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Sample records for intracellular particle dissolution

  1. Cytotoxicity and intracellular dissolution of nickel nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Perez, Jose E.

    2015-12-22

    The assessment of cytotoxicity of nanostructures is a fundamental step for their development as biomedical tools. As widely used nanostructures, nickel nanowires (Ni NWs) seem promising candidates for such applications. In this work, Ni NWs were synthesized and then characterized using vibrating sample magnetometry, energy dispersive X-Ray analysis and electron microscopy. After exposure to the NWs, cytotoxicity was evaluated in terms of cell viability, cell membrane damage and induced apoptosis/necrosis on the model human cell line HCT 116. The influence of NW to cell ratio (10:1 to 1000:1) and exposure times up to 72 hours was analyzed for Ni NWs of 5.4 µm in length, as well as for Ni ions. The results show that cytotoxicity markedly increases past 24 hours of incubation. Cellular uptake of NWs takes place through the phagocytosis pathway, with a fraction of the dose of NWs dissolved inside the cells. Cell death results from a combination of apoptosis and necrosis, where the latter is the outcome of the secondary necrosis pathway. The cytotoxicity of Ni ions and Ni NWs dissolution studies suggest a synergistic toxicity between NW aspect ratio and dissolved Ni, with the cytotoxic effects markedly increasing after 24 hours of incubation.

  2. Cytotoxicity and intracellular dissolution of nickel nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jose E; Contreras, Maria F; Vilanova, Enrique; Felix, Laura P; Margineanu, Michael B; Luongo, Giovanni; Porter, Alexandra E; Dunlop, Iain E; Ravasi, Timothy; Kosel, Jürgen

    2016-09-01

    The assessment of cytotoxicity of nanostructures is a fundamental step for their development as biomedical tools. As widely used nanostructures, nickel nanowires (Ni NWs) seem promising candidates for such applications. In this work, Ni NWs were synthesized and then characterized using vibrating sample magnetometry, energy dispersive X-Ray analysis, and electron microscopy. After exposure to the NWs, cytotoxicity was evaluated in terms of cell viability, cell membrane damage, and induced apoptosis/necrosis on the model human cell line HCT 116. The influence of NW to cell ratio (10:1 to 1000:1) and exposure times up to 72 hours was analyzed for Ni NWs of 5.4 μm in length, as well as for Ni ions. The results show that cytotoxicity markedly increases past 24 hours of incubation. Cellular uptake of NWs takes place through the phagocytosis pathway, with a fraction of the dose of NWs dissolved inside the cells. Cell death results from a combination of apoptosis and necrosis, where the latter is the outcome of the secondary necrosis pathway. The cytotoxicity of Ni ions and Ni NWs dissolution studies suggest a synergistic toxicity between NW aspect ratio and dissolved Ni, with the cytotoxic effects markedly increasing after 24 hours of incubation.

  3. Cytotoxicity and intracellular dissolution of nickel nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Perez, Jose E.; Contreras, Maria F.; Vidal, Enrique Vilanova; Felix Servin, Laura P.; Margineanu, Michael B.; Luongo, Giovanni; Porter, Alexandra E.; Dunlop, Iain E.; Ravasi, Timothy; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of cytotoxicity of nanostructures is a fundamental step for their development as biomedical tools. As widely used nanostructures, nickel nanowires (Ni NWs) seem promising candidates for such applications. In this work, Ni NWs were synthesized and then characterized using vibrating sample magnetometry, energy dispersive X-Ray analysis and electron microscopy. After exposure to the NWs, cytotoxicity was evaluated in terms of cell viability, cell membrane damage and induced apoptosis/necrosis on the model human cell line HCT 116. The influence of NW to cell ratio (10:1 to 1000:1) and exposure times up to 72 hours was analyzed for Ni NWs of 5.4 µm in length, as well as for Ni ions. The results show that cytotoxicity markedly increases past 24 hours of incubation. Cellular uptake of NWs takes place through the phagocytosis pathway, with a fraction of the dose of NWs dissolved inside the cells. Cell death results from a combination of apoptosis and necrosis, where the latter is the outcome of the secondary necrosis pathway. The cytotoxicity of Ni ions and Ni NWs dissolution studies suggest a synergistic toxicity between NW aspect ratio and dissolved Ni, with the cytotoxic effects markedly increasing after 24 hours of incubation.

  4. Supplementary Material for: Cytotoxicity and intracellular dissolution of nickel nanowires

    KAUST Repository

    Perez, Jose E.; Contreras, Maria F.; Vidal, Enrique Vilanova; Felix Servin, Laura P.; Margineanu, Michael B.; Luongo, Giovanni; Porter, Alexandra E.; Dunlop, Iain E.; Ravasi, Timothy; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of cytotoxicity of nanostructures is a fundamental step for their development as biomedical tools. As widely used nanostructures, nickel nanowires (Ni NWs) seem promising candidates for such applications. In this work, Ni NWs were synthesized and then characterized using vibrating sample magnetometry, energy dispersive X-Ray analysis, and electron microscopy. After exposure to the NWs, cytotoxicity was evaluated in terms of cell viability, cell membrane damage, and induced apoptosis/necrosis on the model human cell line HCT 116. The influence of NW to cell ratio (10:1 to 1000:1) and exposure times up to 72 hours was analyzed for Ni NWs of 5.4 μm in length, as well as for Ni ions. The results show that cytotoxicity markedly increases past 24 hours of incubation. Cellular uptake of NWs takes place through the phagocytosis pathway, with a fraction of the dose of NWs dissolved inside the cells. Cell death results from a combination of apoptosis and necrosis, where the latter is the outcome of the secondary necrosis pathway. The cytotoxicity of Ni ions and Ni NWs dissolution studies suggest a synergistic toxicity between NW aspect ratio and dissolved Ni, with the cytotoxic effects markedly increasing after 24 hours of incubation.

  5. Bacterial Association with Particles: Aggregation to Dissolution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    De

    and particulate matter. PAB in Tropical Mandovi-Zuari estuaries The nature of bacteria?particle associations have been the topic of sustained interest for many years (Bitton and Marshall, 1980; Wotton, 1994; Murrell et al., 1999; De Souza et al., 2003, Selje... Alio and Brock, 1983; Becquevort et al., 1998). Like many other estuarine ecosystems, the Zuari and Mandovi estuary on the West coast of India exhibited a high load of suspended matter (De Souza, 2000). These estuaries are influenced by mangroves...

  6. Simulation study of effects of initial particle size distribution on dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G.; Xu, D.S.; Ma, N.; Zhou, N.; Payton, E.J.; Yang, R.; Mills, M.J.; Wang, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Dissolution kinetics of γ' particles in binary Ni-Al alloys with different initial particle size distributions (PSD) is studied using a three-dimensional (3D) quantitative phase field model. By linking model inputs directly to thermodynamic and atomic mobility databases, microstructural evolution during dissolution is simulated in real time and length scales. The model is first validated against analytical solution for dissolution of a single γ' particle in 1D and numerical solution in 3D before it is applied to investigate the effects of initial PSD on dissolution kinetics. Four different types of PSD, uniform, normal, log-normal and bimodal, are considered. The simulation results show that the volume fraction of γ' particles decreases exponentially with time, while the temporal evolution of average particle size depends strongly on the initial PSD

  7. Specific surface area behavior of a dissolving population of particles. Augmenting Mercer Dissolution Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scripsick, R.C.; Rothenberg, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    Specific surface area (Sp) measurements were made on two uranium oxide aerosol materials before and after in vitro dissolution studies were performed on the materials. The results of these Sp measurements were evaluated relative to predictions made from extending Mercer dissolution theory to describe the Sp behavior of a dissolving population of particles

  8. Dissolution of uranium and plutonium particles: simulations using the Mercer equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowan, C.E.; Jenne, E.A.

    1983-10-01

    There is a need to be able to predict the amount of plutonium that will be in solution at a given time from dissolution of particles in order to better predict the environmental behavior and possible adverse effects of plutonium spills. The equation developed by Mercer (1967) to simulate the dissolution of particles in lungs was parameterized and used to simulate the dissolution of a population of plutonium or uranium particles in the soil. Parameter values for the size distribution of particles in soil, and the density of the particles were found; however, values for the shape factors, and the dissolution rate were virtually non-existent. The calculated mass dissolved was most sensitive to the median diameter of the population of particles and least sensitive to the geometric standard deviation. A given percent change in the shape parameter and the dissolution rate resulted in approximately an equal percent change in the mass dissolved. Provided that the population of particles follows a log-normal distribution, the particles are homogeneous in composition and the dissolution can be represented by first-order kinetics, this equation can probably be applied with slight modification to estimate the mass dissolved at a given time. 66 references, 7 figures, 4 tables

  9. Dissolution and transport of plutonium from oxide particles in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    This report contains a summary of methods and data on plutonium dissolution and movement in four soils, plus a copy of a manuscript describing the automatic sample changer for alpha radiation detection which has been submitted for publication

  10. Effect of wet and dry cycles on dissolution of relatively insoluble particles containing Pu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mewhinney, J.A.; Eidson, A.F.; Wong, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    Dissolution of gross alpha emitter radioactivity from particles composed of mixed uranium and plutonium oxides or of plutonium dioxide continually immersed in solvent typically display at least a two-phase dissolution pattern. Rapid dissolution of a small fraction of the total particulate mass is followed by much slower dissolution for the majority of the particulate mass. In this study, respirable particles of (U, Pu)O 2 and PuO 2 were subjected to dissolution using an alternate wetting and drying cycle. Particles were continuously immersed in solvent for 4 d and then dried in air for 3 d. This cycle was repeated weekly for 7 wk. Four solvents were used to represent a range of potential environmental conditions and a fifth solvent was used for comparison to other continuous immersion studies. In contrast to dissolution studies involving continuous immersion over periods of two or more weeks that exhibit a three-phase dissolution process, the alternate wet-dry cycling resulted in repetition of the first two phases of the dissolution pattern for each cycle. This led to significantly enhanced dissolution of both particulate materials. The enhancement in total dissolution ranged from two to ten times larger during each wet-dry cycle compared to studies involving continuous immersion. The results indicate a potential need to re-evaluate environmental models of actinide element bioavailability for particulate materials released to environments where wet-dry cycling may be routine, i.e. intermittent rainfall in an otherwise arid climate or in stream beds with intermittent flow

  11. pH-Dependent Toxicity of High Aspect Ratio ZnO Nanowires in Macrophages Due to Intracellular Dissolution

    KAUST Repository

    H. Müller, Karin

    2010-11-23

    High-aspect ratio ZnO nanowires have become one of the most promising products in the nanosciences within the past few years with a multitude of applications at the interface of optics and electronics. The interaction of zinc with cells and organisms is complex, with both deficiency and excess causing severe effects. The emerging significance of zinc for many cellular processes makes it imperative to investigate the biological safety of ZnO nanowires in order to guarantee their safe economic exploitation. In this study, ZnO nanowires were found to be toxic to human monocyte macrophages (HMMs) at similar concentrations as ZnCl2. Confocal microscopy on live cells confirmed a rise in intracellular Zn2+ concentrations prior to cell death. In vitro, ZnO nanowires dissolved very rapidly in a simulated body fluid of lysosomal pH, whereas they were comparatively stable at extracellular pH. Bright-field transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed a rapid macrophage uptake of ZnO nanowire aggregates by phagocytosis. Nanowire dissolution occurred within membrane-bound compartments, triggered by the acidic pH of the lysosomes. ZnO nanowire dissolution was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Deposition of electron-dense material throughout the ZnO nanowire structures observed by TEM could indicate adsorption of cellular components onto the wires or localized zinc-induced protein precipitation. Our study demonstrates that ZnO nanowire toxicity in HMMs is due to pH-triggered, intracellular release of ionic Zn2+ rather than the high-aspect nature of the wires. Cell death had features of necrosis as well as apoptosis, with mitochondria displaying severe structural changes. The implications of these findings for the application of ZnO nanowires are discussed. © 2010 American Chemical Society.

  12. Phagolysosomal pH and dissolution of cobalt oxide particles by alveolar macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundborg, M.; Johansson, A.; Camner, P.; Falk, R.; Kreyling, W.

    1992-01-01

    We studied phagolysosomal pH in rabbit macrophages (AM) incubated with 0.-15 μM chloroquine. There was a dose-related increase in pH with chloroquine concentration. Electron microscopy showed that chloroquine increased lysosomal size. In a second experiment we studied dissolution of radiolabeled cobalt oxide particles by rabbit AM, phagolysosomal pH, and lysosomal size. The cells were incubated for 2 days with 0, 2, 5, and 10 μM chloroquine. Size and pH increased with chloroquine concentration. Dissolution of cobalt particles by the AM did not clearly change with pH. In a third experiment, dissolution in acetate buffer was faster than in the AM, and the dissolution appeared to decrease faster with increasing pH than in the AM. A simple model for dissolution of a particle in a phagolysosome was proposed. This model predicts the types of difference in dissolution between AM and buffered saline. 19 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Intracellular performance of tailored nanoparticle tracers in magnetic particle imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arami, Hamed; Krishnan, Kannan M., E-mail: kannanmk@uw.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, P.O. Box 352120, Seattle, Washington 98195-2120 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) is a quantitative mass-sensitive, tracer-based imaging technique, with potential applications in various cellular imaging applications. The spatial resolution of MPI, in the first approximation, improves by decreasing the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the field-derivative of the magnetization, dm/dH of the nanoparticle (NP) tracers. The FWHM of dm/dH depends critically on NPs’ size, size distribution, and their environment. However, there is limited information on the MPI performance of the NPs after their internalization into cells. In this work, 30 to 150 μg of the iron oxide NPs were incubated in a lysosome-like acidic buffer (0.2 ml, 20 mM citric acid, pH 4.7) and investigated by vibrating sample magnetometry, magnetic particle spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The FWHM of the dm/dH curves of the NPs increased with incubation time and buffer to NPs ratio, consistent with a decrease in the median core size of the NPs from ∼20.1 ± 0.98 to ∼18.5 ± 3.15 nm. Further, these smaller degraded NPs formed aggregates that responded to the applied field by hysteretic reversal at higher field values and increased the FWHM. The rate of core size decrease and aggregation were inversely proportional to the concentration of the incubated NPs, due to their slower biodegradation kinetics. The results of this model experiment show that the MPI performance of the NPs in the acidic environments of the intracellular organelles (i.e., lysosomes and endosomes) can be highly dependent on their rate of internalization, residence time, and degradation.

  14. [Effect of stability and dissolution of realgar nano-particles using solid dispersion technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Teng; Shi, Feng; Yang, Gang; Feng, Nian-Ping

    2013-09-01

    To improve the stability and dissolution of realgar nano-particles by solid dispersion. Using polyethylene glycol 6000 and poloxamer-188 as carriers, the solid dispersions were prepare by melting method. XRD, microscopic inspection were used to determine the status of realgar nano-particles in solid dispersions. The content and stability test of As(2)0(3) were determined by DDC-Ag method. Hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the content of Arsenic and investigated the in vitro dissolution behavior of solid dispersions. The results of XRD and microscopic inspection showed that realgar nano-particles in solid dispersions were amorphous. The dissolution amount and rate of Arsenic from realgar nano-particles of all solid dispersions were increased significantly, the reunion of realgar nano-particles and content of As(2)0(3) were reduced for the formation of solid dispersions. The solid dispersion of realgar nano-particles with poloxamer-188 as carriers could obviously improve stability, dissolution and solubility.

  15. A framework for shear driven dissolution of thermally stable particles during friction stir welding and processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palanivel, S. [Advanced Materials and Manufacturing Processes Institute, Center for Friction Stir Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States); Arora, A. [Materials Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Gandhinagar, Palaj, Gandhinagar 382355, Gujarat (India); Doherty, K.J. [U.S. Army Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Science Division, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Mishra, R.S., E-mail: Rajiv.Mishra@unt.edu [Advanced Materials and Manufacturing Processes Institute, Center for Friction Stir Processing, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of North Texas, Denton, TX 76203 (United States)

    2016-12-15

    A framework is proposed to explain the dissolution and fragmentation of particles during friction stir welding and processing. Two major mechanisms dissolve the particle during the process: (i) thermally activated diffusion, and (ii) dislocation and grain boundary sweeping of atoms. We use a three-dimensional coupled viscoplastic flow and heat transfer model to quantify these mechanisms. For illustration purposes, calculations were done on a thermally stable Mg{sub 2}Y intermetallic that dissolved during processing. The framework is universal and applies to any second phase dissolution and fragmentation during friction stir welding and processing, thus enabling a science-based approach to tailor microstructures.

  16. Dissolution of aerosol particles collected from nuclear facility plutonium production process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ning Xu; Martinez, Alex; Schappert, Michael; Montoya, D.P.; Martinez, Patrick; Tandon, Lav

    2016-01-01

    A simple, robust analytical chemistry method has been developed to dissolve plutonium containing particles in a complex matrix. The aerosol particles collected on Marple cascade impactor substrates were shown to be dissolved completely with an acid mixture of 12 M HNO 3 and 0.1 M HF. A pressurized closed vessel acid digestion technique was utilized to heat the samples at 130 deg C for 16 h to facilitate the digestion. The dissolution efficiency for plutonium particles was 99 %. The resulting particle digestate solution was suitable for trace elemental analysis and isotope composition determination, as well as radiochemistry measurements. (author)

  17. Dissolution process of atmospheric aerosol particles into cloud droplets; Processus de dissolution des aerosols atmospheriques au sein des gouttes d'eau nuageuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desboeufs, K

    2001-01-15

    Clouds affect both climate via the role they play in the Earth's radiation balance and tropospheric chemistry since they are efficient reaction media for chemical transformation of soluble species. Cloud droplets are formed in the atmosphere by condensation of water vapour onto aerosol particles, the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The water soluble fraction of these CCN governs the cloud micro-physics, which is the paramount factor playing on the radiative properties of clouds. Moreover, this soluble fraction is the source of species imply in the oxidation/reduction reactions in the aqueous phase. Thus, it is of particular importance to understand the process controlling the solubilization of aerosols in the cloud droplets. The main purpose of this work is to investigate experimentally and theoretically the dissolution of particles incorporated in the aqueous phase. From the studies conducted up to now, we have identify several factors playing on the dissolution reaction of aerosols. However, the quantification of the effects of these factors is difficult since the current means of study are not adapted to the complexity of cloud systems. First, this work consisted to perform a experimental system, compound by an open flow reactor, enabling to follow the kinetic of dissolution in conditions representative of cloud. This experimental device is used to a systematic characterisation of the known factors playing on the dissolution, i.e. pH, aerosol nature, aerosol weathering... and also for the identification and the quantification of the effects of other factors: ionic strength, acid nature, clouds processes. These experiments gave quantitative results, which are used to elaborate a simple model of aerosol dissolution in the aqueous phase. This model considers the main factors playing on the dissolution and results in a general mechanism of aerosol dissolution extrapolated to the cloud droplets. (author)

  18. Dissolution process of atmospheric aerosol particles into cloud droplets; Processus de dissolution des aerosols atmospheriques au sein des gouttes d'eau nuageuses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desboeufs, K.

    2001-01-15

    Clouds affect both climate via the role they play in the Earth's radiation balance and tropospheric chemistry since they are efficient reaction media for chemical transformation of soluble species. Cloud droplets are formed in the atmosphere by condensation of water vapour onto aerosol particles, the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). The water soluble fraction of these CCN governs the cloud micro-physics, which is the paramount factor playing on the radiative properties of clouds. Moreover, this soluble fraction is the source of species imply in the oxidation/reduction reactions in the aqueous phase. Thus, it is of particular importance to understand the process controlling the solubilization of aerosols in the cloud droplets. The main purpose of this work is to investigate experimentally and theoretically the dissolution of particles incorporated in the aqueous phase. From the studies conducted up to now, we have identify several factors playing on the dissolution reaction of aerosols. However, the quantification of the effects of these factors is difficult since the current means of study are not adapted to the complexity of cloud systems. First, this work consisted to perform a experimental system, compound by an open flow reactor, enabling to follow the kinetic of dissolution in conditions representative of cloud. This experimental device is used to a systematic characterisation of the known factors playing on the dissolution, i.e. pH, aerosol nature, aerosol weathering... and also for the identification and the quantification of the effects of other factors: ionic strength, acid nature, clouds processes. These experiments gave quantitative results, which are used to elaborate a simple model of aerosol dissolution in the aqueous phase. This model considers the main factors playing on the dissolution and results in a general mechanism of aerosol dissolution extrapolated to the cloud droplets. (author)

  19. Radio frequency induction of intracellular ferromagnetic particles: Potential for therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, I.A.; Pizzarello, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The authors have been studying the therapeutic potential of ferromagnetic or paramagnetic particles as mediators for depositing tumoricidal doses of radio frequency (RF) energy. Ferric oxide suspended in dextrose or polyvinylpyrrolidone was administered to retired female rat breeders with spontaneous mammary tumors. The rats were then exposed to an intense 100-kHz RF field. Tumor doubling times were increased from 23 days for controls to 62 days for rats irradiated 6 days after the administration of the particle suspensions. There was no conclusive evidence of organ damage caused by treatment. They conclude that the treatment modality merits further investigation

  20. Effect of particle size on solubility, dissolution rate, and oral bioavailability: evaluation using coenzyme Q10 as naked nanocrystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Jiao Sun,1 Fan Wang,1,2 Yue Sui,1 Zhennan She,1 Wenjun Zhai,1 Chunling Wang,1 Yihui Deng11College of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang, China; 2Beijing Zhijianjinrui Applied Pharmaceutical Science Inc, Beijing, ChinaAbstract: In this paper work, four naked nanocrystals (size range 80–700 nm were prepared without any surfactant or polymer using the solvent/nonsolvent method. The effects of particle size on their solubility, dissolution, and oral bioavailability were investigated. Solubility and dissolution testing were performed in three types of dissolution medium, and the studies demonstrated that the equilibrium solubilities of coenzyme Q10 nanocrystals and bulk drugs were not affected by the dissolution media but the kinetic solubilities were. Kinetic solubility curves and changes in particle size distribution were determined and well explained by the proposed solubilization model for the nanocrystals and bulk drugs. The particle size effect on dissolution was clearly influenced by the diffusion coefficients of the various dissolution media, and the dissolution velocity of coenzyme Q10 increased as particle size decreased. The bioavailability of coenzyme Q10 after oral administration in beagle dogs was improved by reducing the particle size. For 700 nm nanocrystals, the AUC0–48 was 4.4-fold greater than that for the coarse suspensions, but a further decrease in particle size from 700 nm to 120 nm did not contribute to improvement in bioavailability until the particle size was reduced to 80 nm, when bioavailability was increased by 7.3-fold.Keywords: particle size, solubility, dissolution, nanocrystal, bioavailability, coenzyme Q10

  1. Particle diffusional layer thickness in a USP dissolution apparatus II: a combined function of particle size and paddle speed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Jennifer J; Sirois, Paul J; Dressman, Jennifer B; Amidon, Gordon L

    2008-11-01

    This work was to investigate the effects of particle size and paddle speed on the particle diffusional layer thickness h(app) in a USP dissolution apparatus II. After the determination of the powder dissolution rates of five size fractions of fenofibrate, including <20, 20-32, 32-45, 63-75, and 90-106 microm, the present work shows that the dependence of h(app) on particle size follows different functions in accordance with the paddle speed. At 50 rpm, the function of h(app) is best described by a linear plot of h{app} = 9.91sqrt d-23.31 (R(2) = 0.98) throughout the particle diameter, d, from 6.8 to 106 microm. In contrast, at 100 rpm a transitional particle radius, r, of 23.7 microm exists, under which linear relationship h(app) = 1.59r (R(2) = 0.98) occurs, but above which h(app) becomes a constant of 43.5 microm. Thus, h(app) changes not only with particle size, but also with the hydrodynamics under standard USP configurations, which has been overlooked in the past. Further, the effects of particle size and paddle speed on h(app) were combined using dimensionless analysis. Within certain fluid velocity/particle regime, linear correlation of h(app)/d with the square-root of Reynolds number (d\\varpi/upsilon){1/2}, that is, h{app}/d = 1.5207 - 9.25 x 10{- 4} (d\\varpi/n){1/2} (R(2) = 0.9875), was observed.

  2. Interaction Between Second-Phase Particle Dissolution and Abnormal Grain Growth in an Austenitic Stainless Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutra J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The continuing development of stainless steels has resulted in complex steel compositions with substantial amounts of alloying elements. The benefits of such additions invariably come attached to unavoidable disadvantages. One of the most critical item is the potential microstructural instability of the material. Alloying elements may be in a supersaturated solid solution, in which the precipitation of carbides, nitrides, borides and intermetallic phases occurs in a wide range of temperatures. In order to dissolve the mentioned precipitates, solution annealing is commonly performed. However, at the temperature range in which this treatment is carried out, the onset of abnormal grain growth can occur. The interaction between the dissolution of these second-phase particles and the occurrence of abnormal grain growth is investigated in this work. This study also shows that the thermodynamics and the kinetics of dissolution of precipitates may be used to predict whether abnormal grain growth takes place.

  3. Intracellular vesicle acidification promotes maturation of infectious poliovirus particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsia L Richards

    Full Text Available The autophagic pathway acts as part of the immune response against a variety of pathogens. However, several pathogens subvert autophagic signaling to promote their own replication. In many cases it has been demonstrated that these pathogens inhibit or delay the degradative aspect of autophagy. Here, using poliovirus as a model virus, we report for the first time bona fide autophagic degradation occurring during infection with a virus whose replication is promoted by autophagy. We found that this degradation is not required to promote poliovirus replication. However, vesicular acidification, which in the case of autophagy precedes delivery of cargo to lysosomes, is required for normal levels of virus production. We show that blocking autophagosome formation inhibits viral RNA synthesis and subsequent steps in the virus cycle, while inhibiting vesicle acidification only inhibits the final maturation cleavage of virus particles. We suggest that particle assembly, genome encapsidation, and virion maturation may occur in a cellular compartment, and we propose the acidic mature autophagosome as a candidate vesicle. We discuss the implications of our findings in understanding the late stages of poliovirus replication, including the formation and maturation of virions and egress of infectious virus from cells.

  4. Dissolution and aggregation of Cu nanoparticles in culture media: effects of incubation temperature and particles size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Lingxiangyu; Fernández-Cruz, María Luisa; Connolly, Mona; Schuster, Michael; Navas, José María

    2015-01-01

    Here, the effects of incubation temperature and particle size on the dissolution and aggregation behavior of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) in culture media were investigated over 96 h, equivalent to the time period for acute cell toxicity tests. Three CuNPs with the nominal sizes of 25, 50, and 100 nm and one type of micro-sized particles (MPs, ∼500 nm) were examined in culture media used for human and fish hepatoma cell lines acute tests. A large decrease in sizes of CuNPs in the culture media was observed in the first 24 h incubation, and subsequently the sizes of CuNPs changed slightly over the following 72 h. Moreover, the decreasing rate in size was significantly dependent on the incubation temperature; the higher the incubation temperature, the larger the decreasing rate in size. In addition to that, we also found that the release of copper ions depended on the incubation temperature. Moreover, the dissolution rate of Cu particles increased very fast in the first 24 h, with a slight increase over the following 72 h

  5. Dissolution and aggregation of Cu nanoparticles in culture media: effects of incubation temperature and particles size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Lingxiangyu [Research Center for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, State Key Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology (China); Fernández-Cruz, María Luisa; Connolly, Mona [Spanish National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology - INIA, Department of Environment (Spain); Schuster, Michael [Technische Universität München, Department of Chemistry (Germany); Navas, José María, E-mail: jmnavas@inia.es [Spanish National Institute for Agricultural and Food Research and Technology - INIA, Department of Environment (Spain)

    2015-01-15

    Here, the effects of incubation temperature and particle size on the dissolution and aggregation behavior of copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) in culture media were investigated over 96 h, equivalent to the time period for acute cell toxicity tests. Three CuNPs with the nominal sizes of 25, 50, and 100 nm and one type of micro-sized particles (MPs, ∼500 nm) were examined in culture media used for human and fish hepatoma cell lines acute tests. A large decrease in sizes of CuNPs in the culture media was observed in the first 24 h incubation, and subsequently the sizes of CuNPs changed slightly over the following 72 h. Moreover, the decreasing rate in size was significantly dependent on the incubation temperature; the higher the incubation temperature, the larger the decreasing rate in size. In addition to that, we also found that the release of copper ions depended on the incubation temperature. Moreover, the dissolution rate of Cu particles increased very fast in the first 24 h, with a slight increase over the following 72 h.

  6. Effect of Grinding on the Solid-State Stability and Particle Dissolution of Acyclovir Polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnoni, Federico; Gigliobianco, Maria Rosa; Vargas Peregrina, Dolores; Censi, Roberta; Di Martino, Piera

    2017-10-01

    The present work investigated the solid state change of 4 acyclovir polymorphs when ground at room temperature (Method A) and under cryo-grinding in the presence of liquid nitrogen (Method B). Modifications in particle size and shape (evaluated by scanning electron microscopy) and in the water content (evaluated by thermal analysis) were related to transitions at the solid state, as confirmed by X-ray powder diffractometry. Anhydrous Form I was stable under grinding by both Methods A and B. The anhydrous Form II was stable during grinding under Method A, whereas it was progressively converted to the hydrate Form V during grinding under Method B. The hydrate Form V was stable under Method A, whereas it was converted to the anhydrous Form I after 15 min and then to the hydrate Form VI after 45 min of grinding. The hydrate Form VI proved to be stable under grinding by both Methods A and B. Thus, Form I and VI were the only forms that yielded a sizeable decrease in particle size under grinding, with a consequent increase in particle dissolution rate, while maintaining solid state physicochemical stability. Form I treated under Method B grinding gave the best dissolution rate. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydrodynamic Impacts on Dissolution, Transport and Absorption from Thousands of Drug Particles Moving within the Intestines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behafarid, Farhad; Brasseur, James G.

    2017-11-01

    Following tablet disintegration, clouds of drug particles 5-200 μm in diameter pass through the intestines where drug molecules are absorbed into the blood. Release rate depends on particle size, drug solubility, local drug concentration and the hydrodynamic environment driven by patterned gut contractions. To analyze the dynamics underlying drug release and absorption, we use a 3D lattice Boltzmann model of the velocity and concentration fields driven by peristaltic contractions in vivo, combined with a mathematical model of dissolution-rate from each drug particle transported through the grid. The model is empirically extended for hydrodynamic enhancements to release rate by local convection and shear-rate, and incorporates heterogeneity in bulk concentration. Drug dosage and solubility are systematically varied along with peristaltic wave speed and volume. We predict large hydrodynamic enhancements (35-65%) from local shear-rate with minimal enhancement from convection. With high permeability boundary conditions, a quasi-equilibrium balance between release and absorption is established with volume and wave-speed dependent transport time scale, after an initial transient and before a final period of dissolution/absorption. Supported by FDA.

  8. The dissolution kinetics of major elements in municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendz, David; Tüchsen, Peter L.; Christensen, Thomas H.

    2007-12-01

    Leaching and tracer experiments in batches at L/S 20 were performed with 3-month-old MSWI bottom ash separated into eight different particle sizes. The time-dependent leaching of major elements (Ca 2+, K +, Na +, Cl - and SO 4- 2 ) was monitored for up to 747 h. Physical properties of the particles, the specific surface (BET), pore volume and pore volume distribution over pore sizes (BJH) were determined for all particle classes by N 2 adsorption/desorption experiments. Some common features of physical pore structure for all particles were revealed. The specific surface and the particle pore volume were found to be negatively correlated with particle size, ranging from 3.2 m 2/g to 25.7 m 2/g for the surface area and from 0.0086 cm 3/g to 0.091 cm 3/g for the pore volume. Not surprisingly, the specific surface area was found to be the major material parameter that governed the leaching behavior for all elements (Ca 2+, K +, Na +, Cl - and SO 4- 2 ) and particle sizes. The diffusion resistance was determined independently by separate tracer (tritium) experiments. Diffusion gave a significant contribution to the apparent leaching kinetics for all elements during the first 10-40 h (depending on the particle size) of leaching and surface reaction was the overall rate controlling mechanism at late times for all particle sizes. For Ca 2+ and SO 4- 2 , the coupled effect of diffusion resistance and the degree of undersaturation in the intra particle pore volume was found to be a major rate limiting dissolution mechanism for both early and late times. The solubility control in the intra particulate porosity may undermine any attempt to treat bottom ash by washing out the sulfate. Even for high liquid/solid ratios, the solubility in the intra-particular porosity will limit the release rate.

  9. pH-Dependent Toxicity of High Aspect Ratio ZnO Nanowires in Macrophages Due to Intracellular Dissolution

    KAUST Repository

    H. Müller, Karin; Kulkarni, Jaideep; Motskin, Michael; Goode, Angela; Winship, Peter; Skepper, Jeremy N.; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.

    2010-01-01

    exploitation. In this study, ZnO nanowires were found to be toxic to human monocyte macrophages (HMMs) at similar concentrations as ZnCl2. Confocal microscopy on live cells confirmed a rise in intracellular Zn2+ concentrations prior to cell death. In vitro, Zn

  10. Dissolution and clearance of titanium tritide particles in the lungs of F344/Crl rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Yung-Sung; Snipes, M.B.; Wang, Yansheng

    1995-12-01

    Metal tritides are compounds in which the radioactive isotope tritium, following adsorption onto the metal, forms a stable chemical compound with the metal. When particles of tritiated metals become airborne, they can be inhaled by workers. Because the particles may be retained in the lung for extended periods, the resulting dose will be greater than doses following exposure to tritium gas or tritium oxide (HTO). Particles of triated metals may be dispersed into the air during routine handling, disruption of contaminated metals, or as a result of spontaneous radioactive decay processes. Unlike metal hydrides and deuterides, tritides are radioactive, and the decay of the tritium atoms affects the metal. Because helium is a product of the decay, helium bubbles form within the metal tritide matrix. The pressure from these bubbles leads to respirable particles breaking off from the tritide surface. Our results show that a substantial amount of titanium tritide remains in the rat lung 10 d after intratracheal instillation, confirming results previously obtain in an in vitro dissolution study.

  11. Nanosized particles of orlistat with enhanced in vitro dissolution rate and lipase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, Andrej; Govedarica, Biljana; Dreu, Rok; Kocbek, Petra; Srcic, Stane; Kristl, Julijana

    2010-08-30

    Orlistat is locally acting inhibitor of gastrointestinal lipases which has been developed for the treatment of obesity. The present study was designed with the intent to formulate orlistat in a different way compared to the current practice and investigate its inhibition of gastrointestinal lipases. Orlistat is considered as a technologically problematic and unmanageable substance because of waxy nature, low melting point and low chemical stability. The manuscript presents the critical issues regarding engineering of its nanosuspension with controlled particle size by melt emulsification and high pressure homogenization. In order to formulate dry product, lactose was dissolved in nanosuspension as filler and spray drying has been performed for obtaining the final powder product. Laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy have been used for orlistat nanosuspension characterization, dissolution studies and lipase inhibition studies were performed to characterize the in vitro efficacy of formulated orlistat. The advantage of selected technological procedures is nanosized orlistat with elevated in vitro dissolution rate in comparison to raw drug, physical mixture and marketed product. Furthermore, nanosuspension demonstrated significantly higher in vitro lipase inhibition in comparison to references. To conclude, the results show new technological solution and remarkable increase of pharmacological effect which could potentially lead to decreasing the dose and consequently dose dependent side effects. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Ultrafine particles cause cytoskeletal dysfunctions in macrophages: role of intracellular calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown David M

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particulate air pollution is reported to cause adverse health effects in susceptible individuals. Since most of these particles are derived form combustion processes, the primary composition product is carbon with a very small diameter (ultrafine, less than 100 nm in diameter. Besides the induction of reactive oxygen species and inflammation, ultrafine particles (UFP can cause intracellular calcium transients and suppression of defense mechanisms of alveolar macrophages, such as impaired migration or phagocytosis. Methods In this study the role of intracellular calcium transients caused by UFP was studied on cytoskeleton related functions in J774A.1 macrophages. Different types of fine and ultrafine carbon black particles (CB and ufCB, respectively, such as elemental carbon (EC90, commercial carbon (Printex 90, diesel particulate matter (DEP and urban dust (UD, were investigated. Phagosome transport mechanisms and mechanical cytoskeletal integrity were studied by cytomagnetometry and cell viability was studied by fluorescence microscopy. Macrophages were exposed in vitro with 100 and 320 μg UFP/ml/million cells for 4 hours in serum free medium. Calcium antagonists Verapamil, BAPTA-AM and W-7 were used to block calcium channels in the membrane, to chelate intracellular calcium or to inhibit the calmodulin signaling pathways, respectively. Results Impaired phagosome transport and increased cytoskeletal stiffness occurred at EC90 and P90 concentrations of 100 μg/ml/million cells and above, but not with DEP or UD. Verapamil and W-7, but not BAPTA-AM inhibited the cytoskeletal dysfunctions caused by EC90 or P90. Additionally the presence of 5% serum or 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA suppressed the cytoskeletal dysfunctions. Cell viability showed similar results, where co-culture of ufCB together with Verapamil, W-7, FCS or BSA produced less cell dead compared to the particles only.

  13. Transparent Exopolymeric Particles (TEP Selectively Increase Biogenic Silica Dissolution From Fossil Diatoms as Compared to Fresh Diatoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan Toullec

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Diatom production is mainly supported by the dissolution of biogenic silica (bSiO2 within the first 200 m of the water column. The upper oceanic layer is enriched in dissolved and/or colloidal organic matter, such as exopolymeric polysaccharides (EPS and transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP excreted by phytoplankton in large amounts, especially at the end of a bloom. In this study we explored for the first time the direct influence of TEP-enriched diatom excretions on bSiO2 dissolution. Twelve dissolution experiments on fresh and fossil diatom frustules were carried out on seawater containing different concentrations of TEP extracted from diatom cultures. Fresh diatom frustules were cleaned from the organic matter by low ash temperature, and fossil diatoms were made from diatomite powder. Results confirm that newly formed bSiO2 dissolved at a faster rate than fossil diatoms due to a lower aluminum (Al content. Diatom excretions have no effect on the dissolution of the newly formed bSiO2 from Chaetoceros muelleri. Reversely, the diatomite specific dissolution rate constant and solubility of the bSiO2 were positively correlated to TEP concentrations, suggesting that diatom excretion may provide an alternative source of dSi when limitations arise.

  14. Improving the API dissolution rate during pharmaceutical hot-melt extrusion I: Effect of the API particle size, and the co-rotating, twin-screw extruder screw configuration on the API dissolution rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng; Gogos, Costas G; Ioannidis, Nicolas

    2015-01-15

    The dissolution rate of the active pharmaceutical ingredients in pharmaceutical hot-melt extrusion is the most critical elementary step during the extrusion of amorphous solid solutions - total dissolution has to be achieved within the short residence time in the extruder. Dissolution and dissolution rates are affected by process, material and equipment variables. In this work, we examine the effect of one of the material variables and one of the equipment variables, namely, the API particle size and extruder screw configuration on the API dissolution rate, in a co-rotating, twin-screw extruder. By rapidly removing the extruder screws from the barrel after achieving a steady state, we collected samples along the length of the extruder screws that were characterized by polarized optical microscopy (POM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to determine the amount of undissolved API. Analyses of samples indicate that reduction of particle size of the API and appropriate selection of screw design can markedly improve the dissolution rate of the API during extrusion. In addition, angle of repose measurements and light microscopy images show that the reduction of particle size of the API can improve the flowability of the physical mixture feed and the adhesiveness between its components, respectively, through dry coating of the polymer particles by the API particles. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Encapsulation of solid dispersion in solid lipid particles for dissolution enhancement of poorly water-soluble drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Khanh Thi My; Vo, Toi Van; Tran, Phuong Ha-Lien; Lee, Beom-Jin; Duan, Wei; Tran, Thao Truong-Dinh

    2017-06-05

    The aim of this research was to engineer solid dispersion lipid particles (SD-SLs) in which a solid dispersion (SD) was encapsulated to form the core of solid lipid particles (SLs), thereby achieving an efficient enhancement in the dissolution of a poorly water-soluble drug. Ultrasonication was introduced into the process to obtain micro/nanoscale SLs. The mechanism of dissolution enhancement was investigated by analysing the crystalline structure, molecular interactions, and particle size of the formulations. The drug release from the SD-SLs was significantly greater than that from the SD or SLs alone. This enhancement in drug release was dependent on the preparation method and the drug-to-polymer ratio of the SD. With an appropriate amount of polymer in the SD, the solidification method had the potential to alter the drug crystallinity to an amorphous state, resulting in particle uniformity and molecular interactions in the SD-SLs. The proposed system provides a new strategy for enhancing the dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble drugs and further improving their bioavailability. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  16. An interspecies comparison of the phagocytosis and dissolution of 241AmO2 particles by rat, dog and monkey alveolar macrophages in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taya, A.; Carmack, D.B.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the phagocytosis and dissolution of 241 AmO 2 particles by rat, dog and monkey alveolar macrophages (PAM) in vitro. The phagocytosis and dissolution of 241 AmO 2 particles were followed up to 20 and 72 h, respectively. Dog and monkey PAM took up 241 AmO 2 particles at similar rates, whereas rat PAM phagocytosed only 60% of the amount phagocytosed by dog and monkey PAM at 20h. The PAM of the three species dissolved 241 AmO 2 particles at similar rates; 8-10% was dissolved by 72h. The results of the 241 AmO 2 uptake in vitro may reflect in vivo situations, where the differences in uptake seen in vitro would probably diminish at later times after exposure. The dissolution results imply that the dissolution of 241 AmO 2 particles by alveolar macrophages of the three species might be species-independent. (author)

  17. The effect of conditioning by permanganate on the dissolution behavior of stellite particles in organic complexing acid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, V.; Chandramohan, P.; Srinivasan, M.P.; Sukumar, A.A.; Raju, V.S.; Velmurugan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V.

    2004-01-01

    Radioactive hotspots found either in the primary heat transport circuit or auxiliary circuits of nuclear reactors are mainly due to particles containing activated cobalt. The main source of these particles are stellite alloys that are rich in cobalt and are used in primary cooling circuits in valves, pumps, etc. Due to either mechanical erosion or erosion coupled with corrosion under flow conditions (known as tribocorrosion), these stellite particles are released into the system. They are then activated by neutron absorption in the reactor core before being deposited on out-of-core surfaces, causing radiation exposure problems. In this paper, the possibility of dissolving stellite particles by using an oxidation-complexation process has been explored. Permanganate based reagents were evaluated for their efficiency in conditioning the stellite particles for their dissolution with organic acids. Permanganic acid was found to be the superior conditioning agent. Two alloys of stellite, viz. stellites no. 3 and no. 6, were studied with respect to their dissolution behavior

  18. Dual-modality single particle orientation and rotational tracking of intracellular transport of nanocargos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wei; Gu, Yan; Wang, Gufeng; Fang, Ning

    2012-01-17

    The single particle orientation and rotational tracking (SPORT) technique was introduced recently to follow the rotational motion of plasmonic gold nanorod under a differential interference contrast (DIC) microscope. In biological studies, however, cellular activities usually involve a multiplicity of molecules; thus, tracking the motion of a single molecule/object is insufficient. Fluorescence-based techniques have long been used to follow the spatial and temporal distributions of biomolecules of interest thanks to the availability of multiplexing fluorescent probes. To know the type and number of molecules and the timing of their involvement in a biological process under investigation by SPORT, we constructed a dual-modality DIC/fluorescence microscope to simultaneously image fluorescently tagged biomolecules and plasmonic nanoprobes in living cells. With the dual-modality SPORT technique, the microtubule-based intracellular transport can be unambiguously identified while the dynamic orientation of nanometer-sized cargos can be monitored at video rate. Furthermore, the active transport on the microtubule can be easily separated from the diffusion before the nanocargo docks on the microtubule or after it undocks from the microtubule. The potential of dual-modality SPORT is demonstrated for shedding new light on unresolved questions in intracellular transport.

  19. Disintegration rate and properties of active pharmaceutical ingredient particles as determined from the dissolution time profile of a pharmaceutical formulation: an inverse problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horkovics-Kovats, Stefan

    2014-02-01

    Dissolution profile of a finished dosage form (FDF) contains hidden information regarding the disintegration of the form and the particle properties of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. Here, an extraction of this information from the dissolution profile without limitation to sink conditions is provided. In the article, mathematical relationships between the continuously measured dissolution profile of an FDF containing uniform or heterogeneous particles and its disintegration rate are developed. Further, the determinability of the disintegration kinetics and particle properties released from an FDF using the derived recurrent procedure was analyzed. On the basis of the theoretical data sets, it was demonstrated that the introduced analysis of dissolution profiles correctly identifies the disintegration rate of FDF containing multiple particle types. Furthermore, for known disintegration rates, the intrinsic lifetime of particles (time needed for total particle dissolution in infinite volume) released from the FDF and their relative amount can be determined. The extractable information from FDF dissolution time profiles can be utilized in designing of the formulation process, resulting in improved understanding of FDF properties, contributing thus to the implementation of quality by design in the FDF development. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  20. On strain-induced dissolution of θ' and θ particles in Al-Cu binary alloy during equal channel angular pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhiyi; Bai Song; Zhou Xuanwei; Gu Yanxia

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → θ' particles in Al-Cu binary alloy was found to dissolve more rapidly than θ particles. → The different dissolution behavior of the θ' and θ phase was thermodynamically analysed. → The critical radius and free energy barrier for the strain-induced dissolution were calculated. - Abstract: The deformable θ' particle in Al-Cu binary alloy was found to dissolve more rapidly than the indeformable θ particle due to an additional increasing strain energy accumulated in the deformed θ' plate as well as an increasing interface energy led by the formation of sub-boundary in the θ' plate and fragmentation of the particle during equal channel angular pressing (ECAP). The critical radius and the free energy barrier for the strain-induced dissolution of both θ' and θ particles were calculated.

  1. Dissolution and reactive oxygen species generation of inhaled cemented tungsten carbide particles in artificial human lung fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefaniak, A B; Leonard, S S; Hoover, M D; Virji, M A; Day, G A

    2009-01-01

    Inhalation of both cobalt (Co) and tungsten carbide (WC) particles is associated with development of hard metal lung disease (HMD) via generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), whereas Co alone is sufficient to cause asthma via solubilization and hapten formation. We characterized bulk and aerodynamically size-separated W, WC, Co, spray dryer (pre-sintered), and chamfer grinder (post-sintered) powders. ROS generation was measured in the murine RAW 264.7 cell line using electron spin resonance. When dose was normalized to surface area, hydroxyl radical generation was independent of particle size, which suggests that particle surface chemistry may be an important exposure factor. Chamfer grinder particles generated the highest levels of ROS, consistent with the hypothesis that intimate contact of metals is important for ROS generation. In artificial extracellular lung fluid, alkylbenzyldimethylammonium chloride (ABDC), added to prevent mold growth during experiments, did not influence dissolution of Co (44.0±5.2 vs. 48.3±6.4%); however, dissolution was higher (p<0.05) in the absence of phosphate (62.0±5.4 vs. 48.3±6.4%). In artificial macrophage phagolysosomal fluid, dissolution of Co (36.2±10.4%) does not appear to be influenced (p=0.30) by the absence of glycine (29.8±2.1%), phosphate (39.6±8.6%), or ABDC (44.0±10.5%). These results aid in assessing and understanding Co and W inhalation dosimetry.

  2. Improving dissolution and oral bioavailability of pranlukast hemihydrate by particle surface modification with surfactants and homogenization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ha ES

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Eun-Sol Ha,1 In-hwan Baek,2 Jin-Wook Yoo,1 Yunjin Jung,1 Min-Soo Kim1 1College of Pharmacy, Pusan National University, 2College of Pharmacy, Kyungsung University, Busan, Republic of Korea Abstract: The present study was carried out to develop an oral formulation of pranlukast hemihydrate with improved dissolution and oral bioavailability using a surface-modified microparticle. Based on solubility measurements, surface-modified pranlukast hemihydrate microparticles were manufactured using the spray-drying method with hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose, sucrose laurate, and water and without the use of an organic solvent. The hydrophilicity of the surface-modified pranlukast hemihydrate microparticle increased, leading to enhanced dissolution and oral bioavailability of pranlukast hemihydrate without a change in crystallinity. The surface-modified microparticles with an hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose/sucrose laurate ratio of 1:2 showed rapid dissolution of up to 85% within 30 minutes in dissolution medium (pH 6.8 and oral bioavailability higher than that of the commercial product, with approximately 2.5-fold and 3.9-fold increases in area under the curve (AUC0→12 h and peak plasma concentration, respectively. Therefore, the surface-modified microparticle is an effective oral drug delivery system for the poorly water-soluble therapeutic pranlukast hemihydrate. Keywords: solubility, wettability, sucrose laurate, cellulose

  3. Dissolution and particle size characterization of radioactive contaminants in Hanford facilities: Criteria for methods of measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briant, J.K.; James, A.C.

    1990-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to discuss experimental methods that can be applied to evaluate the rate at which an actinide material is likely to dissolve in biological fluids. Criteria are recommended for the design and conduct of meaningful experimental procedures to sample a representative size fraction of the source material, to measure the rate of radionuclide dissolution, and to apply the results to assign the material to an appropriate ICRP Publication-30 lung retention class (or mixture of classes). 26 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Bubbles and Dust: Dissolution Rates of Unhydrated Volcanic Ash as a Function of Morphology, Composition, and Particle Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wygel, C. M.; Sahagian, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Volcanic eruptions are natural hazards due to their explosive nature and widespread transportation and deposition of ash particles. After deposition and subsequent leaching in soils or water bodies, ash deposition positively (nutrients) and negatively (contaminants) impacts the health of flora and fauna, including humans. The effects of ash leachates have been difficult to replicate in field and laboratory studies due to the many complexities and differences between ash particles. Ash morphology is characteristic for each eruption, dependent upon eruption energy, and should play a critical role in determining leaching rates. Morphology reflects overall particle surface area, which is strongly influenced by the presence of surface dust. In addition, ash composition, which in part controls morphology and particle size, may also affect leaching rates. This study determines the extent to which ash morphology, surface area, composition, and particle size control ash dissolution rates. Further, it is necessary to determine whether compound vesicular ash particles permit water into their interior structures to understand if both the internal and external surface areas are available for leaching. To address this, six fresh, unhydrated ash samples from diverse volcanic environments and a large range in morphology, from Pele's spheres to vesicular compound ash, are tested in the laboratory. Ash morphology was characterized on the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) before and after leaching and surface area was quantified by Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) analysis and with geometric calculations. Column Leachate Tests (CLT) were conducted to compare leaching rates over a range of basaltic to silicic ashes as a function of time and surface area, to recreate the effects of ash deposition in diverse volcanic environments. After the CLT, post-leaching water analyses were conducted by Ion Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Ion Chromatography (IC). We find that leaching

  5. Study of the dissolution velocity of dispersed solid particles. Development of a calculation method for analyzing the kinetic curves. Extension to the study of composed kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorda, Michel.

    1976-01-01

    The dissolution of a solid in an aqueous phase is studied, the solid consisting of dispersed particles. A continuous colorimetric analysis method is developed to study the dissolution process and a two-parameter optimization method is established to investigate the kinetic curves obtained. This method is based on the differential equation dx/dt=K(1-x)sup(n). (n being the decrease in the dissolution velocity when the dissolved part increases and K a velocity parameter). The dissolution of SO 4 Cu and MnO 4 K in water and UO 3 in SO 4 H 2 is discussed. It is shown that the dissolution velocity of UO 3 is proportional to the concentration of the H + ions in the solution as far as this one is not higher than 0.25N. The study of the temperature dependence of the UO 3 dissolution reaction shows that a transition phase takes place from 25 to 65 0 C between a phase in which the dissolution is controlled by the diffusion of the H + ions and the chemical reaction at the interface and a phase in which the kinetics is only controlled by the diffusion [fr

  6. A novel particle engineering technology to enhance dissolution of poorly water soluble drugs: spray-freezing into liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, True L; Nelsen, Andrew C; Hu, Jiahui; Brown, Judith N; Sarkari, Marazban; Young, Timothy J; Johnston, Keith P; Williams, Robert O

    2002-11-01

    A novel cryogenic spray-freezing into liquid (SFL) process was developed to produce microparticulate powders consisting of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) molecularly embedded within a pharmaceutical excipient matrix. In the SFL process, a feed solution containing the API was atomized beneath the surface of a cryogenic liquid such that the liquid-liquid impingement between the feed and cryogenic liquids resulted in intense atomization into microdroplets, which were frozen instantaneously into microparticles. The SFL micronized powder was obtained following lyophilization of the frozen microparticles. The objective of this study was to develop a particle engineering technology to produce micronized powders of the hydrophobic drug, danazol, complexed with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPbetaCD) and to compare these SFL micronized powders to inclusion complex powders produced from other techniques, such as co-grinding of dry powder mixtures and lyophilization of bulk solutions. Danazol and HPbetaCD were dissolved in a water/tetrahydrofuran cosolvent mixture prior to SFL processing or slow freezing. Identical quantities of the API and HPbetaCD used in the solutions were co-ground in a mortar and pestle and blended to produce a co-ground physical mixture for comparison. The powder samples were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy, surface area analysis, and dissolution testing. The results provided by DSC, XRD, and FTIR suggested the formation of inclusion complexes by both slow-freezing and SFL. However, the specific surface area was significantly higher for the latter. Dissolution results suggested that equilibration of the danazol/HPbetaCD solution prior to SFL processing was required to produce the most soluble conformation of the resulting inclusion complex following SFL. SFL micronized powders exhibited better dissolution

  7. Modelling of Limestone Dissolution in Wet FGD Systems: The Importance of an Accurate Particle Size Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren; Johnsson, Jan Erik; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    1999-01-01

    Danish limestone types with very different particle size distributions (PSDs). All limestones were of a high purity. Model predictions were found to be qualitatively in good agreement with experimental data without any use of adjustable parameters. Deviations between measurements and simulations were...... attributed primarily to the PSD measurements of the limestone particles, which were used as model inputs. The PSDs, measured using a laser diffrac-tion-based Malvern analyser, were probably not representative of the limestone samples because agglomeration phenomena took place when the particles were...

  8. Comparative solubilisation of potassium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate in hot dimethylformamide: application of cylindrical particle surface-controlled dissolution theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forryan, Claire L; Compton, Richard G; Klymenko, Oleksiy V; Brennan, Colin M; Taylor, Catherine L; Lennon, Martin

    2006-02-07

    A surface-controlled dissolution of cylindrical solid particles model is applied to potassium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate in dimethylformamide at elevated temperatures. Previously published data for the dissolution of potassium carbonate is interpreted assuming a cylindrical rather than a spherical shape of the particles, the former representing a closer approximation to the true shape of the particles as revealed by scanning electron microscopy. The dissolution kinetics of sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate in dimethylformamide at 100 degrees C were investigated via monitoring of the deprotonation of 2-cyanophenol with dissolved solid to form the 2-cyanophenolate anion that was detected with UV-visible spectroscopy. From fitting of experimental results to theory, the dissolution rate constant, k, for the dissolutions of potassium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate in dimethylformamide at 100 degrees C were found to have the values of (1.0 +/- 0.1) x 10(-7) mol cm(-2) s(-1), (5.5 +/- 0.3) x 10(-9) mol cm(-2) s(-1) and (9.7 +/- 0.8) x 10(-9) mol cm(-2) s(-1), respectively.

  9. Dissolution processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    This review contains more than 100 observations and 224 references on the dissolution phenomenon. The dissolution processes are grouped into three categories: methods of aqueous attack, fusion methods, and miscellaneous observations on phenomena related to dissolution problems

  10. Permeability change with dissolution and precipitation reaction induced by highly alkaline plume in packed bed with amorphous silica particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Kyo; Kadowaki, Junichi; Niibori, Yuichi; Mimura, Hitoshi; Usui, Hideo

    2008-01-01

    A large amount of cement is used to construct of the geological disposal system. Such a material alters the pH of groundwater to highly alkaline region. The highly alkaline plume contains rich Ca ion compared to the surrounding environment, and the Ca ion reacts with soluble silicic acid. Its product would deposit on the surface of flow-paths in the natural barrier and decrease the permeability. In this study, the influence of Ca ions in highly alkaline plume on flow-paths has been examined by using packed bed column. The column was packed with the amorphous silica particles of 75-150 μm in diameter. The Ca(OH) 2 solution (0.78 mM, 2.58 mM, 4.37 mM, and 8.48 mM, pH: 12.2-12.4) was continuously injected into the column at a constant flow rate (5 ml/min, and 2 ml/min), and the change of permeability was monitored. At the same time, the concentrations of [Ca] total and [Si] in the eluted solution were measured by the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The Ca(OH) 2 solutions were prepared with CO 2 -free pure water, and filtrated through 0.45 μm filter. The permeability was normalized by the initial permeability value. In the experiment results, the permeability dramatically changed with increasing Ca concentration, because Ca ions and H 4 SiO 4 (due to the dissolution of SiO 2 ) produce C-S-H gel between the packed particles in the column. The SEM images and XRD analyses showed that the surface of SiO 2 particles was covered with the C-S-H gel precipitation. On the other hand, when the Ca concentration was relatively low, the permeability did not show remarkable change. For the cross section of SiO 2 particles, EPMA analysis suggested the consumption of Ca in the inner pore of the SiO 2 particles. However, the time-change in the concentrations of Si and Ca was not always simple. Such time-change strongly depended not only on pH or Ca concentration, but also on the flow rates. This suggested that mass transport controls the chemical

  11. Morphological evolution of dissolving feldspar particles with anisotropic surface kinetics and implications for dissolution rate normalization and grain size dependence: A kinetic modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Lüttge, Andreas

    2009-11-01

    With previous two-dimensional (2D) simulations based on surface-specific feldspar dissolution succeeding in relating the macroscopic feldspar kinetics to the molecular-scale surface reactions of Si and Al atoms ( Zhang and Lüttge, 2008, 2009), we extended our modeling effort to three-dimensional (3D) feldspar particle dissolution simulations. Bearing on the same theoretical basis, the 3D feldspar particle dissolution simulations have verified the anisotropic surface kinetics observed in the 2D surface-specific simulations. The combined effect of saturation state, pH, and temperature on the surface kinetics anisotropy has been subsequently evaluated, found offering diverse options for morphological evolution of dissolving feldspar nanoparticles with varying grain sizes and starting shapes. Among the three primary faces on the simulated feldspar surface, the (1 0 0) face has the biggest dissolution rate across an extensively wide saturation state range and thus acquires a higher percentage of the surface area upon dissolution. The slowest dissolution occurs to either (0 0 1) or (0 1 0) faces depending on the bond energies of Si-(O)-Si ( ΦSi-O-Si/ kT) and Al-(O)-Si ( ΦAl-O-Si/ kT). When the ratio of ΦSi-O-Si/ kT to ΦAl-O-Si/ kT changes from 6:3 to 7:5, the dissolution rates of three primary faces change from the trend of (1 0 0) > (0 1 0) > (0 0 1) to the trend of (1 0 0) > (0 0 1) > (0 1 0). The rate difference between faces becomes more distinct and accordingly edge rounding becomes more significant. Feldspar nanoparticles also experience an increasing degree of edge rounding from far-from-equilibrium to close-to-equilibrium. Furthermore, we assessed the connection between the continuous morphological modification and the variation in the bulk dissolution rate during the dissolution of a single feldspar particle. Different normalization treatments equivalent to the commonly used mass, cube assumption, sphere assumption, geometric surface area, and reactive

  12. Exposure to ultrafine particles, intracellular production of reactive oxygen species in leukocytes and altered levels of endothelial progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, Kim; Møller, Peter; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Olsen, Yulia; Bekö, Gabriel; Clausen, Geo; Hersoug, Lars-Georg; Loft, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to particles in the fine and ultrafine size range has been linked to induction of low-grade systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and development of cardiovascular diseases. Declining levels of endothelial progenitor cells within systemic circulation have likewise been linked to progression of cardiovascular diseases. The objective was to determine if exposure to fine and ultrafine particles from indoor and outdoor sources, assessed by personal and residential indoor monitoring, is associated with altered levels of endothelial progenitor cells, and whether such effects are related to leukocyte-mediated oxidative stress. The study utilized a cross sectional design performed in 58 study participants from a larger cohort. Levels of circulating endothelial progenitor cells, defined as either late (CD34 + KDR + cells) or early (CD34 + CD133 + KDR + cells) subsets were measured using polychromatic flow cytometry. We additionally measured production of reactive oxygen species in leukocyte subsets (lymphocytes, monocytes and granulocytes) by flow cytometry using intracellular 2′,7′-dichlorofluoroscein. The measurements encompassed both basal levels of reactive oxygen species production and capacity for reactive oxygen species production for each leukocyte subset. We found that the late endothelial progenitor subset was negatively associated with levels of ultrafine particles measured within the participant residences and with reactive oxygen species production capacity in lymphocytes. Additionally, the early endothelial progenitor cell levels were positively associated with a personalised measure of ultrafine particle exposure and negatively associated with both basal and capacity for reactive oxygen species production in lymphocytes and granulocytes, respectively. Our results indicate that exposure to fine and ultrafine particles derived from indoor sources may have adverse effects on human vascular health.

  13. In-vitro analysis of the dissolution kinetics and systemic availability of plutonium ingested in the form of 'hot' particles from the Semipalatinsk NTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, M; León Vintró, L; Mitchell, P I; García-Tenorio, R; Jimenez-Ramos, M C; Burkitbayev, M; Priest, N D

    2009-05-01

    In-vitro leaching of radioactive 'hot' particles isolated from soils sampled at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site has been carried out in order to evaluate the fraction of plutonium activity released into simulated human stomach and small intestine fluids during digestion. Characterisation of the particles (10-100 Bq(239,240)Pu) and investigation of their dissolution kinetics in simulated fluids has been accomplished using a combination of high-resolution alpha-spectrometry, gamma-spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting. The results of these analyses indicate that plutonium transfer across the human gut following the ingestion of 'hot' particles can be up to two orders of magnitude lower than that expected for plutonium in a more soluble form, and show that for areas affected by local fallout, use of published ingestion dose coefficients, together with bulk radionuclide concentrations in soil, may lead to a considerable overestimation of systemic uptake via the ingestion pathway.

  14. In-vitro analysis of the dissolution kinetics and systemic availability of plutonium ingested in the form of 'hot' particles from the Semipalatinsk NTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conway, M. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Leon Vintro, L. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)], E-mail: luis.leon@ucd.ie; Mitchell, P.I. [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); Garcia-Tenorio, R.; Jimenez-Ramos, M.C. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sevilla, 41012 Sevilla (Spain); Burkitbayev, M. [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Priest, N.D. [School of Health and Social Sciences, Middlesex University, Queensway, Enfield EN3 4SA (United Kingdom)

    2009-05-15

    In-vitro leaching of radioactive 'hot' particles isolated from soils sampled at the Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site has been carried out in order to evaluate the fraction of plutonium activity released into simulated human stomach and small intestine fluids during digestion. Characterisation of the particles (10-100 Bq {sup 239,240}Pu) and investigation of their dissolution kinetics in simulated fluids has been accomplished using a combination of high-resolution alpha-spectrometry, gamma-spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting. The results of these analyses indicate that plutonium transfer across the human gut following the ingestion of 'hot' particles can be up to two orders of magnitude lower than that expected for plutonium in a more soluble form, and show that for areas affected by local fallout, use of published ingestion dose coefficients, together with bulk radionuclide concentrations in soil, may lead to a considerable overestimation of systemic uptake via the ingestion pathway.

  15. Incomplete Loading of Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Fasted State Simulated Intestinal Fluid Micelles Within the Diffusion Layers of Dispersed Drug Particles During Dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galipeau, Kendra; Socki, Michael; Socia, Adam; Harmon, Paul A

    2018-01-01

    Poorly water soluble drug candidates have been common in developmental pipelines over the last several decades. This has fueled considerable research around understanding how bile salt and model micelles can improve drug particle dissolution rates and human drug exposure levels. However, in the pharmaceutical context only a single mechanism of how micelles load solute has been assumed, that being the direct loading mechanism put forth by Cussler and coworkers (Am Inst Chem Eng J. 1976;22(6):1006-1012) 40 years ago. In this model, micelles load at the particle surface and will be loaded to their equilibrium loading values. More recently, Kumar and Gandhi and coworkers (Langmuir. 2003;19:4014-4026) developed a comprehensive theory of micelle solubilization which also features an indirect loading mechanism which they argue should operate in ionic surfactant systems. In this mechanism, micelles cannot directly load at the solute particle surface and thus may not reach equilibrium loading values within the particle diffusion layer. In this work, we endeavor to understand if the indirect micelle loading mechanism represents a plausible description in the pharmaceutical context. The overall data in SLS and FaSSIF systems obtained here, as well as several other previously published datasets, can be described by the indirect micelle loading mechanism. Implications for pharmaceutical development of poorly soluble compounds are discussed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Intracellular formation of α-synuclein oligomers and the effect of heat shock protein 70 characterized by confocal single particle spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, Johannes [Department of Neurology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases – DZNE, Site Munich, Feodor-Lynen-Str. 17, 81377 Munich (Germany); Hillmer, Andreas S. [Center for Neuropathology and Prion Research, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Feodor-Lynen-Str. 23, 81377 Munich (Germany); Högen, Tobias [Department of Neurology, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Marchioninistr. 15, 81377 Munich (Germany); McLean, Pamela J. [Department of Neuroscience, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL 32224 (United States); Giese, Armin, E-mail: armin.giese@med.uni-muenchen.de [Center for Neuropathology and Prion Research, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Feodor-Lynen-Str. 23, 81377 Munich (Germany)

    2016-08-12

    Synucleinopathies such as dementia with Lewy bodies or Parkinson’s disease are characterized by intracellular deposition of pathologically aggregated α-synuclein. The details of the molecular pathogenesis of PD and especially the conditions that lead to intracellular aggregation of α-synuclein and the role of these aggregates in cell death remain unknown. In cell free in vitro systems considerable knowledge about the aggregation processes has been gathered. In comparison, the knowledge about these aggregation processes in cells is far behind. In cells α-synuclein aggregates can be toxic. However, the crucial particle species responsible for decisive steps in pathogenesis such as seeding a continuing aggregation process and triggering cell death remain to be identified. In order to understand the complex nature of intracellular α-synuclein aggregate formation, we analyzed fluorescent particles formed by venus and α-synuclein-venus fusion proteins and α-synuclein-hemi-venus fusion proteins derived from gently lyzed cells. With these techniques we were able to identify and characterize α-synuclein oligomers formed in cells. Especially the use of α-synuclein-hemi-venus fusion proteins enabled us to identify very small α-synuclein oligomers with high sensitivity. Furthermore, we were able to study the molecular effect of heat shock protein 70, which is known to inhibit α-synuclein aggregation in cells. Heat shock protein 70 does not only influence the size of α-synuclein oligomers, but also their quantity. In summary, this approach based on fluorescence single particle spectroscopy, that is suited for high throughput measurements, can be used to detect and characterize intracellularly formed α-synuclein aggregates and characterize the effect of molecules that interfere with α-synuclein aggregate formation. - Highlights: • Single particle spectroscopy detects intracellular formed α-synuclein aggregates. • Fusion proteins allow detection of protein

  17. A rapid dissolution procedure to aid initial nuclear forensics investigations of chemically refractory compounds and particles prior to gamma spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reading, David G., E-mail: d.reading@noc.soton.ac.uk [GAU-Radioanalytical Laboratories, Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom); Croudace, Ian W.; Warwick, Phillip E. [GAU-Radioanalytical Laboratories, Ocean and Earth Science, University of Southampton, National Oceanography Centre, European Way, Southampton SO14 3ZH (United Kingdom); Britton, Richard [AWE plc, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire, RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2015-11-05

    concentrations. • A new, rapid dissolution technique reduces matrix effects and photon attenuation. • Attenuation due to U-concentration, grain size and photon origination in a grain. • The procedure is validated with certified reference materials.

