WorldWideScience

Sample records for intervention interest group

  1. Special Interest Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degi, Bruce J.

    1999-01-01

    Offers a reflection on the shootings at Columbine High School in Littleton, Colorado, on April 20, 1999. Notes how every special-interest group has used the tragedy to support its own point of view, and concludes that teachers have become bystanders in the education of America's children. (SR)

  2. Public interest group involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelley, P.

    1986-01-01

    Including public interest groups in the siting process for nuclear waste disposal facilities is of great importance. Controversial sitings often result in litigation, but involving public interest groups early in the process will lessen the change of this. They act as surrogates for the general public and should be considered as members of the team. It is important to remember though, that all public interest groups are different. In choosing public panels such as public advisory committees, members should not be chosen on the basis of some quota. Opposition groups should not be excluded. Also, it is important to put the right person in charge of the committee. The goal of public involvement is to identify the conflicts. This must be done during the decision process, because conflicts must be known before they can be eliminated. Regarding litigation, it is important to ease through and around legal battles. If the siting process has integrity and a good faith effort has been shown, the court should uphold the effort. In addition, it is important to be negotiable and to eliminate shortcuts

  3. Defining and Classifying Interest Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroni, Laura; Carroll, Brendan; Chalmers, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The interest group concept is defined in many different ways in the existing literature and a range of different classification schemes are employed. This complicates comparisons between different studies and their findings. One of the important tasks faced by interest group scholars engaged...... in large-N studies is therefore to define the concept of an interest group and to determine which classification scheme to use for different group types. After reviewing the existing literature, this article sets out to compare different approaches to defining and classifying interest groups with a sample...... in the organizational attributes of specific interest group types. As expected, our comparison of coding schemes reveals a closer link between group attributes and group type in narrower classification schemes based on group organizational characteristics than those based on a behavioral definition of lobbying....

  4. Rescheduling the special interest group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace, Helen

    1993-06-09

    The committee members of the RCN Social Interest Group for Nurses Working Within Day Hospitals/Day Care for Older People would like to apologise to the large number of people who were interested in attending our conference, which unfortunately had to be postponed.

  5. Interest Groups and Trade Reform in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Sanchez-Mier

    2005-01-01

    Mexico experienced widespread economic reform in the last two decades. From being a protectionist economy with a policy of import substitution, it has turned into an export-oriented open economy. Why was protectionism a stable policy, and how was it overturned by a reform that went against entrenched interests? I apply a game theoretic model of political influence and economic reform to answer these questions using data to calculate the payoffs for the relevant interest groups. In the underly...

  6. Enhancing Interest and Performance with a Utility Value Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulleman, Chris S.; Godes, Olga; Hendricks, Bryan L.; Harackiewicz, Judith M.

    2010-01-01

    We tested whether a utility value intervention (via manipulated relevance) influenced interest and performance on a task and whether this intervention had different effects depending on an individual's performance expectations or prior performance. Interest was defined as triggered situational interest (i.e., affective and emotional task…

  7. Quantifying and Interpreting Group Differences in Interest Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Fouad, Nadya A.; Rounds, James; Hubert, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Research on group differences in interests has often focused on structural hypotheses and mean-score differences in Holland's (1997) theory, with comparatively little research on basic interest measures. Group differences in interest profiles were examined using statistical methods for matching individuals with occupations, the C-index, Q…

  8. Interest group opinions about fuel reduction in southern Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carin E. Vadala; Robert D. Bixler; Thomas A. Waldrop

    2013-01-01

    Opinions of interested publics and interest groups (n = 640) about fuel reduction (FR) in the Southern Appalachian Mountains were investigated through social survey using both pictorial and written questions. The study identified three discrete groups based on knowledge of forest history in the Southern Appalachian Mountains, attitudes toward social and ecological...

  9. Interest group satisfaction with the European Commission's consultation agendas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansson, Henrik Alf Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Interest groups exist largely to raise awareness of particular problems or to avoid regulation by keeping items off the political agenda, it is a major component of their raison d'être. At the earliest stages of the European policy process, the European Commission presents an agenda in the form...... of a "call for consultation" which interest groups attempt to influence. Groups that have had a role in setting the Commission's agenda will likely show most satisfaction with the agenda, used here as a way to examine their agenda-setting power. Based on a novel dataset covering 190 policy issues and 469...... interest groups, unique issue-level data on the expertise held by interest groups, their privileged access and their resources, this paper evaluates whether it is the technical information provided by groups, their insider status or their ability to put pressure on the European institutions that form...

  10. Modernizing dermatology interest groups in medical school: Certificate programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jordan V; Korta, Dorota Z; Keller, Matthew

    2017-11-15

    This commentary addresses the increasingly competitive nature of applying to dermatology residency programs and how both interest groups in medical schools and their dermatology departments can help to better prepare applicants. As previous literature argued that dermatology has been underemphasized in medical school curricula, we propose five fundamental options that interest groups can implement in order to offer increased exposure to our field in medical training. Furthermore, with therecent trend of many schools conferring certificates in various specialized concentrations, we also discuss interest groups pioneering certificate-grantingprograms in dermatology competency. The pros and cons of having a recognized certificate program in dermatology are presented.

  11. Structure of Vocational Interests for Diverse Groups on the 2005 Strong Interest Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantamneni, Neeta; Fouad, Nadya

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the structure of vocational interests in a diverse sample of individuals who completed the 2005 revision of the Strong Interest Inventory. We examined the fit of three racial/ethnic groups (African American, Caucasian, and Latino/a), both genders, and three levels of professional status (GRS participant, student,…

  12. Interest group influence and the delegation of police authority.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloof, R.

    1997-01-01

    An interest group's choice between lobbying politicians and lobbying bureaucrats, and the decision ofpoliticians whether to delegate policy authority, are investigated simultaneously. Lobbying is modeledas strategic information transmission. By assumption only bureaucrats have the expertise to

  13. Identity as constraint and resource in interest group evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halpin, Darren; Daugbjerg, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    , and the capability of challengers to demonstrate to key audiences that the ‘radical’ change is in some way consistent with the founding identity of the group. We demonstrate the application of this approach by examining a case of radical change—a shift in overall form—in a well-known UK interest group, the Soil...

  14. Public Interest vs. Interest Groups: Allowance Allocation in the EU Emission Trading Scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anger, Niels; Oberndorfer, Ulrich (Centre for European Economic Research, Mannheim (Germany)); Boehringer, Christoph (Carl von Ossietzky Univ., Oldenburg (Germany))

    2008-07-01

    We assess the political-economy determinants of allowance allocation in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS). A common-agency model suggests that the government considers the preferences of sectoral interest groups when allocating emissions permits, so that industries with a more powerful lobby face a lower regulatory burden. An empirical analysis of the first trading phase of the EU ETS corroborates our theoretical prediction, but also reveals that the political-economy determinants of permit allocation are more complex. Employing instrumental-variable estimation technique, we find that large carbon emitters that were represented by powerful interest groups received higher levels of emissions allowances

  15. Group Process in a Women's Career Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, Diana L.; Kahn, Sharon E.

    1993-01-01

    Explored women's experiences of group process in career planning interventions and relationship of those experiences to vocational maturity. Results from 99 career-undecided women revealed that female clients, similar to other counseling clients, highly valued both cognitive and affective components of group process in career counseling groups.…

  16. US Interest Groups Prefer Emission Trading: A New Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    1999-01-01

    If there is to be environmental regulation, what kind of regulation would the main interest groups then prefer? This political distortion must be taken into account when designing future environmental regulation such as CO2 regulation. The three main interest groups in the US (private business......, it is suggested that a grandfathered permit market is a more effective policy than a tax in relation to organized interests such as industry, electric utilities and environmental organizations. In perspective, the grandfathered permit market may be mixed with the use of taxes. In the case of CO2 regulation......, for example, taxes may be applied to badly organized polluters, such as households and the transport sector, because their lobbying power is weak. Udgivelsesdato: OCT...

  17. Robin Hood effects on motivation in math: Family interest moderates the effects of relevance interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häfner, Isabelle; Flunger, Barbara; Dicke, Anna-Lena; Gaspard, Hanna; Brisson, Brigitte M; Nagengast, Benjamin; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2017-08-01

    Using a cluster randomized field trial, the present study tested whether 2 relevance interventions affected students' value beliefs, self-concept, and effort in math differently depending on family background (socioeconomic status, family interest (FI), and parental utility value). Eighty-two classrooms were randomly assigned to either 1 of 2 intervention conditions or a control group. Data from 1,916 students (M age = 14.62, SD age = 0.47) and their predominantly Caucasian middle-class parents were obtained via separate questionnaires. Multilevel regression analyses with cross-level interactions were used to investigate differential intervention effects on students' motivational beliefs 6 weeks and 5 months after the intervention. Socioeconomic status, FI, and parental utility values were investigated as moderators of the intervention effects. The intervention conditions were especially effective in promoting students' utility, attainment, intrinsic value beliefs, and effort 5 months after the intervention for students whose parents reported lower levels of math interest. Furthermore, students whose parents reported low math utility values especially profited in terms of their utility and attainment math values 5 months after the intervention. No systematic differential intervention effects were found for socioeconomic status. These results highlight the effectiveness of relevance interventions in decreasing motivational gaps between students from families with fewer or more motivational resources. Findings point to the substantial importance of motivational family resources, which have been neglected in previous research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Interest groups, the Lesotho Highlands Water Project Phase 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    interest groups can bring about changes in the water policy arena. ... Lesotho Highlands Water Project Phase 1 as a case study. ... attempts to influence public policy and their representation ... ties concern the relations between state actors and non-state ..... 'bears responsibility here [LHWP], since it is the sponsor of.

  19. How Do Business Interest Groups Respond to Political Challenges?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paster, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    adaptation. The paper illustrates these two response strategies with four episodes of political conflict in the political-economic history of Germany: (i) the adoption of social insurance under Bismarck, (ii) the adoption of unemployment insurance in the 1920s, (iii) the adoption of board...... their interests, using four episodes of political conflict in Germany. The paper elaborates a model of response strategies and their likely impact on political outcomes. The model suggests that business interest groups can respond to political challenges in two ways: by seeking confrontation or by pursuing...

  20. “Democratic Government”, Interest Groups and American Trade Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanyu Dong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of American trade politics is of great significance when interpreting U.S.A. trade policies and understanding China-U.S.A. trade relations. In order to explain the mechanism of American trade politics, this paper constructs a new analytical framework of “democratic government-interest groups”, which argues that U.S.A. trade policies are not only the choices made by the democratic government between state interests and political private benefits, but also the outcomes of interaction between the U.S.A. government and interest groups. The case study of the U.S.A. trade policies toward China since the new century also demonstrates how the interaction between the government and interest groups ultimately shapes trade policies. Therefore, we need to understand the logic of American trade politics, generate more mutual benefits for our two countries, and work together to promote the bilateral free trade as well as the bilateral relations between China and the U.S.A.

  1. Creation of a mobile intervention group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerre, P.; Mestre, E.

    1961-01-01

    This document presents the different missions and equipment of the Mobile Intervention Group which is supposed to intervene on a site of accident involving radioactive products. The authors indicate the various missions inside and outside a nuclear centre, the vehicles (with a laboratory, a decontamination set, an intervention vehicle for four persons, a liaison vehicle), the intervention equipment, the control and sampling equipment (samplers, counters), the analysis equipment, and the personnel (engineer, chemist, electronics technician, drivers, decontamination agents, sampling agents). They describe the alert procedure and the successive operations

  2. Interest groups and health reform: lessons from California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, T R; Dowell, E B

    We review the 1992 policy choices in California for expanding health insurance coverage, focusing on the rejection of an employer mandate by legislators and voters. We analyze how interest-group politics, gubernatorial politics, and national politics shaped those choices. Although public opinion and the shift of organized medicine showed considerable support for extending health insurance coverage, the opposition of liberal and conservative groups and a foundering economy prevented a significant change in public policy. The president's health reform plan appears to address many of the unresolved concerns in California, but overcoming resistance to any kind of mandate will require skilled leadership and negotiation.

  3. Maldives. Package on population education for special interest groups developed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The Population Education Program of the Non-Formal Education Center has developed a package of Population Education for Special Interest Groups comprising a learning package and fieldworker's guide. The learning package is especially developed for teaching population education for out-of-school populations. Special interest groups in Maldives include newly married couples, adolescents, and working youth. Produced under the guidance of UNESCO, Bangkok, the package contains 36 different materials such as posters, charts, leaflets, booklets, stories, and illustrated booklets which may be taught in 36 to 45 periods. The materials deal with eight themes, namely, family size and family welfare, population and resources, delayed marriage and parenthood, responsible parenthood, population-related values and beliefs, women in development, AIDS/STD, and respect for old people. Accompanying the learning package is the fieldworker's guide used to teach the package. It contains individual guides for each of the 36 learning materials. The guide gives the titles of the materials, format, objectives of the materials, messages, target groups, and an overview of the content of each learning materials. The methodologies used for teaching the learning materials include role playing, group discussion, questioning, brainstorming, survey, creative writing, problem-solving and evaluation. The package will be used by fieldworkers to conduct island-based population education courses. full text

  4. Gestalt Therapy Interventions for Group Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passons, William R.

    1972-01-01

    The author offers a brief introduction to some of the basic tenets of Gestalt therapy, noting goals that are similar to those in counseling theories. He also suggests several interventions from Gestalt therapy to be considered for group counseling and discusses their applications. (Author)

  5. Creating and sustaining a military women's Health Research Interest Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Candy; Trego, Lori; Rychnovsky, Jacqueline; Steele, Nancy; Foradori, Megan

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, four doctorate military nurse scientists representing the triservices (Army, Navy, and Air Force) identified a common interest in the health and care of all women in the armed forces. For 7 years, the team's shared vision to improve servicewomen's health inspired them to commit to a rigorous schedule of planning, developing, and implementing an innovative program that has the capability of advancing scientific knowledge and influencing health policy and practice through research. The ultimate goal of the Military Women's Health Research Interest Group (MWHRIG) is to support military clinicians and leaders in making evidence-based practice and policy decisions. They developed a 4-pronged approach to cultivate the science of military women's healthcare: evaluate the existing evidence, develop a research agenda that addresses gaps in knowledge, facilitate the collaboration of multidisciplinary research, and build the bench of future researchers. The MWHRIG has been a resource to key leaders; its value has been validated by multiservice and multidisciplinary consultations. However, the journey to goal attainment has only been achieved by the enduring commitment of these MWHRIG leaders and their passion to ensure the health and wellbeing of the many women who serve in the United States military. This article describes their journey of dedication.

