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Sample records for intracavity all-solid pbg

  1. Monolithic Yb-fiber femtosecond laser with intracavity all-solid PBG fiber and ex-cavity HC-PCF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Liu, Xiaomin; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate an all-fiber femtosecond master oscillator / power amplifier operating at the central wavelength of 1033 nm, based on Yb-doped fiber as gain medium, and two different kinds of photonic crystal fibers for dispersion control and stabilization. An all-solid (AS) polarization maintaini...

  2. All-solid-state continuous-wave doubly resonant all-intracavity sum-frequency mixer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretschmann, H M; Heine, F; Huber, G; Halldórsson, T

    1997-10-01

    A new resonator design for doubly resonant continuous-wave intracavity sum-frequency mixing is presented. We generated 212 mW of coherent radiation at 618 nm by mixing the radiation of a 1080-nm Nd(3+):YAlO(3) laser and a 1444-nm Nd(3+):YAG laser. Two different mixing resonator setups and several nonlinear-optical crystals were investigated. So far output is limited by unequal performance of the two fundamental lasers and coating problems of the nonlinear crystals.

  3. 2.1-watts intracavity-frequency-doubled all-solid-state light source at 671 nm for laser cooling of lithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eismann, U; Bergschneider, A; Sievers, F; Kretzschmar, N; Salomon, C; Chevy, F

    2013-04-08

    We present an all-solid-state laser source emitting up to 2.1 W of single-frequency light at 671 nm developed for laser cooling of lithium atoms. It is based on a diode-pumped, neodymium-doped orthovanadate (Nd:YVO(4)) ring laser operating at 1342 nm. Optimization of the thermal management in the gain medium results in a maximum multi-frequency output power of 2.5 W at the fundamental wavelength. We develop a simple theory for the efficient implementation of intracavity second harmonic generation, and its application to our system allows us to obtain nonlinear conversion efficiencies of up to 88%. Single-mode operation and tuning is established by adding an etalon to the resonator. The second-harmonic wavelength can be tuned over 0.5 nm, and mode-hop-free scanning over more than 6 GHz is demonstrated, corresponding to around ten times the laser cavity free spectral range. The output frequency can be locked with respect to the lithium D-line transitions for atomic physics applications. Furthermore, we observe parametric Kerr-lens mode-locking when detuning the phase-matching temperature sufficiently far from the optimum value.

  4. PBG urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porphobilinogen test; Porphyria - urine; PBG ... porphyria or another disorder associated with an abnormal PBG level. ... An increased level of PBG in the urine may be due to: Hepatitis Lead poisoning Liver cancer Porphyria (several types)

  5. Birefringent all-solid hybrid microstructured fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Ryuichiro; Jackson, Stuart D; Fleming, Simon; Kuhlmey, Boris T; Eggleton, Benjamin J; Himeno, Kuniharu

    2008-11-10

    We report the characterization of a birefringent all-solid hybrid microstructured fiber, in which the core-modes are guided by both the photonic bandgap (PBG) effect and total internal reflection (TIR). Due to the twofold symmetry, modal birefringence of 1.5 x 10(-4) and group birefringence of 2.1 x 10(-4) were measured at 1.31 microm, which is in the middle of the second bandgap. The band structure was calculated to be different from conventional 2-D PBG fibers due to the 1-D arrangement of high-index regions. The bend loss has a strong directional dependence due to the coexistence of the two guiding mechanisms. The fiber has two important properties pertinent to PBG fibers; spectral filtering, and chromatic dispersion specific to PBG fibers. The number of high-index regions, which trap pump power (by index guiding) when the fiber is used in cladding-pumped fiber lasers, is greatly reduced so that this fiber should enable efficient cladding pumping. This structure is suitable for linearly-polarized, cladding-pumped fiber lasers utilizing the properties of PBG fibers.

  6. Photonic Bandgap (PBG) Shielding Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastin, Gary L.

    2007-01-01

    Photonic Bandgap (PBG) shielding technology is a new approach to designing electromagnetic shielding materials for mitigating Electromagnetic Interference (EM!) with small, light-weight shielding materials. It focuses on ground planes of printed wiring boards (PWBs), rather than on components. Modem PSG materials also are emerging based on planar materials, in place of earlier, bulkier, 3-dimensional PBG structures. Planar PBG designs especially show great promise in mitigating and suppressing EMI and crosstalk for aerospace designs, such as needed for NASA's Constellation Program, for returning humans to the moon and for use by our first human visitors traveling to and from Mars. Photonic Bandgap (PBG) materials are also known as artificial dielectrics, meta-materials, and photonic crystals. General PBG materials are fundamentally periodic slow-wave structures in I, 2, or 3 dimensions. By adjusting the choice of structure periodicities in terms of size and recurring structure spacings, multiple scatterings of surface waves can be created that act as a forbidden energy gap (i.e., a range of frequencies) over which nominally-conductive metallic conductors cease to be a conductor and become dielectrics. Equivalently, PBG materials can be regarded as giving rise to forbidden energy gaps in metals without chemical doping, analogous to electron bandgap properties that previously gave rise to the modem semiconductor industry 60 years ago. Electromagnetic waves cannot propagate over bandgap regions that are created with PBG materials, that is, over frequencies for which a bandgap is artificially created through introducing periodic defects

  7. Single frequency intracavity SRO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abitan, Haim; Buchhave, Preben

    2000-01-01

    Summary form only given. A single resonance optical parametric oscillator (SRO) is inserted intracavity to a CW high power, single frequency, and ring Nd:YVO4 laser. We obtain a stable single frequency CW SRO with output at 1.7-1.9 μm (idler) and a resonating signal at 2.3-2.6 μm. The behavior...

  8. Temperature assisted band-gap engineering in all-solid chalcogenide holey fiber for mid-IR application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barh, Ajanta; Varshney, R. K.; Pal, B. P.; Sanghera, J.; Shaw, L. B.

    2015-06-01

    Presence of photonic band-gap (PBG) in an all-solid microstructured optical fiber (MOF), made of two fabrication compatible chalcogenide (Ch) glasses is theoretically investigated for potential application in the functional mid-infrared (IR) wavelength range. Cross-section of the MOF is formed by assuming periodically arranged wavelength scale circular air holes in a hexagonal pattern embedded in a uniform matrix. One type of Ch-glass is considered as the background material whereas another type of Ch-glass is assumed to fill the air holes. The relative index contrast between these two Ch-glasses is ~ 24%, for which PBG appears only for a suitable range of non-zero longitudinal wave vector. We have studied the scalability of this PBG by varying the lattice parameter of MOF and optimized the cross-section to attain the PBG at ~ 2 μm wavelength. Then by utilizing the thermo-optic properties of the glasses, the effect of external temperature (T) on the PBG is studied, and finally we have proposed a T-tunable wavelength filter/sensor at mid-IR wavelength with tuning sensitivity as high as ~ 140 pm/°C.

  9. All-optical dynamic photonic bandgap control in an all-solid double-clad tellurite photonic bandgap fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Tonglei; Tanaka, Shunta; Tuan, Tong Hoang; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2017-06-15

    All-optical dynamic photonic bandgap (PBG) control by an optical Kerr effect (OKE) is investigated in an all-solid double-clad tellurite photonic bandgap fiber (PBGF) which is fabricated based on TeO2-Li2O-WO3-MoO3-Nb2O5 (TLWMN, high-index rod) glass, TeO2-ZnO-Na2O-La2O3 (TZNL, inner cladding) glass, and TeO2-ZnO-Li2O-K2O-Al2O3-P2O5 (TZLKAP, outer cladding) glass. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of all-optical dynamic PBG control in optical fibers. This PBGF has a high nonlinear refractive index which can lead to a significant OKE and induce the generation of all-optical dynamic PBG control. The transmission spectrum is simulated with the pump peak power increasing from 0 to 300 kW, which shows an obvious PBG shift. Dynamic PBG control is demonstrated both numerically and experimentally at the pump peak power of 200 kW (ON or OFF) at the signal of 1570 nm.

  10. PBG based terahertz antenna for aerospace applications

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhury, Balamati; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book focuses on high-gain antennas in the terahertz spectrum and their optimization. The terahertz spectrum is an unallocated EM spectrum, which is being explored for a number of applications, especially to meet increasing demands of high data rates for wireless space communications. Space communication systems using the terahertz spectrum can resolve the problems of limited bandwidth of present wireless communications without radio-frequency interference. This book describes design of such high-gain antennas and their performance enhancement using photonic band gap (PBG) substrates. Further, optimization of antenna models using evolutionary algorithm based computational engine has been included. The optimized high-performance compact antenna may be used for various wireless applications, such as inter-orbital communications and on-vehicle satellite communications.

  11. Transcriptional analysis of the beta-galactosidase gene (pbg) in Clostridium perfringens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T; Shimizu, T; Hayashi, H

    1995-11-01

    The mode of expression of the beta-galactosidase gene (pbg) of Clostridium perfringens was examined. The pbg gene was transcribed on a single 3.7-kb mRNA. The transcript contained a message for ORF54, located upstream of the pbg gene in the chromosome, indicating that ORF54 and the pbg gene comprise one operon (pbg operon). Expression of the pbg operon was induced by lactose at the transcriptional level. The promoter structure of the pbg operon was characterized by many palindrome structures and direct repeats, which suggests that there might be some catabolite regulation of the expression of the pbg operon in C. perfringens.

  12. A Wearable All-Solid Photovoltaic Textile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nannan; Chen, Jun; Huang, Yi; Guo, Wanwan; Yang, Jin; Du, Jun; Fan, Xing; Tao, Changyuan

    2016-01-13

    A solution is developed to power portable electronics in a wearable manner by fabricating an all-solid photovoltaic textile. In a similar way to plants absorbing solar energy for photosynthesis, humans can wear the as-fabricated photovoltaic textile to harness solar energy for powering small electronic devices. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Rechargeable Sodium All-Solid-State Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weidong; Li, Yutao; Xin, Sen; Goodenough, John B

    2017-01-25

    A reversible plating/stripping of a dendrite-free metallic-sodium anode with a reduced anode/ceramic interfacial resistance is created by a thin interfacial interlayer formed in situ or by the introduction of a dry polymer film. Wetting of the sodium on the interfacial interlayer suppresses dendrite formation and growth at different discharge/charge C-rates. All-solid-state batteries were obtained with a high cycling stability and Coulombic efficiency at 65 °C.

  14. Spurious suppression of a microstrip bandpass filter using three types of rectangular PBG loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Min-Hung; Yuan, Ru-Yung; Huang, Tsung-Hui; Chen, Han-Jan; Chen, Wu-Nan; Houng, Mau-Phon

    2005-03-01

    A novel microstrip bandpass filter with three types of rectangular, photonic bandgap (PBG) loops on a middle layer was designed and demonstrated using a full-wave electromagnetic (EM) simulator, with the predicted results verified by experiment. This investigation presents the configurations of conventional parallel-coupled 2 GHz filters with and without a PBG. The middle-layer of PBG loops adds an extra stopband-rejection mode to filter stopband; and it provides attenuation in excess of 25 dB at the second, third, and fourth harmonics, thus demonstrating that superior stopband characteristics at high frequency can be obtained using the proposed PBG loops in microwave filters.

  15. All solid state pulsed power system for water discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Sakugawa, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Kunihiro; Kiyan, Tsuyoshi; Namihira, Takao; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori; サクガワ, タカシ; ヤマグチ, タカヒロ; ヤマモト, クニヒロ; キヤン, ツヨシ; ナミヒラ, タカオ; カツキ, スナオ; アキヤマ, ヒデノリ; 佐久川, 貴志

    2005-01-01

    Pulsed power has been used to produce non-thermal plasmas in gases that generate a high electric field at the tip of streamer discharges, where high energy electrons, free radicals, and ozone are produced. Recently, all solid state pulsed power generators, which are operated with high repetition rate, long lifetime and high reliability, have been developed for industrial applications, such as high repetition rate pulsed gas lasers, high energy density plasma (EUV sources) and water discharges...

  16. Diode-pumped all-solid-state lasers and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Parsons-Karavassilis, D

    2002-01-01

    This thesis describes research carried out by the within the Physics Department at Imperial College that was aimed at developing novel all-solid-state laser sources and investigating potential applications of this technology. A description of the development, characterisation and application of a microjoule energy level, diode-pumped all-solid-state Cr:LiSGAF femtosecond oscillator and regenerative amplifier system is presented. The femtosecond oscillator was pumped by two commercially available laser diodes and produced an approx 80 MHz pulse train of variable pulse duration with approx 30 mW average output power and a tuning range of over approx 60 nm. This laser oscillator was used to seed a regenerative amplifier, resulting in adjustable repetition rate (single pulse to 20 kHz) approx 1 mu J picosecond pulses. These pulses were compressed to approx 150 fs using a double-pass twin-grating compressor. The amplifier's performance was investigated with respect to two different laser crystals and different pul...

  17. Molecular epidemiology and diagnosis of PBG deaminase gene defects in acute intermittent porphyria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puy, H; Deybach, J C; Lamoril, J; Robreau, A M; Da Silva, V; Gouya, L; Grandchamp, B; Nordmann, Y

    1997-06-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is the major autosomal dominant form of acute hepatic porphyrias. The disease is due to mutations in the gene encoding for porphobilinogen (PBG) deaminase and is characterized by life-threatening neurovisceral attacks, often precipitated by drugs, fasting, cyclical hormonal changes, or infectious diseases. This report describes a prospective study on the molecular epidemiology of PBG deaminase gene defects in AIP. It uses a sensitive, reliable, and easy-to-handle method for routine AIP molecular diagnosis and family study based on an exon-by-exon denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) strategy followed by direct sequencing. Fifteen genomic DNA fragments, including all the coding sequence and covering 3.35 kb of the PBG deaminase gene, were investigated in 405 subjects from 121 unrelated French Caucasian AIP families who had not been screened previously at the DNA level. PBG deaminase gene mutations were identified in 109 families, but only 78 were of different type, and each of them had a prevalence rate PBG deaminase enzymatic screening method for gene-carrier detection indicated 95% of concordancy with the molecular-based diagnosis.

  18. Intracavity interferometry using synchronously pumped OPO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavadilová, Alena; Vyhlídal, David; Kubeček, Václav; Šulc, Jan; Navrátil, Petr

    2016-12-01

    The concept of system for intracavity interferometry based on the beat note detection in subharmonic synchronously intracavity pumped optical parametrical oscillator (OPO) is presented. The system consisted of SESAM-modelocked, picosecond, diode pumped Nd:YVO4 laser, operating at wavelength 1.06 μm and tunable linear intracavity pumped OPO based on MgO:PPLN crystal, widely tunable in 1.5 μm able to deliver two independent trains of picosecond pulses. The optical length of the OPO cavity was set to be exactly twice the pumping cavity length. In this configuration the OPO produces signal pulses with the same repetition frequency as the pump laser but the signal consists of two completely independent pulse trains. For purpose of pump probe measurements the setup signal with half repetition rate and scalable amplitude was derived from the OPO signal using RF signal divider, electropotical modulator and fiber amplifier. The impact of one pump beam on the sample is detected by one probing OPO train, the other OPO train is used as a reference. The beat note measured using the intracavity interferometer is proportional to phase modulation caused by the pump beam. The bandwidth of observed beat-note was less than 1 Hz (FWHM), it corresponds to a phase shift measurement error of less than 1.5 × 10-7 rad without any active stabilization. Such compact low-cost system could be used for ultra-sensitive phase-difference measurements (e.g. nonlinear refractive index measurement) for wide range of material especially in spectral range important for telecom applications.

  19. All-solid electrodes with mixed conductor matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins, Robert A.; Boukamp, Bernard A.

    1984-01-01

    Alkali metal based electrochemical cells offer a great deal of promise for applications in many areas such as electric vehicles and load leveling purposes in stationary power plants. Lithium is an attractive candidate as the electroactive species in such cells since lithium is very electropositive, abundant and light weight. One type of lithium-based cell utilizes a molten salt electrolyte and normally is operated at elevated temperatures. The subject invention provides an electrochemical cell in one embodiment of which lithium is the electroactive species. The cell comprises an electrolyte, a positive electrode, and a negative electrode, either or both of which is an all-solid, composite microstructural electrode containing both a reactant phase and a mixed ionic-electronic conducting phase. The cells of the subject invention exhibit improved kinetic features, current and power densities. Repeated charging and discharging of these cells can be accomplished without appreciable loss of capacity.

  20. Efficient all solid-state UV source for satellite-based lidar applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstrong, Darrell Jewell; Smith, Arlee Virgil

    2003-07-01

    A satellite-based UV-DIAL measurement system would allow continuous global monitoring of ozone concentration in the upper atmosphere. However such systems remain difficult to implement because aerosol-scattering return signals for satellite-based lidars are very weak. A suitable system must produce high-energy UV pulses at multiple wavelengths with very high efficiency. For example, a nanosecond system operating at 10 Hz must generate approximately 1 J per pulse at 308-320 nm. An efficient space-qualified wavelength-agile system based on a single UV source that can meet this requirement is probably not available using current laser technology. As an alternative, we're pursuing a multi-source approach employing all-solid-state modules that individually generate 300-320 nm light with pulse energies in the range of 50-200 mJ, with transform-limited bandwidths and good beam quality. Pulses from the individual sources can be incoherently summed to obtain the required single-pulse energy. These sources use sum-frequency mixing of the 532 nm second harmonic of an Nd:YAG pump laser with 731-803 nm light derived from a recently-developed, state-of-the-art, nanosecond optical parametric oscillator. Two source configurations are under development, one using extra-cavity sum-frequency mixing, and the other intra-cavity sum-frequency mixing. In either configuration, we hope to obtain sum-frequency mixing efficiency approaching 60% by carefully matching the spatial and temporal properties of the laser and OPO pulses. This ideal balance of green and near-IR photons requires an injection-seeded Nd:YAG pump-laser with very high beam quality, and an OPO exhibiting unusually high conversion efficiency and exceptional signal beam quality. The OPO employs a singly-resonant high-Fresnel-number image-rotating self-injection-seeded nonplanar-ring cavity that achieves pump depletion > 65% and produces signal beams with M{sup 2} {approx} 3 at pulse energies exceeding 50 mJ. Pump beam

  1. Design and analysis of planar printed microwave and PBG filters using an FDTD method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tong, M.S.; Lu, Y.L.; Chen, Y.C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, various planar printed microwave and photonic band-gap (PBG) filters have been designed and analyzed by applying the finite difference time domain method, together with an unsplit-anisotropic perfectly matched layer technique as treatments of boundary conditions. The implemented...... solver was first validated by comparing the computed data with those published in literature, and a good agreement was observed between the results. Then, based on the specified design criteria, various microwave and PBG filters were designed and analyzed, in which the theoretical predictions matched...

  2. Analysis of photonic band-gap (PBG) structures using the FDTD method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tong, M.S.; Cheng, M.; Lu, Y.L.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a number of photonic band-gap (PBG) structures, which are formed by periodic circuit elements printed oil transmission-line circuits, are studied by using a well-known numerical method, the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The results validate the band-stop filter...... behavior of these structures, and the computed results generally match well with ones published in the literature. It is also found that the FDTD method is a robust, versatile, and powerful numerical technique to perform such numerical studies. The proposed PBG filter structures may be applied in microwave...

  3. All-solid-state reference electrodes based on conducting polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisiel, Anna; Marcisz, Honorata; Michalska, Agata; Maksymiuk, Krzysztof

    2005-12-01

    A novel construction of solution free (pseudo)reference electrodes, compatible with all-solid-state potentiometric indicator electrodes, has been proposed. These electrodes use conducting polymers (CP): polypyrrole (PPy) or poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). Two different arrangements have been tested: solely based on CP and those where the CP phase is covered with a poly(vinyl chloride) based outer membrane of tailored composition. The former arrangement was designed to suppress or compensate cation- and anion-exchange, using mobile perchlorate ions and poly(4-styrenesulfonate) or dodecylbenzenesulfonate anions as immobilized dopants. The following systems were used: (i) polypyrrole layers doped simultaneously by two kinds of anions, both mobile and immobilized in the polymer layer; (ii) bilayers of polypyrrole with anion exchanging inner layer and cation-exchanging outer layer; (iii) polypyrrole doped by surfactant dodecylbenzenesulfonate ions, which inhibit ion exchange on the polymer/solution interface. For the above systems, recorded potentials have been found to be practically independent of electrolyte concentration. The best results, profound stability of potentials, have been obtained for poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) or polypyrrole doped by poly(4-styrenesulfonate) anions covered by a poly(vinyl chloride) based membrane, containing both anion- and cation-exchangers as well as solid potassium chloride and silver chloride with metallic silver. Differently to the cases (i)-(iii) these electrodes are much less sensitive to the influence of redox and pH interferences. This arrangement has been also characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and chronopotentiometry.

  4. Fast, self-supplied, all-solid photoelectrochromic film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Filpo, Giovanni; Mormile, Sabrina; Chidichimo, Giuseppe [Department of Chemistry, University of Calabria, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (CS) (Italy); Nicoletta, Fiore P. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Calabria, 87036 Arcavacata di Rende (CS) (Italy)

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes the fabrication and the characterization of a new nanostructured and self-supplied photoelectrochromic device. The main properties of this film are its all-solid nature, its fast coloration time as well as its fast bleaching time. The photoelectrochromic film was manufactured by coating dye functionalized TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles (dye-TiO{sub 2}) on a layer of WO{sub 3} nanoparticles. In order to improve their electrical conductance, both the dye-TiO{sub 2} and WO{sub 3} layers were properly doped with single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) bearing COOH groups. A layer of PEDOT/PSS was cast between the dye-TiO{sub 2} layer and the ITO counter electrode, without the use of any fluid component. When exposed to the light, SWNT doped dye-TiO{sub 2} layer generates electrons that reduce the WO{sub 3} layer. As a consequence of this redox reaction, the film changes its color if the two external electrodes are not short-circuited. On the contrary, a fast bleaching of the device can be achieved by shortcircuiting the electrodes. (author)

  5. A compact, all solid-state LC high voltage generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xuliang; Liu, Jinliang

    2013-06-01

    LC generator is widely applied in the field of high voltage generation technology. A compact and all solid-state LC high voltage generator based on saturable pulse transformer is proposed in this paper. First, working principle of the generator is presented. Theoretical analysis and circuit simulation are used to verify the design of the generator. Experimental studies of the proposed LC generator with two-stage main energy storage capacitors are carried out. And the results show that the proposed LC generator operates as expected. When the isolation inductance is 27 μH, the output voltage is 1.9 times larger than the charging voltage on single capacitor. The multiplication of voltages is achieved. On the condition that the primary energy storage capacitor is charged to 857 V, the output voltage of the generator can reach to 59.5 kV. The step-up ratio is nearly 69. When self breakdown gas gap switch is used as main switch, the rise time of the voltage pulse on load resistor is 8.7 ns. It means that the series-wound inductance in the discharging circuit is very small in this system. This generator can be employed in two different applications.

  6. Efficient yellow beam generation by intracavity sum frequency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-06

    :YVO4 crystal and its intracavity sum frequency generation by considering the influence of the thermal lensing effect on the performance of the laser. A KTP crystal cut for type-II phase matching was used for intracavity sum ...

  7. Dynamical regimes and intracavity propagation delay in external ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E JAYAPRASATH

    2017-10-31

    Oct 31, 2017 ... to increase as the external cavity feedback rate of TL is increased, while an increment in the injection rate between the two lasers resulted in a reduction of intracavity propagation delay. Keywords. Semiconductor lasers; chaos synchronization; intracavity propagation delay. PACS Nos 42.55.−f; 42.55.

  8. Efficient yellow beam generation by intracavity sum frequency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-06

    Feb 6, 2014 ... We present our studies on dual wavelength operation using a single Nd:YVO4 crystal and its intracavity sum frequency generation by considering the influence of the thermal lensing effect on the performance of the laser. A KTP crystal cut for type-II phase matching was used for intracavity sum frequency ...

  9. Sequence and structure of the rat housekeeping PBG-D isoform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardalda, C A; Batlle, A; Juknat, A A

    1998-08-19

    Porphobilinogen deaminase (PBG-D), a key enzyme in the tetrapyrrole biosynthetic pathway, is encoded by a single gene containing two different promoters. The upstream promoter, found in all cell types, initiates the transcription of the housekeeping PBG-D isoform, whereas the downstream one is erythroid-specific. In this study, we provide the first full sequence of a 1086bp cDNA covering the coding region for the rat ubiquitous PBG-D and its primary amino acid sequence. The cDNA encodes a 39,361 Da protein composed of 361 amino acids. Nucleotide sequence comparison between both isoforms from rat shows similarities of 99.5%, with four changes (C/G) in exon 8 and only one (C/A) in exon 12. Secondary structure prediction reveals that 76.5% of the amino acids from exon 1 are located in a loop. Potential phosphorylation, glycosylation, and myristoylation sites were revealed through motif searches. Housekeeping PBG-D contains coiled-coil segments known to be involved in dynamic rearrangements in the active site. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  10. Analysis of photonic band-gap (PBG) structures using the FDTD method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tong, M.S.; Cheng, M.; Lu, Y.L.

    2004-01-01

    behavior of these structures, and the computed results generally match well with ones published in the literature. It is also found that the FDTD method is a robust, versatile, and powerful numerical technique to perform such numerical studies. The proposed PBG filter structures may be applied in microwave...

  11. Digital mode selection using an intracavity SLM

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burger, L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available an intracavity SLM L BURGER1,3, I LITVIN1 AND A. FORBES1,2,3 1CSIR National Laser Centre, PO Box 395, Pretoria 0001, South Africa 2School of Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Private Bag X54001, Durban 4000, South Africa 3Laser Research Institute... for a certain grey-level values of a uniform phase screen on the SLM (to simulate a flat mirror) at different grey levels, and that the output power level loops from 0 to 2? radians. We noted that the lasing band broadened with increasing pump power...

  12. Tuning quantum correlations with intracavity photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Maria M. de; Gomila, Damia; Zambrini, Roberta [IFISC, Institute for Cross-Disciplinary Physics and Complex Systems (CSIC-UIB), Campus UIB, E-07122 Palma de Mallorca (Spain); Garcia-March, Miguel Angel [Department of Physics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    We show how to tune quantum noise in nonlinear systems by means of periodic spatial modulation. We prove that the introduction of an intracavity photonic crystal in a multimode optical parametric oscillator inhibits and enhances light quantum fluctuations. Furthermore, it leads to a significant noise reduction in field quadratures, robustness of squeezing in a wider angular range, and spatial entanglement. These results have potential benefits for quantum imaging, metrology, and quantum information applications and suggest a control mechanism of fluctuations by spatial modulation of interest also in other nonlinear systems.

  13. Scheme for improving laser stability via feedback control of intracavity nonlinear loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Pixian; Lu, Huadong; Su, Jing; Peng, Kunchi

    2016-05-01

    We present a novel and efficient scheme to enhance the stability of laser output via feedback control to a nonlinear loss deliberately introduced to the laser resonator. By means of the feedback control to the intracavity nonlinear loss of an all-solid-state continuous-wave single-frequency laser with high output power at 1064 nm, its intensity and frequency stabilities are significantly improved. A lithium triborate crystal is deliberately placed inside the laser resonator to be an element of the nonlinear loss, and the temperature of the crystal is feedback controlled by an electronic loop. The control signal is generated by distinguishing the deviation of the output power and used for manipulating the intracavity nonlinear loss to compensate the deviation of the laser power actively. With the feedback-control loop, the intensity and frequency fluctuations of the output laser at 1064 nm are reduced from ±0.59% and 21.82 MHz without the feedback to ±0.26% and 9.84 MHz, respectively.

  14. Lasers with intra-cavity phase elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulses, A. Alkan; Kurtz, Russell; Islas, Gabriel; Anisimov, Igor

    2018-02-01

    Conventional laser resonators yield multimodal output, especially at high powers and short cavity lengths. Since highorder modes exhibit large divergence, it is desirable to suppress them to improve laser quality. Traditionally, such modal discriminations can be achieved by simple apertures that provide absorptive loss for large diameter modes, while allowing the lower orders, such as the fundamental Gaussian, to pass through. However, modal discrimination may not be sufficient for short-cavity lasers, resulting in multimodal operation as well as power loss and overheating in the absorptive part of the aperture. In research to improve laser mode control with minimal energy loss, systematic experiments have been executed using phase-only elements. These were composed of an intra-cavity step function and a diffractive out-coupler made of a computer-generated hologram. The platform was a 15-cm long solid-state laser that employs a neodymium-doped yttrium orthovanadate crystal rod, producing 1064 nm multimodal laser output. The intra-cavity phase elements (PEs) were shown to be highly effective in obtaining beams with reduced M-squared values and increased output powers, yielding improved values of radiance. The utilization of more sophisticated diffractive elements is promising for more difficult laser systems.

  15. Materials Development for All-Solid-State Battery Electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weimin

    Solid electrolytes in all solid-state batteries, provide higher attainable energy density and improved safety. Ideal solid electrolytes require high ionic conductivity, a high elastic modulus to prevent dendrite growth, chemical compatibility with electrodes, and ease of fabrication into thin films. Although various materials types, including polymers, ceramics, and composites, are under intense investigation, unifying design principles have not been identified. In this thesis, we study the key ion transport mechanisms in relation to the structural characteristics of polymers and glassy solids, and apply derived material design strategies to develop polymer-silica hybrid materials with improved electrolyte performance characteristics. Poly(ethylene) oxide-based solid electrolytes containing ceramic nanoparticles are attractive alternatives to liquid electrolytes for high-energy density Li batteries. We compare the effect of Li1.3Al0.3Ti 1.7(PO4)3 active nanoparticles, passive TiO 2 nanoparticles and fumed silica. Up to two orders of magnitude enhancement in ionic conductivity is observed for composites with active nanoparticles, attributed to cation migration through a percolating interphase region that develops around the active nanoparticles, even at low nanoparticle loading. We investigate the structural origin of elastic properties and ionic migration mechanisms in sodium borosilicate and sodium borogermanate glass electrolyte system. A new statistical thermodynamic reaction equilibrium model is used in combination with data from nuclear magnetic resonance and Brillouin light scattering measurements to determine network structural unit fractions. The highly coordinated structural units are found to be predominantly responsible for effective mechanical load transmission, by establishing three-dimensional covalent connectivity. A strong correlation exists between bulk modulus and the activation energy for ion conduction. We describe the activated process in

  16. Subharmonic synchronously intracavity pumped picosecond optical parametric oscillator for intracavity phase interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavadilová, Alena; Vyhlídal, David; Kubeček, Václav; Šulc, Jan

    2014-12-01

    The laser system suitable for precise intracavity phase interferometry is presented. The system is based on an intracavity pumped PPLN linear optical parametrical oscillator (OPO). For synchronous pumping of OPO a SESAM-mode-locked, picosecond, diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 linear oscillator, operating at 1.06 µm was used. The OPO cavity was set to be twice as long as the pumping Nd:YVO4 laser cavity. The pumping laser was set in such a manner that the parametric gain inside the PPLN overcame the OPO threshold only for one direction of pumping pulse propagation. This leads to the generation of two independent trains of pulses at the 1.5 µm spectral range. To verify the system performance, a LiNbO3 electro-optic phase modulator was placed inside the OPO. The RF-signal derived from the pumping pulse train, detected by a fast photodiode and divided by two, was applied on the modulator. A stable beat-note signal between the two OPO trains was successfully measured for the first time from such a compact, all-diode-pumped laser system. For RF-signal amplitude from 100 up to 700 mV beat-note frequency varied from 232 up to 1847 Hz which corresponded to detected phase-shift 36-250 µrad. The bandwidth of beat-note was less than 1 Hz (FWHM) resulting in phase-shift measurement error 1.5 × 10-7 rad.

  17. Pulsed, all solid-state light source in the visible spectral region based on non-linear cavity dumping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Andersen, Martin; Johansson, Sandra

    We propose a novel generic approach for generation of pulsed light in the visible spectrum, based on SFG between the high circulating intra-cavity power of a high finesse CW laser and a single-passed pulsed laser....

  18. Numerical modelling of passively Q-switched intracavity Raman lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Shuanghong; Zhang Xingyu; Wang Qingpu; Zhang Jun; Wang Shumei; Liu Yuru; Zhang Xuehui

    2007-01-01

    Assuming intracavity photon densities to be of Gaussian spatial distributions, the space-dependent rate equations of passively Q-switched intracavity Raman lasers are deduced for the first time for the pumping beams of Gaussian and top-head spatial distributions, respectively. The new rate equations are normalized and solved numerically to investigate the influences of the normalized initial population inversion density, normalized Raman gain coefficient, saturable absorber parameter, beam size ratio of pump to fundamental laser and loss ratio of the first Stokes to fundamental laser on the pulse parameters of the first Stokes. The results of the Gaussian and top-head pumpings show similar trends despite some discrepancies. The new theories and numerical results will help design passively Q-switched intracavity Raman lasers of high performance

  19. Modelling a singly resonant, intracavity ring optical parametric oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchhave, Preben; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Wei, Hou

    2003-01-01

    We study theoretically and experimentally the dynamics of a single-frequency, unidirectional ring laser with an intracavity nonlinear singly resonant OPO-crystal in a coupled resonator. We find for a range of operating conditions good agreement between model results and measurements of the laser...

  20. Polarization Maintaining Hybrid TIR/Bandgap All-Solid Photonic Crystal Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsøe, Jens Kristian; Mangan, Brian J.; Roberts, John

    2008-01-01

    We report on fabricated all-solid fibers which guide by a combination of bandgap and TIR mechanisms. The fibers show high birefringence and possess a dispersion characteristic similar to the pure bandgap guiding form....

  1. Development of an All Solid High Energy Density Space Rated Battery, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Quallion's intends to develop an all-solid 600 Wh/kg, flexible form-factor lithium rechargeable energy device for advanced space power applications. Quallion's...

  2. All Solid State Optical Pulse Shaper for the OMEGA Laser Fusion Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-07-24

    OAK-B135 All Solid State Optical Pulse Shaper for the OMEGA Laser Fusion Facility. The authors have developed an all-solid-state, compact, computer-controlled, flexible optical pulse shaper for the OMEGA laser facility. This pulse shaper produces high bandwidth, temporally shaped laser pulses that meet OMEGA requirements. The design is a significant simplification over existing technology with improved performance capabilities.

  3. All Solid State Optical Pulse Shaper for the OMEGA Laser Fusion Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okishev, A.V.; Skeldon, M.D.; Keck, R.L.; Seka, W.

    2000-01-01

    OAK-B135 All Solid State Optical Pulse Shaper for the OMEGA Laser Fusion Facility. The authors have developed an all-solid-state, compact, computer-controlled, flexible optical pulse shaper for the OMEGA laser facility. This pulse shaper produces high bandwidth, temporally shaped laser pulses that meet OMEGA requirements. The design is a significant simplification over existing technology with improved performance capabilities

  4. Polarization Maintaining Hybrid TIR/Bandgap All-Solid Photonic Crystal Fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsøe, Jens Kristian; Mangan, Brian J.; Roberts, John

    2008-01-01

    We report on fabricated all-solid fibers which guide by a combination of bandgap and TIR mechanisms. The fibers show high birefringence and possess a dispersion characteristic similar to the pure bandgap guiding form.......We report on fabricated all-solid fibers which guide by a combination of bandgap and TIR mechanisms. The fibers show high birefringence and possess a dispersion characteristic similar to the pure bandgap guiding form....

  5. Five-cell superconducting RF module with a PBG coupler cell: design and cold testing of the copper prototype

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenyev, Sergey Andreyevich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Simakov, Evgenya Ivanovna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Shchegolkov, Dmitry [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boulware, Chase [Niowave, Lansing, MI (United States); Grimm, Terry [Niowave, Lansing, MI (United States); Rogacki, Adam [Niowave, Lansing, MI (United States)

    2015-04-29

    We report the design and experimental data for a copper prototype of a superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) accelerator module. The five-cell module has an incorporated photonic band gap (PBG) cell with couplers. The purpose of the PBG cell is to achieve better higher order mode (HOM) damping, which is vital for preserving the quality of high-current electron beams. Better HOM damping raises the current threshold for beam instabilities in novel SRF accelerators. The PBG design also increases the real-estate gradient of the linac because both HOM damping and the fundamental power coupling can be done through the PBG cell instead of on the beam pipe via complicated end assemblies. First, we will discuss the design and accelerating properties of the structure. The five-cell module was optimized to provide good HOM damping while maintaining the same accelerating properties as conventional elliptical-cell modules. We will then discuss the process of tuning the structure to obtain the desired accelerating gradient profile. Finally, we will list measured quality factors for the accelerating mode and the most dangerous HOMs.

  6. Multidimensional microstructured photonic device based on all-solid waveguide array fiber and magnetic fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Yinping; Ma, Xixi; He, Yong; Zhang, Hongmin; Yang, Xiaoping; Yao, Jianquan

    2017-01-01

    An all-solid waveguide array fiber (WAF) is one kind of special microstructured optical fiber in which the higher-index rods are periodically distributed in a low-index silica host to form the transverse two-dimensional photonic crystal. In this paper, one kind of multidimensional microstructured optical fiber photonic device is proposed by using electric arc discharge method to fabricate periodic tapers along the fiber axis. By tuning the applied magnetic field intensity, the propagation characteristics of the all-solid WAF integrated with magnetic fluid are periodically modulated in both radial and axial directions. Experimental results show that the wavelength changes little while the transmission loss increases for an applied magnetic field intensity range from 0 to 500 Oe. The magnetic field sensitivity is 0.055 dB/Oe within the linear range from 50 to 300 Oe. Meanwhile, the all-solid WAF has very similar thermal expansion coefficient for both high- and low-refractive index glasses, and thermal drifts have a little effect on the mode profile. The results show that the temperature-induced transmission loss is waveguides and controlling light propagation, the all-solid WAF would be found great potential applications to develop new micro-nano photonic devices for optical communications and optical sensing applications.

  7. Multidimensional microstructured photonic device based on all-solid waveguide array fiber and magnetic fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Yinping

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available An all-solid waveguide array fiber (WAF is one kind of special microstructured optical fiber in which the higher-index rods are periodically distributed in a low-index silica host to form the transverse two-dimensional photonic crystal. In this paper, one kind of multidimensional microstructured optical fiber photonic device is proposed by using electric arc discharge method to fabricate periodic tapers along the fiber axis. By tuning the applied magnetic field intensity, the propagation characteristics of the all-solid WAF integrated with magnetic fluid are periodically modulated in both radial and axial directions. Experimental results show that the wavelength changes little while the transmission loss increases for an applied magnetic field intensity range from 0 to 500 Oe. The magnetic field sensitivity is 0.055 dB/Oe within the linear range from 50 to 300 Oe. Meanwhile, the all-solid WAF has very similar thermal expansion coefficient for both high- and low-refractive index glasses, and thermal drifts have a little effect on the mode profile. The results show that the temperature-induced transmission loss is <0.3 dB from 26°C to 44°C. Further tuning coherent coupling of waveguides and controlling light propagation, the all-solid WAF would be found great potential applications to develop new micro-nano photonic devices for optical communications and optical sensing applications.

  8. Printed all-solid flexible microsupercapacitors: towards the general route for high energy storage devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ye; Shi, Yumeng; Zhao, Cheng Xi; Wong, Jen It; Yang, Hui Ying; Sun, Xiao Wei

    2014-01-01

    A novel method for fabricating all-solid flexible microsupercapacitors (MSCs) was proposed and developed by utilizing screen printing technology. A typical printed MSC is composed of a printed Ag electrode, MnO 2 /onion-like carbon (MnO 2 /OLC) as active material and a polyvinyl alcohol:H 3 PO 4 (PVA:H 3 PO 4 ) as solid electrolyte. A capacity of 7.04 mF cm −2 was achieved for the screen printed MnO 2 /OLC MSCs at a current density of 20 μA cm −2 . It also showed an excellent cycling stability, with 80% retention of the specific capacity after 1000 cycles. The printed all-solid flexible MSCs exhibited remarkably high mechanical flexibility when the devices were bent to a radius of 3.5 mm. In addition, all-solid MSCs were successfully demonstrated by screen printing technique on various substrates, such as silicon, glass and conventional printing paper. Moreover, the screen printing technique can be extended to other active materials, such as OLC and carbon nanotubes. This method provides a general route for printable all-solid flexible MSCs, which is compatible with the roll-to-roll process for various high performance active materials. (paper)

  9. Efficient all solid-state continuous-wave yellow-orange light source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janousek, Jiri; Johansson, Sandra; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2005-01-01

    We present highly efficient sum-frequency generation between two CW IR lasers using periodically poled KTP. The system is based on the 1064 and 1342 nm laser-lines of two Nd:YVO4 lasers. This is an all solid-state light source in the yellow-orange spectral range. The system is optimized in terms ...

  10. A high energy density all solid-state tungsten-air battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuan; Li, Xue; Gong, Yunhui; Xu, Nansheng; Romito, Kevin; Huang, Kevin

    2013-06-14

    An all solid-state tungsten-air battery is reported here, which is based on a new metal-air chemistry, featuring decoupled design of electrodes and energy storage. Benefited from higher specific density and better redox kinetics of tungsten, the new tungsten-air battery exhibits roughly higher energy density (W h L(-1)) than the previously reported iron-air battery.

  11. High-Energy All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries with Ultralong Cycle Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xiayin; Liu, Deng; Wang, Chunsheng; Long, Peng; Peng, Gang; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Li, Hong; Chen, Liquan; Xu, Xiaoxiong

    2016-11-09

    High energy and power densities are the greatest challenge for all-solid-state lithium batteries due to the poor interfacial compatibility between electrodes and electrolytes as well as low lithium ion transfer kinetics in solid materials. Intimate contact at the cathode-solid electrolyte interface and high ionic conductivity of solid electrolyte are crucial to realizing high-performance all-solid-state lithium batteries. Here, we report a general interfacial architecture, i.e., Li 7 P 3 S 11 electrolyte particles anchored on cobalt sulfide nanosheets, by an in situ liquid-phase approach. The anchored Li 7 P 3 S 11 electrolyte particle size is around 10 nm, which is the smallest sulfide electrolyte particles reported to date, leading to an increased contact area and intimate contact interface between electrolyte and active materials. The neat Li 7 P 3 S 11 electrolyte synthesized by the same liquid-phase approach exhibits a very high ionic conductivity of 1.5 × 10 -3 S cm -1 with a particle size of 0.4-1.0 μm. All-solid-state lithium batteries employing cobalt sulfide-Li 7 P 3 S 11 nanocomposites in combination with the neat Li 7 P 3 S 11 electrolyte and Super P as the cathode and lithium metal as the anode exhibit excellent rate capability and cycling stability, showing reversible discharge capacity of 421 mAh g -1 at 1.27 mA cm -2 after 1000 cycles. Moreover, the obtained all-solid-state lithium batteries possesses very high energy and power densities, exhibiting 360 Wh kg -1 and 3823 W kg -1 at current densities of 0.13 and 12.73 mA cm -2 , respectively. This contribution demonstrates a new interfacial design for all-solid-state battery with high performance.

  12. High Reversibility of Soft Electrode Materials in All-solid-state Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eSakuda

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available All-solid-state batteries using inorganic solid electrolytes (SEs are considered to be ideal batteries for electric vehicles (EVs and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs because they are potentially safer than conventional lithium-ion batteries (LIBs. In addition, all-solid-state batteries are expected to have long battery lives owing to the inhibition of chemical side reactions because only lithium ions move through the typically used inorganic SEs. The development of high-energy (more than 300 Wh kg-1 secondary batteries has been eagerly anticipated for years. The application of high-capacity electrode active materials is essential for fabricating such batteries. Recently, we proposed metal polysulfides as new electrode materials. These materials show higher conductivity and density than sulfur, which is advantageous for fabricating batteries with relatively higher energy density. Lithium niobium sulfides, such as Li3NbS4, have relatively high density, conductivity, and rate capability among metal polysulfide materials, and batteries with these materials have capacities high enough to potentially exceed the gravimetric energy density of conventional LIBs.Favorable solid-solid contact between the electrode and electrolyte particles is a key factor for fabricating high performance all-solid-state batteries. Conventional oxide-based positive electrode materials tend to be given rise to cracks during fabrication and/or charge-discharge processes. Here we report all-solid-state cells using lithium niobium sulfide as a positive electrode material, where favorable solid-solid contact was established by using lithium sulfide electrode materials because of their high processability. Cracks were barely observed in the electrode particles in the all-solid-state cells before or after charging and discharging with a high capacity of approx. 400 mAh g-1, suggesting that the lithium niobium sulfide electrode charged and discharged without experiencing

  13. All-solid-state, synchronously pumped, ultrafast BaWO4 Raman laser with long and short Raman shifts generating at 1180, 1225, and 1323 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Milan; Jelínek, Michal; Kubeček, Václav; Ivleva, Lyudmila I.; Zverev, Petr G.; Smetanin, Sergei

    2017-12-01

    A lot of attention is currently focused on synchronously pumped, extra-cavity crystalline Raman lasers generating one or two Stokes Raman components in KGW or diamond Raman-active crystals, and also generating additional components of stimulated polariton scattering in lithium niobate crystal having both cubic and quadratic nonlinearities. In this contribution we report on generation of more than two Stokes components of stimulated Raman scattering with different Raman shifts in the all-solid-state, synchronously pumped, extra-cavity Raman laser based on the Raman-active a-cut BaWO4 crystal excited by a mode-locked, 220 nJ, 36 ps, 150 MHz diode sidepumped Nd:GdVO4 laser generating at the wavelength of 1063 nm. Excitation by the pumping radiation polarized along the BaWO4 crystal optical axis resulted in the Raman generation with not only usual (925cm - 1), but also additional (332cm - 1) Raman shift. Besides the 1180-nm first and 1323 nm second Stokes components with the Raman shift of 925cm - 1 from the 1063nm fundamental laser wavelength, we have achieved generation of the additional 1227 nm Raman component with different Raman shift of 332cm - 1 from the 1180nm component. At the 1227 nm component the strongest 12-times pulse shortening from 36ps down to 3ps was obtained due to shorter dephasing time of this additional Raman line (3ps for the 332-cm - 1 line instead of 6.5ps for the 925cm - 1 line). It has to be also noted that the 1225 nm generation is intracavity pumped by the 1179 nm first Stokes component resulting in the strongest pulse shortening close to the 332cm -1 line dephasing time (3ps). Slope efficiency of three Stokes components generation exceeded 20%.

  14. Intra-cavity generation of superpositions of Laguerre-Gaussian beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Darryl

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate experimentally the intra-cavity generation of a coherent superposition of Laguerre–Gaussian modes of zero radial order but opposite azimuthal order. The superposition is created with a simple intra-cavity stop...

  15. Regulated expression of the overlapping ubiquitous and erythroid transcription units of the human porphobilinogen deaminase (PBG-D) gene introduced into non-erythroid and erythroid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raich, N; Mignotte, V; Dubart, A; Beaupain, D; Leboulch, P; Romana, M; Chabret, C; Charnay, P; Papayannopoulou, T; Goossens, M

    1989-06-15

    The human gene coding for porphobilinogen deaminase (PBG-D) is transcribed into two distinct transcription units giving two mRNAs. These units originate from two adjacent promoters distant of 3 kilobase pairs. The upstream promoter is active in all cell types, whereas the downstream promoter is active only in erythroid cells. We have studied the expression of this gene either after introduction of the corresponding human chromosome into murine erythroid cells using somatic hybrids or after transfection into both erythroid and non-erythroid cells. Using somatic hybrids, we showed that activation of the erythroid-specific promoter of the PBG-D gene did not reduce the rate of initiation of the ubiquitous promoter. Transfection experiments in erythroid cells showed that the PBG-D erythroid transcription unit, controlled by the PBG-D erythroid promoter, was correctly transcribed and regulated. Furthermore, we found that the PBG-D erythroid promoter alone was sufficient for correct expression and regulation of a reporter gene during erythroid differentiation. When the human PBG-D gene was transfected into non-erythroid cells, only the ubiquitous promoter was active. Deletion of the ubiquitous promoter did not lead to any activation of the erythroid promoter, suggesting that its inactivity in non-erythroid cells was not due to promoter occlusion but to a strict erythroid specificity.

  16. Soft switching circuit to improve efficiency of all solid-state Marx modulator for DBDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liqing, TONG; Kefu, LIU; Yonggang, WANG

    2018-02-01

    For an all solid-state Marx modulator applied in dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs), hard switching results in a very low efficiency. In this paper, a series resonant soft switching circuit, which series an inductance with DBD capacitor, is proposed to reduce the power loss. The power loss of the all circuit status with hard switching was analyzed, and the maximum power loss occurred during discharging at the rising and falling edges. The power loss of the series resonant soft switching circuit was also presented. A comparative analysis of the two circuits determined that the soft switching circuit greatly reduced power loss. The experimental results also demonstrated that the soft switching circuit improved the power transmission efficiency of an all solid-state Marx modulator for DBDs by up to 3 times.

  17. Walnut shell derived porous carbon for a symmetric all-solid-state supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoyang; Gao, Jianping; Tian, Qiang; Zhai, Xiangang; Liu, Yu

    2017-07-01

    Low-cost easily available walnut shells were used as the carbon source to prepare the porous carbon materials. The walnut shell derived porous carbon material was prepared using a simple hydrothermal method followed by the activation routes with K2CO3. The specific capacitance of this carbon material was 255 F/g at 0.5 A/g. Meanwhile, the obtained carbon material was used as the electrode material in a symmetric all-solid-state supercapacitor. The assembled all-solid-state supercapacitor device exhibits good electrochemical performances including a high specific capacitance (138 mF/cm2 at 1 mA/cm2) and good stability (96% capacitance retention after 3000 cycles). This new material makes full use of walnut shell waste to provide a useful material for energy storage.

  18. Fluorine-Doped Antiperovskite Electrolyte for All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yutao; Zhou, Weidong; Xin, Sen; Li, Shuai; Zhu, Jinlong; Lü, Xujie; Cui, Zhiming; Jia, Quanxi; Zhou, Jianshi; Zhao, Yusheng; Goodenough, John B

    2016-08-16

    A fluorine-doped antiperovskite Li-ion conductor Li2 (OH)X (X=Cl, Br) is shown to be a promising candidate for a solid electrolyte in an all-solid-state Li-ion rechargeable battery. Substitution of F(-) for OH(-) transforms orthorhombic Li2 OHCl to a room-temperature cubic phase, which shows electrochemical stability to 9 V versus Li(+) /Li and two orders of magnitude higher Li-ion conductivity than that of orthorhombic Li2 OHCl. An all-solid-state Li/LiFePO4 with F-doped Li2 OHCl as the solid electrolyte showed good cyclability and a high coulombic efficiency over 40 charge/discharge cycles. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Comprehensive characterization of all-solid-state thin films commercial microbatteries by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larfaillou, S.; Guy-Bouyssou, D.; le Cras, F.; Franger, S.

    2016-07-01

    Constant miniaturization of electronic devices opens the way to the development of thin film microbatteries (TFB). For this type of devices, the use of an all-solid-state thin film technology has many advantages over conventional lithium cells. These microbatteries are thin, bendable and can be produced with a customizable shape for integration in microelectronic devices. Moreover, without liquid electrolyte, they are safer. With the aim to support the industrial production of these TFBs, adequate tools for understanding the electrochemical behavior of the complete microbattery and the identification of their possible failures that can occur have to be developed. In this context, the Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy seems to be a good compromise for cells characterization. Widely used for the characterization of liquid electrolyte-based batteries, this technique has been less applied to all solid state batteries, mainly because of the difficulty to work with a two-electrode system. There has been no comprehensive study deeply explaining the impedance evolution during the entire life of a microbattery. In this paper, physical characterizations of individual active materials and aging experiments have been performed in order to undoubtedly assign each EIS contributions, and to propose a more comprehensive electrical model for this family of commercial all-solid-state microbatteries.

  20. All-solid-state lithium organic battery with composite polymer electrolyte and pillar[5]quinone cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiqiang; Hong, Meiling; Guo, Dongsheng; Shi, Jifu; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2014-11-26

    The cathode capacity of common lithium ion batteries (LIBs) using inorganic electrodes and liquid electrolytes must be further improved. Alternatively, all-solid-state lithium batteries comprising the electrode of organic compounds can offer much higher capacity. Herein, we successfully fabricated an all-solid-state lithium battery based on organic pillar[5]quinone (C35H20O10) cathode and composite polymer electrolyte (CPE). The poly(methacrylate) (PMA)/poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-LiClO4-3 wt % SiO2 CPE has an optimum ionic conductivity of 0.26 mS cm(-1) at room temperature. Furthermore, pillar[5]quinine cathode in all-solid-state battery rendered an average operation voltage of ∼2.6 V and a high initial capacity of 418 mAh g(-1) with a stable cyclability (94.7% capacity retention after 50 cycles at 0.2C rate) through the reversible redox reactions of enolate/quinonid carbonyl groups, showing favorable prospect for the device application with high capacity.

  1. Transverse mode analysis of optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy of canine hemangiosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weina; Thamm, Douglas H.; Kisker, David W.; Lear, Kevin L.

    2010-02-01

    The label-free technique of optofluidic intracavity spectroscopy (OFIS) uses the optical transmission spectrum of a cell in a microfluidic optical resonator to distinguish cancerous and non-cancerous cells. Based on their distinctive characteristic transmission spectra, canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) cancer cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) have been differentiated using the OFIS technique with high statistical significance (p<10- 6). 95% sensitivity and 98% specificity were achieved simultaneously. A cell lens model explains trends in the transverse mode pattern in the transmission spectra of HSA cells and allows extraction of cell focal length.

  2. Fiber-based all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors for self-powered systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xu; Li, Tianqi; Yang, Peihua; Gao, Yuan; Jin, Huanyu; Ni, Weijian; Zhan, Wenhui; Zhang, Xianghui; Cao, Yuanzhi; Zhong, Junwen; Gong, Li; Yen, Wen-Chun; Mai, Wenjie; Chen, Jian; Huo, Kaifu; Chueh, Yu-Lun; Wang, Zhong Lin; Zhou, Jun

    2012-10-23

    All-solid-state flexible supercapacitors based on a carbon/MnO(2) (C/M) core-shell fiber structure were fabricated with high electrochemical performance such as high rate capability with a scan rate up to 20 V s(-1), high volume capacitance of 2.5 F cm(-3), and an energy density of 2.2 × 10(-4) Wh cm(-3). By integrating with a triboelectric generator, supercapacitors could be charged and power commercial electronic devices, such as a liquid crystal display or a light-emitting-diode, demonstrating feasibility as an efficient storage component and self-powered micro/nanosystems.

  3. Nitrogen dissociation during RF sputtering of Lipon electrolyte for all-solid-states batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Christiansen, Ane Sælland; Holtappels, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Small size and high power density secondary batteries are desired for a large number of applications based on miniature wireless devices and sensors that need to be compatible with the microelectronic fabrication technology. This fact resulted in the development of solid electrolytes, like lithium...... phosphorus oxynitride (Lipon), that can be compacted with the anode and cathode electrodes in an all-solid-states structure where the nitrogen incorporation is considered one of the key parameters for controlling the ionic conductivity. In this work the nitrogen dissociation during RF sputtering of Lipon...

  4. All-solid-state supercapacitors on silicon using graphene from silicon carbide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bei; Ahmed, Mohsin; Iacopi, Francesca, E-mail: f.iacopi@griffith.edu.au [Environmental Futures Research Institute, Griffith University, Nathan 4111 (Australia); Wood, Barry [Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Queensland, St. Lucia 4072 (Australia)

    2016-05-02

    Carbon-based supercapacitors are lightweight devices with high energy storage performance, allowing for faster charge-discharge rates than batteries. Here, we present an example of all-solid-state supercapacitors on silicon for on-chip applications, paving the way towards energy supply systems embedded in miniaturized electronics with fast access and high safety of operation. We present a nickel-assisted graphitization method from epitaxial silicon carbide on a silicon substrate to demonstrate graphene as a binder-free electrode material for all-solid-state supercapacitors. We obtain graphene electrodes with a strongly enhanced surface area, assisted by the irregular intrusion of nickel into the carbide layer, delivering a typical double-layer capacitance behavior with a specific area capacitance of up to 174 μF cm{sup −2} with about 88% capacitance retention over 10 000 cycles. The fabrication technique illustrated in this work provides a strategic approach to fabricate micro-scale energy storage devices compatible with silicon electronics and offering ultimate miniaturization capabilities.

  5. All-solid state flexible supercapacitors based on graphene/polymer composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jung Won; Choi, Bong Gill, E-mail: bgchoi@kangwon.ac.kr

    2015-06-01

    Recent advances in lightweight, flexible, and wearable electronic equipment has led to advancements in the development of sufficiently compact and flexible energy storage. A challenge remains to integrate the storage elements as closely as possible within a fully flexible device. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of all-solid state flexible supercapacitors with the integration of two electrodes that consist of graphene/polymer composites. Robust conductive free-standing thin graphene/polymer composite electrodes were prepared through a simple “physical grinding” process. As-prepared composite electrodes store energy up to a reversible gravimetric capacitance of 90.6 F/g, at a constant current density of 0.5 A/g while also delivering long-term durability (90% retention) for excess of five-thousands of cycles. Notably, the enhancement of mechanical properties of supercapacitors enables them to maintain their electrochemical performance even when twisted or folded. This straightforward approach to the fabrication of fully flexible supercapacitors provides new design opportunities within wearable electronics and electrochemical applications. - Highlights: • All solid-sate supercapacitors were fabricated using graphene/polymer composite electrodes. • Supercapacitor devices show an excellent mechanical flexibility. • High electrochemical performances were demonstrated.

  6. All-solid-state supercapacitors on silicon using graphene from silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bei; Ahmed, Mohsin; Wood, Barry; Iacopi, Francesca

    2016-05-01

    Carbon-based supercapacitors are lightweight devices with high energy storage performance, allowing for faster charge-discharge rates than batteries. Here, we present an example of all-solid-state supercapacitors on silicon for on-chip applications, paving the way towards energy supply systems embedded in miniaturized electronics with fast access and high safety of operation. We present a nickel-assisted graphitization method from epitaxial silicon carbide on a silicon substrate to demonstrate graphene as a binder-free electrode material for all-solid-state supercapacitors. We obtain graphene electrodes with a strongly enhanced surface area, assisted by the irregular intrusion of nickel into the carbide layer, delivering a typical double-layer capacitance behavior with a specific area capacitance of up to 174 μF cm-2 with about 88% capacitance retention over 10 000 cycles. The fabrication technique illustrated in this work provides a strategic approach to fabricate micro-scale energy storage devices compatible with silicon electronics and offering ultimate miniaturization capabilities.

  7. Characterization of All Solid State Hydrogen Ion Selective Electrode Based on PVC-SR Hybrid Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Bo Shim

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen ion selective membranes formulated with 3140 RTV silicone rubber (SR in PVC were studied to extend the life time of solid state ion sensors through improved membrane adhesion. All solid state hydrogen ion selective electrodes were prepared by incorporation of tridodecyl amine (TDDA as an ionophore, potassium tetrakis[3.5-bis(p-chlorophenylborate (KTpClPB as a lipophilic additive, bis(2-ethylhexyladipate (DOA as a plasticizer. Their linear dynamic range was pH 2.0-11.0 and showed the near Nernstian slope of 55.1±0.2 mV/pH (r=0.999. The ifluences from alkali and alkaline earth metal ions were studied for the response of the final ISE membrane composition. Impedance spectroscopic data showed that the resistance was increased by increasing SR content in PVC. Brewster Angle Microscopy (BAM image showed clear differences according to the SR compositions in PVC. Life time of the all solid state membrane electrode was extended to about 2 months by preparing the membrane with PVC and SR. The standard reference material from NIST (2181 HEPES Free acid and 2182 NaHEPESate was tested for the ISE and it gave good result.

  8. Super Soft All-Ethylene Oxide Polymer Electrolyte for Safe All-Solid Lithium Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcarelli, Luca; Gerbaldi, Claudio; Bella, Federico; Nair, Jijeesh Ravi

    2016-01-01

    Here we demonstrate that by regulating the mobility of classic -EO- based backbones, an innovative polymer electrolyte system can be architectured. This polymer electrolyte allows the construction of all solid lithium-based polymer cells having outstanding cycling behaviour in terms of rate capability and stability over a wide range of operating temperatures. Polymer electrolytes are obtained by UV-induced (co)polymerization, which promotes an effective interlinking between the polyethylene oxide (PEO) chains plasticized by tetraglyme at various lithium salt concentrations. The polymer networks exhibit sterling mechanical robustness, high flexibility, homogeneous and highly amorphous characteristics. Ambient temperature ionic conductivity values exceeding 0.1 mS cm-1 are obtained, along with a wide electrochemical stability window (>5 V vs. Li/Li+), excellent lithium ion transference number (>0.6) as well as interfacial stability. Moreover, the efficacious resistance to lithium dendrite nucleation and growth postulates the implementation of these polymer electrolytes in next generation of all-solid Li-metal batteries working at ambient conditions.

  9. Nanocarbon-Based Materials for Flexible All-Solid-State Supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Tian; Liu, Mingxian; Zhu, Dazhang; Gan, Lihua; Chen, Tao

    2018-02-26

    Because of the rapid development of flexible electronics, it is important to develop high-performance flexible energy-storage devices, such as supercapacitors and metal-ion batteries. Compared with metal-ion batteries, supercapacitors exhibit higher power density, longer cycling life, and excellent safety, and they can be easily fabricated into all-solid-state devices by using polymer gel electrolytes. All-solid-state supercapacitors (ASSSCs) have the advantages of being lightweight and flexible, thus showing great potential to be used as power sources for flexible portable electronics. Because of their high specific surface area and excellent electrical and mechanical properties, nanocarbon materials (such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, carbon nanofibers, and so on) have been widely used as efficient electrode materials for flexible ASSSCs, and great achievements have been obtained. Here, the recent advances in flexible ASSSCs are summarized, from design strategies to fabrication techniques for nanocarbon electrodes and devices. Current challenges and future perspectives are also discussed. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Sintered Cathodes for All-Solid-State Structural Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, William; Dynys, Frederick; Sehirlioglu, Alp

    2017-01-01

    All-solid-state structural lithium ion batteries serve as both structural load-bearing components and as electrical energy storage devices to achieve system level weight savings in aerospace and other transportation applications. This multifunctional design goal is critical for the realization of next generation hybrid or all-electric propulsion systems. Additionally, transitioning to solid state technology improves upon battery safety from previous volatile architectures. This research established baseline solid state processing conditions and performance benchmarks for intercalation-type layered oxide materials for multifunctional application. Under consideration were lithium cobalt oxide and lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide. Pertinent characteristics such as electrical conductivity, strength, chemical stability, and microstructure were characterized for future application in all-solid-state structural battery cathodes. The study includes characterization by XRD, ICP, SEM, ring-on-ring mechanical testing, and electrical impedance spectroscopy to elucidate optimal processing parameters, material characteristics, and multifunctional performance benchmarks. These findings provide initial conditions for implementing existing cathode materials in load bearing applications.

  11. In Situ STEM-EELS Observation of Nanoscale Interfacial Phenomena in All-Solid-State Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziying; Santhanagopalan, Dhamodaran; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Feng; Xin, Huolin L; He, Kai; Li, Juchuan; Dudney, Nancy; Meng, Ying Shirley

    2016-06-08

    Behaviors of functional interfaces are crucial factors in the performance and safety of energy storage and conversion devices. Indeed, solid electrode-solid electrolyte interfacial impedance is now considered the main limiting factor in all-solid-state batteries rather than low ionic conductivity of the solid electrolyte. Here, we present a new approach to conducting in situ scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) coupled with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in order to uncover the unique interfacial phenomena related to lithium ion transport and its corresponding charge transfer. Our approach allowed quantitative spectroscopic characterization of a galvanostatically biased electrochemical system under in situ conditions. Using a LiCoO2/LiPON/Si thin film battery, an unexpected structurally disordered interfacial layer between LiCoO2 cathode and LiPON electrolyte was discovered to be inherent to this interface without cycling. During in situ charging, spectroscopic characterization revealed that this interfacial layer evolved to form highly oxidized Co ions species along with lithium oxide and lithium peroxide species. These findings suggest that the mechanism of interfacial impedance at the LiCoO2/LiPON interface is caused by chemical changes rather than space charge effects. Insights gained from this technique will shed light on important challenges of interfaces in all-solid-state energy storage and conversion systems and facilitate improved engineering of devices operated far from equilibrium.

  12. A Plastic-Crystal Electrolyte Interphase for All-Solid-State Sodium Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hongcai; Xue, Leigang; Xin, Sen; Park, Kyusung; Goodenough, John B

    2017-05-08

    The development of all-solid-state rechargeable batteries is plagued by a large interfacial resistance between a solid cathode and a solid electrolyte that increases with each charge-discharge cycle. The introduction of a plastic-crystal electrolyte interphase between a solid electrolyte and solid cathode particles reduces the interfacial resistance, increases the cycle life, and allows a high rate performance. Comparison of solid-state sodium cells with 1) solid electrolyte Na 3 Zr 2 (Si 2 PO 4 ) particles versus 2) plastic-crystal electrolyte in the cathode composites shows that the former suffers from a huge irreversible capacity loss on cycling whereas the latter exhibits a dramatically improved electrochemical performance with retention of capacity for over 100 cycles and cycling at 5 C rate. The application of a plastic-crystal electrolyte interphase between a solid electrolyte and a solid cathode may be extended to other all-solid-state battery cells. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Jitter reduction by intracavity active phase modulation in a mode-locked semiconductor laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozharar, Sarper; Ozdur, Ibrahim; Quinlan, Franklyn; Delfyett, Peter J

    2009-03-01

    We experimentally verify the theory of Haus et al. [IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40, 41 (2004)] on the effects of timing jitter using intracavity phase modulation on the pulse train of a mode-locked laser. The theory is based on the solution of the Heisenberg-Langevin equation in the presence of dispersion and intracavity phase modulation. Using active intracavity phase modulation, we have reduced the timing jitter on a 10.24 GHz mode-locked diode laser by 50% from 304 to 150 fs integrated from 1 Hz to the Nyquist frequency of 5.12 GHz.

