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Sample records for intestino irritable aspectos

  1. Síndrome de intestino irritable y diverticulosis

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    Kestenberg Himelfar, Abraham; Fundación Valle de Lili

    1998-01-01

    Síndrome de intestino irritable (SII)/ ¿Cómo funciona el sistema digestivo?/¿Qué es el síndrome de intestino irritable?/¿Cuáles son los síntomas del síndrome de intestino irritable?/¿Qué causa el síndrome de intestino irritable?/¿Qué papel juega la tensión emocional en el origen del síndrome de intestino irritable?/¿Cómo saber si el problema es síndrome de intestino irritable o si es algo diferente?/¿Cómo se debe tratar el síndrome de intestino irritable?/¿Se deben evitar algunos alimentos?/¿...

  2. Aspectos nutricionais na população de pacientes com síndrome do intestino irritável atendidos no Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo

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    Daiana Amarante

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: A síndrome do intestino irritável (SII) é uma doença funcional do trato gastrintestinal que afeta até 20% da população adulta. Os principais sintomas envolvem o mau funcionamento do intestino, associados com dores abdominais, manifestação de diarreia ou constipação, sem alterações estruturais e bioquímicas do intestino. A maneira mais adequada de tratar o paciente é por meio de uma abordagem ampla e integral, porém individualizada, com identificação dos fatores desencadeantes e/ou...

  3. Síndrome de intestino irritable: Una perspectiva actualizada

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    David Felipe Gómez Álvarez

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available El síndrome de intestino irritable (SII es un desordengastrointestinal funcional (DGIF que hace parte de lacategorización según los criterios Roma III, como undesorden funcional del intestino. Debido a su altaprevalencia aproximada del 4 al 20% a nivel mundial, seconsidera una enfermedad de gran impacto por afectar lacalidad de vida. La manifestación clínica depende delsíntoma predominante: dolor o disconfort, diarrea,estreñimiento o un cuadro mixto. Su diagnóstico esbásicamente clínico por medio de los criterios de Roma III,descartando enfermedad orgánica. Las alternativasterapéuticas del SII son para el control sintomático de laenfermedad y mejoría de la calidad de vida, nunca comotratamiento definitivo. El objetivo del artículo es producir unarevisión actualizada de la temática para conocer, entender yabarcar una patología que en los últimos años ha generadoun alto compromiso en el paciente.

  4. Probióticos en síndrome de intestino irritable

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    Andrés G, Ortiz M

    2009-01-01

    En ésta revisión se analizan los posibles usos de los probióticos en el trata miento del síndrome de intestino irritable, evaluando la fisiología de la barrera intestinal, la interacción de la microbiota con dicha barrera y su repercusión en el sistema inmune y sobre el sistema nerviosos tanto autonómico como el sistema nerviosos central. Además, se analizan los distintos mecanismos fisiopatológico del mismo, y los mecanismos de acción de los probióticos, para posteriormente analizar su posib...

  5. Conflictos cognitivos en el Síndrome del Intestino Irritable (SII: un estudio exploratorio

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    Ruth Benasayag

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio descriptivo transversal se exploran algunas características cognitivas y sintomáticas de 13 pacientes consultantes con Síndrome del Intestino Irritable (SII comparados con una muestra de 63 sujetos no consultantes sin síntomas del SII ni psicopatológicos. El 92% de los primeros cumple criterios para algún trastorno del eje I del DSM-IV y su diagnóstico principal puede agruparse en dos categorías: trastornos por ansiedad y por somatización. En conjunto, los pacientes con SII muestran más conflictos cognitivos detectados mediante la Técnica de Rejilla (TR de Kelly que los sujetos normales. Considerando el subgrupo de trastorno por somatización, se observa una tendencia mucho más acentuada a mostrar mayor número de estos conflictos, así como una tendencia clara a presentar mayor polarización y, a su vez, menor complejidad cognitiva (diferenciación, con respecto tanto a los sujetos asintomáticos como a los diagnosticados por trastorno de ansiedad; por su parte, éstos muestran una menor autoestima.

  6. Síndrome do intestino irritável e dieta com restrição de FODMAPs

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    Bastos, Tatiana Filipa dos Santos, 1992-

    2016-01-01

    Trabalho Final do Curso de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Lisboa, 2016 O Síndrome do Intestino Irritável (SII) é uma doença funcional do trato gastrointestinal definida de acordo com o seu padrão de sintomas (dor ou desconforto abdominal recorrente associada a alterações dos hábitos intestinais), a sua natureza crónica e ausência de doença orgânica detetável. Embora a SII não constitui uma condição com risco de vida, tem uma prevalência elevada e red...

  7. Probióticos, prebióticos y simbióticos en el síndrome de intestino irritable

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    Guzmán Calderón, Edson; Montes Teves, Pedro; Monge Salgado, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    El síndrome del intestino irritable es un trastorno común que afecta a millones de personas en todo el mundo. Dicho transtorno tiene un impacto significativo en la calidad de vida de las personas que lo padecen afectando en mayor o menor medida la esfera sociolaboral de estos individuos con el consecuente sufrimiento individual e impacto macroeconómico por aumento en las tasas de ausentismo y rendimiento laboral. Los prebióticos y probióticos son suplementos de la dieta no digerible, elemento...

  8. Efeito da dieta com restrição de lactose em pacientes com síndrome do intestino irritável

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    Marília Pinheiro César

    2013-01-01

    Introdução: A má digestão de lactose detectada por testes respiratórios é bastante comum em pacientes com síndrome do intestino irritável (SII), e alguns pacientes com SII referem exacerbar seus sintomas após a ingestão de leite e produtos lácteos. A fim de uma melhor percepção sobre este tema, este trabalho investigou os efeitos da dieta isenta de lactose em pacientes com SII e teste respiratório de hidrogênio para avaliação da digestão de lactose normal ou anormal. Objetivo: Avaliar os efei...

  9. Irritable bowel syndrome immune hypothesis: the role of lymphocytes and mast cells Hipótesis inmune del síndrome del intestino irritable: Primera parte: papel de los linfocitos y mastocitos

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    M. Ortiz Lucas

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the available evidence on the role of T-lymphocytes and mast cells in the etiopathogenesis of Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Methods: Bibliographic retrieval on PubMed including the terms "Irritable Bowel Syndrome, "Immune System", "T-Lymphocytes" and "Mast Cells". Results: Twenty-five case-control studies and one randomized controlled trial were retrieved. Noteworthy in the blood is the increase in activated T cells destined to migrate to the bowel in these patients. A high frequency of T-lymphocytes is described in the intestinal mucosa, although the study findings are, at times, contradictory. An evident increase in mast cells (and in their activity between the terminal ileum and descending colon is also observed. Conclusions: The heterogeneity of diagnostic criteria and experimentation methods could account for some of the differences in the results found in the selected research. There are indications that give reason to believe these patients have "low-grade intestinal inflammation", and the increase in T-lymphocytes and mast cells has been associated with disorders found in IBS such as the communication between the intestine and the nervous system, the increase in intestinal permeability and changes in the microbiota.Objetivo: Revisar la evidencia disponible sobre el papel de los linfocitos T y mastocitos en la etiopatogenia del Síndrome del Intestino Irritable. de las vías biliares. Métodos: Recuperación bibliográfica en PubMed incluyendo los términos "Irritable Bowel Syndrome, "Immune System", "T-Lymphocytes" y "Mast Cells". Resultados: Se recuperaron 25 estudios casos-control y un ensayo clínico aleatorizado. A nivel sanguíneo destaca el aumento de células T activadas destinadas a migrar al intestino en estos pacientes. En la mucosa intestinal se describe un patrón elevado de linfocitos T, aunque los resultados de los estudios son en ocasiones contradictorios, y un aumento claro de mastocitos (y de su

  10. Guía de práctica clínica del síndrome del intestino irritable con estreñimiento y estreñimiento funcional en adultos: tratamiento. (Parte 2 de 2

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    F. Mearin

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available En esta Guía de práctica clínica analizamos el manejo diagnóstico y terapéutico de pacientes adultos con estreñimiento y molestias abdominales, bajo la confluencia del espectro del síndrome del intestino irritable y el estreñimiento funcional. Ambas patologías están encuadradas en los trastornos funcionales intestinales y tienen una importante repercusión personal, sanitaria y social, afectando a la calidad de vida de los pacientes que las padecen. La primera es el subtipo de síndrome del intestino irritable en el que el estreñimiento es la alteración deposicional predominante junto con dolor abdominal recurrente, hinchazón y distensión abdominal frecuente. El estreñimiento se caracteriza por la dificultad o la escasa frecuencia en relación con las deposiciones, a menudo acompañado por esfuerzo excesivo durante la defecación o sensación de evacuación incompleta. En la mayoría de los casos no tiene una causa orgánica subyacente, siendo considerado un trastorno funcional intestinal. Son muchas las similitudes clínicas y fisiopatológicas entre ambos trastornos, con respuesta similar del estreñimiento a fármacos comunes, siendo la diferencia fundamental la presencia o ausencia de dolor, pero no de un modo evaluable como «todo o nada». La gravedad de estos trastornos depende no solo de la intensidad de los síntomas intestinales sino también de otros factores biopsicosociales: asociación de síntomas gastrointestinales y extraintestinales, grado de afectación, y formas de percepción y comportamiento. Mediante los criterios de Roma, se diagnostican los trastornos funcionales intestinales. Esta Guía de práctica clínica está adaptada a los criterios de Roma IV difundidos a finales de mayo de 2016. En una primera parte (96, 97, 98 se analizaron los aspectos conceptuales y fisiopatológicos, los criterios de alarma, las pruebas diagnósticas y los criterios de derivación entre Atención Primaria y aparato digestivo

  11. Existe importância na utilização de exames de fisiologia ano retal no diagnóstico da sindrome do intestino irritável? Is there importance in the use of anorectal physiologic tests in the diagnosis of the irritable bowel syndrome?

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    Maria Auxiliadora Prolungatti Cesar

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Em alguns pacientes a síndrome do intestino irritável e a constipação funcional se confundem, principalmente quando o sintoma predominante na síndrome do cólon irritável é a constipação. Dentre os vários exames alguns testes fisiológicos ano retais avaliam a função esfincteriana e sensibilidade retal OBJETIVO: Verificar se existem diferenças entre as manometrias anais dos pacientes com constipação funcional e síndrome do intestino irritável. MÉTODO: Trata-se de estudo de 55 manometrias e testes de sensibilidade anais realizadas em pacientes atendidos no ambulatório de Fisiologia Anal do Serviço de Clínica Cirúrgica do Hospital Universitário de Taubaté com diagnóstico de constipação intestinal ou síndrome do intestino irritável no período de janeiro de 2006 a maio de 2007. Todos os pacientes possuíam colonoscopia a normal e foram incluídos nos critérios diagnósticos de Roma II para Constipação Funcional e Síndrome do Intestino Irritável. As manometrias foram realizadas com aparelho ALACER, de perfusão com 8 canais. RESULTADOS: Não foram encontradas diferenças entre as manometrias quanto às pressões de repouso, contração e evacuação, assim como nos valores de sensibilidade retal. Encontramos diferenças quanto à dor abdominal desencadeada nos pacientes com síndrome do intestino irritável no momento do volume máximo tolerável em que 69,2% destes pacientes apresentaram dor abdominal. CONCLUSÃO: Os pacientes com a síndrome do intestino irritável apresentam dor à distensão da ampola retal, que não ocorre nos pacientes constipados, na aferição do volume máximo tolerável, não houve diferença em relação aos outros dados da manometria.INTRODUCTION: In some patients the irritable bowel syndrome and the functional constipation is confuse, mainly when the predominant symptom in the irritable bowel syndrome is the constipation. Amongst some examinations the anal manometry

  12. Guía de práctica clínica: síndrome del intestino irritable con estreñimiento y estreñimiento funcional en adultos: concepto, diagnóstico y continuidad asistencial. (Parte 1 de 2)

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    F. Mearin; C. Ciriza; M. Mínguez; E. Rey; J.J. Mascort; E. Peña; P. Cañones; J. Júdez

    2017-01-01

    En esta Guía de práctica clínica analizamos el manejo diagnóstico y terapéutico de pacientes adultos con estreñimiento y molestias abdominales, bajo el espectro del síndrome del intestino irritable y el estreñimiento funcional. Tienen una importante repercusión personal, sanitaria y social, afectando a la calidad de vida de los pacientes que las padecen. En el síndrome del intestino irritable con predomino del estreñimiento, este es la alteración deposicional predominante junto con dolor abdo...

  13. Irritable bowel syndrome immune hypothesis: Part two: the role of cytokines Hipótesis inmune del síndrome del intestino irritable: Segunda parte: papel de las citokinas

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    M. Ortiz Lucas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To review the available evidence on the role of interleukins in the etiopathogenesis of Irritable Bowel Syndrome. Methods: Bibliographic retrieval on PubMed including the MeSH terms "Irritable Bowel Syndrome", "Immune System", "Cytokines" and "Interleukins". Results: Sixteen case-control studies and one randomised controlled trial were retrieved. The blood appears to have a high concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and lower concentration of IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, even though the findings are disparate and heterogeneous. As many as 33 genes were found, each with different expressions, and a diminished expression of cytokines in the colon mucosa of patients with IBS, which have not been previously described in any other pathology. Conclusions: In patients with IBS, a clear profile of cytokine levels in the blood does not appear to exist, although an imbalance between them can be observed. Moreover, there are indications that give reason to believe that the different subsets of patients with IBS could present cytokine profiles in different blood. On the other hand, in the intestine, high cytokine secretion levels are not detected, contrary to what would be expected. Further studies are required to substantiate these findings.Objetivo: Revisar la evidencia disponible sobre el papel de las interleukinas en la etiopatogenia del Síndrome del Intestino Irritable. Métodos: Recuperación bibliográfica en PubMed, incluyendo los términos MeSH "Irritable Bowel Syndrome", "Immune System", "Cytokines" e "Interleukins". Resultados: Se recuperaron 16 estudios casos-control y un ensayo clínico aleatorizado. A nivel sanguíneo, parece existir una concentración elevada de citokinas proinflamatorias (FNT-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 y disminuida de la IL-10, una citokina antiinflamatoria, si bien los resultados son dispares y heterogéneos. Se han encontrado hasta 33 genes, cada uno con una expresi

  14. Arrowroot as a treatment for diarrhoea in irritable bowel syndrome patients: a pilot study Araruta como um tratamento para a diarréia em pacientes com síndrome do intestino irritável: um estudo piloto

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    Caroline COOKE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives - Arrowroot is an old-fashioned remedy for diarrhoea, but no clinical studies have been done to evaluate its effectiveness. The aim of this pilot study was to assess its efficacy as a treatment for diarrhoea in 11 patients, all of whom had irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhoea as a feature. Methods - The patients were interviewed and a questionnaire completed on entry into the trial. They then took 10 mL arrowroot powder three times a day for one month and discontinued the treatment for the subsequent month. Questionnaires were completed after one month on treatment and at the end of the trial after one month off treatment. Results - Arrowroot reduced diarrhoea and had a long-term effect on constipation. It also eased abdominal pain. Conclusion - Arrowroot is an effective treatment for diarrhoea. Its action could be explained by several theories which relate to an increase in faecal bulk and thus a more efficient bowel action. The number of patients was small, and further studies are needed to substantiate preliminary results.Objetivos - Araruta é um antigo (absoleto remédio usado para a diarréia, porém estudos clínicos não têm sido realizados para avaliar sua efetividade. O objetivo deste estudo piloto foi avaliar sua eficácia como um tratamento para diarréia em 11 pacientes, todos eles portadores de síndrome do intestino irritável, com diarréia, como uma manifestação clínica. Métodos - Os pacientes foram entrevistados e um questionário foi preenchido à admissão no estudo (protocolo. Em seguida, receberam 10 mL de araruta em pó, três vezes ao dia durante um mês e descontinuaram este tratamento no mês subseqüente. Os questionários foram preenchidos após o mês de tratamento e ao fim do estudo após o mês de abstinência. Resultados - Araruta reduziu a diarréia e manteve um efeito de constipação por longo prazo. Ela também aliviou a dor abdominal. Conclusão - Araruta é um efetivo tratamento para diarr

  15. Irritable bowel syndrome in women with chronic pelvic pain in a Northeast Brazilian city Síndrome do intestino irritável em mulheres com dor pélvica crônica em uma cidade do Nordeste Brasileiro

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    Lígia Maria Montenegro Lessa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSES: To determine the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS in women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP and its associated features; to determine whether IBS and CPP constitute the same syndrome. METHODS: Cross-sectional population survey with systematic sequential sampling according to census districts in which 1470 women were interviewed with respect to the sample calculation. The participants resided in their own homes, were at least 14 years of age, experienced menarche and presented CPP according to the American College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. The dependent variable was IBS based on Rome III criteria in women with CPP, and the following independent variables were possibly associated with IBS: age, schooling, duration of pain, sedentary lifestyle, migraine, depression, insomnia, back pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, depression, history of violence, and intestinal symptoms. The sample was subdivided into groups with and without IBS. After the descriptive analysis of the variables was performed, the respective frequencies were evaluated using GraphPad Prism 5 software. To evaluate the association between the dependent variable and the independent variables, the χ² test was used with a significance level of 5%. RESULTS: The prevalence of IBS in women with CPP was 19,5%. Pain duration (p=0.03, back pain (p=0.002, history of physical or sexual abuse (p=0.002, and intestinal complaints were more prevalent in the group with IBS and CPP. There was no difference between the groups regarding other criteria. CONCLUSION: The data confirmed the literature, identified several aspects that were shared between the pathologies and supported the hypothesis that both pathologies can constitute the same syndrome.OBJETIVOS: Verificar a prevalência da síndrome do intestino irritável (SII em mulheres com dor pélvica crônica (DPC e as características associadas; analisar se SII e DPC constituem a mesma síndrome. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal do

  16. Treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with probiotics: An etiopathogenic approach at last? Tratamiento con probióticos del síndrome de intestino irritable: ¿Por fin un enfoque etiopatogénico?

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    M. Bixquert Jiménez

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is the most common functional digestive disorder, and may affect 11-20% of the adult population in industrialized countries. In accordance with Rome III criteria (2006 IBS involves abdominal pain and bowel habit disturbance, which are not explained by structural or biochemical abnormalities. Several hypotheses attempt to account for the pathophysiology of IBS, but the etiology still remains uncertain or obscure, perhaps multifactorial. Abnormalities in colonic microflora have recently been suggested in such patients, as has abnormal small-intestine bacterial overgrowth (SIBO, or in particular a significant reduction in the amount of intraluminal Bifidobacteria or Lactobacilli, with consequences like the production of colonic gas, and motility or sensitivity disturbances of the intestinal tract. The disorder is difficult to treat, and the wide spectrum of non-drug and drug treatments shows our ignorance about the cause of the condition. Newer drugs, both pro- and anti-serotonin, have failed to show long-term efficacy or have been withdrawn due to concerns about harmful effects. Recent research has provided increasing support for the idea that disturbances of intestinal microbiota occur in patients with IBS, and that such abnormalities may contribute to IBS symptoms. Studies in Scandinavian countries in the last ten years emphasize the role of probiotics in the modulation of intestinal microbiota, and as a consequence in the regulation of the motility and hypersensitivity of the digestive tract. Although results between studies are difficult to compare because of differences in study design, probiotic dose, strain, and duration of therapy, some studies show symptom improvement. Lactobacilli are found among the normal bacterial flora of the gastrointestinal tract, and Lactobacillus plantarum (Lp is one of the species frequently isolated from the human mucosa, which is capable of surviving the low pH of the stomach and

  17. Opinión de los médicos españoles sobre el síndrome de intestino irritable: Resultados de un estudio utilizando el método Delphi Spanish physicians´point of view on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS: Results of a Delphi survey

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    C. Almansa

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el síndrome del intestino irritable (SII es una patología controvertida, donde ante la escasez de evidencia científica las recomendaciones sobre su manejo clínico y su definición vienen determinadas por métodos de consenso de expertos. Objetivo: obtener la opinión de los médicos de nuestro país implicados en el manejo de pacientes con SII y conocer los puntos de acuerdo en las principales cuestiones clínicas que plantea. Material y métodos: se realizó un estudio Delphi a nivel nacional mediante dos envíos a 100 médicos de atención primaria y gastroenterólogos. El cuestionario incluía preguntas sobre el concepto, diagnóstico y tratamiento del SII, evaluando el grado de acuerdo entre los participantes. Resultados: el 55% de los encuestados completó los dos envíos. Se obtuvo acuerdo respecto a los síntomas que caracterizan al SII y los de alarma. No existió una actitud clara ante el paciente sin síntomas de alarma, pero sí acuerdo respecto a la realización de colonoscopia en su presencia. Se señaló la necesidad de realizar estudios complementarios en mayores de 40 años. En el tratamiento no encontramos una actitud uniforme, aunque parece existir una orientación diferente según el síntoma predominante. Conclusiones: los médicos participantes en el estudio demuestran a través de sus respuestas un buen conocimiento conceptual del SII, si bien las discrepancias observadas en las cuestiones sobre diagnóstico y tratamiento demuestran la complejidad y falta de uniformidad que existe en el manejo diario de este síndrome.Introduction: lack of evidence in most clinical situations regarding irritable bowel syndrome (IBS enhances the importance of an expert's opinion, which will guide management and even the concept underlying the disease. Objective: to delve into the knowledge and degree of agreement on main clinical skills for this syndrome among physicians involved in its management. Material and method: two

  18. Intestino de estrés

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    Vivian R. Mena Miranda

    Full Text Available El intestino se considera el mayor reservorio de gérmenes del organismo, aunque también desempeña un papel protagónico en la nutrición y regulación inmunológica. La isquemia intestinal es un factor predisponente de la disfunción múltiple de órganos (DMO, pues al redistribuirse el flujo sanguíneo para garantizar la perfusión de los órganos vitales se produce la liberación de mediadores de la inflamación y de endotoxinas, capaces de desencadenar un síndrome de respuesta inflamatoria sistémica con severas alteraciones hemodinámicas. La perfusión y nutrición enteral precoz se siguen considerando los 2 aspectos más importantes en la prevención del intestino de estrés.

  19. Guía de práctica clínica: síndrome del intestino irritable con estreñimiento y estreñimiento funcional en adultos: concepto, diagnóstico y continuidad asistencial. (Parte 1 de 2

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    F. Mearin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta Guía de práctica clínica analizamos el manejo diagnóstico y terapéutico de pacientes adultos con estreñimiento y molestias abdominales, bajo el espectro del síndrome del intestino irritable y el estreñimiento funcional. Tienen una importante repercusión personal, sanitaria y social, afectando a la calidad de vida de los pacientes que las padecen. En el síndrome del intestino irritable con predomino del estreñimiento, este es la alteración deposicional predominante junto con dolor abdominal recurrente, hinchazón y distensión abdominal frecuente. El estreñimiento se caracteriza por la dificultad o la escasa frecuencia en las deposiciones, acompañado por esfuerzo excesivo durante la defecación o sensación de evacuación incompleta. La mayoría no tienen una causa orgánica subyacente, considerándose un trastorno funcional intestinal. Poseen muchas similitudes clínicas y fisiopatológicas, con respuesta similar del estreñimiento a fármacos comunes. La diferencia fundamental es la presencia o ausencia de dolor, pero no de un modo evaluable como «todo o nada». La gravedad depende tantro de la intensidad de los síntomas intestinales como de otros factores: asociación de síntomas gastrointestinales y extraintestinales, grado de afectación, formas de percepción y comportamiento. Los criterios de Roma diagnostican los trastornos funcionales intestinales. Esta Guía está adaptada a los criterios de Roma IV (mayo de 2016 y analiza, en esta primera parte, los criterios de alarma, las pruebas diagnósticas y los criterios de derivación entre Atención Primaria y Aparato Digestivo. En una segunda parte, se revisarán las alternativas terapéuticas disponibles (ejercicio, dieta, tratamientos farmacológicos, neuroestimulación de raíces sacras o cirugía, efectuando recomendaciones prácticas para cada una de ellas.

  20. Effect of probiotic species on irritable bowel syndrome symptoms: A bring up to date meta-analysis Efecto de los probióticos en los síntomas del síndrome del intestino irritable: un meta-análisis actualizado

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    María Ortiz-Lucas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: immune system alteration in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS patients may be modulated by probiotics. We assessed the efficacy of some probiotic species in alleviating characteristic IBS symptoms. Material and methods: a meta-analysis of all identified randomized controlled trials comparing probiotics with placebo in treating IBS symptoms was performed with continuous data summarized using standardized mean differences (SMDs with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs, where appropriate. The random-effects model was employed in cases of heterogeneity; otherwise, fixed-effects models were used. Results: meta-analysis was performed with 10 of 24 studies identified as suitable for inclusion. Probiotics improved pain scores if they contained Bifidobacterium breve (SMD, -0.34; 95% CI, -0.66; -0.02, Bifidobacterium longum (SMD, -0.48; 95% CI, -0.91; -0.06, or Lactobacillus acidophilus (SMD, -0.31; 95% CI, -0.61; -0.01 species. Distension scores were improved by probiotics containing B. breve (SMD, -0.45; 95% CI, -0.77; -0.13, Bifidobacterium infantis, Lactobacillus casei, or Lactobacillus plantarum (SMD, -0.53; 95% CI, -1.00; -0.06 species. All probiotic species tested improved flatulence: B. breve (SMD, -0.42; 95% CI, -0.75;-0.10, B. infantis, L. casei, L. plantarum (SMD, -0.60; 95% CI, -1.07; -0.13, B. longum, L. acidophilus, Lactobacillus bulgaricus, and Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus (SMD, -0.61; 95% CI, -1.01; -0.21. There was not a clear positive effect of probiotics concerning the quality of life. Conclusions: some probiotics are an effective therapeutic option for IBS patients, and the effects on each IBS symptom are likely species-specific. Future studies must focus on the role of probiotics in modulating intestinal microbiota and the immune system while considering individual patient symptom profiles.Antecedentes y objetivos: la alteración del sistema inmune en los pacientes con síndrome del intestino

  1. Intestino Corto Short bowel syndrome

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    María Matilde Socarrás Suárez

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available El intestino corto está asociado a pérdida o disfunción del intestino delgado por resección del mismo, que causa diarreas, tránsito intestinal acelerado, malabsorción intestinal, y eventualmente la pérdida de peso y el desgaste muscular. El objetivo de este trabajo fue actualizar el conocimiento acerca de este síndrome. Se realiza una revisión del tema de intestino corto donde se refiere a su definición, causas fundamentales frecuentes e infrecuentes en el niño y en el adulto, cómo se adapta el intestino a la resección de diferentes extensiones, las funciones del íleon terminal. Se hacen una valoración clínica inicial, con el interrogatorio médico, revisión minuciosa de la historia clínica para cuantificar la capacidad de absorción. Se habla de los síntomas y signos de deficiencia nutricional. Se explican las estrategias del tratamiento, que tienen 3 etapas de evolución clínica. Se concluye que se indica la dietoterapia adecuada según el estado nutricional del paciente y la resección intestinal realizada, evitando las complicaciones para lograr una calidad máxima de vidaShort bowel is associated with loss or dysfunction of the small bowel due to its resection, which causes diarrheas, accelerated intestinal transit, intestinal malabsorption and, eventually, weight loss ansd muscular waste. The objective of this paper was to update knowledge about this syndrome. A review of the short intestine topic is made, making reference to its definition, common and uncommon main cuases in the child and adult, how the bowel adapts itslef to resection of different extensions, and the functions of the terminal ileum. An initial clinical assessment is made with the medical questionnaire and a detailed review of the medical history to quantify the absorption capacity. The symptoms and signs of nutritional deficiency are dealt with. The strategies of the treatment consisting of 3 stages of clinical evolution are explained. It is concluded

  2. The burden and management of patients with IBS: results from a survey in Spanish gastroenterologists Manejo clínico de los pacientes con síndrome de intestino irritable: resultados de una encuesta entre gastroenterólogos españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Almansa

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a common and complex disorder. Though it is estimated that IBS constitutes an important part of the gastroenterology (GI practice, the burden of this problem in the GI outpatients clinics in Spain is unclear. Aim: the aim of this study is to obtain a "shot" of the burden and management of this syndrome in the daily GI practice. Methods: 508 general gastroenterologists from all over the country were approached and asked to complete a survey that included questions about their daily practice and the definition, diagnosis and treatment of IBS. Results: 55% of the surveyed physicians estimate that IBS constitute between a quarter and a half of all their consultations; and pointed out that most of these patients were referred from primary care. Overall, the Spanish gastroenterologists show an adequate knowledge of the different diagnostic criteria, though they do not always follow the current guidelines. Up to 55% of the physicians always perform a complementary test to support their diagnosis and 40% order a diagnostic test only in older patients (> 50 years or in presence of alarm symptoms. Interestingly, 80% of the gastroenterologists start empirical treatment based on the patients' symptoms. Conclusions: though Spanish gastroenterologists seem to have an adequate theoretical knowledge of the disease, they do not systematically follow current guidelines and tend to manage IBS symptoms based on their own criteria.Introducción: el síndrome de intestino irritable (SII es un trastorno frecuente, aunque la magnitud de este problema y su complejidad en las consultas de digestivo en España no están bien caracterizadas. Objetivo: obtener conocimiento sobre cómo manejan clínicamente el SII los especialistas de aparato digestivo en España. Método: encuesta transversal realizada a 508 especialistas de aparato digestivo de toda España que incluía preguntas generales acerca de su práctica clínica diaria

  3. Heartburn and other related symptoms are independent of body mass index in irritable bowel syndrome La pirosis y otros síntomas relacionados son independientes del índice de masa corporal en el síndrome del intestino irritable

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    M. Schmulson

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: increasing body mass index (BMI is a risk factor for GERD but little is known about this association in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. Aims: to determine the presence of heartburn and other related symptoms in relation with BMI in IBS. Methods: volunteers (n = 483 answered the Rome II-Modular Questionnaire, and were divided into IBS and non-IBS (controls groups. The frequency of heartburn, chest pain, epigastric pain, nausea, vomiting and belching was compared between the groups in the study sample and within three BMI categories. Results: the IBS (23.7% and controls (76.3% were similar in gender (females: 68.1%, age (32.2 ± 12.7 years, and BMI (25.4 ± 4.4. Raw associations analysis showed that heartburn: OR: 1.62 (95%CI: 1.04-2.53, chest pain: 1.77 (1.13-2.77, epigastric pain: 1.75 (1.03-2.98 and nausea: 2.45 (1.10-5.32 were more frequent in IBS vs. controls. Meanwhile, according to BMI, in those with obesity, heartburn was more frequent in IBS and among those with overweight, epigastric pain and nausea were also more frequent in IBS. However, in an adjusted log linear model, no significant interaction was found between BMI and any other studied symptom and heartburn was found to be independent of IBS: 1,4 (0.9, 4.7. Finally, a logistic regression model found no interaction between BMI and the presence of heartburn or IBS. Conclusions: while heartburn and other reflux-related symptoms are more frequent in IBS than in controls, these associations are independent of BMI.

  4. Histologia do intestino do avestruz (Struthio camelus, Linnaeus 1758

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    Gisele Saviani

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A despeito de o avestruz (Struthio camelus compartilhar muitas adaptações evolucionárias presentes em outras aves, estes animais apresentam algumas características anatômicas peculiares, como é o caso do seu tubo digestivo em que o cólon é maior que o ceco. Há algum tempo, essa ave tem sido explorada econômicamente e principalmente como fonte alternativa de proteína animal na alimentação humana. O presente trabalho analisou os aspectos histológicos do intestino de avestruzes produzidos em boas condições de manejo ambiental e nutricional. Foram utilizados 13 avestruzes, com 18 a 30 meses de idade, provenientes da empresa Brasil Ostrich, e encaminhados para o abate no Abatedouro Escola da Universidade de São Paulo, Campus Administrativo de Pirassununga. Os animais foram abatidos com pistola pneumática e, após a sangria e evisceração, foram colhidas amostras de diferentes segmentos do intestino: duodeno, jejuno, íleo e ceco duplo. Os materiais foram processados, corados pela técnica de hematoxilina-eosina (H-E e examinados em microscopia de campo claro. Os resultados obtidos revelaram que as vilosidades estão presentes no duodeno, porém, não existem no ceco. Dos quatro segmentos intestinais examinados, o ceco foi o que apresentou maior número de células caliciformes. Os nódulos linfáticos e os linfócitos foram observados em todos os segmentos examinados. No ceco, os nódulos linfáticos se agregam para constituir a placa de Peyer. O plano histológico dos segmentos intestinais examinados seguiu o padrão observado nos mamíferos domésticos e em outras aves. O conhecimento da histologia dos intestinos desses animais pode oferecer subsídios para a avaliação comparativa de procedimentos de manejo ambiental e nutricional que possam aumentar os níveis de produção e produtividade dessa atividade pecuária.

  5. Has the identification of rectal hypersensitivity any implication in the clinical outcome of irritable bowel syndrome? ¿Tiene alguna repercusión clínica la identificación de hipersensibilidad en el síndrome de intestino irritable?

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    S. Izquierdo

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: sixty percent of patients with irritable bowel disease (IBS are hypersensitive to rectal distension. It is uncertain to what extend the identification of this abnormality has an impact in the clinical outcome. Objective: to evaluate if rectal hypersensitivity is associated with a different clinical outcome, prognosis and use of medical resources. Material and methods: patients with IBS (Rome II criteria who underwent a rectal distension study at least one year before were eligible if they have not been included in any research protocol since then. We reviewed how many times in the last year they came to emergency room, underwent an endoscopy, and consulted a gastroenterologist or other medical physician for any reason. Also, a telephone interview was done by a gastroenterology fellow using a structured questionnaire to evaluate the frequency and severity of their symptoms in the last year and last month. Results: a total of 52 patients were eligible and 38 were included. Forteen were not included because inability to made a phone contact or did not consent to phone interview. Twenty six patients were hypersensitive and 12 normosensitive. Both groups had similar symptoms (frequency and severity but hypersensitive patients visited less to the gastroenterologist (1.2 ± 0.2 vs. 2.9 ± 0.6 times yearly, p Introducción: el 60% de los pacientes con SII tienen hipersensibilidad a la distensión rectal. Se desconoce si la identificación de esta alteración puede modificar su evolución. Objetivo: evaluar si la hipersensibilidad a la distensión rectal se asocia con un diferente pronóstico respecto a la presentación de síntomas y la utilización de recursos sanitarios en pacientes con SII. Material y métodos: se incluyeron pacientes con SII según criterios de Roma II, que habían sido sometidos a un estudio de distensión rectal. Se recogieron datos de los registros informáticos sobre asistencia a consultas especializadas, realizaci

  6. Transplante de intestino delgado Small intestine transplantation

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    Flávio Henrique Ferreira Galvão

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Avanços da biotecnologia e o desenvolvimento de novas drogas imunossupressoras melhoraram os resultados do transplante de intestino delgado. Esse transplante é atualmente indicado para casos especiais da falência intestinal. OBJETIVO: A presente revisão realça os recentes desenvolvimentos na área do transplante de intestino delgado. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Mais de 600 publicações de transplante de intestino delgado foram revisadas. O desenvolvimento da pesquisa, novas estratégias de imunossupressão, monitorização do enxerto e do receptor, e avanços na técnica cirúrgica são discutidos. RESULTADOS: Realizaram-se cerca de 700 transplante de intestino delgado em 55 centros: 44% intestino-fígado, 41% enxerto intestinal isolado e 15% transplante multivisceral. Rejeição e infecção são as principais limitações desse transplante. Sobrevida de 5 anos na experiência internacional é de 46% para o transplante de intestino isolado, 43% para o intestino-fígado e de cerca de 30% para o transplante multivisceral. Sobrevidas prolongadas são mais freqüentes nos centros com maior experiência. Em série de 165 transplantes intestinais na Universidade de Pittsburgh, PA, EUA, foi relatada sobrevida do paciente maior do que 75% no primeiro ano, 54% em 5 anos e 42% em 10 anos. Mais de 90% desses pacientes assumem dieta oral irrestrita. CONCLUSÃO: O transplante de intestino delgado evoluiu de estratégia experimental para uma alternativa viável no tratamento da falência intestinal permanente. Promover o refinamento da terapia imunossupressora, do manejo e prevenção de infecções, da técnica cirúrgica e da indicação e seleção adequada dos pacientes é crucial para melhorar a sobrevida desse transplante.BACKGROUND: Significant progress has been made in clinical small bowel transplantation over the last decade mainly due advances in biotechnology and new immunosuppressive regiments. This transplantation has now been indicated

  7. Morfologia macroscópica e topografia anatômica do intestino grosso da paca (Cuniculus paca Linnaeus, 1766

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    Camila Paes Burger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n2p117 O alto potencial zootécnico para a exploração da paca implica no aporte de informações sobre a morfofisiologia do trato digestório para adequada implementação do manejo nutricional. O intestino grosso da paca foi investigado em seus aspectos morfológicos e topográficos, mediante inspeção de peças a fresco e fixadas em solução aquosa de formol a 10% provindas do plantel do Setor de Animais Silvestres do Departamento de Zootecnia da Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias de Jaboticabal – UNESP (FCAV – UNESP. Este segmento, na paca, é formado pelos segmentos ceco, cólon, reto e canal anal, situa-se na cavidade abdominal e pélvica a partir das terceira ou quarta vértebras lombares. Com isso, constatou-se que, em 100% das amostras analisadas, não houve variação no padrão de disposição do intestino grosso, e que este padrão se assemelha ao dos mamíferos em geral.

  8. Lipo sarcoma in small intestine; Liposarcoma de intestino delgado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Iglesias, J; Pineyro Gutierrez, A; Taroco Medeiros, L; Fein Kolodny, C; Navarrete Pedocchi, H

    1987-12-01

    A case is presented by primitive liposarcoma in small intestine , an extensive bibliographical review foreigner and national in this case. It detach the exceptional of the intestinal topography of the liposarcomas; and making stress in the relative value of the computerized tomography and ultrasonography in the diagnose of the small intestine tumors . As well as in the sarcomas of another topography, chemo and radiotherapy associated to the exeresis surgery, it can be of benefit. [Spanish] Se presenta un caso de invaginacion yeyunal por liposarcoma primitivo de intestino delgado,realizandose una extensa revision bibliografica extranjera y nacional al respecto,destacando lo exepcional de la topografia intestinal de los piposarcomas; y haciendo hincapie en lo relativo valor de la tomografia computarizada y ultrasonografia en el diagnostico de los tumores de intestino delgado.Como en los sarcomas de otra topografia,la quimio y radioterapia asociadas a la cirugia de exeresis, puede ser de beneficio.

  9. Irritancies of shampoos

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    Singh Sanjay

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Six commonly used shampoos were tested for their relative irritancies using Kligman and Wooding′s technique. Shampoos in increasing order of irritancies were Halo egg, Aqua dermis, Clinic plus, Sunsilk, Velvette black and Mediker.

  10. Dos casos de quiste de intestino anterior en cavidad oral

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    Celso Chuquisana-Mostacero

    Full Text Available Antecedentes y Objetivo: El quiste de intestino anterior es una entidad congénita poco frecuente. Cuando aparece, su localización más frecuente es el íleon y, aunque pueden aparecer a lo largo de todo el tracto digestivo, es rara su ubicación en la cavidad oral. A menudo se caracteriza por tres hallazgos principales: presencia de una capa de músculo liso bien desarrollada, una capa epitelial típica de alguna porción del tracto alimentario, y la unión íntima a alguna porción del tracto gastrointestinal. Las lesiones quísticas del suelo de boca en la edad infantil más frecuentes son los quistes salivares y las malformaciones linfáticas, ambas englobables en el término ránula. Sin embargo hay otras posibilidades, y la duplicación de intestino anterior, como aparece en los casos que presentamos, es una de ellas. Material y Método: Presentamos 2 pacientes en edad pediátrica con lesión lingual o de suelo de boca, que tras el estudio de imagen adecuado fueron operados por vía intraoral para la extirpación de la tumoración. En uno de los casos se usó abordaje cervical para extirpación de un segundo locus quístico. Resultados: El estudio anatomopatológico mostró en uno de los casos epitelio respiratorio, y en el segundo mucosa gástrica y epitelio respiratorio. Conclusiones: La importancia del diagnóstico y la extirpación completa en este tipo de lesiones viene dada por el riesgo de degeneración maligna en la edad adulta.

  11. Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your belly area), constipation (when you can't poop), and diarrhea (when you poop too much). If you have irritable bowel syndrome, ... food particles are also known as stool, a bowel movement, or poop. Here's why an intestine gets "irritable." ...

  12. Linfoma Difuso de Grandes Células  de Intestino Delgado: Relato de Caso Diffuse Large -Cell Lymphoma of Small Bowel: Case Report

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    Gustavo Nunes Medina Coeli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: Os tumores do intestino delgado são raros, de diagnóstico difícil e quando malignos, têm prognóstico ruim. Os linfomas primários representam menos de 2% de todos os tumores gastrointestinais malignos, sendo na sua maioria do subtipo de células B. Casuística: Foi relatado um caso raro de linfoma de intestino delgado em uma paciente do sexo feminino de 77 anos, que procurou atendimento médico com sintomas inespecíficos e um quadro anêmico. Os exames radiológicos foram fundamentais para esclarecimento, diagnóstico e propedêutica. Os marcadores tumorais foram negativos e as provas de atividade inflamatória, positivas. Na internação, a paciente teve piora súbita do quadro clínico, necessitando de cirurgia. No intra-operatório, foi identificado lesão perfurativa em jejuno proximal de aspecto ulcerado com aderências na bexiga e fundo do útero. A paciente não evoluiu bem, falecendo após três dias. A patologia confirmou Linfoma Não Hodgkin Difuso de Grandes Células B, com elevado índice de proliferação celular. Discussão: O diagnóstico radiológico pré-operatório do tumor do intestino delgado só é obtido em um pequeno percentual de pacientes sintomáticos. Estudos por imagem demonstram aspectos morfológicos do tipo infiltrativo, polipóide ou aneurismático. Geralmente, ocorre acometimento circunferencial da alça, com espessamento irregular das pregas, de extensão variável. Conclusão: O objetivo deste estudo foi documentar um raro tumor do intestino delgado do tipo Linfoma Não-Hodgkin Difuso de Grandes Células B, multicêntrico, de difícil diagnóstico e com rápida evolução dos sintomas, que culminaram com quadro de obstrução intestinal aguda, necessitando de cirurgia de emergência. Introduction: Tumors of the small bowel are rare, but when they are malignant they have a poor prognosis. The primary lymphomas represent less than 2% of all malignant gastrointestinal tumors, and the majority

  13. Perfil de citocinas proinflamatorias y antiinflamatorias en pacientes pediátricos con síndrome de intestino irritable

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    R. Vázquez-Frias

    2015-01-01

    Conclusiones: Este estudio indica que los niños con SII presentan un estado de alteración de la regulación inmune. Aún está pendiente por dilucidar el papel que juegan estas citocinas, específicamente la TGF-β, en la patogénesis del SII.

  14. Entrenamiento en inoculación de estrés en un Síndrome de Intestino Irritable

    OpenAIRE

    María Isabel Comeche Moreno; Víctor Sánchez Moral; Blanca Mas Hesse

    2002-01-01

    Presentamos aquí una muestra de la eficacia de la psicoterapia en el tratamiento de trastornos psicosomáticos. El paciente, estudiante de veintiún años, presentaba una activación fisiológica excesiva que le llevaba a ir al baño con cierta urgencia y frecuencia. Unido a esto, se daba un miedo notable a llamar la atención al ir al aseo e, incluso, a no llegar a tiempo. Estaba faltando a clases y renunciando a salir con amigos, de viaje, etc., con el consiguiente de...

  15. Relación endoscópica entre duodenitis inespecífica y sobrecrecimiento bacteriano del intestino delgado

    OpenAIRE

    Naddaf, R; Folkmanas, W

    2011-01-01

    Cuando aparece una proliferación de la flora de tipo colónico en el intestino delgado se producen alteraciones en la digestión y absorción intestinal, que clínicamente conforman el síndrome del Sobrecrecimiento Bacteriano del Intestino Delgado (SBID). En el SBID la concentración bacteriana aumenta hasta 107-109 UFC/ml en intestino delgado. El principio del test de hidrógeno espirado es la administración de un carbohidrato (Lactulosa, dxilosa, glucosa), que al ser degradado por las bacterias p...

  16. Anti-irritants I: Dose-response in acute irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Hedegaard, Kathryn; Petersen, Thomas Kongstad

    2006-01-01

    acute irritation in healthy volunteers. Each AI was used in 3 concentrations. Acute irritation was induced by occlusive tests with 1% sodium lauryl sulfate and 20% nonanoic acid in N-propanol. The irritant reactions were treated twice daily with AI-containing formulations from the time of removal...

  17. Anti-irritants II: Efficacy against cumulative irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Hedegaard, Kathryn; Petersen, Thomas Kongstad

    2006-01-01

    window of opportunity in which to demonstrate efficacy. Therefore, the effect of AI was studied in a cumulative irritation model by inducing irritant dermatitis with 10 min daily exposures for 5+4 days (no irritation on weekend) to 1% sodium lauryl sulfate on the right and 20% nonanoic acid on the left...

  18. Irritable bowel syndrome: Is it "irritable brain" or "irritable bowel"?

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    Susanta Kumar Padhy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS has been recognized as one of the most common and best studied disorders among the group of functional gastrointestinal disorders. It is a functional bowel disorder in which abdominal pain or discomfort is associated with defecation or a change in bowel habit. In the Western world, IBS appears to affect up to 20% of the population at any given time but in Asian countries, the median value of IBS prevalence defined by various criteria ranges between 6.5% and 10.1%, and community prevalence of 4% is found in North India. Those attending gastroenterology clinics represent only the tip of the iceberg. The disorder substantially impairs the quality of life, and the overall health-care costs are high. IBS has therefore gained increased attention from clinicians, researchers, and pharmaceutical industries. It is often frustrating to both patients and physicians as the disease is usually chronic in nature and difficult to treat. However, the understanding of IBS has been changing from time to time and still most of its concepts are unknown. In this review we have discussed, debated, and synthesized the evidence base, focusing on underlying mechanisms in the brain and bowel. We conclude that it is both brain and bowel mechanisms that are responsible. The clinical implication of such mechanisms is discussed.

  19. El intestino: pieza clave del sistema inmunitario The bowel: A key component of the immune system

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    E. Ramiro-Puig

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El intestino se halla expuesto constantemente a una elevada carga antigénica procedente de la dieta y de bacterias comensales. El tejido linfoide asociado al intestino (Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue, GALT constituye la parte más extensa y compleja del sistema inmunitario y es capaz de discriminar de forma eficaz entre patógenos invasivos y antígenos inocuos. El conocimiento de su particular subdivisión en tejido organizado, inductor de la respuesta inmunitaria (placas de Peyer y ganglios linfáticos mesentéricos, y tejido difuso, efector de la respuesta inmunitaria (linfocitos intraepiteliales y linfocitos de lámina propia, nos permite comprender cómo se desarrolla y regula la respuesta inmunitaria en el intestino y como esta puede extenderse al resto del organismo.The gut is constantly exposed to a high antigenic load coming from the diet and commensal bacteria. The Gut-Associated Lymphoid Tissue (GALT constitutes the most extensive and complex part of the immune system and is capable of efficiently distinguishing invasive pathogens from innocuous antigens. The knowledge of its unique structure consisting on organised tissue, inductor of the immune response (Peyer's patches and mesenteric lymph nodes, and diffused tissue, effector of the immune response (intraepithelial lymphocytes and lamina propria lymphocytes, allow us to understand the development and regulation of the immune response in the gut and how this one can be extended to the rest of the organism.

  20. Anatomia Funcional e Morfometria do Intestino no Teleostei (Pisces de Água Doce Surubim (Pseudoplatystoma coruscans - Agassiz, 1829

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    Seixas Filho José Teixeira de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram estudar a anatomia funcional e a morfometria comparativas nos intestinos médio e no reto, do peixe Teleostei, surubim, Pseudoplatystoma coruscans (Agassiz, 1829 (Siluriformes, Siluroidei, Pimelodidae, de hábito alimentar carnívoro, em duas classes de tamanho, visando fornecer referência à nutrição para o ajuste de diferentes sistemas de alimentação artificial para essa espécie nativa. Por meio destes estudos concluiu-se que o intestino do surubim, sob o ponto de vista morfológico, deve ser denominado, de intestino médio e reto, devido a presença da valva ileorretal e da invaginação valvar intestinal entre esses segmentos. Em relação ao padrão de enrolamento do intestino, apesar do plano geral do intestino médio e do reto ter sido mantido, as alças do intestino médio apresentaram arranjo indefinido, não tendo sido determinado um arranjo-padrão para a espécie. O arranjo intestinal é compatível ao da maioria de peixes carnívoros, ou predominantemente carnívoro, uma vez que seu intestino é quase retilíneo; contudo, as circunvoluções das alças finais do intestino médio talvez possam ser vistas como adaptações a um possível regime onívoro, preferencialmente carnívoro. As pregas intestinais encontram-se mais complexas e desenvolvidas no intestino dos exemplares da segunda classe de tamanho. Procurando estabelecer relações entre o arranjo das pregas das mucosas e a velocidade de transporte do alimento no intestino médio da espécie estudada, sugere-se que o padrão longitudinal, com numerosas anastomoses retardam o avanço do alimento em sentido aboral, o que possibilita maior período digestivo e, conseqüentemente, maior aproveitamento dos nutrientes, pela exposição do material alimentar à mucosa intestinal por período maior, além de contribuir para a preparação do bolo fecal. As pregas da mucosa próxima ao ânus têm direção longitudinal, sugerindo auxílio na

  1. Aspectos gerais do poliestireno

    OpenAIRE

    Montenegro, Ricardo Sá Peixoto; Serfaty, Moysés Elias

    2002-01-01

    O presente trabalho pretende dar uma visão geral e atualizada do poliestireno, o mais antigo termoplástico fabricado comercialmente no mundo. Apresenta-se uma visão simplificada do cenário mundial, da América do Sul e do Brasil, bem como alguns aspectos das tecnologias de fabricação e ambiental. Bibliografia: p. 136

  2. Intestino delgado y patologías asociadas a la malabsorción intestinal

    OpenAIRE

    Herrería Román, Esther

    2013-01-01

    La absorción intestinal es una función indispensable para el correcto desarrollo del ser humano. Sin embargo, no nos damos cuenta de lo vital que es hasta que sufrimos algún tipo de malabsorción que nos limita el desarrollo de una vida diaria plena. Expondremos en primer lugar la estructura, capas, células y función del intestino delgado, para comprender el desarrollo de algunas enfermedades que cursan con malabsorción, como la enfermedad de Crohn, la intolerancia a la lactosa y la intoleranc...

  3. Actualización sobre síndrome de intestino corto y transplante intestinal

    OpenAIRE

    Duro, Debora; Kamin, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    El síndrome de intestino corto es una entidad médico-quirúrgico, con potencial riesgo para poner en peligro la vida de los niños, y que en su manejo incluye nutrición artificial. El estudio diagnóstico y terapéutico se logra idealmente con un equipo multidisciplinario compuesto de nutricionista, químico, trabajadora social, médico y cirujano. Uno de los primeros pasos, es la identificación anticipada de pacientes a riesgo de presentar complicaciones severas por el uso prolongado de nutrición ...

  4. IRRITATED BOWEL SYNDROME IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Privorotskiy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritated bowel syndrome is a significant and underestimated problem in childhood. This condition is not so good studied in pediatrics in comparison with adult practice. Pediatricians often diagnosed this disease in infants and young children without proper reasons. The authors analyze current opinions about etiology and pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosticsand treatment of irritated bowel syndrome in children. An emphasis is made on diagnostic criteria, which allow suggesting and confirming the diagnosis.

  5. Caracterização comparativa do intestino das espécies da Ordem Xenarthra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina M. Carvalho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: O sucesso na manutenção de uma espécie depende de vários fatores entre eles a eficiência digestiva, sendo assim parâmetros morfométricos do tubo digestório são necessários para o conhecimento dos processos digestivos dos alimentos no organismo animal além de indicar a preferência alimentar de uma espécie. Este trabalho visou descrever morfologicamente os intestinos delgado e grosso, órgãos do sistema digestório de representantes da ordem Xenarthra a fim de fornecer subsídios para a avaliação da dieta e realização de procedimentos clínicos nestes animais, sejam eles de vida livre ou de cativeiro. Foram utilizados 7 espécimes entre preguiças-de-coleira (Bradypus torquatus, tatu-verdadeiro (Dasypus novemcinctus e tamanduá-bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla. Todos as amostras foram processadas seguindo procedimentos de rotina efetuados nos laboratórios de Anatomia Animal e Histologia da FZEA/USP. Os intestinos de B. torquatus se apresentaram curtos e simples, enquanto que nos exemplares de D. novemcintus e M. tridactyla o intestino era longo e com algumas peculiaridades. No duodeno de todos os espécimes notamos a presença das glândulas de Brünner e estruturas para aumentar a superfície de absorção. Apenas em preguiças, o mesentério mantém o jejuno preso à parede dorsal da cavidade abdominal. O íleo representou a menor porção nas preguiças e tatus, exceto em tamanduáque apresentava o íleo como a maior parte depois do jejuno. O ceco em tatus e tamanduás apresentavam tamanho considerável e a presença de glândulas na mucosa, nestas espécies destacamos a funcionalidade do ceco, uma vez que este se apresentou repleto de restos alimentares. Na mucosa do cólon de todos os espécimes, haviam criptas de Lieberkühn, sendo mais numerosas em D. novemcinctus e M. tridactyla. Apenas em B. torquatus, o reto apresentou maior diâmetro e rigidez em relação ao cólon. No reto de todas as espécies estudadas, a

  6. Irritant Contact Dermatitis : Diagnosis and Risk Factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuttelaar, Maria; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Thyssen, Jacob P.

    2016-01-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is frequent and is induced by direct and repeated contact with skin irritants such as detergents, abrasives, solvents and physical factors such as dry air and occlusion (by wearing gloves) but also water. When dermatitis has developed, even a minimal skin irritation, like

  7. Respuesta clínica en pacientes mexicanos con síndrome de intestino irritable tratados con dieta baja en carbohidratos fermentables (FODMAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pérez y López

    2015-07-01

    Conclusiones: En este primer estudio en población mexicana con SII se observó mejoría significativa de los principales síntomas incluyendo dolor, distensión y flatulencia tras una dieta baja FODMAP.

  8. Incremento en las publicaciones científicas sobre síndrome de intestino irritable en México y Latinoamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Porras

    2015-07-01

    Conclusión: En la última década se observa un aumento notorio en la investigación sobre SII en México y Latinoamérica. Si bien predominan los estudios EPI/QOL, la sofisticación se refleja en los TRAS que ocupan el tercer lugar. Lo anterior demuestra una madurez que permite realizar consensos basados en datos locales.

  9. Prevalencia de síntomas de intestino irritable en población asistente a centros comerciales de Santiago de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Madrid-Silva

    2013-10-01

    Conclusión: La prevalencia de síntomas de SII en la población estudiada es una de las más altas descritas, por lo cual los equipos de salud debieran tener los conocimientos y destrezas adecuados para su manejo

  10. Diet in irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Gundersen, Doris Irene

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder that is characterized by intermittent abdominal pain/discomfort, altered bowel habits and abdominal bloating/distension. This review aimed at presenting the recent developments concerning the role of diet in the pathophysiology and management of IBS. There is no convincing evidence that IBS patients suffer from food allergy/intolerance, and there is no evidence that gluten causes the debated new diagnosis of non-coel...

  11. Radiological aspects of Crohn's disease in small intestine: iconographic assay; Aspectos radiologicos da doenca de Crohn no intestino delgado: ensaio iconografico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Nestor de; Juliano, Adriana G.; Polizini, Jose M.R.; Rejtman, Debora; Cerri, Giovanni Guido; Rocha, Manoel de Souza [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia

    1999-12-01

    The authors present the radiological features of Crohn's disease in small intestine as ways of differential diagnosis of others diseases of duodenum and adjacent organs. In this differentiation or confirmation of Crohn's disease the US and TC have proven to be clinically efficacious in the identification of lesions.

  12. Anatomia funcional e morfometria dos intestinos e dos cecos pilóricos do teleostei (pisces de água doce Brycon orbignyanus (Valenciennes, 1849

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seixas Filho José Teixeira de

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar a anatomia funcional e a morfometria comparativas nos intestinos médio e posterior e nos cecos pilóricos da piracanjuba (Brycon orbignyanus Valenciennes, 1849 (Characiformes, Characidae, Bryconinae. Foram conduzidos estudos anatomofuncionais e morfométricos nos intestinos médio e posterior e nos cecos pilóricos dessa espécie com hábito alimentar onívoro. Constatou-se, por meio destes estudos, que o padrão de enrolamento das alças intestinais em arranjo em N apresentou, na segunda classe de tamanho, freqüentes variações no intestino médio, mas foi compatível com os de outras espécies de hábitos alimentares similares. Os estudos da morfometria mostraram que o comprimento total do intestino e das alças intestinais e seus calibres, provavelmente, exercem função específica na absorção dos nutrientes. As relações entre o arranjo das pregas da mucosa e a velocidade de transporte do alimento no intestino médio sugerem que os padrões transversal e oblíquo retardam o avanço do alimento em sentido aboral, possibilitando maior período digestivo e melhor aproveitamento dos nutrientes, contribuindo para a preparação do bolo fecal. O comprimento e o calibre dos cecos pilóricos aumentam com o desenvolvimento do peixe, e o seu padrão de mucosa possui características anatômicas semelhantes às do intestino.

  13. Cumulative irritancy in the guinea pig from low grade irritant vehicles and the angry skin syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Maibach, H I

    1980-01-01

    A 4-week open cumulative irritancy test in guinea pigs discriminated between two low grade irritant vehicles, nonionic base (anhydrous) and hydrophilic ointment. The procedure might be useful as a predictive test for low grade irritants. The angry skin syndrome was established in the guinea pigs...

  14. Histologia, histoquímica e histometria do intestino de jacaré-do-Pantanal criado em cativeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Aleixo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A criação de jacaré-do-Pantanal tem se consolidado no estado de Mato Grosso como atividade alternativa e legal para as propriedades rurais na área de ocorrência natural da espécie, coibindo a caça predatória e colaborando na preservação da espécie. A racionalização do processo produtivo na criação de jacaré é uma ação relativamente nova, que permite obter pele de melhor qualidade e de utilização integral, diferentemente daquelas oriundas de animais da natureza. Considerando a importância dos intestinos como sede dos principais eventos relacionados à obtenção de nutrientes para o metabolismo corpóreo, este trabalho teve por objetivo caracterizar qualitativa e quantitativamente a mucosa dos intestinos delgado e grosso de jacaré-do-Pantanal jovens. Para a caracterização ao microscópio óptico da estrutura da parede intestinal e da histometria da mucosa foram coletadas amostras intestinais de 16 animais, sendo três deles também destinados ao estudo histoquímico. As amostras foram obtidas de cinco regiões, sendo quatro do intestino delgado e uma do intestino grosso. Elas foram fixadas em solução de Bouin, processadas de acordo com técnicas preconizadas para inclusão em parafina. Cortes histológicos semi-seriados (quatro micrômetros foram obtidos e o material foi desparafinizado, hidratado e corado pela hematoxilina-eosina para a descrição geral e estudo histométrico, que consistiu da mensuração da freqüência das vilosidades intestinais; dos comprimentos do epitélio e da lâmina própria da mucosa e da espessura da mucosa. Na análise estatística foi empregada a análise de variância e Teste de Tukey. Para o estudo histoquímico foram utilizadas a reação ao ácido periódico de Schiff, alcian blue pH 1,0 contrastado com hematoxilina e alcian blue pH 2,5 conjugado ao ácido periódico de Schiff. Para a descrição das estruturas histológicas foi empregada a terminologia disponível na Nomina

  15. Citral a fragrance allergen and irritant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Menné, T; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2003-01-01

    Citral is a well known contact allergen and a contact irritant. Routine patch testing in the past may have been restricted because of possible irritant (IR) patch test responses. 586 consecutive patients, with hand eczema, were patch tested with a selection of fragrances including citral 2% petro...

  16. Aspectos psicosociales en universitarias embarazadas

    OpenAIRE

    Estupiñán-Aponte, María R.; Rodríguez-Barreto, Lucía

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo Determinar los aspectos psicosociales relacionados con el embarazo en estudiantes universitarias.Metodología A partir de la revisión de archivos y el muestreo intencional, se seleccionaron 68 estudiantes que tuvieron un embarazo adolescente. Mediante relatos de vida y entrevistas en profundidad se analizan las implicaciones del embarazo en la condición personal, familiar y académica.Resultados Durante el primer trimestre de embarazo, se generan crisis y ajustes en la estructura famil...

  17. Irritable bowel syndrome: contemporary nutrition management strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Gerard E; Shepherd, Sue J; Chander Roland, Bani; Ireton-Jones, Carol; Matarese, Laura E

    2014-09-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a complex disorder whose pathophysiology involves alterations in the enteric microbiota, visceral hypersensitivity, gut immune/barrier function, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation, neurotransmitters, stress response, psychological factors, and more. The importance of diet in the management of irritable bowel syndrome has taken center stage in recent times as the literature validates the relationship of certain foods with the provocation of symptoms. Likewise, a number of elimination dietary programs have been successful in alleviating irritable bowel syndrome symptoms. Knowledge of the dietary management strategies for irritable bowel syndrome will help guide nutritionists and healthcare practitioners to deliver optimal outcomes. This tutorial reviews the nutrition management strategies for irritable bowel syndrome. © 2014 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  18. Probiotics and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Cong; Zheng, Chang-Qing; Jiang, Min; Ma, Xiao-Yu; Jiang, Li-Juan

    2013-09-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is common gastrointestinal problems. It is characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort, and is associated with changes in stool frequency and/or consistency. The etiopathogenesis of IBS may be multifactorial, as is the pathophysiology, which is attributed to alterations in gastrointestinal motility, visceral hypersensitivity, intestinal microbiota, gut epithelium and immune function, dysfunction of the brain-gut axis or certain psychosocial factors. Current therapeutic strategies are often unsatisfactory. There is now increasing evidence linking alterations in the gastrointestinal microbiota and IBS. Probiotics are living organisms which, when ingested in certain numbers, exert health benefits beyond inherent basic nutrition. Probiotics have numerous positive effects in the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, many studies have suggested that probiotics are effective in the treatment of IBS. The mechanisms of probiotics in IBS are very complex. The purpose of this review is to summarize the evidence and mechanisms for the use of probiotics in the treatment of IBS.

  19. Biodistribuição do pertecnetato de sódio (Na99mTcO4) em ratos submetidos à ressecção extensa de intestino delgado

    OpenAIRE

    Chacon, Dâmaso de Araújo

    2007-01-01

    A ressecção extensa do intestino delgado resulta na síndrome do intestino curto com repercussão desabsortiva importante. Uma avaliação morfofuncional poderá ser necessária aos órgãos envolvidos no processo. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a biodistribuição do pertecnetato de sódio em órgãos de ratos submetidos a ressecção extensa do intestino delgado, a capacidade adaptativa da mucosa intestinal remanescente e o comportamento da curva ponderal pós-operatória. Foram utilizados 21 ratos Wis...

  20. Irritable bowel syndrome in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubić, Petra; Jurcić, Dragan; Ebling, Barbara; Gmajnić, Rudika; Nikolić, Bojana; Pribić, Sanda; Bilić, Ante; Levak, Maja Tolusić

    2014-06-01

    There are three epidemiological studies of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) that were conducted in Croatia (in the area of Zagreb in 2002, Bjelovarsko-bilogorska County in 2008, and finally in Osjecko-baranjska County in 2011). The aim of this study is to analyze the anthropometric, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of IBS in Croatia comparing these three studies. The studies included a questionnaire based on Rome criteria. Study population matched the adult population of Croatia according last available census (1991, 2001 resp.). Studies showed a high prevalence of IBS and some common factors relevant for development of IBS were determined such as gender, body mass index and lower level of education. There is a need for further investigations in coastal Croatia applying a uniform questionnaire on anthropometric, demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of IBS and Rome III criteria, diagnostic questionnaires and scoring algorithm for functional gastrointestinal disorders developed by Rome Foundation applicable in clinical practice and population studies, regarding the significant high prevalence of IBS in our country.

  1. Probiotics and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riitta Korpela

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a major cause of abdominal discomfort and gut dysfunction worldwide. It is a poorly understood functional gastrointestinal disorder for which no effective medication is available. It is a benign condition, but its social and economic burden is significant. The symptoms consist of abdominal pain, bloating, flatulence, and irregular bowel movements. Alterations in the intestinal microbiota and mucosal inflammation may contribute to the development of IBS and probiotics could thus relieve the symptoms. This review gives an overview on the existing data on the effects of probiotics on the gastrointestinal symptoms of IBS. Methods: A PUBMED search was made to review the relevant literature, and additional studies were obtained from the references of the selected articles. Results: Clinical trials suggest that certain probiotics or combinations of bacteria have beneficial effects on the IBS symptoms. However the heterogeneity of studies, e.g. suboptimal study design, inadequate number of subjects, different doses and vehicles, inadequate length, make it difficult to compare the differences between probiotics and the effect may be strain-specific. Conclusions: Though evidence is very promising, no general recommendations on the use of probiotics in IBS can be given yet. Further clinical trials and data on the mechanisms of action are needed. Probiotics are considered safe and if future scientific data is able to substantiate their efficacy in IBS, they certainly could be a treatment option in relieving the symptoms in IBS.

  2. [Parasitosis and irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra, Catalina; Herrera, Valentina; Pérez de Arce, Edith; Gil, Luis Carlos; Madrid, Ana María; Valenzuela, Lucía; Beltrán, Caroll J

    2016-06-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional disorder of the gastrointestinal tract characterised by multi-factorial aetiology. In IBS physiopathology are involved diverse factors between them biological, psychosocial, and environmental components which affect the immune activation status of gut mucosa. Among these factors is recognized the intestinal parasitosis. Post-infection IBS (PI-IBS) is recognised as a subgroup of functional disorders whose symptoms onset appear after a symptomatic intestinal infection caused by microbial agents. There are few studies regarding of relationship between IBS and intestinal parasitosis in Chile. However, is has been well described a positive association between IBS and Blastocystis hominis infections, one of prevalent parasites in Chile. In other countries, is also described a relationship between IBS and amebiasis and giardiasis. Both, characterized by a common mode of transmission through water as well as contaminated food. Because the high prevalence of parasitosis in our country it is necessary to expand the association studies to clarify the strength of the parasites ethiology in IBS.