  6. The priority intervention group in action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    After the storm of december 1999 in France, RTE defined and implemented a GIP, Group of Priority Intervention to manage such crisis and intervene more rapidly. A crisis drill has been organised the first of February 2001 to repair high voltage electric lines. The document presents the drill and analyses the results. Some information on the RTE missions and management facing the electric power market deregulation are also provided. (A.L.B.)

  7. Interest organizations across economic sectors : explaining interest group density in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, Joost; Carroll, Brendan J.; Braun, Caelesta; Chalmers, Adam W.; Destrooper, Tine; Lowery, David; Otjes, Simon; Rasmussen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The number of interest organizations (density) varies across policy domains, political issues and economic sectors. This shapes the nature and outcomes of interest representation. In this contribution, we explain the density of interest organizations per economic sector in the European Union on the

  8. Interest organizations across economic sectors: explaining interest group density in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, Joost; Carroll, Brendan; Braun, Caelesta; Chalmers, Adam; De Strooper, Tine; Lowery, David; Otjes, Simon; Rasmussen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The number of interest organizations (density) varies across policy domains, political issues and economic sectors. This shapes the nature and outcomes of interest representation. In this contribution, we explain the density of interest organizations per economic sector in the European Union on the

  9. Are interest groups different in the factors determining landscape preferences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Bacher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, rural landscape in Europe has evolved from an agricultural by-product to an important public good. This development creates not only new challenges to farming practices, it also makes participation and public involvement an indispensable tool for sustainable landscape planning. This is especially true for many European mountain regions, where tourism represents an important source of income and conflicts between locals’ and tourists’ interests should be avoided. In our study, we analyze whether discrepancies in the perception of the Alpine landscape can be located between locals and tourists and, if these differences exist, in which aspects these two groups are differing. A model employing three general factors able to describe landscape preferences regardless of the personal background is suggested and validated by confirmatory factor analysis. Our major finding shows that an attractive landscape for tourists does not have to be contradictory to a landscape that supports a high living quality for locals. Compromises in landscape planning between locals’ and tourists’ requirements seem often not to be necessary as they, generally, do not differ in the way they experience and assess the landscape.

  10. Creation of a mobile intervention group; Creation d'un groupe mobile d'intervention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerre, P.; Mestre, E.

    1961-11-30

    This document presents the different missions and equipment of the Mobile Intervention Group which is supposed to intervene on a site of accident involving radioactive products. The authors indicate the various missions inside and outside a nuclear centre, the vehicles (with a laboratory, a decontamination set, an intervention vehicle for four persons, a liaison vehicle), the intervention equipment, the control and sampling equipment (samplers, counters), the analysis equipment, and the personnel (engineer, chemist, electronics technician, drivers, decontamination agents, sampling agents). They describe the alert procedure and the successive operations.

  11. LGBT organizations in USA as interest groups: Characteristics and influence

    OpenAIRE

    Antonić Slobodan

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the major LGBT organizations in the U.S., their organizational resources, and ways to influence politicians and the media. LGBT movement during the 1990s, completed its transition from liberationist and the system outside position, to the lobbyist and system insider position. The paper discusses the criticism dissidents from LGBT movement consider the alienation of LGBT establishment of the true interests of its membership. At the end of the article LG...

  12. Common interests bind AGU and geophysical groups around the globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntee, Christine

    2012-02-01

    In continuation of our work to strengthen alliances with key organizations in the Earth and space science community, AGU president Michael McPhaden, president-elect Carol Finn, and I held a series of meetings with leaders from other science societies during the 2011 Fall Meeting. Over the course of 2 days we met with leaders from the Geophysical Society of America, European Geosciences Union, Japan Geosciences Union, Ethiopian Geophysical Union, Asia Oceania Geosciences Society, Chinese Geophysical Society, and Asociación Latinoamericana de Geofísica Espacial. This gave us a valued opportunity to discuss the common interests and challenges we all face and to learn from each other's experience. The meetings allowed AGU to strengthen existing cooperative agreements and reach new levels of understanding between us and other societies. Additionally, we met with representatives from the Korean Ocean Research and Development Institute to discuss their intention to establish a geophysical union modeled after AGU.

  13. Sustainability and Interest Group Participation in City Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent E. Portney

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Many cities across the United States have embraced programs aimed at achieving greater sustainability. This may seem surprising, particularly since adopting aggressive environmental protection programs is regarded by some as inimical to economic development. An alternative perspective is that in the modern city sustainability can be part of an economic development strategy. What is largely missing from the literature on sustainable cities’ policies and programs is systematic analysis of the political dynamics that seem to affect support for, and adoption and implementation of, local sustainability policies. To explore the actual behavior of cities with respect to sustainability and economic development policies, two original databases on 50 large U.S. cities are used. One source of data is composed of survey responses from city councilors, agency administrators, and leaders of local advocacy groups in each of these cities. The second database contains information as to what these 50 cities actually do in terms of sustainable programs and policies. In testing a series of hypotheses, findings suggest that: a high number of programs aimed at achieving sustainability is linked to the inclusion of environmental advocacy groups; that this relationship is not compromised by business advocacy; and that inclusion of environmental groups in policymaking seems to be supported, rather than impeded, by high rates of economic growth by the cities.

  14. The visible hand of the state : on the organizational development of interest groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraussen, B.

    2014-01-01

    To understand dynamics within communities of organized interests, researchers have primarily studied organizational births and deaths. The organizational development of established interest organizations has received far less attention. This article claims that the evolution of interest groups'

  15. Counselling in infertility: individual, couple and group interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Uschi; Emery, Marysa; Wischmann, Tewes; Thorn, Petra

    2010-12-01

    Infertility is considered a biopsychosocial crisis and infertility counselling is recommended as an integral part of a multidisciplinary approach. This article will outline the theoretical background and describe common interventions used in infertility counselling for individuals, couples and in a group setting. This article summarizes the proceedings of the first campus workshop of the Special interest group of Psychology and Counselling of the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE). Infertility counselling offers the opportunity to explore, discover and clarify ways of living more satisfyingly and resourcefully when fertility impairments have been diagnosed. The Heidelberg Fertility Consultation Service is presented as a framework for individual and couples counselling and highlights important issues in counselling patients. For group work a number of steps to set up a group within an infertility framework are discussed. In recent years, infertility counselling has become a specialist form of counselling requiring professional expertise and qualification. Key issues and common interventions are presented to raise awareness for the specific counselling needs of individuals and couples experiencing infertility and undergoing medical treatment. Mental health professionals new to the field of reproductive technologies as well as those in other areas of mental health counselling clients with fertility disorders can benefit from the topics addressed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Teamwork Satisfaction: Exploring the Multilevel Interaction of Teamwork Interest and Group Extraversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Kimberly A.; Kottke, Janet L.

    2013-01-01

    Multilevel modeling is used to examine the impact of teamwork interest and group extraversion on group satisfaction. Participants included 206 undergraduates in 65 groups who were surveyed at the beginning and end of a requisite term-length group project for an upper-division university course. We hypothesized that teamwork interest and both…

  17. Measuring Group Care Worker Interventions in Residential Youth Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaanssen, I.L.W.; Kroes, G.; Nijhof, K.S.; Delsing, M.J.M.H.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Veerman, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Background By interacting with children, group care workers shape daily living environments to influence treatment. Current literature provides little knowledge about the content of youth residential care. Objective In this study, a questionnaire called the Group care worker Intervention

  18. Intra-psychic effects of a group intervention programme on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    effect on factors such as their social-emotional well-being and school performance .... media were used before and after the adolescents took part in the group intervention. ..... Group counseling for elementary and middle school children.

  19. The mechanism of influence of interest groups in the European Union: political and sociological analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Kanevsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Interaction between interest groups and political institutions is one of the cornerstones of the European Union policy making process. Although majority of Russian and foreign works dedicated to lobbying and decision making in the EU, concentrate on a governmental stadial system and normative procedures that regulate interest groups access to policy making centers. Such institutional approach doesn’t clarify why the EU has concrete policies, why not all interest groups are able to win, who sets the agenda and in whose interests decisions are made. Current article, using contemporary theories and research, analyzes process of interaction between interest groups and governmental structures in the EU. It also proposes explanations of wins and losses in the policy making process, trying to answer how interest groups interacts with each other and what patterns can be identified in the process of interest aggregation by governmental structures.

  20. A holistic group psychotherapeutic intervention for the treatment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    All the participants completed the Functional Bowel Disorder Seventy Index and the Depression and Anxiety subscales of the Personality Assessment Inventory before commencement of group therapy for Group 1 and one month after completion of this intervention. The effect of the intervention was determined by utilising ...

  1. Conservationism is not Conservatism: Do Interest Group Endorsements Help Voters Hold Representatives Accountable?

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Much research assumes that voters know or can learn the positions their representatives take on key issue. Arthur Lupia found that voters could learn such information through advertisements and interest group endorsements. We examine whether these cues improve voters’ ability to infer their representative’s voting behavior and find that most interest groups fail to do so. In a follow-up study, we find that voters are ignorant of which positions the interest groups take on issues. Finally, we ...

  2. Group crisis intervention for children during ongoing war conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabet, Abdel Aziz; Vostanis, Panos; Karim, Khalid

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term impact of a group crisis intervention for children aged 9-15 years from five refugee camps in the Gaza Strip during ongoing war conflict. Children were selected if they reported moderate to severe posttraumatic stress reactions, and were allocated to group intervention (N=47) encouraging expression of experiences and emotions through storytelling, drawing, free play and role-play; education about symptoms (N=22); or no intervention (N=42). Children completed the CPTSD-RI and the CDI pre- and post-intervention. No significant impact of the group intervention was established on children's posttraumatic or depressive symptoms. Possible explanations of the findings are discussed, including the continuing exposure to trauma and the non-active nature of the intervention.

  3. Interest in Health Behavior Intervention Delivery Modalities Among Cancer Survivors: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Emily C; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Cox, Matthew G; Lyons, Elizabeth J; Carmack, Cindy L; Blalock, Janice A; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Background Effective, broad-reaching channels are important for the delivery of health behavior interventions in order to meet the needs of the growing population of cancer survivors in the United States. New technology presents opportunities to increase the reach of health behavior change interventions and therefore their overall impact. However, evidence suggests that older adults may be slower in their adoption of these technologies than the general population. Survivors? interest for more...

  4. Automated volume of interest delineation and rendering of cone beam CT images in interventional cardiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Cristian; Schäfer, Dirk; Eshuis, Peter; Carroll, John; Grass, Michael

    2012-02-01

    Interventional C-arm systems allow the efficient acquisition of 3D cone beam CT images. They can be used for intervention planning, navigation, and outcome assessment. We present a fast and completely automated volume of interest (VOI) delineation for cardiac interventions, covering the whole visceral cavity including mediastinum and lungs but leaving out rib-cage and spine. The problem is addressed in a model based approach. The procedure has been evaluated on 22 patient cases and achieves an average surface error below 2mm. The method is able to cope with varying image intensities, varying truncations due to the limited reconstruction volume, and partially with heavy metal and motion artifacts.

  5. Perceived legitimacy follows in-group interests: Evidence from intermediate-status groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricati, Luca; Sollami, Alfonso

    2017-03-01

    In two experiments, the effect of (in)stability of status differences on the perception of perspective legitimacy and in-group threat among intermediate-status group members (i.e., nurses students or nurses) was analysed. Both studies indicated that in downwardly unstable condition, legitimacy was lower and in-group threat was higher than in stable condition. In upwardly unstable condition, perceived legitimacy was higher and in-group threat was lower than in stable condition. The indirect effects of (in)stability via in-group threat on perceived legitimacy were significant. © 2016 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Identification of voters with interest groups improves the electoral chances of the challenger

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadiraj, V.; Tuinstra, J.; van Winden, F.

    2010-01-01

    This short paper investigates the consequences of voters identifying with special interest groups in a spatial model of electoral competition. We show that by effectively coordinating voting behavior, identification with interest groups leads to an increase in the size of the winning set, that is,

  7. College Student Drug Use: Patterns, Concerns, Consequences, and Interest in Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Rebekka S.; McMahon, Thomas J.; Moreggi, Danielle I.; Rounsaville, Bruce J.; Ball, Samuel A.

    2012-01-01

    Although previous surveys have indicated high rates of illicit and prescription drug misuse among college students, few have assessed negative consequences, personal concerns, or interest in interventions for drug use. In a survey of 262 college students who self-reported lifetime use of an illicit drug, 69% reported at least one negative…

  8. MaiMwana women's groups: a community mobilisation intervention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    intervention involving women's groups in Mchinji District, Malawi. The intervention was ... live below the poverty line of less than $1.25 per day and. 90.4% live below the .... (India), Salima, Kasungu, Lilongwe and Ntcheu districts. (Malawi) and ...

  9. Small groups, large profits: Calculating interest rates in community-managed microfinance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ole Dahl

    2012-01-01

    Savings groups are a widely used strategy for women’s economic resilience – over 80% of members worldwide are women, and in the case described here, 72.5%. In these savings groups it is common to see the interest rate on savings reported as "20-30% annually". Using panel data from 204 groups...... in Malawi, I show that the right figure is likely to be at least twice this figure. For these groups, the annual return is 62%. The difference comes from sector-wide application of a non-standard interest rate calculations and unrealistic assumptions about the savings profile in the groups. As a result......, it is impossible to compare returns in savings groups with returns elsewhere. Moreover, the interest on savings is incomparable to the interest rate on loans. I argue for the use of a standardized comparable metric and suggest easy ways to implement it. Developments of new tools and standard along these lines...

