and are consistent with known changes in cognitive function and emotional processing during mature aging. The results support and extend previous findings that relied on a priori definitions of regions of interest for their analyses. This approach of applying a voxel-based measure to examine the functional connectivity of individual tissue elements over time, without the need for a priori region of interest definitions, provides an important new tool in brain science.

  9. Stimulus-Elicited Connectivity Influences Resting-State Connectivity Years Later in Human Development: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabard-Durnam, Laurel Joy; Gee, Dylan Grace; Goff, Bonnie; Flannery, Jessica; Telzer, Eva; Humphreys, Kathryn Leigh; Lumian, Daniel Stephen; Fareri, Dominic Stephen; Caldera, Christina; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-04-27

    Although the functional architecture of the brain is indexed by resting-state connectivity networks, little is currently known about the mechanisms through which these networks assemble into stable mature patterns. The current study posits and tests the long-term phasic molding hypothesis that resting-state networks are gradually shaped by recurring stimulus-elicited connectivity across development by examining how both stimulus-elicited and resting-state functional connections of the human brain emerge over development at the systems level. Using a sequential design following 4- to 18-year-olds over a 2 year period, we examined the predictive associations between stimulus-elicited and resting-state connectivity in amygdala-cortical circuitry as an exemplar case (given this network's protracted development across these ages). Age-related changes in amygdala functional connectivity converged on the same regions of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and inferior frontal gyrus when elicited by emotional stimuli and when measured at rest. Consistent with the long-term phasic molding hypothesis, prospective analyses for both connections showed that the magnitude of an individual's stimulus-elicited connectivity unidirectionally predicted resting-state functional connectivity 2 years later. For the amygdala-mPFC connection, only stimulus-elicited connectivity during childhood and the transition to adolescence shaped future resting-state connectivity, consistent with a sensitive period ending with adolescence for the amygdala-mPFC circuit. Together, these findings suggest that resting-state functional architecture may arise from phasic patterns of functional connectivity elicited by environmental stimuli over the course of development on the order of years. A fundamental issue in understanding the ontogeny of brain function is how resting-state (intrinsic) functional networks emerge and relate to stimulus-elicited functional connectivity. Here, we posit and test the long

  10. Canonical cortical circuits: current evidence and theoretical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capone F

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fioravante Capone,1,2 Matteo Paolucci,1,2 Federica Assenza,1,2 Nicoletta Brunelli,1,2 Lorenzo Ricci,1,2 Lucia Florio,1,2 Vincenzo Di Lazzaro1,2 1Unit of Neurology, Neurophysiology, Neurobiology, Department of Medicine, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Rome, Italy; 2Fondazione Alberto Sordi – Research Institute for Aging, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Neurophysiological and neuroanatomical studies have found that the same basic structural and functional organization of neuronal circuits exists throughout the cortex. This kind of cortical organization, termed canonical circuit, has been functionally demonstrated primarily by studies involving visual striate cortex, and then, the concept has been extended to different cortical areas. In brief, the canonical circuit is composed of superficial pyramidal neurons of layers II/III receiving different inputs and deep pyramidal neurons of layer V that are responsible for cortex output. Superficial and deep pyramidal neurons are reciprocally connected, and inhibitory interneurons participate in modulating the activity of the circuit. The main intuition of this model is that the entire cortical network could be modeled as the repetition of relatively simple modules composed of relatively few types of excitatory and inhibitory, highly interconnected neurons. We will review the origin and the application of the canonical cortical circuit model in the six sections of this paper. The first section (The origins of the concept of canonical circuit: the cat visual cortex reviews the experiments performed in the cat visual cortex, from the origin of the concept of canonical circuit to the most recent developments in the modelization of cortex. The second (The canonical circuit in neocortex and third (Toward a canonical circuit in agranular cortex sections try to extend the concept of canonical circuit to other cortical areas, providing some significant examples of circuit functioning in different cytoarchitectonic

  11. Beyond the Arcuate Fasciculus: Consensus and Controversy in the Connectional Anatomy of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Anthony Steven; Tremblay, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    The growing consensus that language is distributed into large-scale cortical and subcortical networks has brought with it an increasing focus on the connectional anatomy of language, or how particular fibre pathways connect regions within the language network. Understanding connectivity of the language network could provide critical insights into…

  12. Functional connectivity in the first year of life in infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder: an EEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Righi

    Full Text Available In the field of autism research, recent work has been devoted to studying both behavioral and neural markers that may aide in early identification of autism spectrum disorder (ASD. These studies have often tested infants who have a significant family history of autism spectrum disorder, given the increased prevalence observed among such infants. In the present study we tested infants at high- and low-risk for ASD (based on having an older sibling diagnosed with the disorder or not at 6- and 12-months-of-age. We computed intrahemispheric linear coherence between anterior and posterior sites as a measure of neural functional connectivity derived from electroencephalography while the infants were listening to speech sounds. We found that by 12-months-of-age infants at risk for ASD showed reduced functional connectivity compared to low risk infants. Moreover, by 12-months-of-age infants later diagnosed with ASD showed reduced functional connectivity, compared to both infants at low risk for the disorder and infants at high risk who were not later diagnosed with ASD. Significant differences in functional connectivity were also found between low-risk infants and high-risk infants who did not go onto develop ASD. These results demonstrate that reduced functional connectivity appears to be related to genetic vulnerability for ASD. Moreover, they provide further evidence that ASD is broadly characterized by differences in neural integration that emerge during the first year of life.

  13. Functional connectivity in the first year of life in infants at risk for autism spectrum disorder: an EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righi, Giulia; Tierney, Adrienne L; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Nelson, Charles A

    2014-01-01

    In the field of autism research, recent work has been devoted to studying both behavioral and neural markers that may aide in early identification of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). These studies have often tested infants who have a significant family history of autism spectrum disorder, given the increased prevalence observed among such infants. In the present study we tested infants at high- and low-risk for ASD (based on having an older sibling diagnosed with the disorder or not) at 6- and 12-months-of-age. We computed intrahemispheric linear coherence between anterior and posterior sites as a measure of neural functional connectivity derived from electroencephalography while the infants were listening to speech sounds. We found that by 12-months-of-age infants at risk for ASD showed reduced functional connectivity compared to low risk infants. Moreover, by 12-months-of-age infants later diagnosed with ASD showed reduced functional connectivity, compared to both infants at low risk for the disorder and infants at high risk who were not later diagnosed with ASD. Significant differences in functional connectivity were also found between low-risk infants and high-risk infants who did not go onto develop ASD. These results demonstrate that reduced functional connectivity appears to be related to genetic vulnerability for ASD. Moreover, they provide further evidence that ASD is broadly characterized by differences in neural integration that emerge during the first year of life.

  14. Altered thalamic functional connectivity in multiple sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yaou; Liang, Peipeng; Duan, Yunyun; Huang, Jing; Ren, Zhuoqiong; Jia, Xiuqin [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Dong, Huiqing; Ye, Jing [Department of Neurology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China); Shi, Fu-Dong [Department of Neurology and Tianjin Neurological Institute, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin 300052 (China); Butzkueven, Helmut [Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Parkville 3010 (Australia); Li, Kuncheng, E-mail: kunchengli55@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Xuanwu Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100053 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: •We demonstrated decreased connectivity between thalamus and cortical regions in MS. •Increased intra- and inter-thalamic connectivity was also observed in MS. •The increased functional connectivity is attenuated by increasing disease duration. -- Abstract: Objective: To compare thalamic functional connectivity (FC) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and healthy controls (HC), and correlate these connectivity measures with other MRI and clinical variables. Methods: We employed resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) to examine changes in thalamic connectivity by comparing thirty-five patients with MS and 35 age- and sex-matched HC. Thalamic FC was investigated by correlating low frequency fMRI signal fluctuations in thalamic voxels with voxels in all other brain regions. Additionally thalamic volume fraction (TF), T2 lesion volume (T2LV), EDSS and disease duration were recorded and correlated with the FC changes. Results: MS patients were found to have a significantly lower TF than HC in bilateral thalami. Compared to HC, the MS group showed significantly decreased FC between thalamus and several brain regions including right middle frontal and parahippocampal gyri, and the left inferior parietal lobule. Increased intra- and inter-thalamic FC was observed in the MS group compared to HC. These FC alterations were not correlated with T2LV, thalamic volume or lesions. In the MS group, however, there was a negative correlation between disease duration and inter-thalamic connectivity (r = −0.59, p < 0.001). Conclusion: We demonstrated decreased FC between thalamus and several cortical regions, while increased intra- and inter-thalamic connectivity in MS patients. These complex functional changes reflect impairments and/or adaptations that are independent of T2LV, thalamic volume or presence of thalamic lesions. The negative correlation between disease duration and inter-thalamic connectivity could indicate an adaptive role of thalamus that is