  14. Investigation of crystallinity, molecular weight change, and mechanical properties of PLA/PBG bioresorbable composites as bone fracture fixation plates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felfel, Reda M; Ahmed, Ifty; Parsons, Andrew J; Haque, Papia; Walker, Gavin S; Rudd, Chris D

    2012-03-01

    In this study, bioresorbable phosphate-based glass (PBG) fibers were used to reinforce poly(lactic acid) (PLA). PLA/PBG random mat (RM) and unidirectional (UD) composites were prepared via laminate stacking and compression molding with fiber volume fractions between 14% and 18%, respectively. The percentage of water uptake and mass change for UD composites were higher than the RM composites and unreinforced PLA. The crystallinity of the unreinforced PLA and composites increased during the first few weeks and then a plateau was seen. XRD analysis detected a crystalline peak at 16.6° in the unreinforced PLA sample after 42 days of immersion in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) at 37°C. The initial flexural strength of RM and UD composites was ∼106 and ∼115 MPa, whilst the modulus was ∼6.7 and ∼9 GPa, respectively. After 95 days immersion in PBS at 37°C, the strength decreased to 48 and 52 MPa, respectively as a result of fiber-matrix interface degradation. There was no significant change in flexural modulus for the UD composites, whilst the RM composites saw a decrease of ∼45%. The molecular weight of PLA alone, RM, and UD composites decreased linearly with time during degradation due to chain scission of the matrix. Short fiber pull-out was seen from SEM micrographs for both RM and UD composites.

  15. All-solid-state micro-supercapacitors based on inkjet printed graphene electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiantong; Mishukova, Viktoriia; Östling, Mikael

    2016-09-01

    The all-solid-state graphene-based in-plane micro-supercapacitors are fabricated simply through reliable inkjet printing of pristine graphene in interdigitated structure on silicon wafers to serve as both electrodes and current collectors, and a following drop casting of polymer electrolytes (polyvinyl alcohol/H3PO4). Benefiting from the printing processing, an attractive porous electrode microstructure with a large number of vertically orientated graphene flakes is observed. The devices exhibit commendable areal capacitance over 0.1 mF/cm2 and a long cycle life of over 1000 times. The simple and scalable fabrication technique for efficient micro-supercapacitors is promising for on-chip energy storage applications in emerging electronics.

  16. Customized ablation using an all-solid-state deep-UV laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korn, G.; Lenzner, M.; Kittelmann, O.; Zatonski, R.; Kirsch, M.; Kuklin, Y.

    2003-07-01

    We show first deep UV ablation results achieved with our new all solid state laser system. The system parameters allow high repetition rate ablation with a small spot diameter of about 0.250mm and a fluence of 350 mJ/cm2 at a wavelength of 210 nm using sequential frequency conversion of a diode pumped laser source. The single shot and multishot ablation rates as well as the ablation profiles have been defined using MicroProf (Fries Research and Technology GmbH, Germany). By means of computer controlled scanning we produce smooth ablation profiles corresponding to a correction of myopia, hyperopia or astigmatism. Due to the small spot size and high repetition rate of the laser we are able to generate in short time intervals complicated ablation profiles described by higher order polynomial functions which are required for the needs of customized corneal ablation.

  17. Design and Characterisation of Solid Electrolytes for All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn

    chemical and electrochemical stability, high lithium ion conduction and negligible electronic conduction remains a challenge. The highly lithium ion conducting LiBH4-LiI solid solution is a promising solid electrolyte material. Solid solutions with a LiI content of 6.25%-50% were synthesised by planetary...... with a cubic crystal structure. Its formation has an effect on the measured conductivity of the samples and increases the risk of an internal short-circuit. This reveals a more general issue that must receive attention in further research on solid electrolytes.......The development of all-solid-state lithium batteries, in which the currently used liquid electrolytes are substituted for solid electrolyte materials, could lead to safer batteries offering higher energy densities and longer cycle lifetimes. Designing suitable solid electrolytes with sufficient...

  18. Heterogeneous all-solid multicore fiber based multipath Michelson interferometer for high temperature sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Li; Zhang, Peng; Tang, Ming; Wang, Ruoxu; Zhao, Zhiyong; Fu, Songnian; Gan, Lin; Zhu, Benpeng; Tong, Weijun; Liu, Deming; Shum, Perry Ping

    2016-09-05

    A compact high temperature sensor utilizing a multipath Michelson interferometer (MI) structure based on weak coupling multicore fiber (MCF) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The device is fabricated by program-controlled tapering the spliced region between single mode fiber (SMF) and a segment of MCF. After that, a spherical reflective structure is formed by arc-fusion splicing the end face of MCF. Theoretical analysis has been implemented for this specific multipath MI structure; beam propagation method based simulation and corresponding experiments were performed to investigate the effect of taper and spherical end face on system's performance. Benefiting from the multipath interferences and heterogeneous structure between the center core and surrounding cores of the all-solid MCF, an enhanced temperature sensitivity of 165 pm/°C up to 900°C and a high-quality interference spectrum with 25 dB fringe visibility were achieved.

  19. The Fabrication of All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries via Spark Plasma Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xialu Wei

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Spark plasma sintering (SPS has been successfully used to produce all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries (ASSLibs. Both regular and functionally graded electrodes are implemented into novel three-layer and five-layer battery designs together with solid-state composite electrolyte. The electrical capacities and the conductivities of the SPS-processed ASSLibs are evaluated using the galvanostatic charge-discharge test. Experimental results have shown that, compared to the three-layer battery, the five-layer battery is able to improve energy and power densities. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM is employed to examine the microstructures of the batteries especially at the electrode–electrolyte interfaces. It reveals that the functionally graded structure can eliminate the delamination effect at the electrode–electrolyte interface and, therefore, retains better performance.

  20. Sulfide solid electrolyte with favorable mechanical property for all-solid-state lithium battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuda, Atsushi; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    All-solid-state secondary batteries that employ inorganic solid electrolytes are desirable because they are potentially safer than conventional batteries. The ionic conductivities of solid electrolytes are currently attracting great attention. In addition to the conductivity, the mechanical properties of solid electrolytes are important for improving the energy density and cycle performance. However, the mechanical properties of sulfide electrolytes have not been clarified in detail. Here, we demonstrate the unique mechanical properties of sulfide electrolytes. Sulfide electrolytes show room temperature pressure sintering. Ionic materials with low bond energies and a highly covalent character, which is promising for achieving a high ionic conductivity, tend to be suitable for room-temperature processing. The Young's moduli of sulfide electrolytes were measured to be about 20 GPa, which is an intermediate value between those of typical oxides and organic polymers.

  1. Design of the all solid high-voltage power supply for a gyrotron body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Yihua [School of Mathematics and Physics, University of South China, Hengyang, 421001 (China); Chen, Wenguang, E-mail: 430000485393@usc.edu.cn [School of Electrical Engineering, University of South China, Hengyang, 421001 (China); Hu, Bo [School of Electrical Engineering, University of South China, Hengyang, 421001 (China); Rao, Jun; Huang, Mei; Kang, Zihua; Feng, Kun [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu, 610041 (China); Huang, Jiaqi [School of Electrical Engineering, University of South China, Hengyang, 421001 (China)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Completed design of all solid-state high-voltage power supply for gyrotron body on HL-2M ECRH. • Consist of 58 PSM modules and one BUCK module, controlled by DSP system. • Fabricated full voltage 35 kV, 200 mA BPS and tested in dummy load. • The BPS can operate in three modes: single pulse mode, multi-pulse modulation mode and the six-level preset mode. - Abstract: Gyrotron plays an important role in the research of electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) on Tokomak. The high-frequency switched power supply technology and pulse step modulation (PSM) technology are used in the development of the all solid high-voltage body power supply (BPS) for 1 MW/105 GHz Gyrotron on ECRH system. Firstly, the basic structure of the BPS and its control system are introduced. Secondly, the software control algorithm of voltage stabilization and modulate method are developed. Finally, the design is verified by the experiments. The experimental results of the single pulse mode, the multi-pulse modulation mode and the six-level preset mode, are shown. The output voltage of the power supply can reach 35 kV and the current at about 200 mA, which are adjustable in the full range. The maximum modulation frequency can reach 1 kHz and the front edge of the pulse can be adjust from 0 to 3 ms and the accuracy of the output voltage is less than 100 V. The results show that the control method is feasible and can be applied to other high power microwave sources.

  2. Intracavity Faraday modulation spectroscopy (INFAMOS): A tool for radical detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianella, Michele; Pinto, Tomas H. P.; Wu, Xia; Ritchie, Grant A. D.

    2017-08-01

    We present the intra-cavity Faraday modulation spectroscopy technique, whereby optical feedback cavity-enhanced spectroscopy is coupled with Faraday modulation spectroscopy to greatly enhance the interaction path length of a laser beam with a paramagnetic sample in a magnetic field. We describe a first prototype based upon a cw quantum cascade laser targeting a selection of fundamental rovibrational R-branch transitions of nitric oxide (1890 cm-1), consisting of a linear cavity (finesse F =6300 ) and a water-cooled solenoid. We demonstrate a minimum detectable Verdet constant of Vmin=4.7 ×10-14 rad cm-1 G-1 H z-1/2 (at SNR = 1), corresponding to a single-pass rotation angle of 1.6 ×10-10 rad Hz-1/2 and a limit of detection of 0.21 ppbv Hz-1/2 NO.

  3. Investigation of intracavity phase interferometry applied to nano-metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xuan

    Intracavity phase interferometry is sensing technique developed at UNM, in which a physical quantity to be measured is put as integral part of a mode-locked laser. It relies on the fact that any intracavity phase shift of an intracavity pulse will result in a frequency change of the whole pulse train. The implementations of IPI requires the operation of a mode-locked laser in which two pulses circulate independently, i.e. with no phase coupling between them. IPI has been demonstrated with a variety of laser systems, to detect either non-reciprocal effects (such as rotation, magnetic field), or phase changes that can be made periodic at the repetition rate of the laser cavity. The purpose of this work is to study the feasibility of applying this technique to the measurement of non-periodic (i.e. slow) changes in optical path. The new concept to measure sub-nanometer displacement uses an optoelectronic modulator (EOM) inside the cavity. The operation of the mode-locked laser after insertion of such an element in its cavity is analyzed. Several laser systems have been tried for the implementation of IPI. Two of them are presented in this thesis. The first one is a Nd:YVO4 laser, mode-locked by a multiple quantum wells (MQW) saturable absorber. The presence of a solid state saturable absorber introduced a dead band in the beat note response of the system. A new coupling between group and phase velocity was discovered experimentally, and explained through simulation. This coupling affects negatively the operation of the system, since the repetition rate is no longer a reliable fixed quantity. The coupling could be eliminated by replacing the MQW with a dye jet absorber. A first demonstration of a slow optical path change (in the nm range) was made. The system that appeared at first the most promising is the intracavity optical parametric oscillator (OPO) synchronously pumped by a mode-locked Ti:Sapphire lasers. Bringing the unstable behavior of that laser under control

  4. Intracavity optical trapping with Ytterbium doped fiber ring laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed, Rania; Kalantarifard, Fatemeh; Elahi, Parviz; Ilday, F. Omer; Volpe, Giovanni; Maragò, Onofrio M.

    2013-09-01

    We propose a novel approach for trapping micron-sized particles and living cells based on optical feedback. This approach can be implemented at low numerical aperture (NA=0.5, 20X) and long working distance. In this configuration, an optical tweezers is constructed inside a ring cavity fiber laser and the optical feedback in the ring cavity is controlled by the light scattered from a trapped particle. In particular, once the particle is trapped, the laser operation, optical feedback and intracavity power are affected by the particle motion. We demonstrate that using this configuration is possible to stably hold micron-sized particles and single living cells in the focal spot of the laser beam. The calibration of the optical forces is achieved by tracking the Brownian motion of a trapped particle or cell and analysing its position distribution.

  5. Intracavity absorption multiplexed sensor network based on dense wavelength division multiplexing filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiwei; Lu, Ying; Duan, Liangcheng; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Shi, Wei; Yao, Jianquan

    2014-10-06

    We report the system design and experimental verification of an intracavity absorption multiplexed sensor network with hollow core photonic crystal fiber (HCPCF) sensors and dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) filters. Compared with fiber Bragg grating (FBG), it is easier for the DWDM to accomplish a stable output. We realize the concentration detection of three gas cells filled with acetylene. The sensitivity is up to 100 ppmV at 1536.71 nm. Voltage gradient is firstly used to optimize the intracavity sensor network enhancing the detection efficiency up to 6.5 times. To the best of our knowledge, DWDM is firstly used as a wavelength division multiplexing device to realize intracavity absorption multiplexed sensor network. It make it possible to realize high capacity intracavity sensor network via multiplexed technique.

  6. All-solid-state Al-air batteries with polymer alkaline gel electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao; Zuo, Chuncheng; Liu, Zihui; Yu, Ying; Zuo, Yuxin; Song, Yu

    2014-04-01

    Aluminum-air (Al-air) battery is one of the most promising candidates for next-generation energy storage systems because of its high capacity and energy density, and abundance. The polyacrylic acid (PAA)-based alkaline gel electrolyte is used in all-solid-state Al-air batteries instead of aqueous electrolytes to prevent leakage. The optimal gel electrolyte exhibits an ionic conductivity of 460 mS cm-1, which is close to that of aqueous electrolytes. The Al-air battery peak capacity and energy density considering only Al can reach 1166 mAh g-1-Al and 1230 mWh g-1-Al, respectively, during constant current discharge. The battery prototype also exhibits a high power density of 91.13 mW cm-2. For the battery is a laminated structure, area densities of 29.2 mAh cm-2 and 30.8 mWh cm-2 are presented to appraise the performance of the whole cell. A novel design to inhibit anodic corrosion is proposed by separating the Al anode from the gel electrolyte when not in use, thereby effectively maintaining the available capacity of the battery.

  7. Diffusion and Interface Effects during Preparation of All-Solid Microstructured Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobelke Jens

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available All-solid microstructured optical fibers (MOF allow the realization of very flexible optical waveguide designs. They are prepared by stacking of doped silica rods or canes in complex arrangements. Typical dopants in silica matrices are germanium and phosphorus to increase the refractive index (RI, or boron and fluorine to decrease the RI. However, the direct interface contact of stacking elements often causes interrelated chemical reactions or evaporation during thermal processing. The obtained fiber structures after the final drawing step thus tend to deviate from the targeted structure risking degrading their favored optical functionality. Dopant profiles and design parameters (e.g., the RI homogeneity of the cladding are controlled by the combination of diffusion and equilibrium conditions of evaporation reactions. We show simulation results of diffusion and thermal dissociation in germanium and fluorine doped silica rod arrangements according to the monitored geometrical disturbances in stretched canes or drawn fibers. The paper indicates geometrical limits of dopant structures in sub-µm-level depending on the dopant concentration and the thermal conditions during the drawing process. The presented results thus enable an optimized planning of the preform parameters avoiding unwanted alterations in dopant concentration profiles or in design parameters encountered during the drawing process.

  8. Highly compressible three-dimensional graphene hydrogel for foldable all-solid-state supercapacitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianbin; Zou, Shuai; Liu, Kaixi; Lv, Chao; Wu, Ziping; Yin, Yanhong; Liang, Tongxiang; Xie, Zailai

    2018-04-01

    The fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) graphene-based macroscopic materials with superior mechanical and electrical properties for flexible energy storage devices is still extremely challenging. Here, we report a novel 3D graphene hydrogel decorated by the biomass phytic acid (PAGH) with developed porosity and strengthen mechanical property via hydrothermal and freeze-drying methods. The phytic acid molecules are intercalated into the graphene sheets, enabling robust network structure. This induces the formation of materials with larger specific surface area, lower density and enhanced compressive strength compared with pure GH. When directly employed as an electrode, the PAGH exhibits a high specific capacitance of 248.8 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and excellent rate performance of 67.9% as current density increasing to 20 A g-1. Furthermore, the all-solid-state supercapacitor based PAGH can deliver outstanding cycle life (86.2% after cycling 10,000 times), glorious energy density (26.5 Wh kg-1) and power density (5135.1 W kg-1). The prepared device shows stable electrochemical behaviors at random bending angles. Therefore, the present work will open a new avenue to design and fabricate new flexible and portable graphene-based electrodes for future applications in energy storage devices.

  9. All-solid-state carbonate-selective electrode based on screen-printed carbon paste electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Guang; Lyu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Zhan; Rong, Yuanzhen; Hu, Ruifen; Wang, You; Luo, Zhiyuan

    2017-01-01

    A novel disposable all-solid-state carbonate-selective electrode based on a screen-printed carbon paste electrode using poly(3-octylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (POT) as an ion-to-electron transducer has been developed. The POT was dropped onto the reaction area of the carbon paste electrode covered by the poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) membrane, which contains N,N-Dioctyl-3 α ,12 α -bis(4-trifluoroacetylbenzoyloxy)-5 β -cholan-24-amide as a carbonate ionophore. The electrode showed a near-Nernstian slope of  −27.5 mV/decade with a detection limit of 3.6 * 10 −5 mol l −1 . Generally, the detection time was 30 s. Because these electrodes are fast, convenient and low in cost, they have the potential to be mass produced and used in on-site testing as disposable sensors. Furthermore, the repeatability, reproducibility and stability have been studied to evaluate the properties of the electrodes. Measurement of the carbonate was also conducted in a human blood solution and achieved good performance. (paper)

  10. Photonic Bandgap Propagation in All-Solid Chalcogenide Microstructured Optical Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celine Caillaud

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An original way to obtain fibers with special chromatic dispersion and single-mode behavior is to consider microstructured optical fibers (MOFs. These fibers present unique optical properties thanks to the high degree of freedom in the design of their geometrical structure. In this study, the first all-solid all-chalcogenide MOFs exhibiting photonic bandgap transmission have been achieved and optically characterized. The fibers are made of an As38Se62 matrix, with inclusions of Te20As30Se50 glass that shows a higher refractive index (n = 2.9. In those fibers, several transmission bands have been observed in mid infrared depending on the geometry. In addition, for the first time, propagation by photonic bandgap effect in an all-chalcogenide MOF has been observed at 3.39 µm, 9.3 µm, and 10.6 µm. The numerical simulations based on the optogeometric properties of the fibers agree well with the experimental characterizations.

  11. All solid supercapacitor based on polyaniline and crosslinked sulfonated poly[ether ether ketone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaraman, P.; Kushwaha, R.K.; Shashidhara, K.; Hande, V.R.; Thakur, A.P. [Polymer Department, Naval Materials Research Laboratory (DRDO), Shil-Badlapur Road, Anand Nagar PO, Thane Dist., Ambernath, Maharashtra 421 506 (India); Samui, A.B., E-mail: absamui@rediffmail.co [Polymer Department, Naval Materials Research Laboratory (DRDO), Shil-Badlapur Road, Anand Nagar PO, Thane Dist., Ambernath, Maharashtra 421 506 (India); Khandpekar, M.M. [Materials Research Laboratory, Birla College, Kalyan, Thane Dist, Maharashtra 421 304 (India)

    2010-02-28

    All solid supercapacitor based on polyaniline (PANI) and crosslinked sulfonated poly[ether ether ketone] (XSPEEK,) is reported in this paper. The crosslinker used for sulfonated poly[ether ether ketone] (SPEEK) is 1,4-bis(hydroxymethyl) benzene. The XSPEEK is used as both solid electrolyte and separator membrane. Supercapacitors are fabricated using various PANI/XSPEEK weight ratios. These are characterized by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge studies. The supercapacitor with PANI/XSPEEK weight ratio 1:0.5, exhibit a specific capacitance of 480 F g{sup -1} of PANI. To the best of authors' knowledge, the value reported here is the highest for a supercapacitor based on a proton conducting solid polymer electrolyte and PANI. Detailed electrochemical impedance spectroscopy analysis is carried out. The analysis shows that the complex capacitance of the supercapacitor depends on the XSPEEK content. The time constant (t{sub 0}), derived from the imaginary part of complex capacitance decreases with increase in the XSPEEK content in the supercapacitor. Cycle life characteristics of the supercapacitor show a decrease in specific capacitance during initial cycles and get stabilized during later cycles.

  12. Diffusion and Interface Effects during Preparation of All-Solid Microstructured Fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jens, Kobelke; Jörg, Bierlich; Katrin, Wondraczek; Claudia, Aichele; Zhiwen, Pan; Sonja, Unger; Kay, Schuster; Hartmut, Bartelt

    2014-09-25

    All-solid microstructured optical fibers (MOF) allow the realization of very flexible optical waveguide designs. They are prepared by stacking of doped silica rods or canes in complex arrangements. Typical dopants in silica matrices are germanium and phosphorus to increase the refractive index (RI), or boron and fluorine to decrease the RI. However, the direct interface contact of stacking elements often causes interrelated chemical reactions or evaporation during thermal processing. The obtained fiber structures after the final drawing step thus tend to deviate from the targeted structure risking degrading their favored optical functionality. Dopant profiles and design parameters (e.g., the RI homogeneity of the cladding) are controlled by the combination of diffusion and equilibrium conditions of evaporation reactions. We show simulation results of diffusion and thermal dissociation in germanium and fluorine doped silica rod arrangements according to the monitored geometrical disturbances in stretched canes or drawn fibers. The paper indicates geometrical limits of dopant structures in sub-µm-level depending on the dopant concentration and the thermal conditions during the drawing process. The presented results thus enable an optimized planning of the preform parameters avoiding unwanted alterations in dopant concentration profiles or in design parameters encountered during the drawing process.

  13. Smooth, All-Solid, Low-Hysteresis, Omniphobic Surfaces with Enhanced Mechanical Durability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boban, Mathew; Golovin, Kevin; Tobelmann, Brian; Gupte, Omkar; Mabry, Joseph M; Tuteja, Anish

    2018-03-19

    The utility of omniphobic surfaces stems from their ability to repel a multitude of liquids, possessing a broad range of surface tensions and polarities, by causing them to bead up and either roll or slide off. These surfaces may be self-cleaning, corrosion-resistant, heat-transfer enhancing, stain-resistant or resistant to mineral- or bio-fouling. The majority of reported omniphobic surfaces use texture, lubricants, and/or grafted monolayers to engender these repellent properties. Unfortunately, these approaches often produce surfaces with deficiencies in long-term stability, durability, scalability, or applicability to a wide range of substrates. To overcome these limitations, we have fabricated an all-solid, substrate-independent, smooth, omniphobic coating composed of a fluorinated polyurethane and fluorodecyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane. Liquids of varying surface tension, including water, hexadecane, ethanol, and silicone oil, exhibit low contact angle hysteresis (< 15°) on these surfaces, allowing liquid droplets to slide off, leaving no residue. Moreover, we demonstrate that these robust surfaces retained their repellent properties more effectively than textured or lubricated omniphobic surfaces after being subjected to mechanical abrasion.

  14. Fabrication, Testing, and Simulation of All-Solid-State Three-Dimensional Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talin, A Alec; Ruzmetov, Dmitry; Kolmakov, Andrei; McKelvey, Kim; Ware, Nicholas; El Gabaly, Farid; Dunn, Bruce; White, Henry S

    2016-11-30

    Demonstration of three-dimensional all-solid-state Li-ion batteries (3D SSLIBs) has been a long-standing goal for numerous researchers in the battery community interested in developing high power and high areal energy density storage solutions for a variety of applications. Ideally, the 3D geometry maximizes the volume of active material per unit area, while keeping its thickness small to allow for fast Li diffusion. In this paper, we describe experimental testing and simulation of 3D SSLIBs fabricated using materials and thin-film deposition methods compatible with semiconductor device processing. These 3D SSLIBs consist of Si microcolumns onto which the battery layers are sequentially deposited using physical vapor deposition. The power performance of the 3D SSLIBs lags significantly behind that of similarly prepared planar SSLIBs. Analysis of the experimental results using finite element modeling indicates that the origin of the poor power performance is the structural inhomogeneity of the 3D SSLIB, coupled with low electrolyte ionic conductivity and diffusion rate in the cathode, which lead to highly nonuniform internal current density distribution and poor cathode utilization.

  15. All-solid-state lithium-oxygen battery with high safety in wide ambient temperature range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaura, Hirokazu; Zhou, Haoshen

    2015-08-21

    There is need to develop high energy storage devices with high safety to satisfy the growing industrial demands. Here, we show the potential to realize such batteries by assembling a lithium-oxygen cell using an inorganic solid electrolyte without any flammable liquid or polymer materials. The lithium-oxygen battery using Li1.575Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3 solid electrolyte was examined in the pure oxygen atmosphere from room temperature to 120 °C. The cell works at room temperature and first full discharge capacity of 1420 mAh g(-1) at 10 mA g(-1) (based on the mass of carbon material in the air electrode) was obtained. The charge curve started from 3.0 V, and that the majority of it lay below 4.2 V. The cell also safely works at high temperature over 80 °C with the improved battery performance. Furthermore, fundamental data of the electrochemical performance, such as cyclic voltammogram, cycle performance and rate performance was obtained and this work demonstrated the potential of the all-solid-state lithium-oxygen battery for wide temperature application as a first step.

  16. All-Solid-State Drivers for High Power Excimer Lasers Used in Projection Gas Immersion Laser Doping

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacob, Jonah

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this SBIR program is to develop all-solid-state pulsed modulators to drive the high power excimer lasers required to commercialize the Projection Gas Immersion Laser Doping (P-GILD) process...

  17. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition enabling all-solid-state Li-ion microbatteries:a short review

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, C; Eichel, R-A; Notten, PHL Peter

    2017-01-01

    For powering small-sized electronic devices, all-solid-state Li-ion batteries are the most promising candidates due to its safety and allowing miniaturization. Thin film deposition methods can be used for building new all-solid-state architectures. Well-known deposition methods are sputter deposition, pulsed laser deposition, sol-gel deposition, atomic layer deposition, etc. This review summarizes thin film storage materials deposited by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) for all...

  18. U.S. Air Force positive-pressure breathing anti-G system (PBG): subjective health effects and acceptance by pilots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, T W; Morgan, T R

    1994-05-01

    Current high-performance fighter aircraft subject pilots to acceleration forces that can adversely effect performance and induce unconsciousness during flight. The main strategies to help the fighter pilot sustain +Gz include a pressurized anti-G garment (G-suit), the anti-G straining maneuver, and centrifuge training to optimize this effective, but very fatiguing, maneuver. To improve anti-G support for aircrew, a positive-pressure breathing anti-G system (PBG) has been developed in the COMBAT EDGE program. In order to determine if any acute adverse health effects are occurring from the use of PBG, a survey of 241 (F-15 and F-16) pilots (49 using PBG and 192 using standard methods) was conducted. Questions were asked regarding acute health effects and the impact of PBG on mission accomplishment. With the exception of dry cough, no significant increases in adverse events were found, and acceptance in the F-16 was much greater than in the F-15.

  19. Sequence analysis of flanking regions of the pfoA gene of Clostridium perfringens: beta-galactosidase gene (pbg) is located in the 3'-flanking region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, T; Kobayashi, T; Ba-Thein, W; Ohtani, K; Hayashi, H

    1995-01-01

    The 3'-flanking region of the perfringolysin O (theta-toxin) gene (pfoA) of Clostridium perfringens was analyzed by chromosome walking. A total of 5,363 bp of the downstream region of the pfoA gene was sequenced and four open reading frames were found. ORF54 and ORF80 were found to be homologous to genes coding for membrane-bound transporter proteins of other bacteria and the beta-galactosidase gene (bgaB) of Bacillus stearothermophilus, respectively. ORF80 was named the pbg gene. Clones which showed beta-galactosidase activities were selected from a lambda FIXII genomic library of C. perfringens by blue plaque screening using X-Gal as a substrate. Four clones whose plaques showed blue appearances were obtained. Two of the four clones hybridized with the pbg probe but the others did not, indicating that there are two distinct beta-galactosidase genes in C. perfringens. The pbg gene was subcloned into pBR322 and was successfully expressed in Escherichia coli, suggesting that the pbg gene codes for a beta-galactosidase of C. perfringens.

  20. All solid-state V2O5-based flexible hybrid fiber supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; He, Jin; Cao, Xin; Kang, Liping; He, Xuexia; Xu, Hua; Shi, Feng; Jiang, Ruibin; Lei, Zhibin; Liu, Zong-Huai

    2017-12-01

    Vanadium pentoxide/single-walled carbon nanotube (V2O5-SWCNT) hybrid fibers with good electrochemical performance and flexibility are firstly prepared by using wet-spinning method. V2O5 nanobelt suspension is obtained by mixing V2O5 bulk, 30% H2O2, H2O and followed by hydrothermally treating at 190 °C for 15 h. SWCNT suspension is suspended into V2O5 nanobelt suspension under vigorous stirring, the V2O5-SWCNT homogenous suspension is obtained. It is injected into a coagulation bath composed of 5 wt % CaCl2 ethanol-water solution using syringe pump, V2O5-SWCNT hybrid fibers are prepared by washing with deionized water and drying at room temperature. Reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-SWCNT hybrid fibers are also prepared by the similar wet-spinning approach and followed by reducing GO-SWCNT hybrid fibers in an aqueous solution of hydriodic acid. All solid-state asymmetric V2O5/SWCNT//RGO/SWCNT fiber supercapacitors are assembled with V2O5-SWCNT fiber as positive electrode and RGO-SWCNT fiber as negative electrode by using PVA-H3PO4 as gel electrolyte. The assembled device not only shows maximum volumetric energy density of 1.95 mW h cm-3 at a volumetric power density of 7.5 mW cm-3, superior rate performance and cycling stability, but also exhibits remarkable flexibility to tolerate long-term and repeated bending. This work will open a new application filed of V2O5-based fibers in wearable energy storage devices.

  1. A miniature all-solid-state calcium electrode applied to in situ seawater measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Hui; Wang, You; Luo, Zhiyuan; Pan, Yiwen

    2013-01-01

    An all-solid-state miniature calcium ion selective electrode (ISE) based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT(PSS)) for continuous in situ measurement in seawater was studied. The electrode substrate was a platinum (Pt) wire of 0.5 mm diameter and PEDOT(PSS) was electropolymerized on one end of the Pt wire to act as the solid contact of this calcium ISE. The PEDOT(PSS) layer was covered with a calcium-selective poly(vinyl chloride) membrane, which contained ETH129 as calcium ionophore, potassium tetrakis-(p-chlorophenyl)borate as lipophilic anion and bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate as the plasticizer. Experiments using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and reversed chronopotentiometry illustrated that electropolymerized PEDOT(PSS) decreased the resistance and improved the stability of the electrode. The sensors can work stably in the calcium ion concentration range of 10 −6 –10 −1 mol L −1  with the slope of 27.7 mV/decade. Also Na + , K +  and Mg 2+  can hardly interfere with the performance of the electrode. This electrode was applied to measure the calcium ion concentration of seawater samples. The experimental data showed that the electrode can resist the corrosion of seawater and its reproducibility was good (SD < 0.1 mM kg −1 ). The lifetime of such an electrode was at least six months. Because of the wire-shape and the small size of such a liquid junction free calcium electrode, it is pressure-resistant and easy to package and seal, therefore it is suitable for use in underwater equipment for in situ seawater measurement. (paper)

  2. Effect of decrease in both postprandial blood glucose (PBG) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels in normal beagle dogs with nateglinide enteric coated granules and immediate release tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Chisato; Ninomiya, Nobutaka; Sakai, Hidetoshi; Orita, Haruo; Okano, Akira; Yabuki, Akira

    2006-04-01

    Nateglinide is a new quick action/short duration (QRSD) type of oral blood glucose regulator, and nateglinide immediate release tablets are used for patients with mild diabetes under the trade name of Fastic((R)) tablets. In this study, we attempted to determine if it was possible to control both post-prandial blood glucose level (PBG) and fasting blood glucose level (FBG) for moderate or severe diabetes through controlled release of nateglinide. Enteric coated granules were selected for the administration form for controlled release of nateglinide, and three types of enteric coated granules were prepared having dissolution pH values of 5.5, 6.5 and 7.2. The three types of enteric coated granules were each administered separately or the enteric coated granules having an dissolution pH of 6.5 were administered simultaneous to administration of nateglinide immediate release tablets to normal beagle dogs just before feeding followed by measurement of plasma nateglinide concentration, plasma insulin concentration and blood glucose level. In the case of administering enteric coated granules alone (nateglinide: 9 mg/kg), the absorption of nateglinide was confirmed to tend to be delayed as the dissolution pH increased. In the case of an dissolution pH of 5.5, decreases in both PBG and FBG were observed. In the case of dissolution pH values of 6.5 and 7.2, only decrease in FBG was observed. In case of nateglinide immediate release tablets (nateglinide: 9 mg/kg), only decrease in PBG was observed. Decreases in both PBG and FBG were observed in the case of simultaneous administration of dissolution pH 6.5 enteric coated granules and nateglinide immediate release tablets just before feeding (nateglinide: 90 mg/head+60 mg/head). A correlation was observed between plasma nateglinide concentrations and blood glucose levels. On the other hand, there were no correlations observed between changes in plasma insulin concentrations and blood glucose levels. In case of nateglinide

  3. Active mode control of solid state laser using an intra-cavity beam shaper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenguang; Zhou, Qiong; Yan, Baozhu; Jiang, Zongfu

    2015-05-01

    In high power solid state lasers, thermal lens effect always give rise to the multi-modes oscillation in the resonator. The beam quality will deteriorate with the increase of output power. In this paper, an intra-cavity beam shaper is introduced to actively compensate the thermal lens in the laser resonator. One round trip ABCD matrix of the resonator with an intra-cavity beam shaper and thermal lens is calculated. The design parameters with wide stable zone are concluded through the ABCD matrix. The mode size and stability diagram of the resonator are calculated under different focal length of the thermal lens. The relationship between the adjustment of the intra-cavity beam shaper and the mode size under different thermal lenses are concluded, and general method to actively control the modes contents by adjusting the intra-cavity beam shaper is introduced. The effectiveness and performance of active mode control with the intra-cavity beam shaper are verified by simulations of the output modes of resonators. It shows that the M2 factor is well maintained below 1.6 even the focal length of the thermal lens changes from 5m to 0.5m.

  4. In-line flat-top comb filter based on a cascaded all-solid photonic bandgap fiber intermodal interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Youfu; Li, Xuejin; Tan, Xiaoling; Deng, Yuanlong; Yu, Yongqin

    2013-07-15

    In this paper, an in-line comb filter with flat-top spectral response is proposed and constructed based on a cascaded all-solid photonic bandgap fiber modal interferometer. It consists of two short pieces of all-solid photonic bandgap fiber and two standard single-mode fibers as lead fibers with core-offset splices between them. The theoretical and experimental results demonstrated that by employing a cut and resplice process on the central position of all-solid photonic bandgap fiber, the interference spectra are well tailored and flat-top spectral profiles could be realized by the controllable offset amount of the resplice. The channel position also could be tuned by applying longitudinal torsion with up to 4 nm tuning range. Such a flat-top fiber comb filter is easy-to-fabricate and with a designable passband width and flat-top profile.

  5. Efficient Storing Energy Harvested by Triboelectric Nanogenerators Using a Safe and Durable All-Solid-State Sodium-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Huidan; Xu, Qingkai; Pang, Yaokun; Li, Lei; Wang, Jiulin; Zhang, Chi; Sun, Chunwen

    2017-08-01

    Storing energy harvested by triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) from ambient mechanical motion is still a great challenge for achieving low-cost and environmental benign power sources. Here, an all-solid-state Na-ion battery with safe and durable performance used for efficient storing pulsed energy harvested by the TENG is demonstrated. The solid-state sodium-ion batteries are charged by galvanostatic mode and pulse mode with the TENG, respectively. The all-solid-state sodium-ion battery displays excellent cyclic performance up to 1000 cycles with a capacity retention of about 85% even at a high charge and discharge current density of 48 mA g -1 . When charged by the TENG, an energy conversion efficiency of 62.3% is demonstrated. The integration of TENGs with the safe and durable all-solid-state sodium-ion batteries is potential for providing more stable power output for self-powered systems.

  6. The LiBH4-LiI Solid Solution as an Electrolyte in an All-Solid-State Battery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sveinbjörnsson, Dadi Þorsteinn; Christiansen, Ane Sælland; Viskinde, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    The charge and discharge performance of an all-solid-state lithium battery with the LiBH4-LiI solid solution as an electrolyte is reported. Lithium titanate (Li4Ti5O12) was used as the positive electrode and lithium metal as the negative electrode. The performance of the all-solid-state cell.......6% per charge-discharge cycle is observed. The electrochemical stability of the LiBH4-LiI solid solution was investigated using cyclic voltammetry and is found to be limited to 3 V. The impedance of the battery cells was measured using impedance spectroscopy. A strong correlation is found between...

  7. Process of coping with intracavity radiation treatment for gynecologic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nail, L.M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the process of coping with the experience of receiving intracavity radiation treatment (ICR) for gynecologic cancer. Data were collected on the outcomes of coping, emotion (Profile of Mood States) and level of function (Sickness Impact Profile), and symptom severity and upset the evening before, during, the day after, and 1 to 2 weeks after treatment. The subjects (N = 28) had a mean age of 52 years, 39% were employed full-time, 56% had occupations as manual workers, 57% had completed 12 or more years of education, and 68% were married or widowed. The treatment required the subjects to be hospitalized on complete bedrest with radiation precautions for an average of 48 hours. Intrauterine devices were used to treat 18 subjects and vaginal applications were used to treat 10 subjects. Negative mood and level of disruption in function were generally low. Repeated measures ANOVA showed no change in negative mood over time while the change in function was attributable to the increase in disruption during treatment. Utilization of affective coping strategies and problem-oriented coping strategies was positively correlated with negative mood and disruption in function over the points of measurement. The results indicate that subjects tolerated ICR well and rapidly resumed usual function following discharge from the hospital, despite the persistence of some symptoms 1 to 2 weeks after treatment. The positive association between the utilization of coping strategies and negative outcomes of coping suggests a need to examine the measurement of coping strategies and consider the possibility that these actions represent a response to a stressful situation rather than a method of dealing with the situation

  8. All-optical noise reduction of fiber laser via intracavity SOA structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Kang; Chen, Dijun; Pan, Zhengqing; Zhang, Xi; Cai, Haiwen; Qu, Ronghui

    2016-10-10

    We have designed a unique intracavity semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) structure to suppress the relative intensity noise (RIN) for a fiber DFB laser. By exploiting the gain saturation effect of the SOA, a maximum noise suppression of 30 dB around the relaxation oscillation frequency is achieved, and the whole resonance relaxation oscillation peak completely disappears. Moreover, via a specially designed intracavity SOA structure, the optical intensity inside the SOA will be in a balanced state via the oscillation in the laser cavity, and the frequency noise of the laser will not be degraded with the SOA.

  9. Electrode property of single-walled carbon nanotubes in all-solid-state lithium ion battery using polymer electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Y.; Ishii, Y.; Kawasaki, S., E-mail: kawasaki.shinji@nitech.ac.jp [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2016-07-06

    Electrode properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) in an all-solid-state lithium ion battery were investigated using poly-ethylene oxide (PEO) solid electrolyte. Charge-discharge curves of SWCNTs in the solid electrolyte cell were successfully observed. It was found that PEO electrolyte decomposes on the surface of SWCNTs.

  10. All-solid-state lithium-ion and lithium metal batteries - paving the way to large-scale production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Joscha; Günther, Till; Knoche, Thomas; Vieider, Christoph; Köhler, Larissa; Just, Alexander; Keller, Marlou; Passerini, Stefano; Reinhart, Gunther

    2018-04-01

    Challenges and requirements for the large-scale production of all-solid-state lithium-ion and lithium metal batteries are herein evaluated via workshops with experts from renowned research institutes, material suppliers, and automotive manufacturers. Aiming to bridge the gap between materials research and industrial mass production, possible solutions for the production chains of sulfide and oxide based all-solid-state batteries from electrode fabrication to cell assembly and quality control are presented. Based on these findings, a detailed comparison of the production processes for a sulfide based all-solid-state battery with conventional lithium-ion cell production is given, showing that processes for composite electrode fabrication can be adapted with some effort, while the fabrication of the solid electrolyte separator layer and the integration of a lithium metal anode will require completely new processes. This work identifies the major steps towards mass production of all-solid-state batteries, giving insight into promising manufacturing technologies and helping stakeholders, such as machine engineering, cell producers, and original equipment manufacturers, to plan the next steps towards safer batteries with increased storage capacity.

  11. All-solid birefringent hybrid photonic crystal fiber based interferometric sensor for measurement of strain and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gu, Bobo; Yuan, Scott Wu; Zhang, A. Ping

    2011-01-01

    A highly sensitive fiber-optic interferometric sensor based on an all-solid birefringent hybrid photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is demonstrated for measuring strain and temperature. A strain sensitivity of similar to 23.8 pm/mu epsilon and a thermal sensitivity of similar to-1.12 nm/degrees C...

  12. Modulated electron-multiplied fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope : All-solid-state camera for fluorescence lifetime imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, Q.; Schelen, B.; Schouten, R.

    2012-01-01

    We have built an all-solid-state camera that is directly modulated at the pixel level for frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) measurements. This novel camera eliminates the need for an image intensifier through the use of an application-specific charge coupled device

  13. Cellulose nanofibril/reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotube hybrid aerogels for highly flexible and all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qifeng Zheng; Zhiyong Cai; Zhenqiang Ma; Shaoqin Gong

    2015-01-01

    A novel type of highly flexible and all-solid-state supercapacitor that uses cellulose nanofibril (CNF)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO)/carbon nanotube (CNT) hybrid aerogels as electrodes and H2SO4 poly (vinyl alcohol) PVA gel as the electrolyte was developed and is reported here. These flexible solid-state supercapacitors...

  14. Anode properties of magnesium hydride catalyzed with niobium oxide for an all solid-state lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Suguru; Ichikawa, Takayuki; Kawahito, Koji; Hirabayashi, Kazuhiro; Miyaoka, Hiroki; Kojima, Yoshitsugu

    2013-08-18

    The anode properties of pristine MgH2 and MgH2 catalyzed with Nb2O5 have been investigated for an all solid-state lithium-ion battery. The catalytic effect stabilizes the plateau voltage as a result of kinetic improvement of the hydrogen transfer from the Mg phase to the Li phase.

  15. All-Solid-State Lithium-Sulfur Battery based on a nanoconfined LiBH 4 Electrolyte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Supti; Ngene, Peter; Norby, Poul; Vegge, Tejs; de Jongh, P.E.; Blanchard, Didier

    2016-01-01

    In this work we characterize all-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries based on nano-confined LiBH4in mesoporous silica as solid electrolytes. The nano-confined LiBH4has fast ionic lithium conductivity at room temperature, 0.1 mScm-1, negligible electronic conductivity and its cationic transport

  16. Intracavity absorption spectroscopy of formaldehyde from 6230 to 6420 cm(-1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fjodorow, Peter; Hellmig, Ortwin; Baev, Valery M.; Levinsky, Howard B.; Mokhov, Anatoli V.

    We apply intracavity absorption spectroscopy for measurements of the absorption spectrum of formaldehyde, CH2O, from 6230 to 6420 cm(-1), of which only a small fraction (6351-6362 cm(-1)) has been recorded elsewhere. The measurements are performed in the cavity of a broadband Er3+-doped fiber laser,

  17. Implementation of intra-cavity beam shaping technique to enhance pump efficiency

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Litvin, IA

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In this work the author proposes an implementation of a new intra-cavity beam shaping technique to vary the intensity distribution of the fundamental mode in a resonator cavity while maintaining a constant intensity distribution at the output...

  18. Intracavity OptoGalvanic Spectroscopy Not Suitable for Ambient Level Radiocarbon Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, Dipayan; Meijer, Harro

    2015-01-01

    IntraCavity OptoGalvanic Spectroscopy as a radiocarbon detection technique was first reported by the Murnick group at Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, in 2008. This technique for radiocarbon detection was presented with tremendous potentials for applications in various fields of research.

  19. Influence of high-order dispersion on kerr frequency combs and intracavity soliton dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Shaofei; Guo, Hairun; Bai, Xuekun

    2014-01-01

    The influence of high-order dispersion on both temporal and spectral characteristics of microresonator-based optical frequency combs are investigated. The moment method and intracavity dispersive wave generations are utilized to analyze comb dynamics. © 2014 Optical Society of America....

  20. Characterization of all-solid-state Li/LiPONB/TiOS microbatteries produced at the pilot scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleutot, B.; Pecquenard, B.; Le Cras, F.; Delis, B.; Martinez, H.; Dupont, L.; Guy-Bouyssou, D.

    All-solid-state Li/LiPONB/TiOS microbatteries were manufactured at the pilot scale on silicon substrate. In a first attempt, the characterization of the active materials constituting the microbattery was achieved in order to determine their accurate composition, structure and morphology. Finally, a thorough electrochemical characterization was carried out on all-solid-state cells. Excellent performances were noted in terms of cycle life (with more than 1000 cycles), efficiency and self-discharge (less than 5% per year). In addition, the positive electrode highlighted a high volumetric capacity close to 90 μAh cm -2 μm -1 when cycled at 100 μA cm -2 between 1 V and 3 V vs. Li +/Li.

  1. High Performance All-Solid-State Flexible Micro-Pseudocapacitor Based on Hierarchically Nanostructured Tungsten Trioxide Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Microsupercapacitors (MSCs) are promising energy storage devices to power miniaturized portable electronics and microelectromechanical systems. With the increasing attention on all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors, new strategies for high-performance flexible MSCs are highly desired. Here, we demonstrate all-solid-state, flexible micropseudocapacitors via direct laser patterning on crack-free, flexible WO3/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composites containing high levels of porous hierarchically structured WO3 nanomaterials (up to 50 wt %) and limited binder (PVDF, nanostructured WO3 in the narrow finger electrode is essential to such enhancement in energy density due to its pseudocapacitive property. The effects of WO3/PVDF/MWCNTs composite composition and the dimensions of interdigital structure on the performance of the flexible MSCs are investigated. PMID:26618406

  2. In situ TEM studies of micron-sized all-solid-state fluoride ion batteries: Preparation, prospects, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad Fawey, Mohammed; Chakravadhanula, Venkata Sai Kiran; Reddy, Munnangi Anji; Rongeat, Carine; Scherer, Torsten; Hahn, Horst; Fichtner, Maximilian; Kübel, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Trustworthy preparation and contacting of micron-sized batteries is an essential task to enable reliable in situ TEM studies during electrochemical biasing. Some of the challenges and solutions for the preparation of all-solid-state batteries for in situ TEM electrochemical studies are discussed using an optimized focused ion beam (FIB) approach. In particular redeposition, resistivity, porosity of the electrodes/electrolyte and leakage current are addressed. Overcoming these challenges, an all-solid-state fluoride ion battery has been prepared as a model system for in situ TEM electrochemical biasing studies and first results on a Bi/La0.9 Ba0.1 F2.9 half-cell are presented. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:615-624, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Modulated electron-multiplied fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope: All-solid-state camera for fluorescence lifetime imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Q.; Schelen, B.; Schouten, R.

    2012-01-01

    We have built an all-solid-state camera that is directly modulated at the pixel level for frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) measurements. This novel camera eliminates the need for an image intensifier through the use of an application-specific charge coupled device design in a frequency-domain FLIM system. The first stage of evaluation for the camera has been carried out. Camera characteristics such as noise distribution, dark current influence, camera gain, sam...

  4. 4.5 W supercontinuum generation from 1017 to 3438 nm in an all-solid fluorotellurite fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Zhixu; Yao, Chuanfei; Jia, Shijie; Wang, Fang; Wang, Shunbin; Zhao, Zhipeng; Qin, Guanshi; Ohishi, Yasutake; Qin, Weiping

    2017-06-01

    All-solid fluorotellurite fibers are fabricated by using a rod-in-tube method. The core and cladding materials are TeO2-BaF2-Y2O3 (TBY) and AlF3-based glasses, respectively. Since the refractive index (˜1.46) of AlF3-based glass is much lower than that (˜1.84) of TBY glass, the zero-dispersion-wavelength of the fabricated fiber can be tuned from 2145 to 1507 nm by varying the fiber core diameter from 50 to 3 μm. By using a 0.6 m long all-solid fluorotellurite fiber with a core diameter of ˜7 μm as the nonlinear medium and a 2 μm femtosecond fiber laser as the pump source, 4.5 W supercontinuum (SC) generation from 1017 to 3438 nm is obtained for a launched pump power of ˜10.48 W. The corresponding optical-to-optical conversion efficiency is about 42.9%. In addition, no any damage of the fluorotellurite fiber is observed during the operation of the above SC light source. Our results show that all-solid fluorotellurite fibers are promising nonlinear media for constructing high power mid-infrared SC light sources.

  5. All-solid-state flexible microsupercapacitors based on reduced graphene oxide/multi-walled carbon nanotube composite electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiling; Xu, Jianhua; He, Xin; Yang, Wenyao; Yang, Yajie; Xu, Lu; Zhao, Yuetao; Zhou, Yujiu

    2018-03-01

    All-solid-state flexible microsupercapacitors have been intensely investigated in order to meet the rapidly growing demands for portable microelectronic devices. Herein, we demonstrate a facile, readily scalable and cost-effective laser induction process for preparing reduced graphene oxide/multi-walled carbon nanotube composite, which can be used as the interdigital electrodes in microsupercapacitors. The obtained composite exhibits high volumetric capacitance about 49.35 F cm-3, which is nearly 5 times higher than that of the pristine reduced graphene oxide film in aqueous 1.0 M H2SO4 solution (measured at a current density of 5 A cm-3 in a three-electrode testing). Additionally, an all-solid-state flexible microsupercapacitor employing these composite electrodes with PVA/H3PO4 gel electrolyte delivers high volumetric energy density of 6.47 mWh cm-3 at 10 mW cm-3 under the current density of 20 mA cm-3 as well as achieve excellent cycling stability retaining 88.6% of its initial value and outstanding coulombic efficiency after 10,000 cycles. Furthermore, the microsupercapacitors array connected in series/parallel can be easily adjusted to achieve the demands in practical applications. Therefore, this work brings a promising new candidate of prepare technologies for all-solid-state flexible microsupercapacitors as miniaturized power sources used in the portable and wearable electronics.

  6. Radiation risk models for all solid cancers other than those types of cancer requiring individual assessments after a nuclear accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, Linda; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    In the assessment of health risks after nuclear accidents, some health consequences require special attention. For example, in their 2013 report on health risk assessment after the Fukushima nuclear accident, the World Health Organisation (WHO) panel of experts considered risks of breast cancer, thyroid cancer and leukaemia. For these specific cancer types, use was made of already published excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) models for radiation-related cancer incidence fitted to the epidemiological data from the Japanese A-bomb Life Span Study (LSS). However, it was also considered important to assess all other types of solid cancer together and the WHO, in their above-mentioned report, stated ''No model to calculate the risk for all other solid cancer excluding breast and thyroid cancer risks is available from the LSS data''. Applying the LSS models for all solid cancers along with the models for the specific sites means that some cancers have an overlap in the risk evaluations. Thus, calculating the total solid cancer risk plus the breast cancer risk plus the thyroid cancer risk can overestimate the total risk by several per cent. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to publish the required models for all other solid cancers, i.e. all solid cancers other than those types of cancer requiring special attention after a nuclear accident. The new models presented here have been fitted to the same LSS data set from which the risks provided by the WHO were derived. Although it is known already that the EAR and ERR effect modifications by sex are statistically significant for the outcome ''all solid cancer'', it is shown here that sex modification is not statistically significant for the outcome ''all solid cancer other than thyroid and breast cancer''. It is also shown here that the sex-averaged solid cancer risks with and without the sex modification are very similar once breast and

  7. Radiation risk models for all solid cancers other than those types of cancer requiring individual assessments after a nuclear accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Linda [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Department ' ' Radiation Protection and Health' ' , Oberschleissheim (Germany); University of Zurich, Medical Physics Group, Institute of Physics, Zurich (Switzerland); Zhang, Wei [Public Health England, Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    In the assessment of health risks after nuclear accidents, some health consequences require special attention. For example, in their 2013 report on health risk assessment after the Fukushima nuclear accident, the World Health Organisation (WHO) panel of experts considered risks of breast cancer, thyroid cancer and leukaemia. For these specific cancer types, use was made of already published excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) models for radiation-related cancer incidence fitted to the epidemiological data from the Japanese A-bomb Life Span Study (LSS). However, it was also considered important to assess all other types of solid cancer together and the WHO, in their above-mentioned report, stated ''No model to calculate the risk for all other solid cancer excluding breast and thyroid cancer risks is available from the LSS data''. Applying the LSS models for all solid cancers along with the models for the specific sites means that some cancers have an overlap in the risk evaluations. Thus, calculating the total solid cancer risk plus the breast cancer risk plus the thyroid cancer risk can overestimate the total risk by several per cent. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to publish the required models for all other solid cancers, i.e. all solid cancers other than those types of cancer requiring special attention after a nuclear accident. The new models presented here have been fitted to the same LSS data set from which the risks provided by the WHO were derived. Although it is known already that the EAR and ERR effect modifications by sex are statistically significant for the outcome ''all solid cancer'', it is shown here that sex modification is not statistically significant for the outcome ''all solid cancer other than thyroid and breast cancer''. It is also shown here that the sex-averaged solid cancer risks with and without the sex modification are very similar once breast and

  8. Radiation risk models for all solid cancers other than those types of cancer requiring individual assessments after a nuclear accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Linda; Zhang, Wei

    2016-03-01

    In the assessment of health risks after nuclear accidents, some health consequences require special attention. For example, in their 2013 report on health risk assessment after the Fukushima nuclear accident, the World Health Organisation (WHO) panel of experts considered risks of breast cancer, thyroid cancer and leukaemia. For these specific cancer types, use was made of already published excess relative risk (ERR) and excess absolute risk (EAR) models for radiation-related cancer incidence fitted to the epidemiological data from the Japanese A-bomb Life Span Study (LSS). However, it was also considered important to assess all other types of solid cancer together and the WHO, in their above-mentioned report, stated "No model to calculate the risk for all other solid cancer excluding breast and thyroid cancer risks is available from the LSS data". Applying the LSS models for all solid cancers along with the models for the specific sites means that some cancers have an overlap in the risk evaluations. Thus, calculating the total solid cancer risk plus the breast cancer risk plus the thyroid cancer risk can overestimate the total risk by several per cent. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to publish the required models for all other solid cancers, i.e. all solid cancers other than those types of cancer requiring special attention after a nuclear accident. The new models presented here have been fitted to the same LSS data set from which the risks provided by the WHO were derived. Although it is known already that the EAR and ERR effect modifications by sex are statistically significant for the outcome "all solid cancer", it is shown here that sex modification is not statistically significant for the outcome "all solid cancer other than thyroid and breast cancer". It is also shown here that the sex-averaged solid cancer risks with and without the sex modification are very similar once breast and thyroid cancers are factored out. Some other notable model

  9. All-Solid-State Sodium-Selective Electrode with a Solid Contact of Chitosan/Prussian Blue Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanushree Ghosh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Conventional ion-selective electrodes with a liquid junction have the disadvantage of potential drift. All-solid-state ion-selective electrodes with solid contact in between the metal electrode and the ion-selective membrane offer high capacitance or conductance to enhance potential stability. Solution-casted chitosan/Prussian blue nanocomposite (ChPBN was employed as the solid contact layer for an all-solid-state sodium ion-selective electrode in a potentiometric sodium ion sensor. Morphological and chemical analyses confirmed that the ChPBN is a macroporous network of chitosan that contains abundant Prussian blue nanoparticles. Situated between a screen-printed carbon electrode and a sodium-ionophore-filled polyvinylchloride ion-selective membrane, the ChPBN layer exhibited high redox capacitance and fast charge transfer capability, which significantly enhanced the performance of the sodium ion-selective electrode. A good Nernstian response with a slope of 52.4 mV/decade in the linear range from 10−4–1 M of NaCl was observed. The stability of the electrical potential of the new solid contact was tested by chronopotentiometry, and the capacitance of the electrode was 154 ± 4 µF. The response stability in terms of potential drift was excellent (1.3 µV/h for 20 h of continuous measurement. The ChPBN proved to be an efficient solid contact to enhance the potential stability of the all-solid-state ion-selective electrode.

  10. Coherent supercontinuum bandwidth limitations under femtosecond pumping at 2 µm in all-solid soft glass photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimczak, Mariusz; Siwicki, Bartłomiej; Zhou, Binbin

    2016-01-01

    Two all-solid glass photonic crystal fibers with all-normal dispersion profiles are evaluated for coherent supercontinuum generation under pumping in the 2.0 μm range. Inhouse boron-silicate and commercial lead-silicate glasses were used to fabricate fibers optimized for either flat dispersion......, albeit with lower nonlinearity, or with larger dispersion profile curvature but with much higher nonlinearity. Recorded spectra at the redshifted edge reached 2500-2800 nm depending on fiber type. Possible factors behind these differences are discussed with numerical simulations. The fiber enabling...

  11. All-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery based on a nanoconfined LiBH4 electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Supti; Ngene, Peter; Norby, Poul

    2016-01-01

    In this work we characterize all-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries based on nano-confined LiBH4 in mesoporous silica as solid electrolytes. The nano-confined LiBH4 has fast ionic lithium conductivity at room temperature, 0.1 mScm-1, negligible electronic conductivity and its cationic transport...... number (t+ = 0.96), close to unity, demonstrates a purely cationic conductor. The electrolyte has an excellent stability against lithium metal. The behavior of the batteries is studied by cyclic voltammetry and repeated charge/discharge cycles in galvanostatic conditions. The batteries show very good...

  12. Experimental Performance of a Single-Mode Ytterbium-doped Fiber Ring Laser with Intracavity Modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Kenji; Camp, Jordan

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a linearly polarized Ytterbium-doped fiber ring laser with a single longitudinal mode output at 1064 run. A fiber-coupled intracavity phase modulator ensured mode-hop free operation and allowed fast frequency tuning. The fiber laser was locked with high stability to an iodine-stabilized laser, showing a frequency noise suppression of a factor approx 10 (exp 5) at 1 mHz

  13. Intracavity OptoGalvanic Spectroscopy not suitable for ambient level radiocarbon detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Dipayan; Meijer, Harro A J

    2015-09-01

    IntraCavity OptoGalvanic Spectroscopy as a radiocarbon detection technique was first reported by the Murnick group at Rutgers University, Newark, NJ, in 2008. This technique for radiocarbon detection was presented with tremendous potentials for applications in various fields of research. Significantly cheaper, this technique was portrayed as a possible complementary technique to the more expensive and complex accelerator mass spectrometry. Several groups around the world started developing this technique for various radiocarbon related applications. The IntraCavity OptoGalvanic Spectroscopy setup at the University of Groningen was constructed in 2012 in close collaboration with the Murnick group for exploring possible applications in the fields of radiocarbon dating and atmospheric monitoring. In this paper we describe a systematic evaluation of the IntraCavity OptoGalvanic Spectroscopy setup at Groningen for radiocarbon detection. Since the IntraCavity OptoGalvanic Spectroscopy setup was strictly planned for dating and atmospheric monitoring purposes, all the initial experiments were performed with CO2 samples containing contemporary levels and highly depleted levels of radiocarbon. Because of recurring failures in differentiating the two CO2 samples, with the radiocarbon concentration 3 orders of magnitude apart, CO2 samples containing elevated levels of radiocarbon were prepared in-house and experimented with. All results obtained thus far at Groningen are in sharp contrast to the results published by the Murnick group and rather support the results put forward by the Salehpour group at Uppsala University. From our extensive test work, we must conclude that the method is unsuited for ambient level radiocarbon measurements, and even highly enriched CO2 samples yield insignificant signal.

  14. Carbon-Based Flexible and All-Solid-State Micro-supercapacitors Fabricated by Inkjet Printing with Enhanced Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Zhibin; Hu, Haibo; Liang, Guojin; Ye, Changhui

    2017-04-01

    By means of inkjet printing technique, flexible and all-solid-state micro-supercapacitors (MSCs) were fabricated with carbon-based hybrid ink composed of graphene oxide (GO, 98.0 vol.%) ink and commercial pen ink (2.0 vol.%). A small amount of commercial pen ink was added to effectively reduce the agglomeration of the GO sheets during solvent evaporation and the following reduction processes in which the presence of graphite carbon nanoparticles served as nano-spacer to separate GO sheets. The printed device fabricated using the hybrid ink, combined with the binder-free microelectrodes and interdigital microelectrode configuration, exhibits nearly 780% enhancement in areal capacitance compared with that of pure GO ink. It also shows excellent flexibility and cycling stability with nearly 100% retention of the areal capacitance after 10,000 cycles. The all-solid-state device can be optionally connected in series or in parallel to meet the voltage and capacity requirements for a given application. This work demonstrates a promising future of the carbon-based hybrid ink for directly large-scale inkjet printing MSCs for disposable energy storage devices.

  15. High Performance All-Solid-State Flexible Micro-Pseudocapacitor Based on Hierarchically Nanostructured Tungsten Trioxide Composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xuezhen; Liu, Hewei; Zhang, Xi; Jiang, Hongrui

    2015-12-23

    Microsupercapacitors (MSCs) are promising energy storage devices to power miniaturized portable electronics and microelectromechanical systems. With the increasing attention on all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors, new strategies for high-performance flexible MSCs are highly desired. Here, we demonstrate all-solid-state, flexible micropseudocapacitors via direct laser patterning on crack-free, flexible WO3/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composites containing high levels of porous hierarchically structured WO3 nanomaterials (up to 50 wt %) and limited binder (PVDF, <25 wt %). The work leads to an areal capacitance of 62.4 mF·cm(-2) and a volumetric capacitance of 10.4 F·cm(-3), exceeding that of graphene based flexible MSCs by a factor of 26 and 3, respectively. As a noncarbon based flexible MSC, hierarchically nanostructured WO3 in the narrow finger electrode is essential to such enhancement in energy density due to its pseudocapacitive property. The effects of WO3/PVDF/MWCNTs composite composition and the dimensions of interdigital structure on the performance of the flexible MSCs are investigated.

  16. Binder-free sheet-type all-solid-state batteries with enhanced rate capabilities and high energy densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Mari; Terauchi, Yoshihiro; Sakuda, Atsushi; Takahashi, Masanari

    2018-01-19

    All-solid-state batteries using inorganic solid electrolytes are considered promising energy storage systems because of their safety and long life. Stackable and compact sheet-type all-solid-state batteries are urgently needed for industrial applications such as smart grids and electric vehicles. A binder is usually indispensable to the construction of sheet-type batteries; however, it can decrease the power and cycle performance of the battery. Here we report the first fabrication of a binder-free sheet-type battery. The key to this development is the use of volatile poly(propylene carbonate)-based binders; used to fabricate electrodes, solid electrolyte sheets, and a stacked three-layered sheet, these binders can also be removed by heat treatment. Binder removal leads to enhanced rate capability, excellent cycle stability, and a 2.6-fold increase in the cell-based-energy-density over previously reported sheet-type batteries. This achievement is the first step towards realizing sheet-type batteries with high energy and power density.

  17. Nitrogen doped carbon derived from polyimide/multiwall carbon nanotube composites for high performance flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Kyom; Kim, Nam Dong; Park, Seung-Keun; Seong, Kwang-dong; Hwang, Minsik; You, Nam-Ho; Piao, Yuanzhe

    2018-03-01

    Flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors are desirable as potential energy storage systems for wearable technologies. Herein, we synthesize aminophenyl multiwall carbon nanotube (AP-MWCNT) grafted polyimide precursor by in situ polymerization method as a nitrogen-doped carbon precursor. Flexible supercapacitor electrodes are fabricated via a coating of carbon precursor on carbon cloth surface and carbonization at high temperature directly. The as-obtained electrodes, which can be directly used without any binders or additives, can deliver a high specific capacitance of 333.4 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 (based on active material mass) and excellent cycle stability with 103% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles in a three-electrode system. The flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor device exhibits a high volumetric capacitance of 3.88 F cm-3 at a current density of 0.02 mA cm-3. And also the device can deliver a maximum volumetric energy density of 0.50 mWh cm-3 and presents good cycling stability with 85.3% capacitance retention after 10,000 cycles. This device cell can not only show extraordinary mechanical flexibilities allowing folding, twisting, and rolling but also demonstrate remarkable stable electrochemical performances under their forms. This work provides a novel approach to obtain carbon textile-based flexible supercapacitors with high electrochemical performance and mechanical flexibility.