  3. Irritable bowel syndrome and vocational stress: individual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irritable bowel syndrome and vocational stress: individual psychotherapy: research. ... The goal of this study was to provide individualised psychotherapy for a sample suffering from IBS and vocational stress. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  4. Aspectos clínico-patológicos e controle da paratuberculose em rebanho bovino leiteiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise M Yamasaki

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A paratuberculose ou doença de Johne é uma enterite granulomatosa causada por Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis. Descrevem-se os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínico-patológicos e laboratoriais da paratuberculose em rebanho bovino leiteiro no município de Rio Claro, região Sul do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. No período de 2006 a 2009, oito vacas adultas da raça Girolanda apresentaram diarreia crônico-intermitente e perda progressiva de peso. À necropsia, observaram-se linfonodos mesentéricos aumentados de volume e úmidos ao corte, vasos linfáticos subserosos das alças intestinais proeminentes, serosa do intestino com aspecto anelado e cerebroide e a mucosa espessada, pregueada e com aspecto microgranular. À microscopia havia, desde o duodeno até o reto, inflamação granulomatosa difusa, marcada dilatação dos vasos linfáticos no ápice das vilosidades, linfangiectasia e linfangite granulomatosa na submucosa, muscular e serosa. A inflamação granulomatosa também foi vista nos linfonodos mesentéricos. A coloração de Ziehl-Neelsen revelou variável quantidade de bacilos álcool-ácido resistentes no interior de macrófagos, de células gigantes de Langhans e livres na mucosa e submucosa dos intestinos delgado e grosso e em linfonodos mesentéricos. Em alguns animais, a lâmina própria da mucosa, principalmente do jejuno e íleo exibia acentuada hipertrofia. Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis foi isolado em cultivo bacteriano de Herrold com micobactina, a partir de amostras de fezes, de raspado de mucosa intestinal e de leite e identificado pela técnica de PCR IS900. Através da avaliação sorológica semestral, foram analisadas 298 vacas do mesmo rebanho a partir de três anos de idade, observou-se cerca de 40% de animais reagentes ao teste ELISA indireto no período estudado. O diagnóstico da paratuberculose foi baseado nos dados clínico-patológicos, na sorologia, no isolamento e identificação do

  5. Aspectos moleculares da anemia falciforme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galiza Neto Gentil Claudino de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available No presente artigo abordaram-se vários aspectos relacionados à natureza molecular da anemia falciforme, desordem hematológica de caráter hereditário que acomete expressivo número de indivíduos em várias regiões do mundo. As pesquisas realizadas em torno desta patologia da hemácia, ao longo de quase um século, a partir de 1910, cooperaram para a criação de um novo e importante segmento da ciência, denominado biologia molecular. A descoberta dos polimorfismos da mutação (GAT->GTG no gene que codifica a cadeia beta da hemoglobina, originando diferentes haplótipos da doença, permitiu um melhor e mais amplo conhecimento em torno da heterogeneidade clínica nos pacientes falcêmicos. Analisando a hemoglobina na sua estrutura normal e mutante, sua produção e evolução, pode-se ter um entendimento mais completo da fisiopatologia desta doença e da sua complexidade clínica.

  6. Alternative methods for skin irritation testing: the current status : ECVAM skin irritation task force report 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botham, P.A.; Earl, L.K.; Fentem, J.H.; Roguet, R.; Sandt, J.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    The ECVAM Skin Irritation Task Force was established in November 1996, primarily to prepare a report on the current status of the development and validation of alternative tests for skin irritation and corrosion and, in particular, to identify any appropriate non-animal tests for predicting human

  7. Citral a fragrance allergen and irritant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydorn, S; Menné, T; Andersen, K E; Bruze, M; Svedman, C; White, I R; Basketter, D A

    2003-07-01

    Citral is a well known contact allergen and a contact irritant. Routine patch testing in the past may have been restricted because of possible irritant (IR) patch test responses. 586 consecutive patients, with hand eczema, were patch tested with a selection of fragrances including citral 2% petrolatum and the European standard series. 28 of the patients showed a positive patch test reaction (+ to +++) to citral and 82 at least 1 IR patch test reaction and no positive patch test reaction to citral. A statistically significant association between a positive patch test reaction to citral and positive patch test reactions to other fragrances compared with IR reactions (n = 82) was established. The difference regarding fragrance history found between those with IR and positive reactions to citral was not significant. Citral could be an allergen and/or irritant, worthy of further more extensive studies.

  8. [Intelligence and irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Rubio García, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    The Syndrome of Irritable Intestine (SII) is a chronic functional dysfunction that it is characterized by abdominal pain and changes of intestinal rhythm without demonstrable organic alteration. It is avery prevelent dysfunction in the developed countries, there being involved in its physiopathology, among other, the psychosocial factors (illness behavior, social situation, stress, vital events, neuroticism, anxiety and somatization). However no study has been carried out on the Rational Intelligence and Experiential Intelligence or Constructive Thought in patient with SII in spite of knowing that the cognitive processes participate in its genesis. On the hypothesis that the patients with SII would have an experiencial intelligence smaller that the fellows controls, 100 cases of SII and 100 controls have been studied, being excluded of both patients groups with intellectual deficit or psychiatric illness in the last year. The cases of SII were distributed in two groups, one of 50 cases that habitually consulted with the doctor and other 50 that didn't make it. All the participants completed specific tests to evaluate all the psychological factors and Rational Intelligence and the Constructive Thought. The results show an alteration of the psychological factors in the SII, expressed by the antecedents of vital events, m even significant of anxiety feature and anxiety and a neuroticism statistically significant. As for Rational Intelligence and Experiential Intelligence in the SII, it was observed that to Rational Intelligence is same in the patients with SII that in the controls. Only in the group of SII that habitually consulted with the doctor a slightly significant decrease of the intellectual coefficient it was observed. As for the Experiential Intelligence a significant decrease of the Constructive Thought was observed in the patients with SII in comparison with the group control. Of their components a decrease of the emotionality exists and of the

  9. Síndrome de intestino corto en niños: actualidades en su diagnóstico y manejo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Valdovinos

    2012-07-01

    Se realizó una búsqueda de artículos en PubMed, considerando la información existente en niños con SIC de 20 años hasta la fecha, utilizando las palabras clave “síndrome de intestino corto”. De un total de 784 artículos potenciales, se realizó una selección de 82 artículos donde realizamos la revisión de la literatura médica. Los pacientes con SIC son todo un reto para su tratamiento, por lo que se debe establecer un manejo multidisciplinario enfocado en mantener un soporte nutricional óptimo que cubra las necesidades para crecimiento, desarrollo y asimismo, disminuir al máximo la presencia de complicaciones a corto, mediano y largo plazo. El diagnóstico y manejo de un niño con SIC, implica un equipo de profesionales expertos en el manejo gastroenterológico, pediátrico y nutricional. El pronóstico del niño estará en función al manejo oportuno, así como longitud de la resección intestinal y presencia o no de válvula ileocecal.

  10. Limbic Irritability, Neuronal Complexity and Smoking

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Svetlak, M.; Bob, P.; Černík, M.; Konečný, P.; Chládek, Jan; Svrček, M.; Kukleta, M.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 3 (2008), s. 85 ISSN 0001-7604. [International CIANS Conference 2008: Higher Brain Functions. 28.09.2008-02.10.2008, Smolenice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : smoking * limbic irritability * stress * complexity * EDA Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  11. Role of alimentation in irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dapoigny, M.; Stockbrügger, R. W.; Azpiroz, F.; Collins, S.; Coremans, G.; Müller-Lissner, S.; Oberndorff, A.; Pace, F.; Smout, A.; Vatn, M.; Whorwell, P.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Different food items are made responsible for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms, but the physiopathology of IBS remains unclear. AIMS: During a meeting in Nice, France, experts of the European Working Team of the IBiS Club discussed selected data regarding the relationships between

  12. Cumulative irritation potential of topical retinoid formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyden, James J; Grossman, Rachel; Nighland, Marge

    2008-08-01

    Localized irritation can limit treatment success with topical retinoids such as tretinoin and adapalene. The factors that influence irritant reactions have been shown to include individual skin sensitivity, the particular retinoid and concentration used, and the vehicle formulation. To compare the cutaneous tolerability of tretinoin 0.04% microsphere gel (TMG) with that of adapalene 0.3% gel and a standard tretinoin 0.025% cream. The results of 2 randomized, investigator-blinded studies of 2 to 3 weeks' duration, which utilized a split-face method to compare cumulative irritation scores induced by topical retinoids in subjects with healthy skin, were combined. Study 1 compared TMG 0.04% with adapalene 0.3% gel over 2 weeks, while study 2 compared TMG 0.04% with tretinoin 0.025% cream over 3 weeks. In study 1, TMG 0.04% was associated with significantly lower cumulative scores for erythema, dryness, and burning/stinging than adapalene 0.3% gel. However, in study 2, there were no significant differences in cumulative irritation scores between TMG 0.04% and tretinoin 0.025% cream. Measurements of erythema by a chromameter showed no significant differences between the test formulations in either study. Cutaneous tolerance of TMG 0.04% on the face was superior to that of adapalene 0.3% gel and similar to that of a standard tretinoin cream containing a lower concentration of the drug (0.025%).

  13. Review of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadir M.R.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Irritable bowel syndrome is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders striking 10-20% of the world population. Although most patients do not take medical assistance, this disease enforces significant cost on the patient and health systems and has negative effects on quality of life of the individual. After diagnosis ,treatment of this disease is the next step. Many pathways of treatment has been introduced and the efficacy of each other has been established in one way or another. The first step in the path of treatment is education and confidence of patients that might also be the most important step. Fiber diet, probiotic, anti-cholinergic and anti antispasmodics, laxatives, anti-diarrhea, the drugs affecting serotonin receptors, antidepressants and anti-anxiety, the chloride channel activator and non-drug methods such as cognitive-behavior therapy, hypnotherapy, acupuncture and herbal medicine each of which has been tested on irritable bowel syndrome and efficacy of each one has been indicated in one way or another. This paper tried to outline new treatments available in addition to categorization and discussion of various treatments for irritable bowel syndrome.Keywords: Irritable Bowel Syndrome; Probiotics; Parasmpatholytics; Laxatives.

  14. Sensory irritation and multiple chemical sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R C; Anderson, J H

    1999-01-01

    Many of the symptoms described in Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) and multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) resemble the symptoms known to be elicited by airborne irritant chemicals. Irritation of the eye, nose, and throat is common to SBS, MCS, and sensory irritation (SI). Difficulty of breathing is often seen with SBS, MCS, and pulmonary irritation (PI). We therefore asked the question: can indoor air pollutants cause SI and/or PI? In laboratory testing in which mice breathed the dilute volatile emissions of air fresheners, fabric softeners, colognes, and mattresses for 1 h, we measured various combinations of SI and PI as well as airflow decreases (analogous to asthma attacks). Air samples taken from sites associated with repeated human complaints of poor air quality also caused SI, PI, and airflow limitation (AFL) in the mice. In previous publications, we have documented numerous behavior changes in mice (which we formally studied with a functional observational battery) after exposure to product emissions or complaint site air; neurological complaints are a prominent part of SBS and MCS. All together, these data suggest that many symptoms of SBS and MCS can be described as SI, PI, AFL, and neurotoxicity. All these problems can be caused by airborne irritant chemicals such as those emitted by common commercial products and found in polluted indoor air. With some chemical mixtures (e.g., emissions of some fabric softeners, disposable diapers, and vinyl mattress covers) but not others (e.g., emissions of a solid air freshener), the SI response became larger (2- to 4-fold) when we administered a series of two or three 1-h exposures over a 24-h period. Since with each exposure the intensity of the stimulus was constant yet the magnitude of the response increased, we concluded that there was a change in the sensitivity of the mice to these chemicals. The response was not a generalized stress response because it occurred with only some mixtures of irritants and not others

  15. Tissue Friendly Pendulum: Soft Liner to prevent Tissue Irritation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Shashidhar Revankar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Palatal mucosal irritation is commonly encountered with the Pendulum appliance. The efficiency of soft liners in reducing tissue irritation has been well documented in the field of prosthodontics. The following article describes an innovative technique where soft liner can be used to reduce palatal mucosal irritation caused by pendulum appliance.

  16. The irritancy of metalworking fluids: a laser Doppler flowmetry study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, E. M.; Scholten, R. J.; van Ketel, W. G.; Bruynzeel, D. P.

    1990-01-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis is common in metalworkers exposed to metalworking fluids (MWF). The irritancy of 3 commercially available water-based cutting fluids in maximal user's concentration and 2 neat oils was investigated in 23 healthy volunteers. Additionally, the irritancy of some groups of

  17. Aspectos que interfieren en la movilidad estudiantil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Mercedes Ramírez-Ordoñez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Identificar los aspectos que interfieren en la realización de movilidad estudiantil. Materiales y Métodos: Esta investigación es cuantitativa de tipo descriptivo transversal por conveniencia, constituida por 243 estudiantes que hacen parte de un programa de enfermería en una institución de educación superior X, de los cuales se entrevistaron a 237. Para la recolección de la información se diseñó un cuestionario donde se evalúa el aspecto económico, académico y familiar y su interferencia con el programa de movilidad de la institución. Para su estructuración se realizó revisión bibliográfica, evaluación de expertos, alfa de cronbach y prueba piloto. Resultados: El aspecto económico ocupa el primer lugar en interferir en la movilidad estudiantil con un 73%, es importante resaltar que la población encuestada pertenece al estrato 2 por lo tanto cuentan con pocos recursos. El segundo lugar fue para el aspecto académico con un 63.45% y en menor dimensión el aspecto familiar con 26%; el 77% manifiesta tener un interés por participar del programa de movilidad, de los cuales el 43.78% prefiere el nivel internacional, el 29,79 % nacional y ambas opciones el 25,95%. Conclusiones: Al relacionar los aspectos económicos, académicos y familiares con el total de la población se encontró que solo el 12% de los estudiantes cumplen la totalidad de estos requisitos y pueden participar de la movilidad estudiantil.

  18. Hacia lenguajes de metamodelado orientados a aspectos

    OpenAIRE

    Reina Quintero, Antonia María; Torres Valderrama, Jesús; Toro Bonilla, Miguel

    2006-01-01

    En este artículo se propone la extensión de los lenguajes de metamodelado con constructores de la orientación a aspectos. Tras justificar brevemente el interés que en la actualidad está teniendo el metamodelado, y sentar las bases necesarias para entender la propuesta, se presenta, a través de ejemplos, la necesidad de extender un lenguaje de metamodelado como Kermeta con conceptos introducidos en el ámbito de la orientación a aspectos

  19. Osteossarcoma parosteal: aspectos na radiologia convencional

    OpenAIRE

    Nanci Neto,Francisco; Marchiori,Edson; Vianna,Alberto Domingues; Aymoré,Ierecê Lins; Almeida,Ana Luiza Brito de; Irion,Klaus L.; Collares,Felipe Birchal

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Avaliar os achados clínicos mais importantes do osteossarcoma parosteal e descrever os seus aspectos mais comuns na radiologia convencional. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo com 26 pacientes com osteossarcoma parosteal, provenientes do arquivo do Clube do Osso, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, e análise dos principais achados clínicos e aspectos radiológicos. RESULTADOS: A doença predominou em pacientes do sexo feminino e teve idade média de acometimento na terceira década de vida. Os a...

  20. Evaluación del efecto de Lactobacillus spp. en el desarrollo del intestino delgado en pollos de engorde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Paola Rodríguez-González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Los probióticos del tipo Lactobacillus spp. son considerados alternativas promisorias para reemplazar los antibióticos como promotores de crecimiento (APC en las explotaciones avícolas, ya que influyen en el desarrollo poseclosión del tracto gastrointestinal (TGI y en su ecología microbiana. En este estudio se evaluó la morfometría del intestino delgado en pollos de engorde al suministrar 0.5mL/L de un producto comercial a base de Lactobacillus spp. Se utilizaron 200 pollos machos de un día de edad, de la línea Avian Cobb 48, los cuales se distribuyeron, con un diseño completamente al azar, en dos grupos, denominados control y experimento; ambos grupos fueron mantenidos en condiciones similares de alimentación, manejo y sanidad. A los días 7, 15 y 35 de edad se realizó el sacrificio y la necropsia; se disectaron segmentos de duodeno, yeyuno e íleon para su procesamiento con la técnica de coloración de Hematoxilina-Eosina (HE. Los cambios morfométricos de longitud, ancho y cantidad de vellosidades fueron evaluados utilizando un microscopio trinocular con cámara digital Moticam®. Los datos se analizaron usando el programa SPSS versión 19; se realizaron comparaciones de los promedios a través de estadística descriptiva y una prueba ANOVA (p<0,05; se observaron diferencias estimadas significativas (p<0,05 a favor del grupo experimento en el desarrollo poseclosión de los segmentos yeyuno e íleon.

  1. Irritability and Anxiety Severity Among Youth With Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornacchio, Danielle; Crum, Kathleen I.; Coxe, Stefany; Pincus, Donna B.; Comer, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Most research on irritability and child psychopathology has focused on depressive disorders, bipolar disorder, and/or oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Less is known about relationships between child anxiety and irritability and moderators of such associations. Method Structural equation modeling (SEM) examined associations between anxiety severity and irritability in a large sample of treatment-seeking youth with anxiety disorders (N=663, ages 7–19 years, M=12.25), after accounting for comorbid depressive disorders and ODD. Additional analyses examined whether associations were moderated by child gender, age, and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) status. Results There was a direct link between child anxiety and irritability even after accounting for comorbid depressive disorders and ODD. Links between child anxiety and irritability were robust across child gender and age. Further, relationships between child anxiety and irritability were comparable across youth with and without GAD, suggesting that the anxiety–irritability link is relevant across child anxiety disorders and not circumscribed to youth with GAD. Conclusion Findings add to an increasing body of evidence linking child irritability to a range of internalizing and externalizing psychopathologies, and suggest that child anxiety assessment should systematically incorporate irritability evaluations. Further, youth in clinical settings displaying irritability should be assessed for the presence of anxiety. Moreover, treatments for childhood anxiety may do well to incorporate new treatment modules as needed that specifically target problems of irritability. PMID:26703910

  2. Acute lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage originating in the small intestine Hemorragia digestiva baja severa originada en el intestino delgado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ríos

    2006-03-01

    las etiologías más frecuentes se localizan a nivel colónico. El objetivo es analizar el manejo diagnóstico-terapéutico de las HDB severas cuya etiología se localizaba en el intestino delgado. Pacientes y métodos: entre 1975 y marzo del 2002 ingresaron en nuestro servicio 12 HDB severas originadas en el intestino delgado. Todos consultaron por rectorragia franca, precisando al menos transfusión de 3 unidades de concentrados de hematíes. La edad media fue de 54 ± 21 años, el 58% eran mujeres, y el 83% había presentado cuadros previos de HDB. Resultados: en once casos (92% se realizó una endoscopia digestiva alta y baja urgente no objetivando el origen del sangrado. La arteriografía se indicó en 7 pacientes (58%, localizando en 5 de ellos el sangrado. En dos casos se hizo una gammagrafía mostrando en uno un divertículo de Meckel y en el otro fue normal. Todos se intervinieron, 8 (67% de urgencias, encontrándose un tumor en 9 casos y un divertículo de Meckel en 3, realizándose resección de todas las lesiones. La histología informó de leiomioma en 7 casos, de divertículo de Meckel en 3, de leiomioblastoma en 1 y de angioma en el caso restante. Tras un seguimiento medio de 132 ± 75 meses, fue éxitus el leiomioblastoma, y recidivó el angioma, el cual fue embolizado radiológicamente con éxito. Conclusiones: la HDB severa de origen en intestino delgado debe considerarse como posibilidad etiológica cuando la endoscopia digestiva no objetiva el origen del sangrado, siendo la arteriografía una técnica diagnóstica útil para localizar el sangrado. La cirugía supone el tratamiento definitivo del proceso, confirma la etiología, y descarta la presencia de malignidad.

  3. Eye irritancy screening for classification of chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Erp, Y H; Weterings, P J

    1990-01-01

    A screening method was applied to determine the eye irritation potential of industrial chemicals. Bovine eyes (BE) were used to predict corneal damage and chicken egg chorioallantoic membranes (CAM) to estimate the irritancy potential of chemical substances towards the conjunctivae. Exposure of the BE to a test substance is followed by grading of the corneal opacity and epithelial injury. The CAM is inspected for signs of capillary injection, haemorrhages and coagulation. The tests are collectively called the BECAM assay. So far, almost 150 substances have been evaluated in this test system. A good correlation was observed between the BECAM assay and in vivo data; less than 5% of chemicals showed a clear disagreement. Also the assay is promising for labelling requirements according to the EEC criteria.

  4. Lactose Intolerance and the Irritable Colon

    OpenAIRE

    McSherry, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    Symptoms of lactase deficiency include nausea, abdominal pain, distension, bloating and diarrhea after ingesting foods which contain lactose. Lactose intolerance and bowel motility disorders have similar symptoms, and people with irritable bowel syndrome and unexplained abdominal pain may have lactose intolerance. A definite diagnosis can be made by detecting hydrogen in the breath after a lactose load, by lactase assay from a small bowel biopsy specimen or by lactose intolerance testing. Lac...

  5. Irritable bowel syndrome and its psychological management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikesh Tripathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS is a chronic and disabling gastrointestinal problem that affects psychosocial functioning as well as the quality of life. This case study reports the utility of cognitive behavior therapy as a psychological intervention procedure in a chronic case of IBS. The use of psychological intervention was found to result in a reduction of anxiety; amelioration of the symptoms associated with IBS and improved functioning.

  6. Asian Motility Studies in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Oh Young

    2010-01-01

    Altered motility remains one of the important pathophysiologic factors in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) who commonly complain of abdominal pain and stool changes such as diarrhea and constipation. The prevalence of IBS has increased among Asian populations these days. Gastrointestinal (GI) physiology may vary between Asian and Western populations because of differences in diets, socio-cultural backgrounds, and genetic factors. The characteristics and differences of GI dysmotili...

  7. Transcutaneous sacral neurostimulation for irritative voiding dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, I K; Johnston, R S; Keane, P F

    1999-01-01

    Patients with irritative voiding dysfunction are often unresponsive to standard clinical treatment. We evaluated the response of such individuals to transcutaneous electrical stimulation of the third sacral nerve. 32 patients with refractory irritative voiding dysfunction (31 female and 1 male; mean age 47 years) were recruited to the study. Ambulatory transcutaneous electrical neurostimulation was applied bilaterally to the third sacral dermatomes for 1 week. Symptoms of frequency, nocturia, urgency, and bladder pain were scored by each patient throughout and up to 6 months following treatment. The mean daytime frequency was reduced from 11.3 to 7.96 (p = 0.01). Nocturia episodes were reduced from a mean of 2.6 to 1.8 (p = 0.01). Urgency and bladder pain mean symptom scores were reduced from 5.97 to 4.89 and from 1.48 to 0.64, respectively. After stopping therapy, symptoms returned to pretreatment levels within 2 weeks in 40% of the patients and within 6 months in 100%. Three patients who continued with neurostimulation remained satisfied with this treatment modality at 6 months. Transcutaneous third sacral nerve stimulation may be an effective and noninvasive ambulatory technique for the treatment of patients with refractory irritative voiding dysfunction. Following an initial response, patients may successfully apply this treatment themselves to ensure long-term relief.

  8. Work-associated irritable larynx syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jennifer A

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to review the relevant literature concerning work-associated irritable larynx syndrome (WILS), a hyperkinetic laryngeal disorder associated with occupational irritant exposure. Clinical symptoms are variable and include dysphonia, cough, dyspnoea and globus pharyngeus. WILS is a clinical diagnosis and can be difficult to differentiate from asthma. Treatment options for WILS include medical and behavioural therapy. Laryngeal-centred upper airway symptoms secondary to airborne irritants have been documented in the literature under a variety of diagnostic labels, including WILS, vocal cord dysfunction (VCD), laryngeal hypersensitivity and laryngeal neuropathy and many others. The underlying pathophysiology is as yet poorly understood; however, the clinical scenario suggests a multifactorial nature to the disorder. More recent literature indicates that central neuronal plasticity, inflammatory processes and psychological factors are all likely contributors. Possible mechanisms for WILS include central neuronal network plasticity after noxious exposure and/or viral infection, inflammation (i.e. reflux disease) and intrinsic patient factors such a psychological state. Treatment is individualized and frequently includes one or more of the following: environmental changes in the workplace, GERD therapy, behavioural/speech therapy, psychotherapy counselling and neural modifiers.

  9. Review of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R Ghadir

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Background and Objectives: Irritable bowel syndrome is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders striking 10-20% of the world population. Although most patients do not take medical assistance, this disease enforces significant cost on the patient and health systems and has negative effects on quality of life of the individual. After diagnosis ,treatment of this disease is the next step. Many pathways of treatment has been introduced and the efficacy of each other has been established in one way or another. The first step in the path of treatment is education and confidence of patients that might also be the most important step. Fiber diet, probiotic, anti-cholinergic and anti antispasmodics, laxatives, anti-diarrhea, the drugs affecting serotonin receptors, antidepressants and anti-anxiety, the chloride channel activator and non-drug methods such as cognitive-behavior therapy, hypnotherapy, acupuncture and herbal medicine each of which has been tested on irritable bowel syndrome and efficacy of each one has been indicated in one way or another. This paper tried to outline new treatments available in addition to categorization and discussion of various treatments for irritable bowel syndrome.

  10. Occupational irritant contact dermatitis diagnosed by analysis of contact irritants and allergens in the work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friis, Ulrik F; Menné, Torkil; Schwensen, Jakob F; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Bonde, Jens P E; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2014-12-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is a common diagnosis in patients with occupational contact dermatitis (OCD). Studies are lacking on the usefulness of material safety data sheets (MSDSs) in making the diagnosis of ICD. To characterize irritant exposures leading to the diagnosis of occupational ICD (OICD), and to evaluate the occurrence of concomitant exposures to contact allergens. We included 316 patients with suspected occupational hand dermatitis, referred to the Department of Dermato-Allergology, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Denmark during January 2010-August 2011, in a programme consisting of a clinical examination, exposure assessment, and extensive patch/prick testing. OCD was diagnosed in 228 patients. Of these patients, 118 were diagnosed with OICD. The main irritant exposures identified were wet work (n = 64), gloves (n = 45), mechanical traumas (n = 19), and oils (n = 15). Exposure to specific irritant chemicals was found in 9 patients, and was identified from MSDSs/ingredients labelling in 8 of these patients. Review of MSDSs and ingredients labelling showed that 41 patients were exposed to 41 moderate to potent contact allergens, and 18 patients were exposed to 25 weak workplace contact allergens. In the present study, the systematic exposure assessment did not reveal any new irritants. MSDSs have a limited role in the investigation of ICD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A problemática da deiscência de anastomoses no intestino grosso em canídeos : a propósito de um caso clínico

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Ana Sofia Lopes

    2015-01-01

    Dissertação de Mestrado Integrado em Medicina Veterinária De etiologia não totalmente elucidada, a deiscência de anastomose no intestino grosso é uma complicação pós-operatória potencialmente fatal, que ocorre mais frequentemente entre o 3º e o 5º dia pós-operatórios. Poucos são os estudos sobre este assunto em medicina veterinária. O objetivo desta dissertação foi apresentar e discutir os fatores de risco associados à deiscência de anastomose no intestino grosso considerando duas localiza...

  12. Surfactant-induced skin irritation and skin repair: evaluation of a cumulative human irritation model by noninvasive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, K P; Freitag, G; Wolff, H H

    1994-12-01

    Although surfactant-induced acute irritant dermatitis has been extensively studied, our understanding about the induction and repair of the clinically more relevant chronic form is limited. Our purpose was to investigate qualitative and quantitative differences in surfactant-induced irritant skin reactions from cumulative exposure to structurally unrelated surfactants and to compare the maximal irritant responses from this model with corresponding reactions noted in a previously reported acute irritation model. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB), and potassium soap were the model irritants. Surfactant solutions (7.5%) were applied for 20 minutes daily (for 8 consecutive days excluding the weekend) to the volar aspect of the forearm of 11 volunteers. Irritant reactions were repeatedly assessed until complete healing was indicated by visual assessment and by measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema (skin color reflectance), and stratum corneum hydration (electrical capacitance). Maximum irritant responses were compared with corresponding reactions from an acute irritation model. TEWL was increased by SLS and DTAB to the same extent, but erythema was significantly higher in DTAB-treated skin. Skin dryness, as demonstrated by decreased capacitance values and increased scores for scaling and fissuring, was significantly more pronounced than in an acute irritation model for SLS and DTAB, although no difference was detected between the two surfactants. Potassium soap led to a slight increase in TEWL, whereas the remaining features were not significantly changed. This chronic irritation model appears to represent the clinical situation of irritant contact dermatitis with pronounced skin dryness more closely than the acute irritation model. The present study confirms that an extended time is needed for complete healing of irritant skin reactions. We also demonstrated that the evaluation of the irritation potential of

  13. Occupational irritant contact dermatitis diagnosed by analysis of contact irritants and allergens in the work environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ulrik F; Menné, Torkil; Schwensen, Jakob F

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is a common diagnosis in patients with occupational contact dermatitis (OCD). Studies are lacking on the usefulness of material safety data sheets (MSDSs) in making the diagnosis of ICD. OBJECTIVE: To characterize irritant exposures leading...... to the diagnosis of occupational ICD (OICD), and to evaluate the occurrence of concomitant exposures to contact allergens. METHODS: We included 316 patients with suspected occupational hand dermatitis, referred to the Department of Dermato-Allergology, Copenhagen University Hospital Gentofte, Denmark during......), mechanical traumas (n = 19), and oils (n = 15). Exposure to specific irritant chemicals was found in 9 patients, and was identified from MSDSs/ingredients labelling in 8 of these patients. Review of MSDSs and ingredients labelling showed that 41 patients were exposed to 41 moderate to potent contact...

  14. Fontes proteicas e idades de abate sobre a estrutura e ultraestrutura do intestino delgado de leitões desmamados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Thomaz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos (experimento 1 - alimentação convencional e experimento 2 - alimentação das matrizes, a partir de 109 dias de gestação, na lactação e dos leitões lactentes com ração sem farelo de soja, com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos de fontes proteicas (farelo de soja - FS, soja semi-integral extrusada - SSIE e produtos lácteos - PL sobre a morfologia intestinal de leitões abatidos aos 0,5 e 15 dias após a desmama. Foram utilizados 27 leitões, desmamados aos 25 dias de idade, sendo que em cada idade, nove leitões foram abatidos. Utilizou-se o delineamento em blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3 x 3 (três dietas x três idades de abate. Os resultados demonstraram que os animais recebendo FS apresentaram menores alturas das vilosidades e relação vilosidade:cripta, quando comparados àqueles que receberam SSIE ou PL, não havendo, entretanto, diferenças entre estes. A altura da vilosidade e a relação vilosidade:cripta não foram afetadas pela alimentação diferenciada das matrizes e dos leitões antes da desmama. A profundidade das criptas não foi afetada pelas dietas ou idades de abate, dentro de cada experimento, em nenhum dos segmentos estudados, sendo, no entanto, menor no duodeno e maior no jejuno e íleo dos animais do exp. 2, quando comparados àqueles do exp. 1. Concluiu-se que o FS afetou negativamente a altura das vilosidades e a relação vilosidade:cripta após a desmama; que a morfologia intestinal foi mais afetada aos cinco dias, mostrando sinais de recuperação aos 15 dias após a desmama e que a alimentação das matrizes não afetou a morfologia dos segmentos do intestino delgado.

  15. Síndrome do intestino curto: uma nova alternativa de tratamento cirúrgico Short-bowel syndrome: a new alternative for surgical treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orli Franzon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A síndrome do intestino curto resulta de comprimento total de intestino delgado inadequado para manter a nutrição, e assim, os pacientes tornam-se cronicamente dependentes de nutrição parenteral total. Numerosas estratégias cirúrgicas foram estudadas para restabelecer a função intestinal normal. OBJETIVO: Propor a utilização da inversão de segmento de alça associada à STEP - Serial Transverse Enteroplasty - para aumentar a área absortiva intestinal em pacientes com síndrome do intestino curto. MÉTODO: Os autores descrevem uma nova alternativa para o tratamento cirúrgico da síndrome do intestino curto, demonstrando sua facilidade e eficiência para o objetivo proposto. RESULTADOS: As duas técnicas associadas permitiram alongar a alça intestinal em 2,6 vezes do comprimento original, com posterior ganho de peso, redução do número de evacuações para uma exoneração ao dia e melhora da qualidade de vida social e psicológica. CONCLUSÃO: Essa técnica de inversão de segmento de alça intestinal e posterior STEP surge como tratamento eficiente e definitivo à síndrome do intestino curto de forma promissora e segura permitindo retorno à alimentação por via oral com satisfatória absorção de nutrientes e ganho de peso, retorno da motilidade efetiva intestinal, associada à baixa morbidade e melhoria da qualidade de vida social e psicológica. Apesar de requerer várias cargas de grampeadores lineares apresenta baixa morbidade e passa a tornar-se um potencial substituto para o transplante intestinal.BACKGROUND: The short bowel syndrome results of inadequate total length of small intestine that is not enough to nutrition, and so, the patients become dependents of total parenteral nutrition. Numerous surgical strategies had been studied to reestablish the normal intestinal function. OBJECTIVE: Consider the inversion segment of small intestine associated with STEP - Serial Transverse Enteroplasty - to increase

  16. Occupational irritant contact dermatitis due to petroleum naphtha

    OpenAIRE

    Aslı Aytekin; Arzu Karataş Toğral

    2014-01-01

    Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is responsible for the vast majority of occupational contact dermatitis and usually seen in professional groups working with wet hand. However, today, with the increasing business lines, employees are exposed to a variety of irritants. Occupational exposure to many chemicals and toxic irritants affect not only the skin, but also the other systems. Therefore, this situation resulting with loss of work and changes in business may become a public health problem....

  17. Developmental trajectories of irritability and bidirectional associations with maternal depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Mitchell, Colter; Stringaris, Argyris; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2014-11-01

    Irritability is a dimensional trait in typical development and a common presenting symptom in many psychiatric disorders, including depression. However, little is known about the developmental trajectory of irritability or how child irritability interacts with maternal depression. The present study identifies classes of irritability trajectories from toddlerhood to middle childhood; characterizes maternal depression and other family, social environment, and child variables within each irritability trajectory class; and, as a more exploratory analysis, examines bidirectional associations between maternal depression and child irritability. A total of 4,898 families from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study reported on irritability symptoms at ages 3, 5, and 9 years, assessed with items from the Child Behavior Checklist. Parental major depressive episode was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form at child ages 1, 3, 5, and 9 years. A latent class growth analysis identified 5 irritability classes: low decreasing; moderate decreasing; high steady; initially very high, then decreasing; and high increasing. Children with more severe irritability trajectories are more likely to have mothers with recurrent depression, and, with the exception of the most severe (high increasing irritability) class, were more likely to have mothers who were exposed to violence. Moreover, paternal depression and alcohol abuse, as well as maternal drug and alcohol abuse, were also risk factors for membership in the more severe irritability classes. A latent auto-regressive cross-lag model showed that child irritability at ages 3 and 5 years is associated with increased mother depression at ages 5 and 9, respectively. Conversely, mother depression at child ages 1 and 3 years is associated with increased child irritability at 3 and 5. Irritability development across toddlerhood and middle childhood has 5 main trajectory types, which differ on maternal

  18. Aspectos biopsicosociales asociados al embarazo adolescente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Cogollo Jiménez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El embarazo en la adolescencia, es un evento inesperado, sorpresivo. Este artículo establece la importancia de identificar los aspectos biopsicosociales asociados al embarazo adolescente en las embarazadas asistentes al programa de Control Prenatal de una Empresa Social del Estado de nivel 1 en Montería en 2009, para comprender las actitudes y los comportamientos asociados a esta etapa tan temprana. Materiales y Métodos: Es un estudio descriptivo, cuantitativo, de corte transversal. Población y muestra: 30 adolescentes embarazadas asistentes al Programa, el muestreo por conveniencia. Se utilizó la encuesta y la observación directa, previa autorización del Director de la empresa. Resultados: Caracterización de la población: predominó la edad de 15 a 19 años (adolescencia tardía, uniones libres, baja escolaridad debido a la deserción escolar, ingreso económico menor al salario mínimo legal vigente. Aspectos Biológicos: la menarquía a temprana edad (9 a 14 años, y en ella la mitad de los embarazos. La mayoría de los segundos embarazos terminaron en parto, la minoría en cesárea y aborto. La captación para los controles prenatales fue tardía, algunas no cumplieron con las citas programadas. Aspectos Psicológicos: inestabilidad con la pareja al enterarse del embarazo, tuvieron soporte familiar moral y económico, abandonaron sus estudios y presentaron malestares como estrés, depresión y tristeza. Aspectos Sociales: predominó la convivencia con la familia extensa. Hubo aceptación en el colegio y en los amigos. Discusión y Conclusiones: Se plantean estrategias para disminuir estos aspectos: elaboración de una cartilla sobre “Cuidado de la adolescente embarazada”, creación de espacios de reflexión, jornadas lúdicas educativas, entre otros. (Rev Cuid 2012; 3(3:385-93.Palabras clave: Embarazo en Adolescencia, Bienestar Materno, Atención Prenatal. (Fuente: De

  19. Psychological factors in the irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solmaz, M; Kavuk, I; Sayar, K

    2003-12-09

    The role of psychological factors in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a matter of debate. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders is high in IBS patients. Positive response to antidepressant therapy and presence of family history of depression in IBS patients have led speculations whether this syndrome might be regarded as an affective spectrum disorder. In this study we tried to examine the possible association of IBS with affective spectrum disorders. Forty IBS patients from gastroenterology outpatient clinics of a university hospital and state hospital, 32 controls with inflammatory bowel disease and 34 healthy hospital workers were included in the study. Psychiatric interviews were done using SCID-NP (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-Non-patients) and psychological factors were assessed by the SCL-90-R (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised), the Beck Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Scale and the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. Family histories were obtained by FH-RDC (Family History Research Diagnostic Criteria). All groups were matched for sociodemographic variables. The prevalence of psychiatric disorders and mood disorders was higher in the IBS group than the control groups. Also IBS group rated higher on anxiety and depression scales than the other groups, where the differences were statistically significant. Presence of positive family history for mood disorders was higher in the IBS group. These results support the hypothesis that IBS might be linked to affective spectrum disorder. Psychiatric assessment and therapy might be useful in the course of irritable bowel syndrome.

  20. Bacteria, genetics and irritable bowel syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Craig, Orla F

    2010-06-01

    EVALUATION OF: Villani AC, Lemire M, Thabane M et al. Genetic risk factors for post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome following a waterborne outbreak of gastroenteritis. Gastroenterology 138, 1502-1513 (2010). While the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remains to be fully defined, two clinical observations - the occurrence, de novo, of IBS following bacterial gastroenteritis and the history, commonly obtained from IBS patients, of other instances of the syndrome within their families - have instigated investigations, in IBS, of the potential roles, on the one hand, of the gut microbiota and the host response and, on the other hand, of genetic factors. The study reviewed here relates to both of these factors by studying genetic predisposition to postinfective IBS in a large population of individuals who were exposed to a multimicrobial enteric infection, which resulted in a severe outbreak of gastroenteritis and was followed by the development of IBS in over a third. In this detailed study, the investigators identified a number of genes that were linked significantly to the development of postinfectious-IBS in the Toll-like receptor 9, IL-6 and cadherin 1 regions. These genes play important roles in bacterial recognition, the inflammatory response and epithelial integrity, respectively, and provide considerable support for the hypothesis that links IBS onset to disturbances in the microbiota and the host response.

  1. Absorção de anticorpos do colostro em bezerros: I. Estudo no intestino delgado proximal Colostral antibodies absorption in dairy calves: I. Proximal small intestine study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Bessi

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a morfologia e determinar a localização da enzima fosfatase ácida na região anterior do intestino delgado, do nascimento ao fechamento intestinal, foram coletadas amostras de 15 bezerros machos em três idades: ao nascer sem que houvesse a ingestão de colostro; três horas após a ingestão da primeira refeição de colostro e aos três dias de idade. Observou-se a presença de células vacuoladas do duodeno ao jejuno médio no recém-nascido, preenchidas por material absorvido após a ingestão de colostro. Foram verificadas mudanças nas características morfológicas aos três dias de idade, com o início da detecção de reação da fosfatase ácida em lisossomos, indicando ação enzimática sobre o material absorvido. A morfologia aos três dias de idade pode representar o diferente estádio de maturação das células epiteliais do intestino delgado de bezerros, indicando que o processo depende das características da primeira geração de células desta região do intestino.The objective of this study was to study the morphology and the localization of acid phosphatase at calves anterior small intestine, from birth to intestinal closure. Fifteen male dairy calves were used in this study, which were aged: unsuckled neonatal, three hours after colostrum ingestion and three days old. Vacuolated cells from duodenum to medium jejunum could be found in the newborn calf, which have shown absorbed material after colostrum ingestion. Changes at the morphological characteristics and the initiation of phosphatase acid reaction in lysosomes were observed in calves aged three days old. The three days old morphology can represent a different phase of epithelium cells maturation of calves small intestine indicating that the absorption process is dependent of the first generation of cells from this intestinal region.

  2. Aspectos ultraestruturais do processo de divisão do Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderley de Souza

    1974-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho é feita uma revisão sobre alguns aspectos biológicos do Toxoplasma gondii, principalmente sobre a ultraestrutura da forma interfásica e as modificações ultraestruturais que ocorrem no parasito durante o seu processo de divisão. Considera-se inicialmente o processo de divisão binária admitindo-se, porém, a possibilidade de que as imagens interpretadas como senão de divisão binária representem estágios da divisão por endodiogenia. Quanto à endodiogenia descrevem-se as alterações que ocorrem na "parasito mãe" durante o processo de formação dos dois "parasitos filhos". Este processo é semelhante no Toxoplasma gondii, Besnoitia jellisoni, Sarcocystis tenella e Frenkelia. Discute-se a possibilidade da formação de mais de dois "parasitos filhos" por um processo de endopoligenia, bem como o processo de esquizogonia. Os resultados mais recentes mostram que não existe esquizogonia nas formas vsgetativas do Toxoplasma gondii, senão que as imagens interpretadas como tal, ao microscópio ótico, são o resultado de endodiogenias sucessivas em que os endozoitas formados permanecem ligados entre si pela região posterior. A esquizogonia é, no entanto, encontrada nas formas que se desenvolvem no interior de células epiteliais do intestino do gato, que é o hospedeiro definitivo do Toxoplasma gondii. Discute-se o conceito de esquizogonia, comparando-o em três protozoários: Eimeria bovis, E. callospermophili e Plasmodium juxtanucleare, que apresentam diferenças entre si quanto ao processo de iniciação da individualização dos "parasitos filhos". Refere-se à recente hipótese que considera a endodiogenia como o processo fundamental de divisão dos esporozoárlos, ocorrendo na fase final da esquizogonia. Finalmente é acentuado o papel que a microscopia eletrônica aliada às modernas técnicas de citoquímica e imunocitoquimica poderá desempenhar no sentido de um melhor conhecimento da biologia do Toxoplasma

  3. Acute irritant reaction to an antiseptic bath emollient

    OpenAIRE

    Saw, N; Hindmarsh, J

    2005-01-01

    Antiseptic bath emollients are commonly prescribed for treatment of eczema and are generally safe for frequent application. Although acute irritant reactions are uncommon it is nevertheless recognised and could have significant morbidity. This case describes a young male patient who developed an acute irritant reaction localised to the external genitalia, mimicking Fournier's gangrene, after overnight application of Oilatum Plus antiseptic bath emollients.

  4. Acute irritant reaction to an antiseptic bath emollient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, N; Hindmarsh, J

    2005-01-01

    Antiseptic bath emollients are commonly prescribed for treatment of eczema and are generally safe for frequent application. Although acute irritant reactions are uncommon it is nevertheless recognised and could have significant morbidity. This case describes a young male patient who developed an acute irritant reaction localised to the external genitalia, mimicking Fournier's gangrene, after overnight application of Oilatum Plus antiseptic bath emollients. PMID:15701748

  5. Aspectos nutricionales de la anorexia nerviosa

    OpenAIRE

    Delgado Santirso, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    El estudio que se presentará en las siguientes líneas pretende la actualización de los datos sobre los aspectos nutricionales de uno de los principales Trastornos de la Conducta Alimentaria (TCA), la Anorexia Nerviosa (AN), así como aportar información acerca de sus características generales, etiopatogenia, evaluación y diagnóstico y tratamiento. Se centrará fundamentalmente en las medidas higiénico-dietéticas necesarias del tratamiento nutricional y en el establecimiento de la función del di...

  6. Aspectos éticos de la obesidad

    OpenAIRE

    de Santiago Martín, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    El sobrepeso y la obesidad se están convirtiendo en uno de los problemas de salud de mayor preocupación, convirtiéndose en los últimos años en una verdadera pandemia mundial. Los objetivos de esta revisión bibliográfica son analizar los aspectos éticos de la obesidad, desde el punto de vista de la familia y la sociedad, las buenas prácticas sanitarias, los principios bioéticos y de los derechos del paciente obeso. Para realizar este trabajo de investigación se accedieron a las bases de ...

  7. Contenedores: Aspectos tecnicos, biologicos y economicos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara Luna; Thomas D. Landis; R. Kasten Dumroese

    2012-01-01

    La elección del contenedor es una de las consideraciones más importantes al establecer un nuevo vivero o empezar a producir una especie nueva. El tipo y tamaño de contenedor no sólo determina la cantidad de agua y nutrientes minerales que están disponibles para el crecimiento de una planta, sino que también afecta otros aspectos operativos del vivero, como el tamaño de...

  8. Histological distinction between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L; Clemmensen, Ole; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1999-01-01

    no recognizable changes except a slight follicular spongiosis in 1 patient. The 2 pathologists agreed independently on the correct classification in 6 out of 7 cases (p=0.0156). We tested an optimized model, selecting non-irritant allergens and a well-known irritant. Further investigations are needed to elucidate......Comparative light microscopic studies have revealed subtle differences between allergic and irritant reactions in the skin. In the search for specific differences, we focussed on the early inflammatory response. This pilot study was conducted to test the hypothesis that follicular spongiosis can...... differentiate between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions. 8 patients with known contact allergy to either colophony or quarternium-15 participated in the study. In each patient, allergic and irritant patch tests reactions were elicited, and 4-mm punch biopsies were taken after 6 8 h from...

  9. Comunicação não-verbal de pessoas portadoras de ostomias por câncer de intestino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silene Oliveira Paegle

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisa a comunicação não-verbal de pessoas portadoras de ostomia, por câncer de intestino, integrantes de um grupo. É uma investigação de tipo exploratório, observacional, realizada com 5 pessoas portadoras de ostomias num hospital escola, durante 5 encontros de outubro a novembro de 2001. Os dados foram coletados através de filmagem e registro de diário de campo. Dentre os achados, destacamos que a sala onde ocorreram os encontros era pequena, obrigando os participantes a manterem uma distância íntima, o que provocou distorções na expressão espontânea das pessoas. O Estudo esclarece que a leitura da comunicação não-verbal possibilitou compreender o universo dos sujeitos pesquisados

  10. [Importance of diet in irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Peña, Enrique; Balboa, Agustín

    2014-05-01

    About two-thirds of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients associate their symptoms with certain foods. We reviewed food-related factors putatively associated with manifestations of IBS. Soluble fiber may improve constipation but frequently increases bloating and abdominal pain. Carbohydrate malabsorption seems to be more frequent in IBS. A low FODMAP (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols) diet significantly reduces IBS symptoms and has been suggested as a therapeutic option. Serological screening for celiac disease should be done in patients without constipation. Moreover, non-celiac disease gluten sensitivity, defined as gluten intolerance once celiac disease and wheat allergy have been ruled out, should be considered in these patients. There is no specific diet for IBS patients but small and frequent meals, avoiding greasy foods, dairy products, many carbohydrates, caffeine and alcohol, is recommended. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  11. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Yoga as Remedial Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Kavuri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a group of symptoms manifesting as a functional gastrointestinal (GI disorder in which patients experience abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating that is often relieved with defecation. IBS is often associated with a host of secondary comorbidities such as anxiety, depression, headaches, and fatigue. In this review, we examined the basic principles of Pancha Kosha (five sheaths of human existence concept from an Indian scripture Taittiriya Upanishad and the pathophysiology of a disease from the Yoga approach, Yoga Vasistha’s Adhi (originated from mind and Vyadhi (ailment/disease concept. An analogy between the age old, the most profound concept of Adhi-Vyadhi, and modern scientific stress-induced dysregulation of brain-gut axis, as it relates to IBS that could pave way for impacting IBS, is emphasized. Based on these perspectives, a plausible Yoga module as a remedial therapy is provided to better manage the primary and secondary symptoms of IBS.

  12. Changing face of irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eamonn MM Quigley

    2006-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed tremendous progress in our understanding of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). It is evident that this is a truly global disease associated with significant symptoms and impairments in personal and social functioning for afflicted individuals. Advances in our understanding of gut flora-mucosal interactions, the enteric nervous system and the brain-gut axis have led to substantial progress in the pathogenesis of symptoms in IBS and have provided some hints towards the basic etiology of this disorder, in some subpopulations, at the very least. We look forward to a time when therapy will be addressed to pathophysiology and perhaps, even to primary etiology. In the meantime, a model based on a primary role for intestinal inflammation serves to integrate the various strands, which contribute to the presentation of IBS

  13. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Yoga as Remedial Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavuri, Vijaya; Raghuram, Nagarathna; Malamud, Ariel; Selvan, Senthamil R.

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms manifesting as a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder in which patients experience abdominal pain, discomfort, and bloating that is often relieved with defecation. IBS is often associated with a host of secondary comorbidities such as anxiety, depression, headaches, and fatigue. In this review, we examined the basic principles of Pancha Kosha (five sheaths of human existence) concept from an Indian scripture Taittiriya Upanishad and the pathophysiology of a disease from the Yoga approach, Yoga Vasistha's Adhi (originated from mind) and Vyadhi (ailment/disease) concept. An analogy between the age old, the most profound concept of Adhi-Vyadhi, and modern scientific stress-induced dysregulation of brain-gut axis, as it relates to IBS that could pave way for impacting IBS, is emphasized. Based on these perspectives, a plausible Yoga module as a remedial therapy is provided to better manage the primary and secondary symptoms of IBS. PMID:26064164

  14. Desarrollo de una metodología in vitro para estimar la tasa de fermentación de los forrajes en el intestino grueso del cerdo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leterme Pascal

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La metodología para estimar la tasa de fermentación de los forrajes se desarrolló en dos etapas. La primera, de digestibilidad enzimática, simula la digestión ocurrida en el estómago e intestino delgado, mediante el empleo de pepsina y pancreatina; en esta se determina la digestibilidad de la materia seca. La segunda etapa de fermentación simula la fermentación que ocurre en el intestino grueso utilizando como inóculo heces de cerdo; en esta se determina la cantidad de gas producido durante la fermentación de los forrajes y la degradación de la fibra detergente neutra (FDN. Las dos etapas presentaron buena repetibilidad en el tiempo. Abstract Develop of an in vitro methodology to determine the forages fermentation in to the large intestine. The methodology was developing in two phases. The first phase (enzymatic digestibility simulates the digestion occurred in the stomach and small intestine, by means of the employment of pepsin and pancreatin; and the digestibility of the dry matter is determined. The second phase (in vitro fermentation simulates the fermentation that occurs in the large intestine utilizing pig faeces; the quantity of gas produced during the fermentation of the feedstuff is determined and determine the degradation of neutral detergent fiber (NDF. All the phases show a good repeatability throw the time. Key words: digestibility in vitro, pigs, fermentación, forages (Azolla filiculoides, Xanthosoma saggitifolium, Morus alba, Trichanthera gigantea y Salvinia molesta.

  15. Efeitos do clampeamento do pedículo hepático nos intestinos Effects of the clamping of the hepatic pedículo in the intestines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrão Antonio Sébe

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado clampeamento do pedículo hepático de rato por diferentes tempos e estudadas as repercussões nos intestinos. Para tanto foram utilizados 40 ratos, machos, divididos em quatro grupos de 10 animais cada. O grupo S (Sham não foi submetido a isquemia, já os grupos E1, E2 e E3 sofreram isquemia de 10, 20 e 30 minutos respectivamente. Nossos resultados mostraram alterações macroscópicas quanto a cor dos intestinos nos grupos E2 (20' e E3 (30' e histopatológicas que ocorreram em cada um desses grupos. Observou-se que quanto maior o tempo de clampeamento do pedículo hepático, maior a congestão esplâncnica, sendo que aos 30 minutos ocorreu o despreendimento do revestimento epitelial das vilosidades intestinais e hemorragia.It was made a clamping of the hepatic pedicle in different lapses of time and the morphological features of this intestines were observed. 40 male rats were divided in four groups of 10 animals each. The group S (Sham was not submitted to ischemia and the groups E1, E2 and E3 suffered ischemia during 10, 20 and 30 minutes respectively. Our results showed macroscopic modifications related to the colour of the intestines in the groups E2 (20' and E3 (30' as well as histopathological changes in the same groups. It was also observed that the larger the lapse of time of clamping of the hepatic pedicle the larger was the splanchnic congestion and in the group 30' detachment of the lining epithelium was observed in the intestinal villi.

  16. Microbiota, infecciones gastrointestinales, inflamación de bajo grado y antibioticoterapia en el síndrome de intestino irritable. Una revisión basada en evidencias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schmulson

    2014-04-01

    Conclusiones: Se requieren más estudios para determinar la microbiota intestinal propia del SII y las diferencias en inflamación de bajo grado entre SII-PI y SII-No PI. La rifaximina ha demostrado efectividad en el tratamiento del SII independientemente de los factores anteriores.

  17. Criptococose pulmonar: aspectos na tomografia computadorizada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Ana Carina Gamboa da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A criptococose pulmonar é uma doença causada pelo Criptococcus neoformans, um fungo unimórfico que possui distribuição mundial, existindo na mesma forma tanto no seu habitat natural quanto em animais e humanos. A doença possui apresentações clínica e patológica variáveis e pode manifestar-se tanto em pacientes com a imunidade normal como em imunocomprometidos, que representam a maioria dos casos. Neste trabalho são analisados os aspectos encontrados nas tomografias computadorizadas do tórax de 14 pacientes com criptococose pulmonar confirmada. Os achados mais freqüentes na tomografia do tórax foram as massas e os nódulos pulmonares. Outros aspectos observados foram as áreas de escavação, as consolidações, o espessamento do interstício peribroncovascular e o reticulado difuso. Massa pulmonar foi o achado isolado mais comum (64,2%, seguido dos nódulos isolados ou múltiplos (35,7%. Doença pulmonar difusa foi vista em apenas 14,2% dos casos. Os lobos superiores foram os mais comprometidos, sendo a doença mais comum nas regiões anteriores. A tomografia do tórax permitiu avaliar com precisão o grau de comprometimento do parênquima pulmonar.

  18. Emprego da submucosa de intestino delgado porcina no reparo de lesões do esôfago cervical. Estudo experimental em cães Small intestine submucosa for repair of cervical esophageal lesions in a dog model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacarias Alves de Souza Filho

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Pesquisar a eficácia da submucosa de intestino delgado (SID porcina como enxerto para reparo de lesões em esôfago cervical de cães. MÉTODOS: Foram operados 10 cães. Ressecou-se parcialmente uma porção da parede anterior do esôfago que foi substituída por um enxerto de SID. Avaliaram-se a resistência tensiométrica, o aspecto macroscópico, a regeneração tecidual e a concentração de colágeno da porção esofágica onde se implantou o enxerto. RESULTADOS: Não houve infecção, fístula ou estenose. Verificou-se ganho semelhante de resistência do esôfago operado em relação ao controle: 31.84N contra 28.60N em média (p=0,593. A macroscopia revelou cicatrização completa com pouca retração tecidual. O estudo anátomo-patológico por HE mostrou re-epitelização completa da mucosa, proliferação vascular discreta a moderada e proliferação fibroblástica intensa. Na análise do colágeno pelo Sirus-red obteve-se em média 54.04% de colágeno tipo I, 16,04% de colágeno tipo III e 71.58% de colágeno total. CONCLUSÃO: A SID mostrou ser, no cão, um enxerto eficaz no reparo de lesões maiores do esôfago, apresentando-se resistente à infecção e à rejeição. A SID deve ser, portanto, considerada opção importante no tratamento destas lesões.PURPOSE: Study of porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS efficiency as a graft in the handling of lesions of the cervical esophagus in dogs. METHODS: Ten dogs were operated. A resection of a portion of the anterior wall of the esophagus was performed, followed by its repair with a SIS graft. The tensiometric resistance, macroscopic appearance regeneration process and collagen contents of the esophagus tissue were evaluated. RESULTS: No cases of fistula, stenosis or infection occured. Tensiometric evaluation showed a similar resistance in the operated esophagus when compared to the control (an average of 31.84N against 28.60N. Macroscopic analysis revealed complete healing

  19. Aspectos puntuales del estado vegetativo persistente

    OpenAIRE

    Hodelín Tablada, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    El estado vegetativo persistente es una condición clínica caracterizada por la ausencia completa de conciencia sobre uno mismo y el entorno, unido a ciclos de sueño-vigilia, con preservación total o parcial de las funciones hipotalámicas y autonómicas del tallo encefálico. En el presente artículo, el autor discute aspectos puntuales sobre la entidad clínica, basado en su experiencia y en la revisión de la bibliografía sobre el tema; igualmente se exponen elementos clínicos y epidemiológicos d...

  20. LABORATORIO DE HORMONAS: ASPECTOS PRÁCTICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René E. Díaz T., DR.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Las técnicas de laboratorio de análisis hormonales han experimentado grandes progresos en las últimas décadas, actualmente se pueden realizar determinaciones hormonales con gran precisión y automatización, sin embargo, existen muchos elementos que es necesario tener en consideración al momento de interpretar un examen hormonal. El elegir el examen adecuado para la condición que estamos estudiando, el conocer sus limitaciones y potenciales falsos positivos y negativos es parte del conocimiento que es fundamental tener como clínicos. En este artículo se pretende entregar una breve revisión de las principales determinaciones hormonales, orientado a aspectos que puedan ser de utilidad al médico no especialista en su práctica clínica.

  1. Surfactant-induced skin irritation and skin repair. Evaluation of the acute human irritation model by noninvasive techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, K P; Freitag, G; Wolff, H H

    1994-06-01

    Although the induction of irritant dermatitis by surfactants has been extensively studied in recent years, our understanding of the repair phase of irritant dermatitis is limited. We investigated qualitative and quantitative differences in surfactant-induced irritant skin reactions from short-term exposure to three structurally different surfactants. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), dodecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (DTAB), and potassium soap were the model irritants. Surfactant solutions (0.5%) were applied for 24 hours to the volar aspect of the forearm of 11 volunteers. Irritant reactions were assessed until complete healing was indicated by visual assessment and by various aspects of skin function, that is, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema (skin color reflectance), and stratum that is, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema (skin color reflectance), and stratum corneum hydration (electrical capacitance). SLS and DTAB induced similar degrees of erythema, whereas SLS induced significantly higher TEWL increase. Although both erythema and TEWL were highest 1 hour after exposure to surfactants, skin dryness was a symptom with delayed onset, justifying the long observation period in this study. Minimum hydration values were measured as late as 7 days after surfactant exposure. Dryness was significantly more pronounced in areas exposed to SLS than in areas exposed to DTAB. Complete repair of the irritant reaction induced by either SLS or DTAB was achieved 17 days after surfactant exposure. Stratum corneum hydration was the last feature to return to baseline values. Potassium soap did not significantly influence any skin function. We emphasize the importance of extended periods needed before a patient with irritant contact dermatitis can be reexposed to irritant substances. The evaluation of the irritation potential of diverse surfactants depended significantly on the feature (erythema vs hydration and TEWL) measured.

  2. Irritable bowel syndrome: towards an integrated approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita D Stuart

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders are defined as chronic or recurrent gastrointestinal symptoms characterized by abdominal pain, constipation and/or diarrhoea (Tally, 1994; University of North Carolina, 1998. These disorders are of concern because of their high incidence, associated morbidity, expense and the impact of these disorders on people's quality of life. Drossman (1993, in University of North Carolina (UNC, 1998 found that of 5 400 U.S. households, 69% of people met the criteria for at least one of the functional gastrointestinal disorders which represents a 59% increase in the incidence of functional gastrointestinal disorders since 1983 (Drossman, in UNC, 1998; Drossman, 1983. In particular, Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS sufferers account for 2,4 - 3,5 million visits to doctors annually. Furthermore, IBS sufferers spend $40 million annually on treatment for their condition. They also tend to have 3 to 4 times more disability days than other workers, which illustrates the debilitating effect of this disorder (Drossman, in UNC, 1998. It is therefore necessary that the etiology of IBS be researched, as well as the course and management of this debilitating disease. The studies presented in this series aimed to improve the understanding of the multiple agents that influence the development and course of IBS.

  3. [Irritable bowel syndrome, celiac disease and gluten].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mearin, Fermín; Montoro, Miguel

    2014-08-04

    For many years irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and celiac disease (CD) have been considered 2 completely separate entities, with CD being clearly related to a permanent gluten intolerance and IBS having no relation with gluten ingestion. However IBS and CD symptoms may be indistinguishable, especially when diarrhea, bloating or abdominal pain predominate. In the last decade several studies have shown that the separation between CD and IBS is not so clear. Thus, some patients who have been diagnosed of IBS suffer in fact from CD. In addition, it seems that there is a group of patients who, without having CD, suffer gluten intolerance that cause them digestive symptoms similar to those of IBS. Gluten sensitivity is defined as the spectrum of morphological, immunological and functional abnormalities that respond to a gluten-free diet. This concept includes histological, immunological and clinical manifestations in the absence of evident morphological abnormalities. Therefore, it is mandatory to establish in a scientific way in which patients a gluten-free diet will be beneficial as well as when this is not justified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  4. Asian motility studies in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Oh Young

    2010-04-01

    Altered motility remains one of the important pathophysiologic factors in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) who commonly complain of abdominal pain and stool changes such as diarrhea and constipation. The prevalence of IBS has increased among Asian populations these days. Gastrointestinal (GI) physiology may vary between Asian and Western populations because of differences in diets, socio-cultural backgrounds, and genetic factors. The characteristics and differences of GI dysmotility in Asian IBS patients were reviewed. MEDLINE search work was performed including following terms, 'IBS,' 'motility,' 'transit time,' 'esophageal motility,' 'gastric motility,' 'small intestinal motility,' 'colonic motility,' 'anorectal function,' and 'gallbladder motility' and over 100 articles were categorized under 'esophagus,' 'stomach,' 'small intestine,' 'colon,' 'anorectum,' 'gallbladder,' 'transit,' 'motor pattern,' and 'effect of stressors.' Delayed gastric emptying, slow tansit in constipation predominant IBS patients, rapid transit in diarrhea predominant IBS patients, accelerated motility responses to various stressors such as meals, mental stress, or corticotrophin releasing hormones, and altered rectal compliance and altered rectal accomodation were reported in many Asian studies regarding IBS. Many conflicting results were found among these studies and there are still controversies to conclude these as unique features of Asian IBS patients. Multinational and multicenter studies are needed to be performed vigorously in order to elaborate characteristics as well as differences of altered motililty in Asian patients with IBS.

  5. Is irritable bowel syndrome an infectious disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John Richard

    2016-01-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most common of all gastroenterological diseases. While many mechanisms have been postulated to explain its etiology, no single mechanism entirely explains the heterogeneity of symptoms seen with the various phenotypes of the disease. Recent data from both basic and clinical sciences suggest that underlying infectious disease may provide a unifying hypothesis that better explains the overall symptomatology. The presence of small intestinal bowel overgrowth (SIBO) has been documented in patients with IBS and reductions in SIBO as determined by breath testing correlate with IBS symptom improvement in clinical trials. The incidence of new onset IBS symptoms following acute infectious gastroenteritis also suggests an infectious cause. Alterations in microbiota-host interactions may compromise epithelial barrier integrity, immune function, and the development and function of both central and enteric nervous systems explaining alterations in the brain-gut axis. Clinical evidence from treatment trials with both probiotics and antibiotics also support this etiology. Probiotics appear to restore the imbalance in the microflora and improve IBS-specific quality of life. Antibiotic trials with both neomycin and rifaximin show improvement in global IBS symptoms that correlates with breath test normalization in diarrhea-predominant patients. The treatment response to two weeks of rifaximin is sustained for up to ten weeks and comparable results are seen in symptom reduction with retreatment in patients who develop recurrent symptoms.

  6. Potential allergy and irritation incidents among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamgir, Hasanat; Yu, Shicheng; Chavoshi, Negar; Ngan, Karen

    2008-07-01

    This study describes the types, causes, and outcomes of potential irritation and allergy incidents among workers in British Columbia's health care industry. Data on occupation-induced allergy and irritation incidents were extracted from a standardized database using the number of productive hours obtained from payroll data as a denominator during a 1-year period from three British Columbia health regions. Younger workers, female workers, facility support service workers, laboratory assistants and technicians, and maintenance and acute care workers were found to be at higher risk for allergy and irritation incidents. Major causes of allergy and irritation incidents included chemicals, blood and body fluids, food and objects, communicable diseases, air quality, and latex. A larger proportion of chemically induced incidents resulted in first aid care only, whereas non-chemical incidents required more emergency room visits.

  7. Histological distinction between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, L; Clemmensen, Ole; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1999-01-01

    Comparative light microscopic studies have revealed subtle differences between allergic and irritant reactions in the skin. In the search for specific differences, we focussed on the early inflammatory response. This pilot study was conducted to test the hypothesis that follicular spongiosis can...... differentiate between early allergic and irritant patch test reactions. 8 patients with known contact allergy to either colophony or quarternium-15 participated in the study. In each patient, allergic and irritant patch tests reactions were elicited, and 4-mm punch biopsies were taken after 6 8 h from...... clinically equipotent reactions. Paired sets of slides were assessed blindly by 2 pathologists. 1 patient showing a pityrosporum folliculitis was excluded from the study. All biopsies from allergic patch tests were characterized by follicular spongiosis, while biopsies from irritant patch tests showed...

  8. Neurobiology of Depression and Irritable Bowel Syndrome Comorbidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Donat Eker

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome is a disabling functional disorder with a frequent comorbidity of depression though underlying mechanisms remain yet little understood. Various signs and symptoms have been determined as diagnostic criteria in recent years and standardized as Rome-III criteria. Irritable bowel syndrome can have constipation-dominant, diarrhea-dominant or mixed clinical presentations. Main features can be summarized as continuous and recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort associated with a change of stool frequency or consistency and usually relief of symptoms with defe-cation in the absence of physical or laboratory abnormalities indicative of an organic etiology. The frequency of major depressive disorder diagnosis reaches up to two thirds of irritable bowel syndrome patients. Moreover, the comorbidity of irritable bowel syndrome among patients with major depression is highly frequent (30%. The mechanism underlying irritable bowel syndrome which have been considered as a kind of a somatization disorder for a long time and now as a functional bowel disease is in the brain-gut axis. Low grade mucosal inflammation and cytokines originating from mucosal inflammation have important functions in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome and its comorbidity with major depression. Besides the inflammatory factors lumbosacral visceral hyperexcitability which is an individual variation is proposed as the main underlying cause of irritable bowel syndrome. Visceral hyper-excitability is mediated by cytokines and neuro-mediators and stress is known to increase the effect of this mechanism. Furthermore, molecules participating in this mechanism (e.g. cytokines, corticotrophin releasing factor, neurokinins and monoamines play important roles in the pathophysiology of depression. Increased activation in the pain matrix (thalamus – insula – prefrontal cortex and insufficiency of endogenous pain inhibitory system are regarded as possible

  9. Eating, Diet, and Nutrition for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Causes Diagnosis Treatment Eating, Diet, & Nutrition Clinical Trials Eating, Diet, & Nutrition for Irritable Bowel Syndrome How can ... Some people with IBS have more symptoms after eating gluten, even though they do not have celiac ...

  10. Visceral hypersensitivity in Irritable Bowel Syndrome:pathophysiological mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerckhoffs, A.P.M.