  18. Mathematical modeling of drug dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siepmann, J; Siepmann, F

    2013-08-30

    The dissolution of a drug administered in the solid state is a pre-requisite for efficient subsequent transport within the human body. This is because only dissolved drug molecules/ions/atoms are able to diffuse, e.g. through living tissue. Thus, generally major barriers, including the mucosa of the gastro intestinal tract, can only be crossed after dissolution. Consequently, the process of dissolution is of fundamental importance for the bioavailability and, hence, therapeutic efficacy of various pharmaco-treatments. Poor aqueous solubility and/or very low dissolution rates potentially lead to insufficient availability at the site of action and, hence, failure of the treatment in vivo, despite a potentially ideal chemical structure of the drug to interact with its target site. Different physical phenomena are involved in the process of drug dissolution in an aqueous body fluid, namely the wetting of the particle's surface, breakdown of solid state bonds, solvation, diffusion through the liquid unstirred boundary layer surrounding the particle as well as convection in the surrounding bulk fluid. Appropriate mathematical equations can be used to quantify these mass transport steps, and more or less complex theories can be developed to describe the resulting drug dissolution kinetics. This article gives an overview on the current state of the art of modeling drug dissolution and points out the assumptions the different theories are based on. Various practical examples are given in order to illustrate the benefits of such models. This review is not restricted to mathematical theories considering drugs exhibiting poor aqueous solubility and/or low dissolution rates, but also addresses models quantifying drug release from controlled release dosage forms, in which the process of drug dissolution plays a major role. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Measurement of intracellular DNA double-strand break induction and rejoining along the track of carbon and neon particle beams in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heilmann, Johannes; Taucher-Scholz, Gisela; Haberer, Thomas; Scholz, Michael; Kraft, Gerhard

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The study was aimed at the measurement of effect-depth distributions of intracellularly induced DNA damage in water as tissue equivalent after heavy ion irradiation with therapy particle beams. Methods and Materials: An assay involving embedding of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells in large agarose plugs and electrophoretic elution of radiation induced DNA fragments by constant field gel electrophoresis was developed. Double-strand break production was quantified by densitometric analysis of DNA-fluorescence after staining with ethidium-bromide and determination of the fraction of DNA eluted out of the agarose plugs. Intracellular double-strand break induction and the effect of a 3 h rejoining incubation were investigated following irradiation with 250 kV x-rays and 190 MeV/u carbon- and 295 MeV/u neon-ions. Results and Conclusion: While the DNA damage induced by x-irradiation decreased continuously with penetration depth, a steady increase in the yield of double-strand breaks was observed for particle radiation, reaching distinct maxima at the position of the physical Bragg peaks. Beyond this, the extent of radiation damage dropped drastically. From comparison of DNA damage and calculated dose profiles, relative biological efficiencies (RBEs) for both double-strand break induction and unrejoined strand breaks after 3 h were determined. While RBE for the induction of DNA double-strand breaks decreased continuously with penetration depth, RBE maxima greater than unity were found with carbon- and neon-ions for double-strand break rejoining near the maximum range of the particles. The method presented here allows for a fast and accurate determination of depth profiles of relevant radiobiological effects for mixed particle fields in tissue equivalent

  20. Exposure to ultrafine particles, intracellular production of reactive oxygen species in leukocytes and altered levels of endothelial progenitor cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Kim; Møller, Peter Horn; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    . Additionally, the early endothelial progenitor cell levels were positively associated with a personalised measure of ultrafine particle exposure and negatively associated with both basal and capacity for reactive oxygen species production in lymphocytes and granulocytes, respectively. Our results indicate......Exposure to particles in the fine and ultrafine size range has been linked to induction of low-grade systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and development of cardiovascular diseases. Declining levels of endothelial progenitor cells within systemic circulation have likewise been linked...... to progression of cardiovascular diseases. The objective was to determine if exposure to fine and ultrafine particles from indoor and outdoor sources, assessed by personal and residential indoor monitoring, is associated with altered levels of endothelial progenitor cells, and whether such effects are related...

  1. Intracellular dynamics and fate of polystyrene nanoparticles in A549 Lung epithelial cells monitored by image (cross-) correlation spectroscopy and single particle tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Sarah; Penjweini, Rozhin; Smisdom, Nick; Notelaers, Kristof; Nelissen, Inge; Hooyberghs, Jef; Ameloot, Marcel

    2015-10-01

    Novel insights in nanoparticle (NP) uptake routes of cells, their intracellular trafficking and subcellular targeting can be obtained through the investigation of their temporal and spatial behavior. In this work, we present the application of image (cross-) correlation spectroscopy (IC(C)S) and single particle tracking (SPT) to monitor the intracellular dynamics of polystyrene (PS) NPs in the human lung carcinoma A549 cell line. The ensemble kinetic behavior of NPs inside the cell was characterized by temporal and spatiotemporal image correlation spectroscopy (TICS and STICS). Moreover, a more direct interpretation of the diffusion and flow detected in the NP motion was obtained by SPT by monitoring individual NPs. Both techniques demonstrate that the PS NP transport in A549 cells is mainly dependent on microtubule-assisted transport. By applying spatiotemporal image cross-correlation spectroscopy (STICCS), the correlated motions of NPs with the early endosomes, late endosomes and lysosomes are identified. PS NPs were equally distributed among the endolysosomal compartment during the time interval of the experiments. The cotransport of the NPs with the lysosomes is significantly larger compared to the other cell organelles. In the present study we show that the complementarity of ICS-based techniques and SPT enables a consistent elaborate model of the complex behavior of NPs inside biological systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrochemical Dissolution of Iridium and Iridium Oxide Particles in Acidic Media: Transmission Electron Microscopy, Electrochemical Flow Cell Coupled to Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry, and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanovič, Primož; Hodnik, Nejc; Ruiz-Zepeda, Francisco; Arčon, Iztok; Jozinović, Barbara; Zorko, Milena; Bele, Marjan; Šala, Martin; Šelih, Vid Simon; Hočevar, Samo; Gaberšček, Miran

    2017-09-13

    Iridium-based particles, regarded as the most promising proton exchange membrane electrolyzer electrocatalysts, were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and by coupling of an electrochemical flow cell (EFC) with online inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Additionally, studies using a thin-film rotating disc electrode, identical location transmission and scanning electron microscopy, as well as X-ray absorption spectroscopy have been performed. Extremely sensitive online time-and potential-resolved electrochemical dissolution profiles revealed that Ir particles dissolve well below oxygen evolution reaction (OER) potentials, presumably induced by Ir surface oxidation and reduction processes, also referred to as transient dissolution. Overall, thermally prepared rutile-type IrO 2 particles are substantially more stable and less active in comparison to as-prepared metallic and electrochemically pretreated (E-Ir) analogues. Interestingly, under OER-relevant conditions, E-Ir particles exhibit superior stability and activity owing to the altered corrosion mechanism, where the formation of unstable Ir(>IV) species is hindered. Due to the enhanced and lasting OER performance, electrochemically pre-oxidized E-Ir particles may be considered as the electrocatalyst of choice for an improved low-temperature electrochemical hydrogen production device, namely a proton exchange membrane electrolyzer.

  3. Stochastic models of intracellular transport

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Newby, Jay M.

    2013-01-01

    mechanisms for intracellular transport: passive diffusion and motor-driven active transport. Diffusive transport can be formulated in terms of the motion of an overdamped Brownian particle. On the other hand, active transport requires chemical energy, usually

  4. Dissolution of aluminium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uriarte Hueda, A.; Berberana Eizmendi, M.; Pereira Sanchez, G.

    1968-01-01

    The dissolution of aluminum with acid solutions ( nitric acid-mercuric nitrate) and alkaline solutions (sodium hydroxide-sodium nitrate) has been studied. The instantaneous dissolution rate (IDR) has been studied in function of the concentration of the used reagents and the dissolution temperature. The complete dissolution has been included in the second part of this report, to know the total dissolution time, the consume of reagents and the stability of the resultant solutions. (Author)

  5. Accelerated dissolution of iron oxides in ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Jeong

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron dissolution from mineral dusts and soil particles is vital as a source of bioavailable iron in various environmental media. In this work, the dissolution of iron oxide particles trapped in ice was investigated as a new pathway of iron supply. The dissolution experiments were carried out in the absence and presence of various organic complexing ligands under dark condition. In acidic pH conditions (pH 2, 3, and 4, the dissolution of iron oxides was greatly enhanced in the ice phase compared to that in water. The dissolved iron was mainly in the ferric form, which indicates that the dissolution is not a reductive process. The extent of dissolved iron was greatly affected by the kind of organic complexing ligands and the surface area of iron oxides. The iron dissolution was most pronounced with high surface area iron oxides and in the presence of strong iron binding ligands. The enhanced dissolution of iron oxides in ice is mainly ascribed to the "freeze concentration effect", which concentrates iron oxide particles, organic ligands, and protons in the liquid like ice grain boundary region and accelerates the dissolution of iron oxides. The ice-enhanced dissolution effect gradually decreased when decreasing the freezing temperature from −10 to −196 °C, which implies that the presence and formation of the liquid-like ice grain boundary region play a critical role. The proposed phenomenon of enhanced dissolution of iron oxides in ice may provide a new pathway of bioavailable iron production. The frozen atmospheric ice with iron-containing dust particles in the upper atmosphere thaws upon descending and may provide bioavailable iron upon deposition onto the ocean surface.

  6. Ultrasound-mediated method for rapid delivery of nano-particles into cells for intracellular surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and cancer cell screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Shangyuan; Li, Zhihua; Chen, Guannan; Huang, Shaohua; Huang, Zufang; Li, Yongzeng; Lin, Juqiang; Chen, Rong; Lin, Duo; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-01-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a powerful technology for providing finger-printing information of cells. A big challenge has been the long time duration and inefficient uptake of metal nano-particles into living cells as substrate for SERS analysis. Herein, a simple method (based on ultrasound) for the rapid transfer of silver nanoparticles (NPs) into living cells for intracellular SERS spectroscopy was presented. In this study, the ultrasound-mediated method for NP delivery overcame the shortcoming of ‘passive uptake’, and achieved quick acquisition of reproducible SERS spectra from living human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines (C666 and CNE1) and normal nasopharyngeal cell line (NP69). Tentative assignment of the Raman bands in the measured SERS spectra showed cancer cell specific biomolecular differences, including significantly lower DNA concentrations and higher protein concentrations in cancerous nasopharyngeal cells as compared to those of normal cells. Combined with PCA–LDA multivariate analysis, ultrasound-mediated cell SERS spectroscopy differentiated the cancerous cells from the normal nasopharyngeal cells with high diagnostic accuracy (98.7%), demonstrating great potential for high-throughput cancer cell screening applications. (paper)

  7. Dissolution Methods Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — For a drug product that does not have a dissolution test method in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP), the FDA Dissolution Methods Database provides information on...

  8. Dissolution of uranium oxide TBP-HNO3 complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Mineo; Kosaka, Yuji; Mori, Yukihide; Shimada, Takashi

    2002-12-01

    As a head end process for the pulverization of the spent fuel, the mechanical method (the shredder method) and the pyro-chemical method (oxidisation heat-treatment) have been examined. UO 2 is a main ingredient of Uranium oxide powder by the mechanical method, and U 3 O 8 is that by the pyro-chemical method. Moreover, the particle size of the pulverized powder depend on the conditions of the pulverizing process. As it was considered that the difference of dissolution rates of samples was caused by the difference of sample chemical forms and dissolution temperature, parametric surveys on chemical form and particle size of powder and dissolution temperature were carried out, and the following results were obtained. 1) The remarkable difference of dissolution rate between U 3 O 8 powder (average particle size 3.7 μm) and UO 2 powder (average particle size 2.4 μm) which have comparatively similar particle size was not observed. 2) It was confirmed that the dissolution rate became lower according to the particle size increase (average particle size 2.4 μm-1 mm). And it was considered that dissolution rate had strong dependency on particle size, according to the results that the powder with 1 mm particle size did not dissolute completely after 5 hours test. 3) The temperature dependency of the dissolution rate was confirmed by dissolution test with UO 2 powder (average particle size 2.4 μm-1 mm). The higher dissolution rate was obtained in the higher dissolution temperature, and 11 kcal/mol was obtained as activation energy of dissolution. 4) In the dissolution test of UO 2 powder, the nitric acid concentration started to change earlier than that of U 3 O 8 powder and concentration change range became larger compared with that in the dissolution test of U 3 O 8 powder. It was considered that those differences were caused by difference in mole ratio of Uranium and nitric acid which are consumed in the dissolution reaction (3:7 for U 3 O 8 , 3:8 for UO 2 ). 5) In case

  9. Dissolution rates of DWPF glasses from long-term PCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W.L.; Tam, S.W.

    1996-01-01

    We have characterized the corrosion behavior of several Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) reference waste glasses by conducting static dissolution tests with crushed glasses. Glass dissolution rates were calculated from measured B concentrations in tests conducted for up to five years. The dissolution rates of all glasses increased significantly after certain alteration phases precipitated. Calculation of the dissolution rates was complicated by the decrease in the available surface area as the glass dissolves. We took the loss of surface area into account by modeling the particles to be spheres, then extracting from the short-term test results the dissolution rate corresponding to a linear decrease in the radius of spherical particles. The measured extent of dissolution in tests conducted for longer times was less than predicted with this linear dissolution model. This indicates that advanced stages of corrosion are affected by another process besides dissolution, which we believe to be associated with a decrease in the precipitation rate of the alteration phases. These results show that the dissolution rate measured soon after the formation of certain alteration phases provides an upper limit for the long-term dissolution rate, and can be used to determine a bounding value for the source term for radionuclide release from waste glasses. The long-term dissolution rates measured in tests at 20,000 per m at 90 degrees C in tuff groundwater at pH values near 12 for the Environmental Assessment glass and glasses made with SRL 131 and SRL 202 frits, respectively

  10. Practical limitations of single particle ICP-MS in the determination of nanoparticle size distributions and dissolution: case of rare earth oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fréchette-Viens, Laurie; Hadioui, Madjid; Wilkinson, Kevin J

    2017-01-15

    The applicability of single particle ICP-MS (SP-ICP-MS) for the analysis of nanoparticle size distributions and the determination of particle numbers was evaluated using the rare earth oxide, La 2 O 3 , as a model particle. The composition of the storage containers, as well as the ICP-MS sample introduction system were found to significantly impact SP-ICP-MS analysis. While La 2 O 3 nanoparticles (La 2 O 3 NP) did not appear to interact strongly with sample containers, adsorptive losses of La 3+ (over 24h) were substantial (>72%) for fluorinated ethylene propylene bottles as opposed to polypropylene (size distributions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dissolution rate enhancement of piroxicam by ordered mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saharan, Vikas Anand; Choudhury, Pratim Kumar

    2012-07-01

    Micronized piroxicam was mixed with lactose, mannitol, sorbitol, maltitol and sodium chloride to produce ordered mixture in a glass vial by manual hand shaking method. The effect of excipients, surfactant, superdisintegrant, drug concentration and carrier particle size on dissolution rate was investigated. Dissolution rate studies of the prepared ordered mixtures revealed that all water soluble excipients increased the dissolution rate of piroxicam when compared to the dissolution rate of piroxicam or its suspension. Ordered mixture formulation PLF4, consisting of lactose as water soluble excipient, SSG (8% w/s) and SLS (1% w/w), released piroxcam at a very fast rate so much so that about 90% of the composition had passed into solution within 2 min. The order of the dissolution rate enhancement for ordered mixtures of various water soluble excipients was: lactose > mannitol > maltitol > sorbitol > sodium chloride. Carrier granules of size 355-710 µm were most effective in increasing the dissolution rate of drug from ordered mixtures. Decreasing the carrier particle size reduced drug dissolution from ordered mixtures. The dissolution rate of ordered mixtures consisting of 1-5% w/w piroxicam was superior to dissolution rate of piroxicam suspension. The dissolution data fitting and the resulting regression parameters indicated Hixson Crowell, cube root law, as the best fit to drug release data of ordered mixtures.

  12. Calcite Dissolution Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berelson, W.; Subhas, A.; Dong, S.; Naviaux, J.; Adkins, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    A geological buffer for high atmospheric CO2 concentrations is neutralization via reaction with CaCO3. We have been studying the dissolution kinetics of carbonate minerals using labeled 13C calcite and Picarro-based measurements of 13C enrichments in solution DIC. This methodology has greatly facilitated our investigation of dissolution kinetics as a function of water carbonate chemistry, temperature and pressure. One can adjust the saturation state Omega by changing the ion activity product (e.g. adjusting carbonate ion concentration), or by changing the solubility product (e.g. adjusting temperature or pressure). The canonical formulation of dissolution rate vs. omega has been refined (Subhas et al. 2015) and shows distinct non-linear behavior near equilibrium and rates in sea water of 1-3 e-6 g/cm2day at omega = 0.8. Carbonic anhydrase (CA), an enzyme that catalyzes the hydration of dissolved CO2 to carbonic acid, was shown (in concentrations 500x. This result points to the importance of carbonic acid in enhancing dissolution at low degrees of undersaturation. CA activity and abundance in nature must be considered regarding the role it plays in catalyzing dissolution. We also have been investigating the role of temperature on dissolution kinetics. An increase of 16C yields an order of magnitude increase in dissolution rate. Temperature (and P) also change Omega critical, the saturation state where dissolution rates change substantially. Increasing pressure (achieved in a pressure reaction chamber we built) also shifts Omega critical closer to equilibrium and small pressure increases have large impact on dissolution kinetics. Dissolution rates are enhanced by an order of magnitude for a change in pressure of 1500 psi relative to the dissolution rate achieved by water chemistry effects alone for an omega of 0.8. We've shown that the thermodynamic determination of saturation state does not adequately describe the kinetics of dissolution. The interplay of mineral

  13. Selective Dissolution Techniques, X-Ray Diffraction and Moessbauer Spectroscopy Studies of Forms of Fe in Particle-Size Fractions of an Entic Haplustoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acebal, S. G.; Aguirre, M. E.; Santamaria, R. M.; Mijovilovich, A.; Petrick, S.; Saragovi, C.

    2003-01-01

    Particle-size fractions (o = mean diameter, 5-2 μm, 2-1 μm, and 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy (MS). Quartz, feldspar, smectite, illite and interstratified illite-smectite are the dominant minerals whereas Fe oxides and oxy-hydroxides are present in low concentration but increase as particle size decreases. Poorly crystallized oxides (highly Al-substituted hematite and goethite) amounts are lower, comparable to or slightly higher than the hematite amounts in the o 5-2 μm, 2-1 μm and 3+ and Fe 2+ are associated to the clay minerals and/or hydroxyl-interlayered 2:1 type material present; part of this Fe 3+ is located in the hydroxy-interlayers its amount being higher in the smallest fraction. Any possible changes after the PY and NaOH treatments were not detected by MS.

  14. The effect of fibrin sealant on bioactive glass S53P4 particles – pH impact and dissolution characteristics in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Sarin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fibrin glue, a two-component tissue adhesive, has a range of clinical indications. Bioactive glass (BG S53P4 has been approved for clinical use in several craniomaxillofacial and orthopedic applications. Although sometimes used simultaneously, there is no data available regarding the possible interaction of these two biocompatible substances. In this in vitro study, using a BG particle concentration of 4 mg/ml, a 0.4 unit pH increment (p < 0.001 was observed in simulated body fluid (SBF after a 7-day incubation period. The addition of fibrin glue (0.13 g, SD 0.04; or 3.7 mg/ml on top of the BG particles raised further the pH by 0.5 units (p < 0.001. The difference between these groups was statistically significant (p = 0.008. With a BG concentration of 25 mg/ml and a fibrin glue concentration of 18 mg/ml during a 14-day incubation period, a pH increment of 0.6 units and SBF ion concentration change of Ca, K, Mg, Na, P and Si ions was seen. Moreover, a penetration depth between 4 and 6 mm was observed when fibrin glue was applied on top of a bed of BG particles. Conclusions: Fibrin glue is not likely to have a distracting effect on BG-induced pH increase of the SBF although it might delay early BG surface reactions based on ion concentration measurements. Fibrin glue penetrated to the interparticle space to some extent, binding the particles together for easy clinical use of BG.

  15. Dissolution of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uriarte Hueda, A.; Berberana Eizmendi, M.; Rainey, R.

    1968-01-01

    A laboratory study was made of the instantaneous dissolution rate (IDR) for unirradiated uranium metal rods and UO 2 , PuO 2 and PuO 2 -UO 2 pellets in boiling nitric acid alone and with additives. The uranium metal and UO 2 dissolved readily in nitric acid alone; PuO 2 dissolved slowly even with the addition of fluoride; PuO 2 -UO 2 pellets containing as much as 35% PuO 2 in UO 2 gave values of the instantaneous dissolution rate to indicate can be dissolved with nitric acid alone. An equation to calculate the time for complete dissolution has been determinate in function of the instantaneous dissolution rates. The calculated values agree with the experimental. Uranium dioxide pellets from various sources but all having a same density varied in instantaneous dissolution rate. All the pellets, however, have dissolved ved in the same time. The time for complete dissolution of PuO 2 -UO 2 pellets, having the same composition, and the concentration of the used reagents are function of the used reagents are function of the fabrication method. (Author) 8 refs

  16. Dissolution mechanisms of CO2 hydrate droplets in deep seawaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabitto, Jorge; Tsouris, Costas

    2006-01-01

    Carbon dioxide dissolution at intermediate ocean depths was studied using physical and mass transfer models. Particle density and hydrate layer thickness were determined using existing field data. Pseudo-homogeneous and heterogeneous mass transfer models were proposed to study the dissolution process. Pseudo-homogeneous models do not seem to represent the dissolution process well. Although heterogeneous models interpret the physical behavior better, unresolved issues related to hydrate dissolution still remain. For example, solid hydrate forms on one side of the hydrate film while it dissolves on the other. Dissolution is a complex process that comprises at least two sequential steps. The global process is controlled by mass transfer inside the hydrate layer or by a dissolution reaction at the hydrate-water interface

  17. Influence of the Efavirenz Micronization on Tableting and Dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Mendes Cabral

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to propose an analytical procedure that provides the effects of particle size and surface area on dissolution of efavirenz. Five different batches obtained by different micronization processes and with different particle size distribution and surface area were studied. The preformulation studies and dissolution curves were used to confirm the particle size distribution effect on drug solubility. No polymorphic variety or amorphization was observed in the tested batches and the particle size distribution was determined as directly responsible for the improvement of drug dissolution. The influence of the preparation process on the tablets derived from efavirenz was observed in the final dissolution result in which agglomeration, usually seen in non-lipophilic micronized material, was avoided through the use of an appropriate wet granulation method. For these reasons, micronization may represent one viable alternative for the formulation of brick dust drugs.

  18. Spent fuel dissolution mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollila, K.

    1993-11-01

    This study is a literature survey on the dissolution mechanisms of spent fuel under disposal conditions. First, the effects of radiolysis products on the oxidative dissolution mechanisms and rates of UO 2 are discussed. These effects have mainly been investigated by using electrochemical methods. Then the release mechanisms of soluble radionuclides and the dissolution of the UO 2 matrix including the actinides, are treated. Experimental methods have been developed for measuring the grain-boundary inventories of radionuclides. The behaviour of cesium, strontium and technetium in leaching tests shows different trends. Comparison of spent fuel leaching data strongly suggests that the release of 90 Sr into the leachant can be used as a measure of the oxidation/dissolution of the fuel matrix. Approaches to the modelling UO 2 , dissolution are briefly discussed in the next chapter. Lastly, the use of natural material, uraninite, in the evaluation of the long-term performance of spent fuel is discussed. (orig.). (81 ref., 37 figs., 8 tabs.)

  19. Dissolution studies on Nickel ferrite in dilute chemical decontamination formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, S. [New Brunswick Univ., Fredericton, NB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Srinivasan, M.P. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) (India). Water and Steam Chemistry Laboratory; Raghavan, P.S. [Madras Christian College, Chennai (India); Narasimhan, S.V. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India); Gopalan, R. [Madras Christian College, Chennai (India). Department of Chemistry

    2004-09-01

    Nickel ferrite is one of the important corrosion products in the pipeline surfaces of water-cooled nuclear reactors. The dissolution of the nickel ferrite by chelating agents is very sensitive to the nature of the chelant, the nature of the reductant used in the formulation and the temperature at which the dissolution studies are performed. The dissolution is mainly controlled by the reductive dissolution of the ferrite particles, but complexing agents also play a significant role in the dissolution process. This study deals with the leaching of iron and nickel from nickel ferrite prepared by the solid-state method. The dissolution studies are performed in pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (PDCA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) formulations containing organic reductants like ascorbic acid and low oxidation state transition metal ion reductants like Fe(II)-L (where L = PDCA, NTA, EDTA) at 85 C. The dissolution of nickel ferrite in PDCA, NTA and EDTA formulations is influenced by the presence of reductants in the formulations. The addition of Fe(II)-L in the formulation greatly enhances the dissolution of nickel ferrite. The preferential leaching of nickel over iron during the dissolution of nickel ferrite was observed in all the formulations. (orig.)

  20. Dissolution studies on Nickel ferrite in dilute chemical decontamination formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V.; Gopalan, R.

    2004-01-01

    Nickel ferrite is one of the important corrosion products in the pipeline surfaces of water-cooled nuclear reactors. The dissolution of the nickel ferrite by chelating agents is very sensitive to the nature of the chelant, the nature of the reductant used in the formulation and the temperature at which the dissolution studies are performed. The dissolution is mainly controlled by the reductive dissolution of the ferrite particles, but complexing agents also play a significant role in the dissolution process. This study deals with the leaching of iron and nickel from nickel ferrite prepared by the solid-state method. The dissolution studies are performed in pyridine-2,6-dicarboxylic acid (PDCA), nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) formulations containing organic reductants like ascorbic acid and low oxidation state transition metal ion reductants like Fe(II)-L (where L = PDCA, NTA, EDTA) at 85 C. The dissolution of nickel ferrite in PDCA, NTA and EDTA formulations is influenced by the presence of reductants in the formulations. The addition of Fe(II)-L in the formulation greatly enhances the dissolution of nickel ferrite. The preferential leaching of nickel over iron during the dissolution of nickel ferrite was observed in all the formulations. (orig.)

  1. Iron oxides photochemical dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blesa, M.A.; Litter, M.I.

    1987-01-01

    This work was intended to study the light irradiation influence of diverse wave-lengths on iron oxides dissolution in aqueous solutions. The objectives of this work were: the exploration of photochemical processes with the aim of its eventual application in: a) decontamination and chemical cleaning under special conditions; b) materials for solar energy conversion. (Author)

  2. 8 Dissolution Kinetics

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Experiments measuring the dissolution rates of stilbite (NaCa [Al Si O ].14H O) in pH-buffered ... The rate law was established as R = k (a ) , where k is ... crystalline hydrated aluminosilicate minerals ..... from the crushing process, thin edges or.

  3. Plutonium oxide dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    Several processing options for dissolving plutonium oxide (PuO 2 ) from high-fired materials have been studied. The scoping studies performed on these options were focused on PuO 2 typically generated by burning plutonium metal and PuO 2 produced during incineration of alpha contaminated waste. At least two processing options remain applicable for dissolving high-fired PuO 2 in canyon dissolvers. The options involve solid solution formation of PuO 2 With uranium oxide (UO 2 ) and alloying incinerator ash with aluminum. An oxidative dissolution process involving nitric acid solutions containing a strong oxidizing agent, such as cerium (IV), was neither proven nor rejected. This uncertainty was due to difficulty in regenerating cerium (IV) ions during dissolution. However, recent work on silver-catalyzed dissolution of PuO 2 with persulfate has demonstrated that persulfate ions regenerate silver (II). Use of persulfate to regenerate cerium (IV) or bismuth (V) ions during dissolution of PuO 2 materials may warrant further study

  4. Protective Effects of N-Acetyl Cysteine against Diesel Exhaust Particles-Induced Intracellular ROS Generates Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines to Mediate the Vascular Permeability of Capillary-Like Endothelial Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chia-Yi; Chang, Jing-Fen; Wang, Jhih-Syuan; Chang, Yu-Jung; Gordon, Marion K.; Chao, Ming-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) is associated with pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies using in vitro endothelial tubes as a simplified model of capillaries have found that DEP-induced ROS increase vascular permeability with rearrangement or internalization of adherens junctional VE-cadherin away from the plasma membrane. This allows DEPs to penetrate into the cell and capillary lumen. In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokines are up-regulated and mediate vascular permeability in response to DEP. However, the mechanisms through which these DEP-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines increase vascular permeability remain unknown. Hence, we examined the ability of DEP to induce permeability of human umbilical vein endothelial cell tube cells to investigate these mechanisms. Furthermore, supplementation with NAC reduces ROS production following exposure to DEP. HUVEC tube cells contributed to a pro-inflammatory response to DEP-induced intracellular ROS generation. Endothelial oxidative stress induced the release of TNF-α and IL-6 from tube cells, subsequently stimulating the secretion of VEGF-A independent of HO-1. Our data suggests that DEP-induced intracellular ROS and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF- α and IL-6, which would contribute to VEGF-A secretion and disrupt cell-cell borders and increase vasculature permeability. Addition of NAC suppresses DEP-induced ROS efficiently and reduces subsequent damages by increasing endogenous glutathione. PMID:26148005

  5. Protective Effects of N-Acetyl Cysteine against Diesel Exhaust Particles-Induced Intracellular ROS Generates Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines to Mediate the Vascular Permeability of Capillary-Like Endothelial Tubes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Yi Tseng

    Full Text Available Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP is associated with pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. Previous studies using in vitro endothelial tubes as a simplified model of capillaries have found that DEP-induced ROS increase vascular permeability with rearrangement or internalization of adherens junctional VE-cadherin away from the plasma membrane. This allows DEPs to penetrate into the cell and capillary lumen. In addition, pro-inflammatory cytokines are up-regulated and mediate vascular permeability in response to DEP. However, the mechanisms through which these DEP-induced pro-inflammatory cytokines increase vascular permeability remain unknown. Hence, we examined the ability of DEP to induce permeability of human umbilical vein endothelial cell tube cells to investigate these mechanisms. Furthermore, supplementation with NAC reduces ROS production following exposure to DEP. HUVEC tube cells contributed to a pro-inflammatory response to DEP-induced intracellular ROS generation. Endothelial oxidative stress induced the release of TNF-α and IL-6 from tube cells, subsequently stimulating the secretion of VEGF-A independent of HO-1. Our data suggests that DEP-induced intracellular ROS and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF- α and IL-6, which would contribute to VEGF-A secretion and disrupt cell-cell borders and increase vasculature permeability. Addition of NAC suppresses DEP-induced ROS efficiently and reduces subsequent damages by increasing endogenous glutathione.

  6. Determinants of marriage dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Mohd Amirul Rafiq Abu; Shafie, Siti Aishah Mohd; Hadi, Az'lina Abdul; Razali, Nornadiah Mohd; Azid @ Maarof, Nur Niswah Naslina

    2015-10-01

    Nowadays, the number of divorce cases among Muslim couples is very worrisome whereby the total cases reported in 2013 increased by half of the total cases reported in the previous year. The questions on the true key factors of dissolution of marriage continue to arise. Thus, the objective of this study is to reveal the factors that contribute to the dissolution of marriage. A total of 181 cases and ten potential determinants were included in this study. The potential determinants considered were age at marriage of husband and wife, educational level of husband and wife, employment status of husband and wife, income of husband and wife, the number of children and the presence at a counseling session. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data. The findings revealed that four determinants, namely the income of husband and wife, number of children and the presence at a counselling session were significant in predicting the likelihood of divorce among Muslim couples.

  7. Nonstructural protein 5A is incorporated into hepatitis C virus low-density particle through interaction with core protein and microtubules during intracellular transport.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Kuen Lai

    Full Text Available Nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A of hepatitis C virus (HCV serves dual functions in viral RNA replication and virus assembly. Here, we demonstrate that HCV replication complex along with NS5A and Core protein was transported to the lipid droplet (LD through microtubules, and NS5A-Core complexes were then transported from LD through early-to-late endosomes to the plasma membrane via microtubules. Further studies by cofractionation analysis and immunoelectron microscopy of the released particles showed that NS5A-Core complexes, but not NS4B, were present in the low-density fractions, but not in the high-density fractions, of the HCV RNA-containing virions and associated with the internal virion core. Furthermore, exosomal markers CD63 and CD81 were also detected in the low-density fractions, but not in the high-density fractions. Overall, our results suggest that HCV NS5A is associated with the core of the low-density virus particles which exit the cell through a preexisting endosome/exosome pathway and may contribute to HCV natural infection.

  8. Collective dissolution of microbubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelin, Sébastien; Guérin, Etienne; Lauga, Eric

    2018-04-01

    A microscopic bubble of soluble gas always dissolves in finite time in an undersaturated fluid. This diffusive process is driven by the difference between the gas concentration near the bubble, whose value is governed by the internal pressure through Henry's law, and the concentration in the far field. The presence of neighboring bubbles can significantly slow down this process by increasing the effective background concentration and reducing the diffusing flux of dissolved gas experienced by each bubble. We develop theoretical modeling of such diffusive shielding process in the case of small microbubbles whose internal pressure is dominated by Laplace pressure. We first use an exact semianalytical solution to capture the case of two bubbles and analyze in detail the shielding effect as a function of the distance between the bubbles and their size ratio. While we also solve exactly for the Stokes flow around the bubble, we show that hydrodynamic effects are mostly negligible except in the case of almost-touching bubbles. In order to tackle the case of multiple bubbles, we then derive and validate two analytical approximate yet generic frameworks, first using the method of reflections and then by proposing a self-consistent continuum description. Using both modeling frameworks, we examine the dissolution of regular one-, two-, and three-dimensional bubble lattices. Bubbles located at the edge of the lattices dissolve first, while innermost bubbles benefit from the diffusive shielding effect, leading to the inward propagation of a dissolution front within the lattice. We show that diffusive shielding leads to severalfold increases in the dissolution time, which grows logarithmically with the number of bubbles in one-dimensional lattices and algebraically in two and three dimensions, scaling respectively as its square root and 2 /3 power. We further illustrate the sensitivity of the dissolution patterns to initial fluctuations in bubble size or arrangement in the case

  9. On-line monitoring of lithium carbonate dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yuzhu; Song, Xingfu; Wang, Jin; Luo, Yan; Yu, Jianguo [National Engineering Research Center for Integrated Utilization Salt Lake Resources, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai (China)

    2009-11-15

    Dissolution of lithium carbonate (Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in aqueous solution was investigated using three on-line apparatuses: the concentration of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was measured by electrical conductivity equipment; CLD (Chord Length Distribution) was monitored by FBRM (Focused Beam Reflectance Measurement); crystal image was observed by PVM (Particle Video Microscope). Results show dissolution rate goes up with a decrease of particle size, and with an increase in temperature; stirring speed causes little impact on dissolution; ultrasound facilitates dissolution obviously. The CLD evolution and crystal images of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}powders in stirred fluid were observed detailedly by FBRM and PVM during dissolution. Experimental data were fitted to Avrami model, through which the activation energy was found to be 34.35 kJ/mol. PBE (Population Balance Equation) and moment transform were introduced to calculate dissolution kinetics, obtaining correlation equations of particle size decreasing rate as a function of temperature and undersaturation. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-12-31

    This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.

  11. Biorelevant dissolution media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ilardia-Arana, David; Kristensen, Henning G; Müllertz, Anette

    2006-01-01

    Biorelevant dissolution media containing bile salt and lecithin at concentrations appropriate for fed and fasted state are useful when testing oral solid formulations of poorly water-soluble drugs. Dilution of amphiphile solutions affects the aggregation state of the amphiphiles because bile salt...... is partitioned between the aqueous phase and the aggregates. The aim of the investigation was to study the effect of dilution on the size distribution of aggregates and its effect on the solubilization capacity. Clear buffered solutions of four intestinal amphiphiles (sodium glycocholate, lecithin, monoolein...

  12. Dissolution of crystalline ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, W.B.

    1982-01-01

    The present program objectives are to lay out the fundamentals of crystalline waste form dissolution. Nuclear waste ceramics are polycrystalline. An assumption of the work is that to the first order, the release rate of a particular radionuclide is the surface-weighted sum of the release rates of the radionuclide from each crystalline form that contains it. In the second order, of course, there will be synergistic effects. There will be also grain boundary and other microstructural influences. As a first approximation, we have selected crystalline phases one at a time. The sequence of investigations and measurements is: (i) Identification of the actual chemical reactions of dissolution including identification of the solid reaction products if such occur. (ii) The rates of these reactions are then determined empirically to give what may be called macroscopic kinetics. (iii) Determination of the rate-controlling mechanisms. (iv) If the rate is controlled by surface reactions, the final step would be to determine the atomic kinetics, that is the specific atomic reactions that occur at the dissolving interface. Our concern with the crystalline forms are in two areas: The crystalline components of the reference ceramic waste form and related ceramics and the alumino-silicate phases that appear in some experimental waste forms and as waste-rock interaction products. Specific compounds are: (1) Reference Ceramic Phases (zirconolite, magnetoplumbite, spinel, Tc-bearing spinel and perovskite); (2) Aluminosilicate phases (nepheline, pollucite, CsAlSi 5 O 12 , Sr-feldspar). 5 figures, 1 table

  13. Stochastic models of intracellular transport

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.

    2013-01-09

    The interior of a living cell is a crowded, heterogenuous, fluctuating environment. Hence, a major challenge in modeling intracellular transport is to analyze stochastic processes within complex environments. Broadly speaking, there are two basic mechanisms for intracellular transport: passive diffusion and motor-driven active transport. Diffusive transport can be formulated in terms of the motion of an overdamped Brownian particle. On the other hand, active transport requires chemical energy, usually in the form of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis, and can be direction specific, allowing biomolecules to be transported long distances; this is particularly important in neurons due to their complex geometry. In this review a wide range of analytical methods and models of intracellular transport is presented. In the case of diffusive transport, narrow escape problems, diffusion to a small target, confined and single-file diffusion, homogenization theory, and fractional diffusion are considered. In the case of active transport, Brownian ratchets, random walk models, exclusion processes, random intermittent search processes, quasi-steady-state reduction methods, and mean-field approximations are considered. Applications include receptor trafficking, axonal transport, membrane diffusion, nuclear transport, protein-DNA interactions, virus trafficking, and the self-organization of subcellular structures. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  14. Effect of dissolution on the load–settlement behavior of shallow foundations

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Minsu

    2016-03-10

    Mineral dissolution and solid-liquid phase change may cause settlement or affect the bearing capacity of shallow foundations. The effect of gradual grain dissolution on small-scale shallow foundation behavior is investigated using the discrete element method. Results show that dissolution is most detrimental during early stages, as initially contacting particles shrink and force chains must reform throughout the medium. Porosity tends to increase during dissolution and force chains evolve into strong localized forces with a honeycomb topology. Higher settlements are required to mobilize bearing resistance in postdissolution sediments than in pre-dissolution ones. Subsurface mineral dissolution beneath a footing under load is the worst condition; in fact, settlements in such cases are higher than when a foundation load is applied on a sediment that has already experienced dissolution. © the author(s) or their institution(s).

  15. Effect of dissolution on the load–settlement behavior of shallow foundations

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Minsu; Santamarina, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Mineral dissolution and solid-liquid phase change may cause settlement or affect the bearing capacity of shallow foundations. The effect of gradual grain dissolution on small-scale shallow foundation behavior is investigated using the discrete element method. Results show that dissolution is most detrimental during early stages, as initially contacting particles shrink and force chains must reform throughout the medium. Porosity tends to increase during dissolution and force chains evolve into strong localized forces with a honeycomb topology. Higher settlements are required to mobilize bearing resistance in postdissolution sediments than in pre-dissolution ones. Subsurface mineral dissolution beneath a footing under load is the worst condition; in fact, settlements in such cases are higher than when a foundation load is applied on a sediment that has already experienced dissolution. © the author(s) or their institution(s).

  16. Study of dissolution factors of U, Th and Ta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Maristela; Medeiros, Geiza; Zouain, Felipe; Cunha, Kenya Dias da; Pitassi, Gabriel; Lima, Cintia; Leite, Carlos Vieira Barros; Nascimento, Jose Eduardo; Dalia, Kely Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Air pollution can be a problem in industrial processes, but monitoring and controlling the aerosols in the work place is not enough to estimate the occupational risk due to dust particle inhalation. The solubility in lung fluid is considered to estimate this risk. The aim of this study is to determine in vitro specific dissolution parameters for thorium (Th), uranium (U) and tantalum (Ta) associated to crystal lattice of a niobium mineral (pyrochlore). Th, U and Ta dissolution factors in vitro were obtained using the Gamble solution (Simulant Lung Fluid, SLF), PIXE (Particle Induced X ray Emission) and alpha spectrometry as analytical techniques. Ta, Th and U are present in the pyrochlore crystal lattice as oxide; however they have shown different dissolution parameters. The rapid dissolution fraction (fr), rapid dissolution rate (λr); slow dissolution rate (fs) and slow dissolution fraction ((λs) measured for tantalum oxide were equal to 0.1, 0.45 d -1 and 0.00007 d -1 , respectively; for uranium oxide fr was equal to 0.05, (λr equal to 1.1 d -1 ; (λs equal to 0.000068 d -1 ; for thorium oxide fr was 0.025, (λr was 1.5 d -1 and (λs: 0.000065 d -1 . These results show that chemical behavior of these 3 compounds in the SLF could not be represented by the same parameter. The ratio of uranium concentration in urine and feces samples from workers exposed to pyrochlore dust particle was determined. These values agree with the theoretical values of estimated uranium concentration using specific parameters for uranium oxide present in pyrochlore. (author)

  17. Dissolution of artemisinin/polymer composite nanoparticles fabricated by evaporative precipitation of nanosuspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakran, Mitali; Sahoo, Nanda Gopal; Li, Lin; Judeh, Zaher

    2010-04-01

    An evaporative precipitation of nanosuspension (EPN) method was used to fabricate composite particles of a poorly water-soluble antimalarial drug, artemisinin, with a hydrophilic polymer, polyethylene glycol (PEG), with the aim of enhancing the dissolution rate of artemisinin. We investigated the effect of polymer concentration on the physical, morphological and dissolution properties of the EPN-prepared artemisinin/PEG composites. The original artemisinin powder, EPN-prepared artemisinin nanoparticles and artemisinin/PEG composites were characterised by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), dissolution testing and HPLC. The percentage dissolution efficiency, relative dissolution, time to 75% dissolution and mean dissolution time were calculated. The experimental drug dissolution data were fitted to various mathematical models (Weibull, first-order, Korsemeyer-Peppas, Hixson-Crowell cube root and Higuchi models) in order to analyse the release mechanism. The DSC and XRD studies suggest that the crystallinity of the EPN-prepared artemisinin decreased with increasing polymer concentration. The phase-solubility studies revealed an A(L)-type curve, indicating a linear increase in drug solubility with PEG concentration. The dissolution rate of the EPN-prepared artemisinin and artemisinin/PEG composites increased markedly compared with the original artemisinin powder. EPN can be used to prepare artemisinin nanoparticles and artemisinin/PEG composite particles that have a significantly enhanced dissolution rate. The mechanism of drug release involved diffusion and erosion.

  18. System and process for dissolution of solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liezers, Martin; Farmer, III, Orville T.

    2017-10-10

    A system and process are disclosed for dissolution of solids and "difficult-to-dissolve" solids. A solid sample may be ablated in an ablation device to generate nanoscale particles. Nanoparticles may then swept into a coupled plasma device operating at atmospheric pressure where the solid nanoparticles are atomized. The plasma exhaust may be delivered directly into an aqueous fluid to form a solution containing the atomized and dissolved solids. The composition of the resulting solution reflects the composition of the original solid sample.

  19. Development of Dissolution Test Method for Drotaverine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Development of Dissolution Test Method for Drotaverine ... Methods: Sink conditions, drug stability and specificity in different dissolution media were tested to optimize a dissolution test .... test by Prism 4.0 software, and differences between ...

  20. The Influence of Milling on the Dissolution Performance of Simvastatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rades

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Particle size reduction is a simple means to enhance the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble BCS-class II and IV drugs. However, the major drawback of this process is the possible introduction of process induced disorder. Drugs with different molecular arrangements may exhibit altered properties such as solubility and dissolution rate and, therefore, process induced solid state modifications need to be monitored. The aim of this study was two-fold: firstly, to investigate the dissolution rates of milled and unmilled simvastatin; and secondly, to screen for the main milling factors, as well as factor interactions in a dry ball milling process using simvastatin as model drug, and to optimize the milling procedure with regard to the opposing responses particle size and process induced disorder by application of a central composite face centered design. Particle size was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM and image analysis. Process induced disorder was determined by partial least squares (PLS regression modeling of respective X-ray powder diffractograms (XRPD and Raman spectra. Valid and significant quadratic models were built. The investigated milling factors were milling frequency, milling time and ball quantity at a set drug load, out of which milling frequency was found to be the most important factor for particle size as well as process induced disorder. Milling frequency and milling time exhibited an interaction effect on the responses. The optimum milling settings using the maximum number of milling balls (60 balls with 4 mm diameter was determined to be at a milling frequency of 21 Hz and a milling time of 36 min with a resulting primary particle size of 1.4 μm and a process induced disorder of 6.1% (assessed by Raman spectroscopy and 8.4% (assessed by XRPD, at a set optimization limit of < 2 μm for particle size and < 10% for process induced disorder. This optimum was tested experimentally and the process induced disorder

  1. Controlled evaluation of silver nanoparticle dissolution using atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Ronald D; Vikesland, Peter J

    2012-07-03

    Incorporation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) into an increasing number of consumer products has led to concern over the potential ecological impacts of their unintended release to the environment. Dissolution is an important environmental transformation that affects the form and concentration of AgNPs in natural waters; however, studies on AgNP dissolution kinetics are complicated by nanoparticle aggregation. Herein, nanosphere lithography (NSL) was used to fabricate uniform arrays of AgNPs immobilized on glass substrates. Nanoparticle immobilization enabled controlled evaluation of AgNP dissolution in an air-saturated phosphate buffer (pH 7.0, 25 °C) under variable NaCl concentrations in the absence of aggregation. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to monitor changes in particle morphology and dissolution. Over the first day of exposure to ≥10 mM NaCl, the in-plane AgNP shape changed from triangular to circular, the sidewalls steepened, the in-plane radius decreased by 5-11 nm, and the height increased by 6-12 nm. Subsequently, particle height and in-plane radius decreased at a constant rate over a 2-week period. Dissolution rates varied linearly from 0.4 to 2.2 nm/d over the 10-550 mM NaCl concentration range tested. NaCl-catalyzed dissolution of AgNPs may play an important role in AgNP fate in saline waters and biological media. This study demonstrates the utility of NSL and AFM for the direct investigation of unaggregated AgNP dissolution.

  2. Dissolution of FFTF vendor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.

    1979-08-01

    Dissolution experiments were performed on FFTF vendor fuel (both mechanically mixed and coprecipitated) during 1974, 1975, and 1976. A marked improvement was noted in the completeness of fuel dissolution from 1974 to 1976. The reason for this is unknown but may have been attributable to slight changes in fuel fabrication conditions. In general, the bulk of the fuel pellets tested dissolved to greater than 99.9% in nitric acid alone

  3. Dissolution of FFTF vendor fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lerch, R.E.

    1979-08-01

    Dissolution experiments were performed on FFTF vendor fuel (both mechanically mixed and coprecipitated) during 1974, 1975, and 1976. A marked improvement was noted in the completeness of fuel dissolution from 1974 to 1976. The reason for this is unknown but may have been attributable to slight changes in fuel fabrication conditions. In general, the bulk of the fuel pellets tested dissolved to greater than 99.9% in nitric acid alone.

  4. Dissolution glow curve in LLD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haverkamp, U.; Wiezorek, C.; Poetter, R.

    1990-01-01

    Lyoluminescence dosimetry is based upon light emission during dissolution of previously irradiated dosimetric materials. The lyoluminescence signal is expressed in the dissolution glow curve. These curves begin, depending on the dissolution system, with a high peak followed by an exponentially decreasing intensity. System parameters that influence the graph of the dissolution glow curve, are, for example, injection speed, temperature and pH value of the solution and the design of the dissolution cell. The initial peak does not significantly correlate with the absorbed dose, it is mainly an effect of the injection. The decay of the curve consists of two exponential components: one fast and one slow. The components depend on the absorbed dose and the dosimetric materials used. In particular, the slow component correlates with the absorbed dose. In contrast to the fast component the argument of the exponential function of the slow component is independent of the dosimetric materials investigated: trehalose, glucose and mannitol. The maximum value, following the peak of the curve, and the integral light output are a measure of the absorbed dose. The reason for the different light outputs of various dosimetric materials after irradiation with the same dose is the differing solubility. The character of the dissolution glow curves is the same following irradiation with photons, electrons or neutrons. (author)

  5. Montmorillonite dissolution kinetics: Experimental and reactive transport modeling interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelli, Chiara; Yokoyama, Shingo; Cama, Jordi; Huertas, F. Javier

    2018-04-01

    and to elucidate the stoichiometry of the reaction. After the implementation of (i) the obtained f(ΔGr) term in the K-montmorillonte dissolution rate law, (ii) a fraction of highly reactive particles and surfaces and (iii) the cation exchange reactions between the interlayer K+ and the released Al3+, Mg2+, Ca2+ and H+, the simulations agreed with the experimental concentrations at the outlet. This match indicates that fast dissolution of fine particles and highly reactive sites and exchange between the interlayer K and dissolved structural cations (Al and Mg) and protons are responsible for the temporary incongruency of the K-montmorillonite dissolution reaction. As long as dissolution of the bulk sample predominates, the reaction is stoichiometric.

  6. Use of micro-reactors to obtain new insights into the factors influencing tricalcium silicate dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suraneni, Prannoy; Flatt, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    A micro-reactor approach, developed previously, is used to study the early dissolution of tricalcium silicate. This approach uses micron-sized gaps mimicking particles in close contact to understand dissolution, nucleation, and growth processes. The main factors influencing the dissolution kinetics of tricalcium silicate are presented. We show that the presence of defects caused by polishing does not affect the extent of dissolution. A strong effect of aluminum in solution reducing the extent of dissolution is however identified. This effect is highly dependent on the pH, and is much lower above pH 13. We show also that superplasticizers reduce the extent of dissolution; however, the exact reason for this effect is not clear.

  7. Linking dissolution to disintegration in immediate release tablets using image analysis and a population balance modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David; Wren, Stephen; Reynolds, Gavin

    2012-01-01

    In order to achieve an improved understanding of disintegration and dissolution phenomena for an immediate release tablet formulation, a technique to monitor the number and size of particles entrained within the dissolution media was developed in combination with a population balancing model. Tablets were first characterized for crushing force, disintegration time and dissolution performance using standard USP methodologies. The performance of the tablets was then assessed using a new measurement system which links a "QicPic" particle imaging device to a USP dissolution vessel. This system enables us to measure the number and size of particles generated during tablet dissolution. The population balance mathematical model allowed a tablet erosion rate to be manipulated to fit the experimental data. Results showed that tablets with differing crushing forces showed different dissolution behaviors that could be explained by differing rates of particle release into the dissolution media. These behaviors were then successfully modeled to provide a description of the dissolution and disintegration behavior of the tablets in terms of a tablet erosion rate. A new approach was developed that allowed the description of the dissolution behaviors of the tablets in terms of the rate that they release particles into solution. This was then successfully modeled in terms of a tablet erosion rate.

  8. Dissolution of aluminium; Disolucion de aluminio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uriarte Hueda, A; Berberana Eizmendi, M; Pereira Sanchez, G

    1968-07-01

    The dissolution of aluminum with acid solutions ( nitric acid-mercuric nitrate) and alkaline solutions (sodium hydroxide-sodium nitrate) has been studied. The instantaneous dissolution rate (IDR) has been studied in function of the concentration of the used reagents and the dissolution temperature. The complete dissolution has been included in the second part of this report, to know the total dissolution time, the consume of reagents and the stability of the resultant solutions. (Author)

  9. Spatial Cytoskeleton Organization Supports Targeted Intracellular Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, Anne E.; Rieger, Heiko

    2018-03-01

    The efficiency of intracellular cargo transport from specific source to target locations is strongly dependent upon molecular motor-assisted motion along the cytoskeleton. Radial transport along microtubules and lateral transport along the filaments of the actin cortex underneath the cell membrane are characteristic for cells with a centrosome. The interplay between the specific cytoskeleton organization and the motor performance realizes a spatially inhomogeneous intermittent search strategy. In order to analyze the efficiency of such intracellular search strategies we formulate a random velocity model with intermittent arrest states. We evaluate efficiency in terms of mean first passage times for three different, frequently encountered intracellular transport tasks: i) the narrow escape problem, which emerges during cargo transport to a synapse or other specific region of the cell membrane, ii) the reaction problem, which considers the binding time of two particles within the cell, and iii) the reaction-escape problem, which arises when cargo must be released at a synapse only after pairing with another particle. Our results indicate that cells are able to realize efficient search strategies for various intracellular transport tasks economically through a spatial cytoskeleton organization that involves only a narrow actin cortex rather than a cell body filled with randomly oriented actin filaments.

  10. Kinetics of dissolution of calcium phosphate (Ca-P bioceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Brazda

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydroxyapatite (HAp and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP are widely used bioceramics for surgical or dental applications. This paper is dealing with dissolution kinetics of synthetically prepared β-TCP and four types of HAp granules. Two groups of HAp, treated at different temperatures, each of them with two different granule sizes, were tested. Three corrosive solutions with different pH and simulated body fluid (SBF were used for immersing of the samples. Changes in concentrations of calcium and phosphate ions, pH level and weight changes of the samples were observed. It was found that presence of TRIS buffer enhanced dissolution rate of the β-TCP approximately two times. When exposed to SBF solution, calcium phosphate (most probably hydroxyapatite precipitation predominates over β-TCP dissolution. Results from HAp samples dissolution showed some unexpected findings. Neither heat treatment nor HAp particle size made any major differences in dissolution rate of the same mass of each HAp sample.

  11. Solubility and dissolution improvement of ketoprofen by emulsification ionic gelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmaniar, Revika; Tristiyanti, Deby; Hamdani, Syarif; Afifah

    2018-02-01

    Ketoprofen or [2-(3-benzoylphenyl) propionic acid] is non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (NSAID) and an analgesic which has high permeability and low solubility. The purpose of this work was to improve the solubility and dissolution of poorly water-soluble ketoprofen prepared by emulsification ionic gelation method and utilizing polymer (chitosan) and cross linker (tripolyphosphate, TPP) for particles formulation. The results show that increasing pH value of TPP, higher solubility and dissolution of as-prepared ketoprofen-chitosan was obtained. The solubility in water of ketoprofen-chitosan with pH 6 for TPP increased 2.71-fold compared to untreated ketoprofen. While the dissolution of ketoprofen-chitosan with pH 6 of TPP in simulated gastric fluid without enzyme (0.1 N HCl), pH 4.5 buffer and simulated intestinal fluid without enzyme (phosphate buffer pH 6.8) was increased 1.9-fold, 1.6-fold and 1.2-fold compared to untreated ketoprofen for dissolution time of 30 minutes, respectively. It could be concluded that chitosan and TPP in the emulsification ionic gelation method for ketoprofen preparation effectively increases solubility and dissolution of poorly water-soluble ketoprofen.

  12. Dissolution Threats and Legislative Bargaining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becher, Michael; Christiansen, Flemming Juul

    2015-01-01

    Chief executives in many parliamentary democracies have the power to dissolve the legislature. Despite a well-developed literature on the endogenous timing of parliamentary elections, political scientists know remarkably little about the strategic use of dissolution power to influence policymaking....... To address this gap, we propose and empirically evaluate a theoretical model of legislative bargaining in the shadow of executive dissolution power. The model implies that the chief executive's public support and legislative strength, as well as the time until the next constitutionally mandated election...

  13. Actor bonds after relationship dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaates, Maria Anne

    2000-01-01

    Most of the presented papers at the 1st NoRD Workshop can be classified as belonging to the business marketing approach to relationship dissolution. Two papers were conceptual, and the remaining six were empirical studies. The first conceptual study by Skaates (2000) focuses on the nature...... of the actor bonds that remain after a business relationship has ended. The study suggests that an interdisciplinary approach would provide a richer understanding of the phenomenon; this could be achieved by using e.g. Bourdieu's sociological concepts in dissolution research....

  14. Formalization of the kinetics for autocatalytic dissolutions. Focus on the dissolution of uranium dioxide in nitric medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlier, F.; Canion, D.; Gravinese, A.; Magnaldo, A.; Lalleman, S.; Borda, G.; Schaer, E.

    2017-01-01

    Uranium dioxide dissolution in nitric acid is a complex reaction. On the one hand, the dissolution produces nitrous oxides (NOX), which makes it a triphasic reaction. On the other hand, one of the products accelerates the kinetic rate; the reaction is hence called autocatalytic.The kinetics for these kinds of reactions need to be formalized in order to optimize and design innovative dissolution reactors. In this work, the kinetics rates have been measured by optical microscopy using a single particle approach. The advantages of this analytical technique are an easier management of species transport in solution and a precise following of the dissolution rate. The global rate is well described by a mechanism considering two steps: a non-catalyzed reaction, where the catalyst concentration has no influence on the dissolution rate, and a catalyzed reaction. The mass transfer rate of the catalyst was quantified in order to discriminate when the reaction was influenced by catalyst accumulated in the boundary layer or uncatalyzed. This first approximation described well the sigmoid dissolution curve profile. Moreover, experiments showed that solutions filled with catalyst proved to lose reactivity over time. Results pointed out that the higher the liquid-gas exchanges, the faster the kinetic rate decreases with time. Thus, it was demonstrated, for the first time, that there is a link between catalyst and nitrous oxides. The outcome of this study leads to new ways for improving the design of dissolvers. Gas-liquid exchanges are indeed a lever to impact dissolution rates. Temperature and catalyst concentration can be optimized to reduce residence times in dissolvers. (authors)

  15. Developing a quality by design approach to model tablet dissolution testing: an industrial case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekpe, Ketsia; Abatzoglou, Nicolas; Bataille, Bernard; Gosselin, Ryan; Sharkawi, Tahmer; Simard, Jean-Sébastien; Cournoyer, Antoine

    2017-11-02

    This study applied the concept of Quality by Design (QbD) to tablet dissolution. Its goal was to propose a quality control strategy to model dissolution testing of solid oral dose products according to International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The methodology involved the following three steps: (1) a risk analysis to identify the material- and process-related parameters impacting the critical quality attributes of dissolution testing, (2) an experimental design to evaluate the influence of design factors (attributes and parameters selected by risk analysis) on dissolution testing, and (3) an investigation of the relationship between design factors and dissolution profiles. Results show that (a) in the case studied, the two parameters impacting dissolution kinetics are active pharmaceutical ingredient particle size distributions and tablet hardness and (b) these two parameters could be monitored with PAT tools to predict dissolution profiles. Moreover, based on the results obtained, modeling dissolution is possible. The practicality and effectiveness of the QbD approach were demonstrated through this industrial case study. Implementing such an approach systematically in industrial pharmaceutical production would reduce the need for tablet dissolution testing.

  16. Marital dissolution: an economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, K A

    1984-01-01

    A longitudinal analysis of factors affecting marital dissolution in the United States is presented using data from the Coleman-Rossi Retrospective Life History. Factors considered include labor force participation of both spouses, wage growth, size of family unit, age at marriage, and educational status. The study is based on the economic analysis approach developed by Gary S. Becker and others.

  17. Glass dissolution rate measurement and calculation revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, Maxime, E-mail: maxime.fournier@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, F-30207, Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Ull, Aurélien; Nicoleau, Elodie [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, F-30207, Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Inagaki, Yaohiro [Department of Applied Quantum Physics & Nuclear Engineering, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, 819-0395 (Japan); Odorico, Michaël [ICSM-UMR5257 CEA/CNRS/UM2/ENSCM, Site de Marcoule, BP17171, F-30207, Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Frugier, Pierre; Gin, Stéphane [CEA, DEN, DTCD, SECM, F-30207, Bagnols sur Cèze (France)

    2016-08-01

    Aqueous dissolution rate measurements of nuclear glasses are a key step in the long-term behavior study of such waste forms. These rates are routinely normalized to the glass surface area in contact with solution, and experiments are very often carried out using crushed materials. Various methods have been implemented to determine the surface area of such glass powders, leading to differing values, with the notion of the reactive surface area of crushed glass remaining vague. In this study, around forty initial dissolution rate measurements were conducted following static and flow rate (SPFT, MCFT) measurement protocols at 90 °C, pH 10. The international reference glass (ISG), in the forms of powders with different particle sizes and polished monoliths, and soda-lime glass beads were examined. Although crushed glass grains clearly cannot be assimilated with spheres, it is when using the samples geometric surface (S{sub geo}) that the rates measured on powders are closest to those found for monoliths. Overestimation of the reactive surface when using the BET model (S{sub BET}) may be due to small physical features at the atomic scale—contributing to BET surface area but not to AFM surface area. Such features are very small compared with the thickness of water ingress in glass (a few hundred nanometers) and should not be considered in rate calculations. With a S{sub BET}/S{sub geo} ratio of 2.5 ± 0.2 for ISG powders, it is shown here that rates measured on powders and normalized to S{sub geo} should be divided by 1.3 and rates normalized to S{sub BET} should be multiplied by 1.9 in order to be compared with rates measured on a monolith. The use of glass beads indicates that the geometric surface gives a good estimation of glass reactive surface if sample geometry can be precisely described. Although data clearly shows the repeatability of measurements, results must be given with a high uncertainty of approximately ±25%. - Highlights: • Initial dissolution

  18. The influence of milling on the dissolution performance of simvastatin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimper, Ulrike; Aaltonen, Jaakko; Krauel-Goellner, Karen

    2012-01-01

    properties such as solubility and dissolution rate and, therefore, process induced solid state modifications need to be monitored. The aim of this study was two-fold: firstly, to investigate the dissolution rates of milled and unmilled simvastatin; and secondly, to screen for the main milling factors......, as well as factor interactions in a dry ball milling process using simvastatin as model drug, and to optimize the milling procedure with regard to the opposing responses particle size and process induced disorder by application of a central composite face centered design. Particle size was assessed...... by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and image analysis. Process induced disorder was determined by partial least squares (PLS) regression modeling of respective X-ray powder diffractograms (XRPD) and Raman spectra. Valid and significant quadratic models were built. The investigated milling factors were...

  19. Dissolution at porous interfaces VI: Multiple pore systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijseels, H; Crommelin, D J; De Blaey, C J

    1984-12-01

    With the aid of rapidly dissolving sodium chloride particles, cubic pores were made in the surface of a theophylline tablet. The influence of the pores on the dissolution rate of the surface was investigated in a rotating disk apparatus. Like the drilled pores used in earlier studies, downstream on the surface they caused a turbulent flow regimen with the development of a trough due to enhanced erosion. The phenomenon of a critical pore diameter, discovered with single, drilled pores, seems to be applicable to the cubic pores investigated in this study, although a higher degree of surface coverage with pores caused complications, probably due to particles bordering one another and forming larger pores. The behavior of the porous surfaces at different rotation speeds was studied. Due to the presence of pores the laminar character of the boundary layer flow changes to turbulent, which induces locally an increased dissolution flux in the wake of a pore.

  20. The Use of Artificial Neural Network for Prediction of Dissolution Kinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Elçiçek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Colemanite is a preferred boron mineral in industry, such as boric acid production, fabrication of heat resistant glass, and cleaning agents. Dissolution of the mineral is one of the most important processes for these industries. In this study, dissolution of colemanite was examined in water saturated with carbon dioxide solutions. Also, prediction of dissolution rate was determined using artificial neural networks (ANNs which are based on the multilayered perceptron. Reaction temperature, total pressure, stirring speed, solid/liquid ratio, particle size, and reaction time were selected as input parameters to predict the dissolution rate. Experimental dataset was used to train multilayer perceptron (MLP networks to allow for prediction of dissolution kinetics. Developing ANNs has provided highly accurate predictions in comparison with an obtained mathematical model used through regression method. We conclude that ANNs may be a preferred alternative approach instead of conventional statistical methods for prediction of boron minerals.

  1. Dissolution of anodic zirconium dioxide films in aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merati, A.; Cox, B.

    1999-01-01

    Zirconium with a low thermal neutron cross section, good corrosion resistance in high-temperature water, and high thermal conductivity is an ideal material for nuclear reactors. Its good resistance to water and steam at reactor temperatures is of the greatest interest to nuclear fuel designers. Dissolution of zirconium dioxide (ZrO 2 ) films in aggressive media was investigated. The extent of uniform and localized dissolution was measured by ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) spectrometry and an alternating current (AC) impedance test, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed the extent of dissolution of ZrO 2 was a function only of the fluoride ion content and pH of the medium. Cathodic polarization was used to identify the preferred sites for localized dissolution of the oxide film. In 0.1 M potassium bifluoride (KHF 2 ), both uniform thinning and local breakdown of the oxide were observed. Within the limits of the investigating techniques, no evidence of dissolution was observed in the other solutions tested: 0.5 M sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ). 1.0 M nitric acid (HNO 3 ), 5 M hydrochloric acid (HCl), or 0.1 M potassium fluoride (KF). In areas around iron-containing particles, fine cracks in the anodic oxide at prior metal grain boundaries and arrays of cracks in the oxide associated with residual scratches from the initial specimen preparation were the preferred spots for localized dissolution of the oxide film. Iron precipitates immediately below the surface of the oxide layer increased the local electrical conductivity. Enrichment of iron in the oxide matrix around these precipitates during the anodization process appeared to cause prospective spots, acting as anodic sites for pH formation

  2. Dissolution rates of airborne uranium in simulated lung fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thein, M.; Maitz, A.H.; Austin, M.A.; Rao, G.R.; Gur, D.

    1982-01-01

    The airborne uranium, collected on three sets of air filter samples at different times, near a uranium fuel fabrication plant, was classified to assess the potential radiological and toxicological hazards of respirable particles with aerodynamic equivalent diameters of less than 15 μm. A model was developed to calculate radiation dose from radionuclides deposited in the lung by inhalation. Knowing the solubility category and dissolution half-time, the likely doses to residents near such plants can be assessed. (U.K.)

  3. In vitro dissolution and radiation dosimetry of metal tritides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Y.S.; Dahl, A.R.; Jow, H.N.

    1993-01-01

    It has been completed to investigate the dissolution behavior of both titanium and erbium tritide particles in simulated biological fluids and in rats. Data from these studies will provide information to estimate the dosimetry of inhaled metal tritides. The dosimetric model can then be used as the technical basis for setting health protection limits, including the annual limit on intake and the derived air concentration for DOE facilities. (3 figs.)

  4. Dissolution test for glibenclamide tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Aparecida dos Santos Gianotto

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to develop and validate a dissolution test for glibenclamide tablets. Optimal conditions to carry out the dissolution test are 500 mL of phosphate buffer at pH 8.0, paddles at 75 rpm stirring speed, time test set to 60 min and using equipment with six vessels. The derivative UV spectrophotometric method for determination of glibenclamide released was developed, validated and compared with the HPLC method. The UVDS method presents linearity (r² = 0.9999 in the concentration range of 5-14 µg/mL. Precision and recoveries were 0.42% and 100.25%, respectively. The method was applied to three products commercially available on the Brazilian market.