  18. Recent progress in all-solid-state quantum dot-sensitized TiO{sub 2} nanotube array solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Qingyao, E-mail: wangqingyao0532@163.com [Ludong University, School of Chemistry and Materials Science (China); Chen, Chao; Liu, Wei [Tongji University, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China); Gao, Shanmin [Ludong University, School of Chemistry and Materials Science (China); Yang, Xiuchun, E-mail: yangxc@tongji.edu.cn [Tongji University, School of Materials Science and Engineering (China)

    2016-01-15

    All-solid-state quantum dot-sensitized TiO{sub 2} nanotube array solar cells have been drawing great attention to solar energy conversion, which break through restrictions in traditional solar cells, such as the high recombination at interfaces of porous TiO{sub 2} films/sensitizers/hole conductors/counter electrodes, instability of dyes, and leakage of solution electrolyte, and so the novel solar cells exhibit promising applications in the future. In this Minireview article, the assembling of solar cells including the preparation of TiO{sub 2} nanotube array photoanodes, quantum dot preparation and sensitization on photoanodes, filling of hole conductors in TiO{sub 2} nanotubes, and selection of counter electrodes are overviewed, and the development course of all-solid-state quantum dot-sensitized TiO{sub 2} nanotube array solar cells in recent years are summarized in detail. Moreover, the influences of TiO{sub 2} nanotube array photoanodes, quantum dots, solid electrolyte, and counter electrodes on photon-to-current efficiencies of solar cells are summarized. In addition, current problems of solid-state quantum dot-sensitized TiO{sub 2} nanotube array solar cells are analyzed, and the corresponding improvements, such as multisensitizers and passivation layers, are proposed to improve the photoelectric conversion efficiency. Finally, this Minireview provides a perspective for the future development of this novel solar cell.

  19. All-Solid-State Mechanochemical Synthesis and Post-Synthetic Transformation of Inorganic Perovskite-type Halides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Provas; Saha, Sujoy; Banik, Ananya; Sarkar, Arka; Biswas, Kanishka

    2018-02-06

    All-inorganic and hybrid perovskite type halides are generally synthesized by solution-based methods, with the help of long chain organic capping ligands, complex organometallic precursors, and high boiling organic solvents. Herein, a room temperature, solvent-free, general, and scalable all-solid-state mechanochemical synthesis is demonstrated for different inorganic perovskite type halides, with versatile structural connectivity in three (3D), two (2D), and zero (0D) dimensions. 3D CsPbBr 3 , 2D CsPb 2 Br 5 , 0D Cs 4 PbBr 6 , 3D CsPbCl 3 , 2D CsPb 2 Cl 5 , 0D Cs 4 PbCl 6 , 3D CsPbI 3 , and 3D RbPbI 3 have all been synthesized by this method. The all-solid-state synthesis is materialized through an inorganic retrosynthetic approach, which directs the decision on the solid-state precursors (e.g., CsX and PbX 2 (X=Cl/Br/I) with desired stoichiometric ratios. Moreover, post-synthetic structural transformations from 3D to 2D and 0D perovskite halides were performed by the same mechanochemical synthetic approach at room temperature. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Analysis of structural and thermal stability in the positive electrode for sulfide-based all-solid-state lithium batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukasaki, Hirofumi; Otoyama, Misae; Mori, Yota; Mori, Shigeo; Morimoto, Hideyuki; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2017-11-01

    Sulfide-based all-solid-state batteries using a non-flammable inorganic solid electrolyte are promising candidates as a next-generation power source owing to their safety and excellent charge-discharge cycle characteristics. In this study, we thus focus on the positive electrode and investigated structural stabilities of the interface between the positive electrode active material LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) and the 75Li2S·25P2S5 (LPS) glass electrolyte after charge-discharge cycles via transmission electron microscopy (TEM). To evaluate the thermal stability of the fabricated all-solid-state cell, in-situ TEM observations for the positive electrode during heating are conducted. As a result, structural and morphological changes are detected in the LPS glasses. Thus, exothermal reaction present in the NMC-LPS composite positive electrode after the initial charging is attributable to the crystallization of LPS glasses. On the basis of a comparison with crystallization behavior in single LPS glasses, the origin of exothermal reaction in the NMC-LPS composites is discussed.

  1. Fabrication and Performance of All-Solid-State Li-Air Battery with SWCNTs/LAGP Cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yijie; Li, Bojie; Kitaura, Hirokazu; Zhang, Xueping; Han, Min; He, Ping; Zhou, Haoshen

    2015-08-12

    The all-solid-state Li-air battery has been fabricated, which is constructed by a lithium foil anode, a NASICON-type solid state electrolyte Li1+xAlyGe2-y(PO4)3 (LAGP) and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs)/LAGP nanoparticles composite as air electrode. Its electrochemical performance was investigated in air atmosphere. Particularly, this battery exhibited a larger capacity about 2800 mAh g(-1) for the first cycle, while comparatively the battery with multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/LAGP as cathode had a capacity of only about 1700 mAh g(-1). Also, the battery with SWCNTs/LAGP showed improved cycling performance with a reversible capacity of 1000 mAh g(-1) at a current density of 200 mA g(-1). Our result demonstrated that the all-solid-state Li-air battery with SWCNTs/LAGP as cathode catalyst has a considerable potential for practical application.

  2. Interfacial Processes and Influence of Composite Cathode Microstructure Controlling the Performance of All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenbo; Weber, Dominik A; Weigand, Harald; Arlt, Tobias; Manke, Ingo; Schröder, Daniel; Koerver, Raimund; Leichtweiss, Thomas; Hartmann, Pascal; Zeier, Wolfgang G; Janek, Jürgen

    2017-05-31

    All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries have the potential to become an important class of next-generation electrochemical energy storage devices. However, for achieving competitive performance, a better understanding of the interfacial processes at the electrodes is necessary for optimized electrode compositions to be developed. In this work, the interfacial processes between the solid electrolyte (Li 10 GeP 2 S 12 ) and the electrode materials (In/InLi and Li x CoO 2 ) are monitored using impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic cycling, showing a large resistance contribution and kinetic hindrance at the metal anode. The effect of different fractions of the solid electrolyte in the composite cathodes on the rate performance is tested. The results demonstrate the necessity of a carefully designed composite microstructure depending on the desired applications of an all-solid-state battery. While a relatively low mass fraction of solid electrolyte is sufficient for high energy density, a higher fraction of solid electrolyte is required for high power density.

  3. Q-switched all-solid-state lasers and application in processing of thin-film solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liangqing; Wang, Feng

    2009-08-01

    Societal pressure to renewable clean energy is increasing which is expected to be used as part of an overall strategy to address global warming and oil crisis. Photovoltaic energy conversion devices are on a rapidly accelerating growth path driven by government, of which the costs and prices lower continuously. The next generation thin-film devices are considered to be more efficiency and greatly reduced silicon consumption, resulting in dramatically lower per unit fabrication costs. A key aspect of these devices is patterning large panels to create a monolithic array of series-interconnected cells to form a low current, high voltage module. This patterning is accomplished in three critical scribing processes called P1, P2, and P3. All-solid-state Q-switched lasers are the technology of choice for these processes, due to their advantages of compact configuration, high peak-value power, high repeat rate, excellent beam quality and stability, delivering the desired combination of high throughput and narrow, clean scribes. The end pumped all-solid-state lasers could achieve 1064nm IR resources with pulse width of nanoseconds adopting acoustic-optics Q-switch, shorter than 20ns. The repeat rate is up to 100kHz and the beam quality is close to diffraction limit. Based on this, 532nm green lasers, 355nm UV lasers and 266nm DUV lasers could be carried out through nonlinear frequency conversion. Different wave length lasers are chose to process selective materials. For example, 8-15 W IR lasers are used to scribe the TCO film (P1); 1-5 W green lasers are suitable for scribing the active semiconductor layers (P2) and the back contact layers (P3). Our company, Wuhan Lingyun Photo-electronic System Co. Ltd, has developed 20W IR and 5W green end-pumped Q-switched all-solid-state lasers for thin-film solar industry. Operating in high repeat rates, the speed of processing is up to 2.0 m/s.

  4. All-Solid-State Textile Batteries Made from Nano-Emulsion Conducting Polymer Inks for Wearable Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapani Ryhänen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A rollable and all-solid-state textile lithium battery based on fabric matrix and polymer electrolyte that allows flexibility and fast-charging capability is reported. When immerged into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT nano-emulsion inks, an insulating fabric is converted into a conductive battery electrode for a fully solid state lithium battery with the highest specific energy capacity of 68 mAh/g. This is superior to most of the solid-state conducting polymer primary and/or secondary batteries reported. The bending radius of such a textile battery is less than 1.5 mm while lightening up an LED. This new material combination and inherent flexibility is well suited to provide an energy source for future wearable and woven electronics.

  5. Simultaneous particulates, NO sub x , SO sub x removal from flue gas by all solid-state electrochemical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, W.J.; Cornell, L.P.; Keyvani, M.; Neyman, M.

    1989-11-09

    The objective is to develop an all solid-state electrochemical technology to control SOx, NOx, and particulate emissions from coal combustion flue gases. It is based on a solid-state, electrochemical reactor which reduces NOx and SO{sub 2} to nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen. Work was performed in the area of electrocatalyst preparation and testing. Transition metal oxides (Ru, Cr, V, W, Co, Mo), mixtures of transition metal oxides and transition metal oxide perovskites were tested as electrocatalysts. The electrocatalyst along with gold electrodes were coated and fired on a yittria stabilized ceria solid electrolyte disk. The reduction of NO and SO{sub 2} in gas mixtures containing 0 to 4% oxygen was measured while a voltage was applied to the disk. 3 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. All-Solid-State Textile Batteries Made from Nano-Emulsion Conducting Polymer Inks for Wearable Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Di; Cotton, Darryl; Ryhänen, Tapani

    2012-08-13

    A rollable and all-solid-state textile lithium battery based on fabric matrix and polymer electrolyte that allows flexibility and fast-charging capability is reported. When immerged into poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) nano-emulsion inks, an insulating fabric is converted into a conductive battery electrode for a fully solid state lithium battery with the highest specific energy capacity of 68 mAh/g. This is superior to most of the solid-state conducting polymer primary and/or secondary batteries reported. The bending radius of such a textile battery is less than 1.5 mm while lightening up an LED. This new material combination and inherent flexibility is well suited to provide an energy source for future wearable and woven electronics.

  7. High-performance flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors based on densely-packed graphene/polypyrrole nanoparticle papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Chao; Zhang, Liling [Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of the Ministry of Education, School of Electronics, Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dong Chuan Road No. 800, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Hu, Nantao, E-mail: hunantao@sjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of the Ministry of Education, School of Electronics, Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dong Chuan Road No. 800, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Yang, Zhi; Wei, Hao [Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of the Ministry of Education, School of Electronics, Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dong Chuan Road No. 800, Shanghai, 200240 (China); Wang, Yanyan, E-mail: yywang@suda.edu.cn [College of Physics, Optoelectronics and Energy, Soochow University, Suzhou, 215006 (China); Zhang, Yafei, E-mail: yfzhang@sjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Thin Film and Microfabrication Technology of the Ministry of Education, School of Electronics, Information and Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Dong Chuan Road No. 800, Shanghai, 200240 (China)

    2016-11-30

    Highlights: • The addition of methyl orange can affect the size of polypyrrole nanoparticles. • The flexible hybrid paper has a highly-interconnected sandwich framework. • The hybrid paper shows a high areal and volumetric specific capacitance. • Flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor exhibits excellent capacitive performances. - Abstract: Graphene-based all-solid-state supercapacitors (ASSSCs) have received increasing attention. It’s a great challenge to fabricate high-performance flexible solid-state supercapacitors with high areal and volumetric energy storage capability, superior electron and ion conductivity, robust mechanical flexibility, as well as long term stability. Herein, we report a facile method to fabricate flexible ASSSCs based on densely-packed reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/polypyrrole nanoparticle (PPy NP) hybrid papers with a sandwich framework, which consists of well-separated and continuously-aligned rGO sheets. The incorporation of PPy NPs not only provides pseudocapacitance but also facilitates the infiltration of gel electrolyte. The assembled ASSSCs possess maximum areal and volumetric specific capacitances of 477 mF/cm{sup 2} and 94.9 F/cm{sup 3} at 0.5 mA/cm{sup 2}. They also exhibit little capacitance deviation under different bending states, excellent cycling stability, small leakage current and low self-discharge characteristics. Additionally, the maximum areal and volumetric energy densities of 132.5 μWh/cm{sup 2} and 26.4 mWh/cm{sup 3} are achieved, which indicate that this hybrid paper is a promising candidate for high-performance flexible energy storage devices.

  8. Flexible all-solid-state high-performance supercapacitor based on electrochemically synthesized carbon quantum dots/polypyrrole composite electrode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, Xuan; Yang, Hui-min; Li, Jia-gang; Zhang, Er-hui; Cao, Le-le; Liang, Zhen-hai

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Porous nanostructure carbon quantum dots/polypyrrole composite film was successfully synthesized by direct electrochemical method. • A flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor device was fabricated using the carbon quantum dots/polypyrrole composite electrode. • The flexible supercapacitor exhibits high specific capacitance, excellent reliability and long cycling life. - Abstract: Recently, carbon quantum dots (CQDs) as a new zero-dimensional carbon nanomaterial have become a focus in electrochemical energy storage. In this paper, flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors (ASSSs) were electrochemically synthesized by on-step co-deposition of appropriate amounts of pyrrole monomer and CQDs in aqueous solution. The different electrodeposition time plays an important role in controlling morphologies of stainless steel wire meshes (SSWM)-supported CQDs/PPy composite film. The morphologies and compositions of the obtained CQDs/PPy composite electrodes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectrum and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Furthermore, a novel flexible ASSS device was fabricated using CQDs/PPy composite as the electrode and separated by polyvinyl alcohol/LiCl gel electrolyte. Benefiting from superior electrochemical properties of CQDs and PPy, the as-prepared CQDs/PPy composite ASSSs exhibit outstanding electrochemical performance with the areal capacitance 315 mF cm −2 (corresponding to specific capacitance of 308 F g −1 ) at a current density of 0.2 mA cm −2 and long cycle life with 85.7% capacitance retention after 2 000 cycles.

  9. Bipolar stacked quasi-all-solid-state lithium secondary batteries with output cell potentials of over 6 V.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Takahiro; Gambe, Yoshiyuki; Sun, Yan; Honma, Itaru

    2014-08-15

    Designing a lithium ion battery (LIB) with a three-dimensional device structure is crucial for increasing the practical energy storage density by avoiding unnecessary supporting parts of the cell modules. Here, we describe the superior secondary battery performance of the bulk all-solid-state LIB cell and a multilayered stacked bipolar cell with doubled cell potential of 6.5 V, for the first time. The bipolar-type solid LIB cell runs its charge/discharge cycle over 200 times in a range of 0.1-1.0 C with negligible capacity decrease despite their doubled output cell potentials. This extremely high performance of the bipolar cell is a result of the superior battery performance of the single cell; the bulk all-solid-state cell has a charge/discharge cycle capability of over 1500 although metallic lithium and LiFePO₄ are employed as anodes and cathodes, respectively. The use of a quasi-solid electrolyte consisting of ionic liquid and Al₂O₃ nanoparticles is considered to be responsible for the high ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability at the interface between the electrodes and the electrolyte. This paper presents the effective applications of SiO₂, Al₂O₃, and CeO₂ nanoparticles and various Li(+) conducting ionic liquids for the quasi-solid electrolytes and reports the best ever known cycle performances. Moreover, the results of this study show that the bipolar stacked three-dimensional device structure would be a smart choice for future LIBs with higher cell energy density and output potential. In addition, our report presents the advantages of adopting a three-dimensional cell design based on the solid-state electrolytes, which is of particular interest in energy-device engineering for mobile applications.

  10. Bipolar stacked quasi-all-solid-state lithium secondary batteries with output cell potentials of over 6 V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Takahiro; Gambe, Yoshiyuki; Sun, Yan; Honma, Itaru

    2014-01-01

    Designing a lithium ion battery (LIB) with a three-dimensional device structure is crucial for increasing the practical energy storage density by avoiding unnecessary supporting parts of the cell modules. Here, we describe the superior secondary battery performance of the bulk all-solid-state LIB cell and a multilayered stacked bipolar cell with doubled cell potential of 6.5 V, for the first time. The bipolar-type solid LIB cell runs its charge/discharge cycle over 200 times in a range of 0.1–1.0 C with negligible capacity decrease despite their doubled output cell potentials. This extremely high performance of the bipolar cell is a result of the superior battery performance of the single cell; the bulk all-solid-state cell has a charge/discharge cycle capability of over 1500 although metallic lithium and LiFePO4 are employed as anodes and cathodes, respectively. The use of a quasi-solid electrolyte consisting of ionic liquid and Al2O3 nanoparticles is considered to be responsible for the high ionic conductivity and electrochemical stability at the interface between the electrodes and the electrolyte. This paper presents the effective applications of SiO2, Al2O3, and CeO2 nanoparticles and various Li+ conducting ionic liquids for the quasi-solid electrolytes and reports the best ever known cycle performances. Moreover, the results of this study show that the bipolar stacked three-dimensional device structure would be a smart choice for future LIBs with higher cell energy density and output potential. In addition, our report presents the advantages of adopting a three-dimensional cell design based on the solid-state electrolytes, which is of particular interest in energy-device engineering for mobile applications. PMID:25124398

  11. A New All-Solid-State Hyperbranched Star Polymer Electrolyte for Lithium Ion Batteries: Synthesis and Electrochemical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ailian; Xu, Hao; Zhou, Qian; Liu, Xu; Li, Zhengyao; Gao, Rui; Wu, Na; Guo, Yuguo; Li, Huayi; Zhang, Liaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new hyperbranched multi-arm star polymer was successfully synthesized. • The star polymer electrolyte has good thermal stability and forming-film property. • The ion conductivity electrolyte can reach 8.3 × 10 −5 S cm −1 at room temperature. • The star polymer electrolyte has wide electrochemical windows of 4.7 V. - Abstract: A new hyperbranched multi-arm star polymer with hyperbranched polystyrene (HBPS) as core and polymethyl methacrylate-block-poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate(PMMA-b-PPEGMA) as arms was firstly synthesized by atom transfer radical polymerization. The obtained hyperbranched multi-arm star polymer (HBPS-(PMMA-b-PPEGMA) x ) exhibited good thermal stability with a thermal decomposition temperature of 372 °C. The transparent, free-standing, flexible polymer electrolyte film of the blending of HBPS-(PMMA-b-PPEGMA) x and lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide (LiTFSI) was successfully fabricated by a solution casting method. The ionic conductivity of the hyperbranched star polymer electrolyte with a molar ratio of [EO]/[Li] of 30 could reach 8.3 × 10 −5 S cm −1 at 30 °C (with the content of PPEGMA of 83.7%), and 2.0 × 10 −4 S cm −1 at 80 °C (with the content of PPEGMA of 51.6%). The effect of the concentration of lithium salts on ionic conductivity was also investigated. The obtained all-solid-state polymer electrolyte possessed a wide electrochemical stability window of 4.7 V (vs. Li + /Li), and a lithium-ion transference number (t Li + ) up to 0.31. The interfacial impedance of the fabricated LiÔöépolymer electrolyteÔöéLi symmetric cell based on hyperbranched star multi-arm polymer electrolyte exhibited good interfacial compatibility between all-solid-state polymer electrolyte and electrodes. The excellent properties of the hyperbranched star polymer electrolyte made it attractive as solid-state polymer electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries.

  12. Effect of Molecular Weight on Mechanical and Electrochemical Performance of All Solid-State Polymer Electrolyte Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ruixuan; Ward, Daniel; Echeverri, Mauricio; Kyu, Thein

    2015-03-01

    Guided by ternary phase diagrams of polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA), succinonitrile plasticizer, and LiTFSI salt, completely amorphous solid-state transparent polymer electrolyte membranes (ss-PEM) were fabricated by UV irradiation in the isotropic melt state. Effects of PEGDA molecular weight (700 vs 6000 g/mol) on ss-PEM performance were investigated. These amorphous PEMs have superionic room temperature ionic conductivity of ~10-3 S/cm, whereby PEGDA6000-PEM outperforms its PEGDA700 counterpart, which may be ascribed to lower crosslinking density and greater segmental mobility. The longer chain between crosslinked points of PEGDA6000-PEM is responsible for greater extensibility of ~80% versus ~7% of PEGDA700-PEM. Besides, both PEMs exhibited thermal stability up to 120 °C and electrochemical stability versus Li+/Li up to 4.7V. LiFePO4/PEM/Li and Li4Ti5O12 /PEM/Li half-cells exhibited stable cyclic behavior up to 50 cycles tested with a capacity of ~140mAh/g, suggesting that LiFePO4/PEM/Li4Ti5O12 may be a promising full-cell for all solid-state lithium battery. We thank NSF-DMR 1161070 for providing funding of this project.

  13. Scalable synthesis of freestanding sandwich-structured graphene/polyaniline/graphene nanocomposite paper for flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Fei; Yang, Shengxiong; Zhang, Zheye; Liu, Hongfang; Xiao, Junwu; Wan, Lian; Luo, Jun; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Yunqi

    2015-03-23

    We reported a scalable and modular method to prepare a new type of sandwich-structured graphene-based nanohybrid paper and explore its practical application as high-performance electrode in flexible supercapacitor. The freestanding and flexible graphene paper was firstly fabricated by highly reproducible printing technique and bubbling delamination method, by which the area and thickness of the graphene paper can be freely adjusted in a wide range. The as-prepared graphene paper possesses a collection of unique properties of highly electrical conductivity (340 S cm(-1)), light weight (1 mg cm(-2)) and excellent mechanical properties. In order to improve its supercapacitive properties, we have prepared a unique sandwich-structured graphene/polyaniline/graphene paper by in situ electropolymerization of porous polyaniline nanomaterials on graphene paper, followed by wrapping an ultrathin graphene layer on its surface. This unique design strategy not only circumvents the low energy storage capacity resulting from the double-layer capacitor of graphene paper, but also enhances the rate performance and cycling stability of porous polyaniline. The as-obtained all-solid-state symmetric supercapacitor exhibits high energy density, high power density, excellent cycling stability and exceptional mechanical flexibility, demonstrative of its extensive potential applications for flexible energy-related devices and wearable electronics.

  14. Design and Fabrication of an All-Solid-State Polymer Supercapacitor with Highly Mechanical Flexibility Based on Polypyrrole Hydrogel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Limin; Liu, Qifan; Qiu, Jianhui; Yang, Chao; Wei, Chun; Liu, Chanjuan; Lao, Li

    2017-10-04

    A conducting polymer-based hydrogel (PPy/CPH) with a polypyrrole-poly(vinyl alcohol) interpenetrating network was prepared by utilization of a chemical cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol)-H 2 SO 4 hydrogel (CPH) film as flexible substrate followed by vapor-phase polymerization of pyrrole. Then an all-solid-state polymer supercapacitor (ASSPS) was fabricated by sandwiching the CPH film between two pieces of the PPy/CPH film. The ASSPS is mechanically robust and flexible with a tensile strength of 20.83 MPa and a break elongation of 377% which is superior to other flexible conducting polymer hydrogel-based supercapacitors owing to the strong hydrogen bonding interactions among the layers and the high mechanical properties of the PPy/CPH. It exhibits maximum volumetric specific capacitance of 13.06 F/cm 3 and energy density of 1160.9 μWh/cm 3 . The specific capacitance maintains 97.9% and 86.3% of its initial value after 10 000 folding cycles and 10 000 charge-discharge cycles, respectively. The remarkable electrochemical and mechanical performance indicates this novel ASSPS device is promising for flexible electronics.

  15. Modulated electron-multiplied fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope: all-solid-state camera for fluorescence lifetime imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiaole; Schelen, Ben; Schouten, Raymond; van den Oever, Rein; Leenen, René; van Kuijk, Harry; Peters, Inge; Polderdijk, Frank; Bosiers, Jan; Raspe, Marcel; Jalink, Kees; Geert Sander de Jong, Jan; van Geest, Bert; Stoop, Karel; Young, Ian Ted

    2012-12-01

    We have built an all-solid-state camera that is directly modulated at the pixel level for frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) measurements. This novel camera eliminates the need for an image intensifier through the use of an application-specific charge coupled device design in a frequency-domain FLIM system. The first stage of evaluation for the camera has been carried out. Camera characteristics such as noise distribution, dark current influence, camera gain, sampling density, sensitivity, linearity of photometric response, and optical transfer function have been studied through experiments. We are able to do lifetime measurement using our modulated, electron-multiplied fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope (MEM-FLIM) camera for various objects, e.g., fluorescein solution, fixed green fluorescent protein (GFP) cells, and GFP-actin stained live cells. A detailed comparison of a conventional microchannel plate (MCP)-based FLIM system and the MEM-FLIM system is presented. The MEM-FLIM camera shows higher resolution and a better image quality. The MEM-FLIM camera provides a new opportunity for performing frequency-domain FLIM.

  16. Modulation of superconducting critical temperature in niobium film by using all-solid-state electric-double-layer transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuchiya, Takashi, E-mail: TSUCHIYA.Takashi@nims.go.jp, E-mail: TERABE.Kazuya@nims.go.jp; Moriyama, Satoshi; Terabe, Kazuya, E-mail: TSUCHIYA.Takashi@nims.go.jp, E-mail: TERABE.Kazuya@nims.go.jp; Aono, Masakazu [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitechtonics (WPI-MANA), National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2015-07-06

    An all-solid-state electric-double-layer transistor (EDLT) was fabricated for electrical modulation of the superconducting critical temperature (T{sub c}) of Nb film epitaxially grown on α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0001) single crystal. In an experiment, T{sub c} was modulated from 8.33 to 8.39 K while the gate voltage (V{sub G}) was varied from 2.5 to −2.5 V. The specific difference of T{sub c} for the applied V{sub G} was 12 mK/V, which is larger than that of an EDLT composed of ionic liquid. A T{sub c} enhancement of 300 mK was found at the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}/Nb film interface and is attributed to an increase in density of states near the Fermi level due to lattice constant modulation. This solid electrolyte gating method should enable development of practical superconducting devices highly compatible with other electronic devices.

  17. Lithium Bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide/Poly(ethylene oxide) Polymer Electrolyte for All Solid-State Li-S Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judez, Xabier; Zhang, Heng; Li, Chunmei; González-Marcos, José A; Zhou, Zhibin; Armand, Michel; Rodriguez-Martinez, Lide M

    2017-05-04

    Solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) comprising lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (Li[N(SO 2 F) 2 ], LiFSI) and poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) have been studied as electrolyte material and binder for the Li-S polymer cell. The LiFSI-based Li-S all solid polymer cell can deliver high specific discharge capacity of 800 mAh g sulfur -1 (i.e., 320 mAh g cathode -1 ), high areal capacity of 0.5 mAh cm -2 , and relatively good rate capability. The cycling performances of Li-S polymer cell with LiFSI are significantly improved compared with those with conventional LiTFSI (Li[N(SO 2 CF 3 ) 2 ]) salt in the polymer membrane due to the improved stability of the Li anode/electrolyte interphases formed in the LiFSI-based SPEs. These results suggest that the LiFSI-based SPEs are attractive electrolyte materials for solid-state Li-S batteries.

  18. An All-Solid-State Fiber-Shaped Aluminum-Air Battery with Flexibility, Stretchability, and High Electrochemical Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yifan; Zhao, Yang; Ren, Jing; Zhang, Ye; Peng, Huisheng

    2016-07-04

    Owing to the high theoretical energy density of metal-air batteries, the aluminum-air battery has been proposed as a promising long-term power supply for electronics. However, the available energy density from the aluminum-air battery is far from that anticipated and is limited by current electrode materials. Herein we described the creation of a new family of all-solid-state fiber-shaped aluminum-air batteries with a specific capacity of 935 mAh g(-1) and an energy density of 1168 Wh kg(-1) . The synthesis of an electrode composed of cross-stacked aligned carbon-nanotube/silver-nanoparticle sheets contributes to the remarkable electrochemical performance. The fiber shape also provides the aluminum-air batteries with unique advantages; for example, they are flexible and stretchable and can be woven into a variety of textiles for large-scale applications. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Phase modulation and structural effects in a D-shaped all-solid photonic crystal fiber surface plasmon resonance sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Zhixin; Hao, Xin; Shao, Yonghong; Chen, Yuzhi; Li, Xuejin; Fan, Ping

    2014-06-16

    We numerically investigate a D-shaped fiber surface plasmon resonance sensor based on all-solid photonic crystal fiber (PCF) with finite element method. In the side-polished PCF sensor, field leakage is guided to penetrate through the gap between the rods, causing a pronounced phase modulation in the deep polishing case. Taking advantage of these amplified phase shifts, a high-performance fiber sensor design is proposed. The significant enhancements arising from this new sensor design should lift the performance of the fiber SPR sensor into the range capable of detecting a wide range of biochemical interactions, which makes it especially attractive for many in vivo and in situ bioanalysis applications. Several parameters which influence the field leakage, such as the polishing position, the pitch of the PCF, and the rod diameter, are inspected to evaluate their impacts. Furthermore, we develop a mathematical model to describe the effects of varying the structural parameters of a D-shaped PCF sensor on the evanescent field and the sensor performance.

  20. Modulated electron-multiplied fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope: all-solid-state camera for fluorescence lifetime imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiaole; Schelen, Ben; Schouten, Raymond; van den Oever, Rein; Leenen, René; van Kuijk, Harry; Peters, Inge; Polderdijk, Frank; Bosiers, Jan; Raspe, Marcel; Jalink, Kees; de Jong, Jan Geert Sander; van Geest, Bert; Stoop, Karel; Young, Ian Ted

    2012-12-01

    We have built an all-solid-state camera that is directly modulated at the pixel level for frequency-domain fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) measurements. This novel camera eliminates the need for an image intensifier through the use of an application-specific charge coupled device design in a frequency-domain FLIM system. The first stage of evaluation for the camera has been carried out. Camera characteristics such as noise distribution, dark current influence, camera gain, sampling density, sensitivity, linearity of photometric response, and optical transfer function have been studied through experiments. We are able to do lifetime measurement using our modulated, electron-multiplied fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope (MEM-FLIM) camera for various objects, e.g., fluorescein solution, fixed green fluorescent protein (GFP) cells, and GFP-actin stained live cells. A detailed comparison of a conventional microchannel plate (MCP)-based FLIM system and the MEM-FLIM system is presented. The MEM-FLIM camera shows higher resolution and a better image quality. The MEM-FLIM camera provides a new opportunity for performing frequency-domain FLIM.

  1. Simultaneous particulates, NO sub x , SO sub x removal from flue gas by all solid-state electrochemical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, W.J.; Cornell, L.P.; Keyvani, M.; Neyman, M.

    1989-07-21

    The objective is to develop an all solid-state electrochemical technology to control SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, and particulate emissions from coal combustion flue gases. It is based on a solid-state, electrochemical reactor which reduces NOx and SO{sub 2} to nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen. The solid electrolyte is a high surface area ceramic oxide-ion conductor such as a stabilized zirconia or ceria. The cell electrodes may be of various electronically conductive materials such as porous, high surface area nickel, silver, or gold. Work was performed in two areas, electrocatalyst preparation and testing and particulate control tests. Transition metal oxide electrocatalysts were tested by applying the electrocatalyst along with gold electrodes to a stabilized ceria solid electrolyte disk and measuring the reduction of NO and SO{sub 2} in gas mixtures containing 0 to 4% oxygen while a voltage was applied to the disk. The high temperature particulate control test apparatus was installed and flyash tests were done. The efficiency of high temperature particulate filters was also tested. 2 refs., 10 figs.

  2. Realisation of an all solid state lithium battery using solid high temperature plastic crystal electrolytes exhibiting liquid like conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekibi, Youssof; Rüther, Thomas; Huang, Junhua; Hollenkamp, Anthony F

    2012-04-07

    Replacement of volatile and combustible electrolytes in conventional lithium batteries is desirable for two reasons: safety concerns and increase in specific energy. In this work we consider the use of an ionic organic plastic crystal material (IOPC), N-ethyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium tetrafluoroborate, [C2mpyr][BF(4)], as a solid-state electrolyte for lithium battery applications. The effect of inclusion of 1 to 33 mol% lithium tetrafluoroborate, LiBF(4), into [C2mpyr][BF(4)] has been investigated over a wide temperature range by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and cycling of full Li|LiFePO(4) batteries. The increases in ionic conductivity by orders of magnitude observed at higher temperature are most likely associated with an increase in Li ion mobility in the highest plastic phase. At concentrations >5 mol% LiBF(4) the ionic conductivity of these solid-state composites is comparable to the ionic conductivity of room temperature ionic liquids. Galvanostatic cycling of Li|Li symmetrical cells showed that the reversibility of the lithium metal redox reaction at the interface of this plastic crystal electrolyte is sufficient for lithium battery applications. For the first time we demonstrate an all solid state lithium battery incorporating solid electrolytes based on IOPC as opposed to conventional flammable organic solvents.

  3. High Capacity and Superior Cyclic Performances of All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries Enabled by a Glass-Ceramics Solo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yibo; Chen, Rujun; Liu, Ting; Xu, Bingqing; Zhang, Xue; Li, Liangliang; Lin, Yuanhua; Nan, Ce-Wen; Shen, Yang

    2018-03-28

    By using highly Li-ion conductive 78Li 2 S-22P 2 S 5 glass-ceramic (7822gc) as both the electrolyte and active material in the composite cathode obtained via ball-milling the 7822gc with multiple carbons, a kind of monolithic all-solid-state batteries were prepared with a lithium-indium foil as the anode. Such 7822gc-based monolithic batteries present stable discharge capacity of 480.3 mA h g -1 at 0.176 mA cm -2 after 60 cycles, which is three times larger than that of the previous work, with the highest capacity obtained so far among all attempts of using sulfide electrolytes as the active materials. High capacity retention of 90.6% and Coulombic efficiency of higher than 99% with high active material loading of 7 mg cm -2 were also obtained. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to reveal the electrochemical reaction mechanisms in the 7822gc cathode.

  4. Accessing the bottleneck in all-solid state batteries, lithium-ion transport over the solid-electrolyte-electrode interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuang; Ganapathy, Swapna; Eck, Ernst R H van; Wang, Heng; Basak, Shibabrata; Li, Zhaolong; Wagemaker, Marnix

    2017-10-20

    Solid-state batteries potentially offer increased lithium-ion battery energy density and safety as required for large-scale production of electrical vehicles. One of the key challenges toward high-performance solid-state batteries is the large impedance posed by the electrode-electrolyte interface. However, direct assessment of the lithium-ion transport across realistic electrode-electrolyte interfaces is tedious. Here we report two-dimensional lithium-ion exchange NMR accessing the spontaneous lithium-ion transport, providing insight on the influence of electrode preparation and battery cycling on the lithium-ion transport over the interface between an argyrodite solid-electrolyte and a sulfide electrode. Interfacial conductivity is shown to depend strongly on the preparation method and demonstrated to drop dramatically after a few electrochemical (dis)charge cycles due to both losses in interfacial contact and increased diffusional barriers. The reported exchange NMR facilitates non-invasive and selective measurement of lithium-ion interfacial transport, providing insight that can guide the electrolyte-electrode interface design for future all-solid-state batteries.

  5. A Facile Methodology for the Development of a Printable and Flexible All-Solid-State Rechargeable Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Bibekananda; Yadav, Amit; Khan, Salman; Kar, Kamal K

    2017-06-14

    Development of printable and flexible energy storage devices is one of the most promising technologies for wearable electronics in textile industry. The present work involves the design of a printable and flexible all-solid-state rechargeable battery for wearable electronics in textile applications. Copper-coated carbon fiber is used to make a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based polymer nanocomposite for a flexible and conductive current collector layer. Lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO 4 ) and titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) are utilized to prepare the cathode and anode layers, respectively, with PEO and carbon black composites. The PEO- and Li salt-based solid composite separator layer is utilized for the solid-state and safe electrolyte. Fabrication of all these layers and assembly of them through coating on fabrics are performed in the open atmosphere without using any complex processing, as PEO prevents the degradation of the materials in the open atmosphere. The performance of the battery is evaluated through charge-discharge and open-circuit voltage analyses. The battery shows an open-circuit voltage of ∼2.67 V and discharge time ∼2000 s. It shows similar performance at different repeated bending angles (0° to 180°) and continuous bending along with long cycle life. The application of the battery is also investigated for printable and wearable textile applications. Therefore, this printable, flexible, easily processable, and nontoxic battery with this performance has great potential to be used in portable and wearable textile electronics.

  6. Promises, Challenges, and Recent Progress of Inorganic Solid-State Electrolytes for All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhonghui; Sun, Huabin; Fu, Lin; Ye, Fangliang; Zhang, Yi; Luo, Wei; Huang, Yunhui

    2018-02-22

    All-solid-state lithium batteries (ASSLBs) have the potential to revolutionize battery systems for electric vehicles due to their benefits in safety, energy density, packaging, and operable temperature range. As the key component in ASSLBs, inorganic lithium-ion-based solid-state electrolytes (SSEs) have attracted great interest, and advances in SSEs are vital to deliver the promise of ASSLBs. Herein, a survey of emerging SSEs is presented, and ion-transport mechanisms are briefly discussed. Techniques for increasing the ionic conductivity of SSEs, including substitution and mechanical strain treatment, are highlighted. Recent advances in various classes of SSEs enabled by different preparation methods are described. Then, the issues of chemical stabilities, electrochemical compatibility, and the interfaces between electrodes and SSEs are focused on. A variety of research addressing these issues is outlined accordingly. Given their importance for next-generation battery systems and transportation style, a perspective on the current challenges and opportunities is provided, and suggestions for future research directions for SSEs and ASSLBs are suggested. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Development of complex hydride-based all-solid-state lithium ion battery applying low melting point electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Shohei; Kawaji, Jun; Yoshida, Koji; Unemoto, Atsushi; Orimo, Shin-ichi

    2017-08-01

    A thermally durable all-solid-state lithium ion battery composed of a complex hydride, oxide electrolytes, and LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 active material is developed. This battery exhibits a discharge capacity of 56 mAh g-1, and the tenth capacity retention ratio is 29% at 150 °C owing to the large contact resistance between the electrolyte layer and the composite positive electrode layer. This large contact resistance is reduced by introducing an adhesive layer comprised of a mixture of LiBH4 and LiNH2 that is easily melted by thermal treatment and fills the voids and pores at the interface between the two layers. As a result, repeated charge-discharge cycles are successfully demonstrated at 150 °C with a high discharge capacity and discharge capacity retention ratio. The first discharge capacity is enhanced to 114 mAh g-1 and the capacity retention ratio at the tenth cycle is improved to 71%. These results demonstrate that using an adhesive layer is an effective measure to reduce the contact resistance and thereby enhance the performance of the battery.

  8. Widely tunable terahertz source based on intra-cavity frequency mixing in quantum cascade laser arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Aiting; Jung, Seungyong; Jiang, Yifan; Kim, Jae Hyun; Belkin, Mikhail A., E-mail: mbelkin@ece.utexas.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Vijayraghavan, Karun [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); ATX Photonics, 10100 Burnet Rd., Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)

    2015-06-29

    We demonstrate a compact monolithic terahertz source continuously tunable from 1.9 THz to 3.9 THz with the maximum peak power output of 106 μW at 3.46 THz at room temperature. The source consists of an array of 10 electrically tunable quantum cascade lasers with intra-cavity terahertz difference-frequency generation. To increase fabrication yield and achieve high THz peak power output in our devices, a dual-section current pumping scheme is implemented using two electrically isolated grating sections to independently control gain for the two mid-IR pumps.

  9. Time-Gating Processes in Intra-Cavity Mode-Locking Devices Like Saturable Absorbers and Kerr Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha; Roychoudhuri, Chandrasekhar

    2010-01-01

    Photons are non-interacting entities. Light beams do not interfere by themselves. Light beams constituting different laser modes (frequencies) are not capable of re-arranging their energies from extended time-domain to ultra-short time-domain by themselves without the aid of light-matter interactions with suitable intra-cavity devices. In this paper we will discuss the time-gating properties of intra-cavity "mode-locking" devices that actually help generate a regular train of high energy wave packets.

  10. Addressing the Interface Issues in All-Solid-State Bulk-Type Lithium Ion Battery via an All-Composite Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ru-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Bo; Liu, Ting; Xu, Bing-Qing; Lin, Yuan-Hua; Nan, Ce-Wen; Shen, Yang

    2017-03-22

    All-solid-state bulk-type lithium ion batteries (LIBs) are considered ultimate solutions to the safety issues associated with conventional LIBs using flammable liquid electrolyte. The development of bulk-type all-solid-state LIBs has been hindered by the low loading of active cathode materials, hence low specific surface capacity, and by the high interface resistance, which results in low rate and cyclic performance. In this contribution, we propose and demonstrate a synergistic all-composite approach to fabricating flexible all-solid-state LIBs. PEO-based composite cathode layers (filled with LiFePO 4 particles) of ∼300 μm in thickness and composite electrolyte layers (filled with Al-LLZTO particles) are stacked layer-by-layer with lithium foils as negative layer and hot-pressed into a monolithic all-solid-state LIB. The flexible LIB delivers a high specific discharge capacity of 155 mAh/g, which corresponds to an ultrahigh surface capacity of 10.8 mAh/cm 2 , exhibits excellent capacity retention up to at least 10 cycles and could work properly under harsh operating conditions such as bending or being sectioned into pieces. The all-composite approach is favorable for improving both mesoscopic and microscopic interfaces inside the all-solid-state LIB and may provide a new toolbox for design and fabrication of all-solid-state LIBs.

  11. An All-Solid-State, Room-Temperature, Heterodyne Receiver for Atmospheric Spectroscopy at 1.2 THz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles, Jose V.; Mehdi, Imran; Schlecht, Erich T.; Gulkis, Samuel; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Lin, Robert H.; Lee, Choonsup; Gill, John J.; Thomas, Bertrand; Maestrini, Alain E.

    2013-01-01

    Heterodyne receivers at submillimeter wavelengths have played a major role in astrophysics as well as Earth and planetary remote sensing. All-solid-state heterodyne receivers using both MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) Schottky-diode-based LO (local oscillator) sources and mixers are uniquely suited for long-term planetary missions or Earth climate monitoring missions as they can operate for decades without the need for any active cryogenic cooling. However, the main concern in using Schottky-diode-based mixers at frequencies beyond 1 THz has been the lack of enough LO power to drive the devices because 1 to 3 mW are required to properly pump Schottky diode mixers. Recent progress in HEMT- (high-electron-mobility- transistor) based power amplifier technology, with output power levels in excess of 1 W recently demonstrated at W-band, as well as advances in MMIC Schottky diode circuit technology, have led to measured output powers up to 1.4 mW at 0.9 THz. Here the first room-temperature tunable, all-planar, Schottky-diode-based receiver is reported that is operating at 1.2 THz over a wide (˜20%) bandwidth. The receiver front-end (see figure) consists of a Schottky-diode-based 540 to 640 GHz multiplied LO chain (featuring a cascade of W-band power amplifiers providing around 120 to 180 mW at W-band), a 200-GHz MMIC frequency doubler, and a 600-GHz MMIC frequency tripler, plus a biasable 1.2-THz MMIC sub-harmonic Schottky-diode mixer. The LO chain has been designed, fabricated, and tested at JPL and provides around 1 to 1.5 mW at 540 o 640 GHz. The sub-harmonic mixer consists of two Schottky diodes on a thin GaAs membrane in an anti-parallel configuration. An integrated metal insulator metal (MIM) capacitor has been included on-chip to allow dc bias for the Schottky diodes. A bias voltage of around 0.5 V/diode is necessary to reduce the LO power required down to the 1 to 1.5 mW available from the LO chain. The epilayer thickness and doping profiles have

  12. All-solid-state CO sub 2 laser driver. Final report, 1 Jun 88-31 Mar 91

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birx, D.

    1991-03-31

    New, all-solid-state pulse generators are described which meet military requirements for an efficient, reliable pulsed power source to drive a space based CO{sub 2} laser. These SCR-commutated, nonlinear magnetic pulse compressors are fully-compatible with the present Spectra Technologies laser head design planned for use on LOWKATER. By employing SCRs rather than thyratron commutators, these pulsers should provide a significant increase in reliability over the current generation of pulsed power drivers. The first pulser which was designed and constructed was denoted COLD-I. COLD-I was designed to meet the original LOWKATER specifications and delivered at 150 joule, 20 kV pulse into a laser load at 10 to 20 Hz repetition rate. The second pulser, denoted COLD-II, was designed to provide a 45 joule, 500 nsec duration pulse at a voltage of 20 kV and a repetition rate of 1 kHz peak and 50-100 Hz average. The electrical efficiency was measured to be 80% with an input drive of 500 VDC. This pulse served as a design verification testbed for a third pulser, presently designed but not constructed and denoted COLD-III. COLD-III would be capable of producing 36 joules at the same pulse length and repetition rate at voltages of 20 kV. The Phase-II effort was a high risk, high payoff effort aimed at developing a light weight, high reliability RF power source for advanced RF CO2 laser heads under development. COLD-IV a Branched Magnetic RF Nonlinear Magnetic Pulse Compressor was built as a breadboard for this effort.

  13. All-solid-state potentiometric sensors for ascorbic acid by using a screen-printed compatible solid contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veltsistas, Panayotis G.; Prodromidis, Mamas I.; Efstathiou, Constantinos

    2004-01-01

    The development of all-solid-state potentiometric ion selective electrodes for monitoring of ascorbic acid, by using a screen-printed compatible solid contact is described. The applied methodology is based on the use of PVC membrane modified with some firstly-tested ionophores (triphenyltin(IV)chloride, triphenyltin(IV)hydroxide and palmitoyl-L-ascorbic acid) and a novel one synthesized in our laboratory (dibutyltin(IV) diascorbate). Synthesis protocol and some preliminary identification studies are given. A conductive graphite-based polymer thick film ink was used as an internal solid contact between the graphite electrode and the PVC membrane. The presence and the nature of the solid contact (plain or doped with lanthanum 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPI)) seem to enhance the analytical performance of the electrodes in terms of sensitivity, dynamic range, and response time. The analytical performance of the constructed electrodes was evaluated with potentiometry, constant-current chronopotentiometry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The interference effect of various compounds was also tested. The potential response of the optimized Ph 3 SnCl-based electrode was linear against ascorbic acid concentration range 0.005-5.0 mM. The applicability of the proposed sensors in real samples was also tested. The detection limit was 0.002 mM ascorbic acid (50 mM phosphate, pH 5 in 50 mM KCl). The slope of the electrodes was super-Nernstian and pH dependent, indicating a mechanism involving a combination of charge transfer and ion exchange processes. Fabrication of screen-printed ascorbate ISEs has also been demonstrated

  14. High-Performance All-Solid-State Na-S Battery Enabled by Casting-Annealing Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiulin; Yue, Jie; Han, Fudong; Chen, Ji; Deng, Tao; Zhou, Xiuquan; Hou, Singyuk; Wang, Chunsheng

    2018-03-20

    Room-temperature all-solid-state Na-S batteries (ASNSBs) using sulfide solid electrolytes are a promising next-generation battery technology due to the high energy, enhanced safety, and earth abundant resources of both sodium and sulfur. Currently, the sulfide electrolyte ASNSBs are fabricated by a simple cold-pressing process leaving with high residential stress. Even worse, the large volume change of S/Na 2 S during charge/discharge cycles induces additional stress, seriously weakening the less-contacted interfaces among the solid electrolyte, active materials, and the electron conductive agent that are formed in the cold-pressing process. The high and continuous increase of the interface resistance hindered its practical application. Herein, we significantly reduce the interface resistance and eliminate the residential stress in Na 2 S cathodes by fabricating Na 2 S-Na 3 PS 4 -CMK-3 nanocomposites using melting-casting followed by stress-release annealing-precipitation process. The casting-annealing process guarantees the close contact between the Na 3 PS 4 solid electrolyte and the CMK-3 mesoporous carbon in mixed ionic/electronic conductive matrix, while the in situ precipitated Na 2 S active species from the solid electrolyte during the annealing process guarantees the interfacial contact among these three subcomponents without residential stress, which greatly reduces the interfacial resistance and enhances the electrochemical performance. The in situ synthesized Na 2 S-Na 3 PS 4 -CMK-3 composite cathode delivers a stable and highly reversible capacity of 810 mAh/g at 50 mA/g for 50 cycles at 60 °C. The present casting-annealing strategy should provide opportunities for the advancement of mechanically robust and high-performance next-generation ASNSBs.

  15. Multi-mode dynamics of optical oscillators based on intracavity nonlinear frequency down-conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, Yuri A.

    2018-01-01

    The transient power characteristics of two optical oscillators—a difference frequency generator (ICDFG) and a singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (ICSRO)—based on intracavity nonlinear optical frequency conversion, are described. The simulation has been performed via the rate-equation mathematical model, which features a multi-mode behavior of all optical fields. The reason for unattainability of single-mode emission in these devices without an additional frequency-selective element (e.g., a Fabry-Perot etalon) is clarified. It is shown that the dynamics of a short-wavelength emission (pump) results mainly from the nonlinear optical interaction, while that of the longer-wavelength optical fields (signal and idler) depends on selectivity of the etalon. With the suitable etalons inserted in their cavities, both devices are shown to operate dynamically single-mode under conventional experimental conditions. The nonlinear interaction makes the pump emission collapse to the single-mode operation very fast (it takes no more than a few tens of the photon lifetimes). To overcome the threshold of parametric generation, the intracavity pump power in the ICSRO has to exceed ˜ 100 W, while the ICDFG is essentially a "thresholdless" device.

  16. Double-confocal resonator for X-ray generation via intracavity Thomson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, M. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    There has been a growing interest in developing compact X-ray sources through Thomson scattering of a laser beam by a relativistic electron beam. For higher X-ray flux it is desirable to have the scattering to occur inside an optical resonator where the laser power is higher. In this paper I propose a double-confocal resonator design optimized for head-on Thomson scattering inside an FEL oscillator and analyze its performance taking into account the diffraction and FEL gain. A double confocal resonator is equivalent to two confocal resonators in series. Such a resonator has several advantages: it couples electron beam through and X-ray out of the cavity with holes on cavity mirrors, thus allowing the system to be compact; it supports the FEL mode with minimal diffraction loss through the holes; it provides a laser focus in the forward direction for a better mode overlap with the electron beam; and it provides a focus at the same location in the backward direction for higher Thomson scattering efficiency; in addition, the mode size at the focal point and hence the Rayleigh range can be adjusted simply through intracavity apertures; furthermore, it gives a large mode size at the mirrors to reduce power loading. Simulations as well as analytical results will be presented. Also other configurations of intracavity Thomson scattering where the double-confocal resonator could be useful will be discussed.

  17. Spectral and lasing characteristics of 1% Ho:YAG ceramics under intracavity pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagayev, S. N.; Osipov, V. V.; Vatnik, S. M.; Shitov, V. A.; Vedin, I. A.; Kurbatov, P. F.; Maksimov, R. N.; Luk'yashin, K. E.; Pavlyuk, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    High-transparency 1% Ho:YAG ceramics with the transmission coefficient of 82% in the IR range at the sample thickness of 1 mm are synthesised from a mixture of the Ho:Y2O3 and Al2O3 nanopowders obtained by the laser method. Results of investigations of spectral and lasing characteristics of 1 % Ho:YAG ceramics under intracavity pumping by radiation of a 5% Tm:KLuW disk element are presented. Based on spectral intensity analysis of generation in the 1.8 - 2.1 mm range and on cavity parameters, the estimated lasing slope efficiency for 1% Ho:YAG ceramics is about 40%.

  18. Intracavity absorption spectroscopy of formaldehyde from 6230 to 6420 cm-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjodorow, Peter; Hellmig, Ortwin; Baev, Valery M.; Levinsky, Howard B.; Mokhov, Anatoli V.

    2017-05-01

    We apply intracavity absorption spectroscopy for measurements of the absorption spectrum of formaldehyde, CH2O, from 6230 to 6420 cm-1, of which only a small fraction (6351-6362 cm-1) has been recorded elsewhere. The measurements are performed in the cavity of a broadband Er3+-doped fiber laser, with a sensitivity corresponding to the effective absorption path length of 45 m and a spectral resolution of 0.1 cm-1. The noise-equivalent detection limit of CH2O achieved with the strongest absorption line at 6252.64 cm-1 is estimated to be 5 ppm. High tolerance to broadband losses and the accessible time resolution of 50 µs make it possible to apply this detection system for time-resolved monitoring of CH2O together with other molecules in harsh combustion environments, e.g., in combustion engines.

  19. Deformable mirrors for intra-cavity use in high-power thin-disk lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piehler, Stefan; Dietrich, Tom; Wittmüss, Philipp; Sawodny, Oliver; Ahmed, Marwan Abdou; Graf, Thomas

    2017-02-20

    We present deformable mirrors for the intra-cavity use in high-power thin-disk laser resonators. The refractive power of these mirrors is continuously adaptable from -0.7 m-1 to 0.3 m-1, corresponding to radii of curvature ranging between 2.86 m (convex) and 6.67 m (concave). The optimized shape of the mirror membrane enables a very low peak-to-valley deviation from a paraboloid deformation over a large area. With the optical performance of our mirrors being equal to that of standard HR mirrors, we were able to demonstrate the tuning of the beam quality of a thin-disk laser in a range of M2 = 3 to M2 = 1 during laser operation at output powers as high as 1.1 kW.

  20. Intracavity Laser Refractometry In Reflection: Development And Implementation In Biomedical Investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonchukov, S. A.

    2010-01-01

    The Intracavity Laser Refractometry in Reflection (ILRR) method is developed for precise investigation of the processes on an interface of different media in real time. This method is very attractive for the study of biological liquids. It is based on the control of two-mode phase-anisotropic laser spectrum. In the aggregate the values of the sensitivity, time of measuring, potential parameters of investigated media of ILRR method correspond to the best results in optical refractometry. The absolute value of refractive index correlates with the course of different diseases. It can serve the objective parameter for an estimation of a level of illness processes in organism and drug efficiency. In result of the investigation of the photoresponse of the blood to low-level laser irradiation both the slow thermal effect and fast biophysical effect were discovered. The refractive index behaviour in real time allows the photoacceptors and maximum therapeutic doses on organism, cellular, and molecular levels to be determined.

  1. Intracavity optogalvanic spectroscopy. An analytical technique for 14C analysis with subattomole sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnick, Daniel E; Dogru, Ozgur; Ilkmen, Erhan

    2008-07-01

    We show a new ultrasensitive laser-based analytical technique, intracavity optogalvanic spectroscopy, allowing extremely high sensitivity for detection of (14)C-labeled carbon dioxide. Capable of replacing large accelerator mass spectrometers, the technique quantifies attomoles of (14)C in submicrogram samples. Based on the specificity of narrow laser resonances coupled with the sensitivity provided by standing waves in an optical cavity and detection via impedance variations, limits of detection near 10(-15) (14)C/(12)C ratios are obtained. Using a 15-W (14)CO2 laser, a linear calibration with samples from 10(-15) to >1.5 x 10(-12) in (14)C/(12)C ratios, as determined by accelerator mass spectrometry, is demonstrated. Possible applications include microdosing studies in drug development, individualized subtherapeutic tests of drug metabolism, carbon dating and real time monitoring of atmospheric radiocarbon. The method can also be applied to detection of other trace entities.

  2. High-average-power diode-end-pumped intracavity-doubled Nd:YAG laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honea, E.C.; Ebbers, C.A.; Beach, R.J.; Speth, J.A.; Emanuel, M.S> ; Skidmore, J.A.; Payne, S.A.

    1998-02-12

    A compact diode-pumped ND:YAG laser was frequency-doubled to 0.532 {mu}m with an intracavity KTP or LBO crystal using a `V` cavity configuration. Two acousto-optic Q-switches were employed at repetition rates of 10-30 kHz. Dichroic fold and end mirrors were used to output two beams with up to 140 W of 0.532 {mu}m power using KTP and 116 W using LBO as the frequency doubling crystal. This corresponds to 66% of the maximum output power at 1.064 {mu}m obtained with an optimized output coupler reflectivity. The minimum output pulse duration varied with repetition rate from 90 to 130 ns. The multimode output beam had a smooth profile and a beam quality of M{sup 2} = 5 1.

  3. High-efficiency intracavity second-harmonic enhancement for a few-cycle laser pulse train

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai, Yi; Xu, Shixiang; Zeng, Xuanke; Zou, Da; Li, Jingzhen

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an intracavity second-harmonic (SH) enhancement technology without the need of input impedance-matching for optimal coupling between the cavity and its input frequency comb. More than 10% SH energy conversion efficiency is available, thus the power of the SH frequency comb can be enhanced beyond 100 relative to single-pass SH generation. Compared with a conventional passive enhancing cavity, for the purpose of high power enhancement, our scheme can operate at much lower finesse and thus broader bandwidth so that it can support several-optical-cycle pulses more easily. If they have the same finesse, both methods perform with similar operating stability. The results show that our novel design is suitable for some applications which need a short wavelength, high intensity, and ultra-broad bandwidth pulse train. (paper)

  4. Plasma magnetic field measurement by intracavity absorption. Progress report, June 1, 1983-May 31, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brink, G.O.

    1984-01-01

    Dye laser intracavity absorption (ICA) is being studied as a potential diagnostic for plasma or neutral beam systems. For magnetic field measurements it is necessary to make Zeeman effect measurements on the resonance transition of atomic lithium on a millisecond time scale. To do this it is necessary to sweep the dye laser in wavelength at a rapid rate so that the absorber can be sampled many times during the measurement. Our results indicate that the ICA signal becomes small at high sweep rates limiting the rate at which such sweeping may be carried out. It may be possible to avoid this limitation by chopping the pump laser. The studies of coupled cavity ICA are continuing, and are discussed in detail in an appendix. An ICA system using a dye cell has been designed, and supplementary experiments involving the observation of ICA in a ring dye laser are discussed

  5. Intracavity optogalvanic spectroscopy: Is there any evidence of a radiocarbon signal?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, Anders; Salehpour, Mehran

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, the first report of an ultrasensitive method for ro-vibrational spectrometry of radiocarbon dioxide was published. The method, called intracavity optogalvanic spectroscopy (ICOGS), claimed a sensitivity and limit-of-detection comparable to accelerator mass spectroscopy. ICOGS was claimed to utilize the isotope-dependent ro-vibrational absorption lines of carbon dioxide in the infrared spectrum. In order to facilitate unambiguous detection of radiocarbon, the sample was placed inside the cavity of a radiocarbon dioxide laser. This intracavity approach was claimed to increase the sensitivity by seven orders of magnitude compared with traditional optogalvanic methods. However, despite the methodical and thorough efforts of several research groups worldwide, these claims have not been possible to reproduce. Instead, we have previously reported serious deviations from the original results, where we found that ICOGS suffers from considerable problems with the stability and reproducibility of the optogalvanic signal, and that misinterpretations of these uncertainties likely are the explanation for the claimed sensitivity in the first reports. Having identified the stability and reproducibility of the detection as major concerns, we decided to improve the setup by with state-of-the-art plasma source technology. Deploying a custom-made stripline split-ring resonator optogalvanic detector, we have now investigated the applicability of ICOGS to radiocarbon detection even further. Measurements have been made with a wide range of parameters including different gas mixtures at various pressures and wavelengths. We have also conducted measurements with gas flowing through the sample cell to investigate the effect of plasma induced decomposition of the sample. Still, we have seen no indications of a significant radiocarbon signal in a concentration range between 0.29 Modern and 9.7 Modern, i.e., the range of interest to the radiocarbon community. Hence, our conclusions

  6. Patterning of lithium lanthanum titanium oxide films by soft lithography as electrolyte for all-solid-state Li-ion batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kokal, I.; Göbel, Ole; van den Ham, E.J.; ten Elshof, Johan E.; Notten, P.H.L.; Hintzen, H.T.

    2015-01-01

    The combination of sol–gel processing and soft-lithographic patterning presents a promising route towards three-dimensional (3D) micro Li-ion electrodes, and may offer a viable approach for the fabrication of all-solid-state 3D Li-ion batteries. The methods are relatively simple and therefore cheap

  7. Rational coating of Li7P3S11 solid electrolyte on MoS2 electrode for all-solid-state lithium ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, R. C.; Wang, X. L.; Zhang, S. Z.; Xia, Y.; Xia, X. H.; Wu, J. B.; Tu, J. P.

    2018-01-01

    Large interfacial resistance between electrode and electrolyte limits the development of high-performance all-solid-state batteries. Herein we report a uniform coating of Li7P3S11 solid electrolyte on MoS2 to form a MoS2/Li7P3S11 composite electrode for all-solid-state lithium ion batteries. The as-synthesized Li7P3S11 processes a high ionic of 2.0 mS cm-1 at room temperature. Due to homogeneous union and reduced interfacial resistance, the assembled all-solid-state batteries with the MoS2/Li7P3S11 composite electrode exhibit higher reversible capacity of 547.1 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and better cycling stability than the counterpart based on untreated MoS2. Our study provides a new reference for design/fabrication of advanced electrode materials for high-performance all-solid-state batteries.

  8. Investigating the all-solid-state batteries based on lithium garnets and a high potential cathode - LiMn1.5Ni0.5O4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänsel, Christian; Afyon, Semih; Rupp, Jennifer L M

    2016-11-03

    All-solid-state Li-ion batteries based on lithium garnets give new prospects for safer battery operations avoiding liquids, and could enable the integration of high energy density electrode materials. Herein, we critically investigate the structural and chemical stability of the high voltage cathode material, LiMn 1.5 Ni 0.5 O 4 , based on the solid lithium garnet electrolyte LLZO (c-Li 6.4 Ga 0.2 La 3 Zr 2 O 12 ) for all-solid Li-ion batteries. We manufacture battery cells based on nano-grained synthesized LLZO and composite cathodes (LiMn 1.5 Ni 0.5 O 4 /LLZO/C) fabricated via direct slurry casting of the cathode material and additives on sintered LLZO pellets against metallic Li anodes. The galvanostatic tests of such all-solid-state batteries up to 4.9 V at 95 °C reveal the incompatibility of the solid electrolyte and the cathode material under given conditions. Post-mortem analyses of the all-solid-state batteries demonstrate the formation of new inactive phases at the LLZO/LiMn 1.5 Ni 0.5 O 4 interfacial region through an irreversible reaction starting at ∼3.8 V during charging. The discovered limited chemical stability under the investigated conditions raises the question if LLZO could be a promising solid-electrolyte for future all-solid-state Li-ion batteries especially at higher operation potentials and demanding operation conditions.

  9. Passive mode locking at harmonics of the free spectral range of the intracavity filter in a fiber ring laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shumin; Lu, Fuyun; Dong, Xinyong; Shum, Ping; Yang, Xiufeng; Zhou, Xiaoqun; Gong, Yandong; Lu, Chao

    2005-11-01

    We report the passive mode-locking at harmonics of the free spectral range (FSR) of the intracavity multi-channel filter in a fiber ring laser. The laser uses a sampled fiber Bragg grating (SFBG) with a free spectral range (FSR) of 0.8 nm, or 99 GHz at 1555 nm, and a length of highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with low and flat dispersion. Stable picosecond soliton pulse trains with twofold to sevenfold enhancement in the repetition rate, relative to the FSR of the SFBG, have been achieved. The passive mode-locking mechanism that is at play in this laser relies on a dissipative four-wave mixing process and switching of repetition rate is realized simply by adjustment of the intracavity polarization controllers.

  10. Fabrication of All-Solid-State Lithium-ion Cells using Three-Dimensionally Structured Solid Electrolyte Li7La3Zr2O12 Pellets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAO SHOJI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries using Li+-ion conducting ceramic electrolytes have been focused on as attractive future batteries for electric vehicles and renewable energy conversion systems because high safety can be realized due to non-flammability of ceramic electrolytes. In addition, a higher volumetric energy density than that of current lithium-ion batteries is expected since the all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries can be made in bipolar cell configurations. However, the special ideas and techniques based on ceramic processing are required to construct the electrochemical interface for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries since the battery development has been done so far based on liquid electrolyte system over 100 years. As one of promising approaches to develop practical all-solid-state batteries, we have been focusing on three-dimensionally (3D structured cell configurations such as an interdigitated combination of 3D pillars of cathode and anode, which can be realized by using solid electrolyte membranes with hole-array structures. The application of such kinds of 3D structures effectively increases the interface between solid electrode and solid electrolyte per unit volume, lowering the internal resistance of all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries. In this study, Li6.25Al0.25La3Zr2O12 (LLZAl, which is a Al-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZ with Li+-ion conductivity of ~10–4 S cm–1 at room temperature and high stability against lithium-metal, was used as a solid electrolyte, and its pellets with 700 um depth holes in 700 x 700 um2 area were fabricated to construct 3D-structured all-solid-state batteries with LiCoO2 / LLZAl / lithium-metal configuration. It is expected that the LiCoO2-LLZAl interface is formed by point to point contact even when the LLZAl pellet with 3D hole-array structure is applied. Therefore, the application of mechanically soft Li3BO3 with a low melting point at around 700 °C was also performed as a supporting

  11. Comparison of nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction and ITO intracavity contacts

    KAUST Repository

    Leonard, J. T.

    2016-03-01

    We report on the lasing of III-nitride nonpolar, violet, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with III-nitride tunnel-junction (TJ) intracavity contacts and ion implanted apertures (IIAs). The TJ VCSELs are compared to similar VCSELs with tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) intracavity contacts. Prior to analyzing device results, we consider the relative advantages of III-nitride TJs for blue and green emitting VCSELs. The TJs are shown to be most advantageous for violet and UV VCSELs, operating near or above the absorption edge for ITO, as they significantly reduce the total internal loss in the cavity. However, for longer wavelength III-nitride VCSELs, TJs primarily offer the advantage of improved cavity design flexibility, allowing one to make the p-side thicker using a thick n-type III-nitride TJ intracavity contact. This offers improved lateral current spreading and lower loss, compare to using ITO and p-GaN, respectively. These aspects are particularly important for achieving high-power CW VCSELs, making TJs the ideal intracavity contact for any III-nitride VCSEL. A brief overview of III-nitride TJ growth methods is also given, highlighting the molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) technique used here. Following this overview, we compare 12 mu m aperture diameter, violet emitting, TJ and ITO VCSEL experimental results, which demonstrate the significant improvement in differential efficiency and peak power resulting from the reduced loss in the TJ design. Specifically, the TJ VCSEL shows a peak power of similar to 550 mu W with a threshold current density of similar to 3.5 kA/cm(2), while the ITO VCSELs show peak powers of similar to 80 mu W and threshold current densities of similar to 7 kA/cm

  12. Comparison of nonpolar III-nitride vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with tunnel junction and ITO intracavity contacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, J. T.; Young, E. C.; Yonkee, B. P.; Cohen, D. A.; Shen, C.; Margalith, T.; Ng, T. K.; DenBaars, S. P.; Ooi, B. S.; Speck, J. S.; Nakamura, S.