    2009-01-01

    Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disease characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort associated with a disordered defecation. No unique pathophysiological mechanism has been identified. It is most likely a multifactorial disease involving alterations in intestinal microbiota

  11. Use of debridat in therapy of irritable colon syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parfenov, A.I.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that debridat is an effective means for treatment of patients with irritable colon syndrome. All patients underwent roentgenological and endoscopy examinations for determination of diagnosis and effect of their treatment

  12. Augmentation of skin response by exposure to a combination of allergens and irritants - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Kynemund; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Held, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    Clinical experimental studies on contact dermatitis (CD) often evaluate the effect of one allergen or one irritant at a time. In real life, the skin is often exposed to more allergens, more irritants or allergens and irritants in combination. This combined exposure may potentially influence irrit...

  13. [Correlation of the microbiota and intestinal mucosa in the pathophysiology and treatment of irritable bowel, irritable eye, and irritable mind syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehér, János; Kovács, Illés; Pacella, Elena; Radák, Zsolt

    2014-09-14

    Accumulating clinical evidence supports co-morbidity of irritable bowel, irritable eye and irritable mind symptoms. Furthermore, perturbation of the microbiota-host symbiosis (dysbiosis) is considered a common pathogenic mechanism connecting gastrointestinal, ocular and neuropsychiatric symptoms. Consequently, maintaining or restoring microbiota-host symbiosis represents a new approach to treat these symptoms or to prevent their relapses. Current treatment approach assigned a primary role to live probiotics alone or in combination with prebiotics to enhance colonization of beneficial bacteria and to strengthen the symbiosis. However, several papers showed major benefits of heat-killed probiotics as compared to their live counterparts on both intestinal and systemic symptoms. Recently, in addition to killing probiotics, in a proof of concept study lysates (fragments) of probiotics in combination with vitamins A, B, D and omega 3 fatty acids were successfully tested. These findings suggested a conceptual change in the approach addressed to both the microbiota and host as targets for intervention.

  14. Carcinogenesis after sublethal ionizing irradiation and regular avoidance irritation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalisnik, M.; Vraspir-Porenta, O.; Logonder-Mlinsek, M.; Zorc-Pleskovic, R.; Pajer, Z.; Kham-Lindtner, T.; Zorc, M.; Skrk, J.

    1982-01-01

    160 mice of the BALB/C strain of both sexes, aged 3 months, were divided into four equal groups of which two were regularly irritated by a combination of an optical signal and electrical stroke. After one month of irritation one nonirritated and one irritated group were whole body irradiated with an acute dose of 6.65 Gy (1.83 Gy/min), the other two groups were sham irradiated. The mice lived until spontaneous death or one year after irradiation, when the rest of the animals were sacrificed. Malignant tumors were recorded. Irradiation shortened the survival time while the irritation had an appeasing, compensatory effect, more marked in the males than in the females. After irradiation the number and assortment of the tumors increased and the latent period was significantly shorter. In the irritated animals the number and assortment of the malignant tumors were reduced and the latent time period tended to be longer. These differences, however, were not statistically significant. In spite of some differences the response of both sexes to irradiation and irritation or their combination was similar. (author)

  15. Altered gastric emptying in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero-Plasencia, A.M.; Valenzuela-Barranco, M. [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Granada (Spain); Herrerias-Gutierrez, J.M. [Division of Gastroenterology, University Hospital ``Virgen de la Macarena``, Sevilla (Spain); Esteban-Carretero, J.M. [Central Service of Investigation in Health Sciences, University of Cadiz, Cadiz (Spain)

    1999-04-29

    Irritable bowel syndrome is the most frequent functional disorder of the digestive system. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome have motor disorders not only in the colon, but also in other parts of the digestive tract such as the oesophagus and small intestine; however, it is not known whether the stomach is also involved. We used a radiolabelled mixed solid-liquid meal (technetium-99m for the solid component, indium-111 for the liquid component) to study gastric emptying of solids (GES), liquids (GEL) and indigestible solids (GER) in 50 patients diagnosed as having irritable bowel syndrome (30 with predominant constipation and 20 with predominant diarrhoea). GER was measured by counting the number of indigestible solids remaining in the stomach 4 h after they were swallowed. In patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES and GEL were slower than in control subjects (P<0.05). GER was normal in all patients except for two women. Thirty-two patients (64%) showed delayed GES, 29 (58%) delayed GEL, and 2 (4%) delayed GER. Among patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES was slower in those with predominant constipation than in those with predominant diarrhoea (P<0.05); GEL and GER were similar in both groups. Gastroparesis was found in a large proportion of patients with irritable bowel syndrome, suggesting the presence of a more generalised motor disorder of the gut. (orig.) With 1 fig., 3 tabs., 48 refs.

  16. A cross-cultural perspective on irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerson, Charles D; Gerson, Mary-Joan

    2010-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a functional gastrointestinal illness, defined by symptoms. Irritable bowel syndrome has been described as a biopsychosocial condition, in which colonic dysfunction is affected by psychological and social factors. As a result of this unusual constellation, irritable bowel syndrome may be subject to cultural variables that differ in different parts of the globe. In this article, we describe some of the ways in which irritable bowel syndrome may be experienced differently, depending on local belief systems, psychological pressures, acceptance or resistance to a mind-body paradigm, and breakdown in support or relationship structure. Examples are given in which irritable bowel syndrome investigators from countries around the world describe various aspects of the syndrome that may affect the illness experience of their patients. We describe our own research studies that have demonstrated possible adverse effects on disease severity from relationship conflict, attribution of symptoms to physical rather than emotional cause, and the belief that irritable bowel syndrome is enduring and mysterious. Also described is our finding that symptom patterns may differ significantly between different geographic locations. Finally, we discuss the importance of "cultural competence" on the part of healthcare professionals in regard to caring for patients of diverse cultural backgrounds. © 2010 Mount Sinai School of Medicine.

  17. Altered gastric emptying in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caballero-Plasencia, A.M.; Valenzuela-Barranco, M.; Herrerias-Gutierrez, J.M.; Esteban-Carretero, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is the most frequent functional disorder of the digestive system. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome have motor disorders not only in the colon, but also in other parts of the digestive tract such as the oesophagus and small intestine; however, it is not known whether the stomach is also involved. We used a radiolabelled mixed solid-liquid meal (technetium-99m for the solid component, indium-111 for the liquid component) to study gastric emptying of solids (GES), liquids (GEL) and indigestible solids (GER) in 50 patients diagnosed as having irritable bowel syndrome (30 with predominant constipation and 20 with predominant diarrhoea). GER was measured by counting the number of indigestible solids remaining in the stomach 4 h after they were swallowed. In patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES and GEL were slower than in control subjects (P<0.05). GER was normal in all patients except for two women. Thirty-two patients (64%) showed delayed GES, 29 (58%) delayed GEL, and 2 (4%) delayed GER. Among patients with irritable bowel syndrome, GES was slower in those with predominant constipation than in those with predominant diarrhoea (P<0.05); GEL and GER were similar in both groups. Gastroparesis was found in a large proportion of patients with irritable bowel syndrome, suggesting the presence of a more generalised motor disorder of the gut. (orig.)

  18. Significance of hair-dye base-induced sensory irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, F; Azuma, T; Tajiri, M; Okamoto, H; Sano, M; Tominaga, M

    2010-06-01

    Oxidation hair-dyes, which are the principal hair-dyes, sometimes induce painful sensory irritation of the scalp caused by the combination of highly reactive substances, such as hydrogen peroxide and alkali agents. Although many cases of severe facial and scalp dermatitis have been reported following the use of hair-dyes, sensory irritation caused by contact of the hair-dye with the skin has not been reported clearly. In this study, we used a self-assessment questionnaire to measure the sensory irritation in various regions of the body caused by two model hair-dye bases that contained different amounts of alkali agents without dyes. Moreover, the occipital region was found as an alternative region of the scalp to test for sensory irritation of the hair-dye bases. We used this region to evaluate the relationship of sensitivity with skin properties, such as trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum water content, sebum amount, surface temperature, current perception threshold (CPT), catalase activities in tape-stripped skin and sensory irritation score with the model hair-dye bases. The hair-dye sensitive group showed higher TEWL, a lower sebum amount, a lower surface temperature and higher catalase activity than the insensitive group, and was similar to that of damaged skin. These results suggest that sensory irritation caused by hair-dye could occur easily on the damaged dry scalp, as that caused by skin cosmetics reported previously.

  19. Comparison of three contrast radiographic techniques in the dog large intestine; Comparacion de tres tecnicas radiograficas de contraste en el intestino grueso del perro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas, L.; Thibaut, J.; Olhaberry, E.; Born, R.; Deppe, R. [Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia (Chile)

    1994-07-01

    In order to compare three radiographic techniques -pneumocolon, barium enema and double contrast- in the large intestine of the dog, three radiographic series in ventrodorsal and right lateral projections were taken. Six healthy adult dogs of both sexes with an approximate weight between 5 to 10 kg were used. Three enemas were administered 24, 12 and 2 hrs. before the series of radiographs were taken. Then dogs were anaesthetized with sodium tiopental (20 mg/kg iv) and the contrast media were introduced. Pneumocolon was carried out in the first series introducing air (20 cc/kg) in the large intestine through a Foley rectal catheter. Radiographs were taken in both projections, after 5 and 15min. respectively. Barium enema was performed in the second series introducing barium sulfate (18%) in the large intestine through a Foley rectal catheter (25 cc/kg); 5 and 15 min. later, the radiographs were taken. In the third series -double contrast- the barium sulfate, which was obtained from each dog using a catheter, was substituted by a volume of air equal to that obtained from the contrast medium. Later the radiographs were taken in both projections. The radiographic plates of each series were analized comparing the characteristics of: radiographic density, outline and volume. With the pneumocolon barium enema and double contrast, the radiographic density was, in most cases, low, high and inter-mediate respectively. The radiographic outline was, in most cases, regular for the three techniques. Thee radiographic volume was similar in all of the series. From the results obtained, it is concluded that double contrast best outlines the intestinal mucosa and more information can be obtained from it [Spanish] Con la finalidad de comparar tres tecnicas radiograficas del intestino grueso del perro -neumocolon, enema baritado y doble contraste-, se tomaron tres series radiograficas en proyeccion ventrodorsal y lateral derecha en 6 perros adultos, de 5 a 10 kg de peso, que

  20. CARACTERIZACIÓN DE BACTERIAS PROBIÓTICAS AISLADAS DEL INTESTINO GRUESO DE CERDOS COMO ALTERNATIVA AL USO DE ANTIBIÓTICOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Jurado G

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Caracterizar bacterias ácido lácticas probióticas aisladas del intestino grueso de cerdos adultos como posible alternativa al uso de antibióticos. Materiales y métodos. Se incluyeron muestras de intestino grueso de 20 cerdos adultos, para el aislamiento de bacterias lácticas (BAL. La caracterización de los parámetros bioquímicos-fisiológicos de las BAL contemplo la evaluación del pH del fermento, determinación de ácidos orgánicos por HPLC y detección de isómeros de ácido láctico. Los procedimientos microbiológicos evaluaron la capacidad de inhibición del crecimiento de patógenos y la actividad antagónica del probiótico vs antibiótico con su interacción competitiva. Se utilizaron pruebas API CHL 50 para la identificación de las BAL que se complementaron con la producción de gas, actividad de catalasa y viabilidad a diferentes concentraciones de sales biliares y temperaturas. Resultados. El plan de análisis permitió seleccionar dos aislados que se identificaron como: Lactobacillus plantarum 1 H1 y Lb. plantarum 1 H2. Las pruebas microbiológicas evidenciaron que las BAL seleccionadas inhibieron principalmente los enteropatógenos: Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium y Clostridium perfringens. Las pruebas bioquímicas fueron compatibles con el género Lactobacillus, mostrando el siguiente perfil: Catalasa negativas; no productoras de gas; productoras de isómeros DL; resistentes a sales biliares y pH óptimo de crecimiento 3.5 a 38oC. Conclusiones. Los dos aislados de Lactobacillus plantarum 1 reunieron las características para el uso potencial como probióticos. Se recomienda su uso como complemento de terapias con antibióticos y en la elaboración de inóculos para aplicación en raciones alimenticias de lechones destetos, sin embargo, estudios complementarios se requieren para evaluar el efecto directo del probiótico como sustituto del uso de antibióticos in vivo.

  1. The Relationship between Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Depression, Anxiety, and Stress among Sample of Irritable Bowel Patients - Predictive Study

    OpenAIRE

    Osama Hasan Gaber

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the relationship of irritable bowel syndrome, anxiety, depression and stress among a sample of78 IBS patients (Rome III Diagnostic Criteria for Irritable Bowel Syndrome), anxiety symptoms scale, Depression symptoms scale, and stress scale (prepared by the researcher) were used Pearson Correlation Coefficient showed that there are statistically significant relationship between IBS and Anxiety, Depression and Stress (P?=0.01). The Regression and Prediction Coefficien...

  2. Role of alimentation in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapoigny, M; Stockbrügger, R W; Azpiroz, F; Collins, S; Coremans, G; Müller-Lissner, S; Oberndorff, A; Pace, F; Smout, A; Vatn, M; Whorwell, P

    2003-01-01

    Different food items are made responsible for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms, but the physiopathology of IBS remains unclear. During a meeting in Nice, France, experts of the European Working Team of the IBiS Club discussed selected data regarding the relationships between alimentation, food items (including fibers) and IBS symptoms. Food allergy remains a difficult diagnosis, but medical and general history, presence of general symptoms such as skin rash, and hypersensitivity tests may help in achieving a positive diagnosis. On the other hand, food intolerance is more confusing because of the subjectivity of the relationship between ingestion of certain foods and the appearance of clinical symptoms. Different food items which are commonly implicated in adverse reactions mimicking IBS were found to be stimulants for the gut, suggesting that patients with predominant diarrhea IBS have to be carefully questioned about consumption of different kinds of food (i.e., coffee, alcohol, chewing gum, soft drinks) and not only on lactose ingestion. Gas production is discussed on the basis of retention of intestinal gas as well as on malabsorption of fermentable substrates. The role of a large amount of this kind of substrate reaching the colon is suggested as a potential mechanism of IBS-type symptoms in overeating patients. Regarding the role of fiber in IBS, the expert group concluded that fibers are not inert substances and that they could trigger pain or bloating in some IBS patients. Despite numerous reviews on this subject, it is very difficult to give general dietary advice to IBS patients, but dieteticians may have a positive role in managing such patients. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  3. The Mexican consensus on irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Sánchez, R; Icaza-Chávez, M E; Bielsa-Fernández, M V; Gómez-Escudero, O; Bosques-Padilla, F; Coss-Adame, E; Esquivel-Ayanegui, F; Flores-Rendón, Á R; González-Martínez, M A; Huerta-Iga, F; López-Colombo, A; Méndez-Gutiérrez, T H; Noble-Lugo, A; Nogueira-de Rojas, J R; Raña-Garibay, R H; Remes-Troche, J M; Roesch-Dietlen, F; Schmulson, M J; Soto-Pérez, J C; Tamayo, J L; Uscanga, L F; Valdovinos, M Á; Valerio-Ureña, J; Zavala-Solares, M R

    2016-01-01

    Since the publication in 2009 of the Guidelines on the Diagnosis and Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome of the Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología (2009 Guidelines), there have been significant advances in our knowledge of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of this disease. To present a consensus review of the most current knowledge of IBS, updating the 2009 Guidelines by incorporating new internationally published scientific evidence, with a special interest in Mexican studies. The PubMed literature from January 2009 to March 2015 was reviewed and complemented through a manual search. Articles in English and Spanish were included and preference was given to consensuses, guidelines, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses. Statements referring to the different aspects of the disease were formulated and voted upon by 24 gastroenterologists employing the Delphi method. Once a consensus on each statement was reached, the quality of evidence and strength of recommendation were determined through the GRADE system. Forty-eight statements were formulated, updating the information on IBS and adding the complementary data that did not appear in the 2009 Guidelines regarding the importance of exercise and diet, diagnostic strategies, and current therapy alternatives that were analyzed with more stringent scientific vigor or that emerged within the last 5 years. We present herein a consensus review of the most relevant advances in the study of IBS, updating and complementing the 2009 Guidelines. Several studies conducted in Mexico were included. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  4. Peppermint oil in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoleit, H G; Grigoleit, P

    2005-08-01

    In a literature search 16 clinical trials investigating 180-200 mg enteric-coated peppermint oil (PO) in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or recurrent abdominal pain in children (1 study) with 651 patients enrolled were identified. Nine out of 16 studies were randomized double blind cross over trials with (n = 5) or without (n = 4) run in and/or wash out periods, five had a randomized double blind parallel group design and two were open labeled studies. Placebo served in 12 and anticholinergics in three studies as comparator. Eight out of 12 placebo controlled studies show statistically significant effects in favor of PO. Average response rates in terms of "overall success" are 58% (range 39-79%) for PO and 29% (range 10-52%) for placebo. The three studies versus smooth muscle relaxants did not show differences between treatments hinting for equivalence of treatments. Adverse events reported were generally mild and transient, but very specific. PO caused the typical GI effects like heartburn and anal/perianal burning or discomfort sensations, whereas the anticholinergics caused dry mouth and blurred vision. Anticholinergics and 5HT3/4-ant/agonists do not offer superior improvement rates, placebo responses cover the range as in PO trials. Taking into account the currently available drug treatments for IBS PO (1-2 capsules t.i.d. over 24 weeks) may be the drug of first choice in IBS patients with non-serious constipation or diarrhea to alleviate general symptoms and to improve quality of life.

  5. Breath tests and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Satya Vati; Malik, Aastha

    2014-06-28

    Breath tests are non-invasive tests and can detect H₂ and CH₄ gases which are produced by bacterial fermentation of unabsorbed intestinal carbohydrate and are excreted in the breath. These tests are used in the diagnosis of carbohydrate malabsorption, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, and for measuring the orocecal transit time. Malabsorption of carbohydrates is a key trigger of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms such as diarrhea and/or constipation, bloating, excess flatulence, headaches and lack of energy. Abdominal bloating is a common nonspecific symptom which can negatively impact quality of life. It may reflect dietary imbalance, such as excess fiber intake, or may be a manifestation of IBS. However, bloating may also represent small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Patients with persistent symptoms of abdominal bloating and distension despite dietary interventions should be referred for H₂ breath testing to determine the presence or absence of bacterial overgrowth. If bacterial overgrowth is identified, patients are typically treated with antibiotics. Evaluation of IBS generally includes testing of other disorders that cause similar symptoms. Carbohydrate malabsorption (lactose, fructose, sorbitol) can cause abdominal fullness, bloating, nausea, abdominal pain, flatulence, and diarrhea, which are similar to the symptoms of IBS. However, it is unclear if these digestive disorders contribute to or cause the symptoms of IBS. Research studies show that a proper diagnosis and effective dietary intervention significantly reduces the severity and frequency of gastrointestinal symptoms in IBS. Thus, diagnosis of malabsorption of these carbohydrates in IBS using a breath test is very important to guide the clinician in the proper treatment of IBS patients.

  6. The Immune System in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremon, Cesare; Carini, Giovanni; Bellacosa, Lara; Zecchi, Lisa; De Giorgio, Roberto; Corinaldesi, Roberto; Stanghellini, Vincenzo

    2011-01-01

    The potential relevance of systemic and gastrointestinal immune activation in the pathophysiology and symptom generation in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is supported by a number of observations. Infectious gastroenteritis is the strongest risk factor for the development of IBS and increased rates of IBS-like symptoms have been detected in patients with inflammatory bowel disease in remission or in celiac disease patients on a gluten free diet. The number of T cells and mast cells in the small and large intestine of patients with IBS is increased in a large proportion of patients with IBS over healthy controls. Mediators released by immune cells and likely from other non-immune competent cells impact on the function of enteric and sensory afferent nerves as well as on epithelial tight junctions controlling mucosal barrier of recipient animals, isolated human gut tissues or cell culture systems. Antibodies against microbiota antigens (bacterial flagellin), and increased levels of cytokines have been detected systemically in the peripheral blood advocating the existence of abnormal host-microbial interactions and systemic immune responses. Nonetheless, there is wide overlap of data obtained in healthy controls; in addition, the subsets of patients showing immune activation have yet to be clearly identified. Gender, age, geographic differences, genetic predisposition, diet and differences in the intestinal microbiota likely play a role and further research has to be done to clarify their relevance as potential mechanisms in the described immune system dysregulation. Immune activation has stimulated interest for the potential identification of biomarkers useful for clinical and research purposes and the development of novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:22148103

  7. Toxicologia do tolueno: aspectos relacionados ao abuso

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    Forster Letícia M.K.

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available O tolueno está presente em muitos produtos de uso doméstico e industrial e é o principal solvente envolvido no abuso de substâncias e na exposição ocupacional. O problema mais grave no estudo de patologias relacionadas ao tolueno é que este está geralmente associado, em suas preparações comerciais, a outras substâncias. O potencial tóxico do tolueno foi abordado nos seguintes aspectos: parâmetros farmacológicos; características físico-químicas; exposição; estudos clínicos; diagnóstico; pesquisa experimental; tolerância e dependência; efeitos agudos e crônicos; neurotoxicidade; teratogenicidade; doenças psiquiátricas; carcinogenicidade e tratamento. Conclui-se ser de grande importância e urgência que se realizem estudos clínicos com amostras maiores para definição mais precisa das conseqüências do uso crônico

  8. Toxicologia do tolueno: aspectos relacionados ao abuso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia M.K. Forster

    1994-04-01

    Full Text Available O tolueno está presente em muitos produtos de uso doméstico e industrial e é o principal solvente envolvido no abuso de substâncias e na exposição ocupacional. O problema mais grave no estudo de patologias relacionadas ao tolueno é que este está geralmente associado, em suas preparações comerciais, a outras substâncias. O potencial tóxico do tolueno foi abordado nos seguintes aspectos: parâmetros farmacológicos; características físico-químicas; exposição; estudos clínicos; diagnóstico; pesquisa experimental; tolerância e dependência; efeitos agudos e crônicos; neurotoxicidade; teratogenicidade; doenças psiquiátricas; carcinogenicidade e tratamento. Conclui-se ser de grande importância e urgência que se realizem estudos clínicos com amostras maiores para definição mais precisa das conseqüências do uso crônico

  9. Teste do H2 no ar expirado na avaliação de absorção de lactose e sobrecrescimento bacteriano no intestino delgado de escolares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REIS Jairo César dos

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudos realizados há mais de 10 anos demonstraram que a deficiência ontogenética de lactase é freqüente na população brasileira. Entretanto, esses estudos se basearam no incremento da glicemia após sobrecarga de doses não utilizadas habitualmente na dieta. Atualmente, aceita-se que a avaliação da absorção da lactose com o teste do hidrogênio no ar expirado é mais apropriada que o teste da curva glicêmica. Por outro lado, a enteropatia ambiental sintomática e/ou assintomática constituem um grave problema de saúde pública em grupos populacionais de baixo nível sócio-econômico de nosso meio. A ocorrência de sobrecrescimento bacteriano no intestino delgado de crianças com enteropatia ambiental, foi caracterizada em crianças moradoras em favelas. Sobrecrescimento bacteriano no intestino delgado é caracterizado pela presença de bactérias pertencentes à flora colônica no intestino delgado. Objetivando avaliar a freqüência de má absorção de lactose e determinar a ocorrência de sobrecrescimento bacteriano no intestino delgado em crianças escolares, através do teste do H2 no ar expirado, investigaram-se 83 alunos de uma escola localizada na região periférica da cidade de Marília, Estado de São Paulo, após sobrecarga oral de lactose e lactulose. Foram colhidas também amostras de fezes para pesquisa de parasitas. Má absorção de lactose foi observada em 19 (22,9% escolares e intolerância à lactose em 10 (12,0%. Sobrecrescimento bacteriano no intestino delgado foi identificado pelo teste do H2 no ar expirado em 6 (7,2% dos 83 escolares. Giardia lamblia foi o parasita mais freqüentemente isolado nas fezes dos escolares. A ocorrência de deficiência ontogenética de lactase observada neste grupo de crianças foi semelhante ao relatado para populações caucasianas. Sobrecrescimento bacteriano foi encontrado neste grupo de crianças assintomáticas, podendo refletir as condições desfavoráveis de seu meio

  10. BIOMETRIC STUDY OF COMMERCIAL ALAYING HENS SUBMITTED TO THE PROGRAMS OF FORCED MOLTING BIOMETRIA DO INTESTINO DE POEDEIRAS COMERCIAIS SUBMETIDAS A PROGRAMAS DE MUDA FORÇADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizandra Amoroso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The forced molting in commercial laying hens had being utilized for get better the performance of birds for one more cycle of production of eggs. The experiment was aimed at evaluating the intestinal biometric parameters in laying hens submitted to the different forced molting program. Third two Hisex Brown laying hen with 58 weeks of age were  randomly subdivided into four programs (P1- California program; P2- diet of low-calcium; T3- diet of high-zinc and P4- diet of low-sodium in two replications constituted of four birds each. The biometric parameters occurred at 28th and 140nd days and for this, four birds were sacrificed of each program in the period cited. The bird corporal weight and the relative weight of the intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum and rectum were obtained on electronic precision scales and the lengths were measured. The data were submitted to the variance analysis and in case of significant difference; the averages were compared by the Tukey´s test. It was observed the commercial laying P1 and P3 the smallest mean body and relative weights (no significant and lengths in relation to the chickens P2 and P4 and to the 140th days the corporal weight, relative weight and length of the intestine of chickens were larger. Concluded that the different programs of forced molting presented similar results and they can be used for commercial laying hens in second production cycle.

    KEY WORDS: Digestory system, nutricional manage, physiology, postmolt.
    A muda forçada em poedeiras comerciais tem sido utilizada para melhorar o desempenho zootécnico das aves por mais um ciclo de produção de ovos. O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a biometria do intestino de poedeiras comerciais submetidas a diferentes programas de muda forçada. Trinta e duas aves da linhagem Hisex Brown com 58 semanas de idade foram distribuídas em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, constando de quatro programas de

  11. ASPECTOS FINANCIEROS DE LA REFORMA LOCAL

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    Amable Corcuera Torres

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizan los aspectos jurídico-financieros más relevantes que incluye la Ley 27/2013, de 27 de diciembre, de racionalización y sostenibilidad de la Administración Local. Las nuevas medidas incluidas en la citada Ley afectan tanto a los ingresos de los entes locales como a sus gastos. Al respecto, se abordan cuestiones relativas a los efectos económicos de la fusión de municipios, la supresión general de licencias, el contenido de los planes económico-financieros, el cálculo del coste efectivo de los servicios, el redimensionamiento del sector público local, la novedosa atribución a la Junta de Gobierno Local de la competencia para aprobar ciertos actos financieros, la disolución de entidades de ámbito territorial inferior al Municipio que no presenten sus cuentas antes de 31 de diciembre de 2014 o la posibilidad de reducir la deuda comercial o financiera a través de la venta de patrimonio público del suelo. In this work the most important legal and financial aspects including the Law 27/2013, of 27 December, rationalization and sustainability of local government are analyzed. The new measures included in that Act affect both the income of local authorities and their expenses. In this regard, issues concerning the economic effects of the merger of municipalities, the general abolition of licenses, the content of financial plans, the calculation of the actual cost of services, the local public sector downsizing, the novel addresses allocation to the Local Government of the power to grant certain financial actions, the dissolution of entities below the Municipality territory who do not submit their accounts before December 31, 2014 or the possibility of reducing the commercial or financial debt through the sale of public land heritage.

  12. The impact of intolerance of uncertainty, worry and irritability on quality of life in persons with epilepsy: irritability as mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barahmand, Usha; Haji, Afsar

    2014-10-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder afflicting many people in the world. The impact of epilepsy on the quality of life of those afflicted with epilepsy is greater than the limitations imposed by the seizures alone. Among the several psychological disorders found to be comorbid with epilepsy are anxiety and depression, both of which impair quality of life in epilepsy. Some studies have reported that the anxiety seen in epilepsy is characterized by worry while the depression seen is characterized by irritability. A concept common to both anxiety and depression is intolerance of uncertainty. Therefore, the study explores the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty, worry and irritability and their association to quality of life in epilepsy. A descriptive-correlational research method was used and the research sample comprised 60 consecutive referrals seeking outpatient neurological services for epilepsy at Alavi Hospital in Ardebil. Data were collected by administering the Penn State Worry Questionnaire, Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale, Irritability Questionnaire and Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory. Data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients and multivariate regression analysis. Mediation and moderation analyses were conducted. Findings indicated that intolerance of uncertainty, worry and irritability have unique significant effects on quality of life. The implications are that interventions aimed at improving the quality of life of patients with epilepsy should address their feelings of uncertainty, worry and irritability. Furthermore, irritability seems to mediate the impact of both intolerance of uncertainty and worry on quality of life of individuals with epilepsy. No significant moderation effects were noted. Results underscore the important role of irritability in the quality of life of persons with epilepsy. The findings are discussed with reference to the possibility of particular predisposing temperaments and add credence to

  13. Evaluation of Ocular Irritation and Bioavailability of Voriconazole Loaded Microemulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Sinha, Vivek Ranjan

    2017-01-01

    Voriconazole (VCZ), a second-generation antifungal with excellent attributes like, broad-spectrum activity, targeted delivery, and tolerability. VCZ loaded microemulsion could be an effective strategy for efficient ocular delivery of the drug. To perform corneal irritation studies and in vivo delivery of VCZ microemulsion to establish its potential as an efficient ocular delivery system. Ocular irritancy was performed by HETCAM (Hen's Egg Test Chorio Allantoic Membrane) assay, corneal histopathology and Draize test. Ex vivo and in vivo studies were performed to determine permeation efficiency of VCZ microemulsion. The irritation studies suggested the non-irritant nature of the microemulsion. The ex vivo studies performed on excised cornea displayed significant enhancement in drug permeation/penetration from microemulsion in contrast to the drug suspension. Further, the in vivo study confirmed the higher availability of VCZ (from microemulsion) in aqueous humor with minimal nasolacrimal drainage (lower plasma drug content) when compared with the drug suspension. The non-irritant nature and high corneal permeation of VCZ encourages the role of microemulsion as a potential ocular delivery system. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Molecular restrictions for human eye irritation by chemical vapors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cometto-Muniz, J. Enrique; Cain, William S.; Abraham, Michael H.

    2005-01-01

    Previous research showed a cut-off along homologous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in their ability to produce acute human mucosal irritation. The present study sought to specify the particular cut-off homolog for sensory eye irritation in an acetate and n-alcohol series. A 1900-ml glass vessel system and a three-alternative forced-choice procedure served to test nonyl, decyl, and dodecyl acetate, and 1-nonanol, 1-decanol, and 1-undecanol. Flowrate to the eye ranged from 2 to 8 L/min and time of exposure from 3 to 24 s. Decyl acetate and 1-undecanol were the shortest homologs that failed to produce eye irritation under all conditions, producing a cut-off effect. Increasing the vapor concentration of decyl acetate and 1-undecanol by 3 and 8 times, respectively, via heating them to 37 deg C made either or both VOCs detectable to only half of the 12 subjects tested, even though the higher vapor concentration was well above a predicted eye irritation threshold. When eye irritation thresholds for homologous acetates and n-alcohols were plotted as a function of the longest unfolded length of the molecule, the values for decyl acetate and 1-undecanol fell within a restricted range of 18 to 19 A. The outcome suggests that the basis for the cut-off is biological, that is, the molecule lacks a key size or structure to trigger transduction, rather than physical, that is, the vapor concentration is too low to precipitate detection

  15. Irritable bowel syndrome: the burden and unmet needs in Europe.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Quigley, E M M

    2012-02-03

    Irritable bowel syndrome affects approximately 10-15% of the European population, although prevalence rates vary depending on the classification used and the country surveyed. This may be due to differences in patterns of medical care and diagnosis of the condition. Up to 70% of individuals with irritable bowel syndrome may not have been formally diagnosed. The disorder affects 1.5-3 times as many women as men and poses a significant economic burden in Europe, estimated at euro 700-euro 1600 per person per year. It also reduces quality of life and is associated with psychological distress, disturbed work and sleep, and sexual dysfunction. It is a chronic disorder, which affects many individuals for more than 10 years. Most patients are managed in primary care, although some are referred to gastroenterologists and other specialists. Patients with irritable bowel syndrome undergo more abdomino-pelvic surgery than the general population. We propose that a positive diagnosis of the condition may avoid the delay in diagnosis many patients experience. We conclude that, in Europe, there are significant unmet needs including lack of familiarity with irritable bowel syndrome, difficulties in diagnosis and lack of effective treatments for the multiple symptoms of the disorder. The development of pan-European guidelines for irritable bowel syndrome will benefit patients with this condition in Europe.

  16. Occupational irritant contact dermatitis due to petroleum naphtha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aslı Aytekin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD is responsible for the vast majority of occupational contact dermatitis and usually seen in professional groups working with wet hand. However, today, with the increasing business lines, employees are exposed to a variety of irritants. Occupational exposure to many chemicals and toxic irritants affect not only the skin, but also the other systems. Therefore, this situation resulting with loss of work and changes in business may become a public health problem. The diagnosis of occupational contact dermatitis should not be limited only with tests for allergens, detailed history of exposure to workplace substances and careful examination of product safety forms are necessary. In addition, by establishing close relationship between occupational physicians and employers, preventive measures should be taken before similar diseases occur in other workers in the same work place. In order to highlight this issue, a 32-year-old male patient working in an invitation card fabric is presented in this case report. Irritant contact dermatitis secondary to “petroleum naphta” was present in the patient’s arms. Another important feature of this case, as far as we know, this is the first case of irritant contact dermatitis due to naphtha in the literature.

  17. Aspectos nutricionais e ambientais da obesidade canina

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    Karina Preising Aptekmann

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A obesidade é a doença nutricional mais frequente em cães, leva a uma série de alterações nas funções corporais e limita a longevidade dos animais. Vários fatores contribuem para o desenvolvimento da obesidade em cães, como genética, raça, idade, falta de atividade física, composição calórica dos alimentos, tipo e a forma de alimentação, distúrbios hormonais, medicamentos e fatores relacionados com os proprietários. Devido à falta de estudos sobre os aspectos nutricionais e ambientais envolvidos no desenvolvimento da obesidade canina, o presente trabalho objetivou obter estas informações por meio de enquetes a proprietários. Foram realizadas 254 entrevistas com proprietários de cães com sobrepeso ou obesos, atendidos em Hospitais Veterinários Universitários. Selecionaram-se cães com escore de condição corporal (ECC de 6 a 9, de acordo com escala descrita por LAFLAMME (1997. A maioria dos cães acometidos eram fêmeas adultas castradas, sem raça definida (33% ou Poodles (17%. De acordo com 36% dos respondentes, o excesso de alimento era a possível razão do ganho de peso dos animais. Apenas 52% dos proprietários tentaram realizar controle de peso do seu animal, principalmente reduzindo a quantidade de alimento. Não houve correlação entre a condição corporal do proprietário, nível de escolaridade, renda familiar e ambiente domiciliar dos proprietários com o ECC dos animais. As informações obtidas podem auxiliar na identificação dos fatores nutricionais e ambientais envolvidos no desenvolvimento da obesidade em cães, podendo adotar medidas preventivas e desenvolver melhores estratégias para o tratamento

  18. Antioxidant activity and irritation property of venoms from Apis species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somwongin, Suvimol; Chantawannakul, Panuwan; Chaiyana, Wantida

    2018-04-01

    Pharmacological effects of bee venom has been reported, however, it has been restricted to the bee venom collected from European honey bee (Apis mellifera). The aim of the present study was to compare the antioxidant activities and irritation properties of venoms collected from four different Apis species in Thailand, which includes Apis cerena (Asian cavity nesting honeybee), Apis florea (dwarf honeybee), Apis dorsata (giant honeybee), and A. mellifera. Melittin content of each bee venom extracts was investigated by using high-performance liquid chromatography. Ferric reducing antioxidant power, 2, 2'-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay were used to determine the antioxidant activity, whereas, hen's egg test chorioallantoic membrane assay was used to determine the irritation property of each bee venom extracts. Melittin was the major constituent in all bee venom extracts. The melittin content in A. dorsata, A. mellifera, A. florea, and A. cerena were 95.8 ± 3.2%, 76.5 ± 1.9%, 66.3 ± 8.6%, and 56.8 ± 1.8%, respectively. Bee venom extract from A. dorsata possessed the highest antioxidant activity with the inhibition of 41.1 ± 2.2% against DPPH, Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity of 10.21 ± 0.74 mM Trolox/mg and equivalent concentration (EC 1 ) of 0.35 ± 0.02 mM FeSO 4 /mg. Bee venom extract from A. mellifera exhibited the highest irritation, followed by A. cerena, A. dorsata, and A. florea, respectively. Melittin was the compound responsible for the irritation property of bee venom extracts since it could induce severe irritation (irritation score was 13.7 ± 0.5, at the concentration of 2 mg/ml). The extract from A. dorsata which possessed the highest antioxidant activity showed no irritation up to the concentration of 0.1 mg/ml. Therefore, bee venom extract from A. dorsata at the concentration not more than 0.1 mg/ml would be suggested for using

  19. Nem tudo que parece ser, é lesão: aspectos anatômicos, não lesões, artefatos, lesões sem significado clínico e alterações post mortem encontrados na necropsia de suínos domésticos e selvagens (Sus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel R. Rech

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A interpretação das alterações encontradas na necropsia é uma etapa importante para o sucesso do diagnóstico final. Este trabalho tem como objetivo descrever e ilustrar os aspectos anatômicos, não lesões, artefatos, lesões sem significado clínico e alterações post mortem encontradas em suínos domésticos e selvagens. Além disso, também se recomenda técnicas de colheita de tecidos para o diagnóstico de doenças que acometem essa espécie. Os principais aspectos anatômicos e não lesões descritos são fímbrias linguais, quadrilátero esofágico, toro pilórico e demarcação do padrão lobular do fígado (sistema gastrintestinal; tonsilas do palato mole, tecido linfoide associado ao estômago, placas de Peyer do intestino delgado e dobras da margem do baço (sistema hematopoiético; mediastino proeminente do testículo e aréolas da placenta (sistema reprodutor; atelectasia pulmonar e apêndice decidual (feto; e glândulas carpais (sistema tegumentar. Os artefatos de eutanásia abordados são petéquias na superfície do pulmão e rim, falsa anemia por sangria, hemorragia subdural por concussão cerebral, pseudo-infartos do baço e aspecto cerebriforme do intestino delgado. As lesões de pouco significado clínico descritas são cistos renais, linfonodos com pigmento de ferro, papilomas e hemangiomas no escroto, ossos no mesentério e hiperemia da mucosa gástrica. As alterações post mortem comumente encontradas são livor mortis, músculos pálidos, pseudomelanose e líquido serosanguinolento nas cavidades torácica e abdominal em fetos.

  20. Absorção de anticorpos do colostro em bezerros: II. Estudo no intestino delgado distal Colostral antibodies absorption in calves: II. Distal small intestine

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    Rosana Bessi

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar a morfologia e determinar a localização da enzima fosfatase ácida na região distal do intestino delgado de bezerros, do nascimento ao fechamento intestinal, foram coletadas amostras de 15 animais machos em três idades: ao nascer sem que houvesse a ingestão de colostro; três horas após a ingestão da primeira refeição de colostro e aos três dias de idade. Observou-se, ao nascimento, a presença de um grande vacúolo, que dominava todo o citoplasma das células epiteliais do jejuno distal e íleo. Após a ingestão de colostro, verificou-se o acúmulo de material absorvido nesses vacúolos. Foi detectada a reação de fosfatase ácida nas células absortivas de bezerros recém-nascidos, antes e após a ingestão de colostro. Aos três dias de idade, uma nova população de células geralmente não vacuoladas, com sistema endocítico apical reduzido, foi observada recobrindo as vilosidades intestinais. Portanto, em bezerros a maturação do epitélio absortivo do intestino delgado distal pode iniciar-se com o aumento da atividade enzimática nos vacúolos absortivos, culminando com a rápida substituição das células fetais por células diferenciadas não pinocíticas, o que determinaria o término da transferência de anticorpos maternos.The localization of acid phosphatase at distal small intestine and its morphology were studied f0rom birth to intestinal closure from fifteen male dairy calves aged: unsuckled neonatal, three hours after colostrum ingestion and three days old. At birth, the presence of a large vacuole was found and it expanded all over the epithelial cells cytoplasm at distal jejunum and ileum. For colostrum fed calves, ingested material could be observed in the vacuole. The phosphatase acid reaction was detected in the absorptive cells of suckled and unsuckled newborn calves. Calves aged three days old, a new population of non-vacuolated cells and reduced apical endocytic system were found

  1. Características histomorfométricas do intestino de juvenis de tambaqui após uso de probiótico na dieta e durante transporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celma M. Ferreira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se neste trabalho as características histomorfométricas da mucosa intestinal de tambaqui após uso de probiótico a base de Bacillus spp., veiculado na ração e dissolvido na água durante transporte. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos e sete repetições, sendo comparado um tratamento controle (peixes alimentados com ração comercial sem probiótico a dois outros tratamentos envolvendo o uso de probiótico comercial, veiculado na ração ou na água de transporte. Um total de 510 juvenis de tambaqui (peso e comprimento total médio inicial de 83,26±28,14g e 17,39±1,90cm, respectivamente foi distribuído em três tanques de alvenaria. Durante 60 dias, os peixes de dois tanques foram alimentados com ração comercial e os do terceiro tanque com ração comercial suplementada com probiótico. Após este período, os peixes de cada tanque foram divididos em sacos plásticos e transportados por 4 horas de acordo com os seguintes tratamentos: T1 = alimentação com ração comercial (controle; T2 = alimentação com ração comercial e probiótico adicionado na água durante o transporte (20mg/L; T3 = alimentação com ração comercial suplementada com probiótico (1,0g/kg de ração. Antes do transporte (basal, 24 e 96 horas após o transporte, oito peixes de cada tratamento foram submetidos a eutanásia e o intestino retirado para pesagem e mensuração do comprimento para estabelecimento da relação comprimento corporal/ intestino. Em seguida, foi realizada coleta da porção anterior e posterior do intestino, para avaliação das características morfo-histológicas da mucosa intestinal. O uso de probiótico durante o transporte não afetou o peso do intestino de juvenis de tambaqui. O comprimento do intestino do tambaqui não foi alterado pelo tratamento, sendo observada somente relação linear entre o comprimento intestinal e o comprimento corporal (CC dos peixes. A suplementação com

  2. Alimentação como fator de risco para câncer de intestino em universitários

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane Almeida

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analisar a qualidade da alimentação de universitários como fator de risco para câncer de intestino. Métodos: Estudo transversal com 100 universitários do curso de Gastronomia de uma instituição de ensino privada em Montes Claros, Minas Gerais. Aferiu-se o índice de massa corporal (IMC. Coletaram-se o comportamento alimentar, prática de atividade física e a frequência alimentar. Utilizou-se a análise descritiva. Resultados: A partir dos resultados, verificou-se que 46% (n=46 dos estudantes estavam com a massa corporal elevada, ou seja, IMC ≥ 25 kg/m2 (sobrepeso e obesidade. A análise dos hábitos alimentares demonstrou mudança de peso corporal em 44% dos entrevistados, destes 25% apresentou ganho de massa corporal. Dentre os entrevistados, 41% alegou consumir embutidos, pizzas e fast foods dentre outros, e 57% relatou consumir alimentos industrializados de 1 a 3 vezes por semana. Os alimentos ricos em açúcar (café com açúcar, refrigerantes e chocolate eram consumidos diariamente por 71%, 30% e 24% dos participantes. O consumo de grãos (chia, linhaça e quinoa foi relatado por 7%. Conclusão: Observou-se alto consumo de alimentos processados e/ou industrializados com alto teor de gorduras e açúcares, juntamente com uma baixa ingestão de grãos. Essa conjuntura alimentar associada a um estilo de vida sedentário são fatores de risco para a instalação de um quadro de neoplasia.

  3. The evaluation of the local tolerance of vaginal formulations containing dapivirine using the Slug Mucosal Irritation test and the rabbit vaginal irritation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhondt, Marijke M M; Adriaens, Els; Roey, Jens Van; Remon, Jean Paul

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the local tolerance of vaginal gels (three gels containing dapivirine, the placebo gel, and Conceptrol) with the Slug Mucosal Irritation test and to compare the results with those of the rabbit vaginal irritation test. The irritation potential on the slug mucosa was assessed by the mucus production caused by a repeated treatment for 5 successive days. Additionally, membrane damage was estimated by the protein and enzyme release. By means of a classification prediction model the formulations were classified into four irritation classes. The effect of a 10-day intravaginal application of the gels on the rabbit vaginal and cervical mucosa was evaluated by means of macroscopic and microscopic examination. The placebo and dapivirine gels induced no irritation of the slug mucosa (low mucus production and protein release, no enzyme release) and no vaginal or cervical irritation in rabbits. Conceptrol caused severe irritation of the slug mucosa (increased mucus production, protein release, and enzyme release) and irritation of the rabbit vagina and cervix. The results obtained with the Slug Mucosal Irritation test were comparable to those of the rabbit vaginal irritation test.

  4. Aspectos nutricionales del búfalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Mendes Jorge

    2011-11-01

    necesario para mantener al animal en un estado saludable donde puedan expresar su potencial reproductivo de acuerdo con el nivel de producción deseado en condiciones específicas de ambientales y de alimentación (Paul & Lal, 2010. El presente texto fue escrito con la intención de abordar algunos aspectos nutricionales del búfalo, exponiendo lo más actual sobre el tema y de esa forma aclarar las posibles dudas sobre las normas de alimentación para esta especie.

  5. Acupuncture for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manheimer, Eric; Cheng, Ke; Wieland, L. Susan; Min, Li Shih; Shen, Xueyong; Berman, Brian M; Lao, Lixing

    2013-01-01

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common, costly, and difficult to treat disorder that impairs health-related quality of life and work productivity. Evidence-based treatment guidelines have been unable to provide guidance on the effects of acupuncture for IBS because the only previous systematic review included only small, heterogeneous and methodologically unsound trials. Objectives The primary objectives were to assess the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for treating IBS. Search methods MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health, and the Chinese databases Sino-Med, CNKI, and VIP were searched through November 2011. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared acupuncture with sham acupuncture, other active treatments, or no (specific) treatment, and RCTs that evaluated acupuncture as an adjuvant to another treatment, in adults with IBS were included. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data. We extracted data for the outcomes overall IBS symptom severity and health-related quality of life. For dichotomous data (e.g. the IBS Adequate Relief Question), we calculated a pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for substantial improvement in symptom severity after treatment. For continuous data (e.g. the IBS Severity Scoring System), we calculated the standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% CI in post-treatment scores between groups. Main results Seventeen RCTs (1806 participants) were included. Five RCTs compared acupuncture versus sham acupuncture. The risk of bias in these studies was low.We found no evidence of an improvement with acupuncture relative to sham (placebo) acupuncture for symptom severity (SMD-0.11, 95%CI −0.35 to 0.13; 4 RCTs; 281 patients) or quality of life (SMD = −0.03, 95%CI −0.27 to 0.22; 3 RCTs; 253 patients). Sensitivity analyses based on study

  6. Homeopathy for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, Emily J; Nelson, E Andrea; Greenhalgh, Joanne; Cooper, Katy; Roberts, E Rachel; Agrawal, Anurag

    2013-11-13

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common, chronic disorder that leads to decreased health-related quality of life and work productivity. Evidence-based treatment guidelines have not been able to give guidance on the effects of homeopathic treatment for IBS because no systematic reviews have been carried out to assess the effectiveness of homeopathic treatment for IBS. Two types of homeopathic treatment were evaluated in this systematic review. In clinical homeopathy a specific remedy is prescribed for a specific condition. This differs from individualised homeopathic treatment, where a homeopathic remedy based on a person's individual symptoms is prescribed after a detailed consultation. To assess the effectiveness and safety of homeopathic treatment for treating IBS. We searched MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), Cochrane IBD/FBD Group Specialised Register, Cochrane Complementary Medicine Field Specialised Register and the database of the Homeopathic Library (Hom-inform) from inception to February 2013. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cohort and case-control studies that compared homeopathic treatment with placebo, other control treatments, or usual care, in adults with IBS were considered for inclusion. Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data. The primary outcome was global improvement in IBS. The overall quality of the evidence supporting this outcome was assessed using the GRADE criteria. We calculated the mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for continuous outcomes and the risk ratio (RR) and 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. Three RCTs (213 participants) were included. No cohort or case-control studies were identified. Two studies published in 1976 and 1979 compared clinical homeopathy (homeopathic remedy) to placebo for constipation-predominant IBS

  7. Terapia nutricional oral em pacientes com Síndrome do Intestino Curto Oral dietetic therapy in patients with Short Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Barbosa NONINO

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A Síndrome do Intestino Curto representa um dos quadros mais sérios e graves de má-absorção e a terapêutica dietética destes pacientes é um desafio importante a ser enfrentado. Este trabalho teve como objetivo descrever a terapia dietética via oral e a sua participação em evitar a desnutrição protéico-energética em portadores de Síndrome do Intestino Curto seguidos na Unidade Metabólica da Divisão de Nutrologia do Departamento de Clínica Médica da Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo. Foram acompanhados 12 pacientes, 7 homens e 5 mulheres, idade de 55 ± 10 anos, por um período de 24 meses. Eles receberam, concomitantemente à nutrição parenteral central ou periférica, dieta via oral fracionada em 7 a 8 refeições/dia, em intervalos regulares e constantes, com pequeno volume por refeição, hipogordurosa e restrita em açúcares simples e fibras insolúveis. As refeições eram isoenergéticas, isoprotéicas, sendo oferecidas em média 35 kcal/kg/dia e 1,5 g de proteína/kg/dia. Inicialmente eram oferecidos 25 a 50% do planejado e a variação de alimentos era restrita a 1 ou 2 alimentos. Com aceitação progressiva a oferta total de nutrientes era alcançada em 40 a 50 dias. Os resultados mostraram que 59% dos pacientes seguiram as orientações em relação ao consumo energético e 100% apresentaram ingestão protéica em quantidade adequada. Ao final do estudo cerca de 50% dos pacientes apresentaram índice de massa corporal dentro da faixa de normalidade e 92%, valores normais nos níveis de albumina sérica. Considerando o déficit absortivo destes pacientes, o esquema proposto mostrou-se positivo no tratamento da Síndrome do Intestino Curto.The Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS is one of the most serious and dangerous causes of malabsorption and the dietetic therapy is an important challenge to be faced. This study describes the oral dietetic therapy for all patients with Short Bowel

  8. Determinação do sistema endócrino difuso nos intestinos de três Teleostei (Pisces de água doce com hábitos alimentares diferentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seixas Filho José Teixeira de

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi o de verificar a presença de células endócrinas nos intestinos médio e posterior, ou reto, e nos cecos pilóricos de três espécies tropicais de peixes Teleostei de água doce com hábitos alimentares diferentes: piracanjuba, (Brycon orbignyanus e piau (Leporinus friderici, onívoro; e surubim (Pseudoplatystoma coruscans, carnívoro. Para tanto, foram utilizados sete exemplares da piracanjuba, com médias de peso e comprimento-padrão de 410,16 ± 66,33 g e 27,42 ± 1,17 cm, respectivamente, 13 exemplares de piau com médias de 77,71 ± 24,31 g e 14,84 ± 1,56 cm de peso e comprimento-padrão, respectivamente; e cinco exemplares do surubim com médias de peso e comprimento-padrão de 309,91 ± 94,23 g e 32,70 ± 1,79 cm, respectivamente. Pode-se constatar a presença de células endócrinas do "tipo aberto" nos segmentos referentes aos intestinos médio e posterior das espécies onívoras e do "tipo fechado" no intestino médio e no reto da espécie carnívora. As células argirófilas foram observadas entre as células absortivas do epitélio intestinal. Os resultados permitem concluir que a presença de células endócrinas nas espécies estudadas pode indicar que estas atuam no mecanismo de controle da absorção dos nutrientes do alimento.

  9. Benzalkonium chloride neutralizes the irritant effect of sodium dodecyl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, J P; Holloway, D B; Whittle, E G; Basketter, D A

    2000-11-01

    When benzalkonium chloride (BKC), a cationic surfactant, is added to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), an anionic surfactant, and used in patch testing, on the basis of their known physicochemical interaction, it is possible to predict that there will be a tendency towards a reduction in the expected irritant response when compared to SDS alone. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BKC could reduce the irritant response to SDS when applied after the SDS exposure. 54 non-atopic adult volunteers were recruited for the study. 20% SDS was applied for 2 h under occlusion. 1% BKC was then applied to the same site. Various controls, including SDS application followed by water for 2 h, were included. The irritant reaction was assessed at 24 h and 48 h. 40 of the 54 subjects had some reaction when SDS was applied for 2 h followed by either benzalkonium chloride or water control under occlusion. In comparison to water control, where BKC was applied after SDS, 20 of the 40 responders had a weaker reaction but only 4 had a stronger response. This study shows that BKC applied to skin exposed to SDS attenuates the resulting irritant reaction.

  10. Respon Konsumen pada Mobile Advergames: Intrusiveness dan Irritation

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    Sony Kusumasondjaja

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Increasing adoption of mobile advergames to deliver marketing messages has not been followed by empirical findings to support its effectiveness. This research attempts to examine the effect of mobile advergames intrusiveness on consumer irritation, attitudes, and purchase intention. This investigation on mobile advergame effectiveness was based on the increasing use of mobile media to deliver marketing messages to consumers from different demographic background. Conceptual framework was developed based on Advertising Avoidance Theory. For data collection, self-administered survey was conducted by adopting purposive sampling involving 213 respondents residing in Surabaya who have had experience in playing mobile game as respondents. Results indicate that intrusiveness positively affects consumer irritation. Consumer irritation negatively affects attitude towards the mobile advergames and attitude towards the advertised product. The better the consumer attitude towards the mobile advergames, the more positive the attitude towards the advertised product. Moreover, the more positive the attitude towards the advertised product, the greater the consumer intention to purchase. Interestingly, consumer attitude toward the mobile advergames has insignificant influence on purchase intention. Findings of the study offer significant contribution to marketing practices using mobile advergames as media placement in their advertising strategy. Keywords: intrusiveness, irritation, mobile advergames, attitude, advertising

  11. Pediatric Mania: The Controversy between Euphoria and Irritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Giulia; Uchida, Mai; Battaglia, Claudia; Casini, Maria Pia; De Chiara, Lavinia; Biederman, Joseph; Vicari, Stefano; Wozniak, Janet

    2017-04-01

    Pediatric Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a highly morbid pediatric psychiatric disease, consistently associated with family psychiatric history of mood disorders and associated with high levels of morbidity and disability and with a great risk of suicide. While there is a general consensus on the symptomatology of depression in childhood, the phenomenology of pediatric mania is still highly debated and the course and long-term outcome of pediatric BD still need to be clarified. We reviewed the available studies on the phenomenology of pediatric mania with the aim of summarizing the prevalence, demographics, clinical correlates and course of these two types of pediatric mania. Eighteen studies reported the number of subjects presenting with either irritable or elated mood during mania. Irritability has been reported to be the most frequent clinical feature of pediatric mania reaching a sensitivity of 95-100% in several samples. Only half the studies reviewed reported on number of episodes or cycling patterns and the described course was mostly chronic and ultra-rapid whereas the classical episodic presentation was less common. Few long-term outcome studies have reported a diagnostic stability of mania from childhood to young adult age. Future research should focus on the heterogeneity of irritability aiming at differentiating distinct subtypes of pediatric psychiatric disorders with distinct phenomenology, course, outcome and biomarkers. Longitudinal studies of samples attending to mood presentation, irritable versus elated, and course, chronic versus episodic, may help clarify whether these are meaningful distinctions in the course, treatment and outcome of pediatric onset bipolar disorder.

  12. The assessment of irritation using clinical methods and questionnaires

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Hogdson, M.

    2001-01-01

    , and hyperemia. Methods for detecting nasal mucosa irritation include measuring swelling of the nasal mucosa, peak airflows through the nose, acoustic rhinometry, and rhinostereometry, which measures thickness of the anterior nasal turbinate. Questionnaires are useful for defining a set of symptoms in an attempt...

  13. The rectum: a window to irritable bowel syndrome?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coremans, G.; Azpiroz, F.; Collins, S.; Dapoigny, M.; Müller-Lissner, S. A.; Pace, F.; Smout, A.; Stockbrügger, R. W.; Whorwell, P. J.

    2002-01-01

    This report summarizes current concepts and information gathered to date about the rectum in the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) that were presented at the 10th meeting of IBiS Club held in Leuven, Belgium. A working group of experts in the field of IBS discussed whether the rectum or the whole colon

  14. PAINFUL IRRITABLE-BOWEL-SYNDROME AND SIGMOID CONTRACTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    RITSEMA, GH; THIJN, CJP

    Fifteen patients with abdominal pain compatible with the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were examined by barium enema and pressure recording. Strong circular contractions of the sigmoid colon and pressure recordings correlated with the characteristic pain in 13 of the 15 patients. In 15 control

  15. Food avoidance in irritable bowel syndrome leads to a nutrition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-26

    Mar 26, 2013 ... Keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, dietary intake, fibre, fructose ... leads to its delivery into the colonic lumen, together with water, because of its osmotic ..... glucose ratio is 55:45), and secondly to fruits with a high fructose content. .... was from high-fructose corn syrup in sweetened cold drinks. The IBS ...

  16. Can fecal microbiota transplantation cure irritable bowel syndrome?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær, Sofie Ingdam; Boolsen, Anders Watt; Günther, Stig

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To verify the utility of treatment with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: We searched EMBASE, Cochrane Library and PubMed in March, 2017. The reviewed literature was based on two systematic searches in each of the databases. The Me...

  17. Postanaesthetic tear production and ocular irritation in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peche, N; Köstlin, R; Reese, S; Pieper, K

    2015-01-01

    General anaesthesia significantly reduces tear production and normal values are not immediately re-established on ending anaesthesia. Therefore, adequate protection of the cornea has to be assured during the perianaesthetic period. There are various methods available, including taping of the eyelids and the application of eye ointments, gels and drops. In human medicine studies, different formulations were found to induce signs of ocular irritation. The aim of the present study was to determine tear production in cats after general anaesthesia, and to identify possible causes of irritation. Tear production was determined in 41 cats after general anaesthesia and eyes were examined for signs of irritation. Two different anaesthetic protocols were used. To protect the cornea, an ointment and gel were applied to the right and left eyes, respectively. Postoperatively, tear production was significantly reduced for 6 hours and 18 hours in the right and left eyes, respectively. Two hours after anaesthesia, blepharospasm of the right eye was observed in 92.7% (n = 38) of the cats. In contrast, the left eye was always held open. This study demonstrated that tear production in cats is significantly decreased both during and after anaesthesia. The degree of reduction was independent of the anaesthetic protocol. Both the eye ointment and gel proved effective in protecting the corneal surface. However, eye gel use is recommended because the eye ointment consistently caused an irritation comparable to the foreign-body sensation reported in humans.

  18. Gastric emptying and dyspeptic symptoms in the irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, H. J.; Smout, A. J.; Akkermans, L. M.; Roelofs, J. M.; ten Thije, O. J.

    1992-01-01

    Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have symptoms suggestive of disturbances in gastric emptying, but so far no abnormalities in gastric emptying have been demonstrated in these patients. We studied gastric emptying of a solid meal with a 99mTc-labeled pancake in 16 healthy volunteers

  19. Human volunteer study with PGME: Eye irritation during vapour exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmen, H.H.; Muijser, H.; Arts, J.H.E.; Prinsen, M.K.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the possible occurrence of eye irritation and subjective symptoms in human volunteers exposed to propylene glycol monomethyl ether (PGME) vapour at concentrations of 0, 100 and 150 ppm. Testing was conducted in 12 healthy male volunteers using a repeated

  20. Ectopic decidual reaction mimicking irritable bowel syndrome: a case report.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Salehgargari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic decidualization with gross involvement of the peritoneum is one of the rare findings in pregnant women particularly when ectopic decidualization disseminated as an asymptomatic intra-abdominal nodule. We present here a case of an ectopic decidualization in a 33-year-old pregnant woman with symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome during pregnancy.

  1. The Role of Mast Cells in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Oh Young

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders, but its treatment is unsatisfactory as its pathophysiology is multifactorial. The putative factors of IBS pathophysiology are visceral hypersensitivity and intestinal dysmotility, also including psychological factors, dysregulated gut-brain axis, intestinal microbiota alterations, impaired intestinal permeability, and mucosal immune alterations. Recently, mucosal immune alterations have received mu...

  2. Irritable Bowel Syndrome in a Population of African Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvester Chuks Nwokediuko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Functional dyspepsia is the prototype functional gastrointestinal disorder. This study was designed to determine its prevalence, subtypes, and risk factors associated with the subtypes. Method. Patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms who presented for endoscopy were administered a questionnaire containing the functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome modules of the Rome III diagnostic criteria. Results. Of 192 patients who had functional dyspepsia, epigastric pain syndrome, postprandial distress syndrome, and combination of the two subtypes accounted for 79.2%, 62.5%, and 50%, respectively. Multivariate analysis of the risk factors showed that independent predictors of postprandial distress syndrome were alcohol and irritable bowel syndrome while irritable bowel syndrome was independent predictor of epigastric pain syndrome. Alcohol, smoking, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were independent predictors of cooccurrence of postprandial distress syndrome and epigastric pain syndrome. Conclusion. Functional dyspepsia accounts for 62.5% of dyspepsia in a population of black African patients. Regarding symptomatology, epigastric pain syndrome, postprandial distress syndrome, and combination of the two subtypes account for 79.2%, 62.5%, and 50%, respectively. Risk factors for functional dyspepsia are irritable bowel syndrome, alcohol, smoking, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

  3. Treatment of abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanuytsel, Tim; Tack, Jan F.; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.

    2014-01-01

    Functional abdominal pain in the context of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a challenging problem for primary care physicians, gastroenterologists and pain specialists. We review the evidence for the current and future non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options targeting the central

  4. [Current issues on irritable bowel syndrome: diet and irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong Hwan; Sung, In-Kyung

    2014-09-25

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorders. It is a multifactorial disorder with its pathogenesis attributed to abnormal gastrointestinal motility, low-grade inflammation, visceral hypersensitivity, communication in the gut-brain axis, and so on. Traditionally, IBS has been treated with diet and lifestyle modification, fiber supplementation, psychological therapy, and pharmacological treatment. Carbohydrates are intermingled with a wide range of regularly consumed food including grains such as rye and wheat, vegetables, fruits, and legumes. Short-chain carbohydrates that are poorly absorbed exert osmotic effects in the intestinal lumen increasing its water volume, and are rapidly fermented by bacteria with consequent gas production. These effects may be the basis for the induction of most of the gastrointestinal symptoms. This has led to the use of lactose-free diets in those with lactose intolerance and of fructose-reduced diets for fructose malabsorption. As all poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates have similar and additive effects in the intestine, a concept has been developed to regard them collectively as FODMAPs (fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols) and to evaluate a dietary approach that restricts them all. Based on the observational and comparative studies, and randomized-controlled trials, FODMAPs have been shown to trigger gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with IBS. Food choice via the low FODMAPs and potentially other dietary strategies is now a realistic and efficacious therapeutic approach for managing symptoms of IBS.

  5. Cutaneous irritancy of an ibuprofen medicated plaster in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maganji, Manisha; Connolly, Mark P; Bhatt, Aomesh

    2018-04-01

    To assess the irritation and contact sensitization potential of a 200 mg ibuprofen medicated plaster. This double-blind, phase-1 placebo controlled study had two phases; the induction phase to evaluate the irritant potential of continuous application of the plaster, and the challenge phase to assess contact sensitivity (allergy). The cumulative irritancy potential was evaluated using an adaptation of the Shelanski method. Healthy adults (≥18 years of age) (N = 210) were treated simultaneously with one ibuprofen medicated and one placebo plaster applied in a randomized fashion to either the left or right side of the lower back. During the induction phase, plasters were applied on Days 1, 3, 5, 8, 10, 12, 15, 17, and 19 and the final plaster removed on Day 22. At each scheduled visit plasters and applications sites were assessed for degree of adhesion and skin irritation (score of 1 = no irritation to 7 = strong reaction spreading beyond test sites), respectively. The challenge phase followed a two-week washout period. A plaster was applied on Day 36 for 48 h and assessment occurred on Days 38, 39, and 40. The mean cumulative irritation score during the induction phase was lower for the ibuprofen medicated plaster than the placebo plaster (0.32 vs. 1.23, respectively). Three (1.4%) subjects experience a dermal reaction of grade ≥3 for the ibuprofen medicated plaster compared with 27 (12.7%) for the placebo plaster. Following challenge with ibuprofen or placebo plasters, 12 subjects (6.2%) with the ibuprofen medicated plaster and four (2.2%) with the placebo plaster had skin reaction of assessment grade higher than the induction phase. One subject for the ibuprofen and two for the placebo plaster had reactions with grade >2. No subjects showed an increase in sensitization on Day 39 or 40 compared with Day 38. The findings indicate that the both the irritancy and contact sensitization of the ibuprofen medicated plaster is acceptable.

  6. Evaluación de Lactobacillus plantarum en intestino grueso de lechones por microscopía electrónica y química sanguínea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Jurado G.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la presencia de Lactobacillus plantarum en intestino grueso de lechones. Materiales y métodos. 50 lechones fueron asignados al azar a 5 tratamientos (n=10. (T0: sin probiótico; T1: con L. plantarum 1 H1; T2: con L. plantarum 1 H2; T3: con probiótico comercial; T4: sin probiótico comercial. Después de los tratamientos, 3 lechones de cada grupo fueron seleccionados aleatoriamente para obtener muestras de intestino grueso para análisis por microscopía electrónica y suero para química sanguínea. La inmunoglobulina A (IgA se hizo por turbidimetría; colesterol total y nitrógeno ureico (BUN por espectofotometría. El recuento diferencial de leucocitos y polimorfonucleares (PMN neutrófilos mediante extendido de sangre. Resultados. Se comprobó la adhesión de L. plantarum 1 H1 y y L. plantarum 1 H2 en el intestino grueso. Se observó secreción de mucina y en la lámina propia inflamación y edema del tejido conectivo. La IgA mostró concentraciones altas en T2 (L. plantarum 1 H1 con 333 mg/100 mL y T3 (L. plantarum 1 H2 con 300 mg/100 mL. Los valores en T3 y T2 en los polimorfonucleares neutrófilos fueron elevados (65% y 55% respectivamente. El colesterol total fue menor en T2 y T3 con valores de 113.83 y 93.8 mg% respectivamente. El BUN para T2 y T3 fue el más bajo con 7.83 y 8.76 mg% respectivamente. Conclusiones. La utilización de probióticos con L. plantarum 1 adicionado en la ración mostró un efecto positivo en la colonización y adhesión en el intestino grueso, así como, una respuesta positiva en su sistema inmune.