  10. Systematic review of control groups in nutrition education intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Wu, FanFan; Spaccarotella, Kim; Quick, Virginia; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Zhang, Yingting

    2017-07-11

    Well-designed research trials are critical for determining the efficacy and effectiveness of nutrition education interventions. To determine whether behavioral and/or cognition changes can be attributed to an intervention, the experimental design must include a control or comparison condition against which outcomes from the experimental group can be compared. Despite the impact different types of control groups can have on study outcomes, the treatment provided to participants in the control condition has received limited attention in the literature. A systematic review of control groups in nutrition education interventions was conducted to better understand how control conditions are described in peer-reviewed journal articles compared with experimental conditions. To be included in the systematic review, articles had to be indexed in CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, WoS, and/or ERIC and report primary research findings of controlled nutrition education intervention trials conducted in the United States with free-living consumer populations and published in English between January 2005 and December 2015. Key elements extracted during data collection included treatment provided to the experimental and control groups (e.g., overall intervention content, tailoring methods, delivery mode, format, duration, setting, and session descriptions, and procedures for standardizing, fidelity of implementation, and blinding); rationale for control group type selected; sample size and attrition; and theoretical foundation. The search yielded 43 publications; about one-third of these had an inactive control condition, which is considered a weak study design. Nearly two-thirds of reviewed studies had an active control condition considered a stronger research design; however, many failed to report one or more key elements of the intervention, especially for the control condition. None of the experimental and control group treatments were sufficiently detailed to permit replication of the

  11. Utility of a dermatology interest group blog: the impact of medical student interest groups and Web 2.0 tools as educational resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalalat, Sheila Z; Wagner, Richard F

    2014-01-01

    The open access University of Texas Dermatology Interest Group blog was established in 2004 for the purposes of increasing communication and collaboration between medical students and dermatology faculty, residents, and alumni, as well as to promote educational opportunities and the missions for which the interest group was created. This blog is unique because of its longevity and continuous postings directed toward the educational and professional needs of medical students and residents. A blog user survey was performed to assess viewers' thoughts, purpose of viewing, demographic profile, subscriber status, usage of the blog and other Web 2.0 tools (forums, Facebook, blogs, Twitter, podcasts), and perceived usefulness. Sixty-one anonymous online surveys were completed during a 1-month period. Statistical analyses of the responses demonstrated that the utilization of web-based tools and the blog were valuable resources for students, especially for blog subscribers, those more involved in an interest group, and those reading the blog for a longer period of time. The usefulness and impact of this method of communication and dissemination of information in medical education may encourage other student groups, faculty advisors, and educators to implement similar educational tools at their institutions.

  12. Utility of a dermatology interest group blog: the impact of medical student interest groups and Web 2.0 tools as educational resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalalat SZ

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sheila Z Jalalat, Richard F Wagner Jr Department of Dermatology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA Abstract: The open access University of Texas Dermatology Interest Group blog was established in 2004 for the purposes of increasing communication and collaboration between medical students and dermatology faculty, residents, and alumni, as well as to promote educational opportunities and the missions for which the interest group was created. This blog is unique because of its longevity and continuous postings directed toward the educational and professional needs of medical students and residents. A blog user survey was performed to assess viewers' thoughts, purpose of viewing, demographic profile, subscriber status, usage of the blog and other Web 2.0 tools (forums, Facebook, blogs, Twitter, podcasts, and perceived usefulness. Sixty-one anonymous online surveys were completed during a 1-month period. Statistical analyses of the responses demonstrated that the utilization of web-based tools and the blog were valuable resources for students, especially for blog subscribers, those more involved in an interest group, and those reading the blog for a longer period of time. The usefulness and impact of this method of communication and dissemination of information in medical education may encourage other student groups, faculty advisors, and educators to implement similar educational tools at their institutions. Keywords: education, medical student, dermatology, blog

  13. 'Group value foresight' - Treating the nuclear interest in IVO Group Communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heininen-Ojanpera, Marke

    1999-01-01

    Fortum is a new international energy group formed through the combination of the IVO Group and the Neste Group, two Finnish industrial groups with extensive operations in the energy sector in the Nordic countries and certain other countries throughout the world. IVO Group uses almost all fuels to generate electricity: nuclear, hydro, gas, oil, coal, peat, biomass, municipal waste, wind and solar. The main capacity is generated by nuclear, coal and water but gas, particularly in cogeneration, has been expected to grow. The major challenge in communicating is to find a balanced way of dealing with this variety so that the messages will be open and objective and, at the same time, not harming unnecessarily any of the generation forms in business terms. Moreover, new business procedures are welcome. The majority of the communicating issues deal with either competition or environmental questions under the threat of bad publicity and more strict regulatory controls. From the beginning, one of the working groups was responsible for defining the issues and sorting out the weak signals related to nuclear energy. In terms of corporate communications, special nuclear policies and messages have been worked out each year. For many reasons, the earlier nuclear policies and communication agendas have been unnecessarily strongly emphasising the nuclear option only. Today, the Group Value Foresight process, among others, has helped IVO to find the correct weighting of any nuclear issue and option in relation to other major forms of generation and related issues. The policies and messages have become more reasonable and more sensitive to changing situations in the market and in relation to public perception. There is less and less need for presenting the nuclear option in public with a quivering voice of offended authority

  14. Group Play Therapy with Sexually Abused Preschool Children: Group Behaviors and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Karyn Dayle

    2002-01-01

    Group play therapy is a common treatment modality for children who have been sexually abused. Sexually abused preschoolers exhibit different group play therapy behaviors than do nonabused children. Group workers need to be aware of these differences and know the appropriate group interventions. This article describes group play therapy with…

  15. Leadership Qualities Emerging in an Online Social Support Group Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodatt, Stephanie A; Shenk, Jared E; Williams, Mark L; Horvath, Keith J

    2014-11-01

    Technology-delivered interventions addressing a broad range of problems for which clients present for therapy are proliferating. However, little is known of leadership dynamics that emerge in online group interventions. The purpose of this study was to assess the types of leadership qualities that would emerge in an online social support group intervention to improve medication adherence for men with HIV, and to characterize the demographic and psychosocial profiles of leaders. Written posts ( n =616) from 66 men were coded using an adapted version of the Full Range Model of Leadership. Results showed that 10% ( n =64) of posts reflected one of five leadership types, the most common of which was mentoring/providing feedback (40% of leadership posts). The next most common leadership style were instances in which encouragement was offered (30% of leadership posts). Leaders appeared to have lived with HIV longer and have higher Internet knowledge scores than non-leaders. Results indicate that online group interventions potentially may be useful to supplement traditional face-to-face treatment by providing an additional venue for group members to mentor and provide emotional support to each other. However, additional research is needed to more fully understand leadership qualities and group dynamics in other online group intervention settings.

  16. Measuring Changes in Interest in Science and Technology at the College Level in Response to Two Instructional Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, William L.; Sadler, Troy D.

    2016-06-01

    Improving interest in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is crucial to widening participation and success in STEM studies at the college level. To understand how classroom and extracurricular interventions affect interest, it is necessary to have appropriate measurement tools. We describe the adaptation and revalidation of a previously existing multidimensional instrument to the end of measuring interest in environmental science and technology in college nonscience majors. We demonstrate the revised instrument's ability to detect change in this group over an 8-week time period. While collection of demographic information was not part of the study design, participating students were similar in that they hailed from three environmental science nonmajor classes sharing a common syllabus and instructional delivery method. Change in interest was measured in response to two types of scientific literature-based learning approaches: a scientific practice approach and a traditional, quiz-driven approach. We found that both approaches led to moderate gains in interest in learning environmental science and careers in environmental science across an 8-week time period. Interest in using technology for learning increased among students using the scientific practice approach; in contrast, the same measure decreased among students using the reading/quiz approach. This result invites the possibility that interest in using technology as a learning tool may relate to technological literacy, which must be taught explicitly in the context of authentic inquiry experiences.

  17. Effectiveness of a Volunteer-Led Crafts Group Intervention amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a volunteer led crafts group intervention (VLCG) as an adjunct to antidepressant medication on mild to moderately depressed women. A quasi-experimental, non-equivalent, control group study was conducted in an urban, psychiatric clinic. Depression was ...

  18. Community Post-Tornado Support Groups: Intervention and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCammon, Susan; And Others

    Post-tornado support groups were organized by the Greene County, North Carolina disaster coordinators and the Pitt County outreach workers from the Community Mental Health Center sponsored tornado follow-up project. The most significant intervention used was the emphasis on creating a climate of group support by establishing a forum for…

  19. Meta-Analysis of Studies Incorporating the Interests of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders into Early Intervention Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl J. Dunst

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Incorporating the interests and preferences of young children with autism spectrum disorders into interventions to promote prosocial behavior and decrease behavior excesses has emerged as a promising practice for addressing the core features of autism. The efficacy of interest-based early intervention practices was examined in a meta-analysis of 24 studies including 78 children 2 to 6 years of age diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Effect size analyses of intervention versus nonintervention conditions and high-interest versus low-interest contrasts indicated that interest-based intervention practices were effective in terms of increasing prosocial and decreasing aberrant child behavior. Additionally, interest-based interventions that focused on two of the three core features of autism spectrum disorders (poor communication, poor interpersonal relationships were found most effective in influencing child outcomes. Implications for very early intervention are discussed in terms addressing the behavior markers of autism spectrum disorders before they become firmly established.

  20. Challenges in the transition to clinical training in dentistry: An ADEE special interest group initial report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, C M; Botelho, M G; Wesselink, P R; Vervoorn, J M

    2018-02-03

    Curricular integration in higher education has been widely supported in the educational literature. As a result, several health care and specifically dental curricula have evolved from compartmentalised disciplinary training to integrated modalities; however, in many courses, a pre-clinical-clinical watershed remains a barrier to integration in dental education. This article introduces a general description of the pre-clinical-clinical transition in dentistry according to the outcomes of the discussion held during the first working group session of the "Transition to Clinical Training" Special Interest Group during the 2016 annual meeting of the Association for Dental Education in Europe. An online questionnaire was made available before the meeting to survey the curricular characteristics of the participants' schools. During the meeting, a working session related to the pre-clinical-clinical transition occurred. Conclusions from the discussion are summarised in this article. Fourteen dental schools from 12 countries participated in the online survey. The included programmes had an average duration of 5.3 years (SD = 0.48), with high school or the local equivalent as the required entrance level for dentistry. The hybrid curriculum was the leading curriculum design (n = 9) followed by competence-based curricula (n = 3), with patient treatment as the core of clinical training in every included programme. The pre-clinical-clinical transition in dentistry is a recognisable matter in dental education that requires assessment and research to ease the management of a stage with relevant influence on educational outcomes. This article presents an initial framework for further research and educational intervention. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Integrating a Social Behavior Intervention during Small Group Academic Instruction Using a Total Group Criterion Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Anderson, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    Total group contingencies, a variation of interdependent group contingencies, provide educators with an efficient and effective mechanism to improve social behavior and increase academic skills. Their utility has not been examined in small educational groups. This is unfortunate as supplemental instruction frequently is delivered in small group…

  2. The health policy pathfinder: an innovative strategy to explore interest group politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nannini, Angela

    2009-10-01

    Moving a specific nursing health policy agenda forward depends on skill in building coalitions with other interest or stakeholder groups, including consumers. Often, nursing students study health policy in a discipline-specific environment without experiential opportunities to argue their views with other stakeholders in policy arenas. The health policy pathfinder, an innovative learning strategy for understanding interest group politics, will assist nursing students in meeting the following objectives: 1) analyze and articulate diverse policy arguments from various stakeholder groups; 2) identify opportunities for collaborations between stakeholder groups; 3) identify the influence of interest groups on the policy making process; and 4) critically evaluate evidence from a variety of sources ranging from peer-reviewed publications to grey literature to Internet blogs. This article describes the health policy pathfinder, including design, execution, and evaluation steps, and provides a brief excerpt from a student pathfinder. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Computer-mediated support group intervention for parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragadóttir, Helga

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a computer-mediated support group (CMSG) intervention for parents whose children had been diagnosed with cancer. An evaluative one-group, before-and-after research design. A CMSG, an unstructured listserve group where participants used their E-mail for communication, was conducted over a 4-month period. Participation in the CMSG was offered to parents in Iceland whose children had completed cancer treatment in the past 5 years. Outcome measures were done: before the intervention (Time 1), after 2 months of intervention (Time 2) and after 4 months of intervention (Time 3) when the project ended. Measures included: demographic and background variables; health related vulnerability factors of parents: anxiety, depression, somatization, and stress; perceived mutual support; and use of the CMSG. Data were collected from November 2002 to June 2003. Twenty-one of 58 eligible parents participated in the study, with 71% retention rate for both post-tests. Mothers' depression decreased significantly from Time 2 to Time 3 (pcomputer technology for support is particularly useful for dispersed populations and groups that have restrictions on their time. Computer-mediated support groups have been shown to be a valuable addition to, or substitute for, a traditional face-to-face mutual support group and might suit both genders equally.

  4. Web-based tailored lifestyle programs: exploration of the target group's interests and implications for practice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijden, M.W.; Jans, M.P.; Hildebrandt, V.H.

    2008-01-01

    An important challenge in Web-based health promotion is to increase the reach of the target audience by taking the target groups' desires into consideration. Data from 505 members of a Dutch Internet panel (representative for Dutch Internet users) were used to asses the target group's interests and

  5. Group versus individual stress management intervention in breast cancer patients for fatigue and emotional reactivity: a randomised intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissanen, Ritva; Arving, Cecilia; Ahlgren, Johan; Nordin, Karin

    2014-09-01

    Fatigue and emotional reactivity are common among women suffering from breast cancer and might detrimentally affect these women's quality of life. This study evaluates if the stress management delivered either in a group or individual setting would improve fatigue and emotional reactivity among women with a newly diagnosed breast cancer. Participants (n = 304) who reported elevated levels of distress at three-month post-inclusion were randomised between stress management in a group (GSM) (n = 77) or individual (ISM) (n = 78) setting. Participation was declined by 149 women. Participants completed the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) and the Everyday Life Stress Scale (ELSS) at the time of inclusion, 3- and 12-month post-inclusion. Analyses were made according to intention to treat and per-protocol principles. Mann-Whitney tests were used to examine differences between the two intervention groups. No significant differences were detected between the GSM and ISM groups on fatigue or emotional reactivity. In addition, there were no changes over time for these outcomes. There were no differences between the two intervention arms with reference to fatigue or emotional reactivity; however, a clinically interesting finding was the low number of women who were interested in participating in a psychosocial intervention. This finding may have clinical implications when psychosocial support is offered to women with a newly diagnosed breast cancer and also in the planning of future studies.