    2016-02-01

    We report on the lasing of III-nitride nonpolar, violet, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with IIInitride tunnel-junction (TJ) intracavity contacts and ion implanted apertures (IIAs). The TJ VCSELs are compared to similar VCSELs with tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) intracavity contacts. Prior to analyzing device results, we consider the relative advantages of III-nitride TJs for blue and green emitting VCSELs. The TJs are shown to be most advantageous for violet and UV VCSELs, operating near or above the absorption edge for ITO, as they significantly reduce the total internal loss in the cavity. However, for longer wavelength III-nitride VCSELs, TJs primarily offer the advantage of improved cavity design flexibility, allowing one to make the p-side thicker using a thick n-type III-nitride TJ intracavity contact. This offers improved lateral current spreading and lower loss, compare to using ITO and p-GaN, respectively. These aspects are particularly important for achieving high-power CW VCSELs, making TJs the ideal intracavity contact for any III-nitride VCSEL. A brief overview of III-nitride TJ growth methods is also given, highlighting the molecular-beam epitaxy (MBE) technique used here. Following this overview, we compare 12 μm aperture diameter, violet emitting, TJ and ITO VCSEL experimental results, which demonstrate the significant improvement in differential efficiency and peak power resulting from the reduced loss in the TJ design. Specifically, the TJ VCSEL shows a peak power of ~550 μW with a threshold current density of ~3.5 kA/cm2, while the ITO VCSELs show peak powers of ~80 μW and threshold current densities of ~7 kA/cm2.

  13. 21.2% wall-plug efficiency green laser based on an electrically pumped VECSEL through intracavity second harmonic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pu; Xu, Bing; van Leeuwen, Robert; Chen, Tong; Watkins, Laurence; Zhou, Delai; Seurin, Jean-Francois; Gao, Peng; Xu, Guoyang; Wang, Qing; Ghosh, Chuni

    2015-03-01

    We have achieved a 21.2% wall-plug efficiency green laser at 532 nm based on an electrically pumped vertical externalcavity surface emitting laser (VECSEL) through intracavity second harmonic generation. The continuous-wave green output power was 3.34 W. The VECSEL gain device is cooled by using a thermoelectric cooler, which can greatly benefit packaging. Both power and efficiency can be further scaled up by optimizing external-cavity design and improving the performance of VECSEL gain device.

  14. Lowering the operational temperature of all-solid-state lithium polymer cell with highly conductive and interfacially robust solid polymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldalur, Itziar; Martinez-Ibañez, Maria; Piszcz, Michal; Rodriguez-Martinez, Lide M.; Zhang, Heng; Armand, Michel

    2018-04-01

    Novel solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs), comprising of comb polymer matrix grafted with soft and disordered polyether moieties (Jeffamine®) and lithium bis(fluorosulfonyl)imide (LiFSI) are investigated in all-solid-state lithium metal (Li°) polymer cells. The LiFSI/Jeffamine-based SPEs are fully amorphous at room temperature with glass transitions as low as ca. -55 °C. They show higher ionic conductivities than conventional poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)-based SPEs at ambient temperature region, and good electrochemical compatibility with Li° electrode. These exceptional properties enable the operational temperature of Li° | LiFePO4 cells to be decreased from an elevated temperature (70 °C) to room temperature. Those results suggest that LiFSI/Jeffamine-based SPEs can be promising electrolyte candidates for developing safe and high performance all-solid-state Li° batteries.

  15. Preparation of hydroxide ion conductive KOH–layered double hydroxide electrolytes for an all-solid-state iron–air secondary battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taku Tsuneishi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Anion conductive solid electrolytes based on Mg–Al layered double hydroxide (LDH were prepared for application in an all-solid-state Fe–air battery. The ionic conductivity and the conducting ion species were evaluated from impedance and electromotive force measurements. The ion conductivity of LDH was markedly enhanced upon addition of KOH. The electromotive force in a water vapor concentration cell was similar to that of an anion-conducting polymer membrane. The KOH–LDH obtained was used as a hydroxide ion conductive electrolyte for all-solid-state Fe–air batteries. The cell performance of the Fe–air batteries was examined using a mixture of KOH–LDH and iron-oxide-supported carbon as the negative electrode.

  16. Compatibility study towards monolithic self-charging power unit based on all-solid thin-film solar module and battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandbaumhüter, Florian; Agbo, Solomon N.; Tsai, Chih-Long; Astakhov, Oleksandr; Uhlenbruck, Sven; Rau, Uwe; Merdzhanova, Tsvetelina

    2017-10-01

    Aiming at the development of a monolithic integrated all-solid-state self-rechargeable power unit, we perform a V-I characteristics compatibility study for the integration of such a device having a thin-film silicon multi-junction photovoltaic (PV) module and a thin-film solid Li//lithium phosphorus oxynitride//LiCoO2 battery. The battery and PV module are connected to mimic a monolithic module-to-storage cell device and the performance of this device in various temperature conditions has been tested. Few issues regarding the matching of the battery and PV module characteristics are identified for improvement. The concept of the integrated all-solid-state PV-battery solution appears viable especially in three-terminal device configuration.

  17. All-solid-state thin film battery based on well-aligned slanted LiCoO{sub 2} nanowires fabricated by glancing angle deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Miyoung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seunghwan [High Temperature Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Energy Science, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Daehee [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Joosun, E-mail: joosun@kist.re.kr [High Temperature Energy Materials Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Jooho, E-mail: jmoon@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-01

    Graphical abstract: We successfully fabricated well-aligned slanted LiCoO{sub 2} nanowires as a one-dimensional nanostructured cathode by glancing angle deposition to enhance the electrochemical performance of all-solid-state thin film batteries. - Highlights: • Well-aligned slanted LiCoO{sub 2} nanowires are fabricated by glancing angle deposition. • One-dimensional nanostructured LiCoO{sub 2} cathode enlarges the contact area. • All-solid-state thin film battery exhibits enhances rate capability and cycling stability. - Abstract: We fabricated all-solid-state thin film batteries based on well-aligned slanted LiCoO{sub 2} nanowires by glancing angle deposition, as a facile template-free method in order to increase the electrochemically active site, i.e., the contact area between the solid electrolyte and the electrode. A highly porous thin film composed of well-separated slanted LiCoO{sub 2} nanowires not only facilitates the penetration of solid electrolyte phase into the cathode, but also alleviates the thermally and mechanically induced stresses during post-annealing and electrochemical cycling. The all-solid-state thin film battery based on the well-aligned slanted LiCoO{sub 2} nanowires, whose contact area between electrolyte and electrode was three times as high as that of a dense thin film, could provide additional migration pathways for lithium ion diffusion due to the enlarged reaction sites. This resulted in enhanced electrochemical kinetics, thereby leading to better rate capability and long-term cyclic stability as compared to the dense LiCoO{sub 2} thin film.

  18. NiCo2O4@TiN Core-shell Electrodes through Conformal Atomic Layer Deposition for All-solid-state Supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Renqi

    2016-03-04

    Ternary transition metal oxides such as NiCo2O4 show great promise as supercapacitor electrode materials. However, the unsatisfactory rate performance of NiCo2O4 may prove to be a major hurdle to its commercial usage. Herein, we report the development of NiCo2O4@TiN core–shell nanostructures for all-solid-state supercapacitors with significantly enhanced rate capability. We demonstrate that a thin layer of TiN conformally grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on NiCo2O4 nanofiber arrays plays a key role in improving their electrical conductivity, mechanical stability, and rate performance. Fabricated using the hybrid NiCo2O4@TiN electrodes, the symmetric all-solid-state supercapacitor exhibited an impressive stack power density of 58.205 mW cm−3 at a stack energy density of 0.061 mWh cm−3. To the best of our knowledge, these values are the highest of any NiCo2O4-based all-solid-state supercapacitor reported. Additionally, the resulting NiCo2O4@TiN all-solid-state device displayed outstanding cycling stability by retaining 70% of its original capacitance after 20,000 cycles at a high current density of 10 mA cm−2. These results illustrate the promise of ALD-assisted hybrid NiCo2O4@TiN electrodes for sustainable and integrated energy storage applications.

  19. Interactions of low-power photons with natural opals—PBG materials, photonic control, natural metamaterials, spontaneous laser emissions, and band-gap boundary responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four views of each of the opal research specimens in white light (for in-article or cover), in the same order as the specimens depicted in Fig. 3 of the main manuscript. A.On the left: 1.5 carat oval cabochon precious fire opal. B.In the center: 2.5 carats faceted fancy shield precious fire contra luz with mild adularescence. C.On the right: 5.0 carats round cabochon precious crystal opal with blue adularescence. Highlights: ► Emission of micro-lasers from microspheroid cluster boundary zones (quantum dots). ► Lasers illuminated or fluoresced the intra-opal structures of microspheroid photonic glass clusters. ► Microspheroid boundaries are durable to low power light sources. ► Display of previously unknown low power photonic optic properties. ► The research specimens are natural metamaterials. - Abstract: One overall goal of this research was to examine types of naturally-occurring opals that exhibit photonic control to learn about previously-unknown properties of naturally occurring photonic control that may be developed for broader applications. Three different photon sources were applied consecutively to three different types of natural, flawless, gem-quality precious opals. Two photon sources were lasers (green and red) and one was simulated daylight tungsten white. As each type of precious opal was exposed to each of the photon sources, the respective refractions, reflections, and transmissions were studied. This research is the first to show that applying various pleochroic and laser photon sources to these types of opals revealed significant information regarding naturally occurring photonic control, metamaterials, spontaneous laser emissions, and microspheroid cluster (inter-PBG zone) boundary effects. Plus, minimizing ambient light and the use of low power photon sources were critical to observing the properties regarding this photonic materials research. This research yielded information applicable to the development of materials to advance

  20. All-solid, flexible solar textiles based on dye-sensitized solar cells with ZnO nanorod arrays on stainless steel wires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Youngjin [Department of Clothing and Textiles, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jung Tae; Koh, Jong Kwan [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Hak, E-mail: jonghak@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eunae, E-mail: eakim@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Clothing and Textiles, Yonsei University, 262 Seongsanno, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-01

    Highlights: • All-solid, flexible solar textile fabricated with DSSCs is demonstrated. • DSSCs woven into a satin structure and transparent PET film are used. • Solar textile showed a high efficiency of 2.57%. -- Abstract: An all-solid, flexible solar textile fabricated with dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) woven into a satin structure and transparent poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film was demonstrated. A ZnO nanorod (NR) vertically grown from fiber-type conductive stainless steel (SS) wire was utilized as a photoelectrode, and a Pt-coated SS wire was used as a counter electrode. A graft copolymer, i.e. poly(vinyl chloride)-graft-poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (PVC-g-POEM) was synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and used as a solid electrolyte. The conditions for the growth of ZnO NR and sufficient dye loading were investigated to improve cell performance. The adhesion of PET films to DSSCs resulted in physical stability improvements without cell performance loss. The solar textile with 10 × 10 wires exhibited an energy conversion efficiency of 2.57% with a short circuit current density of 20.2 mA/cm{sup 2} at 100 mW/cm{sup 2} illumination, which is the greatest account of an all-solid, ZnO-based flexible solar textile. DSSC textiles with woven structures are applicable to large-area, roll-to-roll processes.

  1. All-solid, flexible solar textiles based on dye-sensitized solar cells with ZnO nanorod arrays on stainless steel wires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chae, Youngjin; Park, Jung Tae; Koh, Jong Kwan; Kim, Jong Hak; Kim, Eunae

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • All-solid, flexible solar textile fabricated with DSSCs is demonstrated. • DSSCs woven into a satin structure and transparent PET film are used. • Solar textile showed a high efficiency of 2.57%. -- Abstract: An all-solid, flexible solar textile fabricated with dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) woven into a satin structure and transparent poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film was demonstrated. A ZnO nanorod (NR) vertically grown from fiber-type conductive stainless steel (SS) wire was utilized as a photoelectrode, and a Pt-coated SS wire was used as a counter electrode. A graft copolymer, i.e. poly(vinyl chloride)-graft-poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (PVC-g-POEM) was synthesized via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) and used as a solid electrolyte. The conditions for the growth of ZnO NR and sufficient dye loading were investigated to improve cell performance. The adhesion of PET films to DSSCs resulted in physical stability improvements without cell performance loss. The solar textile with 10 × 10 wires exhibited an energy conversion efficiency of 2.57% with a short circuit current density of 20.2 mA/cm 2 at 100 mW/cm 2 illumination, which is the greatest account of an all-solid, ZnO-based flexible solar textile. DSSC textiles with woven structures are applicable to large-area, roll-to-roll processes

  2. In Situ Atomic-Scale Observation of Electrochemical Delithiation Induced Structure Evolution of LiCoO2Cathode in a Working All-Solid-State Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yue; Zhang, Jienan; Jiang, Liwei; Shi, Jin-An; Zhang, Qinghua; Yang, Zhenzhong; Zou, Dongli; Wang, Jiangyong; Yu, Xiqian; Xiao, Ruijuan; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Gu, Lin; Li, Hong; Chen, Liquan

    2017-03-29

    We report a method for in situ atomic-scale observation of electrochemical delithiation in a working all-solid-state battery using a state-of-the-art chip based in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) holder and focused ion beam milling to prepare an all-solid-state lithium-ion battery sample. A battery consisting of LiCoO 2 cathode, LLZO solid state electrolyte and gold anode was constructed, delithiated and observed in an aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope at atomic scale. We found that the pristine single crystal LiCoO 2 became nanosized polycrystal connected by coherent twin boundaries and antiphase domain boundaries after high voltage delithiation. This is different from liquid electrolyte batteries, where a series of phase transitions take place at LiCoO 2 cathode during delithiation. Both grain boundaries become more energy favorable along with extraction of lithium ions through theoretical calculation. We also proposed a lithium migration pathway before and after polycrystallization. This new methodology could stimulate atomic scale in situ scanning/TEM studies of battery materials and provide important mechanistic insight for designing better all-solid-state battery.

  3. Intracavity coherent interaction of mode-locked pulse train with resonant medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Koji

    Resonant interactions of a mode-locked pulse train with intracavity samples, namely rubidium-87 (Rb-87) vapor and Fabry-Perot etalon, placed inside a laser cavity are studied in the light of developing ultra-sensitive laser sensors to measure a small magnetic field and a minute change of index of refraction of a sample material, respectively. A Rb-87 vapor provides an opportunity for a compact high-sensitivity atomic magnetometer due to its accessibility by the standard laser sources and to the large ensemble magnetization. By employing the ultra-sensitive interferometric technique utilizing the intracavity properties of a mode-locked laser, the performance of the Rb-87 magnetometer can be further improved. The fundamental properties of coherent interaction between a mode-locked pulse train and a Rb-87 vapor are studied in numerical calculations of 33 density matrix equations and the reduced wave equation, which are then examined in experiments. In particular, a coherent dark-state is created by the pulse train and is further enhanced by means of spectral shaping or polarization modulation of the excitation pulse train. Experiments performed inside a laser cavity show that the atomic coherence is still preserved due to the coherent nature of interaction between the Rb-87 vapor and the ultrashort pulses occurred within a short time scale compared to the atomic relaxation times, which results in nonlinear propagation of the pulses as well as an observation of the dark-line resonance inside the laser cavity. A Fabry-Perot etalon is a type of optical cavity and serves as a tuning element of the frequency of cw-lasers. By inserting a Fabry-Perot etalon inside a mode-locked laser, the cavity resonance modes are modied due to a coupling between the two cavities, which leads to unique temporal and spectral characteristics of the resultant pulse train and its frequency comb. Both the temporal and spectral properties of the pulse train are studied in detail in experiments as

  4. The effect of refractive index changes in an intracavity absorption on the laser output power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hawat, Sh.; Eskef, M.

    2007-10-01

    A model describing the intra-cavity absorption has been developed. The model allows for a reliable description of the attenuation of laser power as a function of the gas pressure inside the absorption cell, conducting both real and imaginary parts of the refractive index of the absorbing gas. The model relies on an adequate integration of the additional loss due to the absorption into the rate equations. After that the rate equations are solved under steady state conditions, which is quite reliable for a cw CO 2 laser. The oscillation, clearly observed in case of weak absorption, is described in the framework of an interference model considering the electric field inside the cavity as the interference result of successive phase correlated waves differing from each other in the number of passes made through the cavity. The phase shift is determined by the optical length of the cavity depending on the real part of the refractive index of the gas in the absorption cell. The model has been applied to analyze a large set of attenuation curves obtained in a previous work, in which intra-cavity absorption was measured for the three gases CFC-11, 12, 22 using a tunable cw CO 2 laser at 44 lines of the emission spectrum of the CO 2 molecule distributed on the branches P and R of the two bands at 9.6 μm and 10.6 μm. For mostly all examples, the value of the absorption cross section (imaginary part of the refractive index) has been determined by fitting the model to the experimental data. Furthermore, the value of the linear polarizability (real part of the refractive index) has been calculated from the oscillation period for all examples, in which the attenuation curve exhibits reliable oscillating behavior. The results are in fair agreement with the values of the absorption cross section published in the Hitran data base, as well as with the results obtained from independent absorption measurements performed outside the cavity (Author)

  5. How to tune quantum correlations with an intracavity photonic crystal in an optical parametric oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-March, Miguel; de Castro, Maria; Gomila, Damia; Zambrini, Roberta

    2011-05-01

    We study the effect of periodic modulations on the quantum correlations of light in a nonlinear optical system, considering an intracavity photonic crystal in a type I optical parametric oscillator (OPO). We use a few modes linear approximation below threshold to obtain analytical expressions for the correlations comparing them with numerical results obtained from Langevin equations below (and also above) threshold. First, we find that the parametric threshold can be either raised or lowered through the amplitude of the photonic crystal, due to the interplay of two competing mechanism, i.e, inhibition of the signal spatial instability and the imprint of a spatial modulation on the pump favouring the instability process. Second, we find that, above threshold, the break of translational invariance provides a mechanism to reduce the quadrature quantum fluctuations leading to squeezing over a larger range of quadrature angles. Finally, inseparable and EPR entangled spatial beams are found in the presence of the PC. Funded by FISICOS (FIS2007-60327), CoQuSys (200450E566), MEC, Fulbright Commision, and FECYT.

  6. Assembling nitrogen and oxygen co-doped graphene quantum dots onto hierarchical carbon networks for all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zhen; Li, Yanfeng; Wang, Liang; Cao, Ling; Liu, Xiang; Chen, Zhiwen; Pan, Dengyu; Wu, Minghong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The all-carbon ternary flexible electrodes have been fabricated by the electrode deposition of nitrogen and oxygen co-doped single-crystalline GQDs. • The flexible electrodes deliver ultrahigh specific capacitance (461 mF cm −2 ) by inducing a high concentration of active nitrogen and oxygen at edge. • Symmetrical N-O-GQD/CNT/CC all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors offer energy density up to 32 μWh cm −2 and demonstrate the good stability, high flexibility, and folding ability under different deformations. • Nitrogen and oxygen co-doped GQDs can function as a highly active, solution-processable pseudocapacitive materials applicable to high-performance supercapacitors. - Abstract: We present a novel approach for hierarchical fabrication of high-performance, all-solid-state, flexible supercapacitors from environmentally friendly all-carbon materials. Three-dimensional carbon nanotube/carbon cloth network (CNT/CC) is used as a conductive, flexible and free-standing scaffold for the electro-deposition of highly N/O co-doped graphene quantum dots to form the high-activity, all-carbon electrodes. The hierarchical structure of the CNT/CC network with high electrical conductivity and high surface area provides improved conductive pathways for the efficient activation of GQDs with high pseudocapacitance and electrical double layer capacitance. The obtained N-O-GQD/CNT/CC electrodes for all-solid-state flexible supercapacitors exhibit an ultrahigh areal capacitance of up to 461 mF cm −2 at a current density of 0.5 mA cm −2 , while keeping high rate and cyclic performances. This work highlights the great potential of highly active GQDs in the construction of high-performance flexible energy-storage devices.

  7. Co3O4/MnO2/Hierarchically Porous Carbon as Superior Bifunctional Electrodes for Liquid and All-Solid-State Rechargeable Zinc-Air Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuemei; Dong, Fang; Xu, Nengneng; Zhang, Tao; Li, Kaixi; Qiao, Jinli

    2018-04-04

    The design of efficient, durable and affordable catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is very indispensable in liquid-type and flexible all-solid-state zinc-air batteries. Herein, we present a high-performance bifunctional catalyst with cobalt and manganese oxides supported on mesoporous carbon (Co3O4/MnO2/PQ-7). The optimized Co3O4/MnO2/PQ-7 exhibited a comparable ORR performance with commercial Pt/C, and a more superior OER performance than all the other prepared catalysts including commercial Pt/C. When applied to the practical aqueous (6.0 M KOH) zinc-air batteries, the Co3O4/MnO2/mesoporous carbon hybrid catalysts exhibited exceptional performance, such as a maximum discharge peak power density as high as 257 mW cm-2 and the most stable charge-discharge durability over 50 hours with negligible deactivation so far. More importantly, a series of flexible all-solid-state zinc-air batteries can be fabricated by the Co3O4/MnO2/mesoporous carbon with a layer-by-layer method. The optimal catalyst (Co3O4/MnO2/PQ-7) exhibited an excellent peak power density of 45 mW cm-2. The discharge potentials almost remained unchanged for 6 hours at 5 mA cm-2 and possessed a long cycle life (2.5 h @ 5 mA cm-2). These results make the optimized Co3O4/MnO2/PQ-7 as a promising cathode candidate for both liquid-type and flexible all-solid-state zinc-air batteries.

  8. Effect of Poly(Ether Urethane) Introduction on the Performance of Polymer Electrolyte for All-Solid-State Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan-Fang; Xiang, Wan-Chun; Fang, Shi-Bi; Chen, Shen; Zhou, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Jing-Bo; Lin, Yuan

    2009-12-01

    The introduction of poly(ether urethane) (PEUR) into polymer electrolyte based on poly(ethylene oxide), LiI and I2, has significantly increased the ionic conductivity by nearly two orders of magnitudes. An increment of I-3 diffusion coefficient is also observed. All-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells are constructed using the polymer electrolytes. It was found that PEUR incorporation has a beneficial effect on the enhancement of open circuit voltage Voc by shifting the band edge of TiO2 to a negative value. Scanning electron microscope images indicate the perfect interfacial contact between the TiO2 electrode and the blend electrolyte.

  9. NiCo2O4@TiN Core-shell Electrodes through Conformal Atomic Layer Deposition for All-solid-state Supercapacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ruiqi; Xia, Chuan; Wei, Nini; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • NiCo 2 O 4 nanostructures are prepared via a simple hydrothermal method. • Outer shell of TiN is then grown through conformal atomic layer deposition. • Electrodes exhibit significantly enhanced rate capability with TiN coating. • Solid-state polymer electrolyte is employed to improve cycling stability. • Full devices show a stack power density of 58.205 mW cm −3 at 0.061 mWh cm −3 . - Abstract: Ternary transition metal oxides such as NiCo 2 O 4 show great potential as supercapacitor electrode materials. However, the unsatisfactory rate performance of NiCo 2 O 4 may prove to be a major hurdle to its commercial usage. Herein, we report the development of NiCo 2 O 4 @TiN core–shell nanostructures for all-solid-state supercapacitors with significantly enhanced rate capability. We demonstrate that a thin layer of TiN conformally grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on NiCo 2 O 4 nanofiber arrays plays a key role in improving their electrical conductivity, mechanical stability, and rate performance. Fabricated using the hybrid NiCo 2 O 4 @TiN electrodes, the symmetric all-solid-state supercapacitor exhibited an impressive stack power density of 58.205 mW cm −3 at a stack energy density of 0.061 mWh cm −3 . To the best of our knowledge, these values are the highest of any NiCo 2 O 4 -based all-solid-state supercapacitor reported. Additionally, the resulting NiCo 2 O 4 @TiN all-solid-state device displayed outstanding cycling stability by retaining 70% of its original capacitance after 20,000 cycles at a high current density of 10 mA cm −2 . These results illustrate the promise of ALD-assisted hybrid NiCo 2 O 4 @TiN electrodes within sustainable and integrated energy storage applications.

  10. Thin and flexible all-solid supercapacitor prepared from novel single wall carbon nanotubes/polyaniline thin films obtained in liquid-liquid interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Victor Hugo Rodrigues; Oliveira, Marcela Mohallem; Zarbin, Aldo José Gorgatti

    2014-08-01

    The present work describes for the first time the synthesis and characterization of single wall carbon nanotubes/polyaniline (SWNTs/PAni) nanocomposite thin films in a liquid-liquid interface, as well as the subsequent construction of a flexible all-solid supercapacitor. Different SWNTs/PAni nanocomposites were prepared by varying the ratio of SWNT to aniline, and the samples were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The pseudo-capacitive behavior of the nanocomposites was evaluated by charge/discharge galvanostatic measurements. The presence of the SWNTs affected the electronic and vibrational properties of the polyaniline and also improved the pseudo-capacitive behavior of the conducting polymer. A very thin and flexible all-solid device was manufactured using two electrodes (polyethylene terephthalate-PET covered with the SWNT/PAni nanocomposite separated by a H2SO4-PVA gel electrolyte). The pseudo-capacitive behavior was characterized by a volumetric specific capacitance of approximately 76.7 F cm-3, even under mechanical deformation, indicating that this nanocomposite has considerable potential for application in new-generation energy storage devices.

  11. The approach of in-situ doping ion conductor fabricated with the cathodic arc plasma for all-solid-state electrochromic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min-Chuan; Li, Yu-Chen; Wang, Jen-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Shiou; Su, Chi-Hung; Hsueh, Tien-Hsiang; Hsu, Sheng-Chuan; Wu, Jin-Yu; Jan, Der-Jun

    2018-01-01

    The all-solid-state electrochromic device (ECD) with the one substrate structure fabricated by the reactive dc magnetron sputtering (DCMS) and in-situ doping cathodic vacuum arc plasma (CVAP) technology has been developed. The electrochromic (EC) layer and ion conductor layer were deposited by reactive DCMS and CVAP technology, respectively. The in-situ doping ion conductor Ta2O5 deposited by the CVAP technology has provided the better material structure for ion transportation and showed about 2 times ion conductivity than the external doping process. The all-solid-state ECD with the in-situ doping CVAP ion conductor layer has demonstrated a maximum transmittance variation (ΔT) of 71% at 550 nm, and a faster switching speed. The lower production cost and higher process stability could be achieved by the application of in-situ doping CVAP technology without breaking the vacuum process. Furthermore, the ion doping process with the reuse of energy during the CVAP process is not only decreasing the process steps, but also reducing the process energy consumption.

  12. The approach of in-situ doping ion conductor fabricated with the cathodic arc plasma for all-solid-state electrochromic devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Chuan Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The all-solid-state electrochromic device (ECD with the one substrate structure fabricated by the reactive dc magnetron sputtering (DCMS and in-situ doping cathodic vacuum arc plasma (CVAP technology has been developed. The electrochromic (EC layer and ion conductor layer were deposited by reactive DCMS and CVAP technology, respectively. The in-situ doping ion conductor Ta2O5 deposited by the CVAP technology has provided the better material structure for ion transportation and showed about 2 times ion conductivity than the external doping process. The all-solid-state ECD with the in-situ doping CVAP ion conductor layer has demonstrated a maximum transmittance variation (ΔT of 71% at 550 nm, and a faster switching speed. The lower production cost and higher process stability could be achieved by the application of in-situ doping CVAP technology without breaking the vacuum process. Furthermore, the ion doping process with the reuse of energy during the CVAP process is not only decreasing the process steps, but also reducing the process energy consumption.

  13. Supercontinuum generation covering the entire 0.4-5 µm transmission window in a tapered ultra-high numerical aperture all-solid fluorotellurite fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Z. X.; Yao, C. F.; Jia, S. J.; Wang, F.; Wang, S. B.; Zhao, Z. P.; Liao, M. S.; Qin, G. S.; Hu, L. L.; Ohishi, Y.; Qin, W. P.

    2018-02-01

    Enormous efforts have been made to realize supercontinuum (SC) generation covering the entire transmission window of fiber materials for their wide applications in many fields. Here we demonstrate ultra-broadband SC generation from 400 to 5140 nm in a tapered ultra-high numerical aperture (NA) all-solid fluorotellurite fiber pumped by a 1560 nm mode-locked fiber laser. The fluorotellurite fibers are fabricated using a rod-in-tube method. The core and cladding materials are TeO2-BaF2-Y2O3- and TeO2-modified fluoroaluminate glasses, respectively, which have large refractive index contrast and similar thermal expansion coefficients and softening temperatures. The NA at 3200 nm of the fluorotellurite fiber is about 1.11. Furthermore, tapered fluorotellurite fibers are prepared using an elongation machine. SC generation covering the entire 0.4-5 µm transmission window is achieved in a tapered fluorotellurite fiber for a pumping peak power of ~10.5 kW through synergetic control of dispersion, nonlinearity, confinement loss and other unexpected effects (e.g. the attachment of dust or water to the surface of the fiber core) of the fiber. Our results show that tapered ultra-high NA all-solid soft glass fibers have a potential for generating SC light covering their entire transmission window.

  14. Effect of Ionic Conductivity on Response Speed of SrTiO3-Based All-Solid-State Electric-Double-Layer Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Takashi; Ochi, Masanori; Higuchi, Tohru; Terabe, Kazuya; Aono, Masakazu

    2015-06-10

    An all-solid-state electric-double-layer transistor (EDLT) with a Y-stabilized ZrO₂ (YSZ) proton conductor/SrTiO₃ (STO) single crystal has been fabricated to investigate ionic conductivity effect on the response speed, which should be a key parameter for development of next-generation EDLTs. The drain current exhibited a 4-order-of-magnitude increment by electrostatic carrier doping at the YSZ/STO interface due to ion migration, and the behavior strongly depended on the operation temperature. An Arrhenius-type plot of the ionic conductivity (σ(i)) in the YSZ and t(c)⁻¹, which is a current-rise time needed for charge accumulation at the YSZ/STO interface, shows a synchronized variation, indicating a proportional relationship between the two parameters. Analysis of the σ(i)-t(c) diagram shows that, in contrast to conventional EDLTs, the response speed should reach picosecond order at room temperature by using extreme miniaturization and superionic conductors. Furthermore, the diagram indicates that plenty of solid electrolytes, which have not been used due to the lack of criteria for evaluation, can be a candidate for all-solid-state EDLTs exceeding the carrier density of conventional EDLTs, even though the response speed becomes comparably lower than those of FETs.

  15. Toward practical all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries with high energy density and safety: Comparative study for electrodes fabricated by dry- and slurry-mixing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Young Jin; Oh, Dae Yang; Jung, Sung Hoo; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2018-01-01

    Owing to their potential for greater safety, higher energy density, and scalable fabrication, bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries (ASLBs) employing deformable sulfide superionic conductors are considered highly promising for applications in battery electric vehicles. While fabrication of sheet-type electrodes is imperative from the practical point of view, reports on relevant research are scarce. This might be attributable to issues that complicate the slurry-based fabrication process and/or issues with ionic contacts and percolation. In this work, we systematically investigate the electrochemical performance of conventional dry-mixed electrodes and wet-slurry fabricated electrodes for ASLBs, by varying the different fractions of solid electrolytes and the mass loading. This information calls for a need to develop well-designed electrodes with better ionic contacts and to improve the ionic conductivity of solid electrolytes. As a scalable proof-of-concept to achieve better ionic contacts, a premixing process for active materials and solid electrolytes is demonstrated to significantly improve electrochemical performance. Pouch-type 80 × 60 mm2 all-solid-state LiNi0·6Co0·2Mn0·2O2/graphite full-cells fabricated by the slurry process show high cell-based energy density (184 W h kg-1 and 432 W h L-1). For the first time, their excellent safety is also demonstrated by simple tests (cutting with scissors and heating at 110 °C).

  16. Characterization of Sputter-Deposited LiCoO2Thin Film Grown on NASICON-type Electrolyte for Application in All-Solid-State Rechargeable Lithium Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee-Soo; Oh, Yoong; Kang, Ki Hoon; Kim, Ju Hwan; Kim, Joosun; Yoon, Chong Seung

    2017-05-17

    All-solid-state Li-rechargeable batteries using a 500 nm-thick LiCoO 2 (LCO) film deposited on two NASICON-type solid electrolyte substrates, LICGC (OHARA Inc.) and Li 1.3 Al 0.3 Ti 1.7 (PO 4 ) 3 (LATP), are constructed. The postdeposition annealing temperature prior to the cell assembly is critical to produce a stable sharp LCO/electrolyte interface and to develop a strong crystallographic texture in the LCO film, conducive to migration of Li ions. Although the cells deliver a limited discharge capacity, the cells cycled stably for 50 cycles. The analysis of the LCO/electrolyte interfaces after cycling demonstrates that the sharp interface, once formed by proper thermal annealing, will remain stable without any evidence for contamination and with minimal intermixing of the constituent elements during cycling. Hence, although ionic conductivity of the NASICON-type solid electrolyte is lower than that of the sulfide electrolytes, the NACSICON-type electrolytes will maintain a stable interface in contact with a LCO cathode, which should be beneficial to improving the capacity retention as well as the rate capability of the all-solid state cell.

  17. Polymer composite electrolytes having core-shell silica fillers with anion-trapping boron moiety in the shell layer for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jimin; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Kim, Hee Joong; Lee, Jin Hong; Lee, Jong-Chan

    2015-04-15

    Core-shell silica particles with ion-conducting poly(ethylene glycol) and anion-trapping boron moiety in the shell layer were prepared to be used as fillers for polymer composite electrolytes based on organic/inorganic hybrid branched copolymer as polymer matrix for all-solid-state lithium-ion battery applications. The core-shell silica particles were found to improve mechanical strength and thermal stability of the polymer matrix and poly(ethylene glycol) and boron moiety in the shell layer increase compatibility between filler and polymer matrix. Furthermore, boron moiety in the shell layer increases both ionic conductivity and lithium transference number of the polymer matrix because lithium salt can be more easily dissociated by the anion-trapping boron. Interfacial compatibility with lithium metal anode is also improved because well-dispersed silica particles serve as protective layer against interfacial side reactions. As a result, all-solid-state battery performance was found to be enhanced when the copolymer having core-shell silica particles with the boron moiety was used as solid polymer electrolyte.

  18. All-solid-state thin film battery based on well-aligned slanted LiCoO2 nanowires fabricated by glancing angle deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Miyoung; Lee, Seunghwan; Lee, Daehee; Kim, Joosun; Moon, Jooho

    2017-08-01

    We fabricated all-solid-state thin film batteries based on well-aligned slanted LiCoO2 nanowires by glancing angle deposition, as a facile template-free method in order to increase the electrochemically active site, i.e., the contact area between the solid electrolyte and the electrode. A highly porous thin film composed of well-separated slanted LiCoO2 nanowires not only facilitates the penetration of solid electrolyte phase into the cathode, but also alleviates the thermally and mechanically induced stresses during post-annealing and electrochemical cycling. The all-solid-state thin film battery based on the well-aligned slanted LiCoO2 nanowires, whose contact area between electrolyte and electrode was three times as high as that of a dense thin film, could provide additional migration pathways for lithium ion diffusion due to the enlarged reaction sites. This resulted in enhanced electrochemical kinetics, thereby leading to better rate capability and long-term cyclic stability as compared to the dense LiCoO2 thin film.

  19. Intracavity lavage and wound irrigation for prevention of surgical site infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Gill; Atkinson, Ross A; Smith, Tanya A; Rowlands, Ceri; Rithalia, Amber D; Crosbie, Emma J; Dumville, Jo C

    2017-01-01

    Background Surgical site infections (SSIs) are wound infections that occur after an operative procedure. A preventable complication, they are costly and associated with poorer patient outcomes, increased mortality, morbidity and reoperation rates. Surgical wound irrigation is an intraoperative technique, which may reduce the rate of SSIs through removal of dead or damaged tissue, metabolic waste, and wound exudate. Irrigation can be undertaken prior to wound closure or postoperatively. Intracavity lavage is a similar technique used in operations that expose a bodily cavity; such as procedures on the abdominal cavity and during joint replacement surgery. Objectives To assess the effects of wound irrigation and intracavity lavage on the prevention of surgical site infection (SSI). Search methods In February 2017 we searched the Cochrane Wounds Specialised Register; the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid Embase and EBSCO CINAHL Plus. We also searched three clinical trials registries and references of included studies and relevant systematic reviews. There were no restrictions on language, date of publication or study setting. Selection criteria We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of participants undergoing surgical procedures in which the use of a particular type of intraoperative washout (irrigation or lavage) was the only systematic difference between groups, and in which wounds underwent primary closure. The primary outcomes were SSI and wound dehiscence. Secondary outcomes were mortality, use of systemic antibiotics, antibiotic resistance, adverse events, re-intervention, length of hospital stay, and readmissions. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion at each stage. Two review authors also undertook data extraction, assessment of risk of bias and GRADE assessment. We calculated risk ratios or differences in means with 95% confidence intervals where

  20. Radially polarized and passively Q-switched Yb-doped fiber laser based on intracavity birefringent mode discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuehuan; Wu, Yongxiao; Chen, Sanbin; Li, Jianlang

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we demonstrated a passive Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser with radially polarized beam emission by using a c-cut YVO4 birefringent crystal as the intracavity polarization discriminator, and a Cr4+:YAG crystal as the saturable absorber and output coupler. The maximum averaged laser power reached 3.89 W with a high slope efficiency of 66.5%. The laser pulse had a peak power of 161 W, 160 ns duration, and 151 kHz repetition rate at the absorbed pump power of 6.48 W. Such a radially polarized pulse would facilitate numerous applications.

  1. In Situ Tuning of Magnetization and Magnetoresistance in Fe3O4 Thin Film Achieved with All-Solid-State Redox Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Takashi; Terabe, Kazuya; Ochi, Masanori; Higuchi, Tohru; Osada, Minoru; Yamashita, Yoshiyuki; Ueda, Shigenori; Aono, Masakazu

    2016-01-26

    An all-solid-state redox device composed of Fe3O4 thin film and Li(+) ion conducting solid electrolyte was fabricated for use in tuning magnetization and magnetoresistance (MR), which are key factors in the creation of high-density magnetic storage devices. Electrical conductivity, magnetization, and MR were reversibly tuned by Li(+) insertion and removal. Tuning of the various Fe3O4 thin film properties was achieved by donation of an electron to the Fe(3+) ions. This technique should lead to the development of spintronics devices based on the reversible switching of magnetization and spin polarization (P). It should also improve the performance of conventional magnetic random access memory (MRAM) devices in which the ON/OFF ratio has been limited to a small value due to a decrease in P near the tunnel barrier.

  2. All solid-state polymer electrolytes prepared from a graft copolymer consisting of a polyimide main chain and poly(ethylene oxide) based side chains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higa, Mitsuru, E-mail: mhiga@yamaguchi-u.ac.j [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, 2-16-1 Tokiwadai, Ube City, Yamaguchi 755-8611 (Japan); Yaguchi, Kazuaki; Kitani, Ryousuke [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, 2-16-1 Tokiwadai, Ube City, Yamaguchi 755-8611 (Japan)

    2010-01-25

    We prepare an all solid-state, liquid-free, polymer electrolyte (ASPE) from a lithium salt and a graft copolymer consisting of a polyimide main chain and poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate side chains using atom transfer radical polymerization method. The ionic conductivity of ASPEs increases with increasing the side chain length. The ionic conductivity of the ASPE whose POEM content = 60 wt% shows 6.5 x 10{sup -6} S/cm at 25 deg. C. The ASPEs having shorter average distance between side chains and/or shorter side chain length show higher mechanical strength. The tensile strength of the ASPEs is more than 10 MPa and about 20 times higher than that of the ASPEs in the previous study [Electrochim. Acta, 50 (1998) 3832]; hence, the ASPEs have sufficiently high mechanical strength for a polymer electrolyte of lithium secondary batteries.

  3. An all-solid state laser system for the laser ion source RILIS and in-source laser spectroscopy of astatine at ISOLDE, CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Rothe, Sebastian; Nörtershäuser, W

    This doctoral thesis describes the extension of the resonance ionization laser ion source RILIS at ISOLDE, CERN, by the addition of an all-solid state tuneable titanium: sapphire (Ti:Sa) laser system to complement the well-established system of dye lasers. Synchronous operation of the so called Dual RILIS system of Ti:Sa and dye lasers was investigated and the potential for increased ion beam intensity, reliability, and reduced setup time has been demonstrated. In-source resonance ionization spectroscopy was performed at ISOLDE, CERN, and at ISAC, TRIUMF, radioactive ion beam facilities to develop an efficient and selective three-colour ionization scheme for the purely radioactive element astatine. A LabVIEW based monitoring, control and measurement system was conceived which enabled, in conjunction with Dual RILIS operation, the spectroscopy of high lying Rydberg states, from which the ionization potential of the astatine atom was determined for the first time experimentally.

  4. An all-solid state laser system for the laser ion sources RILIS and in-source laser spectroscopy of astatine at ISOLDE/CERN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothe, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    This doctoral thesis describes the extension of the resonance ionization laser ion source RILIS at CERN/ISOLDE by the addition of an all-solid state tunable titanium:sapphire (Ti:Sa) laser system to complement the well-established system of dye lasers. Synchronous operation of the so called Dual RILIS system of Ti:Sa and dye lasers was investigated and the potential for increased ion beam intensity, reliability, and reduced setup time has been demonstrated. In-source resonance ionization spectroscopy was performed at ISOLDE/CERN and at ISAC/TRIUMF radioactive ion beam facilities to develop an efficient and selective three-colour ionization scheme for the purely radioactive element astatine. A LabVIEW based monitoring, control and measurement system was conceived which enabled, in conjunction with Dual RILIS operation, the spectroscopy of high lying Rydberg states, from which the ionization potential of the astatine atom was determined for the first time experimentally.

  5. An all-solid state laser system for the laser ion sources RILIS and in-source laser spectroscopy of astatine at ISOLDE/CERN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothe, Sebastian

    2012-09-24

    This doctoral thesis describes the extension of the resonance ionization laser ion source RILIS at CERN/ISOLDE by the addition of an all-solid state tunable titanium:sapphire (Ti:Sa) laser system to complement the well-established system of dye lasers. Synchronous operation of the so called Dual RILIS system of Ti:Sa and dye lasers was investigated and the potential for increased ion beam intensity, reliability, and reduced setup time has been demonstrated. In-source resonance ionization spectroscopy was performed at ISOLDE/CERN and at ISAC/TRIUMF radioactive ion beam facilities to develop an efficient and selective three-colour ionization scheme for the purely radioactive element astatine. A LabVIEW based monitoring, control and measurement system was conceived which enabled, in conjunction with Dual RILIS operation, the spectroscopy of high lying Rydberg states, from which the ionization potential of the astatine atom was determined for the first time experimentally.

  6. Conductivity Modulation of Gold Thin Film at Room Temperature via All-Solid-State Electric-Double-Layer Gating Accelerated by Nonlinear Ionic Transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Tetsuya; Kaneko, Yukihiro; Omote, Atsushi; Adachi, Hideaki; Fujii, Eiji

    2017-02-15

    We demonstrated the field-effect conductivity modulation of a gold thin film by all-solid-state electric-double-layer (EDL) gating at room temperature using an epitaxially grown oxide fast lithium conductor, La 2/3-x Li 3x TiO 3 (LLT), as a solid electrolyte. The linearly increasing gold conductivity with increasing gate bias demonstrates that the conductivity modulation is indeed due to carrier injection by EDL gating. The response time becomes exponentially faster with increasing gate bias, a result of the onset of nonlinear ionic transportation. This nonlinear dynamic response indicates that the ionic motion-driven device can be much faster than would be estimated from a linear ionic transport model.

  7. Radiation dose response estimation with emphasis on low dose range using restricted cubic splines: application to all solid cancer mortality data, 1950-2003, in atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Eiji

    2015-07-01

    Using the all solid cancer mortality data set of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort from 1950 to 2003 (LSS Report 14) data among atomic bomb survivors, excess relative risk (ERR) statistical analyses were performed using the second degree polynomial and the threshold and restricted cubic spline (RCS) dose response models. For the RCS models with 3 to 7 knots of equally spaced percentiles with margins in the dose range greater than 50 mGy, the dose response was assumed to be linear at less than 70 to 90 mGy. Due to the skewed dose distribution of atomic bomb survivors, the current knot system for the RCS analysis results in a detailed depiction of the dose response as less than approximately 0.5 Gy. The 6 knot RCS models for the all-solid cancer mortality dose response of the whole dose or less than 2 Gy were selected with the AIC model selection criterion and fit significantly better (p cubic spline in the lower and upper tails, and the best RCS model selected with AIC criterion was the usual RCS with L-constraints in both the lower and upper tails. The selected RCS had a linear dose-response model in the lower dose range (i.e., < 0.2-0.3 Gy) and was compatible with the linear no-threshold (LNT) model in this dose range. The proposed method is also useful in describing the dose response of a specific cancer or non-cancer disease incidence/mortality.

  8. High-Performance All-Solid-State Lithium-Sulfur Battery Enabled by a Mixed-Conductive Li2S Nanocomposite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fudong; Yue, Jie; Fan, Xiulin; Gao, Tao; Luo, Chao; Ma, Zhaohui; Suo, Liumin; Wang, Chunsheng

    2016-07-13

    All-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries (ASSLSBs) using highly conductive sulfide-based solid electrolytes suffer from low sulfur utilization, poor cycle life, and low rate performance due to the huge volume change of the electrode and the poor electronic and ionic conductivities of S and Li2S. The most promising approach to mitigate these challenges lies in the fabrication of a sulfur nanocomposite electrode consisting of a homogeneous distribution of nanosized active material, solid electrolyte, and carbon. Here, we reported a novel bottom-up method to synthesize such a nanocomposite by dissolving Li2S as the active material, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as the carbon precursor, and Li6PS5Cl as the solid electrolyte in ethanol, followed by a coprecipitation and high-temperature carbonization process. Li2S active material and Li6PS5Cl solid electrolyte with a particle size of ∼4 nm were uniformly confined in a nanoscale carbon matrix. The homogeneous nanocomposite electrode consisting of different nanoparticles with distinct properties of lithium storage capability, mechanical reinforcement, and ionic and electronic conductivities enabled a mechanical robust and mixed conductive (ionic and electronic conductive) sulfur electrode for ASSLSB. A large reversible capacity of 830 mAh/g (71% utilization of Li2S) at 50 mA/g for 60 cycles with a high rate performance was achieved at room temperature even at a high loading of Li2S (∼3.6 mg/cm(2)). This work provides a new strategy to design a mechanically robust, mixed conductive nanocomposite electrode for high-performance all-solid-state lithium sulfur batteries.

  9. Intracavity KTP optical parametric oscillator driven by a KLM Nd:GGG laser with a single AO modulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hongwei; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Zhao, Jia; Li, Yufei; Li, Tao; Li, Guiqiu; Li, Dechun; Qiao, Wenchao

    2015-05-01

    An intracavity KTiOPO4 (KTP) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by a Kerr lens mode-locking (KLM) Nd:GGG laser near 1062 nm with a single AO modulator was realized for the first time. The mode-locking pulses of the signal wave were obtained with a short duration of subnanosecond and a repetition rate of several kilohertz (kHz). Under a diode pump power of 8.25 W, a maximum output power of 104 mW at signal wavelength near 1569 nm was obtained at a repetition rate of 2 kHz. The highest pulse energy and peak power were estimated to be 80 μJ and 102 kW at a repetition rate of 1 kHz, respectively. The shortest pulse duration was measured to be 749 ps. By considering the Gaussian spatial distribution of the photon density and the Kerr-lens effect in the gain medium, a set of the coupled rate equations for QML intracavity optical parametric oscillator are given and the numerical simulations are basically fitted with the experimental results.

  10. Development of sulfide solid electrolytes and interface formation processes for bulk-type all-solid-state Li and Na batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akitoshi Hayashi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available All-solid-state batteries with inorganic solid electrolytes are recognized as an ultimate goal of rechargeable batteries because of their high safety, versatile geometry and good cycle life. Compared to thin-film batteries, increasing the reversible capacity of bulk-type all-solid-state batteries using electrode active material particles is difficult because contact areas at solid–solid interfaces between the electrode and electrolyte particles are limited. Sulfide solid electrolytes have several advantages of high conductivity, wide electrochemical window, and appropriate mechanical properties such as formability, processability, and elastic modulus. Sulfide electrolyte with Li7P3S11 crystal has the highest Li+ ion conductivity of 1.7 × 10-2 S cm-1 at 25 °C. It is far beyond the Li+ ion conductivity of conventional organic liquid electrolytes. The Na+ ion conductivity of 7.4 × 10-4 S cm-1 is achieved for Na3.06P0.94Si0.06S4 with cubic structure. Moreover, formation of favorable solid–solid interfaces between electrode and electrolyte is important for realizing solid-state batteries. Sulfide electrolytes have better formability than oxide electrolytes. Consequently, a dense electrolyte separator and closely attached interfaces with active material particles are achieved via room-temperature sintering of sulfides merely by cold pressing without heat treatment. Elastic moduli for sulfide electrolytes are smaller than that of oxide electrolytes, and Na2S-P2S5 glass electrolytes have smaller Young’s modulus than Li2S-P2S5 electrolytes. Cross-sectional SEM observations for a positive electrode layer reveal that sulfide electrolyte coating on active material particles increases interface areas even with a minimum volume of electrolyte, indicating that the energy density of bulk-type solid-state batteries is enhanced. Both surface coating of electrode particles and preparation of nanocomposite are effective for increasing the reversible

  11. Development of Lithium Stuffed Garnet-Type Oxide Solid Electrolytes with High Ionic Conductivity for Application to All-Solid-State Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoji Inada

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available All-solid-state lithium-ion battery (LiB is expected as one of the next generation energy storage devices because of their high energy density, high safety and excellent cycle stability. Although oxide-based solid electrolyte materials have rather lower conductivity and poor deformability than sulfide-based one, they have other advantages such as their chemical stability and easiness for handling. Among the various oxide-based SEs, lithium stuffed garnet-type oxide with the formula of Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZ have been widely studied because of their high conductivity above 10-4 Scm-1 at room temperature, excellent thermal performance and stability against Li metal anode.Here, we present our recent progress for the development of garnet-type solid electrolytes with high conductivity by simultaneous substitution of Ta5+ into Zr4+ site and Ba2+ into La3+ site in LLZ. Li+ concentration was fixed to 6.5 per chemical formulae, so that the formulae of our Li garnet-type oxide is expressed as Li6.5La3-xBaxZr1.5-xTa0.5+xO12 (LLBZT and Ba contents x are changed from 0 to 0.3. As results, all LLBZT samples have cubic garnet structure without containing any secondary phases. The lattice parameters of LLBZT decrease with increasing Ba2+ contents x < 0.10 while increase with x from 0.10 to 0.30, possibly due to the simultaneous change of Ba2+ and Ta5+ substitution levels. Relative densities of LLBZT are in the range between 89% and 93% and not influenced so much by the compositions. From AC impedance spectroscopy measurements, the total (bulk + grain conductivity at 27ºC of LLBZT shows its maximum value of 8.34 x 10-4 S cm-1 at x = 0.10, which is slightly higher than the conductivity (= 7.94 x 10-4 S cm-1 of LLZT without substituting Ba (x = 0. Activation energy of the conductivity tends to become lower by Ba substation, while excess Ba substitution degrades the conductivity in LLBZT. LLBZT has wide electrochemical potential window of 0-6 V vs. Li+/Li and

  12. Introducing Cobalt(II) Porphyrin/Cobalt(III) Corrole Containing Transducers for Improved Potential Reproducibility and Performance of All-Solid-State Ion-Selective Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworska, Ewa; Naitana, Mario L; Stelmach, Emilia; Pomarico, Giuseppe; Wojciechowski, Marcin; Bulska, Ewa; Maksymiuk, Krzysztof; Paolesse, Roberto; Michalska, Agata

    2017-07-05

    A novel solid contact type for all-solid-state ion-selective electrodes is introduced, yielding high stability and reproducibility of potential readings between sensors as well as improved analytical performance. The transducer phase herein proposed takes advantage of the presence of porphyrinoids containing the same metal ion at different oxidation states. In contrast to the traditional approach, the compounds of choice are not a redox pair; although they have different oxidation states, they cannot be electrochemically driven one to another. The compounds of choice were cobalt(II) porphyrin and cobalt(III) corrole-both characterized by a high stability of the coordinated metal ions in their respective redox states and electrical neutrality, as well as relatively high lipophilicity. The porphyrinoids were used together with carbon nanotubes to yield transducer layers for ion-selective electrodes. As a result, we obtained a high stability of potential readings of the resulting ion-selective electrodes together with good reproducibility between different sensor batches. Moreover, advantageously the presence of porphyrinoids in the transducer phase results in improvement of the analytical performance of the sensors: linear response range and selectivity due to interactions with membrane components, resulting in tailoring of ion fluxes through the membrane phase. Thus, carbon nanotubes with the cobalt(II) porphyrin/cobalt(III) corrole system are promising alternatives for existing transducer systems for potentiometric sensors.

  13. Hydrothermally formed three-dimensional hexagon-like P doped Ni(OH)2 rod arrays for high performance all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kunzhen; Li, Shikuo; Huang, Fangzhi; Lu, Yan; Wang, Lei; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Hui

    2018-01-01

    Three dimensional hexagon-like phosphrous (P) doped Ni(OH)2 rod arrays grown on Ni foam (NF) are fabricated by a facile and green one-step hydrothermal process. Ni foam is only reacted in a certain concentration of P containing H2O2 aqueous solution. The possible growth mechanism of the P doped Ni(OH)2 rod arrays is discussed. As a battery-type electrode material in situ formed on Ni foam, the binder-free P doped Ni(OH)2 rod arrays electrode displays a ultrahigh specific areal capacitance of 2.11C cm-2 (3.51 F cm-2) at 2 mA cm-2, and excellent cycling stability (95.5% capacitance retention after 7500 cycles). The assembled all-solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor (AAS) based on such P doped Ni(OH)2 rod arrays as the positive electrode and activated carbon as the negative electrode achieves an energy density of 81.3 Wh kg-1 at the power density of 635 W kg-1. The AAS device also exhibits excellent practical performance, which can easily drive an electric fan (3 W rated power) when two AAS devices are assembled in series. Thus, our synthesized P doped Ni(OH)2 rod arrays has a lot of potential applications in future energy storage prospects.

  14. An Integrated Glucose Sensor with an All-Solid-State Sodium Ion-Selective Electrode for a Minimally Invasive Glucose Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Kojima

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We developed a minimally invasive glucose monitoring system that uses a microneedle to permeate the skin surface and a small hydrogel to accumulate interstitial fluid glucose. The measurement of glucose and sodium ion levels in the hydrogel is required for estimating glucose levels in blood; therefore, we developed a small, enzyme-fixed glucose sensor with a high-selectivity, all-solid-state, sodium ion-selective electrode (ISE integrated into its design. The glucose sensor immobilized glucose oxidase showed a good correlation between the glucose levels in the hydrogels and the reference glucose levels (r > 0.99, and exhibited a good precision (coefficient of variation = 2.9%, 0.6 mg/dL. In the design of the sodium ISEs, we used the insertion material Na0.33MnO2 as the inner contact layer and DD16C5 exhibiting high Na+/K+ selectivity as the ionophore. The developed sodium ISE exhibited high selectivity (\\( \\log \\,k^{pot}_{Na,K} = -2.8\\ and good potential stability. The sodium ISE could measure 0.4 mM (10−3.4 M sodium ion levels in the hydrogels containing 268 mM (10−0.57 M KCl. The small integrated sensor (ϕ < 10 mm detected glucose and sodium ions in hydrogels simultaneously within 1 min, and it exhibited sufficient performance for use as a minimally invasive glucose monitoring system.

  15. Enhancement of electrochemical properties of hot-pressed poly(ethylene oxide)-based nanocomposite polymer electrolyte films for all-solid-state lithium polymer batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Lishi; Li Xingwang [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Yang Wensheng, E-mail: yangws@mail.buct.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2010-02-15

    PEO{sub 16}-LiClO{sub 4}-ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanocomposite polymer electrolyte (NCPE) films prepared by hot-pressing method have been investigated. In order to compare with the hot-pressed NCPEs, the NCPE films have also been prepared using the conventional solution-casting method. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), conductivity (sigma) and interface property studies have been carried out on above two kinds of films. The results show that the NCPE film prepared by hot-pressing method has smoother surface, higher interface stability, lower crystallization and melting temperature values than that prepared by solution-casting method. An all-solid-state lithium polymer battery using the hot-pressed NCPE film as electrolyte, lithium metal and LiFePO{sub 4} as anode and cathode respectively, shows high discharge specific capacity, good rate capacity, high coulombic efficiency, and excellent cycling stability as revealed by galvanostatical charge/discharge cycling tests.

  16. Design of a high performance thin all-solid-state supercapacitor mimicking the active interface of its liquid-state counterpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anothumakkool, Bihag; Torris A T, Arun; Bhange, Siddheshwar N; Unni, Sreekuttan M; Badiger, Manohar V; Kurungot, Sreekumar

    2013-12-26

    Here we report an all-solid-state supercapacitor (ASSP) which closely mimics the electrode-electrolyte interface of its liquid-state counterpart by impregnating polyaniline (PANI)-coated carbon paper with polyvinyl alcohol-H2SO4 (PVA-H2SO4) gel/plasticized polymer electrolyte. The well penetrated PVA-H2SO4 network along the porous carbon matrix essentially enhanced the electrode-electrolyte interface of the resulting device with a very low equivalent series resistance (ESR) of 1 Ω/cm(2) and established an interfacial structure very similar to a liquid electrolyte. The designed interface of the device was confirmed by cross-sectional elemental mapping and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images. The PANI in the device displayed a specific capacitance of 647 F/g with an areal capacitance of 1 F/cm(2) at 0.5 A/g and a capacitance retention of 62% at 20 A/g. The above values are the highest among those reported for any solid-state-supercapacitor. The whole device, including the electrolyte, shows a capacitance of 12 F/g with a significantly low leakage current of 16 μA(2). Apart from this, the device showed excellent stability for 10000 cycles with a coulombic efficiency of 100%. Energy density of the PANI in the device is 14.3 Wh/kg.

  17. An all-solid-state screen-printed carbon paste reference electrode based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) as solid contact transducer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Hui; Pan, Yiwen; Chen, Ying; Ye, Ying; Wang, You; Li, Guang

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the design of an all-solid-state portable reference electrode based on a screen-printed carbon paste electrode suitable for rapid human serum testing. The electrode was covered by electropolymerized poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS) as an internal solid contact layer and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane containing lipophilic anion and cation additives. The electrochemical properties of PEDOT(PSS) and PEDOT(PSS)/PVC film on a carbon paste electrode were studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry methods. The reference electrode exhibited good potential stability (for H + , Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , Cl − and CO 2− 3 /HCO − 3 ), good reproducibility and long-term stability. The structure is applied as reference electrodes in human serum pH analysis with pH ion selective planar electrodes, forming a serum pH sensor. The response time of such a pH sensor was 15 s and the sensitivity was −52.2 ± 1.0 mV per decade. Other properties, such as repeatability, reproducibility and stability, were also evaluated. Clinical trials were carried out and compared with the results obtained from the routine hospital electrolyte analyzer, which demonstrated that their analytical performance was closely matched. (paper)

  18. Note: All solid-state high repetitive sub-nanosecond risetime pulse generator based on bulk gallium arsenide avalanche semiconductor switches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Long; Su, Jiancang; Ding, Zhenjie; Hao, Qingsong; Fan, Yajun; Liu, Chunliang

    2016-08-01

    An all solid-state high repetitive sub-nanosecond risetime pulse generator featuring low-energy-triggered bulk gallium arsenide (GaAs) avalanche semiconductor switches and a step-type transmission line is presented. The step-type transmission line with two stages is charged to a potential of 5.0 kV also biasing at the switches. The bulk GaAs avalanche semiconductor switch closes within sub-nanosecond range when illuminated with approximately 87 nJ of laser energy at 905 nm in a single pulse. An asymmetric dipolar pulse with peak-to-peak amplitude of 9.6 kV and risetime of 0.65 ns is produced on a resistive load of 50 Ω. A technique that allows for repetition-rate multiplication of pulse trains experimentally demonstrated that the parallel-connected bulk GaAs avalanche semiconductor switches are triggered in sequence. The highest repetition rate is decided by recovery time of the bulk GaAs avalanche semiconductor switch, and the operating result of 100 kHz of the generator is discussed.

  19. In-situ Plasticized Cross-linked Polymer Composite Electrolyte Enhanced with Lithium-ion Conducting Nanofibers for Ambient All-Solid-State Lithium-ion Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Chaoyi; Zhu, Pei; Jia, Hao; Zhu, Jiadeng; Selvan, R. Kalai; Li, Ya; Dong, Xia; Du, Zhuang; Angunawela, Indunil; Wu, Nianqiang; Dirican, Mahmut

    2018-04-29

    Solid electrolytes have been gaining attention recently for the development of next-generation Li-ion batteries due to the substantial improvements in stability and safety. Among various types of solid electrolytes, composite solid electrolytes (CSEs) exhibit both high ionic conductivity and excellent interfacial contact with the electrodes. Incorporating active nanofibers into the polymer matrix demonstrates an effective method to fabricate CSEs. However, current CSEs based on traditional poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) polymer suffer from the poor ionic conductivity of PEO and agglomeration effect of inorganic fillers at high concentrations, which limit further improvements in Li+ conductivity and electrochemical stability. Herein, we synthesize a novel PEO based cross-linked polymer (CLP) as the polymer matrix with naturally amorphous structure and high room-temperature ionic conductivity of 2.40 × 10-4 S cm-1. Li0.3La0.557TiO3 (LLTO) nanofibers incorporated composite solid electrolytes (L-CLPCSE) exhibit enhanced ionic conductivity without showing filler agglomeration. The high content of Li-conductive nanofibers improves the mechanical strength, ensures the conductive networks, and increases the total Li+ conductivity to 3.31 × 10-4 S cm-1. The all-solid-state Li|LiFePO4 batteries with L-CLPCSE are able to deliver attractive specific capacity of 147 mAh g-1 at room temperature, and no evident dendrite is found at the anode/electrolyte interface after 100 cycles.

  20. Comparative Study of PVC-Free All-Solid-State, PVC Membrane, and Carbon Paste Ion-Selective Electrodes for the Determination of Dapoxetine Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Azza; Khamees, Nesrin; Mohamed, Tagreed Abdel-Fattah; Derar, Abeer Rashad

    2016-11-01

    The potentiometric response characteristics and analytical applications of a poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)-free all-solid-state ion-selective electrode for dapoxetine hydrochloride (DAP) are examined. The Nernstian response of the electrode was evaluated by comparison with PVC-based liquid membrane and carbon paste electrodes. The PVC-free electrode is prepared by direct incorporation of dapoxetine-tetraphenyl borate (DAP-TPB) as a sensing element into a commercial nail varnish containing cellulose acetate propionate. The composite was applied onto a 3 mm diameter graphite disk electrode. The electrode exhibited a Nernstian slope of 56.0 mV/decade in the concentration range of 1 × 10-4 to 1 × 10-2 mol/L with an LOD of 2 × 10-5 mol/L. The electrode is independent of pH in the range of 2 to 6 and showed good selectivity for DAP with respect to a large number of inorganic cations and amino acids. Comparable Nernstian slope, sensitivity, pH range, and selectivity pattern were obtained with a PVC membrane and a carbon paste incorporating DAP-TPB as a sensing element and dioctylphthalate as a solvent mediator. The electrodes were used for the determination of DAP in pure solution and in tablets without extraction with high accuracy and precision (RSD ≤ 2%). The nail varnish solid-state electrode is simple, economical, and rapid when compared with PVC membrane and carbon paste electrodes.

  1. All-Solid-State, PVC Membrane, and Carbon Paste Ion-Selective Electrodes for Determination of Donepezil Hydrochloride in Pharmaceutical Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khamees, Nesreen; Mohamed, Tagreed Abdel-Fattah; Derar, Abeer Rashad; Aziz, Azza

    2017-09-01

    All-solid-state, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) membrane, and carbon paste potentiometric ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) were proposed for the determination of donepezil hydrochloride (DON) in the drug substance and a pharmaceutical formulation. The potentiometric response toward DON was based on the existence of donepezil-tetraphenyl borate (DON-TPB) in a PVC membrane or a carbon paste in the presence of dioctylphthalate. In contrast, the solid-state electrode was prepared by direct incorporation of DON-TPB into a commercial nail varnish without external additives. The electrodes exhibited Nernstian slopes of 55.0, 57.0, and 53.0 mV/decade over the concentration ranges of 1 × 10-5 to 1 × 10-3, 1 × 10-4 to 10-2, and 1 × 10-4 to 5 × 10-3 for the solid-state, PVC membrane, and carbon paste electrodes, respectively. The response of the electrodes is independent of pH in the range of 2-≤8. The electrodes showed good selectivity for DON with respect to a number of inorganic cations and amino acids. The electrodes were used for the determination of DON in pure solution and in pharmaceutical tablets with high accuracy (±2%) and precision (RSD ≤2%). The solid-state electrode is simple, economical, and rapid when compared to the PVC membrane and carbon paste electrodes.