  7. Liver disease associated with intestinal failure in the small bowel syndrome Doença hepática associada à falência intestinal na síndrome do intestino curto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Kemp

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of the Total Parenteral Nutrition (TPN has given rise to a new hope in the treatment of intestinal failure (LF associated with the Short Bowel Syndrome (SBS. However, together with the TPN and the increase of survival of these patients, new problems and questions have emerged, as well as new therapeutical procedures. Taking into consideration this emerging reality, this paper has the purpose to undertake a review of current concepts and available treatments for patients with IF associated-liver disease. Although TPN provides an increase of survival of patients with intestinal failure, it is a potential source of complication such as: septicemia, hyperglycemia, venous thrombosis and liver disease. There are several hypothesis conceived to explain the liver disease associated to intestinal failure, however the only definite treatment as a potential to reverse the non-cirrhotic liver disease is the small intestine transplantation. Despite indications for intestine transplantation are not entirely defined in literature, the trend is its early indication in high-risk patients, preserving the liver integrity and preventing the eventual need of both liver and intestine transplantations altogether.A introdução da Nutrição Parenteral Total (NPT despertou uma nova esperança para o tratamento da falência intestina (FI associada a Síndrome do Intestino Curto (SIC. No entanto, junto com a NPT e o aumento da sobrevida destes pacientes, novos problemas e perguntas emergiram, assim como novas terapêuticas. Tendo em vista esta realidade emergente, o intuito deste artigo é realizar uma revisão dos conceitos atuais e dos tratamentos disponíveis para pacientes com doença hepática associada a FI. A NPT apesar de proporcionar aumento da sobrevida nos pacientes com falência intestinal é fonte potencial de complicações, como: septicemia, hiperglicemia, trombose venosa e doença hepática. Diversas são as hipóteses aventadas para

  8. Newborn Irritability Moderates the Association between Infant Attachment Security and Toddler Exploration and Sociability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stupica, Brandi; Sherman, Laura J.; Cassidy, Jude

    2011-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation of 84 infants examined whether the effect of 12-month attachment on 18- and 24-month exploration and sociability with unfamiliar adults varied as a function of newborn irritability. As expected, results revealed an interaction between attachment (secure vs. insecure) and irritability (highly irritable vs. moderately…

  9. Respiratory irritation by trimellitic anhydride in Brown Norway and Wistar rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Koning, M.W.de; Bloksma, N.; Kuper, C.F.

    2001-01-01

    Several acid anhydrides are known for their sensitizing and irritative properties. Since both irritation and respiratory allergy can cause changes of lung function, proper testing of allergen-dependent effects on the respiratory tract requires knowledge of the respiratory irritant effects. To study

  10. Irritant potential of some constituents from oleo-gum-resin of Commiphora myrrha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, M Asif; Sabir, A W

    2004-01-01

    The irritant potentials of essential oil and seven sesquiterpenoids compounds newly isolated from the oleo-gum-resin of Commiphora myrrha were investigated by open mouse ear assay. The essential oil, curzerenone, furanodiene-6-one and furanoeudesma-1,3-diene showed potent and persistent irritant effects while others possess least irritant potentials.

  11. Preparation of irritant polymer samples for an in vitro round robin study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coleman, Kelly P; Grailer, Thomas P; McNamara, Lori R; Rollins, Beau L; Christiano, Nicholas J; Kandárová, Helena; De Jong, Wim H

    2018-01-01

    A round robin study using reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) tissues was conducted to test medical device polymer extracts for skin irritation potential. Test samples were four irritant and three non-irritant medical device polymers. Five of these polymer samples were developed and two were

  12. Emulsifiers' composition modulates venous irritation of the nanoemulsions as a lipophilic and venous irritant drug delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Chengwen; Wan, Jiangling; Chen, Huabing; Xu, Huibi; Yang, Xiangliang

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a nanoemulsion (NE) system was investigated for intravenous delivery of lipophilic and venous irritant drugs. NEs were prepared to deliver diallyl trisulfide (DT) for systemic therapy of bacterial and fungal infection, egg phospholipid was chosen as the main emulsifier, and two co-emulsifiers were also incorporated, including Poloxamer 188 (P188) and Solutol HS 15 (S15). Soybean oil was used as the dispersed phases, forming stable DT NEs with small particle sizes. The venous irritation of DT NEs was evaluated by in vitro human umbilical cord endothelial cells (CRL 1730) compatibility model with the intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and guanosine triphosphate (GTP) concentrations as the indices. The intracellular ATP and GTP reduction changed with the incorporation of a variety of co-emulsifiers, which varied in a free DT concentration-dependent manner. It was deduced that the free DT concentrations of NEs containing co-emulsifiers were determined by the partition coefficient of DT between oil and surfactant buffer solution. In conclusion, NE was an appropriate delivery system for lipophilic and venous irritant drug, and optimization of the composition of emulsifiers was an effective method to alleviate the venous irritation of DT NEs.

  13. From topical antidote against skin irritants to a novel counter-irritating and anti-inflammatory peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, Berta; Erlanger-Rosengarten, Avigail; Proscura, Elena; Shapira, Elena; Wormser, Uri

    2008-01-01

    The primary purpose of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of the counter-irritating activity of topical iodine against skin lesions induced by chemical and thermal stimuli. The hypothesis that iodine exerts its activity by inducing an endogenous anti-inflammatory factor was confirmed by exposing guinea pig skin to heat stimulus followed by topical iodine treatment and skin extraction. Injection of the extract into naive guinea pigs reduced heat-induced irritation by 69%. The protective factor, identified as a new nonapeptide (histone H2A 36-44, H-Lys-Gly-Asn-Tyr-Ala-Glu-Arg-Ileu-Ala-OH), caused reduction of 40% in irritation score in heat-exposed guinea pigs. The murine analog (H-Lys-Gly-His-Tyr-Ala-Glu-Arg-Val-Gly-OH, termed IIIM1) reduced sulfur mustard (SM)-induced ear swelling at a dose-dependent bell-shape manner reaching peak activity of 1 mg/kg. Cultured keratinocytes transfected with the peptide were more resistant towards SM than the control cells. The peptide suppressed oxidative burst in activated neutrophils in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the peptide reduced glucose oxidase-induced skin edema in mice at a dose-dependent bell-shape manner. Apart from thermal and chemical-induced skin irritation this novel peptide might be of potential use in chronic dermal disorders such as psoriasis and pemphigus as well as non-dermal inflammatory diseases like multiple sclerosis, arthritis and colitis

  14. Aspectos del dengue investigados en Santander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Martínez

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Entre 1998 y 2003 se registraron en Colombia 256,831 casos de dengue (22,834 de dengue hemorrágico DH de los cuales 41,325 (36% fueron en Santander (3,265 DH (1,2. En este período ocurrieron brotes en 1998 y 2001 observándose incremento de casos severos en el segundo (2. Por otro lado, existen inconvenientes con el diagnóstico que dificultan el manejo clínico oportuno y la vigilancia epidemiológica. Como consecuencia, los siguientes aspectos han sido investigados:

    1 Contribución de la circulación de los serotipos/genotipos al incremento del dengue hemorrágico, considerando que la entrada o emergencia de éstos se han asociado con epidemias (3. Entre 1998 y 2004 se hicieron 1,180 intentos de aislamiento viral en células C6/36 (4, detectándose los 4 serotipos. El DEN-2 se aisló todos los años con mayor frecuencia durante los brotes (43% y 40% de los cepas; el DEN-1 se detectó entre 1998 y 2001, siendo el prevalente en el primer brote (57%, pero el menos en el segundo (4%; el DEN-3 se detectó en el brote del 2001 con similar frecuencia al DEN-2 (36%, por primera vez en Colombia luego de 23 años ausente, y fue el prevalerte entre 2002-2004 (92% de los aislados, aunque en estos años no se reportó incremento del DH (2; el DEN-4 se aisló solo en el 2000 (27% y en el brote del 2001 (20%. El genotipo de cada serotipo se identificó por análisis de RSS-PCR (5,6. Se encontraron el subtipo A (ó III, C (ó I y B (ó II de los serotipos 2, 1 y 4, similares a los que están circulando en países de América y oriundos del Asia. Los DEN-3 fueron del subtipo C (ó III iguales al virus que entró en América en 1994 oriundo de Sri-Lanka, India. Los genotipos del 2 y 3 encontrados en Santander producen con mayor frecuencia DH (3,7.

    ASPECTOS ERGONÔMICOS E POSTURAIS EM CENTRO DE MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neusa Maria Cosía Alexandre

    Full Text Available Determinados fatores ambientais inadequados podem provocar lesões na coluna vertebral. Este trabalho discute certos aspectos ergonômicos e posturais específicos em Centro de Material com o objetivo de desenvolver uma consciência crítica a respeito dos efeitos do local de trabalho sobre a saúde.

  15. Meningites bacterianas no lactente aspectos neurológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Valeriana L. de Moura-Ribeiro

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspectos clínicos, neurológicos e laboratoriais das meningites bacterianas agudas no lactente são criticamente analisados em função da experiência da autora. São apresentadas considerações fisiopatológicas sobre os eventos que ocorrem na fase aguda desses processos.

  16. Enteroscopia de doble balón para el diagnóstico de las enfermedades del intestino delgado en los niños Double-balloon enteroscope for the diagnosis of small intestine diseases in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Rubén Hernández Garcés

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. La enteroscopia de doble balón (EDB es un nuevo método que permite la visualización completa de la luz del intestino delgado. La presente investigación se realizó con el objetivo de evaluar la experiencia en la realización de esta técnica en niños atendidos en el Servicio de Endoscopia Pediátrica del Instituto Cubano de Gastroenterología. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo para evaluar la seguridad, eficacia y extensión de exploración de la enteroscopia de doble balón en el diagnóstico de las enfermedades del intestino delgado en niños. Para ello fueron estudiados 8 pacientes con examen físico y complementarios negativos de enfermedad del intestino delgado, atendidos entre noviembre de 2008 y octubre de 2009. En 3 de los 8 pacientes existía la sospecha clínica y radiológica de enfermedad de Crohn; en otros 3, la sospecha de tumor de intestino delgado y los restantes fueron atendidos por presentar sangramiento oculto de origen intestinal. RESULTADOS. Se practicaron 7 procedimientos por vía retrógrada y 2 por vía anterógrada; a un paciente se le realizó enteroscopia total empleando ambas vías. La duración media de la EDB por vía oral fue de 62,5 min, con un intervalo de 60 a 65 min y por la vía anal fue de 50,7 min, con intervalo de 45 a 60 min. En todos los casos se logró identificar alguna lesión que explicara los síntomas. CONCLUSIÓN. La enteroscopia de doble balón es un método seguro para el diagnóstico de enfermedades del intestino delgado en los niños.INTRODUCTION. The double balloon enteroscope (DBE is a new method allows the whole visualization of the small intestine lumen. The objective of present research was to assess the experience in the carrying out of this technique in children seen in the Pediatric Endoscopy Service of the Cuban Institute of Gastroenterology. METHODS. A retrospective and descriptive study was conducted to assess the accuracy, effectiveness

  17. Pediatric Mania: The Controversy between Euphoria and Irritability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Giulia; Uchida, Mai; Battaglia, Claudia; Casini, Maria Pia; De Chiara, Lavinia; Biederman, Joseph; Vicari, Stefano; Wozniak, Janet

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Pediatric Bipolar Disorder (BD) is a highly morbid pediatric psychiatric disease, consistently associated with family psychiatric history of mood disorders and associated with high levels of morbidity and disability and with a great risk of suicide. While there is a general consensus on the symptomatology of depression in childhood, the phenomenology of pediatric mania is still highly debated and the course and long-term outcome of pediatric BD still need to be clarified. We reviewed the available studies on the phenomenology of pediatric mania with the aim of summarizing the prevalence, demographics, clinical correlates and course of these two types of pediatric mania. Eighteen studies reported the number of subjects presenting with either irritable or elated mood during mania. Irritability has been reported to be the most frequent clinical feature of pediatric mania reaching a sensitivity of 95–100% in several samples. Only half the studies reviewed reported on number of episodes or cycling patterns and the described course was mostly chronic and ultra-rapid whereas the classical episodic presentation was less common. Few long-term outcome studies have reported a diagnostic stability of mania from childhood to young adult age. Future research should focus on the heterogeneity of irritability aiming at differentiating distinct subtypes of pediatric psychiatric disorders with distinct phenomenology, course, outcome and biomarkers. Longitudinal studies of samples attending to mood presentation, irritable versus elated, and course, chronic versus episodic, may help clarify whether these are meaningful distinctions in the course, treatment and outcome of pediatric onset bipolar disorder. PMID:28503110

  18. Effects of Hypericum perforatum extract on rat irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Mozaffari, Shilan; Esmaily, Hadi; Rahimi, Roja; Baeeri, Maryam; Sanei, Yara; Asadi-Shahmirzadi, Azar; Salehi-Surmaghi, Mohammad-Hossein; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Context: In irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), disturbance of bowel motility is associated with infiltration of inflammatory mediators and cytokines into the intestine, such as neutrophils, myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor alfa (TNF-?), and lipid peroxide. Aims: Regarding promising anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of Hypericum perforatum (HP) extract, besides its anti-depressant effect, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of HP in an experimental model of IBS....

  19. Targeted therapies for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Olden, Kevin W

    2012-01-01

    Kevin W OldenDepartment of Medicine, St Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, USAAbstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) causes gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and bowel pattern abnormalities, which compromise patients' daily functioning. Common therapies address one or two IBS symptoms, while others offer wider symptom control, presumably by targeting pathophysiologic mechanisms of IBS. The aim of this targeted literature review was t...

  1. Immunomodulation of enteric neural function in irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    O’Malley, Dervla

    2015-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder which is characterised by symptoms such as bloating, altered bowel habit and visceral pain. It’s generally accepted that miscommunication between the brain and gut underlies the changes in motility, absorpto-secretory function and pain sensitivity associated with IBS. However, partly due to the lack of disease-defining biomarkers, understanding the aetiology of this complex and multifactorial disease remains elusi...

  2. Radiotracer technique to predict irritation potential of soap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaneda, S.S.; Garcia, T.Y.; Santos, F.L.

    1990-01-01

    The application of a radiotracer technique using tritiated water to predict the irritation potentials of some soap products is demonstrated. Collagen films are treated with 0.5% and 1.0% soap solutions and tritiated water then incubated at 50 degrees centigrade for 24 hours. After incubation, the uptake of tritiated water by the collagen films was measured by liquid scintillation counting. (Auth.). 6 refs., 2 tabs

  3. Low-FODMAP Diet for Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Magge, Suma; Lembo, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Functional bowel disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), are common disorders that have a significant impact on patients’ quality of life. These disorders present major challenges to healthcare providers, as few effective medical therapies are currently available. Recently, there has been increasing interest in dietary therapies for IBS, particularly a diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides, and polyols (FODMAPs). Since ingestion of FODMAPs incre...

  4. How Probiotic Reduce Symptoms of Irritable Bowel Syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Khalesi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a common gastrointestinal disorder in children that may lead to anxiety, frequent physician visits and school absenteeism. The aim of this study is to reviewe effects of probiotic for irritable bowel syndrome.   Materials and Methods: This study review articles about probiotic for irritable bowel syndrome in pubmed and google scholar.   Results: Multiple etiologic factors were suggested for IBS, including psychosocial factors, altered gastrointestinal motility,   malfermentation of food residues and changes in the intestinal micro flora. It is reported that patients with IBS have a great homogeneity in the fecal flora with a decrease in lactobacilli, coliforms and bifidobacteria in comparison to healthy individuals. The beneficial effects of probiotics in IBS could be explained by increasing the mass of beneficial bacteria such as lactobacilli strains in the digestive tract, decreasing bacterial overgrowth in the small bowel. Recently it was also demonstrated that some lactobacilli strains may modulate intestinal pain attacks by inducing the expression of μ-opioid and cannabinoid receptors in the intestinal epithelial cells. Probiotics can also reinforce the intestinal mucosal barrier and normalize the motility of the digestive tract and its visceral sensitivity and reversing the imbalance between the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines so that suggested as a therapeutic option for IBS.   Conclusion: Probiotic has been suggested as a therapeutic option for IBS by modulation pathophysiologic events in these patients. Keyword: Probiotic, IBS, Children.

  5. Modulation of oral heat and cold pain by irritant chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, Kelly C; Carstens, Mirela Iodi; Carstens, E

    2008-01-01

    Common food irritants elicit oral heat or cool sensations via actions at thermosensitive transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. We used a half-tongue, 2-alternative forced-choice procedure coupled with bilateral pain intensity ratings to investigate irritant effects on heat and cold pain. The method was validated in a bilateral thermal difference detection task. Capsaicin, mustard oil, and cinnamaldehyde enhanced lingual heat pain elicited by a 49 degrees C stimulus. Mustard oil and cinnamaldehyde weakly enhanced lingual cold pain (9.5 degrees C), whereas capsaicin had no effect. Menthol significantly enhanced cold pain and weakly reduced heat pain. To address if capsaicin's effect was due to summation of perceptually similar thermal and chemical sensations, one-half of the tongue was desensitized by application of capsaicin. Upon reapplication, capsaicin elicited little or no irritant sensation yet still significantly enhanced heat pain on the capsaicin-treated side, ruling out summation. In a third experiment, capsaicin significantly enhanced pain ratings to graded heat stimuli (47 degrees C to 50 degrees C) resulting in an upward shift of the stimulus-response function. Menthol may induce cold hyperalgesia via enhanced thermal gating of TRPM8 in peripheral fibers. Capsaicin, mustard oil, and cinnamaldehyde may induce heat hyperalgesia via enhanced thermal gating of TRPV1 that is coexpressed with TRPA1 in peripheral nociceptors.

  6. Non-Irritant Baby Shampoos May Cause Cataract Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Faruk Tekbas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effect of different shampoo formulations as a risk factor for cataract formation was investigated in Sprague Dawley rats in the present study. METHODS: Study was performed by using 20 rats. Two different shampoos used by adult subjects and two different baby shampoos were used in the study. Different shampoos were used in different groups for 14 days, and they were followed for changes. RESULTS: Different degree of opacities were observed in 4 (40%, 4 (40%, 5 (50%, and 6 (60% eyes in Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference for formation of cataract between the groups (p>0.05. The number of irritated eyes was significantly lower (p<0.05 in groups C (10% and D (20% compared to groups A (90% and B (80%. CONCLUSION: The use of non-irritant baby shampoos does not seem to eliminate the risk of cataract formation and these should even be used more carefully as the non-irritant shampoo will have more contact with the eye. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(1: 1-6

  7. Non-Irritant Baby Shampoos May Cause Cataract Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Faruk Tekbas

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The effect of different shampoo formulations as a risk factor for cataract formation was investigated in Sprague Dawley rats in the present study. METHODS: Study was performed by using 20 rats. Two different shampoos used by adult subjects and two different baby shampoos were used in the study. Different shampoos were used in different groups for 14 days, and they were followed for changes. RESULTS: Different degree of opacities were observed in 4 (40%, 4 (40%, 5 (50%, and 6 (60% eyes in Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference for formation of cataract between the groups (p>0.05. The number of irritated eyes was significantly lower (p<0.05 in groups C (10% and D (20% compared to groups A (90% and B (80%. CONCLUSION: The use of non-irritant baby shampoos does not seem to eliminate the risk of cataract formation and these should even be used more carefully as the non-irritant shampoo will have more contact with the eye. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(1.000: 1-6

  8. Impact of psychological stress on irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Hong-Yan; Cheng, Chung-Wah; Tang, Xu-Dong; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2014-10-21

    Psychological stress is an important factor for the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). More and more clinical and experimental evidence showed that IBS is a combination of irritable bowel and irritable brain. In the present review we discuss the potential role of psychological stress in the pathogenesis of IBS and provide comprehensive approaches in clinical treatment. Evidence from clinical and experimental studies showed that psychological stresses have marked impact on intestinal sensitivity, motility, secretion and permeability, and the underlying mechanism has a close correlation with mucosal immune activation, alterations in central nervous system, peripheral neurons and gastrointestinal microbiota. Stress-induced alterations in neuro-endocrine-immune pathways acts on the gut-brain axis and microbiota-gut-brain axis, and cause symptom flare-ups or exaggeration in IBS. IBS is a stress-sensitive disorder, therefore, the treatment of IBS should focus on managing stress and stress-induced responses. Now, non-pharmacological approaches and pharmacological strategies that target on stress-related alterations, such as antidepressants, antipsychotics, miscellaneous agents, 5-HT synthesis inhibitors, selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors, and specific 5-HT receptor antagonists or agonists have shown a critical role in IBS management. A integrative approach for IBS management is a necessary.

  9. Presentación del Libro, “Epilepsia. Aspectos Clínicos y Psicosociales”.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Medina Malo

    2006-12-01

    aspectos biológicos. Es excelente porque muestra el equipo que reunió el Dr. Medina, a los integrantes de la Liga contra la Epilepsia, que se ve reflejada en ese aspecto biopsicosocial de la persona con epilepsia.

  10. Radiographic anatomy aspects and gastrointestinal transit time in Podocnemis unifilis troschel, 1848 (Testudines, Podocnemididae. = Aspectos anátomo-radiográficos e tempo de trânsito gastrintestinal em Podocnemis unifilis troschel, 1848 (Testudines, Podocnemididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Moraes Machado Brito

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study analyzed the radiographic anatomy and determined thegastrointestinal transit time of Podocnemis unifilis. We used ten animals belonging to LAPAS from the Federal University of Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The animals were orally fed with a barium sulphate suspension at 10 mL kg-1 mixed with mineral oil, at a ratio of 70% of barium sulphate for 30% of mineral oil. Afterwards, the animals underwent radiography in a dorsum ventriloquoal position, with the X-ray device adjusted at 72 Kv and 200 mA, in time intervals to follow the permanency of contrast in the organism. Five minutes after the contrast was supplied, the stomach was filled. After sixteen hours the contrast advanced to the smallintestine. In 48 hours, the whole small intestine and part of the colon were fulfilled. On the 9th day the stomach was empty and the contrast advanced to the colon. On the 11th day, the colon was totally fulfilled, and the contrast was close to cloaca. On the 18th day all contrast was eliminated by the animal. Total time for contrast elimination was, in average, 17.6 ± 2.4 days, with the minimum of 12 and maximum of 22 days, with temperature at 27ºC. The digestion of the food was slower in the duodenum, and faster in the colon-rectum, which presents lower indices of repletion.Avaliou-se aspectos anátomo-radiográficos bem como o tempo de trânsito gastrintestinal em Podocnemis unifilis. Foram utilizados 10 animais pertencentes ao Laboratório de Pesquisas em Animais Silvestres(LAPAS da Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Aos animais foi administrada, por via oral, uma suspensão de sulfato de bário 10 mL kg-1 misturada com óleo mineral na proporção de 70% de sulfato de bário para 30% de óleo. Posteriormente, os animais foram radiografados dorso-ventralmente, com o aparelho de raios-X regulado para 72 Kv e 200 mA, em intervalos de tempo pré-estabelecidos. Em média, cinco

  11. Applicability of an exaggerated forearm wash test for efficacy testing of two corticosteroids, tacrolimus and glycerol, in topical formulations against skin irritation induced by two different irritants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, A; Andersen, F; Petersen, T K

    2011-01-01

    applied, we tested the efficacy of four anti-irritant compounds using the two different irritants sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and nonanoic acid (NON). Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial, healthy volunteers were exposed to 5% SLS and 50% NON (the right and the left forearm...

  12. Anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory effects of glycerol and xylitol in sodium lauryl sulphate-induced acute irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szél, E; Polyánka, H; Szabó, K; Hartmann, P; Degovics, D; Balázs, B; Németh, I B; Korponyai, C; Csányi, E; Kaszaki, J; Dikstein, S; Nagy, K; Kemény, L; Erős, G

    2015-12-01

    Glycerol is known to possess anti-irritant and hydrating properties and previous studies suggested that xylitol may also have similar effects. Our aim was to study whether different concentrations of these polyols restore skin barrier function and soothe inflammation in sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS)-induced acute irritation. The experiments were performed on male SKH-1 hairless mice. The skin of the dorsal region was exposed to SLS (5%) for 3 h alone or together with 5% or 10% of glycerol respectively. Further two groups received xylitol solutions (8.26% and 16.52% respectively) using the same osmolarities, which were equivalent to those of the glycerol treatments. The control group was treated with purified water. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin hydration were determined. Microcirculatory parameters of inflammation were observed by means of intravital videomicroscopy (IVM). Furthermore, accumulation of neutrophil granulocytes and lymphocytes, the expression of inflammatory cytokines and SLS penetration were assessed, as well. Treatment with the 10% of glycerol and both concentrations of xylitol inhibited the SLS-induced elevation of TEWL and moderated the irritant-induced increase in dermal blood flow and in the number of leucocyte-endothelial interactions. All concentrations of the applied polyols improved hydration and prevented the accumulation of lymphocytes near the treatment site. At the mRNA level, neither glycerol nor xylitol influenced the expression of interleukin-1 alpha. However, expression of interleukin-1 beta was significantly decreased by the 10% glycerol treatment, while expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha decreased upon the same treatment, as well as in response to xylitol. Higher polyol treatments decreased the SLS penetration to the deeper layers of the stratum corneum. Both of the analysed polyols exert considerable anti-irritant and anti-inflammatory properties, but the effective concentration of xylitol is lower than that of

  13. Studies on aerosols. XI. Influence of particulate matter on the eye irritation produced by volatile irritants and importance of particle size in connection with atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dautrebande, L; Shaver, J; Capps, R

    1951-01-01

    This is a review of smog irritation prevented by water filters which remove > 2-..mu..m particles. Formaldehyde, HNO/sub 3/, H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ vapors combined plus used oil produced stronger irritation than vapors alone. Vapors produced irritation essentially only at concentrations above 4.2 x 10/sup -3/ mg/liter air of each constituent. Three trained human volunteers were exposed to various aerosols via goggles. Blinking and lacrimation were observed. Reaction varied largely between the 3 and between different exposure periods. NaCl, Si dust, and used oil in combination required a much higher concentration to produce eye irritation than with vapors present. NaCl and Si combined did not irritate; used oil did. Photomicrographs showed small (approx. 0.05 ..mu..m), long-chained (1 to 7 ..mu..m), and aggregated (1 to 10 ..mu..m) particles.

  14. Study of the density of ganglion cells in the terminal bowel of rats with anorectal malformations Estudo da densidade das células ganglionares no intestino terminal de ratos portadores de anomalia anorretal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Macedo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To study the ganglion cells (GC in the terminal bowel of rats with ethylenethiourea (ETU induced anorectal malformations (ARM. METHODS: The animals were divided into three groups: Group A - normal fetuses from pregnant rats that were not administered ETU; Group B - fetuses without ARM born from pregnant rats that were administered ETU and Group C - fetuses with ARM born from pregnant rats that received ETU. ETU was administered on the 11th day of pregnancy at the dose of 125 mg/kg body weight by gastric gavage. The rats had cesarean section on the 21st day of gestation. The fetuses’ terminal bowel tissue was analyzed by immunohistochemistry to demonstrate ganglion cells. RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were found between groups A, B and C regarding ganglion cell densities. Group A had the highest cell density, followed by Group B and the lowest density was found in Group C. CONCLUSION: Ganglion cell densities are decreased in the terminal bowel of rats with ARM.OBJETIVO: Estudar as células ganglionares (CG no intestino terminal de ratos portadores de anomalia anorretal (AAR induzida pela etilenotiouréia (ETU. MÉTODOS: Os animais foram distribuídos em três grupos: Grupo A - fetos normais, obtidos de ratas grávidas às quais não foi administrada ETU; Grupo B - fetos não portadores de AAR obtidos de ratas grávidas às quais foi administrada ETU e Grupo C - fetos portadores de AAR obtidos de ratas grávidas às quais foi administrada ETU. A ETU foi administrada no décimo primeiro dia de gestação na dose de 125 mg/Kg, por gavagem. As ratas foram submetidas à laparotomia e histerotomia para retirada dos fetos no vigésimo primeiro dia de gestação. O intestino terminal dos fetos foi retirado e analisado por imunohistoquímica para pesquisa de CG. RESULTADOS: Foram encontradas diferenças estatisticamente significantes entre os grupos A, B e C quanto à densidade de CG. O grupo A apresentou a maior densidade

  15. Alterações morfométricas da musculatura dos músculos longitudinal e circular de ratos submetidos à criação de piloros no intestino delgado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero de Lima Rena

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Realizar um estudo morfométrico comparativo da musculatura longitudinal e circular do intestino delgado de ratos submetidos à construção cirúrgica de um e de dois piloros no intestino delgado utilizando-se da técnica de criação de piloros proposta por Rena et al. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados 52 ratos Wistar machos divididos em três grupos. O Grupo A, destacado como controle, composto de 10 animas, cada um forneceu 20mm de segmento de intestino para o estudo. Os animais do Grupo B, composto de 32 animais, foram submetidos à construção de dois piloros, um a 100mm e outro a 150mm da válvula ileocecal e os animais do grupo C, composto de 10 animais, foram submetidos à construção de um piloro a 100mm da mesma. A eutanásia ocorreu no décimo dia. A morfometria das camadas musculares longitudinal e circular acima e abaixo dos piloros foi estudada com utilização do microscópico modelo "Axiostar plus" conectado à câmera "Axioncam Version 5.05.10" com objetiva X5 / 0,12 no o programa "AxioVision 3.1.2.1". RESULTADOS: As alças apresentaram aumento da espessura da camada muscular acima e abaixo do ponto da operação. O estudo morfométrico comparativo das camadas musculares longitudinal e circular mostrou aumento significativo em comparação ao controle, não demonstrando significância entre os grupos B e C. CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados deste estudo revelaram importante aumento de espessura das camadas musculares, porém, menos acentuados que aqueles descritos na literatura quando foram realizados em animais submetidos à estenose fixa. Esses dados indicam que a construção operatória de piloros pela técnica utilizada promove alterações musculares de menor monta, possivelmente, pela função valvular do piloro.

  16. Aspectos sociotécnicos das TI & Relacionamento Humano & Sinergia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Vieira Holtz Filho

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available As Tecnologias de Informação (TI estão entre os principais agentes de mudança sociais. Para gerir tais mudanças, uma miríade de áreas do conhecimento humano têm muito a contribuir para a abordagem dos aspectos sociotécnicos das TI e promover sinergia. Como uma organização empresarial atua no sentido de provocar mudanças no comportamento das pessoas, visando a melhoria contínua, esse processo de mudança provocada chama-se aprendizagem. Isto posto, neste artigo apresentaremos resultados observados em empresas em processo de reengenharia e submetidas a utilização de metodologias integradas (PDCA, Método Paulo Freire e Roteiro Integração de Equipes, abordando os aspectos sociotécnicos das TI & relacionamentos humanos pela praxe da pedagogia como elemento de sinergia.

  17. Aspectos de regulación sanitaria en Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Buzanello

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mira a algunos aspectos de la regulación de los servicios de saneamiento en Brasil, específicamente la política de regulación resultante del proceso de reforma del Estado de 1995. Cuestiona los resultados de la productividad de los servicios de agua y alcantarillado de los concesionarios y el alcance de estas medidas al consumismo usuario.

  18. Submucosa de intestino delgado no reparo de defeito em parede abdominal de ratos Small intestinal submucosa to repair anterior abdominal wall defect in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Hintz Greca

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar a biocompatibilidade da tela de polipropileno e do enxerto de submucosa intestinal de suínos, quando usados para o reparo de defeito criado na parede anterior de abdomen de ratos, que envolveu toda a sua espessura e extensão. MÉTODO: Vinte ratos Wistar foram divididos em dois grupos de 10 animais. Um defeito quadrangular, com 3,5cm de lado foi criado cirurgicamente na parede abdominal anterior dos 20 ratos. No primeiro grupo(grupo 1 este defeito foi reparado com submucosa de intestino delgado (SID, e no segundo grupo(grupo 2 com tela de polipropileno. Após 30 dias, os animais foram sacrificados. Além da avaliação macroscópica dos enxertos, realizou-se um estudo tensiométrico e microscópico. RESULTADOS: Os animais de ambos os grupos apresentaram aderências entre o implante e as estruturas intra-abdominais, todavia no grupo com a tela de polipropileno observou-se maior número de aderências entre a tela e as alças intestinais. A força máxima de ruptura foi significantemente maior no grupo de animais com a tela de polipropileno, todavia se corrigida pela espessura do enxerto, a tensão máxima foi maior no enxerto de submucosa porcina que na tela de polipropileno. A mesotelisação foi significativamente mais intensa no grupo da submucosa, assim como a deposição de colágeno. As reações granulomatosas de corpo estranho e inflamação crônica também foram mais intensas no grupo 1. CONCLUSÃO: A SID monstrou ser uma alternativa ao enxerto sintético no reparo de grandes defeitos da parede abdominal em ratos, com melhor mesotelisação e deposição de colágeno, sem aumento no número de complicações. A submucosa apresentou maior resistência por mm², apesar de ter se mostrado menos resistente quando considerada a força maneira absoluta.PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was compare the biocompatibility of a polypropylene mesh and a patch of porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS when used to repair a

  19. Hemorragia maciça do intestino grosso: o que está ao nosso alcance? Massive large bowel bleeding: what is within our reach?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César M Santos Jr.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A forma de avaliar e lidar com a hemorragia aguda digestiva baixa tem sido modificado com os recentes desenvolvimentos de novas técnicas e aparelhos. O nosso objetivo, por esse manuscrito, é demonstrar com simplicidade uma forma de condução dos pacientes com hemorragia digestiva baixa aguda, sobretudo para os sangramentos que parecem mais graves, principalmente quando nos faltam os recursos das avançadas tecnologias atuais. Doenças localizadas no intestino grosso respondem por ¼ dos casos de hemorragias digestivas que são motivos para admissão hospitalar e têm como principais agentes etiológicos os divertículos, na moléstia diverticular, e as alterações vasculares, nas angiodisplasias. Na grande maioria das vezes o sangramento que pode parecer abundante cessa espontaneamente. Os distúrbios circulatórios graves não são comuns e os sinais mais frequentes são a queda do valor da hemoglobina observada na metade dos pacientes, e algumas alterações hemodinâmicas como a variação pressórica postural que pode ser vista em até 30% dos casos; a síncope em 10% e alguma forma de colapso circulatório, em 9%. Contudo, a faixa etária em que ocorre, as condições da senilidade, as doenças eventualmente associadas e a falta de recursos materiais e humanos para lidar com esse tipo de problema são os motivos que mais causam preocupação. A abordagem clínica simples com uma história bem elaborada; o exame físico com atenção e objetividade, a inclusão do exame proctológico, a obrigatória disponibilidade de aparelho para a coloscopia e os conhecimentos básicos sobre o evento formam o conjunto necessário e, na maioria das vezes, suficiente para o correto desempenho profissional na elaboração dos cuidados que devem ser dados a esses pacientes.The evaluation and management of the acute lower digestive hemorrhage has been modified with the recent development of new techniques and devices. The aim of this manuscript was to

  20. IRRITABLE MOOD IN ADULT MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER: RESULTS FROM THE WORLD MENTAL HEALTH SURVEYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Alonso, Jordi; Angermeyer, Matthias; Bromet, Evelyn; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Jonge, Peter; Demyttenaere, Koen; Florescu, Silvia E.; Gruber, Michael J.; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Huang, Yueqin; Karam, Elie G.; Jin, Robert; Lépine, Jean-Pierre; Levinson, Daphna; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Medina-Mora, María E.; O’Neill, Siobhan; Ono, Yutaka; Posada-Villa, José A.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Scott, Kate M.; Shahly, Victoria; Stein, Dan J.; Viana, Maria C.; Zarkov, Zahari; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although irritability is a core symptom of DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) for youth but not adults, clinical studies find comparable rates of irritability between nonbipolar depressed adults and youth. Including irritability as a core symptom of adult MDD would allow detection of depression-equivalent syndromes with primary irritability hypothesized to be more common among males than females. We carried out a preliminary examination of this issue using cross-national community-based survey data from 21 countries in the World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys (n = 110,729). Methods The assessment of MDD in the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview includes one question about persistent irritability. We examined two expansions of the definition of MDD involving this question: (1) cases with dysphoria and/or anhedonia and exactly four of nine Criterion A symptoms plus irritability; and (2) cases with two or more weeks of irritability plus four or more other Criterion A MDD symptoms in the absence of dysphoria or anhedonia. Results Adding irritability as a tenth Criterion A symptom increased lifetime prevalence by 0.4% (from 11.2 to 11.6%). Adding episodes of persistent irritability increased prevalence by an additional 0.2%. Proportional prevalence increases were significantly higher, but nonetheless small, among males compared to females. Rates of severe role impairment were significantly lower among respondents with this irritable depression who did not meet conventional DSM-IV criteria than those with DSM-IV MDD. Conclusion Although limited by the superficial assessment in this single question on irritability, results do not support expanding adult MDD criteria to include irritable mood. PMID:23364997

  1. Cytological changes and conjunctival hyperemia in relation to sensory eye irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel-Jørgensen, Anne; Kjærgaard, Søren K.; Mølhave, Lars

    1998-01-01

    irritation and possible physiological/pathological changes in the mucosal membranes in relation to studies of indoor air. Two studies (study 1 and study 2) were conducted to investigate changes in conjunctival hyperemia and conjunctival fluid cytology for subjects exposed to volatile organic compounds (VOCs...... and conjunctival fluid was sampled before and after exposure. Moreover, the perceived irritation intensities were registered continuously during exposure. Overall, perceived irritation intensity and conjunctival hyperemia increased with increasing exposure concentrations, whereas cytological changes...

  2. Are Histrionic Personality Traits Associated with Irritability during Conscious Sedation Endoscopy?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sang Shin; Kim, Hyung Hun; Park, Hyo Jung

    2015-01-01

    Aim. We aimed to evaluate whether histrionic personality traits are associated with irritability during conscious sedation endoscopy (CSE). Materials and Methods. A prospective cross-sectional study was planned. Irritability during CSE was classified into five grades: 0, no response; I, minimal movement; II, moderate movement; III, severe movement; IV, fighting against procedure. Patients in grades III and IV were defined as the irritable group. Participants were required to complete question...

  3. ['Laryngeal neuropathy' and 'irritable larynx syndrome': synonyms or distinct entities?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, S; Ptok, M

    2012-10-01

    The term 'laryngeal neuropathy' (LN) has first been used in veterinary medicine to describe an idiopathic and typically exercise induced inspiratory noise in horses.Nowadays, the term is often used in relation with intermittent vocal cord pareses in humans. Some authors use the term 'irritable larynx syndrome' (ILS) in a similar context. This article reviews the state of knowledge regarding LN and ILS and discusses the somewhat confusing terminology.For this systematic review a selective literature research in PubMed has been carried out.35 articles were found, which report on LN in animals and 17 articles reported on humans. 4 of these articles used the term 'irritable larynx syndrome'.Laryngeal neuropathy in horses usually affects the left recurrent laryngeal nerve and results in decreased vocal cord abduction and an inspiratory roaring or whistling noise, particularly during exercise. In dogs LN has been reported to also occur bilaterally. In association with humans LN has not been defined clearly in the literature. The term ILS on the other hand has only been used in relation to humans. The term describes a hypersensitivity of the laryngeal structures towards external stimuli, which causes symptoms such as dyspnea or cough among others. Sufficient knowledge does not exist for either of the 2 diseases, ILS or LN. As of yet, the term LN should not be used in human medicine to describe according symptoms of unknown aetiology. The term 'laryngeal movement disorder' seems a lot more appropriate. The symptom oriented term irritable larynx syndrome also seems suitable to describe laryngeal hypersensitivity appropriately. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Lurasidone for the Treatment of Irritability Associated with Autistic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebel, Antony; Brams, Matthew; Goldman, Robert S; Silva, Robert; Hernandez, David; Deng, Ling; Mankoski, Raymond; Findling, Robert L

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of lurasidone in treating irritability associated with autistic disorder. In this multicenter trial, outpatients age 6-17 years who met DSM-IV-TR criteria for autistic disorder, and who demonstrated irritability, agitation, and/or self-injurious behaviors were randomized to 6 weeks of double-blind treatment with lurasidone 20 mg/day (N = 50), 60 mg/day (N = 49), or placebo (N = 51). Efficacy measures included the Aberrant Behavior Checklist Irritability subscale (ABC-I, the primary endpoint) and the Clinical Global Impressions, Improvement (CGI-I) scale, and were analyzed using a likelihood-based mixed model for repeated measures. Least squares (LS) mean (standard error [SE]) improvement from baseline to Week 6 in the ABC-I was not significantly different for lurasidone 20 mg/day (-8.8 [1.5]) and lurasidone 60 mg/day (-9.4 [1.4]) versus placebo (-7.5 [1.5]; p = 0.55 and 0.36, respectively). CGI-I scores showed significantly greater LS mean [SE] improvement at Week 6 for lurasidone 20 mg/day versus placebo (2.8 [0.2] vs. 3.4 [0.2]; p = 0.035) but not for lurasidone 60 mg/day (3.1 [0.2]; p = 0.27). Discontinuation rates due to adverse events were: lurasidone 20 mg/day, 4.1%; 60 mg/day, 3.9%; and placebo, 8.2%. Adverse events with an incidence ≥10% (lurasidone combined, placebo) included vomiting (18.0, 4.1%) and somnolence (12.0, 4.1%). Modest changes were observed in weight and selected metabolic parameters. In this study, once-daily, fixed doses of 20 and 60 mg/day of lurasidone were not demonstrated to be efficacious compared to placebo for the short-term treatment of children and adolescents with moderate-to-severe irritability associated with autistic disorder.

  5. Intestinal microbiome-gut-brain axis and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Gabriele; Fournier, Camille; Peter, Johannes

    2018-03-01

    Psychological comorbidity is highly present in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Recent research points to a role of intestinal microbiota in visceral hypersensitivity, anxiety, and depression. Increased disease reactivity to psychological stress has been described too. A few clinical studies have attempted to identify features of dysbiosis in IBS. While animal studies revealed strong associations between stress and gut microbiota, studies in humans are rare. This review covers the most important studies on intestinal microbial correlates of psychological and clinical features in IBS, including stress, anxiety, and depression.

  6. The determination of the irritancy potential of surfactants using various methods of assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuchta, H P; Dodd, K T

    1978-01-01

    Several animal irritancy test methods whose criteria include sensory response, pain/discomfort or tissue damage were evaluated as to their ability to assess relative irritancy potential of the following surfactants: sodium lauryl polyether (12) sulfate (SLES), Miranol C2M (MC2M), Miranol MHT (MMHT), sodium coco methyl tauride (SCMT), triethanolamine lauryl sulfate (TEALS), ammonium lauryl sulfate (ALS) and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS). Data from the mouse upper respiratory tract and mouse writhing tests indicated that SLES, MC2M and MMHT were the least irritating and SLS, ALS and TEALS were the most irritating. The blepharospasm test did not lend itself to this type of evaluation because sequential instillation of the surfactants produced eye anesthesia. Data from the Draize eye test indicated that SLES was the least irritating while MC2M was slightly more irritating. All other surfactants were equally irritating. The Draize skin test results showed that SLES again was the least irritating at all concentrations tested and that SLS and ALS along with TEALS and SCMT were the most irritating.

  7. Comparison of the effect of glycerol and triamcinolone acetonide on cumulative skin irritation in a randomized trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Hedegaard, Kathryn; Petersen, Thomas Kongstad

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: So-called anti-irritants are added to cosmetic formulations because of their alleged beneficial effect on irritated skin. Documentation for these claims is often limited. However, glycerol has shown anti-irritant properties in experimentally induced irritation from sodium lauryl sulfate...... volunteers. METHODS: Irritation was induced by 3 daily arm washes for a week with 10% sodium lauryl sulfate on one arm and 30% NON on the other. To maintain irritation, for the next 12 days volunteers washed their arms twice daily with the irritants. Treatments were applied immediately after washing....... The treatments (including vehicle and no treatment) were randomized to sites using a Latin square design. The reactions were evaluated clinically and instrumentally. LIMITATIONS: Study was designed to only detect potent anti-irritants. CONCLUSION: Glycerol reduced the irritant effect of both sodium lauryl...

  8. Viabilidade celular da mucosa do intestino delgado de ratos, após correção de choque hipovolêmico com solução de NaCl 7,5%

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito Marcus Vinicius Henriques

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar o efeito da correção volêmica com diferentes tipos de solução, na mucosa do intestino delgado de ratos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 120 ratos Wistar (Rattus norvegicus albinus, machos, adultos, com peso individual entre 310 e 410g, oriundos do Instituto Evandro Chagas de Belém do Pará, submetidos a período de adaptação por 15 dias, recebendo água e ração ad libitum, durante todo o experimento. Os animais foram distribuídos em: Grupo Padrão (P, Grupo Choque (C, Grupo Solução Fisiológica (SF e Grupo Solução Hipertônica (SH, com 30 animais cada. Estes foram divididos em subgrupos com 10 animais cada, de acordo com o dia de pós-operatório (DPO previsto para a eutanásia dos animais, (1masculine, 3masculine ou 7masculine DPO, sendo após esta, colhido material para realização de teste de absorvância pelo MTT em todos os animais. RESULTADOS: O grupo SF apresentou menores índices de viabilidade celular comparado aos grupos SH e C (p<0.05. CONCLUSÃO: A correção volêmica com solução de cloreto de sódio a 7.5% levou a manutenção de maior quantidade de células viáveis, no intestino delgado em ratos no 7masculine dia do experimento.

  9. Is dermatitis palmaris sicca an irritant contact dermatitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fu-Juan; Liu, Zhen; Zhou, Ying; Chen, Yong-Hua; Fan, Yi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Dermatitis palmaris sicca (DPS) is a common dry-fissured palmar dermatitis in Asian women. It may be an irritant contact dermatitis, but the immunophenotype of the cells in its infiltrate is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of inflammatory cells in the pathogenesis of DPS. Patch testing was done in 68 patients with DPS, 87 subjects with hand eczema, and 31 healthy subjects. Immunophenotyping of cutaneous inflammatory cells was performed in 8 patients with DPS, 10 subjects with hand eczema, and 8 healthy individuals. Positive patch rates were higher in patients with DPS and those with hand eczema compared with healthy controls, but strong positive (++ or +++) reactions in DPS were fewer compared with hand eczema. Density of CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD68 cells in skin lesions of DPS and hand eczema was significantly higher than that in normal skin. Sparse CD20 cells were present only in hand eczema. Compared with hand eczema, the number of CD3, CD8, CD68, and dermal CD1a cells decreased, but epidermal CD1a cells and CD4/CD8 ratio increased in DPS. The absolute lack of CD20 cells and relative scarcity of dermal CD8 and CD1a cells in skin lesions might be insufficient to induce contact hypersensitivity, so DPS may be an irritant but not allergic contact dermatitis.

  10. Methylglyoxal induces systemic symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Jiao, Taiwei; Chen, Yushuai; Gao, Nan; Zhang, Lili; Jiang, Min

    2014-01-01

    Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) show a wide range of symptoms including diarrhea, abdominal pain, changes in bowel habits, nausea, vomiting, headache, anxiety, depression and cognitive impairment. Methylglyoxal has been proved to be a potential toxic metabolite produced by intestinal bacteria. The present study was aimed at investigating the correlation between methylglyoxal and irritable bowel syndrome. Rats were treated with an enema infusion of methylglyoxal. Fecal water content, visceral sensitivity, behavioral tests and serum 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) were assessed after methylglyoxal exposure. Our data showed that fecal water content was significantly higher than controls after methylglyoxal exposure except that of 30 mM group. Threshold volumes on balloon distension decreased in the treatment groups. All exposed rats showed obvious head scratching and grooming behavior and a decrease in sucrose preference. The serum 5-HT values were increased in 30, 60, 90 mM groups and decreased in 150 mM group. Our findings suggested that methylglyoxal could induce diarrhea, visceral hypersensitivity, headache as well as depression-like behaviors in rats, and might be the key role in triggering systemic symptoms of IBS.

  11. Impact of irritability: a 2-year observational study of outpatients with bipolar I or schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, Lesley; Hallam, Karen T; Venugopal, Kamalesh; Lewis, Andrew James; Austin, David W; Kulkarni, Jayashri; Dodd, Seetal; de Castella, Anthony; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Berk, Michael

    2017-05-01

    Many people experience irritability when manic, hypomanic, or depressed, yet its impact on illness severity and quality of life in bipolar and schizoaffective disorders is poorly understood. This study aimed to examine the relationship between irritability and symptom burden, functioning, quality of life, social support, suicidality, and overall illness severity in a naturalistic cohort of people with bipolar I or schizoaffective disorder. We used data from 239 adult outpatients with bipolar I or schizoaffective disorder in the Bipolar Comprehensive Outcomes Study (BCOS) - a non-interventional observational study with a 2-year follow-up period. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics of participants with and without irritability were compared. A mixed-model repeated measures analysis was conducted to examine the longitudinal effect of irritability on clinical and quality-of-life variables over follow-up using significant baseline variables. At baseline, 54% of participants were irritable. Baseline irritability was associated with illness severity, mania, depression, psychotic symptoms, suicidality, poor functioning, and quality of life, but not diagnosis (schizoaffective/bipolar disorder). Participants with irritability were less likely to have a partner and perceived less adequate social support. On average, over follow-up, those with irritability reported more symptoms, functional impairment, and suicidality. Furthermore, the effects of irritability could not be fully explained by illness severity. Irritability was associated with more negative symptomatic, functional, and quality-of-life outcomes and suicidality. The identification, monitoring, and targeted treatment of irritability may be worth considering, to enhance health and wellbeing outcomes for adults with bipolar and schizoaffective disorders. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Responsabilidad de directores de sociedades en Estados Unidos. Aspectos procesales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor José Miguens

    2015-01-01

    El objeto de este artículo es describir este régimen en su totalidad y realizar un juicio crítico de las normas que rigen las acciones procesales de la responsabilidad de los directores de sociedades comerciales en el derecho societario en Estados Unidos. La metodología utilizada en este trabajo responde a la sistemática de los autores norteamericanos citados, que se caracteriza por centrarse en los aspectos prácticos, la solución de problemas particulares y el comentario crítico de la jurisprudencia aplicable a la cuestión.

  13. Tabaco y salud infantil: un aspecto no suficientemente valorado

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio, Ivonne; Kanopa, Virginia

    2015-01-01

    La campaña que se desarrolla en Uruguay contra el consumo de tabaco enfatiza sobre los efectos nocivos que produce el cigarrillo en la salud de la población adulta que fuma y en fumadores pasivos. La disminución de afecciones cardiovasculares como el infarto de miocardio y del cáncer de pulmón ha mostrado resultados alentadores en relación a la disminución del número de consumidores, si bien aún no se ha logrado el descenso esperado. La campaña enfoca varios aspectos dirigidos a la presentaci...

  14. Linguagem e aspectos visuo-espaciais : uma abordagem neurolinguistica

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Queiroz Pereira

    2006-01-01

    Resumo: O objetivo deste trabalho de pesquisa é investigar como o sujeito JS - não afásico após sofrer três acidentes vasculares cerebrais isquêmicos (AVCi?s) que lesionaram regiões parieto-occipitais de ambos os hemisférios cerebrais - realiza determinadas atividades lingüístico-cognitivas que envolvem aspectos vísuo-espaciais relacionados ao corpo, à escrita, à leitura de textos e de horas. Com base na Neurolingüística discursivamente orientada, na Neuropsicologia luriana e nas bases biológ...

  15. La obesidad: aspectos psicológicos y conductuales

    OpenAIRE

    Bersh, Sonia

    2006-01-01

    Introducción: La obesidad es un problema médico de creciente gravedad por su morbilidad y su alta y creciente prevalencia. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión actualizada acerca de la obesidad y su tratamiento, con énfasis en los aspectos de mayor interés para la práctica psiquiátrica. Resultados: La obesidad es una enfermedad crónica de difícil manejo y alta tasa de recurrencia, que se asocia con complicaciones médicas graves. Los factores psicológicos y conductuales son muy relevantes en el cur...

  16. ASPECTOS BASICOS DEL DERECHO ADUANERO PARA ESTUDIANTES DE PREGRADO

    OpenAIRE

    Castro Rangel, Jesus David; Garcia Vargas, Kristhell; Sepulveda Mora, Myriam

    2008-01-01

    La presente investigación comprende un estudio en un grado fundamental y a nivel general del Derecho Aduanero y una herramienta pedagógica dirigida a facilitar, a los alumnos de Pregrado de la Universidad Libre de Cúcuta, el entendimiento y aprendizaje de los aspectos básicos del Derecho Aduanero, teniendo en cuenta que Cúcuta es una zona fronteriza. El estudiante a través del presente trabajo encontrará las herramientas que le permitirán ubicarse dentro del contexto aduanero y...

  17. A single exposure to photochemical smog causes airway irritation and cardiac dysrhythmia in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The data presented here shows that a single exposure to photochemical smog causes airway irritation and cardiac dysrhythmia in mice. Smog, which is a complex mixture of particulate matter and gaseous irritants (ozone, sulfur dioxide, reactive aldehydes), as well as components whi...

  18. Stratum corneum cytokines and skin irritation response to sodium lauryl sulfate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jongh, Cindy M.; Verberk, Maarten M.; Withagen, Carien E. T.; Jacobs, John J. L.; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Kezic, Sanja

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about cytokines involved in chronic irritant contact dermatitis. Individual cytokine profiles might explain at least part of the differences in the individual response to irritation. Our objective was to investigate the relation between baseline stratum corneum (SC) cytokine levels

  19. A stronger patch test elicitation reaction to the allergen hydroxycitronellal plus the irritant sodium lauryl sulfate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, S; Andersen, K E; Johansen, J D

    2003-01-01

    Household and cleaning products often contain both allergens and irritants. The aim of this double-blinded, randomized, paired study was to determine whether patch testing with an allergen (hydroxycitronellal) combined with an irritant [sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS)] cause a stronger patch test...

  20. Irritancy ranking of anionic detergents using one-time occlusive, repeated occlusive and repeated open tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tupker, RA; Bunte, EE; Fidler, [No Value; Wiechers, JW; Coenraads, PJ

    Discrepancies between the one-time patch test and the wash test regarding the ranking of irritancy of detergents have been found in the literature. The aim of the present study was to investigate the concordance of irritancy rank order of 4 anionic detergents tested by 3 different exposure methods,

  1. An analysis of human response to the irritancy of acetone vapors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, J.H.E.; Mojet, J.; Gemert, L.J. van; Emmen, H.H.; Lammers, J.H.C.M.; Marquart, J.; Woutersen, R.A.; Feron, V.J.

    2002-01-01

    Studies on the irritative effects of acetone vapor in humans and experimental animals have revealed large differences in the lowest acetone concentration found to be irritative to the respiratory tract and eyes. This has brought on much confusion in the process of setting occupational exposure

  2. Neural Correlates of Irritability in Disruptive Mood Dysregulation and Bipolar Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Brotman, Melissa A; Adleman, Nancy E; Kim, Pilyoung; Oakes, Allison H; Reynolds, Richard C; Chen, Gang; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2016-07-01

    Bipolar disorder and disruptive mood dysregulation disorder (DMDD) are clinically and pathophysiologically distinct, yet irritability can be a clinical feature of both illnesses. The authors examine whether the neural mechanisms mediating irritability differ between bipolar disorder and DMDD, using a face emotion labeling paradigm because such labeling is deficient in both patient groups. The authors hypothesized that during face emotion labeling, irritability would be associated with dysfunctional activation in the amygdala and other temporal and prefrontal regions in both disorders, but that the nature of these associations would differ between DMDD and bipolar disorder. During functional MRI acquisition, 71 youths (25 with DMDD, 24 with bipolar disorder, and 22 healthy youths) performed a labeling task with happy, fearful, and angry faces of varying emotional intensity. Participants with DMDD and bipolar disorder showed similar levels of irritability and did not differ from each other or from healthy youths in face emotion labeling accuracy. Irritability correlated with amygdala activity across all intensities for all emotions in the DMDD group; such correlation was present in the bipolar disorder group only for fearful faces. In the ventral visual stream, associations between neural activity and irritability were found more consistently in the DMDD group than in the bipolar disorder group, especially in response to ambiguous angry faces. These results suggest diagnostic specificity in the neural correlates of irritability, a symptom of both DMDD and bipolar disorder. Such evidence of distinct neural correlates suggests the need to evaluate different approaches to treating irritability in the two disorders.

  3. Irritable bowel syndrome, the microbiota and the gut-brain axis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raskov, Hans; Burcharth, Jakob; Pommergaard, Hans-Christian

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder and it is now evident that irritable bowel syndrome is a multi-factorial complex of changes in microbiota and immunology. The bidirectional neurohumoral integrated communication between the microbiota and the autonomous...... nervous system is called the gut-brain-axis, which integrates brain and GI functions, such as gut motility, appetite and weight. The gut-brain-axis has a central function in the perpetuation of irritable bowel syndrome and the microbiota plays a critical role. The purpose of this article is to review...... recent research concerning the epidemiology of irritable bowel syndrome, influence of microbiota, probiota, gut-brain-axis, and possible treatment modalities on irritable bowel syndrome....

  4. Role of environmental pollution in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marynowski, Mateusz; Likońska, Aleksandra; Zatorski, Hubert; Fichna, Jakub

    2015-10-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), with the prevalence of 10%-20 % of the population has become an emerging problem worldwide. IBS is a functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder characterized by abdominal pain or discomfort and altered bowel habits. The etiology of IBS contains genetic, psychological, and immunological factors, and has not been fully elucidated; of note, recent studies also point at environmental pollution and its role in the development of functional GI diseases. In this review we focus on several environmental factors, such as bacterial contamination, air pollution, radiation and even stress as potential triggers of IBS. We discuss associated disturbances in homeostasis, such as changes in intestinal microbiome and related pathophysiological mechanisms. Based on the effect of environmental factors on the GI tract, we also propose novel targets in IBS treatment.

  5. Inflammation in irritable bowel syndrome: Myth or new treatment target?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinagra, Emanuele; Pompei, Giancarlo; Tomasello, Giovanni; Cappello, Francesco; Morreale, Gaetano Cristian; Amvrosiadis, Georgios; Rossi, Francesca; Lo Monte, Attilio Ignazio; Rizzo, Aroldo Gabriele; Raimondo, Dario

    2016-01-01

    Low-grade intestinal inflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and this role is likely to be multifactorial. The aim of this review was to summarize the evidence on the spectrum of mucosal inflammation in IBS, highlighting the relationship of this inflammation to the pathophysiology of IBS and its connection to clinical practice. We carried out a bibliographic search in Medline and the Cochrane Library for the period of January 1966 to December 2014, focusing on publications describing an interaction between inflammation and IBS. Several evidences demonstrate microscopic and molecular abnormalities in IBS patients. Understanding the mechanisms underlying low-grade inflammation in IBS may help to design clinical trials to test the efficacy and safety of drugs that target this pathophysiologic mechanism. PMID:26900287

  6. Mind/Body Psychological Treatments for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce D. Naliboff

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the goal of treatment for those with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is to improve the quality of life through a reduction in symptoms. While the majority of treatment approaches involve the use of traditional medicine, more and more patients seek out a non-drug approach to managing their symptoms. Current forms of non-drug psychologic or mind/body treatment for IBS include hypnotherapy, cognitive behavioral therapy and brief psychodynamic psychotherapy, all of which have been proven efficacious in clinical trials. We propose that incorporating the constructs of mindfulness and acceptance into a mind/body psychologic treatment of IBS may be of added benefit due to the focus on changing awareness and acceptance of one's own state which is a strong component of traditional and Eastern healing philosophies.

  7. Placebo effect in clinical trial design for irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Eric; Pimentel, Mark

    2014-04-30

    Ongoing efforts to improve clinical trial design in irritable bowel syndrome have been hindered by high placebo response rates and ineffective outcome measures. We assessed established strategies to minimize placebo effect as well as the various ap-proaches to placebo effect which can affect trial design. These include genetic markers such as catechol-O-methyltransferase, opioidergic and dopaminergic neurobiologic theory, pre-cebo effect centered on expectancy theory, and side effect unblinding grounded on conditioning theory. We reviewed endpoints used in the study of IBS over the past decade including adequate relief and subjective global relief, emphasizing their weaknesses in fully evaluating the IBS condition, specifically their motility effects based on functional net value and relative benefit-harm based on dropouts due to adverse events. The focus of this review is to highlight ongoing efforts to improve clinical trial design which can lead to better outcomes in a real-world setting.

  8. Aspectos prosódicos da fala de sujeitos parkinsonianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourenço Chacon

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Problemas de prosódia na fala de parkinsonianos têm sido apontados nos estudos sobre parkinsonismo. Contudo, nesses estudos a prosódia é freqüentemente desvinculada dos fatores comunicativos da fala. O propósito deste artigo foi investigar fatores comunicativos relacionados a aspectos prosódicos da fala de sujeitos com doença de Parkinson. As amostras 'de fala foram extraídas de conversas espontâneas de dois sujeitos parkinsonianos, do sexo masculino. A análise mostrou que os elementos prosódicos ocorreram em diversas combinações, possibilitando a identificação de: a atos de fala; b alguns aspectos da organização conversacional; e c diferentes vozes no discurso. Foram destacadas algumas implicações desses resultados para uma melhor compreensão da atividade verbal em condições patológicas, bem como para avaliação, diagnóstico e terapia de parkinsonianos.

  9. ALGUNOS ASPECTOS A CONSIDERAR SOBRE LA SEXUALIDAD DEL ADULTO MAYOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoila Edith Hernández Zamora

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La presente investigación expone, a partir de una serie de entrevistas realizadas a una muestra de adultos mayores, aspectos relativos a la satisfacción general en la vida, así como las actitudes, conocimientos y prácticas de la sexualidad de un grupo de adultos mayores que asisten regularmente a una estancia diurna de la ciudad de Xalapa, Veracruz, México, misma que fue diseñada especialmente para este grupo etario. Se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre la actitud hacia el ejercicio de la sexualidad de las personas mayores entre los hombres y las mujeres de la muestra, y entre .las personas que tienen pareja con relación a las que no tienen; así como que hay una diferencia estadísticamente significativa entre aquellas personas que tiene una o ninguna enfermedad y las que tienen dos o más enfermedades con respecto a su frecuencia de actividad sexual. Es de resaltar la escasez de conocimientos sobre aspectos básicos de la sexualidad que poseen estas personas mayores, lo que hace necesario el establecimiento de programas educativos que incluyan al personal de salud y a los mismos senectos.

  10. In vivo skin penetration of macromolecules in irritant contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Mottaleb, Mona M A; Lamprecht, Alf

    2016-12-30

    Recently, a selective preferential accumulation of polymeric nanoparticles (in the size range around 100nm) has been observed in the follicular system of dermatitis skin. The present investigation aimed at clearly investigating the effect of irritant contact dermatitis on the barrier permeability for colloidal systems below this size range, namely quantum dots and hydrophilic macromolecules. Irritant dermatitis was induced in mice and the penetrability of quantum dots (5nm) and hydrophilic dextran molecules has been tracked in both healthy and inflamed skin using confocal laser scanning microscopy. The selective accumulation of the quantum dots was clearly observed in inflamed skin while hydrophilic dextran behaved similarly in both healthy and inflamed skin. The therapeutic potential for the transdermal delivery of peptide drugs through inflamed skin has been also tested in rats. Results revealed that the transdermal permeation of insulin and calcitonin was not significantly enhanced in dermatitis compared to healthy skin. On the other side, permeation through stripped skin was significantly higher. However, the effect was limited and shorter compared to the SC injection where t min was 0.5h and 2h with a 70% and 46% reduction in blood glucose levels for the stripped skin and the SC injection respectively. Similarly, t min was 4h and 8h with area under the curve of 161±65% and 350±97% for the stripped skin and the SC injection respectively. In conclusion, the changes in skin permeability accompanied with skin inflammation did not affect its permeability to peptide drugs. Our findings also underline that experiments with the tape stripped skin model as a surrogate for inflamed skin can risk misleading conclusions due to significant difference of skin permeability between the tape stripped skin and inflamed skin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dicationic alkylammonium bromide gemini surfactants. Membrane perturbation and skin irritation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João A S Almeida

    Full Text Available Dicationic alkylammonium bromide gemini surfactants represent a class of amphiphiles potentially effective as skin permeation enhancers. However, only a limited number of studies has been dedicated to the evaluation of the respective cytotoxicity, and none directed to skin irritation endpoints. Supported on a cell viability study, the cytotoxicity of gemini surfactants of variable tail and spacer length was assessed. For this purpose, keratinocyte cells from human skin (NCTC 2544 cell line, frequently used as a model for skin irritation, were employed. The impact of the different gemini surfactants on the permeability and morphology of model vesicles was additionally investigated by measuring the leakage of calcein fluorescent dye and analyzing the NMR spectra of ³¹P, respectively. Detail on the interaction of gemini molecules with model membranes was also provided by a systematic differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and molecular dynamics (MD simulation. An irreversible impact on the viability of the NCTC 2544 cell line was observed for gemini concentrations higher than 25 mM, while no cytotoxicity was found for any of the surfactants in a concentration range up to 10 mM. A higher cytotoxicity was also found for gemini surfactants presenting longer spacer and shorter tails. The same trend was obtained in the calorimetric and permeability studies, with the gemini of longest spacer promoting the highest degree of membrane destabilization. Additional structural and dynamical characterization of the various systems, obtained by ³¹P NMR and MD, provide some insight on the relationship between the architecture of gemini surfactants and the respective perturbation mechanism.