  5. The Dissolution of Uranium Oxides in HB-Line Phase 1 Dissolvers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    A series of characterization and dissolution studies has been performed to define flowsheet conditions for the dissolution of uranium oxide materials in dissolvers. The samples selected for analysis were uranium oxide materials. The selection of these uranium oxide materials for characterization and dissolution studies was based on high enriched uranium content and trace levels of plutonium. Test results from the characterization study identified ferric oxide (Fe2O3) and iron/chromium/nickel (Fe/Cr/Ni) particles as impurities along with the tri-uranium oxide (U3O8) and uranium trioxide (UO3). The weight percent uranium in this material was found to vary depending on the impurity content. The trace impurity plutonium appears to be associated with the Fe/Cr/Ni particles. A small amount of absorbed moisture and waters of hydration is present. Most of the uranium oxides easily dissolved in low-molar nitric acid solutions without fluoride within one to two hours at solution temperature s between 60-80 degrees C. A small amount of residue remained following this dissolution step. To assure complete dissolution of uranium from these oxide materials, an additional dissolution step at 90 degrees C to boiling for at least one to two hours has been suggested. Only trace amounts of iron associated with Fe2O3 and Fe/Cr/Ni particles will dissolve during the dissolution steps. Neither hydrogen nor heat will be generated during the dissolution of these uranium oxide materials in nitric acid solutions. Some brown nitrogen dioxide (NO2) fumes will be generated during the dissolution of U3O8

  6. Development of simulation code for MOX dissolution using silver-mediated electrochemical method (Contract research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kida, Takashi; Umeda, Miki; Sugikawa, Susumu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    MOX dissolution using silver-mediated electrochemical method will be employed for the preparation of plutonium nitrate solution in the criticality safety experiments in the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility (NUCEF). A simulation code for the MOX dissolution has been developed for the operating support. The present report describes the outline of the simulation code, a comparison with the experimental data and a parameter study on the MOX dissolution. The principle of this code is based on the Zundelevich's model for PuO{sub 2} dissolution using Ag(II). The influence of nitrous acid on the material balance of Ag(II) is taken into consideration and the surface area of MOX powder is evaluated by particle size distribution in this model. The comparison with experimental data was carried out to confirm the validity of this model. It was confirmed that the behavior of MOX dissolution could adequately be simulated using an appropriate MOX dissolution rate constant. It was found from the result of parameter studies that MOX particle size was major governing factor on the dissolution rate. (author)

  7. Mechanism and Kinetics for the Dissolution of Apatitic Materials in Acid Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calmanovici C.E.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract - This work concerns the study of the digestion step in the production process of phosphoric acid. Some qualitative experiments indicate that the difference between the pH at the surface of the phosphate and that in the bulk of the solution is negligible and that the dissolution is controlled by diffusion of products away from the phosphate particle. In further experiments, to isolate the dissolution phenomenon from the formation of calcium sulfate, the sulfuric acid normally used industrially is replaced by hydrochloric acid. The phosphate material used in our experiments is a model apatitic material: synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAP. The dissolution of calcium hydroxyapatite was studied with increasing amounts of calcium and phosphate at different temperatures. A simple method was developed for this observation based on the time required for complete dissolution of the HAP powder. The results confirm that the dissolution is controlled by a diffusional process through an interface of calcium and phosphate ions released from the solid surface. A kinetic model for the dissolution of apatitic materials is proposed which assumes a shrinking particle behaviour controlled by diffusion of calcium ions. The experimental results are fitted to this model to determine the mass transfer constant for HAP dissolution in acid solutions. The activation energy of the reaction is about 14kJ/mol. This study was carried on in conditions similar to the industrial ones for the production of phosphoric acid by the dihydrate-process

  8. The dissolution of chalcopyrite in chloride media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibanez, T.; Velasquez, L.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this investigation is to determinate the effects of parameters and additives on the kinetics of dissolution of chalcopyrite on moderated conditions by means of dissolutions test with chalcopyrite concentrate and pure chalcopyrite in shake flasks and instrumented stirred reactors. A study of the dissolution of chalcopyrite in chloride solutions has demonstrated that the rate of dissolution of chalcopyrite is strongly dependent on the potential of the solution within a range of 540 to 630 mV (versus SHE). Leaching at pH around 2.5 results in increased rates of copper dissolution suggesting the possibility to keep the solution potential within the range. Both pyrite and silver ions enhance the dissolution of chalcopyrite and this effect increases when both species are present. The MnO 2 has a negative effect on the dissolution increasing the solution potential to values where the rate decreases considerably. (Author)

  9. Flow-injection system for automated dissolution testing of isoniazid tablets with chemiluminescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B; Zhang, Z; Liu, W

    2001-05-30

    A simple and sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence (CL) system for automated dissolution testing is described and evaluated for monitoring of dissolution profiles of isoniazid tablets. The undissolved suspended particles in the dissolved solution were eliminated via on-line filter. The novel CL system of KIO(4)-isoniazid was also investigated. The sampling frequency of the system was 120 h(-1). The dissolution profiles of isoniazid fast-release tablets from three sources were determined, which demonstrates the stability, great sensitivity, large dynamic measuring range and robustness of the system.

  10. Dissolution enhancement of Deflazacort using hollow crystals prepared by antisolvent crystallization process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulino, A S; Rauber, G; Campos, C E M; Maurício, M H P; de Avillez, R R; Capobianco, G; Cardoso, S G; Cuffini, S L

    2013-05-13

    Deflazacort (DFZ), a derivate of prednisolone, is a poorly soluble drug which has been proposed to have major advantages over other corticosteroids. Poorly soluble drugs present limited bioavailability due to their low solubility and dissolution rate and several strategies have been developed in order to find ways to improve them. In general, pharmaceutical laboratories use a micronized process to reduce the particle size in order to increase the dissolution of the drugs. However, this process causes changes such as polymorphic transitions, particle agglomeration and a reduction in fluidity and wettability. These solid-state properties affect the dissolution behavior and stability performance of drugs. Crystallization techniques are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry and antisolvent crystallization has been used to obtain ultrafine particles. In this study, DFZ was investigated in terms of its antisolvent crystallization in different solvents and under various preparation conditions (methanol/water ratio, stirring and evaporation rate, etc.), in order to compare the physicochemical properties between crystallized samples and raw materials available on the Brazilian market with and without micronization. Crystalline structure, morphology, and particle size, and their correlation with the Intrinsic Dissolution Rate (IDR) and dissolution profile as relevant biopharmaceutical properties were studied. Crystallization conditions were achieved which provided crystalline samples of hollow-shaped crystals with internal channels, which increased the dissolution rate of DFZ. The antisolvent crystallization process allowed the formation of hollow crystals, which demonstrated a better dissolution profile than the raw material (crystalline and micronized), making this a promising technique as a crystallization strategy for improving the dissolution and thus the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Imaging and controlling intracellular reactions: Lysosome transport as a function of diameter and the intracellular synthesis of conducting polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Christine

    2014-03-01

    Eukaryotic cells are the ultimate complex environment with intracellular chemical reactions regulated by the local cellular environment. For example, reactants are sequestered into specific organelles to control local concentration and pH, motor proteins transport reactants within the cell, and intracellular vesicles undergo fusion to bring reactants together. Current research in the Payne Lab in the School of Chemistry and Biochemistry at Georgia Tech is aimed at understanding and utilizing this complex environment to control intracellular chemical reactions. This will be illustrated using two examples, intracellular transport as a function of organelle diameter and the intracellular synthesis of conducting polymers. Using single particle tracking fluorescence microscopy, we measured the intracellular transport of lysosomes, membrane-bound organelles, as a function of diameter as they underwent transport in living cells. Both ATP-dependent active transport and diffusion were examined. As expected, diffusion scales with the diameter of the lysosome. However, active transport is unaffected suggesting that motor proteins are insensitive to cytosolic drag. In a second example, we utilize intracellular complexity, specifically the distinct micro-environments of different organelles, to carry out chemical reactions. We show that catalase, found in the peroxisomes of cells, can be used to catalyze the polymerization of the conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS. More importantly, we have found that a range of iron-containing biomolecules are suitable catalysts with different iron-containing biomolecules leading to different polymer properties. These experiments illustrate the advantage of intracellular complexity for the synthesis of novel materials.

  12. Contact Angle Measurements: an Alternative Approach Towards Understanding the Mechanism of Increased Drug Dissolution from Ethylcellulose Tablets Containing Surfactant and Exploring the Relationship Between Their Contact Angles and Dissolution Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tiaotiao; Hao, Jingqiang; Yang, Baixue; Hu, Beibei; Cui, Zhixiang; Li, Sanming

    2018-05-01

    The addition of surfactant in tablet was a well-defined approach to improve drug dissolution rate. While the selected surfactant played a vital role in improving the wettability of tablet by medium, it was equally important to improve the dissolution rate by permeation effect due to production of pores or the reduced inter-particle adhesion. Furthermore, understanding the mechanism of dissolution rate increased was significant. In this work, contact angle measurement was taken up as an alternative approach for understanding the dissolution rate enhancement for tablet containing surfactant. Ethylcellulose, as a substrate, was used to prepare tablet. Four surfactants, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS), dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB), and sodium lauryl sulfonate (SLS), were used. Berberine hydrochloride, metformin hydrochloride, and rutin were selected as model drugs. The contact angle of tablet in the absence and presence of surfactant was measured to explore the mechanism. The dissolution test was investigated to verify the mechanism and to establish a correlation with the contact angle. The result showed that the mechanism was the penetration effect rather than the wetting effect. The dissolution increased with a reduction in the contact angle. DTAB was found to obtain the highest level of dissolution enhancement and the lowest contact angle, while SDS, SDBS, and SLS were found to be the less effective in both dissolution enhancement and contact angle decrease. Therefore, contact angle was a good indicator for dissolution behavior besides exploring the mechanism of increased dissolution, which shows great potential in formula screening.

  13. Calcination/dissolution residue treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.C.; Creed, R.F.; Patello, G.K.; Hollenberg, G.W.; Buehler, M.F.; O'Rourke, S.M.; Visnapuu, A.; McLaughlin, D.F.

    1994-09-01

    Currently, high-level wastes are stored underground in steel-lined tanks at the Hanford site. Current plans call for the chemical pretreatment of these wastes before their immobilization in stable glass waste forms. One candidate pretreatment approach, calcination/dissolution, performs an alkaline fusion of the waste and creates a high-level/low-level partition based on the aqueous solubilities of the components of the product calcine. Literature and laboratory studies were conducted with the goal of finding a residue treatment technology that would decrease the quantity of high-level waste glass required following calcination/dissolution waste processing. Four elements, Fe, Ni, Bi, and U, postulated to be present in the high-level residue fraction were identified as being key to the quantity of high-level glass formed. Laboratory tests of the candidate technologies with simulant high-level residues showed reductive roasting followed by carbonyl volatilization to be successful in removing Fe, Ni, and Bi. Subsequent bench-scale tests on residues from calcination/dissolution processing of genuine Hanford Site tank waste showed Fe was separated with radioelement decontamination factors of 70 to 1,000 times with respect to total alpha activity. Thermodynamic analyses of the calcination of five typical Hanford Site tank waste compositions also were performed. The analyses showed sodium hydroxide to be the sole molten component in the waste calcine and emphasized the requirement for waste blending if fluid calcines are to be achieved. Other calcine phases identified in the thermodynamic analysis indicate the significant thermal reconstitution accomplished in calcination

  14. Revisiting classical silicate dissolution rate laws under hydrothermal conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollet-Villard, Marion; Daval, Damien; Saldi, Giuseppe; Knauss, Kevin; Wild, Bastien; Fritz, Bertrand

    2015-04-01

    In the context of geothermal energy, the relative intensities of primary mineral leaching and secondary mineral precipitation can affect porosity and permeability of the reservoir, thereby influencing its hydraulic performance and the efficiency of the geothermal power station. That is why the prediction of reaction kinetics of fluid/rock interactions represents a critical issue in this context. Moreover, in several geothermal systems such as the one of Soultz-sous-Forêts (Alsace, France), the circulation of aqueous fluids induces only modest modifications of their chemical composition. Therefore, fluid-rock interactions take place at close-to-equilibrium conditions, where the rate-affinity relations are poorly known and intensively debated [1]. To describe more precisely the dissolution processes, our strategy consists in investigating the dissolution of the main cleavages of K-spar minerals (one of the prevalent primary minerals in the reservoir of Soultz-sous-Forêts geothermal system) over a wide range of Gibbs free energy (ΔG) conditions. The aims are to decipher the impact of crystallographic orientation and microstructural surface modifications on the dissolution kinetics and to propose a relation between K-spar dissolution rate and ΔG. Our experimental work relies on a coupled approach which combines classical experiments of K-spar dissolution monitored by aqueous chemical analyses (ICP-AES) and innovative techniques of nm- to μm-scale characterization of solid surface (SEM, AFM, VSI) [2]. Our results confirm that K-spar dissolution is an anisotropic process: we measure a tenfold factor between the slowest and the fastest-dissolving surfaces. Moreover, the formation of etch pits on surfaces during their alteration has been evidenced on all of the different faces that have been studied. This complex evolution of the surface topography casts doubt of the relevance of a surface model based on shrinking particles and represents a possible cause of an

  15. Rapid and gradual modes of aerosol trace metal dissolution in seawater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rose Marie Mackey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric deposition is a major source of trace metals in marine surface waters and supplies vital micronutrients to phytoplankton, yet measured aerosol trace metal solubility values are operationally defined and there are relatively few multi-element studies on aerosol-metal solubility in seawater. Here we measure the solubility of aluminum (Al, cadmium (Cd, cobalt (Co, copper (Cu, iron (Fe, manganese (Mn, nickel (Ni, lead (Pb, and zinc (Zn from natural aerosol samples in seawater over a 7 day period to (1 evaluate the role of extraction time in trace metal dissolution behavior and (2 explore how the individual dissolution patterns could influence biota. Dissolution behavior occurs over a continuum ranging from rapid dissolution, in which the majority of soluble metal dissolved immediately upon seawater exposure (Cd and Co in our samples, to gradual dissolution, where metals dissolved slowly over time (Zn, Mn, Cu, and Al in our samples. Additionally, dissolution affected by interactions with particles was observed in which a decline in soluble metal concentration over time occurred (Fe and Pb in our samples. Natural variability in aerosol chemistry between samples can cause metals to display different dissolution kinetics in different samples, and this was particularly evident for Ni, for which samples showed a broad range of dissolution rates. The elemental molar ratio of metals in the bulk aerosols was 23,189Fe: 22,651Al: 445Mn: 348Zn: 71Cu: 48Ni: 23Pb: 9Co: 1Cd, whereas the seawater soluble molar ratio after 7 days of leaching was 11Fe: 620Al: 205Mn: 240Zn: 20Cu: 14Ni: 9Pb: 2Co: 1Cd. The different kinetics and ratios of aerosol metal dissolution have implications for phytoplankton nutrition, and highlight the need for unified extraction protocols that simulate aerosol metal dissolution in the surface ocean.

  16. Dissolution study of tremolite and anthophyllite: pH effect on the reaction kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozalen, M.; Ramos, M.E.; Gervilla, F.; Kerestedjian, T.; Fiore, S.; Huertas, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dissolution rates strongly depend on pH and it is different for each mineral. • Anthophyllite dissolves up to 8 times faster than tremolite in similar conditions. • SEM images show different particle breakage and carbonation effects at basic pHs. • Our results are a good background to develop remediation processes of contaminated sites. - Abstract: The effect of pH on the kinetics of tremolite and anthophyllite dissolution was investigated at 25 °C in batch reactors over the pH range of 1–13.5, in inorganic buffered solutions. Dissolution rates were obtained based on the release of Si and Mg. Results obtained in this study show different behaviors for both minerals. For tremolite, dissolution rates show a noticeable dependence on pH between 1 and 8, decreasing as pH increases and reaching a minimum around neutral conditions. At basic pH this dependence becomes even stronger, but dissolution takes place together with collateral effects of saturation and carbonation. A preferential release of Ca and Mg is observed in acid media, lowering the Mg/Si ratio to the extent that Mg solubility decreases with pH. For anthophyllite, dissolution rates also show a strong dependence on pH, between 1 and 9.5. At the same pH, anthophyllite dissolves up to 8 times faster than tremolite. For pH > 9.5 this dependence is smooth, and it is probably associated with effects of saturation and carbonation. Dissolution is also non-stoichiometric with a faster release of Mg with respect to Si in acid media. SEM observations show differences in the breakage mechanism of the fibers. The anthophyllite particle breakage during dissolution consists of the splitting of bundle fibers parallel to the fiber longitudinal direction. However, for tremolite, other than fiber splitting, particles shorten induced by coalescence of etch pits developed perpendicular to c axe

  17. The dissolution phenomenon of lysozyme crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, C.; Ulrich, J. [Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Thermal Separation Processes, Centre of Engineering Science, Halle/Saale (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Dissolution studies on lysozyme crystals were carried out since the observed dissolution pattern look different from non-protein dissolved crystals. The Tetragonal, High Temperature and Low Temperature Orthorhombic morphologies, crystallized using sodium chloride, were chosen and the influence of different pH, salt and protein concentration on their dissolution was investigated. An increase in pH and/or salt concentration can modify the dissolution behaviour. The pattern of the crystals during the dissolution process will, therefore, develop differently. Frequently a skeleton like crystal pattern followed by a falling apart of the crystals is observed. The multi-component character of the lysozyme crystal (protein, water, buffer, salt) as well as ''solvatomorphism'' gives first insights in the phenomena happening in the dissolution process. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  18. Simfuel dissolution studies in granitic groundwater leaching experiments at VTT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollila, K.

    1992-12-01

    The dissolution behaviour of an irradiated analogue of spent nuclear fuel, SIMFUEL, was studied in synthetic granitic groundwater. The release of uranium and the minor components was monitored during static (bach) leaching experiments in oxic and anoxic (N 2 ) atmosphere at 25 deg C. Molybdenum, ruthenium, barium and zirconium showed a trend to congruent dissolution behaviour with UO 2 matrix towards the end of the experimental time (540 days) under anoxic conditions. Under oxic conditions, molybdenum and strontium had higher release rates relative to the matrix (the exp. time of 220 days). The presence of particulate material in the leachates in anoxic atmosphere was shown by SEM/EDX and XRD analyses. The material retained on membrane after filtration consisted of Ca-rich and U-rich particles in addition to finely divided material. Calcite (CaCO 3 ) and uranium oxide were identified. (orig.)

  19. Plutonium dioxide dissolution in glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vienna, J.D.; Alexander, D.L.; Li, Hong [and others

    1996-09-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) is charged with providing technical support for evaluation of disposition options for excess fissile materials manufactured for the nation`s defense. One option being considered for the disposition of excess plutonium (Pu) is immobilization by vitrification. The vitrification option entails immobilizing Pu in a host glass and waste package that are criticality-safe (immune to nuclear criticality), proliferation-resistant, and environmentally acceptable for long-term storage or disposal. To prove the technical and economic feasibility of candidate vitrification options it is necessary to demonstrate that PuO{sub 2} feedstock can be dissolved in glass in sufficient quantity. The OFMD immobilization program has set a Pu solubility goal of 10 wt% in glass. The life cycle cost of the vitrification options are strongly influenced by the rate at which PUO{sub 2} dissolves in glass. The total number of process lines needed for vitrification of 50 t of Pu in 10 years is directly dependent upon the time required for Pu dissolution in glass. The objective of this joint Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) - Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) study was to demonstrate a high Pu solubility in glass and to identify on a rough scale the time required for Pu dissolution in the glass. This study was conducted using a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass composition designed at the SRTC for the vitrification of actinides.

  20. Plutonium dioxide dissolution in glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vienna, J.D.; Alexander, D.L.; Li, Hong

    1996-09-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (OFMD) is charged with providing technical support for evaluation of disposition options for excess fissile materials manufactured for the nation's defense. One option being considered for the disposition of excess plutonium (Pu) is immobilization by vitrification. The vitrification option entails immobilizing Pu in a host glass and waste package that are criticality-safe (immune to nuclear criticality), proliferation-resistant, and environmentally acceptable for long-term storage or disposal. To prove the technical and economic feasibility of candidate vitrification options it is necessary to demonstrate that PuO 2 feedstock can be dissolved in glass in sufficient quantity. The OFMD immobilization program has set a Pu solubility goal of 10 wt% in glass. The life cycle cost of the vitrification options are strongly influenced by the rate at which PUO 2 dissolves in glass. The total number of process lines needed for vitrification of 50 t of Pu in 10 years is directly dependent upon the time required for Pu dissolution in glass. The objective of this joint Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) - Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) study was to demonstrate a high Pu solubility in glass and to identify on a rough scale the time required for Pu dissolution in the glass. This study was conducted using a lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass composition designed at the SRTC for the vitrification of actinides

  1. Affinity functions for modeling glass dissolution rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourcier, W.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-07-01

    Glass dissolution rates decrease dramatically as glass approach ''saturation'' with respect to the leachate solution. Most repository sites are chosen where water fluxes are minimal, and therefore the waste glass is most likely to dissolve under conditions close to ''saturation''. The key term in the rate expression used to predict glass dissolution rates close to ''saturation'' is the affinity term, which accounts for saturation effects on dissolution rates. Interpretations of recent experimental data on the dissolution behaviour of silicate glasses and silicate minerals indicate the following: 1) simple affinity control does not explain the observed dissolution rate for silicate minerals or glasses; 2) dissolution rates can be significantly modified by dissolved cations even under conditions far from saturation where the affinity term is near unity; 3) the effects of dissolved species such as Al and Si on the dissolution rate vary with pH, temperature, and saturation state; and 4) as temperature is increased, the effect of both pH and temperature on glass and mineral dissolution rates decrease, which strongly suggests a switch in rate control from surface reaction-based to diffusion control. Borosilicate glass dissolution models need to be upgraded to account for these recent experimental observations. (A.C.)

  2. Optimization of Dissolution Compartments in a Biorelevant Dissolution Apparatus Golem v2, Supported by Multivariate Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Stupák

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Biorelevant dissolution instruments represent an important tool for pharmaceutical research and development. These instruments are designed to simulate the dissolution of drug formulations in conditions most closely mimicking the gastrointestinal tract. In this work, we focused on the optimization of dissolution compartments/vessels for an updated version of the biorelevant dissolution apparatus—Golem v2. We designed eight compartments of uniform size but different inner geometry. The dissolution performance of the compartments was tested using immediate release caffeine tablets and evaluated by standard statistical methods and principal component analysis. Based on two phases of dissolution testing (using 250 and 100 mL of dissolution medium, we selected two compartment types yielding the highest measurement reproducibility. We also confirmed a statistically ssignificant effect of agitation rate and dissolution volume on the extent of drug dissolved and measurement reproducibility.

  3. The measurement of mixture homogeneity and dissolution to predict the degree of drug agglomerate breakdown achieved through powder mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, M M; Van der Watt, J G

    1994-11-01

    Interactive mixing of agglomerates of small, cohesive particles with coarse carrier particles facilitate the deaggregation of agglomerates. In this study dispersion of agglomerates of microfine furosemide particles by such a mixing process was followed by measuring changes in the content uniformity and area under the dissolution curve. Interactive mixtures between agglomerates of different sized furosemide particles and coarse sodium chloride particles were prepared using different mixers, mixing times and mixer speeds. The dissolution rate of the drug from and content uniformity of the mixtures were measured, and degrees of dispersion were calculated. These degrees of dispersion were compared to the dispersion values obtained from the decrease in agglomerate size after mixing. An increase in mixing time led to an increase in dispersion. An initial fast deagglomeration, indicated by an increase in dissolution, increase in content uniformity and a decrease in particle size, was followed by substantially slower deaggregation of remaining agglomerates and smaller aggregates. For all mixtures studied the degree of dispersion estimated from dissolution measurements, when compared to equivalent content uniformity measurements, agreed closely with the degree of dispersion as indicated by the decrease in particle size. The use of the area under the dissolution curve to predict agglomerate breakdown proved useful and may find application in situations where it is impossible to follow directly deagglomeration through particle size measurements.

  4. Dissolution process analysis using model-free Noyes-Whitney integral equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Yusuke; Haruna, Yoshimasa; Otsuka, Makoto

    2013-02-01

    Drug dissolution process of solid dosages is theoretically described by Noyes-Whitney-Nernst equation. However, the analysis of the process is demonstrated assuming some models. Normally, the model-dependent methods are idealized and require some limitations. In this study, Noyes-Whitney integral equation was proposed and applied to represent the drug dissolution profiles of a solid formulation via the non-linear least squares (NLLS) method. The integral equation is a model-free formula involving the dissolution rate constant as a parameter. In the present study, several solid formulations were prepared via changing the blending time of magnesium stearate (MgSt) with theophylline monohydrate, α-lactose monohydrate, and crystalline cellulose. The formula could excellently represent the dissolution profile, and thereby the rate constant and specific surface area could be obtained by NLLS method. Since the long time blending coated the particle surface with MgSt, it was found that the water permeation was disturbed by its layer dissociating into disintegrant particles. In the end, the solid formulations were not disintegrated; however, the specific surface area gradually increased during the process of dissolution. The X-ray CT observation supported this result and demonstrated that the rough surface was dominant as compared to dissolution, and thus, specific surface area of the solid formulation gradually increased. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Controlled precipitation for enhanced dissolution rate of flurbiprofen: development of rapidly disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essa, Ebtessam A; Elmarakby, Amira O; Donia, Ahmed M A; El Maghraby, Gamal M

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of controlled precipitation of flurbiprofen on solid surface, in the presence or absence of hydrophilic polymers, as a tool for enhanced dissolution rate of the drug. The work was extended to develop rapidly disintegrated tablets. This strategy provides simple technique for dissolution enhancement of slowly dissolving drugs with high scaling up potential. Aerosil was dispersed in ethanolic solution of flurbiprofen in the presence and absence of hydrophilic polymers. Acidified water was added as antisolvent to produce controlled precipitation. The resultant particles were centrifuged and dried at ambient temperature before monitoring the dissolution pattern. The particles were also subjected to FTIR spectroscopic, X-ray diffraction and thermal analyses. The FTIR spectroscopy excluded any interaction between flurbiprofen and excipients. The thermal analysis reflected possible change in the crystalline structure and or crystal size of the drug after controlled precipitation in the presence of hydrophilic polymers. This was further confirmed by X-ray diffraction. The modulation in the crystalline structure and size was associated with a significant enhancement in the dissolution rate of flurbiprofen. Optimum formulations were successfully formulated as rapidly disintegrating tablet with subsequent fast dissolution. Precipitation on a large solid surface area is a promising strategy for enhanced dissolution rate with the presence of hydrophilic polymers during precipitation process improving the efficiency.

  6. Preparation of iron metal nano solution by anodic dissolution with high voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Duc Hung; Do Thanh Tuan

    2012-01-01

    Iron nano metal solution is prepared from anodic dissolution process with ultra- high Dc voltage. The size and shape of iron nanoparticles determined by Tem images and particle size distribution on the device LA-950 Laser Scattering Particle Distribution Analyzer V2. The concentration of nano-iron solution was determined by the analytical methods AAS atomic absorption spectrometry and Faraday's law. The difference in concentration of both methods demonstrated outside the anodic dissolution process has created the water electrolysis to form H 2 and O 2 gases and heating the solution. (author)

  7. Concentration-dependent fluorescence live-cell imaging and tracking of intracellular nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Ji Hye; Joo, Sang-Woo [Department of Chemistry, Soongsil University, Seoul 156-743 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Keunchang [Logos Biosystems, Incorporated, Anyang 431-070 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, So Yeong, E-mail: leeso@snu.ac.kr, E-mail: sjoo@ssu.ac.kr [Laboratory of Pharmacology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-06-10

    Using live-cell imaging techniques we investigated concentration-dependent intracellular movements of fluorescence nanoparticles (NPs) in real-time after their entry into HeLa cells via incubation. Intracellular particle traces appeared to be a mixture of both random and fairly unidirectional movements of the particles. At rather low concentrations of NPs, a majority of the non-random intracellular particle trajectories are assumed to mostly go along microtubule networks after endocytosis, as evidenced from the inhibition test with nocodazole. On the other hand, as the concentrations of NPs increased, random motions were more frequently observed inside the cells.

  8. Concentration-dependent fluorescence live-cell imaging and tracking of intracellular nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Ji Hye; Joo, Sang-Woo; Cho, Keunchang; Lee, So Yeong

    2011-01-01

    Using live-cell imaging techniques we investigated concentration-dependent intracellular movements of fluorescence nanoparticles (NPs) in real-time after their entry into HeLa cells via incubation. Intracellular particle traces appeared to be a mixture of both random and fairly unidirectional movements of the particles. At rather low concentrations of NPs, a majority of the non-random intracellular particle trajectories are assumed to mostly go along microtubule networks after endocytosis, as evidenced from the inhibition test with nocodazole. On the other hand, as the concentrations of NPs increased, random motions were more frequently observed inside the cells.

  9. The effect of polymorphism on powder compaction and dissolution properties of chemically equivalent oxytetracycline hydrochloride powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebenberg, W; de Villiers, M M; Wurster, D E; Swanepoel, E; Dekker, T G; Lötter, A P

    1999-09-01

    In South Africa, oxytetracycline is identified as an essential drug; many generic products are on the market, and many more are being developed. In this study, six oxytetracycline hydrochloride powders were obtained randomly from manufacturers, and suppliers were compared. It was found that compliance to a pharmacopoeial monograph was insufficient to ensure the optimum dissolution performance of a simple tablet formulation. Comparative physicochemical raw material analysis showed no major differences with regard to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), infrared (IR) spectroscopy, powder dissolution, and particle size. However, the samples could be divided into two distinct types with respect to X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and thus polymorphism. The two polymorphic forms had different dissolution properties in water or 0.1 N hydrochloride acid. This difference became substantial when the dissolution from tablets was compared. The powders containing form A were less soluble than that containing form B.

  10. Surface studies of feldspar dissolution using surface replication combined with electron microscopic and spectroscopic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, P C [Petro-Canada, Calgary, Alberta; Sanipelli, G G

    1982-04-01

    The replica of a microcline cleavage surface was examined before and at various stages of interaction with water and acid solutions at 70/sup 0/C, as part of basic geochemical research for the Canadian Nuclear Fuel Waste Management Program to investigate the feasibility of disposal of these wastes in repositories mined in crystalline rocks. The objective of the report presented was to investigate the mechanism for Al and Si removal during incongruent dissolution of feldspars and its effect on dissolution rate. It was found that phase transformation, like dissolution occured preferentially along crystal defects on the surfaces of the feldspars. Secondary minerals always occured as discrete particles occupying only a very small fraction of the total parent surface, and hence, their presence would not affect the bulk composition or, in this regard, the overall dissolution rate of the feldspars by the formation of diffusion barriers.

  11. DISSOLUTION OF LANTHANUM FLUORIDE PRECIPITATES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, B.A.

    1959-11-10

    A plutonium separatory ore concentration procedure involving the use of a fluoride type of carrier is presented. An improvement is given in the derivation step in the process for plutonium recovery by carrier precipitation of plutonium values from solution with a lanthanum fluoride carrier precipitate and subsequent derivation from the resulting plutonium bearing carrier precipitate of an aqueous acidic plutonium-containing solution. The carrier precipitate is contacted with a concentrated aqueous solution of potassium carbonate to effect dissolution therein of at least a part of the precipitate, including the plutonium values. Any remaining precipitate is separated from the resulting solution and dissolves in an aqueous solution containing at least 20% by weight of potassium carbonate. The reacting solutions are combined, and an alkali metal hydroxide added to a concentration of at least 2N to precipitate lanthanum hydroxide concomitantly carrying plutonium values.

  12. Interaction with culture medium components, cellular uptake and intracellular distribution of cobalt nanoparticles, microparticles and ions in Balb/3T3 mouse fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbioni, Enrico; Fortaner, Salvador; Farina, Massimo; Del Torchio, Riccardo; Petrarca, Claudia; Bernardini, Giovanni; Mariani-Costantini, Renato; Perconti, Silvia; Di Giampaolo, Luca; Gornati, Rosalba; Di Gioacchino, Mario

    2014-02-01

    The mechanistic understanding of nanotoxicity requires the physico-chemical characterisation of nanoparticles (NP), and their comparative investigation relative to the corresponding ions and microparticles (MP). Following this approach, the authors studied the dissolution, interaction with medium components, bioavailability in culture medium, uptake and intracellular distribution of radiolabelled Co forms (CoNP, CoMP and Co(2+)) in Balb/3T3 mouse fibroblasts. Co(2+) first saturates the binding sites of molecules in the extracellular milieu (e.g., albumin and histidine) and on the cell surface. Only after saturation, Co(2+) is actively uptaken. CoNP, instead, are predicted to be internalised by endocytosis. Dissolution of Co particles allows the formation of Co compounds (CoNP-rel), whose mechanism of cellular internalisation is unknown. Co uptake (ranking CoMP > CoNP > Co(2+)) reached maximum at 4 h. Once inside the cell, CoNP spread into the cytosol and organelles. Consequently, massive amounts of Co ions and CoNP-rel can reach subcellular compartments normally unexposed to Co(2+). This could explain the fact that the nuclear and mitochondrial Co concentrations resulted significantly higher than those obtained with Co(2+).

  13. Emotional and Cognitive Coping in Relationship Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrape, Elizabeth R.; Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Callahan, Jennifer L.; Nowlin, Rachel B.

    2016-01-01

    Dissolution of a romantic relationship can adversely affect functioning among college students and represents one primary reason for seeking campus counseling. This study examined the associations among common coping strategies and distress following relationship dissolution. Avoidance and repetitive negative thinking (RNT) were significantly…

  14. CALCIUM CARBONATE DISSOLUTION RATE IN LIMESTONE CONTACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The rate of carbonate mineral dissolution from limestone was studied using a rotating disk apparatus and samples of limestone of varied composition. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of limestone composition on the kinetics of carbonate mineral dissolution. Th...

  15. Kinetics of oxidic phase dissolution in acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorichev, I.G.; Kipriyanov, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    The critical analysis of the experimental data on dissolution kinetics of metal oxides (BeO, V 2 O 5 , UO 2 , Nb 2 O 5 , Ta 2 O 5 etc.) in acid media is carried out. Kinetic peculiarities of oxide dissolution are explained on the basis of the notions of electron- proton theory. It is established that the surface nonstoichiometric ccomposition of oxide phase and potential jump, appearing on the interface of the oxide-electrolyte phase are the important factors, determining the dissolution rate of a solid phase. The dissolution rate of metal oxides is limited by the transition of protons into the solid oxide phase. Morphological models of heterogeneous kinetics are used when explaining kinetic regularities of oxide dissolution process [ru

  16. Dissolution characteristics of sericite in chalcopyrite bioleaching and its effect on copper extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ying-bo; Li, Hao; Lin, Hai; Zhang, Yuan

    2017-04-01

    The effects of sericite particle size, rotation speed, and leaching temperature on sericite dissolution and copper extraction in a chalcopyrite bioleaching system were examined. Finer particles, appropriate temperature and rotation speed for Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans resulted in a higher Al3+ dissolution concentration. The Al3+ dissolution concentration reached its highest concentration of 38.66 mg/L after 48-d leaching when the sericite particle size, temperature, and rotation speed were -43 μm, 30°C, and 160 r/min, respectively. Meanwhile, the sericite particle size, rotation speed, and temperature can affect copper extraction. The copper extraction rate is higher when the sericite particle size is finer. An appropriately high temperature is favorable for copper leaching. The dissolution of sericite fitted the shrinking core model, 1-(2/3) α-(1- α)2/3 = k 1 t, which indicates that internal diffusion is the decision step controlling the overall reaction rate in the leaching process. Scanning electron microscopy analysis showed small precipitates covered on the surface of sericite after leaching, which increased the diffusion resistance of the leaching solution and dissolved ions.

  17. Antibacterial effects and dissolution behavior of six bioactive glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Di; Leppäranta, Outi; Munukka, Eveliina; Ylänen, Heimo; Viljanen, Matti K; Eerola, Erkki; Hupa, Mikko; Hupa, Leena

    2010-05-01

    Dissolution behavior of six bioactive glasses was correlated with the antibacterial effects of the same glasses against sixteen clinically important bacterial species. Powdered glasses (<45 microm) were immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF) for 48 h. The pH in the solution inside the glass powder was measured in situ with a microelectrode. After 2, 4, 27, and 48 h, the pH and concentration of ions after removing the particles and mixing the SBF were measured with a normal glass pH electrode and ICP-OES. The bacteria were cultured in broth with the glass powder for up to 4 days, after which the viability of the bacteria was determined. The antibacterial effect of the glasses increased with increasing pH and concentration of alkali ions and thus with increased dissolution tendency of the glasses, but it also depended on the bacterium type. The changes in the concentrations of Si, Ca, Mg, P, and B ions in SBF did not show statistically significant influence on the antibacterial property. Bioactive glasses showed strong antibacterial effects for a wide selection of aerobic bacteria at a high sample concentration (100 mg/mL). The antibacterial effects increased with glass concentration and a concentration of 50 mg/mL (SA/V 185 cm(-1)) was required to generate the bactericidal effects. Understanding the dissolution mechanisms of bioactive glasses is essential when assessing their antibacterial effects. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Investigating dissolution of mechanically activated olivine for carbonation purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haug, Tove Anette; Kleiv, Rolf Arne; Munz, Ingrid Anne

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Dissolution of mechanically activated olivine increased with 3 orders of magnitude. → Crystallinity changes of olivine is important for the observed dissolution rates. → Activation probably decreases with the degree of dissolution of each particle. - Abstract: Mineral carbonation is one of several alternatives for CO 2 sequestration and storage. The reaction rates of appropriate minerals with CO 2 , for instance olivine and serpentine with vast resources, are relatively slow in a CO 2 sequestration context and the rates have to be increased to make mineral carbonation a good storage alternative. Increasing the dissolution rate of olivine has been the focus of this paper. Olivine was milled with very high energy intensity using a laboratory planetary mill to investigate the effect of mechanical activation on the Mg extraction potential of olivine in 0.01 M HCl solution at room temperature and pressure. Approximately 30-40% of each sample was dissolved and water samples were taken at the end of each experiment. The pH change was used to calculate time series of the Mg concentrations, which also were compared to the final Mg concentrations in the water samples. Percentage dissolved and the specific reaction rates were estimated from the Mg concentration time series. The measured particle size distributions could not explain the rate constants found, but the specific surface area gave a good trend versus dissolution for samples milled wet and the samples milled with a small addition of water. The samples milled dry had the lowest measured specific surface areas ( 2 /g), but had the highest rate constants. The crystallinity calculated from X-ray diffractograms, was the material parameter with the best fit for the observed differences in the rate constants. Geochemical modelling of mechanically activated materials indicated that factors describing the changes in the material properties related to the activation must be included. The

  19. Insecticide resistance and intracellular proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Richard M

    2017-12-01

    Pesticide resistance is an example of evolution in action with mechanisms of resistance arising from mutations or increased expression of intrinsic genes. Intracellular proteases have a key role in maintaining healthy cells and in responding to stressors such as pesticides. Insecticide-resistant insects have constitutively elevated intracellular protease activity compared to corresponding susceptible strains. This increase was shown for some cases originally through biochemical enzyme studies and subsequently putatively by transcriptomics and proteomics methods. Upregulation and expression of proteases have been characterised in resistant strains of some insect species, including mosquitoes. This increase in proteolysis results in more degradation products (amino acids) of intracellular proteins. These may be utilised in the resistant strain to better protect the cell from stress. There are changes in insect intracellular proteases shortly after insecticide exposure, suggesting a role in stress response. The use of protease and proteasome inhibitors or peptide mimetics as synergists with improved application techniques and through protease gene knockdown using RNA interference (possibly expressed in crop plants) may be potential pest management strategies, in situations where elevated intracellular proteases are relevant. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. UO2 dissolution rates: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenzie, W.F.

    1992-09-01

    This report reviews literature data on UO 2 dissolution kinetics and provides a framework for guiding future experimental studies as well as theoretical modeling studies. Under oxidizing conditions, UO 2 dissolution involves formation of an oxidized surface layer which is then dissolved by formation of aqueous complexes. Higher oxygen pressures or other oxidants are required at higher temperatures to have dissolution rates independent of oxygen pressure. At high oxygen pressures (1-5 atm, 25-70 C), the dissolution rate has a one-half order dependence on oxygen pressure, whereas at oxygen pressures below 0.2 atm, Grandstaff (1976), but nobody else, observed a first-order dependence on dissolution rate. Most people found a first-order dependence on carbonate concentration; Posey-Dowty (1987) found independence of carbonate at pH 7 to 8.2. Dissolution rates increase with temperature except in experiments involving granitic groundwater. Dissolution rates were generally greater under acid or basic conditions than near neutral pH

  1. Mechanistic Basis of Cocrystal Dissolution Advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fengjuan; Amidon, Gordon L; Rodríguez-Hornedo, Naír; Amidon, Gregory E

    2018-01-01

    Current interest in cocrystal development resides in the advantages that the cocrystal may have in solubility and dissolution compared with the parent drug. This work provides a mechanistic analysis and comparison of the dissolution behavior of carbamazepine (CBZ) and its 2 cocrystals, carbamazepine-saccharin (CBZ-SAC) and carbamazepine-salicylic acid (CBZ-SLC) under the influence of pH and micellar solubilization. A simple mathematical equation is derived based on the mass transport analyses to describe the dissolution advantage of cocrystals. The dissolution advantage is the ratio of the cocrystal flux to drug flux and is defined as the solubility advantage (cocrystal to drug solubility ratio) times the diffusivity advantage (cocrystal to drug diffusivity ratio). In this work, the effective diffusivity of CBZ in the presence of surfactant was determined to be different and less than those of the cocrystals. The higher effective diffusivity of drug from the dissolved cocrystals, the diffusivity advantage, can impart a dissolution advantage to cocrystals with lower solubility than the parent drug while still maintaining thermodynamic stability. Dissolution conditions where cocrystals can display both thermodynamic stability and a dissolution advantage can be obtained from the mass transport models, and this information is useful for both cocrystal selection and formulation development. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dissolution rate of BTEX contaminants in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Njobuenwu, D.O.; Amadi, S.A.; Ukpaka, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) and substituted benzenes are the most common aromatic compounds in petroleum. BTEX components are the most soluble and mobile fraction of crude oil and many petroleum products, and frequently enter soil, sediments and aquatic environments because of accidental spills, leaks and improper oil waste disposal practices. The mass transfer process of hydrocarbons in aquatic mediums has received considerable attention in the literature. This paper focused on the molecular mass transfer rate of BTEX in water, with the aim of understanding and predicting contaminant fate and transport. A comprehensive model was developed to simulate the molecular dissolution rate of BTEX in a natural water stream. The model considered the physicochemical properties of the BTEX compounds and physical processes relevant to the spreading of contaminants in the sea. The dissolution rate was a function of oil slick area, dissolution mass transferability and oil solubility in water. The total dissolution rate N was calculated and the dissolution mass transfer coefficient K was given as the point value of mass transfer coefficient. Results for the dissolution rate based on the solubility of the components in the water were compared with analytical solutions from previous studies and showed good agreement. The model showed that benzene had the largest dissolution rate, while o-xylene had the lowest rate because of its lower fraction. Benzene dissolution rate was approximately 2.6, which was 20.6 times that of toluene and ethylbenzene. It was concluded that the model is useful in predicting and monitoring the dissolution rate of BTEX contaminants in soil and water systems. 22 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs

  3. Chemical dissolution of sulfide minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1977-01-01

    Chemical dissolution treatments involving the use of aqua regia, 4 N HNO3, H2O2-ascorbic acid, oxalic acid, KClO3+HCl, and KClO3+HCl followed by 4 N HNO3 were applied to specimens of nine common sulfide minerals (galena, chalcopyrite, cinnabar, molybdenite, orpiment, pyrite, stibnite, sphalerite, and tetrahedrite) mixed individually with a clay loam soil. The resultant decrease in the total sulfur content of the mixture, as determined by using the Leco induction furnace, was used to evaluate the effectiveness of each chemical treatment. A combination of KClO3+HCl followed by 4 N HNO3 boiling gently for 20 min has been shown to be very effective in dissolving all the sulfide minerals. This treatment is recommended to dissolve metals residing in sulfide minerals admixed with secondary weathering products, as one step in a fractionation scheme whereby metals in soluble and adsorbed forms, and those associated with organic materials and secondary oxides, are first removed by other chemical extractants.

  4. Utilization of spray drying technique for improvement of dissolution and anti-inflammatory effect of Meloxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shazly, Gamal; Badran, Mohamed; Zoheir, Khairy; Alomrani, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Meloxicam (MLX) is a poorly water-soluble non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). The main objective of the present work was to enhance the dissolution of MLX and thus its bioavailability by the aid of additives. The novelty of this work rises from the utilization of spray drying technology to produce micro particulates solid dispersion systems containing MLX in the presence of small amount of additives. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Scan Electron Microscope (SEM) were used for studying the physico-chemical and morphological properties of MLX samples. The dissolution of MLX samples was investigated in two different pH media. The morphology of MLX solid dispersion micro-particles was spherical in shape according to SEM. FT-IR profiles indicated that a complex was formed between MLX and the additives. DSC patterns of the MLX micro-particles suggested a reduction in the crystallinity of MLX and probability of presence of an interaction between MLX and the additives. The rate of dissolution of the spray-dried MLX enhanced as compared with the unprocessed MLX in both acidic and neutral media. It was found that 100% of the added MLX released within 5 min in phosphate buffer dissolution medium (pH 7.4) compared to that of the unprocessed MLX (15% in 60 min). Such increase rate in the dissolution of the spray dried MLX could be attributed to the increase in wettability of MLX particles and the hydrophilic nature of the additives. The anti-inflammatory effect of the spray dried MLX was explored using formalin induced rat paw edema model. The spray-dried samples showed an increase in the anti-inflammatory activity of MLX as compared to the unprocessed MLX. This work reveals that the spray drying technique is suitable for preparation of micro-particles with improved dissolution and anti-inflammatory effect of MLX.

  5. Dissolution of metallic uranium in alkalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondino, Angel V.; Wilkinson, Maria V.; Manzini, Alberto C.

    1999-01-01

    The dissolution of U metallic foils has been studied in the framework of the development of an improved 99 Mo-production process. The best conditions for the dissolution of uranium foils of approximately 150 μm are the following: a) NaClO concentrations of 0.20 and 0.23 M with NaOH of 0.27 and 0.31 M respectively; b) temperature of the solution, 70 C degrees; c) volume of the solution, 15 ml / cm 2 of uranium foil; d) dissolution time, 30 minutes. (author)

  6. Dissolution of minerals with rough surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Assis, Thiago A.; Aarão Reis, Fábio D. A.

    2018-05-01

    We study dissolution of minerals with initial rough surfaces using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and a scaling approach. We consider a simple cubic lattice structure, a thermally activated rate of detachment of a molecule (site), and rough surface configurations produced by fractional Brownian motion algorithm. First we revisit the problem of dissolution of initial flat surfaces, in which the dissolution rate rF reaches an approximately constant value at short times and is controlled by detachment of step edge sites. For initial rough surfaces, the dissolution rate r at short times is much larger than rF ; after dissolution of some hundreds of molecular layers, r decreases by some orders of magnitude across several time decades. Meanwhile, the surface evolves through configurations of decreasing energy, beginning with dissolution of isolated sites, then formation of terraces with disordered boundaries, their growth, and final smoothing. A crossover time to a smooth configuration is defined when r = 1.5rF ; the surface retreat at the crossover is approximately 3 times the initial roughness and is temperature-independent, while the crossover time is proportional to the initial roughness and is controlled by step-edge site detachment. The initial dissolution process is described by the so-called rough rates, which are measured for fixed ratios between the surface retreat and the initial roughness. The temperature dependence of the rough rates indicates control by kink site detachment; in general, it suggests that rough rates are controlled by the weakest microscopic bonds during the nucleation and formation of the lowest energy configurations of the crystalline surface. Our results are related to recent laboratory studies which show enhanced dissolution in polished calcite surfaces. In the application to calcite dissolution in alkaline environment, the minimal values of recently measured dissolution rate spectra give rF ∼10-9 mol/(m2 s), and the calculated rate

  7. Dissolution studies of spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    To obtain quantitative data on the dissolution of high burnup spent nuclear fuel, dissolution study have been carried out at the Department of Chemistry, JAERI, from 1984 under the contract with STA entitled 'Reprocessing Test Study of High Burnup Fuel'. In this study PWR spent fuels of 8,400 to 36,100 MWd/t in averaged burnup were dissolved and the chemical composition and distribution of radioactive nuclides were measured for insoluble residue, cladding material (hull), off-gas and dissolved solution. With these analyses basic data concerning the dissolution and clarification process in the reprocessing plant were accumulated. (author)

  8. Dissolution kinetics of schwertmannite and ferrihydrite in oxidized mine samples and their detection by differential X-ray diffraction (DXRD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dold, Bernhard

    2003-01-01

    A dissolution test with 9 natural and synthetic schwertmannite and ferrihydrite samples was performed by reaction with 0.2 M ammonium oxalate at pH 3.0 in the dark. The method was coupled with differential X-ray diffraction (DXRD) to successfully detect schwertmannite at low concentrations in oxidized mine tailings. Rapid dissolution was observed for all schwertmannites (> 94% in 60 min) and natural 2-line ferrihydrites (> 85% in 60 min); however, synthetic 2-line and 6-line ferrihydrite dissolved slower (42 and 16% after 60 min, respectively). The results showed that it was not possible to distinguish between natural schwertmannites and ferrihydrites on the basis of their dissolution kinetics. Modeling of the schwertmannite dissolution curves, examinations of mineral shape by scanning electron microscopy, and Fe/S mole ratios of the dissolved fractions indicated that two different schwertmannite particle morphologies (spherical and web-like) occurred. Collapse of spherical (sea-urchin) schwertmannite aggregates seemed to control the dissolution kinetics according to a shrinking core model. In the case of web-like schwertmannite, dissolution could be modeled with a simple first order equation, and structural SO 4 2- may have affected the dissolution kinetics. No relationship was found between ferrihydrite particle shape and dissolution behavior in acid NH 4 -oxalate. A 1-h extraction with 0.2 M NH 4 -oxalate at pH 3.0 in the dark should be adequate to dissolve schwertmannite and natural 2-line ferrihydrite in most samples. In some cases, a fraction of secondary jarosite or goethite may also be dissolved, although at a slower rate. If only schwertmannite is of interest (e.g., determination by DXRD), a 15 min attack should be used to increase selectivity. A truly selective leach of schwertmannite and ferrihydrite should be based on dissolution tests, as a broad variety of dissolution kinetics can be observed in this mineral group

  9. Double porosity model to describe both permeability change and dissolution processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niibori, Yuichi; Usui, Hideo; Chida, Taiji

    2015-01-01

    Cement is a practical material for constructing the geological disposal system of radioactive wastes. The dynamic behavior of both permeability change and dissolution process caused by a high pH groundwater was explained using a double porosity model assuming that each packed particle consists of the sphere-shaped aggregation of smaller particles. This model assumes two kinds of porosities between the particle clusters and between the particles, where the former porosity change mainly controls the permeability change of the bed, and the latter porosity change controls the diffusion of OH"- ions inducing the dissolution of silica. The fundamental equations consist of a diffusion equation of spherical coordinates of OH"- ions including the first-order reaction term and some equations describing the size changes of both the particles and the particle clusters with time. The change of over-all permeability of the packed bed is evaluated by Kozeny-Carman equation and the calculated radii of particle clusters. The calculated result well describes the experimental result of both permeability change and dissolution processes. (author)

  10. Preparation, characterization, and dissolution studies of naproxen solid dispersions using polyethylene glycol 6000 and labrafil M2130

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Akbari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Naproxen is a poor water soluble, non-steroidal analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug. The enhancement of oral bioavailability of poor water soluble drugs remains one of the most challenging aspects of drug development. Although salt formation, solubilization and particle size reduction have commonly been used to increase dissolution rate and thereby oral absorption and bioavailability of low water soluble drugs, there are practical limitation of these techniques. However, the most attractive option for increasing the release rate is improvement of solubility through formulation approaches. In this study, solid dispersions (SD of naproxen were prepared by hot melt method using various ratios of drug to polymers (PEG6000 separately and characterized for physical appearance, FTIR, DSC, X-Ray crystallography, and in-vitro dissolution studies. The influence of several amounts of Labrafil M2130 was also studied. FTIR study revealed that drug was stable in SDs, and great state of amorphous formed particles was proofed by DSC analysis. The in vitro dissolution studies were carried using USP type II (paddle dissolution apparatus at medium (pH 1.5. Solubility of naproxen from SDs was increased in dissolution media. The prepared dispersion showed increase in the dissolution rate of naproxen comparing to that of physical mixtures of drug and polymers and pure drug. Percent of drug released in 60 minutes was 23.92% for pure naproxen witch is increased in SDs and reached to100% for best formulations of PEG6000 and labrafil based SDs respectively, considering ratio of drug to polymers.It is concluded that dissolution of the naproxen could be improved by the solid dispersion. Although physical mixtures have increased the rate of dissolution, dissolution shows faster release from SDs which would therefore be due to formation of amorphous particles through the hot melt process which was also revealed by DSC analysis and XRD.

  11. Synthesis and dissolution studies of nickel ferrite in PDCA based formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, S.; Raghavan, P.S.; Gopalan, R.; Srinivasan, M.P.; Narasimhan, S.V.

    2000-01-01

    Nickel ferrite is one of the important corrosion product in the pipeline surfaces of water cooled nuclear reactors. The dissolution of the nickel ferrite by chelating agents is very sensitive to nature of the chelant, nature of the reductant used in the formulation and the temperature at which the dissolution studies have been performed. The dissolution is dominated by the adsorption of the complexing agent at the oxide surface, but mainly controlled by the reductive dissolution of the ferrite particles. This is due to the in situ release of Fe 2+ ions or the generation of Fe 2+ ions by the reduction of Fe 3+ ions by the reductants in the solution. This study deals with the leaching of iron and nickel from nickel ferrite prepared by the solid state method. The prepared nickel ferrite samples are characterised by XRD to confirm the ferrite formation. The dissolution studies are performed in PDCA formulations containing organic reductants like ascorbic acid and LOMI reductants like Fe(II)-PDCA. The dissolution rate of nickel ferrite at 85degC increased with the increase of Fe 2+ ion content in the crystal lattice. Fe(II)-PDCA was found to be better reductants in dissolving the nickel ferrite in comparison with ascorbic acid. (author)

  12. Enhanced ferrihydrite dissolution by a unicellular, planktonic cyanobacterium: a biological contribution to particulate iron bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranzler, Chana; Kessler, Nivi; Keren, Nir; Shaked, Yeala

    2016-12-01

    Iron (Fe) bioavailability, as determined by its sources, sinks, solubility and speciation, places severe environmental constraints on microorganisms in aquatic environments. Cyanobacteria are a widespread group of aquatic, photosynthetic microorganisms with especially high iron requirements. While iron exists predominantly in particulate form, little is known about its bioavailability to cyanobacteria. Some cyanobacteria secrete iron solubilizing ligands called siderophores, yet many environmentally relevant strains do not have this ability. This work explores the bioavailability of amorphous synthetic Fe-oxides (ferrihydrite) to the non-siderophore producing, unicellular cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp PCC 6803. Iron uptake assays with 55 ferrihydrite established dissolution as a critical prerequisite for iron transport. Dissolution assays with the iron binding ligand, desferrioxamine B, demonstrated that Synechocystis 6803 enhances ferrihydrite dissolution, exerting siderophore-independent biological influence on ferrihydrite bioavailability. Dissolution mechanisms were studied using a range of experimental conditions; both cell-particle physical proximity and cellular electron flow were shown to be important determinants of bio-dissolution by Synechocystis 6803. Finally, the effects of ferrihydrite stability on bio-dissolution rates and cell physiology were measured, integrating biological and chemical aspects of ferrihydrite bioavailability. Collectively, these findings demonstrate that Synechocystis 6803 actively dissolves ferrihydrite, highlighting a significant biological component to mineral phase iron bioavailability in aquatic environments. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Freezing-Enhanced Dissolution of Iron Oxides: Effects of Inorganic Acid Anions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Daun; Kim, Kitae; Min, Dae Wi; Choi, Wonyong

    2015-11-03

    Dissolution of iron from mineral dust particles greatly depends upon the type and amount of copresent inorganic anions. In this study, we investigated the roles of sulfate, chloride, nitrate, and perchlorate on the dissolution of maghemite and lepidocrocite in ice under both dark and UV irradiation and compared the results with those of their aqueous counterparts. After 96 h of reaction, the total dissolved iron in ice (pH 3 before freezing) was higher than that in the aqueous phase (pH 3) by 6-28 times and 10-20 times under dark and UV irradiation, respectively. Sulfuric acid was the most efficient in producing labile iron under dark condition, whereas hydrochloric acid induced the most dissolution of the total and ferrous iron in the presence of light. This ice-induced dissolution result was also confirmed with Arizona Test Dust (AZTD). In the freeze-thaw cycling test, the iron oxide samples containing chloride, nitrate, or perchlorate showed a similar extent of total dissolved iron after each cycling while the sulfate-containing sample rapidly lost its dissolution activity with repeating the cycle. This unique phenomenon observed in ice might be related to the freeze concentration of protons, iron oxides, and inorganic anions in the liquid-like ice grain boundary region. These results suggest that the ice-enhanced dissolution of iron oxides can be a potential source of bioavailable iron, and the acid anions critically influence this process.

  14. Development and characterization of solid dispersion of piroxicam for improvement of dissolution rate using hydrophilic carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Barzegar-jalali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The main objective of this study was preparation and characterization of solid dispersion of piroxicam to enhance its dissolution rate. Methods: Solid dispersion formulations with different carriers including crospovidone, microcrystalline cellulose and Elaeagnus angustifolia fruit powder and with different drug: carrier ratios were prepared employing cogrinding method. Dissolution study of the piroxicam powders, physical mixtures and solid dispersions was performed in simulated gastric fluid and simulated intestinal fluid using USP Apparatus type II. The physical characterization of formulations were analyzed using powder X ray diffraction (PXRD, particle size analyzer and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Interactions between the drug and carriers were evaluated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopic method. Results: It was revealed that all of three carriers increase the dissolution rate of piroxicam from physical mixtures and especially in solid dispersions compared to piroxicam pure and treated powders. PXRD and DSC results were confirmed the reduction of crystalline form of piroxicam. FT-IR analysis did not show any physicochemical interaction between drug and carriers in the solid dispersion formulations. Conclusion: Dissolution rate was dependent on the type and ratio of drug: carrier as well as pH of dissolution medium. Dissolution data of formulations were fitted well in to the linear Weibull as well as non-linear logistic and a suggested models.

  15. Aluminosilicate Dissolution and Silicate Carbonation during Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Yujia

    Geologic CO2 sequestration (GCS) is considered a promising method to reduce anthropogenic CO2 emission. Assessing the supercritical CO2 (scCO2) gas or liquid phase water (g, l)-mineral interactions is critical to evaluating the viability of GCS processes. This work contributes to our understanding of geochemical reactions at CO 2-water (g, l)-mineral interfaces, by investigating the dissolution of aluminosilicates in CO2-acidified water (l). Plagioclase and biotite were chosen as model minerals in reservoir rock and caprock, respectively. To elucidate the effects of brine chemistry, first, the influences of cations in brine including Na, Ca, and K, have been investigated. In addition to the cations, the effects of abundant anions including sulfate and oxalate were also examined. Besides the reactions in aqueous phase, we also examine the carbonation of silicates in water (g)-bearing supercritical CO2 (scCO2) under conditions relevant to GCS. For the metal carbonation, in particular, the effects of particle sizes, water, temperature, and pressure on the carbonation of wollastonite were systematically examined. For understanding the cations effects in brine, the impacts of Na concentrations up to 4 M on the dissolution of plagioclase and biotite were examined. High concentrations of Na significantly inhibited plagioclase dissolution by competing adsorption with proton and suppressing proton-promoted dissolution. Ca has a similar effect to Na, and their effects did not suppress each other when Na and Ca co-existed. For biotite, the inhibition effects of Na coupled with an enhancing effect due to ion exchange reaction between Na and interlayer K, which cracked the basal surfaces of biotite. The K in aqueous phase significantly inhibited the dissolution. If the biotite is equilibrated with NaCl solutions initially, the biotite dissolved faster than the original biotite and the dissolution was inhibited by Na and K in brine. The outcomes improve our current knowledge of

  16. [Phytobezoar dissolution with Coca-Cola].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez de Juan, F; Martínez-Lapiedra, C; Picazo, V

    2006-05-01

    The treatment of phytobezoar is empiric. The various therapeutic choices include dietary modifications, prokinetic drugs, gastric lavage, enzymatic dissolution, endoscopic treatment, and surgery. We present two cases of phytobezoar with successful outcome after Coca-Cola administration.

  17. Dissolution studies of synthetic soddyite and uranophane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas, I.; Perez, I.; Torrero, E.; Bruno, J.; Cera, E.; Duro, L.

    1997-09-01

    The dissolution of synthetically obtained soddyite and uranophane has been studied in solutions of low ionic strength. These are the likely final phases of the oxidative alternation pathway of uranium dioxide. The thermodynamic and kinetic dissolution properties of these phases have been determined at different bicarbonate concentrations. The solubilities determined in the experiments with soddyite correspond fairly well to the theoretical model calculated with a log K 0 s0 =3.9±0.7. For uranophane, the best fitting was obtained for a log K 0 s0 =11.7±0.6. The dissolution rate in the presence of bicarbonate gave for soddyite an average value of 6.8(±4.4) 10 -10 mol m -2 s -1 . For uranophane, under the same experimental conditions, the following dissolution rate equation has been derived: r 0 (mol m -2 s -1 )=10 -9±2. [HCO 3 - ] 0.69±0.09 2

  18. Simfuel dissolution studies in granitic groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas, I.; Caceci, M.S.; Bruno, J.; Sandino, A.; Ollila, K.

    1991-09-01

    The dissolution behavior of an unirradiated chemical analogue of spent nuclear fuel (SIMFUEL) has been studied in the presence of two different synthetic groundwater at 25 deg C and under both oxic and anoxic conditions. The release of U, Mo, Ba, Y and Sr was monitored during static (batch) leaching experiments of long duration (about 250 days). Preliminary results from continuous flow-through reactor experiments are also reported. The results obtained indicate the usefulness and limitations of SIMFUEL in the study of the kinetics and mechanism of dissolution of the minor components of spent nuclear fuel. Molybdenum, barium and strontium have shown a trend to congruent dissolution with the SIMFUEL matrix after a higher initial fractional release. Yttrium release has been found to be solubility controlled under the experimental conditions. A clear dependence on the partial pressure of O 2 of the rates of dissolution of uranium has been observed

  19. Improvement of database on glass dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Maki; Sasamoto, Hiroshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki

    2008-03-01

    In geological disposal system, high-level radioactive waste (HLW) glass is expected to retain radionuclide for the long term as the first barrier to prevent radionuclide release. The advancement of its performance assessment technology leads to the reliability improvement of the safety assessment of entire geological disposal system. For this purpose, phenomenological studies for improvement of scientific understanding of dissolution/alteration mechanisms, and development of robust dissolution/alteration model based on the study outcomes are indispensable. The database on glass dissolution has been developed for supporting these studies. This report describes improvement of the prototype glass database. Also, this report gives an example of the application of the database for reliability assessment of glass dissolution model. (author)

  20. Low temperature dissolution flowsheet for plutonium metal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, W. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Almond, P. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Rudisill, T. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-05-01

    The H-Canyon flowsheet used to dissolve Pu metal for PuO2 production utilizes boiling HNO3. SRNL was requested to develop a complementary dissolution flowsheet at two reduced temperature ranges. The dissolution and H2 generation rates of Pu metal were investigated using a dissolving solution at ambient temperature (20-30 °C) and for an intermediate temperature of 50-60 °C. Additionally, the testing included an investigation of the dissolution rates and characterization of the off-gas generated from the ambient temperature dissolution of carbon steel cans and the nylon bags that contain the Pu metal when charged to the dissolver.

  1. SIMFUEL dissolution studies in granitic groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas, I.; Caceci, M.S.; Bruno, J; Sandino, A.

    1991-09-01

    The dissolution behavior of an unirradiated chemical analogue of spent nuclear fuel (SIMFUEL) has been studied in the presence of two different synthetic groundwaters at 25 degrees C and under both oxic and anoxic conditions. The release of U, Mo, Ba, Y and Sr was monitored during static (batch) leaching experiments of long duration (about 250 days). Preliminary results from continuous flow-through reactor experiments are also reported. The results obtained indicate the usefulness and limitations of SIMFUEL in the study of the kinetics and mechanism of dissolution of the minor components of spent nuclear fuel. Molybdenum, barium and strontium have shown a trend of congruent dissolution with the SIMFUEL matrix after a higher initial fractional release has been found to be solubility controlled under the experimental conditions. A clear dependence on the partial pressure of O 2 of the rate of dissolution of uranium has been observed. (au)

  2. Status report on dissolution model development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.D.

    1983-07-01

    The computer program PROTOCOL models the dissolution reactions of chemical species in water. It is being developed particularly to study the dissolution of proposed nuclear waste forms and related phases. Experimentally derived leaching rate functions are coupled to thermochemical equilibrium calculations and water flow rates. The program has been developed over a period of years. This report describes improvements that have been done in the past year

  3. Dissolution of the Mors salt dome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindstroem Jensen, K.E.

    1982-01-01

    Regardless of the interpretation of the measured salinity profiles above the Mors salt dome, they can at most be the result of dissolution rates of about 0.004 mm per year. This means that it would take more than 2.5 mill. years to dissolve 10 m of salt. Variations in groun water velocity and cap rock porosity will not significantly change this condition. The stability of the Mors salt dome is therefore not affected by dissolution of the dome. (EG)

  4. Dissolution of UO2 in redox conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas, I.; Pablo de, J.; Rovira, M.

    1998-01-01

    The performance assessment of the final disposal of the spent nuclear fuel in geological formations is strongly dependent on the spent fuel matrix dissolution. Unirradiated uranium (IV) dioxide has shown to be very useful for such purposes. The stability of UO 2 is very dependent on vault redox conditions. At reducing conditions, which are expected in deep groundwaters, the dissolution of the UO 2 -matrix can be explained in terms of solubility, while under oxidizing conditions, the UO 2 is thermodynamically unstable and the dissolution is kinetically controlled. In this report the parameters which affect the uranium solubility under reducing conditions, basically pH and redox potential are discussed. Under oxidizing conditions, UO 2 dissolution rate equations as a function of pH, carbonate concentration and oxidant concentration are reported. Dissolution experiments performed with spent fuel are also reviewed. The experimental equations presented in this work, have been used to model independent dissolution experiments performed with both unirradiated and irradiated UO 2 . (Author)

  5. Evaluation of a three compartment in vitro gastrointestinal simulator dissolution apparatus to predict in vivo dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Susumu; Tsume, Yasuhiro; Amidon, Gregory E; Amidon, Gordon L

    2014-11-01

    In vitro dissolution tests are performed for new formulations to evaluate in vivo performance, which is affected by the change of gastrointestinal (GI) physiology, in the GI tract. Thus, those environmental changes should be introduced to an in vitro dissolution test. Many studies have successfully shown the improvement of in vitro-in vivo correlations (IVIVC) by introducing those physiological changes into dissolution tests. The gastrointestinal simulator (GIS), a multicompartment in vitro dissolution apparatus, was developed to evaluate in vivo drug dissolution. A gastric-emptying rate along with transit rate are key factors to evaluate in vivo drug dissolution and, hence, drug absorption. Dissolution tests with the GIS were performed with Biopharmaceutical Classification System class I drugs at five different gastric-emptying rates in the fasted state. Computational models were used to determine in vivo gastric-emptying time for propranolol and metoprolol based on the GIS dissolution results. Those were compared with published clinical data to determine the gastric half-emptying time. In conclusion, the GIS is a practical tool to assess dissolution properties and can improve IVIVC. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  6. Optimization of the dissolution of molybdenum disks. FY-16 results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkac, Peter [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Rotsch, David A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Chemerisov, Sergey D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bailey, James L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Krebs, John F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is providing technical development assistance to NorthStar Medical Technologies LLC in its pursuit of two pathways for production of molybdenum-99: the 98Mo(n,γ) 99Mo reaction and the photonuclear reaction, 100Mo(γ,n)99Mo. Processing of irradiated targets, from either production mode, requires dissolution of the target material in H2O2 followed by a concentration step, addition of ferric ion to precipitate impurities, and conversion of the final solution to 5M potassium hydroxide solution of potassium molybdate. Currently, NorthStar is using pressed and sintered Mo disks as targets. Several options are being considered for the design of Mo targets for the production of 99Mo using the (γ,n) reaction. In the current design, the target holder contains a series of sintered Mo disks lined up perpendicular to two incident electron beams, one entering from each side of the target stack. In this configuration, the front-most disks absorb most of the heat from the electron beam and need to be thinner to allow for better cooling, while the middle of the target can be thicker. Distribution of the total mass of Mo allows for larger masses of Mo material and thus larger production batches of 99Mo. A limitation of the sintering approach is the production of very thin disks. Recent advances in 3D printing allow for much thinner target components can be achieved than when the traditional press-and-sinter approach is used. We have demonstrated that several factors can play important roles in dissolution behavior: particle size of Mo metal used for production of targets, sintering conditions, degree of open porosity, and thickness of the sintered Mo targets. Here we report experimental results from studies of small-scale dissolution of sintered Mo disks fabricated from various recycled and commercial Mo materials, and dissolution of 3D-printed Mo disks that were

  7. A kinetic study of plutonium dioxide dissolution in hydrochloric acid using iron (II) as an electron transfer catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fife, K.W.