  6. Stepfamily Education: Benefits of a Group-Formatted Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogrand, Linda; Torres, Eliza; Higginbotham, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    This program evaluation was conducted by interviewing 40 low-income participants in a relationship education (RE) program for stepfamilies to determine specific benefits of a group-formatted intervention. The benefits that were most often identified were learning from others and having personal stepfamily challenges normalized. Participants also…

  7. Group Play Interventions for Children: Strategies for Teaching Prosocial Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Group play interventions are used to meet a broad range of developmental needs in children from various backgrounds. This book is for mental health practitioners working with children aged 5 through 12 to help them learn important social skills and self-control strategies such as making friends, asking for and offering help, controlling hands and…

  8. Worksite Environmental Interventions for Obesity Prevention and Control: Evidence from Group Randomized Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Isabel Diana; Becerra, Adan; Chin, Nancy P

    2014-06-01

    Worksites provide multiple advantages to prevent and treat obesity and to test environmental interventions to tackle its multiple causal factors. We present a literature review of group-randomized and non-randomized trials that tested worksite environmental, multiple component interventions for obesity prevention and control paying particular attention to the conduct of formative research prior to intervention development. The evidence on environmental interventions on measures of obesity appears to be strong since most of the studies have a low (4/8) and unclear (2/8) risk of bias. Among the studies reviewed whose potential risk of bias was low, the magnitude of the effect was modest and sometimes in the unexpected direction. None of the four studies describing an explicit formative research stage with clear integration of findings into the intervention was able to demonstrate an effect on the main outcome of interest. We present alternative explanation for the findings and recommendations for future research.

  9. The Influence of Some Romanian Interest Groups Upon the Activity of Government and Parliament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca COBÂRZAN

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on two specific interest groups, NGOs and trade unions, and on their influence upon the government and parliament. Our paper is based on an analyze of the activity of several interest groups during the period 2002-2004 and on the results of several researches and reports published on the last years. The analyze identifies petitioning for rule making, public meetings and debates, monitoring the activity of the public institutions and participating in advisory or regulatory committees as being the most common used mechanisms to influence the government and the parliament in Romania. Also, the analyze shows that administrative procedures affect the degree of bureaucratic autonomy. Overall, the results of this brief research show some pluralist forms of the interaction between the interest groups and the public institutions.

  10. Meta-Analysis of Studies Incorporating the Interests of Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders into Early Intervention Practices

    OpenAIRE

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Hamby, Deborah W.

    2012-01-01

    Incorporating the interests and preferences of young children with autism spectrum disorders into interventions to promote prosocial behavior and decrease behavior excesses has emerged as a promising practice for addressing the core features of autism. The efficacy of interest-based early intervention practices was examined in a meta-analysis of 24 studies including 78 children 2 to 6 years of age diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Effect size analyses of intervention versus noninterve...

  11. Increasing medical student exposure to musculoskeletal medicine: the initial impact of the Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Medicine Interest Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickelson DT

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dayne T Mickelson,1 Philip K Louie,2 Kenneth R Gundle,3 Alex W Farnand,4 Douglas P Hanel5 1Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Sports Medicine, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA; 2Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA; 3Department of Orthopedics and Rehabilitation, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA; 4Department of General Surgery, Presence Saint Joseph Hospital – Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; 5Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Sports Medicine, University of Washington, Harborview Medical Center, Seattle, WA, USA Purpose: To investigate the impact of the Orthopaedic Surgery and Sports Medicine Interest Group (OSSMIG on medical student interest and confidence in core musculoskeletal (MSK concepts through supplemental education and experiences at a single tertiary, academic institution.Methods: Medical student OSSMIG members at various levels of training were anonymously surveyed at the beginning and end of the 2014–2015 academic year.Results: Eighteen (N=18 medical student interest group members completed the survey. Significant improvement in their level of training was observed with regard to respondents’ self-assessed competence and confidence in MSK medicine (p<0.05. Additionally, respondents’ attitudes toward exposure and support from the interest group were significantly higher than those provided by the institution (p<0.05. Members believed OSSMIG increased interest in MSK medicine, improved confidence in their ability to perform orthopedics-related physical exams, strengthened mentorship with residents and attendings, and developed a connection with the Department of Orthopedic Surgery and its residents (median “Strongly Agree”, interquartile range one and two scale items.Conclusion: Since its inception 8 years ago, OSSMIG has been well received and has positively impacted University of Washington School of Medicine students through various interventions

  12. Interest Groups, the Courts, and Educational Equality: A Policy Regimes Approach to "Vergara v. California"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Superfine, Benjamin Michael; Thompson, Alea R.

    2016-01-01

    In "Vergara v. California" (2014), a trial-level court ruled that California laws governing teacher tenure and dismissal were unconstitutional. This study analyzes "Vergara" in light of the shifting use of the courts to promote equal educational opportunities and the changing power bases of educational interest groups,…

  13. Interest Groups and Strategic Constructivism: Business Actors and Border Security Policies in the European Union

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baird, T.E.

    Evidence suggests that business lobbying shapes European Union (EU) border security policies, but there has been no detailed empirical and theoretical work detailing how interest groups exert influence in this domain. Building on strategic constructivist accounts of policy-making, the article argues

  14. "Self-promotion": How regulatory focus affects the pursuit of self-interest at the expense of the group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaal, Maarten; Van Laar, C.; Stahl, Tomas; Ellemers, Naomi; Derks, Belle

    Self-interested behavior may have positive consequences for individual group-members, but also negatively affects the outcomes of the group when group-level and individual-level interests are misaligned. In two studies, we examined such self-interested, group-undermining behavior from the

  15. Travel Health Advisory Group: a joint travel industry and travel health Special Interest Group promoting healthy travel in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggat, Peter A; Zwar, Nicholas; Hudson, Bernie

    2012-09-01

    The Travel Health Advisory Group (THAG), established in 1997, is a joint initiative between the travel industry and travel health professionals in Australia that aims to promote healthy travel. THAG seeks to promote cooperation in improving the health of travellers between the travel industry and travel medicine professionals and to raise public awareness of the importance of travel health. From 2011, THAG has been a Special Interest Group of The Australasian College of Tropical Medicine and its membership has been active in several areas, including web-based travel health information, travel health promotion, media releases, research and education in Australia. Information is given on the objectives, membership and an overview of the various activities of the group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk perception in an interest group context: an examination of the TMI restart issue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderstrom, E.J.; Sorensen, J.H.; Copenhaver, E.D.; Carnes, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    Human response to environmental hazards and risks has been the subject of considerable research by social scientists. Work has traditionally focused on either individual response to the risks of an ongoing or future threat (hazards research), or group and organizational response to a specific disaster event (disaster research). As part of a larger investigation of the restart of the Unit 1 reactor at Three Mile Island (TMI), the response of interest groups active in the restart issue to the continued threat of TMI and to future risks due to restart was examined. After reviewing the restart issue in general, the local dimensions of the restart issue from interest group perspectives are discussed. A method for defining appropriate issues at the community level is reviewed. Differences in the perceived local impacts of alternative decisions, and systems of beliefs associated with differing perceptions are discussed. Finally, the implications of interest group versus individual perceptions of local issues for decision making about TMI, in particular, and about technological hazards management, in general, are discussed. Associated implications for determining socially acceptable risk levels are identified

  17. Self-interested agents create, maintain, and modify group-functional culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manvir; Glowacki, Luke; Wrangham, Richard W

    2016-01-01

    We agree that institutions and rules are crucial for explaining human sociality, but we question the claim of there not being "alternatives to CGS [that] can easily account for the institutionalized cooperation that characterizes human societies" (target article, sect. 7). Hypothesizing that self-interested individuals coercively and collaboratively create rules, we propose that agent-based hypotheses offer viable alternatives to cultural group selection (CGS).

  18. Managing the conflict between individual needs and group interests--ethical leadership in health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shale, Suzanne

    2008-03-01

    This paper derives from a grounded theory study of how Medical Directors working within the UK National Health Service manage the moral quandaries that they encounter as leaders of health care organizations. The reason health care organizations exist is to provide better care for individuals through providing shared resources for groups of people. This creates a paradox at the heart of health care organization, because serving the interests of groups sometimes runs counter to serving the needs of individuals. The paradox presents ethical dilemmas at every level of the organization, from the boardroom to the bedside. Medical Directors experience these organizational ethical dilemmas most acutely by virtue of their position in the organization. As doctors, their professional ethic obliges them to put the interests of individual patients first. As executive directors, their role is to help secure the delivery of services that meet the needs of the whole patient population. What should they do when the interests of groups of patients, and of individual patients, appear to conflict? The first task of an ethical healthcare organization is to secure the trust of patients, and two examples of medical ethical leadership are discussed against this background. These examples suggest that conflict between individual and population needs is integral to health care organization, so dilemmas addressed at one level of the organization inevitably re-emerge in altered form at other levels. Finally, analysis of the ethical activity that Medical Directors have described affords insight into the interpersonal components of ethical skill and knowledge.

  19. Parent-only Group Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Children with Anxiety Disorders: A Control Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salari, Elham; Shahrivar, Zahra; Mahmoudi-Gharaei, Javad; Shirazi, Elham; Sepasi, Mitra

    2018-04-01

    Parents play an important role in development and continuation of anxiety disorders in children. Yet the evidence on parent contribution in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for childhood anxiety is limited. This open randomized trial examined the effectiveness of a parent-directed group CBT to manage children with anxiety disorders. Parents of 42 children aged 6-12 with primary anxiety disorders were allocated to a six, two-hour weekly intervention and a wait-list (WL) control. The Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety, Children's Depression Inventory, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire-Home Version, Depression-Anxiety-Stress Scale, Children Global Assessment Scale, and Global Relational Assessment of Functioning were used to assess children's and parents' functioning and emotional symptoms. Parents completed consumer satisfaction questionnaire. Parents in the CBT group reported significant improvement in their depressive symptoms (p=0.006) and the family functioning (p=0.04), as well as reduction in children's emotional symptoms (p=0.007). Clinician rating of children's functioning showed significant improvement in the CBT group(p=0.001). There was no significant difference in children rating of their anxiety within groups from pre- to post-intervention. Parents were satisfied mostly with the intervention. A brief parent-only CBT based intervention can be effective in the management of childhood anxiety.

  20. Thymic Carcinoma Management Patterns among International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group (ITMIG) Physicians with Consensus from the Thymic Carcinoma Working Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Annemarie; Riely, Gregory; Detterbeck, Frank; Simone, Charles B; Ahmad, Usman; Huang, James; Korst, Robert; Rajan, Arun; Rimner, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    Thymic carcinomas are rare epithelial malignancies with limited data to guide management. To identify areas of agreement and variability in current clinical practice, a 16-question electronic survey was given to members of the International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group (ITMIG). Areas of controversy were discussed with the Thymic Carcinoma Working Group and consensus was achieved, as described. A total of 100 ITMIG members responded. There was general agreement regarding the role for multimodality therapy with definitive surgical resection in physically fit patients with advanced but resectable disease. Areas of controversy included the need for histologic confirmation before surgery, the role of adjuvant therapy, the optimal first-line chemotherapy regimen, and the recommended treatment course for marginally resectable disease with invasion into the great vessels, pericardium, and lungs. The results of the questionnaire provide a description of the management of thymic carcinoma by 100 ITMIG members with a specific interest or expertise in thymic malignancies. Although there was agreement in some areas, clinical practice appears to vary significantly. There is a great need for collaborative research to identify optimal evaluation and treatment strategies. Given the need for multimodality therapy in many cases, a multidisciplinary discussion of the management of patients with thymic carcinoma is critical. Copyright © 2016 International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Interest Groups' Influence over Drug Pricing Policy Reform in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Woojin

    2005-01-01

    In 1999, the Korean government made a drug pricing policy reform to improve the efficiency and transparency of the drug distribution system. Yet, its policy formation process was far from being rational. Facing harsh resistance from various interest groups, the government changed its details into something different from what was initially investigated and planned. So far, little evidence supports any improvement in Korea's drug distribution system. Instead, the new drug pricing policy has deteriorated Korea's national health insurance budget, indicating a heavier economic burden for the general public. From Korea's experience, we may draw some lessons for the future development of a better health care system. As a society becomes more pluralistic, the government should come out of authoritarianism and thoroughly prepare in advance for resistance to reform, by making greater efforts to persuade strong interest groups while informing the general public of potential benefits of the reform. Additionally, facing developing civic groups, the government should listen but not rely too much on them at the final stage of the policy formation. Many of the civic groups lack expertise to evaluate the details of policy and tend to act in a somewhat emotional way. PMID:15988802

  2. Interest groups' influence over drug pricing policy reform in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Woo Jin; Kim, Han Joong

    2005-06-30

    In 1999, the Korean government made a drug pricing policy reform to improve the efficiency and transparency of the drug distribution system. Yet, its policy formation process was far from being rational. Facing harsh resistance from various interest groups, the government changed its details into something different from what was initially investigated and planned. So far, little evidence supports any improvement in Korea's drug distribution system. Instead, the new drug pricing policy has deteriorated Korea's national health insurance budget, indicating a heavier economic burden for the general public. From Korea's experience, we may draw some lessons for the future development of a better health care system. As a society becomes more pluralistic, the government should come out of authoritarianism and thoroughly prepare in advance for resistance to reform, by making greater efforts to persuade strong interest groups while informing the general public of potential benefits of the reform. Additionally, facing developing civic groups, the government should listen but not rely too much on them at the final stage of the policy formation. Many of the civic groups lack expertise to evaluate the details of policy and tend to act in a somewhat emotional way.

  3. Emergence of interest groups on hazardous waste siting: how do they form and survive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.G.; Payne, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the two components of the facilitative setting that are important for group formation. The first component, the ideological component, provides the basic ideas that are adopted by the emerging group. The ideological setting for group formation is produced by such things as antinuclear news coverage and concentration of news stories on hazardous waste problems, on ideas concerning the credibility of the federal government, and on the pervasivensee of ideas about general environmental problems. The organizational component of the facilitative setting provides such things as leadership ability, flexible time, resources, and experience. These are important for providing people, organization, and money to achieve group goals. By and large, the conditions conducive to group formation, growth, and survival are outside the control of decision-makers. Agencies and project sponsors are currently caught in a paradox. Actively involving the public in the decision-making process tends to contribute to the growth and survival of various interest groups. Not involving the public means damage to credibility and conflict with values concerning participatory democracy. Resolution in this area can only be achieved when a comprehensive, coordinated national approach to hazardous waste management emerges. 26 refs

  4. The effect of a simple educational intervention on interest in early abortion training among family medicine residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Justine P; Bennett, Ian; Levine, Jeffrey P; Aguirre, Abigail Calkins; Bellamy, Scarlett; Fleischman, Joan

    2006-06-01

    We aimed to assess the effect of an educational intervention on the interest in and support for abortion training among family medicine residents. We conducted a cross-sectional survey before and after an educational lecture on medical and surgical abortion in primary care among 89 residents in 10 New Jersey family medicine programs. Before the lecture, there was more interest in medical abortion training than surgical abortion. Resident interest in surgical abortion and overall support for abortion training increased after the educational intervention (p<.01). Efforts to develop educational programs on early abortion care may facilitate the integration of abortion training in family medicine.