  15. Enhanced Cortical Connectivity in Absolute Pitch Musicians: A Model for Local Hyperconnectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loui, Psyche; Li, H. Charles; Hohmann, Anja; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2011-01-01

    Connectivity in the human brain has received increased scientific interest in recent years. Although connection disorders can affect perception, production, learning, and memory, few studies have associated brain connectivity with graded variations in human behavior, especially among normal individuals. One group of normal individuals who possess…

  16. Developmental changes in brain connectivity assessed using the sleep EEG.

    OpenAIRE

    Tarokh L; Carskadon M A; Achermann P

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence represents a time of significant cortical restructuring. Current theories posit that during this period connections between frequently utilized neural networks are strengthened while underutilized synaptic connections are discarded. The aim of the present study was to examine the developmental evolution of connectivity between brain regions using the sleep EEG. All night sleep EEG recordings in two longitudinal cohorts (children and teens) followed at 1.5 3 year intervals and one ...

  17. Massive cortical reorganization in sighted Braille readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siuda-Krzywicka, Katarzyna; Bola, Łukasz; Paplińska, Małgorzata; Sumera, Ewa; Jednoróg, Katarzyna; Marchewka, Artur; Śliwińska, Magdalena W; Amedi, Amir; Szwed, Marcin

    2016-03-15

    The brain is capable of large-scale reorganization in blindness or after massive injury. Such reorganization crosses the division into separate sensory cortices (visual, somatosensory...). As its result, the visual cortex of the blind becomes active during tactile Braille reading. Although the possibility of such reorganization in the normal, adult brain has been raised, definitive evidence has been lacking. Here, we demonstrate such extensive reorganization in normal, sighted adults who learned Braille while their brain activity was investigated with fMRI and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Subjects showed enhanced activity for tactile reading in the visual cortex, including the visual word form area (VWFA) that was modulated by their Braille reading speed and strengthened resting-state connectivity between visual and somatosensory cortices. Moreover, TMS disruption of VWFA activity decreased their tactile reading accuracy. Our results indicate that large-scale reorganization is a viable mechanism recruited when learning complex skills.

  18. Cortical sensorimotor alterations classify clinical phenotype and putative genotype of spasmodic dysphonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battistella, Giovanni; Fuertinger, Stefan; Fleysher, Lazar; Ozelius, Laurie J.; Simonyan, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    Background Spasmodic dysphonia (SD), or laryngeal dystonia, is a task-specific isolated focal dystonia of unknown causes and pathophysiology. Although functional and structural abnormalities have been described in this disorder, the influence of its different clinical phenotypes and genotypes remains scant, making it difficult to explain SD pathophysiology and to identify potential biomarkers. Methods We used a combination of independent component analysis and linear discriminant analysis of resting-state functional MRI data to investigate brain organization in different SD phenotypes (abductor vs. adductor type) and putative genotypes (familial vs. sporadic cases) and to characterize neural markers for genotype/phenotype categorization. Results We found abnormal functional connectivity within sensorimotor and frontoparietal networks in SD patients compared to healthy individuals as well as phenotype- and genotype-distinct alterations of these networks, involving primary somatosensory, premotor and parietal cortices. The linear discriminant analysis achieved 71% accuracy classifying SD and healthy individuals using connectivity measures in the left inferior parietal and sensorimotor cortex. When categorizing between different forms of SD, the combination of measures from left inferior parietal, premotor and right sensorimotor cortices achieved 81% discriminatory power between familial and sporadic SD cases, whereas the combination of measures from the right superior parietal, primary somatosensory and premotor cortices led to 71% accuracy in the classification of adductor and abductor SD forms. Conclusions Our findings present the first effort to identify and categorize isolated focal dystonia based on its brain functional connectivity profile, which may have a potential impact on the future development of biomarkers for this rare disorder. PMID:27346568

  19. Cortical visual impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Koželj, Urša

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we discuss cortical visual impairment, diagnosis that is in the developed world in first place, since 20 percent of children with blindness or low vision are diagnosed with it. The objectives of the thesis are to define cortical visual impairment and the definition of characters suggestive of the cortical visual impairment as well as to search for causes that affect the growing diagnosis of cortical visual impairment. There are a lot of signs of cortical visual impairment. ...

  20. Combining diffusion magnetic resonance tractography with stereology highlights increased cross-cortical integration in primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charvet, Christine J; Hof, Patrick R; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Van Der Kouwe, Andre J; Sherwood, Chet C; Takahashi, Emi

    2017-04-01

    The isocortex of primates is disproportionately expanded relative to many other mammals, yet little is known about what the expansion of the isocortex entails for differences in cellular composition and connectivity patterns in primates. Across the depth of the isocortex, neurons exhibit stereotypical patterns of projections. Upper-layer neurons (i.e., layers II-IV) project within and across cortical areas, whereas many lower-layer pyramidal neurons (i.e., layers V-VI) favor connections to subcortical regions. To identify evolutionary changes in connectivity patterns, we quantified upper (i.e., layers II-IV)- and lower (i.e., layers V-VI)-layer neuron numbers in primates and other mammals such as rodents and carnivores. We also used MR tractography based on high-angular resolution diffusion imaging and diffusion spectrum imaging to compare anterior-to-posterior corticocortical tracts between primates and other mammals. We found that primates possess disproportionately more upper-layer neurons as well as an expansion of anterior-to-posterior corticocortical tracts compared with other mammals. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that primates deviate from other mammals in exhibiting increased cross-cortical connectivity. J. Comp. Neurol. 525:1075-1093, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Comprehensive connectivity of the mouse main olfactory bulb: analysis and online digital atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houri eHintiryan

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the first open resource for mouse olfactory connectivity data produced as part of the Mouse Connectome Project (MCP at UCLA. The MCP aims to assemble a whole-brain connectivity atlas for the C57Bl/6J mouse using a double coinjection tracing method. Each coinjection consists of one anterograde and one retrograde tracer, which affords the advantage of simultaneously identifying efferent and afferent pathways and directly identifying reciprocal connectivity of injection sites. The systematic application of double coinjections potentially reveals interaction stations between injections and allows for the study of connectivity at the network level. To facilitate use of the data, raw images are made publicly accessible through our online interactive visualization tool, the iConnectome, where users can view and annotate the high-resolution, multi-fluorescent connectivity data (www.MouseConnectome.org. Systematic double coinjections were made into different regions of the main olfactory bulb (MOB and data from 18 MOB cases (~72 pathways; 36 efferent/36 afferent currently are available to view in iConnectome within their corresponding atlas level and their own bright-field cytoarchitectural background. Additional MOB injections and injections of the accessory olfactory bulb (AOB, anterior olfactory nucleus (AON, and other cortical olfactory areas gradually will be made available. Analysis of connections from different regions of the MOB revealed a novel, topographically arranged MOB projection roadmap, demonstrated disparate MOB connectivity with anterior versus posterior piriform cortical area, and exposed some novel aspects of well-established cortical olfactory projections.