    1996-09-01

    Effective dissolution of plutonium dioxide has traditionally been accomplished by contact with strong nitric acid containing a small amount of fluoride at temperatures of ∼ 100 C. In spite of these aggressive conditions, PuO 2 dissolution is sometimes incomplete requiring additional contact with the solvent. This work focused on an alternative to conventional dissolution in nitric acid where an electron transfer catalyst, Fe(II), was used in hydrochloric acid. Cyclic voltammetry was employed as an in-situ analytical technique for monitoring the dissolution reaction rate. The plutonium oxide selected for this study was decomposed plutonium oxalate with > 95% of the material having a particle diameter (< 70 microm) as determined by a scanning laser microscopy technique. Attempts to dry sieve the oxide into narrow size fractions prior to dissolution in the HCl-Fe(II) solvent system failed, apparently due to significant interparticle attractive forces. Although sieve splits were obtained, subsequent scanning laser microscopy analysis of the sieve fractions indicated that particle segregation was not accomplished and the individual sieve fractions retained a particle size distribution very similar to the original powder assemblage. This phenomena was confirmed through subsequent dissolution experiments on the various screen fractions which illustrated no difference in kinetic behavior between the original oxide assemblage and the sieve fractions

  8. Dissolution process for advanced-PWR-type fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black, D.E.; Decker, L.A.; Pearson, L.G.

    1979-01-01

    The new Fluorinel Dissolution Process and Fuel Storage (FAST) Facility at ICPP will provide underwater storage of spent PWR fuel and a new head-end process for fuel dissolution. The dissolution will be two-stage, using HF and HNO 3 , with an intermittent H 2 SO 4 dissolution for removing stainless steel components. Equipment operation is described

  9. Development and Validation of a Dissolution Test Method for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To develop and validate a dissolution test method for dissolution release of artemether and lumefantrine from tablets. Methods: A single dissolution method for evaluating the in vitro release of artemether and lumefantrine from tablets was developed and validated. The method comprised of a dissolution medium of ...

  10. Jarosite dissolution rates in perchlorate brine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legett, Carey; Pritchett, Brittany N.; Elwood Madden, Andrew S.; Phillips-Lander, Charity M.; Elwood Madden, Megan E.

    2018-02-01

    Perchlorate salts and the ferric sulfate mineral jarosite have been detected at multiple locations on Mars by both landed instruments and orbiting spectrometers. Many perchlorate brines have eutectic temperatures bearing rocks and sediments may have been altered by perchlorate brines. Here we measured jarosite dissolution rates in 2 M sodium perchlorate brine as well as dilute water at 298 K to determine the effects of perchlorate anions on jarosite dissolution rates and potential reaction products. We developed a simple method for determining aqueous iron concentrations in high salinity perchlorate solutions using ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry that eliminates the risk of rapid oxidation reactions during analyses. Jarosite dissolution rates in 2 M perchlorate brine determined by iron release rate (2.87 × 10-12 ±0.85 × 10-12 mol m-2 s-1) were slightly slower than the jarosite dissolution rate measured in ultrapure (18.2 MΩ cm-1) water (5.06 × 10-12 mol m-2 s-1) using identical methods. No additional secondary phases were observed in XRD analyses of the reaction products. The observed decrease in dissolution rate may be due to lower activity of water (ɑH2O = 0.9) in the 2 M NaClO4 brine compared with ultrapure water (ɑH2O = 1). This suggests that the perchlorate anion does not facilitate iron release, unlike chloride anions which accelerated Fe release rates in previously reported jarosite and hematite dissolution experiments. Since dissolution rates are slower in perchlorate-rich solutions, jarosite is expected to persist longer in perchlorate brines than in dilute waters or chloride-rich brines. Therefore, if perchlorate brines dominate aqueous fluids on the surface of Mars, jarosite may remain preserved over extended periods of time, despite active aqueous processes.

  11. In situ controlled crystallization as a tool to improve the dissolution of Glibenclamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkordy, Amal Ali; Jatto, Ayobami; Essa, Ebtessam

    2012-05-30

    For pharmaceutical purpose, micro-sized drugs are needed for many delivery systems, such as pulmonary and oral drug delivery systems. Many strategies have been employed to reduce the particle size of poorly water soluble drugs. Microcrystals could be produced by controlled association of drug in order to obtain naturally grown particles. The aim of this work was to increase the aqueous solubility and dissolution of Glibenclamide. The in situ controlled crystallization process was conducted in the presence of the non-ionic surfactants, Cremophor RH40 and Solutol HS-15 (0.75 and 1.5%, w/v), as protective stabilizing agents against agglomeration. In addition, these surfactants inhibit P-glycoprotein that reduces intestinal absorption of Glibenclamide by efflux transportation. Crystal shape was changed and particle size was reduced by about 15-folds, compared to control untreated drug. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) results indicated no interaction between the drug and the stabilizer. Microcrystals showed marked increase in the drug dissolution, Solutol HS-15 at 1.5% (w/v) concentration showing the highest dissolution efficiency. It could be concluded that in situ controlled crystallization using surfactants are promising method to improve dissolution of Glibeclamide as a model poorly water soluble drug. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Photoreductive dissolution of iron oxides trapped in ice and its environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kitae; Choi, Wonyong; Hoffmann, Michael R; Yoon, Ho-Il; Park, Byong-Kwon

    2010-06-01

    The availability of iron has been thought to be a main limiting factor for the productivity of phytoplankton and related with the uptake of atmospheric CO(2) and algal blooms in fresh and sea waters. In this work, the formation of bioavailable iron (Fe(II)(aq)) from the dissolution of iron oxide particles was investigated in the ice phase under both UV and visible light irradiation. The photoreductive dissolution of iron oxides proceeded slowly in aqueous solution (pH 3.5) but was significantly accelerated in polycrystalline ice, subsequently releasing more bioavailable ferrous iron upon thawing. The enhanced photogeneration of Fe(II)(aq) in ice was confirmed regardless of the type of iron oxides [hematite, maghemite (gamma-Fe(2)O(3)), goethite (alpha-FeOOH)] and the kind of electron donors. The ice-enhanced dissolution of iron oxides was also observed under visible light irradiation, although the dissolution rate was much slower compared with the case of UV radiation. The iron oxide particles and organic electron donors (if any) in ice are concentrated and aggregated in the liquid-like grain boundary region (freeze concentration effect) where protons are also highly concentrated (lower pH). The enhanced photodissolution of iron oxides should occur in this confined boundary region. We hypothesized that electron hopping through the interconnected grain boundaries of iron oxide particles facilitates the separation of photoinduced charge pairs. The outdoor experiments carried out under ambient solar radiation of Ny-Alesund (Svalbard, 78 degrees 55'N) also showed that the generation of dissolved Fe(II)(aq) via photoreductive dissolution is enhanced when iron oxides are trapped in ice. Our results imply that the ice(snow)-covered surfaces and ice-cloud particles containing iron-rich mineral dusts in the polar and cold environments provide a source of bioavailable iron when they thaw.

  13. Dissolution testing of orally disintegrating tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Johannes; Gajendran, Jayachandar; Guillot, Alexis; Schichtel, Julian; Tuereli, Akif

    2012-07-01

    For industrially manufactured pharmaceutical dosage forms, product quality tests and performance tests are required to ascertain the quality of the final product. Current compendial requirements specify a disintegration and/or a dissolution test to check the quality of oral solid dosage forms. These requirements led to a number of compendial monographs for individual products and, at times, the results obtained may not be reflective of the dosage form performance. Although a general product performance test is desirable for orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs), the complexity of the release controlling mechanisms and short time-frame of release make such tests difficult to establish. For conventional oral solid dosage forms (COSDFs), disintegration is often considered to be the prerequisite for subsequent dissolution. Hence, disintegration testing is usually insufficient to judge product performance of COSDFs. Given the very fast disintegration of ODTs, the relationship between disintegration and dissolution is worthy of closer scrutiny. This article reviews the current status of dissolution testing of ODTs to establish the product quality standards. Based on experimental results, it appears that it may be feasible to rely on the dissolution test without a need for disintegration studies for selected ODTs on the market. © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. Crystal modifications and dissolution rate of piroxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyn, Lim Yee; Sze, Huan Wen; Rajendran, Adhiyaman; Adinarayana, Gorajana; Dua, Kamal; Garg, Sanjay

    2011-12-01

    Piroxicam is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with low aqueous solubility which exhibits polymorphism. The present study was carried out to develop polymorphs of piroxicam with enhanced solubility and dissolution rate by the crystal modification technique using different solvent mixtures prepared with PEG 4000 and PVP K30. Physicochemical characteristics of the modified crystal forms of piroxicam were investigated by X-ray powder diffractometry, FT-IR spectrophotometry and differential scanning calorimetry. Dissolution and solubility profiles of each modified crystal form were studied and compared with pure piroxicam. Solvent evaporation method (method I) produced both needle and cubic shaped crystals. Slow crystallization from ethanol with addition of PEG 4000 or PVP K30 at room temperature (method II) produced cubic crystal forms. Needle forms produced by method I improved dissolution but not solubility. Cubic crystals produced by method I had a dissolution profile similar to that of untreated piroxicam but showed better solubility than untreated piroxicam. Cubic shaped crystals produced by method II showed improved dissolution, without a significant change in solubility. Based on the XRPD results, modified piroxicam crystals obtained by method I from acetone/benzene were cube shaped, which correlates well with the FTIR spectrum; modified needle forms obtained from ethanol/methanol and ethanol/acetone showed a slight shift of FTIR peak that may be attributed to differences in the internal structure or conformation.

  15. Aqueous dissolution rates of uranium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steward, S.A.; Mones, E.T.

    1994-10-01

    An understanding of the long-term dissolution of waste forms in groundwater is required for the safe disposal of high level nuclear waste in an underground repository. The main routes by which radionuclides could be released from a geological repository are the dissolution and transport processes in groundwater flow. Because uranium dioxide is the primary constituent of spent nuclear fuel, the dissolution of its matrix in spent fuel is considered the rate-limiting step for release of radioactive fission products. The purpose of our work has been to measure the intrinsic dissolution rates of uranium oxides under a variety of well-controlled conditions that are relevant to a repository and allow for modeling. The intermediate oxide phase U 3 O 8 , triuranium octaoxide, is quite stable and known to be present in oxidized spent fuel. The trioxide, UO 3 , has been shown to exist in drip tests on spent fuel. Here we compare the results of essentially identical dissolution experiments performed on depleted U 3 O 8 and dehyrated schoepite or uranium trioxide monohydrate (UO 3 ·H 2 O). These are compared with earlier work on spent fuel and UO 2 under similar conditions

  16. Catalysed electrolytic metal oxide dissolution processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machuron-Mandard, X.

    1994-01-01

    The hydrometallurgical processes designed for recovering valuable metals from mineral ores as well as industrial wastes usually require preliminary dissolution of inorganic compounds in aqueous media before extraction and purification steps. Unfortunately, most of the minerals concerned hardly or slowly dissolve in acidic or basic solutions. Metallic oxides, sulfides and silicates are among the materials most difficult to dissolve in aqueous solutions. They are also among the main minerals containing valuable metals. The redox properties of such materials sometimes permit to improve their dissolution by adding oxidizing or reducing species to the leaching solution, which leads to an increase in the dissolution rate. Moreover, limited amounts of redox promoters are required if the redox agent is regenerated continuously thanks to an electrochemical device. Nuclear applications of such concepts have been suggested since the dissolution of many actinide compounds (e.g., UO 2 , AmO 2 , PuC, PuN,...) is mainly based on redox reactions. In the 1980s, improvements of the plutonium dioxide dissolution process have been proposed on the basis of oxidation-reduction principles, which led a few years later to the design of industrial facilities (e.g., at Marcoule or at the french reprocessing plant of La Hague). General concepts and well-established results obtained in France at the Atomic Energy Commission (''Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique'') will be presented and will illustrate applications to industrial as well as analytical problems. (author)

  17. Manipulating Single Microdroplets of NaCl Solutions: Solvent Dissolution, Microcrystallization, and Crystal Morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utoft, Anders; Kinoshita, Koji; Bitterfield, Deborah

    2018-01-01

    that the same Epstein−Plesset (EP) model, which was originally developed for diffusion-controlled dissolution and uptake of gas, and successfully applied to liquid-in-liquid dissolution, can now also be applied to describe the diffusion-controlled uptake of water from a water-saturated environment using...... of nucleation in the decane system as compared to the octanol system. Thus, the crystal structure is reported to be dendritic for NaCl solution microdroplets dissolving rapidly and nucleating violently in octanol, while they are formed as single cubic crystals in a gentler way for solution-dissolution in decane....... These new techniques and analyses can now also be used for any other system where all relevant parameters are known. An example of this is control of drug/hydrogel/emulsion particle size change due to solvent uptake....

  18. Characterization of Leptin Intracellular Trafficking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Walum

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Leptin is produced by adipose tissue, and its concentration in plasma is related to the amount of fat in the body. The leptin receptor (OBR is a member of the class I cytokine receptor family and several different isoforms, produced by alternative mRNA splicing are found in many tissues, including the hypothalamus. The two predominant isoforms includes a long form (OBRl with an intracellular domain of 303 amino acids and a shorter form (OBRs with an intracellular domain of 34 amino acids. Since OBRl is mainly expressed in the hypotalamus, it has been suggested to be the main signalling form. The peripheral production of leptin by adipocyte tissue and its effects as a signal of satiety in the central nervous system imply that leptin gains access to regions of the brain regulating in energy balance by crossing the blood-brain barrier. In an attempt to characterize the intracellular transport of leptin, we have followed binding internalization and degradation of leptin in HEK293 cells. We have also monitored the intracellular transport pathway of fluorescent conjugated leptin in HEK293 cells. Phenylarsine oxide, a general inhibitor of endocytosis, as well as incubation at mild hypertonic conditions, prevented the uptake of leptin, confirming a receptor-mediated internalization process. When internalized, 125I-leptin was rapidly accumulated inside the cells and reached a maximum after 10 min. After 70 minutes about 40-50% of total counts in each time point were found in the medium as TCA-soluble material. Leptin sorting, at the level of early endosomes, did not seem to involve recycling endosomes, since FITC-leptin was sorted from Cy3- transferrin containing compartments at 37°C. At 45 minutes of continuos internalization, FITC-leptin appeared mainly accumulated in late endocytic structures colocalizing with internalized rhodamine coupled epidermial growth factor (EGF and the lysosomal marker protein lamp-1. The transport of leptin was also shown

  19. Dissolution, agglomerate morphology, and stability limits of protein-coated silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Matthew N; Allen, Andrew J; MacCuspie, Robert I; Hackley, Vincent A

    2014-09-30

    Little is understood regarding the impact that molecular coatings have on nanoparticle dissolution kinetics and agglomerate formation in a dilute nanoparticle dispersion. Dissolution and agglomeration processes compete in removing isolated nanoparticles from the dispersion, making quantitative time-dependent measurements of the mechanisms of nanoparticle loss particularly challenging. In this article, we present in situ ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) results, simultaneously quantifying dissolution, agglomeration, and stability limits of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) coated with bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein. When the BSA corona is disrupted, we find that the loss of silver from the nanoparticle core is well matched by a second-order kinetic rate reaction, arising from the oxidative dissolution of silver. Dissolution and agglomeration are quantified, and morphological transitions throughout the process are qualified. By probing the BSA-AgNP suspension around its stability limits, we provide insight into the destabilization mechanism by which individual particles rapidly dissolve as a whole rather than undergo slow dissolution from the aqueous interface inward, once the BSA layer is breached. Because USAXS rapidly measures over the entire nanometer to micrometer size range during the dissolution process, many insights are also gained into the stabilization of NPs by protein and its ability to protect the labile metal core from the solution environment by prohibiting the diffusion of reactive species. This approach can be extended to a wide variety of coating molecules and reactive metal nanoparticle systems to carefully survey their stability limits, revealing the likely mechanisms of coating breakdown and ensuing reactions.

  20. Criticality safety in high explosives dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troyer, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    In 1992, an incident occurred at the Pantex Plant in which the cladding around a fissile material component (pit) cracked during dismantlement of the high explosives portion of a nuclear weapon. Although the event did not result in any significant contamination or personnel exposures, concerns about the incident led to the conclusion that the current dismantlement process was unacceptable. Options considered for redesign, dissolution tooling design considerations, dissolution tooling design features, and the analysis of the new dissolution tooling are summarized. The final tooling design developed incorporated a number of safety features and provides a simple, self-contained, low-maintenance method of high explosives removal for nuclear explosive dismantlement. Analyses demonstrate that the tooling design will remain subcritical under normal, abnormal, and credible accident scenarios. 1 fig

  1. Dissolution experiments of unirradiated uranium dioxide pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollila, K.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the dissolution rate of uranium from unirradiated uranium dioxide pellets in deionized water and natural groundwater. Moreover, the solubility limit of uranium in natural groundwater was measured. Two different temperatures, 25 and 60 deg C were used. The low oxygen content of deep groundwater was simulated. The dissolution rate of uranium varied from 10 -7 to 10 -8 g cm -2 d -1 . The rate in reionized water was one order of magnitude lower than in groundwater. No great difference was observed between the natural groundwaters with different composition. Temperature seems to have effect on the dissolution rate. The solubility limit of uranium in natural groundwater in reducing conditions, at 25 deg C, varied from 20 to 600 μg/l and in oxidizing conditions, at 60 deg C, from 4 to 17 mg/l

  2. Waste form dissolution in bedded salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    A model was devised for waste dissolution in bedded salt, a hydrologically tight medium. For a typical Spent UnReprocessed Fuel (SURF) emplacement, the dissolution rate wll be diffusion limited and will rise to a steady state value after t/sub eq/ approx. = 250 (1+(1-epsilon 0 ) K/sub D//epsilon 0 ) (years) epsilon 0 is the overpack porosity and K/sub d/ is the overpack sorption coefficient. The steady state dissolution rate itself is dominated by the solubility of UO 2 . Steady state rates between 5 x 10 -5 and .5 (g/year) are achievable by SURF emplacements in bedded salt without overpack, and rates between 5 x 10 -7 and 5 x 10 -3 (g/year) with an overpack having porosity of 10 -2

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging of tablet dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nott, Kevin P

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the technique of choice for measuring hydration, and its effects, during dissolution of tablets since it non-invasively maps (1)H nuclei associated with 'mobile' water. Although most studies have used MRI systems with high-field superconducting magnets, low-field laboratory-based instruments based on permanent magnet technology are being developed that provide key data for the formulation scientist. Incorporation of dissolution hardware, in particular the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) apparatus 4 flow-through cell, allows measurements under controlled conditions for comparison against other dissolution methods. Furthermore, simultaneous image acquisition and measurement of drug concentration allow direct comparison of the drug release throughout the hydration process. The combination of low-field MRI with USP-4 apparatus provides another tool to aid tablet formulation. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dissolution kinetics of purified and synthetic smectites at 25°C and PH∼9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, Nicolas C.M.; Tournassat, Christophe; Gaucher, Eric C.; Chino, Daisuke; Sato, Tsutomu; Villieras, Frederic; Giffaut, Eric; Cama, Jordi; Soler, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    to edge surface area (ESA), obtained by AFM observations and low-pressure gas adsorption method. ESA normalized dissolution rates of synthetic and natural clay dissolution rates are similar at pH∼9. Si-based dissolution rate law at pH∼9 and 25 deg. C that take into account the effect of the degree of saturation can be proposed either using a rate-law expression as that used by Cama et al. (2000). However, the dissolution rates based on release of Si, Al and Mg were different, indicating non-congruent dissolution reaction and/or formation of new phases. Post mortem AFM and TEM observations of reacted synthetic smectite show (1) significant decrease in particle size and (2) sporadically occurrence of pits on basal surfaces. Hence, it is not possible to definitively assess that dissolution mainly occurs at the edge surface, similarly to dissolution in high pH conditions. Moreover, the EDX analyses indicate decrease in the amount of Mg and Al in the reacted samples. Precipitation of silicate-bearing phases is also observed, although the nature of the precipitates is to be confirmed. Such formations may affect the Si-based dissolution law

  5. DISSOLUTION OF IRRADIATED MURR FUEL ASSEMBLIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyser, E.

    2010-06-17

    A literature survey on the dissolution of spent nuclear fuel from the University of Missouri Research Reactor (MURR) has been performed. This survey encompassed both internal and external literature sources for the dissolution of aluminum-clad uranium alloy fuels. The most limiting aspect of dissolution in the current facility configuration involves issues related to the control of the flammability of the off-gas from this process. The primary conclusion of this work is that based on past dissolution of this fuel in H-Canyon, four bundles of this fuel (initial charge) may be safely dissolved in a nitric acid flowsheet catalyzed with 0.002 M mercuric nitrate using a 40 scfm purge to control off-gas flammability. The initial charge may be followed by a second charge of up to five bundles to the same dissolver batch depending on volume and concentration constraints. The safety of this flowsheet relies on composite lower flammability limits (LFL) estimated from prior literature, pilot-scale work on the dissolution of site fuels, and the proposed processing flowsheet. Equipment modifications or improved LFL data offer the potential for improved processing rates. The fuel charging sequence, as well as the acid and catalyst concentrations, will control the dissolution rate during the initial portion of the cycle. These parameters directly impact the hydrogen and off-gas generation and, along with the purge flowrate determine the number of bundles that may be charged. The calculation approach within provides Engineering a means to determine optimal charging patterns. Downstream processing of this material should be similar to that of recent processing of site fuels requiring only minor adjustments of the existing flowsheet parameters.

  6. Formation, transformation and dissolution of phases formed on surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoesmith, D.W.

    1983-03-01

    The basic mechanisms of film growth, transformation, and dissolution of phases formed on surfaces are discussed. Film growth can occur via solid-state processes or via substrate (usally metal or alloy) dissolution, followed by local supersaturation and precipitation of an insoluble phase. The phase(s) formed may be metastable and transform to a more stable phase, via either solid-state or dissolution-reprecipitation processes. Film dissolution reactions can also occur via a variety of mechanisms, including: (i) direct chemical dissolution when no oxidation state change occurs; (ii) redox dissolution when the film dissolves via a redox reaction involving a reducing or oxidizing agent in solution; and (iii) autoreduction, where film dissolution is coupled to metal dissolution. Such film-growth and dissolution processes, which often produce complex multilayer films, are common in the nuclear industry. A number of examples are discussed

  7. Microbially mediated barite dissolution in anoxic brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouyang, Bingjie; Akob, Denise M.; Dunlap, Darren; Renock, Devon

    2017-01-01

    Fluids injected into shale formations during hydraulic fracturing of black shale return with extraordinarily high total-dissolved-solids (TDS) and high concentrations of barium (Ba) and radium (Ra). Barite, BaSO_4, has been implicated as a possible source of Ba as well as a problematic mineral scale that forms on internal well surfaces, often in close association with radiobarite, (Ba,Ra)SO_4. The dissolution of barite by abiotic processes is well quantified. However, the identification of microbial communities in flowback and produced water necessitates the need to understand barite dissolution in the presence of bacteria. Therefore, we evaluated the rates and mechanisms of abiotic and microbially-mediated barite dissolution under anoxic and hypersaline conditions in the laboratory. Barite dissolution experiments were conducted with bacterial enrichment cultures established from produced water from Marcellus Shale wells located in northcentral Pennsylvania. These cultures were dominated by anaerobic halophilic bacteria from the genus Halanaerobium. Dissolved Ba was determined by ICP-OES and barite surfaces were investigated by SEM and AFM. Our results reveal that: 1) higher amounts of barium (up to ∼5 × ) are released from barite in the presence of Halanaerobium cultures compared to brine controls after 30 days of reaction, 2) etch pits that develop on the barite (001) surface in the presence of Halanaerobium exhibit a morphology that is distinct from those that form during control experiments without bacteria, 3) etch pits that develop in the presence of Halanaerobium exhibit a morphology that is similar to the morphology of etch pits formed in the presence of strong organic chelators, EDTA and DTPA, and 4) experiments using dialysis membranes to separate barite from bacteria suggest that direct contact between the two is not required in order to promote dissolution. These results suggest that Halanaerobium increase the rate of barite dissolution in anoxic

  8. Saltcake dissolution FY 1998 status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HERTING, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    A laboratory scouting study was completed on the dissolution characteristics of Hanford waste from three single-shell waste tanks: 241-BY-102, 241-BY-106, and 241-B-106. Gross dissolution behavior (percent undissolved solids as a function of dilution) is explained in terms of characteristics of individual salts in the waste. The percentage of the sodium inventory retrievable from the tanks by dissolving saltcake at reasonable dilution levels is estimated at 86% of the total sodium for tank BY-102, 98% for BY-106, and 79% for B-106

  9. Chrysotile dissolution rates: Implications for carbon sequestration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thom, James G.M.; Dipple, Gregory M.; Power, Ian M.; Harrison, Anna L.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Uncertainties in serpentine dissolution kinetics hinder carbon sequestration models. • A pH dependent, far from equilibrium dissolution rate law for chrysotile. • F chrysotile (mol/m 2 /s) = 10 −0.21pH−10.57 at 22 °C over pH 2–10. • Laboratory dissolution rates consistent with mine waste weathering observations. • Potential for carbon sequestration in mine tailings and aquifers is assessed. - Abstract: Serpentine minerals (e.g., chrysotile) are a potentially important medium for sequestration of CO 2 via carbonation reactions. The goals of this study are to report a steady-state, far from equilibrium chrysotile dissolution rate law and to better define what role serpentine dissolution kinetics will have in constraining rates of carbon sequestration via serpentine carbonation. The steady-state dissolution rate of chrysotile in 0.1 m NaCl solutions was measured at 22 °C and pH ranging from 2 to 8. Dissolution experiments were performed in a continuously stirred flow-through reactor with the input solutions pre-equilibrated with atmospheric CO 2 . Both Mg and Si steady-state fluxes from the chrysotile surface, and the overall chrysotile flux were regressed and the following empirical relationships were obtained: F Mg =-0.22pH-10.02;F Si =-0.19pH-10.37;F chrysotile =-0.21pH-10.57 where F Mg , F Si , and F chrysotile are the log 10 Mg, Si, and molar chrysotile fluxes in mol/m 2 /s, respectively. Element fluxes were used in reaction-path calculations to constrain the rate of CO 2 sequestration in two geological environments that have been proposed as potential sinks for anthropogenic CO 2 . Carbon sequestration in chrysotile tailings at 10 °C is approximately an order of magnitude faster than carbon sequestration in a serpentinite-hosted aquifer at 60 °C on a per kilogram of water basis. A serpentinite-hosted aquifer, however, provides a larger sequestration capacity. The chrysotile dissolution rate law determined in this study has

  10. Effect of sodium lauryl sulfate in dissolution media on dissolution of hard gelatin capsule shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fang; Malayev, Vyacheslav; Rao, Venkatramana; Hussain, Munir

    2004-01-01

    Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is a commonly used surfactant in dissolution media for poorly water soluble drugs. However, it has occasionally been observed that SLS negatively impacts the dissolution of drug products formulated in gelatin capsules. This study investigated the effect of SLS on the dissolution of hard gelatin capsule shells. The USP paddle method was used with online UV monitoring at 214 nm (peptide bond). Empty size #0 capsule shells were held to the bottom of the dissolution vessel by magnetic three-prong sinkers. SLS significantly slowed down the dissolution of gelatin shells at pH < 5. Visually, the gelatin shells transformed into some less-soluble precipitate under these conditions. This precipitate was found to contain a higher sulfur content than the gelatin control sample by elemental analysis, indicating that SLS is part of the precipitate. Additionally, the slowdown of capsule shell dissolution was shown to be dependent on the SLS concentration and the ionic strength of the media. SLS interacts with gelatin to form a less-soluble precipitate at pH < 5. The use of SLS in dissolution media at acidic pH should be carefully evaluated for gelatin capsule products.

  11. Assessing the effect of dissolved organic ligands on mineral dissolution rates: An example from calcite dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMaio, T.; Grandstaff, D.E.

    1997-01-01

    Experiments suggest that dissolved organic ligands may primarily modify mineral dissolution rates by three mechanisms: (1) metal-ligand (M-L) complex formation in solution, which increases the degree of undersaturation, (2) formation of surface M-L complexes that attack the surface, and (3) formation of surface complexes which passivate or protect the surface. Mechanisms (1) and (2) increase the dissolution rate and the third decreases it compared with organic-free solutions. The types and importance of these mechanisms may be assessed from plots of dissolution rate versus degree of undersaturation. To illustrate this technique, calcite, a common repository cementing and vein-filling mineral, was dissolved at pH 7.8 and 22 C in Na-Ca-HCO 3 -Cl solutions with low concentrations of three organic ligands. Low citrate concentrations (50 microM) increased the dissolution rate consistent with mechanism (1). Oxalate decreased the rate, consistent with mechanism (3). Low phthalate concentration (<50 microM) decreased calcite dissolution rates; however, higher concentrations increased the dissolution rates, which became faster than in inorganic solutions. Thus, phthalate exhibits both mechanisms (2) and (3) at different concentrations. In such cases linear extrapolations of dissolution rates from high organic ligand concentrations may not be valid

  12. Effects of tablet formulation and subsequent film coating on the supersaturated dissolution behavior of amorphous solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Toshiro; Hirai, Daiki; Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Iwao, Yasunori; Itai, Shigeru

    2018-04-05

    The effects of tablet preparation and subsequent film coating with amorphous solid dispersion (ASD) particles that were composed of a drug with poor water solubility and hydrophilic polymers were investigated. ASD particles were prepared with a drug and vinylpyrrolidone-vinyl acetate copolymer (PVPVA) or polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) at a weight ratio of 1:1 or 1:2 using a melt extrusion technique. Tablets were prepared by conventional direct compression followed by pan coating. A mathematical model based on the Noyes-Whitney equation assuming that stable crystals precipitated at the changeable surface area of the solid-liquid interface used to estimate drug dissolution kinetics in a non-sink dissolution condition. All the ASD particles showed a maximum dissolution concentration approximately ten times higher than that of the crystalline drug. The ASD particles with PVPVA showed higher precipitation rate with lower polymer ratio, while PVP did not precipitate within 960 min regardless of the polymer ratio, suggesting the ASD particles of 1:1 drug:PVPVA (ASD-1) were the most unstable among the ASD particles considered. The dissolution of a core tablet with ASD-1 showed less supersaturation and a much higher precipitation rate than those of ASD-1 particles. However, a film-coated tablet or core tablet with a trace amount of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) showed a similar dissolution profile to that of the ASD-1 particles, indicating HPMC had a remarkable precipitation inhibition effect. Overall, these results suggest that tablet preparation with ASD may adversely affect the maintenance of supersaturation; however, this effect can be mitigated by adding an appropriate precipitation inhibitor to the formulation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A kinetic model for borosilicate glass dissolution based on the dissolution affinity of a surface alteration layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourcier, W.L.; Peiffer, D.W.; Knauss, K.G.; McKeegan, K.D.; Smith, D.K.

    1989-11-01

    A kinetic model for the dissolution of borosilicate glass is used to predict the dissolution rate of a nuclear waste glass. In the model, the glass dissolution rate is controlled by the rate of dissolution of an alkali-depleted amorphous surface (gel) layer. Our model predicts that all components concentrated in the surface layer, affect glass dissolution rates. The good agreement between predicted and observed elemental dissolution rates suggests that the dissolution rate of the gel layer limits the overall rate of glass dissolution. The model predicts that the long-term rate of glass dissolution will depend mainly on ion concentrations in solution, and therefore on the secondary phases which precipitate and control ion concentrations. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  14. Computational hydrodynamic comparison of a mini vessel and a USP 2 dissolution testing system to predict the dynamic operating conditions for similarity of dissolution performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bing; Bredael, Gerard; Armenante, Piero M

    2018-03-25

    The hydrodynamic characteristics of a mini vessel and a USP 2 dissolution testing system were obtained and compared to predict the tablet-liquid mass transfer coefficient from velocity distributions near the tablet and establish the dynamic operating conditions under which dissolution in mini vessels could be conducted to generate concentration profiles similar to those in the USP 2. Velocity profiles were obtained experimentally using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used to predict the velocity distribution and strain rate around a model tablet. A CFD-based mass transfer model was also developed. When plotted against strain rate, the predicted tablet-liquid mass transfer coefficient was found to be independent of the system where it was obtained, implying that a tablet would dissolve at the same rate in both systems provided that the concentration gradient between the tablet surface and the bulk is the same, the tablet surface area per unit liquid volume is identical, and the two systems are operated at the appropriate agitation speeds specified in this work. The results of this work will help dissolution scientists operate mini vessels so as to predict the dissolution profiles in the USP 2, especially during the early stages of drug development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Electron Microscopy of Intracellular Protozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-12-20

    Classification) " ELECTRON MICROSCOPY OF INTRACELLULAR PROTOZOA 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Aikawa, Masamichi 13a. TYPE OF REPORT I13b. TIME COVERED 114...authors suggest that anti-CS protein antibody is important in reducing the prevalence of malaria with increasing age among persons in such areas and... Hygine 33, 220-226. 0Giudice, G.D., Engers, H.D., Tougne, C., Biro, S.S., Weiss, N., Verdini, A.S., Pessi, A., Degremont, A.A., Freyvogel, T.A., Lambert

  16. Dissolution kinetics of magnesium hydroxide for CO{sub 2} separation from coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharadwaj, Hari Krishna [Chemical Engineering Program, School of Energy, Environmental, Biological, and Medical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); Lee, Joo-Youp, E-mail: joo.lee@uc.edu [Chemical Engineering Program, School of Energy, Environmental, Biological, and Medical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); Li, Xin; Liu, Zhouyang [Chemical Engineering Program, School of Energy, Environmental, Biological, and Medical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States); Keener, Tim C. [Environmental Engineering Program, School of Energy, Environmental, Biological, and Medical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0012 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    Highlights: ► Magnesium hydroxide dissolution was found to be controlled by chemical reaction. ► The intrinsic kinetics has a fractional order between 0.20 and 0.31. ► The true activation energy value was found to have 76 ± 11 kJ/gmol. ► A shrinking-core model predicted experimental data with good accuracy. -- Abstract: The dissolution of magnesium hydroxide in water for the release of magnesium and hydroxyl ions into the solution to maintain suitable alkalinity is a crucial step in the Mg(OH){sub 2}-based CO{sub 2} absorption process. In this study, the rate of dissolution of Mg(OH){sub 2} was investigated under different operating conditions using a pH stat apparatus. The dissolution process was modeled using a shrinking core model and the overall Mg(OH){sub 2} dissolution process was found to be controlled by the surface chemical reaction of Mg(OH){sub 2} with H{sup +} ions. Under the chemical reaction control regime, the dissolution of Mg(OH){sub 2} in alkaline conditions was found not to follow a first-order reaction, and the fractional order of reaction was estimated to lie between 0.20 and 0.31. This suggests that the dissolution reaction is a non-elementary reaction, consisting of a sequence of elementary reactions, via most likely forming a surface magnesium complex. The true activation energy value of 76 ± 11 kJ/gmol was found to be almost twice as much as the observed activation energy value of 42 ± 6 kJ/gmol determined at pH 8.6, and was comparable with the previously reported values. The particle sizes predicted from the intrinsic kinetics determined from the model were in good agreement with the experimentally measured particle sizes during the dissolution process.

  17. Physicochemical characterization and dissolution properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    calorimetry (DSC), powder x-ray diffractometry (PXRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Phase solubility studies revealed an AL-type diagram indicating a 1:1 stoichiometric inclusion complex and a stability constant value of 914 M-1. Solubility and dissolution rates of PYR and the binary systems were ...

  18. Dissolution enhancement of Tibolone by micronization technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kailash Bansal

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Micronization technique has a significant impact on the dissolution of Tibolone. The experimental findings suggest that micronization can be used for the preparation of rapidly dissolving formulations of Tibolone, and could potentially lead to improvement in the in-vivo bioavailability of Tibolone oral tablets.

  19. Sodium tetraphenylborate solubility and dissolution rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, M.J.; Peterson, R.A.; Swingle, R.F.; Reeves, C.T.

    1995-01-01

    The rate of solid sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) dissolution in In-Tank Precipitation salt solutions has been experimentally determined. The data indicates that the dissolution rate of solid NaTPB is a minor contributor the lag time experienced in the 1983 Salt Decontamination Demonstration Test and should not be considered as the rate determining step. Current analytical models for predicting the time to reach the composite lower flammability limit assume that the lag time is not more than 6 hours, and the data supports this assumption (i.e., dissolution by itself requires much less than 6 hours). The data suggests that another step--such as mass transport, the reaction of a benzene precursor or the mixing behavior--is the rate determining factor for benzene release to the vapor space in Tank 48H. In addition, preliminary results from this program show that the degree of agitation employed is not a significant parameter in determining the rate of NaTPB dissolution. As a result of this study, an improved equation for predicting equilibrium tetraphenylborate solubility with respect to temperature and sodium ion concentration has been determined

  20. Efavirenz Dissolution Enhancement I: Co-Micronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helvécio Vinícius Antunes Rocha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AIDS constitutes one of the most serious infectious diseases, representing a major public health priority. Efavirenz (EFV, one of the most widely used drugs for this pathology, belongs to the Class II of the Biopharmaceutics Classification System for drugs with very poor water solubility. To improve EFV’s dissolution profile, changes can be made to the physical properties of the drug that do not lead to any accompanying molecular modifications. Therefore, the study objective was to develop and characterize systems with efavirenz able to improve its dissolution, which were co-processed with sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP. The technique used was co-micronization. Three different drug:excipient ratios were tested for each of the two carriers. The drug dispersion dissolution results showed significant improvement for all the co-processed samples in comparison to non-processed material and corresponding physical mixtures. The dissolution profiles obtained for dispersion with co-micronized SLS samples proved superior to those of co-micronized PVP, with the proportion (1:0.25 proving the optimal mixture. The improvements may be explained by the hypothesis that formation of a hydrophilic layer on the surface of the micronized drug increases the wettability of the system formed, corroborated by characterization results indicating no loss of crystallinity and an absence of interaction at the molecular level.

  1. Modeling of Dissolution Effects on Waterflooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alexeev, Artem; Shapiro, Alexander; Thomsen, Kaj

    2015-01-01

    reaction rates) may exhibit rapid increase of porosity and permeability near the inlet probably indicating a formation of high permeable channels (wormholes). Water saturation in the zone of dissolution increases due to an increase in the bulk volume accessible for the injected fluid. Volumetric non...

  2. 25 CFR 11.605 - Dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Domestic Relations § 11.605 Dissolution. (a) The Court of Indian Offenses shall enter a decree of... supported by evidence that (i) the parties have lived separate and apart for a period of more than 180 days..., or provided for child custody, the support of any child entitled to support, the maintenance of...

  3. Dilution physics modeling: Dissolution/precipitation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Reid, H.C.; Trent, D.S.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents progress made to date on integrating dilution/precipitation chemistry and new physical models into the TEMPEST thermal-hydraulics computer code. Implementation of dissolution/precipitation chemistry models is necessary for predicting nonhomogeneous, time-dependent, physical/chemical behavior of tank wastes with and without a variety of possible engineered remediation and mitigation activities. Such behavior includes chemical reactions, gas retention, solids resuspension, solids dissolution and generation, solids settling/rising, and convective motion of physical and chemical species. Thus this model development is important from the standpoint of predicting the consequences of various engineered activities, such as mitigation by dilution, retrieval, or pretreatment, that can affect safe operations. The integration of a dissolution/precipitation chemistry module allows the various phase species concentrations to enter into the physical calculations that affect the TEMPEST hydrodynamic flow calculations. The yield strength model of non-Newtonian sludge correlates yield to a power function of solids concentration. Likewise, shear stress is concentration-dependent, and the dissolution/precipitation chemistry calculations develop the species concentration evolution that produces fluid flow resistance changes. Dilution of waste with pure water, molar concentrations of sodium hydroxide, and other chemical streams can be analyzed for the reactive species changes and hydrodynamic flow characteristics

  4. Physicochemical characterization and dissolution properties of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... 1Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. .... were carefully and homogenously blended in a mortar, to prepare ... different binary systems with HP-β-CD were carried out by adding an excess ..... Overall, the rank order of dissolution rates of.

  5. Toward a consistent model for glass dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, D.M.; McGrail, B.P.; Bourcier, W.L.

    1994-01-01

    Understanding the process of glass dissolution in aqueous media has advanced significantly over the last 10 years through the efforts of many scientists around the world. Mathematical models describing the glass dissolution process have also advanced from simple empirical functions to structured models based on fundamental principles of physics, chemistry, and thermodynamics. Although borosilicate glass has been selected as the waste form for disposal of high-level wastes in at least 5 countries, there is no international consensus on the fundamental methodology for modeling glass dissolution that could be used in assessing the long term performance of waste glasses in a geologic repository setting. Each repository program is developing their own model and supporting experimental data. In this paper, we critically evaluate a selected set of these structured models and show that a consistent methodology for modeling glass dissolution processes is available. We also propose a strategy for a future coordinated effort to obtain the model input parameters that are needed for long-term performance assessments of glass in a geologic repository. (author) 4 figs., tabs., 75 refs

  6. Study of the discontinuous dissolution of uranium oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno, L.A.O.; Floh, B.; Araujo, J.A. de.

    1978-01-01

    Dissolution studies of UO 2 and U 3 O 8 particles and pellets in nitric acid were carried out to find the best flowsheet conditions for treatment of irradiated materials. All experiments were accomplished with unirradiated oxides at room-and boiling point temperature of the nitric acid solutions, the acid molarity ranging from 1 up to 12M in stoichiometric-and (100% up to 300%) excess conditions. The UO 2 (10g) and U 3 O 8 (10g) are easily dissolved (10 and 50s), respectively, at boiling point of 6M nitric acid solution. At the same conditions compacted pellets are dissolved in 29 min (U 3 O 8 =5g) and in 330 min (UO 2 =20g) [pt

  7. Modeling of a dissolution system for transuranic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Z.; Dease, C.

    1991-02-01

    A system is currently being developed at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory to treat transuranic wastes by means of a mediated electrochemical oxidation process. The process involves generating Ag( ++ ) from a solution of silver nitrate and nitric acid in an electrochemical cell. Ag( ++ ) is highly reactive and is capable of attacking many organic and inorganic substances. In particular, if a mixture of particles containing transuranic and other scrap metal oxides is allowed to react with Ag( ++ ) in a nitric acid solution, the transuranic oxides will dissolve and can be removed with the solution leaving the other insoluble oxides behind. The dissolution of the transuranic oxides by reactions with Ag( ++ ) occurs due to further oxidation to higher valence states and the formation of soluble ions such as MO 2 + and MO 2 ++ . 7 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  8. Assessment of weathering and leaching rates of Thule hot particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, P. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)); Outola, I. (STUK-Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland)); Nygren, U.; Ramebaeck, H. (FOI CBRN Defence and Security (Sweden)); Sidhu, R. (Institute of Energy Technology, Environmental Monitoring Section, Health and Safety Dept. (Norway))

    2010-03-15

    Within the current project a methodology for separating actinide particles originating from the Thule 1968 accident has been developed. Particles were completely isolated in water using visual and radiometric methods. The particles were attached electrostatic to a plastic support and could easily be moved to any container for leaching studies or other type of studies. Leaching and dissolution studies performed within the project indicate that some particles are relatively easily destroyed or leached while others are more refractory. The results shows that even though the oxide particles are hard to completely dissolve they release material even when exposed to weak solvents like water and salt solutions. Exposures to lung simulant fluids show relatively slow dissolution rates comparable to what is found using only water. Sequential extraction of particles shows that variation between particles is very large; some dissolve easily while some does not. Of radiological importance is the disruption of particles when exposed to dissolution. (author)

  9. Assessment of weathering and leaching rates of Thule hot particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roos, P.; Outola, I.; Nygren, U.; Ramebaeck, H.; Sidhu, R.

    2010-03-01

    Within the current project a methodology for separating actinide particles originating from the Thule 1968 accident has been developed. Particles were completely isolated in water using visual and radiometric methods. The particles were attached electrostatic to a plastic support and could easily be moved to any container for leaching studies or other type of studies. Leaching and dissolution studies performed within the project indicate that some particles are relatively easily destroyed or leached while others are more refractory. The results shows that even though the oxide particles are hard to completely dissolve they release material even when exposed to weak solvents like water and salt solutions. Exposures to lung simulant fluids show relatively slow dissolution rates comparable to what is found using only water. Sequential extraction of particles shows that variation between particles is very large; some dissolve easily while some does not. Of radiological importance is the disruption of particles when exposed to dissolution. (author)

  10. Biomineralization Patterns of Intracellular Carbonatogenesis in Cyanobacteria: Molecular Hypotheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhua Li

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The recent discovery of intracellular carbonatogenesis in several cyanobacteria species has challenged the traditional view that this process was extracellular and not controlled. However, a detailed analysis of the size distribution, chemical composition and 3-D-arrangement of carbonates in these cyanobacteria is lacking. Here, we characterized these features in Candidatus Gloeomargarita lithophora C7 and Candidatus Synechococcus calcipolaris G9 by conventional transmission electron microscopy, tomography, ultramicrotomy, and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM. Both Ca. G. lithophora C7 and Ca. S. calcipolaris G9 formed numerous polyphosphate granules adjacent or engulfing Ca-carbonate inclusions when grown in phosphate-rich solutions. Ca-carbonates were scattered within Ca. G. lithophora C7 cells under these conditions, but sometimes arranged in one or several chains. In contrast, Ca-carbonates formed at cell septa in Ca. S. calcipolaris G9 and were segregated equally between daughter cells after cell division, arranging as distorted disks at cell poles. The size distribution of carbonates evolved from a positively to a negatively skewed distribution as particles grew. Conventional ultramicrotomy did not preserve Ca-carbonates explaining partly why intracellular calcification has been overlooked in the past. All these new observations allow discussing with unprecedented insight some nucleation and growth processes occurring in intracellularly calcifying cyanobacteria with a particular emphasis on the possible involvement of intracellular compartments and cytoskeleton.

  11. Pathogenic mechanisms of intracellular bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niller, Hans Helmut; Masa, Roland; Venkei, Annamária; Mészáros, Sándor; Minarovits, Janos

    2017-06-01

    We wished to overview recent data on a subset of epigenetic changes elicited by intracellular bacteria in human cells. Reprogramming the gene expression pattern of various host cells may facilitate bacterial growth, survival, and spread. DNA-(cytosine C5)-methyltransferases of Mycoplasma hyorhinis targeting cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) dinucleotides and a Mycobacterium tuberculosis methyltransferase targeting non-CpG sites methylated the host cell DNA and altered the pattern of gene expression. Gene silencing by CpG methylation and histone deacetylation, mediated by cellular enzymes, also occurred in M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages. M. tuberculosis elicited cell type-specific epigenetic changes: it caused increased DNA methylation in macrophages, but induced demethylation, deposition of euchromatic histone marks and activation of immune-related genes in dendritic cells. A secreted transposase of Acinetobacter baumannii silenced a cellular gene, whereas Mycobacterium leprae altered the epigenotype, phenotype, and fate of infected Schwann cells. The 'keystone pathogen' oral bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis induced local DNA methylation and increased the level of histone acetylation in host cells. These epigenetic changes at the biofilm-gingiva interface may contribute to the development of periodontitis. Epigenetic regulators produced by intracellular bacteria alter the epigenotype and gene expression pattern of host cells and play an important role in pathogenesis.

  12. Dissolution of two NWCF calcines: Extent of dissolution and characterization of undissolved solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, K.N.; Herbst, R.S.; Tranter, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine the dissolution characteristics of two NWCF calcine types. A two-way blended calcine made from 4 parts nonradioactive aluminum nitrate and one part WM-102 was studied to determine the extent of dissolution for aluminum-type calcines. A two-way blend of 3.5 parts fluorinel waste from WM-187 and 1 part sodium waste from WM-185 was used to determine the extent of dissolution for zirconium-type calcines. This study was necessary to develop suitable aqueous separation flowsheets for the partitioning of actinides and fission products from ICPP calcines and to determine the disposition of the resulting undissolved solids (UDS). The dissolution flowsheet developed by Herbst was used to dissolve these two NWCF calcine types. Results show that greater than 95 wt% of aluminum and zirconium calcine types were dissolved after a single batch contact with 5 M HNO 3 . A characterization of the UDS indicates that the weight percent of TRU elements in the UDS resulting from both calcine type dissolutions increases by approximately an order of magnitude from their concentrations prior to dissolution. Substantial activities of cesium and strontium are also present in the UDS resulting from the dissolution of both calcine types. Multiple TRU, Cs, and Sr analyses of both UDS types show that these solids are relatively homogeneous. From this study, it is estimated that between 63.5 and 635 cubic meters of UDS will be generated from the dissolution of 3800 M 3 of calcine. The significant actinide and fission product activities in these UDS will preclude their disposal as low-level waste. If the actinide and fission activity resulting from the UDS is the only considered source in the dissolved calcine solutions, an estimated 99.9 to 99.99 percent of the solids must be removed from this solution for it to meet non-TRU Class A low-level waste

  13. In vitro Dissolution Studies on Solid Dispersions of Mefenamic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K R S Sambasiva; Nagabhushanam, M V; Chowdary, K P R

    2011-03-01

    Solid dispersions of mefanamic acid with a water-soluble polymer polyvinyl pyrrolidine and a super disintegrant, primojel were prepared by common solvent and solvent evaporation methods employing methanol as the solvent. The dissolution rate and dissolution efficiency of the prepared solid dispersions were evaluated in comparison to the corresponding pure drug. Solid dispersions of mefenamic acid showed a marked enhancement in dissolution rate and dissolution efficiency. At 1:4 ratio of mefenamic acid-primojel a 2.61 fold increase in the dissolution rate of mefenamic acid was observed with solid dispersion. The solid dispersions in combined carriers gave much higher rates of dissolution than super disintegrants alone. Mefanamic acid-primojel-polyvinyl pyrrolidine (1:3.2:0.8) solid dispersion gave a 4.11 fold increase in the dissolution rate of mefenamic acid. Super disintegrants alone or in combination with polyvinyl pyrrolidine could be used to enhance the dissolution rate of mefenamic acid.

  14. Dissolution testing of intermediary products in uranium dioxide production by the sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melichar, F.; Landspersky, H.; Urbanek, V.

    1979-01-01

    A method was developed of dissolving polyuranates and uranium dioxides in sulphuric acid and in carbonate solutions for testing intermediate products in the sol-gel process preparation of uranium dioxide. A detailed granulometric analysis of spherical particle dispersion was included as part of the tests. Two different production methods were used for the two types of studied materials. The test results show that the test method is suitable for determining temperature sensitivity of the materials to dissolution reaction. The geometrical distribution of impurities in the spherical particles can be determined from the dissolution kinetics. The method allows the determination of the effect of carbon from impurities on the process of uranium dioxide leaching and is thus applicable for testing materials prepared by the sol-gel method. (Z.M.)

  15. Fast dissolution of poorly water soluble drugs from fluidized bed coated nanocomposites: Impact of carrier size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Mohammad; Moreno, Jacqueline; Bilgili, Ecevit; Davé, Rajesh

    2016-11-20

    Formation of core-shell nanocomposites of Fenofibrate and Itraconazole, model poorly water soluble drugs, via fluidized bed (FB) coating of their well-stabilized high drug loaded nanosuspensions is investigated. Specifically, the extent of dissolution enhancement, when fine carrier particles (sub-50μm) as opposed to the traditional large carrier particles (>300μm) are used, is examined. This allows testing the hypothesis that greatly increased carrier surface area and more importantly, thinner shell for finer carriers at the same drug loading can significantly increase the dissolution rate when spray-coated nanosuspensions are well-stabilized. Fine sub-50μm lactose (GranuLac ® 200) carrier particles were made fluidizable via dry coating with nano-silica, enabling decreased cohesion, fluidization and subsequent nanosuspension coating. For both drugs, 30% drug loaded suspensions were prepared via wet-stirred media milling using hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose and sodium dodecyl sulfate as stabilizers. The stabilizer concentrations were varied to affect the milled particle size and prepare a stable nanosuspension. The suspensions were FB coated onto hydrophilic nano-silica (M-5P) dry coated sub-50μm lactose (GranuLac ® 200) carrier particles or larger carrier particles of median size >300μm (PrismaLac ® 40). The resulting finer composite powders (sub-100μm) based on GranuLac ® 200 were freely flowing, had high bulk density, and had much faster, immediate dissolution of the poorly water-soluble drugs, in particular for Itraconazole. This is attributed to a much higher specific surface area of the carrier and corresponding thinner coating layer for fine carriers as opposed to those for large carrier particles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Development and validation of dissolution test for Metoprolol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dissolution method which uses USP apparatus I (Basket) with rotating at 100 rpm, 900 ml of different dissolution medium, ultra violet spectroscopy for quantification was demonstrated to be robust, discriminating and transferable. Dissolution tests conditions were selected after it was demonstrated that the Metoprolol ...

  17. Investigation of dissolution kinetics of a Nigerian columbite in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of dissolution kinetics of a Nigerian columbite in hydrofluoric acid using the shrinking core model. ... Experimental results indicate that the dissolution rate is chemical reaction controlled, with reaction order of 0.57. Dissolution of over 90 % of the columbite was achieved in 5 h, using 20 M HF at 90 oC with 100 ...

  18. Improvement of dissolution and hypoglycemic efficacy of glimepiride by different carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Elham A; Meshali, Mahasen M; Foda, Abdel Monem M; Borg, Thanaa M

    2012-09-01

    Effects of tromethamine (Tris), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-K25), and low molecular weight chitosan (LM-CH) on dissolution and therapeutic efficacy of glimepiride (Gmp) were investigated using physical mixtures (PMs), coground mixtures, coprecipitates (Coppts) or kneaded mixtures (KMs), and compared with drug alone. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning colorimetry, and X-ray diffractometry were performed to identify any physicochemical interaction with Gmp. Surface morphology was examined via scanning electron microscopy. The results of Gmp in vitro dissolution revealed that it was greatly enhanced by Coppt with Tris or PVP-K25 and KM with LM-CH at a drug to carrier ratio of 1:8. Gmp amorphization by PVP-K25 and LM-CH was a major factor in increasing Gmp dissolution. Being basic, Tris might increase the pH of the microdiffusion layer around Gmp particles improving its dissolution. Formation of water-soluble complexes suggested by solubility study may also explain the enhanced dissolution. Capsules were prepared from Coppts and KM 1:8 drug to carrier binary systems and also with Tris PMs. In vivo, the hypoglycemic efficacy of Gmp capsules in rabbits increased by 1.63-, 1.50-, and 1.46-fold for 1:8 Coppts with Tris or PVP-K25 and KM with LM-CH respectively, compared with Gmp alone. Surprisingly, the response to Tris PM 1:20 capsules was 1.52-fold revealing statistically insignificant difference to that of Tris Coppt 1:8 (1.63 fold). As a conclusion, dissolution enhancement and hypoglycemic potentiation by 1:20 PM of Gmp/Tris, being simple and easy to prepare, may enable development of a reduced-dose and fast-release oral dosage form of Gmp.

  19. Solid-state, triboelectrostatic and dissolution characteristics of spray-dried piroxicam-glucosamine solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebisi, Adeola O; Kaialy, Waseem; Hussain, Tariq; Al-Hamidi, Hiba; Nokhodchi, Ali; Conway, Barbara R; Asare-Addo, Kofi

    2016-10-01

    This work explores the use of both spray drying and d-glucosamine HCl (GLU) as a hydrophilic carrier to improve the dissolution rate of piroxicam (PXM) whilst investigating the electrostatic charges associated with the spray drying process. Spray dried PXM:GLU solid dispersions were prepared and characterised (XRPD, DSC, SEM). Dissolution and triboelectric charging were also conducted. The results showed that the spray dried PXM alone, without GLU produced some PXM form II (DSC results) with no enhancement in solubility relative to that of the parent PXM. XRPD results also showed the spray drying process to decrease the crystallinity of GLU and solid dispersions produced. The presence of GLU improved the dissolution rate of PXM. Spray dried PXM: GLU at a ratio of 2:1 had the most improved dissolution. The spray drying process generally yielded PXM-GLU spherical particles of around 2.5μm which may have contributed to the improved dissolution. PXM showed a higher tendency for charging in comparison to the carrier GLU (-3.8 versus 0.5nC/g for untreated material and -7.5 versus 3.1nC/g for spray dried materials). Spray dried PXM and spray dried GLU demonstrated higher charge densities than untreated PXM and untreated GLU, respectively. Regardless of PXM:GLU ratio, all spray dried PXM:GLU solid dispersions showed a negligible charge density (net-CMR: 0.1-0.3nC/g). Spray drying of PXM:GLU solid dispersions can be used to produce formulation powders with practically no charge and thereby improving handling as well as dissolution behaviour of PXM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. In situ Microscopic Observation of Sodium Deposition/Dissolution on Sodium Electrode

    OpenAIRE

    Yuhki Yui; Masahiko Hayashi; Jiro Nakamura

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical sodium deposition/dissolution behaviors in propylene carbonate-based electrolyte solution were observed by means of in situ light microscopy. First, granular sodium was deposited at pits in a sodium electrode in the cathodic process. Then, the sodium particles grew linearly from the electrode surface, becoming needle-like in shape. In the subsequent anodic process, the sodium dissolved near the base of the needles on the sodium electrode and the so-called ?dead sodium? broke a...

  1. Indomethacin nanocrystals prepared by different laboratory scale methods: effect on crystalline form and dissolution behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martena, Valentina; Censi, Roberta [University of Camerino, School of Pharmacy (Italy); Hoti, Ela; Malaj, Ledjan [University of Tirana, Department of Pharmacy (Albania); Di Martino, Piera, E-mail: piera.dimartino@unicam.it [University of Camerino, School of Pharmacy (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    The objective of this study is to select very simple and well-known laboratory scale methods able to reduce particle size of indomethacin until the nanometric scale. The effect on the crystalline form and the dissolution behavior of the different samples was deliberately evaluated in absence of any surfactants as stabilizers. Nanocrystals of indomethacin (native crystals are in the {gamma} form) (IDM) were obtained by three laboratory scale methods: A (Batch A: crystallization by solvent evaporation in a nano-spray dryer), B (Batch B-15 and B-30: wet milling and lyophilization), and C (Batch C-20-N and C-40-N: Cryo-milling in the presence of liquid nitrogen). Nanocrystals obtained by the method A (Batch A) crystallized into a mixture of {alpha} and {gamma} polymorphic forms. IDM obtained by the two other methods remained in the {gamma} form and a different attitude to the crystallinity decrease were observed, with a more considerable decrease in crystalline degree for IDM milled for 40 min in the presence of liquid nitrogen. The intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR) revealed a higher dissolution rate for Batches A and C-40-N, due to the higher IDR of {alpha} form than {gamma} form for the Batch A, and the lower crystallinity degree for both the Batches A and C-40-N. These factors, as well as the decrease in particle size, influenced the IDM dissolution rate from the particle samples. Modifications in the solid physical state that may occur using different particle size reduction treatments have to be taken into consideration during the scale up and industrial development of new solid dosage forms.

  2. Intracellular compartmentalization of skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism and insulin signalling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prats Gavalda, Clara; Gomez-Cabello, Alba; Vigelsø Hansen, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    The interest in skeletal muscle metabolism and insulin signalling has increased exponentially in recent years as a consequence of their role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Despite this, the exact mechanisms involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism...... and insulin signalling transduction remain elusive. We believe that one of the reasons is that the role of intracellular compartmentalization as a regulator of metabolic pathways and signalling transduction has been rather ignored. This paper briefly reviews the literature to discuss the role of intracellular...... compartmentalization in the regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen metabolism and insulin signalling. As a result, a hypothetical regulatory mechanism is proposed by which cells could direct glycogen resynthesis towards different pools of glycogen particles depending on the metabolic needs. Furthermore, we discuss...

  3. Antisolvent precipitation technique: A very promising approach to crystallize curcumin in presence of polyvinyl pyrrolidon for solubility and dissolution enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Ashofteh, Mohammad; Homayouni, Alireza; Abbaspour, Mohammadreza; Nokhodchi, Ali; Garekani, Hadi Afrasiabi

    2016-11-01

    Curcumin with a vast number of pharmacological activities is a poorly water soluble drug which its oral bioavailability is profoundly limited by its dissolution or solubility in GI tract. Curcumin could be a good anticancer drug if its solubility could be increased. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to increase the dissolution rate of curcumin by employing antisolvent crystallization technique and to investigate the effect of polyvinyl pyrrolidone K30 (PVP) as colloidal particles in crystallization medium on resultant particles. Curcumin was crystalized in the presence of different amounts of PVP by antisolvent crystallization method and their physical mixtures were prepared for comparison purposes. The samples were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The solubility and dissolution of the treated and untreated curcumin were also determined. Antisolvent crystallization of curcumin led to the formation of particles with no definite geometric shape. It was interesting to note that the DSC and XRPD studies indicated the formation of a new polymorph and less crystallinity for particles crystallized in the absence of PVP. However, the crystallized curcumin in the presence of PVP was completely amorphous. All crystalized curcumin samples showed much higher dissolution rate compared to untreated curcumin. The amount of curcumin dissolved within 10 for treated curcumin in the presence of PVP (1:1 curcumin:PVP) was 7 times higher than untreated curcumin and this enhancement in the dissolution for curcumin samples crystallized in the absence of PVP was around 5 times. Overall' the results of this study showed that antisolvent crystallization method in the absence or presence of small amounts of PVP is very efficient in increasing the dissolution rate of curcumin to achieve better efficiency for curcumin. Copyright © 2016

  4. MR imaging of intracellular and extracellular deoxyhemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janick, P.A.; Grossman, R.I.; Asakura, T.

    1989-01-01

    MR imaging was performed on varying concentrations of intracellular and extracellular deoxyhemoglobin as well as varying proportions of deoxyhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin in vitro at 1.5T with use of standard spin-echo and gradient-refocused spin sequences. This study indicates that susceptibility-induced T2 shortening occurs over a broad range of intracellular deoxyhemoglobin concentrations (maximal at hematocrits between 20% and 45%), reflecting diffusional effects at the cellular level. T2* gradient-echo imaging enhances the observed hypointensity in images of intracellular deoxyhemoglobin. The characteristic MR appearance of acute hemotomas can be modeled by the behavior of intracellular and extracellular deoxyhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin

  5. The Dissolution of Double Holliday Junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bizard, Anna H; Hickson, Ian D

    2014-01-01

    as "double Holliday junction dissolution." This reaction requires the cooperative action of a so-called "dissolvasome" comprising a Holliday junction branch migration enzyme (Sgs1/BLM RecQ helicase) and a type IA topoisomerase (Top3/TopoIIIα) in complex with its OB (oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding......Double Holliday junctions (dHJS) are important intermediates of homologous recombination. The separate junctions can each be cleaved by DNA structure-selective endonucleases known as Holliday junction resolvases. Alternatively, double Holliday junctions can be processed by a reaction known......) fold containing accessory factor (Rmi1). This review details our current knowledge of the dissolution process and the players involved in catalyzing this mechanistically complex means of completing homologous recombination reactions....

  6. Study of dissolution process and its modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Carlos Beltran-Prieto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of mathematical concepts and language aiming to describe and represent the interactions and dynamics of a system is known as a mathematical model. Mathematical modelling finds a huge number of successful applications in a vast amount of science, social and engineering fields, including biology, chemistry, physics, computer sciences, artificial intelligence, bioengineering, finance, economy and others. In this research, we aim to propose a mathematical model that predicts the dissolution of a solid material immersed in a fluid. The developed model can be used to evaluate the rate of mass transfer and the mass transfer coefficient. Further research is expected to be carried out to use the model as a base to develop useful models for the pharmaceutical industry to gain information about the dissolution of medicaments in the body stream and this could play a key role in formulation of medicaments.

  7. Aggregation, sedimentation, dissolution and bioavailability of ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    To understand their fate and transport in estuarine systems, the aggregation, sedimentation, and dissolution of CdSe quantum dots (QDs) in seawater were investigated. Hydrodynamic size increased from 40 to 60 nm to >1 mm within 1 h in seawater, and the aggregates were highly polydispersed. Their sedimentation rates in seawater were measured to be 4–10 mm/day. Humic acid (HA), further increased their size and polydispersity, and slowed sedimentation. Light increased their dissolution and release of dissolved Cd. The ZnS shell also slowed release of Cd ions. With sufficient light, HA increased the dissolution of QDs, while with low light, HA alone did not change their dissolution. The benthic zone in estuarine systems is the most probable long-term destination of QDs due to aggregation and sedimentation. The bioavailability of was evaluated using the mysid Americamysis bahia. The 7-day LC50s of particulate and dissolved QDs were 290 and 23 μg (total Cd)/L, respectively. For mysids, the acute toxicity appears to be from Cd ions; however, research on the effects of QDs should be conducted with other organisms where QDs may be lodged in critical tissues such as gills or filtering apparatus and Cd ions may be released and delivered directly to those tissues. Because of their increasing use and value to society, cadmium-based quantum dots (QDs) will inevitably find their way into marine systems. In an effort to understand the fate and transport of CdSe QDs in estuar

  8. DISSOLUTION OF ZIRCONIUM AND ALLOYS THEREFOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, J.L.

    1961-07-11

    The dissolution of zirconium cladding in a water solution of ammonium fluoride and ammonium nitrate is described. The method finds particular utility in processing spent fuel elements for nuclear reactors. The zirconium cladding is first dissolved in a water solution of ammonium fluoride and ammonium nitrate; insoluble uranium and plutonium fiuorides formed by attack of the solvent on the fuel materiai of the fuel element are then separated from the solution, and the fuel materiai is dissolved in another solution.