  12. Síndrome do intestino curto na criança: tratamento com nutrição parenteral domiciliar Short bowel syndrome in children: treatment with home parenteral nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uenis Tannuri

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Em 1979 o autor utilizou, pela primeira vez no Brasil, a nutrição parenteral prolongada domiciliar em criança. O objetivo deste trabalho é o de apresentar a experiência da utilização deste método no tratamento de crianças com síndrome do intestino curto nos últimos 23 anos. MÉTODOS: Dezenove crianças com esta afecção (ressecção de mais de 75% do comprimento intestinal foram tratadas inicialmente em hospital e a seguir no próprio domicílio. Os períodos totais de terapia nutricional variaram de quatro meses a quatro anos e meio, enquanto que as crianças permaneceram em nutrição parenteral domiciliar por períodos que variaram de uma semana a quatro anos, com mediana de oito meses. As soluções nutrientes completas, contendo aminoácidos, glicose, emulsão lipídica, eletrólitos, vitaminas e micro-elementos foram administradas através de catéteres venosos centrais do tipo Broviac ou Hickman. No domicílio, as soluções foram administradas durante o período diurno ou noturno, segundo a preferência dos familiares. RESULTADOS: Em todos os casos verificou-se ganho ponderal, crescimento e desenvolvimento satisfatórios, semelhantes aos obtidos durante nutrição oral. Obstruções do cateter, alterações hepáticas e infecção devida ao cateter foram as complicações mais freqüentes. Sete crianças (37% sobreviveram e estão fora de tratamento. Doze crianças faleceram (dez com resecção total do intestino delgado, sendo 11 por complicações relacionadas à nutrição parenteral (nove por infecção sistêmica e dois por embolia pulmonar maciça e uma por complicação neurológica, dois meses após transplante duplo de intestino e fígado. CONCLUSÃO: A nutrição parenteral domiciliar em crianças com síndrome do intestino curto traz indiscutíveis benefícios, permite redução do período de internação hospitalar, tornando possível a adaptação funcional do intestino remanescente e manutenção do

  13. Bacterias celulolíticas aisladas del intestino de termitas (Nasutitermes nigriceps con características probióticas y potencial en la degradación del pasto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Lara Mantilla

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Título corto: Bacterias celulolíticas aisladas del intestino de termitas (Nasutitermes nigriceps  Título en ingles:  Cellulolytic bacteria isolated from  termites’ gut (Nasutitermes nigriceps with probiotic characteristics and potential pasture degradationResumen: El objetivo de la presente investigación fue aislar bacterias celulolíticas del intestino de termitas (Nasutitermes nigriceps para determinar sus propiedades probióticas in vitro y su potencial en la degradación de pasto. Las termitas fueron tratadas con detergente antibacterial, separando y macerando luego, el intestino de las mismas en agua peptonada estéril. Diluciones de esta mezcla fueron inoculadas en cajas Petri con medio Luria Bertani (LB y Carboximetilcelulosa (CMC al 2%, incubando a 37º C por 24 horas, para luego revelar con Rojo Congo al 1%. Las bacterias que presentaron mayores halos de degradación fueron sometidas a tinción de Gram y a pruebas probióticas de temperatura, pH, salinidad y presencia de sales biliares, así como también a pruebas de antagonismo y degradación de pasto. Los resultados revelaron la presencia de 9 bacilos celulolíticos Gram (- de los cuales, los bacilos BTN7 y BTN8, presentaron los mejores halos de degradación, 12 y 14 mm de diámetro respectivamente, creciendo adecuadamente en las diferentes pruebas probióticas con densidades entre 106 y 108 UFC/ml; el porcentaje de degradación de materia seca fue de 39.73% y 36.10% en 48 y 72 horas respectivamente.  Las pruebas bioquímicas API E (bioMérieux SA revelaron que los bacilos BTN7 y BTN8 pertenecen al género Enterobacter sp. Los anteriores resultados abren la posibilidad de emplear, estos microorganismos como aditivos en la alimentación de rumiantes, a fin de contribuir con un mayor aprovechamiento de pastos, y otros sustratos vegetales lignocelulósicos.Palabras claves: Probióticos, Maralfalfa (Pennisetum sp., microorganismos ruminales, lignocelulosa, Enterobacter

  14. Current irritability robustly related to current and prior anxiety in bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Laura D; Miller, Shefali; Wang, Po W; Hooshmand, Farnaz; Holtzman, Jessica N; Goffin, Kathryn C; Shah, Saloni; Ketter, Terence A

    2016-08-01

    Although current irritability and current/prior anxiety have been associated in unipolar depression, these relationships are less well understood in bipolar disorder (BD). We investigated relationships between current irritability and current/prior anxiety as well as other current emotions and BD illness characteristics. Outpatients referred to the Stanford Bipolar Disorders Clinic during 2000-2011 were assessed with the Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for BD (STEP-BD) Affective Disorders Evaluation. Prevalence and clinical correlates of current irritability and current/prior anxiety and other illness characteristics were examined. Among 497 BD outpatients (239 Type I, 258 Type II; 58.1% female; mean ± SD age 35.6 ± 13.1 years), 301 (60.6%) had baseline current irritability. Patients with versus without current irritability had significantly higher rates of current anxiety (77.1% versus 42.9%, p anxiety disorder (73.1% versus 52.6%, p anxiety than to current anhedonia, sadness, or euphoria (all p anxiety associations persisted across current predominant mood states. Current irritability was more robustly related to past anxiety than to all other assessed illness characteristics, including 1° family history of mood disorder, history of alcohol/substance use disorder, bipolar subtype, and current syndromal/subsyndromal depression (all p anxiety. Further studies are warranted to assess longitudinal clinical implications of relationships between irritability and anxiety in BD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An approach for evaluating the respiratory irritation of mixtures: application to metalworking fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaper, M M; Detwiler-Okabayashi, K A

    1995-01-01

    Recently, the sensory and pulmonary irritating properties of ten metalworking fluids (MWF) were assessed using a mouse bioassay. Relative potency of the MWFs was estimated, but it was not possible to identify the component(s) responsible for the the respiratory irritation induced by each MWF. One of the ten fluids, MWF "ET", produced sensory and pulmonary irritation in mice, and it was of moderate potency in comparison to the other nine MWFs. MWF "E" had three major components: tall oil fatty acids (TOFA), sodium sulfonate (SA), and paraffinic oil (PO). In the present study, the sensory and pulmonary irritating properties of these individual components of MWF "E" were evaluated. Mixtures of the three components were also prepared and similarly evaluated. This analysis revealed that the sensory irritation from MWF "E" was largely due to TOFA, whereas SA produced the pulmonary irritation observed with MWF "E". Both TOFA and SA were more potent irritants than was MWF "E", and the potency of TOFA and/or SA was diminished through combination with PO. There was no evidence of synergism of the components when combined to form MWF "E". This approach for identifying the biologically "active" component(s) in a mixture should be useful for other MWFs. Furthermore, the approach should be easily adapted for other applications involving concerns with mixtures.

  16. The role of dermal irritation in the skin tumor promoting activity of petroleum middle distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessel, C S; Freeman, J J; Forgash, R C; McKee, R H

    1999-05-01

    Petroleum middle distillates (PMDs), a class of hydrocarbons which boil between 350-700 degrees F, are tumor promoters in mouse skin. The promotional activity is produced under conditions that also result in local changes, including chronic irritation and epidermal hyperplasia. The present study was conducted by comparing equal weekly doses of irritating and minimally or nonirritating test materials, to assess whether tumor promotion was a secondary response to these effects. Four PMDs, C10-C14 normal paraffins (NP), lightly refined paraffinic oil (LRPO), Jet Fuel A (JF), and steam-cracked gas oil (SCGO), were evaluated. Test materials were applied undiluted (2x/week) or as 28.6% (7x/week) or 50% (4x/week) concentrations in mineral oil for 52 weeks following initiation with dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA). When applied undiluted, all materials produced moderate irritation and significant increase in tumor incidence. When NP, LRPO, or JF were applied in mineral oil diluent, skin irritation was generally ameliorated and few, if any, tumors were produced. SCGO was irritating and produced a significant increase in tumor frequency when administered in mineral-oil diluent. These data indicate that the promotional activity of straight-run PMDs is likely related to chronic irritation at the application site and not to dose. Thus, when used appropriately in the absence of prolonged irritation, these materials should not present a tumorigenic hazard to humans.

  17. Menthol attenuates respiratory irritation and elevates blood cotinine in cigarette smoke exposed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A Ha

    Full Text Available Addition of menthol to cigarettes may be associated with increased initiation of smoking. The potential mechanisms underlying this association are not known. Menthol, likely due to its effects on cold-sensing peripheral sensory neurons, is known to inhibit the sensation of irritation elicited by respiratory irritants. However, it remains unclear whether menthol modulates cigarette smoke irritancy and nicotine absorption during initial exposures to cigarettes, thereby facilitating smoking initiation. Using plethysmography in a C57Bl/6J mouse model, we examined the effects of L-menthol, the menthol isomer added to cigarettes, on the respiratory sensory irritation response to primary smoke irritants (acrolein and cyclohexanone and smoke of Kentucky reference 2R4 cigarettes. We also studied L-menthol's effect on blood levels of the nicotine metabolite, cotinine, immediately after exposure to cigarette smoke. L-menthol suppressed the irritation response to acrolein with an apparent IC₅₀ of 4 ppm. Suppression was observed even at acrolein levels well above those necessary to produce a maximal response. Cigarette smoke, at exposure levels of 10 mg/m³ or higher, caused an immediate and marked sensory irritation response in mice. This response was significantly suppressed by L-menthol even at smoke concentrations as high as 300 mg/m³. Counterirritation by L-menthol was abolished by treatment with a selective inhibitor of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8, the neuronal cold/menthol receptor. Inclusion of menthol in the cigarette smoke resulted in roughly a 1.5-fold increase in plasma cotinine levels over those observed in mice exposed to smoke without added menthol. These findings document that, L-menthol, through TRPM8, is a strong suppressor of respiratory irritation responses, even during highly noxious exposures to cigarette smoke or smoke irritants, and increases blood cotinine. Therefore, L-menthol, as a cigarette additive, may

  18. Estudo retrospectivo dos casos de enterolitíase e corpo estranho em intestino grosso de eqüinos, no período de janeiro de 1993 a janeiro de 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Romero Corrêa

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available No período de janeiro de 1993 a janeiro de 2003, foram realizados 195 procedimentos cirúrgicos de abdômen agudo em eqüinos, no Serviço de Cirurgia de Grandes Animais do Hospital Veterinário da Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia da Universidade de São Paulo. Dentre eles, foram diagnosticados 30 casos de enterolitíase e sete casos de corpo estranho, localizados em intestino grosso. Das 37 laparotomias, 35 foram realizadas em decúbito dorsal com acesso pela linha média e duas em estação com acesso pelo flanco. Os animais apresentaram idade variando de um a dezoito anos com média de oito anos, sendo 25 machos e 13 fêmeas. As formações e corpos estranhos apresentaram a seguinte localização: 13 (35,14% em cólon maior, 19 (51,35% em cólon menor, 03 (8,10% em cólon transverso e 02 (5,41% em cólon transverso e menor. Em relação à evolução, 23 (62,16% receberam alta e 14 (37,84% evoluíram para óbito (6 ou foram submetidos à eutanásia (8. Seis procedimentos de eutanásia foram realizados no período trans-operatório e dois no período pós-operatório. Dentre os animais que apresentaram evolução satisfatória, destacam-se um caso em que foram retirados sete enterólitos e outro em que a ponta de um prego que era o núcleo do enterólito se mantinha proeminente e em contato com a mucosa intestinal. Comparativamente às demais afecções do intestino grosso dos eqüinos e pela análise dos resultados obtidos neste estudo, conclui-se que os processos obstrutivos causados por enterólitos ou corpos estranhos apresentam prognóstico favorável.

  19. Modelo de suprimento sanguíneo do intestino grosso do tamanduá bandeira (Myrmecophaga tridactyla Model of blood supply to the intestine of Giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla

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    Ana Lúcia Rezende de Souza

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Em seis animais adultos Myrmecophaga tridactyla estudou-se o modelo de suprimento sanguíneo do intestino grosso, que é dependente das artérias mesentérica cranial (AMCr e caudal (AMC. Os espécimes coletados conforme as normas do IBAMA (Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis foram perfundidos com água (40 C, injetados com látex corado, fixados em formol e conservados em solução alcoólica (50%. O mesocólon está disposto na linha sagital mediana e fixa o intestino grosso à parede dorsal do abdome. Derivaram da AMC: a artéria retal cranial, sete a 14 artérias cólicas e uma ou duas artérias ileocólicas, que apresentaram anastomoses de irrigação com a AMCr. A AMC finaliza-se na borda mesocólica das alças intestinais, emitindo ramos cólicos retos a partir das arcadas justacólicas, que penetram na intimidade da musculatura longitudinal. Ao longo do trajeto da AMC foram observadas ilhas arteriais, e a região ileocólica apresentou maior densidade vascular.This research aimed to study the model of large intestine blood supply, which is dependent on the cranial mesenteric artery (AMCr and caudal mesenteric artery (AMC, in six adults of Myrmecophaga tridactyla. The specimens were collected in accordance with the IBAMA standards (Brazilian Institute of the Environment and were perfused with water (40 C, injected with colored latex, fixed in formaldehyde and preserved in alcohol solution (50%. The mesocolon is positioned in the median sagittal line and fixes the large intestine to the dorsal wall of the abdomen. The following is derived from the AMC: the cranial rectal artery, from 7 to 14 colic arteries and one or two ileocolic arteries, which present irrigation anastomosis with AMCr. The AMC finishes at the mesocolic edge of the bowel loop, generating straight colic branches from juxtacolic arcades, which penetrate the intimacy of longitudinal muscles. Arterial islands were observed along the AMC

  20. A retrospective analysis of in vivo eye irritation, skin irritation and skin sensitisation studies with agrochemical formulations: Setting the scene for development of alternative strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corvaro, M; Gehen, S; Andrews, K; Chatfield, R; Macleod, F; Mehta, J

    2017-10-01

    Analysis of the prevalence of health effects in large scale databases is key in defining testing strategies within the context of Integrated Approaches on Testing and Assessment (IATA), and is relevant to drive policy changes in existing regulatory toxicology frameworks towards non-animal approaches. A retrospective analysis of existing results from in vivo skin irritation, eye irritation, and skin sensitisation studies on a database of 223 agrochemical formulations is herein published. For skin or eye effects, high prevalence of mild to non-irritant formulations (i.e. per GHS, CLP or EPA classification) would generally suggest a bottom-up approach. Severity of erythema or corneal opacity, for skinor eye effects respectively, were the key drivers for classification, consistent with existing literature. The reciprocal predictivity of skin versus eye irritation and the good negative predictivity of the GHS additivity calculation approach (>85%) provided valuable non-testing evidence for irritation endpoints. For dermal sensitisation, concordance on data from three different methods confirmed the high false negative rate for the Buehler method in this product class. These results have been reviewed together with existing literature on the use of in vitro alternatives for agrochemical formulations, to propose improvements to current regulatory strategies and to identify further research needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Jeroky Mbaekua - aspectos da etnoarte indígena.

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    Oseias de Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A idéia de arte compartilhada na cultura ocidental tradicionalmente tem sido entendida a partir de elementos conceituais e categorizações que não podem ser aplicados na cultura indígena. Assim, considerar a arte indígena significa observar sua complexidade, de forma a perpassar todas as instâncias da vida desses sujeitos. Desta forma, o texto busca discutir aspectos da etnoarte indígena que não é focada em uma noção de arte centralizada e homogeneizadora mas, sim atenta à uma perspectiva que busca contemplar melhor o seu modo de construção de símbolos, significados e representações culturais.

  2. Aspectos sociopsicológicos del climaterio y la menopausia

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    Dayana Couto Núñez

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available El climaterio y la menopausia adquieren mayor trascendencia con el transcurso del tiempo. Al respecto, el concepto de calidad de vida se ha ido convirtiendo en un aspecto importante cuando la mujer climatérica se presenta ante el especialista, en busca de un mayor bienestar posible. En la edad mediana, el organismo se torna más frágil como consecuencia de las variaciones fisiológicas naturales del climaterio y la repercusión del contexto social sobre la persona, cuya sobrecarga física y mental favorece la aparición de procesos que deterioran la salud femenina y hacen más crítico el cuadro sintomático en este período, todo lo cual puede agravarse si existen un trastorno psicogénico previo y algunos elementos desfavorables del medio circundante

  3. Aspectos legales al utilizar las principales redes sociales en Colombia

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    Manuel Adolfo Alvarado Carmona

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizaron los aspectos legales al utilizar las dos principales redes sociales en Colombia como los son facebook y twitter. Cuando un usuario se conecta a cualquiera de las redes sociales debe hacerlo de forma responsable porque de lo contrario puede incurrir en la violación de la normatividad Colombiana en la cual se encuentran los delitos informáticos, la protección de la información y los datos, injuria y calumnia, ciberacoso y derechos de autor. Se determinaron los problemas que conllevan cuando no se utiliza bien la información en las redes sociales en el ámbito jurídico.

  4. La Entomofagia en México. Algunos aspectos culturales

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    Felipe Carlos Viesca González

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se abordan aspectos culturales del consumo de insectos con fines alimenticios en México y el mundo; particularmente se analiza la entomofagia en la época prehispánica y nuestros días, así como las causas por las cuales ha disminuido el consumo de estos artrópodos. Se explica porqué se ha creado una aversión hacia los insectos en diversos países y algunas regiones de México. Se reflexiona acerca del valor nutritivo de los insectos y las distintas culturas que han hecho posible que sobreviva esta práctica culinaria en el centro y sur del territorio nacional, algunas formas de preparar platillos basados en insectos, así como los problemas que enfrenta actualmente esta costumbre alimenticia entre los mexicanos y sus perspectivas.

  5. IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME IN CHILDREN: DIAGNOSTICS AND MODERN APPROACHES TO THERAPY

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    S.Yu. Tereshchenko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article modern data on prevalence, diagnostic criteria and approaches to the treatment of irritable bowel in children are presented. The issues of the terminology and classification of recurrent abdominal pains in children are clarified, the basic pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease are indicated. Particular emphasis has been placed on the efficient therapy of the different clinical variants of irritable bowel syndrome. The role of modern spasmolytic drugs in the treatment of abdominal pain syndrome and the rational usage of laxatives in constipation in children is shown.Key words: children, irritable bowel syndrome, diagnostics, treatment.

  6. Aspectos Comportamentais no Julgamento Profissional dos Auditores Independentes

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    José Emerson Firmino

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Alguns estudos evidenciam que a adoção das International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS proporcionou melhorias na qualidade das informações contábeis. Mas, o conjunto de Procedimentos descritos nas IFRSs é fortemente afetado pelo julgamento profissional dos contadores. O mesmo fato ocorre com o auditor, que deve avaliar se a aplicação das normas resulta em fair presentation. Esse julgamento dependerá da interpretação do auditor sobre o nível de probabilidade associada a determinadas expressões presentes no texto das normas contábeis. Alguns autores evidenciam que existem diferenças significativas na interpretação das expressões verbais de probabilidade entre os auditores e que aspectos comportamentais estão influenciando a emissão do parecer de auditoria. Diante desse cenário, o objetivo deste estudo foi investigar como se comportam os auditores no julgamento de situações subjetivas, inseridos em um cenário pessimista ou otimista, no momento da avaliação dos critérios de reconhecimento e/ou mensuração, quando da execução dos trabalhos da auditoria. A amostra desta pesquisa é composta por 258 auditores independentes com registro de responsáveis técnicos junto à Comissão de Valores Mobiliários (CVM. Os resultados obtidos, por intermédio da análise das respostas dos auditores para situações subjetivas, sugerem que o julgamento do auditor em situações de subjetividade é influenciado por aspectos comportamentais, sendo que eles podem apresentar opiniões distintas em seus relatórios.

  7. Irritable bowel syndrome: diagnostic approaches in clinical practice

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    Eugene J Burbige

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Eugene J BurbigeDivision of Gastroenterology, Gastrointestinal and Liver Research, John Muir Medical Center, Concord, CA, USABackground: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, a functional gastrointestinal disorder long considered a diagnosis of exclusion, has chronic symptoms that vary over time and overlap with those of non-IBS disorders. Traditional symptom-based criteria effectively identify IBS patients but are not easily applied in clinical practice, leaving >40% of patients to experience symptoms up to 5 years before diagnosis.Objective: To review the diagnostic evaluation of patients with suspected IBS, strengths and weaknesses of current methodologies, and newer diagnostic tools that can augment current symptom-based criteria.Methods: The peer-reviewed literature (PubMed was searched for primary reports and reviews using the limiters of date (1999–2009 and English language and the search terms irritable bowel syndrome, diagnosis, gastrointestinal disease, symptom-based criteria, outcome, serology, and fecal markers. Abstracts from Digestive Disease Week 2008–2009 and reference lists of identified articles were reviewed.Results: A disconnect is apparent between practice guidelines and clinical practice. The American Gastroenterological Association and American College of Gastroenterology recommend diagnosing IBS in patients without alarm features of organic disease using symptom-based criteria (eg, Rome. However, physicians report confidence in a symptom-based diagnosis without further testing only up to 42% of the time; many order laboratory tests and perform sigmoidoscopies or colonoscopies despite good evidence showing no utility for this work-up in uncomplicated cases. In the absence of diagnostic criteria easily usable in a busy practice, newer diagnostic methods, such as stool-form examination, fecal inflammatory markers, and serum biomarkers, have been proposed as adjunctive tools to aid in an IBS diagnosis by increasing physicians

  8. Immunomodulation of enteric neural function in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Dervla

    2015-06-28

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder which is characterised by symptoms such as bloating, altered bowel habit and visceral pain. It's generally accepted that miscommunication between the brain and gut underlies the changes in motility, absorpto-secretory function and pain sensitivity associated with IBS. However, partly due to the lack of disease-defining biomarkers, understanding the aetiology of this complex and multifactorial disease remains elusive. Anecdotally, IBS patients have noted that periods of stress can result in symptom flares and many patients exhibit co-morbid stress-related mood disorders such as anxiety and depression. However, in addition to psychosocial stressors, infection-related stress has also been linked with the initiation, persistence and severity of symptom flares. Indeed, prior gastrointestinal infection is one of the strongest predictors of developing IBS. Despite a lack of overt morphological inflammation, the importance of immune factors in the pathophysiology of IBS is gaining acceptance. Subtle changes in the numbers of mucosal immune cell infiltrates and elevated levels of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines have been reproducibly demonstrated in IBS populations. Moreover, these immune mediators directly affect neural signalling. An exciting new area of research is the role of luminal microbiota in the modulation of neuro-immune signalling, resulting in local changes in gastrointestinal function and alterations in central neural functioning. Progress in this area has begun to unravel some of the complexities of neuroimmune and neuroendocrine interactions and how these molecular exchanges contribute to GI dysfunction.

  9. Inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome: similarities and differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbara, Giovanni; Cremon, Cesare; Stanghellini, Vincenzo

    2014-07-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are classically viewed as dichotomous conditions. The former is perceived as a typical organic disease, and the latter is regarded as a disorder of gut function driven by mood. Recent research identified some shared contributing factors, which will be discussed here. Mounting evidence shows the importance in both IBD and IBS of genetic, microbiological, epithelial, and immunological factors. In some instances, these factors overlap in the two conditions as shown by: involvement of brain-gut axis dysfunction in IBD, implication of TNFSF gene in Crohn's disease and IBS, evidence of abnormal microbiota and its impact on host functions, identification of low-grade inflammation in subsets of IBS patients, and development of IBS symptoms in patients with IBD in remission. IBD and IBS remain separate conditions although there are some overlapping mechanisms. Both research and clinical management would benefit from considering a functional approach for certain manifestations of IBD and accepting an organic view in subsets of IBS patients.

  10. Prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masand, Prakash S; Keuthen, Nancy J; Gupta, Sanjay; Virk, Subhdeep; Yu-Siao, Barbara; Kaplan, David

    2006-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) occurs more frequently in psychiatric patients, especially those with anxiety and mood disorders. We sought to determine the prevalence and phenomenology of IBS in patients diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A semi-structured diagnostic interview was administered to patients seeking treatment for OCD in outpatient settings. Structured questions regarding gastrointestinal functioning and IBS symptoms were administered. IBS was diagnosed by a gastroenterologist using Rome I criteria. Thirty-seven patients (35.1%) with OCD met criteria for IBS. Of these, 53.8% had IBS with both diarrhea and constipation, 30.8% had diarrhea-predominant IBS, and 15.4% had constipation-predominant IBS. The prevalence rate of IBS in an age- and sex-matched control group (n=40) of medical patients in a family practice was 2.5%. IBS prevalence rates were significantly higher for OCD patients than control subjects (P=.0002). IBS and psychiatric illness have high rates of bi-directional comorbidity. This study shows that 35.1% of patients with OCD satisfied criteria for IBS in contrast to 2.5% of the controlled subjects. In most patients the IBS was characterized by both diarrhea and constipation. While taking the initial history clinicians should inquire about bowel symptoms in patients presenting with psychiatric illnesses, including OCD. SSRIs could potentially worsen such symptoms and lead to non-adherence.

  11. Celiac disease: Serologic prevalence in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

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    Zobeiri Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS in the community is 10%-20% and have symptom based diagnostic criteria. Many symptoms of celiac disease (CD with 1% prevalence in some communities can mimic IBS. Sensitive and specific serologic tests of CD can detect asymptomatic cases. The purpose of this study was to compare the level of anti-tissue-transglutaminase (tTG IgA in IBS patients and controls group. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed at a University hospital in which 107 patients with IBS who met the Rome II criteria for their diagnosis were compared with 126 healthy age and sex-matched controls. Both groups were investigated for CD by analysis of their serum tTG IgA antibody with human recombinant antigen. Titers were positive containing over 10u/ml and borderline if they were between 4 and 10 u/ml. Result: 86 percent of IBS patients were female. The mean antibody level was 0.837 u/ml in IBS group and 0.933 u/ml in control group without any significant difference. Discussion and Conclusion: Results of this study may intensify disagreement on the situation of CD in IBS patients.

  12. Melatonin for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siah, Kewin Tien Ho; Wong, Reuben Kong Min; Ho, Khek Yu

    2014-03-14

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain or discomfort, in combination with disturbed bowel habits in the absence of identifiable organic cause. Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is a hormone produced by the pineal gland and also large number by enterochromaffin cells of the digestive mucosa. Melatonin plays an important part in gastrointestinal physiology which includes regulation of gastrointestinal motility, local anti-inflammatory reaction as well as moderation of visceral sensation. Melatonin is commonly given orally. It is categorized by the United States Food and Drug Administration as a dietary supplement. Melatonin treatment has an extremely wide margin of safety though it may cause minor adverse effects, such as headache, rash and nightmares. Melatonin was touted as a potential effective candidate for IBS treatment. Putative role of melatonin in IBS treatment include analgesic effects, regulator of gastrointestinal motility and sensation to sleep promoter. Placebo-controlled studies in melatonin suffered from heterogeneity in methodology. Most studies utilized 3 mg at bedtime as the standard dose of trial. However, all studies had consistently showed improvement in abdominal pain, some showed improvement in quality of life of IBS patients. Melatonin is a relatively safe drug that possesses potential in treating IBS. Future studies should focus on melatonin effect on gut mobility as well as its central nervous system effect to elucidate its role in IBS patients.

  13. Rome Criteria and a Diagnostic Approach to Irritable Bowel Syndrome

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    Brian E. Lacy

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs account for at least 40% of all referrals to gastroenterologists. Of the 33 recognized adult FGIDs, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is the most prevalent, with a worldwide prevalence estimated at 12%. IBS is an important health care concern as it greatly affects patients’ quality of life and imposes a significant economic burden to the health care system. Cardinal symptoms of IBS include abdominal pain and altered bowel habits. The absence of abdominal pain makes the diagnosis of IBS untenable. The diagnosis of IBS can be made by performing a careful review of the patient’s symptoms, taking a thoughtful history (e.g., diet, medication, medical, surgical, and psychological history, evaluating the patient for the presence of warning signs (e.g., “red flags” of anemia, hematochezia, unintentional weight loss, or a family history of colorectal cancer or inflammatory bowel disease, performing a guided physical examination, and using the Rome IV criteria. The Rome criteria were developed by a panel of international experts in the field of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Although initially developed to guide researchers, these criteria have undergone several revisions with the intent of making them clinically useful and relevant. This monograph provides a brief overview on the development of the Rome criteria, discusses the utility of the Rome IV criteria, and reviews how the criteria can be applied clinically to diagnose IBS. In addition, a diagnostic strategy for the cost-effective diagnosis of IBS will be reviewed.

  14. Probiotic treatment of irritable bowel syndrome in children

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    Enck, P.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of functional bowel disorders of irritable bowel-type (IBS in children remains a difficult task because of a lack of drugs with low adverse event profile. We here report the results of a treatment study in 203 children (66 boys and 137 girls age 4 to 18 years (mean: 10.5±4.5 years with typical IBS symptoms with abdominal pain and either predominant diarrhea (n=50, constipation (n=56, alternating stool frequency (n=28 or unspecific pain (n=69. The average duration of symptoms prior to therapy was 175 days. Most (95% patients up to age 11 were treated with a daily dose of 10 drops of Symbioflor 2 (SF2 (SymbioPharm, Herborn (cells and autolysate of 1.5–4.5x107 CFU of bacteria of Escherichia coli type, in the elder children 77% received this dosage, while the remaining received a higher dose up to 30 drops/day. Treatment lasted 43 days on average. Results: All patients tolerated the treatment well and without adverse events. The key IBS symptoms (abdominal pain, stool frequency as well as the other symptoms (bloating, mucous and blood in stool, need for straining at stools, urge to defecate improved significantly during treatment. Global assessment of therapy by parents and doctors was altogether positive. In summary these data confirm efficacy and tolerability of this probiotic compound in children and adolescents and supplement published data of probiotic IBS therapy in adults.

  15. PREVALENCE OF SMALL INTESTINAL BACTERIAL OVERGROWTH IN IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME

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    Premaletha Narayanan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS is a common functional disorder and the pathophysiology of IBS is poorly understood. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of SIBO in patients with IBS using Lactulose Hydrogen Breath Test (LHBT. Diagnosis of IBS was made according to the Rome III Criteria and Lactulose Hydrogen Breath Test (LHBT was done. MATERIALS AND METHODS The current hypothesis suggests that altered gastrointestinal motility, disturbance of visceral hypersensitivity and infection may contribute to the symptoms. Gut microbiota and intestinal pathogens are likely to influence the pathogenesis of IBS. Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth (SIBO is defined as an abnormally high bacterial count (≥105 colony-forming units/mL in the proximal small intestine. RESULTS Out of the 120 patients, 9 were LHBT positive (7.5% compared to none in controls (p <0.01. IBS patients with LHBT positivity was correlated well with the increased frequency of stools. There was no correlation noted with LHBT positivity and abdominal pain or flatulence or bloating compared to IBS patients who were LHBT negative. CONCLUSION These findings may suggest that patients with chronic diarrhoea including IBS should be tested for SIBO. Our study also showed that LHBT positivity is associated with increased frequency of stools and diarrhoea. If SIBO is found in patients with chronic diarrhoea, specific treatment with antibiotics may benefit them.

  16. Dietary intakes in people with irritable bowel syndrome

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    Corfe Bernard M

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS is a functional bowel disorder characterised by episodes of abdominal pain associated with altered bowel habits. Many IBS sufferers believe that diet may play a role in triggering these episodes and may avoid certain foods. However relatively few studies have undertaken a dietary assessment in IBS sufferers to examine the wider impact of the condition upon diet. Methods 104 individuals with IBS were recruited and asked to complete a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The data were analysed against Dietary Reference Values for food energy and nutrients for the United Kingdom and observed intakes for the general population and for differences between IBS subtypes and the UK population. Results The data show that the dietary intakes of this population of IBS sufferers met the UK Dietary Reference Values. The average energy intake of the population exceeded the Estimated Average Requirements of the UK population and the balance of macronutrients was favourable. Intakes of selected micronutrients significantly exceeded the reference nutrient intakes. There were no differences between IBS subtypes. Conclusions The IBS subpopulation appear to have an adequate and balanced macronutrient intake with no evidence of inadequate micronutrient intake.

  17. [Methaemoglobinaemia and respiratory tract irritation connected with poppers inhalation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasik-Głebocka, Magdalena; Matuszkiewicz, Eryk

    2010-01-01

    "Poppers" is the street name for volatile nitrites offered by online shops and sex-shops for their aphrodisiac and euphoric properties. Although nitrites have been abused since the late 1960s, recently they became popular in Poland. Recreational poppers using was associated with homosexual men at first. Currently they are commonly reported among heterosexual men and regular dicso participants. Advertisements of these substances tempt potential buyers with the promise of a legal narcotic high. Easy access and the sense of safety make these products the reason of acute toxicity. Volatile nitrites relaxes smooth muscle, the consequent intense peripheral vasodilatation produces flushing, a fall in blood pressure, and reflex increase in heart rate. These effects are accompanied by feeling of warmth, euphoria and intensifying of sexual pleasure. Serious poisoning results in severe methaemoglobinaemia, coma, respiratory and cardiovascular failure, and even death. Skin and mucous contact with poppers can produce a crusty lesion at the site. This article presents the case of 44-years old male hospitalized three times in Toxicology Department after history of poppers abusing. Methaemoglobinaemia (26.4%) and tracheobronchial irritation were the main symptoms observed. Patient was given specific therapy with methylene blue.

  18. Irritable bowel syndrome: role of food in pathogenesis and management.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morcos, Ashraf

    2009-11-01

    Patients with the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) commonly report the precipitation of symptoms on food ingestion. Though the role of dietary constituents in IBS has not been extensively studied, food could contribute to symptom onset or even the causation of IBS through a number of mechanisms. First, the physiological response of the intestine to food ingestion could precipitate symptoms in predisposed individuals; second, there is some evidence that allergy or intolerance to a particular food can produce IBS-like symptoms, third, certain foods may alter the composition of the luminal milieu, either directly or indirectly through effects on bacterial metabolism, and thus induce symptoms and, finally, IBS may develop following exposure to food-borne pathogens. Anticipatory, psychological factors generated by previous negative experiences with food ingestion or other factors may also contribute though their contribution has been scarcely quantified. Not surprisingly, there is considerable interest in the potential roles of diet and food supplements in the therapy of IBS; for the most part, the evidence base for such recommendations remains slim though certain probiotics show considerable promise.

  19. Personality traits and emotional patterns in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscatello, Maria Rosaria A; Bruno, Antonio; Mento, Carmela; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco A

    2016-07-28

    The review focuses on those personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness), constructs (alexithymia and distressed - Type D personality) and emotional patterns (negative and positive) that are of particular concern in health psychology, with the aim to highlight their potential role on the pathogenesis, onset, symptom clusters, clinical course, and outcome of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Personality traits and emotional patterns play key roles in affecting autonomic, immune, inflammatory, and endocrine functions, thus contributing not only to IBS clinical expression and symptomatic burden, but also to disease physiopathology. In this sense, psychological treatments should address those personality traits and emotional features that are constitutive of, and integral to IBS. The biopsychosocial model of illness applied to IBS acknowledges the interaction between biological, psychological, environmental, and social factors in relation to pain and functional disability. A holistic approach to IBS should take into account the heterogeneous nature of the disorder, and differentiate treatments for different types of IBS, also considering the marked individual differences in prevalent personality traits and emotional patterns. Beyond medications, and lifestyle/dietary interventions, psychological and educational treatments may provide the optimal chance of addressing clinical symptoms, comorbid conditions, and quality of life in IBS patients.

  20. Cross-cultural and psychological issues in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Swapnajeet; Padhy, Susanta Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders encountered by gastroenterologists worldwide. Of all the etiological factors that had been postulated to explain the pathophysiology of IBS, cultural and psychological factors are unique and difficult to understand. Culture plays an important role in coloring the presentation of IBS, and many a times, it has a significant role in several treatment aspects too. Psychological aspects like personality profiles, family relationships, societal myths, and abuse in any form are equally important in the management perspectives of IBS. In this brief review, we had tried to specifically focus on these aspects in IBS and have explained the evidences in favor of these factors. Knowledge about various cross-cultural aspects and psychological factors in patients with IBS is essential for taking an appropriate history and for undertaking a holistic approach for the management of the same. A collaborative team effort by psychiatrists and gastroenterologists could help in reducing the burden of this difficult to treat functional bowel disorder. © 2017 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Irritable bowel syndrome and endometriosis: New insights for old diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, Davide; Zara, Federica; Usai, Paolo

    2018-03-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome and endometriosis are two diseases affecting a significant part of the female population, either together or individually, with remarkable consequences in the quality of life. Several studies suggest an epidemiological association between them. Their association may not be just an epidemiological phenomenon, but the manifestation of a pathophysiological correlation, which probably generates a mutual promotion phenomenon. In particular, both clinical entities share the presence of a chronic low-grade inflammatory state at the basis of the disease persistence. Recognizing this association is highly significant due to their prevalence and the common clinical manifestation occurring with a chronic abdominal pain. A further multi disciplinary approach is suggested in these patients' management in order to achieve an adequate diagnostic work up and a targeted therapy. This paper analyses some common pathophysiological mechanisms, such as activation of mast cell line, neuronal inflammation, dysbiosis and impaired intestinal permeability. The aim was to investigate their presence in both IBS and endometriosis, and to show the complexity of their relationship in the generation and maintenance of chronic inflammation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Self-schema in irritable bowel syndrome and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, B B; Garfinkel, P E; Jeejeebhoy, K N; Scher, H; Shulhan, D; Di Gasbarro, I

    1990-01-01

    Some investigators have suggested that irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) represents a physiologic expression of an affective disorder. This study investigated whether IBS patients differed in their self-schema from depressed patients. Self-schema refers to a cognitive framework of the individual's beliefs, attitudes, and self-perceptions which is stored in memory and which influences incoming information. The sample consisted of 21 IBS patients, 21 psychiatric outpatients with major depression (MD), and 19 normal controls. All groups were age matched. Subjects completed a structured psychiatric interview (Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) and a Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), in addition to a test of self-schema, which involved rating and recall of a variety of "depressed" and "nondepressed" content adjectives. Consistent with previous work on self-schema, the MD group recalled significantly more depressed adjectives rated under the self-referent task than the Control group (p less than 0.05) and, also, the IBS group (p less than 0.05). Most striking was the finding that a subgroup of IBS patients who met criteria for MD (43% of the sample) recalled significantly more self-referent nondepressed words (and less self-referent depressed words) than the MD group (p less than 0.05). In other words, IBS patients with MD do not view themselves as depressed. These findings suggest that while some IBS and depressed psychiatric outpatients may share depressive symptoms, these groups can be differentiated by their self-schema.

  3. Guidelines on the irritable bowel syndrome: mechanisms and practical management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiller, R; Aziz, Q; Creed, F; Emmanuel, A; Houghton, L; Hungin, P; Jones, R; Kumar, D; Rubin, G; Trudgill, N; Whorwell, P

    2007-01-01

    Background IBS affects 5–11% of the population of most countries. Prevalence peaks in the third and fourth decades, with a female predominance. Aim To provide a guide for the assessment and management of adult patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Methods Members of the Clinical Services Committee of The British Society of Gastroenterology were allocated particular areas to produce review documents. Literature searching included systematic searches using electronic databases such as Pubmed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases and extensive personal reference databases. Results Patients can usefully be classified by predominant bowel habit. Few investigations are needed except when diarrhoea is a prominent feature. Alarm features may warrant further investigation. Adverse psychological features and somatisation are often present. Ascertaining the patients' concerns and explaining symptoms in simple terms improves outcome. IBS is a heterogeneous condition with a range of treatments, each of which benefits a small proportion of patients. Treatment of associated anxiety and depression often improves bowel and other symptoms. Randomised placebo controlled trials show benefit as follows: cognitive behavioural therapy and psychodynamic interpersonal therapy improve coping; hypnotherapy benefits global symptoms in otherwise refractory patients; antispasmodics and tricyclic antidepressants improve pain; ispaghula improves pain and bowel habit; 5‐HT3 antagonists improve global symptoms, diarrhoea, and pain but may rarely cause unexplained colitis; 5‐HT4 agonists improve global symptoms, constipation, and bloating; selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors improve global symptoms. Conclusions Better ways of identifying which patients will respond to specific treatments are urgently needed. PMID:17488783

  4. Role of gut pathogens in development of irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudan Grover

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute infectious gastroenteritis is one of the most commonly identifiable risk factors for the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. A number of bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens have been found to be associated with the development of IBS and other functional gastrointestinal (GI disorders. Epidemiological studies have identified demographic and acute enteritis-related risk factors for the development of post-infectious-IBS (PI-IBS. Immune dysregulation, alterations in barrier function, serotonergic and mast cell activation have been identified as potential pathophysiological mechanisms. Additionally, variations in host genes involved in barrier function, antigen presentation and cytokine response have been associated with PI-IBS development. However, it is unknown whether specific pathogens have unique effects on long-term alterations in gut physiology or different pathogens converge to cause common alterations resulting in similar phenotype. The role of microbial virulence and pathogenicity factors in development of PI-IBS is also largely unknown. Additionally, alterations in host gut sensation, motility, secretion, and barrier function in PI-IBS need to be elucidated. Finally, both GI infections and antibiotics used to treat these infections can cause long-term alterations in host commensal microbiota. It is plausible that alteration in the commensal microbiome persists in a subset of patients predisposing them to develop PI-IBS.

  5. Irritable bowel syndrome: A microbiome-gut-brain axis disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Paul J; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G; Clarke, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is an extremely prevalent but poorly understood gastrointestinal disorder. Consequently, there are no clear diagnostic markers to help diagnose the disorder and treatment options are limited to management of the symptoms. The concept of a dysregulated gut-brain axis has been adopted as a suitable model for the disorder. The gut microbiome may play an important role in the onset and exacerbation of symptoms in the disorder and has been extensively studied in this context. Although a causal role cannot yet be inferred from the clinical studies which have attempted to characterise the gut microbiota in IBS, they do confirm alterations in both community stability and diversity. Moreover, it has been reliably demonstrated that manipulation of the microbiota can influence the key symptoms, including abdominal pain and bowel habit, and other prominent features of IBS. A variety of strategies have been taken to study these interactions, including probiotics, antibiotics, faecal transplantations and the use of germ-free animals. There are clear mechanisms through which the microbiota can produce these effects, both humoral and neural. Taken together, these findings firmly establish the microbiota as a critical node in the gut-brain axis and one which is amenable to therapeutic interventions. PMID:25339800

  6. Wound-Related Allergic/Irritant Contact Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Afsaneh; Sibbald, R Gary; Ladizinski, Barry; Saraiya, Ami; Lee, Kachiu C; Skotnicki-Grant, Sandy; Maibach, Howard

    2016-06-01

    To provide information from a literature review about the prevention, recognition, and treatment for contact dermatitis. This continuing education activity is intended for physicians and nurses with an interest in skin and wound care. After participating in this educational activity, the participant should be better able to:1. Identify signs and symptoms of and diagnostic measures for contact dermatitis.2. Identify causes and risks for contact dermatitis.3. Select appropriate treatment for contact dermatitis and its prevention. Contact dermatitis to wound care products is a common, often neglected problem. A review was conducted to identify articles relevant to contact dermatitis.A PubMed English-language literature review was conducted for appropriate articles published between January 2000 and December 2015.Contact dermatitis is both irritant (80% of cases) or allergic (20% of cases). Frequent use of potential contact allergens and impaired barrier function of the skin can lead to rising sensitization in patients with chronic wounds. Common known allergens to avoid in wound care patients include fragrances, colophony, lanolin, and topical antibiotics.Clinicians should be cognizant of the allergens in wound care products and the potential for sensitization. All medical devices, including wound dressings, adhesives, and bandages, should be labeled with their complete ingredients, and manufacturers should be encouraged to remove common allergens from wound care products, including topical creams, ointments, and dressings.

  7. The Role of Mast Cells in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Nyeong Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders, but its treatment is unsatisfactory as its pathophysiology is multifactorial. The putative factors of IBS pathophysiology are visceral hypersensitivity and intestinal dysmotility, also including psychological factors, dysregulated gut-brain axis, intestinal microbiota alterations, impaired intestinal permeability, and mucosal immune alterations. Recently, mucosal immune alterations have received much attention with the role of mast cells in IBS. Mast cells are abundant in the intestines and function as intestinal gatekeepers at the interface between the luminal environment in the intestine and the internal milieu under the intestinal epithelium. As a gatekeeper at the interface, mast cells communicate with the adjacent cells such as epithelial, neuronal, and other immune cells throughout the mediators released when they themselves are activated. Many studies have suggested that mast cells play a role in the pathophysiology of IBS. This review will focus on studies of the role of mast cell in IBS and the limitations of studies and will also consider future directions.

  8. Vitamin D status in pediatric irritable bowel syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Udoka Nwosu

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is associated with significant morbidity in children and adolescents, and the therapeutic efficacy of available treatment options is limited. The role of vitamin D supplementation in pediatric IBS is unclear as the vitamin D status of pediatric patients with IBS is unknown. Equally, the relationship of vitamin D status with psychosomatic symptoms in children and adolescents is unclear.To characterize the vitamin D status of pediatric patients with IBS using a case-control study design.Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OHD] concentration will be similar between patients with IBS and controls.A retrospective case-controlled study of 116 controls (age 14.6 ± 4.3 y, female (n = 67; 58% and 55 subjects with IBS (age 16.5 ± 3.1y, female (n = 44; 80%. Overweight was defined as BMI of ≥85th but 90% of IBS subjects had vitamin D deficiency at a cut-off point of 50% of the subjects with IBS had vitamin D deficiency. This is a much higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency compared to IBD and other malabsorption syndromes. Monitoring for vitamin D deficiency should be part of the routine care for patients with IBS. Randomized control trials are warranted to determine the role of adjunctive vitamin D therapy in pediatric IBS.

  9. Constructive thinking, rational intelligence and irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Enrique; Moreno Ortega, Marta; Garcia Alonso, Monica-Olga; Diaz-Rubio, Manuel

    2009-07-07

    To evaluate rational and experiential intelligence in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) sufferers. We recruited 100 subjects with IBS as per Rome II criteria (50 consulters and 50 non-consulters) and 100 healthy controls, matched by age, sex and educational level. Cases and controls completed a clinical questionnaire (including symptom characteristics and medical consultation) and the following tests: rational-intelligence (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd edition); experiential-intelligence (Constructive Thinking Inventory); personality (NEO personality inventory); psychopathology (MMPI-2), anxiety (state-trait anxiety inventory) and life events (social readjustment rating scale). Analysis of variance was used to compare the test results of IBS-sufferers and controls, and a logistic regression model was then constructed and adjusted for age, sex and educational level to evaluate any possible association with IBS. No differences were found between IBS cases and controls in terms of IQ (102.0 +/- 10.8 vs 102.8 +/- 12.6), but IBS sufferers scored significantly lower in global constructive thinking (43.7 +/- 9.4 vs 49.6 +/- 9.7). In the logistic regression model, global constructive thinking score was independently linked to suffering from IBS [OR 0.92 (0.87-0.97)], without significant OR for total IQ. IBS subjects do not show lower rational intelligence than controls, but lower experiential intelligence is nevertheless associated with IBS.

  10. Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Clinical Manifestations, Dietary Influences, and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Ikechi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS is a functional gastrointestinal disorder that is characterized by symptoms of chronic abdominal pain and altered bowel habits in the absence of an overtly identifiable cause. It is the most commonly diagnosed functional gastrointestinal disorder, accounting for about one third of gastroenterology visits. It generally presents as a complex of symptoms, including psychological dysfunction. Hypersensitivity to certain foods, especially foods that contain high amounts of fructose, plays a role in the pathophysiology of IBS. Elevated consumption of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS has been discussed in this aspect. The treatment options for IBS are challenging and varied. In addition to dietary restrictions for HFCS-induced IBS, such as low-FODMAP (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharide, Monosaccharides, and Polyols diets, existing drug therapies are administered based on the predominant symptoms and IBS-subtype. Patients with IBS are likely to suffer from issues, such as anxiety, depression, and post-traumatic-stress disorder. Biopsychosocial factors particularly socioeconomic status, sex, and race should, thus, be considered for diagnostic evaluation of patients with IBS.

  11. Stress and visceral pain: focusing on irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukudo, Shin

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in brain science have shown that the brain function encoding emotion depends on interoceptive signals such as visceral pain. Visceral pain arose early in our evolutionary history. Bottom-up processing from gut-to-brain and top-down autonomic/neuroendocrine mechanisms in brain-to-gut signaling constitute a circuit. Brain imaging techniques have enabled us to depict the visceral pain pathway as well as the related emotional circuit. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is characterized by chronic recurrent abdominal pain or abdominal discomfort associated with bowel dysfunction. It is also thought to be a disorder of the brain-gut link associated with an exaggerated response to stress. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), a major mediator of the stress response in the brain-gut axis, is an obvious candidate in the pathophysiology of IBS. Indeed, administration of CRH has been shown to aggravate the visceral sensorimotor response in IBS patients, and the administration of peptidergic CRH antagonists seems to alleviate IBS pathophysiology. Serotonin (5-HT) is another likely candidate associated with brain-gut function in IBS, as 5-HT3 antagonists, 5-HT4 agonists, and antidepressants were demonstrated to regulate 5-HT neurotransmission in IBS patients. Autonomic nervous system function, the neuroimmune axis, and the brain-gut-microbiota axis show specific profiles in IBS patients. Further studies on stress and visceral pain neuropathways in IBS patients are warranted. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Intestinal microbiota in pathophysiology and management of irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Oh Young

    2014-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder without any structural or metabolic abnormalities that sufficiently explain the symptoms, which include abdominal pain and discomfort, and bowel habit changes such as diarrhea and constipation. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial: visceral hypersensitivity, dysmotility, psychosocial factors, genetic or environmental factors, dysregulation of the brain-gut axis, and altered intestinal microbiota have all been proposed as possible causes. The human intestinal microbiota are composed of more than 1000 different bacterial species and 1014 cells, and are essential for the development, function, and homeostasis of the intestine, and for individual health. The putative mechanisms that explain the role of microbiota in the development of IBS include altered composition or metabolic activity of the microbiota, mucosal immune activation and inflammation, increased intestinal permeability and impaired mucosal barrier function, sensory-motor disturbances provoked by the microbiota, and a disturbed gut-microbiota-brain axis. Therefore, modulation of the intestinal microbiota through dietary changes, and use of antibiotics, probiotics, and anti-inflammatory agents has been suggested as strategies for managing IBS symptoms. This review summarizes and discusses the accumulating evidence that intestinal microbiota play a role in the pathophysiology and management of IBS. PMID:25083061

  13. Gut microbiota role in irritable bowel syndrome: New therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distrutti, Eleonora; Monaldi, Lorenzo; Ricci, Patrizia; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2016-02-21

    In the last decade the impressive expansion of our knowledge of the vast microbial community that resides in the human intestine, the gut microbiota, has provided support to the concept that a disturbed intestinal ecology might promote development and maintenance of symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). As a correlate, manipulation of gut microbiota represents a new strategy for the treatment of this multifactorial disease. A number of attempts have been made to modulate the gut bacterial composition, following the idea that expansion of bacterial species considered as beneficial (Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria) associated with the reduction of those considered harmful (Clostridium, Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Pseudomonas) should attenuate IBS symptoms. In this conceptual framework, probiotics appear an attractive option in terms of both efficacy and safety, while prebiotics, synbiotics and antibiotics still need confirmation. Fecal transplant is an old treatment translated from the cure of intestinal infective pathologies that has recently gained a new life as therapeutic option for those patients with a disturbed gut ecosystem, but data on IBS are scanty and randomized, placebo-controlled studies are required.

  14. Intestinal microbiota in pathophysiology and management of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang Nyeong; Lee, Oh Young

    2014-07-21

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional bowel disorder without any structural or metabolic abnormalities that sufficiently explain the symptoms, which include abdominal pain and discomfort, and bowel habit changes such as diarrhea and constipation. Its pathogenesis is multifactorial: visceral hypersensitivity, dysmotility, psychosocial factors, genetic or environmental factors, dysregulation of the brain-gut axis, and altered intestinal microbiota have all been proposed as possible causes. The human intestinal microbiota are composed of more than 1000 different bacterial species and 10(14) cells, and are essential for the development, function, and homeostasis of the intestine, and for individual health. The putative mechanisms that explain the role of microbiota in the development of IBS include altered composition or metabolic activity of the microbiota, mucosal immune activation and inflammation, increased intestinal permeability and impaired mucosal barrier function, sensory-motor disturbances provoked by the microbiota, and a disturbed gut-microbiota-brain axis. Therefore, modulation of the intestinal microbiota through dietary changes, and use of antibiotics, probiotics, and anti-inflammatory agents has been suggested as strategies for managing IBS symptoms. This review summarizes and discusses the accumulating evidence that intestinal microbiota play a role in the pathophysiology and management of IBS.

  15. Unraveling the ties between irritable bowel syndrome and intestinal microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Noh; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

    2014-03-14

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is the most prevalent functional gastrointestinal disorder. It is a multifactorial disorder. Intestinal microbiota may cause the pathogenesis of IBS by contributing to abnormal gastrointestinal motility, low-grade inflammation, visceral hypersensitivity, communication in the gut-brain axis, and so on. Previous attempts to identify the intestinal microbiota composition in IBS patients have yielded inconsistent and occasionally contradictory results. This inconsistency may be due to the differences in the molecular techniques employed, the sample collection and handling methods, use of single samples that are not linked to fluctuating symptoms, or other factors such as patients' diets and phenotypic characterizations. Despite these difficulties, previous studies found that the intestinal microbiota in some IBS patients was completely different from that in healthy controls, and there does appear to be a consistent theme of Firmicutes enrichment and reduced abundance of Bacteroides. Based on the differences in intestinal microbiota composition, many studies have addressed the roles of microbiota-targeted treatments, such as antibiotics and probiotics, in alleviating certain symptoms of IBS. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the associations between intestinal microbiota and IBS as well as the possible modes of action of intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of IBS. Improving the current level of understanding of host-microbiota interactions in IBS is important not only for determining the role of intestinal microbiota in IBS pathogenesis but also for therapeutic modulation of the microbiota.

  16. Recent developments in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Salhy, Magdy

    2015-07-07

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common gastrointestinal disorder, the pathophysiology of which is not completely known, although it has been shown that genetic/social learning factors, diet, intestinal microbiota, intestinal low-grade inflammation, and abnormal gastrointestinal endocrine cells play a major role. Studies of familial aggregation and on twins have confirmed the heritability of IBS. However, the proposed IBS risk genes are thus far nonvalidated hits rather than true predisposing factors. There is no convincing evidence that IBS patients suffer from food allergy/intolerance, with the effect exerted by diet seemingly caused by intake of poorly absorbed carbohydrates and fiber. Obesity is a possible comorbidity of IBS. Differences in the microbiota between IBS patients and healthy controls have been reported, but the association between IBS symptoms and specific bacterial species is uncertain. Low-grade inflammation appears to play a role in the pathophysiology of a major subset of IBS, namely postinfectious IBS. The density of intestinal endocrine cells is reduced in patients with IBS, possibly as a result of genetic factors, diet, intestinal microbiota, and low-grade inflammation interfering with the regulatory signals controlling the intestinal stem-cell clonogenic and differentiation activities. Furthermore, there is speculation that this decreased number of endocrine cells is responsible for the visceral hypersensitivity, disturbed gastrointestinal motility, and abnormal gut secretion seen in IBS patients.

  17. Sex hormones in the modulation of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulak, Agata; Taché, Yvette; Larauche, Muriel

    2014-03-14

    Compelling evidence indicates sex and gender differences in epidemiology, symptomatology, pathophysiology, and treatment outcome in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Based on the female predominance as well as the correlation between IBS symptoms and hormonal status, several models have been proposed to examine the role of sex hormones in gastrointestinal (GI) function including differences in GI symptoms expression in distinct phases of the menstrual cycle, in pre- and post-menopausal women, during pregnancy, hormonal treatment or after oophorectomy. Sex hormones may influence peripheral and central regulatory mechanisms of the brain-gut axis involved in the pathophysiology of IBS contributing to the alterations in visceral sensitivity, motility, intestinal barrier function, and immune activation of intestinal mucosa. Sex differences in stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system, neuroimmune interactions triggered by stress, as well as estrogen interactions with serotonin and corticotropin-releasing factor signaling systems are being increasingly recognized. A concept of "microgenderome" related to the potential role of sex hormone modulation of the gut microbiota is also emerging. Significant differences between IBS female and male patients regarding symptomatology and comorbidity with other chronic pain syndromes and psychiatric disorders, together with differences in efficacy of serotonergic medications in IBS patients confirm the necessity for more sex-tailored therapeutic approach in this disorder.

  18. [Irritable bowel syndrome: New pathophysiological hypotheses and practical issues].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duboc, H; Dior, M; Coffin, B

    2016-08-01

    In 2015, besides the fact that it still fills the gastroenterologists' offices and impairs patient's quality of life, the irritable bowel syndrome has considerably evolved on several points. The pathophysiology is now organized around a consensual hypothesis called the "brain-gut axis", which gather all the influences of peripheral factors as gut microbiota or local serotonin secretion, on the central pain perception, contributing to visceral hypersensitivity and transit modifications. About the diagnosis, the key message is "avoid over-prescription" of additional tests, and reminds that a positive clinical diagnosis based on Rome III criteria is possible after the elimination of simple clinical warning signs. Finally, the food component, a neglected and historical claim of patients, finally finds a strong scientific rational, with a diet low in fermentable sugar and polyols, that gives positive and reproducible results. Copyright © 2016 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Additive impairment of the barrier function and irritation by biogenic amines and sodium lauryl sulphate: a controlled in vivo tandem irritation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluhr, J W; Kelterer, D; Fuchs, S; Kaatz, M; Grieshaber, R; Kleesz, P; Elsner, P

    2005-01-01

    Biogenic amines are potential irritants e.g. in fish-, meat-, milk- and egg-processing professions like cooks, butchers and bakers. The aim of this study was to test the irritative and barrier-disrupting properties of the biogenic amines ammonium hydroxide (AM), dimethylamine (DMA) and trimethylamine (TMA). A repeated sequential irritation of 30 min twice per day was performed over a total of 4 days (tandem repeated irritation test) on the back of 20 healthy volunteers of both sexes with AM, DMA, TMA and sodium lauryl sulphate (SLS). The epidermal barrier function was assessed with a Tewameter TM 210, stratum corneum surface pH was measured with a Skin-pH-Meter 900, inflammation was assessed with a Chromameter CR-300 on the a* axis for redness and a visual score was recorded. All tested biogenic amines (AM, DMA and TMA) induced a barrier disruption and a pH increase paralleled with a 1-day-delayed onset of inflammatory signs. These effects were further enhanced and accelerated by a sequential application of SLS together with the biogenic amines, and inflammation occurred earlier than with the single compounds. Acetic acid (AA) in contrast did only show mild barrier disruption and no significant inflammatory signs. Our system allowed a ranking of the different compounds in their irritative potential in the tandem irritation with SLS: SLS > NaOH > TMA > AA > AM > DMA. The results are suggestive that in the food-processing industry the simultaneous contact with biogenic amines and harmful detergents like SLS should be minimized. Copyright 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Pediatric irritable bowel syndrome patient and parental characteristics differ by care management type

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluates whether certain patient or parental characteristics are associated with gastroenterology (GI) referral versus primary pediatrics care for pediatric irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). A retrospective clinical trial sample of patients meeting pediatric Rome III IBS criteria was assem...

  1. Multivariate Regression Model of Impedance of Normal and Chemically Irritated Skin Shows Predictive Ability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Aberg, P

    2001-01-01

    ... before and after application of chemicals on volar forearms of volunteers, Tegobetaine and sodium lauryl sulphate were used to induce the irritations, The spectra were filtered using orthogonal signal correction (OSC...

  2. Building a Definition of Irritability From Academic Definitions and Lay Descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Paula C; Holtzman, Susan; Cunningham, Shannon; O'Connor, Brian P; Stewart, Donna E

    2016-04-08

    The current work builds a definition of irritability from both academic definitions and lay perspectives. In Study 1, a quantitative content analysis of academic definitions resulted in eight main content categories (i.e., behaviour, emotion or affect, cognition, physiological, qualifiers, irritant, stability or endurance, and other). In Study 2, a community sample of 39 adults participated in qualitative interviews. A deductive thematic analysis resulted in two main themes. The first main theme dealt with how participants positioned irritability in relation to other negative states. The second dealt with how participants constructed irritability as both a loss of control and as an experience that should be controlled. The discussion integrates the findings of both studies and provides a concise, but comprehensive definition.

  3. Eye Irritation Test of Bovis Calculus Pharmacopuncture Solutions for Eye Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-sik Seo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was done to investigate the safety of Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution manufactured with freezing dryness method to use eye drop. Methods : The eye irritation test of this material was performed according to the Regulation of Korea Food & Drug Administration (2005. 10. 21, KFDA 2005-60. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was medicated in the left eye of the rabbits, the auther observed eye irritation of the cornea, iris, conjunctiva at 1, 2, 3, 4 & 7day. Results : 1. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was medicated in the left eye of the rabbits, there wasn’t physical problem at 9 rabbits. 2. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solutionwas medicated in the left eye of the rabbits, there wasn’t eye irritation of the cornea, iris, conjunctiva at 1, 2, 3, 4 & 7day. Conclusions : I suggested that Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution didn’t induced eye irritation in rabbits.

  4. Overlap of symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease, dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Sanne; Jensen, Trine Holm; Henriksen, Susanne Lund

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are common functional gastrointestinal conditions with significant impact on the daily lives of individuals. The objective was to investigate the prevalence and overlap...

  5. Non-Animal Testing Approach to EPA Labeling for Eye Irritation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is an update to EPA’s 2013 published alternative testing approach (using in vitro/ex vivo assays) for determination of eye irritation potential in the pesticide program under EPA's classification and labeling system.

  6. Evaluation of the medical devices benchmark materials in the controlled human patch testing and in the RhE in vitro skin irritation protocol.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kandárová, Helena; Bendova, Hana; Letasiova, Silvia; Coleman, Kelly P; De Jong, Wim H; Jírova, Dagmar

    2018-01-01

    Several irritants were used in the in vitro irritation medical device round robin. The objective of this study was to verify their irritation potential using the human patch test (HPT), an in vitro assay, and in vivo data. The irritants were lactic acid (LA), heptanoic acid (HA), sodium dodecyl

  7. Orthotopic small intestine transplantation in dogs with systemic graft drainage Transplante ortotópico de intestino delgado em cães com drenagem sistêmica do enxerto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Henrique Ferreira Galvão

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small intestine transplantation has been accepted worldwide to treat complex cases of intestinal failure. Canine intestinal transplantation model is important in training the surgical technique and to study the complications of this procedure. Systemic graft venous drainage is frequently performed in clinic, although the consequences of this partial meso-caval shunt have not been studied in detail. AIM: To describe the surgical technique and clinical outcome of a canine intestinal transplantation model using mesenteric-caval graft drainage. METHOD: Adult mongrel dogs from University of São Paulo Animal Facility, São Paulo, SP, Brazil, were used as donors and recipients in ten consecutives orthotopic intestinal transplantation with mesenteric-caval venous drainage. Clinical examination and body weight measurement were performed daily in all animals. Necropsy was performed in animals presenting moribund state (lethargic posture, diarrhea and loss of over 35% of body weight to determine cause of death and histological changes. RESULTS: Three recipients died before day 2 from technical complications and were excluded from the experiment. The remaining seven animals developed signs of graft rejection with onset on days 3-4 and died or were sacrificed presenting severe graft rejection between days 7-9. Necropsy and histology of the graft confirmed the diagnosis of severe acute cellular rejection. CONCLUSION: Small intestine transplantation with systemic drainage in dogs courses with analogous and lethal outcome between postoperative day 7 to 9 due to strong graft rejection. This model serves as an excellent pre-clinical model to study the main complications related to this transplantation.RACIONAL: O transplante de intestino delgado é atualmente indicado para tratar casos complexos de falência entérica. Transplante intestinal em cão é importante modelo experimental para treino da técnica cirúrgica e para estudar as complica

  8. Efficacy and Safety of Antidepressants for the Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Chen; Tang, Yurong; Wang, Yunfeng; Yu, Ting; Wang, Yun; Jiang, Liuqin; Lin, Lin

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this meta-analysis was to analyze the efficacy and safety of antidepressants for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus and The Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials investigating the efficacy and safety of antidepressants in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Article quality was evaluated by Jadad score. RevMan 5.0 and Stata 12.0 were used for the meta-analysis. Results Twelve randomized controlled trials were...

  9. The use of nanoencapsulation to decrease human skin irritation caused by capsaicinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Contri RV

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Renata V Contri,1 Luiza A Frank,2 Moacir Kaiser,1 Adriana R Pohlmann,1,3 Silvia S Guterres1,2 1Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, 2Faculdade de Farmácia, 3Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil Abstract: Capsaicin, a topical analgesic used in the treatment of chronic pain, has irritant properties that frequently interrupt its use. In this work, the effect of nanoencapsulation of the main capsaicinoids (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin on skin irritation was tested in humans. Skin tolerance of a novel vehicle composed of chitosan hydrogel containing nonloaded nanocapsules (CH-NC was also evaluated. The chitosan hydrogel containing nanoencapsulated capsaicinoids (CH-NC-CP did not cause skin irritation, as measured by an erythema probe and on a visual scale, while a formulation containing free capsaicinoids (chitosan gel with hydroalcoholic solution [CH-ET-CP] and a commercially available capsaicinoids formulation caused skin irritation. Thirty-one percent of volunteers reported slight irritation one hour after application of CH-NC-CP, while moderate (46% [CH-ET-CP] and 23% [commercial product] and severe (8% [CH-ET-CP] and 69% [commercial product] irritation were described for the formulations containing free capsaicinoids. When CH-NC was applied to the skin, erythema was not observed and only 8% of volunteers felt slight irritation, which demonstrates the utility of the novel vehicle. A complementary in vitro skin permeation study showed that permeation of capsaicinoids through an epidermal human membrane was reduced but not prevented by nanoencapsulation. Keywords: chitosan, nanocapsules, capsaicinoids, skin irritation, skin permeation

  10. Contact Irritant Responses of Aedes aegypti Using Sublethal Concentration and Focal Application of Pyrethroid Chemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Manda, Hortance; Shah, Pankhil; Polsomboon, Suppaluck; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Castro-Llanos, Fanny; Morrison, Amy; Burrus, Roxanne G.; Grieco, John P.; Achee, Nicole L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated contact irritant and spatial repellent behaviors in Aedes aegypti following exposure to sublethal concentrations of chemicals. These sublethal actions are currently being evaluated in the development of a push-pull strategy for Ae. aegypti control. This study reports on mosquito escape responses after exposure to candidate chemicals for a contact irritant focused push-pull strategy using varying concentrations and focal application. METHODS: Cont...

  11. Systematic review: Complementary and alternative medicine in the irritable bowel syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hussain, Z

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Complementary and alternative medical therapies and practices are widely employed in the treatment of the irritable bowel syndrome. AIM: To review the usage of complementary and alternative medicine in the irritable bowel syndrome, and to assess critically the basis and evidence for its use. METHODS: A systematic review of complementary and alternative medical therapies and practices in the irritable bowel syndrome was performed based on literature obtained through a Medline search. RESULTS: A wide variety of complementary and alternative medical practices and therapies are commonly employed by irritable bowel syndrome patients both in conjunction with and in lieu of conventional therapies. As many of these therapies have not been subjected to controlled clinical trials, some, at least, of their efficacy may reflect the high-placebo response rate that is characteristic of irritable bowel syndrome. Of those that have been subjected to clinical trials most have involved small poor quality studies. There is, however, evidence to support efficacy for hypnotherapy, some forms of herbal therapy and certain probiotics in irritable bowel syndrome. CONCLUSIONS: Doctors caring for irritable bowel syndrome patients need to recognize the near ubiquity of complementary and alternative medical use among this population and the basis for its use. All complementary and alternative medicine is not the same and some, such as hypnotherapy, forms of herbal therapy, specific diets and probiotics, may well have efficacy in irritable bowel syndrome. Above all, we need more science and more controlled studies; the absence of truly randomized placebo-controlled trials for many of these therapies has limited meaningful progress in this area.

  12. Aspectos psicopatológicos en la enfermedad de Crohn y en la colitis ulcerosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Tobón

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Las enfermedades inflamatorias del intestino (EII son trastornos crónicos que inflaman y destruyen el tejido intestinal de forma periódica y recurrente. Las EII se clasifican en dos tipos: enfermedad de Crohn (EC y colitis ulcerosa (CU. La etiología tanto de la EC como de la CU es poco conocida y el curso está influido por múltiples factores de tipo biopsicosocial. Al respecto, diversas investigaciones están aportando evidencia de la implicación de factores psicológicos en el curso de las EII, tales como el estrés psicosocial, las estrategias de afrontamiento, las características de personalidad, los síntomas psicopatológicos y el apoyo social.

  13. Stratum corneum cytokines and skin irritation response to sodium lauryl sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jongh, Cindy M; Verberk, Maarten M; Withagen, Carien E T; Jacobs, John J L; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Kezic, Sanja

    2006-06-01

    Little is known about cytokines involved in chronic irritant contact dermatitis. Individual cytokine profiles might explain at least part of the differences in the individual response to irritation. Our objective was to investigate the relation between baseline stratum corneum (SC) cytokine levels and the skin response to a single and a repeated irritation test. This study also aimed to determine changes in SC cytokine levels after repeated irritation. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and erythema were measured in 20 volunteers after single 24-hr exposure to 1% sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), and during and after repeated exposure to 0.1% SLS over a 3-week period. SC cytokine levels were measured from an unexposed skin site and from the repeatedly exposed site. Interleukin (IL)-1alpha decreased by 30% after repeated exposure, while IL-1RA increased 10-fold and IL-8 increased fourfold. Baseline IL-1RA and IL-8 values were predictors of TEWL and erythema after single exposure (r = 0.55-0.61). 6 subjects showed barrier recovery during repeated exposure. Baseline IL-1RA and IL-8 levels are likely to be indicators of higher skin irritability after single exposure to SLS. Barrier repair in some of the subjects might explain the lack of agreement between the TEWL response after single and repeated irritation.