  2. FIIND: Ferret Interactive Integrated Neurodevelopment Atlas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Toro

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The first days after birth in ferrets provide a privileged view of the development of a complex mammalian brain. Unlike mice, ferrets develop a rich pattern of deep neocortical folds and cortico- cortical connections. Unlike humans and other primates, whose brains are well differentiated and folded at birth, ferrets are born with a very immature and completely smooth neocortex: folds, neocortical regionalisation and cortico-cortical connectivity develop in ferrets during the first postnatal days. After a period of fast neocortical expansion, during which brain volume increases by up to a factor of 4 in 2 weeks, the ferret brain reaches its adult volume at about 6 weeks of age. Ferrets could thus become a major animal model to investigate the neurobiological correlates of the phenomena observed in human neuroimaging. Many of these phenomena, such as the relationship between brain folding, cortico-cortical connectivity and neocortical regionalisation cannot be investigated in mice, but could be investigated in ferrets. Our aim is to provide the research community with a detailed description of the development of a complex brain, necessary to better understand the nature of human neuroimaging data, create models of brain development, or analyse the relationship between multiple spatial scales. We have already started a project to constitute an open, collaborative atlas of ferret brain development, integrating multi-modal and multi-scale data. We have acquired data for 28 ferrets (4 animals per time point from P0 to adults, using high-resolution MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. We have developed an open-source pipeline to segment and produce – online – 3D reconstructions of brain MRI data. We propose to process the brains of 16 of our specimens (from P0 to P16 using high-throughput 3D histology, staining for cytoarchitectonic landmarks, neuronal progenitors and neurogenesis. This would allow us to relate the MRI data that we have already

  3. Aberrant patterns of local and long-range functional connectivity densities in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuanxin; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Guangdong; Tian, Hongjun; Li, Jie; Qu, Hongru; Cheng, Langlang; Zhu, Jingjing; Zhuo, Chuanjun

    2017-07-18

    Schizophrenia is a disorder of brain dysconnectivity, and both the connection strength and connection number are disrupted in patients with schizophrenia. The functional connectivity density (FCD) can reflect alterations in the connection number. Alterations in the global FCD (gFCD) in schizophrenia were previously demonstrated; however, alterations in two other indices of the pathological characteristics of the brain, local FCD (lFCD) and long-range FCD (lrFCD), have not been revealed. To investigate lFCD and lrFCD alterations in patients with schizophrenia, 95 patients and 93 matched healthy controls were examined using structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning. lFCD and lrFCD were measured using FCD mapping, and differences were identified using a two-sample t-test in a voxel-wise manner, with age and gender considered to increase variability. Multiple comparisons were performed using a false discovery rate method with a corrected threshold of Pschizophrenia is a disorder of brain dysconnectivity, particularly affecting the local functional connectivity network, and support the hypothesis that schizophrenia is associated with a widespread cortical functional connectivity/activity deficit, with hyper- and/or hypo-connectivity/activity coexisting in some cortical or subcortical regions.

  4. Dynamic functional connectivity analysis reveals transient states of dysconnectivity in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Damaraju

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder characterized by functional dysconnectivity or abnormal integration between distant brain regions. Recent functional imaging studies have implicated large-scale thalamo-cortical connectivity as being disrupted in patients. However, observed connectivity differences in schizophrenia have been inconsistent between studies, with reports of hyperconnectivity and hypoconnectivity between the same brain regions. Using resting state eyes-closed functional imaging and independent component analysis on a multi-site data that included 151 schizophrenia patients and 163 age- and gender matched healthy controls, we decomposed the functional brain data into 100 components and identified 47 as functionally relevant intrinsic connectivity networks. We subsequently evaluated group differences in functional network connectivity, both in a static sense, computed as the pairwise Pearson correlations between the full network time courses (5.4 minutes in length, and a dynamic sense, computed using sliding windows (44 s in length and k-means clustering to characterize five discrete functional connectivity states. Static connectivity analysis revealed that compared to healthy controls, patients show significantly stronger connectivity, i.e., hyperconnectivity, between the thalamus and sensory networks (auditory, motor and visual, as well as reduced connectivity (hypoconnectivity between sensory networks from all modalities. Dynamic analysis suggests that (1, on average, schizophrenia patients spend much less time than healthy controls in states typified by strong, large-scale connectivity, and (2, that abnormal connectivity patterns are more pronounced during these connectivity states. In particular, states exhibiting cortical–subcortical antagonism (anti-correlations and strong positive connectivity between sensory networks are those that show the group differences of thalamic hyperconnectivity and sensory hypoconnectivity

  5. Electrophysiological Data and the Biophysical Modelling of Local Cortical Circuits

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    Dimitris Pinotsis

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows how recordings of gamma oscillations – under different experimental conditions or from different subjects – can be combined with a class of population models called neural fields and dynamic causal modeling (DCM to distinguish among alternative hypotheses regarding cortical structure and function. This approach exploits inter-subject variability and trial-specific effects associated with modulations in the peak frequency of gamma oscillations. It draws on the computational power of Bayesian model inversion, when applied to neural field models of cortical dynamics. Bayesian model comparison allows one to adjudicate among different mechanistic hypotheses about cortical excitability, synaptic kinetics and the cardinal topographic features of local cortical circuits. It also provides optimal parameter estimates that quantify neuromodulation and the spatial dispersion of axonal connections or summation of receptive fields in the visual cortex. This paper provides an overview of a family of neural field models that have been recently implemented using the DCM toolbox of the academic freeware Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM. The SPM software is a popular platform for analyzing neuroimaging data, used by several neuroscience communities worldwide. DCM allows for a formal (Bayesian statistical analysis of cortical network connectivity, based upon realistic biophysical models of brain responses. It is this particular feature of DCM – the unique combination of generative models with optimization techniques based upon (variational Bayesian principles – that furnishes a novel way to characterize functional brain architectures. In particular, it provides answers to questions about how the brain is wired and how it responds to different experimental manipulations. For a review of the general role of neural fields in SPM the reader can consult e.g. see [1]. Neural fields have a long and illustrious history in mathematical

  6. Effect of sensory and motor connectivity on hand function in pediatric hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Disha; Barachant, Alexandre; Gordon, Andrew M; Ferre, Claudio; Kuo, Hsing-Ching; Carmel, Jason B; Friel, Kathleen M

    2017-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that somatosensory system injury would more strongly affect movement than motor system injury in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (USCP). This hypothesis was based on how somatosensory and corticospinal circuits adapt to injury during development; whereas the motor system can maintain connections to the impaired hand from the uninjured hemisphere, this does not occur in the somatosensory system. As a corollary, cortical injury strongly impairs sensory function, so we hypothesized that cortical lesions would impair hand function more than subcortical lesions. Twenty-four children with unilateral cerebral palsy had physiological and anatomical measures of the motor and somatosensory systems and lesion classification. Motor physiology was performed with transcranial magnetic stimulation and somatosensory physiology with vibration-evoked electroencephalographic potentials. Tractography of the corticospinal tract and the medial lemniscus was performed with diffusion tensor imaging, and lesions were classified by magnetic resonance imaging. Anatomical and physiological results were correlated with measures of hand function using 2 independent statistical methods. Children with disruptions in the somatosensory connectivity and cortical lesions had the most severe upper extremity impairments, particularly somatosensory function. Motor system connectivity was significantly correlated with bimanual function, but not unimanual function or somatosensory function. Both sensory and motor connectivity impact hand function in children with USCP. Somatosensory connectivity could be an important target for recovery of hand function in children with USCP. Ann Neurol 2017;82:766-780. © 2017 American Neurological Association.

  7. Connectivity-based parcellation of the human orbitofrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahnt, Thorsten; Chang, Luke J; Park, Soyoung Q; Heinzle, Jakob; Haynes, John-Dylan

    2012-05-02

    The primate orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) is involved in reward processing, learning, and decision making. Research in monkeys has shown that this region is densely connected with higher sensory, limbic, and subcortical regions. Moreover, a parcellation of the monkey OFC into two subdivisions has been suggested based on its intrinsic anatomical connections. However, in humans, little is known about any functional subdivisions of the OFC except for a rather coarse medial/lateral distinction. Here, we used resting-state fMRI in combination with unsupervised clustering techniques to investigate whether OFC subdivisions can be revealed based on their functional connectivity profiles with other brain regions. Examination of different cluster solutions provided support for a parcellation into two parts as observed in monkeys, but it also highlighted a much finer hierarchical clustering of the orbital surface. Specifically, we identified (1) a medial, (2) a posterior-central, (3) a central, and (4-6) three lateral clusters spanning the anterior-posterior gradient. Consistent with animal tracing studies, these OFC clusters were connected to other cortical regions such as prefrontal, temporal, and parietal cortices but also subcortical areas in the striatum and the midbrain. These connectivity patterns provide important implications for identifying specific functional roles of OFC subdivisions for reward processing, learning, and decision making. Moreover, this parcellation schema can provide guidance to report results in future studies.

  8. Dissociation of face-selective cortical responses by attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, Maura L; Tanskanen, Topi; Beauchamp, Michael S; Avikainen, Sari; Uutela, Kimmo; Hari, Riitta; Haxby, James V

    2006-01-24

    We studied attentional modulation of cortical processing of faces and houses with functional MRI and magnetoencephalography (MEG). MEG detected an early, transient face-selective response. Directing attention to houses in "double-exposure" pictures of superimposed faces and houses strongly suppressed the characteristic, face-selective functional MRI response in the fusiform gyrus. By contrast, attention had no effect on the M170, the early, face-selective response detected with MEG. Late (>190 ms) category-related MEG responses elicited by faces and houses, however, were strongly modulated by attention. These results indicate that hemodynamic and electrophysiological measures of face-selective cortical processing complement each other. The hemodynamic signals reflect primarily late responses that can be modulated by feedback connections. By contrast, the early, face-specific M170 that was not modulated by attention likely reflects a rapid, feed-forward phase of face-selective processing.