  2. Wet-Chemical Synthesis of 3D Stacked Thin Film Metal-Oxides for All-Solid-State Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evert Jonathan van den Ham

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available By ultrasonic spray deposition of precursors, conformal deposition on 3D surfaces of tungsten oxide (WO3 negative electrode and amorphous lithium lanthanum titanium oxide (LLT solid-electrolyte has been achieved as well as an all-solid-state half-cell. Electrochemical activity was achieved of the WO3 layers, annealed at temperatures of 500 °C. Galvanostatic measurements show a volumetric capacity (415 mAh·cm−3 of the deposited electrode material. In addition, electrochemical activity was shown for half-cells, created by coating WO3 with LLT as the solid-state electrolyte. The electron blocking properties of the LLT solid-electrolyte was shown by ferrocene reduction. 3D depositions were done on various micro-sized Si template structures, showing fully covering coatings of both WO3 and LLT. Finally, the thermal budget required for WO3 layer deposition was minimized, which enabled attaining active WO3 on 3D TiN/Si micro-cylinders. A 2.6-fold capacity increase for the 3D-structured WO3 was shown, with the same current density per coated area.

  3. All-solid state symmetric supercapacitors based on compressible and flexible free-standing 3D carbon nanotubes (CNTs)/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) sponge electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin; Yang, Wenyao; Mao, Xiling; Xu, Lu; Zhou, Yujiu; Chen, Yan; Zhao, Yuetao; Yang, Yajie; Xu, Jianhua

    2018-02-01

    Flexible supercapacitors that maintain electrochemical performance under deformation have attracted much attention for the potential application in the flexible electronics market. A compressible and flexible free-standing electrodes sponge and all-solid-state symmetric supercapacitors based on as-prepared electrodes are presented. The carbon nanotubes (CNTs) framework is synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, and then composited with poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) PEDOT by the electrodeposition. This CNTs/PEDOT sponge electrode shows highest mass-specific capacitance of 147 Fg-1 at 0.5 A g-1, tuned by the PEDOT mass loading, and exhibits good cyclic stability with the evidence that more than 95% of capacitance is remained after 3000 cycles. Furthermore, the symmetric supercapacitor shows the highest energy density of 12.6 Wh kg-1 under the power density of 1 kW kg-1 and highest power density of 10.2 kW kg-1 with energy density of 8 Wh kg-1, which exhibits both high energy density and power density. The electrochemical performance of composite electrode also indicates that the operate voltage of device could be extend to 1.4 V by the n-doping and p-doping process in different potential of PEDOT component. This flexible supercapacitor maintains stable electrochemical performance working on different bending condition, which shows promising prospect for wearable energy storage applications.

  4. A new method to prepare no-binder, integral electrodes-separator, asymmetric all-solid-state flexible supercapacitor derived from bacterial cellulose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xvdan; Li, Guohui; Li, Dawei; Huang, Fenglin; Liu, Wenting; Wei, Qufu

    2017-11-01

    Bacterial cellulose (BC) with unique three dimensional multilayer network structure and excellent mechanical strength is used for the substrate of the all-solid-state flexible supercapacitor. The technique was realized by in-situ depositing conductive polymer polyaniline (PANI) on BC, through both peeling off one side of the multilayer PANI/BC composition film and filtrating KOH activated pyrolysis PANI/BC (KPBC) obtained N- and O-enriched carbon powders on the peeling side. The flexible integral electrode-separator supercapacitor device was about 15 μm, which exhibited the well bending and stretching performance. The film supercapacitor also showed excellent cycle life with maximum 28.3 F cm-3 volumetric capacitance, and retains 100% over 2500 charge/discharge cycles at the 0.1 A g-1 current density. In addition, the flexible supercapacitor only indicated 2.48 Ω solution resistances (Rs) at 1 mol PVA/H2SO4 electrolyte. This flexible film supercapacitor has great potential in wearable devices.

  5. On the impedance and phase transition of thin film all-solid-state batteries based on the Li4Ti5O12 system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schichtel, Patrick; Geiß, Matthias; Leichtweiß, Thomas; Sann, Joachim; Weber, Dominik A.; Janek, Jürgen

    2017-08-01

    Model-type thin film all-solid-state batteries (ASSB) of the type Li/;LiPON;/Li4Ti5O12 are characterized by impedance spectroscopy as function of the state of charge. Both the contact of Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) to the substrate and current collector as well as the Li ion transport through the LTO thin film prove to be important factors for the rate limitation of the cell. The ionic charge transfer resistance between Li4Ti5O12 and ;LiPON; is proven to not be a rate limiting factor. The impedance measurements are interpreted in terms of the mechanism of phase change in the Li4Ti5O12 thin film and the data indicate a solid solution mechanism of phase change. The resulting data are compared to recent results for the Li/;LiPON;/LiCoO2 system, and several key similarities and differences are highlighted mostly involving the solid electrolyte/Li interface and the degradation thereof. The results are meant to improve the understanding of interfaces in ASSB in general rather than to advance high performance batteries.

  6. Nanoscale mapping of lithium-ion diffusion in a cathode within an all-solid-state lithium-ion battery by advanced scanning probe microscopy techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing; Lu, Li; Zeng, Kaiyang

    2013-02-26

    High-resolution real-space mapping of Li-ion diffusion in the LiNi(1/3)Co(1/3)Mn(1/3)O₂ cathode within an all-solid-state thin film Li-ion battery has been conducted using advanced scanning probe microscopy techniques, namely, band excitation electrochemical strain microscopy (BE-ESM) and conductive atomic force microscopy. In addition, local variations of the electrochemical response in the LiNi(1/3)Co(1/3)Mn(1/3)O₂ thin film cathode at different cycling stages have been investigated. This work demonstrates the unique feature and applications of the BE-ESM technique on battery research. The results allow us to establish a direct relationship of the changes in ionic mobility as well as the electrochemical activity at the nanoscale with the numbers of charge/discharge cycles. Furthermore, various factors influencing the BE-ESM measurements, including sample mechanical properties (e.g., elastic and dissipative properties) as well as surface electrical properties, have also been studied to investigate the coupling effects on the electrochemical strain. The study on the relationships between the Li-ion redistribution and microstructure of the electrode materials within thin film Li-ion battery will provide further understanding of the electrochemical degradation mechanisms of Li-ion rechargeable batteries at the nanoscale.

  7. Are All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries Really Safe?-Verification by Differential Scanning Calorimetry with an All-Inclusive Microcell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takao; Mukai, Kazuhiko

    2017-01-18

    Although all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries (ALIBs) have been believed as the ultimate safe battery, their true character has been an enigma so far. In this paper, we developed an all-inclusive-microcell (AIM) for differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis to clarify the degree of safety (DOS) of ALIBs. Here AIM possesses all the battery components to work as a battery by itself, and DOS is determined by the total heat generation ratio (ΔH) of ALIB compared with the conventional LIB. When DOS = 100%, the safety of ALIB is exactly the same as that of LIB; when DOS = 0%, ALIB reaches the ultimate safety. We investigated two types of LIB-AIM and three types of ALIB-AIM. Surprisingly, all the ALIBs exhibit one or two exothermic peaks above 250 °C with 20-30% of DOS. The exothermic peak is attributed to the reaction between the released oxygen from the positive electrode and the Li metal in the negative electrode. Hence, ALIBs are found to be flammable as in the case of LIBs. We also attempted to improve the safety of ALIBs and succeeded in decreasing the DOS down to ∼16% by incorporating Ketjenblack into the positive electrode as an oxygen scavenger. Based on ΔH as a function of voltage window, a safety map for LIBs and ALIBs is proposed.

  8. Intracavity KTiOAsO4 optical parametric oscillator pumped by an actively Q-switched Nd:YAG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, W. X.; Wang, Q. P.; Liu, Z. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Wan, X. B.; Bai, F.; Shen, H. B.; Lv, G. P.; Jin, G. F.; Tao, X. T.; Sun, Y. X.

    2012-04-01

    A KTiOAsO4 (KTA) intracavity optical parametric oscillator (IOPO) is achieved within a diode end-pumped acousto-optically Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. With a 25-mm-long X-cut KTA crystal, efficient parametric conversions to signal (1535 nm) and idler (3467 nm) waves are realized. At an incident diode power of 14.9 W, the highest output power of 1.83 W including 1.37 W of signal and 0.46 W of idler radiations are obtained at a repetition rate of 40 kHz, corresponding to a total optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 12.3%. Rate equations model are used to simulate this system, and the theoretical results agree with the experimental ones.

  9. High power MWIR quantum cascade lasers and their use in intra-cavity THz room temperature generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troccoli, Mariano; Wang, Xiaojun; Fan, Jenyu; Jung, Seungyong; Jiang, Aiting; Jiang, Yifan; Vijayraghavan, Karun; Belkin, Mikhail A.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we review our results on high power quantum cascade lasers in the mid- and long-wave infrared regions of the spectrum (4-12um). The specifications and characteristics of state-of-the-art QC lasers fabricated by MOCVD technology are illustrated, along with their key application requirements and potential issues for future improvements. Single emitter QC lasers in the Watt-class range are presented and analyzed. In addition, we explore the use of high power QCLs for THz generation at room temperature by non-linear mixing of high power mid-infrared beams in a monolithic intra-cavity design. The THz radiation so obtained is widely tunable by electrical injection. Experimentally, we demonstrate ridge waveguide single mode devices electrically tunable between 3.44 and 4.02 THz.

  10. Miniature all-solid-state heterostructure nanowire Li-ion batteries as a tool for engineering and structural diagnostics of nanoscale electrochemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleshko, Vladimir P; Lam, Thomas; Ruzmetov, Dmitry; Haney, Paul; Lezec, Henri J; Davydov, Albert V; Krylyuk, Sergiy; Cumings, John; Talin, A Alec

    2014-10-21

    Complex interfacial phenomena and phase transformations that govern the operation of Li-ion batteries require detailed nanoscale 3D structural and compositional characterization that can be directly related to their capacity and electrical transport properties. For this purpose, we have designed model miniature all solid-state radial heterostructure Li-ion batteries composed of LiCoO2 cathode, LiPON electrolyte and amorphous Si anode shells, which were deposited around metallized high-aspect-ratio Si nanowires as a scaffolding core. Such diagnostic batteries, the smallest, complete secondary Li-ion batteries realized to date, were specifically designed for in situ electrical testing in a field-emission scanning electron microscope and/or transmission electron microscope. The results of electrochemical testing were described in detail in a previous publication (Nano Lett., 2012, 12, 505-511). The model Li-ion batteries allow analysis of the correlations between electrochemical properties and their structural evolution during cycling in various imaging, diffraction and spectroscopic modes down to the atomic level. Employing multimode analytical scanning/transmission electron microscopy imaging coupled with correlative multivariate statistical analysis and tomography, we have analyzed and quantified the 3D morphological and structural arrangement of the batteries, including textured platelet-like LiCoO2 nanocrystallites, buried electrode-electrolyte interfaces and hidden internal defects to clarify effects of scaling on a battery's electrochemical performance. Characterization of the nanoscale interfacial processes using model heterostructure nanowire-based Li-ion batteries provides useful guidelines for engineering of prospective nano-sized building blocks in future electrochemical energy storage systems.

  11. Layer structured bismuth selenides Bi2Se3 and Bi3Se4 for high energy and flexible all-solid-state micro-supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Chunxue; Wang, Lidan; Wen, Fusheng; Xiang, Jianyong; Li, Lei; Hu, Wentao; Liu, Zhongyuan

    2018-02-01

    In this work, bismuth selenides (Bi2Se3 and Bi3Se4), both of which have a layered rhombohedral crystal structure, have been found to be useful as electrode materials for supercapacitor applications. In a liquid electrolyte system (6M KOH), Bi2Se3 nanoplates exhibit much better performance as an electrode material than Bi3Se4 nanoparticles do, delivering a higher specific capacitance (272.9 F g-1) than that of Bi3Se4 (193.6 F g-1) at 5 mV s-1. This result may be attributed to the fact that Bi2Se3 nanoplates possess more active electrochemical surfaces for the reversible surface redox reactions owing to their planar quintuple stacked layers (septuple layers for Bi3Se4). To meet the demands of electronic skin, we used a novel flexible annular interdigital structure electrode to support the all-solid-state micro-supercapacitors (AMSCs). The Bi2Se3 AMSC device delivers a much better supercapacitor performance, exhibits a large stack capacitance of 89.5 F cm-3 at 20 mV s-1 (Bi3Se4: 79.1 F cm-3), a high energy density of 17.9 mWh cm-3 and a high power density of 18.9 W cm-3. The bismuth selenides also exhibit good cycle stability, with 95.5% retention after 1000 c for Bi2Se3 (Bi3Se4:90.3%). Clearly, Bi2Se3 nanoplates can be promising electrode materials for flexible annular interdigital AMSCs.

  12. Manganese dioxide decoration of macroscopic carbon nanotube fibers: From high-performance liquid-based to all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendashteh, Afshin; Senokos, Evgeny; Palma, Jesus; Anderson, Marc; Vilatela, Juan J.; Marcilla, Rebeca

    2017-12-01

    Supercapacitors capable of providing high voltage, energy and power density but yet light, low volume occupying, flexible and mechanically robust are highly interesting and demanded for portable applications. Herein, freestanding flexible hybrid electrodes based on MnO2 nanoparticles grown on macroscopic carbon nanotube fibers (CNTf-MnO2) were fabricated, without the need of any metallic current collector. The CNTf, a support with excellent electrical conductivity, mechanical stability, and appropriate pore structure, was homogeneously decorated with porous akhtenskite ɛ-MnO2 nanoparticles produced via electrodeposition in an optimized organic-aqueous mixture. Electrochemical properties of these decorated fibers were evaluated in different electrolytes including a neutral aqueous solution and a pure 1-butyl-3-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid (PYR14TFSI). This comparison helps discriminate the various contributions to the total capacitance: (surface) Faradaic and non-Faradaic processes, improved wetting by aqueous electrolytes. Accordingly, symmetric supercapacitors with PYR14TFSI led to a high specific energy of 36 Wh· kgMnO2-1 (16 Wh·kg-1 including the weight of CNTf) and real specific power of 17 kW· kgMnO2-1 (7.5 kW kg-1) at 3.0 V with excellent cycling stability. Moreover, flexible all solid-state supercapacitors were fabricated using PYR14TFSI-based polymer electrolyte, exhibiting maximum energy density of 21 Wh·kg-1 and maximum power density of 8 kW kg-1 normalized by total active material.

  13. Pseudo-binary electrolyte, LiBH4-LiCl, for bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unemoto, Atsushi; Chen, ChunLin; Wang, Zhongchang; Matsuo, Motoaki; Ikeshoji, Tamio; Orimo, Shin-Ichi

    2015-01-26

    The ionic conduction and electrochemical and thermal stabilities of the LiBH4-LiCl solid-state electrolyte were investigated for use in bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries. The LiBH4-LiCl solid-state electrolyte exhibiting a lithium ionic conductivity of [Formula: see text] at 373 K, forms a reversible interface with a lithium metal electrode and has a wide electrochemical potential window up to 5 V. By means of the high-energy mechanical ball-milling technique, we prepared a composite powder consisting of elemental sulfur and mixed conductive additive, i.e., Ketjen black and Maxsorb. In that composite powder, homogeneous dispersion of the materials is achieved on a nanometer scale, and thereby a high concentration of the interface among them is induced. Such nanometer-scale dispersals of both elemental sulfur and carbon materials play an important role in enhancing the electrochemical reaction of elemental sulfur. The highly deformable LiBH4-LiCl electrolyte assists in the formation of a high concentration of tight interfaces with the sulfur-carbon composite powder. The LiBH4-LiCl electrolyte also allows the formation of the interface between the positive electrode and the electrolyte layers, and thus the Li-ion transport paths are established at that interface. As a result, our battery exhibits high discharge capacities of 1377, 856, and 636 mAh g(-1) for the 1st, 2nd, and 5th discharges, respectively, at 373 K. These results imply that complex hydride-based solid-state electrolytes that contain Cl-ions in the crystal would be integrated into rechargeable batteries.

  14. Infiltration of Solution-Processable Solid Electrolytes into Conventional Li-Ion-Battery Electrodes for All-Solid-State Li-Ion Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong Hyeon; Oh, Dae Yang; Park, Kern Ho; Choi, Young Eun; Nam, Young Jin; Lee, Han Ah; Lee, Sang-Min; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2017-05-10

    Bulk-type all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries (ASLBs) have the potential to be superior to conventional lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) in terms of safety and energy density. Sulfide SE materials are key to the development of bulk-type ASLBs because of their high ionic conductivity (max of ∼10 -2 S cm -1 ) and deformability. However, the severe reactivity of sulfide materials toward common polar solvents and the particulate nature of these electrolytes pose serious complications for the wet-slurry process used to fabricate ASLB electrodes, such as the availability of solvent and polymeric binders and the formation of ionic contacts and networks. In this work, we report a new scalable fabrication protocol for ASLB electrodes using conventional composite LIB electrodes and homogeneous SE solutions (Li 6 PS 5 Cl (LPSCl) in ethanol or 0.4LiI-0.6Li 4 SnS 4 in methanol). The liquefied LPSCl is infiltrated into the tortuous porous structures of LIB electrodes and solidified, providing intimate ionic contacts and favorable ionic percolation. The LPSCl-infiltrated LiCoO 2 and graphite electrodes show high reversible capacities (141 and 364 mA h g -1 ) at 0.14 mA cm -2 (0.1 C) and 30 °C, which are not only superior to those for conventional dry-mixed and slurry-mixed ASLB electrodes but also comparable to those for liquid electrolyte cells. Good electrochemical performance of ASLBs employing the LPSCl-infiltrated LiCoO 2 and graphite electrodes at 100 °C is also presented, highlighting the excellent thermal stability and safety of ASLBs.

  15. Atmospheric measurements of OH, HO2 and NO by laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy using a compact all solid-state laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloss, W. J.; Floquet, C.; Gravestock, T. J.; Heard, D. E.; Ingham, T.; Johnson, G. P.; Lee, J. D.

    2003-04-01

    Free-radicals are key intermediates that control the budgets of many trace gases, for example ozone, greenhouse gases and harmful pollutants. Measurement of radicals and comparison with model calculations constitutes an important test of our understanding of the underlying chemistry. There is a greater need for compact and lightweight instruments for the in situ measurement of free-radical species that are suitable for deployment from a number of field-platforms. A new field instrument has been developed that incorporates an all solid-state Nd:YAG pumped titanium sapphire laser that is capable of generating radiation at high pulse-repetition-frequency for the detection of OH, HO_2, NO and IO radicals in the atmosphere by laser induced fluorescence (LIF). The system offers advantages of wide wavelength tunability, compactness, low weight, greater long-term stability (fibre-optic delivery) and short warm-up time. The instrument was successfully deployed during 2002 in the NAMBLEX field campaign at Mace Head with detection limits for OH and HO_2 (measured simultaneously with laser operation at 308 nm) of 3.1 x 10^5 molecule cm-3 (0.012 ppt) and 2.6 x 10^6 molecule cm-3 (0.09 pptv) respectively. Diurnal profiles of OH have been recorded over a period of 5 weeks. NO controls the HO_2/OH ratio and is the critical parameter in the production of tropospheric ozone, yet measurements in the boundary layer are restricted to a single indirect technique based on chemiluminescent analysers. Measurements of NO in the atmosphere have been made by LIF using the new instrument operating at 226 nm, with absolute concentrations in good agreement with simultaneous measurements made using a commercial chemiluminescent analyser. Whilst operating at 445 nm, the instrument has detected the IO radical in the laboratory, with a projected detection limit that is well below previously measured atmospheric concentrations of IO. A second instrument to be deployed on an aircraft platform is

  16. Electrospun fibrous electrodes with tunable microstructure made of polyaniline/multi-walled carbon nanotube suspension for all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Junsheng; Su, Shijie; Fang, Xu [Key Laboratory for Micro/Nano Technology and System of Liaoning Province, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Wang, Dazhi, E-mail: d.wang@dlut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Micro/Nano Technology and System of Liaoning Province, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Key Laboratory for Precision and Non-traditional Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China); Xu, Shuangchao [Key Laboratory for Precision and Non-traditional Machining Technology of Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116023 (China)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Electrospun PANI/MWCNT fibrous electrodes for supercapacitor were prepared. • Microstructure of electrodes is tunable by changing the electrospin parameters. • Fiber-diameter dependence of the electrode performance was observed. • High performance and good stability of electrospun electrodes were obtained. - Abstract: Electrospinning technique was used to prepare high performance fibrous electrodes with tunable microstructure for all-solid-state electrochemical supercapacitor. Symmetrically sandwiched supercapacitors consisting of flexible electrospun polyaniline (PANI)/multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) electrodes and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) gel electrolyte were assembled. Tunable microstructure of the fibrous electrode was obtained by changing the electrospinning parameters including the collector–needle distance (CND) and the suspension flow rate (SFR). Results show that, higher CND combining with lower SFR can result in a smaller average diameter of the electrospun fibers and hence improve the electrode performance. When the CND changes from 80 to 140 mm, the average fiber diameter will decrease from 2.89 to 1.21 μm, and the specific surface area of the electrode can increase from 57 to 83 m{sup 2}·g{sup −1}. The corresponding specific capacitance of the electrospun electrode will therefore increase from 129.5 to 180 F·g{sup −1}, leading to a synchronous improvement of the energy density of the supercapacitor from 18 to 25 Wh·kg{sup −1}. On the other hand, the supercapacitors using fibrous electrodes in this work also show good rate capability and cycling stability. Using the electrode with an average fiber diameter of 1.21 μm, the specific capacitances can maintain 131 F·g{sup −1} at a current density of 4 A·g{sup −1}, which is 73% of the specific capacitance of the same sample at a current density of 0.5 A·g{sup −1}. And the specific capacitance of the electrode can retain 89

  17. Efficient high-pulse-energy eye-safe laser generated by an intracavity Nd:YLF/KTP optical parametric oscillator: role of thermally induced polarization switching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y J; Tang, C Y; Huang, Y P; Cho, C Y; Su, K W; Chen, Y F

    2012-01-01

    A high-pulse-energy eye-safe laser at 1552 nm is effectually generated by an intracavity Nd:YLF/KTP optical parametric oscillator (OPO) with the help of the thermally induced polarization switching. The polarization characteristics of the c-cut Nd:YLF laser at 1053 nm in the continuous-wave (CW) and Q-switched operation are comprehensively investigated. We experimentally verify the thermally induced birefringence can lead to a polarization switching between the mutually orthogonal components of the fundamental pulses. Consequently, an efficient intracavity nonlinear frequency conversion can be achieved in an optically isotropic laser crystal without any additional polarization control. With this finding, the pulse energy and peak power of the compact Nd:YLF/KTP eye-safe laser under an incident pump power of 12.7 W and a pulse repetition rate of 5 kHz are up to 306 μJ and 4 kW, respectively

  18. Electrodeposited polyethylenedioxythiophene with infiltrated gel electrolyte interface: a close contest of an all-solid-state supercapacitor with its liquid-state counterpart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anothumakkool, Bihag; Torris A. T, Arun; Bhange, Siddheshwar N.; Badiger, Manohar V.; Kurungot, Sreekumar

    2014-05-01

    We report the design of an all-solid-state supercapacitor, which has charge storage characteristics closely matching that of its liquid-state counterpart even under extreme temperature and humidity conditions. The prototype is made by electro-depositing polyethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) onto the individual carbon fibers of a porous carbon substrate followed by intercalating the matrix with polyvinyl alcohol-sulphuric acid (PVA-H2SO4) gel electrolyte. The electrodeposited layer of PEDOT maintained a flower-like growth pattern along the threads of each carbon fiber. This morphology and the alignment of PEDOT led to an enhanced surface area and electrical conductivity, and the pores in the system enabled effective intercalation of the polymer-gel electrolyte. Thus, the established electrode-electrolyte interface nearly mimics that of its counterpart based on the liquid electrolyte. Consequently, the solid device attained very low internal resistance (1.1 Ω cm-2) and a high specific capacitance (181 F g-1) for PEDOT at a discharge current density of 0.5 A g-1. Even with a high areal capacitance of 836 mF cm-2 and volumetric capacitance of 28 F cm-3, the solid device retained a mass-specific capacitance of 111 F g-1 for PEDOT. This is in close agreement with the value displayed by the corresponding liquid-state system (112 F g-1), which was fabricated by replacing the gel electrolyte with 0.5 M H2SO4. The device also showed excellent charge-discharge stability for 12 000 cycles at 5 A g-1. The performance of the device was consistent even under wide-ranging humidity (30-80%) and temperature (-10 to 80 °C) conditions. Finally, a device fabricated by increasing the electrode area four times was used to light an LED, which validated the scalability of the process.We report the design of an all-solid-state supercapacitor, which has charge storage characteristics closely matching that of its liquid-state counterpart even under extreme temperature and humidity conditions

  19. Development of All-Solid-State Sensors for Measurement of Nitric Oxide and Ammonia Concentrations by Optical Absorption in Particle-Laden Combustion Exhaust Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerald A. Caton; Kalyan Annamalai; Robert P. Lucht

    2006-12-31

    An all-solid-state continuous-wave (cw) laser system for ultraviolet absorption measurements of the nitric oxide (NO) molecule has been developed and demonstrated. For the NO sensor, 250 nW of tunable cw ultraviolet radiation is produced by sum-frequency-mixing of 532-nm radiation from a diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser and tunable 395-nm radiation from an external cavity diode laser (ECDL). The sum-frequency-mixing process occurs in a beta-barium borate crystal. The nitric oxide absorption measurements are performed by tuning the ECDL and scanning the sum-frequency-mixed radiation over strong nitric oxide absorption lines near 226 nm. In Year 1 of the research, the nitric oxide sensor was used for measurements in the exhaust of a coal-fired laboratory combustion facility. The Texas A&M University boiler burner facility is a 30 kW (100,000 Btu/hr) downward-fired furnace with a steel shell encasing ceramic insulation. Measurements of nitric oxide concentration in the exhaust stream were performed after modification of the facility for laser based NOx diagnostics. The diode-laser-based ultraviolet absorption measurements were successful even when the beam was severely attenuated by particulate in the exhaust stream and window fouling. Single-laser-sweep measurements were demonstrated with an effective time resolution of 100 msec, limited at this time by the scan rate of our mechanically tuned ECDL system. In Year 2, the Toptica ECDL in the original system was replaced with a Sacher Lasers ECDL. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Toptica ECDL were 25 GHz and a few Hz, respectively. The mode-hop-free tuning range and tuning rate of the Sacher Lasers ECDL were 90 GHz and a few hundred Hz, respectively. The Sacher Lasers ECDL thus allows us to scan over the entire NO absorption line and to determine the absorption baseline with increased accuracy and precision. The increased tuning rate is an advantage in that data can be acquired much more rapidly and the

  20. A room-temperature all-solid-state 4.7 THz multiplied LO source to enable the heterodyne observation of interstellar neutral oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siles, Jose

    emission and absorption, the models that predict the chemistry of ISM cannot be verified, revised and/or completed. Until this problem is solved, or in other words, until the fine OI atomic line is observed in high spectral and spatial resolution, the chemistry of oxygen in interstellar clouds and protostellar regions, essential for understanding the formation of stars and the incorporation of key molecules into forming planetary system, will not be fully understood. As a response to this problem, we will develop the first all-solid-state continuous coherent local oscillator (LO) source at 4.7 THz to enable very high-resolution heterodyne observation (R=»/”» > 1E6) of the 4.748 THz (63.1837 μm) fine structure line of neutral atomic oxygen (OI). This source will be broadband, frequency-agile, temperature and frequency stable and will operate at room-temperature (no need of cryogenic cooling). With hot electron bolometer detectors (HEB) already available, the proposed source is the only technological part that is still missing to provide the radio-astronomers with this highly necessary science data for the complete understanding of star and planetary systems formation processes.

  1. Plasma diagnosis by dye laser intracavity absorption: Final report for period January 1, 1982-May 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brink, G.O.

    1986-05-01

    Dye laser intracavity absorption (ICA) has been studied as a potential diagnostic for plasma or neutral beam systems. For magnetic field measurements it is necessary to make Zeeman effect measurements on the resonance transition of atomic lithium on a millisecond time scale, or to make motional Stark Effect measurements on an injected fast atomic beam of hydrogen. To do this it may be necessary to sweep the dye laser in wavelength at a rapid rate so that the absorber can be sampled many times during the measurement. We have examined both of these possibilities during this contract. A rather detailed absorption spectrum of molecular hydrogen and deuterium arising in the 2c 3 Piu and other electronic states has been obtained and analyzed. This has provided new information on the types of molecular species that may be detected in a plasma by ICA, and may provide a basis for the application of ICA for the diagnosis of the edge plasma in a tokamak or in the end regions of a mirror machine

  2. Improvements of photocurrent by using modified SiO(2) in the poly(ether urethane)/poly(ethylene oxide) polymer electrolyte for all-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yanfang; Xiang, Wanchun; Chen, Shen; Fang, Shibi; Zhou, Xiaowen; Zhang, Jingbo; Lin, Yuan

    2009-07-14

    Nanocomposite polymer electrolytes containing poly(ether urethane) (PEUR)/poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO)/modified SiO(2) were prepared for all-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells with a high efficiency of 4.86% and an active area of 0.25 cm(2) under AM1.5 conditions at 100 mW cm(-2) irradiation.

  3. Highly enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue over the indirect all-solid-state Z-scheme g-C3N4-RGO-TiO2 nanoheterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fangjun; Li, Xin; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Shuting

    2017-05-01

    In the present research work, the ternary indirect all-solid-state Z-scheme nanoheterojunctions, graphitic-C3N4/reduced graphene oxide/anatase TiO2 (g-C3N4-RGO-TiO2) with highly enhanced photocatalytic performance were successfully prepared via a simple liquid-precipitation strategy. The photocatalytic activities of indirect all-solid-state Z-scheme g-C3N4-RGO-TiO2 nanoheterojunctions were evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The results showed that the introduction of RGO as an interfacial mediator into direct Z-scheme g-C3N4-TiO2 nanocomposites can remarkably enhance their photocatalytic activities. The as-obtained indirect all-solid-state Z-scheme g-C3N4-RGO-TiO2 nanoheterojunctions, with the optimal loading amount of 10 wt% RGO, exhibited the highest rate towards the photocatalytic degradation of MB under simulated solar light irradiation. The degradation kinetics of MB can be described by the apparent first-order kinetics model. The highest degradation rate constant of 0.0137 min-1 is about 4.7 and 3.2 times greater than those of the pure g-C3N4 (0.0029 min-1) and direct Z-scheme g-C3N4-TiO2 (0.0043 min-1), respectively. An indirect all-solid-state Z-scheme charge-separation mechanism was proposed based on the photoluminescence spectra and the trapping experiment procedure of the photo-generated active species. It was believed that the indirect all-solid-state Z-scheme charge separation mechanism in g-C3N4-RGO-TiO2 nanoheterojunctions could lead to the promoted charge separation and transfer, improved oxygen-reduction capacity of electrons in g-C3N4 and the formation of hydroxyl radicals driven by the holes in TiO2, respectively, thus achieving the highly enhanced photocatalytic degradation performance. This work might provide new insights and understanding on the graphene as electron mediators to design highly efficient all-solid-state Z-scheme nanoheterojunctions with enhanced visible-light driven photoactivity for various photocatalytic

  4. Californium-252 neutron intracavity brachytherapy alone for T1N0 low-lying rectal adenocarcinoma: A definitive anal sphincter-preserving radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Yanli Xiong; Jinlu Shan; Jia Liu; Kewei Zhao; Shu Chen; Wenjing Xu; Qian Zhou; Mei Yang; Xin Lei

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated the 4-year results of 32 patients with T1N0 low-lying rectal adenocarcinoma treated solely with californium-252 (Cf-252) neutron intracavity brachytherapy (ICBT). Patients were solicited into the study from January 2008 to June 2011. All the patients had refused surgery or surgery was contraindicated. The patients were treated with Cf-252 neutron ICBT using a novel 3.5-cm diameter off-axis 4-channel intrarectal applicator designed by the authors. The dose reference point ...

  5. An All-Solid-State pH Sensor Employing Fluorine-Terminated Polycrystalline Boron-Doped Diamond as a pH-Insensitive Solution-Gate Field-Effect Transistor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shintani, Yukihiro; Kobayashi, Mikinori; Kawarada, Hiroshi

    2017-05-05

    A fluorine-terminated polycrystalline boron-doped diamond surface is successfully employed as a pH-insensitive SGFET (solution-gate field-effect transistor) for an all-solid-state pH sensor. The fluorinated polycrystalline boron-doped diamond (BDD) channel possesses a pH-insensitivity of less than 3mV/pH compared with a pH-sensitive oxygenated channel. With differential FET (field-effect transistor) sensing, a sensitivity of 27 mv/pH was obtained in the pH range of 2-10; therefore, it demonstrated excellent performance for an all-solid-state pH sensor with a pH-sensitive oxygen-terminated polycrystalline BDD SGFET and a platinum quasi-reference electrode, respectively.

  6. Development of all solid-state, high average power ultra-short pulse laser for X-ray generation. High average power CPA system and wavefront control of ultra short laser pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harayama, Sayaka; Akaoka, Katsuaki; Tei, Kazuyoku; Kato, Masaaki; Niwa, Yoshito; Maruyama, Yoichiro; Matoba, Toru; Arisawa, Takashi; Takuma, Hiroshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    We developed a prototype CPA laser system which is pumped by a all solid-state Nd:YAG laser. In a preliminary experiment, the output energy of 52mJ before compression was obtained when the pumping energy was 250mJ. To compensate the wavefront distortion, an adaptive optics has been developed. By using this wavefront control system, the laser beam with the distortion of 0.15{lambda} was obtained. (author)

  7. Electrochemical and structural evaluation for bulk-type all-solid-state batteries using Li4GeS4-Li3PS4 electrolyte coating on LiCoO2 particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yusuke; Otoyama, Misae; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Ohtomo, Takamasa; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2017-08-01

    Bulk-type all-solid-state batteries, which use composite electrodes with a powder mixture of active materials and solid electrolytes, are anticipated for large-scale power sources. However, conventional powder mixing protocols are insufficient to maintain ion-conductive pathways within composite electrodes. Herein, sulfide electrolyte coatings have attracted attention as a promising means to overcome this difficulty. We assessed the effects of sulfide electrolyte coatings for active materials on the electrochemical properties and structural changes in all-solid-state cells. A favorable electrode-electrolyte interface was formed by coating significantly small amounts (ca. 3 wt%) of Li4GeS4-Li3PS4 solid electrolyte (SE) onto LiCoO2 particles via vapor phase process. The all-solid-state cell (In/Li2S-P2S5/SE-coated LiCoO2) was charged and discharged with a larger capacity than that using non-SE-coated LiCoO2 particles, indicating that the SE-coating is effective in forming a favorable ion-conductive pathway to LiCoO2 particles. Improvement of the cell performance after heat treatment was considered to derive not only from the enhancement of ionic conductivity in the SE-coating layer, but also from the reduction of voids in the composite electrode. Less ionic resistance and denser environment are beneficial for the Li-ion supply to the deepest part in the composite electrode, which results in more homogeneous electrochemical reaction in all-solid-state cells.

  8. High Capacity, Superior Cyclic Performances in All-Solid-State Lithium-Ion Batteries Based on 78Li2S-22P2S5Glass-Ceramic Electrolytes Prepared via Simple Heat Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yibo; Chen, Rujun; Liu, Ting; Shen, Yang; Lin, Yuanhua; Nan, Ce-Wen

    2017-08-30

    Highly Li-ion conductive 78Li 2 S-22P 2 S 5 glass-ceramic electrolytes were prepared by simple heat treatment of the glass phase obtained via mechanical ball milling. A high ionic conductivity of ∼1.78 × 10 -3 S cm -1 is achieved at room temperature and is attributed to the formation of a crystalline phase of high lithium-ion conduction. All-solid-state lithium-ion batteries based on these glass-ceramic electrolytes are assembled by using Li 2 S nanoparticles or low-cost commercially available FeS 2 as active cathode materials and Li-In alloys as anode. A high discharge capacity of 535 mAh g -1 is achieved after at least 50 cycles for the all-solid-state cells with Li 2 S as cathode materials, suggesting a rather high capacity retention of 97.4%. Even for the cells using low-cost FeS 2 as cathode materials, same high discharge capacity of 560 mAh g -1 is also achieved after at least 50 cycles. Moreover, the Coulombic efficiency remain at ∼99% for these all-solid-state cells during the charge-discharge cycles.

  9. Core-Shell Fe1- xS@Na2.9PS3.95Se0.05Nanorods for Room Temperature All-Solid-State Sodium Batteries with High Energy Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hongli; Mwizerwa, Jean Pierre; Qi, Xingguo; Liu, Xin; Xu, Xiaoxiong; Li, Hong; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Yao, Xiayin

    2018-03-27

    High ionic conductivity electrolyte and intimate interfacial contact are crucial factors to realize high-performance all-solid-state sodium batteries. Na 2.9 PS 3.95 Se 0.05 electrolyte with reduced particle size of 500 nm is first synthesized by a simple liquid-phase method and exhibits a high ionic conductivity of 1.21 × 10 -4 S cm -1 , which is comparable with that synthesized with a solid-state reaction. Meanwhile, a general interfacial architecture, that is, Na 2.9 PS 3.95 Se 0.05 electrolyte uniformly anchored on Fe 1- x S nanorods, is designed and successfully prepared by an in situ liquid-phase coating approach, forming core-shell structured Fe 1- x S@Na 2.9 PS 3.95 Se 0.05 nanorods and thus realizing an intimate contact interface. The Fe 1- x S@Na 2.9 PS 3.95 Se 0.05 /Na 2.9 PS 3.95 Se 0.05 /Na all-solid-state sodium battery demonstrates high specific capacity and excellent rate capability at room temperature, showing reversible discharge capacities of 899.2, 795.5, 655.1, 437.9, and 300.4 mAh g -1 at current densities of 20, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mA g -1 , respectively. The obtained all-solid-state sodium batteries show very high energy and power densities up to 910.6 Wh kg -1 and 201.6 W kg -1 based on the mass of Fe 1- x S at current densities of 20 and 200 mA g -1 , respectively. Moreover, the reaction mechanism of Fe 1- x S is confirmed by means of ex situ X-ray diffraction techniques, showing that partially reversible reaction occurs in the Fe 1- x S electrode after the second cycle, which gives the obtained all-solid-state sodium battery an exceptional cycling stability, exhibiting a high capacity of 494.3 mAh g -1 after cycling at 100 mA g -1 for 100 cycles. This contribution provides a strategy for designing high-performance room temperature all-solid-state sodium battery.

  10. Highly enhanced photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue over the indirect all-solid-state Z-scheme g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-RGO-TiO{sub 2} nanoheterojunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Fangjun [College of Materials and Energy, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Li, Xin [College of Materials and Energy, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Institute of New Energy and New Materials, Key Laboratory of Energy Plants Resource and Utilization, Ministry of Agriculture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); College of Forestry and Landscape Architecture, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Liu, Wei, E-mail: wlscau@163.com [College of Materials and Energy, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Zhang, Shuting [College of Materials and Energy, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

    2017-05-31

    Highlights: • The indirect Z-scheme g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-RGO-TiO{sub 2} photocatalysts were successfully fabricated. • A 3.2-fold activity enhancement was achieved by inserting RGO into g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}- TiO{sub 2}. • The indirect Z-scheme mechanism was verified by PL spectra and radical trapping. • The multi-functional roles of RGO in enhancing photodegradation were revealed. - Abstract: In the present research work, the ternary indirect all-solid-state Z-scheme nanoheterojunctions, graphitic-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}/reduced graphene oxide/anatase TiO{sub 2} (g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-RGO-TiO{sub 2}) with highly enhanced photocatalytic performance were successfully prepared via a simple liquid-precipitation strategy. The photocatalytic activities of indirect all-solid-state Z-scheme g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-RGO-TiO{sub 2} nanoheterojunctions were evaluated by the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The results showed that the introduction of RGO as an interfacial mediator into direct Z-scheme g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites can remarkably enhance their photocatalytic activities. The as-obtained indirect all-solid-state Z-scheme g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-RGO-TiO{sub 2} nanoheterojunctions, with the optimal loading amount of 10 wt% RGO, exhibited the highest rate towards the photocatalytic degradation of MB under simulated solar light irradiation. The degradation kinetics of MB can be described by the apparent first-order kinetics model. The highest degradation rate constant of 0.0137 min{sup −1} is about 4.7 and 3.2 times greater than those of the pure g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} (0.0029 min{sup −1}) and direct Z-scheme g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-TiO{sub 2} (0.0043 min{sup −1}), respectively. An indirect all-solid-state Z-scheme charge-separation mechanism was proposed based on the photoluminescence spectra and the trapping experiment procedure of the photo-generated active species. It was believed that the indirect all-solid-state Z-scheme charge separation mechanism in g-C{sub 3}N

  11. Unravelling Li-Ion Transport from Picoseconds to Seconds: Bulk versus Interfaces in an Argyrodite Li6PS5Cl-Li2S All-Solid-State Li-Ion Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chuang; Ganapathy, Swapna; de Klerk, Niek J J; Roslon, Irek; van Eck, Ernst R H; Kentgens, Arno P M; Wagemaker, Marnix

    2016-09-07

    One of the main challenges of all-solid-state Li-ion batteries is the restricted power density due to the poor Li-ion transport between the electrodes via the electrolyte. However, to establish what diffusional process is the bottleneck for Li-ion transport requires the ability to distinguish the various processes. The present work investigates the Li-ion diffusion in argyrodite Li6PS5Cl, a promising electrolyte based on its high Li-ion conductivity, using a combination of (7)Li NMR experiments and DFT based molecular dynamics simulations. This allows us to distinguish the local Li-ion mobility from the long-range Li-ion motional process, quantifying both and giving a coherent and consistent picture of the bulk diffusion in Li6PS5Cl. NMR exchange experiments are used to unambiguously characterize Li-ion transport over the solid electrolyte-electrode interface for the electrolyte-electrode combination Li6PS5Cl-Li2S, giving unprecedented and direct quantitative insight into the impact of the interface on Li-ion charge transport in all-solid-state batteries. The limited Li-ion transport over the Li6PS5Cl-Li2S interface, orders of magnitude smaller compared with that in the bulk Li6PS5Cl, appears to be the bottleneck for the performance of the Li6PS5Cl-Li2S battery, quantifying one of the major challenges toward improved performance of all-solid-state batteries.

  12. Checkerboard deposition of lithium manganese oxide spinel (LiMn2O4) by RF magnetron sputtering on a stainless steel in all-solid-state thin film battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsueh, T. H.; Yu, Y. Q.; Jan, D. J.; Su, C. H.; Chang, S. M.

    2018-03-01

    All-solid-state thin film lithium batteries (TFLBs) are the most competitive low-power sources to be applied in various kinds of micro-electro-mechanical systems and have been draw a lot of attention in academic research. In this paper, the checkerboard deposition of all-solid-state TFLB was composed of thin film lithium metal anode, lithium phosphorus oxynitride (LiPON) solid electrolyte, and checkerboard deposition of lithium manganese oxide spinel (LiMn2O4) cathode. The LiPON and LiMn2O4 were deposited by a radio frequency magnetron sputtering system, and the lithium metal was deposited by a thermal evaporation coater. The electrochemical characterization of this lithium battery showed the first discharge capacity of 107.8 μAh and the capacity retention was achieved 95.5% after 150 charge-discharge cycles between 4.3V and 3V at a current density of 11 μA/cm2 (0.5C). Obviously, the checkerboard of thin film increased the charge exchange rate; also this lithium battery exhibited high C-rate performance, with better capacity retention of 82% at 220 μA/cm2 (10C).

  13. A broadband Tm/Ho-doped fiber laser tunable from 1.8 to 2.09 µm for intracavity absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fjodorow, Peter; Hellmig, Ortwin; Baev, Valery M.

    2018-04-01

    A broadband tunable Tm/Ho-doped fiber laser is developed for sensitive in situ measurements of intracavity absorption spectra in the spectral range of 4780-5560 cm-1. This spectral range includes an atmospheric transmission window enabling sensitive measurements of various species. The spectral bandwidth of laser emission varies from 20 to 60 cm-1 and is well suitable for multicomponent spectroscopy. The sensitivity achieved in cw operation corresponds to an effective absorption path length of L eff = 20 km, with a spectral noise of less than 1%. The spectroscopic system is applied for measurements of absorption spectra of H2O, NH3 and for simultaneous in situ detection of three isotopes of CO2 in human breath, which is important for medical diagnostics procedures.

  14. Intracavity KTP-based OPO pumped by a dual-loss modulated, simultaneously Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:GGG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hongwei; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Zhao, Jia; Li, Yufei; Li, Dechun; Li, Guiqiu; Li, Tao; Qiao, Wenchao

    2014-11-03

    An intracavity KTiOPO(4) (KTP) optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by a simultaneously Q-switched and mode-locked (QML) Nd:Gd(3)Ga(5)O(12) (Nd:GGG) laser with an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) and a Cr(4+):YAG saturable absorber is presented. A minimum mode-locking pulse duration underneath the Q-switched envelope was evaluated to be about 290 ps. A maximum QML output power of 82 mW at the signal wavelength of 1570 nm was achieved, corresponding to a maximum mode-locked pulse energy of about 5.12 μJ. The M(2) values were measured to be about 1.3 and 1.5 for tangential and sagittal directions using knife-edge technique.

  15. Quasi-continuous-wave 589-nm radiation based on intracavity frequency-doubled Nd:GGG/BaWO4 Raman laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Liu, Zhaojun; Cong, Zhenhua; Men, Shaojie; Rao, Han; Xia, Jinbao; Zhang, Sasa; Zhang, Huaijin

    2016-07-01

    Quasi-continuous-wave (QCW) 589-nm radiation was realized based on a frequency-doubled crystalline Raman laser. The fundamental wave with macro-micro-pulse trains was generated from an acousto-optically Q-switched QCW diode side-pumped Nd:GGG laser. Intracavity Raman conversion was accomplished by a BaWO4 crystal and the second harmonic generation was finished by a KTP crystal. Under a pumping power of 126.0 W with a macro-pulse frequency of 300 Hz and duration of 300 μs, the maximum 589 nm output power of 4.2 W was obtained at a micro-pulse frequency of 33.3 kHz. The micro-pulse width was 13.6 ns.

  16. Comparison of Small-Scale Actively and Passively Q-Switched Eye-Safe Intracavity Optical Parametric Oscillators at 1.57 μm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Jie-Guang; Pan Yu-Zhai; Qu Shi-Liang

    2012-01-01

    The first experimental comparison between the actively and passively Q-switched intracavity optical parametric oscillators (IOPOs) at 1.57 μm driven by a small-scale diode-pumped Nd:YVO 4 laser are thoroughly presented. It is found that the performances of the two types of IOPOs are complementary. The actively Q-switched IOPO features a shorter pulse duration, a higher peak power, and a superior power and pulse stability. However, in terms of compactness, operation threshold and conversion efficiency, passively Q-switched IOPOs are more attractive. It is further indicated that the passively Q-switched IOPO at 1.57μm is a promising and cost-effective eye-safe laser source, especially at the low and moderate output levels. In addition, instructional improvement measures for the two types of IOPOs are also summarized. (fundamental areas of phenomenology(including applications))

  17. 303 nm continuous wave ultraviolet laser generated by intracavity frequency-doubling of diode-pumped Pr3+:LiYF4 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Pengfei; Zhang, Chaomin; Zhu, Kun; Ping, Yunxia; Song, Pei; Sun, Xiaohui; Wang, Fuxin; Yao, Yi

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrate an efficient and compact ultraviolet laser at 303 nm generated by intracavity frequency doubling of a continuous wave (CW) laser diode-pumped Pr3+:YLiF4 laser at 607 nm. A cesium lithium borate (CLBO) crystal, cut for critical type I phase matching at room temperature, is used for second-harmonic generation (SHG) of the fundamental laser. By using an InGaN laser diode array emitting at 444.3 nm with a maximum incident power of 10 W, as high as 68 mW of CW output power at 303 nm is achieved. The output power stability in 4 h is better than 2.85%. To the best of our knowledge, this is high efficient UV laser generated by frequency doubling of an InGaN laser diode array pumped Pr3+:YLiF4 laser.

  18. Idler-resonant intracavity KTA-based OPO pumped by a dual-loss modulated-Q-switched-laser with AOM and Cr4+:YAG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Junpeng; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Zhao, Jia; Li, Guiqiu; Li, Dechun; Li, Tao; Qiao, Wenchao

    2017-06-01

    An idler-resonant KTiOAsO4 (KTA)-based intracavity optical parametric oscillator (IOPO) pumped by a dual-loss-modulated Q-switched laser with an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) and a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber (Cr4+:YAG-SA) has been presented. By utilizing a type-II non-critically phase-matched KTA crystal, signal wave at 1535 nm and idler wave at 3467 nm have been generated. Under an incident pump power of 18.3 W, maximum output powers of 615 mW for signal wave and 228 mW for idler wave were obtained at an AOM modulation rate of 10 kHz, corresponding to a whole optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 4.6%. The shortest pulse widths of signal and idler wave were measured to be 898 ps and 2.9 ns, corresponding to the highest peak powers of 68.4 and 7.9 kW, respectively. In comparison with IOPO pumped by a singly Q-switched laser with an AOM, the IOPO pumped by a doubly Q-switched laser (DIOPO) with an AOM and a Cr4+:YAG-SA can generate signal wave and idler wave with shorter pulse width and higher peak power. By considering the spatial Gaussian distribution of intracavity photon density, a set of coupled rate equations for the idler-resonant DIOPO were built for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The simulation results agreed well with the experimental results.

  19. Study on (100-x)(70Li2S-30P2S5)-xLi2ZrO3 glass-ceramic electrolyte for all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Penghao; Ding, Fei; Xu, Zhibin; Liu, Jiaquan; Liu, Xingjiang; Xu, Qiang

    2017-07-01

    A novel glass-ceramic electrolyte of (100-x)(70Li2S-30P2S5)-xLi2ZrO3 (x = 0, 1, 2, 5) is successfully prepared by a vibratory ball-milling method and followed by a heat-treatment process. Composition of the ternary sulfide electrolyte and the heat-treatment process are optimized by physical characterizations and electrochemical measurements. The testing results show that the optimal substitution quantity of Li2ZrO3 into the Li2S-P2S5 electrolyte substrate is 1 mol %. An appropriate heat-treatment temperature of 99(70Li2S-30P2S5)-1Li2ZrO3 glass-ceramic electrolyte is 285 °C. Among the as-prepared ternary electrolyte samples, 99(70Li2S-30P2S5)-1Li2ZrO3 glass-ceramic electrolyte may exhibit the highest conductivity of 2.85 × 10-3 S cm-1 at room temperature, which is much higher than that of the 70Li2S-30P2S5 glass-ceramic electrolyte. Compared to that of the all-solid-state lithium-ion battery of LiCoO2/70Li2S-30P2S5/In-Li, discharge capacities of all-solid-state lithium-ion battery of LiCoO2/99(70Li2S-30P2S5)-1Li2ZrO3/In-Li may increase 41.0% at the 10th charge-discharge cycle and 21.9% at the 50th charge-discharge cycle, respectively. Furthermore, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) analyses of all-solid-state lithium-ion batteries reveal that addition of Li2ZrO3 into the Li2S-P2S5 electrolyte substrate may decrease the interfacial resistance between the electrodes and solid electrolyte. The improvement of electrochemical performances of 99(70Li2S-30P2S5)-1Li2ZrO3 glass-ceramic electrolyte is ascribed to both the stable crystal structure and a high lithium-ion diffusion coefficient of Li2ZrO3.

  20. Nanoscaled Na3PS4Solid Electrolyte for All-Solid-State FeS2/Na Batteries with Ultrahigh Initial Coulombic Efficiency of 95% and Excellent Cyclic Performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Hongli; Mwizerwa, Jean Pierre; Qi, Xingguo; Xu, Xiaoxiong; Li, Hong; Zhang, Qiang; Cai, Liangting; Hu, Yong-Sheng; Yao, Xiayin

    2018-04-04

    Nanosized Na 3 PS 4 solid electrolyte with an ionic conductivity of 8.44 × 10 -5 S cm -1 at room temperature is synthesized by a liquid-phase reaction. The resultant all-solid-state FeS 2 /Na 3 PS 4 /Na batteries show an extraordinary high initial Coulombic efficiency of 95% and demonstrate high energy density of 611 Wh kg -1 at current density of 20 mA g -1 at room temperature. The outstanding performances of the battery can be ascribed to good interface compatibility and intimate solid-solid contact at FeS 2 electrode/nanosized Na 3 PS 4 solid electrolytes interface. Meanwhile, excellent cycling stability is achieved for the battery after cycling at 60 mA g -1 for 100 cycles, showing a high capacity of 287 mAh g -1 with the capacity retention of 80%.

  1. Facile Synthesis of Defect-Rich and S/N Co-Doped Graphene-Like Carbon Nanosheets as an Efficient Electrocatalyst for Primary and All-Solid-State Zn-Air Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Zhou, Huang; Zhu, Jiawei; Hu, Pei; Hang, Chao; Yang, Jinlong; Peng, Tao; Mu, Shichun; Huang, Yunhui

    2017-07-26

    Developing facile and low-cost porous graphene-based catalysts for highly efficient oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) remains an important matter for fuel cells. Here, a defect-enriched and dual heteroatom (S and N) doped hierarchically porous graphene-like carbon nanomaterial (D-S/N-GLC) was prepared by a simple and scalable strategy, and exhibits an outperformed ORR activity and stability as compared to commercial Pt/C catalyst in an alkaline condition (its half-wave potential is nearly 24 mV more positive than Pt/C). The excellent ORR performance of the catalyst can be attributed to the synergistic effect, which integrates the novel graphene-like architectures, 3D hierarchically porous structure, superhigh surface area, high content of active dopants, and abundant defective sites in D-S/N-GLC. As a result, the developed catalysts are used as the air electrode for primary and all-solid-state Zn-air batteries. The primary batteries demonstrate a higher peak power density of 252 mW cm -2 and high voltage of 1.32 and 1.24 V at discharge current densities of 5 and 20 mA cm -2 , respectively. Remarkably, the all-solid-state battery also exhibits a high peak power density of 81 mW cm -2 with good discharge performance. Moreover, such catalyst possesses a comparable ORR activity and higher stability than Pt/C in acidic condition. The present work not only provides a facile but cost-efficient strategy toward preparation of graphene-based materials, but also inspires an idea for promoting the electrocatalytic activity of carbon-based materials.

  2. Suppression of Lithium Dendrite Formation by Using LAGP-PEO (LiTFSI) Composite Solid Electrolyte and Lithium Metal Anode Modified by PEO (LiTFSI) in All-Solid-State Lithium Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunhua; Yang, Yifu; Liu, Xingjiang; Zhong, Hai; Xu, Han; Xu, Zhibin; Shao, Huixia; Ding, Fei

    2017-04-19

    The formation of lithium dendrites is suppressed using a Li 1.5 Al 0.5 Ge 1.5 (PO 4 ) 3 -poly(ethylene oxide) (LAGP-PEO) composite solid electrolyte and a PEO (lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonimide) [PEO (LiTFSI)]-modified lithium metal anode in all-solid-state lithium batteries. The effects on the anode performance based on the PEO content in the composite solid electrolyte and the molecular weight of PEO used to modify the Li anode are studied. The structure, surface morphology, and stability of the composite solid electrolyte are examined by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electrochemical tests. Results show that the presence of a PEO-500000(LiTFSI) film on a Li anode results in good mechanical properties and satisfactory interface contact features. The film can also prevent Li from reacting with LAGP. Furthermore, the formation of lithium dendrites can be effectively inhibited as the composite solid electrolyte is combined with the PEO film on the Li anode. The ratio of PEO in the composite solid electrolyte can be reduced to a low level of 1 wt %. PEO remains stable even at a high potential of 5.12 V (vs Li/Li + ). The assembled Li-PEO (LiTFSI)/LAGP-PEO/LiMn 0.8 Fe 0.2 PO 4 all-solid-state cell can deliver an initial discharge capacity of 160.8 mAh g -1 and exhibit good cycling stability and rate performance at 50 °C.

  3. Construction of All-Solid-State Batteries based on a Sulfur-Graphene Composite and Li9.54Si1.74P1.44S11.7Cl0.3Solid Electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ruochen; Wu, Zhang; Zhang, Shenzhao; Wang, Xiuli; Xia, Yan; Xia, Xinhui; Huang, Xiaohua; Tu, Jiangping

    2017-10-09

    Herein an effective way for construction of all-solid-state lithium-sulfur batteries (LSBs) with sulfur/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and Li 9.54 Si 1.74 P 1.44 S 11.7 Cl 0.3 solid electrolyte is reported. In the composite cathode, the Li 9.54 Si 1.74 P 1.44 S 11.7 Cl 0.3 powder is homogeneously mixed with the S/rGO composite to enhance the ionic conductivity. Coupled with a metallic Li anode and solid electrolyte, the designed S/rGO-Li 9.54 Si 1.74 P 1.44 S 11.7 Cl 0.3 composite cathode exhibits a high specific capacity and good cycling stability. A high initial discharge capacity of 969 mAh g -1 is achieved at a current density of 80 mA g -1 at room temperature and the cell retains a reversible capacity of over 827 mAh g -1 after 60 cycles. The enhanced performance is attributed to the intimate contact between the S/rGO and Li 9.54 Si 1.74 P 1.44 S 11.7 Cl 0.3 electrolyte, and high electrical conductivity of rGO and high ionic conductivity of the solid electrolyte. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Union operation image processing of data cubes separately processed by different objective filters and its application to void analysis in an all-solid-state lithium-ion battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yuta; Iriyama, Yasutoshi; Muto, Shunsuke

    2016-04-01

    In this article, we propose a smart image-analysis method suitable for extracting target features with hierarchical dimension from original data. The method was applied to three-dimensional volume data of an all-solid lithium-ion battery obtained by the automated sequential sample milling and imaging process using a focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope to investigate the spatial configuration of voids inside the battery. To automatically fully extract the shape and location of the voids, three types of filters were consecutively applied: a median blur filter to extract relatively larger voids, a morphological opening operation filter for small dot-shaped voids and a morphological closing operation filter for small voids with concave contrasts. Three data cubes separately processed by the above-mentioned filters were integrated by a union operation to the final unified volume data, which confirmed the correct extraction of the voids over the entire dimension contained in the original data. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Simultaneous intracavity optical parametric oscillation and stimulated Raman scattering pumped by a doubly passively Q-switched Nd:GGG laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hongwei; Zhao, Jia; Li, Yufei; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Li, Dechun; Li, Guiqiu; Li, Tao; Qiao, Wenchao

    2014-12-01

    By using a doubly passively Q-switched Nd:Gd3Ga5O12(Nd:GGG) laser with Cr4+:YAG and GaAs as saturable absorbers as pump laser, simultaneous intracavity optical parametric oscillation and stimulated Raman scattering based on a single X-cut KTiOPO4 (KTP) crystal have been realized. Under an incident diode pump power of 10.5 W, the output powers at the signal wave near 1,569 nm and the first Stokes emission near 1,094 nm were 218 and 72 mW, corresponding to the optical-to-optical conversion efficiencies of 2.08 and 0.69 %, respectively. The measured shortest pulse duration at the signal wave near 1,569 nm was 580 ps, generating a pulse peak power of 43.7 kW, while the minimum pulse duration at the first Stokes emission near 1,094 nm was 1.61 ns. By adjusting the tilt angle of the KTP crystal, up to the third Stokes scattering was also obtained.

  6. Dual-wavelength passively Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser using Fe3O4-nanoparticle saturable absorber and intracavity polarization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hayali, S. K. M.; Al-Janabi, A. H.

    2018-03-01

    We have experimentally demonstrated the operation of a dual-wavelength passively Q-switched ytterbium-doped fiber laser by using a saturable absorber (SA) based on Fe3O4 nanoparticles in a magnetic fluid. The SA was fabricated by depositing magnetic fluid at the end of an optical fiber ferrule. By performing adjustments to the pump power and polarization controller state in the cavity, a stable dual-wavelength lasing operation was generated without intracavity spectral filters or modulation elements. The Q-switched laser output was achieved at a pump threshold of 80 mW with a maximum output pulse energy of 38.8 nJ, a repetition rate of 73.4 kHz and a minimum pulse width of 3.4 µs. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a dual-wavelength passively Q-switched fiber laser using Fe3O4 nanoparticles as the SA in the 1.0 µm operation region.

  7. Improvement of stability and efficiency in diode-pumped passively Q-switched intracavity optical parametric oscillator with a monolithic cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J Y; Zhuang, W Z; Huang, Y P; Huang, Y J; Su, K W; Chen, Y F

    2012-01-01

    We improve the performance of intracavity optical parametric oscillator (IOPO) pumped by a diode-pumped Q-switched Nd:YVO 4 /Cr 4+ :YAG laser. The IOPO cavity is formed independently by a monolithic KTP crystal that the mirrors are directly deposited on top of the nonlinear crystal. We study the performances of this IOPO cavity with different reflectivity of the output coupler at 1.5 μm (R s ) of 80 and 50%. The average power of 1.5 μm is up to 3.3 W at the maximum pump power of 16.8 W for both cases. The diode-to-signal conversion efficiency is up to 20%, which is the highest one for IOPOs to our best knowledge. At the maximum pump power, the pulse energies are 41 μJ with the pulse width of 3 ns at a pulse repetition rate (PRR) of 80 kHz for R s = 80% and 51 μJ with the pulse width of 1.2 ns at a PRR of 65 kHz for R s = 50%, respectively. The pulse amplitude fluctuations in standard deviation are 2.6% for R s = 80% and 4% for R s = 50%, respectively

  8. Reconfiguration of the multiwavelength operation of optical fiber ring lasers by the modifiable intra-cavity induced losses of an in-fiber tip probe modal Michelson interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salceda-Delgado, G.; Martinez-Rios, A.; Sierra-Hernandez, J. M.; Rodríguez-Carreón, V. C.; Toral-Acosta, D.; Selvas-Aguilar, R.; Álvarez-Tamayo, R. I.; Castillo-Guzman, A. A.; Rojas-Laguna, R.

    2018-03-01

    A straightforward and versatile method for switching from single to different multiwavelength laser emission in ring cavity fiber lasers is proposed and demonstrated experimentally. The method is based on using the changeable interference pattern from an optical fiber modal Michelson interferometer as a wavelength selective filter into the ring cavity laser. The interferometer is constructed using a bi-conical tapered fiber and a single-mode fiber segment, with these being spliced together to form an optical fiber tip probe. When the length of the single-mode fiber piece is modified, the phase difference between the interfering modes of the interferometer causes a change in the interferometer free spectral range. As a consequence, the laser intra-cavity losses lead to gain competition, which allows us to adjust the number of simultaneously generated laser lines. A multiwavelength reconfiguration of the laser from one up to a maximum of eight emission lines was obtained, with a maximum SNR of around 47 dBm.

  9. Application of an all-solid-state diode-laser-based sensor for carbon monoxide detection by optical absorption in the 4.4--4.8 mum spectral region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron Jimenez, Rodolfo

    An all-solid-state continuous-wave (cw) laser system for mid-infrared absorption measurements of the carbon monoxide (CO) molecule has been developed and demonstrated. The single-mode, tunable output of an external-cavity diode laser (ECDL) is difference-frequency mixed (DFM) with the output of a 550-mW diode-pumped cw Nd:YAG laser in a periodically-poled lithium niobate (PPLN) crystal to produce tunable cw radiation in the mid-infrared. The wavelength of the 860-nm ECDL can be coarse tuned between 860.78 to 872.82 nm allowing the sensor to be operated in the 4.4--4.8 mum region. Results from single-pass mid-IR direct absorption experiments for CO concentration measurements are discussed. CO measurements were performed in CO/CO2/N 2 mixtures in a room temperature gas cell that allowed the evaluation of the sensor operation and data reduction procedures. Field testing was performed at two locations: in the exhaust of a well-stirred reactor (WSR) at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base and the exhaust of a gas turbine at Honeywell Engines and Systems. Field tests demonstrated the feasibility of the sensor for operation in harsh combustion environments but much improvement in the sensor design and operation was required. Experiments in near-adiabatic hydrogen/air CO2-doped flames were performed featuring two-line thermometry in the 4.8 mum spectral region. The sensor concentration measurement uncertainty was estimated at 2% for gas cell testing. CO concentration measurements agreed within 15% of conventional extractive sampling at WSR, and for the flame experiments the repeatability of the peak absorption gives a system uncertainty of 10%. The noise equivalent CO detection limit for these experiments was estimated at 2 ppm per meter, for combustion gas at 1000 K assuming a SNR ratio of 1.