  14. Irritability and Parenting Styles in Adolescents With Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Halit Necmi; Vural, Ayşe Pınar

    2018-04-17

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects functioning of the family, decreasing interactions and loyalty and increasing conflict between adolescents with ADHD and their families. Irritable mood and difficulties with emotional dysregulation are common in children with ADHD. The objective of the current study was to assess levels of irritability in adolescents with ADHD using self- and parent-report scales, and investigate the relationship between irritability levels and parental attitudes. A total of 47 adolescents with ADHD and 39 adolescents with typical development participated in the current study. Findings demonstrated that higher levels of parent-reported irritability were associated with decreased egalitarian attitudes in the ADHD group. Although other parental attitudes were not associated with self- and parent-reported irritability, evaluation of the relationship between parental attitudes and irritability in adolescents with ADHD, which can guide diagnosis and treatment of ADHD, is of critical importance. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, xx(x), xx-xx.]. Copyright 2018, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Efficacy and Tolerability of Pharmacotherapy Options for the Treatment of Irritability in Autistic Children

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    Eiji Kirino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Children with autism have a high rate of irritability and aggressive symptoms. Irritability or self-injurious behavior can result in significant harm to those affected, as well as to marked distress for their families. This paper provides a literature review regarding the efficacy and tolerability of pharmacotherapy for the treatment of irritability in autistic children. Although antipsychotics have not yet been approved for the treatment of autistic children by many countries, they are often used to reduce symptoms of behavioral problems, including irritability, aggression, hyperactivity, and panic. However, among antipsychotics, the Food and Drug Administration has approved only risperidone and aripiprazole to treat irritability in autism. Among atypical antipsychotics, olanzapine and quetiapine are limited in their use for autism spectrum disorders in children because of high incidences of weight gain and sedation. In comparison, aripiprazole and ziprasidone cause less weight gain and sedation. However, potential QTc interval prolongation with ziprasidone has been reported. Contrary to ziprasidone, no changes were evident in the QT interval in any of the trials for aripiprazole. However, head-to-head comparison studies are needed to support that aripiprazole may be a promising drug that can be used to treat irritability in autistic children. On the other hand, risperidone has the greatest amount of evidence supporting it, including randomized controlled trials; thus, its efficacy and tolerability has been established in comparison with other agents. Further studies with risperidone as a control drug are needed.

  16. Skin irritation, false positives and the local lymph node assay: a guideline issue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basketter, David A; Kimber, Ian

    2011-10-01

    Since the formal validation and regulatory acceptance of the local lymph node assay (LLNA) there have been commentaries suggesting that the irritant properties of substances can give rise to false positives. As toxicology aspires to progress rapidly towards the age of in vitro alternatives, it is of increasing importance that issues relating to assay selectivity and performance are understood fully, and that true false positive responses are distinguished clearly from those that are simply unpalatable. In the present review, we have focused on whether skin irritation per se is actually a direct cause of true false positive results in the LLNA. The body of published work has been examined critically and considered in relation to our current understanding of the mechanisms of skin irritation and skin sensitisation. From these analyses it is very clear that, of itself, skin irritation is not a cause of false positive results. The corollary is, therefore, that limiting test concentrations in the LLNA for the purpose of avoiding skin irritation may lead, unintentionally, to false negatives. Where a substance is a true false positive in the LLNA, the classic example being sodium lauryl sulphate, explanations for that positivity will have to reach beyond the seductive, but incorrect, recourse to its skin irritation potential. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. A Conceptual Model of Irritability Following Traumatic Brain Injury: A Qualitative, Participatory Research Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Flora M; Davis, Christine; Cook, James R; Philbrick, Peggy; Hirsch, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI) may have chronic problems with irritability, which can negatively affect their lives. (1) To describe the experience (thoughts and feelings) of irritability from the perspectives of multiple people living with or affected by the problem, and (2) to develop a conceptual model of irritability. Qualitative, participatory research. Forty-four stakeholders (individuals with a history of TBI, family members, community professionals, healthcare providers, and researchers) divided into 5 focus groups. Each group met 10 times to discuss the experience of irritability following TBI. Data were coded using grounded theory to develop themes, metacodes, and theories. Not applicable. A conceptual model emerged in which irritability has 5 dimensions: affective (related to moods and feelings); behavioral (especially in areas of self-regulation, impulse control, and time management); cognitive-perceptual (self-talk and ways of seeing the world); relational issues (interpersonal and family dynamics); and environmental (including environmental stimuli, change, disruptions in routine, and cultural expectations). This multidimensional model provides a framework for assessment, treatment, and future research aimed at better understanding irritability, as well as the development of assessment tools and treatment interventions.

  18. Irritable mood and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safer Daniel J

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The terms 'irritable mood' and 'irritability' have been applied to describe and define a variety of different categories in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM. More precise diagnostic terms and concepts are needed. Methods A concise critical historical review of DSM categories characterized by irritability, anger, and aggression is presented followed by recommendations. Results This analysis describes the broad ranging and imprecise use of the term irritability since the first DSM in 1952. A more age-appropriate and functional realignment of psychiatric categories linked to dysfunctional anger is suggested. Among other recommendations, this realignment would remove irritability as a problematic definer in the present DSM mood categories: expand oppositional defiant disorder to include adults; link the callous unemotional subtype of conduct disorder in adolescents to antisocial personality disorder; move intermittent explosive disorder to an appropriate category: and expand the term 'mood' to apply also to dysfunctional anger and anxiety. Conclusion The non-specific term 'irritability' commonly used in the DSM has had an adverse effect on diagnostic specificity and thereby on treatment. Dysfunctional anger is a major mood disorder which merits a more prominent and better defined representation in psychiatric nomenclature.

  19. Relacionamentos de Marketing em Empresas Varejistas: Aspectos Positivos e Negativos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cléria Donizete da Silva Lourenço

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é compreender as relações de trocas comerciais sob a ótica dos clientes, funcionários e proprietários de empresas varejistas. A pesquisa, de natureza qualitativa, foi feita utilizando-se como método a etnografia. Os dados foram coletados em cinco empresas varejistas de um município de pequeno porte no Sul de Minas Gerais – um supermercado, uma farmácia, uma panificadora, um posto de combustíveis e uma loja de hortifrutigranjeiros – durante o período de um ano (dez/2008 a dez/2009. A observação participante e a entrevista em profundidade foram utilizadas como técnicas de coleta de dados. Para tratamento dos mesmos, utilizou-se a análise de conteúdo. Por meio da análise empreendida, identificou-se que os relacionamentos de marketing são compostos tanto por aspectos positivos quanto negativos. Contudo, os aspectos positivos são predominantes, especialmente pelo fato de que o cultivo de relacionamentos nas empresas varejistas analisadas é uma ocorrência natural, podendo, portanto, ser caracterizado como “genuíno”. Em termos teóricos, uma das principais descobertas feitas nesta pesquisa é que o relacionamento de marketing pode trazer também implicações negativas para as empresas confirmando as descobertas de Grayson and Ambler (1999 quando eles afirmam que o marketing de relacionamento pode trazer benefícios, mas também desvantagens inerentes. Em termos gerenciais, há que se ressaltar o papel fundamental que os funcionários exercem na construção de relacionamentos duradouros. Sendo assim, maior atenção deveria ser dispensada ao desenvolvimento de habilidades de relacionamentos daqueles que estão face a face com o cliente. DOI: 10.5585/remark.v12i3.2513

  20. Tillandsia recurvata L. (Bromeliaceae: aspectos farmacognósticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Lucena de Vasconcelos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A cobertura superior das florestas tropicais, formada pelas copas das árvores, constitui um ambiente de extrema diversidade vegetal. Contribuindo com a grande riqueza dessas florestas encontram-se as espécies botânicas epífitas, cuja importância pode ser observada do ponto de vista ecológico, faunístico, etnobotânico e até mesmo farmacológico. Dentre as espécies adaptadas à vida epifítica podemos citar as bromeliáceas, que compõem uma das famílias mais representativas dessa flora com elevada variabilidade genética. Tillandsia recurvata é uma espécie epífita cosmopolita, nativa, adaptada a habitats áridos, utilizada para o tratamento de diversas doenças, mas pouco se tem publicado a respeito das comprovações científicas de suas propriedades. O presente trabalho revisa os aspectos etnofarmacológicos, atividades biológicas e compostos químicos relacionados à espécie em questão, pertencente à Bromeliaceae. A partir do levantamento de dados realizado, observa-se que esta se trata de uma espécie de conhecido uso popular no tratamento de diferentes distúrbios, com alguns estudos farmacológicos que comprovam suas propriedades terapêuticas. Do ponto de vista químico observa-se a presença de terpenos, flavonoides e derivados cinâmicos em sua constituição, em que alguns compostos isolados ilustram a potencialidade desta espécie como fonte de biomoléculas de interesse. Todos estes aspectos considerados nesta revisão contribuem para o conhecimento a respeito da importância biológica e o potencial terapêutico acerca dos metabólitos desta promissora espécie.

  1. Evaluation of drug treatment in irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Nicholas J

    2003-01-01

    The irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remains a therapeutic challenge in part because of the limited understanding of the pathophysiology. The placebo response rate varies in randomized controlled trials from 20 to 70%, and can persist for up to at least 1 year. It is contentious whether dietary fibre and bulking agents relieve the symptoms of IBS; constipation probably improves. Anticholinergic and antispasmodic agents are of questionable benefit in IBS despite positive meta-analyses of poor quality trials. A meta-analysis concluded that the tricyclic antidepressants were superior to placebo in IBS, although the individual trial results were variable. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are of uncertain benefit. Laxatives are used for constipation but probably poorly control the IBS symptom complex. Loperamide is superior to placebo in improvement of diarrhoea but not abdominal pain in IBS. Tegaserod is a well- tolerated aminoguanidine indole derivative of serotonin that is a partial 5HT4–receptor agonist with prokinetic properties; a therapeutic gain over placebo of 5% to 15% has been observed in constipation-predominant IBS in females. Alosetron is a 5HT3-receptor antagonist that is efficacious in females with diarrhoea-predominant IBS, with a 12% to 17% therapeutic gain; the risk of ischaemic colitis is 1 in 350, with very severe constipation occurring in about 1 in 1000. Optimizing study design remains a challenge in IBS. New visceral analgesic and motility modifying agents, as well as anti-inflammatory agents are in trials, and hopefully additional efficacious therapeutic options for patients with IBS will soon emerge. PMID:12968980

  2. Targeted therapies for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olden KW

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Kevin W OldenDepartment of Medicine, St Joseph's Hospital and Medical Center, Phoenix, AZ, USAAbstract: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS causes gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and bowel pattern abnormalities, which compromise patients' daily functioning. Common therapies address one or two IBS symptoms, while others offer wider symptom control, presumably by targeting pathophysiologic mechanisms of IBS. The aim of this targeted literature review was to capture clinical trial reports of agents receiving the highest recommendation (Grade 1 for treatment of IBS from the 2009 American College of Gastroenterology IBS Task Force, with an emphasis on diarrhea-predominant IBS. Literature searches in PubMed captured articles detailing randomized placebo-controlled trials in IBS/diarrhea-predominant IBS for agents receiving Grade I (strong 2009 American College of Gastroenterology IBS Task Force recommendations: tricyclic antidepressants, nonabsorbable antibiotics, and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron. Studies specific for constipation-predominant IBS were excluded. Tricyclic antidepressants appear to improve global IBS symptoms but have variable effects on abdominal pain and uncertain tolerability; effects on stool consistency, frequency, and urgency were not adequately assessed. Nonabsorbable antibiotics show positive effects on global symptoms, abdominal pain, bloating, and stool consistency but may be most efficacious in patients with altered intestinal microbiota. Alosetron improves global symptoms and abdominal pain and normalizes bowel irregularities, including stool frequency, consistency, and fecal urgency. Both the nonabsorbable antibiotic rifaximin and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron improve quality of life. Targeted therapies provide more complete relief of IBS symptoms than conventional agents. Familiarization with the quantity and quality of evidence of effectiveness can facilitate more individualized

  3. Targeted therapies for diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olden, Kevin W

    2012-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) causes gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, and bowel pattern abnormalities, which compromise patients’ daily functioning. Common therapies address one or two IBS symptoms, while others offer wider symptom control, presumably by targeting pathophysiologic mechanisms of IBS. The aim of this targeted literature review was to capture clinical trial reports of agents receiving the highest recommendation (Grade 1) for treatment of IBS from the 2009 American College of Gastroenterology IBS Task Force, with an emphasis on diarrhea-predominant IBS. Literature searches in PubMed captured articles detailing randomized placebo-controlled trials in IBS/diarrhea-predominant IBS for agents receiving Grade I (strong) 2009 American College of Gastroenterology IBS Task Force recommendations: tricyclic antidepressants, nonabsorbable antibiotics, and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron. Studies specific for constipation-predominant IBS were excluded. Tricyclic antidepressants appear to improve global IBS symptoms but have variable effects on abdominal pain and uncertain tolerability; effects on stool consistency, frequency, and urgency were not adequately assessed. Nonabsorbable antibiotics show positive effects on global symptoms, abdominal pain, bloating, and stool consistency but may be most efficacious in patients with altered intestinal microbiota. Alosetron improves global symptoms and abdominal pain and normalizes bowel irregularities, including stool frequency, consistency, and fecal urgency. Both the nonabsorbable antibiotic rifaximin and the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist alosetron improve quality of life. Targeted therapies provide more complete relief of IBS symptoms than conventional agents. Familiarization with the quantity and quality of evidence of effectiveness can facilitate more individualized treatment plans for patients with this heterogeneous disorder. PMID:22754282

  4. Increased risk for irritable bowel syndrome after acute diverticulitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Erica; Fuller, Garth; Bolus, Roger; Modi, Rusha; Vu, Michelle; Shahedi, Kamyar; Shah, Rena; Atia, Mary; Kurzbard, Nicole; Sheen, Victoria; Agarwal, Nikhil; Kaneshiro, Marc; Yen, Linnette; Hodgkins, Paul; Erder, M Haim; Spiegel, Brennan

    2013-12-01

    Individuals with diverticulosis frequently also have irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but there are no longitudinal data to associate acute diverticulitis with subsequent IBS, functional bowel disorders, or related emotional distress. In patients with postinfectious IBS, gastrointestinal disorders cause long-term symptoms, so we investigated whether diverticulitis might lead to IBS. We compared the incidence of IBS and functional bowel and related affective disorders among patients with diverticulitis. We performed a retrospective study of patients followed up for an average of 6.3 years at a Veteran's Administration medical center. Patients with diverticulitis were identified based on International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision codes, selected for the analysis based on chart review (cases, n = 1102), and matched with patients without diverticulosis (controls, n = 1102). We excluded patients with prior IBS, functional bowel, or mood disorders. We then identified patients who were diagnosed with IBS or functional bowel disorders after the diverticulitis attack, and controls who developed these disorders during the study period. We also collected information on mood disorders, analyzed survival times, and calculated adjusted hazard ratios. Cases were 4.7-fold more likely to be diagnosed later with IBS (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-14.0; P = .006), 2.4-fold more likely to be diagnosed later with a functional bowel disorder (95% CI, 1.6-3.6; P mood disorder (CI, 1.4-3.5; P IBS and functional bowel disorders. We propose calling this disorder postdiverticulitis IBS. Diverticulitis appears to predispose patients to long-term gastrointestinal and emotional symptoms after resolution of inflammation; in this way, postdiverticulitis IBS is similar to postinfectious IBS. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Economic burden of irritable bowel syndrome in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Xiang, Wei; Li, Chun-Yan; Li, Shu-Chuen

    2016-12-21

    To estimate annual direct and indirect costs for patients diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and subtypes. Patients completed a standardized questionnaire concerning usage of healthcare resources, travel costs, meals, and productivity loss of patients when seeking treatment for IBS. Total annual costs per patient were calculated as the sum of direct (including medical and nonmedical) and indirect costs. Total annual costs per patient among various IBS subtypes were compared. Analysis of variance and bootstrapped independent sample t -tests were performed to determine differences between groups after controlling for IBS subtypes. A total of 105 IBS patients (64.80% female), mean age of 57.12 years ± 10.31 years), mean disease duration of 4.31 years ± 5.40 years, were included. Total annual costs per patient were estimated as CNY18262.84 (USD2933.08). Inpatient and outpatient healthcare use were major cost drivers, accounting for 46.41%and 23.36% of total annual costs, respectively. Productivity loss accounted for 25.32% of total annual costs. The proportions of direct and indirect costs were similar to published studies in other countries. Nationally, the total costs of managing IBS would amount to CNY123.83 billion (USD1.99 billion). Among the IBS subtypes, total annual costs per patient of IBS-M was highest at CNY18891.18 (USD3034). Furthermore, there was significant difference in productivity loss among IBS subtypes ( P = 0.031). IBS imposes a huge economic burden on patients and healthcare systems, which could account for 3.3% of the total healthcare budget for the entire Chinese nation. More than two-thirds of total annual costs of IBS consist of inpatient and outpatient healthcare use. Among the subtypes, IBS-M patients appear to have the greatest economic burden but require further confirmation.

  6. Treatment of abdominal pain in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanuytsel, Tim; Tack, Jan F; Boeckxstaens, Guy E

    2014-08-01

    Functional abdominal pain in the context of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a challenging problem for primary care physicians, gastroenterologists and pain specialists. We review the evidence for the current and future non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options targeting the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. Cognitive interventions such as cognitive behavioral therapy and hypnotherapy have demonstrated excellent results in IBS patients, but the limited availability and labor-intensive nature limit their routine use in daily practice. In patients who are refractory to first-line therapy, tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors are both effective to obtain symptomatic relief, but only TCAs have been shown to improve abdominal pain in meta-analyses. A diet low in fermentable carbohydrates and polyols (FODMAP) seems effective in subgroups of patients to reduce abdominal pain, bloating, and to improve the stool pattern. The evidence for fiber is limited and only isphagula may be somewhat beneficial. The efficacy of probiotics is difficult to interpret since several strains in different quantities have been used across studies. Antispasmodics, including peppermint oil, are still considered the first-line treatment for abdominal pain in IBS. Second-line therapies for diarrhea-predominant IBS include the non-absorbable antibiotic rifaximin and the 5HT3 antagonists alosetron and ramosetron, although the use of the former is restricted because of the rare risk of ischemic colitis. In laxative-resistant, constipation-predominant IBS, the chloride-secretion stimulating drugs lubiprostone and linaclotide, a guanylate cyclase C agonist that also has direct analgesic effects, reduce abdominal pain and improve the stool pattern.

  7. Treatments for irritable bowel syndrome: patients' attitudes and acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Lesley

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable Bowel Syndrome, a highly prevalent chronic disorder, places significant burden on the health service and the individual. Symptomatic distress and reduced quality of life are compounded by few efficacious treatments available. As researchers continue to demonstrate the clinical efficacy of alternative therapies, it would be useful to gain a patient-perspective of treatment acceptability and identify patient's attitudes towards those modalities considered not acceptable. Methods Six hundred and forty-five participants identified from an earlier IBS-prevalence study received a postal questionnaire to evaluate preferences and acceptability of nine forms of treatment. Proportions accepting each form of treatment were calculated and thematic analysis of qualitative data undertaken. Results A total of 256 (39.7% of 645 potential respondents completed the questionnaire (mean age 55.9 years, 73% female. Tablets were most acceptable (84%, followed by lifestyle changes (diet (82%, yoga (77%. Acupuncture (59% and suppositories (57% were less acceptable. When explaining lack of acceptability, patient views fell into four broad categories: dislike treatment modality, do not perceive benefit, general barriers and insufficient knowledge. Scepticism, lack of scientific rationale and fear of CAM were mentioned, although others expressed a dislike of conventional medical treatments. Past experiences, age and health concerns, and need for proof of efficacy were reported. Conclusion Most patients were willing to accept various forms of treatment. However, the reservations expressed by this patient-population must be recognised with particular focus directed towards allaying fears and misconceptions, seeking further evidence base for certain therapies and incorporating physician support and advice.

  8. Effects of Hypericum perforatum extract on rat irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozaffari, Shilan; Esmaily, Hadi; Rahimi, Roja; Baeeri, Maryam; Sanei, Yara; Asadi-Shahmirzadi, Azar; Salehi-Surmaghi, Mohammad-Hossein; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Context: In irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), disturbance of bowel motility is associated with infiltration of inflammatory mediators and cytokines into the intestine, such as neutrophils, myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor alfa (TNF-α), and lipid peroxide. Aims: Regarding promising anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects of Hypericum perforatum (HP) extract, besides its anti-depressant effect, this study was designed to evaluate the effects of HP in an experimental model of IBS. Settings and Design: IBS was induced by a 5-day restraint stress in rats. The HP extract was administered by gavage in doses of 150, 300, and 450 mg/kg for 26 days. Fluoxetine and loperamide were used as positive controls. Gastric emptying and small bowel and colon transit, besides the levels of TNF-α, MPO, lipid peroxidation, and antioxidant power, were determined in colon homogenates. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's post hoc test for multiple comparisons. Results: A significant reduction in small bowel and colonic transit (450 mg/kg), TNF-α, MPO, and lipid peroxidation and an increase in antioxidant power in all HP-treated groups (150, 300, and 450 mg/kg) were seen as compared with the control group. Gastric emptying did not alter significantly when compared with the control group. Treatment with loperamide (10 mg/kg) significantly inhibited gastric emptying and small bowel and colonic transit, while flouxetine (10 mg/kg) decreased gastric emptying, TNF-α, MPO, and lipid peroxidation and increased the antioxidant power of the samples in comparison with the control group. Conclusions: HP diminished the recruitment of inflammatory cells and TNF-α following restraint stress not in a dose-dependent manner, possibly via inhibition of MPO activity and increasing colon antioxidant power, without any difference with fluoxetine. The HP extract inhibits small bowel and colonic transit acceleration like loperamide but has minimal

  9. Aspectos económicos del aislamiento acústico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarilla, Beatriz C.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The general objective of this study was to analyze the soundproofing/cost ratio with different building alternatives for interior walls and floors. This technical-economic study was divided into three parts: — Dividing walls (environmental noises — Floors (impact noises — Special Solutions (double walls, floating floors, etcetera The results show that in developing countries the most costly solutions are not always the best for housing, as far as soundproofing is concerned. A good knowledge of the economic aspects related to this matter allows obtaining a good quality at a moderate cost, which is a priority in this type of country.

    El objetivo general de este trabajo fue el de analizar el comportamiento de la relación costo-aislamiento acústico en soluciones constructivas alternativas para muros interiores y entrepisos. Este estudio técnico-económico comprende tres partes: * Muros divisorios (ruidos aéreos. * Entrepisos (ruidos de impacto. * Soluciones especiales (muros de doble hoja, pisos flotantes, etc. Se llega a la conclusión que, en los países en desarrollo, no siempre las mejores soluciones para la vivienda, desde el punto de vista acústico, son las de mayor costo. Conocer en profundidad los aspectos económicos de esta cuestión significa poder lograr una buena calidad con costos moderados, lo cual constituye una prioridad en este tipo de países.

  10. CON4EI: EpiOcular™ Eye Irritation Test (EpiOcular™ EIT) for hazard identification and labelling of eye irritating chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandarova, H; Letasiova, S; Adriaens, E; Guest, R; Willoughby, J A; Drzewiecka, A; Gruszka, K; Alépée, Nathalie; Verstraelen, Sandra; Van Rompay, An R

    2018-06-01

    Assessment of the acute eye irritation potential is part of the international regulatory requirements for testing of chemicals. The objective of the CON4EI project was to develop tiered testing strategies for eye irritation assessment. A set of 80 reference chemicals (38 liquids and 42 solids) was tested with eight different methods. Here, the results obtained with the EpiOcular™ Eye Irritation Test (EIT), adopted as OECD TG 492, are shown. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate of the performance of the test method to discriminate between chemicals not requiring classification for serious eye damage/eye irritancy (No Category) and chemicals requiring classification and labelling. In addition, the predictive capacity in terms of in vivo drivers of classification (i.e. corneal opacity, conjunctival redness and persistence at day 21) was investigated. EpiOcular™ EIT achieved a sensitivity of 97%, a specificity of 87% and accuracy of 95% and also confirmed its excellent reproducibility (100%) from the original validation. The assay was applicable to all chemical categories tested in this project and its performance was not limited to the particular driver of the classification. In addition to the existing prediction model for dichotomous categorization, a new prediction model for Cat 1 is suggested. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. CON4EI: SkinEthic™ Human Corneal Epithelium Eye Irritation Test (SkinEthic™ HCE EIT) for hazard identification and labelling of eye irritating chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rompay, A R; Alépée, N; Nardelli, L; Hollanders, K; Leblanc, V; Drzewiecka, A; Gruszka, K; Guest, R; Kandarova, H; Willoughby, J A; Verstraelen, S; Adriaens, E

    2018-06-01

    Assessment of ocular irritancy is an international regulatory requirement and a necessary step in the safety evaluation of industrial and consumer products. Although a number of in vitro ocular irritation assays exist, none are capable of fully categorizing chemicals as a stand-alone assay. Therefore, the CEFIC-LRI-AIMT6-VITO CON4EI (CONsortium for in vitro Eye Irritation testing strategy) project was developed with the goal of assessing the reliability of eight in vitro/alternative test methods as well as establishing an optimal tiered-testing strategy. One of the in vitro assays selected was the validated SkinEthic™ Human Corneal Epithelium Eye Irritation Test method (SkinEthic™ HCE EIT). The SkinEthic™ HCE EIT has already demonstrated its capacity to correctly identify chemicals (both substances and mixtures) not requiring classification and labelling for eye irritation or serious eye damage (No Category). The goal of this study was to evaluate the performance of the SkinEthic™ HCE EIT test method in terms of the important in vivo drivers of classification. For the performance with respect to the drivers all in vivo Cat 1 and No Cat chemicals were 100% correctly identified. For Cat 2 chemicals the liquids and the solids had a sensitivity of 100% and 85.7%, respectively. For the SkinEthic™ HCE EIT test method, 100% concordance in predictions (No Cat versus No prediction can be made) between the two participating laboratories was obtained. The accuracy of the SkinEthic™ HCE EIT was 97.5% with 100% sensitivity and 96.9% specificity. The SkinEthic™ HCE EIT confirms its excellent results of the validation studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Vitrigel-eye irritancy test method using HCE-T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Kojima, Hajime; Takezawa, Toshiaki

    2013-10-01

    We previously reported that the time-dependent relative changes of transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) after exposing four different chemicals to a human corneal epithelium (HCE) model were well correlated to the potential of ocular irritancy. Meanwhile, we recently developed a collagen vitrigel membrane (CVM) chamber possessing a scaffold composed of high-density collagen fibrils equivalent to connective tissues in vivo as a three-dimensional culture tool. The CVM chamber is useful for biomedical assays and immunohistology using cryosections that are inappropriate to be performed using the conventional Millicell chamber with a polyethylene terephthalate membrane. In this study, we aimed to develop a new eye irritancy test (EIT) method called "Vitrigel-EIT method" that can facilitate to briefly and accurately estimate the widespread irritancy of test chemicals by applying the TEER assay system to a HCE model fabricated in the CVM chamber. HCE-T cells (a HCE-derived cell strain) were cultured in the CVM chamber for 6 days, and consequently, the Vitrigel-HCE model possessing the following characteristics of HCE in vivo was formed: six cell layers with specific protein expressions and their barrier function. Time-dependent profiles of TEER values after exposing 30 test chemicals to the HCE model were converted into the scores of three indexes (time lag, intensity, and plateau level), and each chemical was successfully classified into irritant or nonirritant category by utilizing the criteria for the indexes, resulting in the excellent correlation with Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) classification (sensitivity: 100%, specificity: 75%, accuracy: 90%). These data suggest that the widespread eye irritancy of chemicals can be predicted without false negatives by the Vitrigel-EIT method. Interestingly, the disruption of tight junctions was immunohistologically observed after exposing not only irritants but also three

  13. Characterization of new eye drops with choline salicylate and assessment of their irritancy by in vitro short time exposure tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wroblewska, Katarzyna; Kucinska, Małgorzata; Murias, Marek; Lulek, Janina

    2015-09-01

    The aim of our study was to examine the irritation potential of new eye drops containing 2% choline salicylate (CS) as an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and various polymers increasing eye drop viscosity (hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, methylcellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylpyrrolidone). The standard method for assessing the potential of irritating substances has been the Draize rabbit eye test. However the European Centre for Validation of Alternative Methods and the Coordinating Committee for Validation of Alternative Methods recommend, short time exposure (STE) in vitro tests as an alternative method for assessing eye irritation. The eye irritation potential was determined using cytotoxicity test methods for rabbit corneal cell line (SIRC) after 5 min exposure. The viability of cells was determined using two cytotoxicity assays: MTT and Neutral Red Uptake. According to the irritation rankings for the short time exposure test, all tested eye drops are classified as non-irritating (cell viability >70%).

  14. Irritability, Externalizing, and Internalizing Psychopathology in Adolescence: Cross-Sectional and Longitudinal Associations and Moderation by Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Schouboe, Sophie N F; Kircanski, Katharina; Leibenluft, Ellen; Stringaris, Argyris; Gotlib, Ian H

    2018-04-18

    Irritability is a common feature of many psychiatric disorders, including both externalizing and internalizing disorders. There is little research, however, examining associations between irritability and these symptom domains, particularly during the important developmental period of adolescence, characterized by sex differences in the prevalence of disorders. We examined the cross-sectional associations between irritability, measured with the Affective Reactivity Index, and symptoms of externalizing and internalizing domains of psychopathology, measured with the Youth Self Report, in a volunteer community sample (N = 183) of 9- to 13-year-old (M = 11.39, SD = 1.07) boys and girls (37% White/Caucasian, 8% Asian, 11% Hispanic, 8% African American, 2% Native American, 2% Pacific Islander, 28% Other, and 3% not reported). A subset of the sample (n = 112) provided data at a 2-year follow-up, used to extend these associations. There were no sex differences in levels of irritability; however, the associations between irritability and symptom domains were moderated by sex. Specifically, in girls, irritability was associated equally with externalizing and internalizing symptoms. In contrast, in boys, irritability was associated more strongly with externalizing symptoms than with internalizing symptoms. Thus, across both sexes, irritability was moderately associated with externalizing symptoms, but the association between irritability and internalizing symptoms was stronger in girls than in boys. At follow-up, sex moderated the association between baseline irritability and later externalizing and internalizing symptoms. These findings indicate that irritability is associated with both externalizing and internalizing symptoms in early adolescence and that irritability is associated with internalizing symptoms more strongly in girls than in boys.

  15. Putative skin-protective formulations in preventing and/or inhibiting experimentally-produced irritant and allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, H; Willard, P; Maibach, H I

    1999-10-01

    The effectiveness of skin protective formulations was evaluated in a previously-described in vivo human model. All formulations failed to inhibit ammonium hydroxide and urea irritation. Only paraffin wax in cetyl alcohol statistically (plauryl sulfate irritation. Paraffin wax in cetyl alcohol was quantitatively the most effective formulation. These results suggest that some formulations may provide protective effects against certain, but not all, irritants or allergens.

  16. Irritability Trajectories, Cortical Thickness, and Clinical Outcomes in a Sample Enriched for Preschool Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagliaccio, David; Pine, Daniel S; Barch, Deanna M; Luby, Joan L; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2018-05-01

    Cross-sectional, longitudinal, and genetic associations exist between irritability and depression. Prior studies have examined developmental trajectories of irritability, clinical outcomes, and associations with child and familial depression. However, studies have not integrated neurobiological measures. The present study examined developmental trajectories of irritability, clinical outcomes, and cortical structure among preschoolers oversampled for depressive symptoms. Beginning at 3 to 5 years old, a sample of 271 children enriched for early depressive symptoms were assessed longitudinally by clinical interview. Latent class mixture models identified trajectories of irritability severity. Risk factors, clinical outcomes, and cortical thickness were compared across trajectory classes. Cortical thickness measures were extracted from 3 waves of magnetic resonance imaging at 7 to 12 years of age. Three trajectory classes were identified among these youth: 53.50% of children exhibited elevated irritability during preschool that decreased longitudinally, 30.26% exhibited consistently low irritability, and 16.24% exhibited consistently elevated irritability. Compared with other classes, the elevated irritability class exhibited higher rates of maternal depression, early life adversity, later psychiatric diagnoses, and functional impairment. Further, elevated baseline irritability predicted later depression beyond adversity and personal and maternal depression history. The elevated irritability class exhibited a thicker cortex in the left superior frontal and temporal gyri and the right inferior parietal lobule. Irritability manifested with specific developmental trajectories in this sample enriched for early depression. Persistently elevated irritability predicted poor psychiatric outcomes, higher risk for later depression, and decreased overall function later in development. Greater frontal, temporal, and parietal cortical thickness also was found, providing neural

  17. Perception of lactose intolerance in irritable bowel syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dainese, Raffaella; Casellas, Francesc; Mariné-Barjoan, Eugènia; Vivinus-Nébot, Mylène; Schneider, Stéphane M; Hébuterne, Xavier; Piche, Thierry

    2014-10-01

    The importance of lactose malabsorption in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is not well defined and these patients often complain of lactose intolerance. To objectively measure lactose malabsorption, a hydrogen breath test (HBT) can be performed, but a discrepancy emerges between the results of the HBT and the symptomatic response during the HBT. To determine in a group of IBS patients whether self-perceived lactose intolerance and the symptomatic response to lactose HBT were conditioned by other factors besides the presence of lactose malabsorption. Oral challenge to lactose (50 g) was tested in 51 IBS patients to assess HBT malabsorption and the symptomatic response to lactose intolerance was scored on a validated questionnaire. Allergological screening for common inhalants and food allergens (including cow's milk) was performed. The presence of psychological factors (e.g. anxiety, depression, fatigue) was evaluated using validated questionnaires. A total of 21 out of 51 patients (41.1%) were self-perceived to be lactose intolerant, 24/51 (47%) had a positive HBT, and 14/51 (27.4%) presented with symptoms of lactose intolerance during HBT. The serological screening for inhalant and food allergens was positive in 6/21 (28.6%) and 4/21 (19%) of patients who self-perceived lactose intolerance and in 5/14 (37.5%) and 3/14 (21.4%) in intolerant patients symptomatic during HBT. Only 1/51 (1.9%) presented evidence of IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to cow's milk. Patients who experienced symptoms of lactose intolerance during HBT presented more severe IBS symptoms [326 (296-398) vs. 215 (126-295) P=0.05] and a higher score of anxiety, depression, and fatigue. Factors influencing the symptoms of lactose intolerance during HBT resulted in an increase in hydrogen produced and in the severity of IBS. In a cohort of 51 IBS patients, the symptoms of lactose intolerance during HBT were influenced by the capacity to absorb lactose and the severity of IBS. Other factors, such as

  18. Prevalence, comorbidity and impact of irritable bowel syndrome in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandvik, Per Olav; Lydersen, Stian; Farup, Per G

    2006-06-01

    To study the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and its comorbidity in a Norwegian adult population. In 2001, 11,078 inhabitants (aged 30-75 years) in Oppland County were invited to take part in a public health survey. A total of 4622 subjects (42%) completed the questionnaires on symptoms of IBS (Rome II criteria), comorbidity, health-care visits and medications. The impact of comorbidity on global health, working disability and use of health-care resources in subjects with IBS was explored by stepwise logistic regression. The population prevalence of IBS was 388/4622 (8.4% (95% CI: 7.6-9.4%)) with a female predominance and an age-dependent decrease. The proportion who had consulted for IBS ranged from 51% among 30-year-olds to 79% in 75-year-olds (p=0.05). IBS was associated with musculoskeletal complaints (OR = 2.4-3.4 for six different items), fibromyalgia (OR = 3.6 [2.7-4.8]), mood disorder (OR = 3.3 (2.6-4.3)), reduced global health (OR = 2.6 (2.1-3.2)), working disability (OR = 1.6 (1.2-2.1)), more frequent health-care visits and use of medications (OR 1.7-2.3). When controlling for comorbidity, reduced global health (OR = 1.5 (1.1-2.0)) and use of alternative health care (OR = 1.7 (1.3-2.4)) remained associated with IBS. Severity of abdominal pain/discomfort was a predictor of having to seek a physician for IBS (OR = 1.3 (1.2-1.5)). Symptoms of IBS were reported by 8% of Norwegian adults and had resulted in consultations with physicians for the majority in the long run. Subjects with IBS in the community were characterized by frequent somatic and psychiatric comorbidity. Their observed reduced health, working disability and increased use of health resources were largely explained by comorbid symptoms and disorders.

  19. [Psychiatric comorbidities in patients referred for irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Jing-xin; Han, Mai; Duan, Li-ping; Ge, Ying; Huang, Yue-qin

    2011-07-19

    To assess the prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in patients referred for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with questionnaires for mental disorders. A total of 83 IBS patients at our hospital were enrolled and assessed with the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire for DSM-IV, version 4 (PDQ-4) and Composite International Diagnostic Interview, version 3.0 and 2.1 (CIDI-3.0 & CIDI-2.1) by trained interviewers. Such items as personality dysfunction, mental disorder and somatization disorder were examined. The male-female ratio was 1.08/1. Their mean age was (38 ± 14) years old. Among them, 20 patients (24.1%) were constipation-predominant, 31 (37.3%) diarrhea-predominant, 15 (18.1%) mixed and 17 (20.5%) unclassified type. (1) Sixty-two (74.7%) patients scored positive for any personality dysfunction. There was no significant gender difference. The cluster C (anxious-fearful) personality disorder was most commonly found in IBS patients (n = 58, 69.9%). The prevalence of somatoform disorders plus personality dysfunction was 46.8% (29/62). It was significantly higher than those without personality dysfunction [19.0% (4/21), P = 0.025]. (2) Thirty-seven patients (44.6%) had a lifetime CIDI-3.0 diagnosis. It was significantly higher than that in the general population. There was no gender difference. Anxiety and mood disorders were the most common types of psychiatric comorbidities [n = 21 (25.3%) and n = 19 (22.9%) respectively]. The lifetime prevalence of alcohol or nicotine abuse and(or) dependence and intermittent explosive disorder were 10.8% (n = 9) and 8.4% (n = 7). Psychiatric comorbidities were most commonly found in diarrhea-predominant patients (58.1%). But there was no significant difference among the subgroups. (3) Thirty-three patients (39.8%) had somatoform disorders. Neither gender nor subgroup difference was observed. The IBS patients with anxiety disorders presented significantly more somatoform disorders than the remainders [61.9% (13/21) vs 32

  20. Personality factors and profiles in variants of irritable bowel syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the association between irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) variants (constipation, diarrhea, or both)and personality traits in non-psychiatric patients.METHODS: IBS was diagnosed using the Rome Ⅱ diagnostic criteria after exclusion of organic bowel pathology. The entry of each patient was confirmed following a psychiatric interview. Personality traits and the score of each factor were evaluated using the NEO Five Factor Inventory.RESULTS: One hundred and fifty patients were studied.The mean age (±SD) was 33.4 (±11.0) year (62% female). Subjects scored higher in neuroticism (26.25±7.80 vs 22.92±9.54, P < 0.0005), openness (26.25±5.22 vs 27.94±4.87, P < 0.0005) and conscientiousness (32.90 ±7.80 vs 31.62±5.64, P < 0.01) compared to our general population derived from universities of Iran. Our studied population consisted of 71 patients with Diarrhea dominant-IBS, 33 with Constipation dominant-IBS and 46 with Altering type-IBS. Scores of conscientiousness and neuroticism were significantly higher in C-IBS compared to D-IBS and A-IBS (35.79±5.65 vs 31.95±6.80,P = 0.035 and 31.97±9.87, P = 0.043, respectively).Conscientiousness was the highest dimension of personality in each of the variants. Patients with C-IBS had almost similar personality profiles, composed of higher scores for neuroticism and conscientiousness, with low levels of agreeableness, openness and extraversion that were close to those of the general population.CONCLUSION: Differences were observed between IBS patients and the general population, as well as between IBS subtypes, in terms of personality factors.Patients with constipation-predominant IBS showed similar personality profiles. Patients with each subtype of IBS may benefit from psychological interventions, which can be focused considering the characteristics of each subtype.

  1. Revisión de algunos aspectos importantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Ávila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available El soporte nutricional adecuado y oportuno contribuye en la reducción del riesgo de infecciones, mejora la función inmune y el pronóstico del paciente; es por esto que se destaca la importancia de mantener un adecuado estado nutricional en los pacientes críticamente enfermos. Con este propósito, el presente documento resalta el valor de la nutrición parenteral y su papel en aquellos animales con desnutrición presente o prevista, siempre y cuando la vía enteral no esté disponible o sea insuficiente; esto, en razón de su metabolismo alterado, el cual predispone a un mayor catabolismo mus-cular. La correcta elaboración de un plan nutricional debe tener en cuenta aspectos de gran importancia como la evaluación integral de los hallazgos históricos, clínicos y paraclínicos, con el fin de detectar el grado o riesgo de desnutrición; por su parte, la selección del tipo de nutrición más adecuada y el tipo de solución por emplear, son variables igualmente relevantes pues varían según cada caso particular, dependiendo de la condición del paciente y el tipo de patologías asociadas. Así pues, el cálculo de los requerimientos calóricos y la manera en que estos serán suplementados, son variables que deben manejarse con cautela, con el fin de no exceder la capacidad metabólica y desencadenar complicaciones que representen mayor morbilidad y mortalidad. Por úl-timo, es importante resaltar que la nutrición parenteral debe descontinuarse tan pronto como sea posible para disminuir los problemas relacionados con la misma, como la atrofia gastrointestinal.

  2. Aspectos técnicos da psicoterapia de grupo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Blay Neto

    1959-09-01

    Full Text Available São estudados os mecanismos psíquicos que se desenvolvem em agrupamentos humanos e a sua utilização para fins terapêuticos, sendo focalizado o fenômeno da interação como o dinamismo básico dessas reações. O autor compara a forma pela qual encara o grupo com as idéias de Bion, Moreno e Sullivan, encarando a hipótese de que os sentimentos de amor e hostilidade se manifestem em função do bom ou do mau funcionamento dos contactos primários que caracterizam a dependência. O autor comenta resultados que obteve usando o psicodrama, mediante o qual estudou reações emocionais de inveja, ódio, agressividade e amor. O autor analisa as técnicas de Slavson e Pratt baseando-se nos dinamismos inerentes ao grupo e refere os estudos de Beukemkamp para a compreensão do fenômeno transferenciai que, no grupo, tem características próprias. As diferenças entre a terapia de grupo e a individual são apontadas, sendo a contra-transferência considerada como elemento construtivo. Pensa o autor que o aspecto dramático vivenciado pelo grupo ou por um dos seus componentes tem alto valor, pois engloba a verbalização, os componentes emocionais e os componentes posturais. O tono emocional vivenciado pelo grupo é mais intenso e opressivo que o que é despertado na terapêutica individual, o que é explicável pela somação de efeitos provocada pela reação circular. Segundo o autor, a Psicoterapia de Grupo e a Psicoterapia Individual não se opõem, mas se completam.

  3. Conocimientos de los adolescentes sobre aspectos de la sexualidad

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    Ileana García Imia

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo, de corte transversal, en el área del Policlínico Docente "Wilfredo Pérez Pérez" del municipio San Miguel del Padrón, de Ciudad de La Habana, con el fin de explorar los conocimientos sobre algunos aspectos de la sexualidad, en un grupo de 100 adolescentes en edades entre 10 y 19 años y de uno y otro sexos, en el año 2001. Se apreció un elevado tanto por ciento de jóvenes que tenían conocimientos sobre la anatomía del aparato genital, la mejor edad para tener hijos y la anticoncepción. En general, no tenían conocimientos de todas las enfermedades de transmisión sexual, no así el método más eficaz para evitarlas. El grupo de edad de mayor relevancia lo constituyó el de 10 a 13 años por sus escasos conocimientos sobre sexualidad.A retrospective, descriptive and crosswise study was made in the health areas of "Wilfredo Pérez Pérez" Teaching Polyclinics in San Miguel del Padrón municipality, Havana City province, with the objective of exploring what a group of 100 adolescents aged 10-19 years of both sexes knows about sexuality in the year 2001. A high percentage of them had knowledge about anatomy of the genital system, the most suitable age for having children and contraception. In general, they did not know all the sexually-transmitted diseases but they did know the most efficient method to prevent them. The most relevant age group was 10-13 years old because of their poor knowledge about sexuality.

  4. Refractarios: un aspecto clave en la industria del cemento

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    Castillo Neira, Percy

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available To sit in judgement values of the technic level reached in a cement plant, it is surprisingly objetive to analyse work, planning and control development about Refractories subject. Considering and recognizing the validity of this pragmatic axiom it will offer unexpected improvement perspectives of the productivity rates and production records. This work pretends to be a contribution for this purpose, bringing some theoretic and practical accounts about de conditions offered by the Kiln-Exchanger-Cooler most diffused system, analyzing the characteristics that refractory material must have, in accordance with each zone, and finally, including some appraisals and recommendations regarding some of the manifold aspects which belongs to one of the most interesting ad complex fields of cement industry.

    Para establecer un juicio de valor respecto al nivel técnico alcanzado en una planta cementera resulta sorprendentemente objetivo analizar el trabajo, planificación y control que se desarrolla alrededor del tema de Refractarios. Considerarlo y reconocer la validez de este axioma pragmático ofrecerá inusitadas perspectivas de superación de índices de productividad y récords de producción. En este trabajo se pretende un aporte a tal objetivo proporcionando algunas consideraciones teórico-prácticas sobre las condiciones que se presentan en el sistema Horno Intercambiador-Enfriador, más difundido, analizando las características que debe reunir el material refractario para cada zona y, finalmente, incluyendo algunas apreciaciones y recomendaciones principalmente de criterio, respecto a algunos de los múltiples aspectos que forman parte de uno de los campos más interesantes y complejos de la industria del cemento.

  5. Aspectos históricos dos estudos caso-controle

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    Rêgo Marco Antônio Vasconcelos

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto apresenta um relato da evolução dos estudos de caso-controle (ECC até o final dos anos 80. A comparação de dois grupos quanto à exposição a um fator de risco é verificada desde o século XVII. A segunda metade do século XIX significou o declínio da Epidemiologia das "populações", e os primeiros ECC só foram realizados na década de 20. O avanço do método ocorreu na segunda metade do século, com destaque para as investigações sobre câncer de pulmão e hábito de fumar. As principais contribuições dos estudiosos do método foram o uso da odds ratio como estimativa do risco relativo; a definição dos aspectos estatísticos da análise de dados de estudos retrospectivos; o cálculo do risco atribuível e da fração etiológica para ECC; e a discussão da essência dos ECC. Os críticos referiam as fragilidades do método e a susceptibilidade aos bias. Conclui-se que os ECC tiveram aplicação crescente nas últimas décadas, sendo utilizados em diversas áreas da epidemiologia, constituindo-se em um importante instrumento para as ações de Saúde Pública.

  6. A preservação do intestino delgado para transplante: a contribuição da oxigenação hiperbárica Small bowel preservation for transplantation: the contribution of the hyperbaric oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Augusto Garcia Guimarães

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Não há ainda um método que mantenha adequadamente e por tempo prolongado a qualidade e a função do intestino delgado a ser transplantado, apesar da existência de várias modalidades de preservação. Há necessidade de se desenvolver e aprimorar novas opções técnicas. OBJETIVO: Recuperar os artigos que estudaram a aplicação da oxigenação hiperbárica (OHB como técnica de preservação do intestino delgado destinado para transplante, procurando determinar qual a contribuição do método no prolongamento do tempo e qualidade dessa preservação. MÉTODOS: Utilizou-se a base de dados do Medline e da Scielo consultada nos sites www.pubmed.com e www.bireme.br tendo sido selecionados 58 trabalhos pertinentes. A revisão mostrou que a preservação intestinal está associada ao uso de soluções que fornecem substrato oxidativo para a célula assim como acrescentam substâncias que evitam ou reduzem a formação de espécies reativas de oxigênio. A hipotermia e a oxigenação destas soluções preservadoras é de uso corrente e consensual. Nove trabalhos ativeram-se ao uso específico da OHB. Não há consenso sobre sua utilização em trabalhos experimentais. Contudo os estudos não são comparáveis, pois utilizam metodologias diversas e diferentes tipos de avaliação. Discute-se também a complexidade e os custos da OHB. Apesar disto, há indicações que a OHB pode prevenir o edema da hipotermia, manter a oxigenação tecidual durante a preservação e impedir ou diminuir a formação de radicais livres. CONCLUSÃO: A OHB deve ser avaliada como alternativa exclusiva ou complementar às técnicas de preservação, sendo campo fértil de investigação.INTRODUCTION: In spite of the existence of several modalities of preservation, up to now a method that adequately keeps for a long time the quality and the functioning aspects of the small bowel to be transplanted is lacking. AIM: To gather articles using hyper baric

  7. Usefulness of capsule endoscopy in patients with suspected small bowel disease Utilidad de la cápsula endoscópica en pacientes con sospecha de patología de intestino delgado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Caunedo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study the usefulness and safety of capsule endoscopy as a diagnostic tool in various small bowel disorders. Design: a retrospective analysis of a series of cases. Material and methods: between August 2001 and August 2002, 92 capsule endoscopy procedures were performed in 88 patients (53M/39F, age: 43.87 ± 16.78. Indications included: chronic diarrhea (n = 33; unknown abdominal pain (n = 29; occult gastrointestinal bleeding or iron-deficiency anemia (n = 13; abdominal discomfort in NSAID takers (n = 7; staging of gastrointestinal tumors (n = 4, and asymptomatic controls (n = 2. Previously performed gastroscopy, colonoscopy, and small-bowel follow-through were not conclusive in all patients. Results: most frequently relevant findings included: jejuno-ileal apthas and ulcerations (29 patients, vascular malformations (13 patients, and intestinal neoplasm (6 patients. The groups with a higher rate of findings related to this indication were occult gastrointestinal bleeding (76.92% and chronic diarrhea (67.85%, with the lowest rate in the abdominal pain group (34.48%. Therapeutic strategy was directly changed in 36 of 88 patients (40.90% because of capsule-endoscopic findings. The only observed complication was the failed excretion of one of the capsules because of an unknown ulcerated intestinal stricture. Conclusions: capsule endoscopy is a safe procedure which can study the entire small bowel, meaning a valuable tool for the management of patients with suggestive signs and symptoms of intestinal disorders.Objetivo: estudiar la utilidad y seguridad de la cápsula endoscópica como prueba diagnóstica en distintas patologías de intestino delgado. Diseño: análisis retrospectivo de una serie de casos. Material y métodos: entre agosto de 2001 y agosto de 2002 se realizaron 92 cápsulo-endoscopias a 88 pacientes (53H/39M, edad: 43,87± 16,78. Las indicaciones fueron: diarrea crónica (n = 33; dolor abdominal no filiado (n = 29; hemorragia

  8. Estudo morfométrico e estereológico digital da mucosa do intestino delgado de crianças eutróficas e desnutridas com diarréia persistente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pires Ana L.G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: testar a hipótese de que a mucosa do intestino delgado proximal de crianças com diarréia persistente apresenta alterações morfométricas e estereológicas proporcionais ao estado nutricional, utilizando captura de imagens através de microscópio acoplado ao computador. MÉTODOS: estudo transversal incluindo 65 pacientes pediátricos, com idade entre quatro meses e cinco anos, com diarréia de mais de 14 dias de duração, avaliados pelos escores z, divididos em eutróficos = z > 2 DP e desnutridos = z 2 DP, risco nutricional = z < -1DP e desnutridos = z < -2DP; e de maneira contínua em ordem decrescente, utilizando-se as tabelas do NCHS. Após a captura das imagens através do programa Scion Image, foram medidas a altura dos vilos, a profundidade das criptas, a espessura da mucosa, a espessura total da mucosa e a relação vilo/cripta (100 aumentos e a altura do enterócito, altura do núcleo e do bordo em escova (500 aumentos. A análise estereológica foi feita através de arcos ciclóides. RESULTADOS: para os escores z P/I, P/E e E/I, divididos em duas categorias de estado nutricional, não houve diferença estatisticamente significante quanto às medidas da altura dos vilos, profundidade das criptas, espessura da mucosa, espessura total da mucosa e relação vilo/cripta. A altura do enterócito foi a característica que apresentou maior diferença entre os grupos eutróficos e desnutridos, para os índices P/I e P/E, em 500 aumentos, sem atingir significância estatística. No entanto, para três categorias de estado nutricional, a análise morfométrica digitalizada mostrou diferença estatisticamente significante para a relação vilo/cripta entre eutróficos e desnutridos leves e entre eutróficos e desnutridos moderados e graves (p=0,048. A relação vilo/cripta foi maior nos eutróficos. Através do coeficiente de correlação linear de Spearman, a altura do enterócito, a altura do núcleo do enterócito e a do bordo

  9. Clinical use of growth hormone and glutamine in short bowel syndrome Uso clínico de hormônio de crescimento e glutamina em síndrome do intestino curto

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    Celso Cukier

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH and glutamine (GLN are considered bowel trophic factors and are used experimentally after bowel resection. Their clinical uses in short bowel syndrome (SBS are still not standardized. It is of interest to verify metabolic, nutritional and side effects of the association of GH and GLN in SBS. Three patients, 39 (A, 33 (B, and 01 years old (C underwent bowel resection with jejunum anastomosis 15 cm (A and 60 cm (B distant from the Treitz angle, and 40 cm (C preserving the ileo cecal valve. GH Saizen (Serono - A, Genotropin (Pharmacia - B, and Norditropin (Novonordisk C were administered in doses of 0.14 mg /kg/day. GLN (0.4 g/kg/day was given orally for 10 days (A, 30 days (B and 60 days to patient C (0.28 g/kg/day. Central TPN and adequate oral diet was administered according to the bowel adaptation phase. On the first day after beginning treatment patient A exhibited symptoms of hypoglycemia. There were no other side effects. After treatment, body weight was higher and analysis by bioelectrical impedance showed more lean mass and less fat mass compared to pre-treatment measurements. Nitrogen retention was progressively higher with treatment. Simultaneous treatment with GH and GLN does not cause significant side effects, and is associated with a favorable distribution of the body compartments and nitrogen retention in patients with the short bowel syndrome.Hormônio de crescimento (GH e glutamina (GLN são fatores tróficos da mucosa intestinal, utilizados experimentalmente pós ressecção intestinal maciça. O uso clinico de GH e GLN em síndrome do intestino curto (SIC ainda não está padronizado. Torna-se de interesse verificar os efeitos metabólicos, nutricionais e colaterais da associação do GH e GLN em SIC grave de origem recente. Três pacientes, com idades de 39 anos (A, 33 anos (B e 1 ano (C foram submetidos à enterectomia com anastomose do jejuno a 15 cm (A e 60 cm (B do angulo de Treitz com o cólon ascendente

  10. [Gallbladder contractility in children with functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwańczak, Franciszek; Siedlecka-Dawidko, Jolanta; Iwanczak, Barbara

    2013-07-01

    III Rome Criteria of functional gastrointestinal disorders in children, distinguished the disturbances with abdominal pain, to which irritable bowel syndrome, functional abdominal pains, functional dyspepsia and abdominal migraine were included. THE AIM OF THE STUDY was sonographic assessment of the gallbladder and its contractility in functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome in children. The study comprised 96 children aged 6 to 18 years, 59 girls and 37 boys. Depending on diagnosis, the children were divided into three groups. 38 children with functional abdominal pain constituted the first group, 26 children with irritable bowel syndrome were included to the second group, the third group consisted of 32 healthy children (control group). Diagnosis of functional abdominal pain and irritable bowel syndrome was made based on the III Rome Criteria. In irritable bowel syndrome both forms with diarrhea (13) and with constipation (13) were observed. Anatomy and contractility of the gallbladder were assessed by ultrasound examination. The presence of septum, wall thickness, thick bile, vesicle volume in fasting state and 30th and 60th minute after test meal were taken into consideration. Test meal comprised about 15% of caloric requirement of moderate metabolism. Children with bile stones and organic diseases were excluded from the study. Thickened vesicle wall and thick bile were present more frequently in children with irritable bowel syndrome and functional abdominal pain than in control group (p functional abdominal pain than in irritable bowel syndrome and control group (p = 0.003, p = 0.05). Vesicle contractility after test meal was greatest in children with functional abdominal pain. Evaluation of diminished (smaller than 30%) and enlarged (greater then 80%) gallbladder contractility at 30th and 60th minute after test meal demonstrated disturbances of contractility in children with irritable bowel syndrome and functional abdominal pain. In children

  11. The effects of topical corticosteroids and a coal tar preparation on dithranol-induced irritation in patients with psoriasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swinkels, O.Q.J.; Kucharekova, M.; Prins, M.; Gerritsen, M.J.P.; van der Valk, P.G.M.; van de Kerkhof, P.C.M. [University of Nijmegen, Nijmegen (Netherlands). Medical Center

    2003-02-01

    Dithranol has been a mainstay in the treatment of psoriasis for more than 80 years. Although a safe approach, the irritation of the clinically uninvolved perilesional skin remains a major limitation of this treatment. Corticosteroids and coal tar solution have an anti-inflammatory potential. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical and cell-biological effects of two topical corticosteroids and a coal tar preparation on dithranol-irritated skin. The expression of epidermal proliferation, differentiation and inflammation markers and the clinical irritation scores indicate that the application of a high potency corticosteroid is the best approach to minimise dithranol irritation.

  12. Omega-3 fatty acids decreased irritability of patients with bipolar disorder in an add-on, open label study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldassano Claudia F

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a report on a 37-patient continuation study of the open ended, Omega-3 Fatty Acid (O-3FA add-on study. Subjects consisted of the original 19 patients, along with 18 new patients recruited and followed in the same fashion as the first nineteen. Subjects carried a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of Bipolar Disorder and were visiting a Mood Disorder Clinic regularly through the length of the study. At each visit, patients' clinical status was monitored using the Clinical Monitoring Form. Subjects reported on the frequency and severity of irritability experienced during the preceding ten days; frequency was measured by way of percentage of days in which subjects experienced irritability, while severity of that irritability was rated on a Likert scale of 1 – 4 (if present. The irritability component of Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS was also recorded quarterly on 13 of the 39 patients consistently. Patients had persistent irritability despite their ongoing pharmacologic and psychotherapy. Omega-3 Fatty Acid intake helped with the irritability component of patients suffering from bipolar disorder with a significant presenting sign of irritability. Low dose (1 to 2 grams per day, add-on O-3FA may also help with the irritability component of different clinical conditions, such as schizophrenia, borderline personality disorder and other psychiatric conditions with a common presenting sign of irritability.

  13. Behavioral Interventions for Anger, Irritability, and Aggression in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhodolsky, Denis G; Smith, Stephanie D; McCauley, Spencer A; Ibrahim, Karim; Piasecka, Justyna B

    2016-02-01

    Anger, irritability, and aggression are among the most common reasons for child mental health referrals. This review is focused on two forms of behavioral interventions for these behavioral problems: Parent management training (PMT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). First, we provide an overview of anger/irritability and aggression as the treatment targets of behavioral interventions, followed by a discussion of the general principles and techniques of these treatment modalities. Then we discuss our current work concerning the transdiagnostic approach to CBT for anger, irritability, and aggression. PMT is aimed at improving aversive patterns of family interactions that engender children's disruptive behavior. CBT targets deficits in emotion regulation and social problem-solving that are associated with aggressive behavior. Both forms of treatment have received extensive support in randomized controlled trials. Given that anger/irritability and aggressive behavior are common in children with a variety of psychiatric diagnoses, a transdiagnostic approach to CBT for anger and aggression is described in detail. PMT and CBT have been well studied in randomized controlled trials in children with disruptive behavior disorders, and studies of transdiagnostic approaches to CBT for anger and aggression are currently underway. More work is needed to develop treatments for other types of aggressive behavior (e.g., relational aggression) that have been relatively neglected in clinical research. The role of callous-unemotional traits in response to behavioral interventions and treatment of irritability in children with anxiety and mood disorders also warrants further investigation.

  14. Evaluating skin-protective materials against contact irritants and allergens. An in vivo screening human model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, H; Willard, P; Maibach, H I

    1998-03-01

    2 acute irritants and 1 allergen were selected: sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) representative of irritant household and occupational contact dermatitis, the combination of ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) and urea to simulate diaper dermatitis, and Rhus to evaluate the effect of model protective materials. The putative protective materials and vehicle were applied to both ventral forearms of 10 subjects in each group, according to a randomized code. Test materials were spread over a marked 2.0 cm2 area, massaged in, allowed to dry for 30 min, and reapplied with another 30 min drying period. The model irritants and allergen were then applied (0.025 ml) to an Al-test occlusive patch, which in turn was placed for 24 h over each of the 8 designated sites. Inflammation was scored according to a clinical scale 72 h post-application. Paraffin wax plus Acetulan in cetyl alcohol, and beeswax plus Acetulan in cetyl alcohol, markedly (p < 0.001) suppressed SLS irritation. Paraffin wax plus beeswax in cetyl alcohol, and Acetulan in cetyl alcohol reduced NH4OH and urea irritation (p < 0.05), paraffin wax in cetyl alcohol significantly (p < 0.01) decreasing Rhus allergic contact dermatitis. This model, provides an easy approach to screening protectants. Its clinical significance requires comparison with an open rather than an occluded challenge.

  15. Pengaruh Entertainment, Irritating dan Informativeness Iklan di Website di Kalangan Mahasiswa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edy Supriyadi

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available There are several advantages and disadvantages and advertising via the Internet. The appeal of advertising may also arise from given information element, the element of comfort but also sometimes lead to disturbing or irritation elements. The limited number of Internet users in Indonesia and the different backgrounds of individual Internet users in Indonesia certainly provide a different assessment of the advertisements contained on the Internet. There are 3 factors which was the starting point to explain how consumers interpret the value of advertising, namely: informativeness, entertainment and irritation. This research aims to discover whether there is a relationship between entertainment, informativeness, and irritation toward advertising values and whether there is a relationship between entertainment and advertising values toward attitude towards web advertising using statistics tools of path analysis and multiple regression. The research shows that there is a significant relationship between independent variables such as informativeness, entertainment and irritation simultaneously toward the advertising value but there are no significant relationship between entertainment and informativeness toward the advertising value individually.  In the other model there is a significant relationship between informativeness, irritation and advertising values with the attitude towards web advertising.

  16. Ayahuasca: uma revisão dos aspectos farmacológicos e toxicológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Salum Pires; Carolina Dizioli Rodrigues Oliveira; Mauricio Yonamine

    2010-01-01

    A ayahuasca é uma bebida psicoativa originariamente utilizada em rituais de tribos indígenas da região amazônica. Esta bebida é preparada pela infusão de caules da Banisteriopsis caapi Morton, que contém β-carbolinas que são inibidoras da monoaminoxidase (MAO), e de folhas da Psychotria viridis Ruiz & Pavón, que contém o alucinógeno N,N-dimetiltriptamina (DMT). A enzima MAO degrada a DMT no fígado e intestino. No Brasil, a ayahuasca tem sido incorporada em rituais de grupos sincréticos re...

  17. Análise da comunicação não-verbal de pessoas portadoras de ostomia por câncer de intestino em grupo focal Analisis de la comunicación no verbal de personas com ostoma por cáncer de intestino en un grupo focal Analysis of nonverbal communication of ostomy patients due to bowel cancer in a focus group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silene Oliveira Paegle

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo foi analisar a freqüência de comportamentos eficazes e ineficazes nas relações de pessoas portadoras de ostomia por câncer de intestino, integrantes de um grupo. Caracterizou-se por ser de campo, exploratório, observacional, realizado num hospital da cidade de São Paulo. A população foi composta por 5 pessoas reunidas em grupo. Após aprovação pelo Comitê de Ética institucional, ocorreram 5 encontros norteados pelos temas: eu antes do adoecimento, eu doente e o tratamento, eu me recuperando com uma ostomia, eu e minha vida cotidiana, eu neste grupo, durante os meses de outubro e novembro de 2001. Os dados foram coletados por meio de gravação em vídeo, durante a realização dos encontros, e registro de diário de campo. A análise quantitativa foi realizada com base na confecção de tabelas e gráfico, a partir do modelo estabelecido. Explicitou-se predomínio de rigidez e competitividade nas relações intragrupais, determinando paralisia e estereotipia na interação.La finalidad de este estudio fue analizar la comunicación no verbal de portadoras de ostoma por cáncer de intestino, integrantes de un grupo. Fue realizada una investigación de campo, de tipo exploratorio y observacional, en un hospital de la ciudad de São Paulo, Brasil. La población estuvo compuesta de 5 personas. Tras la aprobación por el Comité de Ética institucional, ocurrieron 5 encuentros durante los meses de octubre y noviembre del 2001, norteados por los temas: yo antes de adolecer, yo enfermo y el tratamiento, yo recuperándome con una ostomia, yo y mi vida cotidiana, yo en este grupo. Los datos fueron recolectados por medio de grabación en video, durante la realización de los encuentros, y se efectuó el registro de diario de campo. El análisis cuantitativo fue realizado basado en la confección de tablas y gráficos, a partir del modelo establecido. Se explicitó predominio de rigidez y competitividad en las relaciones

  18. Differentiating allergic and irritant contact dermatitis by high-definition optical coherence tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, Marc A L M; Jemec, Gregor B E; Del Marmol, V

    2015-01-01

    Differentiation of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is important because of different management requirements. Various non-invasive tests have been used in an attempt to improve diagnosis. In irritant dermatitis, thickening of the epidermis has been a constant...... was threefold. (1) To evaluate the correlation between HD-OCT features and clinical scores of allergic and irritant patch test reactions. (2) To explore the potential of HD-OCT in optimizing the visual patch test scoring. (3) To assess in vivo the cytological and 3-D micro-architectural differences in skin...... reaction types between doubtful positive ACD and ICD. Twenty-two volunteers were patch tested using potassium(VI)dichromate, cobalt(II)chloride, nickel(II) sulfate and palladium(II)chloride. Visual patch test scoring and HD-OCT assisted patch test scoring were performed at 48 and 96 h after patch test...

  19. Comparison of cytotoxicity in vitro and irritation in vivo for aqueous and oily solutions of surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czajkowska-Kośnik, Anna; Wolska, Eliza; Chorążewicz, Juliusz; Sznitowska, Małgorzata

    2015-01-01

    The in vivo model on rabbit eyes and the in vitro cytotoxicity on fibroblasts were used to compare irritation effect of aqueous and oily (Miglyol 812) solutions of surfactants. Tween 20, Tween 80 and Cremophor EL were tested in different concentrations (0.1, 1 or 5%) and the in vitro test demonstrated that surfactants in oil are less cytotoxic than in aqueous solutions. In the in vivo study, the aqueous solutions of surfactants were characterized as non-irritant while small changes in conjunctiva were observed after application the oily solutions of surfactants and the preparations were classified as slightly irritant, however this effect was similar when Miglyol was applied alone. In conclusion, it is reported that the MTT assay does not correlate well with the Draize scores.