  9. Cortical Network Models of Firing Rates in the Resting and Active States Predict BOLD Responses.

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    Maxwell R Bennett

    Full Text Available Measurements of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD signals have produced some surprising observations. One is that their amplitude is proportional to the entire activity in a region of interest and not just the fluctuations in this activity. Another is that during sleep and anesthesia the average BOLD correlations between regions of interest decline as the activity declines. Mechanistic explanations of these phenomena are described here using a cortical network model consisting of modules with excitatory and inhibitory neurons, taken as regions of cortical interest, each receiving excitatory inputs from outside the network, taken as subcortical driving inputs in addition to extrinsic (intermodular connections, such as provided by associational fibers. The model shows that the standard deviation of the firing rate is proportional to the mean frequency of the firing when the extrinsic connections are decreased, so that the mean BOLD signal is proportional to both as is observed experimentally. The model also shows that if these extrinsic connections are decreased or the frequency of firing reaching the network from the subcortical driving inputs is decreased, or both decline, there is a decrease in the mean firing rate in the modules accompanied by decreases in the mean BOLD correlations between the modules, consistent with the observed changes during NREM sleep and under anesthesia. Finally, the model explains why a transient increase in the BOLD signal in a cortical area, due to a transient subcortical input, gives rises to responses throughout the cortex as observed, with these responses mediated by the extrinsic (intermodular connections.

  10. White matter differences in monozygotic twins discordant or concordant for obsessive-compulsive symptoms: a combined diffusion tensor imaging/voxel-based morphometry study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Braber, A.; van t Ent, D.; Boomsma, D.I.; Cath, D.C.; Veltman, D.J.; Thompson, P.M.; de Geus, E.J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Neuroimaging studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients point to deficits in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits that might include changes in white matter. The contribution of environmental and genetic factors to the various OCD-related changes in brain structures

  11. Dynamics of directional coupling underlying spike-wave discharges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sysoeva, M.V.; Luttjohann, A.K.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Sysoev, I.V.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Spike and wave discharges (SWDs), generated within cortico-thalamo-cortical networks, are the electroencephalographic biomarker of absence epilepsy. The current work aims to identify mechanisms of SWD initiation, maintenance and termination by the analyses of dynamics and directionality of

  12. Study of medication-free children with Tourette syndrome do not show imaging abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Signe Søndergaard; Debes, Nanette Mol; Simonsen, Helle Juhl

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Imaging studies of patients with Tourette's syndrome (TS) across different cohorts have shown alterations in gray and white matter in areas associated with the cortico-striato-thalamic-cortical (CSTC) pathways; however, no consistent findings have subsequently established a clear...

  13. The α2δ subunit and absence epilepsy: Beyond calcium channels?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Celli, R.; Santolini, I.; Guiducci, M.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Parisi, P.; Striano, P.; Gradini, R.; Battaglia, G.; Ngomba, R.T.; Nicoletti, F.

    2017-01-01

    Spike-wave discharges, underlying absence seizures, are generated within a cortico-thalamo-cortical network that involves the somatosensory cortex, the reticular thalamic nucleus, and the ventrobasal thalamic nuclei. Activation of T-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCCs) contributes to the

  14. Thalamic stimulation in absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luttjohann, A.K.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The site specific effects of two different types of electrical stimulation of the thalamus on electroencephalic epileptic activity as generated in the cortico-thalamo-cortical system were investigated in genetic epileptic WAG/Rij rats, a well characterized and validated absence

  15. Increased cortico-striatal connectivity during motor practice contributes to the consolidation of motor memory in writer's cramp patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gallea

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensorimotor representations of movements are created in the sensorimotor network through repeated practice to support successful and effortless performance. Writer's cramp (WC is a disorder acquired through extensive practice of finger movements, and it is likely associated with the abnormal acquisition of sensorimotor representations. We investigated (i the activation and connectivity changes in the brain network supporting the acquisition of sensorimotor representations of finger sequences in patients with WC and (ii the link between these changes and consolidation of motor performance 24 h after the initial practice. Twenty-two patients with WC and 22 age-matched healthy volunteers practiced a complex sequence with the right (pathological hand during functional MRI recording. Speed and accuracy were measured immediately before and after practice (day 1 and 24 h after practice (day 2. The two groups reached equivalent motor performance on day 1 and day 2. During motor practice, patients with WC had (i reduced hippocampal activation and hippocampal–striatal functional connectivity; and (ii overactivation of premotor–striatal areas, whose connectivity correlated with motor performance after consolidation. These results suggest that patients with WC use alternative networks to reach equiperformance in the acquisition of new motor memories.

  16. Thalamocortical functional connectivity in Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is abnormally enhanced in executive-control and default-mode networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Aaron E L; Abbott, David F; Jackson, Graeme D; Archer, John S

    2017-12-01

    To identify abnormal thalamocortical circuits in the severe epilepsy of Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) that may explain the shared electroclinical phenotype and provide potential treatment targets. Twenty patients with a diagnosis of LGS (mean age = 28.5 years) and 26 healthy controls (mean age = 27.6 years) were compared using task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The thalamus was parcellated according to functional connectivity with 10 cortical networks derived using group-level independent component analysis. For each cortical network, we assessed between-group differences in thalamic functional connectivity strength using nonparametric permutation-based tests. Anatomical locations were identified by quantifying spatial overlap with a histologically informed thalamic MRI atlas. In both groups, posterior thalamic regions showed functional connectivity with visual, auditory, and sensorimotor networks, whereas anterior, medial, and dorsal thalamic regions were connected with networks of distributed association cortex (including the default-mode, anterior-salience, and executive-control networks). Four cortical networks (left and right executive-control network; ventral and dorsal default-mode network) showed significantly enhanced thalamic functional connectivity strength in patients relative to controls. Abnormal connectivity was maximal in mediodorsal and ventrolateral thalamic nuclei. Specific thalamocortical circuits are affected in LGS. Functional connectivity is abnormally enhanced between the mediodorsal and ventrolateral thalamus and the default-mode and executive-control networks, thalamocortical circuits that normally support diverse cognitive processes. In contrast, thalamic regions connecting with primary and sensory cortical networks appear to be less affected. Our previous neuroimaging studies show that epileptic activity in LGS is expressed via the default-mode and executive-control networks. Results of the present study suggest that

  17. Delayed Development of Brain Connectivity in Adolescents With Schizophrenia and Their Unaffected Siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesky, Andrew; Pantelis, Christos; Cropley, Vanessa; Fornito, Alex; Cocchi, Luca; McAdams, Harrison; Clasen, Liv; Greenstein, Deanna; Rapoport, Judith L; Gogtay, Nitin

    2015-09-01

    Abnormalities in structural brain connectivity have been observed in patients with schizophrenia. Mapping these abnormalities longitudinally and understanding their genetic risk via sibship studies will provide crucial insight into progressive developmental changes associated with schizophrenia. To identify corticocortical connections exhibiting an altered developmental trajectory in adolescents with childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) and to determine whether similar alterations are found in patients' unaffected siblings. Using prospective structural brain magnetic resonance imaging, large-scale corticocortical connectivity was mapped from ages 12 to 24 years in 109 patients with COS (272 images), 86 of their unaffected siblings (184 images), and 102 healthy controls (262 images) over a 20-year period beginning January 1, 1991, through April 30, 2011, as part of the ongoing COS study at the National Institute of Mental Health. Structural connectivity between pairs of cortical regions was estimated using a validated technique based on across-subject covariation in magnetic resonance imaging-derived cortical thickness measurements. Compared with normally developing controls, significant left-hemisphere occipitotemporal deficits in cortical thickness correlations were found in patients with COS as well as their healthy siblings (P siblings normalized by mid-adolescence, whereas patients with COS showed significantly longer maturational delays, with cortical thickness correlations between the left temporal lobe and left occipital cortex not showing evidence of development until early adulthood. The normalization of deficits with age in patients with COS correlated with improvement in symptoms. Compared with controls, left-hemisphere occipitotemporal thickness correlations in a subgroup of patients with high positive symptoms were significantly reduced from age 14 to 18 years (P siblings associated with resilience to developing schizophrenia. These findings indicate