  9. Saltcake Dissolution FY 2000 Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HERTING, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    Laboratory tests were completed on the dissolution characteristics of Hanford saltcake waste from single-shell waste tanks 241-TX- 113, 241-BY-102, 241-BY-106, 241-A-101, and 241-S-102 (henceforth referred to as TX-113, BY-102, BY-106, A-101, and S-102, respectively). This work was funded by the Tanks Focus Area (EM-50) under Technical Task Plan Number RL0-8-WT-41, ''PHMC Pretreatment--Saltcake Dissolution''. The tests performed on saltcake from tank TX-113 were similar in scope to those completed in previous years on waste from tanks BY-102, BY-106, B-106, A-101, and S-102 (Herting 1998, 1999). In addition to the ''standard'' dissolution tests, new types of tests were performed this year related to feed stability and radionuclide distribution. The River Protection Project (RPP) is tasked with retrieving waste from double-shell and single-shell tanks to provide feed for vitrification. The RPP organization needs chemical and physical data to evaluate technologies for retrieving the waste. Little significant laboratory testing has been done to evaluate in-tank dissolution parameters for the various types of saltcake wastes that exist in single-shell tanks. A computer modeling program known as the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP), produced by OLI Systems, Inc of Morris Plains, New Jersey, is being used by the RPP organization to predict solubilities during dilution and retrieval of all tank waste types. Data from this task are provided to ESP users to support evaluation, refinement, and validation of the ESP model

  10. Chemical alteration of cement hydrates by dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiyama, Daisuke; Fujita, Tomonari; Nakanishi, Kiyoshi

    2000-01-01

    Cementitious material is a potential waste packaging and backfilling material for the radioactive waste disposal, and is expected to provide both physical and chemical containment. In particular, the sorption of radionuclides onto cementitious material and the ability to provide a high pH condition are very important parameters when considering the release of radionuclides from radioactive wastes. For the long term, in the geological disposal environment, cement hydrates will be altered by, for example, dissolution, chemical reaction with ions in the groundwater, and hydrothermal reaction. Once the composition or crystallinity of the constituent minerals of a cement hydrate is changed by these processes, the pH of the repository buffered by cementitious material and its sorption ability might be affected. However, the mechanism of cement alteration is not yet fully understood. In this study, leaching experiments of some candidate cements for radioactive waste disposal were carried out. Hydrated Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC), Blast Furnace Slag blended cement (OPC/BFS) and Highly containing Flyash and Silicafume Cement (HFSC) samples were contacted with distilled water at liquid:solid ratios of 10:1, 100:1 and 1000:1 at room temperature for 200 days. In the case of OPC, Ca(OH) 2 dissolved at high liquid:solid ratios. The specific surface area of all cement samples increased by leaching process. This might be caused by further hydration and change of composition of constituent minerals. A model is presented which predicts the leaching of cement hydrates and the mineral composition in the hydrated cement solid phase, including the incongruent dissolution of CSH gel phases and congruent dissolution of Ca(OH) 2 , Ettringite and Hydrotalcite. Experimental results of dissolution of Ca-O-H and Ca-Si-O-H phases were well predicted by this model. (author)

  11. Relationships with former stepgrandparents after remarriage dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanner, Caroline; Coleman, Marilyn; Ganong, Lawrence

    2018-03-01

    Increases in stepfamily formation and longevity suggest that more children have stepgrandparent relationships than ever before. Because remarriages end in divorce more often than first marriages, many children experience the involuntary dissolution of stepgrandparent ties. Little is known about stepgrandparent relationships in general, and even less is known about how these relationships are affected by remarriage dissolution. Guided by symbolic interaction theory, the purpose of this study was to understand how stepgrandchildren make sense of their relationships with former stepgrandparents. We explored their perceptions of why relationships were or were not maintained and the impact of continued or dissolved ties on their personal well-being. Former stepgrandchildren (N = 29) aged 18 to 37 were interviewed about their former stepgrandparents. The quality and continuity of these relationships were contingent on stepgrandchildren's relationships with former stepparents, biological parents' relationships with former stepgrandparents, and efforts by former stepgrandparents to remain involved. Losing ties with former stepgrandparents was upsetting, especially when relationships with biological grandparents were not close. Individuals who maintained relationships with former stepgrandparents benefitted from continued access to valuable resources (e.g., positive role models, additional sources of love and support). Our findings have important implications for clinicians' and researchers' understanding of the effects of remarriage dissolution on children as well as the intergenerational efforts that may be critical for preserving meaningful stepfamily ties. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Dissolution of Marriage According to Canon Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Sulejman Ahmedi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Canon law, dissolution of marriage is not allowed since it was considered sacred and as such cannot break until the two spouses are alive, except only if one of the spouses passes away. But throughout history we find cases when allowed dissolution of the marriage and causes specific conditions set by the church. Thus, according to the Old Testament, if, a man married to a woman, didn’t like something about his wife, should write a request for divorce and allow her to leave his home. Meanwhile according to the New Testament records, divorce is prohibited. Although most Protestants continue to espouse the view that marriage was sacred and as such should not be divorced, from those who had supported the idea of granting the divorce. One of them was Luther, who in his remarks before his preachers said: "In my opinion, the issue of divorce belongs to the law, are not they to whom called for regulation of parental relationships, why not have they the authority to regulate the relations between spouses". Protestant churches allow the dissolution of marriage: a Because of adultery by the wife; allowed by Jesus, b Unjustified abandonment of the marital community; c If there were other reasons: if one spouse refuses to have sexual marriage, if the husband abuses his wife     repeatedly and without cause, severe illness of one spouse.

  13. Anomalous dissolution of metals and chemical corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGUTIN M. DRAZIC

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available An overview is given of the anomalous behavior of some metals, in particular Fe and Cr, in acidic aqueous solutions during anodic dissolution. The anomaly is recognizable by the fact that during anodic dissolutionmore material dissolves than would be expected from the Faraday law with the use of the expected valence of the formed ions. Mechanical disintegration, gas bubble blocking, hydrogen embrittlement, passive layer cracking and other possible reasons for such behavior have been discussed. It was shown, as suggested by Kolotyrkin and coworkers, that the reason can be, also, the chemical reaction in which H2O molecules with the metal form metal ions and gaseous H2 in a potential independent process. It occurs simultaneously with the electrochemical corrosion process, but the electrochemical process controls the corrosion potential. On the example of Cr in acid solution itwas shown that the reason for the anomalous behavior is dominantly chemical dissolution, which is considerably faster than the electrochemical corrosion, and that the increasing temperature favors chemical reaction, while the other possible reasons for the anomalous behavior are of negligible effect. This effect is much smaller in the case of Fe, but exists. The possible role of the chemical dissolution reacton and hydrogen evolution during pitting of steels and Al and stress corrosion cracking or corrosion fatigue are discussed.

  14. Dissolution rate and radiation dosimetry of metal tritides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jow, Hong-Nian; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    1993-01-01

    Metal tritides including titanium tritide (Ti 3 H x ) and erbium tritide (Er 3 H x ) have been used as components of neutron generators. These compounds can be released to the air as aerosols during fabrication, assembling and testing of components or in accidental or fugitive releases. As a result, workers could be exposed to these compounds by inhalation. A joint research project between SNL and ITRI (Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute) was initiated last fall to investigate the solubility of metal tritides, retention and translocation of inhaled particles and internal dosimetry of metal tritides. The current understanding of metal tritides and their radiation dosimetry for internal exposure are very limited. There is no provision in the ICRP-30 for tritium dosimetry in metal tritide form. However, a few papers in the literature suggested that the solubility of metal tritide could be low. The current radiation protection guidelines for metal tritide particles are based on the assumption that the biological behavior is similar to tritiated water which behaves like body fluid with a relative short biological half life (10 days). If the solubility of metal tritide is low, the biological half life of metal tritide particles and the dosimetry of inhalation exposure to these particles could be quite different from tritiated water. This would have major implications in current radiation protection guidelines for metal tritides Including annual limits of intakes and derived air concentrations. The preliminary results of metal tritide dissolution study at ITRI indicate that the solubility of titanium tritide is low. The outlines of the project, the preliminary results and future work will be discussed in presentation

  15. Dissolution kinetics of smectite in geological repository system of TRU waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Tsutomu

    2005-02-01

    Extensive use of cement for encapsulation, mine timbering, and grouting purposes is envisaged in geological repositories of TRU waste. Degradation of cement materials in the repositories can produce a high pH pore fluid initially ranging from pH 13.0 to 13.5. The high pH pore fluids can migrate and react chemically with the host rock and bentonites which were employed to enhance repository's integrity. These chemical reactions can effect the capacity of the rocks and bentonites in retarding the migration of radionuclides. Smectite, main component of bentonite, can lose some of their desirable properties at the early stages of bentonite-cement fluid interaction. This has been a key research issue in performance assessment of TRU waste disposal. In this study, firstly, the factors affected on dissolution rate of smectite and equations describing dissolution rate were reviewed. Secondly, the effect of dissolved silica on the dissolution behavior of Na-montmorillonite was investigated. Bulk sample flow-through dissolution experiments at alkaline condition (pH 13.3) with different dissolved silica concentrations at different temperatures were performed. Titration experiments were also carried out at similar conditions. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) ex situ observations (i.e. on samples from flow-through experiments) was also performed to obtain the dissolution rate. Current results from bulk sample surface titration experiments indicate that dissolved silica has no pronounced effect on the surface titration behavior of Na-montmorillonite at any temperature. However, the trends for the surface titration behavior represent the averaged behavior of all particle sizes (i.e. including colloids) such that within an order of magnitude change cannot be quantified appreciably. Bulk flow-through dissolution experiments coupled with ex situ AFM observations indicate that there is also no effect of dissolved silica with comparatively low concentration of the reacting solution on

  16. Novel ultra-cryo milling and co-grinding technique in liquid nitrogen to produce dissolution-enhanced nanoparticles for poorly water-soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Shohei; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Nakanishi, Yasuo; Danjo, Kazumi

    2012-01-01

    A novel ultra-cryo milling micronization technique for pharmaceutical powders using liquid nitrogen (LN2 milling) was used to grind phenytoin, a poorly water-soluble drug, to improve its dissolution rate. LN2 milling produced particles that were much finer and more uniform in size and shape than particles produced by jet milling. However, the dissolution rate of LN2-milled phenytoin was the same as that of unground phenytoin due to agglomeration of the submicron particles. To overcome this, phenytoin was co-ground with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). The dissolution rate of co-ground phenytoin was much higher than that of original phenytoin, single-ground phenytoin, a physical mixture of phenytoin and PVP, or jet-milled phenytoin. X-Ray diffraction showed that the crystalline state of mixtures co-ground by LN2 milling remained unchanged. The equivalent improvement in dissolution, whether phenytoin was co-ground or separately ground and then mixed with PVP, suggested that even when co-ground, the grinding of PVP and phenytoin occurs essentially independently. Mixing original PVP with ground phenytoin provided a slight improvement in dissolution, indicating that the particle size of PVP is important for improving dissolution. When mixed with ground phenytoin, PVP ground by LN2 milling aided the wettability and dispersion of phenytoin, enhancing utilization of the large surface area of ground phenytoin. Co-grinding phenytoin with other excipients such as Eudragit L100, hypromellose, hypromellose acetate-succinate, microcrystalline cellulose, hydroxypropylcellulose and carboxymethyl cellulose also improved the dissolution profile, indicating an ultra-cryo milling and co-grinding technique in liquid nitrogen has a broad applicability of the dissolution enhancement of phenytoin.

  17. The availability of plutonium and americium in Irish Sea sediments for re-dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, P.; Vives i Batlle, J.; Bousher, A.; Whittall, A.; Chambers, N.

    2001-01-01

    The availability of plutonium and americium, for re-dissolution from offshore sediments into Irish Sea water, has been examined. Sediments collected from the mud-patch near the Cumbrian coast were characterized in terms of spatial location, particle size, partitioning of radionuclides with respect to physico-chemical bonds and availability of actinides for release into seawater. Sequential extraction investigations revealed that plutonium was predominantly associated with strongly bound sesquioxide and organic complex fractions. Americium was associated mainly with the organic complex fraction, but a significant fraction was in carbonate form. Sediment/water re-dissolution experiments with and without stirring were compared to simulate the effect of disturbing bed sediment. After 1 week, neither set of re-dissolution data provided significant trends between dissolved activity and time. Stirred systems appeared to release 2.5 times more plutonium and americium into seawater than unstirred systems. Measured 239,240Pu and 241Am distribution coefficients (K d values) were both typically approximately 10 5 l kg -1 . 241Am K d values are an order of magnitude lower than previously reported for the north-eastern Irish Sea, but similar to western Irish Sea values. Overall, the fractions of plutonium and americium available for re-dissolution from bed sediment are very low at <0.1%, with proportionally more plutonium being released than americium. These findings lend further support for the extrapolation of laboratory-derived information to environmental conditions

  18. Dynamics of intracellular information decoding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuya J; Kamimura, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    A variety of cellular functions are robust even to substantial intrinsic and extrinsic noise in intracellular reactions and the environment that could be strong enough to impair or limit them. In particular, of substantial importance is cellular decision-making in which a cell chooses a fate or behavior on the basis of information conveyed in noisy external signals. For robust decoding, the crucial step is filtering out the noise inevitably added during information transmission. As a minimal and optimal implementation of such an information decoding process, the autocatalytic phosphorylation and autocatalytic dephosphorylation (aPadP) cycle was recently proposed. Here, we analyze the dynamical properties of the aPadP cycle in detail. We describe the dynamical roles of the stationary and short-term responses in determining the efficiency of information decoding and clarify the optimality of the threshold value of the stationary response and its information-theoretical meaning. Furthermore, we investigate the robustness of the aPadP cycle against the receptor inactivation time and intrinsic noise. Finally, we discuss the relationship among information decoding with information-dependent actions, bet-hedging and network modularity

  19. Dynamics of intracellular information decoding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuya J; Kamimura, Atsushi

    2011-10-01

    A variety of cellular functions are robust even to substantial intrinsic and extrinsic noise in intracellular reactions and the environment that could be strong enough to impair or limit them. In particular, of substantial importance is cellular decision-making in which a cell chooses a fate or behavior on the basis of information conveyed in noisy external signals. For robust decoding, the crucial step is filtering out the noise inevitably added during information transmission. As a minimal and optimal implementation of such an information decoding process, the autocatalytic phosphorylation and autocatalytic dephosphorylation (aPadP) cycle was recently proposed. Here, we analyze the dynamical properties of the aPadP cycle in detail. We describe the dynamical roles of the stationary and short-term responses in determining the efficiency of information decoding and clarify the optimality of the threshold value of the stationary response and its information-theoretical meaning. Furthermore, we investigate the robustness of the aPadP cycle against the receptor inactivation time and intrinsic noise. Finally, we discuss the relationship among information decoding with information-dependent actions, bet-hedging and network modularity.

  20. Secretome of obligate intracellular Rickettsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillespie, Joseph J.; Kaur, Simran J.; Rahman, M. Sayeedur; Rennoll-Bankert, Kristen; Sears, Khandra T.; Beier-Sexton, Magda; Azad, Abdu F.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Rickettsia (Alphaproteobacteria, Rickettsiales, Rickettsiaceae) is comprised of obligate intracellular parasites, with virulent species of interest both as causes of emerging infectious diseases and for their potential deployment as bioterrorism agents. Currently, there are no effective commercially available vaccines, with treatment limited primarily to tetracycline antibiotics, although others (e.g. josamycin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, and azithromycin) are also effective. Much of the recent research geared toward understanding mechanisms underlying rickettsial pathogenicity has centered on characterization of secreted proteins that directly engage eukaryotic cells. Herein, we review all aspects of the Rickettsia secretome, including six secretion systems, 19 characterized secretory proteins, and potential moonlighting proteins identified on surfaces of multiple Rickettsia species. Employing bioinformatics and phylogenomics, we present novel structural and functional insight on each secretion system. Unexpectedly, our investigation revealed that the majority of characterized secretory proteins have not been assigned to their cognate secretion pathways. Furthermore, for most secretion pathways, the requisite signal sequences mediating translocation are poorly understood. As a blueprint for all known routes of protein translocation into host cells, this resource will assist research aimed at uniting characterized secreted proteins with their apposite secretion pathways. Furthermore, our work will help in the identification of novel secreted proteins involved in rickettsial ‘life on the inside’. PMID:25168200

  1. HYPERTHERMIA, INTRACELLULAR FREE CALCIUM AND CALCIUM IONOPHORES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STEGE, GJJ; WIERENGA, PK; KAMPINGA, HH; KONINGS, AWT

    1993-01-01

    It is shown that heat-induced increase of intracellular calcium does not correlate with hyperthermic cell killing. Six different cell lines were investigated; in four (EAT, HeLa S3, L5178Y-R and L5178Y-S) heat treatments killing 90% of the cells did not affect the levels of intracellular free

  2. Effect of solvent on in vitro dissolution: Summary of results for uranium, americium, and cobalt aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Hoover, M.D.

    1995-12-01

    The revised 10 CFR Part 20 has adopted the ICRP Publication 30 method for calculating the committed effective dose equivalent from intakes of radionuclides. This dosimetry scheme requires knowledge or assumptions about the chemical form of the radionuclide, its particle size, and its known or assumed solubility. The solubility is classified as being either D (relatively soluble), W, or Y (relatively insoluble), depending on whether the material dissolves over periods of days, weeks, or years. Although Nuclear Regulatory Commission licensees may wish to take advantage of material-specific knowledge in order to adjust annual limits on intake and derived air concentrations, relatively few radioactive materials to which workers and the general population may be exposed have been adequately characterized either in terms of physicochemical form or solubility. Experimental measurement of solubility using some type of in vitro dissolution measurement system is therefore needed. However, there is currently no clear consensus regarding the appropriate design of in vitro dissolution systems, particularly when considering the range of different radionuclides to be studied, and the complexity of the biological mechanisms involved in the retention and clearance of inhaled deposited radioactive particles. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the several solvents on the dissolution of four test aerosols ({sup 57}Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, {sup 241}AmO{sub 2}, ammonium diuranate [ADU], and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) selected to encompass a variety of chemical and biochemical properties in vivo. The results of this study provide some guidance on the usefulness of in vitro dissolution tests for estimating the solubility of unknown radionuclide particles within the context of a simple model such as the class D, W, and Y formulation of ICRP 30.

  3. Production of monodisperse respirable aerosols of 241AmO2 and evaluation of in vitro dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, H.A.; Raabe, O.G.; Peterson, P.K.

    1974-01-01

    A method is described for production of monodisperse (sigma//sub g/ less than 1.2) particles of 241 AmO 2 for use in inhalation experiments with dogs and rodents. The effects of physical and chemical factors on the production of polydisperse aerosols of 241 AmO 2 were studied and evaluated. The best aerosol was achieved when a suspension of americium hydroxide with 2.5 mg Am/ml at pH = 7.3 was aerosolized and passed through two heating columns in succession, the first at 300 0 C and the second at 1050 0 C. The particles were roughly spherical and had densities near 8 gm/cm 3 ; the aerosol AMAD and sigma/sub g/ were about 1.5 μm and 1.7, respectively. Monodisperse particles were separated and collected with the Lovelace Aerosol Particle Separator (LAPS) and subsequently suspended in deionized water with pH adjusted to 10.2 with NH 3 for nebulization to produce monodisperse aerosols for inhalation exposures. Particles collected on filters during inhalation experiments were used for evaluation of in vitro dissolution rates with two systems and various forms of a lung fluid simulant. The important role of phosphate ions in such dissolution systems was demonstrated, suggesting the potential for the equally important role of free phosphate in retarding dissolution of AmO 2 particles in the lung. (U.S.)

  4. Modelling of the UO2 dissolution mechanisms in synthetic groundwater solutions. Dissolution experiments carried out under oxic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cera, E.; Grive, M.; Bruno, J.; Ollila, K.

    2001-02-01

    The analytical data generated during the last three years within the 4th framework program of the European Community at VTT Chemical Technology concerning UO 2 dissolution under oxidising conditions have been modelled in the present work. The modelling work has been addressed to perform a kinetic study of the dissolution data generated by Ollila (1999) under oxidising conditions by using unirradiated uranium dioxide as solid sample. The average of the normalised UO 2 dissolution rates determined by using the initial dissolution data generated in all the experimental tests is (6.06 ± 3.64)* 10 -7 mol m -2 d -1 . This dissolution rate agrees with most of the dissolution rates reported in the literature under similar experimental conditions. The results obtained in this modelling exercise show that the same bicarbonate promoted oxidative dissolution processes operate for uranium dioxide, as a chemical analogue of the spent fuel matrix, independently of the composition of the aqueous solution used. (orig.)

  5. Agglomeration, isolation and dissolution of commercially manufactured silver nanoparticles in aqueous environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elzey, Sherrie; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing use of manufactured nanoparticles ensures these materials will make their way into the environment. Silver nanoparticles in particular, due to use in a wide range of applications, have the potential to get into water systems, e.g., drinking water systems, ground water systems, estuaries, and/or lakes. One important question is what is the chemical and physical state of these nanoparticles in water? Are they present as isolated particles, agglomerates or dissolved ions, as this will dictate their fate and transport. Furthermore, does the chemical and physical state of the nanoparticles change as a function of size or differ from micron-sized particles of similar composition? In this study, an electrospray atomizer coupled to a scanning mobility particle sizer (ES-SMPS) is used to investigate the state of silver nanoparticles in water and aqueous nitric acid environments. Over the range of pH values investigated, 0.5-6.5, silver nanoparticles with a bimodal primary particle size distribution with the most intense peak at 5.0 ± 7.4 nm, as determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM), show distinct size distributions indicating agglomeration between pH 6.5 and 3 and isolated nanoparticles at pH values from 2.5 to 1. At the lowest pH investigated, pH 0.5, there are no peaks detected by the SMPS, indicating complete nanoparticle dissolution. Further analysis of the solution shows dissolved Ag ions at a pH of 0.5. Interestingly, silver nanoparticle dissolution shows size dependent behavior as larger, micron-sized silver particles show no dissolution at this pH. Environmental implications of these results are discussed.

  6. Agglomeration, isolation and dissolution of commercially manufactured silver nanoparticles in aqueous environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzey, Sherrie; Grassian, Vicki H., E-mail: vicki-grassian@uiowa.ed [University of Iowa, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering (United States)

    2010-06-15

    The increasing use of manufactured nanoparticles ensures these materials will make their way into the environment. Silver nanoparticles in particular, due to use in a wide range of applications, have the potential to get into water systems, e.g., drinking water systems, ground water systems, estuaries, and/or lakes. One important question is what is the chemical and physical state of these nanoparticles in water? Are they present as isolated particles, agglomerates or dissolved ions, as this will dictate their fate and transport. Furthermore, does the chemical and physical state of the nanoparticles change as a function of size or differ from micron-sized particles of similar composition? In this study, an electrospray atomizer coupled to a scanning mobility particle sizer (ES-SMPS) is used to investigate the state of silver nanoparticles in water and aqueous nitric acid environments. Over the range of pH values investigated, 0.5-6.5, silver nanoparticles with a bimodal primary particle size distribution with the most intense peak at 5.0 {+-} 7.4 nm, as determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM), show distinct size distributions indicating agglomeration between pH 6.5 and 3 and isolated nanoparticles at pH values from 2.5 to 1. At the lowest pH investigated, pH 0.5, there are no peaks detected by the SMPS, indicating complete nanoparticle dissolution. Further analysis of the solution shows dissolved Ag ions at a pH of 0.5. Interestingly, silver nanoparticle dissolution shows size dependent behavior as larger, micron-sized silver particles show no dissolution at this pH. Environmental implications of these results are discussed.

  7. Intracellular localization of Arabidopsis sulfurtransferases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Michael; Dietrich, Christof; Nowak, Katharina; Sierralta, Walter D; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2004-06-01

    Sulfurtransferases (Str) comprise a group of enzymes widely distributed in archaea, eubacteria, and eukaryota which catalyze the transfer of a sulfur atom from suitable sulfur donors to nucleophilic sulfur acceptors. In all organisms analyzed to date, small gene families encoding Str proteins have been identified. The gene products were localized to different compartments of the cells. Our interest concerns the localization of Str proteins encoded in the nuclear genome of Arabidopsis. Computer-based prediction methods revealed localization in different compartments of the cell for six putative AtStrs. Several methods were used to determine the localization of the AtStr proteins experimentally. For AtStr1, a mitochondrial localization was demonstrated by immunodetection in the proteome of isolated mitochondria resolved by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and subsequent blotting. The respective mature AtStr1 protein was identified by mass spectrometry sequencing. The same result was obtained by transient expression of fusion constructs with the green fluorescent protein in Arabidopsis protoplasts, whereas AtStr2 was exclusively localized to the cytoplasm by this method. Three members of the single-domain AtStr were localized in the chloroplasts as demonstrated by transient expression of green fluorescent protein fusions in protoplasts and stomata, whereas the single-domain AtStr18 was shown to be cytoplasmic. The remarkable subcellular distribution of AtStr15 was additionally analyzed by transmission electron immunomicroscopy using a monospecific antibody against green fluorescent protein, indicating an attachment to the thylakoid membrane. The knowledge of the intracellular localization of the members of this multiprotein family will help elucidate their specific functions in the organism.

  8. Intracellular calcium homeostasis and signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brini, Marisa; Calì, Tito; Ottolini, Denis; Carafoli, Ernesto

    2013-01-01

    Ca(2+) is a universal carrier of biological information: it controls cell life from its origin at fertilization to its end in the process of programmed cell death. Ca(2+) is a conventional diffusible second messenger released inside cells by the interaction of first messengers with plasma membrane receptors. However, it can also penetrate directly into cells to deliver information without the intermediation of first or second messengers. Even more distinctively, Ca(2+) can act as a first messenger, by interacting with a plasma membrane receptor to set in motion intracellular signaling pathways that involve Ca(2+) itself. Perhaps the most distinctive property of the Ca(2+) signal is its ambivalence: while essential to the correct functioning of cells, Ca(2+) becomes an agent that mediates cell distress, or even (toxic) cell death, if its concentration and movements inside cells are not carefully tuned. Ca(2+) is controlled by reversible complexation to specific proteins, which could be pure Ca(2+) buffers, or which, in addition to buffering Ca(2+), also decode its signal to pass it on to targets. The most important actors in the buffering of cell Ca(2+) are proteins that transport it across the plasma membrane and the membrane of the organelles: some have high Ca(2+) affinity and low transport capacity (e.g., Ca(2+) pumps), others have opposite properties (e.g., the Ca(2+) uptake system of mitochondria). Between the initial event of fertilization, and the terminal event of programmed cell death, the Ca(2+) signal regulates the most important activities of the cell, from the expression of genes, to heart and muscle contraction and other motility processes, to diverse metabolic pathways involved in the generation of cell fuels.

  9. Uranothorite solid solutions: From synthesis to dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costin, Dan-Tiberiu

    2012-01-01

    USiO 4 coffinite appears as one of the potential phases formed in the back-end of the alteration of spent fuel, in reducing storage conditions. A study aiming to assess the thermodynamic data associated with coffinite through an approach based on the preparation of Th 1-x U x SiO 4 uranothorite solid solutions was then developed during this work. First, the preparation of uranothorite samples was successfully undertaken in hydrothermal conditions. However, the poly-phased samples systematically formed for x ≥ 0,2 underlined the kinetic hindering linked with the preparation of uranium-enriched samples, including coffinite end-member. Nevertheless, the characterization of the various samples led to confirm the formation of an ideal solid solution and allowed the constitution of a spectroscopic database. The purification of the samples was then performed by the means of different protocols based on physical (dispersion-centrifugation) or chemical (selective dissolution of secondary phases) methods. This latter led to a complete of the impurities (Th 1-y U y O 2 mixed oxide and amorphous silica) through successive washing steps in acid then basic media. Finally, dissolution experiments were undertaken on uranothorite samples (0 ≤ xexp. ≤ 0,5) and allowed pointing out the influence of composition, pH and temperature on the normalized dissolution rate of the compounds. Also, the associated thermodynamic data, such as activation energy, indicate that the reaction is controlled by surface reactions. Once the equilibrium is reached, the analogous solubility constants were determined for each composition studied, then allowing the extrapolation to coffinite value. It was then finally possible to conclude on the inversion of coffinitisation reaction with temperature. (author) [fr

  10. Dissolution of LMFBR fuel-sodium aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.D.; Moss, O.R.

    1979-01-01

    Plutonium dioxide, normally insoluble in biological fluids, becomes much more soluble when mixed with sodium as the aerosol is formed. Sodium-fuel aerosols are approximately 20 times less soluble in simulated lung fluid than in distilled water. Solubility of sodium-fuel aerosols increases when Na 2 CO 3 are added to the distilled-water dissolution fluid. Mixed-oxide fuel aerosols without sodium present are relatively insoluble in distilled water, simulated lung fluid, and distilled water with Na 2 CO 3 and NaHCO 3 added

  11. Dissolution behavior of lithium compounds in ethanol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Furukawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to exchange the components which received irradiation damage during the operation at the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility, the adhered lithium, which is partially converted to lithium compounds such as lithium oxide and lithium hydroxide, should be removed from the components. In this study, the dissolution experiments of lithium compounds (lithium nitride, lithium hydroxide, and lithium oxide were performed in a candidate solvent, allowing the clarification of time and temperature dependence. Based on the results, a cleaning procedure for adhered lithium on the inner surface of the components was proposed.

  12. Simulation of uranium aluminide dissolution in a continuous aluminum dissolver system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, D.R.; Farman, R.F.; Christian, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) which recovers highly-enriched uranium (uranium that contains at least 20 atom percent 235 U) from spent nuclear reactor fuel by dissolution of the fuel elements and extraction of the uranium from the aqueous dissolver product. Because the uranium is highly-enriched, consideration must be given to whether a critical mass can form at any stage of the process. In particular, suspended 235 U-containing particles are of special concern, due to their high density (6.8 g/cm 3 ) and due to the fact that they can settle into geometrically unfavorable configurations when not adequately mixed. A portion of the spent fuel is aluminum-alloy-clad uranium aluminide (UAl 3 ) particles, which dissolve more slowly than the cladding. As the aluminum alloy cladding dissolves in mercury-catalyzed nitric acid, UAl 3 is released. Under standard operating conditions, the UAl 3 dissolves rapidly enough to preclude the possibility of forming a critical mass anywhere in the system. However, postulated worst-case abnormal operating conditions retard uranium aluminide dissolution, and thus require evaluation. To establish safety limits for operating parameters, a computerized simulation model of uranium aluminide dissolution in the aluminum fuel dissolver system was developed

  13. Intracellular disposition of chitosan nanoparticles in macrophages: intracellular uptake, exocytosis, and intercellular transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang LQ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Li Qun Jiang,1 Ting Yu Wang,1 Thomas J Webster,2 Hua-Jian Duan,1 Jing Ying Qiu,1 Zi Ming Zhao,1 Xiao Xing Yin,1,* Chun Li Zheng3,* 1Jiangsu Key Laboratory of New Drug Research and Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Chemical Engineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 3School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Biodegradable nanomaterials have been widely used in numerous medical fields. To further improve such efforts, this study focused on the intracellular disposition of chitosan nanoparticles (CsNPs in macrophages, a primary cell of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS. Such interactions with the MPS determine the nanoparticle retention time in the body and consequently play a significant role in their own clinical safety. In this study, various dye-labeled CsNPs (about 250 nm were prepared, and a murine macrophage cell line (RAW 264.7 was selected as a model macrophage. The results showed two mechanisms of macrophage incorporation of CsNPs, ie, a clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway (the primary and phagocytosis. Following internalization, the particles partly dissociated in the cells, indicating cellular digestion of the nanoparticles. It was proved that, after intracellular uptake, a large proportion of CsNPs were exocytosed within 24 h; this excretion induced a decrease in fluorescence intensity in cells by 69%, with the remaining particles possessing difficulty being cleared. Exocytosis could be inhibited by both wortmannin and vacuolin-1, indicating that CsNP uptake was mediated by lysosomal and multivesicular body pathways, and after exocytosis, the reuptake of CsNPs by neighboring cells was verified by further experiments. This study, thus, elucidated the fate of CsNPs in macrophages as well as identified cellular disposition

  14. The Influence of Pressure on the Intrinsic Dissolution Rate of Amorphous Indomethacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korbinian Löbmann

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available New drug candidates increasingly tend to be poorly water soluble. One approach to increase their solubility is to convert the crystalline form of a drug into the amorphous form. Intrinsic dissolution testing is an efficient standard method to determine the intrinsic dissolution rate (IDR of a drug and to test the potential dissolution advantage of the amorphous form. However, neither the United States Pharmacopeia (USP nor the European Pharmacopeia (Ph.Eur state specific limitations for the compression pressure in order to obtain compacts for the IDR determination. In this study, the influence of different compression pressures on the IDR was determined from powder compacts of amorphous (ball-milling indomethacin (IND, a glass solution of IND and poly(vinylpyrrolidone (PVP and crystalline IND. Solid state properties were analyzed with X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD and the final compacts were visually observed to study the effects of compaction pressure on their surface properties. It was found that there is no significant correlation between IDR and compression pressure for crystalline IND and IND–PVP. This was in line with the observation of similar surface properties of the compacts. However, compression pressure had an impact on the IDR of pure amorphous IND compacts. Above a critical compression pressure, amorphous particles sintered to form a single compact with dissolution properties similar to quench-cooled disc and crystalline IND compacts. In such a case, the apparent dissolution advantage of the amorphous form might be underestimated. It is thus suggested that for a reasonable interpretation of the IDR, surface properties of the different analyzed samples should be investigated and for amorphous samples the IDR should be measured also as a function of the compression pressure used to prepare the solid sample for IDR testing.

  15. Microrheometric upconversion-based techniques for intracellular viscosity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Sevilla, Paloma; Zhang, Yuhai; de Sousa, Nuno; Marqués, Manuel I.; Sanz-Rodríguez, Francisco; Jaque, Daniel; Liu, Xiaogang; Haro-González, Patricia

    2017-08-01

    Rheological parameters (viscosity, creep compliance and elasticity) play an important role in cell function and viability. For this reason different strategies have been developed for their study. In this work, two new microrheometric techniques are presented. Both methods take advantage of the analysis of the polarized emission of an upconverting particle to determine its orientation inside the optical trap. Upconverting particles are optical materials that are able to convert infrared radiation into visible light. Their usefulness has been further boosted by the recent demonstration of their three-dimensional control and tracking by single beam infrared optical traps. In this work it is demonstrated that optical torques are responsible of the stable orientation of the upconverting particle inside the trap. Moreover, numerical calculations and experimental data allowed to use the rotation dynamics of the optically trapped upconverting particle for environmental sensing. In particular, the cytoplasm viscosity could be measured by using the rotation time and thermal fluctuations of an intracellular optically trapped upconverting particle, by means of the two previously mentioned microrheometric techniques.

  16. Use of partial dissolution techniques in geochemical exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, T.T.

    1984-01-01

    Application of partial dissolution techniques to geochemical exploration has advanced from an early empirical approach to an approach based on sound geochemical principles. This advance assures a prominent future position for the use of these techniques in geochemical exploration for concealed mineral deposits. Partial dissolution techniques are classified as single dissolution or sequential multiple dissolution depending on the number of steps taken in the procedure, or as "nonselective" extraction and as "selective" extraction in terms of the relative specificity of the extraction. The choice of dissolution techniques for use in geochemical exploration is dictated by the geology of the area, the type and degree of weathering, and the expected chemical forms of the ore and of the pathfinding elements. Case histories have illustrated many instances where partial dissolution techniques exhibit advantages over conventional methods of chemical analysis used in geochemical exploration. ?? 1984.

  17. Evaluating Nanoparticle Sensor Design for Intracellular pH Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benjaminsen, Rikke Vicki; Sun, Honghao; Henriksen, Jonas Rosager

    2011-01-01

    Particle-based nanosensors have over the last decade been designed for optical fluorescent-based ratiometric measurements of pH in living cells. However, quantitative and time-resolved intracellular measurements of pH in endosomes and lysosomes using particle nanosensors is challenging...... and there is a need to improve measurement methodology. In the present paper, we have successfully carried out time resolved pH measurements in endosomes and lyosomes in living cells using nanoparticle sensors and show the importance of sensor choice for successful quantification. We have studied two nanoparticle...... quantification of pH is an unfortunate result when measuring pH too close to the limit of the sensitive range of the sensors. Triple-labeled nanosensors with a pH measurement range of 3.2-7.0, which was synthesized by adding two pH-sensitive fluorophores with different pKa to each sensor, seem to be a solution...

  18. Single quantum dot tracking reveals the impact of nanoparticle surface on intracellular state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahid, Mohammad U; Ma, Liang; Lim, Sung Jun; Smith, Andrew M

    2018-05-08

    Inefficient delivery of macromolecules and nanoparticles to intracellular targets is a major bottleneck in drug delivery, genetic engineering, and molecular imaging. Here we apply live-cell single-quantum-dot imaging and tracking to analyze and classify nanoparticle states after intracellular delivery. By merging trajectory diffusion parameters with brightness measurements, multidimensional analysis reveals distinct and heterogeneous populations that are indistinguishable using single parameters alone. We derive new quantitative metrics of particle loading, cluster distribution, and vesicular release in single cells, and evaluate intracellular nanoparticles with diverse surfaces following osmotic delivery. Surface properties have a major impact on cell uptake, but little impact on the absolute cytoplasmic numbers. A key outcome is that stable zwitterionic surfaces yield uniform cytosolic behavior, ideal for imaging agents. We anticipate that this combination of quantum dots and single-particle tracking can be widely applied to design and optimize next-generation imaging probes, nanoparticle therapeutics, and biologics.

  19. Surface controlled dissolution rates of gypsum in aqueous solutions exhibit nonlinear dissolution kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Alexander A.; Vosbeck, Katrin; Dreybrodt, Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    The effective dissolution rates of gypsum are determined by mixed kinetics, where the rate constants of dissolution at the surface and the transport constant of molecular diffusion of dissolved material are similar. To obtain the surface reaction rate law it is necessary to know the transport constant. We have determined the surface rate law for monocrystalline selenite by using a rotating disc set-up, where the transport coefficients are well known. As a result, up to a calcium concentration of 0.6 · ceq, we find a nearly linear rate law Rs = ksl (1- cs/ ceq) n1, where cs is the total calcium concentration at the surface and ceq the equilibrium concentration with respect to gypsum, n1 = 1.2 ± 0.2, and ksl = 1.1 · 10 -4 mmol cm -2 s -1 ± 15%. We also employed batch-experiments for selenite, alabaster and gypsum rock samples. The result of these experiments were interpreted by using a transport constant determined by NaCl dissolution experiments under similar physical conditions. The batch experiments reveal a dissolution rate law Rs = ksl (1- cs/ ceq) n1, ksl = 1.3 · 10 -4 mmol · cm -2 s -1, n1 = 1.2 ± 0.2 for c ≤ 0.94 · ceq. Close to equilibrium a nonlinear rate law, Rs = ks2 (1- cs/ ceq) n2, is observed, where ks2 is in the order of 10 mmol · cm -2 s -1 and n2 ≈ 4.5. The experimentally observed gypsum dissolution rates from the batch experiments could be accurately fitted, with only minor variations of the surface reaction constant obtained from the rotating disk experiment and the transport coefficient from the NaCl dissolution batch experiment. Batch experiments on pure synthetic gypsum, reveal a linear rate law up to equilibrium. This indicates inhibition of dissolution in natural samples close to equilibrium, as is known also for calcite minerals.

  20. Enzymatic Dissolution of Biocomposite Solids Consisting of Phosphopeptides to Form Supramolecular Hydrogels

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Junfeng; Yuan, Dan; Haburcak, Richard; Zhang, Qiang; Zhao, Chao; Zhang, Xixiang; Xu, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme-catalyzed dephosphorylation is essential for biomineralization and bone metabolism. Here we report the exploration of using enzymatic reaction to transform biocomposites of phosphopeptides and calcium (or strontium) ions to supramolecular hydrogels as a mimic of enzymatic dissolution of biominerals. 31P NMR shows that strong affinity between the phosphopeptides and alkaline metal ions (e.g., Ca2+ or Sr2+) induces the formation of biocomposites as precipitates. Electron microscopy reveals that the enzymatic reaction regulates the morphological transition from particles to nanofibers. Rheology confirms the formation of a rigid hydrogel. As the first example of enzyme-instructed dissolution of a solid to form supramolecular nanofibers/hydrogels, this work provides an approach to generate soft materials with desired properties, expands the application of supramolecular hydrogelators, and offers insights to control the demineralization of calcified soft tissues.

  1. Enzymatic Dissolution of Biocomposite Solids Consisting of Phosphopeptides to Form Supramolecular Hydrogels

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Junfeng

    2015-10-14

    Enzyme-catalyzed dephosphorylation is essential for biomineralization and bone metabolism. Here we report the exploration of using enzymatic reaction to transform biocomposites of phosphopeptides and calcium (or strontium) ions to supramolecular hydrogels as a mimic of enzymatic dissolution of biominerals. 31P NMR shows that strong affinity between the phosphopeptides and alkaline metal ions (e.g., Ca2+ or Sr2+) induces the formation of biocomposites as precipitates. Electron microscopy reveals that the enzymatic reaction regulates the morphological transition from particles to nanofibers. Rheology confirms the formation of a rigid hydrogel. As the first example of enzyme-instructed dissolution of a solid to form supramolecular nanofibers/hydrogels, this work provides an approach to generate soft materials with desired properties, expands the application of supramolecular hydrogelators, and offers insights to control the demineralization of calcified soft tissues.

  2. Bench Scale Saltcake Dissolution Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BECHTOLD, D.B.; PACQUET, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    A potential scenario for retrieving saltcake from single shell tanks is the ''Rainbird(reg s ign) sprinkler'' method. Water is distributed evenly across the surface of the saltcake and allowed to percolate by gravity through the waste. The salt dissolves in the water, forming a saturated solution. The saturated liquid is removed by a saltwell pump situated near the bottom of the tank. By this method, there is never a large inventory of liquid in the tank that could pose a threat of leakage. There are many variables or factors that can influence the hydrodynamics of this retrieval process. They include saltcake porosity; saltwell pumping rate; salt dissolution chemistry; factors that could promote flow channeling (e.g. tank walls, dry wells, inclusions or discontinuities in the saltcake); method of water distribution; plug formation due to crystal formations or accumulation of insoluble solids. A brief literature search indicates that very little experimental data exist on these aspects of saltcake dissolution (Wiersma 1996, 1997). The tests reported here were planned (Herting, 2000) to provide preliminary data and information for planning future, scaled-up tests of the sprinkler method

  3. A Study on the Anodic Dissolution of Aluminum(II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, C. W.; Park, C. S.; Park, C. S.

    1978-01-01

    In many cases oxide films formed on metals in atmosphere or aqueous solution are chemically inactive, especially it is the case with aluminum. In this study, anodic dissolution of aluminum was done using various electrolyte and cathode, mechanism of which was examined. As a consequence, oxide film on aluminum surface was dissolved together with the dissolution reaction of metal by the anodic current. It was shown that the dissolution reaction due to the contact between electrolyte and metal happened in the same time

  4. Dissolution Model Development: Formulation Effects and Filter Complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthelsen, Ragna; Holm, Rene; Jacobsen, Jette

    2016-01-01

    This study describes various complications related to sample preparation (filtration) during development of a dissolution method intended to discriminate among different fenofibrate immediate-release formulations. Several dissolution apparatus and sample preparation techniques were tested. The fl....... With the tested drug–formulation combination, the best in vivo–in vitro correlation was found after filtration of the dissolution samples through 0.45-μm hydrophobic PTFE membrane filters....

  5. Reactive Transport at the Pore Scale with Applications to the Dissolution of Carbonate Rocks for CO2 Sequestration Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boek, E.; Gray, F.; Welch, N.; Shah, S.; Crawshaw, J.

    2014-12-01

    In CO2 sequestration operations, CO2 injected into a brine aquifer dissolves in the liquid to create an acidic solution. This may result in dissolution of the mineral grains in the porous medium. Experimentally, it is hard to investigate this process at the pore scale. Therefore we develop a new hybrid particle simulation algorithm to study the dissolution of solid objects in a laminar flow field, as encountered in porous media flow situations. First, we calculate the flow field using a multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann (LB) algorithm implemented on GPUs, which demonstrates a very efficient use of the GPU device and a considerable performance increase over CPU calculations. Second, using a stochastic particle approach, we solve the advection-diffusion equation for a single reactive species and dissolve solid voxels according to our reaction model. To validate our simulation, we first calculate the dissolution of a solid sphere as a function of time under quiescent conditions. We compare with the analytical solution for this problem [1] and find good agreement. Then we consider the dissolution of a solid sphere in a laminar flow field and observe a significant change in the sphericity with time due to the coupled dissolution - flow process. Second, we calculate the dissolution of a cylinder in channel flow in direct comparison with corresponding dissolution experiments. We discuss the evolution of the shape and dissolution rate. Finally, we calculate the dissolution of carbonate rock samples at the pore scale in direct comparison with micro-CT experiments. This work builds on our recent research on calculation of multi-phase flow [2], [3] and hydrodynamic dispersion and molecular propagator distributions for solute transport in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media using LB simulations [4]. It turns out that the hybrid simulation model is a suitable tool to study reactive flow processes at the pore scale. This is of great importance for CO2 storage and

  6. Dissolution behavior of PFBR MOX fuel in nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelkar, Anoop; Kapoor, Y.S.; Singh, Mamta; Meena, D.L.; Pandey, Ashish; Bhatt, R.B.; Behere, P.G.

    2017-01-01

    Present paper describes the dissolution characteristics of PFBR MOX fuel (U,Pu)O 2 in nitric acid. An overview of batch dissolution experiments, studying the percentage dissolution of uranium and plutonium in (U, Pu)O 2 MOX sintered pellets with different percentage of PuO 2 with reference to time and nitric acid concentration are described. 90% of uranium and plutonium of PFBR MOX gets dissolves in 2 hrs and amount of residue increases with the decrease in nitric acid concentration. Overall variation in percentage residue in PFBR MOX fuel after dissolution test also described. (author)

  7. Frogging It: A poetic Analysis of Relationship Dissolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra L. Faulkner

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Often, themes in work and life intertwine; the author recognized that a cadre of poems she had written during the past several years were about relationship dissolution. The poems concerned romantic and friendship dissolution and the aspects of identity creation and loss this entails. The author presents the poems and makes an explicit connection to interpersonal relationship dissolution literature through the technique of poetic analysis. This analysis serves as an exemplar for how poetry as performative writing offers a valuable addition to interpersonal communication research through the poeticizing of relational dissolution as an everyday relational challenge.

  8. Dissolution studies with pilot plant and actual INTEC calcines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, R.S.; Garn, T.G.

    1999-01-01

    The dissolution of Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) pilot plant calcines was examined to determine solubility of calcine matrix components in acidic media. Two representatives pilot plant calcine types were studied: Zirconia calcine and Zirconia/Sodium calcine. Dissolution of these calcines was evaluated using lower initial concentrations of nitric acid than used in previous tests to decrease the [H+] concentration in the final solutions. Lower [H+] concentrations contribute to more favorable TRUEX/SREX solvent extraction flowsheet performance. Dissolution and analytical results were also obtained for radioactive calcines produced using high sodium feeds blended with non-radioactive Al(NO 3 ) 3 solutions to dilute the sodium concentration and prevent bed agglomeration during the calcination process. Dissolution tests indicated >95 wt.% of the initial calcine mass can be dissolved using the baseline dissolution procedure, with the exception that higher initial nitric acid concentrations are required. The higher initial acid concentration is required for stoichiometric dissolution of the oxides, primarily aluminum oxide. Statistically designed experiments using pilot plant calcine were performed to determine the effect of mixing rate on dissolution efficiency. Mixing rate was determined to provide minimal effects on wt.% dissolution. The acid/calcine ratio and temperature were the predominate variables affecting the wt.% dissolution, a result consistent with previous studies using other similar types of pilot plant calcines

  9. Do Workplace Sex Ratios Affect Partnership Formation and Dissolution?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svarer, Michael

    In this paper, I analyse the association between workplace sex ratios and partnership formation and dissolution. I find that the risk of dissolution increases with the fraction of coworkers of the opposite sex at both the female and male workplace. On the other hand, workplace sex ratios are not ......In this paper, I analyse the association between workplace sex ratios and partnership formation and dissolution. I find that the risk of dissolution increases with the fraction of coworkers of the opposite sex at both the female and male workplace. On the other hand, workplace sex ratios...

  10. Effect of alteration phase formation on the glass dissolution rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, W.L.

    1997-01-01

    The dissolution rates of many glasses have been observed to increase upon the formation of certain alteration phases. While simulations have predicted the accelerating effect of formation of certain phases, the phases predicted to form in computer simulations are usually different than those observed to form in experiments. This is because kinetically favored phases form first in experiments, while simulations predict the thermodynamically favored phases. Static dissolution tests with crushed glass have been used to measure the glass dissolution rate after alteration phases form. Because glass dissolution rates are calculated on a per area basis, an important effect in tests conducted with crushed glass is the decrease in the surface area of glass that is available for reaction as the glass dissolves. This loss of surface area must be taken into account when calculating the dissolution rate. The phases that form and their effect on the dissolution rate are probably related to the glass composition. The impact of phase formation on the glass dissolution rate also varies according to the solubility products of the alteration phases and how the orthocilicic acid activity is affected. Insight into the relationship between the glass dissolution rate, solution chemistry and alteration phase formation is provided by the results of accelerated dissolution tests

  11. Importance of surface structure on dissolution of fluorite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godinho, Jose; Piazolo, Sandra; Balic Zunic, Tonci

    2014-01-01

    forming the initial surface and its inclination to the closest stable planes, which are specific for each surface orientation. During an initial dissolution regime dissolution rates decrease significantly, even though the total surface area increases. During a second dissolution regime, some surfaces...... by the relative stability of the planes and type of edges that constitute a surface needs to be considered. Significant differences between dissolution rates calculated based on surface area alone, and based on surface reactivity are expected for materials with the fluorite structure....

  12. Effect of alteration phase formation on the glass dissolution rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W L [Argonne National Laboratory, Chemical Technology Div. (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The dissolution rates of many glasses have been observed to increase upon the formation of certain alteration phases. While simulations have predicted the accelerating effect of formation of certain phases, the phases predicted to form in computer simulations are usually different than those observed to form in experiments. This is because kinetically favored phases form first in experiments, while simulations predict the thermodynamically favored phases. Static dissolution tests with crushed glass have been used to measure the glass dissolution rate after alteration phases form. Because glass dissolution rates are calculated on a per area basis, an important effect in tests conducted with crushed glass is the decrease in the surface area of glass that is available for reaction as the glass dissolves. This loss of surface area must be taken into account when calculating the dissolution rate. The phases that form and their effect on the dissolution rate are probably related to the glass composition. The impact of phase formation on the glass dissolution rate also varies according to the solubility products of the alteration phases and how the orthocilicic acid activity is affected. Insight into the relationship between the glass dissolution rate, solution chemistry and alteration phase formation is provided by the results of accelerated dissolution tests.

  13. Mathematical methods for quantification and comparison of dissolution testing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranić, Edina; Mehmedagić, Aida; Hadzović, Sabira

    2002-12-01

    In recent years, drug release/dissolution from solid dosage forms has been the subject of intense and profitable scientific developments. Whenever a new solid dosage form is developed or produced, it is necessary to ensure that drug dissolution occurs in an appropriate manner. The pharmaceutical industry and the registration authorities do focus, nowadays, on drug dissolution studies. The quantitative analysis of the values obtained in dissolution/release tests is easier when mathematical formulas that express the dissolution results as a function of some of the dosage forms characteristics are used. This work discusses the analysis of data obtained for dissolution profiles under different media pH conditions using mathematical methods of analysis described by Moore and Flanner. These authors have described difference factor (f1) and similarity factor (f2), which can be used to characterise drug dissolution/release profiles. In this work we have used these formulas for evaluation of dissolution profiles of the conventional tablets in different pH of dissolution medium (range of physiological variations).

  14. Nanoparticles for intracellular-targeted drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulo, Cristiana S O; Pires das Neves, Ricardo; Ferreira, Lino S

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are very promising for the intracellular delivery of anticancer and immunomodulatory drugs, stem cell differentiation biomolecules and cell activity modulators. Although initial studies in the area of intracellular drug delivery have been performed in the delivery of DNA, there is an increasing interest in the use of other molecules to modulate cell activity. Herein, we review the latest advances in the intracellular-targeted delivery of short interference RNA, proteins and small molecules using NPs. In most cases, the drugs act at different cellular organelles and therefore the drug-containing NPs should be directed to precise locations within the cell. This will lead to the desired magnitude and duration of the drug effects. The spatial control in the intracellular delivery might open new avenues to modulate cell activity while avoiding side-effects.

  15. Biological synthesis and characterization of intracellular gold ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    thods of reduction of metal ions using plants or microorganisms are often ... have several advantages over bacteria, they are often pre- ferred. ... in static condition for a period of 7 days. ... work was focused on the production of intracellular gold.

  16. Mycobacterium intracellulare Infection Mimicking Progression of Scleroderma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, Simon; Engelhart, Merete; Thybo, Sören

    2017-01-01

    This case report describes a patient with scleroderma who developed Mycobacterium intracellulare infection, which for more than a year mimicked worsening of her connective tissue disorder. The patient was diagnosed with scleroderma based on puffy fingers that developed into sclerodactyly, abnormal......, unfortunately with significant scarring. Immunodeficiency testing was unremarkable. In summary, an infection with Mycobacterium intracellulare was mistaken for an unusually severe progression of scleroderma....

  17. Geoengineering impact of open ocean dissolution of olivine on atmospheric CO2, surface ocean pH and marine biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Köhler, Peter; Abrams, Jesse F; Völker, Christoph; Hauck, Judith; Wolf-Gladrow, Dieter A

    2013-01-01

    Ongoing global warming induced by anthropogenic emissions has opened the debate as to whether geoengineering is a ‘quick fix’ option. Here we analyse the intended and unintended effects of one specific geoengineering approach, which is enhanced weathering via the open ocean dissolution of the silicate-containing mineral olivine. This approach would not only reduce atmospheric CO 2 and oppose surface ocean acidification, but would also impact on marine biology. If dissolved in the surface ocean, olivine sequesters 0.28 g carbon per g of olivine dissolved, similar to land-based enhanced weathering. Silicic acid input, a byproduct of the olivine dissolution, alters marine biology because silicate is in certain areas the limiting nutrient for diatoms. As a consequence, our model predicts a shift in phytoplankton species composition towards diatoms, altering the biological carbon pumps. Enhanced olivine dissolution, both on land and in the ocean, therefore needs to be considered as ocean fertilization. From dissolution kinetics we calculate that only olivine particles with a grain size of the order of 1 μm sink slowly enough to enable a nearly complete dissolution. The energy consumption for grinding to this small size might reduce the carbon sequestration efficiency by ∼30%. (letter)

  18. Ursodeoxycholic acid impairs atherogenesis and promotes plaque regression by cholesterol crystal dissolution in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bode, Niklas; Grebe, Alena; Kerksiek, Anja; Lütjohann, Dieter; Werner, Nikos; Nickenig, Georg; Latz, Eicke; Zimmer, Sebastian

    2016-09-09

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease driven primarily by a continuous retention of cholesterol within the subendothelial space where it precipitates to form cholesterol crystals (CC). These CC trigger a complex inflammatory response through activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and promote lesion development. Here we examined whether increasing cholesterol solubility with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) affects vascular CC formation and ultimately atherosclerotic lesion development. UDCA mediated intracellular CC dissolution in macrophages and reduced IL-1β production. In ApoE(-/-) mice, UDCA treatment not only impaired atherosclerotic plaque development but also mediated regression of established vascular lesions. Importantly, mice treated with UDCA had decreased CC-depositions in atherosclerotic plaques compared to controls. Together, our data demonstrate that UDCA impaired CC and NLRP3 dependent inflammation by increasing cholesterol solubility and diminished atherosclerosis in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Redox-mediated dissolution of paramagnetic nanolids to achieve a smart theranostic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Aifei; Guo, Mingyi; Wang, Nan; Zhao, Jianyun; Qi, Wenxiu; Muhammad, Faheem; Chen, Liang; Guo, Yingjie; Nguyen, Nam-Trung; Zhu, Guangshan

    2014-04-01

    Manganese oxide (Mn3O4) nanoparticles have recently emerged as a promising T1 contrast agent. In this study, for the first time, we demonstrated an interaction of Mn3O4 with a biological system, and found redox sensitive behavior of these paramagnetic nanoparticles in intracellular reducing environment. Inspired by these findings, we for the first time used this interaction for some therapeutic advantages and designed a versatile mesoporous silica based nanotheranostic system to realize redox-activated enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and responsive anticancer drug delivery. Contrary to previous reports, we firstly prepared high quality amine terminated hydrophilic Mn3O4 nanolids, without using multistep ligand exchange strategies. The resulting water stable and small-sized Mn3O4 nanolids were subsequently used as nanolids to cap drug loaded nanochannels of a porous carrier. Exposure to highly prevalent intracellular reducing environment resulted in the steady-state dissolution of these nanolids and attained an intelligent drug release. Furthermore, the redox receptive dissolution of paramagnetic Mn3O4 nanolids into Mn2+ in turn increases the T1 signal to twofold, providing an added opportunity to even track the feedback of therapy. This study, in addition to simultaneously realizing drug delivery and imaging, also provides a new insight into the fate and interaction of manganese oxide nanoparticles with components of biological systems.Manganese oxide (Mn3O4) nanoparticles have recently emerged as a promising T1 contrast agent. In this study, for the first time, we demonstrated an interaction of Mn3O4 with a biological system, and found redox sensitive behavior of these paramagnetic nanoparticles in intracellular reducing environment. Inspired by these findings, we for the first time used this interaction for some therapeutic advantages and designed a versatile mesoporous silica based nanotheranostic system to realize redox-activated enhanced magnetic resonance

  20. Dissolution of metallic uranium and its alloys. Part 1. Review of analytical and process-scale metallic uranium dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laue, C.A.; Gates-Anderson, D.; Fitch, T.E.

    2004-01-01

    This review focuses on dissolution/reaction systems capable of treating uranium metal waste to remove its pyrophoric properties. The primary emphasis is the review of literature describing analytical and production-scale dissolution methods applied to either uranium metal or uranium alloys. A brief summary of uranium's corrosion behavior is included since the corrosion resistance of metals and alloys affects their dissolution behavior. Based on this review, dissolution systems were recommended for subsequent screening studies designed to identify the best system to treat depleted uranium metal wastes at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). (author)

  1. Dissolution and compaction instabilities in geomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanou, I.; Sulem, J.; de Sauvage, J.

    2014-12-01

    Compaction bands play an important role in reservoir engineering and geological storage. Their presence in geological formations may also provide useful information on various geological processes. Several mechanisms can be involved at different scales and may be responsible for compaction band instabilities [1]. Compaction bands can be seen as a particular instability of the governing mathematical system leading to localization of deformation [2-4]. In a saturated porous rock, the progressive mechanical damage of the solid skeleton during compaction, results in the increase of the interface area of the reactants and consequently in the acceleration of the dissolution rate of the solid phase [2,5]. Thus, the solid skeleton is degraded more rapidly (mass removal because of dissolution), the overall mechanical properties of the system diminish (contraction of the elastic domain - chemical softening), deformations increase and the solid skeleton is further damaged (intergranular fractures, debonding, breakage of the porous network etc.). The stability of this positive feedback process is investigated analytically through linear stability analysis by considering the strong chemo-poro-mechanical coupling due to chemical dissolution. The post bifurcation behavior is then studied analytically and numerically revealing the compaction band thickness and periodicity. The effect of various parameters is studied as for instance the influence of the hydraulic diffusivity on the compaction band thickness. [1] P. Baud, S. Vinciguerra, C. David, A. Cavallo, E. Walker and T. Reuschlé (2009), Pure Appl. Geophys., 166(5-7), 869-898 [2] I. Stefanou and J. Sulem (2014), JGR: Solid Earth, 119(2), 880-899. doi:10.1002/2013JB010342I [3] J.W. Rudnicki and J.R. Rice (1975), Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 23(6),: 371-394 [4] K.A. Issen and J.W. Rudnicki (2000), JGR, 105(B9), 21529. doi:10.1029/2000JB900185 [5] R. Nova, R. Castellanza and C. Tamagnini (2003), International

  2. K Basin sludge dissolution engineering study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westra, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this engineering study is to investigate the available technology related to dissolution of the K Basin sludge in nitric acid. The conclusion of this study along with laboratory and hot cell tests with actual sludge samples will provide the basis for beginning conceptual design of the sludge dissolver. The K Basin sludge contains uranium oxides, fragments of metallic U, and some U hydride as well as ferric oxyhydroxide, aluminum oxides and hydroxides, windblown sand that infiltrated the basin enclosure, ion exchange resin, and miscellaneous materials. The decision has been made to dispose of this sludge separate from the fuel elements stored in the basins. The sludge will be conditioned so that it meets Tank Waste Remediation System waste acceptance criteria and can be sent to one of the underground storage tanks. Sludge conditioning will be done by dissolving the fuel constituents in nitric acid, separating the insoluble material, adding neutron absorbers for criticality safety, and then reacting the solution with caustic to co-precipitate the uranium and plutonium. There will be five distinct feed streams to the sludge conditioning process two from the K East (KE) Basin and three from the K West (KW) Basin. The composition of the floor and pit sludges which contain more iron oxides and sand than uranium is much different than the canister sludges which are composed of mostly uranium oxides. The sludge conditioning equipment will be designed to process all of the sludge streams, but some of the operating parameters will be adjusted as necessary to handle the different sludge stream compositions. The volume of chemical additions and the amount of undissolved solids will be much different for floor and pit sludge than for canister sludge. Dissolution of uranium metal and uranium dioxide has been studied quite thoroughly and much information is available. Both uranium metal and uranium dioxide have been dissolved on a large scale in nuclear fuel

  3. Growth and dissolution of spherical density enhancements in SCDEW cosmologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonometto, Silvio A. [INAF, Trieste Observatory and Trieste University, Physics Dep., Astronomy Unit, Via Tiepolo 11, 34143 Trieste (Italy); Mainini, Roberto, E-mail: bonometto@oats.inaf.it, E-mail: roberto.mainini@mib.infn.it [Physics Department ' G. Occhialini' , Milano-Bicocca University, Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126 Milano (Italy)

    2017-06-01

    Strongly Coupled Dark Energy plus Warm dark matter (SCDEW) cosmologies are based on the finding of a conformally invariant (CI) attractor solution during the early radiative expansion, requiring then the stationary presence of ∼ 1 % of coupled-DM and DE, since inflationary reheating. In these models, coupled-DM fluctuations, even in the early radiative expansion, grow up to non-linearity, as shown in a previous associated paper. Such early non-linear stages are modelized here through the evolution of a top-hat density enhancement. As expected, its radius R increases up to a maximum and then starts to decrease. Virial balance is reached when the coupled-DM density contrast is just 25–26 and DM density enhancement is O(10 %) of total density. Moreover, we find that this is not an equilibrium configuration as, afterwards, coupling causes DM particle velocities to increase, so that the fluctuation gradually dissolves. We estimate the duration of the whole process, from horizon crossing to dissolution, and find z {sub horizon}/ z {sub erasing} ∼ 3 × 10{sup 4}. Therefore, only fluctuations entering the horizon at z ∼< 10{sup 9}–10{sup 10} are able to accrete WDM with mass ∼ 100 eV—as soon as it becomes non-relativistic—so avoiding full disruption. Accordingly, SCDEW cosmologies, whose WDM has mass ∼ 100 eV, can preserve primeval fluctuations down to stellar mass scale.

  4. Intracellular distribution of 57Bleomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konings, A.W.T.; Rasker, J.J.; Posthuma, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    Since the first promising results of Nouel et al. 1972, additional positive experience has been obtained with 57 Co-Bleomycin ( 57 Co-BLM) as a tumour-localizing agent. In this preclinical study, mice with transplanted osteosarcoma and lymphosarcoma were used and rats with transplanted rhabdomyosarcoma. 57 CoCl 2 served as a control substance. 57 Co-BLM had concentrated in the tumours with a factor 2 to 10 as compared to the (normal) liver of the animals. No preferential concentration in the tumours was found when 57 CoCl 2 was used. The highest specific activity of 57 Co-BLM (cpm/mg protein) was found in a fraction containing mitochondria and lysosomes. Evidence for a lysosomal localization of this diagnostic compound was obtained from experiments in which the mitochondrial-lysosomal fraction was treated with hypertonic media of different osmolarities. Conditions could be found in which many lysosomes burst while almost all mitochondria were intact. From these experiments it appeared that the radioactivity in the particles obtained from animals injected with 57 Co-BLM was released very rapidly. (Auth.)

  5. Handbook of divorce and relationship dissolution

    CERN Document Server

    Fine, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    This Handbook presents up-to-date scholarship on the causes and predictors, processes, and consequences of divorce and relationship dissolution. Featuring contributions from multiple disciplines, this Handbook reviews relationship termination, including variations depending on legal status, race/ethnicity, and sexual orientation. The Handbook focuses on the often-neglected processes involved as the relationship unfolds, such as infidelity, hurt, and remarriage. It also covers the legal and policy aspects, the demographics, and the historical aspects of divorce. Intended for researchers, practitioners, counselors, clinicians, and advanced students in psychology, sociology, family studies, communication, and nursing, the book serves as a text in courses on divorce, marriage and the family, and close relationships.

  6. Stratigraphy and dissolution of the Rustler Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bachman, G.O.

    1985-01-01

    The Rustler Formation is the uppermost evaporite-bearing unit in the Permian Ochoan series in southeastern New Mexico. It rests on the Salado Formation which includes the salt beds where the mined facility for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is being constructed. An understanding of the physical stratigraphy of the Rustler Formation is pertinent to studies of the WIPP site because some portions of the Rustler are water-bearing and may provide paths for circulating waters to come into contact with, and dissolve, evaporites within the Ochoan sequence. Knowledge of the processes, magnitude, and history of evaporite dissolution in the vicinity of the WIPP site is important to an evaluation of the integrity of the site. 2 refs., 2 figs

  7. Uranium Metal Analysis via Selective Dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Chenault, Jeffrey W.

    2008-09-10

    Uranium metal, which is present in sludge held in the Hanford Site K West Basin, can create hazardous hydrogen atmospheres during sludge handling, immobilization, or subsequent transport and storage operations by its oxidation/corrosion in water. A thorough knowledge of the uranium metal concentration in sludge therefore is essential to successful sludge management and waste process design. The goal of this work was to establish a rapid routine analytical method to determine uranium metal concentrations as low as 0.03 wt% in sludge even in the presence of up to 1000-fold higher total uranium concentrations (i.e., up to 30 wt% and more uranium) for samples to be taken during the upcoming sludge characterization campaign and in future analyses for sludge handling and processing. This report describes the experiments and results obtained in developing the selective dissolution technique to determine uranium metal concentration in K Basin sludge.

  8. Fast intracellular dissolution and persistent cellular uptake of silver nanoparticles in CHO-K1 cells: implication for cytotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Xiumei; Miclaus, Teodora; Wang, Liming

    2015-01-01

    . Subsequent cytotoxicity studies show that Ag NPs decrease cell viability and increase ROS production. Pre-incubation with N-acetyl-l-cysteine, an efficient antioxidant and Ag+ chelator, diminished the cytotoxicity caused by Ag NPs or Ag+ exposure. Our study suggests that the cytotoxicity mechanism of Ag NPs...

  9. Mixed Micelle System Produced by Interaction Between Transglycosylated Stevia and an Ionic Surfactant Improves Dissolution Profile of Mefenamic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Miki; Kadota, Kazunori; Tozuka, Yuichi

    2017-04-01

    Transglycosylated stevia (stevia-G) can effectively improve the dissolution and bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs. Furthermore, addition of an ionic surfactant to stevia-G solution has been shown to enhance the dissolution effect of stevia-G on flurbiprofen. Herein, 4 surfactants, namely sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium N-dodecanoylsarcosinate, sodium monododecyl phosphate, and lauryltrimethylammonium chloride (LTAC) were screened to investigate their synergistic effect with stevia-G in enhancing the solubility of mefenamic acid (MFA). The ternary formulation containing LTAC produced the highest increase in solubility, whereas the binary MFA/LTAC formulation did not increase the solubility of MFA. Surface tension was evaluated to analyze the interaction between stevia-G and each ionic surfactant, wherein the Rubingh model was applied to predict mixed micelle formation between stevia-G and LTAC. Interaction parameters calculated by the Rubingh model reflected mixed micelle formation between stevia-G and LTAC relative to the self-interactions of the 2 individual surfactants. All interaction parameters in this system showed negative values, indicating a favorable interaction (e.g., hydrogen bond or electrostatic and dipole) between binary components in the mixed micelles. Spray-dried particles of ternary formulations (MFA/stevia-G/LTAC) were prepared to evaluate the dissolution profile and physicochemical properties. Dissolution profiling showed that the concentration of MFA released from spray-dried particles was significantly higher than untreated MFA. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reactivity of Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron in Unbuffered Systems: Effect of pH and Fe(II) Dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Sungjun; Hanna, Khalil

    2015-09-01

    While most published studies used buffers to maintain the pH, there is limited knowledge regarding the reactivity of nanoscale zerovalent iron (NZVI) in poorly buffered pH systems to date. In this work, the effect of pH and Fe(II) dissolution on the reactivity of NZVI was investigated during the reduction of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) in unbuffered pH systems. The reduction rate increased exponentially with respect to the NZVI concentration, and the ratio of dissolved Fe(II)/initial NZVI was related proportionally to the initial pH values, suggesting that lower pH (6-7) with low NZVI loading may slow the 4-NP reduction through acceleration of the dissolution of NZVI particles. Additional experiments using buffered pH systems confirmed that high pH values (8-9) can preserve the NZVI particles against dissolution, thereby enhancing the reduction kinetics of 4-NP. Furthermore, reduction tests using ferrous ion in suspensions of magnetite and maghemite showed that surface-bound Fe(II) on oxide coatings can play an important role in enhancing 4-NP reduction by NZVI at pH 8. These unexpected results highlight the importance of pH and Fe(II) dissolution when NZVI technology is applied to poorly buffered systems, particularly at a low amount of NZVI (i.e., <0.075 g/L).