  20. Cross-cultural validation of Irritable Bowel Syndrome Quality of Life in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae M; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Oh, Jung Hwan; Cho, Yu Kyung; Lee, In Seok; Kim, Sang Woo; Choi, Kyu Yong; Chung, In-Sik

    2006-08-01

    Patients' responses to quality-of-life questionnaires are dependent on the cultural milieu. The aims of this study were to translate the Irritable Bowel Syndrome Quality of Life questionnaire, which was developed in the West, into Korean and to validate the translated questionnaire in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Translation of the original questionnaire was performed according to accepted linguistic validation guidelines. Korean patients had no difficulty understanding the questions. Data from the translated questionnaire were well correlated with results from the SF-36 questionnaire and reflected the stress status of the patients as measured on the Perceived Stress Scale. Some questionnaire items seemed, on first analysis, to be problematic in this subset of patients, but these results may relate, in part, to cultural differences between Korea and the West. We conclude that the translated questionnaire is reliable and offers an accurate measure of quality of life for Korean patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

  1. Laboratory evaluation of the irritancy of bendiocarb, lambda-cyhalothrin and DDT to Anopheles gambiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R G

    1993-09-01

    In a laboratory study, the irritancy of bendiocarb, lambda-cyhalothrin and DDT to Anopheles gambiae was evaluated at field, 1/3 field and 1/10 field rates using WHO conical exposure chambers and excito-repellency test boxes. Bendiocarb was the least irritant insecticide at all rates, inducing levels of takeoff, flight and exiting behavior similar to those of a distilled water control treatment. Of those mosquitoes introduced to the bendiocarb-treated boxes, not more than 1% exited and survived at any dose rate. Lambda-cyhalothrin and DDT were highly irritant to An. gambiae, inducing a strong stimulation to take off and fly and also a high level of exiting. Exiting-survival rates associated with lambda-cyhalothrin and DDT were between 15 and 51%. The relevance of these findings to the control of mosquito populations and the prevention of malaria transmission is discussed.

  2. Towards an Irritable Bowel Syndrome Control System Based on Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolski, Ina; Rettberg, Achim

    To solve health problems with medical applications that use complex algorithms is a trend nowadays. It could also be a chance to help patients with critical problems caused from nerve irritations to overcome them and provide a better living situation. In this paper a system for monitoring and controlling the nerves from the intestine is described on a theoretical basis. The presented system could be applied to the irritable bowel syndrome. For control a neural network is used. The advantages for using a neural network for the control of irritable bowel syndrome are the adaptation and learning. These two aspects are important because the syndrome behavior varies from patient to patient and have also concerning the time a lot of variations with respect to each patient. The developed neural network is implemented and can be simulated. Therefore, it can be shown how the network monitor and control the nerves for individual input parameters.

  3. The gendered impact of Irritable Bowel Syndrome: a qualitative study of patients' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, Ida; Dellenborg, Lisen; Ringström, Gisela; Simrén, Magnus; Jakobsson Ung, Eva

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the impact of irritable bowel syndrome on daily life from a gender perspective. Irritable bowel syndrome is a common functional disorder, characterized by abdominal pain, diarrhoea and/or constipation. Sufferers experience negative emotions due to unpredictable symptoms and sometimes feel trivialized by healthcare professionals. The sufferers' experience of living with this disorder has never been explored from a gender perspective. A qualitative, interpretative method was used. A qualitative, hermeneutic method was applied. Interviews were conducted with 19 patients in 2011 and analysed in a constructionist gender framework. Constructionist gender theory views gender and identity as cultural constructs that develop through interplay between the individual and his/her social context and cultural norms. The main theme to emerge from the interviews was as follows: 'A normative framework of femaleness and maleness leads to suffering for persons with irritable bowel syndrome'. This consists of three interwoven themes: 'Being forced to abandon gender illusions'; 'Being forced to transcend taboos' and 'Reinforced suffering in healthcare encounters'. Men demonstrated masculinity by stressing the importance of being solid family providers while women spoke of nurturing and relational responsibilities in line with traditional notions of femininity. The experience of living with irritable bowel syndrome differs between men and women due to differing societal expectations, life situation and the everyday construction of gender identities. Gender stereotyping by healthcare professionals perpetuates rather than alleviates the suffering experienced by men and women with irritable bowel syndrome. In healthcare encounters, women risk being trivialized and men risk being overlooked due to the 'female health concern' label attached to irritable bowel syndrome. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Aspectos fisiológicos do mountain biking competitivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Dantas de Lucas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A prática do ciclismo off-road (mountain biking - MTB, cresceu muito nas últimas duas décadas, sendo incluído como esporte olímpico, nos Jogos de Atlanta em 1996, na modalidade Cross Country. Na última década, houve um aumento no número de publicações científicas que verificaram a demanda fisiológica durante competições, assim como o estudo de possíveis preditores da performance nesta modalidade. O objetivo deste estudo de revisão foi descrever alguns aspectos fisiológicos específicos do MTB Cross Country (MTB CC competitivo (intensidade de provas, perfil fisiológico de atletas de elite, uso de suspensões e determinantes da performance em subidas. Observa-se na literatura analisada que as provas de MTB CC parecem impor uma sobrecarga fisiológica maior, quando analisada através da frequência cardíaca, do que provas de ciclismo de estrada com duração semelhante. Entretanto, quando analisada pela potência de pedalada, observa-se claramente a característica intermitente da modalidade, com variações de potência durante a prova entre zero e 500W, e potência média relativamente baixa em comparação aos valores de FC encontrados. Outro fator importante levantado neste estudo são as alterações fisiológicas decorrentes do uso de suspensões nas bicicletas de MTB CC. O uso deste equipamento reduz o estresse muscular provocado pelo terreno acidentado, embora pareça não afetar o gasto energético total, tanto em percurso plano como em subidas. Entretanto, é fato que o desempenho em circuitos acidentados é melhorado com o uso das suspensões. Com base nos estudos abordados nessa revisão, conclui-se que o MTB CC enquanto modalidade competitiva apresenta uma grande variação de intensidade (avaliada através da potência, sendo esta atribuída principalmente ao tipo de terreno (irregular e com muitas aclives e declives acentuados em que as provas de MTB CC acontecem.

  5. Aspectos institucionales del proceso latinoamericano de integración

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Herrera

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available La formación de un espacio económico que abarque los territorios de varios Estados requiere de dos elementos esenciales: la voluntad política de los países de participar en un proceso de integración de sus economías y la existencia de instrumentos jurídicos e institucionales adecuados para traducir las decisiones políticas en programas concretos de acción oportuna y coordinadamente ejecutados. El estudio de los aspectos institucionales de la integración latinoamericana ha adquirido especial importancia a partir de las decisiones adoptadas en abril de 1967 en Punta del Este por los presidentes latinoamericanos, en el sentido de crear un mercado común regional a partir de 1970. La necesidad de contar con instrumentos institucionales adecuados para llevar a la práctica las decisiones presidenciales confronta a los países con la necesidad de analizar profundamente los instrumentos que ahora existen a fin de perfeccionarlos y adaptarlos a las tareas propias de una comunidad económica. Este análisis debe basarse en un planteamiento muy claro de tipo institucional que -aprovechando la experiencia acumulada a través de la integración económica europea y prestando la debida consideración a las características que reviste este proceso en el caso de América Latina- contemple y defina el rol que están llamados a desempeñar en la promoción de este proceso los gobiernos y las administraciones de los países participantes, las instituciones creadas especialmente por los instrumentos jurídicos de la integración y los organismos internacionales especializados que colaboran en el desarrollo de la región. Este texto apareció por primera vez en Osvaldo Sunkel (Comp. Integración Política y Económica (pp. 311-344, Santiago de Chile, Editorial Universitaria, 1970.

  6. Aspectos relevantes sobre tuberculose para profissionais de saúde

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Daronco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A Tuberculose (TB é uma patologia infectocontagiosa com clínica ampla cujo agentecausador é o Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Bacilo de Koch, uma micobactéria aeróbia estrita. Apesar de tratar-se dedoença antiga, que acomete seres humanos há séculos, sendo uma importante causa de morte no mundo inteiro,diferentes pesquisas do Ministério da Saúde apontam números preocupantes no tocante a novos casos. Materiais eMétodos: O presente artigo de revisão procura, de forma objetiva e clara, explicitar os principais aspectos de interessepara profissionais de saúde no tocante a Tuberculose doença. O artigo divide-se em tópicos: Defi nição, Sintomatologia,Diagnóstico, Tratamento, Multirresistência, Profi laxia, Formas de Contágio e Formas de Prevenção. Foram utilizadasreferências atuais sobre o tema, incluindo Manuais, Guidelines e Artigos científicos diversos de bases de dados comoUp to Date e Science Direct. Discussão: Sinais e sintomas da doença aumentam o grau de suspeição da mesma, oque torna o pedido de exames para confirmação da infecção dentro de tempo hábil para instituição da terapêuticaadequada. Assim como diagnóstico e tratamento, medidas para evitar o contágio, em serviços de saúde, locaiscom aglomerações humanas e em residências, são de fundamental importância no combate a tuberculose. Osprofissionais de saúde devem atentar para possíveis casos de resistência aos fármacos e as indicações de profilaxia,pois tais variáveis são de extrema relevância no controle da disseminação da doença. Conclusão: Por tratar-se dedoença infecciosa que pode acometer todas as classes sociais, além de possuir formas diferentes de acometimento,o conhecimento básico acerca da Tuberculose é deveras imprescindível em serviços de saúde, desde a atençãoprimária até os centros de saúde com alta tecnologia.

  7. Less skin irritation from alcohol-based disinfectant than from detergent used for hand disinfection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, L K; Held, E; Johansen, J D

    2005-01-01

    and forearms of 17 healthy volunteers. A control area was included. After 4 weeks an SLS patch was applied to each area. Irritant reactions were quantified with a visual score recording and measurements of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin colour were performed on days 1, 5, 11, 38 and 40. RESULTS...... was found on the disinfectant-treated area compared with the control area and detergent area, and a similar trend was found for TEWL, although it was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Alcohol-based disinfectant caused less visible skin irritation and less skin barrier disruption than the use...

  8. Irritable bowel syndrome--prognosis and diagnostic safety. A 5-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Munck, L K; Andersen, J R

    1985-01-01

    The irritable bowel syndrome is the commonest diagnosis in gastroenterological clinics, although diagnostic criteria and investigatory programs vary. To elucidate the diagnostic safety and prognosis of the syndrome, a retrospective study was conducted. One hundred and twelve consecutive patients...... with irritable bowel syndrome as the final and only abdominal diagnosis in the period 1977-79 were followed up in 1984. Seventeen patients died during the follow-up period; two of these were considered diagnostic failures (chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer). Of the remaining 95 patients, 93 were...

  9. EFFICACY OF HYOSCINE BUTYLBROMIDE IN TREATMENT OF IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME IN CHILDREN: PLACEBO-CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Arifullina

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The activity of hyoscine butylbromide (buscopan was evaluated in a placebobcontrolled trial, on pediatric patients with algid type of irritable bowel syndrome. Hyoscine butylbromide favored to the increase of quality of life in pediatric patients, alleviation of clinical symptoms of disease, reliable decrease of malonic dialdehyde and increase of antioxidant activity of blood plasma significantly superior to placebo. Clinical efficacy of hyoscine butylbromide accompanies to its good tolerance and safety.Key words: children, irritable bowel syndrome, hyoscine butylbromide, placebo controlled trial.

  10. Medial tibial “spackling” to lessen chronic medial tibial soft tissue irritation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ryan Martin, MD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe a unique, utilitarian reconstructive treatment option known as tibial “spackling” for chronic, localized medial joint line pain corresponding with progressive radiographic peripheral medial tibial bone loss beneath a well-fixed revision total knee arthroplasty tibial baseplate. It is believed that this localized pain is due to chronic irritation of the medial capsule and collateral ligament from the prominent medial edge of the tibial component. In the setting of failed nonoperative treatment, our experience with utilizing bone cement to reconstruct the medial tibial bone defect and create a smooth medial tibial surface has been successful in eliminating chronic medial soft tissue irritation.

  11. TREATMENT OF ACUTE INFLAMMATORY DISEASES ACCOMPANIED BY THROAT IRRITATION AND PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Petrovskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenetically, prescription of local action drugs containing a wide spectrum antiseptic is reasonable for the upper respiratory tract diseases accompanied by throat irritation and pain. It should be noted that such drugs are very popular among parents; however, most of these drugs may have a range of side effects, which considerably complicate their use in children. That is why the right choice of local action drugs for the acute inflammatory diseases accompanied by throat irritation and pain is a guarantee of treatment efficacy and high compliance. This article examines pharmacological qualities of an antiseptic-containing local action drug permitted to use in children over 4 years of age.

  12. The hairless guinea-pig as a model for treatment of acute irritation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, F; Hedegaard, K; Fullerton, A

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of six skin care formulations on experimentally induced acute irritation was studied in hairless guinea-pigs (HLGP) and in human volunteers (HV). The formulations were a basic cream, a carbomer cream and four modifications of the carbomer cream, containing either 10...... and colorimetry. RESULTS: The glycerol cream was the only product showing effects potentially better than no treatment in HV. CONCLUSION: The HLGP was too sensitive an animal model as a predictor for effect in humans. There was no difference in efficacy of the formulations against the two different irritants...

  13. Fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy for in vivo imaging of epidermal reactions to two experimental irritants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suihko, C.; Serup, J.

    2008-01-01

    demonstrated the applicability of fluorescence CLSM for a detailed study of experimental skin irritants in vivo. Essential findings were disturbed and widened cell borders, swelling of keratinocytes by PA and induction of a parakeratotic shift by SLS with clusters of keratinocytes holding nuclei...... more complicated than reflectance CLSM and may not be applicable to any irritant. SLS applied epicutaneously interacted with the skin surface and coupling to the microscope and was thus found to be more difficult to study technically than PA. PA dissolved in isopropanol is for technical reasons...

  14. [Study on treatment of irritable bowel syndrome: based on relationship between heart and intestines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Su-Na; Wang, Zu-Hong; Xie, Su-Juan; Han, Li-Bing; Yi, Rong

    2010-11-01

    The article puts forward the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome through regulating heart vitality since it is held that the pathological factors of the disease lay in dysfunction of heart and intestines as well as disorder of qi circulation. At the same time, the internal-external relationship between the heart the small intestine is discussed from the theory of Brain-gut Axis in modern medicine, which provides theoretical base of modern medicine for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome through regulation of the heart functions.

  15. Aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos do linfoma em bovinos: 128 casos (1965-2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welden Panziera

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Por meio de um estudo retrospectivo, os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e anatomopatológicos de 128 casos de linfoma bovino são descritos. Dos protocolos que informavam o sexo (n=111, 84,7% correspondiam a fêmeas e 15,3% a machos. Dos protocolos em que constava a raça (n=108, a mais prevalente foi a holandesa (63%. Em relação à idade (n=107, houve uma variação entre um e 14 anos. A maioria dos bovinos era adulta (89,7% e a maior concentração dos casos ocorreu ao redor de 5-8 anos (57,9%. Em relação aos sinais clínicos (n=89, linfadenomegalia foi o achado mais frequentemente observado (74,1%. Outros sinais clínicos, principalmente aqueles relacionados com os sistemas respiratório (dispneia, estertoração pulmonar e taquipneia, cardiovascular (taquicardia, edema subcutâneo e pulso venoso positivo, digestório (atonia ruminal, timpanismo e diarreia e nervoso (paresia dos membros pélvicos e andar cambaleante, foram pouco prevalentes. Na necropsia (n=125, 71,2% dos bovinos apresentavam aumento de volume dos linfonodos; essa linfadenomegalia foi classificada como localizada em 89,6% dos casos e generalizada em 10,3% dos casos. Dos protocolos que informavam os linfonodos acometidos (n=58, a distribuição foi a seguinte: mesentéricos (51,7%, mediastínicos (37,9%, pré-escapulares (29,3%, ilíacos internos (27,6%, inguinais superficiais (25,8% e traqueobrônquicos (18,9%. Além dos linfonodos, outros órgãos comumente afetados pelo linfoma neste estudo incluíram: coração (40%, fígado (15,2%, rim (14,4%, abomaso (12,8%, útero (11,2%, intestino (10,4% e pulmão (7,2%. A presença de massas tumorais no canal vertebral foi observada em poucos casos (3,2%. Com base na epidemiologia e na localização das lesões, a maioria dos casos (96% foi classificada como linfoma enzoótico e o restante (4% como linfoma esporádico. Os resultados encontrados neste estudo irão auxiliar clínicos de grandes animais e patologistas veterin

  16. Aspectos emocionais associados a disfunções gastroenterológicas Aspectos emocionales asociados a disfunciones gastrointestinales Emotional aspects associated to gastroenterological dysfunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Cristina Gouveia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversos estudos têm demonstrado que alguns indivíduos, ante a impossibilidade de representar mentalmente seus conflitos, expressam-nos com o corpo, por meio de sintomas psicossomáticos. Também tem sido investigado como situações de estresse, ansiedade e depressão podem influir no curso e na evolução de determinadas doenças, incluindo as inflamatórias do intestino. Esta pesquisa reuniu trinta pacientes portadores de retocolite ulcerativa e doença de Crohn, que foram submetidos a três testes psicológicos: Inventário Beck de Ansiedade, Inventário Beck de Depressão e Inventário de Sintomas de Estresse para Adultos de Lipp. Posteriormente, nove deles foram selecionados para realização de um trabalho psicoterapêutico breve em grupo. Os testes revelaram que a condição emocional, embora não possa ser considerada diretamente causadora, pode afetar as defesas do sujeito, agravando a patologia. O trabalho psicoterapêutico revelou situações emocionais até então não percebidas, mas presentes nas histórias de vida e manifestadas sintomaticamente por meio de somatizações.Muchos estudios han demostrado que algunos individuos, frente a la imposibilidad de representar mentalmente sus conflictos, los expresan con el cuerpo, a través de síntomas psicosomáticos. También se ha investigado como situaciones de estrés, ansiedad y depresión pueden contribuir en el curso y evolución de determinadas dolencias, incluyendo las dolencias inflamatorias del intestino. Ese estudio ha reunido treinta pacientes, portadores de Retocolitis Ulcerativa y Dolencia de Crohn, que han sido sometidos a tres testes psicológicos: el Inventario Beck de Ansiedade, el Inventario Beck de Depresión y el Inventario de Síntomas de Stress para Adultos de Lipp. Posteriormente, nueve de ellos fueron seleccionados para realizar un trabajo psicoterapéutico focal en grupo. Los testes han revelado que la condición emocional, aunque no pueda ser directamente

  17. Ehealth monitoring in irritable bowel syndrome patients treated with low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Natalia; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Burisch, Johan

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we report on changes in irritable bowel syndrome-severity scoring system (IBS-SSS) and irritable bowel syndrome-quality of life (IBS-QoL) in 19 IBS patients, aged 18 to 74 years (F/M: 14/5), during 12 wk registering their symptoms on the web-application (www.ibs.constant-care...

  18. THE PREVALENCE AND CLINICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF PRIMARY HEADACHE IN IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME: a subgroup of the functional somatic syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa LS SOARES

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Context The irritable bowel syndrome and primary headache are two chronic diseases characterized by symptoms of recurring pain and affect approximately 10%-20% of the general population. Objectives To study the prevalence of primary headache in volunteers with irritable bowel syndrome in a Brazilian urban community. Methods It was evaluated the prevalence of primary headache associated with irritable bowel syndrome in adult volunteers 330 no patients.The protocol included the Rome III criteria, international classification of Headaches, later divided into four groups: I- Irritable bowel syndrome (n = 52, II- Primary headache (n = 45, III-Irritable bowel syndrome (n = 26 and headache, and IV- Controls (207. Results We not found significant difference in the average age of the four groups and the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome, primary headache and their association was more frequent in females. The frequent use of analgesics was greater in groups II and III. Conclusion Our results suggest that irritable bowel syndrome and primary headache are also common in third world countries. The frequency in use of analgesics in association between the two entities was relevant. The identification of irritable bowel syndrome patients with different clinical sub-types could improve the therapeutics options and the prevention strategies.

  19. Assessment of the in vitro dermal irritation potential of cerium, silver, and titanium nanoparticles in a human skin equivalent model

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractDermal exposure to metals may res·ult in irritant contact dermatitis. This study examined the potential of metal nanoparticles to elicit irritant contact dermatitis in a human skin equivalent model (HSEM) derived from epidermal keratinocytes. These cultured cells form a m...

  20. Irritability Levels of Field and Laboratory Population of Culex pipiens Complex in Tehran to Different Groups of Insecticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Rahimi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The irritant effect of some insecticides can cause a proportion of mosquitoes to leave the sprayed rooms before acquiring a lethal dose, so the repeated contact al sub-lethal dose may lead to extent the resistance.Methods: Larvae and pupae of Culex pipiens complex were collected in mass from open canals of waste water in capital city Tehran and reared to obtain the first generation at laboratory. Sugar-fed 2–3 days female mosquitoes were used for the experiments and compared with laboratory strain. The irritability tests of insecticides impregnated pa­pers were measured in plastic conical exposure chambers placed which implemented at controlled conditions ac­cording  to  the  method  described  by WHO .Number of take-offs were counted during 15  minutes of exposure  time.Results: DDT had the most irritancy effect against field population of Cx. pipiens. DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin was moderately irritable against laboratory strain, whereas, addition to three previous insecticides, malathion, cyfluthrin and propoxur should be also considered as moderately irritable insecticides for field population of. Irritability level of etofenprox, fenithrothion, bendiocarb, and lambdacyhalothrin did not differ from control group.Conclusion: The irritability response of mosquitoes may have a negative impact on control measures. Periodical execution of irritability tests with insecticides that routinely used in vector control program is highly recommended.

  1. Evaluation of Eye Irritation Potential of Solid Substance with New 3D Reconstructed Human Cornea Model, MCTT HCE(TM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Won-Hee; Jung, Kyoung-Mi; Yang, Hye-Ri; Lee, Miri; Jung, Haeng-Sun; Lee, Su-Hyon; Park, Miyoung; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2015-07-01

    The eye irritation potential of drug candidates or pharmaceutical ingredients should be evaluated if there is a possibility of ocular exposure. Traditionally, the ocular irritation has been evaluated by the rabbit Draize test. However, rabbit eyes are more sensitive to irritants than human eyes, therefore substantial level of false positives are unavoidable. To resolve this species difference, several three-dimensional human corneal epithelial (HCE) models have been developed as alternative eye irritation test methods. Recently, we introduced a new HCE model, MCTT HCE(TM) which is reconstructed with non-transformed human corneal cells from limbal tissues. Here, we examined if MCTT HCE(TM) can be employed to evaluate eye irritation potential of solid substances. Through optimization of washing method and exposure time, treatment time was established as 10 min and washing procedure was set up as 4 times of washing with 10 mL of PBS and shaking in 30 mL of PBS in a beaker. With the established eye irritation test protocol, 11 solid substances (5 non-irritants, 6 irritants) were evaluated which demonstrated an excellent predictive capacity (100% accuracy, 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity). We also compared the performance of our test method with rabbit Draize test results and in vitro cytotoxicity test with 2D human corneal epithelial cell lines.

  2. Slight respiratory irritation but not inflammation in mice exposed to (1→3-β-D-glucan aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Korpi

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Airway irritation effects after single and repeated inhalation exposures to aerosols of β-glucan (grifolan were investigated in mice. In addition, the effects on serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE production and histopathological inflammation in the respiratory tract were studied. The β-glucan aerosols provoked slight sensory irritation in the airways, but the response was not concentration dependent at the levels studied. Slight pulmonary irritation was observed after repeated exposures. No effect was found on the serum total IgE levels, and no signs of inflammation were seen in the airways 6 h after the final exposure. The results suggest that, irrespective of previous fungal sensitization of the animals, inhaled β-glucan may cause symptoms of respiratory tract irritation but without apparent inflammation. Respiratory tract irritation reported after inhalation of fungi may not be entirely attributed to β-glucan.

  3. ASPECTOS CIENTÍFICOS Y BENEFICIOSOS DEL CULTO TANTRICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratan Lal Basu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo se propone identificar y aislar lo científico y beneficioso de la falsedad, superstición y misticismo que envuelve al tantrismo. De todas las prácticas religiosas y semireligiosas antiguas de la India, el culto tántrico es el que ha conseguido el mayor reconocimiento y la mayor popularidad en todo el mundo. La razón de esta popularidad no ha sido el interés académico, espiritual o filosófico. Por el contrario, se lo ha asociado con promesas de obtener poderes mágicos y sobrenaturales, como también promesas de mejorar la potencia sexual y la intensidad del disfrute sexual y restablecer la potencia sexual perdida en las personas mayores. En la India, la gente común le confirió una mala reputación al culto tántrico. El misterio, la psicosis de culpa y temor también se asocian a este culto esotérico. El tantra en sí no es una religión pero ha penetrado en la mayoría de las comunidades religiosas y subreligiosas no solo de la India sino también de Tíbet, China, Japón y muchos otros países (especialmente asiáticos. En la India, son innumerables las asociaciones de tantra y los tántricos individuales en calidad de gurús (maestros con sus círculos de discípulos. Sin embargo, son muchos los aspectos del tantra que son científicamente demostrables y sus efectos son beneficiosos tanto para los individuos como la sociedad en su conjunto. En esta línea, al final del artículo se destacan algunos estudios que demuestran la reducción de los niveles de estrés como resultado de las prácticas tántricas. Este trabajo también apunta a inspirar a más investigadores competentes y eruditos a continuar con la tarea aquí iniciada. Abstract This article endeavors to identify and isolate the scientific and beneficial from falsehood, superstition and mysticism surrounding tantrism. Among the various ancient Indian religious and semi-religious practices, tantra cult has got the most widespread recognition and popularity

  4. Biodistribution of the radiophamarceutical sodium pertechnetate (Na99mTcO4 after massive small bowel resection in rats Biodistribuição do radiofármaco pertecnetato de sódio (Na99mTcO4 em ratos submetidos a ressecção extensa de intestino delgado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dâmaso de Araújo Chacon

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the biodistribution of sodium pertecnetate (Na99mTcO4 in organs and tissues, the morphometry of remnant intestinal mucosa and ponderal evolution in rats subjected to massive resection of the small intestine. METHODS: Twenty-one Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups of 7 animals each. The short bowel (SB group was subjected to massive resection of the small intestine; the control group (C rats were not operated on, and soft intestinal handling was performed in sham rats. The animals were weighed weekly. On the 30th postoperative day, 0.l mL of Na99mTcO4, with mean activity of 0.66 MBq was injected intravenously into the orbital plexus. After 30 minutes, the rats were killed with an overdose of anesthetic, and fragments of the liver, spleen, pancreas, stomach, duodenum, small intestine, thyroid, lung, heart, kidney, bladder, muscle, femur and brain were harvested. The biopsies were washed with 0.9% NaCl.,The radioactivity was counted using Gama Counter WizardTM 1470, PerkinElmer. The percentage of radioactivity per gram of tissue (%ATI/g was calculated. Biopsies of the remaining jejunum were analysed by HE staining to obtain mucosal thickness. Analysis of variance (ANOVA and the Tukey test for multiple comparisons were used, considering p0.05. An increase in the weight of the SB rats was observed after the second postoperative week. The jejunal mucosal thickness of the SB rats was significantly greater than that of C and sham rats (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar em modelo animal com ressecção extensa do intestino delgado a biodistribuição de pertecnetato de sódio (Na99mTcO4 em órgãos e tecidos, a evolução ponderal e a morfometria da mucosa do intestino delgado remanescente. MÉTODOS: Vinte e um ratos Wistar foram aleatoriamente divididos em três grupos de sete animais cada. O grupo intestino curto (IC foi submetido a ressecção extensa do intestino delgado, o grupo controle (C não foi operado e o grupo sham foi

  5. New psychological therapies for irritable bowel syndrome: mindfulness, acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastián Sánchez, Beatriz; Gil Roales-Nieto, Jesús; Ferreira, Nuno Bravo; Gil Luciano, Bárbara; Sebastián Domingo, Juan José

    2017-09-01

    The current goal of treatment in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) focuses primarily on symptom management and attempts to improve quality of life. Several treatments are at the disposal of physicians; lifestyle and dietary management, pharmacological treatments and psychological interventions are the most used and recommended. Psychological treatments have been proposed as viable alternatives or compliments to existing care models. Most forms of psychological therapies studied have been shown to be helpful in reducing symptoms and in improving the psychological component of anxiety/depression and health-related quality of life. According to current NICE/NHS guidelines, physicians should consider referral for psychological treatment in patients who do not respond to pharmacotherapy for a period of 12 months and develop a continuing symptom profile (described as refractory irritable bowel syndrome). Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is the best studied treatment and seems to be the most promising therapeutic approach. However, some studies have challenged the effectiveness of this therapy for irritable bowel syndrome. One study concluded that cognitive behavioral therapy is no more effective than placebo attention control condition and another study showed that the beneficial effects wane after six months of follow-up. A review of mind/body approaches to irritable bowel syndrome has therefore suggested that alternate strategies targeting mechanisms other than thought content change might be helpful, specifically mindfulness and acceptance-based approaches. In this article we review these new psychological treatment approaches in an attempt to raise awareness of alternative treatments to gastroenterologists that treat this clinical syndrome.

  6. American college of gastroenterology monograph on the management of irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Michael

    2015-04-01

    This editorial reviews a recently published guideline on management of irritable bowel syndrome. The guideline illustrates problems arising from the quality of clinical trials used in systematic reviews and the potential impact of the inherent weaknesses of those trials on rating the strength of evidence and the resulting recommendations.

  7. Systematic review : knowledge and educational needs of patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flik, Carla E.; van Rood, Yanda R.; de Wit, NJ

    Educational programs have been used as a control condition in trials on psychological therapies for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). An optimal control condition should have all logistic features of the experimental intervention, except the active component, but also have basic therapeutic benefit

  8. Sensory irritation to mixtures of formaldehyde, acrolein, and acetaldehyde in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cassee, F.R.; Arts, J.H.E.; Groten, J.P.; Feron, V.J.

    1996-01-01

    Sensory irritation of formaldehyde (FRM), acrolein (ACR) and acetaldehyde (ACE) as measured by the decrease in breathing frequency (DBF) was studied in male Wistar rats using nose-only exposure. Groups of four rats were exposed to each of the single compounds separately or to mixtures of FRM, ACR

  9. Effect of allergens and irritants on levels of natural moisturizing factor and corneocyte morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koppes, Sjors A.; Ljubojević Hadžavdić, Suzana; Jakasa, Ivone; Franceschi, Nika; Riethmüller, Christoph; Jurakić Tončic, Ružica; Marinovic, Branka; Raj, Nidhin; Rawlings, Anthony V.; Voegeli, Rainer; Lane, Majella E.; Haftek, Marek; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Rustemeyer, Thomas; Kezic, Sanja

    2017-01-01

    The irritant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) is known to cause a decrease in the stratum corneum level of natural moisturizing factor (NMF), which in itself is associated with changes in corneocyte surface topography. To explore this phenomenon in allergic contact dermatitis. Patch testing was performed

  10. Short-term effects of alcohol-based disinfectant and detergent on skin irritation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line Kynemund; Held, Elisabeth; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2005-01-01

    of 15 volunteers. A control area was included. After 4 weeks, a sodium lauryl sulfate patch was applied to each area. Irritant reactions were quantified by visual score, transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin colour at baseline, D3, D8, D35 and D37. As evaluated by clinical assessment, detergent...

  11. Profile of irritant patch testing with detergents: sodium lauryl sulfate, sodium laureth sulfate and alkyl polyglucoside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, H; Happle, R

    2003-01-01

    The cutaneous reaction to detergents follows distinct kinetic rules: the duration of application and the irritant concentration are of major importance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the differences in kinetics of skin reaction between the standard irritant sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS), and 2 modern detergents: sodium laureth sulfate (SLES) and alkyl polyglucoside (APG). We performed patch testing with SLS and SLES (or APG) at different concentrations (0.125, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0%) and with different exposure times (6, 12 and 24 h). Evaluation was conducted by measurement of transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and laser Doppler flowmetry (LD) 24 h, 7 and 10 days after patch removal. We found a pronounced reaction to SLS, and a far milder one to SLES. Even at the highest concentration the skin reaction to APG was hard to detect. During the regeneration period (day 3-10) SLS showed even at day 10 an increased TEWL at all concentrations tested. The irritation due to SLES was convincingly detectable only up to day 7, whereas the APG-tested skin areas showed no significant reaction even at day 3. These results demonstrate the improvement in reduction of skin irritation achieved by development of novel detergents.

  12. Pattern of irritable bowel syndrome and its impact on quality of life in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common disorders diagnosed by gastroenterologists and a common cause of general practice visits. Although this disease is not life threatening, patients with IBS seem to be seriously affected in their everyday life. The study was designed to explore the pattern ...

  13. Occupational irritant contact folliculitis associated with triphenyl tin fluoride (TPTF) exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Petri, M

    1982-01-01

    Triphenyl tin fluoride (TPTF) is a bioactive organo-tin compound used in concentrations 2-12% as anti-foulants in boat paints. The chemical is moderately toxic to the skin. An occupational irritant contact folliculitis from TPTF in a marine paint plant worker is described. Contact allergy...

  14. Association between pain episodes and high amplitude propagated pressure waves in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clemens, C. H. M.; Samsom, M.; Roelofs, J. M. M.; van Berge Henegouwen, G. P.; Smout, A. J. P. M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In the pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), both increased visceral sensitivity and altered colonic motility seem to play a role. The aim of this study was to quantify the temporal relationship between pain episodes and the occurrence of high amplitude propagated pressure

  15. Painful irritable bowel syndrome and diverticulosis. One hypermotile state? Correlation of pain and hypermotility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritsema, Gerrit Homme

    1987-01-01

    Radiological and motility studies of the sigmoid are described in three common conditions: painful irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), diverticulosis without and diverticulosis with IBS-like pain. The phenomenon, especially studies in these patients and compared with a control group, was their left

  16. Review of Rifaximin: Latest Treatment Frontier for Irritable Bowel Syndrome Mechanism of Action and Clinical Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamesh Gupta

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Irritable bowel syndrome is classified as a functional gastrointestinal disorder with the primary symptom of abdominal pain in conjunction with bloating and bowel movement disorder. It affects up to 15% of the world’s population. Among its subtypes, the most common is diarrhoea predominant. However, the current treatment options for diarrhoea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome have had not very promising results; most, such as antispasmodics, only provide partial symptomatic relief. Treatment with antidepressants and alosetron (a 5HT3 antagonist has shown the most promise to date. The latest drug to be approved for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome-diarrhoea is rifaximin, which was approved in May 2015. It is a minimally absorbed antibiotic that is used to change the gut microbiota. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth is one of the causes suggested for irritable bowel syndrome, particularly for the diarrhoea-predominant type. There are various methods for detecting bacterial overgrowth, the simplest of which is breath tests. Rifaximin has been shown to be of benefit to these patients. Purpose: The purpose of the study is to discuss the potential mechanism of action of rifaximin, a minimally absorbed antibiotic. In addition, we evaluate the various clinical trials undertaken to study the efficacy and safety profile of rifaximin.

  17. Subtle involvement of the parasympathetic nervous system in patients with irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Orshoven, Narender P.; Andriesse, Gunnar I.; van Schelven, Leonard J.; Smout, André J.; Akkermans, Louis M. A.; Oey, P. Liam

    2006-01-01

    This study comprises assessment of autonomic function in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients, focusing on meal-related changes. In 18 IBS patients (4 males, mean age 45+/-3.0 [SEM] years) and 19 healthy volunteers (6 males, mean age 41+/-3.5 years) blood pressure, heart rate, heart rate

  18. Burnout Among Chinese Adult Reconstructive Surgeons: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Relationship With Intraoperative Irritability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hanlong; Shao, Hongyi; Zhou, Yixin

    2018-04-01

    Burnout is a major concern in human service occupations, mainly characterizing in emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. There is very limited research dealing with burnout in orthopedic surgeons. Exploring burnout prevalence, risk factors, and intraoperative irritability-related incidences is necessary to improve the quality of life for surgeons. The study population consisted of 202 registered adult reconstructive doctors in China. Burnout was measured using a normalized translated version of the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Service Survey. Demographics, professional characteristics, and intraoperative irritability-related questions were also collected by electronic questionnaires. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 22.0. The overall rate of burnout was 85.1%. Variables significantly associated with high emotional exhaustion scores included poor sleeping time per day (P = .008), more nights on call per week (P = .048), and absence of research (P = .014). For depersonalization, absence of marriage (P burnout, especially in emotional exhaustion. Residents were the population having the least opportunities to lose temper in operation. Burnout is highly prevalent in Chinese adult reconstructive surgeons, and it had some correlations with irritability. Further research is needed to determine more risk factors and reduce intraoperative irritability-related incidences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Anxiety, Depression, and Irritability in Children with Autism Relative to Other Neuropsychiatric Disorders and Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Murray, Michael J.; Ahuja, Meesha; Smith, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal ratings of anxiety, depression, and irritability were analyzed in 1390 children (6-16 years of age), including 233 children with high functioning autism (HFA, IQ greater than or equal to 80), 117 children with low functioning autism (LFA, IQ less than 80), 187 typical children, and 853 children with other disorders. As a group, children…

  20. Anorectal pain and irritation: anal fissure, levator syndrome, proctalgia fugax, and pruritus ani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, C

    1999-03-01

    Anal fissures, proctalgia fugax, levator ani syndrome, and pruritus ani are common causes of anorectal pain and irritation. The clinician who obtains a thorough history and performs a complete examination can accurately diagnose these disorders. Ancillary tests seldom are helpful and rarely are necessary. Most patients suffering from these conditions readily respond to conservative therapy provided in the primary care practitioner's office.

  1. Respiratory irritation associated with inhalation of boron trifluoride and fluorosulfonic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rusch, G.M.; Bowden, A.M.; Muijser, H.; Arts, J.

    2008-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the respiratory irritancy of boron trifluoride (BF3) and fluorosulfonic acid (FSA) following acute inhalation exposure. Testing was conducted using groups of 10 male and 10 female rats (BF3) or groups of 6 male rats (FSA). Rats were exposed for a single

  2. Habitual diet and diet quality in Irritable Bowel Syndrome : A case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tigchelaar, E. F.; Mujagic, Z.; Zhernakova, A.; Hesselink, M. A. M.; Meijboom, S.; Perenboom, C. W. M.; Masclee, A. A. M.; Wijmenga, C.; Feskens, E. J. M.; Jonkers, D. M. A. E.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Diet is considered to be a key factor in symptom generation in Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and patients tend to exclude food products from their diet in pursue of symptom relief, which may impair diet quality. Methods: We evaluated habitual dietary intake in IBS patients with regard

  3. Prolonged irritative voiding symptoms due to Enterobius vermicularis bladder infestation in an adult patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammour, Zein Mohamed; Gomes, Cristiano Mendes; Tome, Andre Luiz Farinhas; Bruschini, Homero; Srougi, Miguel

    2008-08-01

    Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm) is one of the most prevalent intestinal parasites in the world. The urinary tract is rarely affected and few cases have been reported. We report a case of bladder infestation by mature female worms of E. vermicularis in a woman presenting with irritative voiding symptoms.

  4. Prolonged irritative voiding symptoms due to Enterobius vermicularis bladder infestation in an adult patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zein Mohamed Sammour

    Full Text Available Enterobius vermicularis (pinworm is one of the most prevalent intestinal parasites in the world. The urinary tract is rarely affected and few cases have been reported. We report a case of bladder infestation by mature female worms of E. vermicularis in a woman presenting with irritative voiding symptoms.

  5. [Efficiency of autogenous training in medical rehabilitation of patients with irritable colon syndrome with constipation dominance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakhomova, I V; Aĭvazian, T A; Zaĭtsev, V P; Gusakova, E V; Molina, L P

    2008-01-01

    It was established that use of autogenous training makes possible to increase efficiency of the therapy, leading to considerable more evident improvement of somatic and psychotic state, decrease of pain syndrome. Predictors of efficiency of autogenous training were marked out. Indications for use the method in medical rehabilitation of patients with irritable colon syndrome with constipation dominance were elaborated.

  6. Psychological Treatments for Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, Jeffrey M.; Mesmer, Christina; Morley, Stephen; Dowzer, Clare; Hamilton, Simon

    2004-01-01

    This study conducted a systematic review to assess the quality of existing literature on psychological treatments for irritable bowel syndrome and to quantify the evidence for their efficacy. Three independent reviewers (2 from England, 1 from the United States) coded the quality of 32 studies, 17 of which provided data suitable for meta-analysis.…

  7. Airborne irritant contact dermatitis and conjunctivitis after occupational exposure to chlorothalonil in textiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lensen, Gerda; Jungbauer, Frank; Goncalo, Margarida; Coenraads, Pieter Jan

    2007-01-01

    Chlorothalonil (tetrachloro-1,3-benzenedicarbonitrile, CAS 1897-45-6) is a pesticide that has been on the market for many years. It is used as a fungicide in agriculture, horticulture, and floriculture; as a wood preservative; and in paint. We report an epidemic of airborne irritant contact

  8. Evaluation of human skin tests for potential dermal irritant and contact sensitizing products: a position paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loveren H van; Jong WH de; Garssen J; LPI

    1998-01-01

    Prediction of human cutaneous irritation and sensitization in view of hazard identification has primarily relied on the use of laboratory animals. Such studies in laboratory animals have been very instrumental in the detection of potential contact sensitizing agents. There are however many

  9. A molecular analysis of fecal and mucosal bacterial communities in irritable bowel syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Codling, Caroline

    2010-02-01

    The objectives of this study were, firstly, to determine the diversity of the host\\'s gut microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) using a culture-independent method (DGGE of the 16S rRNA gene) and, secondly, to examine mucosal biopsies of IBS patients and compare them to their own fecal microbiota.

  10. The Sub-Regional Functional Organization of Neocortical Irritative Epileptic Networks in Pediatric Epilepsy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janča, R.; Kršek, P.; Ježdík, P.; Čmejla, R.; Tomášek, M.; Komárek, V.; Marusič, P.; Jiruška, Přemysl

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 9, Mar 23 (2018), č. článku 184. ISSN 1664-2295 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV15-29835A Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : interictal epileptiform discharges * brain networks * epilepsy surgery * irritative zone * propagation * neocortical epilepsy Subject RIV: FH - Neurology OBOR OECD: Neurosciences (including psychophysiology Impact factor: 3.552, year: 2016

  11. Ethnic differences in objective and subjective skin irritation response: an international study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E; Kim, S; Lee, J; Cho, S-A; Shin, K

    2014-08-01

    Due to global marketing in the cosmetics industry, it is important to assess ethnic population susceptibility when evaluating the safety of cosmetic products or chemicals. To investigate ethnic variations in skin irritation response to positive irritants. Clinical testing was performed in four countries on two ethnic groups - Asian and Caucasian. We performed patch tests on the subjects' back with 0.5% aqueous sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and 0.15% retinol prepared in 1,3-butylene glycol. Stinging tests were performed using 5% aqueous lactic acid and 0.001% (w/v) capsaicin prepared in 10% ethanol solution separately. The incidence of self-perceived skin sensitivity was similar in the two ethnic groups. However, the incidence of adverse skin reaction to cosmetics appeared significantly higher in Asian (33.0%) than in Caucasian subjects (11.3%). For standard positive irritants such as 0.5% aqueous SLS solution, Asian subjects showed significantly higher scores than Caucasian subjects. The incidence of positive reaction to the 0.15% retinol patch test tended to be higher in Asian than in Caucasian subjects. Our data also showed that neurosensitivity to 5% lactic acid and 0.001% capsaicin was higher in Asian than in Caucasian subjects. Although self-reported skin sensitivity does not appear to differ according to ethnicity, there are ethnic differences in objective and subjective skin irritation responses to several standard positive materials. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Nasal chemosensory cells use bitter taste signaling to detect irritants and bacterial signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizzano, Marco; Gulbransen, Brian D; Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Clapp, Tod R; Herman, Jake P; Sibhatu, Hiruy M; Churchill, Mair E A; Silver, Wayne L; Kinnamon, Sue C; Finger, Thomas E

    2010-02-16

    The upper respiratory tract is continually assaulted with harmful dusts and xenobiotics carried on the incoming airstream. Detection of such irritants by the trigeminal nerve evokes protective reflexes, including sneezing, apnea, and local neurogenic inflammation of the mucosa. Although free intra-epithelial nerve endings can detect certain lipophilic irritants (e.g., mints, ammonia), the epithelium also houses a population of trigeminally innervated solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) that express T2R bitter taste receptors along with their downstream signaling components. These SCCs have been postulated to enhance the chemoresponsive capabilities of the trigeminal irritant-detection system. Here we show that transduction by the intranasal solitary chemosensory cells is necessary to evoke trigeminally mediated reflex reactions to some irritants including acyl-homoserine lactone bacterial quorum-sensing molecules, which activate the downstream signaling effectors associated with bitter taste transduction. Isolated nasal chemosensory cells respond to the classic bitter ligand denatonium as well as to the bacterial signals by increasing intracellular Ca(2+). Furthermore, these same substances evoke changes in respiration indicative of trigeminal activation. Genetic ablation of either G alpha-gustducin or TrpM5, essential elements of the T2R transduction cascade, eliminates the trigeminal response. Because acyl-homoserine lactones serve as quorum-sensing molecules for gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, detection of these substances by airway chemoreceptors offers a means by which the airway epithelium may trigger an epithelial inflammatory response before the bacteria reach population densities capable of forming destructive biofilms.

  13. Chronic cough management: dealing with a sensation of irritation in the throat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Haruhiko; Fujimura, Masaki; Ohkura, Noriyuki; Makimura, Koichi

    2013-11-01

    Among the various types of laryngeal paraesthesia suffered by chronic cough patients, we often encounter 'a sensation of irritation in the throat (SIT)'. Our study indicated that capsaicin cough threshold was significantly (P sensation. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  14. The hairless guinea-pig as a model for treatment of cumulative irritation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, F; Hedegaard, K; Petersen, Thomas Kongsted

    2006-01-01

    dermatitis was induced with 10 min daily exposure for 5+4 days (no irritation on weekends) to 3% SLS aq. on the right and 30% nonanoic acid (NON) in n-propanol on the left volar forearm. Clinical scoring was performed daily; evaporimetry (total epidermal water loss (TEWL)), hydration and colorimetry were...

  15. Neuronal activation by mucosal biopsy supernatants from irritable bowel syndrome patients is linked to visceral sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buhner, Sabine; Braak, Breg; Li, Qin; Kugler, Eva Maria; Klooker, Tamira; Wouters, Mira; Donovan, Jemma; Vignali, Sheila; Mazzuoli-Weber, Gemma; Grundy, David; Boeckxstaens, Guy; Schemann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Based on the discomfort/pain threshold during rectal distension, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) patients may be subtyped as normo- or hypersensitive. We previously showed that mucosal biopsy supernatants from IBS patients activated enteric and visceral afferent neurons. We tested the hypothesis that

  16. Hypnotherapy for children with functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlieger, Arine M.; Menko-Frankenhuis, Carla; Wolfkamp, Simone C. S.; Tromp, Ellen; Benninga, Marc A.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Functional abdominal pain (FAP) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are highly prevalent in childhood. A substantial proportion of patients continues to experience long-lasting symptoms. Gut-directed hypnotherapy (HT) has been shown to be highly effective in the treatment of adult

  17. Methodological issues in the study of intestinal microbiota in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverniti, Valentina; Guglielmetti, Simone

    2014-07-21

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is an intestinal functional disorder with the highest prevalence in the industrialized world. The intestinal microbiota (IM) plays a role in the pathogenesis of IBS and is not merely a consequence of this disorder. Previous research efforts have not revealed unequivocal microbiological signatures of IBS, and the experimental results are contradictory. The experimental methodologies adopted to investigate the complex intestinal ecosystem drastically impact the quality and significance of the results. Therefore, to consider the methodological aspects of the research on IM in IBS, we reviewed 29 relevant original research articles identified through a PubMed search using three combinations of keywords: "irritable bowel syndrome + microflora", "irritable bowel syndrome + microbiota" and "irritable bowel syndrome + microbiome". For each study, we reviewed the quality and significance of the scientific evidence obtained with respect to the experimental method adopted. The data obtained from each study were compared with all considered publications to identify potential inconsistencies and explain contradictory results. The analytical revision of the studies referenced in the present review has contributed to the identification of microbial groups whose relative abundance significantly alters IBS, suggesting that these microbial groups could be IM signatures for this syndrome. The identification of microbial biomarkers in the IM can be advantageous for the development of new diagnostic tools and novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of different subtypes of IBS.

  18. Autonomic nervous system function in young children with functional abdominal pain or irritable bowel syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adults with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have been reported to have alterations in autonomic nervous system function as measured by vagal activity via heart rate variability. Whether the same is true for children is unknown. We compared young children 7 to 10 years of age with functional abdominal...

  19. Utilização de probiótico em rações com diferentes níveis de proteína sobre o comprimento e a morfometria do intestino delgado de codornas de corte = Use of probiotic on diets with different protein levels on the length and morphometry of the small intestine of meat quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Kazue Otutumi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito do probiótico associado a diferentes níveis de proteína bruta (PB sobre o comprimento e a morfometria da mucosa do intestino delgado de codornas de corte. Foram utilizadas 2.304 codornas de corte, distribuídas em umdelineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2 x 4 (com e sem probiótico; quatro níveis de PB – 15, 20, 25 e 30%, com duas repetições por tratamento, em dois períodos experimentais. Aos sete, 14, 21 e 35 dias de idade, foram abatidas duas aves de cada repetição para avaliação do comprimento do intestino delgado (CID e a morfometria da mucosa do duodeno e íleo. O probiótico não influenciou o CID e a morfometria da mucosa do intestino delgado. O comprimento do intestino aumentou de maneira linear com a elevação dos níveis de PB aos sete, 14 e 21 dias, e a morfometria da mucosa aumentou de forma linear somente para altura vilo do íleo. Pode-se concluir que, nas condições ambientais em que as codornas foram criadas, apenas o nível de proteína influenciou o comprimento do intestino delgado e a altura de vilo do íleo, não sendoobservado efeito do probiótico sobre estes parâmetros.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of probiotic associated to different levels of crude protein (CP on thelength and mucous morphometry of the small intestine of meat quails. The study used 2,304 meat quails, distributed in a completely randomized experimental design in a 2 x 4 factorial scheme (with and without probiotic; four levels of CP – 15, 20, 25 and 30%, withtwo replications per treatment, in two experimental periods. At seven, 14, 21 and 35 days of age, two quails of each replication were slaughtered in order to evaluate the length of the small intestine (LSI, as well as duodenum and ileum mucous morphometry. LSI and smallintestine mucous morphometry were not influenced by probiotic. Intestine length increased in a linear fashion with the increase

  20. Bronchial asthma and COPD due to irritants in the workplace - an evidence-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baur Xaver

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Respiratory irritants represent a major cause of occupational obstructive airway diseases. We provide an overview of the evidence related to irritative agents causing occupational asthma or occupational COPD. Methods We searched MEDLINE via PubMed. Reference lists of relevant reviews were also screened. The SIGN grading system was used to rate the quality of each study. The modified RCGP three-star system was used to grade the body of evidence for each irritant agent regarding its causative role in either occupational asthma or occupational COPD. Results A total of 474 relevant papers were identified, covering 188 individual agents, professions or work-sites. The focus of most of the studies and the predominant diagnosis was occupational asthma, whereas occupational COPD arose only incidentally. The highest level assigned using the SIGN grading was 2+ (well-conducted systematic review, cohort or case–control study with a low risk of confounding or bias. According to the modified RCGP three-star grading, the strongest evidence of association with an individual agent, profession or work-site (“**” was found for 17 agents or work-sites, including benzene-1,2,4-tricarboxylicacid-1,2-anhydride, chlorine, platinum salt, isocyanates, cement dust, grain dust, animal farming, environmental tobacco smoke, welding fumes or construction work. Phthalic anhydride, glutaraldehyde, sulphur dioxide, cotton dust, cleaning agents, potrooms, farming (various, foundries were found to be moderately associated with occupational asthma or occupational COPD (“*[+]”. Conclusion This study let us assume that irritant-induced occupational asthma and especially occupational COPD are considerably underreported. Defining the evidence of the many additional occupational irritants for causing airway disorders will be the subject of continued studies with implications for diagnostics and preventive measures.

  1. Skin irritability to sodium lauryl sulfate is associated with increased positive patch test reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwitulla, J; Brasch, J; Löffler, H; Schnuch, A; Geier, J; Uter, W

    2014-07-01

    As previous observations have indicated an inter-relationship between irritant and allergic skin reactions we analysed data of synchronous allergen and sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) patch tests in terms of a relationship between SLS responsiveness and allergic patch test reactions. To analyse differences in terms of allergen-specific and overall reaction profiles between patients with vs. those without an irritant reaction to SLS. Clinical data of 26 879 patients patch tested from 2008 to 2011 by members of the Information Network of Departments of Dermatology were analysed. After descriptive analyses, including the MOAHLFA index, the positivity ratio and the reaction index, a negative binomial hurdle model was adopted to investigate the correlation between SLS reactivity and positive patch test reactions. Men, patients aged ≥ 40 years and patients with an occupational dermatitis background were over-represented in the SLS-reactive group. Patients with an irritant reaction to SLS showed a higher proportion of weak positive reactions, as well as more questionable and irritant reactions to contact allergens than patients not reactive to SLS. The risk of an additional positive patch test reaction increased by 22% for SLS-reactive patients compared with those who were SLS negative. The marked association between SLS reactivity and the number of positive reactions in patch test patients may be due to nonspecific increased skin reactivity at the moment of patch testing only. However, increased SLS reactivity could also be due to longer-lasting enhanced skin irritability, which may have promoted (poly-)sensitization. Further studies, for example with longitudinal data on patients repeatedly patch tested with SLS and contact allergens, are necessary. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  2. Novel vehicle based on cubosomes for ophthalmic delivery of flurbiprofen with low irritancy and high bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shun; Shen, Jin-qiu; Gan, Yong; Geng, Hai-ming; Zhang, Xin-xin; Zhu, Chun-liu; Gan, Li

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To develop a novel vehicle based on cubosomes as an ophthalmic drug delivery system for flurbiprofen (FB) to reduce ocular irritancy and improve bioavailability. Methods: FB-loaded cubosomes were prepared using hot and high-pressure homogenization. Cubosomes were then characterized by particle size, zeta potential, encapsulation efficiency, particle morphology, inner cubic structure and in vitro release. Corneal permeation was evaluated using modified Franz-type cells. Ocular irritation was then evaluated using both the Draize method and histological examination. The ocular pharmacokinetics of FB was determined using microdialysis. Results: The particle size of each cubosome formulation was about 150 nm. A bicontinuous cubic phase of cubic P-type was determined using cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM) observation and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis. In vitro corneal permeation study revealed that FB formulated in cubosomes exhibited 2.5-fold (F1) and 2.0-fold (F2) increase in Papp compared with FB PBS. In the ocular irritation test, irritation scores for each group were less than 2, indicating that all formulations exhibited excellent ocular tolerance. Histological examination revealed that neither the structure nor the integrity of the cornea was visibly affected after incubation with FB cubosomes. The AUC of FB administered as FB cubosome F2 was 486.36±38.93 ng·mL−1·min·μg−1, which was significantly higher than that of FB Na eye drops (P<0.01). Compared with FB Na eye drops, the Tmax of FB cubosome F2 was about 1.6-fold higher and the MRT was also significantly longer (P<0.001). Conclusion: This novel low-irritant vehicle based on cubosomes might be a promising system for effective ocular drug delivery. PMID:20686524

  3. Sensory irritating potency of some microbial volatile organic compounds (MVOCs) and a mixture of five MVOCs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpi, A; Kasanen, J P; Alarie, Y; Kosma, V M; Pasanen, A L

    1999-01-01

    The authors investigated the ability/potencies of 3 microbial volatile organic compounds and a mixture of 5 microbial volatile organic compounds to cause eye and upper respiratory tract irritation (i.e., sensory irritation), with an animal bioassay. The authors estimated potencies by determining the concentration capable of decreasing the respiratory frequency of mice by 50% (i.e., the RD50 value). The RD50 values for 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanol, and 3-octanone were 182 mg/m3 (35 ppm), 1359 mg/m3 (256 ppm), and 17586 mg/m3 (3360 ppm), respectively. Recommended indoor air levels calculated from the individual RD50 values for 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanol, and 3-octanone were 100, 1000, and 13000 microg/m3, respectively-values considerably higher than the reported measured indoor air levels for these compounds. The RD50 value for a mixture of 5 microbial volatile organic compounds was also determined and found to be 3.6 times lower than estimated from the fractional concentrations and the respective RD50s of the individual components. The data support the conclusion that a variety of microbial volatile organic compounds may have some synergistic effects for the sensory irritation response, which constrains the interpretation and application of recommended indoor air levels of individual microbial volatile organic compounds. The results also showed that if a particular component of a mixture was much more potent than the other components, it may dominate the sensory irritation effect. With respect to irritation symptoms reported in moldy houses, the results of this study indicate that the contribution of microbial volatile organic compounds to these symptoms seems less than previously supposed.

  4. Chemosensory irritations and pulmonary effects of acute exposure to emissions from oriented strand board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gminski, Richard; Marutzky, Rainer; Kevekordes, Sebastian; Fuhrmann, Frank; Bürger, Werner; Hauschke, Dieter; Ebner, Winfried; Mersch-Sundermann, Volker

    2011-09-01

    Due to the reduction of air change rates in low-energy houses, the contribution to indoor air quality of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitting from oriented strand boards (OSB) has become increasingly important. The aim of this study was to evaluate sensory irritations, pulmonary effects and odor annoyance of emissions from OSB in healthy human volunteers compared to clean air. Twenty-four healthy non-smokers were exposed to clean air and OSB emissions for 2 h under controlled conditions in a 48 m(3) test chamber at three different time points: to fresh OSB panels and to the same panels after open storage for 2 and 8 weeks. Chemosensory irritation, exhaled nitric oxide (NO) concentration, eye blink frequency, lung function and subjective perception of irritation of eyes, nose and throat were examined before, during and after exposure. Additionally, olfactory perception was investigated. Total VOC exposure concentrations reached 8.9 ± 0.8 mg/m(3) for the fresh OSB panels. Emissions consisted predominantly of α-pinene, Δ(3)-carene and hexanal. Two-hour exposure to high VOC concentrations revealed no irritating or pulmonary effects. All the subjective ratings of discomfort were at a low level and the medians did not exceed the expression 'hardly at all.' Only the ratings for smell of emissions increased significantly during exposure in comparison to clean air. In conclusion, exposure of healthy volunteers to OSB emissions did not elicit sensory irritations or pulmonary effects up to a VOC concentration of about 9 mg/m(3). Sensory intensity of OSB emissions in the chamber air was rated as 'neutral to pleasant.'

  5. Aspectos subjetivos relacionados con la violencia intrafamiliar. Caso municipio de Sabaneta Antioquia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naidalis Yadira Martínez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo identifica las interacciones en aspectos familiares y subjetivos. En el artículo se desarrollan los aspectos subjetivos de las dinámicas familiares que justifican el uso y la implementación de la violencia intrafamiliar, se da cuenta de la naturalización de la violencia intrafamiliar en la interacción de los grupos familiares, convirtiéndola en un elemento de la relación que se establece entre los miembros de la familia. En el análisis realizado se identifican aspectos coyunturales asociados a situaciones que se vivieron en la dinámica de la familia de origen, pero que al momento han sido pocas las condiciones que permiten la modi- ficación de estas conductas ya que las familias han asumido estas expresiones de violencia intrafamiliar como parte de sus vidas.

  6. La gestión por procesos, su surgimiento y aspectos teóricos

    OpenAIRE

    Daysi Ruiz-Fuentes; Rosa Mercedes Almaguer-Torres; Isabel Cristina Torres-Torres; Alejandro Miguel Hernández-Peña

    2014-01-01

    Abordó aspectos históricos y teóricos relacionados con la gestión por procesos, se precisa las potencialidades de su aplicación para el perfeccionamiento de la dirección de las empresas. Presentó un análisis de diferentes definiciones de este término a partir del c ual se determinan las regularidades que lo caracterizan. Se puntualizan algunos aspectos teóricos vinculados con esta forma de gestión empresarial.

  7. La gestión por procesos, su surgimiento y aspectos teóricos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daysi Ruiz - Fuentes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abordó aspectos históricos y teóricos relacionados con la gestión por procesos, se precisa las potencialidades de su aplicación para el perfeccionamiento de la dirección de las empresas. Presentó un análisis de diferentes definiciones de este término a partir del c ual se determinan las regularidades que lo caracterizan. Se puntualizan algunos aspectos teóricos vinculados con esta forma de gestión empresarial.

  8. Aspectos geopolíticos en el desarrollo de la zona franca industrial de Ilo

    OpenAIRE

    Cardenas Nuñez, Gilberto; Cardenas Nuñez, Gilberto

    1994-01-01

    El presente trabajo de Tesis enfatiza el aspecto geopolítico en el desarrollo de la Zona franca Industrial de Ilo (ZOFRI-IL0). La razón de tal énfasis es simple: por este aspecto específicamente es que se creó la ZOFRI-ILO. En consecuencia, el tratamiento del tema tiene que ver con la influencia geopolítica en las sucesivas etapas de su desarrollo, considerando sus posibilidades de desarrollo a futuro en el marco de las tendencias internacionales de la globalización de la economía mundial. ...

  9. Long-term repetitive sodium lauryl sulfate-induced irritation of the skin: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Nara; Lee, Ivy; Zhai, Hongbo; Maibach, Howard I

    2005-11-01

    Skin may adapt to topical irritants through accommodation. This study focuses on long-term exposure to irritants and attempts to demonstrate accommodation. Sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) induced irritant contact dermatitis at 3 concentrations (0.025% to 0.075%). Distilled water, acetone and an empty chamber served as controls. Experimental compounds were applied to forearms of 7 healthy volunteers for 24 hr before replacing by a fresh chamber for 6 non-consecutive weeks over 103 days. Possible accommodation was quantified by visual scoring (erythema and dryness) and by bioengineering parameters: transepidermal water loss (TEWL), capacitance, chromametry and laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Significant erythema, dryness, elevated TEWL, skin colour reflectance and LDF values occurred during the exposure periods. Upon repeat exposure, an immediate and augmented response in erythema, TEWL, skin colour reflectance and LDF developed. However, irritant skin changes were not sustained. Irritation parameters return to baseline after cessation of exposure. There was no evidence of sustained irritation or accommodation after the last exposure. Study findings do not document sustained accommodation or adaptive hyposensitivity after long-term repetitive irritant exposure under these test conditions. Alternative models should be developed to prove or disprove the accommodation hypothesis.

  10. Non-occlusive topical exposure of human skin in vitro as model for cytotoxicity testing of irritant compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönnqvist, Susanna; Briheim, Kristina; Kratz, Gunnar

    2016-02-01

    Testing of irritant compounds has traditionally been performed on animals and human volunteers. Animal testing should always be restricted and for skin irritancy mice and rabbits hold poor predictive value for irritant potential in humans. Irritant testing on human volunteers is restricted by the duration subjects can be exposed, and by the subjectivity of interpreting the visual signs of skin irritation. We propose an irritant testing system using viable human full thickness skin with the loss of cell viability in the exposed skin area as end point measurement. Skin was exposed to sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) at 20% concentration by non-occluded topical exposure to establish a positive control response and subsequent test compounds were statistically compared with the 20% SDS response. Cell viability and metabolism were measured with 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The model presents correlation between increased concentration of SDS and decreased viability of cells in the exposed skin area (R(2) = 0.76). We propose the model to be used for cytotoxicity testing of irritant compounds. With fully intact barrier function, the model comprises all cells present in the skin with quantifiable end point measurement.

  11. Clinical and Physiological Correlates of Irritability in Depression: Results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floor E. A. Verhoeven

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Irritable and nonirritable depressed patients differ on demographic and clinical characteristics. We investigated whether this extends to psychological and physiological measures. Method. We compared irritable and nonirritable unipolar depressed patients on symptomatology, personality, and (psychophysiological measures (cortisol, cholesterol, and heart rate variability. Symptomatology was reassessed after one year, and we also compared depressed patients who were irritable or non-irritable at both time points (Irr++ versus Irr−−. Results. Almost half (46%; N=420 of the sample was classified as irritable. These patients scored higher on depression severity, anxiety, hypomanic symptoms, and psychological variables. No differences were observed on physiological markers after correction for depression severity. The same pattern was found when comparing Irr++ and Irr−− groups. Conclusion. Irritable and non-irritable depressed patients differ on clinical and psychological variables, but not on the currently investigated physiological markers. The clinical relevance of the distinction and the significance of the hypomanic symptoms remain to be demonstrated.

  12. A new 3D reconstituted human corneal epithelium model as an alternative method for the eye irritation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Kyoung-Mi; Lee, Su-Hyon; Ryu, Yang-Hwan; Jang, Won-Hee; Jung, Haeng-Sun; Han, Ju-Hee; Seok, Seung-Hyeok; Park, Jae-Hak; Son, Youngsook; Park, Young-Ho; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2011-02-01

    Many efforts are being made to develop new alternative in vitro test methods for the eye irritation test. Here we report a new reconstructed human corneal epithelial model (MCTT HCE model) prepared from primary-cultured human limbal epithelial cells as a new alternative in vitro eye irritation test method. In histological and immunohistochemical observation, MCTT HCE model displayed a morphology and biomarker expressions similar to intact human cornea. Moreover, the barrier function was well preserved as measured by high transepithelial electrical resistance, effective time-50 for Triton X-100, and corneal thickness. To employ the model as a new alternative method for eye irritation test, protocol refinement was performed and optimum assay condition was determined including treatment time, treatment volume, post-incubation time and rinsing method. Using the refined protocol, 25 reference chemicals with known eye irritation potentials were tested. With the viability cut-off value at 50%, chemicals were classified to irritant or non-irritant. When compared with GHS classification, the MCTT HCE model showed the accuracy of 88%, sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 77%. These results suggest that the MCTT HCE model might be useful as a new alternative eye irritation test method. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The EpiOcular Eye Irritation Test (EIT) for hazard identification and labelling of eye irritating chemicals: protocol optimisation for solid materials and the results after extended shipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluzhny, Yulia; Kandárová, Helena; Handa, Yuki; DeLuca, Jane; Truong, Thoa; Hunter, Amy; Kearney, Paul; d'Argembeau-Thornton, Laurence; Klausner, Mitchell

    2015-05-01

    The 7th Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive and the EU REACH Regulation have reinforced the need for in vitro ocular test methods. Validated in vitro ocular toxicity tests that can predict the human response to chemicals, cosmetics and other consumer products are required for the safety assessment of materials that intentionally, or inadvertently, come into contact with the eye. The EpiOcular Eye Irritation Test (EIT), which uses the normal human cell-based EpiOcular™ tissue model, was developed to address this need. The EpiOcular-EIT is able to discriminate, with high sensitivity and accuracy, between ocular irritant/corrosive materials and those that require no labelling. Although the original EpiOcular-EIT protocol was successfully pre-validated in an international, multicentre study sponsored by COLIPA (the predecessor to Cosmetics Europe), data from two larger studies (the EURL ECVAM-COLIPA validation study and an independent in-house validation at BASF SE) resulted in a sensitivity for the protocol for solids that was below the acceptance criteria set by the Validation Management Group (VMG) for eye irritation, and indicated the need for improvement of the assay's sensitivity for solids. By increasing the exposure time for solid materials from 90 minutes to 6 hours, the optimised EpiOcular-EIT protocol achieved 100% sensitivity, 68.4% specificity and 84.6% accuracy, thereby meeting all the acceptance criteria set by the VMG. In addition, to satisfy the needs of Japan and the Pacific region, the EpiOcular-EIT method was evaluated for its performance after extended shipment and storage of the tissues (4-5 days), and it was confirmed that the assay performs with similar levels of sensitivity, specificity and reproducibility in these circumstances. 2015 FRAME.