  18. Wakefulness delta waves increase after cortical plasticity induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assenza, G; Pellegrino, G; Tombini, M; Di Pino, G; Di Lazzaro, V

    2015-06-01

    Delta waves (DW) are present both during sleep and in wakefulness. In the first case, DW are considered effectors of synaptic plasticity, while in wakefulness, when they appear in the case of brain lesions, their functional meaning is not unanimously recognized. To throw light on the latter, we aimed to investigate the impact on DW exerted by the cortical plasticity-inducing protocol of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS). Twenty healthy subjects underwent iTBS (11 real iTBS and nine sham iTBS) on the left primary motor cortex with the aim of inducing long-term potentiation (LTP)-like phenomena. Five-minute resting open-eye 32-channel EEG, right opponens pollicis motor-evoked potentials (MEPs), and alertness behavioral scales were collected before and up to 30 min after the iTBS. Power spectral density (PSD), interhemispheric coherence between homologous sensorimotor regions, and intrahemispheric coherence were calculated for the frequency bands ranging from delta to beta. Real iTBS induced a significant increase of both MEP amplitude and DW PSD lasting up to 30 min after stimulation, while sham iTBS did not. The DW increase was evident over frontal areas ipsilateral and close to the stimulated cortex (electrode F3). Neither real nor sham iTBS induced significant modifications in the PSD of theta, alpha, and beta bands and in the interhemispheric coherence. Behavioral visuo-analogic scales score did not demonstrate changes in alertness after stimulations. No correlations were found between MEP amplitude and PSD changes in the delta band. Our data showed that LTP induction in the motor cortex during wakefulness, by means of iTBS, is accompanied by a large and enduring increase of DW over the ipsilateral frontal cortex. The present results are strongly in favor of a prominent role of DW in the neural plasticity processes taking place during the awake state. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland

  19. Interhemispheric claustral circuits coordinate somatomotor and visuomotor cortical areas that regulate exploratory behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Brent Smith

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The claustrum has a role in the interhemispheric transfer of certain types of sensorimotor information. Whereas the whisker region in rat motor (M1 cortex sends dense projections to the contralateral claustrum, the M1 forelimb representation does not. The claustrum sends strong ipsilateral projections to the whisker regions in M1 and somatosensory (S1 cortex, but its projections to the forelimb cortical areas are weak. These distinctions suggest that one function of the M1 projections to the contralateral claustrum is to coordinate the cortical areas that regulate peripheral sensor movements during behaviors that depend on bilateral sensory acquisition. If this hypothesis is true, then similar interhemispheric circuits should interconnect the frontal eye fields (FEF with the contralateral claustrum and its network of projections to vision-related cortical areas. To test this hypothesis, anterograde and retrograde tracers were placed in physiologically-defined parts of the FEF and primary visual cortex (V1 in rats. We observed dense FEF projections to the contralateral claustrum that terminated in the midst of claustral neurons that project to both FEF and V1. While the FEF inputs to the claustrum come predominantly from the contralateral hemisphere, the claustral projections to FEF and V1 are primarily ipsilateral. Detailed comparison of the present results with our previous studies on somatomotor claustral circuitry revealed a well-defined functional topography in which the ventral claustrum is connected with visuomotor cortical areas and the dorsal regions are connected with somatomotor areas. These results suggest that subregions within the claustrum play a critical role in coordinating the cortical areas that regulate the acquisition of modality-specific sensory information during exploration and other behaviors that require sensory attention.

  20. Electrical and chemical transmission between striatal GABAergic output neurones in rat brain slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venance, Laurent; Glowinski, Jacques; Giaume, Christian

    2004-01-01

    Basal ganglia are interconnected subcortical nuclei, connected to the thalamus and all cortical areas involved in sensory motor control, limbic functions and cognition. The striatal output neurones (SONs), the major striatal population, are believed to act as detectors and integrators of distributed patterns of cerebral cortex inputs. Despite the key role of SONs in cortico-striatal information processing, little is known about their local interactions. Here, we report the existence and characterization of electrical and GABAergic transmission between SONs in rat brain slices. Tracer coupling (biocytin) incidence was high during the first two postnatal weeks and then decreased (postnatal days (P) 5–25, 60%; P25–30, 29%; n = 61). Electrical coupling was observed between 27% of SON pairs (coupling coefficient: 3.1 ± 0.3%, n = 89 at P15) and as shown by single-cell RT-PCR, several connexin (Cx) mRNAs were found to be expressed (Cx31.1, Cx32, Cx36 and Cx47). GABAergic synaptic transmission (abolished by bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist) observed in 19% of SON pairs (n = 62) was reliable (mean failure rate of 6 ± 3%), precise (variation coefficient of latency, 0.06), strong (IPSC amplitudes of 38 ± 12 pA) and unidirectional. Interestingly, electrical and chemical transmission were mutually exclusive. These results suggest that preferential networks of electrically and chemically connected SONs, might be involved in the channelling of cortico-basal ganglia information processing. PMID:15235091

  1. Prefrontal-Thalamic Anatomical Connectivity and Executive Cognitive Function in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo-Chica, Monica; Rogers, Baxter P; Damon, Stephen M; Landman, Bennett A; Woodward, Neil D

    2018-03-15

    Executive cognitive functions, including working memory, cognitive flexibility, and inhibition, are impaired in schizophrenia. Executive functions rely on coordinated information processing between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and thalamus, particularly the mediodorsal nucleus. This raises the possibility that anatomical connectivity between the PFC and mediodorsal thalamus may be 1) reduced in schizophrenia and 2) related to deficits in executive function. The current investigation tested these hypotheses. Forty-five healthy subjects and 62 patients with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder completed a battery of tests of executive function and underwent diffusion-weighted imaging. Probabilistic tractography was used to quantify anatomical connectivity between six cortical regions, including PFC, and the thalamus. Thalamocortical anatomical connectivity was compared between healthy subjects and patients with schizophrenia using region-of-interest and voxelwise approaches, and the association between PFC-thalamic anatomical connectivity and severity of executive function impairment was examined in patients. Anatomical connectivity between the thalamus and PFC was reduced in schizophrenia. Voxelwise analysis localized the reduction to areas of the mediodorsal thalamus connected to lateral PFC. Reduced PFC-thalamic connectivity in schizophrenia correlated with impaired working memory but not cognitive flexibility and inhibition. In contrast to reduced PFC-thalamic connectivity, thalamic connectivity with somatosensory and occipital cortices was increased in schizophrenia. The results are consistent with models implicating disrupted PFC-thalamic connectivity in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and mechanisms of cognitive impairment. PFC-thalamic anatomical connectivity may be an important target for procognitive interventions. Further work is needed to determine the implications of increased thalamic connectivity with sensory cortex. Copyright © 2017 Society of

  2. Transcranial direct current stimulation generates a transient increase of small-world in brain connectivity: an EEG graph theoretical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchio, Fabrizio; Di Iorio, Riccardo; Miraglia, Francesca; Granata, Giuseppe; Romanello, Roberto; Bramanti, Placido; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2018-04-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive technique able to modulate cortical excitability in a polarity-dependent way. At present, only few studies investigated the effects of tDCS on the modulation of functional connectivity between remote cortical areas. The aim of this study was to investigate-through graph theory analysis-how bipolar tDCS modulate cortical networks high-density EEG recordings were acquired before and after bipolar cathodal, anodal and sham tDCS involving the primary motor and pre-motor cortices of the dominant hemispherein 14 healthy subjects. Results showed that, after bipolar anodal tDCS stimulation, brain networks presented a less evident "small world" organization with a global tendency to be more random in its functional connections with respect to prestimulus condition in both hemispheres. Results suggest that tDCS globally modulates the cortical connectivity of the brain, modifying the underlying functional organization of the stimulated networks, which might be related to changes in synaptic efficiency of the motor network and related brain areas. This study demonstrated that graph analysis approach to EEG recordings is able to intercept changes in cortical functions mediated by bipolar anodal tDCS mainly involving the dominant M1 and related motor areas. Concluding, tDCS could be an useful technique to help understanding brain rhythms and their topographic functional organization and specificity.