  11. Accelerated dissolution testing for controlled release microspheres using the flow-through dissolution apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Jarrod W; Thakare, Mohan; Garner, Solomon T; Israel, Bridg'ette; Ahmed, Hisham; Granade, Saundra; Strong, Deborah L; Price, James C; Capomacchia, A C

    2009-01-01

    Theophylline controlled release capsules (THEO-24 CR) were used as a model system to evaluate accelerated dissolution tests for process and quality control and formulation development of controlled release formulations. Dissolution test acceleration was provided by increasing temperature, pH, flow rate, or adding surfactant. Electron microscope studies on the theophylline microspheres subsequent to each experiment showed that at pH values of 6.6 and 7.6 the microspheres remained intact, but at pH 8.6 they showed deterioration. As temperature was increased from 37-57 degrees C, no change in microsphere integrity was noted. Increased flow rate also showed no detrimental effect on integrity. The effect of increased temperature was determined to be the statistically significant variable.

  12. Overview of chemical modeling of nuclear waste glass dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourcier, W.L.

    1991-02-01

    Glass dissolution takes place through metal leaching and hydration of the glass surface accompanied by development of alternation layers of varying crystallinity. The reaction which controls the long-term glass dissolution rate appears to be surface layer dissolution. This reaction is reversible because the buildup of dissolved species in solution slows the dissolution rate due to a decreased dissolution affinity. Glass dissolution rates are therefore highly dependent on silica concentrations in solution because silica is the major component of the alteration layer. Chemical modeling of glass dissolution using reaction path computer codes has successfully been applied to short term experimental tests and used to predict long-term repository performance. Current problems and limitations of the models include a poorly defined long-term glass dissolution mechanism, the use of model parameters determined from the same experiments that the model is used to predict, and the lack of sufficient validation of key assumptions in the modeling approach. Work is in progress that addresses these issues. 41 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Frogging It: A Poetic Analysis of Relationship Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Often, themes in work and life intertwine; the author recognized that a cadre of poems she had written during the past several years were about relationship dissolution. The poems concerned romantic and friendship dissolution and the aspects of identity creation and loss this entails. The author presents the poems and makes an explicit connection…

  14. Hydro-chemo-mechanical coupling in sediments: Localized mineral dissolution

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Minsu; Santamarina, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Mineral dissolution is inherently a chemo-hydro-mechanical coupled process. Field evidence and laboratory results show that dissolution may localize and form open conduits in cohesive media such as carbonate rocks. This study focuses on the evolution of localized dissolution in soils (i.e., frictional and non-cohesive granular materials) under effective confining stresses. Experimental results show the development of localized dissolution (“pipe”) when a carbonate-quartz sand is subjected to reactive fluid flow: only loosely packed quartz grains remain within pipes, and the number of pipes decreases away from the inlet port. Concurrent shear wave velocity measurements show a decrease in stiffness during dissolution due to stress and fabric changes, and more complex signal codas anticipate the development of internal heterogeneity. The discrete element method is used to simulate localized vertical dissolution features in granular materials, under constant vertical stress and zero lateral strain far-field boundaries. As porosity increases along dissolution pipes, vertical load is transferred to the surrounding soils and marked force chains develop. In terms of equivalent stress, principal stress rotation takes place within pipes and the sediment reaches the Coulomb failure condition inside pipes and in the surrounding medium. Dissolution pipes alter the geo-plumbing of the subsurface, enhance fluid transport but limit the long term performance of storage systems, alter the fluid pressure and effective stress fields, soften the sediment and may trigger shear failures.

  15. Successful topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones using ethyl propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, A F; Amelsberg, A; Esch, O; Schteingart, C D; Lyche, K; Jinich, H; Vansonnenberg, E; D'Agostino, H B

    1997-06-01

    Topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones using methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is useful in symptomatic patients judged too ill for surgery. Previous studies showed that ethyl propionate (EP), a C5 ester, dissolves cholesterol gallstones rapidly in vitro, but differs from MTBE in being eliminated so rapidly by the liver that blood levels remain undetectable. Our aim was to test EP as a topical dissolution agent for cholesterol gallbladder stones. Five high-risk patients underwent topical dissolution of gallbladder stones by EP. In three patients, the solvent was instilled via a cholecystostomy tube placed previously to treat acute cholecystitis; in two patients, a percutaneous transhepatic catheter was placed in the gallbladder electively. Gallstone dissolution was assessed by chromatography, by gravimetry, and by catheter cholecystography. Total dissolution of gallstones was obtained in four patients after 6-10 hr of lavage; in the fifth patient, partial gallstone dissolution facilitated basketing of the stones. In two patients, cholesterol dissolution was measured and averaged 30 mg/min. Side effects were limited to one episode of transient hypotension and pain at the infusion site; no patient developed somnolence or nausea. Gallstone elimination was associated with relief of symptoms. EP is an acceptable alternative to MTBE for topical dissolution of cholesterol gallbladder stones in high-risk patients. The lower volatility and rapid hepatic extraction of EP suggest that it may be preferable to MTBE in this investigational procedure.

  16. Uranium carbide dissolution in nitric solution: Sonication vs. silent conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virot, Matthieu; Szenknect, Stéphanie; Chave, Tony; Dacheux, Nicolas; Moisy, Philippe; Nikitenko, Sergey I.

    2013-01-01

    The dissolution of uranium carbide (UC) in nitric acid media is considered by means of power ultrasound (sonication) or magnetic stirring. The induction period required to initiate UC dissolution was found to be dramatically shortened when sonicating a 3 M nitric solution (Ar, 20 kHz, 18 W cm −2 , 20 °C). At higher acidity, magnetic stirring offers faster dissolution kinetics compared to sonication. Ultrasound-assisted UC dissolution is found to be passivated after ∼60% dissolution and remains incomplete whatever the acidity which is confirmed by ICP–AES, LECO and SEM–EDX analyses. In general, the kinetics of UC dissolution is linked to the in situ generation of nitrous acid in agreement with the general mechanism of UC dissolution; the nitrous acid formation is reported to be faster under ultrasound at low acidity due to the nitric acid sonolysis. The carbon balance shared between the gaseous, liquid, and solid phases is strongly influenced by the applied dissolution procedure and HNO 3 concentration

  17. Uranium carbide dissolution in nitric solution: Sonication vs. silent conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virot, Matthieu; Szenknect, Stéphanie; Chave, Tony; Dacheux, Nicolas; Moisy, Philippe; Nikitenko, Sergey I.

    2013-10-01

    The dissolution of uranium carbide (UC) in nitric acid media is considered by means of power ultrasound (sonication) or magnetic stirring. The induction period required to initiate UC dissolution was found to be dramatically shortened when sonicating a 3 M nitric solution (Ar, 20 kHz, 18 W cm-2, 20 °C). At higher acidity, magnetic stirring offers faster dissolution kinetics compared to sonication. Ultrasound-assisted UC dissolution is found to be passivated after ∼60% dissolution and remains incomplete whatever the acidity which is confirmed by ICP-AES, LECO and SEM-EDX analyses. In general, the kinetics of UC dissolution is linked to the in situ generation of nitrous acid in agreement with the general mechanism of UC dissolution; the nitrous acid formation is reported to be faster under ultrasound at low acidity due to the nitric acid sonolysis. The carbon balance shared between the gaseous, liquid, and solid phases is strongly influenced by the applied dissolution procedure and HNO3 concentration.

  18. Mathematical methods for quantification and comparison of dissolution testing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edina Vranić

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, drug release/dissolution from solid dosage forms has been the subject of intense and profitable scientific developments. Whenever a new solid dosage form is developed or produced, it is necessary to ensure that drug dissolutionoccurs in an appropriate manner. The pharmaceutical industry and the registration authorities do focus, nowadays, on drug dissolution studies. The quantitative analysis of the values obtained in dissolution/release tests is easier when mathematicalformulas that express the dissolution results as a function of some of the dosage forms characteristics are used. This work discusses the analysis of data obtained for dissolution profiles under different media pH conditions using mathematical methodsof analysis described by Moore and Flanner. These authors have described difference factor (f1 and similarity factor (f2, which can be used to characterise drug dissolution/release profiles. In this work we have used these formulas for evaluation of dissolution profiles of the conventional tablets in different pH of dissolution medium (range of physiological variations.

  19. Nuclear Criticality Safety Assessment for Tank 38H Salt Dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, P.L.

    1996-01-01

    This assessment report of sample results of the accumulating insoluble solids from Tank 38H demonstrates that an inherent subcritical condition for nuclear criticality safety exists during saltcake dissolution. This report also defines criteria for future sampling of Tank 38H for continued verification of the inherent subcritical condition as saltcake dissolution proceeds

  20. Effect of Bulk and Interfacial Rheological Properties on Bubble Dissolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloek, W.; Vliet, van T.; Meinders, M.

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes theoretical calculations of the combined effect of bulk and interracial rheological properties on dissolution behavior of a bubble in an infinite medium at saturated conditions. Either bulk or interracial elasticity can stop the bubble dissolution process, and stability criteria

  1. Hydro-chemo-mechanical coupling in sediments: Localized mineral dissolution

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Minsu

    2016-06-11

    Mineral dissolution is inherently a chemo-hydro-mechanical coupled process. Field evidence and laboratory results show that dissolution may localize and form open conduits in cohesive media such as carbonate rocks. This study focuses on the evolution of localized dissolution in soils (i.e., frictional and non-cohesive granular materials) under effective confining stresses. Experimental results show the development of localized dissolution (“pipe”) when a carbonate-quartz sand is subjected to reactive fluid flow: only loosely packed quartz grains remain within pipes, and the number of pipes decreases away from the inlet port. Concurrent shear wave velocity measurements show a decrease in stiffness during dissolution due to stress and fabric changes, and more complex signal codas anticipate the development of internal heterogeneity. The discrete element method is used to simulate localized vertical dissolution features in granular materials, under constant vertical stress and zero lateral strain far-field boundaries. As porosity increases along dissolution pipes, vertical load is transferred to the surrounding soils and marked force chains develop. In terms of equivalent stress, principal stress rotation takes place within pipes and the sediment reaches the Coulomb failure condition inside pipes and in the surrounding medium. Dissolution pipes alter the geo-plumbing of the subsurface, enhance fluid transport but limit the long term performance of storage systems, alter the fluid pressure and effective stress fields, soften the sediment and may trigger shear failures.

  2. Dissolution enhancement of drugs. part i: technologies and effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and steam aided granulation. In these techniques carrier plays an important role in improving solubility and dissolution rate. Polymers, superdisintegrants, surfactants are extensively studied in recent years for dissolution enhancement in drugs. This part of this review discusses technological overview and effect of polymers,

  3. Particle Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Health Particle Pollution Public Health Issues Particle Pollution Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Particle pollution — ... see them in the air. Where does particle pollution come from? Particle pollution can come from two ...

  4. Development of viral nanoparticles for efficient intracellular delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhuojun; Chen, Kevin; Yildiz, Ibrahim; Dirksen, Anouk; Fischer, Rainer; Dawson, Philip E.; Steinmetz, Nicole F.

    2012-05-01

    Viral nanoparticles (VNPs) based on plant viruses such as Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) can be used for a broad range of biomedical applications because they present a robust scaffold that allows functionalization by chemical conjugation and genetic modification, thereby offering an efficient drug delivery platform that can target specific cells and tissues. VNPs such as CPMV show natural affinity to cells; however, cellular uptake is inefficient. Here we show that chemical modification of the CPMV surface with a highly reactive, specific and UV-traceable hydrazone linker allows bioconjugation of polyarginine (R5) cell penetrating peptides (CPPs), which can overcome these limitations. The resulting CPMV-R5 particles were taken up into a human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) more efficiently than native particles. Uptake efficiency was dependent on the density of R5 peptides on the surface of the VNP; particles displaying 40 R5 peptides per CPMV (denoted as CPMV-R5H) interact strongly with the plasma membrane and are taken up into the cells via an energy-dependent mechanism whereas particles displaying 10 R5 peptides per CPMV (CPMV-R5L) are only slowly taken up. The fate of CPMV-R5 versus native CPMV particles within cells was evaluated in a co-localization time course study. It was indicated that the intracellular localization of CPMV-R5 and CPMV differs; CPMV remains trapped in Lamp-1 positive endolysosomes over long time frames; in contrast, 30-50% of the CPMV-R5 particles transitioned from the endosome into other cellular vesicles or compartments. Our data provide the groundwork for the development of efficient drug delivery formulations based on CPMV-R5.Viral nanoparticles (VNPs) based on plant viruses such as Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) can be used for a broad range of biomedical applications because they present a robust scaffold that allows functionalization by chemical conjugation and genetic modification, thereby offering an efficient drug delivery platform

  5. Chemical Dissolution of Simulant FCA Cladding and Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Pierce, R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); O' Rourke, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-11-08

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has received some fast critical assembly (FCA) fuel from the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) for disposition. Among the JAEA FCA fuel are approximately 7090 rectangular Stainless Steel clad fuel elements. Each element has an internal Pu-10.6Al alloy metal wafer. The thickness of each element is either 1/16 inch or 1/32 inch. The dimensions of each element ranges from 2 inches x 1 inch to 2 inches x 4 inches. This report discusses the potential chemical dissolution of the FCA clad material or stainless steel. This technology uses nitric acid-potassium fluoride (HNO3-KF) flowsheets of H-Canyon to dissolve the FCA elements from a rack of materials. Historically, dissolution flowsheets have aimed to maximize Pu dissolution rates while minimizing stainless steel dissolution (corrosion) rates. Because the FCA cladding is made of stainless steel, this work sought to accelerate stainless steel dissolution.

  6. Aluminum Target Dissolution in Support of the Pu-238 Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarlane, Joanna [ORNL; Benker, Dennis [ORNL; DePaoli, David W [ORNL; Felker, Leslie Kevin [ORNL; Mattus, Catherine H [ORNL

    2014-09-01

    Selection of an aluminum alloy for target cladding affects post-irradiation target dissolution and separations. Recent tests with aluminum alloy 6061 yielded greater than expected precipitation in the caustic dissolution step, forming up to 10 wt.% solids of aluminum hydroxides and aluminosilicates. We present a study to maximize dissolution of aluminum metal alloy, along with silicon, magnesium, and copper impurities, through control of temperature, the rate of reagent addition, and incubation time. Aluminum phase transformations have been identified as a function of time and temperature, using X-ray diffraction. Solutions have been analyzed using wet chemical methods and X-ray fluorescence. These data have been compared with published calculations of aluminum phase diagrams. Temperature logging during the transients has been investigated as a means to generate kinetic and mass transport data on the dissolution process. Approaches are given to enhance the dissolution of aluminum and aluminosilicate phases in caustic solution.

  7. A new method for alkaline dissolution of uranium metal foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondino, A.V.; Wilkinson, M.V.; Manzini, A.C.

    2001-01-01

    In order to develop a production process of 99 Mo by fission of low-enriched uranium, the first purification step, which consists of dissolution of a uranium metal foil target, was studied. It was found that alkaline NaClO gave good results, reaching the dissolution of up to 300 μm of uranium foil. The different conditions for the dissolution were studied and the optimum ones were found. The influence of NaClO and NaOH concentration, temperature, dissolving solution volume per unit of surface and dissolution time were investigated. During this step, a gas identified as H 2 , was generated, and a precipitate characterized as Na 2 U 2 O 7 was observed. A stoichiometric reaction for this uranium dissolution is proposed. (author)

  8. Physical heterogeneity control on effective mineral dissolution rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Heewon; Navarre-Sitchler, Alexis

    2018-04-01

    Hydrologic heterogeneity may be an important factor contributing to the discrepancy in laboratory and field measured dissolution rates, but the governing factors influencing mineral dissolution rates among various representations of physical heterogeneity remain poorly understood. Here, we present multiple reactive transport simulations of anorthite dissolution in 2D latticed random permeability fields and link the information from local grid scale (1 cm or 4 m) dissolution rates to domain-scale (1m or 400 m) effective dissolution rates measured by the flux-weighted average of an ensemble of flow paths. We compare results of homogeneous models to heterogeneous models with different structure and layered permeability distributions within the model domain. Chemistry is simplified to a single dissolving primary mineral (anorthite) distributed homogeneously throughout the domain and a single secondary mineral (kaolinite) that is allowed to dissolve or precipitate. Results show that increasing size in correlation structure (i.e. long integral scales) and high variance in permeability distribution are two important factors inducing a reduction in effective mineral dissolution rates compared to homogeneous permeability domains. Larger correlation structures produce larger zones of low permeability where diffusion is an important transport mechanism. Due to the increased residence time under slow diffusive transport, the saturation state of a solute with respect to a reacting mineral approaches equilibrium and reduces the reaction rate. High variance in permeability distribution favorably develops large low permeability zones that intensifies the reduction in mixing and effective dissolution rate. However, the degree of reduction in effective dissolution rate observed in 1 m × 1 m domains is too small (equilibrium conditions reduce the effective dissolution rate by increasing the saturation state. However, in large domains where less- or non-reactive zones develop, higher

  9. Highly Efficient Intracellular Protein Delivery by Cationic Polyethyleneimine-Modified Gelatin Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ju Chou

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular protein delivery may provide a safe and non-genome integrated strategy for targeting abnormal or specific cells for applications in cell reprogramming therapy. Thus, highly efficient intracellular functional protein delivery would be beneficial for protein drug discovery. In this study, we generated a cationic polyethyleneimine (PEI-modified gelatin nanoparticle and evaluated its intracellular protein delivery ability in vitro and in vivo. The experimental results showed that the PEI-modified gelatin nanoparticle had a zeta potential of approximately +60 mV and the particle size was approximately 135 nm. The particle was stable at different biological pH values and temperatures and high protein loading efficiency was observed. The fluorescent image results revealed that large numbers of particles were taken up into the mammalian cells and escaped from the endosomes into the cytoplasm. In a mouse C26 cell-xenograft cancer model, particles accumulated in cancer cells. In conclusion, the PEI-modified gelatin particle may provide a biodegradable and highly efficient protein delivery system for use in regenerative medicine and cancer therapy.

  10. Kinetic model for quartz and spinel dissolution during melting of high-level-waste glass batch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokorny, Richard; Rice, Jarrett A.; Crum, Jarrod V.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Hrma, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    The dissolution of quartz particles and the growth and dissolution of crystalline phases during the conversion of batch to glass potentially affects both the glass melting process and product quality. Crystals of spinel exiting the cold cap to molten glass below can be troublesome during the vitrification of iron-containing high-level wastes. To estimate the distribution of quartz and spinel fractions within the cold cap, we used kinetic models that relate fractions of these phases to temperature and heating rate. Fitting the model equations to data showed that the heating rate, apart from affecting quartz and spinel behavior directly, also affects them indirectly via concurrent processes, such as the formation and motion of bubbles. Because of these indirect effects, it was necessary to allow one kinetic parameter (the pre-exponential factor) to vary with the heating rate. The resulting kinetic equations are sufficiently simple for the detailed modeling of batch-to-glass conversion as it occurs in glass melters. The estimated fractions and sizes of quartz and spinel particles as they leave the cold cap, determined in this study, will provide the source terms needed for modeling the behavior of these solid particles within the flow of molten glass in the melter

  11. Enhanced in vitro dissolution of Iloperidone using Caesalpinia Pulcherrima mucoadhesive microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradum Pundlikrao Ige

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigation was to improve the solubility and dissolution rate of Iloperidone. Microspheres containing Iloperidone were prepared by spray drying using mucilage extracted from seeds of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. The novelty of this work is that, the extraction of mucilage and its usage for preparation of drug loaded microspheres. The prepared microspheres were characterized by SEM, DSC, XRPD, FTIR, 1H-NMR, particle size, drug content, entrapment efficiency, in vitro dissolution and ex vivo mucoadhesion. Based on particle size, drug content, ex vivo mucoadhesive strength and in vitro drug release, the best formulation was optimized. Percent entrapment efficiency and mean particle size for optimized formulation was found to be 73.49 and 3.27 ± 1.23 μm, respectively. More precisely, mucilage of C. pulcherrima could be significant carrier of (drug and polymer ratio 1:5 microspheres for the development of oral drug delivery.

  12. UV-vis Imaging of Piroxicam Supersaturation, Precipitation, and Dissolution in a Flow-Through Setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Chapman, Alex; Larsen, Susan W; Jensen, Henrik; Petersen, Nickolaj J; Goodall, David M; Østergaard, Jesper

    2018-06-05

    Evaluation of drug precipitation is important in order to address challenges regarding low and variable bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs, to assess potential risk of patient safety with infusion therapy, and to explore injectable in situ suspension-forming drug delivery systems. Generally, drug precipitation is assessed in vitro through solution concentration analysis methods. Dual-wavelength UV-vis imaging is a novel imaging technique that may provide an opportunity for simultaneously monitoring changes in both solution and solid phases during precipitation. In the present study, a multimodal approach integrating UV-vis imaging, light microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy was developed for characterization of piroxicam supersaturation, precipitation, and dissolution in a flow-through setup. A solution of piroxicam dissolved in 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone was injected into a flowing aqueous environment (pH 7.4), causing piroxicam to precipitate. Imaging at 405 and 280 nm monitored piroxicam concentration distributions during precipitation and revealed different supersaturation levels dependent on the initial concentration of the piroxicam solution. The combination with imaging at 525 nm, light microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy measurements demonstrated concentration-dependent precipitation and the formation, growth, and dissolution of individual particles. Results emphasize the importance of the specific hydrodynamic conditions on the piroxicam precipitation. The approach used may facilitate comprehensive understanding of drug precipitation and dissolution processes and may be developed further into a basic tool for formulation screening and development.

  13. Physicochemical Properties and In Vitro Dissolution of Spiramycin Microparticles Using the Homogenate-Antisolvent Precipitation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaonan Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to its low bioavailability and slow dissolution rate, the micronized spiramycin powder was thus prepared by the homogenate-antisolvent precipitation (HAP process. The optimum micronization conditions of the HAP process were found to be as follows: precipitation temperature of 4.6 °C, precipitation time of 10 min, spiramycin concentration of 20 mg/mL, dripping speed of the added solvent into the antisolvent of 44 mL/h, antisolvent (water to solvent (dimethyl sulfide (DMSO volume ratio of 7:1, and shear rate of 5000 rpm. With this HAP process, the mean particle size was 228.36 ± 3.99 nm. The micronized spiramycin was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatograph analyses. In comparison with the raw drug, the chemical structure of micronized spiramycin was not changed. The dissolution rate experiments showed that the dissolution rate of the spiramycin was significantly increased after micronization.

  14. Solubility and dissolution performances of spray-dried solid dispersion of Efavirenz in Soluplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavra, Zênia Maria Maciel; Pereira de Santana, Davi; Ré, Maria Inês

    2017-01-01

    Efavirenz (EFV), a first-line anti-HIV drug largely used as part of antiretroviral therapies, is practically insoluble in water and belongs to BCS class II (low solubility/high permeability). The aim of this study was to improve the solubility and dissolution performances of EFV by formulating an amorphous solid dispersion of the drug in polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer (Soluplus ® ) using spray-drying technique. To this purpose, spray-dried dispersions of EFV in Soluplus ® at different mass ratios (1:1.25, 1:7, 1:10) were prepared and characterized using particle size measurements, SEM, XRD, DSC, FTIR and Raman microscopy mapping. Solubility and dissolution were determined in different media. Stability was studied at accelerated conditions (40 °C/75% RH) and ambient conditions for 12 months. DSC and XRD analyses confirmed the EFV amorphous state. FTIR spectroscopy analyses revealed possible drug-polymer molecular interaction. Solubility and dissolution rate of EFV was enhanced remarkably in the developed spray-dried solid dispersions, as a function of the polymer concentration. Spray-drying was concluded to be a proper technique to formulate a physically stable dispersion of amorphous EFV in Soluplus ® , when protected from moisture.

  15. Efficient intracellular delivery and improved biocompatibility of colloidal silver nanoparticles towards intracellular SERS immuno-sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Vinay; Srinivasan, Supriya; McGoron, Anthony J

    2015-06-21

    High throughput intracellular delivery strategies, electroporation, passive and TATHA2 facilitated diffusion of colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are investigated for cellular toxicity and uptake using state-of-art analytical techniques. The TATHA2 facilitated approach efficiently delivered high payload with no toxicity, pre-requisites for intracellular applications of plasmonic metal nanoparticles (PMNPs) in sensing and therapeutics.

  16. Studies on the dissolution of antimony doped ferrites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keny, S.J.; Kumbhar, A.G.; Sanjukta, A.; Pandey, S.; Venkateswaran, G.; Ramanathan, S.

    2008-01-01

    Antimony (Sb) present in the PHT (primary heat transport) pump seals and bearings of PHWRs (Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor) is released during operation of the reactor and gets deposited on the in-core zircaloy surfaces. Neutron flux in the reactor core activates this Sb to 122 Sb (t 1/2 2.6 days) and 124 Sb (t 1/2 60 days). Release of this Sb (radioactive antimony) and its deposition on out of core surfaces occurs due to oxygen ingress in the system during shutdown periods and off normal conditions. Sb deposition on the magnetite bearing carbon steel surface of the PHT system results in increase of radiation fields. The consequence of this is low apparent decontamination factors observed after system decontamination. Once Sb is deposited on bare carbon steel (CS) surface or magnetite bearing carbon steel surface it is not amenable for removal by normal reductive decontamination process. It has to decay by its own half-life or has to be removed by oxidative dissolution. To understand the role of antimony and its removal on the ion exchange column, antimony doped ferrites were prepared and their dissolution in CNA (citric acid, NTA, Ascorbic acid; 1.4+1.4+1.7 mM) formulation was studied. The time taken for the dissolution of antimony-doped ferrites was found to increase with increasing Sb content in the ferrite. The point of zero charge (pzc) value of Sb substituted magnetite was determined to understand its adsorption on carbon steel surfaces of the PHT system. The pzc values for Fe 3 O 4 and Sb 2 O 3 , with H + / OH - as only potential determining ions in the aqueous medium, were 6.5 and 1.7 respectively. While, pzc of magnetite in typical decontamination formulations was below 3. The pzc for aqueous suspension of antimony-substituted magnetite (sintered at 1173 K) was 4.4. On the other hand, in CEA (citric acid, EDTA, Ascorbic acid) formulation up to a pH of 1.5, surface charge on the antimony-substituted magnetite was negative. Hence, even at this low pH, pzc

  17. Study of the effect of water radiolysis on zirconolite dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribet, M.

    2007-09-01

    Zirconolite is one of the matrices foreseen for the confinement of minor actinides in case of deep geological disposal. Indeed, zirconolite (general formula: CaZr x Ti 3-x O 7 (0.8 ≤ x ≤ 1.37)) is able to incorporate rare earth elements and actinides by substitution in calcium and zirconium sites and, moreover, its chemical durability into water is well known. However, in case of deep geological disposal, after a long period, water can reach the confinement matrix and can be radiolysed at the moment of the radionuclide alpha decays. In this work we have thus studied the effects of water radiolysis induced by charged particles (alphas or protons) on the dissolution of a synthetic sintered zirconolite. The formula of this zirconolite is Ca 0,8 Nd 0,2 ZrTi 1,8 Al 0,2 O 7 where Nd simulates the presence of trivalent and tetravalent actinides. We performed the irradiations with external ion beams in two distinct geometries where the fluences ranged from 10 15 to 10 16 ions.cm -2 . In the first geometry the beam stops into water before the surface/water interface. In the second one the beam gets through the sample before stopping at the surface/water interface. The use of these different configurations allows to study the respective influence of parameters such as sample irradiation, Linear Energy Transfer at the surface/water interface or total deposited energy. The irradiations were performed on both crystalline and amorphous zirconolites in pure water or with complexing species such as F - . The sample dissolution has been monitored through the release of cations. The radiolytic production of H 2 O 2 has also been measured. Our results show that the water radiolysis has an effect on the preferential release of Zr, Ti and Nd: for these elements, releases are one or two order of magnitude higher than releases out of radiolysis. Such preferential releases occur whatever the temperature (20 or 50 C), the surface state (crystalline or amorphous) and the experimental

  18. Blueshift of the silver plasmon band using controlled nanoparticle dissolution in aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Klaus Bo; Kneipp, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we report the size-dependent blue shift of the silver nanoparticle plasmon band in aqueous solution by means of UV/VIS spectroscopy. An oxidative dissolution scheme allows a gradual decrease in the particle sizes by controlled oxidation during recording of the optical spectra. Hence......-dependence of the plasmon peak energy is seen, which is interpreted as an increase in the free electron density of the nanoparticles. Utilization of the size-dependent electronic contribution to the optical response in nanoplasmonic sensors is shown to be a promising extension to improve the sensitivity and specificity...

  19. Siderophore-mediated iron dissolution from nontronites is controlled by mineral cristallochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien eParrello

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria living in oxic environments experience iron deficiency due to limited solubility and slow dissolution kinetics of iron-bearing minerals. To cope with iron deprivation, aerobic bacteria have evolved various strategies, including release of siderophores or other organic acids that scavenge external Fe(III and deliver it to the cells. This research investigated the role of siderophores produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the acquisition of Fe(III from two iron-bearing colloidal nontronites (NAu-1 and NAu-2, comparing differences in bioavailability related with site occupancy and distribution of Fe(III in the two lattices. To avoid both the direct contact of the mineral colloids with the bacterial cells and the uncontrolled particle aggregation, nontronite suspensions were homogenously dispersed in a porous silica gel before the dissolution experiments. A multiparametric approach coupling UV-vis spectroscopy and spectral decomposition algorithm was implemented to monitor simultaneously the solubilisation of Fe and the production of pyoverdine in microplate-based batch experiments. Both nontronites released Fe in a particle concentration-dependent manner when incubated with the wild-type P. aeruginosa strain, however iron released from NAu-2 was substantially greater than from NAu-1. The profile of organic acids produced in both cases was similar and may not account for the difference in the iron dissolution efficiency. In contrast, a pyoverdine-deficient mutant was unable to mobilise Fe(III from either nontronite, whereas iron dissolution occurred in abiotic experiments conducted with purified pyoverdine. Overall, our data provide evidence that P. aeruginosa indirectly mobilise Fe from nontronites primarily through the production of pyoverdine. The structural Fe present on the edges of Nau-2 rather than Nau-1 particles appears to be more bio-accessible, indicating that the distribution of Fe, in the tetrahedron and/or in the octahedron

  20. Electrochemical studies of the effect of H2 on UO2 dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, F.; Shoesmith, D.W.

    2004-09-01

    This report summarises evidence for the effect of H 2 on the oxidation and dissolution of UO 2 derived from electrochemical studies. In the presence of γ-radiation or with SIMFUEL electrodes containing ε-particles, the corrosion potential (E CORR ) of UO 2 is observed to be suppressed in the presence of H 2 by up to several hundred milli volts. This effect has been observed at room temperature with 5 MPa H 2 (in the case of γ-irradiated solutions) and at 60 deg C with a H 2 partial pressure of only 0.002-0.014 MPa H 2 with the SIMFUEL electrode. The suppression of E CORR in the presence of H 2 indicates that the degree of surface oxidation and the rate of dissolution of UO 2 is lower in the presence of H 2 .The precise mechanism of the effect of H 2 is unclear at this time. The mechanism appears to involve a surface heterogeneous process, rather than a homogeneous solution process. Under some circumstances the value of E CORR approaches the equilibrium potential for the H 2 /H + couple, suggesting galvanic coupling between sites on which this electrochemical process is catalysed and the rest of the UO 2 surface. It is also possible that H* radical species, either produced radiolytically from H 2 O or by dissociation of H 2 on ε-particles or surface-active UO 2+x sites, reduce oxidised U(V)/U(VI) surface states to U(IV). The effect of H 2 on reducing the degree of surface oxidation is only partially reversible, since surfaces reduced in H 2 atmospheres (re-)oxidise more slowly and to a lesser degree than surfaces not previously exposed to H 2 . Homogeneous reactions between dissolved H 2 and either oxidants or dissolved U(VI) cannot explain the observed effects.Regardless of the precise mechanism, the suppression of the degree of surface oxidation results in lower UO 2 dissolution rates in the presence of H 2 . Application of an electro-chemical dissolution model to the observed E CORR values suggests that the fractional dissolution rate of used fuel in the

  1. Investigating Internalization and Intracellular Trafficking of GPCRs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foster, Simon R; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2017-01-01

    for signal transduction. One of the major mechanisms for GPCR regulation involves their endocytic trafficking, which serves to internalize the receptors from the plasma membrane and thereby attenuate G protein-dependent signaling. However, there is accumulating evidence to suggest that GPCRs can signal...... independently of G proteins, as well as from intracellular compartments including endosomes. It is in this context that receptor internalization and intracellular trafficking have attracted renewed interest within the GPCR field. In this chapter, we will review the current understanding and methodologies...

  2. Determination of uranium metal concentration in irradiated fuel storage basin sludge using selective dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.; Sinkov, S.I.; Chenault, J.W.; Schmidt, A.J.; Pool, K.N.; Welsh, T.L.

    2014-01-01

    Irradiated uranium metal fuel was stored underwater in the K East and K West storage basins at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site. The uranium metal under damaged cladding reacted with water to generate hydrogen gas, uranium oxides, and spalled uranium metal particles which intermingled with other particulates to form sludge. While the fuel has been removed, uranium metal in the sludge remains hazardous. An expeditious routine method to analyze 0.03 wt% uranium metal in the presence of >30 wt% total uranium was needed to support safe sludge management and processing. A selective dissolution method was designed based on the rapid uranium oxide dissolution but very low uranium metal corrosion rates in hot concentrated phosphoric acid. The uranium metal-bearing heel from the phosphoric acid step then is rinsed before the uranium metal is dissolved in hot concentrated nitric acid for analysis. Technical underpinnings of the selective dissolution method, including the influence of sludge components, were investigated to design the steps and define the reagents, quantities, concentrations, temperatures, and times within the selective dissolution analysis. Tests with simulant sludge proved the technique feasible. Tests with genuine sludge showed a 0.0028 ± 0.0037 wt% (at one standard deviation) uranium metal analytical background, a 0.011 wt% detection limit, and a 0.030 wt% quantitation limit in settled (wet) sludge. In tests using genuine K Basin sludge spiked with uranium metal at concentrations above the 0.030 wt% ± 25 % (relative) quantitation limit, uranium metal recoveries averaged 99.5 % with a relative standard deviation of 3.5 %. (author)

  3. In vitro acellular dissolution of mineral fibres: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Alessandro F; Pollastri, Simone; Bursi Gandolfi, Nicola; Gualtieri, Magdalena Lassinantti

    2018-05-04

    The study of the mechanisms by which mineral fibres promote adverse effects in both animals and humans is a hot topic of multidisciplinary research with many aspects that still need to be elucidated. Besides length and diameter, a key parameter that determines the toxicity/pathogenicity of a fibre is biopersistence, one component of which is biodurability. In this paper, biodurability of mineral fibres of social and economic importance (chrysotile, amphibole asbestos and fibrous erionite) has been determined for the first time in a systematic comparative way from in vitro acellular dissolution experiments. Dissolution was possible using the Gamble solution as simulated lung fluid (pH = 4 and at body temperature) so to reproduce the macrophage phagolysosome environment. The investigated mineral fibres display very different dissolution rates. For a 0.25 μm thick fibre, the calculated dissolution time of chrysotile is in the range 94-177 days, very short if compared to that of amphibole fibres (49-245 years), and fibrous erionite (181 years). Diffraction and SEM data on the dissolution products evidence that chrysotile rapidly undergoes amorphization with the formation of a nanophasic silica-rich fibrous metastable pseudomorph as first dissolution step whereas amphibole asbestos and fibrous erionite show minor signs of dissolution even after 9-12 months.

  4. Dissolution of covalent adaptable network polymers in organic solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kai; Yang, Hua; Dao, Binh H.; Shi, Qian; Yakacki, Christopher M.

    2017-12-01

    It was recently reported that thermosetting polymers can be fully dissolved in a proper organic solvent utilizing a bond-exchange reaction (BER), where small molecules diffuse into the polymer, break the long polymer chains into short segments, and eventually dissolve the network when sufficient solvent is provided. The solvent-assisted dissolution approach was applied to fully recycle thermosets and their fiber composites. This paper presents the first multi-scale modeling framework to predict the dissolution kinetics and mechanics of thermosets in organic solvent. The model connects the micro-scale network dynamics with macro-scale material properties: in the micro-scale, a model is developed based on the kinetics of BERs to describe the cleavage rate of polymer chains and evolution of chain segment length during the dissolution. The micro-scale model is then fed into a continuum-level model with considerations of the transportation of solvent molecules and chain segments in the system. The model shows good prediction on conversion rate of functional groups, degradation of network mechanical properties, and dissolution rate of thermosets during the dissolution. It identifies the underlying kinetic factors governing the dissolution process, and reveals the influence of different material and processing variables on the dissolution process, such as time, temperature, catalyst concentration, and chain length between cross-links.

  5. Imaging the intracellular degradation of biodegradable polymer nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Kathrin Barthel

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the development of smart drug delivery systems based on biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles has become of great interest. Drug-loaded nanoparticles can be introduced into the cell interior via endocytotic processes followed by the slow release of the drug due to degradation of the nanoparticle. In this work, poly(L-lactic acid (PLLA was chosen as the biodegradable polymer. Although common degradation of PLLA has been studied in various biological environments, intracellular degradation processes have been examined only to a very limited extent. PLLA nanoparticles with an average diameter of approximately 120 nm were decorated with magnetite nanocrystals and introduced into mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. The release of the magnetite particles from the surface of the PLLA nanoparticles during the intracellular residence was monitored by transmission electron microscopy (TEM over a period of 14 days. It was demonstrated by the release of the magnetite nanocrystals from the PLLA surface that the PLLA nanoparticles do in fact undergo degradation within the cell. Furthermore, even after 14 days of residence, the PLLA nanoparticles were found in the MSCs. Additionally, the ultrastructural TEM examinations yield insight into the long term intercellular fate of these nanoparticles. From the statistical analysis of ultrastructural details (e.g., number of detached magnetite crystals, and the number of nanoparticles in one endosome, we demonstrate the importance of TEM studies for such applications in addition to fluorescence studies (flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy.

  6. Optimization of LiCoO2 powder extraction process from cathodes of lithium-ion batteries by chemical dissolution

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Evangelista Sita; Stephany Pires da Silva; Paulo Rogério Catarini da Silva; Alexandre Urbano; Jair Scarminio

    2015-01-01

    A chemical process has been applied to extract LiCoO2 powder from cathodes of spent lithium-ion batteries by dissolution of the binder that agglutinate the powder particle each other as well to the Al collector surface. As solvents dimethylformamide (DMF) and N-methyilpirrolidone (NMP) were employed and the variables, cathode area, solution temperature, ultrasound bath power and solution stirring were chosen to optimize the extraction process. NMP solutions presented best results for powder e...

  7. Kinetics of Inorganic Calcite Dissolution in Seawater under Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, S.; Subhas, A.; Rollins, N.; Berelson, W.; Adkins, J. F.

    2016-02-01

    While understanding calcium carbonate dissolution is vital in constructing global carbon cycles and predicting the effect of seawater acidification as a result of increasing atmospheric CO2, there is still a major debate over the basic formulation of a dissolution rate law. The kinetics of calcium carbonate dissolution are typically described by the equation: Rate=k(1-Ω)n, while Ω=[Ca2+][CO32-]/Ksp. In this study, 13C-labeled calcite is dissolved in unlabeled seawater and the evolving d13C composition of the fluid is traced over time to establish dissolution rate. Instead of changing ion concentration to obtain varying Ω (as in our previous study; Subhas et al. 2015), we changed Ksp by conducting experiments under different pressures (described in theory as ∂lnKsp/∂P=-ΔV/RT, where ΔV is partial molal volume). This involved the construction of a pressure vessel that could hold our sample bag and provide aliquots while remaining pressurized. Pressure experiments were conducted between 0-2000PSI. Results support the conclusion in our previous study that near-equilibrium dissolution rates are highly nonlinear, but give a disparate relationship between undersaturation and dissolution rate if Ω is calculated assuming the specific ΔV embedded in CO2SYS. A revised ΔV from -37cm3 to -65cm3 would make the dissolution formulation equation agree, but clearly appears unreasonable. Our results are explained by a pressure effect on carbonate dissolution kinetics over and above the influence of pressure on Ω. If this is a phenomenon that occurs in nature, then we would predict that dissolution should be occurring shallower in the water column (as sometimes observed) than indicated by standard Ω calculations.

  8. Germany, Austria and dissolution of Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuković Slobodan V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with one of the causes of dissolution/breakdown of Yugoslavia. The author first analyses writing of German and Austrian press which has, at the very beginning of the crisis, taken a strong anti-Serb standing, as in 1914 and 1941. Author then analyses the reasons that led Austrian and German diplomacy and governments to actively forging the crisis and then breaking down a sovereign country. Those reasons could be summarized as follows: German and Austrian revenge for two wars lost in these territories; improvement of conditions for fulfillment of old German dream to advance toward Middle East; in order to become a world power Germany 'had to' to annul some of the consequences of the First and Second World War on the symbolic level and acquire a possibility to test its powers, and breaking down Yugoslavia, with help of its internal allies Germany broke down its army without military engagement and removed an obstacle for advancement towards East.

  9. Dissolution mechanism of aluminum hydroxides in acid media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lainer, Yu. A.; Gorichev, I. G.; Tuzhilin, A. S.; Gololobova, E. G.

    2008-08-01

    The effects of the concentration, temperature, and potential at the hydroxide/electrolyte interface on the aluminum hydroxide dissolution in sulfuric, hydrochloric, and perchloric acids are studied. The limiting stage of the aluminum hydroxide dissolution in the acids is found to be the transition of the complexes that form on the aluminum hydroxide surface from the solid phase into the solution. The results of the calculation of the acid-base equilibrium constants at the oxide (hydroxide)/solution interface using the experimental data on the potentiometric titration of Al2O3 and AlOOH suspensions are analyzed. A mechanism is proposed for the dissolution of aluminum hydroxides in acid media.

  10. Mongol Warfare in the Pre-Dissolution Period »

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy May

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the Mongols used many of the tactics and strategies that steppe nomads had used for centuries, the Mongols refined steppe warfare so that this style of warfare reached its apogee during the Mongol Empire. Furthermore, the Mongols developed a style of warfare that made them possibly the greatest military force in history. This work examines several facets of the pre-dissolution period (1200–1260. With the dissolution of the Mongol Empire, Mongol warfare once again changed. In some areas it remained complex while in others it regressed to traditional forces of steppe warfare, still potent but not as effective as the pre-dissolution period.

  11. Dissolution behaviour of silicon nitride coatings for joint replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Maria [Materials in Medicine Group, Div. of Applied Materials Science, Dept. of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Bryant, Michael [Institute of Functional Surfaces (iFS), School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Schmidt, Susann [Thin Film Physics, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, Linköping (Sweden); Engqvist, Håkan [Materials in Medicine Group, Div. of Applied Materials Science, Dept. of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden); Hall, Richard M. [Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering (iMBE), School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Neville, Anne [Institute of Functional Surfaces (iFS), School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom); Persson, Cecilia, E-mail: cecilia.persson@angstrom.uu.se [Materials in Medicine Group, Div. of Applied Materials Science, Dept. of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the dissolution rate of SiN{sub x} coatings was investigated as a function of coating composition, in comparison to a cobalt chromium molybdenum alloy (CoCrMo) reference. SiN{sub x} coatings with N/Si ratios of 0.3, 0.8 and 1.1 were investigated. Electrochemical measurements were complemented with solution (inductively coupled plasma techniques) and surface analysis (vertical scanning interferometry and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy). The dissolution rate of the SiN{sub x} coatings was evaluated to 0.2–1.4 nm/day, with a trend of lower dissolution rate with higher N/Si atomic ratio in the coating. The dissolution rates of the coatings were similar to or lower than that of CoCrMo (0.7–1.2 nm/day). The highest nitrogen containing coating showed mainly Si–N bonds in the bulk as well as at the surface and in the dissolution area. The lower nitrogen containing coatings showed Si–N and/or Si–Si bonds in the bulk and an increased formation of Si–O bonds at the surface as well as in the dissolution area. The SiN{sub x} coatings reduced the metal ion release from the substrate. The possibility to tune the dissolution rate and the ability to prevent release of metal ions encourage further studies on SiN{sub x} coatings for joint replacements. - Graphical abstract: Dissolution rates of SiN{sub 0.3}, SiN{sub 0.8}, and SiN{sub 1.1} coatings on CoCrMo compared to uncoated CoCrMo. Dissolution rates were obtained from i) electrochemical measurements of I{sub corr}, ii) the step height between covered and solution-exposed surfaces, measured using VSI, and iii) the ion concentration in the solution, measured with ICP. - Highlights: • The dissolution of SiN{sub x} coatings was investigated in comparison to (bulk) CoCrMo. • The coatings gave a lower or similar dissolution rate to CoCrMo, of 0.2–1.2 nm/day. • An increased nitrogen content in the coatings gave lower dissolution rates. • SiN{sub x} coatings on CoCrMo reduced the metal ion release

  12. 2011 Rita Schaffer lecture: nanoparticles for intracellular nucleic acid delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jordan J

    2012-07-01

    Nanoparticles are a promising technology for delivery of new types of therapeutics. A polymer library approach has allowed engineering of polymeric particles that are particularly effective for the delivery of DNA and siRNA to human cells. Certain chemical structural motifs, degradable linkages, hydrophobicity, and biophysical properties are key for successful intracellular delivery. Small differences to biomaterial structure, and especially the type of degradable linkage in the polymers, can be critical for successful delivery of siRNA vs. DNA. Furthermore, subtle changes to biomaterial structure can facilitate cell-type gene delivery specificity between human brain cancer cells and healthy cells as well as between human retinal endothelial cells and epithelial cells. These polymeric nanoparticles are effective for nucleic acid delivery in a broad range of human cell types and have applications to regenerative medicine, ophthalmology, and cancer among many other biomedical research areas.

  13. Initial Drug Dissolution from Amorphous Solid Dispersions Controlled by Polymer Dissolution and Drug-Polymer Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuejie; Wang, Shujing; Wang, Shan; Liu, Chengyu; Su, Ching; Hageman, Michael; Hussain, Munir; Haskell, Roy; Stefanski, Kevin; Qian, Feng

    2016-10-01

    To identify the key formulation factors controlling the initial drug and polymer dissolution rates from an amorphous solid dispersion (ASD). Ketoconazole (KTZ) ASDs using PVP, PVP-VA, HMPC, or HPMC-AS as polymeric matrix were prepared. For each drug-polymer system, two types of formulations with the same composition were prepared: 1. Spray dried dispersion (SDD) that is homogenous at molecular level, 2. Physical blend of SDD (80% drug loading) and pure polymer (SDD-PB) that is homogenous only at powder level. Flory-Huggins interaction parameters (χ) between KTZ and the four polymers were obtained by Flory-Huggins model fitting. Solution (13)C NMR and FT-IR were conducted to investigate the specific drug-polymer interaction in the solution and solid state, respectively. Intrinsic dissolution of both the drug and the polymer from ASDs were studied using a Higuchi style intrinsic dissolution apparatus. PXRD and confocal Raman microscopy were used to confirm the absence of drug crystallinity on the tablet surface before and after dissolution study. In solid state, KTZ is completely miscible with PVP, PVP-VA, or HPMC-AS, demonstrated by the negative χ values of -0.36, -0.46, -1.68, respectively; while is poorly miscible with HPMC shown by a positive χ value of 0.23. According to solution (13)C NMR and FT-IR studies, KTZ interacts with HPMC-AS strongly through H-bonding and dipole induced interaction; with PVPs and PVP-VA moderately through dipole-induced interactions; and with HPMC weakly without detectable attractive interaction. Furthermore, the "apparent" strength of drug-polymer interaction, measured by the extent of peak shift on NMR or FT-IR spectra, increases with the increasing number of interacting drug-polymer pairs. For ASDs with the presence of considerable drug-polymer interactions, such as KTZ/PVPs, KTZ/PVP-VA, or KTZ /HPMC-AS systems, drug released at the same rate as the polymer when intimate drug-polymer mixing was ensured (i.e., the SDD systems

  14. Bovine lactoferrin and lactoferricin interfere with intracellular trafficking of Herpes simplex virus-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, A K; Jenssen, H; Moniri, M Roshan; Hancock, R E W; Panté, N

    2009-01-01

    Although both lactoferrin (Lf), a component of the innate immune system of living organisms, and its N-terminal pepsin cleavage product lactoferricin (Lfcin) have anti-herpes activity, the precise mechanisms by which Lf and Lfcin bring about inhibition of herpes infections are not fully understood. In the present study, experiments were carried out to characterize the activity of bovine Lf and Lfcin (BLf and BLfcin) against the Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). HSV-1 cellular uptake and intracellular trafficking were studied by immunofluorescence microscopy. In comparison to the untreated infected control cells, both the BLf- and BLfcin-treated cells showed a significant reduction in HSV-1 cellular uptake. The few virus particles that were internalized appeared to have a delayed intracellular trafficking. Thus, in addition to their interference with the uptake of the virus into host cells, Lf and Lfcin also exert their antiviral effect intracellularly.

  15. Influence of spray drying and dispersing agent on surface and dissolution properties of griseofulvin micro and nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dhaval A; Patel, Manan; Murdande, Sharad B; Dave, Rutesh H

    2016-11-01

    The purpose for the current research is to compare and evaluate physiochemical properties of spray-dried (SD) microcrystals (MCs), nanocrystals (NCs), and nanocrystals with a dispersion agent (NCm) from a poorly soluble compound. The characterization was carried out by performing size and surface analysis, interfacial tension (at particle moisture interface), and in-vitro drug dissolution rate experiments. Nanosuspensions were prepared by media milling and were spray-dried. The SD powders that were obtained were characterized morphologically using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), polarized light microscopy (PLM), and Flowchem. Solid-state characterization was performed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) for the identification of the crystalline nature of all the SD powders. The powders were characterized for their redispersion tendency in the water and in pH 1.2. Significant differences in redispersion were noted for both the NCs in both dissolution media. The interfacial tension for particle moisture interface was determined by applying the BET (Braunauer-Emmett-Teller) equation to the vapor sorption data. No significant reduction in the interfacial tension was observed between MCs and NCs; however, a significant reduction in the interfacial tension was observed for NCm at both 25 °C and 35 °C temperatures. The difference in interfacial tension and redispersion behavior can be attributed to a difference in the wetting tendency for all the SD powders. The dissolution studies were carried out under sink and under non-sink conditions. The non-sink dissolution approach was found suitable for quantification of the dissolution rate enhancement, and also for providing the rank order to the SD formulations.

  16. Formulating food protein-stabilized indomethacin nanosuspensions into pellets by fluid-bed coating technology: physical characterization, redispersibility, and dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Lu, Yi; Qi, Jianping; Chen, Lingyun; Yin, Lifang; Wu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Drug nanosuspensions are very promising for enhancing the dissolution and bioavailability of drugs that are poorly soluble in water. However, the poor stability of nanosuspensions, reflected in particle growth, aggregation/agglomeration, and change in crystallinity state greatly limits their applications. Solidification of nanosuspensions is an ideal strategy for addressing this problem. Hence, the present work aimed to convert drug nanosuspensions into pellets using fluid-bed coating technology. Indomethacin nanosuspensions were prepared by the precipitation-ultrasonication method using food proteins (soybean protein isolate, whey protein isolate, β-lactoglobulin) as stabilizers. Dried nanosuspensions were prepared by coating the nanosuspensions onto pellets. The redispersibility, drug dissolution, solid-state forms, and morphology of the dried nanosuspensions were evaluated. The mean particle size for the nanosuspensions stabilized using soybean protein isolate, whey protein isolate, and β-lactoglobulin was 588 nm, 320 nm, and 243 nm, respectively. The nanosuspensions could be successfully layered onto pellets with high coating efficiency. Both the dried nanosuspensions and nanosuspensions in their original amorphous state and not influenced by the fluid-bed coating drying process could be redispersed in water, maintaining their original particle size and size distribution. Both the dried nanosuspensions and the original drug nanosuspensions showed similar dissolution profiles, which were both much faster than that of the raw crystals. Fluid-bed coating technology has potential for use in the solidification of drug nanosuspensions.

  17. Cationic polymers for intracellular delivery of proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coué, G.M.J.P.C.; Engbersen, Johannes F.J.; Samal, Sangram; Dubruel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Many therapeutic proteins exert their pharmaceutical action inside the cytoplasm or onto individual organelles inside the cell. Intracellular protein delivery is considered to be the most direct, fastest and safest approach for curing gene-deficiency diseases, enhancing vaccination and triggering

  18. Molecular detection and characterization of sustainable intracellular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    3Centre for Biopolymer and Bio-Molecular Research, Athlone College of Technology, Republic of Ireland. ... cells was associated with the elongation of micro-villar extension that ... Keywords: Intracellular contaminants, cell cultures, bacteria culture, pre-clinical studies. ... production work involving culture technology.

  19. Biological synthesis and characterization of intracellular gold ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, Aspergillus fumigatus was used for the intracellular synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Stable nanoparticles were produced when an aqueous solution of chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) was reduced by A. fumigatus biomass as the reducing agent. Production of nanoparticles was confirmed by the colour ...

  20. Optimizing Nanoelectrode Arrays for Scalable Intracellular Electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Jeffrey; Ye, Tianyang; Ham, Donhee; Park, Hongkun

    2018-03-20

    Electrode technology for electrophysiology has a long history of innovation, with some decisive steps including the development of the voltage-clamp measurement technique by Hodgkin and Huxley in the 1940s and the invention of the patch clamp electrode by Neher and Sakmann in the 1970s. The high-precision intracellular recording enabled by the patch clamp electrode has since been a gold standard in studying the fundamental cellular processes underlying the electrical activities of neurons and other excitable cells. One logical next step would then be to parallelize these intracellular electrodes, since simultaneous intracellular recording from a large number of cells will benefit the study of complex neuronal networks and will increase the throughput of electrophysiological screening from basic neurobiology laboratories to the pharmaceutical industry. Patch clamp electrodes, however, are not built for parallelization; as for now, only ∼10 patch measurements in parallel are possible. It has long been envisioned that nanoscale electrodes may help meet this challenge. First, nanoscale electrodes were shown to enable intracellular access. Second, because their size scale is within the normal reach of the standard top-down fabrication, the nanoelectrodes can be scaled into a large array for parallelization. Third, such a nanoelectrode array can be monolithically integrated with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics to facilitate the large array operation and the recording of the signals from a massive number of cells. These are some of the central ideas that have motivated the research activity into nanoelectrode electrophysiology, and these past years have seen fruitful developments. This Account aims to synthesize these findings so as to provide a useful reference. Summing up from the recent studies, we will first elucidate the morphology and associated electrical properties of the interface between a nanoelectrode and a cellular membrane

  1. A general mechanism for intracellular toxicity of metal-containing nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Sabella, Stefania

    2014-04-09

    The assessment of the risks exerted by nanoparticles is a key challenge for academic, industrial, and regulatory communities worldwide. Experimental evidence points towards significant toxicity for a range of nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo. Worldwide efforts aim at uncovering the underlying mechanisms for this toxicity. Here, we show that the intracellular ion release elicited by the acidic conditions of the lysosomal cellular compartment-where particles are abundantly internalized-is responsible for the cascading events associated with nanoparticles-induced intracellular toxicity. We call this mechanism a "lysosome-enhanced Trojan horse effect" since, in the case of nanoparticles, the protective cellular machinery designed to degrade foreign objects is actually responsible for their toxicity. To test our hypothesis, we compare the toxicity of similar gold particles whose main difference is in the internalization pathways. We show that particles known to pass directly through cell membranes become more toxic when modified so as to be mostly internalized by endocytosis. Furthermore, using experiments with chelating and lysosomotropic agents, we found that the toxicity mechanism for different metal containing NPs (such as metallic, metal oxide, and semiconductor NPs) is mainly associated with the release of the corresponding toxic ions. Finally, we show that particles unable to release toxic ions (such as stably coated NPs, or diamond and silica NPs) are not harmful to intracellular environments. The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.

  2. A general mechanism for intracellular toxicity of metal-containing nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Sabella, Stefania; Carney, Randy P.; Brunetti, Virgilio; Malvindi, Maria Ada; Al-Juffali, Noura; Vecchio, Giuseppe; Janes, Sam M.; Bakr, Osman; Cingolani, Roberto; Stellacci, Francesco; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of the risks exerted by nanoparticles is a key challenge for academic, industrial, and regulatory communities worldwide. Experimental evidence points towards significant toxicity for a range of nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo. Worldwide efforts aim at uncovering the underlying mechanisms for this toxicity. Here, we show that the intracellular ion release elicited by the acidic conditions of the lysosomal cellular compartment-where particles are abundantly internalized-is responsible for the cascading events associated with nanoparticles-induced intracellular toxicity. We call this mechanism a "lysosome-enhanced Trojan horse effect" since, in the case of nanoparticles, the protective cellular machinery designed to degrade foreign objects is actually responsible for their toxicity. To test our hypothesis, we compare the toxicity of similar gold particles whose main difference is in the internalization pathways. We show that particles known to pass directly through cell membranes become more toxic when modified so as to be mostly internalized by endocytosis. Furthermore, using experiments with chelating and lysosomotropic agents, we found that the toxicity mechanism for different metal containing NPs (such as metallic, metal oxide, and semiconductor NPs) is mainly associated with the release of the corresponding toxic ions. Finally, we show that particles unable to release toxic ions (such as stably coated NPs, or diamond and silica NPs) are not harmful to intracellular environments. The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.

  3. Pure drug nanoparticles in tablets: what are the dissolution limitations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heng, Desmond; Ogawa, Keiko; Cutler, David J.; Chan, Hak-Kim; Raper, Judy A.; Ye Lin; Yun, Jimmy

    2010-01-01

    There has been increasing interests for drug companies to incorporate drug nanoparticles into their existing formulations. However, technical knowledge in this area is still in its infancy and more study needs to be done to stimulate growth in this fledging field. There is a need to scrutinize the performance of pure drug nanoparticles in tablets, particularly relating formulation variables to their dissolution performance. Application of the pure form, synthesized without the use of surfactants or stabilizers, is often preferred to maximize drug loading and also to minimize toxicity. Cefuroxime axetil, a poorly water-soluble cephalosporin antibiotic, was used as the model drug in the formulation development. Drug release rate, tablet disintegration time, tensile strength and energy of failure were predominantly influenced by the amount of super-disintegrant, amount of surfactant, compression force and diluent species, respectively. The compression rate had minimal impact on the responses. The main hurdle confronting the effective use of pure drug nanoparticles in tablets is the difficulty in controlling aggregation in solution, which could potentially be aggravated by the tabletting process. Through the use of elevated levels of surfactants (8 w/w% sodium dodecyl sulphate), drug release from the nanoparticle preparation was enhanced from 58.0 ± 2.7% to 72.3 ± 0.7% in 10 min. Hence, it is recommended that physical formulations for pure drug nanoparticles be focused on the particle de-aggregation step in solution, if much higher rates are to be desired. In conclusion, even though pure drug nanoparticles could be easily synthesized, limitations from aggregation may need to be overcome, before successful application in tablets can be fully realized.

  4. Pure drug nanoparticles in tablets: what are the dissolution limitations?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heng, Desmond [Institute of Chemical and Engineering Sciences (Singapore); Ogawa, Keiko [Nitto Denko Co. Ltd., Medical Division (Japan); Cutler, David J.; Chan, Hak-Kim, E-mail: kimc@pharm.usyd.edu.a [University of Sydney, Advanced Drug Delivery Group, Faculty of Pharmacy, A15 (Australia); Raper, Judy A. [University of Wollongong, Vice Chancellor' s Unit (Australia); Ye Lin [University of Sydney, School of Aerospace, Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering (Australia); Yun, Jimmy [Nanomaterials Technology Pty. Ltd. (Singapore)

    2010-06-15

    There has been increasing interests for drug companies to incorporate drug nanoparticles into their existing formulations. However, technical knowledge in this area is still in its infancy and more study needs to be done to stimulate growth in this fledging field. There is a need to scrutinize the performance of pure drug nanoparticles in tablets, particularly relating formulation variables to their dissolution performance. Application of the pure form, synthesized without the use of surfactants or stabilizers, is often preferred to maximize drug loading and also to minimize toxicity. Cefuroxime axetil, a poorly water-soluble cephalosporin antibiotic, was used as the model drug in the formulation development. Drug release rate, tablet disintegration time, tensile strength and energy of failure were predominantly influenced by the amount of super-disintegrant, amount of surfactant, compression force and diluent species, respectively. The compression rate had minimal impact on the responses. The main hurdle confronting the effective use of pure drug nanoparticles in tablets is the difficulty in controlling aggregation in solution, which could potentially be aggravated by the tabletting process. Through the use of elevated levels of surfactants (8 w/w% sodium dodecyl sulphate), drug release from the nanoparticle preparation was enhanced from 58.0 {+-} 2.7% to 72.3 {+-} 0.7% in 10 min. Hence, it is recommended that physical formulations for pure drug nanoparticles be focused on the particle de-aggregation step in solution, if much higher rates are to be desired. In conclusion, even though pure drug nanoparticles could be easily synthesized, limitations from aggregation may need to be overcome, before successful application in tablets can be fully realized.

  5. Pure drug nanoparticles in tablets: what are the dissolution limitations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Desmond; Ogawa, Keiko; Cutler, David J.; Chan, Hak-Kim; Raper, Judy A.; Ye, Lin; Yun, Jimmy

    2010-06-01

    There has been increasing interests for drug companies to incorporate drug nanoparticles into their existing formulations. However, technical knowledge in this area is still in its infancy and more study needs to be done to stimulate growth in this fledging field. There is a need to scrutinize the performance of pure drug nanoparticles in tablets, particularly relating formulation variables to their dissolution performance. Application of the pure form, synthesized without the use of surfactants or stabilizers, is often preferred to maximize drug loading and also to minimize toxicity. Cefuroxime axetil, a poorly water-soluble cephalosporin antibiotic, was used as the model drug in the formulation development. Drug release rate, tablet disintegration time, tensile strength and energy of failure were predominantly influenced by the amount of super-disintegrant, amount of surfactant, compression force and diluent species, respectively. The compression rate had minimal impact on the responses. The main hurdle confronting the effective use of pure drug nanoparticles in tablets is the difficulty in controlling aggregation in solution, which could potentially be aggravated by the tabletting process. Through the use of elevated levels of surfactants (8 w/w% sodium dodecyl sulphate), drug release from the nanoparticle preparation was enhanced from 58.0 ± 2.7% to 72.3 ± 0.7% in 10 min. Hence, it is recommended that physical formulations for pure drug nanoparticles be focused on the particle de-aggregation step in solution, if much higher rates are to be desired. In conclusion, even though pure drug nanoparticles could be easily synthesized, limitations from aggregation may need to be overcome, before successful application in tablets can be fully realized.

  6. Neutralization of sulfuric acid solutions by calcite dissolution and the application to anoxic limestone drain design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huminicki, Danielle M.C.; Rimstidt, J. Donald

    2008-01-01

    Batch reactor (BR) experiments were conducted to measure the effect of hydrodynamics and gypsum coatings on calcite neutralization rates. A factorial array of BR experiments measured the H + concentration change by calcite dissolution over a pH range of 1.5-3.5 and Na 2 SO 4 concentrations of 0-1 M. The rate of H + concentration change with time was determined by numerical differentiation of H + concentration versus time. Regression modeling showed that for uncoated calcite, rates are only significantly affected by pH, r=-10 -2.32 a H + 0.76 . Whereas, for calcite coated with gypsum only time had a significant effect on calcite dissolution rates, r = -10 -1.96 t -0.53 . Because transport-limited dissolution rates for uncoated calcite are a function of the pH and Reynolds number, a model was developed to express the effects of these two variables on the rate of H + consumption for a solution with a Darcy velocity, q, through a porous medium with a particle radius, r p , such that r ' =1.08x10 -3 q 0.31 r p -0.69 m H + 0.87 . This equation was integrated via a numerical model to simulate the performance of an idealized anoxic limestone drain (ALD). This model predicts the pH and alkalinity change along the length of an ALD. The model shows that the efficiency of an ALD is greater when the Darcy velocity is low and the particle radius is small. In addition, the growth of gypsum coatings causes the rate of H + neutralization to decline as the square root of time as they form and block the H + transport to the calcite surface. Supersaturation with respect to gypsum, leading to coating formation, can be avoided by diluting the ALD feed solution or by replacing limestone with dolomite

  7. Interactions between magnetite and humic substances: redox reactions and dissolution processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundman, Anneli; Byrne, James M; Bauer, Iris; Menguy, Nicolas; Kappler, Andreas

    2017-10-19

    Humic substances (HS) are redox-active compounds that are ubiquitous in the environment and can serve as electron shuttles during microbial Fe(III) reduction thus reducing a variety of Fe(III) minerals. However, not much is known about redox reactions between HS and the mixed-valent mineral magnetite (Fe 3 O 4 ) that can potentially lead to changes in Fe(II)/Fe(III) stoichiometry and even dissolve the magnetite. To address this knowledge gap, we incubated non-reduced (native) and reduced HS with four types of magnetite that varied in particle size and solid-phase Fe(II)/Fe(III) stoichiometry. We followed dissolved and solid-phase Fe(II) and Fe(III) concentrations over time to quantify redox reactions between HS and magnetite. Magnetite redox reactions and dissolution processes with HS varied depending on the initial magnetite and HS properties. The interaction between biogenic magnetite and reduced HS resulted in dissolution of the solid magnetite mineral, as well as an overall reduction of the magnetite. In contrast, a slight oxidation and no dissolution was observed when native and reduced HS interacted with 500 nm magnetite. This variability in the solubility and electron accepting and donating capacity of the different types of magnetite is likely an effect of differences in their reduction potential that is correlated to the magnetite Fe(II)/Fe(III) stoichiometry, particle size, and crystallinity. Our study suggests that redox-active HS play an important role for Fe redox speciation within minerals such as magnetite and thereby influence the reactivity of these Fe minerals and their role in biogeochemical Fe cycling. Furthermore, such processes are also likely to have an effect on the fate of other elements bound to the surface of Fe minerals.

  8. Intracellular Crosslinking of Filoviral Nucleoproteins with Xintrabodies Restricts Viral Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamarand Lee Darling

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Viruses assemble large macromolecular repeat structures that become part of the infectious particles or virions. Ribonucleocapsids (RNCs of negative strand RNA viruses are a prime example where repetition of nucleoprotein (NP along the genome creates a core polymeric helical scaffold that accommodates other nucleocapsid proteins including viral polymerase. The RNCs are transported through the cytosol for packaging into virions through association with viral matrix proteins at cell membranes. We hypothesized that RNC would be ideal targets for crosslinkers engineered to promote aberrant protein–protein interactions, thereby blocking their orderly transport and packaging. Previously, we had generated single-domain antibodies (sdAbs against Filoviruses that have all targeted highly conserved C-terminal regions of NP known to be repetitively exposed along the length of the RNCs of Marburgvirus (MARV and Ebolavirus (EBOV. Our crosslinker design consisted of dimeric sdAb expressed intracellularly, which we call Xintrabodies (X- for crosslinking. Electron microscopy of purified NP polymers incubated with purified sdAb constructs showed NP aggregation occurred in a genus-specific manner with dimeric and not monomeric sdAb. A virus-like particle (VLP assay was used for initial evaluation where we found that dimeric sdAb inhibited NP incorporation into VP40-based VLPs whereas monomeric sdAb did not. Inhibition of NP packaging was genus specific. Confocal microscopy revealed dimeric sdAb was diffuse when expressed alone but focused on pools of NP when the two were coexpressed, while monomeric sdAb showed ambivalent partition. Infection of stable Vero cell lines expressing dimeric sdAb specific for either MARV or EBOV NP resulted in smaller plaques and reduced progeny of cognate virus relative to wild-type Vero cells. Though the impact was marginal at later time-points, the collective data suggest that viral replication can be reduced by crosslinking

  9. Dissolution of cellulose in ionic liquid: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd, N.; Draman, S. F. S.; Salleh, M. S. N.; Yusof, N. B.