  5. How Do Politicians Attribute Bureaucratic Responsibility for Performance? Negativity Bias and Interest Group Advocacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Poul A.; Moynihan, Donald P.

    2017-01-01

    Voters reward or punish politicians by deeming them responsible for positive and negative outcomes, but how, in turn, do politicians attribute responsibility to those who actually deliver public services? Inattention to this question renders incomplete current perspectives on democratic processes...... to attribute causal responsibility to bureaucratic leaders, but only in cases of low performance, suggesting a negativity bias in public sector responsibility attribution processes. Additionally, we offer evidence that interest group advocates influence how elected officials use performance information...... to attribute responsibility, but contingent on ideological alignment....

  6. Upgraded coal interest group. Quarterly report, July 1, 1995--September 30, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, W. [Electric Power Research Inst., Chattanooga, TN (United States); Lebowitz, H.E. [Fossil Fuel Sciences, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The objectives of the Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) are as follows: Review and update the status of various coal upgrading technologies and developments and critically assess the results. Perform engineering screening analyses on various coal upgrading approaches. Perform commercialization analyses that will promote the availability and use of upgraded coal products by quantifying the benefits of using them. Identify market opportunities for introduction of upgraded coals. Perform critical analyses on a variety of coals and technologies in areas important to users but not readily available. Perform critical experiments which will show the differences between technologies.

  7. Discovery of and Interest in Health Apps Among Those With Mental Health Needs: Survey and Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueller, Stephen M; Neary, Martha; O'Loughlin, Kristen; Adkins, Elizabeth C

    2018-06-11

    A large number of health apps are available directly to consumers through app marketplaces. Little information is known, however, about how consumers search for these apps and which factors influence their uptake, adoption, and long-term use. The aim of this study was to understand what people look for when they search for health apps and the aspects and features of those apps that consumers find appealing. Participants were recruited from Northwestern University's Center for Behavioral Intervention Technologies' research registry of individuals with mental health needs. Most participants (n=811) completed a survey asking about their use and interest in health and mental health apps. Local participants were also invited to participate in focus groups. A total of 7 focus groups were conducted with 30 participants that collected more detailed information about their use and interest in health and mental health apps. Survey participants commonly found health apps through social media (45.1%, 366/811), personal searches (42.7%, 346/811), or word of mouth (36.9%, 299/811), as opposed to professional sources such as medical providers (24.6%, 200/811). From the focus groups, common themes related to uptake and use of health apps included the importance of personal use before adoption, specific features that users found desirable, and trusted sources either developing or promoting the apps. As the number of mental health and health apps continue to increase, it is imperative to better understand the factors that impact people's adoption and use of such technologies. Our findings indicated that a number of factors-ease of use, aesthetics, and individual experience-drove adoption and use and highlighted areas of focus for app developers and disseminators. ©Stephen M Schueller, Martha Neary, Kristen O'Loughlin, Elizabeth C Adkins. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 11.06.2018.

  8. Why Are Half of Women Interested in Participating in Group Prenatal Care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Sarah D; Sword, Wendy; Eryuzlu, Leyla N; Neupane, Binod; Beyene, Joseph; Biringer, Anne B

    2016-01-01

    To determine the likelihood of participating in group prenatal care (GPC) and associated factors among low-risk women receiving traditional prenatal care from obstetricians, family physicians or midwives, and to determine factors associated with likelihood of participating. Prior to completing a self-administered questionnaire, a 2-min compiled video of GPC was shown to pregnant women receiving traditional prenatal care. Data were collected on opinions of current prenatal care, GPC, and demographics. Biologically plausible variables with a p value ≤0.20 were entered in the multivariable logistic regression model and those with a p value care provider (aOR 1.67, 95% CI 1.12-2.44), and valued woman-centeredness ("fairly important" aOR 2.81, 95% CI 1.77-4.49; "very important" aOR 4.10, 95% CI 2.45-6.88). Women placed high importance on learning components of GPC. The majority would prefer to be with similar women, especially in age. About two-thirds would prefer to have support persons attend GPC and over half would be comfortable with male partners. Approximately half of women receiving traditional prenatal care were interested in participating in GPC. Our findings will hopefully assist providers interested in optimizing satisfaction with traditional prenatal care and GPC by identifying important elements of each, and thus help engage women to consider GPC.

  9. Summary of the 2017 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsebus, Holly J; Curtis, Brenda J; Molina, Patricia E; Afshar, Majid; Boule, Lisbeth A; Morris, Niya; Keshavarzian, Ali; Kolls, Jay K; Yeligar, Samantha M; Price, Michael E; Wyatt, Todd A; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2018-06-01

    On June 24, 2017, the 22nd annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held as a satellite conference during the annual Research Society on Alcoholism (RSA) Scientific Meeting in Denver, Colorado. The 2017 meeting focused broadly on mechanisms that link alcohol to tissue injury and inflammation, and how this research can be translated to improve human health. Two plenary sessions composed the meeting, which first explored the association between alcohol and trauma/tissue injury, and finished with a discussion of alcohol and mucosal inflammation. The presentations encompassed diverse areas of alcohol research, from effects on the brain, to airway and pulmonary systems, to gut barrier disruption. The discussions also thoughtfully highlighted how current laboratory and clinical research can be used to prevent or treat alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Summary of the 2016 Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boule, Lisbeth A; Ju, Cynthia; Agudelo, Marisela; Parira, Tiyash; Cannon, Abigail; Davis, Booker; Eby, Jonathan; Cresci, Gail; Samuelson, Derrick R; Shukla, Pradeep; Alrefai, Waddah A; Sureshchandra, Suhas; Pandey, Subhash C; Schnabl, Bernd; Curtis, Brenda J; Wyatt, Todd A; Choudhry, Mashkoor A; Kovacs, Elizabeth J

    2018-02-01

    On November 18, 2016 the 21st annual Alcohol and Immunology Research Interest Group (AIRIG) meeting was held at the Center for Translational Research and Education at Loyola University Chicago's Health Sciences Campus in Maywood, IL. The 2016 meeting focused broadly on alcohol and inflammation, epigenetics, and the microbiome. The four plenary sessions of the meeting were Alcohol, Inflammation, and Immunity; Alcohol and Epigenetics; Alcohol, Transcriptional Regulation, and Epigenetics; and Alcohol, Intestinal Mucosa, and the Gut Microbiome. Presentations in all sessions of the meeting explored putative underlying causes for chronic diseases and mortality associated with alcohol consumption, shedding light on future work and potential therapeutic targets to alleviate the negative effects of alcohol misuse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Research Data Alliance's Interest Group on "Weather, Climate and Air Quality"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretonnière, Pierre-Antoine; Benincasa, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Research Data Alliance's Interest Group on "Weather, Climate and Air Quality" More than ever in the history of Earth sciences, scientists are confronted with the problem of dealing with huge amounts of data that grow continuously at a rate that becomes a challenge to process and analyse them using conventional methods. Data come from many different and widely distributed sources, ranging from satellite platforms and in-situ sensors to model simulations, and with different degrees of openness. How can Earth scientists deal with this diversity and big volume and extract useful information to understand and predict the relevant processes? The Research Data Alliance (RDA, https://rd-alliance.org/), an organization that promotes and develops new data policies, data standards and focuses on the development of new technical solutions applicable in many distinct areas of sciences, recently entered in its third phase. In this framework, an Interest Group (IG) comprised of community experts that are committed to directly or indirectly enable and facilitate data sharing, exchange, or interoperability in the fields of weather, climate and air quality has been created recently. Its aim is to explore and discuss the challenges for the use and efficient analysis of large and diverse datasets of relevance for these fields taking advantage of the knowledge generated and exchanged in RDA. At the same time, this IG intends to be a meeting point between members of the aforementioned communities to share experiences and propose new solutions to overcome the forthcoming challenges. Based on the collaboration between several research meteorological and European climate institutes, but also taking into account the input from the private (from the renewable energies, satellites and agriculture sectors for example) and public sectors, this IG will suggest practical and applicable solutions for Big Data issues, both at technological and policy level, encountered by these communities. We

  12. Addressing group dynamics in a brief motivational intervention for college student drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faris, Alexander S; Brown, Janice M

    2003-01-01

    Previous research indicates that brief motivational interventions for college student drinkers may be less effective in group settings than individual settings. Social psychological theories about counterproductive group dynamics may partially explain this finding. The present study examined potential problems with group motivational interventions by comparing outcomes from a standard group motivational intervention (SGMI; n = 25), an enhanced group motivational intervention (EGMI; n = 27) designed to suppress counterproductive processes, and a no intervention control (n = 23). SGMI and EGMI participants reported disruptive group dynamics as evidenced by low elaboration likelihood, production blocking, and social loafing, though the level of disturbance was significantly lower for EGMI individuals (p = .001). Despite counteracting group dynamics in the EGMI condition, participants in the two interventions were statistically similar in post-intervention problem recognition and future drinking intentions. The results raise concerns over implementing individually-based interventions in group settings without making necessary adjustments.

  13. Reading Intervention to Improve Narrative Production, Narrative Comprehension, and Motivation and Interest of Children with Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakulski, Lori A.; Kaderavek, Joan N.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a reading intervention on narrative production, narrative comprehension, and reading motivation interest in children with hearing loss. Seven school children between the ages of 9 and 11 were paired with younger "reading buddies" (without hearing loss). The children with hearing loss read storybooks to…

  14. Creating psychological connections between intervention recipients: development and focus group evaluation of a group singing session for people with aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant, Mark; Warmoth, Krystal; Code, Chris; Dean, Sarah; Goodwin, Victoria A; Stein, Ken; Sugavanam, Thavapriya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The study sought to identify key design features that could be used to create a new framework for group-based health interventions. We designed and tested the first session of a group intervention for stroke survivors with aphasia which was aimed at nurturing new psychological connections between group members. Setting The intervention session, a participant focus group and interviews with intervention facilitators were held in a local community music centre in the South West of England. Participants A convenience sample of 10 community-dwelling people with poststroke aphasia participated in the session. Severity of aphasia was not considered for inclusion. Intervention Participants took part in a 90-min group singing session which involved singing songs from a specially prepared song book. Musical accompaniment was provided by the facilitators. Primary and secondary outcome measures Participants and group facilitators reported their experiences of participating in the session, with a focus on activities within the session related to the intervention aims. Researcher observations of the session were also made. Results Two themes emerged from the analysis, concerning experiences of the session (‘developing a sense of group belonging’) and perceptions of its design and delivery (‘creating the conditions for engagement’). Participants described an emerging sense of shared social identity as a member of the intervention group and identified fixed (eg, group size, session breaks) and flexible (eg, facilitator responsiveness) features of the session which contributed to this emergence. Facilitator interviews and researcher observations corroborated and expanded participant reports. Conclusions Engagement with health intervention content may be enhanced in group settings when intervention participants begin to establish positive and meaningful psychological connections with other group members. Understanding and actively nurturing these connections

  15. Political Parties and Interest Groups Members' Patterns of Social Network Site Usage in Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elira Turdubaeva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Kyrgyzstan, with a high level of political participation and an avant-garde position regarding internet access in Central Asia, broadband and social media penetration in the population, is a critical case for studying social network sites (SNSs in relation to political participation. This study analyzes the practices and attitudes of SNS users in Kyrgyzstan. Two types of users – members of political parties and members of interest organizations – are interviewed in focus groups about their practices and attitudes towards political content in the social network site Facebook. The findings indicate that, to some extent, the political engagement is indeed occurring within the Facebook environment, suggesting that the popular social networking sites (SNSs are an avenue for young people to express and share their political views. Facebook allowed users to share their political beliefs, support specific candidates, and interact with others on political issues. Participants’ perceptions regarding the appropriateness of political activity on Facebook, as well as the specific types of political activities they engaged in and witnessed within the site, were also explored.

  16. The Australopithecines – An Extinct Group of Human Ancestors: My Scientific Interest in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaszycka Katarzyna A.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available I introduce the subject of my research interest in South Africa - the australopithecines - a group of bipedal, small-brained and large-toothed creatures from the Plio-Pleistocene, from which the human genus arose. I then briefly discuss various topics of my research, concerning: (1 Taxonomic status and morphological description of the extinct human relative from the Kromdraai site (Australopithecus robustus; (2 Graphic reconstruction of the partial skull from Kromdraai - specimen numbered TM 1517; (3 Assessment of size sexual dimorphism of the South African australopithecines (Australopithecus robustus and Australopithecus africanus, which, in terms of facial features, was pronounced - being almost gorilla-sized; (4 Social behavior of a fossil hominid species from around 2 million years ago, which, in terms of the social structure, was most likely a multimale-multifemale one; and (5 An event from the history of paleoanthropology, concerning the content of the 1924/25 photographs of the Taung Child (Australopithecus africanus - the first australopithecine skull discovered.