  3. White matter differences in monozygotic twins discordant or concordant for obsessive-compulsive symptoms: a combined diffusion tensor imaging/voxel-based morphometry study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Braber, Anouk; van 't Ent, Dennis; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Cath, Danielle C.; Veltman, Dick J.; Thompson, Paul M.; de Geus, Eco J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) patients point to deficits in cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits that might include changes in white matter. The contribution of environmental and genetic factors to the various OCD-related changes in brain structures remains to be

  4. Rare Copy Number Variants in NRXN1 and CNTN6 Increase Risk for Tourette Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Alden Y.; Yu, Dongmei; Davis, Lea K; Sul, Jae Hoon; Tsetsos, Fotis; Ramensky, Vasily; Zelaya, Ivette; Ramos, Eliana Marisa; Osiecki, Lisa; Chen, Jason A.; McGrath, Lauren M; Illmann, Cornelia; Sandor, Paul; Barr, Cathy L; Grados, Marco A; Singer, Harvey S; Nöthen, Markus M.; Hebebrand, Johannes; King, Robert A; Dion, Yves; Rouleau, Guy A; Budman, Cathy L; Depienne, Christel; Worbe, Yulia; Hartmann, Andreas; Müller-Vahl, Kirsten R; Stuhrmann, Manfred; Aschauer, Harald; Stamenkovic, Mara; Schloegelhofer, Monika; Konstantinidis, Anastasios; Lyon, Gholson J; McMahon, William M; Barta, Csaba; Tarnok, Zsanett; Nagy, Peter; Batterson, James R.; Rizzo, Renata; Cath, Danielle C.; Wolanczyk, Tomasz; Berlin, Cheston; Malaty, Irene A.; Okun, Michael S.; Woods, Douglas W.; Rees, Elliott; Pato, Carlos N; Pato, Michele T; Knowles, James A; Posthuma, Danielle; Pauls, David L; Cox, Nancy J; Neale, Benjamin M; Freimer, Nelson B; Paschou, Peristera; Mathews, Carol A; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Coppola, Giovanni; Bruun, Ruth D; Chouinard, Sylvain; Darrow, Sabrina M; Greenberg, Erica; Hirschtritt, Matthew E; Kurlan, Roger; Leckman, James F; Robertson, Mary M; Smit, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a model neuropsychiatric disorder thought to arise from abnormal development and/or maintenance of cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical circuits. TS is highly heritable, but its underlying genetic causes are still elusive, and no genome-wide significant loci have been

  5. Functional connectivity in cortical regions in dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Eva R; Blamire, Andrew M; Firbank, Michael J; O'Brien, John T

    2012-02-01

    Using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, spontaneous low-frequency fluctuations in the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal were measured to investigate connectivity between key brain regions hypothesized to be differentially affected in dementia with Lewy bodies compared with Alzheimer's disease and healthy controls. These included connections of the hippocampus, because of its role in learning, and parietal and occipital areas involved in memory, attention and visual processing. Connectivity was investigated in 47 subjects aged 60 years and over: 15 subjects with dementia with Lewy bodies, 16 subjects with Alzheimer's disease and 16 control subjects. Subjects were scanned using a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging system. The mean blood oxygenation level-dependent signal time series was extracted from seed regions in the hippocampus, posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus and primary visual cortex and correlated with all other brain voxels to determine functional connectivity. Both subjects with dementia with Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease showed greater connectivity than control subjects. Compared with controls, the dementia with Lewy bodies group had greater connectivity between the right posterior cingulate cortex and other brain areas. In dementia with Lewy bodies, there were no significant differences in hippocampal connectivity compared with controls, but in Alzheimer's disease left hippocampal connectivity was greater compared with controls. There were no significant differences between groups for precuneus or primary visual cortex connectivity. No seed regions showed significantly less connectivity in subjects with dementia with Lewy bodies or Alzheimer's disease compared with controls. We found greater connectivity with the posterior cingulate in dementia with Lewy bodies and with the hippocampus in Alzheimer's disease. Consistent with the known relative preservation of memory in dementia with Lewy bodies compared with Alzheimer

  6. Sensory Cortical Plasticity Participates in the Epigenetic Regulation of Robust Memory Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Mimi L.; Bieszczad, Kasia M.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroplasticity remodels sensory cortex across the lifespan. A function of adult sensory cortical plasticity may be capturing available information during perception for memory formation. The degree of experience-dependent remodeling in sensory cortex appears to determine memory strength and specificity for important sensory signals. A key open question is how plasticity is engaged to induce different degrees of sensory cortical remodeling. Neural plasticity for long-term memory requires the expression of genes underlying stable changes in neuronal function, structure, connectivity, and, ultimately, behavior. Lasting changes in transcriptional activity may depend on epigenetic mechanisms; some of the best studied in behavioral neuroscience are DNA methylation and histone acetylation and deacetylation, which, respectively, promote and repress gene expression. One purpose of this review is to propose epigenetic regulation of sensory cortical remodeling as a mechanism enabling the transformation of significant information from experiences into content-rich memories of those experiences. Recent evidence suggests how epigenetic mechanisms regulate highly specific reorganization of sensory cortical representations that establish a widespread network for memory. Thus, epigenetic mechanisms could initiate events to establish exceptionally persistent and robust memories at a systems-wide level by engaging sensory cortical plasticity for gating what and how much information becomes encoded. PMID:26881129

  7. Sensory Cortical Plasticity Participates in the Epigenetic Regulation of Robust Memory Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Mimi L; Bieszczad, Kasia M

    2016-01-01

    Neuroplasticity remodels sensory cortex across the lifespan. A function of adult sensory cortical plasticity may be capturing available information during perception for memory formation. The degree of experience-dependent remodeling in sensory cortex appears to determine memory strength and specificity for important sensory signals. A key open question is how plasticity is engaged to induce different degrees of sensory cortical remodeling. Neural plasticity for long-term memory requires the expression of genes underlying stable changes in neuronal function, structure, connectivity, and, ultimately, behavior. Lasting changes in transcriptional activity may depend on epigenetic mechanisms; some of the best studied in behavioral neuroscience are DNA methylation and histone acetylation and deacetylation, which, respectively, promote and repress gene expression. One purpose of this review is to propose epigenetic regulation of sensory cortical remodeling as a mechanism enabling the transformation of significant information from experiences into content-rich memories of those experiences. Recent evidence suggests how epigenetic mechanisms regulate highly specific reorganization of sensory cortical representations that establish a widespread network for memory. Thus, epigenetic mechanisms could initiate events to establish exceptionally persistent and robust memories at a systems-wide level by engaging sensory cortical plasticity for gating what and how much information becomes encoded.

  8. Sensory Cortical Plasticity Participates in the Epigenetic Regulation of Robust Memory Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mimi L. Phan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroplasticity remodels sensory cortex across the lifespan. A function of adult sensory cortical plasticity may be capturing available information during perception for memory formation. The degree of experience-dependent remodeling in sensory cortex appears to determine memory strength and specificity for important sensory signals. A key open question is how plasticity is engaged to induce different degrees of sensory cortical remodeling. Neural plasticity for long-term memory requires the expression of genes underlying stable changes in neuronal function, structure, connectivity, and, ultimately, behavior. Lasting changes in transcriptional activity may depend on epigenetic mechanisms; some of the best studied in behavioral neuroscience are DNA methylation and histone acetylation and deacetylation, which, respectively, promote and repress gene expression. One purpose of this review is to propose epigenetic regulation of sensory cortical remodeling as a mechanism enabling the transformation of significant information from experiences into content-rich memories of those experiences. Recent evidence suggests how epigenetic mechanisms regulate highly specific reorganization of sensory cortical representations that establish a widespread network for memory. Thus, epigenetic mechanisms could initiate events to establish exceptionally persistent and robust memories at a systems-wide level by engaging sensory cortical plasticity for gating what and how much information becomes encoded.

  9. Cortical control of object-specific grasp relies on adjustments of both activity and effective connectivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tia, Banty; Takemi, Mitsuaki; Kosugi, Akito

    2017-01-01

    The cortical mechanisms of grasping have been extensively studied in macaques and humans. Here, we investigated whether common marmosets could rely on similar mechanisms despite striking differences in manual dexterity. Two common marmosets were trained to grasp-and-pull three objects eliciting d...