    2017-02-01

    Dissolution of cellulose with ionic liquids (IL) and deep eutectic solvent (DES) lets the comprehensive dissolution of cellulose. Basically, cellulose can be dissolved, in some hydrophilic ionic liquids, such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (BMIMCl) and 1-allyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride (AMIMCl). Chloride based ionic liquids are suitable solvents for cellulose dissolution. Although the ILs is very useful in fine chemical industry, its application in the pharmaceutical and food industry have been very limited due to issues with toxicity, purity, and high cost. Seeing to these limitations, new green alternative solvent which is DES was used. This green solvents, may be definitely treated as the next-generation reagents for more sustainable industrial development. Thus, this review aims to discuss the dissolution of cellulose either with ionic liquids or DES and its application.

  10. Dissolution of heavy metals from electrostatic precipitator (ESP) dust ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SIBOO

    Key words: Fungal leaching, sponge iron, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) dust, metal dissolution. INTRODUCTION ... ability of micro organisms to transform solid compounds ..... of metals from spent lithium ion secondary batteries using A.

  11. wax matrix tablets and its implication on dissolution prof

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acetaminophen-wax matrix tablet and hence its implication on dissolution profile. Acetaminophen-wax ... inertness, cost effectiveness, non- toxicity and more importantly their ... Liver Poole, England) at constant load (30 arbitrary units on the ...

  12. Studies on PEM fuel cell noble metal catalyst dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. M.; Grahl-Madsen, L.; Skou, E. M.

    2011-01-01

    A combination of electrochemical, spectroscopic and gravimetric methods was carried out on Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell electrodes with the focus on platinum and ruthenium catalysts dissolution, and the membrane degradation. In cyclic voltammetry (CV) experiments, the noble metals were...... found to dissolve in 1 M sulfuric acid solution and the dissolution increased exponentially with the upper potential limit (UPL) between 0.6 and 1.6 vs. RHE. 2-20% of the Pt (depending on the catalyst type) was found to be dissolved during the experiments. Under the same conditions, 30-100% of the Ru...... (depending on the catalyst type) was found to be dissolved. The faster dissolution of ruthenium compared to platinum in the alloy type catalysts was also confirmed by X-ray diffraction measurements. The dissolution of the carbon supported catalyst was found one order of magnitude higher than the unsupported...

  13. Stability and drug dissolution evaluation of Qingkailing soft/hard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HPLC-DAD) method was developed ... stability and drug dissolution, which may affect the biopharmaceutics and the clinical effects of the drug. ... behavior may also affect the pharmacokinetic ..... of enzymes and intrinsic factors in stomach and.

  14. Study on the dissolution of uranium dibutyl phosphate deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rufus, A.L.; Sathyaseelan, V.S.; Velmurugan, S.; Narasimhan

    2008-01-01

    An insoluble sticky complex of uranium dibutyl phosphate (U-DBP) formed on the inner surfaces of a reprocessing facility can host radioactive nuclides resulting in radiation exposure hazard. Removal of this layer will greatly result in the reduction of radiation field. Hence, dissolution studies with synthetically prepared U-DBP were carried out. A two-step dissolution process consisting of an initial oxidation with acid permanganate followed by reduction with NAC (NTA, Ascorbic acid and Citric acid) was used. Oxidation kinetics of DBP by permanganate, dissolution of synthetic U-DBP complex as a powder and also as a film over SS surface was studied. XRF and SEM techniques were used to monitor the process of dissolution. Material compatibility of welded SS-304 specimens was also studied. It was found that the two-step process was more efficient when compared to either permanganate or NAC treatment alone. (author)

  15. investigation of dissolution kinetics of a nigerian columbite

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1,2 DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING, OBAFEMI AWOLOWO UNIVERSITY, ILE-IFE, OSUN STATE NIGERIA. E-mail addresses: ... Experimental results indicate that the dissolution rate is chemical reaction ..... Nuclear Instruments.

  16. The effect of sentencing types on singlehood and relationship dissolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallesen, Peter; Andersen, Lars Højsgaard

    Prior research shows that imprisonment may matter for the risk of experiencing divorce or other types of relationship dissolution, as imprisonment implies separation and the social stigma of criminal conviction. Despite these straightforward theoretical mechanisms, we currently lack empirical...

  17. Predicting the dissolution kinetics of silicate glasses using machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anoop Krishnan, N. M.; Mangalathu, Sujith; Smedskjaer, Morten M.; Tandia, Adama; Burton, Henry; Bauchy, Mathieu

    2018-05-01

    Predicting the dissolution rates of silicate glasses in aqueous conditions is a complex task as the underlying mechanism(s) remain poorly understood and the dissolution kinetics can depend on a large number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Here, we assess the potential of data-driven models based on machine learning to predict the dissolution rates of various aluminosilicate glasses exposed to a wide range of solution pH values, from acidic to caustic conditions. Four classes of machine learning methods are investigated, namely, linear regression, support vector machine regression, random forest, and artificial neural network. We observe that, although linear methods all fail to describe the dissolution kinetics, the artificial neural network approach offers excellent predictions, thanks to its inherent ability to handle non-linear data. Overall, we suggest that a more extensive use of machine learning approaches could significantly accelerate the design of novel glasses with tailored properties.

  18. Biologically mediated dissolution of volcanic glass in seawater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staudigel, H; Yayanos, A; Chastain, R; Davies, G.T.; Verdurmen, E.A Th; Schiffmann, P; Bourcier, R; de Baar, H.J.W.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the effects of biological mediation on the dissolution of basaltic glass in seawater. Experiments with typical seawater microbial populations were contrasted with a sterile control, and reactions were monitored chemically and isotopically. Biologically mediated experiments produce twice

  19. In vivo dissolution measurement with indium-111 summation peak ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jay, M.; Woodward, M.A.; Brouwer, K.R.

    1985-01-01

    Dissolution of [ 111 In]labeled tablets was measured in vivo in a totally noninvasive manner by using a modification of the perturbed angular correlation technique known as the summation peak ratio method. This method, which requires the incorporation of only 10-12 microCi into the dosage form, provided reliable dissolution data after oral administration of [ 111 In]lactose tablets. These results were supported by in vitro experiments which demonstrated that the dissolution rate as measured by the summation peak ratio method was in close agreement with the dissolution rate of salicylic acid in a [ 111 In]salicylic acid tablet. The method has the advantages of using only one detector, thereby avoiding the need for complex coincidence counting systems, requiring less radioactivity, and being potentially applicable to a gamma camera imaging system

  20. Controlled dissolution of colossal quantities of nitrogen in stainless steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2006-01-01

    The solubility of nitrogen in austenitic stainless steel was investigated thermogravimetrically by equilibrating thin foils of AISI 304 and AISI 316 in ammonia/hydrogen gas mixtures. Controlled dissolution of colossal amounts of nitrogen under metastable equilibrium conditions was realized...

  1. Evaluation of disintegration and dissolution of chloroquine tablets in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of disintegration and dissolution of chloroquine tablets in some States in Northern Nigeria. ... This study seeks to assess the quality of chloroquine tablets in some States in Northern Nigeria by determining ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  2. Study on the dissolution of uranium dibutyl phosphate deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rufus, A.L.; Sathyaseelan, V.S.; Velmurugan, S.; Narasimhan [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Facilities, Water and Steam Chemistry Div., Kalpakkam (India)], E-mail: svn@igcar.gov.in

    2008-07-01

    An insoluble sticky complex of uranium dibutyl phosphate (U-DBP) formed on the inner surfaces of a reprocessing facility can host radioactive nuclides resulting in radiation exposure hazard. Removal of this layer will greatly result in the reduction of radiation field. Hence, dissolution studies with synthetically prepared U-DBP were carried out. A two-step dissolution process consisting of an initial oxidation with acid permanganate followed by reduction with NAC (NTA, Ascorbic acid and Citric acid) was used. Oxidation kinetics of DBP by permanganate, dissolution of synthetic U-DBP complex as a powder and also as a film over SS surface was studied. XRF and SEM techniques were used to monitor the process of dissolution. Material compatibility of welded SS-304 specimens was also studied. It was found that the two-step process was more efficient when compared to either permanganate or NAC treatment alone. (author)

  3. Dissolution rate enhancement of repaglinide by solid dispersion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Diabetes, Solid dispersion, Repaglinide, Solubility, Dissolution, Burst release. Tropical Journal of ... high lipophilicity (logP = 3.97) and relatively low oral bioavailability (56 .... II drug, i.e., low soluble and high permeable in nature. As.

  4. Spent-fuel special-studies progress report: probable mechanisms for oxidation and dissolution of single-crystal UO2 surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, R.

    1981-03-01

    Due to the complexity of the structural, microstructural and compositional characteristics of spent fuel, basic leaching and dissolution mechanisms were studied with UO 2 matrix material, specifically with single-crystal UO 2 , to isolate individual contributory factors. The effects of oxidation and oxidation-dissolution were investigated in different oxidation conditions, such as in air, oxygenated solutions and deionized water containing H 2 O 2 . In addition, the effects of temperature on dissolution of UO 2 were studied in autoclaves at 75 and 150 0 C. Also, oxidation and dissolution measurements were investigated via electrochemical methods to determine if those techniques could be applied to the characterization of leaching and dissolution of spent fuel in a hot cell. Finally, the effects of radiation were explored since the radiolysis of water may create a localized oxidizing condition at or near the spent fuel-solution interface, even in neutral or reducing conditions as commonly found in deep geological environments. The oxidation and oxidation-dissolution mechanisms for UO 2 are proposed as follows: The UO 2 surface is first oxidized in solution to form a UO/sub 2+x/ surface layer several angstroms thick. This oxidized surface has a high dissolution rate since the UO/sub 2+x/ reacts with the dissolved O 2 , or H 2 O 2 , to form uranyl complex ions in a U(VI) state. As the uranyl ions exceed the solubility limits in solution, they become hydrolyzed to form solid deposits and suspended particles of UO 3 hydrates. The thickness and porosity of the deposited UO 3 hydrate surface-film is dependent on temperature, pH and deposition time. A long-term dissolution rate is then determined by the nature of the surface film, such as porosity, solubility and mechanical properties

  5. TANK 12 SLUDGE CHARACTERIZATION AND ALUMINUM DISSOLUTION DEMONSTRATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboul, S.; Hay, Michael; Zeigler, Kristine; Stone, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A 3-L sludge slurry sample from Tank 12 was characterized and then processed through an aluminum dissolution demonstration. The dominant constituent of the sludge was found to be aluminum in the form of boehmite. The iron content was minor, about one-tenth that of the aluminum. The salt content of the supernatant was relatively high, with a sodium concentration of ∼7 M. Due to these characteristics, the yield stress and plastic viscosity of the unprocessed slurry were relatively high (19 Pa and 27 cP), and the settling rate of the sludge was relatively low (∼20% settling over a two and a half week period). Prior to performing aluminum dissolution, plutonium and gadolinium were added to the slurry to simulate receipt of plutonium waste from H-Canyon. Aluminum dissolution was performed over a 26 day period at a temperature of 65 C. Approximately 60% of the insoluble aluminum dissolved during the demonstration, with the rate of dissolution slowing significantly by the end of the demonstration period. In contrast, approximately 20% of the plutonium and less than 1% of the gadolinium partitioned to the liquid phase. However, about a third of the liquid phase plutonium became solubilized prior to the dissolution period, when the H-Canyon plutonium/gadolinium simulant was added to the Tank 12 slurry. Quantification of iron dissolution was less clear, but appeared to be on the order of 1% based on the majority of data (a minor portion of the data suggested iron dissolution could be as high as 10%). The yield stress of the post-dissolution slurry (2.5 Pa) was an order of magnitude lower than the initial slurry, due most likely to the reduced insoluble solids content caused by aluminum dissolution. In contrast, the plastic viscosity remained unchanged (27 cP). The settling rate of the post-dissolution slurry was higher than the initial slurry, but still relatively low compared to settling of typical high iron content/low salt content sludges. Approximately 40% of the

  6. Intracellular trafficking of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles conjugated with TAT peptide: 3-dimensional electron tomography analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, Baiju G.; Fukuda, Takahiro; Mizuki, Toru; Hanajiri, Tatsuro [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan); Maekawa, Toru, E-mail: maekawa@toyo.jp [Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan)

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study the intracellular localisation of TAT-SPIONs using 3-D electron tomography. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 3-D images of TAT-SPIONs in a cell are clearly shown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Release of TAT-SPIONs from endocytic vesicles into the cytoplasm is clearly shown. -- Abstract: Internalisation of nanoparticles conjugated with cell penetrating peptides is a promising approach to various drug delivery applications. Cell penetrating peptides such as transactivating transcriptional activator (TAT) peptides derived from HIV-1 proteins are effective intracellular delivery vectors for a wide range of nanoparticles and pharmaceutical agents thanks to their amicable ability to enter cells and minimum cytotoxicity. Although different mechanisms of intracellular uptake and localisation have been proposed for TAT conjugated nanoparticles, it is necessary to visualise the particles on a 3-D plane in order to investigate the actual intracellular uptake and localisation. Here, we study the intracellular localisation and trafficking of TAT peptide conjugated superparamagnetic ion oxide nanoparticles (TAT-SPIONs) using 3-D electron tomography. 3-D tomograms clearly show the location of TAT-SPIONs in a cell and their slow release from the endocytic vesicles into the cytoplasm. The present methodology may well be utilised for further investigations of the behaviours of nanoparticles in cells and eventually for the development of nano drug delivery systems.

  7. Intracellular trafficking of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles conjugated with TAT peptide: 3-dimensional electron tomography analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, Baiju G.; Fukuda, Takahiro; Mizuki, Toru; Hanajiri, Tatsuro; Maekawa, Toru

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We study the intracellular localisation of TAT-SPIONs using 3-D electron tomography. ► 3-D images of TAT-SPIONs in a cell are clearly shown. ► Release of TAT-SPIONs from endocytic vesicles into the cytoplasm is clearly shown. -- Abstract: Internalisation of nanoparticles conjugated with cell penetrating peptides is a promising approach to various drug delivery applications. Cell penetrating peptides such as transactivating transcriptional activator (TAT) peptides derived from HIV-1 proteins are effective intracellular delivery vectors for a wide range of nanoparticles and pharmaceutical agents thanks to their amicable ability to enter cells and minimum cytotoxicity. Although different mechanisms of intracellular uptake and localisation have been proposed for TAT conjugated nanoparticles, it is necessary to visualise the particles on a 3-D plane in order to investigate the actual intracellular uptake and localisation. Here, we study the intracellular localisation and trafficking of TAT peptide conjugated superparamagnetic ion oxide nanoparticles (TAT-SPIONs) using 3-D electron tomography. 3-D tomograms clearly show the location of TAT-SPIONs in a cell and their slow release from the endocytic vesicles into the cytoplasm. The present methodology may well be utilised for further investigations of the behaviours of nanoparticles in cells and eventually for the development of nano drug delivery systems.

  8. Experimental results: Pilot plant calcine dissolution and liquid feed stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbst, R.S.; Fryer, D.S.; Brewer, K.N.; Johnson, C.K.; Todd, T.A.

    1995-02-01

    The dissolution of simulated Idaho Chemical Processing Plant pilot plant calcines, containing none of the radioactive actinides, lanthanides or fission products, was examined to evaluate the solubility of calcine matrix materials in acidic media. This study was a necessary precursor to dissolution and optimization experiments with actual radionuclide-containing calcines. The importance of temperature, nitric acid concentration, ratio of acid volume to calcine mass, and time on the amount, as a weight percentage of calcine dissolved, was evaluated. These parameters were studied for several representative pilot plant calcine types: (1) Run No. 74 Zirconia calcine; (2) Run No. 17 Zirconia/Sodium calcine; (3) Run No. 64 Zirconia/Sodium calcine; (3) Run No. 1027 Alumina calcine; and (4) Run No. 20 Alumina/Zirconia/Sodium calcine. Statistically designed experiments with the different pilot plant calcines indicated the effect of the studied process variables on the amount of calcine dissolved decreases in the order: Acid/Calcine Ratio > Temperature > HNO 3 Concentration > Dissolution Time. The following conditions are suitable to achieve greater than 90 wt. % dissolution of most Zr, Al, or Na blend calcines: (1) Maximum nitric acid concentration of 5M; (2) Minimum acid/calcine ratio of 10 mL acid/1 gram calcine; (3) Minimum dissolution temperature of 90 degrees C; and (4) Minimum dissolution time of 30 minutes. The formation of calcium sulphate (CaSO 4 ) precipitates was observed in certain dissolved calcine solutions during the dissolution experiments. Consequently, a study was initiated to evaluate if and under what conditions the resulting dissolved calcine solutions would be unstable with regards to precipitate formation. The results indicate that precipitate formation in the calcine solutions prepared under the above proposed dissolution conditions are not anticipated

  9. Investigating Dissolution and Precipitation Phenomena with a Smartphone Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Arcia, Edgar

    2016-10-11

    A novel smartphone microscope can be used to observe the dissolution and crystallization of sodium chloride at a microscopic level. Observation of these seemingly simple phenomena through the microscope at 100× magnification can actually reveal some surprising behavior. These experiments offer the opportunity to discuss some basic concepts such as how the morphological features of the crystals dictates how the dissolution process proceeds, and how materials can be purified by re-crystallization techniques.

  10. Dissolution of Kansas evaporites: the radioactive waste disposal problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.J.

    1977-01-01

    The radioactive waste repository at Lyons, Kansas, focused attention on the problem of evaporite dissolution. More study is needed in the determination of the mechanisms responsible for deterioration. Also, recent water-use policies have been questioned with the need pointed out for increased effectiveness in planning. Good water planning has to take into account the role of evaporite dissolution in water quality. 23 references

  11. Solid dispersions, part II: new strategies in manufacturing methods for dissolution rate enhancement of poorly water-soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikiaris, Dimitrios N

    2011-12-01

    The absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs, when presented in the crystalline state to the gastrointestinal tract, is typically dissolution rate-limited, and according to BCS these drugs belong mainly to class II. Both dissolution kinetics and solubility are particle size dependent. Nowadays, various techniques are available to the pharmaceutical industry for dissolution rate enhancement of such drugs. Among such techniques, nanosuspensions and drug formulation in solid dispersions are those with the highest interest. This review discusses strategies undertaken over the last 10 years, which have been applied for the dissolution enhancement of poorly water-soluble drugs; such processes include melt mixing, electrospinning, microwave irradiation and the use of inorganic nanoparticles. Many problems in this field still need to be solved, mainly the use of toxic solvents, and for this reason the use of innovative new procedures and materials will increase over the coming years. Melt mixing remains extremely promising for the preparation of SDs and will probably become the most used method in the future for the preparation of solid drug dispersions.

  12. Comparative Studies on the Dissolution Profiles of Oral Ibuprofen Suspension and Commercial Tablets using Biopharmaceutical Classification System Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Leyva, J. C.; García-Flores, M.; Valladares-Méndez, A.; Orozco-Castellanos, L. M.; Martínez-Alfaro, M.

    2012-01-01

    In vitro dissolution studies for solid oral dosage forms have recently widened the scope to a variety of special dosage forms such as suspensions. For class II drugs, like Ibuprofen, it is very important to have discriminative methods for different formulations in physiological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, which will identify different problems that compromise the drug bioavailability. In the present work, two agitation speeds have been performed in order to study ibuprofen suspension dissolution. The suspensions have been characterised relatively to particle size, density and solubility. The dissolution study was conducted using the following media: buffer pH 7.2, pH 6.8, 4.5 and 0.1 M HCl. For quantitative analysis, the UV/Vis spectrophotometry was used because this methodology had been adequately validated. The results show that 50 rpm was the adequate condition to discriminate the dissolution profile. The suspension kinetic release was found to be dependent on pH and was different compared to tablet release profile at the same experimental conditions. The ibuprofen release at pH 1.0 was the slowest. PMID:23626386

  13. Positively Charged Nanostructured Lipid Carriers and Their Effect on the Dissolution of Poorly Soluble Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyeong-Ok Choi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to develop suitable formulations to improve the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs. We selected lipid-based formulation as a drug carrier and modified the surface using positively charged chitosan derivative (HTCC to increase its water solubility and bioavailability. Chitosan and HTCC-coated lipid particles had higher zeta-potential values than uncoated one over the whole pH ranges and improved encapsulation efficiency. In vitro drug release showed that all NLC formulations showed higher in vitro release efficiency than drug particle at pH 7.4. Furthermore, NLC formulation prepared with chitosan or HTCC represented good sustained release property. The results indicate that chitosan and HTCC can be excellent formulating excipients of lipid-based delivery carrier for improving poorly water soluble drug delivery.

  14. Positively Charged Nanostructured Lipid Carriers and Their Effect on the Dissolution of Poorly Soluble Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyeong-Ok; Choe, Jaehyeog; Suh, Seokjin; Ko, Sanghoon

    2016-05-20

    The objective of this study is to develop suitable formulations to improve the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs. We selected lipid-based formulation as a drug carrier and modified the surface using positively charged chitosan derivative (HTCC) to increase its water solubility and bioavailability. Chitosan and HTCC-coated lipid particles had higher zeta-potential values than uncoated one over the whole pH ranges and improved encapsulation efficiency. In vitro drug release showed that all NLC formulations showed higher in vitro release efficiency than drug particle at pH 7.4. Furthermore, NLC formulation prepared with chitosan or HTCC represented good sustained release property. The results indicate that chitosan and HTCC can be excellent formulating excipients of lipid-based delivery carrier for improving poorly water soluble drug delivery.

  15. Dissolution of nuclear fuels; Disolucion de combustibles Nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uriarte Hueda, A; Berberana Eizmendi, M; Rainey, R

    1968-07-01

    A laboratory study was made of the instantaneous dissolution rate (IDR) for unirradiated uranium metal rods and UO{sub 2}, PuO{sub 2} and PuO{sub 2}-UO{sub 2} pellets in boiling nitric acid alone and with additives. The uranium metal and UO{sub 2} dissolved readily in nitric acid alone; PuO{sub 2} dissolved slowly even with the addition of fluoride; PuO{sub 2}-UO{sub 2} pellets containing as much as 35% PuO{sub 2} in UO{sub 2} gave values of the instantaneous dissolution rate to indicate can be dissolved with nitric acid alone. An equation to calculate the time for complete dissolution has been determinate in function of the instantaneous dissolution rates. The calculated values agree with the experimental. Uranium dioxide pellets from various sources but all having a same density varied in instantaneous dissolution rate. All the pellets, however, have dissolved ved in the same time. The time for complete dissolution of PuO{sub 2}-UO{sub 2} pellets, having the same composition, and the concentration of the used reagents are function of the used reagents are function of the fabrication method. (Author) 8 refs.

  16. Dissolution of ion exchange resin by hydrogen peroxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.C.

    1981-08-01

    The resin dissolution process was conducted successfully in full-scale equipment at the SRL Semiworks. A solution containing 0.001M Fe 2+ , or Fe 3+ , and 3 vol % H 2 O 2 in 0.1M HNO 3 is sufficient to dissolve up to 40 vol % resin slurry (Dowex 50W-X8). Foaming and pressurization can be eliminated by maintaining the dissolution temperature below 99 0 C. The recommended dissolution temperature range is 85 to 90 0 C. Premixing hydrogen peroxide with all reactants will not create a safety hazard, but operating with a continual feed of hydrogen peroxide is recommended to control the dissolution rate. An air sparging rate of 1.0 to 1.5 scfm will provide sufficient mixing. Spent resin from chemical separation contains DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) residue, and the resin must be washed with 0.1M NH 4 OH to remove excess DTPA before dissolution. Gamma irradiation of resin up to 4 kW-hr/L did not change the dissolution rate significantly

  17. Dissolution of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles in aqueous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odzak, Niksa; Kistler, David; Behra, Renata; Sigg, Laura

    2014-01-01

    The dissolution of Ag (citrate, gelatin, polyvinylpyrrolidone and chitosan coated), ZnO, CuO and carbon coated Cu nanoparticles (with two nominal sizes each) has been studied in artificial aqueous media, similar in chemistry to environmental waters, for up to 19 days. The dissolved fraction was determined using DGT (Diffusion Gradients in Thin films), dialysis membrane (DM) and ultrafiltration (UF). Relatively small fractions of Ag nanoparticles dissolved, whereas ZnO dissolved nearly completely within few hours. Cu and CuO dissolved as a function of pH. Using DGT, less dissolved Ag was measured compared to UF and DM, likely due to differences in diffusion of organic complexes. Similar dissolved metal concentrations of ZnO, Cu and CuO nanoparticles were determined using DGT and UF, but lower using DM. The results indicate that there is a need to apply complementary techniques to precisely determine dissolution of nanoparticles in aqueous media. - Highlights: • Three different techniques used simultaneously to measure NPs dissolution. • ZnO-NPs are the most soluble, followed by CuO-NPs, carbon coated Cu-NPs and Ag-NPs. • Dissolution is an important process affecting the fate of nanoparticles. • Complementary techniques are needed to precisely determine dissolution of NPs. - Dissolution of several types of nanoparticles was examined in aqueous media using three complementary techniques

  18. Phosphorous availability influences the dissolution of apatite by soil fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosling, A.; Suttle, K. B.; Johansson, E.; van Hees, P. W.; Banfield, J. F.

    2007-12-01

    We conducted mineral dissolution experiments using fungi isolated from a grassland soil in northern California to determine the response of fungi to different levels of phosphorus availability and to identify pathways of apatite dissolution by fungal exudates. Fluorapatite dissolution experiments were performed either with fungi present or under abiotic conditions using cell-free liquid media conditioned by fungal growth at different phosphorus and calcium availabilities. Among biogeochemically active soil fungal isolates apatite dissolution was either active in response to phosphorus limiting growth conditions or passive as a result of mycelial growth. Zygomycete isolates in the order of Mucorales acidify their growth media substrate in the presence of phosphorus, mainly through production of oxalic acid. Cell-free exudates induced fluorapatite dissolution at a rate of 10 -0.9 ± 0.14 and 10 -1.2 ± 0.22 mmol P/m2/s. The Ascomycete isolate, in the family Trichocomaceae, induced fluorapatite dissolution at a rate of 10 - 1.1 ± 0.05 mmol P/m2/s by lowering the pH of the media under phosphorus-limited conditions, without producing significant amounts of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs). Oxalate strongly etches fluorapatite along channels parallel to [001], forming needle like features, while exudates from Trichocomaceae induced surface rounding. We conclude that while LMWOAs are well-studied weathering agents these does not appear to be produced by fungi in response to phosphorus limiting growth conditions.

  19. Dissolution of mixed oxide spent fuel from FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyoshi, H.; Nishina, H.; Toyota, O.; Yamamoto, R.; Nemoto, S.; Okamoto, F.; Togashi, A.; Kawata, T.; Hayashi, S.

    1991-01-01

    At the Tokai Works of the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC), the Chemical Processing Facility (CPF) has been continuing operation since 1982 for laboratory scale hot experiments on reprocessing of FBR mixed oxide fuel. As a part of these experiments, dissolution experiments have been performed to define the key parameters affecting dissolution rates such as concentration of nitric acid, temperature and burnup and also to confirm the amount of insoluble residue. The dissolution rate of the irradiated fuel was determined to be in proportion to the 1.7 power of the nitric acid concentration. The activation energy determined from the experiments varied from 6 to 11 kcal/mol depending on the method of dissolution. The dissolution rate decreased as the fuel burnup increased in low nitric acid media below 5 mol/l. However, it was found that the effect of the burnup became negligible in a high concentration of nitric acid media. The amount of insoluble residue and its constituents were evaluated by changing the dissolution condition. (author)

  20. Size-Dependent Regulation of Intracellular Trafficking of Polystyrene Nanoparticle-Based Drug-Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Wang, Lu; Li, Xiaoming; Hu, Xingjie; Han, Yuping; Luo, Yao; Wang, Zejun; Li, Qian; Aldalbahi, Ali; Wang, Lihua; Song, Shiping; Fan, Chunhai; Zhao, Yun; Wang, Maolin; Chen, Nan

    2017-06-07

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have shown great promise as intracellular imaging probes or nanocarriers and are increasingly being used in biomedical applications. A detailed understanding of how NPs get "in and out" of cells is important for developing new nanomaterials with improved selectivity and less cytotoxicity. Both physical and chemical characteristics have been proven to regulate the cellular uptake of NPs. However, the exocytosis process and its regulation are less explored. Herein, we investigated the size-regulated endocytosis and exocytosis of carboxylated polystyrene (PS) NPs. PS NPs with a smaller size were endocytosed mainly through the clathrin-dependent pathway, whereas PS NPs with a larger size preferred caveolae-mediated endocytosis. Furthermore, our results revealed exocytosis of larger PS NPs and tracked the dynamic process at the single-particle level. These results indicate that particle size is a key factor for the regulation of intracellular trafficking of NPs and provide new insight into the development of more effective cellular nanocarriers.

  1. Dynamics of gradient formation by intracellular shuttling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezhkovskii, Alexander M. [Mathematical and Statistical Computing Laboratory, Division of Computational Bioscience, Center for Information Technology, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Shvartsman, Stanislav Y. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering and Lewis-Sigler Institute for Integrative Genomics, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2015-08-21

    A number of important cellular functions rely on the formation of intracellular protein concentration gradients. Experimental studies discovered a number of mechanisms for the formation of such gradients. One of the mechanisms relies on the intracellular shuttling of a protein that interconverts between the two states with different diffusivities, under the action of two enzymes, one of which is localized to the plasma membrane, whereas the second is uniformly distributed in the cytoplasm. Recent work reported an analytical solution for the steady state gradient in this mechanism, obtained in the framework of a one-dimensional reaction-diffusion model. Here, we study the dynamics in this model and derive analytical expressions for the Laplace transforms of the time-dependent concentration profiles in terms of elementary transcendental functions. Inverting these transforms numerically, one can obtain time-dependent concentration profiles of the two forms of the protein.

  2. Leishmania hijacking of the macrophage intracellular compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liévin-Le Moal, Vanessa; Loiseau, Philippe M

    2016-02-01

    Leishmania spp., transmitted to humans by the bite of the sandfly vector, are responsible for the three major forms of leishmaniasis, cutaneous, diffuse mucocutaneous and visceral. Leishmania spp. interact with membrane receptors of neutrophils and macrophages. In macrophages, the parasite is internalized within a parasitophorous vacuole and engages in a particular intracellular lifestyle in which the flagellated, motile Leishmania promastigote metacyclic form differentiates into non-motile, metacyclic amastigote form. This phenomenon is induced by Leishmania-triggered events leading to the fusion of the parasitophorous vacuole with vesicular members of the host cell endocytic pathway including recycling endosomes, late endosomes and the endoplasmic reticulum. Maturation of the parasitophorous vacuole leads to the intracellular proliferation of the Leishmania amastigote forms by acquisition of host cell nutrients while escaping host defense responses. © 2015 FEBS.

  3. Reduction of intracellular glutathione content and radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, O.; Schans, G.P. van der; Roos-Verheij, W.S.D.

    1986-05-01

    The intracellular glutathione (GSH) content in HeLa, CHO and V79 cells was reduced by incubating the cells in growth medium containing buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) or diethyl maleate (DEM). Clonogenicity, single strand DNA breaks (ssb) and double strand DNA breaks (dsb) were used as criteria for radiation induced damage after X- or γ irradiation. In survival experiments DEM gave a slightly larger sensitization although it gave a smaller reduction of the intracellular GSH. In general, sensitization was larger for dsb than for ssb, also the reduction of the OER was generally larger for dsb than for ssb. This may be due to the higher dose rate in case of dsb experiments resulting in a higher rate of radiochemical oxygen consumption. In general, no effect was found on post-irradiation repair of ssb and dsb. (Auth.)

  4. Reduction of intracellular glutathione content and radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vos, O.; Schans, G.P. van der; Roos-Verheij, W.S.D.

    1986-01-01

    The intracellular glutathione (GSH) content of HeLa, CHO and V79 cells was reduced by incubating the cells in growth medium containing buthionine sulphoximine or diethyl maleate (DEM). Clonogenicity, single-strand DNA breaks (ssb) and double-strand DNA breaks (dsb) were used as criteria for radiation-induced damage after X- or γ-irradiation. In survival experiments, DEM gave a slightly larger sensitization although it gave a smaller reduction of the intracellular GSH. In general, sensitization was larger for dsb than for ssb, also the reduction of the o.e.r. was generally larger for dsb than for ssb. This may be due to the higher dose rate in case of dsb experiments resulting in a higher rate of radiochemical oxygen consumption. In general, no effect was found on post-irradiation repair of ssb and dsb. (author)

  5. Intracellular mechanisms of solar water disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Alférez, María; Polo-López, María Inmaculada; Fernández-Ibáñez, Pilar

    2016-12-01

    Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a zero-cost intervention measure to disinfect drinking water in areas of poor access to improved water sources, used by more than 6 million people in the world. The bactericidal action of solar radiation in water has been widely proven, nevertheless the causes for this remain still unclear. Scientific literature points out that generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) inside microorganisms promoted by solar light absorption is the main reason. For the first time, this work reports on the experimental measurement of accumulated intracellular ROS in E. coli during solar irradiation. For this experimental achievement, a modified protocol based on the fluorescent probe dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA), widely used for oxidative stress in eukaryotic cells, has been tested and validated for E. coli. Our results demonstrate that ROS and their accumulated oxidative damages at intracellular level are key in solar water disinfection.

  6. Intracellular serpins, firewalls and tissue necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marciniak, Stefan J; Lomas, David A

    2008-02-01

    Luke and colleagues have recently attributed a new role to a member of the serpin superfamily of serine proteinase inhibitors. They have used Caenorhabditis elegans to show that an intracellular serpin is crucial for maintaining lysosomal integrity. We examine the role of this firewall in preventing necrosis and attempt to integrate this with current theories of stress-induced protein degradation. We discuss how mutant serpins cause disease either through polymerization or now, perhaps, by unleashing necrosis.

  7. Fluorescent nanoparticles for intracellular sensing: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruedas-Rama, Maria J.; Walters, Jamie D.; Orte, Angel; Hall, Elizabeth A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Analytical applications of fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) in intracellular sensing. ► Critical review on performance of QDots, metal NPs, silica NPs, and polymer NPs. ► Highlighted potential of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). - Abstract: Fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs), including semiconductor NPs (Quantum Dots), metal NPs, silica NPs, polymer NPs, etc., have been a major focus of research and development during the past decade. The fluorescent nanoparticles show unique chemical and optical properties, such as brighter fluorescence, higher photostability and higher biocompatibility, compared to classical fluorescent organic dyes. Moreover, the nanoparticles can also act as multivalent scaffolds for the realization of supramolecular assemblies, since their high surface to volume ratio allow distinct spatial domains to be functionalized, which can provide a versatile synthetic platform for the implementation of different sensing schemes. Their excellent properties make them one of the most useful tools that chemistry has supplied to biomedical research, enabling the intracellular monitoring of many different species for medical and biological purposes. In this review, we focus on the developments and analytical applications of fluorescent nanoparticles in chemical and biological sensing within the intracellular environment. The review also points out the great potential of fluorescent NPs for fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). Finally, we also give an overview of the current methods for delivering of fluorescent NPs into cells, where critically examine the benefits and liabilities of each strategy.

  8. Fluorescent nanoparticles for intracellular sensing: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruedas-Rama, Maria J., E-mail: mjruedas@ugr.esmailto [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Campus Cartuja, 18071, Granada (Spain); Walters, Jamie D. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge, UK CB2 1QT (United Kingdom); Orte, Angel [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Granada, Campus Cartuja, 18071, Granada (Spain); Hall, Elizabeth A.H., E-mail: lisa.hall@biotech.cam.ac.uk [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge, CB2 1QT (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analytical applications of fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) in intracellular sensing. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Critical review on performance of QDots, metal NPs, silica NPs, and polymer NPs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highlighted potential of fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). - Abstract: Fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs), including semiconductor NPs (Quantum Dots), metal NPs, silica NPs, polymer NPs, etc., have been a major focus of research and development during the past decade. The fluorescent nanoparticles show unique chemical and optical properties, such as brighter fluorescence, higher photostability and higher biocompatibility, compared to classical fluorescent organic dyes. Moreover, the nanoparticles can also act as multivalent scaffolds for the realization of supramolecular assemblies, since their high surface to volume ratio allow distinct spatial domains to be functionalized, which can provide a versatile synthetic platform for the implementation of different sensing schemes. Their excellent properties make them one of the most useful tools that chemistry has supplied to biomedical research, enabling the intracellular monitoring of many different species for medical and biological purposes. In this review, we focus on the developments and analytical applications of fluorescent nanoparticles in chemical and biological sensing within the intracellular environment. The review also points out the great potential of fluorescent NPs for fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). Finally, we also give an overview of the current methods for delivering of fluorescent NPs into cells, where critically examine the benefits and liabilities of each strategy.

  9. Intracellular Cholesterol Trafficking and Impact in Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian Arenas

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is a critical component of membrane bilayers where it plays key structural and functional roles by regulating the activity of diverse signaling platforms and pathways. Particularly enriched in brain, cholesterol homeostasis in this organ is singular with respect to other tissues and exhibits a heterogeneous regulation in distinct brain cell populations. Due to the key role of cholesterol in brain physiology and function, alterations in cholesterol homeostasis and levels have been linked to brain diseases and neurodegeneration. In the case of Alzheimer disease (AD, however, this association remains unclear with evidence indicating that either increased or decreased total brain cholesterol levels contribute to this major neurodegenerative disease. Here, rather than analyzing the role of total cholesterol levels in neurodegeneration, we focus on the contribution of intracellular cholesterol pools, particularly in endolysosomes and mitochondria through its trafficking via specialized membrane domains delineated by the contacts between endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, in the onset of prevalent neurodegenerative diseases such as AD, Parkinson disease, and Huntington disease as well as in lysosomal disorders like Niemann-Pick type C disease. We dissect molecular events associated with intracellular cholesterol accumulation, especially in mitochondria, an event that results in impaired mitochondrial antioxidant defense and function. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in the distribution of cholesterol in intracellular compartments may shed light on the role of cholesterol homeostasis disruption in neurodegeneration and may pave the way for specific intervention opportunities.

  10. A bacteriophage endolysin that eliminates intracellular streptococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yang; Barros, Marilia; Vennemann, Tarek; Gallagher, D Travis; Yin, Yizhou; Linden, Sara B; Heselpoth, Ryan D; Spencer, Dennis J; Donovan, David M; Moult, John; Fischetti, Vincent A; Heinrich, Frank; Lösche, Mathias; Nelson, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    PlyC, a bacteriophage-encoded endolysin, lyses Streptococcus pyogenes (Spy) on contact. Here, we demonstrate that PlyC is a potent agent for controlling intracellular Spy that often underlies refractory infections. We show that the PlyC holoenzyme, mediated by its PlyCB subunit, crosses epithelial cell membranes and clears intracellular Spy in a dose-dependent manner. Quantitative studies using model membranes establish that PlyCB interacts strongly with phosphatidylserine (PS), whereas its interaction with other lipids is weak, suggesting specificity for PS as its cellular receptor. Neutron reflection further substantiates that PlyC penetrates bilayers above a PS threshold concentration. Crystallography and docking studies identify key residues that mediate PlyCB–PS interactions, which are validated by site-directed mutagenesis. This is the first report that a native endolysin can traverse epithelial membranes, thus substantiating the potential of PlyC as an antimicrobial for Spy in the extracellular and intracellular milieu and as a scaffold for engineering other functionalities. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13152.001 PMID:26978792

  11. Etching of semiconductor cubic crystals: Determination of the dissolution slowness surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellier, C. R.

    1990-03-01

    Equations of the representative surface of dissolution slowness for cubic crystals are determined in the framework of a tensorial approach of the orientation-dependent etching process. The independent dissolution constants are deduced from symmetry considerations. Using previous data on the chemical etching of germanium and gallium arsenide crystals, some possible polar diagrams of the dissolution slowness are proposed. A numerical and graphical simulation method is used to obtain the derived dissolution shapes. The influence of extrema in the dissolution slowness on the successive dissolution shapes is also examined. A graphical construction of limiting shapes of etched crystals appears possible using the tensorial representation of the dissolution slowness.

  12. Investigation of the gas formation in dissolution process of nuclear reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qinfen; Liao Yuanzhong; Chen Yongqing; Sun Shuyun; Fan Yincheng

    1987-12-01

    The gas formation in dissolution process of two kinds of nuclear fuels was studied. The results shows that the maximum volume flow released from dissolution system is composed of two parts. One of them is air remained in dissolver and pushed out by acid vapor. The other is produced in dissolution reaction. The procedure of calculating the gas amount produced in dissolution process has been given. It is based on variation of components of dissolution solution. The gas amount produced in dissolution process of spent UO 2 fuel elements was calculated. The condenser system and loading volume of disposal system of tail gas of dissolution of spent fuel were discussed

  13. Evaluating nanoparticle sensor design for intracellular pH measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjaminsen, Rikke V; Sun, Honghao; Henriksen, Jonas R; Christensen, Nynne M; Almdal, Kristoffer; Andresen, Thomas L

    2011-07-26

    Particle-based nanosensors have over the past decade been designed for optical fluorescent-based ratiometric measurements of pH in living cells. However, quantitative and time-resolved intracellular measurements of pH in endosomes and lysosomes using particle nanosensors are challenging, and there is a need to improve measurement methodology. In the present paper, we have successfully carried out time-resolved pH measurements in endosomes and lyosomes in living cells using nanoparticle sensors and show the importance of sensor choice for successful quantification. We have studied two nanoparticle-based sensor systems that are internalized by endocytosis and elucidated important factors in nanosensor design that should be considered in future development of new sensors. From our experiments it is clear that it is highly important to use sensors that have a broad measurement range, as erroneous quantification of pH is an unfortunate result when measuring pH too close to the limit of the sensitive range of the sensors. Triple-labeled nanosensors with a pH measurement range of 3.2-7.0, which was synthesized by adding two pH-sensitive fluorophores with different pK(a) to each sensor, seem to be a solution to some of the earlier problems found when measuring pH in the endosome-lysosome pathway.

  14. Dissolution performance of plutonium nitride based fuel materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aneheim, E.; Hedberg, M. [Nuclear Chemistry, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Kemivaegen 4, Gothenburg, SE41296 (Sweden)

    2016-07-01

    Nitride fuels have been regarded as one viable fuel option for Generation IV reactors due to their positive features compared to oxides. To be able to close the fuel cycle and follow the Generation IV concept, nitrides must, however, demonstrate their ability to be reprocessed. This means that the dissolution performance of actinide based nitrides has to be thoroughly investigated and assessed. As the zirconium stabilized nitrides show even better potential as fuel material than does the pure actinide containing nitrides, investigations on the dissolution behavior of both PuN and (Pu,Zr)N has been undertaken. If possible it is desirable to perform the fuel dissolutions using nitric acid. This, as most reprocessing strategies using solvent-solvent extraction are based on a nitride containing aqueous matrix. (Pu,Zr)N/C microspheres were produced using internal gelation. The spheres dissolution performance was investigated using nitric acid with and without additions of HF and Ag(II). In addition PuN fuel pellets were produced from powder and their dissolution performance were also assessed in a nitric acid based setting. It appears that both PuN and (Pu,Zr)N/C fuel material can be completely dissolved in nitric acid of high concentration with the use of catalytic amounts of HF. The amount of HF added strongly affects dissolution kinetics of (Pu, Zr)N and the presence of HF affects the 2 solutes differently, possibly due to inhomogeneity o the initial material. Large additions of Ag(II) can also be used to facilitate the dissolution of (Pu,Zr)N in nitric acid. PuN can be dissolved by pure nitric acid of high concentration at room temperature while (Pu, Zr)N is unaffected under similar conditions. At elevated temperature (reflux), (Pu,Zr)N can, however, also be dissolved by concentrated pure nitric acid.

  15. Hot-melt extrusion for enhanced delivery of drug particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Dave A; McConville, Jason T; Yang, Wei; Williams, Robert O; McGinity, James W

    2007-02-01

    With the recent advent of nanotechnology for pharmaceutical applications, drug particle engineering is the focus of increasing interest as a viable approach for overcoming solubility limitations of poorly water-soluble drugs. Although these particle engineering techniques have been proven successful for enhancing the dissolution properties of many poorly water-soluble drugs, there are limitations associated with them such as particle aggregation, morphological instability, and poor wettability. The aim of this study was to demonstrate a processing technique in which hot-melt extrusion (HME) is utilized to overcome these limitations. Micronized particles of amorphous itraconazole (ITZ) stabilized with PVP or HPMC were produced and subsequently melt extruded with poloxamer 407 and PEO 200 M to deaggregate and disperse the particles into the hydrophilic polymer matrix. Differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy were used to demonstrate that the HME process did not alter the properties of the micronized particles. Dissolution testing conducted at sink conditions revealed that the dissolution rate of the micronized particles was improved by HME due to particle deaggregation and enhanced wetting. Supersaturation dissolution testing demonstrated that the ITZ-HPMC micronized particle extrudates provided superior supersaturation of ITZ compared to the ITZ-PVP micronized particle extrudates. Supersaturation dissolution testing incorporating a pH change (from pH 1.2 to 6.8 at 2 h) revealed that neither micronized particle extrudate formulation significantly reduced the rate of ITZ precipitation from supersaturated solution once pH was increased. Moreover, the two extrudate formulations performed very similarly when only considering dissolution testing from just before pH adjustment through the duration of testing at neutral pH. From oral dosing of rats, it was determined that the two extrudate formulations performed similarly in

  16. Transient refractory material dissolution by a volumetrically-heated melt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiler, Jean Marie, E-mail: jean-marie.seiler@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, DTN, 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Ratel, Gilles [CEA, DEN, DTN, 17 Rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Combeau, Hervé [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR 7198, Lorraine University, Ecole des Mines de Nancy, Parc de Saurupt, 54042 Nancy Cedex (France); Gaus-Liu, Xiaoyang; Kretzschmar, Frank; Miassoedov, Alexei [Karlsruhe Institut of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We describe a test investigating ceramic dissolution by a molten non-eutectic melt. • The evolution of the interface temperature between melt and refractory is measured. • A theoretical model describing dissolution kinetics is proposed. • When dissolution stops, interface temperature is the liquidus temperature of the melt. - Abstract: The present work addresses the question of corium–ceramic interaction in a core catcher during a core-melt accident in a nuclear power plant. It provides an original insight into transient aspects concerning dissolution of refractory material by a volumetrically heated pool. An experiment with simulant material (LIVECERAM) is presented. Test results clearly show that dissolution of solid refractory material can occur in a non-eutectic melt at a temperature which is lower than the melting temperature of the refractory material. During the dissolution transient, the interface temperature rises above the liquidus temperature, corresponding to the instantaneous average composition of the melt pool. With constant power dissipation in the melt and external cooling of the core-catcher, a final steady-state situation is reached. Dissolution stops when the heat flux (delivered by the melt to the refractory) can be removed by conduction through the residual thickness of the ceramic, with T{sub interface} = T{sub liquidus} (calculated for the average composition of the final liquid pool). The final steady state corresponds to a uniform pool composition and uniform interface temperature distribution. Convection in the pool is governed by natural thermal convection and the heat flux distribution is therefore similar to what would be obtained for a single component pool. An interpretation of the experiment with two model-based approaches (0D and 1D) is presented. The mass transfer kinetics between the interface and the bulk is controlled by a diffusion sublayer within the boundary layer. During the dissolution transient

  17. In vivo in vitro correlations for a poorly soluble drug, danazol, using the flow-through dissolution method with biorelevant dissolution media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Vibeke Hougaard; Pedersen, Betty Lomstein; Kristensen, Henning Gjelstrup

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to design dissolution tests that were able to distinguish between the behaviour of danazol under fasted and fed conditions, by using biorelevant media. In vitro dissolution of 100mg danazol capsules was performed using the flow-through dissolution method. Flow rates w...

  18. Experimental hydrothermal dissolution of forsterite, enstatite, diopside, and labradorite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponader, H.B.

    1989-01-01

    Natural hydrothermal water/rock interactions such as those which occur during mineral dissolution and serpentinization were experimentally duplicated using a flow-through apparatus. Labradorite, forsterite, enstatite, diopside, and lherzolite powders were reached with flowing aqueous fluids ({approximately} 10 ml/day) at 300 C and 300 bars for up to 58 days in order to quantify mineral stabilities and dissolution rates, and to characterize dissolution textures and mechanisms. The principal methods for characterization of the solids included surface sensitive spectroscopies (SAM and SPS), SEM, and XRD; reacted fluids were analyzed for major element chemistry and pH. Chapters 1 and 2 investigate labradorite dissolution by deionized water. The labradorite powder dissolved extensively while boehmite and halloysite precipitated. The SAM results show that, in general, the reacted surfaces are enriched in Al and depleted in Si, Na, and Ca. Chapter 3 describes the experiments that reacted deionized water with diopside, enstatite, forsterite, and lherzolite, from which lizardite {plus minus} chrysotile {plus minus} Fe-oxides precipitated. The reacted diopside and enstatite surfaces appeared highly corroded; their crystal structures, in part, control the mechanisms by which they dissolve. The stabilities of the minerals decrease in the order: lherzolite > diopside > enstatite > forsterite. At near neutral pH, the degree to which total surface areas influence dissolution rates appears greater that the effect of mineral composition and interaction of the primary minerals within the lherzolite.

  19. The dissolution kinetics of magnetite under regenerative conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, S.

    2004-01-01

    Dissolution studies of magnetite were carried out under regenerative conditions in dilute chemical decontamination formulations. During regeneration of the formulation, the H + from the strong acid cation exchange resin gets released and the metal is absorbed on the resin. The efficiency of the regenerative process depends on the stability constants of the complexes involved and the selectivity on the ion exchange column. The regenerative condition helps to maintain a constant chelating agent concentration and pH during the dissolution experiment. Such a condition is ideal for obtaining data on the dissolution behaviour of the corrosion products with special application to actual reactor decontamination. The ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) based formulation used was found to be ineffective due to the high stability constant of Fe(III)-EDTA complex, which is not easily cleaved by the cation exchange resin. Hence, knowledge of the kinetics of magnetite dissolution under regenerative condition is of primary importance. The 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid formulation is found to be better for the dissolution of Fe 3 O 4 in both static and regenerative modes in the presence of reductants than nitrilotriacetic acid and EDTA. (orig.)

  20. The dissolution kinetics of magnetite under regenerative conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, S. [New Brunswick Univ., Frederiction (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Raghavan, P.S.; Gopalan, R.; Srinivasan, M.P.; Narasimhan, S.V. [Water and Steam Chemistry Lab. of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) (India)

    2004-07-01

    Dissolution studies of magnetite were carried out under regenerative conditions in dilute chemical decontamination formulations. During regeneration of the formulation, the H{sup +} from the strong acid cation exchange resin gets released and the metal is absorbed on the resin. The efficiency of the regenerative process depends on the stability constants of the complexes involved and the selectivity on the ion exchange column. The regenerative condition helps to maintain a constant chelating agent concentration and pH during the dissolution experiment. Such a condition is ideal for obtaining data on the dissolution behaviour of the corrosion products with special application to actual reactor decontamination. The ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) based formulation used was found to be ineffective due to the high stability constant of Fe(III)-EDTA complex, which is not easily cleaved by the cation exchange resin. Hence, knowledge of the kinetics of magnetite dissolution under regenerative condition is of primary importance. The 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid formulation is found to be better for the dissolution of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} in both static and regenerative modes in the presence of reductants than nitrilotriacetic acid and EDTA. (orig.)

  1. Dissolution of coccolithophorid calcite by microzooplankton and copepod grazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antia, A. N.; Suffrian, K.; Holste, L.; Müller, M. N.; Nejstgaard, J. C.; Simonelli, P.; Carotenuto, Y.; Putzeys, S.

    2008-01-01

    Independent of the ongoing acidification of surface seawater, the majority of the calcium carbonate produced in the pelagial is dissolved by natural processes above the lysocline. We investigate to what extent grazing and passage of coccolithophorids through the guts of copepods and the food vacuoles of microzooplankton contribute to calcite dissolution. In laboratory experiments where the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi was fed to the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, the heterotrophic flagellate Oxyrrhis marina and the copepod Acartia tonsa, calcite dissolution rates of 45-55%, 37-53% and 5-22% of ingested calcite were found. We ascribe higher loss rates in microzooplankton food vacuoles as compared to copepod guts to the strongly acidic digestion and the individual packaging of algal cells. In further experiments, specific rates of calcification and calcite dissolution were also measured in natural populations during the PeECE III mesocosm study under differing ambient pCO2 concentrations. Microzooplankton grazing accounted for between 27 and 70% of the dynamic calcite stock being lost per day, with no measurable effect of CO2 treatment. These measured calcite dissolution rates indicate that dissolution of calcite in the guts of microzooplankton and copepods can account for the calcite losses calculated for the global ocean using budget and model estimates.

  2. Optimization of dissolution process parameters for uranium ore concentrate powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, M.; Reddy, D.M.; Reddy, A.L.V.; Tiwari, S.K.; Venkataswamy, J.; Setty, D.S.; Sheela, S.; Saibaba, N. [Nuclear Fuel Complex, Hyderabad (India)

    2013-07-01

    Nuclear fuel complex processes Uranium Ore Concentrate (UOC) for producing uranium dioxide powder required for the fabrication of fuel assemblies for Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR)s in India. UOC is dissolved in nitric acid and further purified by solvent extraction process for producing nuclear grade UO{sub 2} powder. Dissolution of UOC in nitric acid involves complex nitric oxide based reactions, since it is in the form of Uranium octa oxide (U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) or Uranium Dioxide (UO{sub 2}). The process kinetics of UOC dissolution is largely influenced by parameters like concentration and flow rate of nitric acid, temperature and air flow rate and found to have effect on recovery of nitric oxide as nitric acid. The plant scale dissolution of 2 MT batch in a single reactor is studied and observed excellent recovery of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) as nitric acid. The dissolution process is automated by PLC based Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) system for accurate control of process parameters and successfully dissolved around 200 Metric Tons of UOC. The paper covers complex chemistry involved in UOC dissolution process and also SCADA system. The solid and liquid reactions were studied along with multiple stoichiometry of nitrous oxide generated. (author)

  3. Laboratory simulation of salt dissolution during waste removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiersma, B.J.; Parish, W.R.

    1997-01-01

    Laboratory experiments were performed to support the field demonstration of improved techniques for salt dissolution in waste tanks at the Savannah River Site. The tests were designed to investigate three density driven techniques for salt dissolution: (1) Drain-Add-Sit-Remove, (2) Modified Density Gradient, and (3) Continuous Salt Mining. Salt dissolution was observed to be a very rapid process as salt solutions with densities between 1.38-1.4 were frequently removed. Slower addition and removal rates and locating the outlet line at deeper levels below the top of the saltcake provided the best contact between the dissolution water and the saltcake. It was observed that dissolution with 1 M sodium hydroxide solution resulted in salt solutions that were within the current inhibitor requirements for the prevention of stress corrosion cracking. This result was independent of the density driven technique. However, if inhibited water (0.01 M sodium hydroxide and 0.011 M sodium nitrite) was utilized, the salt solutions were frequently outside the inhibitor requirements. Corrosion testing at conditions similar to the environments expected during waste removal was recommended

  4. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies of a miniaturized dissolution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenning, G; Ahnfelt, E; Sjögren, E; Lennernäs, H

    2017-04-15

    Dissolution testing is an important tool that has applications ranging from fundamental studies of drug-release mechanisms to quality control of the final product. The rate of release of the drug from the delivery system is known to be affected by hydrodynamics. In this study we used computational fluid dynamics to simulate and investigate the hydrodynamics in a novel miniaturized dissolution method for parenteral formulations. The dissolution method is based on a rotating disc system and uses a rotating sample reservoir which is separated from the remaining dissolution medium by a nylon screen. Sample reservoirs of two sizes were investigated (SR6 and SR8) and the hydrodynamic studies were performed at rotation rates of 100, 200 and 400rpm. The overall fluid flow was similar for all investigated cases, with a lateral upward spiraling motion and central downward motion in the form of a vortex to and through the screen. The simulations indicated that the exchange of dissolution medium between the sample reservoir and the remaining release medium was rapid for typical screens, for which almost complete mixing would be expected to occur within less than one minute at 400rpm. The local hydrodynamic conditions in the sample reservoirs depended on their size; SR8 appeared to be relatively more affected than SR6 by the resistance to liquid flow resulting from the screen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dissolution mechanism of UO2 at various parametric conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollila, K.

    1988-04-01

    The aim of this experimental study is to investigate the solubility and dissolution mechanism of uranium dioxide under simulated disposal conditions of spent fuel. Unirradiated UO 2 is used as a surrogate for spent fuel. Two types of synthetic groundwaters were used in these experiments, on simulating the natural conditions deep in granitic bedrock (synthetic groundwater I) and the other simulating the effects of bentonite on groundwater (synthetic groundwater II). The effect of carbonate concentration was investigated by following dissolution in sodium bicarbonate solution as a function of bicarbonate concentration. Deionized wate was used as a reference water. All the experiments were carried out under both air-saturated, oxidizing and anoxic, reducing conditions. A separate test series under anoxic conditions was initiated in order to study the oxidation state of uranium. The experimental uranium solubilities are compared with the solubilities obtained from theoetical calculations by applying the geochemical code PHREEQ. The theoretical solubility values of uranium under oxidizing conditions calculated by PHREEQE are higher when compared to the corresponding experimental solubility values. The reason for the lower solubility values may be the mechanism of dissolution leading for example either to a situation where low dissolution rate is a limiting factor or to formation of some solid phase of uranium with lower solubility. Formation of a surface layer was observed on the pellet after dissolution in synthetic groundwater II. The theoretical solubility values under educing conditions calculated for uranium by PHREEQE appear to be in good agreement with the experimental solubility values

  6. Dissolution and alteration of uraninite under reducing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janeczek, J.; Ewing, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    The behavior of uraninite under hydrothermal, reducung conditions is discussed on the basis of data in the literature and the authors' investigation of samples from two natural analogue sites: Oklo, Gabon and Cigar Lake, Canada. Uraninite under reducing conditions, in the presence of saline hydrothermal solutions may be altered through dissolution, preferential loss of lead and/or Y + HREE, and coffinitization. Textural features indicative of dissolution or uraninite include embayed grain boundaries, corroded relicts of uraninite embedded in a clay matrix, and replacement of uraninite by clays and sulfides. The alteration textures and phase chemistries at Oklo and Cigar Lake are remarkably similar. Dissolution of uraninite at Cigar Lake and Oklo was associated with the precipitation or illite and was probably caused by saline, uraninite moderately acidic solutions at approximately 200deg C. Increased oxygen fugacity may have occured locally due to release of excess oxygen from uraninite during dissolution or by α-radiolysis of the solution. The formation of Pb-rich (up to 18 wt% Pb, uraninite-I) and Pb-depleted (approximately 7-8 wt% Pb, uraninite-II) uraninites at both Oklo and Cigar Lake resulted from the loss of Pb due to predominantly episodic volume diffusion related to regional geologic events. Lead loss was not associated with U mobilization. In addition to uraninite dissolution, coffinitization resulted in U, Pb and REE release. (orig.)

  7. Dissolution Enhancement of Rosuvastatin Calcium by Liquisolid Compact Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. J. Kapure

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In present investigation liquisolid compact technique is investigated as a tool for enhanced dissolution of poorly water-soluble drug Rosuvastatin calcium (RVT. The model drug RVT, a HMG-Co A reductase inhibitor was formulated in form of directly compressed tablets and liquisolid compacts; and studied for in-vitro release characteristics at different dissolution conditions. In this technique, liquid medications of water insoluble drugs in non-volatile liquid vehicles can be converted into acceptably flowing and compressible powders. Formulated systems were assessed for precompression parameters like flow properties of liquisolid system, Fourior transform infra red spectra (FTIR analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, and post compression parameters like content uniformity, weight variation, hardness and friability, disintegration test, wetting time, in vitro dissolution studies, effect of dissolution volume on drug release rate, and estimation of fraction of molecularly dispersed drug in liquid medication. As liquisolid compacts demonstrated significantly higher drug release rates, we lead to conclusion that it could be a promising strategy in improving the dissolution of poor water soluble drugs and formulating immediate release solid dosage forms.

  8. Thoria/thoria-urania dissolution studies for reprocessing application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivas, C.; Yalmali, Vrunda; Pente, A.S.; Wattal, P.K.; Misra, S.D.

    2012-06-01

    Thoria dissolution is normally conducted in 13M nitric acid in the presence of 0.03M sodium fluoride or HF as catalyst and 0.1M aluminium nitrate for mitigation of fluoride related corrosion of SS 304L dissolver vessel. Addition of aluminium nitrate in such high concentrations has undesirable consequences in the downstream high level radioactive liquid waste vitrification process at 900-1000 degC. Besides, because of the highly corrosive nature of fluoride ion, lowering its concentration in the dissolution reaction is advantageous in reducing the corrosion of dissolver and other downstream equipments. The present work was done with twin objectives of avoiding aluminium nitrate addition and lowering the fluoride ion concentration during dissolution reaction. High temperature sintered thoria and thoria-4 weight% urania dissolution reactions were investigated in the absence of aluminium nitrate and at reduced fluoride concentrations. Corrosion rates of SS 304L zircaloy in various dissolvent mixtures were studied by weight loss method. These studies clearly showed that aluminium nitrate addition for control of fluoride related corrosion of SS 304L can be avoided when zircaloy-clad thoria/thoria-urania pellets are dissolved. Dissolved zirconium ion was observed to be as effective as aluminium ion. Moreover, dissolution could be achieved with reasonable reaction rates at reduced fluoride concentration of 0.005-0.01M instead of 0.03M by changing the method of addition of the fluoride catalyst. (author)

  9. Physico-mechanical and dissolution behaviours of ibuprofen crystals crystallized in the presence of various additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Nokhodchi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "n  "n Background and the purpose of the study: The success of any direct-tableting procedure is strongly affected by the quality of the crystals used in the process. Ibuprofen is a poorly compactible drug with a high tendency for capping. In order to use ibuprofen in direct compression formulations, physico-mechanical properties of ibuprofen should be improved considerably. The aim of the present investigation was to employ crystallization techniques in order to improve the physico-mechanical properties of ibuprofen for direct compression. "nMethods:The experimental methods involved the preparation of ibuprofen crystals by solvent change technique. Ibuprofen was dissolved in ethanol and crystallized out with water in the absence or presence of various hydrophilic additives (PEG 6000, 8000, Brij 98P and polyvinyl alcohol 22000, PVA 22000 with different concentrations. The physico-mechanical properties of the ibuprofen crystals were studied in terms of flow, density, tensile strength and dissolution behaviour. Morphology of ibuprofen crystals was studied by scanning electron microscopic (SEM. Solid state of the recrystallized particles was also investigated using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC and FT-IR. "nResults:Ibuprofen samples crystallized in the presence of PEG 6000 and 8000 and PVA showed remarkable increase in the tensile strengths of the directly compressed tablets, while some other additives, i.e. Brij 98P did not produce improved ibuprofen crystals. Ibuprofen powders made from particles obtained in the presence of PVA and Brij 98P showed similar dissolution profiles to the commercial ibuprofen particles. DSC and FT-IR results ruled out any significant interaction between ibuprofen and additives except for the samples crystallized in the presence of PEG 8000. Conclusion:The crystal habit of ibuprofen can be altered successfully by the crystallization technique which was developed in this study. The crystals developed in the

  10. Dissolution and storage stability of nanostructured calcium carbonates and phosphates for nutrition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posavec, Lidija; Knijnenburg, Jesper T. N., E-mail: jesper.knijnenburg@alumni.ethz.ch; Hilty, Florentine M. [ETH Zurich, Human Nutrition Laboratory, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health, Department of Health Sciences and Technology (Switzerland); Krumeich, Frank; Pratsinis, Sotiris E. [ETH Zurich, Particle Technology Laboratory, Institute of Process Engineering, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering (Switzerland); Zimmermann, Michael B. [ETH Zurich, Human Nutrition Laboratory, Institute of Food, Nutrition and Health, Department of Health Sciences and Technology (Switzerland)

    2016-10-15

    Rapid calcium (Ca) dissolution from nanostructured Ca phosphate and carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) powders may allow them to be absorbed in much higher fraction in humans. Nanosized Ca phosphate and CaCO{sub 3} made by flame-assisted spray pyrolysis were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. As-prepared nanopowders contained both CaCO{sub 3} and CaO, but storing them under ambient conditions over 130 days resulted in a complete transformation into CaCO{sub 3}, with an increase in both crystal and particle sizes. The small particle size could be stabilized against such aging by cation (Mg, Zn, Sr) and anion (P) doping, with P and Mg being most effective. Calcium phosphate nanopowders made at Ca:P ≤ 1.5 were XRD amorphous and contained γ-Ca{sub 2}P{sub 2}O{sub 7} with increasing hydroxyapatite content at higher Ca:P. Aging of powders with Ca:P = 1.0 and 1.5 for over 500 days gradually increased particle size (but less than for CaCO{sub 3}) without a change in phase composition or crystallinity. In 0.01 M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} calcium phosphate nanopowders dissolved ≈4 times more Ca than micronsized compounds and about twice more Ca than CaCO{sub 3} nanopowders, confirming that nanosizing and/or amorphous structuring sharply increases Ca powder dissolution. Because higher Ca solubility in vitro generally leads to greater absorption in vivo, these novel FASP-made Ca nanostructured compounds may prove useful for nutrition applications, including supplementation and/or food fortification.

  11. Dissolution and storage stability of nanostructured calcium carbonates and phosphates for nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posavec, Lidija; Knijnenburg, Jesper T. N.; Hilty, Florentine M.; Krumeich, Frank; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.; Zimmermann, Michael B.

    2016-10-01

    Rapid calcium (Ca) dissolution from nanostructured Ca phosphate and carbonate (CaCO3) powders may allow them to be absorbed in much higher fraction in humans. Nanosized Ca phosphate and CaCO3 made by flame-assisted spray pyrolysis were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. As-prepared nanopowders contained both CaCO3 and CaO, but storing them under ambient conditions over 130 days resulted in a complete transformation into CaCO3, with an increase in both crystal and particle sizes. The small particle size could be stabilized against such aging by cation (Mg, Zn, Sr) and anion (P) doping, with P and Mg being most effective. Calcium phosphate nanopowders made at Ca:P ≤ 1.5 were XRD amorphous and contained γ-Ca2P2O7 with increasing hydroxyapatite content at higher Ca:P. Aging of powders with Ca:P = 1.0 and 1.5 for over 500 days gradually increased particle size (but less than for CaCO3) without a change in phase composition or crystallinity. In 0.01 M H3PO4 calcium phosphate nanopowders dissolved ≈4 times more Ca than micronsized compounds and about twice more Ca than CaCO3 nanopowders, confirming that nanosizing and/or amorphous structuring sharply increases Ca powder dissolution. Because higher Ca solubility in vitro generally leads to greater absorption in vivo, these novel FASP-made Ca nanostructured compounds may prove useful for nutrition applications, including supplementation and/or food fortification.