  17. Desensitization in delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions -- an EAACI position paper of the Drug Allergy Interest Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, K; Brockow, K; Aberer, W; Gooi, J H C; Demoly, P; Romano, A; Schnyder, B; Whitaker, P; Cernadas, J S R; Bircher, A J

    2013-07-01

    Drug hypersensitivity may deprive patients of drug therapy, and occasionally no effective alternative treatment is available. Successful desensitization has been well documented in delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions. In certain situations, such as sulfonamide hypersensitivity in HIV-positive patients or hypersensitivity to antibiotics in patients with cystic fibrosis, published success rates reach 80%, and this procedure appears helpful for the patient management. A state of clinical tolerance may be achieved by the administration of increasing doses of the previously offending drug. However, in most cases, a pre-existent sensitization has not been proven by positive skin tests. Successful re-administration may have occurred in nonsensitized patients. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of desensitization is needed. Currently, desensitization in delayed hypersensitivity reactions is restricted to mild, uncomplicated exanthems and fixed drug eruptions. The published success rates vary depending on clinical manifestations, drugs, and applied protocols. Slower protocols tend to be more effective than rush protocols; however, underreporting of unsuccessful procedures is very probable. The decision to desensitize a patient must always be made on an individual basis, balancing risks and benefits. This paper reviews the literature and presents the expert experience of the Drug Hypersensitivity Interest Group of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Lobbying friends and foes in climate policy: The case of business and environmental interest groups in the European Union

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, Anne Therese

    2008-01-01

    Drawing on two conflicting hypotheses from the theoretical literature on lobbying, I consider the strategies applied by interest groups lobbying to influence climate policy in the European Union (EU). The first hypothesis claims that interest groups lobby their 'friends', decision-makers with positions similar to their own. The second claims that interest groups lobby their 'foes', decision-makers with positions opposed to their own. Using interviews with lobbyists and decision-makers, I demonstrate that in the field of climate policy, interest groups in the EU lobby both friends and foes, but under different conditions. Moreover, I find that the interest groups' motives are not always in line with the theoretical hypotheses. Interest groups lobby their friends on single policy decisions to exchange information, to further a common cause and to exert pressure, and their foes because a foe on one issue might prove to be a friend on another issue. Interest groups direct general lobbying towards both friends and foes. This paper provides a new empirical contribution to a literature that has so far been heavily dominated by studies focusing on lobbying in the US

  19. Creating psychological connections between intervention recipients: development and focus group evaluation of a group singing session for people with aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarrant, Mark; Warmoth, Krystal; Code, Chris; Dean, Sarah; Goodwin, Victoria A; Stein, Ken; Sugavanam, Thavapriya

    2016-02-23

    The study sought to identify key design features that could be used to create a new framework for group-based health interventions. We designed and tested the first session of a group intervention for stroke survivors with aphasia which was aimed at nurturing new psychological connections between group members. The intervention session, a participant focus group and interviews with intervention facilitators were held in a local community music centre in the South West of England. A convenience sample of 10 community-dwelling people with poststroke aphasia participated in the session. Severity of aphasia was not considered for inclusion. Participants took part in a 90-min group singing session which involved singing songs from a specially prepared song book. Musical accompaniment was provided by the facilitators. Participants and group facilitators reported their experiences of participating in the session, with a focus on activities within the session related to the intervention aims. Researcher observations of the session were also made. Two themes emerged from the analysis, concerning experiences of the session ('developing a sense of group belonging') and perceptions of its design and delivery ('creating the conditions for engagement'). Participants described an emerging sense of shared social identity as a member of the intervention group and identified fixed (eg, group size, session breaks) and flexible (eg, facilitator responsiveness) features of the session which contributed to this emergence. Facilitator interviews and researcher observations corroborated and expanded participant reports. Engagement with health intervention content may be enhanced in group settings when intervention participants begin to establish positive and meaningful psychological connections with other group members. Understanding and actively nurturing these connections should be a core feature of a general framework for the design and delivery of group interventions. Published by the

  20. Balanced or biased? Interest groups and legislative lobbying in the European news media

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruycker, I.; Beyers, J.

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the coverage of legislative lobbying in European news media. The starting point thereby is that lobbying in the crowded European Union (EU)-level interest community is not only a struggle for direct access to policymakers, but that in order to realize policy goals many interest

  1. Bioprocessing automation in cell therapy manufacturing: Outcomes of special interest group automation workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Oliver; Robinson, Sarah; Bure, Kim; Brindley, David A; Mccall, David

    2018-04-01

    Phacilitate held a Special Interest Group workshop event in Edinburgh, UK, in May 2017. The event brought together leading stakeholders in the cell therapy bioprocessing field to identify present and future challenges and propose potential solutions to automation in cell therapy bioprocessing. Here, we review and summarize discussions from the event. Deep biological understanding of a product, its mechanism of action and indication pathogenesis underpin many factors relating to bioprocessing and automation. To fully exploit the opportunities of bioprocess automation, therapeutics developers must closely consider whether an automation strategy is applicable, how to design an 'automatable' bioprocess and how to implement process modifications with minimal disruption. Major decisions around bioprocess automation strategy should involve all relevant stakeholders; communication between technical and business strategy decision-makers is of particular importance. Developers should leverage automation to implement in-process testing, in turn applicable to process optimization, quality assurance (QA)/ quality control (QC), batch failure control, adaptive manufacturing and regulatory demands, but a lack of precedent and technical opportunities can complicate such efforts. Sparse standardization across product characterization, hardware components and software platforms is perceived to complicate efforts to implement automation. The use of advanced algorithmic approaches such as machine learning may have application to bioprocess and supply chain optimization. Automation can substantially de-risk the wider supply chain, including tracking and traceability, cryopreservation and thawing and logistics. The regulatory implications of automation are currently unclear because few hardware options exist and novel solutions require case-by-case validation, but automation can present attractive regulatory incentives. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Cellular Therapy

  2. Effectiveness of a nurse facilitated cognitive group intervention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    both genders.3. Empirical support for Cognitive Behaviour Therapy ... There was a statistically significant difference between the groups, with respect to the BDI scores. (p<0.001). ..... another study, group CBT, group counseling, and individual.

  3. Design and feasibility testing of a novel group intervention for young women who binge drink in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Linda; Crombie, Iain K; Swanson, Vivien; Dimova, Elena D; Melson, Ambrose J; Fraser, Tracey M; Barbour, Rosaline; Rice, Peter M; Allan, Sheila

    2018-01-01

    Young women frequently drink alcohol in groups and binge drinking within these natural drinking groups is common. This study describes the design of a theoretically and empirically based group intervention to reduce binge drinking among young women. It also evaluates their engagement with the intervention and the acceptability of the study methods. Friendship groups of women aged 18-35 years, who had two or more episodes of binge drinking (>6 UK units on one occasion; 48g of alcohol) in the previous 30 days, were recruited from the community. A face-to-face group intervention, based on the Health Action Process Approach, was delivered over three sessions. Components of the intervention were woven around fun activities, such as making alcohol free cocktails. Women were followed up four months after the intervention was delivered. The target of 24 groups (comprising 97 women) was recruited. The common pattern of drinking was infrequent, heavy drinking (mean consumption on the heaviest drinking day was UK 18.1 units). Process evaluation revealed that the intervention was delivered with high fidelity and acceptability of the study methods was high. The women engaged positively with intervention components and made group decisions about cutting down. Twenty two groups set goals to reduce their drinking, and these were translated into action plans. Retention of individuals at follow up was 87%. This study successfully recruited groups of young women whose patterns of drinking place them at high risk of acute harm. This novel approach to delivering an alcohol intervention has potential to reduce binge drinking among young women. The high levels of engagement with key steps in the behavior change process suggests that the group intervention should be tested in a full randomised controlled trial.

  4. Reporting of conflicts of interest in guidelines of preventive and therapeutic interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannakakis Ioannis A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines published in major medical journals are very influential in determining clinical practice. It would be essential to evaluate whether conflicts of interests are disclosed in these publications. We evaluated the reporting of conflicts of interest and the factors that may affect such disclosure in a sample of 191 guidelines on therapeutic and/or preventive measures published in 6 major clinical journals (Annals of Internal Medicine, BMJ, JAMA, Lancet, New England Journal of Medicine, Pediatrics in 1979, 1984, 1989, 1994 and 1999. Results Only 7 guidelines (3.7% mentioned conflicts of interest and all were published in 1999 (17.5% (7/40 of guidelines published in 1999 alone. Reporting of conflicts of interest differed significantly by journal (p=0.026, availability of disclosure policy by the journal (p=0.043, source of funding (p Conclusions Despite some recent improvement, reporting of conflicts of interest in clinical guidelines published in influential journals is largely neglected.

  5. Can We Trust Positive Findings of Intervention Research? The Role of Conflict of Interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Dennis M

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, there has been increased attention to the issue of conflict of interest within prevention research. The aims of this paper are to discuss these developments and to relate them to discussions of conflict of interest in the broader scientific literature. Although there has been concern expressed about the extent to which conflicts of interest can be defined and measured, empirical research suggests that financial conflicts can be easily identified and assessed in meta-analyses focused on their effects on research quality. Research evidence also shows that conflict of interest is associated with use of flexible data analysis practices and the reporting of chance positive findings, both within prevention research and related disciplines such as public health and psychology. However, the overwhelming majority of published studies report positive results, and there are a number of other influences within academia (such as pressure to publish) that account for this and for the use of flexible data analysis practices. Accordingly, introducing measures to improve research quality in general, rather than just focusing on problems specific to research in which there is a clearly identifiable conflict of interest, may prove more effective and less controversial. Most such efforts focus on introducing greater transparency into research design, practice, and reporting. These both curtail employment of flexible data analysis practices and make their use transparent to investigators seeking to assess their effects on research quality. Also, requiring detailed disclosures of conflicts be reported by all investigators (not just senior authors) would improve current disclosure practices.

  6. Intra-psychic effects of a group intervention programme on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this research was evaluating the effects of an intervention programme on the self concept as well as on the levels of anxiety and depression of adolescents of divorce. A literature study was done and an empirical investigation was conducted. Eight adolescents who were still in the acute phase of the divorce ...

  7. Group Music Therapy as a Preventive Intervention for Young People at Risk: Cluster-Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Christian; Saarikallio, Suvi; Crooke, Alexander Hew Dale; McFerran, Katrina Skewes

    2017-07-01

    Music forms an important part of the lives and identities of adolescents and may have positive or negative mental health implications. Music therapy can be effective for mental disorders such as depression, but its preventive potential is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine whether group music therapy (GMT) is an effective intervention for young people who may be at risk of developing mental health problems, as indicated via unhealthy music use. The main question was whether GMT can reduce unhealthy uses of music and increase potentials for healthy uses of music, compared to self-directed music listening (SDML). We were also interested in effects of GMT on depressive symptoms, psychosocial well-being, rumination, and reflection. In an exploratory cluster-randomized trial in Australian schools, 100 students with self-reported unhealthy music use were invited to GMT (weekly sessions over 8 weeks) or SDML. Changes in the Healthy-Unhealthy Music Scale (HUMS) and mental health outcomes were measured over 3 months. Both interventions were well accepted. No effects were found between GMT and SDML (all p > 0.05); both groups tended to show small improvements over time. Younger participants benefited more from GMT, and older ones more from SDML (p = 0.018). GMT was associated with similar changes as SDML. Further research is needed to improve the processes of selecting participants for targeted interventions; to determine optimal dosage; and to provide more reliable evidence of effects of music-based interventions for adolescents. © the American Music Therapy Association 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Children of mentally ill parents—a pilot study of a group intervention program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Hanna; Anding, Jana; Schrott, Bastian; Röhrle, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The transgenerational transmission of mental disorders is one of the most prominent risk factors for the development of psychological disorders. Children of mentally ill parents are a vulnerable high risk group with overall impaired development and high rates of psychological disorders. To date there are only a few evidence based intervention programs for this group overall and hardly any in Germany. We translated the evidence based Family Talk Intervention by Beardslee (2009) and adapted it for groups. First results of this pilot study are presented. Method: This investigation evaluates a preventive group intervention for children of mentally ill parents. In a quasi-experimental design three groups are compared: an intervention group (Family Talk Intervention group: n = 28), a Wait Control group (n = 9), and a control group of healthy children (n = 40). Mean age of children was 10.41 years and parental disorders were mostly depressive/affective disorders (n = 30), but a small number also presented with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (n = 7). Results: Children of mentally ill parents showed higher rates of internalizing/externalizing disorders before and after the intervention compared to children of parents with no disorders. Post intervention children's knowledge on mental disorders was significantly enhanced in the Family Talk Intervention group compared to the Wait Control group and the healthy control group. Parental ratings of externalizing symptoms in the children were reduced to normal levels after the intervention in the Family Talk Intervention group, but not in the Wait Control group. Discussion: This pilot study of a group intervention for children of mentally ill parents highlights the importance of psycho-education on parental mental disorders for children. Long-term effects of children's enhanced knowledge about parental psychopathology need to be explored in future studies. PMID:26539129

  9. Children of mentally ill parents-a pilot study of a group intervention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Hanna; Anding, Jana; Schrott, Bastian; Röhrle, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    The transgenerational transmission of mental disorders is one of the most prominent risk factors for the development of psychological disorders. Children of mentally ill parents are a vulnerable high risk group with overall impaired development and high rates of psychological disorders. To date there are only a few evidence based intervention programs for this group overall and hardly any in Germany. We translated the evidence based Family Talk Intervention by Beardslee (2009) and adapted it for groups. First results of this pilot study are presented. This investigation evaluates a preventive group intervention for children of mentally ill parents. In a quasi-experimental design three groups are compared: an intervention group (Family Talk Intervention group: n = 28), a Wait Control group (n = 9), and a control group of healthy children (n = 40). Mean age of children was 10.41 years and parental disorders were mostly depressive/affective disorders (n = 30), but a small number also presented with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (n = 7). Children of mentally ill parents showed higher rates of internalizing/externalizing disorders before and after the intervention compared to children of parents with no disorders. Post intervention children's knowledge on mental disorders was significantly enhanced in the Family Talk Intervention group compared to the Wait Control group and the healthy control group. Parental ratings of externalizing symptoms in the children were reduced to normal levels after the intervention in the Family Talk Intervention group, but not in the Wait Control group. This pilot study of a group intervention for children of mentally ill parents highlights the importance of psycho-education on parental mental disorders for children. Long-term effects of children's enhanced knowledge about parental psychopathology need to be explored in future studies.

  10. Efficacy of a Group Intervention for Adult Women Survivors of Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebert, Martine; Bergeron, Manon

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of a group intervention for women sexually abused in childhood or adulthood. The sample consisted of 41 women involved in a group intervention based on a feminist approach offered by help centers for sexual assault victims in Quebec and 11 women in a wait-list comparison group. Results reveal that the group…

  11. School Board Chairmen and School Superintendents: An Analysis of Perceptions Concerning Special Interest Groups and Educational Governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuerstein, Abe; Opfer, V. Darleen

    1998-01-01

    Surveyed all Virginia school board chairmen and superintendents on local governance issues. Discusses both groups' perceptions of board members' orientation to their role as elected representatives, their personal attitude toward the electoral process, their assessment of interest-group involvement in district decision making, their feelings…

  12. The balancing act of establishing a policy agenda : Conceptualizing and measuring drivers of issue prioritization within interest groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Halpin, D.R.; Fraussen, B.; Nownes, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Interest groups are important intermediaries in Western democracies, with the potential to offer political linkage and form a bridge between the concerns of citizens and the agendas of political elites. While we know an increasing amount about the issue-based activity of groups, we only have a

  13. Learning potential, career interest and coping profile of a group of SOF candidates

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, Adelai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available and self-efficacy), learning potential and career related interests and to explore their reasons for wanting to become and their perceptions of what it takes to achieve success as an Operational Forces soldier. Furthermore, those that were successful...