  10. Effects of calcination treatment on the morphology, crystallinity, and photoelectric properties of all-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cells assembled by TiO2 nanorod arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xianmiao; Sun, Qiong; Li, Yang; Sui, Lina; Dong, Lifeng

    2013-11-14

    TiO2 has been extensively investigated due to its unique photoelectric properties. In this study, oriented single-crystal rutile TiO2 nanorod arrays were synthesized and then calcined at different temperatures in the atmosphere. The morphology and crystalline characterization indicated that the length of TiO2 nanorods increased rapidly and the nanorods became aggregated and fragile after calcination, yet the sintering treatment seemed to have almost no effect on the crystallinity. To obtain the all-solid-state, dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), a newly reported solid inorganic semiconductor, CsSnI2.95F0.05, was employed as the electrolyte, and the Pt deposited on the conductive side of the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass substrate was used as the counter-electrode. The effects of the calcination treatment on the photoelectric properties of the solar cells, including external quantum efficiency (EQE), open circuit voltage (V(OC)), short-circuit current (J(SC)), and photoelectric conversion efficiency (η), were investigated under the illumination of a solar simulator. As a result, all of the EQE, V(OC), J(SC), and η values of the cells first increased and then declined with the increase of calcination temperatures, and the highest η of 2.81% was obtained by the cell assembled with its TiO2 electrode sintered at 450 °C for 3 h, a value almost 2.5 times that of the non-sintered sample (1.1%).

  11. Californium-252 neutron intracavity brachytherapy alone for T1N0 low-lying rectal adenocarcinoma: A definitive anal sphincter-preserving radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yanli; Shan, Jinlu; Liu, Jia; Zhao, Kewei; Chen, Shu; Xu, Wenjing; Zhou, Qian; Yang, Mei; Lei, Xin

    2017-01-17

    This study evaluated the 4-year results of 32 patients with T1N0 low-lying rectal adenocarcinoma treated solely with californium-252 (Cf-252) neutron intracavity brachytherapy (ICBT). Patients were solicited into the study from January 2008 to June 2011. All the patients had refused surgery or surgery was contraindicated. The patients were treated with Cf-252 neutron ICBT using a novel 3.5-cm diameter off-axis 4-channel intrarectal applicator designed by the authors. The dose reference point was defined on the mucosa surface, with a total dose of 55-62 Gy-eq/4 f (13-16 Gy-eq/f/wk). All the patients completed the radiotherapy in accordance with our protocol. The rectal lesions regressed completely, and the acute rectal toxicity was mild (≤G2). The 4-year local control, overall survival, disease-free survival, and late complication (≥G2) rates were 96.9%, 90.6%, 87.5% and 15.6%, respectively. No severe late complication (≥G3) occurred. The mean follow-up was 56.1 ± 16.0 months. At the end of last follow-up, 29 patients remained alive. The mean survival time was 82.1 ± 2.7 months. Cf-252 neutron ICBT administered as the sole treatment (without surgery) for patients with T1N0 low-lying rectal adenocarcinoma is effective with acceptable late complications. Our study and method offers a definitive anal sphincter-preserving radiotherapy for T1N0 low-lying rectal adenocarcinoma patients.

  12. Combination of external beam radiotherapy and Californium (Cf)-252 neutron intracavity brachytherapy is more effective in control of cervical squamous cell carcinoma than that of cervical adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yanli; Liu, Jia; Chen, Shu; Zhou, Qian; Xu, Wenjing; Tang, Chen; Chen, Yonghong; Yang, Mei; Lei, Xin

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effect of combined external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and Californium (Cf)-252 neutron intracavity brachytherapy (ICBT) on cervical squamous versus adenocarcinoma. A total of 106 patients with stage IB-IIIB cervical cancer were accrued between January 2005 and May 2011 and divided into squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC) as a pair with 53 patients in each group according to tumor size, stage, age, and hemoglobin level using matched-pair design. The whole pelvic EBRT was performed with 2 Gy/fraction, 4 fractions/week. The total dose was 48-54 Gy (the center of whole pelvic field was blocked by 4 cm in width after 20-36 Gy). Cf-252 neutron ICBT was delivered with 11 and 12 Gy-eq/f with the total dose at point A of 44 and 48 Gy-eq for SCC and AC patients, respectively. The mean follow-up time was 43 months. The 5-year LC, OS, DFS, LAC rates, and mean survival time were 66.0, 56.6, 52.8.0, 17.0%, and 76.4 ± 6.2 months, respectively, for AC patients, whereas they were 81.1, 69.8, 67.9, 11.3%, and 93.3 ± 4.3 months, respectively, for SCC patients. Furthermore, the early treatment toxicity was mild in both groups, the late treatment complications were mainly radiation-induced proctitis and cystitis, and there were no grade 3 or higher complications. Although the combination of Cf-252 neutron ICBT and EBRT was effective in both histology types of cervical cancer, a more aggressive strategy is needed to control cervical AC.

  13. The influence of follow-up on DS02 low-dose ranges with a significant excess relative risk of all solid cancer in the Japanese A-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walsh, Linda; Schneider, Uwe [University of Zuerich, Department of Physics, Science Faculty, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-11-15

    Determinations of the lowest colon dose, D{sub min}, below which there is a statistically significant excess relative risk of all solid cancer, when analyses are restricted to the range [0, D{sub min}], are of current interest in research related to radiation protection and risk assessment. In reviewing recent cancer mortality reports on the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese A-bomb survivors, reported D{sub min} values were found to vary between different reports. The report 12 (follow-up: 1950-1990) found a D{sub min} of 50 mGy, but the most recent report 14 (follow-up: 1950-2003) found a D{sub min} of 200 mGy. There were small dosimetry changes between report 12, which used DS86, and report 14, which used DS02, but these changes are unlikely to account for a difference in D{sub min} of a factor of 4. This short communication examines the reasons for this difference in D{sub min} by presenting further investigations into D{sub min} using different trial values for D{sub min} and various follow-up time spans, all with the same DS02 dosimetry. Magnitudes of the low-dose risks in different dose ranges are also presented. It is shown here that the main influence on D{sub min} comes from the length of follow-up and a D{sub min} of 50 mGy may also be obtained with the most recent LSS mortality data and DS02, if a restricted follow-up is analyzed. A systematic trend was evident of lower D{sub min} values for earlier mortality follow-up periods, consistent with information from earlier LSS reports. Although it may seem surprising that the D{sub min} increases with longer follow-up and better statistics, this systematic trend appears to be a consequence of decreasing mortality risks with longer follow-up, even though the error bars on the risks are getting smaller with increasing follow-up. These systematic trends also persisted after accounting for differences between baseline cancer rates for two groups of survivors who were either proximal or distal to the A

  14. Evaluating the Feasibility of Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Shear Wave Elasticity Imaging of the Uterine Cervix With an Intracavity Array: A Simulation Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltovich, Helen; Homyk, Andrew D.; Carlson, Lindsey C.; Hall, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    The uterine cervix softens, shortens, and dilates throughout pregnancy in response to progressive disorganization of its layered collagen microstructure. This process is an essential part of normal pregnancy, but premature changes are associated with preterm birth. Clinically, there are no reliable noninvasive methods to objectively measure cervical softening or assess cervical microstructure. The goal of these preliminary studies was to evaluate the feasibility of using an intracavity ultrasound array to generate acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) excitations in the uterine cervix through simulation, and to optimize the acoustic radiation force (ARF) excitation for shear wave elasticity imaging (SWEI) of the tissue stiffness. The cervix is a unique soft tissue target for SWEI because it has significantly greater acoustic attenuation (α = 1.3 to 2.0 dB·cm−1·MHz−1) than other soft tissues, and the pathology being studied tends to lead to an increase in tissue compliance, with healthy cervix being relatively stiff compared with other soft tissues (E ≈ 25 kPa). Additionally, the cervix can only be accessed in vivo using a transvaginal or catheter-based array, which places additional constraints on the excitation focal characteristics that can be used during SWEI. Finite element method (FEM) models of SWEI show that larger-aperture, catheter-based arrays can utilize excitation frequencies up to 7 MHz to generate adequate focal gain up to focal depths 10 to 15 mm deep, with higher frequencies suffering from excessive amounts of near-field acoustic attenuation. Using full-aperture excitations can yield ~40% increases in ARFI-induced displacements, but also restricts the depth of field of the excitation to ~0.5 mm, compared with 2 to 6 mm, which limits the range that can be used for shear wave characterization of the tissue. The center-frequency content of the shear wave particle velocity profiles ranges from 1.5 to 2.5 kHz, depending on the focal

  15. Measurement of Thermal Dependencies of PBG Fiber Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laouar, Rachik

    2011-01-01

    Photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) represent a class of optical fibers which have a wide spectrum of applications in the telecom and sensing industries. Currently, the Advanced Accelerator Research Department at SLAC is developing photonic bandgap particle accelerators, which are photonic crystal structures with a central defect used to accelerate electrons and achieve high longitudinal electric fields. Extremely compact and less costly than the traditional accelerators, these structures can support higher accelerating gradients and will open a new era in high energy physics as well as other fields of science. Based on direct laser acceleration in dielectric materials, the so called photonic band gap accelerators will benefit from mature laser and semiconductor industries. One of the key elements to direct laser acceleration in hollow core PCFs, is maintaining thermal and structural stability. Previous simulations demonstrate that accelerating modes are sensitive to the geometry of the defect region and the variations in the effective index. Unlike the telecom modes (for which over 95% of the energy propagates in the hollow core) most of the power of these modes is located in the glass at the periphery of the central hole which has a higher thermal constant than air (γ SiO# sub 2# = 1.19 x 10 -6 1/K, γ air = -9 x 10 -7 1/K with γ = dn/dT). To fully control laser driven acceleration, we need to evaluate the thermal and structural consequences of such modes on the PCFs. We are conducting series of interferometric tests to quantify the dependencies of the HC-633-02 (NKT Photonics) propagation constant (k z ) on temperature, vibration amplitude, stress and electric field strength. In this paper we will present the theoretical principles characterizing the thermal behavior of a PCF, the measurements realized for the fundamental telecom mode (TE 00 ), and the experimental demonstration of TM-like mode propagation in the HC-633-02 fiber.

  16. Compact All Solid State Oceanic Inherent Optical Property Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Light propagation in the sea and the consequent remote sensing signals seen by aircraft and spacecraft is fundamentally governed by the inherent optical properties...

  17. All-solid state lithium carbon monofluoride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Chengdu; Rangasamy, Ezhiylmurugan

    2017-10-10

    A solid state lithium carbon monofluoride battery includes an anode comprising Li, a solid electrolyte, and a cathode including CF.sub.x and LPS. The cathode can also include a carbon compound. The solid electrolyte can include LPS. The LPS can include .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4. The cathode LPS can include .beta.-Li.sub.3PS.sub.4. A method of making a battery is also disclosed.

  18. The effect of diamond-like carbon coating on LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 particles for all solid-state lithium-ion batteries based on Li2S-P2S5 glass-ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visbal, Heidy; Aihara, Yuichi; Ito, Seitaro; Watanabe, Taku; Park, Youngsin; Doo, Seokgwang

    2016-05-01

    There have been several reports on improvements of the performance of all solid-state battery using lithium metal oxide coatings on the cathode active material. However, the mechanism of the performance improvement remains unclear. To better understand the effect of the surface coating, we studied the impact of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coating on LiNi0.8Co0.15Al0.05O2 (NCA) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The DLC coated NCA showed good cycle ability and rate performance. This result is further supported by reduction of the interfacial resistance of the cathode and electrolyte observed in impedance spectroscopy. The DLC layer was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy electron energy loss spectroscopy (TEM-EELS). After 100 cycles the sample was analyzed by X-ray photo spectroscopy (XPS), and Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). These analyses showed that the thickness of the coating layer was around 4 nm on average, acting to hinder the side reactions between the cathode particle and the solid electrolyte. The results of this study will provide useful insights for understanding the nature of the buffer layer for the cathode materials.

  19. Gaussian mode selection with intracavity diffractive optics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Litvin, IA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available of internal aperture. However, the power loss discrimination between the low order modes is often poor, and the small beam waist results in poor power extraction. Conversely, if an unstable configuration is employed, the mode volume is large and mode... discrimination good, but this is at the expense of high intrinsic loss for the oscillating modes, making such cavities suitable only for lasers with high gain. A major advance to overcome such problems was the introduction of so–called graded–phase mirrors [1...

  20. Intra-cavity vortex beam generation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Darryl

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available in Fig. 3. For a Gaussian pump beam (Fig. 4(a)) we achieved a Gaussian output (Fig. 4(b)) and for a ring shaped pump beam (Fig. 4(c)) we achieved a LG01 (Fig. 4(d)) eigenmode of pure modal quality. The idea of pump shaping is employed to a plano... plano-concave laser cavity with a ring shaped pump intensity profile. The beam shaping element could be removed to revert back to the Gaussian pump scenario. Proc. of SPIE Vol. 8130 813009-4 Downloaded from SPIE Digital Library on 30 Sep 2011...

  1. Thermal birefringence-compensated linear intracavity frequency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-09

    Feb 9, 2014 ... The output mirror M3 was a plano-convex mirror with high reflection coating at the fundamental wavelength (R>99.7%) and high transmission coating (T >95%) at the. SHG wavelength to couple out the green beam. The pump head was placed between the two mirrors M1 and M2 and the LBO crystal was ...

  2. Thermal birefringence-compensated linear intracavity frequency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-09

    Feb 9, 2014 ... green conversion efficiency was measured to be ∼12.7%. On further increasing of pump power, the output power starts to roll off as the cavity becomes unstable due to strong thermal effects. At the maximum output power, the green pulse duration (FWHM) was measured to be ∼73 ns. A typical green pulse ...

  3. Stress induced birefringence in hybrid TIR/PBG guiding solid photonic crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngsøe, Jens Kristian; Mangan, Brian Joseph; Olausson, Christina Bjarnal Thulin

    2010-01-01

    We report on two types of polarization maintaining solid photonic crystal fibers that guide light by a combination of a photonic bandgap and total internal reflection. Group and phase birefringence are studied experimentally and numerically for stress-applying parts made from B-doped and F......-doped silica. The stress field originating from Ge-doped cladding rods is shown to interfere with the stress field from the B-doped and F-doped rods. Since the differential expansion coefficients of B-doped and F-doped silica have opposite signs this interference is either destructive or constructive....... Consequently, we found that the fiber with F-doped stress applying parts has the highest modal phase birefringence, and polarization cross talk is characterized by an h-parameter below 3⋅10−5 m−1....

  4. Analysis and Design of a Multi-Frequency Microstrip Antenna Based on a PBG Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Hong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the C-shaped microstrip slot antenna, a new photonic band gap substrate for multi-frequency microstrip slot antenna is designed. The antenna has a groove been dug below the radiation plate, within which the radiation plate is placed, and air triangular prism column gaps with different height are placed in the substrate periodically. Numerical simulation is performed for the antenna with Ansoft HFSS10.0, which is a kind of simulation software based on Finite Element Method. Comparing with the C-shaped microstrip slot antenna, the resonant frequency of the antenna was reduced by 230 MHz, and the low frequency bandwidth was increased from 12.63 % to 18.95 %, both the radiation and multi-frequency characteristics of this proposed antenna are improved. The result demonstrates that the structure is efficient in improving the antenna gain and radiation directivity by suppressing surface wave of the microstrip antenna.

  5. Stress induced birefringence in hybrid TIR/PBG guiding solid photonic crystal fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyngsø, J K; Mangan, B J; Olausson, C B; Roberts, P J

    2010-06-21

    We report on two types of polarization maintaining solid photonic crystal fibers that guide light by a combination of a photonic bandgap and total internal reflection. Group and phase birefringence are studied experimentally and numerically for stress-applying parts made from B-doped and F-doped silica. The stress field originating from Ge-doped cladding rods is shown to interfere with the stress field from the B-doped and F-doped rods. Since the differential expansion coefficients of B-doped and F-doped silica have opposite signs this interference is either destructive or constructive. Consequently, we found that the fiber with F-doped stress applying parts has the highest modal phase birefringence, and polarization cross talk is characterized by an h-parameter below 310(-5) m(-1).

  6. Highly sensitive detection of naphthalene in solvent vapor using a functionalized PBG refractive index sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girschikofsky, Maiko; Rosenberger, Manuel; Belle, Stefan; Brutschy, Malte; Waldvogel, Siegfried R; Hellmann, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    We report an optical refractive index sensor system based on a planar Bragg grating which is functionalized by substituted γ-cyclodextrin to determine low concentrations of naphthalene in solvent vapor. The sensor system exhibits a quasi-instantaneous shift of the Bragg wavelength and is therefore capable for online detection. The overall shift of the Bragg wavelength reveals a linear relationship to the analyte concentration with a gradient of 12.5 ± 1.5 pm/ppm. Due to the spectral resolution and repeatability of the interrogation system, this corresponds to acquisition steps of 80 ppb. Taking into account the experimentally detected signal noise a minimum detection limit of 0.48 ± 0.05 ppm is deduced.

  7. Highly Sensitive Detection of Naphthalene in Solvent Vapor Using a Functionalized PBG Refractive Index Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Hellmann

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We report an optical refractive index sensor system based on a planar Bragg grating which is functionalized by substituted γ-cyclodextrin to determine low concentrations of naphthalene in solvent vapor. The sensor system exhibits a quasi-instantaneous shift of the Bragg wavelength and is therefore capable for online detection. The overall shift of the Bragg wavelength reveals a linear relationship to the analyte concentration with a gradient of 12.5 ± 1.5 pm/ppm. Due to the spectral resolution and repeatability of the interrogation system, this corresponds to acquisition steps of 80 ppb. Taking into account the experimentally detected signal noise a minimum detection limit of 0.48 ± 0.05 ppm is deduced.

  8. High energy nanosecond laser pulses delivered single-mode through hollow-core PBG fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Jonathan; Jones, J; Hand, D; Bouwmans, G; Knight, J; Russell, P; Mangan, B

    2004-02-23

    We report on the development of hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers for the delivery of high energy pulses for precision micromachining applications. Short pulses of (65ns pulse width) and energies of the order of 0.37mJ have been delivered in a single spatial mode through hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers at 1064nm using a high repetition rate (15kHz) Nd:YAG laser. The ultimate laser-induced damage threshold and practical limitations of current hollow-core fibers for the delivery of short optical pulses are discussed.

  9. All solid state high voltage power supply for neutral beam sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praeg, W.F.

    1984-01-01

    The conceptual design of a high frequency solid state, high power, high voltage, power system that reacts fast enough to be compatible with the requirements of a neutral beam source is presented. The system offers the potential of significant advantages over conventional power line frequency systems; such as high reliability, long life, relatively little maintenance requirements, compact size and modular design

  10. An All-Solid-State Chirped Source for Coherent Optical Radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-15

    establish a reference which is compared to the difference in resistance between the thermistor and the setpoint potentiometer. The INAI01...indicating possible damage to the diode laser. The control stage is simply a single opamp implementing a P1 control law. Even with the very long

  11. Modeling combined heat transfer in an all solid state optical cryocooler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzhiveli, Biju T.

    2017-12-01

    Attaining cooling effect by using laser induced anti-Stokes fluorescence in solids appears to have several advantages over conventional mechanical systems and has been the topic of recent analysis and experimental work. Using anti-Stokes fluorescence phenomenon to remove heat from a glass by pumping it with laser light, stands as a pronouncing physical basis for solid state cooling. Cryocooling by fluorescence is a feasible solution for obtaining compactness and reliability. It has a distinct niche in the family of small capacity cryocoolers and is undergoing a revolutionary advance. In pursuit of developing laser induced anti-Stokes fluorescent cryocooler, it is required to develop numerical tools that support the thermal design which could provide a thorough analysis of combined heat transfer mechanism within the cryocooler. The paper presents the details of numerical model developed for the cryocooler and the subsequent development of a computer program. The program has been used for the understanding of various heat transfer mechanisms and is being used for thermal design of components of an anti-Stokes fluorescent cryocooler.

  12. An all-solid-state electrochemical double-layer capacitor based on a plastic crystal electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali eaabouimrane

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A plastic crystal, solid electrolyte was prepared by mixing tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate salt, (C4H94NPF6, (10 molar % with succinonitrile, SCN, (N C−CH2−CH2−C N, [SCN-10%TBA-PF6]. The resultant waxy material shows a plastic crystalline phase that extend from -36 °C up to its melting at 23 °C. It shows a high ionic conductivity reaching 4 × 10−5 S/cm in the plastic crystal phase (15 °C and ~ 3 × 10−3 S/cm in the molten state (25 °C. These properties along with the high electrochemical stability rendered the use of this material as an electrolyte in an electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC. The EDLC was assembled and its performance was tested by cyclic voltammetry, AC impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge-discharge methods. Specific capacitance values in the range of 4-7 F/g. (of electrode active material were obtained in the plastic crystal phase at 15 °C, that although compare well with those reported for some polymer electrolytes, can be still enhanced with further development of the device and its components, and only demonstrate their great potential use for capacitors as a new application.

  13. All-solid-state potassium-selective electrode using graphene as the solid contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Fenghua; Ye, Junjin; Zhou, Min

    2012-01-01

    Graphene sheets are used for the first time to fabricate a new type of solid-contact ion-selective electrode (SC-ISE) as the intermediate layer between an ionophore-doped solvent polymeric membrane and a glassy carbon electrode. The new transducing layer was characterized by transmission electron...... microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The performance of the new K+−selective electrodes was examined by a potentiometric water layer test, potentiometric measurements, and current reversal chronopotentiometry. The obtained potentiometric...... than 10−5 M. The potential drift of the electrodes was calculated from the slope of the curves at longer times (ΔE/Δt = 1.2 × 10−5 V s−1 (I = 1 nA) and ΔE/Δt = 5.5 × 10−5 V s−1 (I = 5 nA)). All the results indicate that graphene is a promising material for use as a transducer layer for SC-ISEs....

  14. Nonlinear Dynamics of Self-Pulsing All-Solid-State Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-06

    NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Centro de Investigaciones en Laseres,y Aplicaciones (CEILAP), , , 8...NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 1. Centro de Investigaciones en Láseres y Aplicaciones ...de Investigaciones en Láseres y Aplicaciones (CEILAP), CITEDEF-CONICET, J.B. de La Salle 4397, (1603) Villa Martelli, Argentina. Nahuel M. Granese

  15. Diode-Pumped High Energy and High Average Power All-Solid-State Picosecond Amplifier Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaxing Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present our research on the high energy picosecond laser operating at a repetition rate of 1 kHz and the high average power picosecond laser running at 100 kHz based on bulk Nd-doped crystals. With diode-pumped solid state (DPSS hybrid amplifiers consisting of a picosecond oscillator, a regenerative amplifier, end-pumped single-pass amplifiers, and a side-pumped amplifier, an output energy of 64.8 mJ at a repetition rate of 1 kHz was achieved. An average power of 37.5 W at a repetition rate of 100 kHz pumped by continuous wave laser diodes was obtained. Compact, stable and high power DPSS laser amplifier systems with good beam qualities are excellent picosecond sources for high power optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA and high-efficiency laser processing.

  16. Electrochromism for organic materials in polymeric all-solid-state systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Yoshihiko; Tani, Chizuka

    1983-10-01

    This letter reports a new electrochromic polymeric film system consisting of a polymer, an electrochromic (EC) dye which is pyrazoline or tetrathiafulvalene (TTF), and lithium perchlorate (LiClO4). The electrochromic cell structure is glass/ITO/polymeric EC film/Au film. The cell using pyrazoline as an EC dye exhibited yellow coloration at 1.0 V and the cell with TTF exhibited red coloration at 3.5 V. These cells exhibited memory.

  17. All-solid-state cavity QED using Anderson-localized modes in disordered photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodahl, Peter; Sapienza, Luca; Nielsen, Henri Thyrrestrup

    2010-01-01

    We employ Anderson-localized modes in deliberately disordered photonic crystal waveguides to confine light and enhance the interaction with matter. A 15-fold enhancement of the decay rate of a single quantum dot is observed meaning that 94% of the emitted single photons are coupled to an Anderson...

  18. All-solid-state potassium-selective electrode using graphene as the solid contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fenghua; Ye, Junjin; Zhou, Min; Gan, Shiyu; Zhang, Qixian; Han, Dongxue; Niu, Li

    2012-02-07

    Graphene sheets are used for the first time to fabricate a new type of solid-contact ion-selective electrode (SC-ISE) as the intermediate layer between an ionophore-doped solvent polymeric membrane and a glassy carbon electrode. The new transducing layer was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The performance of the new K(+-)selective electrodes was examined by a potentiometric water layer test, potentiometric measurements, and current reversal chronopotentiometry. The obtained potentiometric sensors were characterized with a calibration line of slope close to Nernstian (59.2 mV/decade) within the activity from 10(-4.5) to 0.1 M. The high capacitance of the graphene solid contacts results in a signal that is stable over one week. The short response time is less than 10 s for activities higher than 10(-5) M. The potential drift of the electrodes was calculated from the slope of the curves at longer times (ΔE/Δt = 1.2 × 10(-5) V s(-1) (I = 1 nA) and ΔE/Δt = 5.5 × 10(-5) V s(-1) (I = 5 nA)). All the results indicate that graphene is a promising material for use as a transducer layer for SC-ISEs.

  19. Compact All Solid State Oceanic Inherent Optical Property Sensor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Light propagation in the sea and the consequent remote sensing signals seen by aircraft and spacecraft is fundamentally governed by the inherent optical properties...

  20. All-Solid-State 2.45-to-2.78-THz Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdi, Imran; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Schlecht, Erich T.; Lin, Robert H.; Sin, Seith; Peralta, Alejandro; Lee, Choonsup; Gill, John J.; Pearson, John C.; Goldsmith, Paul F.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Sources in the THz range are required in order for NASA to implement heterodyne instruments in this frequency range. The source that has been demonstrated here will be used for an instrument on the SOFIA platform as well as for upcoming astrophysics missions. There are currently no electronic sources in the 2 3- THz frequency range. An electronically tunable compact source in this frequency range is needed for lab spectroscopy as well as for compact space-deployable heterodyne receivers. This solution for obtaining useful power levels in the 2 3- THz range is based on utilizing power-combined multiplier stages. Utilizing power combining, the input power can be distributed between different multiplier chips and then recombined after the frequency multiplication. A continuous wave (CW) coherent source covering 2.48 2.75 THz, with greater than 10 percent instantaneous and tuning bandwidth, and having l 14 W of output power at room temperature, has been demonstrated. This source is based on a 91.8 101.8-GHz synthesizer followed by a power amplifier and three cascaded frequency triplers. It demonstrates that purely electronic solid-state sources can generate a useful amount of power in a region of the electromagnetic spectrum where lasers (solid-state or gas) were previously the only available coherent sources. The bandwidth, agility, and operability of this THz source has enabled wideband, high-resolution spectroscopic measurements of water, methanol, and carbon monoxide with a resolution and signal-to-noise ratio unmatched by other existing systems, providing new insight in the physics of these molecules. Further - more, the power and optical beam quality are high enough to observe the Lamb-dip effect in water. The source frequency has an absolute accuracy better than 1 part in 1012, and the spectrometer achieves sub-Doppler frequency resolution better than 1 part in 108. The harmonic purity is better than 25 dB. This source can serve as a local oscillator for a variety of heterodyne systems, and can be used as a method for precision control of more powerful but much less frequency-agile quantum mechanical terahertz sources.

  1. Compact All Solid State Oceanic Inherent Optical Property Sensor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This work concerns the development of a prototype of a Volume Scattering Function (VSF) sensor for measurement of this inherent optical property(IOP) of seawater....

  2. Alloying effects on superionic conductivity in lithium indium halides for all-solid-state batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zevgolis, Alysia; Wood, Brandon C.; Mehmedović, Zerina; Hall, Alex T.; Alves, Thomaz C.; Adelstein, Nicole

    2018-04-01

    Alloying of anions is a promising engineering strategy for tuning ionic conductivity in halide-based inorganic solid electrolytes. We explain the alloying effects in Li3InBr6-xClx, in terms of strain, chemistry, and microstructure, using first-principles molecular dynamics simulations and electronic structure analysis. We find that strain and bond chemistry can be tuned through alloying and affect the activation energy and maximum diffusivity coefficient. The similar conductivities of the x = 3 and x = 6 compositions can be understood by assuming that the alloy separates into Br-rich and Cl-rich regions. Phase-separation increases diffusivity at the interface and in the expanded Cl-region, suggesting microstructure effects are critical. Similarities with other halide superionic conductors are highlighted.

  3. All-solid-state cable-type flexible zinc-air battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joohyuk; Park, Minjoon; Nam, Gyutae; Lee, Jang-soo; Cho, Jaephil

    2015-02-25

    A cable-type flexible Zn-air battery with a spiral zinc anode, gel polymer electrolyte (GPE), and air cathode coated on a nonprecious metal catalyst is designed in order to extend its application area toward wearable electronic devices. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. All-solid-state lithium-oxygen battery with high safety in wide ambient temperature range

    OpenAIRE

    Hirokazu Kitaura; Haoshen Zhou

    2015-01-01

    There is need to develop high energy storage devices with high safety to satisfy the growing industrial demands. Here, we show the potential to realize such batteries by assembling a lithium-oxygen cell using an inorganic solid electrolyte without any flammable liquid or polymer materials. The lithium-oxygen battery using Li1.575Al0.5Ge1.5(PO4)3 solid electrolyte was examined in the pure oxygen atmosphere from room temperature to 120??C. The cell works at room temperature and first full disch...

  5. A dual-loss-modulated intra-cavity frequency-doubled Q-switched and mode-locked Nd:Lu0.15Y0.85VO4/KTP green laser with a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber and an acousto-optic modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Gang; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Li, Guiqiu; Li, Dechun; Cheng, Kang; Han, Chao; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Yonggang

    2011-01-01

    By using both a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber (SWCNT-SA) and an acousto-optic (AO) modulator, a dual-loss-modulated intra-cavity frequency-doubled Q-switched and mode-locked (QML) Nd:Lu 0.15 Y 0.85 VO 4 /KTP (KTiOPO 4 ) green laser was demonstrated for the first time. The QML green laser characteristics such as the pulse width and single-pulse energy have been measured for different modulation frequencies of the AO modulator (f p ). In particular, in comparison with the solely passively QML green laser with an SWCNT-SA, the dual-loss-modulated QML green laser can generate a more stable pulse train, a shorter pulse width of the Q-switched envelope, a greater pulse energy and a higher average peak power. For the dual-loss-modulated QML green laser, at a pump power of 7.9 W and a repetition rate of 10 kHz, the pulse width and the pulse energy of the Q-switch envelope and the average peak power of the QML green laser are 50 ns, 20.34 µJ and 15.5 kW, respectively, corresponding to a pulse width compression of 77%, a pulse energy improvement factor of six times and a QML peak power increase factor of 16 times when compared with those for the solely passively QML green laser. The experimental results show that the dual-loss modulation is an efficient method for the generation of a stable QML green laser with an SWCNT-SA

  6. Pinning an Ion with an Intracavity Optical Lattice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Rasmus Bogh; Leroux, Ian Daniel; Marciante, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    We report one-dimensional pinning of a single ion by an optical lattice. A standing-wave cavity produces the lattice potential along the rf-field-free axis of a linear Paul trap. The ion’s localization is detected by measuring its fluorescence when excited by standing-wave fields with the same...

  7. Dynamical regimes and intracavity propagation delay in external ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E JAYAPRASATH

    2017-10-31

    Oct 31, 2017 ... linewidth enhancement factor α = 3.8, the external cavity round- trip time τext = 10 ns, carrier lifetime τn = 2 ns, photon lifetime τp = 2 ps. The lasers are operated at wave- length λ = 830 nm, and hence detuning between the laser is zero ( ω = 0), τin = 8 ps is the internal cavity round-trip time. r2 = 0.58 is the ...

  8. Intra-cavity generation of high order LGpl modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the generation of symmetrical high order Laguerre Gaussian modes. These high order Laguerre-Gaussian beams are generated by forcing the laser using an annular binary Diffractive Optical Element whose geometry is in connection...

  9. Piezoelectric deformable mirror for intra-cavity laser adaptive optics.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Long, CS

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available degree of freedom Fig. 5. Quadrilateral axisymmetric element with rotational degrees of freedom. The variational formulation of these elements employs the skew-symmetric part of the stress tensor as a Lagrange multiplier to enforce the continuum... mechanics definition of rotations in terms of displacement gradient. The stress tensor is therefore not a priori assumed to be symmetric. The finite element implementation starts with an eight-node ‘base element’ in the local coordinate system. The four...

  10. Intracavity generation of longitudinal dependant Bessel like beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Litvin, IA

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available distribution (“double-face” effect). The significant difference between the near-field and the far-field intensity pattern can be considered a disadvantage of such beams, in contrast to Gaussian beams which preserve their profile while propagating in free... not been a detailed investigation of the transverse structure in the near and far field of longitudinal dependent BLBs [LDBLB], nor the possibility of managing the axial intensity of such BLBs through parameter choice of the implementation method...

  11. Linearly polarized intracavity passive Q-switched Yb-doped ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-14

    Feb 14, 2014 ... ratio of active core area to inner cladding area, the pump light absorption is improved and smaller fibre length becomes possible. There are reports on the passive Q-switching in. Yb-doped LMA fibre lasers by using Cr4+:YAG crystal as a saturable absorber. Huang et al have reported maximum average ...

  12. Efficient yellow beam generation by intracavity sum frequency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-06

    Feb 6, 2014 ... The output at the fibre tip was collimated and focussed using two plano-convex lenses of focal length 25 mm (L1) and 50 mm (L2) with a magnification of two. Both the lenses were coated for antireflection at 808 nm for the transmission of pump power more than 95%. In diode end-pumped laser, the choice ...

  13. Efficient yellow beam generation by intracavity sum frequency ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-06

    Feb 6, 2014 ... Author Affiliations. A J Singh1 P K Gupta1 S K Sharma1 P K Mukhopadhyay1 K S Bindra1 S M Oak1. Solid State Laser Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013, India ...

  14. Dynamical regimes and intracavity propagation delay in external ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A diode laser subjected to an optical feedback, also called an external cavity diode laser, acts as the transmitter laser (TL). A solitary diode laser acts as the receiver laser (RL). The optical output of the TL is coupled to the RL and laser operating parameters are optimized to achieve synchronization in their output intensities.

  15. Linearly polarized intracavity passive Q-switched Yb-doped ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-14

    YAG crystal as a saturable absorber. An average output power of 9.4 W with pulse duration of 64 ns and pulse repetition rate of 57.4 kHz with a slope efficiency of 52% was achieved. Measured polarization extinction ratio (PER) ...

  16. Linearly polarized intracavity passive Q-switched Yb-doped ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-14

    Feb 14, 2014 ... Q-switched fibre lasers with high peak power have attracted a lot of attention due to many applications in the fields of industrial processing and medical treatments. For special applications of nonlinear frequency shifting like frequency doubling and optical paramet- ric oscillation, linearly polarized ...

  17. Intracavity mode competition between classes of flat–top beams

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Litvin, IA

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available beam as the oscillating mode. Single–mode oscillation would typically be Gaussian in profile, while multimode oscillation might deliver a beam with an averaged flat–like profile in the near field, but would diverge very quickly due to the higher order...

  18. Comprehensive Study of All-Solid-State Z-Scheme Photocatalytic Systems of ZnO/Pt/CdZnS

    KAUST Repository

    Isimjan, Tayirjan Taylor

    2017-08-22

    We have investigated a Z-scheme based on a ZnO/Pt/CdZnS photocatalyst, active in the presence of a complex medium composed of acetic acid and benzyl alcohol, the effects of which on the catalyst stability and performance are studied. Transmission electron microscopy images showed uniformly dispersed sub-nanometer Pt particles. Inductively coupled plasma and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses suggested that Pt is sandwiched between ZnO and CdZnS. An apparent quantum yield (AQY) of 34% was obtained over the [ZnO]4/1 wt %Pt/CdZnS system at 360 nm, 2.5-fold higher than that of 1%Pt/CdZnS (14%). Furthermore, an AQY of 16% was observed using [ZnO]4/1 wt %Pt/CdZnS, which was comparable to that of 1 wt %Pt/CdZnS (10%) at 460 nm. On the basis of these results, we proposed a charge transfer mechanism, which was confirmed through femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Finally, we identified the two main factors that affected the stability of the catalyst, which were the sacrificial reagent and the acidic pH.

  19. Impedance matching for repetitive high voltage all-solid-state Marx generator and excimer DBD UV sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonggang; Tong, Liqing; Liu, Kefu

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of impedance matching for a Marx generator and DBD lamp is to limit the output current of the Marx generator, provide a large discharge current at ignition, and obtain fast voltage rising/falling edges and large overshoot. In this paper, different impedance matching circuits (series inductor, parallel capacitor, and series inductor combined with parallel capacitor) are analyzed. It demonstrates that a series inductor could limit the Marx current. However, the discharge current is also limited. A parallel capacitor could provide a large discharge current, but the Marx current is also enlarged. A series inductor combined with a parallel capacitor takes full advantage of the inductor and capacitor, and avoids their shortcomings. Therefore, it is a good solution. Experimental results match the theoretical analysis well and show that both the series inductor and parallel capacitor improve the performance of the system. However, the series inductor combined with the parallel capacitor has the best performance. Compared with driving the DBD lamp with a Marx generator directly, an increase of 97.3% in radiant power and an increase of 59.3% in system efficiency are achieved using this matching circuit.

  20. Development of all-solid lithium-ion battery using Li-ion conducting glass-ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inda, Yasushi [Research and Development Department, Ohara-inc, 1-15-30 Oyama, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-1186 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan); Katoh, Takashi [Research and Development Department, Ohara-inc, 1-15-30 Oyama, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-1186 (Japan); Baba, Mamoru [Graduate School of Engineering, Iwate University, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan)

    2007-12-06

    We have developed a high performance lithium-ion conducting glass-ceramics. This glass-ceramics has the crystalline form of Li{sub 1+x+y}Al{sub x}Ti{sub 2-x}Si{sub y}P{sub 3-y}O{sub 12} with a NASICON-type structure, and it exhibits a high lithium-ion conductivity of 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} or above at room temperature. Moreover, since this material is stable in the open atmosphere and even to exposure to moist air, it is expected to be applied for various uses. One of applications of this material is as a solid electrolyte for a lithium-ion battery. Batteries were developed by combining a LiCoO{sub 2} positive electrode, a Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} negative electrode, and a composite electrolyte. The battery using the composite electrolyte with a higher conductivity exhibited a good charge-discharge characteristic. (author)

  1. Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hui-Seon; Lee, Chang-Ryul; Im, Jeong-Hyeok; Lee, Ki-Beom; Moehl, Thomas; Marchioro, Arianna; Moon, Soo-Jin; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Yum, Jun-Ho; Moser, Jacques E; Grätzel, Michael; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2012-01-01

    We report on solid-state mesoscopic heterojunction solar cells employing nanoparticles (NPs) of methyl ammonium lead iodide (CH(3)NH(3))PbI(3) as light harvesters. The perovskite NPs were produced by reaction of methylammonium iodide with PbI(2) and deposited onto a submicron-thick mesoscopic TiO(2) film, whose pores were infiltrated with the hole-conductor spiro-MeOTAD. Illumination with standard AM-1.5 sunlight generated large photocurrents (J(SC)) exceeding 17 mA/cm(2), an open circuit photovoltage (V(OC)) of 0.888 V and a fill factor (FF) of 0.62 yielding a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.7%, the highest reported to date for such cells. Femto second laser studies combined with photo-induced absorption measurements showed charge separation to proceed via hole injection from the excited (CH(3)NH(3))PbI(3) NPs into the spiro-MeOTAD followed by electron transfer to the mesoscopic TiO(2) film. The use of a solid hole conductor dramatically improved the device stability compared to (CH(3)NH(3))PbI(3) -sensitized liquid junction cells.

  2. Pulsed-diode-pumped, all-solid-state, electro-optically controlled picosecond Nd:YAG lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunkov, Mikhail V; Shabalin, Yu V; Konyashkin, A V; Kostryukov, P V; Olenin, A N; Tunkin, V G; Morozov, V B; Rusov, V A; Telegin, L S; Yakovlev, D V

    2005-01-01

    The results of the development of repetitively pulsed, diode-pumped, electro-optically controlled picosecond Nd:YAG lasers of two designs are presented. The first design uses the active-passive mode locking with electro-optical lasing control and semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors (SESAM). This design allows the generation of 15-50-ps pulses with an energy up to 0.5 mJ and a maximum pulse repetition rate of 100 Hz. The laser of the second design generates 30-ps pulses due to combination of positive and negative electro-optical feedback and the control of the electro-optical modulator by the photocurrent of high-speed semiconductor structures. (active media. lasers)

  3. Lead iodide perovskite sensitized all-solid-state submicron thin film mesoscopic solar cell with efficiency exceeding 9%.

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Hui-Seon

    2012-08-21

    We report on solid-state mesoscopic heterojunction solar cells employing nanoparticles (NPs) of methyl ammonium lead iodide (CH(3)NH(3))PbI(3) as light harvesters. The perovskite NPs were produced by reaction of methylammonium iodide with PbI(2) and deposited onto a submicron-thick mesoscopic TiO(2) film, whose pores were infiltrated with the hole-conductor spiro-MeOTAD. Illumination with standard AM-1.5 sunlight generated large photocurrents (J(SC)) exceeding 17 mA/cm(2), an open circuit photovoltage (V(OC)) of 0.888 V and a fill factor (FF) of 0.62 yielding a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.7%, the highest reported to date for such cells. Femto second laser studies combined with photo-induced absorption measurements showed charge separation to proceed via hole injection from the excited (CH(3)NH(3))PbI(3) NPs into the spiro-MeOTAD followed by electron transfer to the mesoscopic TiO(2) film. The use of a solid hole conductor dramatically improved the device stability compared to (CH(3)NH(3))PbI(3) -sensitized liquid junction cells.

  4. Ni(OH)2/CNTs hierarchical spheres for a foldable all-solid-state supercapacitor with high specific energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qingqing; Liu, Jiaqin; Mao, Wenping; Xu, Chenxi; Lan, Binbin; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Yong; Yan, Jian; Wu, Yucheng

    2018-04-17

    Energy density and mechanical strength are crucial for practical usage of flexible supercapacitors. Herein, we demonstrate a flexible supercapacitor using Ni(OH)2/CNTs hierarchical spheres with high specific capacity (854 C g-1) and tough PBI-KOH solid polymer electrolyte. The integrated device shows high specific energy (50.6 W h kg-1) and good flexibility under folding tests.

  5. All-Solid, High-Performance Li-ion Batteries for NASA's Future Science Missions, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The state-of-the-art Li-ion battery technology is based on processing of lithium transition metal oxides, and graphite powder, and use of liquid organic...

  6. Lead Iodide Perovskite Sensitized All-Solid-State Submicron Thin Film Mesoscopic Solar Cell with Efficiency Exceeding 9%

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hui-Seon; Lee, Chang-Ryul; Im, Jeong-Hyeok; Lee, Ki-Beom; Moehl, Thomas; Marchioro, Arianna; Moon, Soo-Jin; Humphry-Baker, Robin; Yum, Jun-Ho; Moser, Jacques E.; Grätzel, Michael; Park, Nam-Gyu

    2012-01-01

    We report on solid-state mesoscopic heterojunction solar cells employing nanoparticles (NPs) of methyl ammonium lead iodide (CH3NH3)PbI3 as light harvesters. The perovskite NPs were produced by reaction of methylammonium iodide with PbI2 and deposited onto a submicron-thick mesoscopic TiO2 film, whose pores were infiltrated with the hole-conductor spiro-MeOTAD. Illumination with standard AM-1.5 sunlight generated large photocurrents (JSC) exceeding 17 mA/cm2, an open circuit photovoltage (VOC) of 0.888 V and a fill factor (FF) of 0.62 yielding a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 9.7%, the highest reported to date for such cells. Femto second laser studies combined with photo-induced absorption measurements showed charge separation to proceed via hole injection from the excited (CH3NH3)PbI3 NPs into the spiro-MeOTAD followed by electron transfer to the mesoscopic TiO2 film. The use of a solid hole conductor dramatically improved the device stability compared to (CH3NH3)PbI3 -sensitized liquid junction cells. PMID:22912919

  7. Simultaneous particulates, NO sub x , SO sub x removal from flue gas by all solid-state electrochemical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, W.J.; Hossain, M.S.; Keyvani, M.; Neyman, M. (Helipump Corp., Cleveland, OH (USA)); Gordon, A.Z. (IGR Enterprises, Beachwood, OH (USA))

    1989-04-14

    The IGR emission control technology controls SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}, and particulate emissions from coal combustion flue gases. The technology uses an electrochemical solid-state reactor which converts SO{sub 2} and NO{sub X} to S, N{sub 2}, and O{sub 2}. The cell electrolyte is a solid electrolyte, namely a high surface area ceramic oxide-ion conductor. Three tasks were active during this quarter: Task (1), Procurement, Construction and Debugging of the Electrochemical Reactors and Particulate Removal System, Tasks, (2) Reactor Operation on SO{sub 2}/NO{sub X} Spiked Gas Streams, and Task (3) Electrocatalysts Preparation and Screening Studies. In Task (1) the particulate control apparatus has been completely installed and its operation is being examined with respect to filtration materials and solid electrolyte. In Task (2) electrochemical measurements were made with oxide ion conducting ceramic disks in gases containing NO and SO{sub 2}. In Task (3) the electrochemical measurements are being made using a series of electrocatalysts in gases containing NO, SO{sub 2}, and oxygen. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Simultaneous particulates, NO sub x , SO sub x removal from flue gas by all solid-state electrochemcial technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, W.J.; Keyvani, M.; Neyman, M. (Helipump Corp., Cleveland, OH (USA)); Gordon, A.Z. (IGR Enterprises, Beachwood, OH (USA))

    1989-05-22

    The IGR Process emission control technology controls SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x}, and particulate emissions from coal combustion flue gases. The technology uses an electrochemical solid-state reactor which converts SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} to S, N{sub 2}, and O{sub 2}. The cell electrolyte is a solid electrolyte, namely a high surface area ceramic oxide-ion conductor. Tasks this quarter include: (1) Procurement, Construction and Debugging of the Electrochemical Reactors and Particulate Removal System; (2) Reactor Operation on SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} Spiked Gas Streams; and (3) Electrocatalysts Preparation and Screening Studies. In Task (1) the particulate control test apparatus has been completely installed and flyash tests have begun. During the tests a voltage is applied across the solid electrolyte and the current is monitored while flyash passes through the cell. In Task (1) electrochemical measurements were made with oxide ion conducting ceramic disks in gases containing NO and SO{sub 2}. In Task (3) the electrochemical measurements are being made using four electrocatalysts in gases containing NO, SO{sub 2}, and oxygen. 3 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Simultaneous particulates, NO sub x , SO sub x removal from flue gas by all solid-state electrochemical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, W.J.; Cornell, L.P.; Keyvani, M.; Neyman, M. (Helipump Corp., Cleveland, OH (USA)); Helfritch, D.J. (Research-Cottrell, Inc., Somerville, NJ (USA). Environmental Services and Technologies Div.)

    1990-04-17

    The process control SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, and particulate emission from coal combustion flue gases. It is based on a solid-state, electrochemical reactor which converts NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} to nitrogen, sulfur, and oxygen. Sulfur is condensed downstream at a lower temperature. Particulates are removed with a filter or electrostatic precipitator. The process utilizes no other material input (flue gas is the only fluid), has no moving parts, and produces no sludge(s). The reactor consists of an electrochemical cell where the electrolyte is a solid oxygen ion conducting ceramic such as stabilized ceria or zirconia and the electrodes are electronically conductive material(s). Porous metal such as silver or gold were used as electrodes in the experimental work. Acceptable reduction rates and electric power requirements for sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide removal were obtained in up to 1% oxygen with ruthenium and strontium ruthenate electrocatalysts. Electrocatalytic improvements are needed for higher oxygen concentrations, with the NO reduction rates and efficiencies being most sensitive to oxygen concentration. The best electrocatalysts were ruthenium and the perovskite strontium ruthenate. 37 refs., 23 figs., 26 tabs.

  10. Fluorine-free electrolytes for all-solid sodium-ion batteries based on percyano-substituted organic salts

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Bitner-Michalska; Gene M. Nolis; Grażyna Żukowska; Aldona Zalewska; Marcin Poterała; Tomasz Trzeciak; Maciej Dranka; Michał Kalita; Piotr Jankowski; Leszek Niedzicki; Janusz Zachara; Marek Marcinek; Władysław Wieczorek

    2017-01-01

    A new family of fluorine-free solid-polymer electrolytes, for use in sodium-ion battery applications, is presented. Three novel sodium salts withdiffuse negative charges: sodium pentacyanopropenide (NaPCPI), sodium 2,3,4,5-tetracyanopirolate (NaTCP) and sodium 2,4,5-tricyanoimidazolate (NaTIM) were designed andtested in a poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) matrix as polymer electrolytes for anall-solid sodium-ion battery. Due to unique, non-covalent structural configurations of anions, improved ionic...

  11. High-Performance Flexible All-Solid-State Supercapacitor from Large Free-Standing Graphene-PEDOT/PSS Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuqing; Weng, Bo; Razal, Joselito M.; Xu, Qun; Zhao, Chen; Hou, Yuyang; Seyedin, Shayan; Jalili, Rouhollah; Wallace, Gordon G.; Chen, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Although great attention has been paid to wearable electronic devices in recent years, flexible lightweight batteries or supercapacitors with high performance are still not readily available due to the limitations of the flexible electrode inventory. In this work, highly flexible, bendable and conductive rGO-PEDOT/PSS films were prepared using a simple bar-coating method. The assembled device using rGO-PEDOT/PSS electrode could be bent and rolled up without any decrease in electrochemical performance. A relatively high areal capacitance of 448 mF cm−2 was achieved at a scan rate of 10 mV s−1 using the composite electrode with a high mass loading (8.49 mg cm−2), indicating the potential to be used in practical applications. To demonstrate this applicability, a roll-up supercapacitor device was constructed, which illustrated the operation of a green LED light for 20 seconds when fully charged. PMID:26586106

  12. Epitaxial growth and lithium ion conductivity of lithium-oxide garnet for an all solid-state battery electrolyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sangryun; Hirayama, Masaaki; Taminato, Sou; Kanno, Ryoji

    2013-09-28

    Epitaxial thin films of Al-doped Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) with a cubic garnet-type structure were successfully synthesized using pulsed laser deposition to investigate the lithium ion conduction in grains. Two orientations of the films were obtained depending on the Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG) substrate orientation, LLZO(001)/GGG(001) and LLZO(111)/GGG(111). The ionic conductivities in the grains of the (001) and (111) films were 2.5 × 10(-6) and 1.0 × 10(-5) S cm(-1) at 298 K, respectively, which were lower than those of polycrystalline LLZO of over 10(-4) S cm(-1). X-ray reflectometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry revealed a large amount of Al(3+) of over 0.6 moles substituted for Li(+). These results indicate that the Al(3+) substitution in the LLZO lattice decreases the number of movable lithium ions and blocks the three-dimensional lithium migration pathway. The lattice mismatch between the film and the substrate induced the lattice distortion of the LLZO, resulting in different conductivities between the (001) and (111) films. The epitaxial-film model system directly clarified a substantial impact of the Al substitution and the lattice distortion on the lithium ion conductivity in the LLZO.

  13. Accessing the bottleneck in all-solid state batteries, lithium-ion transport over the solid-electrolyte-electrode interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, C.; Ganapathy, S.; van Eck, Ernst R H; Wang, H.; Basak, S.; Li, Z.; Wagemaker, M.

    2017-01-01

    Solid-state batteries potentially offer increased lithium-ion battery energy density and safety as required for large-scale production of electrical vehicles. One of the key challenges toward high-performance solid-state batteries is the large impedance posed by the electrode-electrolyte

  14. Porous honeycomb structures formed from interconnected MnO2 sheets on CNT-coated substrates for flexible all-solid-state supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Wen-Yin; Chen, You-Feng; Lu, Ke-Ming; Lin, Kuan-Jiuh

    2016-01-01

    The use of lightweight and easily-fabricated MnO2/carbon nanotube (CNT)-based flexible networks as binder-free electrodes and a polyvinyl alcohol/H2SO4 electrolyte for the formation of stretchable solid-state supercapacitors was examined. The active electrodes were fabricated from 3D honeycomb porous MnO2 assembled from cross-walled and interconnected sheet-architectural MnO2 on CNT-based plastic substrates (denoted as honeycomb MnO2/CNT textiles).These substrates were fabricated through a simple two-step procedure involving the coating of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) onto commercial textiles by a dipping-drying process and subsequent electrodeposition of the interconnected MnO2 sheets onto the MWCNT-coated textile. With such unique MnO2 architectures integrated onto CNT flexible films, good performance was achieved with a specific capacitance of 324 F/g at 0.5 A/g. A maximum energy density of 7.2 Wh/kg and a power density as high as 3.3 kW/kg were exhibited by the honeycomb MnO2/CNT network device, which is comparable to the performance of other carbon-based and metal oxide/carbon-based solid-state supercapacitor devices. Specifically, the long-term cycling stability of this material is excellent, with almost no loss of its initial capacitance and good Coulombic efficiency of 82% after 5000 cycles. These impressive results identify these materials as a promising candidate for use in environmentally friendly, low-cost, and high-performance flexible energy-storage devices.

  15. High power all-solid-state fourth harmonic generation of 266 nm at the pulse repetition rate of 100 kHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Q; Yan, X P; Fu, X; Gong, M; Wang, D S

    2009-01-01

    14.8 W UV laser at 266 nm was reported with the extra cavity frequency quartered configuration. The fundamental frequency IR source is a high-power high-beam-quality acoustic-optic Q-switched Nd:YVO 4 master-oscillator-power-amplifier laser. The type-I phase-matched LBO and type-I phase-matched BBO crystals were used as the extra-cavity frequency doubled and quartered crystal respectively. 14.8 W UV laser of 266 nm was obtained at the pulse repetition rate of 100 kHz with the conversion efficiency of 18.3% from green to UV, and the pulse duration of the UV laser was 10 ns corresponding to the pulse peak power of 14.8 kW. At 150 kHz, 11.5 W power output was obtained. The highest peak power of 21 kW was also achieved at 80 kHz with the average output power of 14.5 W

  16. 1,2,4-Triazolium perfluorobutanesulfonate as an archetypal pure protic organic ionic plastic crystal electrolyte for all-solid-state fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Jiangshui; Jensen, Annemette Hindhede; Brooks, Neil R.

    2015-01-01

    weakening of hydrogen bonds at 82 C seems to be coupled with the onset of orientational or rotational disorder of the ions. The temperature dependence of ionic conductivity in the solid and molten states is measured via impedance spectroscopy and current interruption technique, respectively. The Arrhenius...

  17. Binder-free activated graphene compact films for all-solid-state micro-supercapacitors with high areal and volumetric capacitances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Zhong Shuai; Yang, Sheng; Zhang, Lili

    2015-01-01

    Micro-supercapacitors (MSCs) hold great promise as highly competitive miniaturized power sources satisfying the increased demand in microelectronics; however, simultaneously achieving high areal and volumetric capacitances is still a great challenge. Here we demonstrated the designed construction...... of binder-free, electrically conductive, nanoporous activated graphene (AG) compact films for high-performance MSCs. The binder-free AG films are fabricated by alternating deposition of electrochemically exfoliated graphene (EG) and nanoporous AG with a high specific surface area of 2920 m2/g, and then dry...

  18. NiCo2S4nanosheet-decorated 3D, porous Ni film@Ni wire electrode materials for all solid-state asymmetric supercapacitor applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanakumar, Balasubramaniam; Jayaseelan, Santhana Sivabalan; Seo, Min-Kang; Kim, Hak-Yong; Kim, Byoung-Suhk

    2017-12-07

    Wire type supercapacitors with high energy and power densities have generated considerable interest in wearable applications. Herein, we report a novel NiCo 2 S 4 -decorated 3D, porous Ni film@Ni wire electrode for high performance supercapacitor application. In this work, a facile method is introduced to fabricate a 3D, porous Ni film deposited on a Ni wire as a flexible electrode, followed by decoration with NiCo 2 S 4 as an electroactive material. The fabricated NiCo 2 S 4 -decorated 3D, porous Ni film@Ni wire electrode displays a superior performance with an areal and volumetric capacitance of 1.228 F cm -2 and 199.74 F cm -3 , respectively, at a current density of 0.2 mA cm -1 with a maximum volumetric energy and power density (E V : 6.935 mW h cm -3 ; P V : 1.019 W cm -3 ). Finally, the solid state asymmetric wire type supercapacitor is fabricated using the fabricated NiCo 2 S 4 -decorated 3D, porous Ni film@Ni wire as a positive electrode and N-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-rGO) as a negative electrode and this exhibits good areal and volumetric capacitances of C A : 0.12 F cm -2 and C V : 19.57 F cm -2 with a higher rate capability (92%). This asymmetric wire type supercapacitor demonstrates a low leakage current and self-discharge with a maximum volumetric energy (E V : 5.33 mW h cm -3 ) and power (P V : 855.69 mW cm -3 ) density.

  19. A Safe High-Performance All-Solid-State Lithium-Vanadium Battery with a Freestanding V2O5Nanowire Composite Paper Cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Lai, Jingyuan; Gong, Yudong; Hu, Yongming; Liu, Jin; Sun, Chunwen; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2016-12-21

    The electronic conductivity and structural stability are still challenges for vanadium pentoxide (V 2 O 5 ) as cathode materials in batteries. Here, we report a V 2 O 5 nanowire-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite paper for direct use as a cathode without any additives for high-temperature and high-safety solid polymer electrolyte [PEO-MIL-53(Al)-LiTFSI] lithium-vanadium batteries. The batteries can show a fast and stable lithium-ion-storage performance in a wide voltage window of 1.0-4.0 V versus Li + /Li at 80 °C, in which with an average capacity of 329.2 mAh g -1 at 17 mA g -1 and a stable cycling performance over 40 cycles are achieved. The excellent electrochemical performance is mainly ascribed to integration of the electronic conductivity of rGO and interconnected networks of the V 2 O 5 nanowires and solid electrolyte. This is a promising lithium battery for flexible and highly safe energy-storage devices.

  20. Development of bipolar all-solid-state lithium battery based on quasi-solid-state electrolyte containing tetraglyme-LiTFSA equimolar complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambe, Yoshiyuki; Sun, Yan; Honma, Itaru

    2015-03-09

    The development of high energy-density lithium-ion secondary batteries as storage batteries in vehicles is attracting increasing attention. In this study, high-voltage bipolar stacked batteries with a quasi-solid-state electrolyte containing a Li-Glyme complex were prepared, and the performance of the device was evaluated. Via the successful production of double-layered and triple-layered high-voltage devices, it was confirmed that these stacked batteries operated properly without any internal short-circuits of a single cell within the package: Their plateau potentials (6.7 and 10.0 V, respectively) were two and three times that (3.4 V) of the single-layered device, respectively. Further, the double-layered device showed a capacity retention of 99% on the 200th cycle at 0.5 C, which is an indication of good cycling properties. These results suggest that bipolar stacked batteries with a quasi-solid-state electrolyte containing a Li-Glyme complex could readily produce a high voltage of 10 V.

  1. Nonclassical statistics of intracavity coupled chi((2)) waveguides: The quantum optical dimer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    2003-01-01

    A model is proposed where two chi((2)) nonlinear waveguides are contained in a cavity suited for second-harmonic generation. The evanescent wave coupling between the waveguides is considered as weak, and the interplay between this coupling and the nonlinear interaction within the waveguides gives...

  2. Digital control of laser modes with an intra-cavity spatial light modulator

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we outline a simple laser cavity which produces customised on-demand digitally controlled laser modes by replacing the end-mirror of the cavity with an electrically addressed reflective phase-only spatial light modulator as a digital...

  3. Intracavity Rayleigh/Mie Scattering for Multipoint, Two-Component Velocity Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivolaru, Daniel; Danehy, Paul M.; Lee, Joseph W.

    2006-01-01

    A simultaneous multi-point two-component Doppler velocimeter is described. The system uses two optical cavities: a Fabry-Perot etalon and an optical cavity for collecting and re-circulating the Rayleigh/Mie scattered light that is collected from the measurement volume in two parallel, but opposite directions. Single-pulse measurements of two orthogonal components of the velocity vector in a supersonic free jet were performed to demonstrate the technique. The re-circulation of the light rejected by the interferometer input mirror also increased the signal intensity by a factor of 3.5. 2005 Optical Society of America Interferometric Rayleigh scattering has previously been used for single-point velocity measurements in unseeded gas flow. However, this past work has generally been limited to probing with continuous-wave lasers resulting in time-averaged measurements of velocity. Multiple velocity components have been measured simultaneously by separate instruments.1,2 It has also been demonstrated that two orthogonal velocity components can be measured simultaneously at one point using one interferometer by reflecting back the probing laser beam, although this approach results in directional ambiguity of the flow velocity vector.3 This measurement ambiguity was removed by prior knowledge of the approximate magnitude and sign of the velocity components. Furthermore, it was shown that multiple points could be measured simultaneously with a Rayleigh scattering interferometric approach, but only one component of velocity was measured.4 Another method of performing multiple component velocity measurements with Rayleigh scattering uses a pair of cameras to image the flow, one of which views the flow through an iodine gas filter. This iodine-filter technique has the advantage of allowing high-resolution velocity imaging, but it generally has a lower dynamic range.

  4. Intracavity upconversion for IR absorption lidar: Comparison of linear and ring cavity designs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meng, Lichun; Høgstedt, Lasse; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Upconversion detection is a promising technology for measurement of IR signals in the 1.5 μm–2 μm region used for lidar remote sensing [1-2]. In comparison to conventional InGaAs detector, the upconversion detector can achieve IR detection with better signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), not only due...

  5. Intra-cavity photodetachment microscopy and the electron affinity of germanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresteau, D.; Babilotte, Ph; Drag, C.; Blondel, C.

    2015-06-01

    A beam of Ge- ions produced by a cesium sputtering ion source is photodetached, in the presence of an electric field, inside a linear optical cavity injected with a single mode ring Ti:Sa laser. The laser wavenumber can be set either above the highest 3{{P}2} fine-structure excitation threshold or just above the 3{{P}1}, intermediate fine-structure threshold of the 3P ground-term of Ge I. A single-electron interferogram is produced, according to the principles of photodetachment microscopy, which contains both photoelectron energies produced by the two opposite wave vectors contained in the optical cavity. This makes the Doppler-free measurement of the photodetachment threshold even more direct than with the usual double-spot photodetachment microscopy method, at the expense of some reduction of the contrast in the interferograms. Both methods concur in producing a revised value of the electron affinity of germanium: 994 220.6 (10) {{m}-1}, or 1.232 6764 (12) eV, one order of magnitude more precise and significantly smaller than the last measured value 994 249 (12) {{m}-1}, or 1.232 712 (15) eV. This new technique can be applied to weaker detachment thresholds or p-wave detachment.

  6. Displacement sensor based on intra-cavity tuning of dual-frequency gas laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Haisha; Niu, Yanxiong; Liu, Ning; Li, Jiyang

    2018-01-01

    A nanometer-resolution displacement measurement instrument based on tunable cavity frequency-splitting method is presented. One beam is split into two orthogonally polarized beams when anisotropic element inserted in the cavity. The two beams with fixed frequency difference are modulated by the movement of the reflection mirror. The changing law of the power tuning curves between the total output and the two orthogonally polarized beams is researched, and a method splitting one tuning cycle to four equal parts is proposed based on the changing law, each part corresponds to one-eighth wavelength of displacement. A laser feedback interferometer (LFI) and piezoelectric ceramic are series connected to the sensor head to calibrate the displacement that less than one-eighth wavelength. The displacement sensor achieves to afford measurement range of 20mm with resolution of 6.93nm.

  7. Intra-cavity decomposition of a dual-directional laser beam

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Darryl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available : Resonators, Fox-Li analysis, Transverse modes. 1. INTRODUCTION The electromagnetic radiation emitted by optical resonators contains some discrete frequencies and these frequencies are separated from one another by frequency differences which may... are independent in that multi frequency lasers may often have controlled transverse properties and can oscillate in an ideal single transverse mode4. Line width and coherence length are primarily determined by the spectral characteristics of a mode whereas beam...

  8. Intra-cavity metamorphosis of a Gaussian beam to flat-top distribution

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Darryl

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available .co.za Laser Resonators, Microresonators, and Beam Control XVI, edited by Alexis V. Kudryashov, Alan H. Paxton, Vladimir S. Ilchenko, Lutz Aschke, Kunihiko Washio, Proc. of SPIE Vol. 8960, 89601H · © 2014 SPIE · CCC code: 0277-786X/14/$18 · doi: 10.... and Paré C., “Super-Gaussian output from a CO2 laser by using a graded-phase mirror resonator,” Opt. Lett. 17(10), 739 – 741 (1992). [5] Paré C., and Bélanger P. A., “Custom laser resonators using graded-phase mirrors,” IEEE J. of Quantum Elec. 28...

  9. Single-frequency TEA CO2 laser with a bleaching spectral intracavity filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorochenko, V. R.

    2017-02-01

    The regime of single-frequency operation is realised in a TEA CO2 laser with a spectral filter inside the cavity (a cell filled with SF6) on P(12)-P(24) lines of the 10P band. The minimal scatter of the peak powers of the laser pulses in a series of ‘shots’ and the maximal ratio of the output energies in the single-frequency and free running regimes (greater than 0.84) are obtained on the P(16) line at an optimal SF6 pressure in the cell. Experimental results qualitatively agree with the absorption spectrum of SF6 calculated from the SPECTRA information-analytical system. It is shown that the high ratio of energies in two regimes is achived due to gas bleaching in the cell.

  10. Influence of intra-cavity loss on transmission characteristics of fiber Bragg grating Fabry-Perot cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Di; Ding, Meng; Pi, Hao-Yang; Li, Xuan; Yang, Fei; Ye, Qing; Cai, Hai-Wen; Wei, Fang

    2018-02-01

    Not Available Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61405212, 61377062, 61405218, and 61775225) and Scientific Innovation Fund of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. CXJJ-17S010).