  10. The relationship between neuropsychological tests of visuospatial function and lobar cortical thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Davor N; Miller, Justin B; Caldwell, Jessica Z K; Bird, Christopher; Banks, Sarah J

    2018-06-01

    Tests of visuospatial function are often administered in comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations. These tests are generally considered assays of parietal lobe function; however, the neural correlates of these tests, using modern imaging techniques, are not well understood. In the current study we investigated the relationship between three commonly used tests of visuospatial function and lobar cortical thickness in each hemisphere. Data from 374 patients who underwent a neuropsychological evaluation and MRI scans in an outpatient dementia clinic were included in the analysis. We examined the relationships between cortical thickness, as assessed with Freesurfer, and performance on three tests: Judgment of Line Orientation (JoLO), Block Design (BD) from the Fourth edition of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised Copy Trial (BVMT-R-C) in patients who showed overall average performance on these tasks. Using a series of multiple regression models, we assessed which lobe's overall cortical thickness best predicted test performance. Among the individual lobes, JoLO performance was best predicted by cortical thickness in the right temporal lobe. BD performance was best predicted by cortical thickness in the right parietal lobe, and BVMT-R-C performance was best predicted by cortical thickness in the left parietal lobe. Performance on constructional tests of visuospatial function appears to correspond best with underlying cortical thickness of the parietal lobes, while performance on visuospatial judgment tests appears to correspond best to temporal lobe thickness. Future research using voxel-wise and connectivity techniques and including more diverse samples will help further understanding of the regions and networks involved in visuospatial tests.

  11. [Spatial Cognition and Episodic Memory Formation in the Limbic Cortex].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yasushi

    2017-04-01

    The limbic lobe defined by Broca is a cortical region with highly diverse structure and functions, and comprises the paleo-, archi-, and neocortices as well as their transitional zones. In the limbic lobe, Brodmann designated areas 27, 28, 34, 35, and 36 adjacent to the hippocampus, and areas 23, 24, 25, 26, 29, 30, 31, 32, and 33 around the corpus callosum. In the current literature, areas 27 and 28 correspond to the presubiculum and entorhinal cortex, respectively. Area 34 represents the cortico-medial part of the amygdaloid complex. Areas 35 and 36 roughly cover the perirhinal and parahippocampal cortices. Areas 24, 25, 32, and 33 belong to the anterior cingulate gyrus, while areas 23, 26, 29, 30, and 31 to the posterior cingulate gyrus. Areas 25, 32, and the anteroinferior portion of area 24 are deeply involved in emotional responses, particularly in their autonomic functions, through reciprocal connections with the amygdaloid complex, anterior thalamus and projections to the brainstem and spinal visceral centers. Areas 29 and 30 have dense reciprocal connections with areas 23 and 31, the dorsolateral prefrontal areas, and the regions related to the hippocampus. They play pivotal roles in mediating spatial cognition, working memory processing, and episodic memory formation.

  12. Preschool anxiety disorders predict different patterns of amygdala-prefrontal connectivity at school-age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly L H Carpenter

    Full Text Available In this prospective, longitudinal study of young children, we examined whether a history of preschool generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and/or social phobia is associated with amygdala-prefrontal dysregulation at school-age. As an exploratory analysis, we investigated whether distinct anxiety disorders differ in the patterns of this amygdala-prefrontal dysregulation.Participants were children taking part in a 5-year study of early childhood brain development and anxiety disorders. Preschool symptoms of generalized anxiety, separation anxiety, and social phobia were assessed with the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA in the first wave of the study when the children were between 2 and 5 years old. The PAPA was repeated at age 6. We conducted functional MRIs when the children were 5.5 to 9.5 year old to assess neural responses to viewing of angry and fearful faces.A history of preschool social phobia predicted less school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventral prefrontal cortices to angry faces. Preschool generalized anxiety predicted less functional connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal prefrontal cortices in response to fearful faces. Finally, a history of preschool separation anxiety predicted less school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and the ventral prefrontal cortices to angry faces and greater school-age functional connectivity between the amygdala and dorsal prefrontal cortices to angry faces.Our results suggest that there are enduring neurobiological effects associated with a history of preschool anxiety, which occur over-and-above the effect of subsequent emotional symptoms. Our results also provide preliminary evidence for the neurobiological differentiation of specific preschool anxiety disorders.

  13. The human cerebral cortex is neither one nor many: Neuronal distribution reveals two quantitatively different zones in the grey matter, three in the white matter, and explains local variations in cortical folding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro F. M. Ribeiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The human prefrontal cortex has been considered different in several aspects and relatively enlarged compared to the rest of the cortical areas. Here we determine whether the white and gray matter of the prefrontal portion of the human cerebral cortex have similar or different cellular compositions relative to the rest of the cortical regions by applying the Isotropic Fractionator to analyze the distribution of neurons along the entire anteroposterior axis of the cortex, and its relationship with the degree of gyrification, number of neurons under the cortical surface, and other parameters. The prefrontal region shares with the remainder of the cerebral cortex (except for occipital cortex the same relationship between cortical volume and number of neurons. In contrast, both occipital and prefrontal areas vary from other cortical areas in their connectivity through the white matter, with a systematic reduction of cortical connectivity through the white matter and an increase of the mean axon caliber along the anteroposterior axis. These two parameters explain local differences in the distribution of neurons underneath the cortical surface. We also show that local variations in cortical folding are neither a function of local numbers of neurons nor of cortical thickness, but correlate with properties of the white matter, and are best explained by the folding of the white matter surface. Our results suggest that the human cerebral cortex is divided in two zones (occipital and non-occipital that differ in how neurons distributed across their grey matter volume and in three zones (prefrontal, occipital, and non-occipital that differ in how neurons are connected through the white matter. Thus, the human prefrontal cortex has the largest fraction of neuronal connectivity through the white matter and the smallest average axonal caliber in the white matter within the cortex, although its neuronal composition fits the pattern found for other, non

  14. Selective updating of working memory content modulates meso-cortico-striatal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Vishnu P; Sambataro, Fabio; Radulescu, Eugenia; Altamura, Mario; Iudicello, Jennifer; Zoltick, Bradley; Weinberger, Daniel R; Goldberg, Terry E; Mattay, Venkata S

    2011-08-01

    Accumulating evidence from non-human primates and computational modeling suggests that dopaminergic signals arising from the midbrain (substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area) mediate striatal gating of the prefrontal cortex during the selective updating of working memory. Using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging, we explored the neural mechanisms underlying the selective updating of information stored in working memory. Participants were scanned during a novel working memory task that parses the neurophysiology underlying working memory maintenance, overwriting, and selective updating. Analyses revealed a functionally coupled network consisting of a midbrain region encompassing the substantia nigra/ventral tegmental area, caudate, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex that was selectively engaged during working memory updating compared to the overwriting and maintenance of working memory content. Further analysis revealed differential midbrain-dorsolateral prefrontal interactions during selective updating between low-performing and high-performing individuals. These findings highlight the role of this meso-cortico-striatal circuitry during the selective updating of working memory in humans, which complements previous research in behavioral neuroscience and computational modeling. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Modeling the effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation on cortical circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Steve K; Hill, Sean L; Tononi, Giulio

    2005-07-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is commonly used to activate or inactivate specific cortical areas in a noninvasive manner. Because of technical constraints, the precise effects of TMS on cortical circuits are difficult to assess experimentally. Here, this issue is investigated by constructing a detailed model of a portion of the thalamocortical system and examining the effects of the simulated delivery of a TMS pulse. The model, which incorporates a large number of physiological and anatomical constraints, includes 33,000 spiking neurons arranged in a 3-layered motor cortex and over 5 million intra- and interlayer synaptic connections. The model was validated by reproducing several results from the experimental literature. These include the frequency, timing, dose response, and pharmacological modulation of epidurally recorded responses to TMS (the so-called I-waves), as well as paired-pulse response curves consistent with data from several experimental studies. The modeled responses to simulated TMS pulses in different experimental paradigms provide a detailed, self-consistent account of the neural and synaptic activities evoked by TMS within prototypical cortical circuits.