  14. Do More Powerful Interest Groups have a Disproportionate Influence on Policy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Z. Sharif (Zara); O.H. Swank (Otto)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractDecisions-makers often rely on information supplied by interested parties. In practice, some parties have easier access to information than other parties. In this light, we examine whether more powerful parties have a disproportionate influence on decisions. We show that more powerful

  15. The essential tension between leadership and power: when leaders sacrifice group goals for the sake of self-interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maner, Jon K; Mead, Nicole L

    2010-09-01

    Throughout human history, leaders have been responsible for helping groups attain important goals. Ideally, leaders use their power to steer groups toward desired outcomes. However, leaders can also use their power in the service of self-interest rather than effective leadership. Five experiments identified factors within both the person and the social context that determine whether leaders wield their power to promote group goals versus self-interest. In most cases, leaders behaved in a manner consistent with group goals. However, when their power was tenuous due to instability within the hierarchy, leaders high (but not low) in dominance motivation prioritized their own power over group goals: They withheld valuable information from the group, excluded a highly skilled group member, and prevented a proficient group member from having any influence over a group task. These self-interested actions were eliminated when the group was competing against a rival outgroup. Findings provide important insight into factors that influence the way leaders navigate the essential tension between leadership and power. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. A Topic Space Oriented User Group Discovering Scheme in Social Network: A Trust Chain Based Interest Measuring Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Dong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, user group has become an effective platform for information sharing and communicating among users in social network sites. In present work, we propose a single topic user group discovering scheme, which includes three phases: topic impact evaluation, interest degree measurement, and trust chain based discovering, to enable selecting influential topic and discovering users into a topic oriented group. Our main works include (1 an overview of proposed scheme and its related definitions; (2 topic space construction method based on topic relatedness clustering and its impact (influence degree and popularity degree evaluation; (3 a trust chain model to take user relation network topological information into account with a strength classification perspective; (4 an interest degree (user explicit and implicit interest degree evaluation method based on trust chain among users; and (5 a topic space oriented user group discovering method to group core users according to their explicit interest degrees and to predict ordinary users under implicit interest and user trust chain. Finally, experimental results are given to explain effectiveness and feasibility of our scheme.

  17. Cancer Ward Staff Group: An Intervention Designed to Prevent Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, William H.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a case study illustrating organizational and system contingencies for introducing and maintaining a support group for oncology nursing staff in a large general hospital culture. Criteria for long-run survivability of innovation in a work system are applied to a group structured like that described by Balint for training physicians in…

  18. Merging Micro and Macro Intervention: Social Work Practice with Groups in the Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Carolyn; Gitterman, Alex

    2018-01-01

    Clinical or micro intervention predominates in social work education and practice. The prevailing assumption in social work practice and education is that one engages in either micro or macro intervention. In this article, we describe how these interventions may be merged into an integrated whole through social work practice with groups. The…

  19. Children of mentally ill parents – a pilot study of a group intervention program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna eChristiansen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The transgenerational transmission of mental disorders is one of the most prominent risk factors for the development of psychological disorders. To date there are only a few evidence based intervention programs for this group overall and hardly any in Germany. We translated the evidence based Family Talk Intervention by Beardslee (2009 and adapted it for groups. In a quasi-experimental design three groups are compared: an intervention group (Family Talk Intervention group: n = 28, a Wait Control group (n = 9, and a control group of healthy children (n = 40. Children of mentally ill parents showed higher rates of internalizing/externalizing disorders before and after the intervention compared to children of parents with no disorders. Post intervention children’s knowledge on mental disorders was significantly enhanced in the Family Talk Intervention group and externalizing symptoms were reduced for this group as well. This pilot study of a group intervention for children of mentally ill parents highlights the importance of psycho-education on parental mental disorders for children. Long-term effects of children’s enhanced knowledge about parental psychopathology need to be explored in future studies.

  20. [Impulsivity-focused Group Intervention to reduce Binge Eating Episodes in Patients with Binge Eating Disorder - A Group Training Program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schag, Kathrin; Leehr, Elisabeth J; Skoda, Eva-Maria; Becker, Sandra; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin E

    2016-11-01

    Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is an eating disorder where cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) could already show reliable efficacy. Relying on basic research, CBT interventions which especially focus on impulsivity could be effective, because binge eating episodes represent highly impulsive eating behaviour. For this reason, we developed a treatment concept about an impulsivity-focused behavioural group intervention for patients with BED, called IMPULS. The efficacy of IMPULS is currently investigated in a randomised controlled trial 1. IMPULS is drafted as a weekly group training programme with 5-6 participants per group. The essential interventions are food-related cue exposure with response prevention and the development of self-control strategies. These interventions are adapted onto the impulsivity concept from conventional treatment of addictive disorders and BED. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Cognitive behavioral group therapy versus psychoeducational intervention in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardelli, Isabella; Bloise, Maria Carmela; Bologna, Matteo; Conte, Antonella; Pompili, Maurizio; Lamis, Dorian A; Pasquini, Massimo; Fabbrini, Giovanni

    2018-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate whether cognitive behavioral group therapy has a positive impact on psychiatric, and motor and non-motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). We assigned 20 PD patients with a diagnosis of psychiatric disorder to either a 12-week cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) group or a psychoeducational protocol. For the neurological examination, we administered the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and the non-motor symptoms scale. The severity of psychiatric symptoms was assessed by means of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, and the Clinical Global Impressions. Cognitive behavioral group therapy was effective in treating depression and anxiety symptoms as well as reducing the severity of non-motor symptoms in PD patients; whereas, no changes were observed in PD patients treated with the psychoeducational protocol. CBT offered in a group format should be considered in addition to standard drug therapy in PD patients.

  2. Healthy Body Image Intervention Delivered to Young Women via Facebook Groups: Formative Study of Engagement and Acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Jerod L; Manne, Sharon L; Day, Ashley K; Levonyan-Radloff, Kristine; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2018-02-20

    There is increasing interest in using social media sites such as Facebook to deliver health interventions so as to expose people to content while they are engaging in their usual social media habit. This formative intervention development study is novel in describing a preliminary test of using the secret group feature of Facebook to deliver a behavioral intervention targeting users of indoor tanning beds to reduce their risk of skin cancer. Intervention content was designed to challenge body image-related constructs associated with indoor tanning through the use of dissonance-inducing content. To evaluate engagement with and acceptability of using a secret Facebook group to deliver a healthy body image intervention to young women engaged in indoor tanning. Seventeen young women completed a baseline survey and joined a secret Facebook group with intervention content delivered via daily posts for 4 weeks. Engagement data was extracted and acceptability was measured via a follow-up survey. The study had a high retention rate (94%, [16/17]). On average, posts were viewed by 91% of participants, liked by 35%, and commented on by 26%. The average comment rate was highest (65%) for posts that elicited comments by directly posing questions or discussion topics to the group. Average intervention acceptability ratings were highly positive and participants reported feeling connected to the group and its topic. Average rates of past 1-month indoor tanning reported following the intervention were lower than the baseline rate (P=.08, Cohen d=0.47). This study is novel in demonstrating participant engagement with and acceptability of using Facebook secret groups to deliver a dissonance-inducing intervention approach that utilizes group-based discussions related to body image. The study is also unique within the field of skin cancer prevention by demonstrating the potential value of delivering an indoor tanning intervention within an interactive social media format. The findings

  3. Healthy Body Image Intervention Delivered to Young Women via Facebook Groups: Formative Study of Engagement and Acceptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon L; Day, Ashley K; Levonyan-Radloff, Kristine; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2018-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in using social media sites such as Facebook to deliver health interventions so as to expose people to content while they are engaging in their usual social media habit. This formative intervention development study is novel in describing a preliminary test of using the secret group feature of Facebook to deliver a behavioral intervention targeting users of indoor tanning beds to reduce their risk of skin cancer. Intervention content was designed to challenge body image-related constructs associated with indoor tanning through the use of dissonance-inducing content. Objective To evaluate engagement with and acceptability of using a secret Facebook group to deliver a healthy body image intervention to young women engaged in indoor tanning. Methods Seventeen young women completed a baseline survey and joined a secret Facebook group with intervention content delivered via daily posts for 4 weeks. Engagement data was extracted and acceptability was measured via a follow-up survey. Results The study had a high retention rate (94%, [16/17]). On average, posts were viewed by 91% of participants, liked by 35%, and commented on by 26%. The average comment rate was highest (65%) for posts that elicited comments by directly posing questions or discussion topics to the group. Average intervention acceptability ratings were highly positive and participants reported feeling connected to the group and its topic. Average rates of past 1-month indoor tanning reported following the intervention were lower than the baseline rate (P=.08, Cohen d=0.47). Conclusions This study is novel in demonstrating participant engagement with and acceptability of using Facebook secret groups to deliver a dissonance-inducing intervention approach that utilizes group-based discussions related to body image. The study is also unique within the field of skin cancer prevention by demonstrating the potential value of delivering an indoor tanning intervention within

  4. Emergence of interest groups on hazardous waste siting: How do they form and survive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.G.; Payne, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    The disposal and siting of hazardous and radioactive wastes has created numerous problems for decision-makers in the field of waste management. The social/political problems have proven to be some of the most difficult to solve. Public knowledge of the presence of hazardous and radioactive waste sites has grown considerably in recent years. Over the same period, the process of choosing new disposal sites has attracted a great deal of publicity. In many cases, when existing sites are discovered or when a community is being considered for a new disposal site, organized groups emerge in the community to support or oppose the proposed actions and the decision-makers responsible. Emergent groups are a form of organized collective action in response to a particular situation or event, such as the siting or discovery of a hazardous waste disposal site. Sociological methods and theory can provide insight on the patterns common to these groups, their emergence, and their survival or decline. The questions addressed in this paper are: what are the variables that lead to the formation of such groups, and what conditions or group actions contribute to their growth and survival?

  5. Transition to Market Economy in Eastern Europe: Interest groups and political institutions in Russia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjødt, Esben Bergmann; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2002-01-01

    revolutions," the old state monopolies were not removed. State monopolies have small-group advantages in contrast to the large group of private firms, which are numerous and not yet organized. It leads to an asymmetrical pattern of lobbyism in favor of non-transition, which can only be mitigated...... out comprehensive economic reforms. Free trade with the West and potential competition may put pressure on the old state monopolies. However, lobbies in the European Union may oppose free trade to maintain their monopoly....

  6. Non-controlling interests, financial performance and the equity of groups. An empirical study of groups listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Ignatowski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to (a analyze IFRS requirements for the recognition and presentation of non-controlling (minority interests in consolidated financial statements in relation to theoretical concepts of consolidation of financial statements, and (b assess the share and importance of non-controlling inter-ests in financial performance and the equity of the groups of companies in practice.For the purpose of the article, selected scientific methods have been used, including: descriptive and analytical ones (for analyzing the theoretical concepts and IFRS requirements, critical analysis, especial-ly used for the literature review, and for the assessment of practice: primary empirical research methods, and quantitative methods, including descriptive statistics, nonparametric tests and correlation analysis. The empirical material collected was used to verify several hypotheses related to non-controlling interests of the groups whose parents are registered in Poland and whose securities are traded on a regulated, Polish capital market (Warsaw Stock Exchange. The empirical evidence is that non-controlling interests represent a very small part of group’s equity (taking the mean of about 3.5%, but the median below 1% and obviously, they are significantly lower than the share of majority interests. Their deviation among the different classes of companies (big, small and banks is negligible. Slightly higher is the share of minority interests in the group’s net profit and total comprehensive income. However, no significant difference is to be found between the shares of non-controlling interests in the group’s equity, net profit and total comprehensive income. Overall, shares of majority (minority interests in a group’s income are in line with their shares in the group’s equity. The hypothesis on comparable returns on non-controlling and majority interests (in terms of ROE cannot be rejected if both net profit and losses are considered

  7. Non-controlling interests, financial performance and the equity of groups. An empirical study of groups listed on the Warsaw Stock Exchange 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Ignatowski

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to (a analyze IFRS requirements for the recognition and presentation of non-controlling (minority interests in consolidated financial statements in relation to theoretical concepts of consolidation of financial statements, and (b assess the share and importance of non-controlling inter-ests in financial performance and the equity of the groups of companies in practice. For the purpose of the article, selected scientific methods have been used, including: descriptive and analytical ones (for analyzing the theoretical concepts and IFRS requirements, critical analysis, especial-ly used for the literature review, and for the assessment of practice: primary empirical research methods, and quantitative methods, including descriptive statistics, nonparametric tests and correlation analysis. The empirical material collected was used to verify several hypotheses related to non-controlling interests of the groups whose parents are registered in Poland and whose securities are traded on a regulated, Polish capital market (Warsaw Stock Exchange. The empirical evidence is that non-controlling interests represent a very small part of group’s equity (taking the mean of about 3.5%, but the median below 1% and obviously, they are significantly lower than the share of majority interests. Their deviation among the different classes of companies (big, small and banks is negligible. Slightly higher is the share of minority interests in the group’s net profit and total comprehensive income. However, no significant difference is to be found between the shares of non-controlling interests in the group’s equity, net profit and total comprehensive income. Overall, shares of majority (minority interests in a group’s income are in line with their shares in the group’s equity. The hypothesis on comparable returns on non-controlling and majority interests (in terms of ROE cannot be rejected if both net profit and losses are considered

  8. Integrating Academic Interventions into Small Group Counseling in Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Sam; Kaffenberger, Carol J.

    2007-01-01

    Professional school counselors face the challenge of delivering guidance and counseling services to students while connecting to the educational mission of schools. This article is a summary and evaluation of a small group counseling program that targets academic issues while addressing personal/social issues with elementary-aged children. Results…

  9. Emotional Regulation: Considerations for School-Based Group Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustyniak, Kristine M.; Brooks, Morgan; Rinaldo, Vincent J.; Bogner, Roselind; Hodges, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    School-based professionals have entered the 21st century with a heightened call to address the emotional and behavioral concerns of youth. While cognitive-behavioral therapies and psychoeducational groups have demonstrated moderate effects with children and adolescents, there is little available research to assist clinicians in refining treatments…

  10. An expressive art group intervention for sexually abused adolescent ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: South Africa has a high prevalence of sexual abuse of children and adolescents. Among the numerous adverse consequences of sexual abuse is the difficulty survivors may experience in developing positive self-esteem and maintaining positive relationships. In a low resource setting, an expressive art group ...

  11. An interest group at work: Environmental activism and the case of acid mine drainage on Johannesburg’s West Rand

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Funke, Nicola S

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available -product of mining. This chapter analyses environmental interest groups that campaign on the AMD issue on Johannesburg’s West Rand. To contextualise these advocacy efforts, the chapter scientifically outlines why AMD is a fundamental problem and what socio...