  14. Eye Irritation Test (EIT) for Hazard Identification of Eye Irritating Chemicals using Reconstructed Human Cornea-like Epithelial (RhCE) Tissue Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluzhny, Yulia; Kandárová, Helena; d'Argembeau-Thornton, Laurence; Kearney, Paul; Klausner, Mitchell

    2015-08-23

    To comply with the Seventh Amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive and EU REACH legislation, validated non-animal alternative methods for reliable and accurate assessment of ocular toxicity in man are needed. To address this need, we have developed an eye irritation test (EIT) which utilizes a three dimensional reconstructed human cornea-like epithelial (RhCE) tissue model that is based on normal human cells. The EIT is able to separate ocular irritants and corrosives (GHS Categories 1 and 2 combined) and those that do not require labeling (GHS No Category). The test utilizes two separate protocols, one designed for liquid chemicals and a second, similar protocol for solid test articles. The EIT prediction model uses a single exposure period (30 min for liquids, 6 hr for solids) and a single tissue viability cut-off (60.0% as determined by the MTT assay). Based on the results for 83 chemicals (44 liquids and 39 solids) EIT achieved 95.5/68.2/ and 81.8% sensitivity/specificity and accuracy (SS&A) for liquids, 100.0/68.4/ and 84.6% SS&A for solids, and 97.6/68.3/ and 83.1% for overall SS&A. The EIT will contribute significantly to classifying the ocular irritation potential of a wide range of liquid and solid chemicals without the use of animals to meet regulatory testing requirements. The EpiOcular EIT method was implemented in 2015 into the OECD Test Guidelines as TG 492.

  15. Patients' experiences of healthcare encounters in severe irritable bowel syndrome: an analysis based on narrative and feminist theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, Ida; Simrén, Magnus; Ringström, Gisela; Jakobsson Ung, Eva

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to explore patients' experiences of healthcare encounters in severe irritable bowel syndrome. Irritable bowel syndrome is a common functional disorder with symptoms such as abdominal pain and disturbed bowel habits, the cause of which is not completely known. Treatments options are limited, and healthcare encounters in irritable bowel syndrome have been described as unsatisfying and frustrating for both patients and professional healthcare providers. Furthermore, the influence of power on healthcare encounters has long been recognised, especially regarding the disadvantaged position of those suffering from functional illness which cannot be identified by commonly used tests or investigations. We interviewed 10 patients during 2014, all attending an outpatient clinic and suffering from severe irritable bowel syndrome. Relying on narrative and feminist theory, we explored how they actively negotiate professional discourse communicated to them in the clinical encounter. The patients' experiences of healthcare encounters in irritable bowel syndrome were mostly described as negative, and often induced feelings of confusion and self-doubt. Positive encounters were described as being listened to, believed and taken seriously. Narrators found it especially problematic when healthcare professionals described irritable bowel syndrome as a minor disorder with primarily stress or psychological aetiology and put the responsibility for recovery onto the patient. Patients' actively negotiated such professional discourse by presenting a counternarrative describing their own suffering and strengths, experienced healthcare shortcomings and possible organic aetiology of irritable bowel syndrome. Patients suffering from severe irritable bowel syndrome described how they often felt a need to protect their positive identities in the face of trivialisation and disbelief by healthcare professionals. A deepened understanding of patients' experiences of healthcare

  16. Protocol for a randomized controlled study of Iyengar yoga for youth with irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sternlieb Beth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Irritable bowel syndrome affects as many as 14% of high school-aged students. Symptoms include discomfort in the abdomen, along with diarrhea and/or constipation and other gastroenterological symptoms that can significantly impact quality of life and daily functioning. Emotional stress appears to exacerbate irritable bowel syndrome symptoms suggesting that mind-body interventions reducing arousal may prove beneficial. For many sufferers, symptoms can be traced to childhood and adolescence, making the early manifestation of irritable bowel syndrome important to understand. The current study will focus on young people aged 14-26 years with irritable bowel syndrome. The study will test the potential benefits of Iyengar yoga on clinical symptoms, psychospiritual functioning and visceral sensitivity. Yoga is thought to bring physical, psychological and spiritual benefits to practitioners and has been associated with reduced stress and pain. Through its focus on restoration and use of props, Iyengar yoga is especially designed to decrease arousal and promote psychospiritual resources in physically compromised individuals. An extensive and standardized teacher-training program support Iyengar yoga's reliability and safety. It is hypothesized that yoga will be feasible with less than 20% attrition; and the yoga group will demonstrate significantly improved outcomes compared to controls, with physiological and psychospiritual mechanisms contributing to improvements. Methods/Design Sixty irritable bowel syndrome patients aged 14-26 will be randomly assigned to a standardized 6-week twice weekly Iyengar yoga group-based program or a wait-list usual care control group. The groups will be compared on the primary clinical outcomes of irritable bowel syndrome symptoms, quality of life and global improvement at post-treatment and 2-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes will include visceral pain sensitivity assessed with a standardized

  17. Estimation of the in vitro eye irritating and inflammatory potential of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and dust by using reconstituted human corneal epithelium tissue cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Yi; Arenholt-Bindslev, Dorthe; Kjærgaard, Søren K

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Eye irritation is a common complaint in indoor environment, but the causes have still not been identified among the multiple exposures in house environments. To identify the potential environmental factors responsible for eye irritation and study the possible mechanisms, an in vitro model...... AND CONCLUSION: LPS and dust showed in vitro eye irritating and inflammatory potential, and cytokines/chemokines like IL-1β and IL-8 may be involved in the mechanisms of eye irritation. The HCE tissue culture may be used as an in vitro model to study environmental exposure induced eye irritation and inflammation....... for eye irritation is suggested. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, reconstituted human corneal epithelium (HCE) tissue cultures were used to study the eye irritating and inflammatory potential of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and dust. HCE tissue cultures were exposed to a range of concentrations of LPS...

  18. Aspectos relativos a la salud laboral y los riesgos psicosociales de los equipos de proyectos

    OpenAIRE

    Donate Fernández, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Es el objetivo del presente trabajo presentar una serie de directrices relacionadas con la salud laboral y los riesgos psicosociales de los equipos de proyectos y, en algunos aspectos centrándose en el principal responsable: el director de proyecto.

  19. Aspectos cuantitativos de los programas universitarios de administración de empresas en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Henao Restrepo

    1991-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN La estabilización o el crecimiento en la oferta universitaria de este programa, en términos  cuantitativos como cualitativos, es uno de los aspectos críticos para las instituciones que postulan mejoras de calidad dentro de las nuevas reglas del mercado educativo.

  20. Tumor estromal gastrointestinal de intestino delgado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Marivaldo Benício da Silva

    Full Text Available Stromal tumors of the gastrointestinal tract (gists represent relatively rare lesions that arise from connective tissue elements located along the entire length of the gut. They were initially identified by immunohistochemical investigation, proving their origin from nondifferentiated mesenchymal cells. Only a minority of this lesions, mainly those confined to the esophagus and rectum, have been shown to correspond to mature, well-differentiated types of neoplasms such as leiomyoma or leiomyosarcoma. The majority of gists corresponds to a heterogeneous group of lesions that have as their common denominator an immature proliferation of epithelioid or spindle cells arising from its muscle layers, or between them, showing partial or incomplete myoide, neural, ganglionic, or mixed features of differentiation. This case report intends to show a gist of small bowel in a male, 46 years old, with a two-year of evolution.

  1. The role of gut-liver axis in the restriction of intrauterine growth in a model of experimental gastroschisis O papel do eixo intestino-fígado na restrição de crescimento intra-uterino em um modelo de gastrosquise experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Pereira Bueno

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR by the expression of IR-β, IRS-1, IRS-2, IGF-IRβ and Ikappaβ in experimental model of gastroschisis. METHODS: Pregnant rats at 18.5 days of gestation were submitted to surgery to create experimental fetal gastroschisis (term = 22 days were divided in three groups: gastroschisis (G, control (C and sham (S. Fetuses were evaluated for body weight (BW, intestinal (IW, liver (LW and their relations IW/BW and LW/BW. IR-β and IGF-IRβ receptors, IRS-1 and IRS-2 substrates and Ikappaβ protein were analyzed by western blotting. RESULTS: BW was lower in G, the IW and IW / BW were greater than C and S (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar a restrição de crescimento intra-uterino (RCIU pela expressão de IR-β, IRS-1, IRS-2, IGF-IRβ e a via inflamatória do Ikappaβ no modelo de gastrosquise experimental. MÉTODOS: Ratas grávidas com 18,5 dias de gestação foram submetidas a cirurgia experimental para criar gastrosquise fetal (termo = 22 dias e os fetos foram divididos em três grupos: gastrosquise (G, controle (C e sham (S. Os fetos foram avaliados quanto ao peso corporal (BW, intestinal (IW, fígado (LW e suas relações IW/BW e LW/BW. Os receptores IR-β e IGF-IRβ, os substratos IRS-1 e IRS-2 e a proteína Ikappaβ foram analisados por western blotting. RESULTADOS: O BW de G foi menor, o IW e IW/BW foram superiores a C e S (p < 0.05. O fígado não apresentou diferenças entre os grupos. Nos fetos com gastrosquise, quando comparados com fetos controles, a expressão de IGF-IRβ (p<0.001 e Ikappaβ (p<0.001 aumentou no fígado e intestino, assim como IR-β (p<0.001 que diminuiu em ambos. Inversamente ao intestino, IRS-1 (p<0.001 aumentou no fígado e IRS-2 diminuiu (p<0.01. CONCLUSÃO: O eixo do intestino fígado tem um papel importante na inflamação, com consequentes alterações na via metabólica de glicose que pode contribuir para a RCIU em fetos com gastrosquise.

  2. Effects of oral parenteral nutrition solution on the morphology and mechanical resistance of the small bowel in rats Efeitos da administração oral da nutrição parenteral total na morfologia e resistência mecância do intestino delgado, em ratos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. Aguilar-Nascimento

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of an elemental diet (ED on the strength and on the morphology of the small bowel. Male Wistar rats were randomized to two groups to receive during 14 days either standard laboratory rat chow (N=16 or ED (N=16 containing total parenteral nutrition (TPN solution. After this period they were killed and necropsied. The small bowel was measured and weighted with and without the contents. Bursting pressure (BP was taken from the jejunum and ileum and histological sections of these two portions was performed to register the crypt depth (CD, vilus height (VH and wall width (WW. All animals significantly gain weight. The bowel of animals fed with TPN solution had significantly less weight when compared with the controls either with (9.9 ± 1.9g x 7.8 ± 1.5g, pForam submetidos a ração padrão de laboratório 16 ratos e outros 16 receberam nutrição parenteral total (NPT por via oral, durante 14 dias. Os animais de ambos os grupos ganharam peso, sem diferença estatistica. Na necrópsia retirava-se o segmento intestinal a partir do piloro até a valva ileocecal. Não houve diferença no comprimeto do intestino delgado em ambos os grupos. Porém, o intestino dos animais alimentados com NTP apresentaram diminuiçao significante de peso comparado com o grupo controle, independentemente da presença ou não de conteúdo. A resistência intestinal era menor no grupo NTP comparado ao controle, sendo mais significante no íleo. A altura dos vilos, a profundidade das criptas e a extensão da parede eram significantemente menores no íleo no grupo NTP comparado ao controle. Este achado foi observado também no jejuno, mas sem diferença significante. Conclui-se que nos ratos alimentados com NTP o intestino delgado perde massa e torna-se menos resistente, principalmente no íleo,apesar da manutenção do estado nutricional. A perda de massa aparece não apenas na mucosa mas em toda a parede intestinal.

  3. Effective dose as an irritating influence during fractionated γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karpov, V.N.; Ushakov, I.B.; Davydov, B.I.

    1990-01-01

    The study of early neurological disturbances (END) in rats after fractionated γ-irradiation with doses of 37.5-225 Gy at dose rate of 30.11 Gy/min has demonstrated that the initial response of animals to pulse ionizing radiation is a function of the electric charge induced by ionizing radiation. A change in the probability of occurrence of each of the END symptoms, with the increased intervals between exposures, is merely an indirect indication of the eliminating mechanisms and is intricately connected with the irritating charge value. The proposed empiric relationships permit to correlate the probability of END symptom occurrence with the continuous quantitative parameter of fractionated irradiation, that is, with an effective dose as an analogue of the irritating effect

  4. Protective effect of chlorpromazine on TNF-mediated hapten-induced irritant reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erroi, A; Fantuzzi, G; Demitri, M T; Echtenacher, B; Gnocchi, P; Isetta, A; Ghezzi, P

    1995-01-01

    Picryl chloride-induced irritant reaction (IR) was shown to be mediated by tumor necrosis factor (TNF). Anti-TNF monoclonal antibodies, but not interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1 Ra), had a protective effect. Chlorpromazine (CPZ), an inhibitor of TNF synthesis, protected against IR and inhibited the IR-associated TNF induction in ear homogenates. Investigation of the role of polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) in neutropenic mice showed that neutropenia did not prevent the development of the IR.

  5. Pharmacological Approach for Managing Pain in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Review Article

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Longtu; Ilham, Sheikh J.; Feng, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Context Visceral pain is a leading symptom for patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) that affects 10% - 20 % of the world population. Conventional pharmacological treatments to manage IBS-related visceral pain is unsatisfactory. Recently, medications have emerged to treat IBS patients by targeting the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and peripheral nerves to alleviate visceral pain while avoiding adverse effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Several investigational drugs for IBS also...

  6. Convergence of neuro-endocrine-immune pathways in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Buckley, Maria M; O’Mahony, Siobhain M; O’Malley, Dervla

    2014-01-01

    Disordered signalling between the brain and the gut are generally accepted to underlie the functional bowel disorder, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, partly due to the lack of disease-defining biomarkers, understanding the aetiology of this complex and multifactorial disease remains elusive. This common gastrointestinal disorder is characterised by alterations in bowel habit such as diarrhoea and/or constipation, bloating and abdominal pain, and symptom exacerbation has been linked w...

  7. Sodium lauryl sulfate-induced irritation in the human face: regional and age-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrakchi, S; Maibach, H I

    2006-01-01

    The particular sensitivity of the human face to care products prompted us to study irritation induced by sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) in its various regions. We examined regional and age-related differences, correlating basal transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and capacitance to SLS irritation. SLS (2% aq.) was applied under occlusion for 1 h to the forehead, cheek, nose, nasolabial and perioral areas, chin, neck and forearm to two groups of subjects--one with 10 subjects with an average age of 25.2 +/- 4.7 years and another with 10 subjects with an average age of 73.7 +/- 3.9 years. TEWL was measured before and 1 h and 23 h after patch removal. Baseline stratum corneum hydration was also measured. Irritation was assessed by the changes in TEWL (deltaTEWL = TEWL after patch removal - basal TEWL) after corrections to the control. In the younger group, all areas of the face and the neck reacted to SLS, whereas the forearm did not. In the older group, the nose, perioral area and forearm did not react. In both age groups, some significant differences between the regions of the face were detected. The younger group showed higher changes in TEWL than the older group in all the areas studied, but only in the chin and nasolabial area were the differences statistically significant. Significant correlations were found between basal TEWL and deltaTEWL in 5 of the 7 areas which reacted to SLS. Baseline TEWL is one parameter that correlates with the susceptibility of the face to this irritant. 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

  8. Differential expression of toll-like receptors in patients with irritable bowel syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brint, Elizabeth K

    2011-02-01

    The pathogenesis of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is poorly understood. One contributory factor may be low-grade mucosal inflammation, perhaps initiated by the microbiota. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of pathogen-recognition receptors of the innate immune system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential involvement of TLRs in IBS to further understand the involvement of the innate immune system in this complex disorder.

  9. Aripiprazole in the treatment of irritability in children and adolescents with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Randall; Sikich, Linmarie; Marcus, Ronald N; Corey-Lisle, Patricia; Manos, George; McQuade, Robert D; Carson, William H; Findling, Robert L

    2009-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate short-term efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in the treatment of irritability in children and adolescents with autistic disorder who were manifesting behaviors such as tantrums, aggression, self-injurious behavior, or a combination of these. This 8-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study was conducted of children and adolescents (aged 6-17 years) with autistic disorder. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to flexibly dosed aripiprazole (target dosage: 5, 10, or 15 mg/day) or placebo. Efficacy outcome measures included the Aberrant Behavior Checklist irritability subscale and the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement score (CGI-I). Safety and tolerability were also assessed. Ninety-eight patients were randomly assigned to receive placebo (n = 51) or aripiprazole (n = 47). Mean improvement in Aberrant Behavior Checklist irritability subscale score was significantly greater with aripiprazole than with placebo from week 1 through week 8. Aripiprazole demonstrated significantly greater global improvements than placebo, as assessed by the mean CGI-I score from week 1 through week 8; however, clinically significant residual symptoms may still persist for some patients. Discontinuation rates as a result of adverse events (AEs) were 10.6% for aripiprazole and 5.9% for placebo. Extrapyramidal symptom-related AE rates were 14.9% for aripiprazole and 8.0% for placebo. No serious AEs were reported. Mean weight gain was 2.0 kg on aripiprazole and 0.8 kg on placebo at week 8. Aripiprazole was efficacious in children and adolescents with irritability associated with autistic disorder and was generally safe and well tolerated.

  10. Paliperidone for irritability in adolescents and young adults with autistic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigler, Kimberly A; Mullett, Jennifer E; Erickson, Craig A; Posey, David J; McDougle, Christopher J

    2012-09-01

    Individuals with autistic disorder (autism) frequently exhibit significant irritability marked by severe tantrums, aggression, and self-injury. Despite advances in the treatment of this symptom domain in autism, there remains an ongoing need for more effective and better tolerated pharmacotherapies. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness and tolerability of paliperidone for irritability in autism. This is a prospective, 8-week open-label study of paliperidone in 25 adolescents and young adults with autism. Primary outcome measures included the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) Scale and the Irritability subscale of the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC-I). Concomitant medications (except antipsychotics) were permitted if dosages were stable for ≥2 months. Twenty-one (84 %) of 25 subjects ages 12-21 years (mean 15.3 years) responded to paliperidone, based on a CGI-I Scale score of 1 or 2 (very much or much improved) and ≥25 % improvement on the ABC-I. The mean final dosage of paliperidone was 7.1 mg/day (range 3-12 mg/day). Two subjects discontinued paliperidone prior to study completion (moderate sedation, n = 1; nonresponse, n = 1). Mild-to-moderate extrapyramidal symptoms were recorded in four subjects. A mean weight gain of 2.2 ± 2.6 kg (range -3.6 to +7.9 kg) was recorded. Mean age- and sex-normed body mass index increased from 23.6 to 24.2 (p ≤ 0.001). Mean serum prolactin increased from 5.3 to 41.4 ng/mL (p ≤ 0.0001). Paliperidone treatment was associated with significant improvement in irritability and was generally well tolerated. Larger scale, placebo-controlled studies are needed to elucidate the efficacy and tolerability of paliperidone in this population.

  11. Irritable bowel syndrome diagnosed in primary care : Occurrence, treatment and impact on everyday life

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen Faresjö, Åshild

    2006-01-01

    Background: IBS is the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders and affects approximately 10-20 % of the general population and is widespread in all societies and socio-economic groups. Although the disorder does not have a life-threatening course, it still seriously affects the patients in their everyday life. Aim: The general aims of this thesis were to estimate the occurrence of irritable bowel syndrome in the general population and to achieve a better understanding of present tre...

  12. A protocol for a trial of homeopathic treatment for irritable bowel syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peckham Emily J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Irritable bowel syndrome is a chronic condition with no known cure. Many sufferers seek complementary and alternative medicine including homeopathic treatment. However there is much controversy as to the effectiveness of homeopathic treatment. This three-armed study seeks to explore the effectiveness of individualised homeopathic treatment plus usual care compared to both an attention control plus usual care and usual care alone, for patients with irritable bowel syndrome. Methods/design This is a three-armed pragmatic randomised controlled trial using the cohort multiple randomised trial methodology. Patients are recruited to an irritable bowel syndrome cohort from primary and secondary care using GP databases and consultants lists respectively. From this cohort patients are randomly selected to be offered, 5 sessions of homeopathic treatment plus usual care, 5 sessions of supportive listening plus usual care or usual care alone. The primary clinical outcome is the Irritable Bowel Syndrome Symptom Severity at 26 weeks. From a power calculation, it is estimated that 33 people will be needed for the homeopathic treatment arm and 132 for the usual care arm, to detect a minimal clinical difference at 80 percent power and 5 percent significance allowing for loss to follow up. An unequal group size has been used for reasons of cost. Analysis will be by intention to treat and will compare homeopathic treatment with usual care at 26 weeks as the primary analysis, and homeopathic treatment with supportive listening as an additional analysis. Discussion This trial has received NHS approval and results are expected in 2013. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN90651143

  13. The effect of biofeedback therapy on dyssynergic constipation in patients with or without Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Tannaz Ahadi; Faezeh Madjlesi; Bahar Mahjoubi; Rezvan Mirzaei; Bijan Forogh; Seyedeh Somayeh Daliri; Seyed Majid Derakhshandeh; Roxana Bazaz Behbahani; G Reza Raissi

    2014-01-01

    Background: The Rome II and III diagnostic criteria for dyssynergic defecation recommended the exclusion of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This study determined the effect of biofeedback therapy on dyssynergic constipation in patients with or without IBS. Materials and Methods: This study was a nonrandomized, single blinded, semi experimental study. Dyssynergic defecation patients with and without IBS were asked to undergo biofeedback therapy 8 sessions. The defecation dynamics and balloon e...

  14. New psychological therapies for irritable bowel syndrome: mindfulness, acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Sebastián Sánchez

    Full Text Available The current goal of treatment in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS focuses primarily on symptom management and attempts to improve quality of life. Several treatments are at the disposal of physicians; lifestyle and dietary management, pharmacological treatments and psychological interventions are the most used and recommended. Psychological treatments have been proposed as viable alternatives or compliments to existing care models. Most forms of psychological therapies studied have been shown to be helpful in reducing symptoms and in improving the psychological component of anxiety/depression and health-related quality of life. According to current NICE/NHS guidelines, physicians should consider referral for psychological treatment in patients who do not respond to pharmacotherapy for a period of 12 months and develop a continuing symptom profile (described as refractory irritable bowel syndrome. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT is the best studied treatment and seems to be the most promising therapeutic approach. However, some studies have challenged the effectiveness of this therapy for irritable bowel syndrome. One study concluded that cognitive behavioral therapy is no more effective than attention placebo control condition and another study showed that the beneficial effects wane after six months of follow-up. A review of mind/body approaches to irritable bowel syndrome has therefore suggested that alternate strategies targeting mechanisms other than thought content change might be helpful, specifically mindfulness and acceptance-based approaches. In this article we review these new psychological treatment approaches in an attempt to raise awareness of alternative treatments to gastroenterologists that treat this clinical syndrome.

  15. Irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue 6 years after giardia infection: a controlled prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanevik, Kurt; Wensaas, Knut-Arne; Rortveit, Guri; Eide, Geir Egil; Mørch, Kristine; Langeland, Nina

    2014-11-15

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders and fatigue may follow acute infections. This study aimed to estimate the persistence, prevalence, and risk of irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue 6 years after Giardia infection. We performed a controlled prospective study of a cohort of 1252 individuals who had laboratory-confirmed Giardia infection during a waterborne outbreak in 2004. In total, 748 cohort cases (exposed) and 878 matched controls responded to a postal questionnaire 6 years later (in 2010). Responses were compared to data from the same cohort 3 years before (in 2007). The prevalences of irritable bowel syndrome (39.4%) by Rome III criteria and chronic fatigue (30.8%) in the exposed group 6 years after giardiasis were significantly elevated compared with controls, with adjusted relative risks (RRs) of 3.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9-3.9) and 2.9 (95% CI, 2.3-3.4), respectively. In the exposed group, the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome decreased by 6.7% (RR, 0.85 [95% CI, .77-.93]), whereas the prevalence of chronic fatigue decreased by 15.3% from 3 to 6 years after Giardia infection (RR, 0.69 [95% CI, .62-.77]). Giardia exposure was a significant risk factor for persistence of both conditions, and increasing age was a risk factor for persisting chronic fatigue. Giardia infection in a nonendemic setting is associated with an increased risk for irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue 6 years later. The prevalences of both conditions decrease over time, indicating that this intestinal protozoan parasite may elicit very long-term, but slowly self-limiting, complications. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  16. Pengaruh Entertainment, Irritating dan Informativeness Iklan di Website di Kalangan Mahasiswa

    OpenAIRE

    Edy Supriyadi; Lies Putriana

    2010-01-01

    There are several advantages and disadvantages and advertising via the Internet. The appeal of advertising may also arise from given information element, the element of comfort but also sometimes lead to disturbing or irritation elements. The limited number of Internet users in Indonesia and the different backgrounds of individual Internet users in Indonesia certainly provide a different assessment of the advertisements contained on the Internet. There are 3 factors which was the starting poi...

  17. Contact irritant responses of Aedes aegypti Using sublethal concentration and focal application of pyrethroid chemicals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hortance Manda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have demonstrated contact irritant and spatial repellent behaviors in Aedes aegypti following exposure to sublethal concentrations of chemicals. These sublethal actions are currently being evaluated in the development of a push-pull strategy for Ae. aegypti control. This study reports on mosquito escape responses after exposure to candidate chemicals for a contact irritant focused push-pull strategy using varying concentrations and focal application. METHODS: Contact irritancy (escape behavior, knockdown and 24 hour mortality rates were quantified in populations of female Ae. aegypti under laboratory conditions and validated in the field (Thailand and Peru using experimental huts. Evaluations were conducted using varying concentrations and treatment surface area coverage (SAC of three pyrethroid insecticides: alphacypermethrin, lambacyhalothrin and deltamethrin. RESULTS: Under laboratory conditions, exposure of Ae. aegypti to alphacypermethrin using the standard field application rate (FAR resulted in escape responses at 25% and 50% SAC that were comparable with escape responses at 100% SAC. Significant escape responses were also observed at <100% SAC using ½FAR of all test compounds. In most trials, KD and 24 hour mortality rates were higher in mosquitoes that did not escape than in those that escaped. In Thailand, field validation studies indicated an early time of exit (by four hours and 40% increase in escape using ½FAR of alphacypermethrin at 75% SAC compared to a matched chemical-free control. In Peru, however, the maximum increase in Ae. aegypti escape from alphacypermethrin-treated huts was 11%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results presented here suggest a potential role for sublethal and focal application of contact irritant chemicals in an Ae. aegypti push-pull strategy to reduce human-vector contact inside treated homes. However, the impact of an increase in escape response on dengue virus transmission is

  18. Contact irritant responses of Aedes aegypti Using sublethal concentration and focal application of pyrethroid chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manda, Hortance; Shah, Pankhil; Polsomboon, Suppaluck; Chareonviriyaphap, Theeraphap; Castro-Llanos, Fanny; Morrison, Amy; Burrus, Roxanne G; Grieco, John P; Achee, Nicole L

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated contact irritant and spatial repellent behaviors in Aedes aegypti following exposure to sublethal concentrations of chemicals. These sublethal actions are currently being evaluated in the development of a push-pull strategy for Ae. aegypti control. This study reports on mosquito escape responses after exposure to candidate chemicals for a contact irritant focused push-pull strategy using varying concentrations and focal application. Contact irritancy (escape) behavior, knockdown and 24 hour mortality rates were quantified in populations of female Ae. aegypti under laboratory conditions and validated in the field (Thailand and Peru) using experimental huts. Evaluations were conducted using varying concentrations and treatment surface area coverage (SAC) of three pyrethroid insecticides: alphacypermethrin, lambacyhalothrin and deltamethrin. Under laboratory conditions, exposure of Ae. aegypti to alphacypermethrin using the standard field application rate (FAR) resulted in escape responses at 25% and 50% SAC that were comparable with escape responses at 100% SAC. Significant escape responses were also observed at time of exit (by four hours) and 40% increase in escape using ½FAR of alphacypermethrin at 75% SAC compared to a matched chemical-free control. In Peru, however, the maximum increase in Ae. aegypti escape from alphacypermethrin-treated huts was 11%. Results presented here suggest a potential role for sublethal and focal application of contact irritant chemicals in an Ae. aegypti push-pull strategy to reduce human-vector contact inside treated homes. However, the impact of an increase in escape response on dengue virus transmission is currently unknown and will depend on rate of biting on human hosts prior to house exiting.

  19. Classification of sensitizing and irritative potential in a combined in-vitro assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanner, Reinhard; Sonnenburg, Anna; Quatchadze, Maria; Schreiner, Maximilian; Peiser, Matthias; Zuberbier, Torsten; Stahlmann, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    We have developed a coculture system which in parallel indicates the sensitizing and irritative potential of xenobiotics. The assay is named loose-fit coculture-based sensitization assay (LCSA) and may be performed within 5 days. The system is composed of human monocytes that differentiate to a kind of dendritic cells by 2-day culturing in the presence of allogenic keratinocytes. The culture medium is enriched by a cocktail of recombinant cytokines. On day 3, concentration series of probes are added. On day 5, cells are harvested and analyzed for expression range of CD86 as a marker of sensitizing potential and for uptake of the viability stain 7-AAD as a marker of irritative potential. Estimation of the concentration required to cause a half-maximal increase in CD86 expression allowed quantification of sensitizing potential, and estimation of the concentration required to reduce viability to 50% allowed quantification of irritative potential. Examination of substances with known potential resulted in categorization of test scores. To evaluate our data, we have compared results with those of the validated animal-based sensitization test, the murine local lymph node assay (LLNA, OECD TG 429). To a large extent, results from LCSA and from LLNA achieved analogous grouping of allergens into categories like weak-moderate-strong. However, the new assay showed an improved capacity to distinguish sensitizers from non-sensitizers and irritants. In conclusion, the LCSA contains potential to fulfil the requirements of the EU's programme for the safety of chemicals 'Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of chemical substances' (REACH, 2006) to replace animal models.

  20. Resident Rounds: Part III - Case Report: Betel Quid Induced Irritant Contact Dermatitis of the Hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Regine J; Cheraghi, Nikoo; Russo, Marian A

    2016-06-01

    Betel quid is a drug used in Far East Asia, India, and the South Pacific. The habit of betel quid chewing is widely reported to cause oral cancer and tooth and gum disease. However, skin disease due to betel quid use is underreported. We report a case of irritant contact dermatitis to betel quid components in a 35-year-old male betel quid user who presented for evaluation of a persistent rash on his fingertips.

  1. P05.03. Integrative Primary Care Approach to Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Locke, Amy

    2013-01-01

    Focus Area: Integrative Approaches to Care Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is thought to affect 5% to 10% of the population and is likely a constellation of disorders resulting in abdominal pain, diarrhea, and/or constipation. This presentation will review the scientific evidence for common integrative treatments. A comprehensive integrative history often elucidates underlying factors contributing to symptoms. Assessment of the foundations of health, as with most conditions, is important for I...

  2. Utilization of Neurophysiological Protocols to Characterize Soldier Response to Irritant Gases. Phase 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-15

    DAMM7-89-C-9136 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND AOO«£S$<£S) Northeast Reserach Institute, Inc Suite A-100 309 Farmington Avenue...is no widely accepted methodology or protocol lor the assessment of human toxicity induced by exposure to irritant gases. Most procedures used by the...employing the appropriate analytical methodologies necessary to more precisely characterize the complex mixture of low-boiling volatilcs, aerosols, and

  3. Up-regulation of the chemokine CCL21 in the skin of subjects exposed to irritants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuznitzky Raquel

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expression of murine CCL21 by dermal lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC has been demonstrated to be one of the most important steps in Langerhans cell emigration from skin. Previously, our group and others have found that this chemokine is up-regulated in different human inflammatory skin diseases mediated by diverse specific immune responses. This study was carried out to investigate the involvement of CCL21 in human skin after challenge with irritant agents responsible for inducing Irritant Contact Dermatitis (ICD. Results Eleven normal individuals were challenged with different chemical or physical irritants. Two patients with Allergic Contact Dermatitis (ACD were also challenged with the relevant antigen in order to have a positive control for CCL21 expression. Macroscopic as well as microscopic responses were evaluated. We observed typical ICD responses with mostly mononuclear cells in perivascular areas, but a predominance of polymorphonuclear cells away from the inflamed blood vessels and in the epidermis at 24 hours. Immunohistochemical studies showed up-regulation of CCL21 by lymphatic endothelial cells in all the biopsies taken from ICD and ACD lesions compared to normal skin. Kinetic study at 10, 48, 96 and 168 hours after contact with a classical irritant (sodium lauryl sulphate showed that the expression of CCL21 was increased in lymphatic vessels at 10 hours, peaked at 48 hours, and then gradually declined. There was a strong correlation between CCL21 expression and the macroscopic response (r = 0.69; p = 0.0008, but not between CCL21 and the number of infiltrating cells in the lesions. Conclusions These results provide new evidence for the role of CCL21 in inflammatory processes. Since the up-regulation of this chemokine was observed in ICD and ACD, it is tempting to speculate that this mechanism operates independently of the type of dermal insult, facilitating the emigration of CCR7+ cells.

  4. Neurodevelopmental maturation as a function of irritable temperament: Insights From a Naturalistic Emotional Video Viewing Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Helmet T; Perlman, Susan B

    2017-10-01

    Few studies have investigated the neural systems involved in decreasing behavioral reactivity to emotional stimuli as children age. It has been suggested that this process may interact with temperament-linked variations in neurodevelopment to better explain individual differences in the maturation of emotion regulation. In this investigation, children ages 4 to 12 (n = 30, mean age = 7.62 years, SD = 1.71 years) and adults (n = 21, mean age = 26.67 years) watched clips from popular children's films containing positive, negative, or neutral emotional content during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Compared to adults, children demonstrated greater activation in subcortical and visual regions (hippocampus, thalamus, visual cortex, fusiform) during negative clips and greater activation of subcortical and prefrontal regions during positive clips (hippocampus, thalamus, caudate, ACC, OFC, superior frontal cortex). In children only, we found an age by temperament interaction in frontal and subcortical regions indicating that activation increased as a function of age in the most irritable children, but decreased as a function of age in the least irritable children. Findings were not present in the temperament domain of fear. Findings replicate and extend the existing irritability literature, indicating that healthy children highest in irritability may develop comparatively greater activation of the lateral prefrontal cortex in order to support adaptive regulation during emotional challenges. These results are discussed within the context of the emerging literature on the utility of complex, multidimensional, and naturalistic stimuli, which present a complementary alternative to understanding ecologically valid and sustained neural responses to emotionally evocative stimuli. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5307-5321, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Piezo2: A Candidate Biomarker for Visceral Hypersensitivity in Irritable Bowel Syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Tao; Li, Ying; Xia, Jing; Jiang, Yudong; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Huan; Qian, Wei; Song, Jun; Hou, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Currently, there exists no biomarker for visceral hypersensitivity in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Piezo proteins have been proven to play an important role in the mechanical stimulation to induce visceral pain in other tissues and may also be a biomarker candidate. The aim of this study was to test the expressions of Piezo1 and Piezo2 proteins in the intestinal epithelial cells from different intestinal segments and to explore the correlation between Piezo proteins express...

  6. A single-blind trial of reflexology for irritable bowel syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Tovey, Philip

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a significant problem for primary care, as treatment options are limited and it can frequently develop into a chronic condition. Complementary and alternative medicine, including reflexology, is being turned to increasingly in an attempt to manage symptoms. There are currently no studies which address the effectiveness of reflexology for IBS. Despite this, it continues to be advocated and used. AIM: To provide the first evidence on the effectivene...

  7. Interventions for post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome: a systematic review of treatment efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    Torbicki, Emma; Oh, Justin; Mishra, Sharmistha; Page, Andrea V.; Boggild, Andrea K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Post-infectious irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS) due to traveler?s diarrhea is the second most common illness seen in post-travel clinics, yet its optimal management remains unknown. We performed a systematic review to evaluate treatment efficacy in PI-IBS. Methods We searched Medline, EMBASE, LILACS, CINAHL, CAB abstracts, and the Cochrane Library to February 3, 2014 for intervention studies of the pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic management of PI-IBS and examined the evidence...

  8. [Magnetotherapy in the combined health resort-based treatment of irritated bowel syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaĭsinova, A S; Osipov, Iu S; Litvinova, M A; Prosol'chenko, A V

    2011-01-01

    The authors describe a combined method for the treatment of irritated bowel syndrome with the use of magnetotherapy, drinking mineral waters, and radon baths. It was shown that prescription of preformed physical factors improves the psycho-emotional status of the patients due to normalization of the motor-evacuative function of the gastrointestinal tract. The overall result of this therapeutic modality is the improvement of the quality of life of the patients.

  9. Efficacy of a Hand Regimen in Skin Barrier Protection in Individuals With Occupational Irritant Contact Dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Laura

    2016-11-01

    Occupational irritant contact dermatitis (OICD) is a dif cult and hard to manage condition. It occurs more frequently in certain occupations where contact with harsh chemicals, use of alcohol-based disinfectants, and frequent hand washing heightens the risk. Treatment for OICD includes patient education in addition to physical, topical, and systemic therapies. To review the pathogenesis and treatment options for OICD and evaluate the ef cacy of a selective skin-care regimen involv- ing a hand protectant cream alone as well as combined with a repair cream and speci c cleanser. A single-center open study was performed comprising 42 healthy male and female adult volunteers prone to occupational irritant contact dermatitis due to frequent wet work or contact with detergents. Between day 0 and day 7, subjects applied a hand protectant cream as needed on both hands (at least twice daily). On days 7 to 14, subjects applied a hand protectant cream and cleanser as needed on both hands (at least twice daily) as well as a repair cream each evening. A diary log was given to each volunteer for application control and for a subjective evaluation of daily tolerability. In these subjects prone to occupational irritant contact dermatitis, the hand protectant cream applied during the initial 7-day period was effective in restoring the damaged skin barrier and improving the stratum corneum hydration. A regimen that combined the hand protectant and repair creams with a speci c cleanser during a further 7-day period allowed contin- ued improvement of skin hydration and additional clinical bene ts while respecting the skin barrier function. The results of this study support the use of a 3-step approach for patients who are at risk of repeated exposure to external irritants. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(suppl 11):s81-85..

  10. Emerging role of aripiprazole for treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stachnik, Joan; Gabay, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Autistic disorder is a largely misunderstood and difficult to treat neurodevelopmental disorder. Three core domains of functioning are affected by autistic disorder, ie, socialization, communication, and behavior. Signs of autistic disorder may be present early, but are frequently overlooked, resulting in a delay in its diagnosis and a subsequent delay in treatment. No one definitive therapy is available, and treatment consists of early educational and behavioral interventions, as well as drug therapy. Atypical antipsychotics have often been used in the treatment of autistic disorder to target irritability, aggression, and self-injurious behavior, all of which can interfere with other aspects of treatment. One atypical antipsychotic, aripiprazole, has recently been approved for treatment of irritability associated with autistic disorder. Based on the results from two randomized, controlled trials, with efficacy data from nearly 300 patients, treatment with aripiprazole was associated with reductions in irritability, global improvements in behavior, and improvements in quality of life from both the patient and caregiver perspectives. Dosage of aripiprazole ranged from 5 mg to 15 mg per day. Aripiprazole was well tolerated during clinical trials, with most adverse events considered mild or moderate. Clinically relevant weight gain occurred in about 30% of patients given aripiprazole, although when compared with other atypical antipsychotics, aripiprazole appears to have fewer metabolic effects and a lower risk of weight gain. However, pediatric patients taking any atypical antipsychotic should be carefully monitored for potential adverse events, because the long-term effects of antipsychotic therapy in this population are not well known. When used appropriately, aripiprazole has the potential to be an effective treatment for children with autistic disorder to improve irritability and aggressive behavior and improve quality of life.

  11. A Cross-Sectional Study of the Association between Overnight Call and Irritable Bowel Syndrome in Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm Wells

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Shift work has been associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, which includes gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, constipation and diarrhea. Overnight call shifts also lead to a disruption of the endogenous circadian rhythm.

  12. Medical Movies on the Web Debuts with Gene Kelly's "Combat Fatigue Irritability" 1945 Film | NIH MedlinePlus the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Library of Medicine (NLM) is a World War II U.S. Navy training film directed by and starring Gene Kelly, who was then a rising Hollywood star. Combat Fatigue Irritability is a historically significant, yet ...

  13. Mucosal Immune Cell Numbers and Visceral Sensitivity in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Is There Any Relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braak, Breg; Klooker, Tamira K.; Wouters, Mira M.; Welting, Olaf; van der Loos, Chris M.; Stanisor, Oana I.; van Diest, Sophie; van den Wijngaard, Rene M.; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Repeated exposure to stress leads to mast cell degranulation, microscopic inflammation, and subsequent visceral hypersensitivity in animal models. To what extent this pathophysiological pathway has a role in patients with the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has not been properly

  14. Histamine, mast cells, and the enteric nervous system in the irritable bowel syndrome, enteritis, and food allergies

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, J D

    2006-01-01

    There is altered expression of histamine H1 and H2 receptor subtypes in mucosal biopsies from the terminal ileum and large intestine of patients with symptoms of food allergy and/or irritable bowel syndrome

  15. Development of Organogel-Derived Capsaicin Nanoemulsion with Improved Bioaccessibility and Reduced Gastric Mucosa Irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Muwen; Cao, Yong; Ho, Chi-Tang; Huang, Qingrong

    2016-06-15

    Capsaicin (CAP) is the major active component in chili peppers with health-promoting benefits. However, the low bioavailability and irritating quality of CAP greatly limit its applications in functional foods. The objective of this study was to develop a food-grade nanoemulsion to increase the dissolution and bioaccessibility of CAP and to alleviate its irritating effects. To achieve this goal, CAP was first dissolved in medium-chain triacylglycerol (MCT), followed by the addition of sucrose stearate S-370 as organogelator to develop CAP-loaded organogel. The oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion was formed using organogel as the oil phase and Tween 80 as the emulsifier. After ultrasonication treatment, droplet sizes of emulsion were decreased to 168 nm with enhanced dissolution rate and bioaccessibility. In vivo study further confirmed the reduced rat gastric mucosa irritation caused by CAP. The organogel-derived nanoemulsion was proved to be an effective delivery system for CAP-based functional food products.

  16. Sleep and mood disorders in dry eye disease and allied irritating ocular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaki, Masahiko; Kawashima, Motoko; Negishi, Kazuno; Kishimoto, Taishiro; Mimura, Masaru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate sleep and mood disorders in patients with irritating ocular diseases. The study design was a cross-sectional/case-control study conducted in six eye clinics. Out of 715 outpatients diagnosed with irritating ocular surface diseases and initially enrolled, 301 patients with dry eye disease (DED) and 202 age-matched control participants with other ocular surface diseases were analyzed. The mean Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) scores were 6.4 ± 3.2 and 11.1 ± 5.7 for severe DED (n = 146), 5.5 ± 3.3 and 9.8 ± 4.0 for mild DED (n = 155), 5.5 ± 3.1 and 9.5 ± 6.6 for chronic conjunctivitis (n = 124), and 5.0 ± 3.3 and 8.9 ± 5.3 for allergic conjunctivitis (n = 78). There were significant differences among these diagnostic groups for PSQI (P sleep quality in patients with DED is significantly worse than in patients with other irritating ocular surface diseases and it is correlated with the severity of DED.

  17. Assessment of Irritation and Sensitization Potential of Eight Baby Skin Care Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galzote, Carlos; Thomas, Mini; Sachdev, Mukta

    2016-10-01

    Ethnic differences in skin sensitivity suggest that greater emphasis be focused on understanding a product's effect in diverse populations. The irritation and/or sensitization potential of 8 baby skin care products in Indian adults were evaluated using cumulative irritation tests (CIT) and human repeat insult patch testing (HRIPT) protocols. Healthy males or females aged 18 to 65 years of Indian ethnicity were treated with each of 6 products (cream, hair oil, lotion, body wash, shampoo, and baby soap) using CIT (n = 25) and HRIPT (n = 200). Baby powder and baby oil were evaluated by CIT (n = 25) and HRIPT (n = 107) in separate studies. CITs were conducted over 14 days; HRIPTs were conducted over 10 weeks. In both CIT and HRIPT, most products were considered mild, with no irritation. Baby soap and powder elicited reactions in the HRIPT induction phase, with positive challenge phase reactions (3 subjects), but were affirmed to be nonallergenic in the rechallenge phase. In these studies, 8 baby skin care products were evaluated by both CIT and HRIPT in Indian adults. The results of the studies indicated that all of the tested products were nonallergenic and nonirritating. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(10):1244-1248.

  18. Evaluation of the ophthalmic and dermal irritability of the OLEOMASAJE formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritza F. Díaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Ozonized vegetable oils present germicidal effects which can be used as active principle in different cosmetological compositions. The thematic about of the corporal massage advantage have been very treatment by aesthetics, dermatologic and consumers. OLEOMASAJE formulation content ozonized sunflower oil OLEOZON as active principle active which present moisturizer and conditioner effects. Aims: To determine the possible dermal and ophthalmic irritability effects of the OLEOMASAJE. Methods: The trial was conducted in rabbits and the techniques described in the standardized procedures of the work established by the Center of Biological Research and Evaluations from Pharmacy and Food Institute of Havana University were used according to Norma ISO 10993-10. The ethical principles of the Good Practices of Laboratory were fulfilled to avoid suffering to the animals during the experimentation. Male rabbits with body weight between 2.05 and 2.48 kg were used. In the skin and the ocular structures the effects were observed immediately after of the application at 1, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Draize´s scale was applied to evaluate skin and ocular structures lesions. Results: The OLEOMASAJE formulation does not irritate de skin of the assayed rabbits. However, the ocular structures irritability index was of 4.5 after of first hour to apply of product. These wounds were missing before of 24 hours to apply of product. Conclusions: The OLEOMASAJE formulation obeys the indispensable requirements for the acceptance as cosmetic product and for it is used in corporal massage.

  19. Microscopic colitis and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth--diagnosis behind the irritable bowel syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoicescu, Adriana; Andrei, M; Becheanu, G; Stoicescu, M; Nicolaie, T; Diculescu, M

    2012-01-01

    Some patients previously diagnosed with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may develop microscopic colitis or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). To estimate the prevalence of microscopic colitis and SIBO in patients with IBS, to evaluate the symptoms and the efficacy of treatment. We examined patients with IBS admitted in our clinic during a three-year period. We identified patients with microscopic colitis by performing total colonoscopy with multiple biopsies from normal intestinal mucosa and those with SIBO by performing a H2-breath test with glucose. We compared the symptoms and the effectiveness of the treatment. Out of the 132 patients initially diagnosed with IBS 3% (n=4) had microscopic colitis and 43.9% (n=58) had SIBO. Diarrhea was the main symptom in patients with microscopic colitis and SIBO (p=0.041), while abdominal pain, abdominal bloating and flatulence were prominent in IBS patients (p=0.042; p=0.039; p=0.048). Specific treatment with rifaximin in SIBO patients negativated H2-breath test in 70.9% cases. Patients suspected to have irritable bowel syndrome should be evaluated for microscopic colitis and SIBO. The proper diagnosis and the specific treatment may cure some difficult cases of the so called "irritable bowel syndrome".

  20. Irritancy and Allergic Responses Induced by Exposure to the Indoor Air Chemical 4-Oxopentanal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Stacey E.; Franko, Jennifer; Jackson, Laurel G.; Wells, J. R.; Ham, Jason E.; Meade, B. J.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there has been an increasing awareness regarding the potential impact of indoor air pollution on human health. People working in an indoor environment often experience symptoms such as eye, nose, and throat irritation. Investigations into these complaints have ascribed the effects, in part, to compounds emitted from building materials, cleaning/consumer products, and indoor chemistry. One suspect indoor air contaminant that has been identified is the dicarbonyl 4-oxopentanal (4-OPA). 4-OPA is generated through the ozonolysis of squalene and several high-volume production compounds that are commonly found indoors. Following preliminary workplace sampling that identified the presence of 4-OPA, these studies examined the inflammatory and allergic responses to 4-OPA following both dermal and pulmonary exposure using a murine model. 4-OPA was tested in a combined local lymph node assay and identified to be an irritant and sensitizer. A Th1-mediated hypersensitivity response was supported by a positive response in the mouse ear swelling test. Pulmonary exposure to 4-OPA caused a significant elevation in nonspecific airway hyperreactivity, increased numbers of lung-associated lymphocytes and neutrophils, and increased interferon-γ production by lung-associated lymph nodes. These results suggest that both dermal and pulmonary exposure to 4-OPA may elicit irritant and allergic responses and may help to explain some of the adverse health effects associated with poor indoor air quality. PMID:22403157

  1. Occupational allergic and irritant contact dermatitis in workers exposed to polyurethane foam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kieć-Świerczyńska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate sensitization to chemicals present in work environment after an outbreak of contact dermatitis in workers of vehicle equipment factory, exposed to polyurethane foam, based on 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI. Material and Methods: From among 300 employees, 21 individuals reporting work-related skin and/or respiratory tract symptoms underwent clinical examination, patch testing, skin prick tests, spirometry and MDI sIgE measurement in serum. Patch tests included isocyanates series, selected rubber additives, metals, fragrances, preservatives, and an antiadhesive agent. Results: Clinical examination revealed current eczema in the area of hands and/or forearms in 10 workers. Positive patch test reactions were found in 10 individuals, the most frequent to diaminodiphenylmethane and 4-phenylenediamine (7 persons. Reactions to an antiadhesive agent were assessed as irritant (5 workers. Except for sensitization to common aeroallergens, no significant abnormalities were found in the remaining tests. Occupational allergic contact dermatitis was diagnosed in 7 workers, irritant contact dermatitis in 10 and coexisiting allergic and irritant contact dermatitis in 3 workers. Conclusions: In workers manufacturing products from polyurethane foam, attention should be paid to the risk of developing contact dermatitis. Skin problems in our study group were attributable probably to insufficient protection of the skin.

  2. Review article: Associations between immune activation, intestinal permeability and the irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matricon, J; Meleine, M; Gelot, A; Piche, T; Dapoigny, M; Muller, E; Ardid, D

    2012-12-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), one of the most common gastrointestinal disorders, markedly impairing patients' quality of life. Drug development for IBS treatment has been hampered by the lack of understanding of IBS aetiology. In recent years, numerous data have emerged that suggest the involvement of immune activation in IBS, at least in a subset of patients. To determine whether immune activation and intestinal permeabilisation are more frequently observed in IBS patients compared with healthy controls. The scientific bibliography was searched using the following keywords: irritable bowel syndrome, inflammation, immune activation, permeabilisation, intestine, assay, histology and human. The retrieved studies, including blood, faecal and histological studies, were analysed to provide a comprehensive and structured overview of the available data including the type of assay, type of inflammatory marker investigated or intestinal segment studied. Immune activation was more frequently observed in IBS patients than in healthy controls. An increase in the number of mast cells and lymphocytes, an alteration in cytokine levels and intestinal permeabilisation were reported in IBS patients. No consistent changes in the numbers of B cells or enterochromaffin cells or in mucosal serotonin production were demonstrated. The changes observed were modest and often heterogeneous among the studied population. Only appropriate interventions improving irritable bowel syndrome symptoms could highlight and confirm the role of immune activation in this pathophysiology. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. [Changes of nitric oxide after trichloroethylene irritation in hairless mice skin and protection of ginkgo biloba extract and vitamin E].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Shen, Tong; Zhou, Cheng-fan; Yu, Jun-feng; Zhu, Qi-xing

    2009-04-01

    To study the changes of nitric oxide (NO) in the BALB/c hairless mice skin after trichloroethylene (TCE) irritation and the protection of ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) and vitamin E (VE). 132 BALB/c hairless mice were randomly divided into blank control group, solvent group (olive oil), TCE groups (20%TCE, 40%TCE, 80%TCE and 100%TCE), GbE groups (0.1%GbE, 1%GbE and 10%GbE) and VE groups (5%VE, 10% VE and 20% VE), with 11 animals in each group, 5 for acute irritation test and 6 for the cumulative irritation test. The skin irritation was observed, and the levels of NO in the dorsal skin of BALB/C hairless mice were detected. The kit of NO was used to detect the levels of NO in the dorsal skin of BALB/c hairless mice. (1) The skin presented erythema and edema after TCE irritation both in acute irritation and cumulative irritation test and the skin inflammation showed time-dose effect relationship; the mice skin was protected in GbE or VE groups. (2) In the acute stimulation test, the levels of NO in 80%TCE group (69.895 +/- 9.605 micromol/mg pro) and 100%TCE group (77.273 +/- 9.290 micromol/mg pro) were significantly different compared with blank control group and solvent control group (P skin of BALB/c hairless mice and induce the significant increase of the NO levels. GbE and VE can protect the skin from TCE irritation damage.

  4. Characterization of new eye drops with choline salicylate and assessment of their irritancy by in vitro short time exposure tests

    OpenAIRE

    Wroblewska, Katarzyna; Kucinska, Małgorzata; Murias, Marek; Lulek, Janina

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to examine the irritation potential of new eye drops containing 2% choline salicylate (CS) as an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) and various polymers increasing eye drop viscosity (hydroxyethylcellulose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, methylcellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinylpyrrolidone). The standard method for assessing the potential of irritating substances has been the Draize rabbit eye test. However the European Centre for Validation of Alternative Met...

  5. Prevalence and Determinants of Mucous Membrane Irritations in a Community Near a Cement Factory in Zambia: A Cross Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmy Nkhama

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to cement dust has been associated with deleterious health effects in humans. This study investigated whether residing near a cement factory increases the risk of irritations to the mucous membranes of the eyes and respiratory system. A cross sectional study was conducted in Freedom Compound, a community bordering a cement factory in Chilanga, Zambia and a control community, Bauleni, located 18 km from the cement plant. A modified American Thoracic Society questionnaire was administered to 225 and 198 respondents aged 15–59 years from Freedom and Bauleni, respectively, to capture symptoms of the irritations. Respondents from Freedom Compound, were more likely to experience the irritations; adjusted ORs 2.50 (95% CI: 1.65, 3.79, 4.36 (95% CI (2.96, 6.55 and 1.94 (95% CI (1.19, 3.18 for eye, nose and sinus membrane irritations respectively. Cohort panel studies to determine associations of cement emissions to mucous membrane irritations and respiratory symptoms, coupled with field characterization of the exposure are needed to assess whether the excess prevalence of symptoms of mucous membrane irritations observed in Freedom compound are due to emissions from the cement factory.

  6. Physical characteristic and irritation index of Syzigium aromaticum essential oil in O/W and W/O creams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safriani, R.; Sugihartini, N.; Yuliani, S.

    2017-11-01

    Essential oil of Syzigium aromaticum has been formulated in O/W and W/O creams as anti-inflammatory dosage form. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physical characteristic and irritation index of S. aromaticum essential oil in O/W and W/O creams. The creams were made by fusion method. The creams then were evaluated the physical characteristic including pH, viscosity, spreadability and adhesivity. The irritation index was obtained by irritation skin test in male rabbit. The results showed that the W/O and O/W creams have the value of pH: 6.3 and 6.27; spreadability: 3,18 and 4.17 cm2; adhesivity: 5.59 and 0.07 minutes; viscosity: 4.43 and 2.88 Pa.S, respectively. The irritation test showed that the control enhancer caused mild irritation in both of W/O and O/W creams. These findings indicated that type of cream might influence the physical characteristic and irritation index of S. aromaticum essential oil cream.

  7. A new cell-based method for assessing the eye irritation potential of chemicals: an alternative to the Draize test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sun-A; An, Susun; Lee, Eunyoung; Shin, Kyeho; Cho, Jun-Cheol; Lee, Tae Ryong

    2012-07-20

    Using a human corneal cell line (HCE-T cells) and 2 evaluation criteria, we developed a new alternative method to assess the eye irritation potential of chemicals. We exposed HCE-T cells to different concentrations of 38 chemicals for 1h and measured relative cell viability (RCV) as an endpoint at each concentration. Using the RCV values, we calculated the RCV50. We also exposed HCE-T cells to 3 fixed concentrations of the 38 chemicals (5%, 0.5%, and 0.05%) for 1h and measured the RCV at each concentration. Using the RCV values at 5%, 0.5%, and 0.05%, we developed a new criterion for eye irritation potential (total eye irritation score, TEIS) and estimated the ocular irritancy. We then assessed the correlation of the results of RCV50 and TEIS with those of the Draize rabbit eye irritation. Both the RCV50 and TEIS results exhibited good positive correlations (sensitivity: 80.77%, specificity: 83.33%, and accuracy: 81.58% for TEIS; sensitivity: 73.08-76.92%, specificity: 75.00%, and accuracy: 73.68-76.32% for RCV50). We conclude that the new in vitro model using HCE-T cells is a good alternative evaluation model for the prediction of the eye irritation potential of chemicals. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and irritability: results from the multimodal treatment study of children with ADHD (MTA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de la Cruz, Lorena; Simonoff, Emily; McGough, James J; Halperin, Jeffrey M; Arnold, L Eugene; Stringaris, Argyris

    2015-01-01

    Clinically impairing irritability affects 25% to 45% of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD); yet, we know little about what interventions are effective in treating children with ADHD and co-occurring irritability. We used data from the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With ADHD (MTA) to address 3 aims: to establish whether irritability in children with ADHD can be distinguished from other symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD); to examine whether ADHD treatment is effective in treating irritability; and to examine how irritability influences ADHD treatment outcomes. Secondary analyses of data from the MTA included multivariate analyses, and intent-to-treat random-effects regression models were used. Irritability was separable from other ODD symptoms. For treating irritability, systematic stimulant treatment was superior to behavioral management but not to routine community care; a combination of stimulants and behavioral treatment was superior to community care and to behavioral treatment alone, but not to medication alone. Irritability did not moderate the impact of treatment on parent- and teacher-reported ADHD symptoms in any of the 4 treatment groups. Treatments targeting ADHD symptoms are helpful for improving irritability in children with ADHD. Moreover, irritability does not appear to influence the response to treatment of ADHD. Multimodal Treatment Study of Children With Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA); http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00000388. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychaitry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of primary eye and skin irritants by in vitro cytotoxicity and phototoxicity models: an in vitro approach of new arginine-based surfactant-induced irritation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benavides, T.; Mitjans, M.; Martinez, V.; Clapes, P.; Infante, M.R.; Clothier, R.H.; Vinardell, M.P.

    2004-01-01

    Extensive efforts have been made, recently, to find surfactants with lower irritation potential than those presently commercially available, for use in pharmaceutical and cosmetic preparations. Cytotoxic and phototoxic effects of a novel family of dicationic arginine-diglyceride surfactant compounds, 1,2-diacyl,3-O-(L-arginyl)-rac-glycerol with alkyl chain lengths in the range from 8 to 14 carbon atoms, were compared to three commercial surfactants. The end-points used to assess toxicity were the red blood cell lysis assay and uptake of the vital dye neutral red 24 h after dosing (NRU), respectively. Two immortalized cell lines, murine fibroblast cell line, 3T3, and one human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT, were used as in vitro models to predict the potential phototoxicity which could result in irritation, determined by resazurin reduction to resorufin and neutral red uptake (NRU). All tested surfactants had cytotoxicity effects as demonstrated by and decrease of NR uptake, which showed a clear concentration-response relationship. Concentrations resulting in 50% inhibition of NR uptake (IC 50 ) range from 1 μmol l -1 (hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide) to 565 μmol l -1 (12,12-L-arginine). Erythrocyte haemolysis also showed a clear concentration-response relationship, the 50% of haemolysis ranged from 37 μmol l -1 (10,10-L-arginine) to 151 μmol l -1 (sodium lauryl sulphate). Phototoxicity was performed with 12,12-L-acetyl-arginine, the most stable chemical structure. The validated 3T3 NRU photoxicity assay was used and revealed a phototoxic potential

  10. ASPECTOS NORTEADORES NA ORIENTAÇÃO DE MONOGRAFIA A DISTÂNCIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    monica seixas mello

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo é analisar os aspectos norteadores na orientação de monografia na modalidade a distância a partir de relato de experiência em curso de pó-graduação Lato Sensu em Gestão Pública., constatando-se que na orientação a distância em ambientes virtuais de aprendizagem as interações entre professor e aluno observam os seguintes aspectos: pedagógico, gerencial, social e técnico Palavras-chaves: educação, distância, orientação, monografia, pos-graduação.

  11. Estilo de vida materno e aspectos nutricionais do pré-escolar

    OpenAIRE

    Érica Bezerra Nobre

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: Muitos dos comportamentos de saúde envolvidos no aparecimento das doenças crônicas não comunicáveis são originados na infância sob influência dos pais. A mãe é a pessoa mais envolvida na educação e nos cuidados de saúde da criança. O estilo de vida (EdV) é um determinante social da saúde. Nunca se compreendeu características de EdV materno associadas com aspectos da nutrição infantil. OBJETIVO: Verificar a associação dos EdV materno comportamental e não comportamental com aspectos...

  12. Eugenia vinculada a aspectos bioéticos: uma revisão integrativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Cruz Santos

    Full Text Available O objetivo do estudo é analisar o que versam as produções científicas sobre eugenia, vinculando-as com aspectos bioéticos. Trata-se de uma revisão integrativa de literatura. Os dados foram coletados nas bases de dados Lilacs e SciELO, por meio dos descritores: eugenia, etnia e saúde, ética e bioética. Para a análise e posterior síntese dos artigos foi utilizada figura sinóptica. Verificou-se que a eugenia viola os direitos humanos, contradiz com o princípio da solidariedade e coloca em risco a diversidade humana. Conclui-se que houve déficit de artigos que abordem aspectos bioéticos vinculados à eugenia, assim, este estudo poderá contribuir para a reflexão sobre essa articulação.

  13. Aspectos Técnicos en la Producción de Caucho Hevea

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    Uribe Henao Alfonso

    1950-09-01

    Full Text Available El propósito primordial de este trabajo es el de hacer una exposición de los principales factores o aspectos técnicos que deben tenerse en cuenta en el planeamiento y desarrollo del cultivo de la Hevea, para poder obtener de él en la forma más económica el máximo beneficio. Se ha dacio preferencia a los aspectos técnicos concernientes al Hevea de mayor importancia, sin pretender exponerlos todos. No es pues su objetivo dar a conocer todos aquellos detalles y sistemas aconsejables y necesarios en su explotación que pudieran considerarse como principios elementales, y que más bien vienen a ser prácticas corrientes del cultivo.

  14. Aspectos da tomografia computadorizada craniana na neurocisticercose na infância

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilisa M. Guerreiro

    1989-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam aspectos tomográficos da neurocisticercose na infância a propósito da análise de 27 exames em 18 pacientes, que foram distribuídos em três grupos segundo o quadru clínico e os achados tomográficos. O grupo 1 foi caracterizado basicamente por epilepsias e calcificações. O grupo 2 caracterizou-se por hipertensão intracraniana e diversos aspectos tomográficos: edema, cistos e nódulos em três pacientes; hidrocefalia e calcificações em dois pacientes e normal em um paciente. O grupo 3 consistiu clinicamente de epilepsia e cefaléia, com vários padrões tomográficos. Os resultados são discutidos à luz da literatura disponível.

  15. Una plataforma multiagente para la búsqueda de recursos educacionales considerando aspectos culturales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bender, Cristina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se propone una arquitectura multiagente para la recuperación de recursos educacionales, que ayude a los usuarios a encontrar cursos que se adecuen a sus características personales y aspectos culturales. En este trabajo, se considera como aspectos culturales a las características que permiten distinguir las preferencias de estudiantes pertenecientes a distintas regiones geográficas. La plataforma multiagente planteada incluye varios tipos de agentes que tienen funcionalidades diferentes. En particular, se modela el Educational Resources Finder Agent como un agente BDI Graduado. Este agente se encarga de la recuperación de los mejores cursos de acuerdo al perfil de cada estudiante. Se describe el sistema multiagente completo y se presenta un ejemplo ilustrativo del proceso de búsqueda.

  16. Algunos aspectos éticos en la práctica de la obstetricia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DR. P. Sergio Valenzuela

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available La obstetricia ejercida en el contexto clínico asistencial es una fuente permanente de cuestionamientos éticos para los especialistas. En este artículo, que tiene carácter de ensayo, se aborda una primera parte introductoria, que da cuenta de la dimensión antropológica del cuidado obstétrico. Luego se destaca la necesidad de referirse a un número mayor de principios en la fundamentación del quehacer obstétrico. Por último, profundiza principalmente en los aspectos éticos de su ejercicio como obstetricia de urgencia y la ética del diagnóstico; quedando aspectos importantes para discutir en una futura oportunidad.

  17. Los aspectos socioculturales de la migración en la frontera norte

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    Oscar Priego Hernández

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available México se considera el país de emigrantes más importante del mundo y Estados Unidos el principal país de inmigrantes. Su posición geográfica en la frontera Norte lo convierten atractivo para los flujos migratorios de los países centroamericanos. Hoy enfrenta los retos de la crisis financiera internacional de los últimos años que afecta las economías y las relaciones bilaterales. Este trabajo consiste en realizar un estudio de la problemática de los aspectos socioculturales provocada por la migración de personas, analizar fortalezas y debilidades, identificar los nuevos aspectos de la migración y proponer alternativas para mejorar las condiciones de vida de los migrantes mexicanos.

  18. Aspectos ultra-estruturais da forma epimastigota do Trypanosoma cruzi em meio LIT

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    Wanderley de Souza

    1975-06-01

    Full Text Available E feito um estudo da ultra-estrutura da forma epismastigota do Trypanosoma cruzi mantida em meio de cultivo acelular. O núcleo das formas em divisão apresenta um aspecto homogêneo. Microtúbulos intranucleares são observados durante a divisão. No entanto, a membrana nuclear permanece íntegra. O citoplasma apresenta-se com vacúolos de dimensões e aspectos variados. Com o método do ácido periódico-tiosemicarbazida-proteinato de prata, polissacaríáeos e/ou glicoproteínas foram localizados na membrana celular e na membrana que delimita certos vacúolos citoplasmáticos.

  19. ANÁLISIS DE LA TRAZABILIDAD DESDE LA PERSPECTIVA DE LA ORIENTACIÓN A ASPECTOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Silvia Tabares

    Full Text Available En este artículo se presenta un análisis acerca de la trazabilidad de los intereses de un sistema de software, desde el enfoque del desarrollo de software orientado a aspectos. Para esto se abordarán los conceptos generales de trazabilidad, de la orientación a aspectos y de las características que esta técnica puede proveer para verificar la fiabilidad y evolución de los requisitos en el proceso de desarrollo de software. Tratar la trazabilidad desde este enfoque pretende orientar al desarrollador a identificar elementos generales para determinar la traza de los intereses de corte transversal cuando estos afectan otros intereses del sistema y a su vez cómo diferentes piezas de un artefacto de software asociadas a este tipo de intereses han evolucionado y afectado a otras a lo largo del ciclo de vida de desarrollo.

  20. Planificación estratégica: aspectos introductorios (I)

    OpenAIRE

    Galindo Reyes, Fuensanta Carmen; De la Varga Salto, José María

    2016-01-01

    Transparencias como material docente para la asignatura de Administración de Organizaciones. Se corresponden con la etapa primera del proceso administrativo de las organizaciones, la planificación estratétiga. En concreto, incluyen aspectos introductorios relacionados con los conceptos y elementos principales de la planificación estratégica. Planificación estratégica