  16. Detecting Functional Connectivity During Audiovisual Integration with MEG: A Comparison of Connectivity Metrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ard, Tyler; Carver, Frederick W; Holroyd, Tom; Horwitz, Barry; Coppola, Richard

    2015-08-01

    In typical magnetoencephalography and/or electroencephalography functional connectivity analysis, researchers select one of several methods that measure a relationship between regions to determine connectivity, such as coherence, power correlations, and others. However, it is largely unknown if some are more suited than others for various types of investigations. In this study, the authors investigate seven connectivity metrics to evaluate which, if any, are sensitive to audiovisual integration by contrasting connectivity when tracking an audiovisual object versus connectivity when tracking a visual object uncorrelated with the auditory stimulus. The authors are able to assess the metrics' performances at detecting audiovisual integration by investigating connectivity between auditory and visual areas. Critically, the authors perform their investigation on a whole-cortex all-to-all mapping, avoiding confounds introduced in seed selection. The authors find that amplitude-based connectivity measures in the beta band detect strong connections between visual and auditory areas during audiovisual integration, specifically between V4/V5 and auditory cortices in the right hemisphere. Conversely, phase-based connectivity measures in the beta band as well as phase and power measures in alpha, gamma, and theta do not show connectivity between audiovisual areas. The authors postulate that while beta power correlations detect audiovisual integration in the current experimental context, it may not always be the best measure to detect connectivity. Instead, it is likely that the brain utilizes a variety of mechanisms in neuronal communication that may produce differential types of temporal relationships.

  17. Selective Attention Enhances Beta-Band Cortical Oscillation to Speech under "Cocktail-Party" Listening Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yayue; Wang, Qian; Ding, Yu; Wang, Changming; Li, Haifeng; Wu, Xihong; Qu, Tianshu; Li, Liang

    2017-01-01

    Human listeners are able to selectively attend to target speech in a noisy environment with multiple-people talking. Using recordings of scalp electroencephalogram (EEG), this study investigated how selective attention facilitates the cortical representation of target speech under a simulated "cocktail-party" listening condition with speech-on-speech masking. The result shows that the cortical representation of target-speech signals under the multiple-people talking condition was specifically improved by selective attention relative to the non-selective-attention listening condition, and the beta-band activity was most strongly modulated by selective attention. Moreover, measured with the Granger Causality value, selective attention to the single target speech in the mixed-speech complex enhanced the following four causal connectivities for the beta-band oscillation: the ones (1) from site FT7 to the right motor area, (2) from the left frontal area to the right motor area, (3) from the central frontal area to the right motor area, and (4) from the central frontal area to the right frontal area. However, the selective-attention-induced change in beta-band causal connectivity from the central frontal area to the right motor area, but not other beta-band causal connectivities, was significantly correlated with the selective-attention-induced change in the cortical beta-band representation of target speech. These findings suggest that under the "cocktail-party" listening condition, the beta-band oscillation in EEGs to target speech is specifically facilitated by selective attention to the target speech that is embedded in the mixed-speech complex. The selective attention-induced unmasking of target speech may be associated with the improved beta-band functional connectivity from the central frontal area to the right motor area, suggesting a top-down attentional modulation of the speech-motor process.

  18. Altered modular organization of structural cortical networks in children with autism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Shi

    Full Text Available Autism is a complex developmental disability that characterized by deficits in social interaction, language skills, repetitive stereotyped behaviors and restricted interests. Although great heterogeneity exists, previous findings suggest that autism has atypical brain connectivity patterns and disrupted small-world network properties. However, the organizational alterations in the autistic brain network are still poorly understood. We explored possible organizational alterations of 49 autistic children and 51 typically developing controls, by investigating their brain network metrics that are constructed upon cortical thickness correlations. Three modules were identified in controls, including cortical regions associated with brain functions of executive strategic, spatial/auditory/visual, and self-reference/episodic memory. There are also three modules found in autistic children with similar patterns. Compared with controls, autism demonstrates significantly reduced gross network modularity, and a larger number of inter-module connections. However, the autistic brain network demonstrates increased intra- and inter-module connectivity in brain regions including middle frontal gyrus, inferior parietal gyrus, and cingulate, suggesting one underlying compensatory mechanism associated with brain functions of self-reference and episodic memory. Results also show that there is increased correlation strength between regions inside frontal lobe, as well as impaired correlation strength between frontotemporal and frontoparietal regions. This alteration of correlation strength may contribute to the organization alteration of network structures in autistic brains.

  19. Cortical Spreading Depression Closes Paravascular Space and Impairs Glymphatic Flow: Implications for Migraine Headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schain, Aaron J; Melo-Carrillo, Agustin; Strassman, Andrew M; Burstein, Rami

    2017-03-15

    Functioning of the glymphatic system, a network of paravascular tunnels through which cortical interstitial solutes are cleared from the brain, has recently been linked to sleep and traumatic brain injury, both of which can affect the progression of migraine. This led us to investigate the connection between migraine and the glymphatic system. Taking advantage of a novel in vivo method we developed using two-photon microscopy to visualize the paravascular space (PVS) in naive uninjected mice, we show that a single wave of cortical spreading depression (CSD), an animal model of migraine aura, induces a rapid and nearly complete closure of the PVS around surface as well as penetrating cortical arteries and veins lasting several minutes, and gradually recovering over 30 min. A temporal mismatch between the constriction or dilation of the blood vessel lumen and the closure of the PVS suggests that this closure is not likely to result from changes in vessel diameter. We also show that CSD impairs glymphatic flow, as indicated by the reduced rate at which intraparenchymally injected dye was cleared from the cortex to the PVS. This is the first observation of a PVS closure in connection with an abnormal cortical event that underlies a neurological disorder. More specifically, the findings demonstrate a link between the glymphatic system and migraine, and suggest a novel mechanism for regulation of glymphatic flow. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Impairment of brain solute clearance through the recently described glymphatic system has been linked with traumatic brain injury, prolonged wakefulness, and aging. This paper shows that cortical spreading depression, the neural correlate of migraine aura, closes the paravascular space and impairs glymphatic flow. This closure holds the potential to define a novel mechanism for regulation of glymphatic flow. It also implicates the glymphatic system in the altered cortical and endothelial functioning of the migraine brain. Copyright © 2017

  20. Basic science of tDCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Nitsche

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Neuroplasticity, and functional connectivity are important physiological derivates of cognition, and behaviour. Recently introduced non-invasive brain stimulation techniques are suited to induce, and modulate respective physiological alterations. One of these techniques is transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS. Its primary mechanism of action is a polarity-dependent subthreshold shift of resting membrane potentials, the after-effects of stimulation depend on the glutamatergic system. Beyond these regional effects, tDCS has been shown recently to alter cortical, as well as cortico-subcortical functional network connectivity. This talk will give an overview about the physiological effects of tDCS, including animal data, and will cover functional consequences of tDCS. Furthermore, new developments with regard to optimization strategies, and the complex interaction of physiological and cognitive processes, will be presented and it will be discussed how tDCS relates to other non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, like transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS, and paired associative stimulation (PAS.

  1. Rescue of Impaired Fear Extinction and Normalization of Cortico-Amygdala Circuit Dysfunction in a Genetic Mouse Model by Dietary Zinc Restriction

    OpenAIRE

    Whittle, Nigel; Hauschild, Markus; Lubec, Gert; Holmes, Andrew; Singewald, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Fear extinction is impaired in neuropsychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder. Identifying drugs that facilitate fear extinction in animal models provides leads for novel pharmacological treatments for these disorders. Zinc (Zn) is expressed in neurons in a cortico-amygdala circuit mediating fear extinction, and modulates neurotransmitter systems regulating extinction. We previously found that the 129S1/SvImJ mouse strain (S1) exhibited a profound impairment in fear extin...

  2. Circuits Regulating Pleasure and Happiness-Mechanisms of Depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loonen, Anton J.M.; Ivanova, Svetlana A.

    2016-01-01

    According to our model of the regulation of appetitive-searching vs. distress-avoiding behaviors, the motivation to display these essential conducts is regulated by two parallel cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical, re-entry circuits, including the core and the shell parts of the nucleus accumbens,

  3. Circuits regulating pleasure and happiness in bipolar disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loonen, Anton J. M.; Kupka, Ralph W.; Ivanova, Svetlana A.

    2017-01-01

    According to our model, the motivation for appetitive-searching vs. distress-avoiding behaviors is regulated by two parallel cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical (CSTC) re-entry circuits that include the core and the shell parts of the nucleus accumbens, respectively. An entire series of basal ganglia,

  4. Functional hierarchy underlies preferential connectivity disturbances in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Genevieve J; Murray, John D; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Glahn, David C; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Repovs, Grega; Krystal, John H; Anticevic, Alan

    2016-01-12

    Schizophrenia may involve an elevated excitation/inhibition (E/I) ratio in cortical microcircuits. It remains unknown how this regulatory disturbance maps onto neuroimaging findings. To address this issue, we implemented E/I perturbations within a neural model of large-scale functional connectivity, which predicted hyperconnectivity following E/I elevation. To test predictions, we examined resting-state functional MRI in 161 schizoph