  11. Optical pulse generation in a transistor laser via intra-cavity photon-assisted tunneling and excess base carrier redistribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, M.; Iverson, E. W.; Wang, C. Y.; Holonyak, N. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and Micro and Nanotechnology Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 208 N. Wright St., Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2015-11-02

    For a direct-gap semiconductor (e.g., a p-n junction), photon-assisted tunneling is known to exhibit a high nonlinear absorption. In a transistor laser, as discussed here, the coherent photons generated at the quantum well interact with the collector junction field and “assist” electron tunneling from base to collector, thus resulting in the nonlinear modulation of the laser and the realization of optical pulse generation. 1 and 2 GHz optical pulses are demonstrated in the transistor laser using collector voltage control.

  12. Passive Q-switching in CW-CO2 laser with SF6 as an intracavity saturable absorber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hawat, Sh.

    2007-10-01

    A passive Q-switching was applied to a tunable CW CO 2 laser with output power about 3.5 W using SF 6 as a saturable absorber inside the cavity. The Q-Switching phenomenon was studied ( pulse shape, pulse duration, repetition rate and conditions of its generation ) at the spectral lines of 10P(10), 10P(26), 10P(28) and 10P(30) from the branch of 10P of CO 2 laser. These lines had a weak absorption in relation to other lines of this branch, under SF 6 pressure till 0.5 mbar. To control the behaviour of such phenomenon, the gases He and Xe were added separately to SF 6 . It was observed that the Q-switching phenomenon was depended on the added gas pressure of Xe and He, through the repetitive rate of pulses , duration and energy of generated laser pulse. A computational program was written to calculate the Q-switching pulses parameters under similar conditions as those applied in the case of SF 6 +He mixture. A comparison was made with the experimental data , not so big discrepancies were observed between them. In addition to that, absorption coefficients of SF 6 were determined in two cases: the first one when the absorption cell was located outside the laser cavity, and the second one when the cell was located inside the cavity. On the basis of obtained coefficients the absorption cross sections of SF 6 were found and compared with NIST database.(author)

  13. Theoretical Study of an Actively Mode-Locked Fiber Laser Stabilized by an Intracavity Fabry-Perot Etalon: Linear Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    competition without a significant ncrease in the pulse duration. . MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR THE ASER ur mathematical model of the laser is similar to...to he case 1=0. The increase in the parameter P̂ yields an ncrease in the pulse duration by a factor of approxi- ately 10. It is possible to...etalon and it increases as the finesse of the etalon ncreases . Therefore, in a laser with an etalon, the total ispersion is determined by the parameter D̂

  14. Analysis of Some New Electronic Transitions Observed Using Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy (ils): Possible Identification of HCuN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, Jack C.; Grames, Ethan M.; O'Brien, Leah C.; O'Brien, James J.

    2017-06-01

    Four new electronic transitions with blue-degraded bandheads were observed in the orange-red region of the visible spectrum. The transitions were observed in the plasma discharge of a hollow copper cathode placed within the cavity of a tunable dye laser system, allowing molecular absorbance to be enhanced upon laser amplification. To produce the molecules, the surface of the copper cathode was soaked in a dilute ammonia solution prior to installation, and 1 torr of H_2 was used as the sputter gas in the dc plasma discharge. The bandheads were observed at 16,560 \\wn, 16,485 \\wn, 16,027 \\wn, and 15,960 \\wn. Using 1.5 torr of D_2 as the sputter gas resulted in a -3 \\wn shift in origin for the bands in the 16,000 \\wn region. Four rotational branches have been identified in each transition, and the transitions have been fit to independent ^{2}Σ - ^{2}Π transitions using PGOPHER, with spin-orbit splittings in the Hund's case (a) Π-states of -71.2 \\wn and -65.4 \\wn. The transitions have tentatively been assigned to HCuN. Results of this analysis will be presented.

  15. Purification and characterization of two phospho-β-galactosidases, LacG1 and LacG2, from Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC33323T

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Honda, Hiroyuki; Nagaoka, Seiji; Kawai, Yasushi; Kemperman, Robèr; Kok, Jan; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Tateno, Yoshio; Kitazawa, Haruki; Saito, Tadao

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC33323T expresses four enzymes showing phospho-β-galactosidase activity (LacG1, LacG2, Pbg1 and Pbg2). We previously reported the purification and characterization of two phospho-β-galactosidases (Pbg1 and Pbg2) from Lactobacillus gasseri JCM1031 cultured in lactose medium.

  16. Availability of porphobilinogen controls appearance of porphobilinogen deaminase activity in Escherichia coli K-12.

    OpenAIRE

    Umanoff, H; Russell, C S; Cosloy, S D

    1988-01-01

    A hemin-permeable hemB mutant had no 5-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA D) and extremely low porphobilinogen deaminase (PBG D) activity. When the structural gene for hemB was introduced into this strain on a single-copy plasmid, both activities were observed. When the mutant was grown on PBG, normal PBG D activity was observed. Moreover, a hemA mutant had little or no PBG D activity unless it was grown on ALA or PBG. Neither hemin nor PBG affected the level of PBG D protein produced from in v...

  17. Prospective evaluation of prognostic factors uPA/PAI-1 in node-negative breast cancer: Phase III NNBC3-Europe trial (AGO, GBG, EORTC-PBG comparing 6 × FEC versus 3 × FEC/3 × Docetaxel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    von Minckwitz Gunter

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Today, more than 70% of patients with primary node-negative breast cancer are cured by local therapy alone. Many patients receive overtreatment by adjuvant chemotherapy due to inadequate risk assessment. So far, few clinical trials have prospectively evaluated tumor biology based prognostic factors. Risk assessment by a biological algorithm including invasion factors urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA and its inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1 will assess up to 35-55% of node-negative patients as low-risk and thus avoid chemotherapy. In contrast, a clinical-pathological algorithm will only classify 20-40% of patients as low-risk. High-risk node-negative patients should receive chemotherapy. Anthracycline-based regimens are accepted as a standard, the additional benefit of taxanes remains an open question. Methods/Design The international NNBC3 ("Node Negative Breast Cancer 3-Europe" trial compares biological risk assessment (UP using invasion factors uPA/PAI-1 with a clinical-pathological algorithm (CP. In this trial, the type of risk assessment (CP or UP was chosen upfront by each center for its patients. Fresh frozen tissue was obtained to determine uPA/PAI-1 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Patients assessed as high-risk were stratified by human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 status and then randomised to receive anthracycline-containing chemotherapy 5-Fluorouracil (F/Epirubicin (E/Cyclophosphymide (C or an anthracycline-taxane sequence (FE100C*6 versus FE100C*3 followed by Docetaxel100*3. Discussion In this trial, 4,149 node-negative patients with operable breast cancer from 153 centers in Germany and France were included since 2002. Measurement of uPA/PAI-1 by ELISA was performed with standardised central quality assurance for 2,497 patients (60% from 56 "UP"-centers. The NNBC 3-Europe trial showed that inclusion of patients into a clinical phase III trial is feasible based on biological testing of fresh frozen tumor material. In addition, 2,661 patients were classified as high-risk and thus received chemotherapy. As adjuvant chemotherapy, 1,334 high-risk patients received FE100C-Docetaxel100, and 1,327 received French FE100C. No unexpected toxicities were observed. Chemotherapy efficacy and comparison of UP with CP will be evaluated after longer follow-up. Trial Registration clinical Trials.gov NCT01222052.

  18. Synthesis of nano-sized hydrogen phosphate-imprinted polymer in acetonitrile/water mixture and its use as a recognition element of hydrogen phosphate selective all-solid state potentiometric electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, Taher; Atayi, Khalil

    2018-02-01

    Herein, a new recipe is introduced for the preparation of hydrogen phosphate ion-imprinted polymer nanoparticles (nano-IIP) in acetonitrile/water (63.5:36.5) using phosphoric acid as the template. The nano-IIP obtained was used as the recognition element of a carbon paste potentiometric sensor. The IIP electrode showed a Nernstian response to hydrogen phosphate anion; whereas, the non-imprinted polymer (NIP)-based electrode had no considerable sensitivity to the anion. The presence of both methacrylic acid and vinyl pyridine in the IIP structure, as well as optimization of the functional monomers-template proportion, was found to be important to observe the sensing capability of the IIP electrode. The nano-IIP electrode showed a dynamic linear range of 1 × 10 -5 -1 × 10 -1  mol L-1, Nernstian slope of 30.6 ± (0.5) mV decade -1 , response time of 25 seconds, and detection limit of 4.0 × 10 -6  mol L -1 . The utility of the electrodes was checked by potentiometric titration of hydrogen phosphate with La 3+ solution. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. All-solid-state lithium batteries – The Mg2FeH6-electrode LiBH4-electrolyte system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huen, Priscilla; Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B.

    2018-01-01

    The complex hydride Mg2FeH6 is investigated as conversion type anode in a solid-state all-hydride Li-battery employing LiBH4 as solid-state electrolyte. In the solid-state battery, Mg2FeH6 exhibits improvements in the capacity retention and initial Coulombic efficiency of > 3 and > 2.5 times, res...

  20. CO2Laser Direct Written MOF-Based Metal-Decorated and Heteroatom-Doped Porous Graphene for Flexible All-Solid-State Microsupercapacitor with Extremely High Cycling Stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Aniruddha; Roy, Kingshuk; Sharma, Neha; Nandi, Shyamapada; Vaidhyanathan, Ramanathan; Rane, Sunit; Rode, Chandrashekhar; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2016-11-23

    Over the past decade, flexible and wearable microelectronic devices and systems have gained significant importance. Because portable power source is an essential need of such wearable devices, currently there is considerable research emphasis on the development of planar interdigitated micro energy -torage devices by employing diverse precursor materials to obtain functional materials (functional carbon, oxides, etc.) with the desirable set of properties. Herein we report for the first time the use of metal organic framework (MOF) and zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF-67) for high-wavelength photothermal laser direct writing of metal-decorated, heteroatom-doped, porous few-layer graphene electrodes for microsupercapacitor application. We argue that the specific attributes of MOF as a precursor and the high-wavelength laser writing approach (which creates extremely high localized and transient temperature (>2500 °C) due to strong absorption by lattice vibrations) are together responsible for the peculiar interesting properties of the carbon material thus synthesized, thereby rendering extremely high cycling stability to the corresponding microsupercapacitor device. Our device exhibits near 100% retention after 200 000 cycles as well as stability under 150° bending.

  1. Low temperature pulsed laser deposition of garnet Li6.4La3Zr1.4Ta0.6O12 films as all solid-state lithium battery electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccoccio, Mattia; Yu, Jing; Lu, Ziheng; Kwok, Stephen C. T.; Wang, Jian; Yeung, Kan Kan; Yuen, Matthew M. F.; Ciucci, Francesco

    2017-10-01

    With its stability against Li and good ionic conductivity, Li7La3Zr2O12 (LLZO) has emerged as a promising electrolyte material for lithium-based solid-state batteries (SSBs). Thin layers of solid electrolyte are needed to enable the practical use of SSBs. We report the first deposition of Li-conductive crystalline Ta-doped LLZO thin films on MgO (100) substrates via pulsed laser deposition. Further, we investigate the impact of laser fluence, deposition temperature (in the 50 °C-700 °C range), and post-deposition annealing on the structural, compositional, and transport properties of the film. We analyze the structure of the deposited films via grazing incident X-ray diffraction, their morphology via scanning electron microscopy, and the composition via depth profiling X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The Li ionic conductivity is investigated via electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Contrary to previous reports for LLZO films, the crystalline Ta-doped films presents a pure cubic LLZO structure for deposition temperatures as low as 50 °C, with resulting conductivities not significantly influenced by the temperature deposition. Instead, the laser fluence has a major effect on the growth rate of the thin films.

  2. Fabrication and electrochemical properties of hemisphere structured 3D Li(Li0.2Mn0.54Co0.13Ni0.13)O2 cathode thin film for all-solid-state lithium battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, H; Kong, W Y; Yoon, S J; Kim, Y C; Choi, J W

    2013-05-01

    The Li[Li0.2Mn0.54Ni0.13Co0.13]O2 cathode thin films were deposited on planar, hemisphere, linked hemisphere, and isolated hemisphere structured Pt current collector thin films to investigate the effect of 3-dimensional (3-D) structure for the electrochemical properties of active cathode thin films. The films of linked hemisphere structure shows the highest initial discharge capacity of 140 microA h/cm2-microm which is better than those of planar (62 microA h/cm2-microm), hemisphere (94.6 microA h/cm2-microm), and isolated hemisphere (135 microA h/cm2-microm) films due to increase of surface area for cathode thin films. Linked hemisphere shows the biggest capacity and the best retention rate because 6 nanobridges of each hemisphere bring strong connection.

  3. A single-phase all-solid-state lithium battery based on Li1.5Cr0.5Ti1.5(PO4)3for high rate capability and low temperature operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoishi, Atsushi; Nishio, Akira; Yoshioka, Yuto; Kitajou, Ayuko; Okada, Shigeto

    2018-03-28

    We report a battery made from a single material using Li 1.5 Cr 0.5 Ti 1.5 (PO 4 ) 3 as the anode, cathode and electrolyte. A high rate capability at room temperature and very low-temperature operation (233 K) were possible as a result of the superior ionic conductivity and low interfacial resistance obtained from the single-phase cell design.

  4. Advanced accelerator and mm-wave structure research at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simakov, Evgenya Ivanovna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-22

    This document outlines acceleration projects and mm-wave structure research performed at LANL. The motivation for PBG research is described first, with reference to couplers for superconducting accelerators and structures for room-temperature accelerators and W-band TWTs. These topics are then taken up in greater detail: PBG structures and the MIT PBG accelerator; SRF PBG cavities at LANL; X-band PBG cavities at LANL; and W-band PBG TWT at LANL. The presentation concludes by describing other advanced accelerator projects: beam shaping with an Emittance Exchanger, diamond field emitter array cathodes, and additive manufacturing of novel accelerator structures.

  5. Single frequency Nd:YLF and Nd:YVO4 laser in the red emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, Fabiola de Almeida

    2010-01-01

    All solid-state continuous-wave (cw) narrow emission linewidth and tunable red lasers are convenient alternative sources to bulky and expensive dye-lasers for high precision laser spectroscopy. Single-frequency operation of diode-pumped Nd:YLiF 4 and Nd:YVO 4 cw ring lasers were investigated in the 1.32 - 1.34μm range, together with their intracavity second-harmonic generation (SHG) to the red spectral range (0.65 - 0.67μm) using either BiB 3 O 6 (BiBO) or periodically-poled KTiOPO 4 (ppKTP) crystals. We report on such a single-end diode-pumped Nd:YVO 4 unidirectional red ring laser containing a type-I cut BiBO nonlinear crystal, yielding a record of 680 mW of single-longitudinal mode (SLM) red output power at 671.1nm without any intra-cavity etalon. For smooth SLM wavelength tuning over the full gain bandwidth (∼4 nm), a partially-coated (R = 40%) 100μm-thin etalon was found necessary, reducing the maximum SLM power (at 671.15 nm) to 380 mW. At 1342.5nm and with a T = 2% transmission output coupler, the laser provided an optimal 1.5W of single-frequency power. We demonstrate also optimal intracavity SHG of a Nd:YLF ring laser in the π- polarization (λ = 1321.5nm) using a ppKTP. The laser yielded 1.4 W of single frequency red power at 660.5 nm, as much as the maximum fundamental power that can be extracted from the resonator using an optimal output coupler. With a partially coated (R = 25%) thin etalon, the laser was tunable over Δλ∼ 1.6nm. (author)

  6. Should routine peripheral blood glucose testing be done for all newborns at birth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoops, Debra; Roberts, Patrice; Van Winkle, Elizabeth; Trauschke, Kelly; Mauton, Nicole; DeGhelder, Susan; Scalise, Angela; Jackson, Sarah; Cato, Deborah; Roth, Christina; Jones, Anna; Kautz, Martina; Whaley, Leah

    2010-01-01

    To determine the (1) incidence of peripheral blood glucose (PBG PBG PBG value was obtained within 2 hours of birth from the infant. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics, multiple regression analysis, and sensitivity and specificity testing. The incidence of PBG PBG values within 2 hours of birth at a statistically significant level (jitteriness [p = .011] and tachypnea [p = .033]). Sensitivity was 71.9% and specificity 44.7% for using the presence of at least one maternal/infant risk factor and/or infant signs/symptoms of hypoglycemia to correctly identify PBG PBG testing. Screening infants for maternal/infant risk factors and infant signs/symptoms of hypoglycemia could be used instead to safely decrease by 45% the number of infants who would need to have a PBG sample obtained within 2 hours of birth.

  7. Development of Interference Lithography Capability Using a Helium Cadmium Ultraviolet Multimode Laser for the Fabrication of Sub-Micron-Structured Optical Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    28 PBG Photonic Band-Gap...A PBG is analogous to energy band-gaps in that it acts as an optical conductor by capturing and projecting light into certain directions. The...optical properties of a PC with an inclusive PBG provide great interest because of their light redistribution abilities. Refractive index contrast

  8. 10 Gbit/s transmission over air-guiding photonic bandgap fibre at 1550 nm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peucheret, Christophe; Zsigri, Beata; Hansen, T.P.

    2005-01-01

    The first data transmission over air-guiding photonic bandgap (PBG) fibre is demonstrated. A 10 Gbit/s signal was successfully transmitted at 1550 nm over 150 m of singlemode PBG fibre, thus demonstrating their applicability to optical communications. Furthermore, the impact of the polarisation...... properties of PBG fibres is highlighted experimentally....

  9. 16.7 W 885 nm diode-side-pumped actively Q-switched Nd:YAG/YVO4 intracavity Raman laser at 1176 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Pengbo; Zhang, Guizhong; Liu, Jian; Ding, Xin; Sheng, Quan; Yu, Xuanyi; Sun, Bing; Shi, Rui; Wu, Liang; Wang, Rui; Yao, Jianquan

    2017-11-01

    We proposed and experimentally demonstrated the generation of high-power 1176 nm Stokes wave by frequency shifting of a 885 nm diode-side-pumped Nd:YAG laser using a YVO4 crystal in a Z-shaped cavity configuration. Employing the 885 nm diode-side-pumped scheme and the Z-shaped cavity, for the first time to our knowledge, we realized the thermal management effectively, achieving excellent 1176 nm Stokes wave consequently. With an incident pump power of ~190.0 W, a maximum average output power of 16.7 W was obtained at the pulse repetition frequency of 10 kHz. The pulse duration and spectrum linewidth of the Stokes wave at the maximum output power were 20.3 ns and ~0.08 nm, respectively.

  10. 100 mW of blue light at 405 nm from intracavity doubling of CW Ti:Sapphire laser utilising BiBO-crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorhauge, Morten; Mortensen, Jesper Liltorp; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter

    2006-01-01

    100 mW of coherent blue light with a wavelength of 405 nm was generated utilising a BiB3O6 (BiBO) nonlinear crystal to frequency double a Ti:Sapphire laser. Phase match curves as well as sensitivity to angular misalignment was calculated. The BiBO crystal was found to be excellent...... for this application. Temperature dependance was uncritical for this crystal, while power stability was good. The pump-to-blue optical conversion efficiency was approximately 2%. Unfortunately catastrophic coating damage was observed...

  11. Repetition rate stabilization of an erbium-doped all-fiber laser via opto-mechanical control of the intracavity group velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Xuling; He, Boqu; Zhao, Jian; Liu, Yang; Bai, Dongbi; Wang, Chao; Liu, Geping; Luo, Daping; Liu, Fengjiang; Li, Wenxue; Zeng, Heping; Yang, Kangwen; Hao, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    We present a method for stabilizing the repetition rate of an erbium-doped all-fiber laser by inserting an electronic polarization controller (EPC) in the fiber laser cavity. The device exhibited good integration, low cost, and convenient operation. Such a repetition rate stabilization may facilitate an all-fiber laser comb system with high integration. The repetition rate was phase-locked to a Rb reference more than 72 h with a low feedback voltage applied to one channel of the EPC. The repetition rate was 74.6 MHz. The standard deviation and the repetition rate linewidth were 1.4 and 1.7 mHz, respectively

  12. Ethylene production and petiole growth in rumex plants induced by soil waterlogging: the application of a continuous flow system and a laser driven intracavity photoacoustic detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voesenek, L A; Harren, F J; Bögemann, G M; Blom, C W; Reuss, J

    1990-11-01

    Petiole growth of Rumex acetosa L., Rumex crispus L., and Rumex palustris Sm. in response to soil waterlogging was studied in relation to production of the gaseous plant hormone ethylene. Ethylene production was monitored in a flow-through system and a recently developed laser driven photoacoustic detection system, which allowed ethylene measurements as low as 6 picoliters per liter. R. acetosa showed a two-fold increase in ethylene production correlated with a slight enhancement of the growth of the petiole that developed during the waterlogging treatment. Both R. crispus and R. palustris showed a strong petiole elongation of existing as well as newly formed petioles, which was correlated with a 20-fold increase in ethylene production after approximately 7 days. Increased rates of ethylene production in R. palustris were related to a strong increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) concentration and a slight, but detectable, increase in ethylene forming enzyme activity. In R. acetosa on the other hand, only a very small increase in ACC concentration was observed. Changes in ethylene production in Rumex are strongly correlated with variation in ACC content and ethylene forming enzyme activity. The interaction between ethylene production/internal concentration and ethylene sensitivity of the three Rumex species is discussed in relation to their field location in a flooding gradient and their differential resistance toward waterlogging and submergence.

  13. Solid-State Phase-Lockable 1-2THz Local-Oscillator Based on Intra-Cavity Frequency Conversion, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal provides a breakthrough solution to realize a compact THz local-oscillator, which is phase-lockable and can tune 1-2 THz with flat output power in...

  14. Joint Service Aircrew Mask (JSAM) Extended Wear Comfort Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    oxygen mask for pressure breathing under G ( PBG ) aircraft and the MBU-23/P for non-pressure breathing under G (non- PBG ) aircraft. It also provides...Services Aircrew Mask/hood (JSAM) – PBG variant or non- PBG variant HGU-55/P helmet with NVG mount JSAM corrective eye spectacle frame (as prescribed for...incorporating the positive pressure-breathing ( PBG ) variant of JSAM. The third member of the F/A group was fitted for the US Navy JSAM ensemble incorporating a

  15. Mass spectrometric characterisation of a condensation product between porphobilinogen and indolyl-3-acryloylglycine in urine of patients with acute intermittent porphyria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcos, Josep; Ibañez, Maria; Ventura, Rosa; Segura, Jordi; To-Figueras, Jordi; Pozo, Oscar J

    2015-07-01

    We document the presence of a previously unknown species in the urine of patients with acute intermittent porphyria (AIP). The compound was fully characterised by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Interpretation of both full spectrum acquisition and product ion spectra acquired in positive and negative ionisation modes by quadrupole time of flight MS allowed for the identification of a condensation product arising from porphobilinogen (PBG, increased in the urine of AIP patients) and indolyl-3-acryloylglycine (IAG, derived from indolylacrylic acid and present in human urine). The structure was unequivocally confirmed through comparison between the selected reaction monitoring chromatograms obtained from the urinary species and the condensation product qualitatively synthesised in the laboratory. Owing to the large amounts of both PBG and IAG in urine of AIP patients, the possible ex vivo formation of PBG-IAG in urine samples was evaluated. The product was spontaneously formed at room temperature, at 4 °C and even during storage at -20 °C when spiking a control sample with PBG. A positive correlation was found between PBG and PBG-IAG in samples collected from AIP patients. However, no correlation was found between PBG-IAG and IAG. Purified PBG-IAG did not form the characteristic chromogen after application of p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde in HCl, thus suggesting that the current techniques used to measure PBG in urine of AIP patients based on Ehlrich's reaction do not detect this newly characterised PBG-IAG fraction. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Reharvested cranial particulate bone graft ossifies inlay calvarial defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanein, Aladdin H; Couto, Rafael A; Mulliken, John B; Rogers, Gary F; Greene, Arin K

    2012-09-01

    Particulate bone graft (PBG) heals calvarial critical-size defects and is procured from the cranium with a hand-driven bit and brace. The donor sites ossify, and thus PBG potentially could be reharvested from the original areas. The purpose of this study was to determine if PBG obtained from a healed donor site is effective for inlay cranioplasty. A 17 × 17-mm critical-size defect was created in the parietal bones of 8 rabbits and treated with either no implant (group 1) or PBG harvested from the frontal bone (group 2). In 4 animals (group 3), a parietal defect was not created initially; PBG was harvested from the frontal bone and then discarded. Sixteen weeks later after the PBG donor sites had healed, a 17 × 17-mm parietal defect was made and filled with PBG reharvested from the previous donor area. Animals underwent micro-computed tomography 16 weeks after inlay cranioplasty. Critical-size defects in controls (group 1) exhibited partial ossification (35.1% ± 10.5%) compared with those treated with PBG (group 2) (99.1% ± 1.5%) or reharvested PBG (group 3) (99.3% ± 1.5%) (P = 0.02). No difference was found between groups 2 and 3 (P = 0.69). Bony thickness was similar in defects implanted with PBG (1.8 mm ± 1.1 mm) or reharvested PBG (2.1 mm ± 0.5 mm) (P = 0.68). Particulate bone graft reharvested from healed donor sites ossifies inlay cranial defects. Because the donor area for PBG is of partial thickness and less than critical size, reparative osteogenesis theoretically allows an unlimited supply of autologous bone for inlay cranioplasty using PBG.

  17. Prospective evaluation of prognostic factors uPA/PAI-1 in node-negative breast cancer: phase III NNBC3-Europe trial (AGO, GBG, EORTC-PBG) comparing 6×FEC versus 3×FEC/3×Docetaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantelhardt, Eva J; Vetter, Martina; Schmidt, Marcus; Veyret, Corinne; Augustin, Doris; Hanf, Volker; Meisner, Christoph; Paepke, Daniela; Schmitt, Manfred; Sweep, Fred; von Minckwitz, Gunter; Martin, Pierre-Marie; Jaenicke, Fritz; Thomssen, Christoph; Harbeck, Nadia

    2011-04-16

    Today, more than 70% of patients with primary node-negative breast cancer are cured by local therapy alone. Many patients receive overtreatment by adjuvant chemotherapy due to inadequate risk assessment. So far, few clinical trials have prospectively evaluated tumor biology based prognostic factors. Risk assessment by a biological algorithm including invasion factors urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and its inhibitor plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) will assess up to 35-55% of node-negative patients as low-risk and thus avoid chemotherapy. In contrast, a clinical-pathological algorithm will only classify 20-40% of patients as low-risk. High-risk node-negative patients should receive chemotherapy. Anthracycline-based regimens are accepted as a standard, the additional benefit of taxanes remains an open question. The international NNBC3 ("Node Negative Breast Cancer 3-Europe") trial compares biological risk assessment (UP) using invasion factors uPA/PAI-1 with a clinical-pathological algorithm (CP). In this trial, the type of risk assessment (CP or UP) was chosen upfront by each center for its patients. Fresh frozen tissue was obtained to determine uPA/PAI-1 using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Patients assessed as high-risk were stratified by human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status and then randomised to receive anthracycline-containing chemotherapy 5-Fluorouracil (F)/Epirubicin (E)/Cyclophosphymide (C) or an anthracycline-taxane sequence (FE(100)C*6 versus FE(100)C*3 followed by Docetaxel(100)*3). In this trial, 4,149 node-negative patients with operable breast cancer from 153 centers in Germany and France were included since 2002. Measurement of uPA/PAI-1 by ELISA was performed with standardised central quality assurance for 2,497 patients (60%) from 56 "UP"-centers. The NNBC 3-Europe trial showed that inclusion of patients into a clinical phase III trial is feasible based on biological testing of fresh frozen tumor material. In addition, 2,661 patients were classified as high-risk and thus received chemotherapy. As adjuvant chemotherapy, 1,334 high-risk patients received FE(100)C-Docetaxel(100), and 1,327 received French FE(100)C. No unexpected toxicities were observed. Chemotherapy efficacy and comparison of UP with CP will be evaluated after longer follow-up. clinical Trials.gov NCT01222052. © 2011 Kantelhardt et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  18. Observation of Wakefield Suppression in a Photonic-Band-Gap Accelerator Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakov, Evgenya I.; Arsenyev, Sergey A.; Buechler, Cynthia E.; Edwards, Randall L.; Romero, William P.; Conde, Manoel; Ha, Gwanghui; Power, John G.; Wisniewski, Eric E.; Jing, Chunguang

    2016-02-01

    We report experimental observation of higher order mode (HOM) wakefield suppression in a room-temperature traveling-wave photonic-band-gap (PBG) accelerating structure at 11.700 GHz. It has been long recognized that PBG structures have the potential for reducing long-range wakefields in accelerators. The first ever demonstration of acceleration in a room-temperature PBG structure was conducted in 2005. Since then, the importance of PBG accelerator research has been recognized by many institutions. However, the full experimental characterization of the wakefield spectrum and demonstration of wakefield suppression when the accelerating structure is excited by an electron beam has not been performed to date. We conducted an experiment at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator test facility and observed wakefields excited by a single high charge electron bunch when it passes through a PBG accelerator structure. Excellent HOM suppression properties of the PBG accelerator were demonstrated in the beam test.

  19. Development of plumbagin-loaded phospholipid-Tween® 80 mixed micelles: formulation, optimization, effect on breast cancer cells and human blood/serum compatibility testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothiraja, Chellampillai; Kapare, Harshad S; Pawar, Atmaram P; Shaikh, Karimunnisa S

    2013-10-01

    Phospholipid and Tween(®) 80 mixed micelles were investigated as injectable nanocarriers for the natural anticancer compound, plumbagin (PBG), with the aim to improve anticancer efficiency. PBG-loaded mixed micelles were fabricated by self-assembly; composition being optimized using 3(2) factorial design. Optimized mixed micelles were spherical and 46 nm in size. Zeta potential, drug loading and encapsulation efficiency were 5.04 mV, 91.21 and 98.38% respectively. Micelles demonstrated sustained release of PBG. Micelles caused a 2.1-fold enhancement in vitro antitumor activity of PBG towards MCF-7 cells. Micelles proved safe for intravenous injection as PBG was stable at high pH; micelle size and encapsulation efficiency were retained upon dilution. Developed mixed micelles proved potential nanocarriers for PBG in cancer chemotherapy.

  20. Surface plasmon polariton band gap structures: implications to integrated plasmonic circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozhevolnyi, S. I.; Volkov, V. S.; Østergaard, John Erland

    2001-01-01

    Conventional photonic band gap (PBG) structures are composed of regions with periodic modulation of refractive index that do not allow the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a certain interval of wavelengths, i.e., that exhibit the PBG effect. The PBG effect is essentially an interference...... phenomenon related to strong multiple scattering of light in periodic media. The interest to the PBG structures has dramatically risen since the possibility of efficient waveguiding around a sharp corner of a line defect in the PBG structure has been pointed out. Given the perspective of integrating various...... PBG-based components within a few hundred micrometers, we realized that other two-dimensional waves, e.g., surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), might be employed for the same purpose. The SPP band gap (SPPBG) has been observed for the textured silver surfaces by performing angular measurements...

  1. Controlling multi-wave mixing signals via photonic band gap of electromagnetically induced absorption grating in atomic media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiqi; Wu, Zhenkun; Yao, Xin; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Chen, Haixia; Zhang, Huaibin; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2013-12-02

    We experimentally demonstrate dressed multi-wave mixing (MWM) and the reflection of the probe beam due to electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) grating can coexist in a five-level atomic ensemble. The reflection is derived from the photonic band gap (PBG) of EIA grating, which is much broader than the PBG of EIT grating. Therefore, EIA-type PBG can reflect more energy from probe than EIT-type PBG does, which can effectively affect the MWM signal. The EIA-type as well as EIT-type PBG can be controlled by multiple parameters including the frequency detunings, propagation angles and powers of the involved light fields. Also, the EIA-type PBG by considering both the linear and third-order nonlinear refractive indices is also investigated. The theoretical analysis agrees well with the experimental results. This investigation has potential applications in all-optical communication and information processing.

  2. Observation of Nonlinear Transmission Enhancement in Cavities Filled With Nonlinear Organic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    reflection. As a result, the NT at the edge of the photonic bandgap ( PBG ) can be effectively compared with the NT based on the bandgap shift due to the...nonlinear refractive index, as proposed in [9]. In general, NT mechanisms based on PBG structures demonstrate very effective nonlinear transmission, but the...NT band (the wave- length band in which NT can occur) is quite narrow, since it operates near the edges of the PBG . More- over, it sets strict

  3. Effect of photonic band gap on entanglement dynamics of qubits

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jing-Nuo; Hsieh, Wen-Feng; Cheng, Szu-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    We study how the environment of photonic band gap (PBG) materials affects entanglement dynamics of qubits. Entanglement between the single qubit and the PBG environment is investigated through the von Neumann entropy while that for two initially entangled qubits in this PBG reservoir is through concurrence. Dynamics of these measurements are solved in use of the fractional calculus which has been shown appropriate for the systems with non-Markovian dynamics. Entropy dynamics of the single qub...

  4. Solid-Core Photonic Bandgap Fibers for Cladding-Pumped Raman Amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-03

    that the cladding is uniformly-pumped at its maximum numerical aperture and that the photonic band gap ( PBG ) structure comprised of a triangular array...published 3 Jun 2011 (C) 2011 OSA 6 June 2011 / Vol. 19, No. 12 / OPTICS EXPRESS 11855 beyond the PBG structure. In this case, the high pump cladding...exhibit lower loss [16]. For high order bandgaps to exist in the cladding, the inclusions forming the PBG structure must support a large number of guided

  5. Collaborative Center in Polymer Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-28

    PBG ). We can assemble single crystalline, entropically-driven templates through colloidal crystallization that can be perfected through nano...absorption values similar (±2 nm) to those at the previously optimized conditions with a sufficient n to open a complete PBG . (a) (b) Figure l:(a...plain polythiophene film spectra to isolated the effect of the PBG from the absorption band. Knowing the fee inverse opal lattice constant (a) and the

  6. Monolithically Integrated Fiber Optic Coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-14

    single fused fiber 52 and drawn into ferrule 54 in order to provide an output as a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) or photonic bandgap ( PBG ) fiber 56...the reduced diameter air-silica photonic crystal fiber 56 (PCF) or photonic band gap ( PBG ), which is connected by a continuous transition of the... PBG 56 with a negative index of refraction includes metamaterials of superlattices formed by metal nanoparticles. The binary superlattices are

  7. Waveguidance by the photonic bandgap effect in optical fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeng, Jes; Søndergaard, Thomas; Barkou, Stig Eigil

    1999-01-01

    technology for such photonic bandgap (PBG) waveguides is in optical fibre configurations. These new fibres can be classified in a fundamentally different way to all optical waveguides and possess radically different guiding properties due to PBG guidance, as opposed to guidance by total internal refelction....... In this paper we summarize and review our theoretical work demonstrating the underlying physical principles of PBG guiding optical fibres and discuss some of their unique waveguiding properties....

  8. Tunable PhoXonic Band Gap Materials from Self-Assembly of Block Copoliymers and Colloidal Nanocrystals (NBIT Phase II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-06

    Activities: Hysteric Tunable Photonic Gels and Their Applications Photonic band gap ( PBG ) materials have been of great interest due to their potential...applications in science and technology. Their applications can be further extended when the PBG becomes tunable against various chemical and...electrical stimuli. Recently, it was found that tunable photonic band gap materials can be achieved by incorporating stimuli-responsive smart gels into PBG

  9. Identification of five phospho-beta-glycosidases from Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC33323T cultured in lactose medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Seiji; Honda, Hiroyuki; Ohshima, Satoru; Kawai, Yasushi; Kitazawa, Haruki; Tateno, Yoshio; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Saito, Tadao

    2008-07-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC33323(T) has seven putative phospho-beta-glycosidase genes. Using column chromatography, we found that this strain cultured in lactose medium expresses five phospho-beta-glycosidases (LacG1, LacG2, Pbg1, Pbg2, and Pbg3), where these gene expressions can be suppressed by glucose. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating that five glycosidases are induced from a single bacterial strain using a single carbon source, lactose.

  10. Low index-contrast photonic bandgap fiber for transmission of short pulsed light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riishede, Jesper; Lægsgaard, Jesper; Broeng, Jes

    2004-01-01

    The use of low-index-contrast photonic bandgap (PBG) fiber for transmission of short pulsed light is discussed. PBG fibers have positive waveguide dispersion at long wavelengths at which conventional index-guiding fibers have negative waveguide dispersion. PBG fibers with low-index contrast can...... be used to obtain fibers with zero dispersion and a large mode area below 800 nm$+3$/. The results show that the PBG fiber is less sensitive to nonlinear effects and allows transmission of considerably larger intensities....

  11. Does the use of particulate bone graft increase the incidence of postoperative infection in surgery for craniosynostosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzaffar, Arshad R; Nguyen, Thuan B; Baker, Lynette; Warren, Abby J

    2015-01-01

    The use of particulate bone graft (PBG) has become an accepted technique for filling cranial defects created during cranial vault expansion for craniosynostosis. However, the use of PBG may be a risk factor for postoperative infection. The aim of this study was to compare the rate of postoperative infection in patients who received particulate bone graft (PBG+) with that in patients who did not (PBG-). An Institutional Review Board-approved, retrospective, cohort study of consecutive patients was performed. Twenty-seven consecutive patients in the PBG- group were compared with 21 consecutive patients in the PBG+ group. The two cohorts were assessed for incidence of surgical-site infection. Statistical analysis was performed using the Fisher exact probability test. Surgical site infection occurred in none of the PBG- patients (0%) versus one of the PBG+ patients (4.76%). This difference in infection rates between the two cohorts was not statistically significant (P = .4375). Although there may be concern that PBG could serve as a facilitative medium for bacterial growth, this study demonstrates no statistically significant increase in infection rates with its use. Particulate bone grafting of cranial defects resulting from cranial vault expansion in craniosynostosis remains a useful and valuable technique.

  12. Power Block Geometry Applied to the Building of Power Electronics Converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, E. C., Jr.; da Silva, E. R. C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new methodology, Power Block Geometry (PBG), for the presentation of power electronics topologies that process ac voltage. PBG's strategy uses formal methods based on a geometrical representation with particular rules and defines a universe with axioms and conjectures to establish a formation law. It allows power…

  13. A real-time respiration position based passive breath gating equipment for gated radiotherapy: a preclinical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weigang; Xu, Anjie; Li, Guichao; Zhang, Zhen; Housley, Dave; Ye, Jinsong

    2012-03-01

    To develop a passive gating system incorporating with the real-time position management (RPM) system for the gated radiotherapy. Passive breath gating (PBG) equipment, which consists of a breath-hold valve, a controller mechanism, a mouthpiece kit, and a supporting frame, was designed. A commercial real-time positioning management system was implemented to synchronize the target motion and radiation delivery on a linear accelerator with the patient's breathing cycle. The respiratory related target motion was investigated by using the RPM system for correlating the external markers with the internal target motion while using PBG for passively blocking patient's breathing. Six patients were enrolled in the preclinical feasibility and efficiency study of the PBG system. PBG equipment was designed and fabricated. The PBG can be manually triggered or released to block or unblock patient's breathing. A clinical workflow was outlined to integrate the PBG with the RPM system. After implementing the RPM based PBG system, the breath-hold period can be prolonged to 15-25 s and the treatment delivery efficiency for each field can be improved by 200%-400%. The results from the six patients showed that the diaphragm motion caused by respiration was reduced to less than 3 mm and the position of the diaphragm was reproducible for difference gating periods. A RPM based PBG system was developed and implemented. With the new gating system, the patient's breath-hold time can be extended and a significant improvement in the treatment delivery efficiency can also be achieved.

  14. Selected Research Highlights and Potential Impact for Army Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Testing Optimization of Performance Scaling to Multiple Analyte Detection Next Generation Detectors L. Takiff A. Rose Lights on Lights off Capillary PBG ...fiber PBG fiber provides 15-fold signal enhancement d. fiber core Accomplishments & Opportunities - 6 Wireless Nonradiative Power Transfer B E Magnetic

  15. Demodulation of DPSK signals up to 40 Gb/s using a highly birefringent photonic bandgap fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peucheret, Christophe; Geng, Yan; Zsigri, Beata

    2006-01-01

    Phase-to-intensity modulation conversion of differential phase-shift keying signals is successfully demonstrated at 10 and 40 Gb/s using a polarization Mach-Zehnder delay interferometer implemented with only 2.4 m of a highly birefringent air-guiding photonic bandgap (PBG) fiber. Such a PBG fiber...

  16. Teeltmaatregelen wortelverdikking paprika

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pittens-van der Heijden, R.J.; Verkerke, W.

    1998-01-01

    Verslag van een teeltproef met aangetaste paprikaplanten beschreven die is uitgevoerd op het PBG. Zwaar aangetaste paprikaplanten werden op een teeltvloer in de opkweekruimte gezet met voedingswater van een bedrijf. Deze planten werden na één week geplant in een afdeling op het PBG. Er werden

  17. Human Systems Integration Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    engineering, safety, occupational health, training, survivability Threshold: When used in conjunction with pressure breathing for G ( PBG ), the XX will...Effectiveness OT&E Operational Test and Evaluation OTSG Office of the Surgeon General PBG Pressure Breathing for G PM Program Manager POL Petroleum, Oil

  18. Enhancement of transmission efficiency in a photonic bandgap fiber introducing nonlinearity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Abhilash; Hota, Mihir; Tripathy, Sukanta Kumar

    2015-06-01

    This paper introduces the importance of nonlinearity in a Photonic Bandgap (PBG) Fiber using Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) simulation. It is shown that, the amplification of the weaker optical signal in a PBG fiber due to the constructive interference between two incoming signals can be controlled using nonlinearity.

  19. Advanced Antennas Enabled by Electromagnetic Metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    1999. [14] F.-R. Yang, K.-P. Ma, Y. Qian, and T. Itoh, "A uniplanar compact photonic- bandgap (UC- PBG ) structure and its applications for microwave...750, 2012. [24] F.-R. Yang, K.-P. Ma, Y. Qian, and T. Itoh, "A novel TEM waveguide using uniplanar compact photonic-bandgap (UC- PBG ) structure

  20. A Low-Pass Filter of Wide Stopband with a Novel Multilayer Fractal Photonic Bandgap Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Wen Liu

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel, multilayer fractal PBG is presented here as the substrate for a microstrip line and the resulting configuration builds a low-pass filter of wide stopband. Experimental results in comparison with the corresponding two filters with monolayer PBG show that the proposed filter drastically enhances the width of the stopband.

  1. Army Acquisition and Contracting Personnel Requirements: How are the Army’s Current Recruitment, Development and Retention Programs Meeting Current and Future Personnel Requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    National Guard OSD Office of Secretary of Defense PADDS Procurement Automated Data & Document Systems PBG Program Budget Guidance PD2...the upcoming year. It takes into account a target end state, direct authorizations, the Program Budget Guidance ( PBG ), BRAC mission transfer, how

  2. Design of a Polymer-Based Hollow-Core Bandgap Fiber for Low-Loss Terahertz Transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barh, Ajanta; Varshney, Ravi K.; Pal, Bishnu P.

    2016-01-01

    wavelength-scale circular air holes in a hexagonal pattern, embedded in a uniform Teflon matrix. The THz guidance in this fiber is achieved by exploiting the photonic bandgap (PBG) effect. In our low index contrast Teflon-air (1.44:1) hexagonal periodic lattice, the PBG appears only for a certain range...

  3. A study on photonic crystal slab waveguide with absolute photonic band gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsumasa Satoh

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Most of the conventional photonic crystal (PhC slab waveguides have a photonic bandgap (PBG only for one polarization state of two orthogonal polarization states. In this paper, westudy on an absolute PBG that can realize PBG for both polarizations in the same frequency range anddemonstrate that an absolute PBG can be realized in PhC structures proposed here. In the numericalanalysis and design of PhC structures, we employ the two-dimensional finite element method (FEMbased on the effective index method (EIM. First, we propose two-types of PhC structures with anabsolute PBG and show that a steering type PhC is superior to an air-ring type PhC to obtain a widebandabsolute PBG. It is also shown that the optimized steering type PhC has the absolute PBG whosebandwidth of 164 nm at the center wavelength of 1.55 μm. Furthermore, we design PhC waveguidesbased on the obtained PhC structure having an absolute PBG in order to obtain guided modes for bothpolarization states within the same wavelength range. The transmission properties of the designed PhCwaveguides are also investigated and 60 degree bends which are required in compact photonic circuitsare designed. From these results, the possibility to realize compact polarization multiplexing photonicdevices is shown.

  4. Control of quantum correlations in solid state systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrada, K.

    2015-11-01

    The quantum correlations between two independent qubits immersed in an anisotropic and isotropic photonic band-gab (PBG) crystal have been studied without Born or Markovian approximation. We show that the amount of the entanglement and quantum discord between the qubits in the photonic crystal is greatly different from that of qubits in vacuum or that subjected to the usual non-Markovian reservoir. The results also show that, for PBG materials as environment, high values of quantum correlation trapping can be achieved and thus prevention of correlation sudden drop occurs, which seriously enhances the coherence and increase the amount of the correlations. Moreover, we show that the quantum correlations in the isotropic PBG are more easily preserved than that in the anisotropic PBG under the same condition. These features make the quantum systems in PBG materials as a good candidate for implementation of different schemes of quantum optics and information with high performance.

  5. Direct and simultaneous quantitation of 5-aminolaevulinic acid and porphobilinogen in human serum or plasma by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Christopher M; Couchman, Lewis; Marsden, Joanne T; Rees, David C; Moniz, Caje; Lim, Chang Kee

    2013-02-01

    Serum/plasma concentrations of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) and porphobilinogen (PBG) are elevated in patients with acute hepatic porphyrias, especially during acute attacks. Current assays require lengthy sample pre-treatment and derivatization steps. We report here a rapid, sensitive and specific hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the direct and simultaneous quantitation of ALA and PBG in serum or plasma following simple protein precipitation with acetonitrile and centrifugation prior to injection. ALA and PBG were detected using selected reaction monitoring mode, following positive atmospheric pressure chemical ionization. Calibration was linear from 0.05 to 50 µmol/L for ALA and PBG. For both analytes, imprecision (relative standard deviation) was PBG in serum or plasma samples for the screening, biochemical diagnosis and treatment monitoring of patients with acute hepatic porphyrias. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Diabetic ketoacidosis: difference between potassium determined by blood gas analysis versus plasma measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Fernando César; Laguna Neto, Daniel; Dias, Fábio Guirado; Spressão, Márcia; Matos, Priscila Nascimbeni; Cordeiro, José Antônio; Pires, Antônio Carlos

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of potassium concentrations measured by blood gas analysis (PBG) compared with laboratory serum potassium (LSP), in the initial care of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Fifty three patients with diabetes mellitus were evaluated in a retrospective analysis. PBG was carried out using the Radiometer ABL 700 (Radiometer Copenhagen(®)), and results were compared with LSP ADVIA 1650 Chemistry system (Siemens(®)), the gold standard method. Both methods are based on potentiometry. Mean PBG was 3.66 mmol/L and mean LSP was 4.79 mmol/L. Mean difference between PBG and LSP was -1.13 mmol/L (p PBG measurement is faster and easier, it should not be used as a surrogate for LSP in the clinical treatment of DKA.

  7. 17 GHz photonic band gap cavity with improved input coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Shapiro

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available We present the theoretical design and cold test of a 17 GHz photonic band gap (PBG cavity with improved coupling from an external rectangular waveguide. The PBG cavity is made of a triangular lattice of metal rods with a defect (missing rod in the center. The TM_{010}-like defect mode was chosen as the operating mode. Experimental results are presented demonstrating that critical coupling into the cavity can be achieved by partial withdrawal or removal of some rods from the lattice, a result that agrees with simulations. A detailed design of the PBG accelerator structure is compared with a conventional (pillbox cavity. One advantage of the PBG cavity is that its resonance frequency is much less perturbed by the input/output coupling structure than in a comparable pillbox cavity. The PBG structure is attractive for future accelerator applications.

  8. A LC-MS/MS method for the specific, sensitive, and simultaneous quantification of 5-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinglan; Yasuda, Makiko; Desnick, Robert J; Balwani, Manisha; Bishop, David; Yu, Chunli

    2011-08-15

    Accurate determinations of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and porphobilinogen (PBG) in physiologic fluids are required for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of acute porphyrias. Current colorimetric methods are insensitive and over-estimate ALA and PBG due to poor specificity, while LC-MS/MS methods increase sensitivity, but have limited matrices. An LC-MS/MS method was developed to simultaneously determine ALA and PBG concentrations in fluids or tissues which were solid phase extracted, butanol derivatized, and quantitated by selective reaction monitoring using (13)C(5), (15)N-ALA and 2,4-(13)C(2)-PBG internal standards. ALA was separated from interfering compounds on a reverse phase C8-column. For ALA and PBG, the matrix effects (87.3-105%) and process efficiencies (77.6-97.8% and 37.2-41.6%, respectively) were acceptable in plasma and urine matrices. The assay was highly sensitive for ALA and PBG (LLOQ=0.05 μM with 25 μL urine or 100 μL plasma), and required ∼4 h from extraction to results. ALA and PBG accuracy ranged from 88.2 to 110% (n=10); intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variations were PBG levels when asymptomatic, and high levels during acute attacks, which decreased with hemin therapy. In AIP mice, baseline ALA and PBG levels in urine, plasma, and liver were increased after phenobarbital induction 28-/63-, 42-/266-, and 13-/316-fold, respectively. This LC-MS/MS method is rapid, specific, highly sensitive, accurate, and simultaneously measures ALA and PBG in urine, plasma, and tissues permitting porphyria clinical diagnoses, therapeutic monitoring, and research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A LC–MS/MS method for the specific, sensitive, and simultaneous quantification of 5-aminolevulinic acid and porphobilinogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinglan; Yasuda, Makiko; Desnick, Robert J.; Balwani, Manisha; Bishop, David; Yu, Chunli

    2012-01-01

    Accurate determinations of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and porphobilinogen (PBG) in physiologic fluids are required for the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of acute porphyrias. Current colorimetric methods are insensitive and over-estimate ALA and PBG due to poor specificity, while LC–MS/MS methods increase sensitivity, but have limited matrices. An LC–MS/MS method was developed to simultaneously determine ALA and PBG concentrations in fluids or tissues which were solid phase extracted, butanol derivatized, and quantitated by selective reaction monitoring using 13C5, 15N-ALA and 2,4-13C2-PBG internal standards. ALA was separated from interfering compounds on a reverse phase C8-column. For ALA and PBG, the matrix effects (87.3–105%) and process efficiencies (77.6–97.8% and 37.2–41.6%, respectively) were acceptable in plasma and urine matrices. The assay was highly sensitive for ALA and PBG (LLOQ = 0.05 µM with 25 µL urine or 100 µL plasma), and required ~4 h from extraction to results. ALA and PBG accuracy ranged from 88.2 to 110% (n = 10); intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variations were PBG levels when asymptomatic, and high levels during acute attacks, which decreased with hemin therapy. In AIP mice, baseline ALA and PBG levels in urine, plasma, and liver were increased after phenobarbital induction 28-/63-, 42-/266-, and 13-/316-fold, respectively. This LC–MS/MS method is rapid, specific, highly sensitive, accurate, and simultaneously measures ALA and PBG in urine, plasma, and tissues permitting porphyria clinical diagnoses, therapeutic monitoring, and research. PMID:21783436

  10. Purification and characterization of two phospho-β-galactosidases, LacG1 and LacG2, from Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC33323(T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hiroyuki; Nagaoka, Seiji; Kawai, Yasushi; Kemperman, Robèr; Kok, Jan; Yamazaki, Yukiko; Tateno, Yoshio; Kitazawa, Haruki; Saito, Tadao

    2012-01-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri ATCC33323(T) expresses four enzymes showing phospho-β-galactosidase activity (LacG1, LacG2, Pbg1 and Pbg2). We previously reported the purification and characterization of two phospho-β-galactosidases (Pbg1 and Pbg2) from Lactobacillus gasseri JCM1031 cultured in lactose medium. Here we aimed to characterize LacG1 and LacG2, and classify the four enzymes into 'phospho-β-galactosidase' or 'phospho-β-glucosidase.' LacG1 and recombinant LacG2 (rLacG2), from Lb. gasseri ATCC33323(T), were purified to homogeneity using column chromatography. Kinetic experiments were performed using sugar substrates, o-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside 6-phosphate (ONPGal-6P) and o-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside 6-phosphate (ONPGlc-6P), synthesized in our laboratory. LacG1 and rLacG2 exhibited high k(cat)/K(m) values for ONPGal-6P as compared with Pbg1 and Pbg2. The V(max) values for ONPGal-6P were higher than phospho-β-galactosidases previously purified and characterized from several lactic acid bacteria. A phylogenetic tree analysis showed that LacG1 and LacG2 belong to the phospho-β-galactosidase cluster and Pbg1 and Pbg2 belong to the phospho-β-glucosidase cluster. Our data suggest two phospho-β-galactosidase, LacG1 and LacG2, are the primary enzymes for lactose utilization in Lb. gasseri ATCC33323(T). We propose a reclassification of Pbg1 and Pbg2 as phospho-β-glucosidase.

  11. Interaction of a biguanide compound with membrane model interface systems: probing the properties of antimalaria and antidiabetic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samart, Nuttaporn; Beuning, Cheryle N; Haller, Kenneth J; Rithner, Chris D; Crans, Debbie C

    2014-07-29

    Since membrane penetration is important for drug efficacy, how antimalarial precursor material 1-phenylbiguanide (PBG) interacts with an interface was characterized using a reverse micelle (RM) model system. (1)H NMR studies show that PBG partitions across the membrane interface. Specifically, the (1)H NMR studies showed that the 1-phenylbiguanide compound in an aqueous environment changed when placed near an interface. PBG is known to affect hydrogen bonding in water, and as the size of the RMs changes, the water organization in the water pool is changed. The NOESY spectrum of PBG in AOT RM contains cross-peak signals between the PBG protons and AOT protons, which is consistent with the penetration of the PBG into the interface. At the same time, there is a cross peak between the biguanide moiety and the HOD signal. This shows that these NH protons are near the HOD protons, placing the biguanide functional group in the water pool. Preliminary differential FTIR spectroscopic studies confirmed this location. In summary, we found that PBG interacts with different regions of the interface, with the phenyl group penetrating the hydrophobic interface while the biguanide remains in the water pool.

  12. The design of omnidirectional terahertz mirror and TM mode filter based on one-dimensional photonic crystal: potential for THz communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aming, A.; Chitaree, R.

    2015-07-01

    Numerical results using transfer matrix method (TMM) of omnidirectional photonic band gap (omni-PBG) for both TE and TM polarizations from 0º to 89º for THz responses are presented. Such omni-PBG design is based on one-dimensional photonic crystal (1D-PC) containing thin slices of 10 pairs of high-resistivity silicon and magnesium fluoride (MgF2) as the high and low refractive index components respectively, in the (HL)10 structure. With a quarter-wavelength thickness of layer, the thickness increase of either high or low index layer increases this PBG redshift for TE as well as TM polarizations. Conversely, decreasing the thickness causes the PBG of both TE and TM polarizations to become blueshift. This also gives rise to the spectral shift for the omni-PBG. High reflectivity omni-PBG within a certain wavelength is found in the range of 390-515 μm. This suggests a practical way of controlling the thickness of layer to achieve a suitable omni-PBG. This structural design shows the potential of omnidirectional mirror as a key element in THz communication system. In addition, the proposed structure shows a probable application based on the polarization sensitivity of the structure. At an angle of incidence greater than 60º, the TM polarized mode is highly transmitted whereas the transmittance of the TE polarized mode become nearly zero. The TM mode filter is therefore realized.

  13. Plasma porphobilinogen as a sensitive biomarker to monitor the clinical and therapeutic course of acute intermittent porphyria attacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardh, Eliane; Harper, Pauline; Andersson, Dan E H; Floderus, Ylva

    2009-03-01

    Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is a metabolic disease affecting hepatic heme biosynthesis. The clinical course in overt disease is characterized by acute attacks of neurovisceral symptoms. Treatment is based on symptomatic relief together with carbohydrate loading and in more severe attacks heme therapy. During an acute attack the heme precursors porphobilinogen (PBG) and 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) are produced in high amounts by the liver and are found in high concentrations in plasma and urine. These metabolites represent the acute phase reactants confirming an ongoing attack and are used to evaluate therapeutic measures. The aim of this study was to measure PBG and ALA in plasma and urine during an acute attack and to match the biochemical pattern with the clinical and therapeutical course. Three consecutive AIP patients were included during four acute attacks. Plasma PBG and ALA were measured by a LC-MS method and in urine by ion-exchange chromatography. The patients received symptomatic and glucose treatment at admission to hospital, and four days later, if necessary, heme therapy. In the three attacks that required heme therapy, plasma PBG concentrations had further increased after admission (p=0.01). In the patient that did not require heme therapy, plasma PBG had decreased after admission. Biochemical monitoring of an acute attack was more accurately reflected by plasma PBG than plasma ALA or urinary PBG and ALA. Glucose administration, in contrast to heme therapy, was not sufficient to achieve clinical and biochemical remission in the more serious attacks.

  14. Effect of porphobilinogen on the formation of garlic green pigments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Conghua; Hao, Xiaoran; Xu, Zhixiang; Qiao, Xuguang

    2013-08-15

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.) bulb is processed into various forms such as crushed garlic, garlic juice, granules, dehydrated garlic pieces and garlic powder. However, greening is often a major problem when garlic is crushed, since it affects the appearance and quality of the resulting product. Therefore study of the formation mechanism of garlic green pigments is very important for garlic processing. The effect of porphobilinogen (PBG) on the formation of garlic green pigments was investigated in this study. As the storage time increased, there was a significant positive correlation between garlic greening and PBG content at low temperature (4 °C). PBG content decreased significantly during the garlic greening process. When treated with respiration inhibitor, both garlic greening strength and PBG content decreased as the concentration of respiration inhibitor increased. The green colour was generated when extracted PBG and allicin mixed thoroughly. There was a clear relationship between PBG content and garlic greening. As a provider of pyrrolyl compounds, PBG plays an important role in the formation of garlic green pigments. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Repopulating the biliary tree from the peribiliary glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Iris E M; van Leeuwen, Otto B; Lisman, Ton; Gouw, Annette S H; Porte, Robert J

    2018-04-01

    The larger ducts of the biliary tree contain numerous tubulo-alveolar adnexal glands that are lined with biliary epithelial cells and connected to the bile duct lumen via small glandular canals. Although these peribiliary glands (PBG) were already described in the 19th century, their exact function and role in the pathophysiology and development of cholangiopathies have not become evident until recently. While secretion of serous and mucinous components into the bile was long considered as the main function of PBG, recent studies have identified PBG as an important source for biliary epithelial cell proliferation and renewal. Activation, dilatation, and proliferation of PBG (or the lack thereof) have been associated with various cholangiopathies. Moreover, PBG have been identified as niches of multipotent stem/progenitor cells with endodermal lineage traits. This has sparked research interest in the role of PBG in the pathogenesis of various cholangiopathies as well as bile duct malignancies. Deeper understanding of the regenerative capacity of the PBG may contribute to the development of novel regenerative therapeutics for previously untreatable hepatobiliary diseases. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Cholangiocytes in Health and Disease edited by Jesus Banales, Marco Marzioni, Nicholas LaRusso and Peter Jansen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mechanisms underlying the augmentation of phenylbiguanide and capsaicin induced cardiorespiratory reflexes by Mesobuthus tamulus venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Abhaya; Akella, Aparna; Deshpande, Shripad B

    2012-10-01

    Phenylbiguanide (PBG) and capsaicin evoke cardiorespiratory reflexes utilizing two separate pathways. It is known that Indian Red Scorpion (Mesobuthus tumulus; MBT) venom augments PBG (5-HT(3)) responses but, the effect of MBT venom on capsaicin (TRPV1)-induced response is not known. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to ascertain whether MBT venom also augments the capsaicin-induced reflex responses involving mechanisms similar to PBG. Experiments were performed on anaesthetized adult rats. Blood pressure, respiratory excursions and ECG were recorded. At the end of each experiment pulmonary water content was determined. PBG (10 μg/kg) produced hypotension, bradycardia and apnoea-bradypnoea. Capsaicin (10 μg/kg) also produced hypotension, bradycardia and apnoea-bradypnoea. MBT venom (100 μg/kg) augmented PBG as well as capsaicin-induced responses and produced pulmonary oedema (increased pulmonary water content). Prostaglandin synthase inhibitor (indomethacin; 10 mg/kg) blocked the venom-induced augmentation of PBG and capsaicin reflexes. Kinin synthase inhibitor (aprotinin; 6000 KIU) and guanylate cyclase (GC) inhibitor (methylene blue; 5 mg/kg) blocked the venom-induced augmentation of PBG response but not the capsaicin response. However, pulmonary oedema was blocked by these antagonists. Phosphodiesterase V inhibitor (sildenafil; 100 μg/kg) augmented the PBG response but not the capsaicin response, though pulmonary oedema was seen in both the groups. The present results indicate that MBT venom also augments the capsaicin-induced responses. The augmentation of capsaicin response involves PGs and pulmonary oedema-independent mechanisms whereas, the augmentation of PBG response involves kinin mediated GC-cGMP pathway and pulmonary oedema-dependent mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Porphobilinogen Conundrum in Prebiotic Routes to Tetrapyrrole Macrocycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Masahiko; Ptaszek, Marcin; Chandrashaker, Vanampally; Lindsey, Jonathan S.

    2017-03-01

    Attempts to develop a credible prebiotic route to tetrapyrroles have relied on enzyme-free recapitulation of the extant biosynthesis, but this process has foundered from the inability to form the pyrrole porphobilinogen ( PBG) in good yield by self-condensation of the precursor δ-aminolevulinic acid ( ALA). PBG undergoes robust oligomerization in aqueous solution to give uroporphyrinogen (4 isomers) in good yield. ALA, PBG, and uroporphyrinogen III are universal precursors to all known tetrapyrrole macrocycles. The enzymic formation of PBG entails carbon-carbon bond formation between the less stable enolate/enamine of one ALA molecule (3-position) and the carbonyl/imine (4-position) of the second ALA molecule; without enzymes, the first ALA reacts at the more stable enolate/enamine (5-position) and gives the pyrrole pseudo-PBG. pseudo-PBG cannot self-condense, yet has one open α-pyrrole position and is proposed to be a terminator of oligopyrromethane chain-growth from PBG. Here, 23 analogues of ALA have been subjected to density functional theoretical (DFT) calculations, but no motif has been identified that directs reaction at the 3-position. Deuteriation experiments suggested 5-(phosphonooxy)levulinic acid would react preferentially at the 3- versus 5-position, but a hybrid condensation with ALA gave no observable uroporphyrin. The results suggest efforts toward a biomimetic, enzyme-free route to tetrapyrroles from ALA should turn away from structure-directed reactions and focus on catalysts that orient the two aminoketones to form PBG in a kinetically controlled process, thereby avoiding formation of pseudo-PBG.

  18. Engineered Multifunctional Nanophotonic Materials for Ultrafast Optical Switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-02

    copolymers and other highly nonlinear materials, we have designed one and two photonic band gap ( PBG ) devices that function as nonlinear reflectors (Figure...a highly reflecting Bragg mirror. If a single PBG is used, the Bragg condition results in protection over an approximately 50nm bandwidth for 20...layer pairs. However, for the same 20 layer pairs, a two PBG device 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Input Peak Irradiance (GW/cm2

  19. Routing Protocols to Minimize the Number of Route Disconnections for Communication in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    order to see the effect of the length (L) and width (W) of the substrate, the photonic band gap ( PBG ) structures in the upper layer, and the stair...array which will be used in the nodes. In addition, we studied the effect of PBG structures in order to decrease the back radiation and decrease the...bandwidth that extends from less than 8 GHz to more than 14 GHz. Table 2 shows that the PBG structure helps decreasing the frequency of maximum gain

  20. Advanced Space-Based Detector Research at the Air Force Research Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-04

    monolithically-grown detector structure. 2.2. Photonic crystals Photonic bandgap ( PBG ) materials (also called photonic crystals, or PhCs) are to electromagnetic...Periodic variations in the dielectric constant in one dimen- sion (1D), e.g., planar layers, lead to a PBG for light inci- dent on the material in...that dimension. If the variations are in two dimensions (2D), e.g., holes punched in a planar material, then the PBG will manifest for light incident

  1. Interference Effects In A Photonic Crystal Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    frequency of the PBG and ! "g is the frequency width of the bandgap. In this model, the presence of the PBE modifies the density of states from that of...the dispersion relation in Eq. (1), valid near the PBE of frequency ! "be and PBG of width ! "g . 2 In this work we present a straightforward...dealt with beyond the Wigner-Weisskopf pole approximation for the model of the PBG introduced by John and co-workers and discussed above. 2

  2. Optical resonant tunneling in photonic heterostructures containing a tunable dielectric layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liyong; Lu, Guang; Zhang, Shan; Liu, Fen; Xin, Yanqing; Wang, Kunlun; Yang, Tianlin; Wang, Li; Du, Guiqiang

    2017-10-01

    We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that complete light transmission can be realized using a photonic heterostructure containing a tunable dielectric layer inserted between two different truncated photonic crystals (PCs). A perfect tunneling state is produced within enlarged photonic band gap (PBG) of the heterostructure by varying the thickness of inserted dielectric layer and the transmittance of the tunneling state depends on the dielectric layer thickness. Additionally, the tunneling state frequency varies with inserted layer thickness but is always located within the small overlapped PBG of two PCs. Therefore, both a perfect tunneling state and an ultrawide PBG can be realized in these heterostructures. The experimental results showed good agreement with theoretical values.