  12. Dissolution and storage stability of nanostructured calcium carbonates and phosphates for nutrition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posavec, Lidija; Knijnenburg, Jesper T. N.; Hilty, Florentine M.; Krumeich, Frank; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.; Zimmermann, Michael B.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid calcium (Ca) dissolution from nanostructured Ca phosphate and carbonate (CaCO 3 ) powders may allow them to be absorbed in much higher fraction in humans. Nanosized Ca phosphate and CaCO 3 made by flame-assisted spray pyrolysis were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. As-prepared nanopowders contained both CaCO 3 and CaO, but storing them under ambient conditions over 130 days resulted in a complete transformation into CaCO 3 , with an increase in both crystal and particle sizes. The small particle size could be stabilized against such aging by cation (Mg, Zn, Sr) and anion (P) doping, with P and Mg being most effective. Calcium phosphate nanopowders made at Ca:P ≤ 1.5 were XRD amorphous and contained γ-Ca 2 P 2 O 7 with increasing hydroxyapatite content at higher Ca:P. Aging of powders with Ca:P = 1.0 and 1.5 for over 500 days gradually increased particle size (but less than for CaCO 3 ) without a change in phase composition or crystallinity. In 0.01 M H 3 PO 4 calcium phosphate nanopowders dissolved ≈4 times more Ca than micronsized compounds and about twice more Ca than CaCO 3 nanopowders, confirming that nanosizing and/or amorphous structuring sharply increases Ca powder dissolution. Because higher Ca solubility in vitro generally leads to greater absorption in vivo, these novel FASP-made Ca nanostructured compounds may prove useful for nutrition applications, including supplementation and/or food fortification.

  13. Enhanced Solubility and Dissolution Rate of Lacidipine Nanosuspension: Formulation Via Antisolvent Sonoprecipitation Technique and Optimization Using Box-Behnken Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Mohamed A A; ElMeshad, Aliaa N; Fares, Ahmed R

    2017-05-01

    Lacidipine (LCDP) is a highly lipophilic calcium channel blocker of poor aqueous solubility leading to poor oral absorption. This study aims to prepare and optimize LCDP nanosuspensions using antisolvent sonoprecipitation technique to enhance the solubility and dissolution of LCDP. A three-factor, three-level Box-Behnken design was employed to optimize the formulation variables to obtain LCDP nanosuspension of small and uniform particle size. Formulation variables were as follows: stabilizer to drug ratio (A), sodium deoxycholate percentage (B), and sonication time (C). LCDP nanosuspensions were assessed for particle size, zeta potential, and polydispersity index. The formula with the highest desirability (0.969) was chosen as the optimized formula. The values of the formulation variables (A, B, and C) in the optimized nanosuspension were 1.5, 100%, and 8 min, respectively. Optimal LCDP nanosuspension had particle size (PS) of 273.21 nm, zeta potential (ZP) of -32.68 mV and polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.098. LCDP nanosuspension was characterized using x-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and transmission electron microscopy. LCDP nanosuspension showed saturation solubility 70 times that of raw LCDP in addition to significantly enhanced dissolution rate due to particle size reduction and decreased crystallinity. These results suggest that the optimized LCDP nanosuspension could be promising to improve oral absorption of LCDP.

  14. Characteristics of MOX dissolution with silver mediated electrolytic oxidation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umeda, Miki; Nakazaki, Masato; Kida, Takashi; Sato, Kenji; Kato, Tadahito; Kihara, Takehiro; Sugikawa, Susumu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2003-03-01

    MOX dissolution with silver mediated electrolytic oxidation method is to be applied to the preparation of plutonium nitrate solution to be used for criticality safety experiments at Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility (NUCEF). Silver mediated electrolytic oxidation method uses the strong oxidisation ability of Ag(II) ion. This method is though to be effective for the dissolution of MOX, which is difficult to be dissolved with nitric acid. In this paper, the results of experiments on dissolution with 100 g of MOX are described. It was confirmed from the results that the MOX powder to be used at NUCEF was completely dissolved by silver mediated electrolytic oxidation method and that Pu(VI) ion in the obtained solution was reduced to tetravalent by means of NO{sub 2} purging. (author)

  15. Numerical modelling of glass dissolution: gel layer morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devreux, F. E-mail: fd@pmc.polytechnique.fr; Barboux, P

    2001-09-01

    Numerical simulations of glass dissolution are presented. The glass is modelized as a random binary mixture composed of two species representing silica and soluble oxides, such as boron and alkali oxides. The soluble species are dissolved immediately when they are in contact with the solution. For the species which represents silica, one introduces dissolution and condensation probabilities. It is shown that the morphology and the thickness of the surface hydration layer (the gel) are highly dependent on the dissolution model, especially on the parameter which controls the surface tension. Simulations with different glass surface area to solution volume ratio (S/V) show that this experimental parameter has important effects on both the shrinkage and the gel layer thickness.

  16. Dissolution rate effect upon lyolumenescence of irradiated potassium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leshchinskij, B.L.; Dzelme, Yu.R.; Tiliks, Yu.E.; Bugaenko, L.T.

    1985-01-01

    The paper is aimed at studying dissolution rate effect and concentration of electron acceptor upon lyoluminescence (LL) that occurs during dissolution of solids with radiation defects. For investigation gamma-irradiated potassium chloride monocrystalline disks were used. As a solvent 3x10sup(-6) M solution of C(RH) hodamine in 2.7 KCl aqueous solution is used. It is shown that LL occurs as a result of recombination of radiation defects with the solution and between themselves in two different regions of subsurface layer of the solid. Investigated dependences of LL intensty on dissolution rate are the efficient method of studying the structure of solids-aqueous solution interface and LL mechanism

  17. Turbulent solutal convection and surface patterning in solid dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, T.S.; Liu, Y.; Ecke, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    We describe experiments in which crystals of NaCl, KBr, and KCl are dissolved from below by aqueous solutions containing concentrations of the respective salts from zero concentration to near saturation. The solution near the solid-liquid interface is gravitationally unstable, producing turbulent hydrodynamic motion similar to thermal convection from a single surface cooled from above. The coupling of the fluid flow with the solid dissolution produces irregular patterns at the solid-liquid interface with a distribution of horizontal length scales. The dissolution mass flux and the pattern length scales are compared with a turbulent boundary layer model. Remarkable agreement is found, showing that the fluid motion controls both the dissolution rate and the interface patterning. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  18. Azithromycin effectiveness against intracellular infections of Francisella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Barbara J

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macrolide antibiotics are commonly administered for bacterial respiratory illnesses. Azithromycin (Az is especially noted for extremely high intracellular concentrations achieved within macrophages which is far greater than the serum concentration. Clinical strains of Type B Francisella (F. tularensis have been reported to be resistant to Az, however our laboratory Francisella strains were found to be sensitive. We hypothesized that different strains/species of Francisella (including Type A may have different susceptibilities to Az, a widely used and well-tolerated antibiotic. Results In vitro susceptibility testing of Az confirmed that F. tularensis subsp. holarctica Live Vaccine Strain (LVS (Type B was not sensitive while F. philomiragia, F. novicida, and Type A F. tularensis (NIH B38 and Schu S4 strain were susceptible. In J774A.1 mouse macrophage cells infected with F. philomiragia, F. novicida, and F. tularensis LVS, 5 μg/ml Az applied extracellularly eliminated intracellular Francisella infections. A concentration of 25 μg/ml Az was required for Francisella-infected A549 human lung epithelial cells, suggesting that macrophages are more effective at concentrating Az than epithelial cells. Mutants of RND efflux components (tolC and ftlC in F. novicida demonstrated less sensitivity to Az by MIC than the parental strain, but the tolC disc-inhibition assay demonstrated increased sensitivity, indicating a complex role for the outer-membrane transporter. Mutants of acrA and acrB mutants were less sensitive to Az than the parental strain, suggesting that AcrAB is not critical for the efflux of Az in F. novicida. In contrast, F. tularensis Schu S4 mutants ΔacrB and ΔacrA were more sensitive than the parental strain, indicating that the AcrAB may be important for Az efflux in F. tularensis Schu S4. F. novicida LPS O-antigen mutants (wbtN, wbtE, wbtQ and wbtA were found to be less sensitive in vitro to Az compared to the wild

  19. Oxidation and dissolution of UO{sub 2} in bicarbonate media: Implications for the spent nuclear fuel oxidative dissolution mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimenez, J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: francisco.javier.gimenez@upc.edu; Clarens, F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Casas, I. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rovira, M. [CTM Centre Tecnologic, Avda. Bases de Manresa 1. 08240 Manresa (Spain); Pablo, J. de [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Bruno, J. [Enresa-Enviros Environmental Science and Waste Management Chair, UPC, Jordi Girona 1-3 B2, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-10-15

    The objective of this work is to study the UO{sub 2} oxidation by O{sub 2} and dissolution in bicarbonate media and to extrapolate the results obtained to improve the knowledge of the oxidative dissolution of spent nuclear fuel. The results obtained show that in the studied range the oxygen consumption rate is independent on the bicarbonate concentration while the UO{sub 2} dissolution rate does depend on. Besides, at 10{sup -4} mol dm{sup -3} bicarbonate concentration, the oxygen consumption rate is almost two orders of magnitude higher than the UO{sub 2} dissolution rate. These results suggest that at low bicarbonate concentration (<10{sup -2} mol dm{sup -3}) the alteration of the spent nuclear fuel cannot be directly derived from the measured uranium concentrations in solution. On the other hand, the study at low bicarbonate concentrations of the evolution of the UO{sub 2} surface at nanometric scale by means of the SFM technique shows that the difference between oxidation and dissolution rates is not due to the precipitation of a secondary solid phase on UO{sub 2}.

  20. Development of in situ ion selective sensors for dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohets, Hugo [Antwerp University, Chemistry Department, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Vanhoutte, Koen [Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Turnhoutseweg 30, B-2340 Beerse (Belgium); De Maesschalck, Roy [Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Turnhoutseweg 30, B-2340 Beerse (Belgium); Cockaerts, Paul [Johnson and Johnson Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Turnhoutseweg 30, B-2340 Beerse (Belgium); Vissers, Bert [Antwerp University, Chemistry Department, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium); Nagels, Luc J. [Antwerp University, Chemistry Department, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerpen (Belgium)]. E-mail: luc.nagels@ua.ac.be

    2007-01-02

    The dissolution of formulations of the drugs dapoxetine, paliperidone, cinnarizine, tetrazepam, mebeverine, loperamide, galantamine and ibuprofen was studied by an in-line potentiometric measurement system. The transpose of a Nikolskii-Eisenman type function performed the conversion of potential to percentage of dissolution. A novel gradient membrane electrode was developed especially for dissolution, varying continuously in composition from an ionically conducting rubber phase to an electronically conducting solid state PVC/graphite composite. The gradient part had a thickness of 200 {mu}m. The electrodes life span exceeded 6 months. An ion exchange procedure was used to prepare them for one specific drug. This enabled us to use one universal electrode built to measure a wide array of drugs. The system parameters such as accuracy, reproducibility and linearity were presented with the data obtained for the drug dapoxetine. In dissolution, accurate measurements were possible from 10{sup -9} to 10{sup -3} M concentrations, for high log P drugs. The effect of t {sub 90} response times on the measurement error was estimated. The t {sub 90} response times of the electrodes were concentration dependent, and varied between 50 and 10 s for, respectively, 10{sup -6} and 10{sup -3} M concentrations. Potential drift was studied in detail. The measurements performed with these electrodes showed an accuracy of 1%, and inter- and intra electrode variabilities of 0.6 and 1.7%, respectively. The electrodes were successfully applied in colloidal media containing suspended matter, typically formed during dissolution of tablets. The advantages and pitfalls of potentiometry over the presently used techniques for dissolution testing are discussed.

  1. Principles of calcite dissolution in human and artificial otoconia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Erik Walther

    Full Text Available Human otoconia provide mechanical stimuli to deflect hair cells of the vestibular sensory epithelium for purposes of detecting linear acceleration and head tilts. During lifetime, the volume and number of otoconia are gradually reduced. In a process of degeneration morphological changes occur. Structural changes in human otoconia are assumed to cause vertigo and balance disorders such as benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV. The aim of this study was to investigate the main principles of morphological changes in human otoconia in dissolution experiments by exposure to hydrochloric acid, EDTA, demineralized water and completely purified water respectively. For comparison reasons artificial (biomimetic otoconia (calcite gelatin nanocomposits and natural calcite were used. Morphological changes were detected in time steps by the use of environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM. Under in vitro conditions three main dissolution mechanisms were identified as causing characteristic morphological changes of the specimen under consideration: pH drops in the acidic range, complex formation with calcium ions and changes of ion concentrations in the vicinity of otoconia. Shifts in pH cause a more uniform reduction of otoconia size (isotropic dissolution whereas complexation reactions and changes of the ionic concentrations within the surrounding medium bring about preferred attacks at specific areas (anisotropic dissolution of human and artificial otoconia. Owing to successive reduction of material, all the dissolution mechanisms finally produce fragments and remnants of otoconia. It can be assumed that the organic component of otoconia is not significantly attacked under the given conditions. Artificial otoconia serve as a suitable model system mimicking chemical attacks on biogenic specimens. The underlying principles of calcite dissolution under in vitro conditions may play a role in otoconia degeneration processes such as BPPV.

  2. Development of in situ ion selective sensors for dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohets, Hugo; Vanhoutte, Koen; De Maesschalck, Roy; Cockaerts, Paul; Vissers, Bert; Nagels, Luc J.

    2007-01-01

    The dissolution of formulations of the drugs dapoxetine, paliperidone, cinnarizine, tetrazepam, mebeverine, loperamide, galantamine and ibuprofen was studied by an in-line potentiometric measurement system. The transpose of a Nikolskii-Eisenman type function performed the conversion of potential to percentage of dissolution. A novel gradient membrane electrode was developed especially for dissolution, varying continuously in composition from an ionically conducting rubber phase to an electronically conducting solid state PVC/graphite composite. The gradient part had a thickness of 200 μm. The electrodes life span exceeded 6 months. An ion exchange procedure was used to prepare them for one specific drug. This enabled us to use one universal electrode built to measure a wide array of drugs. The system parameters such as accuracy, reproducibility and linearity were presented with the data obtained for the drug dapoxetine. In dissolution, accurate measurements were possible from 10 -9 to 10 -3 M concentrations, for high log P drugs. The effect of t 90 response times on the measurement error was estimated. The t 90 response times of the electrodes were concentration dependent, and varied between 50 and 10 s for, respectively, 10 -6 and 10 -3 M concentrations. Potential drift was studied in detail. The measurements performed with these electrodes showed an accuracy of 1%, and inter- and intra electrode variabilities of 0.6 and 1.7%, respectively. The electrodes were successfully applied in colloidal media containing suspended matter, typically formed during dissolution of tablets. The advantages and pitfalls of potentiometry over the presently used techniques for dissolution testing are discussed

  3. Advances in heterogeneous autocatalytic reactions applied to uranium dissolution - 5317

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marc, P.; Magnaldo, A.; Godard, J.; Schaer, E.

    2015-01-01

    Dissolution and the solubilization of the chemical elements is a milestone of the head-end of hydrometallurgical processes. When dissolving spent nuclear fuels, additional constraints are added due to the permanent need to strictly control and limit the hold-up. Thus the need for kinetic modeling concerning the dissolution of spent nuclear fuels in nitric acid. This study aims at better understanding the chemical and physical-chemical phenomena of uranium dioxide dissolution reactions in nitric medium. It has been documented that the nitric acid attack of sintering-manufactured uranium dioxide solids occurs through preferential attack sites. This non uniform attack leads to the development of cracks in the solids. Optical microscopy observations show that in some cases, the development of these cracks can lead to the solid cleavage. In this case, we show that the dissolution of the detached fragments is much slower than the time required for the complete cleavage of the solid. These points motivated the measurements of dissolution kinetics using optical microscopy and image processing. A comparison of the measured kinetics with the diffusion kinetics by the mean of the external resistance fraction allows discriminating between measured kinetics corresponding to the chemical reaction or mass-transport limitation. This capability to measure, for the very first time, the 'true' chemical kinetics of the reaction has enabled the confirmation of the highly autocatalytic nature of the reaction, and first evaluation of the constants of the chemical reactions kinetic laws. These data are fundamental to set the kinetic parameters of the chemical reactions in a future model of the dissolution of uranium dioxide sintered pellets. (authors)

  4. Downstream processing of a ternary amorphous solid dispersion: The impacts of spray drying and hot melt extrusion on powder flow, compression and dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Mark T; Potter, Catherine B; Walker, Gavin M

    2018-06-10

    Downstream processing aspects of a stable form of amorphous itraconazole exhibiting enhanced dissolution properties were studied. Preparation of this ternary amorphous solid dispersion by either spray drying or hot melt extrusion led to significantly different powder processing properties. Particle size and morphology was analysed using scanning electron microscopy. Flow, compression, blending and dissolution were studied using rheometry, compaction simulation and a dissolution kit. The spray dried material exhibited poorer flow and reduced sensitivity to aeration relative to the milled extrudate. Good agreement was observed between differing forms of flow measurement, such as Flow Function, Relative flow function, Flow rate index, Aeration rate, the Hausner ratio and the Carr index. The stability index indicated that both powders were stable with respect to agglomeration, de-agglomeration and attrition. Tablet ability and compressibility studies showed that spray dried material could be compressed into stronger compacts than extruded material. Blending of the powders with low moisture, freely-flowing excipients was shown to influence both flow and compression. Porosity studies revealed that blending could influence the mechanism of densification in extrudate and blended extrudate formulations. Following blending, the powders were compressed into four 500 mg tablets, each containing a 100 mg dose of amorphous itraconazole. Dissolution studies revealed that the spray dried material released drug faster and more completely and that blending excipients could further influence the dissolution rate. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Does the dose-solubility ratio affect the mean dissolution time of drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lánský, P; Weiss, M

    1999-09-01

    To present a new model for describing drug dissolution. On the basis of the new model to characterize the dissolution profile by the distribution function of the random dissolution time of a drug molecule, which generalizes the classical first order model. Instead of assuming a constant fractional dissolution rate, as in the classical model, it is considered that the fractional dissolution rate is a decreasing function of the dissolved amount controlled by the dose-solubility ratio. The differential equation derived from this assumption is solved and the distribution measures (half-dissolution time, mean dissolution time, relative dispersion of the dissolution time, dissolution time density, and fractional dissolution rate) are calculated. Finally, instead of monotonically decreasing the fractional dissolution rate, a generalization resulting in zero dissolution rate at time origin is introduced. The behavior of the model is divided into two regions defined by q, the ratio of the dose to the solubility level: q 1 (saturation of the solution, saturation time). The singular case q = 1 is also treated and in this situation the mean as well as the relative dispersion of the dissolution time increase to infinity. The model was successfully fitted to data (1). This empirical model is descriptive without detailed physical reasoning behind its derivation. According to the model, the mean dissolution time is affected by the dose-solubility ratio. Although this prediction appears to be in accordance with preliminary application, further validation based on more suitable experimental data is required.

  6. Kinetics of dissolution of magnetite in PDCA based formulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranganathan, S.; Prince, A.A.M.; Raghavan, P.S.; Gopalan, R.; Srinivasan, M.P.; Narasimhan, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    Magnetite is one of the important corrosion products of pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs) where carbon steel is the dominant surface in the primary heat transport system. Designing of formulations capable of dissolving magnetite is important for effective decontamination of such surfaces. The rate of dissolution of synthetically prepared magnetite was studied in low concentrations of PDCA containing acidic formulations. The effect of addition of ascorbic acid, citric acid, Fe 2+ -PDCA complex on the rate was also studied. The effects of pH and the temperature on the dissolution rate were determined. The PDCA as a complexant has some positive factors like low protonation constant and enhanced stability to radiation. (author)

  7. GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS ON THE DISSOLUTION AND LIQUIDATION OF ROMANIAN COMPANIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Cristina Baciu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available All stakeholders are interested in whether a firm has a good and stable financial situation, even though they all have different stakes in it. However, not all companies can succeed and operate profitably. The purpose of the study is to examine the peculiarities of dissolution and liquidation in Romania and the characteristics of liquidation of companies, according to their legal form. From examining the general causes of dissolution to specifics of different type of companies, all elements have a great importance in understanding how to avoid this procedure.

  8. Plutonium dissolution from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.

    1985-06-01

    Rockwell Hanford Operations (Rockwell) soon will commence recovery of plutonium from Rocky Flats Plant incinerator ash. In preparation for this processing, Rockwell undertook literature and laboratory studies to identify, select and optimize plutonium dissolution methods for treating the ash. Ash reburning, followed by dissolution in nitric acid containing calcium fluoride, was selected as the processing method for the ash. Recommended values of process parameters were identified. Using the selected process, 99.5% plutonium recovery was achieved, leaving about 12.7 wt % heel residue for an equal weight composite of the three ashes tested. 15 refs., 26 figs

  9. Evaluation of a dynamic dissolution/permeation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sironi, Daniel; Christensen, Mette; Rosenberg, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    -steady state). To this end, a model case was construed: compacts of pure crystalline hydrocortisone methanolate (HC·MeOH) of slow release rates were prepared, and their dissolution and permeation determined simultaneously in a side-by-side setup, separated by a biomimetic barrier (Permeapad...... dissolution rate and flux influenced each other. Interestingly, for all the dynamic scenarios, the incremental flux values obtained correlated nicely with the corresponding actual donor concentrations. Furthermore, donor depletion was tested using a HC solution. The dynamic interplay between decrease in donor...

  10. Effect of alumina on the dissolution rate of glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palavit, G.; Montagne, L.

    1997-01-01

    Small alumina addition to silicate glasses improves their chemical durability, but a large amount of alumina can also be beneficial to obtain a high dissolution rate. This paper describes the effect of Al 3+ on the early stage of glass alteration, in relation with its coordination in the glass and also with the reactions involved (hydrolysis and ionic exchange). We describe briefly nuclear magnetic resonance tools available to characterize the aluminum environments in the glasses. The rote of alumina on the dissolution rate of phosphate glasses is also discussed in order to show that the effect of Al 3+ is dependant upon the nature of the glass matrix. (author)

  11. Spent fuel dissolution studies FY 1991 to 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, W.J.; Wilson, C.N.

    1995-12-01

    Dissolution and transport as a result of groundwater flow are generally accepted as the primary mechanisms by which radionuclides from spent fuel placed in a geologic repository could be released to the biosphere. To help provide a source term for performance assessment calculations, dissolution studies on spent fuel and unirradiated uranium oxides have been conducted over the past few years at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project. This report describes work for fiscal years 1991 through 1994. The objectives of these studies and the associated conclusions, which were based on the limited number of tests conducted so far, are described in the following subsections

  12. Glass composition and solution speciation effects on stage III dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trivelpiece, Cory L. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Rice, Jarret A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Pantano, Carlo G. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    2017-10-03

    To understand and mitigate the onset of Stage III corrosion of multicomponent oxides waste glasses. Stage III refers to a resumption of the high initial rate of glass dissolution in some glass samples that have otherwise exhibited dissolution at the much lower residual rate for a long time (Stage II). Although the onset of Stage III is known to occur concurrently with the precipitation of particular alteration products, the root cause of the transition is still unknown. Certain glass compositions (notably AFCI) and high pH environmental conditions are also associated with this observed transition.

  13. In situ monitoring of the electrochemical dissolution of tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krebsz, Melinda [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Combinatorial Oxide Chemistry at ICTAS, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Kollender, Jan Philipp [Institute for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials (ICTAS), Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Hassel, Achim Walter [Christian Doppler Laboratory for Combinatorial Oxide Chemistry at ICTAS, Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria); Institute for Chemical Technology of Inorganic Materials (ICTAS), Johannes Kepler University Linz (Austria)

    2017-09-15

    In the present work, which is aimed to monitor in situ the electrochemical dissolution of tungsten by using a Flow-Type Scanning Droplet Cell Microscope (FT-SDCM) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), novel results are reported. The anodic oxide growth and its dissolution on the surface of W have been monitored in situ. The results of this current study show the importance of coupling electrochemical experiments to ICP-MS. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. Effects of alteration product precipitation on glass dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, Denis M.; Neeway, James J.

    2014-06-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that control the durability of nuclear waste glass is paramount if reliable models are to be constructed so that the glass dissolution rate in a given geological repository can be calculated. Presently, it is agreed that (boro)silicate glasses dissolve in water at a rate dependent on the solution concentration of orthosilicic acid (H4SiO4) with higher [H4SiO4] leading to lower dissolution rates. Once the reaction has slowed as a result of the buildup of H4SiO4, another increase in the rate has been observed that corresponds to the precipitation of certain silica-bearing alteration products. However, it has also been observed that the concentration of silica-bearing solution species does not significantly decrease, indicating saturation, while other glass tracer elements concentrations continue to increase, indicating that the glass is still dissolving. In this study, we have used the Geochemist’s Workbench code to investigate the relationship between glass dissolution rates and the precipitation rate of a representative zeolitic silica-bearing alteration product, analcime [Na(AlSi2O6)∙H2O]. To simplify the calculations, we suppressed all alteration products except analcime, gibbsite (Al(OH)3), and amorphous silica. The pseudo-equilibrium-constant matrix for amorphous silica was substituted for the glass pseudo-equilibrium-constant matrix because it has been shown that silicate glasses act as a silica-only solid with respect to kinetic considerations. In this article, we present the results of our calculations of the glass dissolution rate at different values for the analcime precipitation rate constant and the effects of varying the glass dissolution rate constant at a constant analcime precipitation rate constant. From the simulations we conclude, firstly, that the rate of glass dissolution is dependent on the kinetics of

  15. Glass composition and solution speciation effects on stage III dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trivelpiece, Cory L.; Rice, Jarret A.; Pantano, Carlo G.

    2017-01-01

    To understand and mitigate the onset of Stage III corrosion of multicomponent oxides waste glasses. Stage III refers to a resumption of the high initial rate of glass dissolution in some glass samples that have otherwise exhibited dissolution at the much lower residual rate for a long time (Stage II). Although the onset of Stage III is known to occur concurrently with the precipitation of particular alteration products, the root cause of the transition is still unknown. Certain glass compositions (notably AFCI) and high pH environmental conditions are also associated with this observed transition.

  16. Anodic dissolution of samarium in acetonitrile solution of acetylacetone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostyuk, N.N.; Dik, T.A.; Trebnikov, A.G.; Shirokij, V.L.

    2003-01-01

    Electrochemical dissolution of metal samarium in acetonitrile medium in the presence of 0.1 M tetraethylammoniumbromide and 0.9 M acetylacetone (HAA) in argon atmosphere under a voltage of 3 V was considered for studying feasibility of electrochemical synthesis of samarium β-diketonates. Using IR and mass spectrometry, thermal and elementary analyses it was ascertained that, depending on cathode and anode areas ratio, anodic dissolution of samarium can give rise to formation of complexes of bi- and trivalent samarium featuring the composition Sm 4 (AA) 8 · 3HAA, Sm(AA) 3 · HAA and Sm(AA) 3 · 4HAA [ru

  17. Waste dissolution with chemical reaction, diffusion and advection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambre, P.L.; Kang, C.H.; Lee, W.W.L.; Pigford, T.H.

    1987-06-01

    This paper extends the mass-transfer analysis to include the effect of advective transport in predicting the steady-state dissolution rate, with a chemical-reaction-rate boundary condition at the surface of a waste form of arbitrary shape. This new theory provides an analytic means of predicting the ground-water velocities at which dissolution rate in a geologic environment will be governed entirely to the chemical reaction rate. As an illustration, we consider the steady-state potential flow of ground water in porous rock surrounding a spherical waste solid. 3 refs., 2 figs

  18. Fuel particles in the Chernobyl cooling pond: current state and prediction for remediation options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulgakov, A.; Konoplev, A.; Smith, J.; Laptev, G.; Voitsekhovich, O.

    2009-01-01

    During the coming years, a management and remediation strategy for the Chernobyl cooling pond (CP) will be implemented. Remediation options include a controlled reduction in surface water level of the cooling pond and stabilisation of exposed sediments. In terrestrial soils, fuel particles deposited during the Chernobyl accident have now almost completely disintegrated. However, in the CP sediments the majority of 90 Sr activity is still in the form of fuel particles. Due to the low dissolved oxygen concentration and high pH, dissolution of fuel particles in the CP sediments is significantly slower than in soils. After the planned cessation of water pumping from the Pripyat River to the Pond, significant areas of sediments will be drained and exposed to the air. This will significantly enhance the dissolution rate and, correspondingly, the mobility and bioavailability of radionuclides will increase with time. The rate of acidification of exposed bottom sediments was predicted on the basis of acidification of similar soils after liming. Using empirical equations relating the fuel particle dissolution rate to soil and sediment pH allowed prediction of fuel particle dissolution and 90 Sr mobilisation for different remediation scenarios. It is shown that in exposed sediments, fuel particles will be almost completely dissolved in 15-25 years, while in parts of the cooling pond which remain flooded, fuel particle dissolution will take about a century

  19. Results from Cycles 1 and 2 of NNWSI Series 2 spent fuel dissolution tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1987-05-01

    PWR spent fuel rod segments from the H.B. Robinson Unit 2 and Turkey Point Unit 3 reactors were leach tested in Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) reference J-13 water under ambient hot cell conditions. The test matrix included bare fuel plus the cladding, rod segments with artificially induced cladding defects, and undefected rod segments. Radionuclide release results are presented and discussed. The actinides Pu, Am, Cm and Np appear to have been released congruently as the UO 2 oxide fuel matrix dissolved. Preferential U release measured in certain tests may be related to dissolution of oxidized UO/sub 2+x/ from the fuel surface, and/or greater solubility (and mobility) of U relative to the other actinides within defected cladding specimens. Uranium solubility measured in the J-13 water was much greater then that measured in deionized water in previous tests. All of the principal fission products analyzed ( 137 Cs, 129 I, 99 Tc and 90 Sr) were released preferentially relative to the actinides. Preferential release of activation product 14 C was also measured, with a portion of the 14 C release appearing to originate from the cladding exterior surface. Much greater fractional fuel dissolution appeared to have occurred with bare fuel particles than from fuel contained in defected cladding. Actinide release from test specimens containing small (∼200 μm) laser-drilled holes through the cladding was not significantly greater than from undefected specimens

  20. Impacts of select organic ligands on the colloidal stability, dissolution dynamics, and toxicity of silver nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Lok R; Dubey, Brajesh; Scheuerman, Phillip R

    2013-11-19

    Key understanding of potential transformations that may occur on silver nanoparticle (AgNP) surface upon interaction with naturally ubiquitous organic ligands (e.g., -SH (thoil), humic acid, or -COO (carboxylate)) is limited. Herein we investigated how dissolved organic carbon (DOC), -SH (in cysteine, a well-known Ag(+) chelating agent), and -COO (in trolox, a well-known antioxidant) could alter the colloidal stability, dissolution rate, and toxicity of citrate-functionalized AgNPs (citrate-AgNPs) against a keystone crustacean Daphnia magna. Cysteine, DOC, or trolox amendment of citrate-AgNPs differentially modified particle size, surface properties (charge, plasmonic spectra), and ion release dynamics, thereby attenuating (with cysteine or trolox) or promoting (with DOC) AgNP toxicity. Except with DOC amendment, the combined toxicity of AgNPs and released Ag under cysteine or trolox amendment was lower than of AgNO3 alone. The results of this study show that citrate-AgNP toxicity can be associated with oxidative stress, ion release, and the organism biology. Our evidence suggests that specific organic ligands available in the receiving waters can differentially surface modify AgNPs and alter their environmental persistence (changing dissolution dynamics) and subsequently the toxicity; hence, we caveat to generalize that surface modified nanoparticles upon environmental release may not be toxic to receptor organisms.

  1. Micronization, characterization and in-vitro dissolution of shellac from PGSS supercritical CO2 technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labuschagne, Philip W; Naicker, Brendon; Kalombo, Lonji

    2016-02-29

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether shellac, a naturally occurring material with enteric properties, could be processed in supercritical CO2 (sc-CO2) using the particles from gas saturated solution (PGSS) process and how process parameters affect the physico-chemical properties of shellac. In-situ attenuated total reflection fourier transform infra-red (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy showed that CO2 dissolves in shellac with solubility reaching a maximum of 13% (w/w) at 300 bar pressure and 40 °C and maximum swelling of 28%. The solubility of sc-CO2 in shellac allowed for the formation of porous shellac structures of which the average pore diameter and pore density could be controlled by adjustment of operating pressure and temperature. In addition, it was possible to produce shellac microparticles ranging in average diameter from 180 to 300 μm. It was also shown that processing shellac in sc-CO2 resulted in accelerated esterification reactions, potentially limiting the extent of post-processing "ageing" and thus greater stability. Due to additional hydrolysis reactions enhanced by the presence of sc-CO2, the solubility of shellac at pH 7.5 was increased by between 4 and 7 times, while dissolution rates were also increased. It was also shown that the in-vitro dissolution profiles of shellac could be modified by slight adjustment in operating temperatures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Model-based control of the temporal patterns of intracellular signaling in silico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Yohei; Koyama, Masanori; Oba, Shigeyuki; Kuroda, Shinya; Ishii, Shin

    2017-01-01

    The functions of intracellular signal transduction systems are determined by the temporal behavior of intracellular molecules and their interactions. Of the many dynamical properties of the system, the relationship between the dynamics of upstream molecules and downstream molecules is particularly important. A useful tool in understanding this relationship is a methodology to control the dynamics of intracellular molecules with an extracellular stimulus. However, this is a difficult task because the relationship between the levels of upstream molecules and those of downstream molecules is often not only stochastic, but also time-inhomogeneous, nonlinear, and not one-to-one. In this paper, we present an easy-to-implement model-based control method that makes the target downstream molecule to trace a desired time course by changing the concentration of a controllable upstream molecule. Our method uses predictions from Monte Carlo simulations of the model to decide the strength of the stimulus, while using a particle-based approach to make inferences regarding unobservable states. We applied our method to in silico control problems of insulin-dependent AKT pathway model and EGF-dependent Akt pathway model with system noise. We show that our method can robustly control the dynamics of the intracellular molecules against unknown system noise of various strengths, even in the absence of complete knowledge of the true model of the target system. PMID:28275530

  3. Intracellular bacteria: the origin of dinoflagellate toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, E S

    1990-01-01

    Dinoflagellate blooms of the same species have been registered either as toxic or nontoxic and, in the latter case, toxicity may be of different types. A hypothesis has been formulated according to which the bacteria having in some way taken part in the toxin formation are either inside the dinoflagellate cell or in the nutritive liquid. The presence of intracellular bacteria in those microorganisms has been studied mainly in material from cultures, a few from the sea, and several strains were isolated from different species. Experiments with crossed inoculations have shown that the bacterial strain from Gonyaulax tamarensis caused the cells of some other species to become toxic. From nontoxic clonal cultures of Prorocentrum balticum, Glenodinium foliaceum, and Gyrodinium instriatum, after inoculation of that bacterial strain, cultures were obtained whose cell extracts showed the same kind of toxicity as G. tamarensis. No toxic action could be found in the extracts of the bacterial cells form the assayed strains. The interference of intracellular bacteria in the metabolism of dinoflagellates must be the main cause of their toxicity.

  4. Fluorescent nanoparticles for intracellular sensing: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruedas-Rama, Maria J; Walters, Jamie D; Orte, Angel; Hall, Elizabeth A H

    2012-11-02

    Fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs), including semiconductor NPs (Quantum Dots), metal NPs, silica NPs, polymer NPs, etc., have been a major focus of research and development during the past decade. The fluorescent nanoparticles show unique chemical and optical properties, such as brighter fluorescence, higher photostability and higher biocompatibility, compared to classical fluorescent organic dyes. Moreover, the nanoparticles can also act as multivalent scaffolds for the realization of supramolecular assemblies, since their high surface to volume ratio allow distinct spatial domains to be functionalized, which can provide a versatile synthetic platform for the implementation of different sensing schemes. Their excellent properties make them one of the most useful tools that chemistry has supplied to biomedical research, enabling the intracellular monitoring of many different species for medical and biological purposes. In this review, we focus on the developments and analytical applications of fluorescent nanoparticles in chemical and biological sensing within the intracellular environment. The review also points out the great potential of fluorescent NPs for fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). Finally, we also give an overview of the current methods for delivering of fluorescent NPs into cells, where critically examine the benefits and liabilities of each strategy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanisms of cellular invasion by intracellular parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Dawn M; Oghumu, Steve; Gupta, Gaurav; McGwire, Bradford S; Drew, Mark E; Satoskar, Abhay R

    2014-04-01

    Numerous disease-causing parasites must invade host cells in order to prosper. Collectively, such pathogens are responsible for a staggering amount of human sickness and death throughout the world. Leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, toxoplasmosis, and malaria are neglected diseases and therefore are linked to socio-economical and geographical factors, affecting well-over half the world's population. Such obligate intracellular parasites have co-evolved with humans to establish a complexity of specific molecular parasite-host cell interactions, forming the basis of the parasite's cellular tropism. They make use of such interactions to invade host cells as a means to migrate through various tissues, to evade the host immune system, and to undergo intracellular replication. These cellular migration and invasion events are absolutely essential for the completion of the lifecycles of these parasites and lead to their for disease pathogenesis. This review is an overview of the molecular mechanisms of protozoan parasite invasion of host cells and discussion of therapeutic strategies, which could be developed by targeting these invasion pathways. Specifically, we focus on four species of protozoan parasites Leishmania, Trypanosoma cruzi, Plasmodium, and Toxoplasma, which are responsible for significant morbidity and mortality.

  6. [Intracellular signaling mechanisms in thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondragón-Terán, Paul; López-Hernández, Luz Berenice; Gutiérrez-Salinas, José; Suárez-Cuenca, Juan Antonio; Luna-Ceballos, Rosa Isela; Erazo Valle-Solís, Aura

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system, the papillary variant accounts for 80-90% of all diagnosed cases. In the development of papillary thyroid cancer, BRAF and RAS genes are mainly affected, resulting in a modification of the system of intracellular signaling proteins known as «protein kinase mitogen-activated» (MAPK) which consist of «modules» of internal signaling proteins (Receptor/Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK) from the cell membrane to the nucleus. In thyroid cancer, these signanling proteins regulate diverse cellular processes such as differentiation, growth, development and apoptosis. MAPK play an important role in the pathogenesis of thyroid cancer as they are used as molecular biomarkers for diagnostic, prognostic and as possible therapeutic molecular targets. Mutations in BRAF gene have been correlated with poor response to treatment with traditional chemotherapy and as an indicator of poor prognosis. To review the molecular mechanisms involved in intracellular signaling of BRAF and RAS genes in thyroid cancer. Molecular therapy research is in progress for this type of cancer as new molecules have been developed in order to inhibit any of the components of the signaling pathway (RET/PTC)/Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK; with special emphasis on the (RET/PTC)/Ras/Raf section, which is a major effector of ERK pathway. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  7. Rare particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutschera, W.

    1984-01-01

    The use of Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) to search for hypothetical particles and known particles of rare processes is discussed. The hypothetical particles considered include fractionally charged particles, anomalously heavy isotopes, and superheavy elements. The known particles produced in rare processes discussed include doubly-charged negative ions, counting neutrino-produced atoms in detectors for solar neutrino detection, and the spontaneous emission of 14 C from 223 Ra. 35 references

  8. Dissolution Flowsheet for High Flux Isotope Reactor Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, W. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Rudisill, T. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); O' Rourke, P. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Karay, N. S [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-09-27

    As part of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) processing campaign, H-Canyon is planning to begin dissolving High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) fuel in late FY17 or early FY18. Each HFIR fuel core contains inner and outer fuel elements which were fabricated from uranium oxide (U3O8) dispersed in a continuous Al phase using traditional powder metallurgy techniques. Fuels fabricated in this manner, like other SNF’s processed in H-Canyon, dissolve by the same general mechanisms with similar gas generation rates and the production of H2. The HFIR fuel cores will be dissolved and the recovered U will be down-blended into low-enriched U. HFIR fuel was previously processed in H-Canyon using a unique insert in both the 6.1D and 6.4D dissolvers. Multiple cores will be charged to the same dissolver solution maximizing the concentration of dissolved Al. The objective of this study was to identify flowsheet conditions through literature review and laboratory experimentation to safely and efficiently dissolve the HFIR fuel in H-Canyon. Laboratory-scale experiments were performed to evaluate the dissolution of HFIR fuel using both Al 1100 and Al 6061 T6 alloy coupons. The Al 1100 alloy was considered a representative surrogate which provided an upper bound on the generation of flammable (i.e., H2) gas during the dissolution process. The dissolution of the Al 6061 T6 alloy proceeded at a slower rate than the Al 1100 alloy, and was used to verify that the target Al concentration in solution could be achieved for the selected Hg concentration. Mass spectrometry and Raman spectroscopy were used to provide continuous monitoring of the concentration of H2 and other permanent gases in the dissolution offgas, allowing the development of H2 generation rate profiles. The H2 generation rates were subsequently used to evaluate if a full HFIR core could be dissolved in an H-Canyon dissolver without exceeding 60% of the

  9. The use of commercial microwave dissolution equipment for the fast and reliable dissolution of high-fired POX and MOX samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tushingham, J.; McInnes, C.; Firkin, S.

    1998-09-01

    The use of commercially available microwave dissolution equipment for the fast and reliable dissolution of high-fired plutonium dioxide (POX) and mixed oxide (MOX) samples has been evaluated for application to Safeguards Analysis. Under the auspices of the UK R and D Support Programme to the IAEA, equipment has been purchased and tested for the high-pressure microwave dissolution of POX samples fired to 1250 deg. C and MOX samples fired to 1600 deg. C, in concentrated nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid mixture. Considerable problems were encountered during development of procedures for microwave dissolution, resulting largely from sudden changes in pressure within dissolution vessels, which resulted in actuation of safety interlocks designed to prevent overpressurisation. These difficulties were alleviated by controlling the microwave power to reduce the reaction temperature and pressure, and also by introducing additional safety valves into the digestion vessels. Using microwave digestion, dissolution times for high fired POX and MOX samples were substantially reduced. Samples which required ca. 10 hours to dissolve by conventional means could be dissolved in ca. 80 minutes by microwave digestion. Whilst a similar performance in terms of plutonium recovery was achieved for some materials by microwave and conventional dissolution, for other materials microwave dissolution gave higher plutonium recoveries but with poorer precision. This suggests the possible presence of some plutonium oxide within high-fired materials which is more difficult to dissolve than the bulk, and which is perhaps dissolved to an additional but variable degree by the current microwave dissolution procedure. Microwave dissolution has been demonstrated to increase the speed of dissolution of high-fired POX and MOX materials, compared with conventional dissolution. However, the technique has not yet proved satisfactory for the complete dissolution of all high-fired materials tested because of

  10. Preparation and Optimization of Amorphous Ursodeoxycholic Acid Nano-suspensions by Nanoprecipitation based on Acid-base Neutralization for Enhanced Dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yike; Chen, Zhongjian; Su, Rui; Li, Ye; Qi, Jianping; Wu, Wei; Lu, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid, usually used to dissolve cholesterol gallstones in clinic, is a typical hydrophobic drug with poor oral bioavailability due to dissolution rate-limited performance. The objective of this study was to increase the dissolution of ursodeoxycholic acid by amorphous nanosuspensions. Nanoprecipitation based on acid-base neutralization was used to prepare the nanosuspensions with central composite design to optimize the formula. The nanosuspensions were characterized by particle size, morphology, crystallology and dissolution. The ursodeoxycholic acid nanosuspensions showed mean particle size around 380 nm with polydispersion index value about 0.25. Scanning electron microscope observed high coverage of HPMC-E50 onto the surface of the nanosuspensions. Differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffractometry revealed amorphous structure of the ursodeoxycholic acid nanosuspensions. A significant increase of dissolution in acidic media was achieved by the amorphous nanosuspensions compared with the physical mixture. It can be predicted that the amorphous nanosuspensions show great potential in improving the oral bioavailability of ursodeoxycholic acid. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  11. Improving the de-agglomeration and dissolution of a poorly water soluble drug by decreasing the agglomerate strength of the cohesive powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allahham, Ayman; Stewart, Peter J; Das, Shyamal C

    2013-11-30

    Influence of ternary, poorly water-soluble components on the agglomerate strength of cohesive indomethacin mixtures during dissolution was studied to explore the relationship between agglomerate strength and extent of de-agglomeration and dissolution of indomethacin (Ind). Dissolution profiles of Ind from 20% Ind-lactose binary mixtures, and ternary mixtures containing additional dibasic calcium phosphate (1% or 10%; DCP), calcium sulphate (10%) and talc (10%) were determined. Agglomerate strength distributions were estimated by Monte Carlo simulation of particle size, work of cohesion and packing fraction distributions. The agglomerate strength of Ind decreased from 1.19 MPa for the binary Ind mixture to 0.84 MPa for 1DCP:20Ind mixture and to 0.42 MPa for 1DCP:2Ind mixture. Both extent of de-agglomeration, demonstrated by the concentration of the dispersed indomethacin distribution, and extent of dispersion, demonstrated by the particle size of the dispersed indomethacin, were in descending order of 1DCP:2Ind>1DCP:20Ind>binary Ind. The addition of calcium sulphate dihydrate and talc also reduced the agglomerate strength and improved de-agglomeration and dispersion of indomethacin. While not definitively causal, the improved de-agglomeration and dispersion of a poorly water soluble drug by poorly water soluble components was related to the agglomerate strength of the cohesive matrix during dissolution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. A general mechanism for intracellular toxicity of metal-containing nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabella, Stefania; Carney, Randy P.; Brunetti, Virgilio; Malvindi, Maria Ada; Al-Juffali, Noura; Vecchio, Giuseppe; Janes, Sam M.; Bakr, Osman M.; Cingolani, Roberto; Stellacci, Francesco; Pompa, Pier Paolo

    2014-05-01

    The assessment of the risks exerted by nanoparticles is a key challenge for academic, industrial, and regulatory communities worldwide. Experimental evidence points towards significant toxicity for a range of nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo. Worldwide efforts aim at uncovering the underlying mechanisms for this toxicity. Here, we show that the intracellular ion release elicited by the acidic conditions of the lysosomal cellular compartment - where particles are abundantly internalized - is responsible for the cascading events associated with nanoparticles-induced intracellular toxicity. We call this mechanism a ``lysosome-enhanced Trojan horse effect'' since, in the case of nanoparticles, the protective cellular machinery designed to degrade foreign objects is actually responsible for their toxicity. To test our hypothesis, we compare the toxicity of similar gold particles whose main difference is in the internalization pathways. We show that particles known to pass directly through cell membranes become more toxic when modified so as to be mostly internalized by endocytosis. Furthermore, using experiments with chelating and lysosomotropic agents, we found that the toxicity mechanism for different metal containing NPs (such as metallic, metal oxide, and semiconductor NPs) is mainly associated with the release of the corresponding toxic ions. Finally, we show that particles unable to release toxic ions (such as stably coated NPs, or diamond and silica NPs) are not harmful to intracellular environments.The assessment of the risks exerted by nanoparticles is a key challenge for academic, industrial, and regulatory communities worldwide. Experimental evidence points towards significant toxicity for a range of nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo. Worldwide efforts aim at uncovering the underlying mechanisms for this toxicity. Here, we show that the intracellular ion release elicited by the acidic conditions of the lysosomal cellular compartment - where

  13. Dissolution of Metal Supported Spent Auto Catalysts in Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fornalczyk A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Metal supported auto catalysts, have been used in sports and racing cars initially, but nowadays their application systematically increases. In Metal Substrate (supported Converters (MSC, catalytic functions are performed by the Platinum Group Metals (PGM: Pt, Pd, Rh, similarly to the catalysts on ceramic carriers. The contents of these metals make that spent catalytic converters are valuable source of precious metals. All over the world there are many methods for the metals recovery from the ceramic carriers, however, the issue of platinum recovery from metal supported catalysts has not been studied sufficiently yet. The paper presents preliminary results of dissolution of spent automotive catalyst on a metal carrier by means of acids: H2SO4, HCl, HNO3, H3PO4. The main assumption of the research was the dissolution of base metals (Fe, Cr, Al from metallic carrier of catalyst, avoiding dissolution of PGMs. Dissolution was the most effective when concentrated hydrochloric acid, and 2M sulfuric acid (VI was used. It was observed that the dust, remaining after leaching, contained platinum in the level of 0.8% and 0.7%, respectively.

  14. Aluminium fractionation of European volcanic soils by selective dissolution techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia-Rodeja, E.; Novoa, J.C.; Pontevedra, X.; Martinez-Cortizas, A.; Buurman, P.

    2004-01-01

    Several selective dissolution methods were used to differentiate Al forms in 12 soils formed from volcanic materials (64 andic, vitric and organic horizons) in Iceland, Azores (Portugal), Tenerife (Spain) and Italy. The soils differ in many properties because of differences in parent materials,

  15. Pilot-scale tests of HEME and HEPA dissolution process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Z.H.; Strege, D.K.

    1996-01-01

    A series of pilot-scale demonstration tests for the dissolution of High Efficiency Mist Eliminators (BEME's) and High Efficiency Particulate Airfilters (BEPA) were performed on a 1/5th linear scale. These filters are to be used in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) to decontaminate the effluents from the off-gases generated during the feed preparation process and vitrification. When removed, these radioactively contaminated filters will be dissolved using caustic solutions. As a result of these tests, a simple dissolution process was developed. In this process, the contaminated filter is first immersed in boiling 5% caustic solution for 24 hours and then water is sprayed on the filter. These steps break down the filter first chemically and then mechanically. The metal cage is rinsed and considered low level waste. The dissolved filter is pumpable and mixed with high level waste. Compared to earlier dissolution studies using caustic-acid-caustic solutions, the proposed method represents a 66% savings in cycle time and amount of liquid waste generated. This paper provides the details of filter mockups and results of the dissolution tests

  16. Little Reason for Being: A Case of School District Dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Pam

    In 1980, Tonnelly Central School District became the first school district in New York State to be dissolved pursuant to Section 1505 of Education Law, marking the first use of dissolution and annexation as a means by which to address the programmatic and management problems encountered in the operation of a central school district. Problems faced…

  17. FY 2000 Saltcake Dissolution and Feed Stability Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, R.D.; McGinnis, C.P.; Weber, C.F.; Welch, T.D.; Jewett, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    The Tanks Focus Area (TFA) continues to work closely with the Office of River Protection (ORP) to better understand the chemistry involved with the retrieval, transport, and pretreatment of nuclear wastes at Hanford. Since a private contractor is currently responsible for the pretreatment and immobilization activities in this remediation effort, the TFA has concentrated on saltcake dissolution and waste transport at the request of the ORP. Researchers at Hanford have performed a series of dissolution experiments on actual saltcake samples. Staff members at Mississippi State University (MSU) continue to model the dissolution results with the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP), which is used extensively by ORP personnel. Several ways to improve the predictive capabilities of the ESP were identified. Since several transfer lines at Hanford have become plugged, TFA tasks at AEA Technologies, Florida International University (FIU), MSU, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are investigating the behavior of the supernatants and slurries during transport. A combination of experimental and theoretical techniques is used to study the transport chemistry. This effort is expected to develop process control tools for waste transfer. The results from these TFA tasks were presented to ORP personnel during the FY 2000 Saltcake Dissolution and Feed Stability Workshop, which was held on May 16-17 in Richland, Washington. The minutes from this workshop are provided in this report

  18. Stability and drug dissolution evaluation of Qingkailing soft/hard ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To carry out a post-marketing evaluation of the stability and drug dissolution of ... Stability data from long-term studies showed that within 6 months the ... However, fingerprint pattern statistical analysis showed that the soft capsule is ...

  19. Dissolution of organic solvents from painted surfaces into water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wren, J.C.; Jobe, D.J.; Sanipelli, G.G.; Ball, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The presence of volatile iodine in containment buildings is one of the major safety concerns in the potential event of nuclear reactor accidents. Organic impurities in containment water, originating from various painted structural surfaces and organic materials, could have a significant impact on iodine volatility following an accident. To determine the source and magnitude of organic impurities and their effects on time-dependent iodine volatility, the dissolution for organic constituents from paints used in reactor buildings has been studied under postulated accident conditions. The studies of the organic dissolution from carbon steel coupons coated with zinc-primed vinyl, epoxy-primed polyurethane or epoxy paints over the temperature range 25-90 deg C are reported. Relatively large activation energies were measured for the release of the principal organic compounds from painted surfaces, suggesting it is the release of the solvents from the paint matrix rather than their diffusion through the solution that is the rate determining step for the dissolution mechanism. The similarities in the values of activation energies for the dissolution of different organic compounds from the paints suggest the release rate is independent of the nature of the painted surface or the type of organic being released from the surface. These two observations indicate that it may be possible to write a generalized rate expression for the release of organic compounds from painted surfaces in containment following an accident. The possible implications of these results for predicting iodine volatility in containment are also discussed. (author)

  20. Evaluation of dissolution of nonconventional phosphate fertilizers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dissolution of phosphate rock (PR) depends on inherent chemical and physical properties of the rock and on external factors such as soils and plants. The objective of this study was to investigate, with a soil incubation experiment, the relationship between selected soil factors and extractable phosphorus (P) in order to ...

  1. Dissolution of basaltic glass in seawater: Mechanism and rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crovisier, J.L.; Honnorez, J.; Eberhart, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    Basaltic glasses are considered as natural analogues for nuclear waste glasses. Thermodynamic computer codes used to evaluate long term behavior of both nuclear waste and basaltic glasses require the knowledge of the dissolution mechanism of the glass network. The paper presents the results of a series of experiments designed to study the structure and chemical composition of alteration layers formed on the surface of artificial tholeiitic glass altered in artificial seawater. Experiments were performed at 60 degree C, 1 bar and 350 bars in non-renewed conditions. A natural sample from Palagonia (Sicily) has been studied by electron microscopy and comparison between natural and experimental palagonitic layers is made. The behavior of dissolved silica during experiments, and both the structure and the chemical composition of the palagonitic layers, indicate that they form by precipitation of secondary minerals from solution after a total breakdown of the glassy network, i.e., congruent dissolution of the glass. Hence the dissolution equation necessary for thermodynamic modelling of basaltic glass dissolution in seawater at low temperature must be written as a simple stoichiometric process. These experiments indicate that the transformation of glass to palagonitic material is not isovolumetric. Hence it is preferable to use Fe or Ti as conservative elements for chemical budget calculations

  2. Facility for electrochemical dissolution of rejected fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deniskin, V.P.; Filatov, O.N.; Konovalov, E.A.; Kolesnikov, B.P.; Bukharin, A.D.

    2003-01-01

    A facility for electrochemical dissolution of rejected fuel elements with the stainless steel can and uranium of 90% enrichment is described. The start-adjustment works and trial-commercial tests of the facility are carried out. A s a result its technological parameters are determined [ru

  3. Compaction of porous rock by dissolution on discrete stylolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angheluta, Luiza; Mathiesen, Joachim; Aharonov, Einat

    2012-01-01

    Compaction of sedimentary porous rock by dissolution and precipitation is a complex deformation mechanism, that is often localized on stylolites and pressure solution seams. We consider a one-dimensional model of compaction near a thin clay-rich stylolite embedded in a porous rock. Under...

  4. Dissolution and Quantification of Tantalum-Containing Compounds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    2The South African Nuclear Energy Corporation Ltd. (Necsa), P.O. Box 582, Pretoria 0001, South Africa. Received 30 ... The success of the different dissolution methods was evaluated on percentage .... Other validation parameters9,10 such as accuracy, precision, ..... pled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. An Atlas of ...

  5. Dissolution of heavy metals from electrostatic precipitator (ESP) dust ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Coal based sponge iron industries in India generate considerable quantity of solid waste, 40% of which is flue dust produced from the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) connected to rotary kiln. This paper reports the dissolution of Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn and Fe from the ESP dust using three fungal species, Aspergillus niger, ...

  6. Investigating Dissolution and Precipitation Phenomena with a Smartphone Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumetta, Gregg J.; Arcia, Edgar

    2016-01-01

    A novel smartphone microscope can be used to observe the dissolution and crystallization of sodium chloride at a microscopic level. Observation of these seemingly simple phenomena through the microscope at 100× magnification can actually reveal some surprising behavior. These experiments offer the opportunity to discuss some basic concepts such as…

  7. Aluminium dissolution for spray pulverization with nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo Otero, A.; Rodrigo Vilaseca, F.; Morales Calvo, G.

    1977-01-01

    A comparative study of the nitric acid dissolution of aluminium, by immersion and spray pulverization has been carried out in laboratory scale. As a result, the optimum operation conditions to control reaction in the plant are fixed. Operation costs are also evaluated. (author) [es

  8. Enhancement of solubility and dissolution rate of atorvastatin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the formation of atorvastatin calcium (AC) co-crystal to improve its solubility and dissolution rate. Method: Co-crystallization of AC in equimolar ratio with isonicotinamide (INA) was carried out by slow solvent evaporation method using methanol. The solid obtained was characterized by powder x-ray ...

  9. Dissolution test of herbal medicines containing Passiflora sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ane R. T. Costa

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The dissolution test is an essential tool to assess the quality of herbal medicines in the solid dosage form for oral use. This work aimed to evaluate the dissolution behavior of three herbal medicines in the form of capsules and tablet containing Passiflora, produced with powder or dried extract. Assay of total flavonoids and dissolution methods were validated and obtained results allowed the quantification of flavonoids with precision, accuracy and selectivity. The percentage of total flavonoids found was 2% for capsule A (containing only powder, 0.97% for capsule B (containing only dried extract and 5.5% for tablet. Although the content was lower, the release of flavonoids present in the capsule containing dried extract was 12% higher over 30 min, with dissolved percentage values of 87 and 75, for the capsules containing extract and powder, respectively. The tablet containing dried extract presented dissolution of 76%, despite the higher content of flavonoids, which may be due to pharmacotechnical problems. Obtained data demonstrated the need to implement these tests in the quality control of herbal medicines, confirming the release of the active ingredients that underlie the pharmacological action of these medicines.

  10. Oxidative dissolution of ADOPT compared to standard UO2 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Kristina; Roth, Olivia; Jonsson, Mats

    2017-01-01

    In this work we have studied oxidative dissolution of pure UO 2 and ADOPT (UO 2 doped with Al and Cr) pellets using H 2 O 2 and gammaradiolysis to induce the process. There is a small but significant difference in the oxidative dissolution rate of UO 2 and ADOPT pellets, respectively. However, the difference in oxidative dissolution yield is insignificant. Leaching experiments were also performed on in-reactor irradiated ADOPT and UO 2 pellets under oxidizing conditions. The results indicate that the U(VI) release is slightly slower from the ADOPT pellet compared to the UO 2. This could be attributed to differences in exposed surface area. However, fission products with low UO 2 solubility display a higher relative release from ADOPT fuel compared to standard UO 2 -fuel. This is attributed to a lower matrix solubility imposed by the dopants in ADOPT fuel. The release of Cs is higher from UO 2 which is attributed to the larger grain size of ADOPT. - Highlights: •Oxidative dissolution of ADOPT fuel is compared to standard UO 2 fuel. •Only marginal differences are observed. •The main difference observed is in the relative release rate of fission products. •Differences are claimed to be attributed to a lower matrix solubility imposed by the dopants in ADOPT fuel.

  11. Enhancement of solubility and dissolution rate of atorvastatin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    solvent evaporation method using methanol. ... crystal significantly increases in solubility with a dissolution rate 2 - 3 times faster than that of ... considered one of the most effective synthetic .... temperature of 37 ± 0.5 °C. The test was carried.

  12. An autoclave system for uranium oxide dissolution experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nykyri, Mikko

    1985-05-01

    According to the decision in principle of the Council of State of Finland the nuclear energy producers must provide preparedness for carrying out the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland. By the present principal concept the spent fuel will be disposed deep into the granitic bedrock. A parameter needed by risk analysis models is the dissolution rate of the uranium oxide matrix in the fuel pellets. In order to approach conditions prevailing deep in the groundwater, and autoclave system for dissolution experiments was developed at the Technical Research Centre of Finland. The low oxygen content and high pressure at elevated temperatures are simulated in the system. 20 MPa and 100 deg C are the upper operation limits of pressure and temperature. Water can be changed in the experiment autoclave without remarkable pressure and temperature variations. This has been arranged by using three pressure vessels: a supply vessel, a dissolution vessel and a depletion vessel. The extreme vessels serve pressure balancing purposes during water exchange. The water is deoxygenated during a preparation phase in the supply vessel by flushing it with nitrogen gas. Polytetrafluoroethylene is the principal material in contact with the water. A redox electrode couple was developed for potential measurements inside the dissolution vessel. The reference electrode is of Ag/AgCl-type with saturated KC1 electrolyte. A platinum wire operates as a measuring electrode

  13. Bio-dissolution of Ni, V and Mo from spent petroleum catalyst using iron oxidizing bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Debabrata; Kim, Dong J; Roychaudhury, Gautam; Lee, Seoung W

    2010-01-01

    Bioleaching studies of spent petroleum catalyst containing Ni, V and Mo were carried out using iron oxidizing bacteria. Various leaching parameters such as Fe(II) concentration, pulp density, pH, temperature and particle size were studied to evaluate their effects on the leaching efficiency as well as the kinetics of dissolution. The percentage of leaching of Ni and V were higher than Mo. The leaching process followed a diffusion controlled model and the product layer was observed to be impervious due to formation of ammonium jarosite (NH(4))Fe(3)(SO(4))(2)(OH)(6). Apart from this, the lower leaching efficiency of Mo was due to a hydrophobic coating of elemental sulfur over Mo matrix in the spent catalyst. The diffusivities of the attacking species for Ni, V and Mo were also calculated.

  14. Results from Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Series 3 spent fuel dissolution tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, C.N.

    1990-06-01

    The dissolution and radionuclide release behavior of spent fuel in groundwater is being studied by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP), formerly the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations (NNWSI) Project. Specimens prepared from pressurized water reactor fuel rod segments were tested in sealed stainless steel vessels in Nevada Test Site J-13 well water at 85 degree C and 25 degree C. The test matrix included three specimens of bare-fuel particles plus cladding hulls, two fuel rod segments with artificially defected cladding and water-tight end fittings, and an undefected fuel rod section with watertight end fittings. Periodic solution samples were taken during test cycles with the sample volumes replenished with fresh J-13 water. Test cycles were periodically terminated and the specimens restarted in fresh J-13 water. The specimens were run for three cycles for a total test duration of 15 months. 22 refs., 32 figs., 26 tabs

  15. Colloidal silver iodide characterization within the framework of nuclear spent fuel dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard-Mozziconacci, O.; Devisme, F.; Marignier, JL.; Belloni, J.

    2004-01-01

    Iodine-129 partitioning during the dissolution stage of the Purex reprocessing, based on volatile molecular iodine formation and stripping, is mainly limited by dissolved oxidized species such as iodate and insoluble forms such as colloidal silver iodide. The study of their formation and stability, not completely clarified, requires to prepare the colloid in a reproducible way under various conditions and to characterize it. The work reported here describes a first step towards this objective. Carried out under simplified operating conditions, speciation and physical characterization (spectrophotometry and TEM) made it possible to evaluate, for the first time, the molar extinction coefficient of the colloid per monomer and its variation with the nuclearity, ε(n), on the basis of a simplified coalescence model: ε(n) = ε max (1 - e -αn ) where ε max ∼ 7000 L mol -1 cm -1 and α = 4.3 x 10 -6 per monomer number in a particle. (authors)

  16. Bovine Serum Albumin binding to CoCrMo nanoparticles and the influence on dissolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, T A; Brown, A P; Milne, S J; Brydson, R M D

    2015-01-01

    CoCrMo alloys exhibit good mechanical properties, excellent biocompatibility and are widely utilised in orthopaedic joint replacements. Metal-on-metal hip implant degradation leads to the release of metal ions and nanoparticles, which persist through the implant's life and could be a possible cause of health complications. This study correlates preferential binding between proteins and metal alloy nanoparticles to the alloy's corrosion behaviour and the release of metal ions. TEM images show the formation of a protein corona in all particles immersed in albumin containing solutions. Only molybdenum release was significant in these tests, suggesting high dissolution of this element when CoCrMo alloy nanoparticles are produced as wear debris in the presence of serum albumin. The same trend was observed during extended exposure of molybdenum reference nanoparticles to albumin. (paper)

  17. Peroxide formation and kinetics of sodium dissolution in alcohols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidaran, P.; Chandran, K.; Ganesan, V.; Periaswami, G.

    1997-01-01

    Suitable techniques for sodium removal and decontamination of sodium wetted components of Liquid Metal Fast Reactors (LMFRs) are necessary both for repair, reuse and decommissioning of such components. Among the methods followed for sodium removal, alcohol dissolution is usually employed for small components like bellow sealed valves, gripping tools to handle core components and sodium sampling devices (primary and secondary). One of the concerns in the alcohol dissolution method is the possible role of peroxide formation in the ethoxy group during storage and handling leading to explosion. This paper describes the study of peroxide formation in ethyl carbitol and butyl cellosolve as well as some of the results of dissolution kinetic studies carried out in our laboratory using different alcohols. The peroxide formation of ethyl carbitol and butyl cellosolve were studied by iodometric technique. It has been found that the peroxide formation is less in sodium containing alcohol than in pure one. Ethyl carbitol, butyl cellosolve and Jaysol-SS (mixture of ethyl alcohol, methyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol and methyl isobutyl ketone) were used in dissolution kinetics studies. The effects due to area and orientation of the fresh sodium surface have also been investigated. The reaction rates were studied in the temperature range of 303-343 K. The rate of dissolution was estimated by measuring the sodium content of alcohol at periodic intervals. It is found that the reaction rate varies in the order of ethyl alcohol-water mixture > Jaysol-SS > butyl cellosolve > ethyl carbitol. While cleaning sodium using alcohol, the concentration of alcohol is held essentially constant throughout the process. The rate of reaction depends only on the amount of sodium and follows pseudo-first order kinetics. Increase in surface area has a marked impact on the dissolution rate at lower temperatures while at higher temperatures, the temperature factor overrides the effect due to surface area

  18. Dissolution of Si in Molten Al with Gas Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed Ahmadi, Mehran

    Silicon is an essential component of many aluminum alloys, as it imparts a range of desirable characteristics. However, there are considerable practical difficulties in dissolving solid Si in molten Al, because the dissolution process is slow, resulting in material and energy losses. It is thus essential to examine Si dissolution in molten Al, to identify means of accelerating the process. This thesis presents an experimental study of the effect of Si purity, bath temperature, fluid flow conditions, and gas stirring on the dissolution of Si in molten Al, plus the results of physical and numerical modeling of the flow to corroborate the experimental results. The dissolution experiments were conducted in a revolving liquid metal tank to generate a bulk velocity, and gas was introduced into the melt using top lance injection. Cylindrical Si specimens were immersed into molten Al for fixed durations, and upon removal the dissolved Si was measured. The shape and trajectory of injected bubbles were examined by means of auxiliary water experiments and video recordings of the molten Al free surface. The gas-agitated liquid was simulated using the commercial software FLOW-3D. The simulation results provide insights into bubble dynamics and offer estimates of the fluctuating velocities within the Al bath. The experimental results indicate that the dissolution rate of Si increases in tandem with the melt temperature and bulk velocity. A higher bath temperature increases the solubility of Si at the solid/liquid interface, resulting in a greater driving force for mass transfer, and a higher liquid velocity decreases the resistance to mass transfer via a thinner mass boundary layer. Impurities (with lower diffusion coefficients) in the form of inclusions obstruct the dissolution of the Si main matrix. Finally, dissolution rate enhancement was observed by gas agitation. It is postulated that the bubble-induced fluctuating velocities disturb the mass boundary layer, which

  19. A Novel Approach to Experimental Studies of Mineral Dissolution Kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Zhu

    2006-08-31

    Currently, DOE is conducting pilot CO{sub 2} injection tests to evaluate the concept of geological sequestration. One strategy that potentially enhances CO{sub 2} solubility and reduces the risk of CO{sub 2} leak back to the surface is dissolution of indigenous minerals in the geological formation and precipitation of secondary carbonate phases, which increases the brine pH and immobilizes CO{sub 2}. Cl