  3. Liquid-crystal photonic-band-gap materials the tunable electromagnetic vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Busch, K

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate that when an optically birefringent nematic liquid crystal is infiltrated into the void regions of an inverse opal, photonic-band-gap (PBG) material, the resulting composite material exhibits a completely tunable PBG. $9 In particular, the three- dimensional PBG can be completely opened or closed by applying an electric field which rotates the axis of the nematic molecules relative to the inverse opal backbone. Tunable light localization effects may $9 be realized by controlling the orientational disorder in the nematic. (28 refs).

  4. Foundations of Broadband Multifunctional Metamaterials Inspired by the Analogy of Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-30

    T. Itoh, “Aperture-coupled patch antenna on UC- PBG substrate,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech., vol. 47, pp. 2123–2130, Nov. 1999. [4] D...2949, Oct. 2003. 15 [6] J. Y. Park, C. C. Chang, Y. Qian, and T. Itoh, “An improved low-profile cavity-backed slot antenna loaded with 2D UC- PBG ...4, pp. 478–481, Nov. 2001. [13] Z. Li and Y. Rahmat-Samii, “ PBG , PMC and PEC surface for antenna applications: A comparative study,” in Proc

  5. Photonic band gap in isotropic hyperuniform disordered solids with low dielectric contrast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Weining; Florescu, Marian; Matsuyama, Kazue; Yadak, Polin; Nahal, Geev; Hashemizad, Seyed; Williamson, Eric; Steinhardt, Paul; Torquato, Salvatore; Chaikin, Paul

    2013-08-26

    We report the first experimental demonstration of a TE-polarization photonic band gap (PBG) in a 2D isotropic hyperuniform disordered solid (HUDS) made of dielectric media with a dielectric index contrast of 1.6:1, very low for PBG formation. The solid is composed of a connected network of dielectric walls enclosing air-filled cells. Direct comparison with photonic crystals and quasicrystals permitted us to investigate band-gap properties as a function of increasing rotational isotropy. We present results from numerical simulations proving that the PBG observed experimentally for HUDS at low index contrast has zero density of states. The PBG is associated with the energy difference between complementary resonant modes above and below the gap, with the field predominantly concentrated in the air or in the dielectric. The intrinsic isotropy of HUDS may offer unprecedented flexibilities and freedom in applications (i. e. defect architecture design) not limited by crystalline symmetries.

  6. Microcavity Development for the Control of Erbium-Doped Silicon Luminescence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Foresi, James

    1996-01-01

    ...: Light guiding in highly confining, submicron dimensioned silicon waveguides. The microdisk and PBG cavities, when coupled to waveguides, can act as filters, signal routers, and compact gain sections for integrated laser devices...

  7. Hydrogen production by tuning the photonic band gap with the electronic band gap of TiO₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, G I N; Wahab, A K; Al-Oufi, M; Jovic, V; Anjum, D H; Sun-Waterhouse, D; Llorca, J; Idriss, H

    2013-10-10

    Tuning the photonic band gap (PBG) to the electronic band gap (EBG) of Au/TiO2 catalysts resulted in considerable enhancement of the photocatalytic water splitting to hydrogen under direct sunlight. Au/TiO2 (PBG-357 nm) photocatalyst exhibited superior photocatalytic performance under both UV and sunlight compared to the Au/TiO2 (PBG-585 nm) photocatalyst and both are higher than Au/TiO2 without the 3 dimensionally ordered macro-porous structure materials. The very high photocatalytic activity is attributed to suppression of a fraction of electron-hole recombination route due to the co-incidence of the PBG with the EBG of TiO2 These materials that maintain their activity with very small amount of sacrificial agents (down to 0.5 vol.% of ethanol) are poised to find direct applications because of their high activity, low cost of the process, simplicity and stability.

  8. Optimizing the configuration of a superconducting photonic band gap accelerator cavity to increase the maximum achievable gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgenya I. Simakov

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a design of a superconducting rf photonic band gap (SRF PBG accelerator cell with specially shaped rods in order to reduce peak surface magnetic fields and improve the effectiveness of the PBG structure for suppression of higher order modes (HOMs. The ability of PBG structures to suppress long-range wakefields is especially beneficial for superconducting electron accelerators for high power free-electron lasers (FELs, which are designed to provide high current continuous duty electron beams. Using PBG structures to reduce the prominent beam-breakup phenomena due to HOMs will allow significantly increased beam-breakup thresholds. As a result, there will be possibilities for increasing the operation frequency of SRF accelerators and for the development of novel compact high-current accelerator modules for the FELs.

  9. Switchable Photonic Crystals Using One-Dimensional Confined Liquid Crystals for Photonic Device Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Seong Ho; Gim, Min-Jun; Lee, Wonsuk; Choi, Suk-Won; Yoon, Dong Ki

    2017-01-25

    Photonic crystals (PCs) have recently attracted considerable attention, with much effort devoted to photonic bandgap (PBG) control for varying the reflected color. Here, fabrication of a modulated one-dimensional (1D) anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) PC with a periodic porous structure is reported. The PBG of the fabricated PC can be reversibly changed by switching the ultraviolet (UV) light on/off. The AAO nanopores contain a mixture of photoresponsive liquid crystals (LCs) with irradiation-activated cis/trans photoisomerizable azobenzene. The resultant mixture of LCs in the porous AAO film exhibits a reversible PBG, depending on the cis/trans configuration of azobenzene molecules. The PBG switching is reliable over many cycles, suggesting that the fabricated device can be used in optical and photonic applications such as light modulators, smart windows, and sensors.

  10. Hydrogen production by Tuning the Photonic Band Gap with the Electronic Band Gap of TiO2

    KAUST Repository

    Waterhouse, G. I. N.

    2013-10-10

    Tuning the photonic band gap (PBG) to the electronic band gap (EBG) of Au/TiO2 catalysts resulted in considerable enhancement of the photocatalytic water splitting to hydrogen under direct sunlight. Au/TiO2 (PBG-357 nm) photocatalyst exhibited superior photocatalytic performance under both UV and sunlight compared to the Au/TiO2 (PBG-585 nm) photocatalyst and both are higher than Au/TiO2 without the 3 dimensionally ordered macro-porous structure materials. The very high photocatalytic activity is attributed to suppression of a fraction of electron-hole recombination route due to the co-incidence of the PBG with the EBG of TiO2 These materials that maintain their activity with very small amount of sacrificial agents (down to 0.5 vol.% of ethanol) are poised to find direct applications because of their high activity, low cost of the process, simplicity and stability.

  11. Geometric phase for a two-level system in photonic band gab crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrada, K.

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we investigate the geometric phase (GP) for a qubit system coupled to its own anisotropic and isotropic photonic band gap (PBG) crystal environment without Born or Markovian approximation. The qubit frequency affects the GP of the qubit directly through the effect of the PBG environment. The results show the deviation of the GP depends on the detuning parameter and this deviation will be large for relatively large detuning of atom frequency inside the gap with respect to the photonic band edge. Whereas for detunings outside the gap, the GP of the qubit changes abruptly to zero, exhibiting collapse phenomenon of the GP. Moreover, we find that the GP in the isotropic PBG photonic crystal is more robust than that in the anisotropic PBG under the same condition. Finally, we explore the relationship between the variation of the GP and population in terms of the physical parameters.

  12. A real-time respiration position based passive breath gating equipment for gated radiotherapy: A preclinical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Weigang; Xu Anjie; Li Guichao; Zhang Zhen; Housley, Dave; Ye Jinsong

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a passive gating system incorporating with the real-time position management (RPM) system for the gated radiotherapy. Methods: Passive breath gating (PBG) equipment, which consists of a breath-hold valve, a controller mechanism, a mouthpiece kit, and a supporting frame, was designed. A commercial real-time positioning management system was implemented to synchronize the target motion and radiation delivery on a linear accelerator with the patient's breathing cycle. The respiratory related target motion was investigated by using the RPM system for correlating the external markers with the internal target motion while using PBG for passively blocking patient's breathing. Six patients were enrolled in the preclinical feasibility and efficiency study of the PBG system. Results: PBG equipment was designed and fabricated. The PBG can be manually triggered or released to block or unblock patient's breathing. A clinical workflow was outlined to integrate the PBG with the RPM system. After implementing the RPM based PBG system, the breath-hold period can be prolonged to 15-25 s and the treatment delivery efficiency for each field can be improved by 200%-400%. The results from the six patients showed that the diaphragm motion caused by respiration was reduced to less than 3 mm and the position of the diaphragm was reproducible for difference gating periods. Conclusions: A RPM based PBG system was developed and implemented. With the new gating system, the patient's breath-hold time can be extended and a significant improvement in the treatment delivery efficiency can also be achieved.

  13. Do Bosons Condense in a Homogeneous Magnetic Field ?

    CERN Document Server

    Briet, P; Zagrebnov, V A

    2003-01-01

    It has been known since the rigorous result by Angelescu and Corciovei [A-C] that the answer to the question in the title is negative for the Perfect Bose Gas(PBG). The main result of the present paper is that the answer could become positive if the bosons are simultaneously embedded in a periodic external potential. We show that it is true for PBG, as well as for the Bose gas with a mean-field repulsive particle interaction.

  14. Modulation of cardiopulmonary depressor reflex in nucleus ambiguus by electroacupuncture: roles of opioids and γ-aminobutyric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjen-A-Looi, Stephanie C; Li, Peng; Li, Min; Longhurst, John C

    2012-04-01

    Stimulation of cardiopulmonary receptors with phenylbiguanide (PBG) elicits depressor cardiovascular reflex responses, including decreases in blood pressure and heart rate mediated in part by the brain stem parasympathetic cardiac neurons in the nucleus ambiguus (NAmb). The present study examined NAmb neurotransmitter mechanisms underlying the influence of electroacupuncture (EA) on the PBG-induced hypotension and bradycardia. We hypothesized that somatic stimulation during EA modulates PBG responses through opioid and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) modulation in the NAmb. Anesthetized and ventilated cats were studied during repeated stimulation with PBG or cardiac vagal afferents while low-frequency EA (2 Hz) was applied at P5-6 acupoints overlying the median nerve for 30 min and NAmb neuronal activity, heart rate, and blood pressure were recorded. Microinjection of kainic acid into the NAmb attenuated the PBG-induced bradycardia from -60 ± 11 to -36 ± 11 beats/min. Likewise, EA reduced the PBG-induced depressor and bradycardia reflex by 52 and 61%, respectively. Cardiac vagal afferent evoked preganglionic cellular activity in the NAmb was reduced by EA for about 60 min. Blockade of opioid or GABA(A) receptors using naloxone and gabazine reversed the EA-related modulation of the evoked cardiac vagal activity by 73 and 53%, respectively. Similarly, naloxone and gabazine reversed EA modulation of the negative chronotropic responses from -11 ± 5 to -23 ± 6 and -13 ± 4 to -24 ± 3 beats/min, respectively. Thus EA at P5-6 decreases PBG evoked hypotension and bradycardia as well as the NAmb PBG-sensitive preganglionic cardiac vagal outflow through opioid and GABA neurotransmitter systems.

  15. Cardio-respiratory reflexes evoked by phenylbiguanide in rats involve vagal afferents which are not sensitive to capsaicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, A; Deshpande, S B

    2010-09-01

    Stimulation of pulmonary C fibre receptors by phenylbiguanide (PBG, 5-HT(3) agonist) produces hypotension, bradycardia and tachypnoea or apnoea. However, tachypnoeic or apnoeic responses are not consistent. Therefore, this study was undertaken to delineate the actions of PBG on respiration and compared with those evoked by capsaicin (TRPV1 agonist). Blood pressure, respiratory excursions and ECG were recorded in urethane anaesthetized adult rats. The effect of PBG or capsaicin was evaluated before and after ondansetron (5-HT(3) antagonist), capsazepine (TRPV1 antagonist) or bilateral vagotomy. In addition, their effect on vagal afferent activity was also evaluated. Bolus injection of PBG produced concentration-dependent (0.1-100 microg kg(-1)) hypotensive and bradycardiac responses, while there was tachypnoea at lower concentrations (0.1-3 microg kg(-1)) and apnoea at higher concentrations (10-100 microg kg(-1)). After vagotomy or after exposure to ondansetron both tachypnoeic and apnoeic responses were abolished along with cardiovascular responses. However, capsazepine (3 mg kg(-1)) did not block the PBG-induced reflex responses. Capsaicin (0.1-10 microg kg(-1)), on the other hand, produced a concentration-dependent apnoea, hypotension and bradycardia but tachypnoea was not observed. Ondansetron failed to block the capsaicin-induced reflex response while bilateral vagotomy abolished bradycardiac and hypotensive responses and attenuated the apnoeic response. In another series, vagal afferent activity and cardio-respiratory changes evoked by PBG were blocked by ondansetron. However, capsaicin failed to activate the PBG-sensitive vagal afferents even though cardio-respiratory alterations were observed. The present observations indicate that PBG produced tachypnoea at a lower concentration and apnoea at a higher concentration involving vagal afferents which are different from those excited by capsaicin.

  16. Effect of gallium on growth of Streptococcus mutans NCTC 10449 and dental tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valappil, S P; Owens, G J; Miles, E J; Farmer, N L; Cooper, L; Miller, G; Clowes, R; Lynch, R J M; Higham, S M

    2014-01-01

    Gallium-doped phosphate-based glasses (Ga-PBG) were assessed for their impact on Streptococcus mutans and dental mineralisation, firstly by disc diffusion assays followed by biofilms grown on nitrocellulose filter membrane (NFM) and constant-depth film fermentor (CDFF). Short-time exposure (10 min) effects of Ga-PBG on S. mutans biofilm were compared with that of 0.2% chlorhexidine. The effects of Ga-PBG on bovine enamel (which was investigated under pH-cycling condition) and dentine were analysed using transverse microradiography (TMR), profilometry and inductively coupled plasma optical-emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The disc diffusion assays showed inhibition zones of 24.5 ± 0.5 mm for Ga-PBG compared with controls (C-PBG). Ga-PBG showed statistically significant growth inhibition of S. mutans biofilms on NFM (p = 0.001) and CDFF (p PBG. The CDFF assay revealed a maximum of 2.11 log colony-forming unit (CFU) reduction at 48 h, but short-time exposure effects were comparable with that of 0.2% chlorhexidine only on older biofilms (maximum of 0.59 vs. 0.69 log CFU reduction at 120 h). TMR analyses of the enamel revealed non-significant mineral loss (p = 0.37) only in the case of Ga-PBG samples compared with controls including sodium fluoride. ICP-OES analyses indicated transient gallium adsorption into dentine by calcium displacement. The results confirmed that gallium inhibited S. mutans growth and appears to have the potential to protect the enamel surface under conditions representative of the oral environment. Further work is needed to establish whether it has an application in daily oral hygiene procedures to prevent or reduce caries.

  17. One Dimensional Polymeric Organic Photonic Crystals for DFB Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Scotognella

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a very simple method to realize a one-dimensional photonic crystal (1D PC, consisting of a dye-doped polymeric multilayer. Due to the high photonic density of states at the edges of the photonic band-gap (PBG, a surface emitting distributed feedback (DFB laser is obtained with this structure. Furthermore, the incidence angle dependence of the PBG of the polymeric multilayer is reported.

  18. Photosensitive and all-optically fast-controllable photonic bandgap device and laser in a dye-doped blue phase with a low-concentration azobenzene liquid crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jia-De; Lin, Yu-Meng; Mo, Ting-Shan; Lee, Chia-Rong

    2014-04-21

    This work demonstrates the feasibility of a novel photosensitive and all-optically fast-controllable photonic bandgap (PBG) device based on a dye-doped blue phase (DDBP), embedded with a low-concentration azobenzene liquid crystal (azo-LC). PBG of the DDBP can be reversibly fast-tuned off and on with the successive illumination of a weak UV and green beams. UV irradiation can transform the trans azo-LCs into bend cis isomers, which can easily disturb LCs at the boundary between the double twisting cylinders (DTCs) and the disclinations, and, then, quickly destabilize BPI to become a BPIII-like texture with randomly-oriented DTCs. Doing so may quickly destroy the BP PBG structure. However, with the successive illumination of a green beam, the BPI PBG device can be fast-turned on, owing to the fast disappearance of the disturbance of the azo-LCs on the boundary LCs via the green-beam-induced cis → trans back isomerization. The response time and irradiated energy density for turning off (on) the BP PBG device under the UV (green) beam irradiation are only 120 ms (120 ms) and 0.764 mJ/cm(2) (2.12 mJ/cm(2)), respectively, which are a thousand-fold reduction in photoswitching a traditional cholesteric LC (CLC) PBG device based on similar experimental conditions (i.e., materials used, azo-LC concentration (1 wt%), spectral position of PBG peak, sample thickness, and temperature difference for a working temperature lower than the clearing one). The BP PBG device can significantly contribute to efforts to develop a photosensitive and all-optically fast-controlling LC laser.

  19. Effects of levodropropizine on vagal afferent C-fibres in the cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, H; Daffonchio, L; Scheid, P

    1996-03-01

    1. Levodropropizine (LVDP) is an effective antitussive drug. Its effects on single-unit discharge of vagal afferent C-fibres were tested in anaesthetized cats to assess whether an inhibition of vagal C-fibres is involved in its antitussive properties. Vagal C-fibres, identified by their response to phenylbiguanide (PBG), were recorded via suction electrodes from the distal part of the cut vagus. Based on their response to lung inflation, C-fibres were classified as pulmonary (19 fibres) or non-pulmonary (6 fibres). 2. PBG increased the discharge rate of both C-fibre types and activated a respiratory reflex causing apnoea. This reflex was abolished when the second vagus nerve was cut as well, while PBG-mediated stimulation of the C-fibres was not affected by vagotomy. 3. LVDP was administered intravenously and the C-fibre response to PBG was compared with that before administration of the drug. LVDP reduced both the duration of apnoea and the response of the C-fibre to PBG. 4. Comparison of the C-fibre responses to PBG and to a mixture of PBG and LVDP revealed that the period of apnoea was shortened and the discharge rate of the C-fibre reduced when LVDP was present. 5. The LVDP-induced inhibition of the C-fibre response to PBG was on average 50% in pulmonary and 25% in non-pulmonary fibres. 6. These results suggest that LVDP significantly reduces the response of vagal C-fibres to chemical stimuli. It is, thus, likely that the antitussive effect of LVDP is mediated through its inhibitory action on C-fibres.

  20. Enhancement of Faraday rotation at photonic-band-gap edge in garnet-based magnetophotonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhdanov, A.G.; Fedyanin, A.A.; Aktsipetrov, O.A.; Kobayashi, D.; Uchida, H.; Inoue, M.

    2006-01-01

    Spectral dependences of Faraday rotation angle in one-dimensional garnet-based magnetophotonic crystals are considered. The enhancement of Faraday angle is demonstrated at the photonic band gap (PBG) edge both theoretically and experimentally. It is shown to be associated with the optical field localization in the magnetic layers of the structure. The advantages of magnetophotonic crystals in comparison with traditional magnetic microcavities are discussed. The specially designed microcavity structures optimized for the Faraday effect enhancement at the PBG edge are suggested

  1. Postprandial Blood Glucose Outweighs Fasting Blood Glucose and HbA1c in screening Coronary Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jingjing; Zhao, Lin; Lin, Liu; Gui, Minghui; Aleteng, Qiqige; Wu, Bingjie; Wang, Shanshan; Pan, Baishen; Ling, Yan; Gao, Xin

    2017-10-27

    The objective of the present study is to assess the performance of fasting blood glucose (FBG), postprandial blood glucose (PBG), and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as screening for coronary heart disease (CHD) in an inpatient population undergoing coronary angiography. 1852 consecutive patients scheduled for coronary angiography were classified into Normal Glucose Tolerance (NGT), Impaired Glucose Regulation (IGR), and diabetes, based on FBG, PBG, and HbA1c. Correlations of Gensini score with glucose metabolism and insulin resistance were analyzed. The associations between glycemic variables and Gensini score or the presence of CHD were analyzed by multiple linear regression and logistic regression, respectively. CHD was diagnosed in 488, 622, and 414 patients with NGT, IGR, and diabetes, respectively. Gensini score was positively correlated with FBG (r = 0.09, p PBG (r = 0.20, p PBG and HbA1c were pooled altogether, only PBG persisted in its association with Gensini score and the prevalence of CHD. The severity of CHD was associated with glucose rather than insulin resistance in this Chinese population. PBG was optimally correlated with the presence and severity of CHD.

  2. Effect of photonic crystal and frequency selective surface implementation on gain enhancement in the microstrip patch antenna at terahertz frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejati, Ameneh; Sadeghzadeh, Ramezan Ali; Geran, Fatemeh

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, microstrip patch antenna with frequency selective surface (FSS) and photonic band gap (PBG) structures in the frequency range of 0.5-0.7 THz is presented for wireless communications. Proposed patch antenna is designed on a substrate with uniform and non-uniform PBG structures. Here, the effects of substrate thickness, various radii and arrangement of holes on antenna resonance in both PBG forms are studied. Near zero characteristic on uniform and non-uniform PBG substrate is compared and the results show that along with increase in hole radius, antenna operating frequency and bandwidth are increased. Also, the FSS structure is designed as a perfect absorber. Finally, by using FSS and PBG structures simultaneously, gain enhancement, increase in directivity and pattern shaping are studied at THz field. The antenna gain in final structure is increased by 2 dBi (32%) in comparison to simple form and Half-Power beam width is reduced from 100°×80° in simple form to 72°×48° by using FSS and PBG. All simulations and designs are done by Ansoft HFSS and CST Microwave Studio simulation tools with different full wave methods.

  3. The healing of critical-sized bone defect of rat zygomatic arch with particulate bone graft and bone morphogenetic protein-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Myung Good; Shin, Dong Min; Lee, Sang Woo

    2010-03-01

    For some critical-sized bony defects in the facial bones, it is necessary that the defect be reconstructed using an autologous bone graft from another donor site, not only to ensure stability, but also to derive aesthetic contouring. However, because of the easy gain and easy moulding of particulate bone, it would be easier to reconstruct the defect by using particulate bone graft (PBG) rather than block bone graft (BBG). This study was designed to confirm the usefulness of PBG with bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) instead of BBG and to observe its long-term outcome in critical-sized zygomatic arch defects in a rat model. A sample of 18 Sprague-Dawley rats was divided into three groups; a 5-mm critical-sized bone defect was made in both zygomatic arches of all subjects. Each group was treated with different combinations of BMP-2 and PBG. At 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks after treatment, each defect was compared radiologically. Histological evaluation was performed after 12 weeks. In the first group, the defects with PBG decreased more than in those with no bone graft (PPBG and BMP-2 decreased more than in those with PBG alone (PPBG and BMP-2 and that with in situ bone graft (instead of BBG). In conclusion, PBG with BMP-2 showed satisfactory bone healing without any additional bone graft in the animal model. (c) 2008 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of electron beam parameters and velocity spread on radio frequency output of a photonic band gap cavity gyrotron oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ashutosh; Jain, P. K.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the effects of electron beam parameters and velocity spread on the RF behavior of a metallic photonic band gap (PBG) cavity gyrotron operating at 35 GHz with TE041-like mode have been theoretically demonstrated. PBG cavity is used here to achieve a single mode operation of the overmoded cavity. The nonlinear time-dependent multimode analysis has been used to observe the beam-wave interaction behavior of the PBG cavity gyrotron, and a commercially available PIC code "CST Particle Studio" has been reconfigured to obtain 3D simulation results in order to validate the analytical values. The output power for this typical PBG gyrotron has been obtained ˜108 kW with ˜15.5% efficiency in a well confined TE041-like mode, while all other competing modes have significantly low values of power output. The output power and efficiency of a gyrotron depend highly on the electron beam parameters and velocity spread. The influence of several electron beam parameters, e.g., beam voltage, beam current, beam velocity pitch factor, and DC magnetic field, on the PBG gyrotron operations has been investigated. This study would be helpful in optimising the electron beam parameters and estimating accurate RF output power of the high frequency PBG cavity based gyrotron oscillators.

  5. Effects of electron beam parameters and velocity spread on radio frequency output of a photonic band gap cavity gyrotron oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Ashutosh, E-mail: asingh.rs.ece@iitbhu.ac.in [Faculty of Physical Sciences, Institute of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Shri Ramswaroop Memorial University, Lucknow-Deva Road, Uttar Pradesh 225003 (India); Center of Research in Microwave Tubes, Department of Electronics Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India); Jain, P. K. [Center of Research in Microwave Tubes, Department of Electronics Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, the effects of electron beam parameters and velocity spread on the RF behavior of a metallic photonic band gap (PBG) cavity gyrotron operating at 35 GHz with TE{sub 041}–like mode have been theoretically demonstrated. PBG cavity is used here to achieve a single mode operation of the overmoded cavity. The nonlinear time-dependent multimode analysis has been used to observe the beam-wave interaction behavior of the PBG cavity gyrotron, and a commercially available PIC code “CST Particle Studio” has been reconfigured to obtain 3D simulation results in order to validate the analytical values. The output power for this typical PBG gyrotron has been obtained ∼108 kW with ∼15.5% efficiency in a well confined TE{sub 041}–like mode, while all other competing modes have significantly low values of power output. The output power and efficiency of a gyrotron depend highly on the electron beam parameters and velocity spread. The influence of several electron beam parameters, e.g., beam voltage, beam current, beam velocity pitch factor, and DC magnetic field, on the PBG gyrotron operations has been investigated. This study would be helpful in optimising the electron beam parameters and estimating accurate RF output power of the high frequency PBG cavity based gyrotron oscillators.

  6. Indian red scorpion venom-induced augmentation of cardio-respiratory reflexes and pulmonary edema involve the release of histamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Abhaya; Deshpande, Shripad B

    2011-02-01

    Pulmonary edema is a consistent feature of Mesobuthus tamulus (MBT) envenomation. Kinins, prostaglandins and other inflammatory mediators are implicated in it. Since, histamine also increases capillary permeability, this study was undertaken to evaluate whether MBT venom utilizes histamine to produce pulmonary edema and augmentation of cardio-respiratory reflexes evoked by phenylbiguanide (PBG). Blood pressure, respiratory excursions and ECG were recorded in urethane anaesthetized adult rats. Injection of PBG (10 μg/kg) produced apnoea, hypotension and bradycardia and the responses were augmented after exposure to venom (100 μg/kg). There was increased pulmonary water content in these animals. Pretreatment with pheniramine maleate (H₁ antagonist, 3 mg/kg) blocked both venom-induced augmentation of PBG response and pulmonary edema. In another series, compound 48/80 (mast cell depletor) was treated for 4 days then the PBG responses were elicited as before. At the end of the experiments, mast cells were counted from the peritoneal fluid. The venom-induced pulmonary edema and the augmentation of PBG reflex were not observed in compound 48/80 treated animals. Further, mast cells in the peritoneal fluid were absent in this group as compared to vehicle treated group (29 ± 7.9 cells/mm³). These observations indicate that venom-induced pulmonary edema and augmentation of PBG reflexe are mediated through mast cells by involving H₁ receptors. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. High power breakdown testing of a photonic band-gap accelerator structure with elliptical rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Munroe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved single-cell photonic band-gap (PBG structure with an inner row of elliptical rods (PBG-E was tested with high power at a 60 Hz repetition rate at X-band (11.424 GHz, achieving a gradient of 128  MV/m at a breakdown probability of 3.6×10^{-3} per pulse per meter at a pulse length of 150 ns. The tested standing-wave structure was a single high-gradient cell with an inner row of elliptical rods and an outer row of round rods; the elliptical rods reduce the peak surface magnetic field by 20% and reduce the temperature rise of the rods during the pulse by several tens of degrees, while maintaining good damping and suppression of high order modes. When compared with a single-cell standing-wave undamped disk-loaded waveguide structure with the same iris geometry under test at the same conditions, the PBG-E structure yielded the same breakdown rate within measurement error. The PBG-E structure showed a greatly reduced breakdown rate compared with earlier tests of a PBG structure with round rods, presumably due to the reduced magnetic fields at the elliptical rods vs the fields at the round rods, as well as use of an improved testing methodology. A post-testing autopsy of the PBG-E structure showed some damage on the surfaces exposed to the highest surface magnetic and electric fields. Despite these changes in surface appearance, no significant change in the breakdown rate was observed in testing. These results demonstrate that PBG structures, when designed with reduced surface magnetic fields and operated to avoid extremely high pulsed heating, can operate at breakdown probabilities comparable to undamped disk-loaded waveguide structures and are thus viable for high-gradient accelerator applications.

  8. Experimental high gradient testing of a 17.1 GHz photonic band-gap accelerator structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munroe, Brian J.; Zhang, JieXi; Xu, Haoran; Shapiro, Michael A.; Temkin, Richard J.

    2016-03-01

    We report the design, fabrication, and high gradient testing of a 17.1 GHz photonic band-gap (PBG) accelerator structure. Photonic band-gap (PBG) structures are promising candidates for electron accelerators capable of high-gradient operation because they have the inherent damping of high order modes required to avoid beam breakup instabilities. The 17.1 GHz PBG structure tested was a single cell structure composed of a triangular array of round copper rods of radius 1.45 mm spaced by 8.05 mm. The test assembly consisted of the test PBG cell located between conventional (pillbox) input and output cells, with input power of up to 4 MW from a klystron supplied via a TM01 mode launcher. Breakdown at high gradient was observed by diagnostics including reflected power, downstream and upstream current monitors and visible light emission. The testing procedure was first benchmarked with a conventional disc-loaded waveguide structure, which reached a gradient of 87 MV /m at a breakdown probability of 1.19 ×10-1 per pulse per meter. The PBG structure was tested with 100 ns pulses at gradient levels of less than 90 MV /m in order to limit the surface temperature rise to 120 K. The PBG structure reached up to 89 MV /m at a breakdown probability of 1.09 ×10-1 per pulse per meter. These test results show that a PBG structure can simultaneously operate at high gradients and low breakdown probability, while also providing wakefield damping.

  9. Experimental high gradient testing of a 17.1 GHz photonic band-gap accelerator structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian J. Munroe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the design, fabrication, and high gradient testing of a 17.1 GHz photonic band-gap (PBG accelerator structure. Photonic band-gap (PBG structures are promising candidates for electron accelerators capable of high-gradient operation because they have the inherent damping of high order modes required to avoid beam breakup instabilities. The 17.1 GHz PBG structure tested was a single cell structure composed of a triangular array of round copper rods of radius 1.45 mm spaced by 8.05 mm. The test assembly consisted of the test PBG cell located between conventional (pillbox input and output cells, with input power of up to 4 MW from a klystron supplied via a TM_{01} mode launcher. Breakdown at high gradient was observed by diagnostics including reflected power, downstream and upstream current monitors and visible light emission. The testing procedure was first benchmarked with a conventional disc-loaded waveguide structure, which reached a gradient of 87  MV/m at a breakdown probability of 1.19×10^{-1} per pulse per meter. The PBG structure was tested with 100 ns pulses at gradient levels of less than 90  MV/m in order to limit the surface temperature rise to 120 K. The PBG structure reached up to 89  MV/m at a breakdown probability of 1.09×10^{-1} per pulse per meter. These test results show that a PBG structure can simultaneously operate at high gradients and low breakdown probability, while also providing wakefield damping.

  10. Additional benefit of higher dose green tea in lowering postprandial blood glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Lahirin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Green tea contains catechins that have inhibitory effects on amylase, sucrase, and sodium-dependent glucose transporter (SGLT which result in lowering of postprandial blood glucose (PBG. This beneficial effect has been widely demonstrated using the usual dose (UD of green tea preparation. Our study was aimed to explore futher lowering of PBG using high dose (HD of green tea in healthy adolescents.Methods: 24 subjects received 100 mL infusion of either 0.67 or 3.33 grams of green tea with test meal. Fasting, PBG at 30, 60, 120 minutes were measured. Subjects were cross-overed after wash out. PBG and its incremental area under the curve (IAUC difference between groups were analyzed with paired T-test. Cathecin contents of tea were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC.Results: The PBG of HD group was lower compared to UD (at 60 minutes =113.70 ± 13.20 vs 124.16 ± 8.17 mg/dL, p = 0.005; at 120 minutes = 88.95 ± 6.13 vs 105.25 ± 13.85 mg/dL, p < 0.001. The IAUC of HD was also found to be lower compared to UD (2055.0 vs 3411.9 min.mg/dL, p < 0.001.Conclusion: Additional benefit of lowering PBG can be achieved by using higher dose of green tea. This study recommends preparing higher dose of green tea drinks for better control of PBG.

  11. Bisphenol A attenuates phenylbiguanide-induced cardio-respiratory reflexes in anaesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Jayanti; Pant, Mahendra K; Deshpande, Shripad B

    2012-11-14

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a toxic chemical released from plastics, produces respiratory arrest and hypotension after a latency. The latency was similar to the reflex apnoea induced by the vagal C fibre stimulation. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the effects of chronic and acute exposure to BPA on cardio-respiratory reflexes elicited by phenylbiguanide (PBG). Acute and chronic experiments were performed on adult female rats. In chronic experiments, the animals were ingested with pellets containing BPA (2 μg/kg body weight) or without BPA (time-matched control) for 30 days. Subsequently, the animals were anaesthetized and prepared for recording blood pressure, ECG and respiratory excursions. PBG was injected through jugular vein to evoke reflexes in these animals. In acute experiments, the PBG reflexes were obtained before and after injecting BPA/ethanol. Also vagal afferent activity was recorded in some rats. In time-matched control rats, PBG produced bradycardia, hypotension and tachypnoea over a period of time. The maximal changes were around 50-65%. In BPA treated group, the PBG-induced heart rate and respiratory frequency changes were attenuated significantly. Acute exposure of animals to BPA (35 mg/kg body weight) for 30 min also attenuated the PBG-induced responses significantly. The attenuation of the PBG reflex responses by BPA in acute experiments was associated with decreased vagal afferent activity. The present results indicate that BPA attenuates the protective cardio-respiratory reflexes due to decreased vagal afferent activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Linearly Polarized Dual-Wavelength Vertical-External-Cavity Surface-Emitting Laser (Postprint)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fan, Li; Fallahi, Mahmoud; Hader, Joerg; Zakharian, Aramais R; Moloney, Jerome V; Stolz, Wolfgang; Koch, Stephan W; Bedford, Robert; Murray, James T

    2007-01-01

    The authors demonstrate the multiwatt linearly polarized dual-wavelength operation in an optically pumped vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser by means of an intracavity tilted Fabry-Perot...

  13. Polymer laser bio-sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Anders; Vannahme, Christoph; Hermannsson, Pétur Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Organic dye based distributed feed-back lasers, featuring narrow linewidth and thus high quality spectral resolution, are used as highly sensitive refractive index sensors. The design, fabrication and application of the laser intra-cavity sensors are discussed....

  14. Stabilization of the Absolute Frequency and Phase of a Compact, Low Jitter Modelocked Semiconductor Diode Laser

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Delfyett, Peter J., Jr

    2005-01-01

    .... To achieve this, an intracavity Pound-Drever-Hall technique was used on a 10 GHz harmonically mode-locked semiconductor ring laser and obtained a simultaneous optical frequency comb stabilization...

  15. Lowering the pump power requirement for squeezed light generation using a periodically poled crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulrik Lund; Buchhave, Preben

    2003-01-01

    Observations of continuous wave bright squeezed light from an intra-cavity periodically poled KTP second harmonic generator are presented. The experiment includes characterization of the classical as well as the quantum properties of the system.......Observations of continuous wave bright squeezed light from an intra-cavity periodically poled KTP second harmonic generator are presented. The experiment includes characterization of the classical as well as the quantum properties of the system....

  16. [Clinical study of glycated albumin measurement by enzymatic method in type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba, Jian-Ming; Dou, Jing-Tao; Zhang, Xiao-Qun; Ma, Fang-Ling; Zhai, Huai-Wei; Zou, Xiao-Man; Mu, Yi-Ming; Lu, Ju-Ming

    2009-06-09

    To evaluate the clinical significance of glycated albumin (GA) measured by enzymatic method and to compare its effect with glycosylated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). 128 type 2 DM patients and 84 normal subjects from the Chinese PLA General Hospital were enrolled for the study. The levels of GA, HbA1c, FBG, PBG in DM patient were detected at baseline and followed visit at 2, 4, 8 weeks after blood glucose management. The levels of GA, HbA1c, FBG, PBG and 75 g OGTT were also detected in above normal subjects. Intra CV and inter CV of enzymatic were (0.74-0.9)% and (0.94-1.49)% respectively. In normal subjects GA was in the range of (9-14)%. At baseline, the GA level was significantly correlated with HbA1c (r = 0.8326, P PBG. After 2, 4, 8 weeks treatment, GA level in DM patients was concomitantly decreased with the improvement of FBG, PBG and HbA1c. At early 2 weeks visit, GA, but not HbA1c, showed significant decrease from its baseline (P PBG during the 8 weeks treatment. GA was more sensitive than HbA1c for short-term variations of glycemic control during treatment of diabetic patients. GA can be used as a better index of short term mean level of blood glucose in diabetic patients.

  17. Heme-biosynthetic porphobilinogen deaminase protects Aspergillus nidulans from nitrosative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shengmin; Narukami, Toshiaki; Nameki, Misuzu; Ozawa, Tomoko; Kamimura, Yosuke; Hoshino, Takayuki; Takaya, Naoki

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms have developed mechanisms to combat reactive nitrogen species (RNS); however, only a few of the fungal genes involved have been characterized. Here we screened RNS-resistant Aspergillus nidulans strains from fungal transformants obtained by introducing a genomic DNA library constructed in a multicopy vector. We found that the AN0121.3 gene (hemC) encodes a protein similar to the heme biosynthesis enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase (PBG-D) and facilitates RNS-tolerant fungal growth. The overproduction of PBG-D in A. nidulans promoted RNS tolerance, whereas PBG-D repression caused growth that was hypersensitive to RNS. PBG-D levels were comparable to those of cellular protoheme synthesis as well as flavohemoglobin (FHb; encoded by fhbA and fhbB) and nitrite reductase (NiR; encoded by niiA) activities. Both FHb and NiR are hemoproteins that consume nitric oxide and nitrite, respectively, and we found that they are required for maximal growth in the presence of RNS. The transcription of hemC was upregulated by RNS. These results demonstrated that PBG-D is a novel NO-tolerant protein that modulates the reduction of environmental NO and nitrite levels by FHb and NiR.

  18. The properties of photonic band gap and surface plasmon modes in the three-dimensional magnetized photonic crystals as the mixed polarized modes considered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Liu, Shao-Bin; Jiang, Yu-Chi

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, the properties of photonic band gap (PBG) and surface plasmon modes in the three-dimensional (3D) magnetized plasma photonic crystals (MPPCs) with face-centered-cubic (fcc) lattices are theoretically investigated based on the plane wave expansion (PWE) method, in which the homogeneous magnetized plasma spheres are immersed in the homogeneous dielectric background, as the Voigt effects of magnetized plasma are considered (the incidence electromagnetic wave vector is perpendicular to the external magnetic field at any time). The dispersive properties of all of the EM modes are studied because the PBG is not only for the extraordinary and ordinary modes but also for the mixed polarized modes. The equations for PBGs also are theoretically deduced. The numerical results show that the PBG and a flatbands region can be observed. The effects of the dielectric constant of dielectric background, filling factor, plasma frequency and plasma cyclotron frequency (the external magnetic field) on the dispersive properties of all of the EM modes in such 3D MPPCs are investigated in detail, respectively. Theoretical simulations show that the PBG can be manipulated by the parameters as mentioned above. Compared to the conventional dielectric-air PCs with similar structure, the larger PBG can be obtained in such 3D MPPCs. It is also shown that the upper edge of flatbands region cannot be tuned by the filling factor and dielectric constant of dielectric background, but it can be manipulated by the plasma frequency and plasma cyclotron frequency.

  19. Isoflurane inhibits bronchopulmonary C-fiber-mediated apneic response to phenylbiguanide by depressing 5-HT3 receptor function in anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenxiong; Zhuang, Jianguo; Zhang, Cancan; Xu, Fadi

    2013-09-27

    A previous study by the authors has shown that isoflurane (ISO), a commonly used volatile anesthetic, has an excitatory effect on bronchopulmonary C-fibers (PCFs). Since selective stimulation of PCFs by action on local 5-HT3 receptors could evoke an apnea, this current study addresses whether inhalation of ISO would facilitate the PCF 5-HT3 receptor-mediated apneic response and, if so, how. In anesthetized and spontaneously breathing rats, inhalation of 5% ISO markedly inhibited the apneic response to intra-atrium injection of phenylbiguanide (PBG, 25 μg/kg), a 5-HT3 receptor agonist, which was contrary to the hypothesis. Extracellular recording of the nodose ganglion neurons in anesthetized, paralyzed and ventilated rats revealed that ISO attenuated the PBG-elicited excitation of pulmonary C neurons. Furthermore, using the patch clamp technique, it was found that ISO depressed the PBG-induced inward current of the pulmonary C neurons labeled with 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI) instilled previously into the lungs. These results suggest that ISO inhibits PCF 5-HT3 channel functions, and thereby attenuates PCF excitatory response to PBG, likely contributing to the diminution of the PBG-induced apnea by ISO in rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Power-Assisted Particulate Bone Grafting Effectively Prevents Osseous Defects After Cranial Vault Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandolfi, Brad M; Hirji, Sameer A; Sobol, Danielle L; Allori, Alexander C; Marcus, Jeffrey R

    2018-02-12

    Cranial vault reconstruction (CVR) is the gold standard in the operative treatment of craniosynostosis. Full thickness osseous defects (FTOD) of the calvaria have been observed in 5% to 15% patients after CVR, with higher rates cited in the fronto-orbital advancement (FOA) subset. Particulate bone graft (PBG) harvested manually has been shown to decrease FTOD after FOA from 24% to 5.5%. The authors used a modified technique using a powered craniotome, with the hypothesis that the technique would also improve outcomes. A retrospective review was performed of patients who underwent CVR for craniosynostosis between 2004 and 2014. Patient demographics, diagnosis, age, operative details, and postoperative care were reviewed in detail. Categorical, nonparametric variables were compared by Fisher exact tests. A total of 135 patients met inclusion criteria. The most common diagnoses were metopic (n = 41), sagittal (n = 33), and unilateral coronal craniosynostosis (n = 31); 65% (n = 88) underwent FOA, 29% (n = 39) underwent single-stage total vault reconstruction, and 6% (n = 8) had a posterior vault reconstruction. CVR was performed without PBG in 95 patients and with PBG in 40 patients. Without PBG, FTOD were discovered on clinical examination in 18% of patients (n=17): 11 presented with subcentimeter defects, while 6 had larger defects requiring revision cranioplasty (6% operative revision rate). Among those receiving PBG, 1 patient presented a subcentimeter FTOD (2.5% FTOD incidence and 0% operative revision rate). Particulate bone graft harvested with a powered device decreases the rate of FTOD and reoperation rate after CVR for craniosynostosis.

  1. Photonic band gap structure for a ferroelectric photonic crystal at microwave frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Tzu-Chyang; Chen, De-Xin; Lin, Wei-Cheng; Wu, Chien-Jang

    2015-10-10

    In this work, the photonic band gap (PBG) structure in a one-dimensional ferroelectric photonic crystal (PC) is theoretically investigated. We consider a PC, air/(AB)N/air, in which layer A is a dielectric of MgO and layer B is taken to be a ferroelectric of Ba0.55Sr0.45TiO3 (BSTO). With an extremely high value in the dielectric constant in BSTO, the calculated photonic band structure at microwave frequencies exhibits some interesting features that are significantly different from those in a usual dielectric-dielectric PC. First, the photonic transmission band consists of multiple and nearly discrete transmission peaks. Second, the calculated bandwidth of the PBG is nearly unchanged as the angle of incidence varies in the TE wave. The bandwidth will slightly reduce for the TM mode. Thus, a wide omnidirectional PBG can be obtained. Additionally, the effect of the thickness of the ferroelectric layer on the PBG is much more pronounced compared to the dielectric layer thickness. That is, the increase of ferroelectric thickness can significantly decrease the PBG bandwidth.

  2. Plasma succinylacetone is persistently raised after liver transplantation in tyrosinaemia type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, David C; Preece, Mary Anne; Holme, Elisabeth; Lloyd, Carla; Newsome, Phil N; McKiernan, Patrick J

    2013-01-01

    Tyrosinaemia type 1 (HT1) is a rare disorder leading to accumulation of toxic metabolites such as succinylacetone (SA) and a high risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Children with HT1 traditionally required liver transplantation (OLT) and while the need for this has been reduced by the introduction of nitisinone some still require OLT. SA inhibits the enzyme porphobilinogen (PBG) synthase and its activity can be used as a marker of active SA. Elevated urinary SA post OLT has been reported previously. This study describes a novel finding of elevated plasma SA following OLT for HT1. A retrospective analysis was performed of patients treated for HT1 at our institution from 1989-2010. Thirteen patients had an OLT for HT1. In patients who received nitisinone prior to OLT, mean urinary and plasma SA were elevated prior to treatment but normalised by the time of OLT (p ≤ 0.01). Mean PBG synthase activity increased from 0.032 to 0.99 nkat/gHb (ref range 0.58-1.25) at the time of OLT (p PBG synthase activity were not available prior to OLT for this group. Following OLT, mean urinary and plasma SA were elevated in all for the duration of follow-up and associated with low-normal PBG synthase activity. Urinary and plasma SA levels are elevated following OLT for HT1. Low-normal PBG synthase activity suggests the plasma SA may be active. The clinical significance of this is unclear.

  3. Involvement of nitric oxide in 5-HT(3) receptor agonist-induced fluid accumulation in jejunum and colon of anesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veeresh, B; Patil, Basanagouda M; Veeresh Babu, S V; Jeedi, Neelakanth M; Unger, Banappa S

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the involvement of nitric oxide in 5-HT(3) receptor agonist-induced fluid accumulation in jejunum and colon of anesthetized rats. Fluid movement in jejunum and colon were determined simultaneously in the same rat, by modifying the Beubler method. Nomega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA, 20 mg/kg, s.c) alone and in combination with L-arginine (L-Arg, 150 mg/kg s.c) or D-arginine (D-Arg, 150 mg/kg, s.c) were administered 30 min before administration of 1-PBG (18.5 mug/kg, i.v). Intravenous administration of 1-phenylbiguanide (1-PBG) induced a net secretion of fluid in both jejunum and colon. 1-PBG had a more prominent secretory effect in the colon, causing a three-fold increase in volume of fluid secreted/g of colon than in the jejunum. Pretreatment with (L-NNA) prevented the 1-PBG-induced fluid accumulation in both jejunum and colon. The inhibitory effect of L-NNA on 1-PBG-induced fluid accumulation was reversed by L-Arg but not by D-Arg. These results provide evidence that nitric oxide plays an important role in 5-HT(3) receptor agonist-induced fluid accumulation in jejunum and colon of anesthetized rats.

  4. Toxic Chemical from Plastics Attenuates Phenylbiguanide-induced Cardio-respiratory Reflexes in Anaesthetized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Jayanti; Pant, Mahendra K; Chouhan, Shikha; Singh, Surya P; Deshpande, Shripad B

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) attenuated phenylbiguanide (PBG)-induced cardio-respiratory reflexes involving decreased vagal afferent activity. BPA leaches out from plastics thus it is expected that chronic exposure to plastic boiled (PBW) water will also produce similar changes. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of chronic ingestion of PBW on PBG evoked reflexes and were compared with BPA. Adult female rats were ingested BPA containing pellets (2 µg/kg body weight)/PBW/tap water (ad libitum) for 30 days. On day 30, the animals were anaesthetized and BP, ECG and respiratory excursions were recorded. Further, PBG was injected intravenously to evoke cardio-respiratory reflexes and at the end lungs were excised for histopathological examination. BPA concentration in PBW was 6.6 µg/ml estimated by HPLC. In rats receiving tap water, PBG produced bradycardia, hypotension and tachypnoea. In PBW/BPA treated groups, PBG-induced reflexes were attenuated significantly along with emphysematous and consolidative changes in lungs. The present results indicate that PBW attenuates the protective cardio-respiratory reflexes and also produces histopathological changes in lungs.

  5. Calculation of wakefields in a 17 GHz beam-driven photonic band-gap accelerator structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the theoretical analysis and computer simulation of the wakefields in a 17 GHz photonic band-gap (PBG structure for accelerator applications. Using the commercial code CST Particle Studio, the fundamental accelerating mode and dipole modes are excited by passing an 18 MeV electron beam through a seven-cell traveling-wave PBG structure. The characteristics of the longitudinal and transverse wakefields, wake potential spectrum, dipole mode distribution, and their quality factors are calculated and analyzed theoretically. Unlike in conventional disk-loaded waveguide (DLW structures, three dipole modes (TM_{11}-like, TM_{12}-like, and TM_{13}-like are excited in the PBG structure with comparable initial amplitudes. These modes are separated by less than 4 GHz in frequency and are damped quickly due to low radiative Q factors. Simulations verify that a PBG structure provides wakefield damping relative to a DLW structure. Simulations were done with both single-bunch excitation to determine the frequency spectrum of the wakefields and multibunch excitation to compare to wakefield measurements taken at MIT using a 17 GHz bunch train. These simulation results will guide the design of next-generation high-gradient accelerator PBG structures.

  6. Mechanism of photonic band gap, optical properties, tuning and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiwari, A.; Johri, M.

    2006-05-01

    Mechanism of occurrence of Photonic Band Gap (PBG) is presented for 3-D structure using close packed face centered cubic lattice. Concepts and our work, specifically optical properties of 3-D photonic crystal, relative width, filling fraction, effective refractive index, alternative mechanism of photonic band gap scattering strength and dielectric contrast, effect of fluctuations and minimum refractive index contrast, are reported. The temperature tuning and anisotropy of nematic and ferroelectric liquid crystal infiltrated opal for different phase transitions are given. Effective dielectric constant with filling fraction using Maxwell Garnet theory (MG), multiple modified Maxwell Garnet (MMMG) and Effective Medium theory (EM) and results are compared with experiment to understand the occurrence of PBG. Our calculations of Lamb shifts including fluctuations are given and compared with those of literature values. We have also done band structure calculations including anisotropy and compared isotropic characteristic of liquid crystal. A possibility of lowest refractive index contrast useful for the fabrication of PBG is given. Our calculations for relative width as a function of refractive index contrast are reported and comparisons with existing theoretical and experimental optimal values are briefed. Applications of photonic crystals are summarized. The investigations conducted on PBG materials and reported here may pave the way for understanding the challenges in the field of PBG. (author)

  7. Photonic band gap materials: Technology, applications and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johri, M.; Ahmed, Y.A.; Bezboruah, T.

    2006-05-01

    Last century has been the age of Artificial Materials. One material that stands out in this regard is the semiconductor. The revolution in electronic industry in the 20th century was made possible by the ability of semiconductors to microscopically manipulate the flow of electrons. Further advancement in the field made scientists suggest that the new millennium will be the age of photonics in which artificial materials will be synthesized to microscopically manipulate the flow of light. One of these will be Photonic Band Gap material (PBG). PBG are periodic dielectric structures that forbid propagation of electromagnetic waves in a certain frequency range. They are able to engineer most fundamental properties of electromagnetic waves such as the laws of refraction, diffraction, and emission of light from atoms. Such PBG material not only opens up variety of possible applications (in lasers, antennas, millimeter wave devices, efficient solar cells photo-catalytic processes, integrated optical communication etc.) but also give rise to new physics (cavity electrodynamics, localization, disorder, photon-number-state squeezing). Unlike electronic micro-cavity, optical waveguides in a PBG microchip can simultaneously conduct hundreds of wavelength channels of information in a three dimensional circuit path. In this article we have discussed some aspects of PBG materials and their unusual properties, which provided a foundation for novel practical applications ranging from clinical medicine to information technology. (author)

  8. Higher order mode damping in a five-cell superconducting rf cavity with a photonic band gap coupler cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey A. Arsenyev

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of higher order mode (HOM damping in the first multicell superconducting radio-frequency (SRF cavity with a photonic band gap (PBG coupler cell. Achieving higher average beam currents is particularly desirable for future light sources and particle colliders based on SRF energy-recovery linacs (ERLs. Beam current in ERLs is limited by the beam breakup instability, caused by parasitic HOMs interacting with the beam in accelerating cavities. A PBG cell incorporated in an accelerating cavity can reduce the negative effect of HOMs by providing a frequency selective damping mechanism, thus allowing significantly higher beam currents. The five-cell cavity with a PBG cell was designed and optimized for HOM damping. Monopole and dipole HOMs were simulated. The SRF cavity was fabricated and tuned. External quality factors for some HOMs were measured in a cold test. The measurements agreed well with the simulations.

  9. Optical devices based on liquid crystal photonic bandgap fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkeskjold, Thomas Tanggaard

    2005-01-01

    hole. The presence of a LC in the holes of the PCF transforms the fiber from a Total Internal Reflection (TIR) guiding type into a Photonic BandGap (PBG) guiding type, where light is confined to the silica core by coherent scattering from the LC-billed holes. The high dielectric and optical anisotropy...... of LCs combined with the unique waveguiding features of PBG fibers gives the LC filled PCFs unique tunable properties. PBG guidance has been demonstrated for different mesophases of LCs and various functional compact fibers has been demonstrated, which utilitzes the high thermo-optical and electro......-optical effects of LCs. Thermally controlled spectral filters and broadband switching functionalities, electrically controlled switches, polarizers and polarization rotators and an all-optical modulator has been demonstrated. The waveguiding mechanism of anistotropic PBGs fibers has been analyzed and spectral...

  10. Optical resonant tunneling in photonic heterostructures containing a tunable dielectric layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyong Cui

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that complete light transmission can be realized using a photonic heterostructure containing a tunable dielectric layer inserted between two different truncated photonic crystals (PCs. A perfect tunneling state is produced within enlarged photonic band gap (PBG of the heterostructure by varying the thickness of inserted dielectric layer and the transmittance of the tunneling state depends on the dielectric layer thickness. Additionally, the tunneling state frequency varies with inserted layer thickness but is always located within the small overlapped PBG of two PCs. Therefore, both a perfect tunneling state and an ultrawide PBG can be realized in these heterostructures. The experimental results showed good agreement with theoretical values.

  11. Investigation of Patch Antenna Based on Photonic Band-Gap Substrate with Heterostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenghua Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of the patch antenna based on photonic band-gap (PBG substrate with heterostructures were studied numerically by using the method of finite difference time domain (FDTD. The results indicate that, comparing to the conventional patch antennas, the expansion of working frequency band of the new patch antenna can be realized and its radiation efficiency also can be improved notably with the influence of PBG. In addition, for this new kind of patch antenna, its return loss is much less and there are two minimum values for return loss corresponding to the resonant frequency of the two different photonic crystals made of the substrate. Its physical mechanism lies on the PBG which suppresses the surface waves propagating along the surface of the substrate and reflects most of electromagnetic wave energy radiated to the substrate significantly.

  12. Photonic Architectures for Equilibrium High-Temperature Bose-Einstein Condensation in Dichalcogenide Monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jian-Hua; John, Sajeev

    2014-12-01

    Semiconductor-microcavity polaritons are composite quasiparticles of excitons and photons, emerging in the strong coupling regime. As quantum superpositions of matter and light, polaritons have much stronger interparticle interactions compared with photons, enabling rapid equilibration and Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC). Current realizations based on 1D photonic structures, such as Fabry-Pérot microcavities, have limited light-trapping ability resulting in picosecond polariton lifetime. We demonstrate, theoretically, above-room-temperature (up to 590 K) BEC of long-lived polaritons in MoSe2 monolayers sandwiched by simple TiO2 based 3D photonic band gap (PBG) materials. The 3D PBG induces very strong coupling of 40 meV (Rabi splitting of 62 meV) for as few as three dichalcogenide monolayers. Strong light-trapping in the 3D PBG enables the long-lived polariton superfluid to be robust against fabrication-induced disorder and exciton line-broadening.

  13. Analytical and Numerical Calculations of Two-Dimensional Dielectric Photonic Band Gap Structures and Cavities for Laser Acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Samokhvalova, Ksenia R; Liang Qian, Bao

    2005-01-01

    Dielectric photonic band gap (PBG) structures have many promising applications in laser acceleration. For these applications, accurate determination of fundamental and high order band gaps is critical. We present the results of our recent work on analytical calculations of two-dimensional (2D) PBG structures in rectangular geometry. We compare the analytical results with computer simulation results from the MIT Photonic Band Gap Structure Simulator (PBGSS) code, and discuss the convergence of the computer simulation results to the analytical results. Using the accurate analytical results, we design a mode-selective 2D dielectric cylindrical PBG cavity with the first global band gap in the frequency range of 8.8812 THz to 9.2654 THz. In this frequency range, the TM01-like mode is shown to be well confined.

  14. 2×1 Microstrip Patch Array Antenna with Harmonic Suppression Capability for Rectenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Aisyah Amir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an extension of work originally presented in 2016 IEEE Asia-Pacific Conference on Applied Electromagnetics (APACE. A 2×1 microstrip patch array antenna integrated with photonic bandgap (PBG and stubs is designed and analyzed. The performance of the PBG and stubs structure are explained and analyzed in terms of the elimination of the resonance at the harmonic frequencies of the antenna. The proposed antenna is designed on FR-4 substrate with thickness of 1.6 mm and operated at 2.45 GHz frequency suitable for rectenna design application. From the simulated result, the first harmonic frequency (5.4 GHz, the second harmonic frequency (6.6 GHz and the third harmonic frequency (7.8 GHz are successfully suppressed. For instance, the radiation to the forward of the stubs-PBG antenna is suppressed at more than 15 dB at the second and third harmonic frequencies.

  15. Effects of symmetry reduction in two-dimensional square and triangular lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifonov, T.; Marsal, L. F.; Rodríguez, A.; Pallarès, J.; Alcubilla, R.

    2004-06-01

    We investigate the absolute photonic band gap (PBG) formation in two-dimensional (2-D) photonic crystals designed using symmetry reduction approach. The lattice symmetry, shape and orientation of dielectric scatterers affect the photonic gap parameters. We use symmetry reduction, achieved either by including additional rods into the lattice unit cell or by reorienting noncircular scatterers to engineer the photonic band gaps in 2-D square and triangular structures. The case of air rods drilled into silicon background is considered. We show that for square structures symmetry reduction can be an effective way to enlarge the absolute PBG, but for triangular lattices any modification of the crystal structure considerably reduces the absolute PBG width. We also discuss the practical technological feasibility of the proposed structures.

  16. Waveguidance by the photonic bandgap effect in optical fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeng, Jes; Søndergaard, Thomas; Barkou, Stig Eigil

    1999-01-01

    technology for such photonic bandgap (PBG) waveguides is in optical fibre configurations. These new fibres can be classified in a fundamentally different way to all optical waveguides and possess radically different guiding properties due to PBG guidance, as opposed to guidance by total internal refelction....... In this paper we summarize and review our theoretical work demonstrating the underlying physical principles of PBG guiding optical fibres and discuss some of their unique waveguiding properties.......Photonic crystals form a new class of intriguing building blocks to be utilized in future optoelectronics and electromagnetics. One of the most exciting possiblilties offered by phtonic crystals is the realization of new types of electromagnetic waveguides. In the optical domain, the most mature...

  17. X-band photonic band-gap accelerator structure breakdown experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roark A. Marsh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the performance of photonic band-gap (PBG structures under realistic high gradient, high power, high repetition rate operation, a PBG accelerator structure was designed and tested at X band (11.424 GHz. The structure consisted of a single test cell with matching cells before and after the structure. The design followed principles previously established in testing a series of conventional pillbox structures. The PBG structure was tested at an accelerating gradient of 65  MV/m yielding a breakdown rate of two breakdowns per hour at 60 Hz. An accelerating gradient above 110  MV/m was demonstrated at a higher breakdown rate. Significant pulsed heating occurred on the surface of the inner rods of the PBG structure, with a temperature rise of 85 K estimated when operating in 100 ns pulses at a gradient of 100  MV/m and a surface magnetic field of 890  kA/m. A temperature rise of up to 250 K was estimated for some shots. The iris surfaces, the location of peak electric field, surprisingly had no damage, but the inner rods, the location of the peak magnetic fields and a large temperature rise, had significant damage. Breakdown in accelerator structures is generally understood in terms of electric field effects. These PBG structure results highlight the unexpected role of magnetic fields in breakdown. The hypothesis is presented that the moderate level electric field on the inner rods, about 14  MV/m, is enhanced at small tips and projections caused by pulsed heating, leading to breakdown. Future PBG structures should be built to minimize pulsed surface heating and temperature rise.

  18. Dorsal vagal preganglionic neurons: differential responses to CCK1 and 5-HT3 receptor stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mussa, Bashair M; Sartor, Daniela M; Verberne, Anthony J M

    2010-08-25

    The dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) is the main source of the vagal innervation of the pancreas. Several studies in vitro have demonstrated that the DMV consists of a heterogeneous population of preganglionic neurons but little is known about their electrophysiological characteristics in vivo. The aims of this study were to (i) identify DMV preganglionic neurons in vivo with axons in the pancreatic vagus and (ii) characterize their responses to stimulation of cholecystokinin (CCK(1)) and serotonin (5-HT(3)) receptors which are major regulators of pancreatic secretion. Male Sprague Dawley rats anaesthetised with isoflurane (1.5%/100% O(2)) were used throughout. Dorsal vagal preganglionic neurons were identified by antidromic activation in response to stimulation of the pancreatic vagus. Dorsal vagal preganglionic neurons had axonal conduction velocities in the C-fibre range (0.7+/-0.03 m/s). Forty-four neurons were identified within the rostral, intermediate and caudal DMV and thirty-eight were tested for responsiveness to CCK-8S (CCK(1) agonist) and phenylbiguanide (PBG; 5-HT(3) receptor agonist). CCK-8S and PBG (0.1-10 microg/kg, i.v.) produced three types of response: (i) preganglionic neurons in the intermediate DMV were inhibited by CCK-8S (n=18) and PBG (n=10), (ii) neurons in the caudal DMV were activated by CCK (n=5) and PBG (n=2) and (iii) CCK-8S (n=9) and PBG (n=7) had no effect on preganglionic neurons in the rostral DMV. CCK-8S and PBG have complex actions on preganglionic neurons in the DMV that may be related to their effects on pancreatic secretion. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Patch-Burn Grazing Effects on the Ecological Integrity of Tallgrass Prairie Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Karen E; Whiles, Matt R; Dodds, Walter K; Reeve, John D; Vandermyde, Jodi M; Rantala, Heidi M

    2015-07-01

    Conversion to agriculture, habitat fragmentation, and the loss of native grazers have made tallgrass prairie one of the most endangered ecosystems. One management option for the remaining prairie parcels, patch-burn grazing (PBG), applies a controlled burn to a portion of the prairie to attract cattle, creating a mosaic of more- and less-grazed patches. Although beneficial to cattle and grassland birds, the potential impacts of PBG on streams have not been studied, and a holistic approach is needed to ensure against adverse effects. We used a Before-After-Control-Impact design to assess potential impacts of PBG with and without riparian protection on tallgrass prairie headwater streams. We sampled stream macroinvertebrates and benthic organic matter 2 yr before and 2 yr during PBG treatments on two grazed watersheds with riparian fencing (fenced), two unfenced grazed watersheds (unfenced), and two ungrazed (control) watersheds. Very fine benthic organic matter increased significantly (51%) in unfenced streams compared with controls ( 250 µm) increased 3-fold in the unfenced streams compared with controls ( = 0.008). The contribution of fine inorganic sediments to total substrata increased 28% in unfenced streams during PBG, which was significantly different from controls ( = 0.03). Additionally, the abundance of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera taxa decreased from 7635 to 687 individuals m in unfenced streams, which was significantly lower than in control streams ( = 0.008). Our results indicate that PBG adversely influences prairie streams through sediment inputs and reductions in sensitive invertebrate taxa, but riparian fencing can alleviate these impacts. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  20. Direct and simultaneous determination of 5-aminolaevulinic acid and porphobilinogen in urine by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, Christopher M; Couchman, Lewis; Marsden, Joanne T; Rees, David C; Moniz, Caje; Lim, Chang Kee

    2012-08-01

    Urinary concentrations of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) and porphobilinogen (PBG) are elevated in patients with acute hepatic porphyrias, especially during acute attacks. Current assays require lengthy sample pre-treatment and derivatisation steps. We report here a rapid, sensitive and specific hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method, for the direct and simultaneous quantitation of ALA and PBG in urine following simple dilution with acetonitrile and centrifugation prior to injection. ALA and PBG were detected using selected reaction monitoring mode, following positive electrospray ionisation. Urine samples (N = 46) from active and latent mutation-confirmed acute hepatic porphyria patients and normal subjects (N = 45) were analysed and the results compared with those of a commercially available spectrophotometric method. The validated calibration range was 3-3000 µmol/L for ALA and 2-2000 µmol/L for PBG. For both analytes, imprecision (relative standard deviation) was less than 5% and accuracy (percentage nominal concentrations) was between 88 and 109%. The lower limit of quantitation was 0.1 μmol/L for both analytes. The calculated LC-MS/MS and spectrophotometric results from patient samples compared well [Pearson correlation (r²) of 0.99 and 0.95, for ALA and PBG, respectively]. The method was successfully applied to the measurement of ALA and PBG in urine samples for the screening, biochemical diagnosis and treatment monitoring of patients with acute hepatic porphyrias. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.