  12. Tax Evasion, Tax Avoidance and The Influence of Special Interest Groups: Taxation in Iceland from 1930 to the Present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlsson Johannes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on tax evasion and tax avoidance in Iceland, and on how special interest groups have shaped the taxation system to serve their own ends. The period covered is from 1930, when the present Icelandic system of power was established, to the present.

  13. The driving forces of stability. Exploring the nature of long-term bureaucracy-interest group interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braun, C.H.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the nature of long-term interactions between bureaucrats and interest groups by examining two behavioral logics associated with stability in public policy making. In addition to the implicit short-term strategic choices that usually feature in resource-exchange explanations of

  14. Group intervention: A way to improve working teams' positive psychological capital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harty, Bo; Gustafsson, John-Anders; Björkdahl, Ann; Möller, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Positive psychological capital is reported to have positive effects on people's well-being and attitudes to their working lives. The objective of this study was to investigate if it is possible to increase the level of positive psychological capital by two group intervention programs. The research design was a controlled study with 2 × 2 experimental groups and two control groups. Two of the experimental groups received intervention I (IG I), the other two experimental groups received intervention II (IG II). Assessments were made before and after the intervention programs, with a follow-up at six months post-intervention. Instruments measuring the fundamentals of psychological capital: self-efficacy, hope, optimism, as well as health and job satisfaction were used. The results show that it is possible to increase the level of positive emotions, self-efficacy and job satisfaction of members of a working team by using group intervention methods. The positive changes observed at the end of the program remained six months after the intervention, with the exception of job satisfaction in IG II. It seems that the intervention had a greater influence on those persons who at the start of the study reported a low level of self-enhancement. The results were more pronounced in intervention group I where reinforcement of the resources and positive aspects of the work place environment were provided. A 10-week group intervention program that focused on learned optimism proved to be successful in increasing levels of self-efficacy and job satisfaction. While improvement was maintained six months post-intervention the small sample size and the attrition rate are limitations. Results are promising and further research is warranted.

  15. Interests, relationships, identities: three central issues for individuals and groups in negotiating their social environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelman, Herbert C

    2006-01-01

    This chapter begins with a summary of a model, developed half a century ago, that distinguishes three qualitatively different processes of social influence: compliance, identification, and internalization. The model, originally geared to and experimentally tested in the context of persuasive communication, was subsequently applied to influence in the context of long-term relationships, including psychotherapy, international exchanges, and the socialization of national/ethnic identity. It has been extended to analysis of the relationship of individuals to social systems. Individuals' rule, role, and value orientations to a system--conceptually linked to compliance, identification, and internalization--predict different reactions to their own violations of societal standards, different patterns of personal involvement in the political system, and differences in attitude toward authorities and readiness to obey. In a further extension of the model, three approaches to peacemaking in international or intergroup conflicts are identified--conflict settlement, conflict resolution, and reconciliation--which, respectively, focus on the accommodation of interests, relationships, and identities, and are conducive to changes at the level of compliance, identification, and internalization.

  16. Effect of group psychological intervention on interpersonal relationship of the divers undergoing simulating 450-m diving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-ying MA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To investigate the factors influencing the interpersonal relationship of the divers undergoing simulating 450-m diving in the Chinese Navy, in order to establish the psychological intervention strategies and evaluate the efficacy of the intervention, so as to provide a theoretical basis for increasing the combat effectiveness of naval forces. Methods  Twenty excellent divers taking part in simulating 450-m diving from Navy units were interviewed, and the record of the interview was analyzed to find out their five common behaviors deteriorating the interpersonal relations, the attributional modes when conflicts happened and five commonly used countermeasures. The divers were divided into two groups, the experimental group and control group (10 people for each, and the experimental group was given psychological intervention. By using the sociometric method and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule(PANAS, comparison was made between experimental group and control group, and also between the pre-intervention status and the post-intervention status of each group. Results  All the scores, including social distance (t=-2.61, P=0.03, index of individual social distance (t=-4.83, P=0.00 and negative emotion of PANAS (t=-0.38, P=0.03, were lower in the experimental group than in the control group, and in the experimental group these scores after the intervention were also lower than those before intervention. Conclusions  Group psychological intervention has substantial effects on improving the divers' communication skills and satisfaction in interpersonal relationship. This kind of intervention can produce more positive emotion and reduce negative emotion, thus can be popularized in the Navy.

  17. When life gives you lemons: The effectiveness of culinary group intervention among cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak-Nahum, Ayelet; Haim, Limor Ben; Ginzburg, Karni

    2016-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the dietary habits of cancer patients and survivors have significant implications for their recovery and quality of life. The current study examined the effectiveness of an innovative culinary group intervention on cancer patients' quality of life through changes in their eating behaviors, as manifested by an increase in their tendency towards intuitive eating and healthy food choices. In total, 190 cancer patients participated in this study, and were allocated to an intervention or a wait-list control group. A battery of self-report questionnaires assessing food choices, intuitive eating, health-related quality of life, and subjective well-being was administered at two time points: Before the intervention (T1) and at the end of the three month intervention (T2). Analyses revealed an increase in health-related quality of life and well-being among the intervention group. Intuitive eating and healthy food choices also increased among the intervention but not wait-list control group. Finally, results indicated that participation in the culinary group intervention and improvements in health-related quality of life and well-being were mediated by changes in eating behaviors. Our findings demonstrate that nutrition and eating behaviors have a significant effect on cancer patients' physical and emotional adjustment. A culinary group intervention seems to target patients' physical and emotional needs and promote their adjustment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of student surgical interest groups and surgical Olympiads in anatomical and surgical undergraduate training in Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dydykin, Sergey; Kapitonova, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Traditional department-based surgical interest groups in Russian medical schools are useful tools for student-based selection of specialty training. They also form a nucleus for initiating research activities among undergraduate students. In Russia, the Departments of Topographical Anatomy and Operative Surgery play an important role in initiating student-led research and providing learners with advanced, practical surgical skills. In tandem with department-led activities, student surgical interest groups prepare learners through surgical competitions, known as "Surgical Olympiads," which have been conducted in many Russian centers on a regular basis since 1988. Surgical Olympiads stimulate student interest in the development of surgical skills before graduation and encourage students to choose surgery as their postgraduate specialty. Many of the participants in these surgical Olympiads have become highly qualified specialists in general surgery, orthopedic surgery, neurosurgery, urology, gynecology, and emergency medicine. The present article emphasizes the role of student interest groups and surgical Olympiads in clinical anatomical and surgical undergraduate training in Russia. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  19. U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group Proceedings, Bowling Green, Kentucky, May 27-29, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, Eve L.

    2008-01-01

    States are developed in carbonate rocks and karst areas. These aquifers and the springs that discharge from them, serve as major water-supply sources and as unique biological habitats. Commonly, there is competition for the water resources of karst aquifers, and urban development in karst areas can impact the ecosystem and water quality of these aquifers. The concept for developing a Karst Interest Group evolved from the November 1999 National Ground-Water Meeting of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Water Resources Division. As a result, the Karst Interest Group was formed in 2000. The Karst Interest Group is a loose-knit grass-roots organization of USGS employees devoted to fostering better communication among scientists working on, or interested in, karst hydrology studies. The mission of the Karst Interest Group is to encourage and support interdisciplinary collaboration and technology transfer among USGS scientists working in karst areas. Additionally, the Karst Interest Group encourages cooperative studies between the different disciplines of the USGS and other Department of Interior agencies and university researchers or research institutes. The first Karst Interest Group workshop was held in St. Petersburg, Florida, February 13-16, 2001, in the vicinity of karst features of the Floridan aquifer system. The proceedings of that first meeting, Water-Resources Investigations Report 01-4011 are available online at: http://water.usgs.gov/ogw/karst/ The second Karst Interest Group workshop was held August 20-22, 2002, in Shepherdstown, West Virginia, in close proximity to the carbonate aquifers of the northern Shenandoah Valley. The proceedings of the second workshop were published in Water-Resources Investigations Report 02-4174, which is available online at the previously mentioned website. The third workshop of the Karst Interest Group was held September, 12-15, 2005, in Rapid City, South Dakota, which is in close proximity to karst features

  20. Expanding the Application of Group Interventions: Emergence of Groups in Health Care Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drum, David; Becker, Martin Swanbrow; Hess, Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the health care arena and within the specialty of group work are contributing to the increased utilization of groups in health care settings. Psychoeducational, theme, and interpersonal therapy groups are highlighted for their contributions to treating challenging health conditions. An understanding of the evolution of these group…

  1. Nursing staff-led behavioural group intervention in psychiatric in-patient care: Patient and staff experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salberg, Johanna; Folke, Fredrik; Ekselius, Lisa; Öster, Caisa

    2018-02-15

    A promising intervention in mental health in-patient care is behavioural activation (BA). Interventions based on BA can be used by mental health nurses and other staff members. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients' and staff members' experiences of a nursing staff-led behavioural group intervention in mental health in-patient care. The intervention was implemented at three adult acute general mental health in-patient wards in a public hospital setting in Sweden. A self-administrated questionnaire, completed by 84 patients and 34 nurses and nurse assistants, was administered, and nonparametric data analysed using descriptive statistics. Our findings revealed that both patients and nursing staff ranked nursing care and care environment as important aspects in the recovery process. Patients and staff members reported overall positive experiences of the group sessions. Patients with higher frequencies of attendance and patients satisfied with overall care had a more positive attitude towards the intervention. A more positive experience of being a group leader was reported by staff members who had been leading groups more than ten times. The most common impeding factor during implementation, reported by staff members, was a negative attitude to change. Conducive factors were having support from a psychologist and the perception that patients were showing interest. These positive experiences reported by patients and nursing staff, combined with previous research in this field, are taking us one step further in evaluating group sessions based on BA as a meaningful nursing intervention in mental health in-patient care. © 2018 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  2. Treating panic symptoms within everyday clinical settings: the feasibility of a group cognitive behavioural intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, S.F.; Sumbundu, A.D.; Lykke, J.

    2008-01-01

    of significant clinical change displayed and resources required to carry out the intervention. A small sample of GP-referred patients displaying panic symptoms completed a 2-week intensive cognitive-behavioural intervention. Results collected post-intervention revealed significant clinical reductions in panic......Panic disorder is a common and debilitating disorder that has a prevalence rate of 3-5% in the general population. Cognitive-behavioural interventions have been shown to be an efficacious treatment for panic, although a limited number of studies have examined the effectiveness of such interventions...... implemented in everyday clinical settings. The aim of the following pilot study was to examine the feasibility of a brief group cognitive-behavioural intervention carried out in a clinical setting. Salient issues in determining feasibility include: representativeness of patient group treated, amount...

  3. Advocates, interest groups and Australian news coverage of alcohol advertising restrictions: content and framing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogarty, Andrea S; Chapman, Simon

    2012-08-31

    Legislating restrictions on alcohol advertising is a cost-effective measure to reduce consumption of alcohol. Yet Australia relies upon industry self-regulation through voluntary codes of practice regarding the content, timing and placement of alcohol advertising. Ending industry self-regulation was recommended by the National Preventative Health Taskforce; a suggestion contested by the drinks industry. Debates about emerging alcohol-control policies regularly play out in the news media, with various groups seeking to influence the discussion. This paper examines news coverage of recommendations to restrict alcohol advertising to see how supporters and opponents frame the debate, with a view to providing some suggestions for policy advocates to advance the discussion. We used content and framing analyses to examine 329 Australian newspaper items mentioning alcohol advertising restrictions over 24 months. All items were coded for mentions of specific types of advertising and types of advertising restrictions, the presence of news frames that opposed or endorsed advertising restrictions, statements made within each frame and the news-actors who appeared. Restrictions were the main focus in only 36% of 329 items. Alcohol advertising was conceived of as television (47%) and sport-related (56%). Restrictions were mentioned in non-specific terms (45%), or specified as restrictions on timing and placement (49%), or content (22%). Public health professionals (47%) appeared more frequently than drinks industry representatives (18%). Five supportive news frames suggested the policy is a sensible public health response, essential to protect children, needed to combat the drinks industry, required to stop pervasive branding, or as only an issue in sport. Four unsupportive frames positioned restrictions as unnecessary for a responsible industry, an attack on legitimate commercial activities, ineffective and 'nannyist', or inessential to government policy. Support varied among

  4. Advocates, interest groups and Australian news coverage of alcohol advertising restrictions: content and framing analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Legislating restrictions on alcohol advertising is a cost-effective measure to reduce consumption of alcohol. Yet Australia relies upon industry self-regulation through voluntary codes of practice regarding the content, timing and placement of alcohol advertising. Ending industry self-regulation was recommended by the National Preventative Health Taskforce; a suggestion contested by the drinks industry. Debates about emerging alcohol-control policies regularly play out in the news media, with various groups seeking to influence the discussion. This paper examines news coverage of recommendations to restrict alcohol advertising to see how supporters and opponents frame the debate, with a view to providing some suggestions for policy advocates to advance the discussion. Methods We used content and framing analyses to examine 329 Australian newspaper items mentioning alcohol advertising restrictions over 24 months. All items were coded for mentions of specific types of advertising and types of advertising restrictions, the presence of news frames that opposed or endorsed advertising restrictions, statements made within each frame and the news-actors who appeared. Results Restrictions were the main focus in only 36% of 329 items. Alcohol advertising was conceived of as television (47%) and sport-related (56%). Restrictions were mentioned in non-specific terms (45%), or specified as restrictions on timing and placement (49%), or content (22%). Public health professionals (47%) appeared more frequently than drinks industry representatives (18%). Five supportive news frames suggested the policy is a sensible public health response, essential to protect children, needed to combat the drinks industry, required to stop pervasive branding, or as only an issue in sport. Four unsupportive frames positioned restrictions as unnecessary for a responsible industry, an attack on legitimate commercial activities, ineffective and ‘nannyist’, or inessential to government

  5. Advocates, interest groups and Australian news coverage of alcohol advertising restrictions: content and framing analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogarty Andrea S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Legislating restrictions on alcohol advertising is a cost-effective measure to reduce consumption of alcohol. Yet Australia relies upon industry self-regulation through voluntary codes of practice regarding the content, timing and placement of alcohol advertising. Ending industry self-regulation was recommended by the National Preventative Health Taskforce; a suggestion contested by the drinks industry. Debates about emerging alcohol-control policies regularly play out in the news media, with various groups seeking to influence the discussion. This paper examines news coverage of recommendations to restrict alcohol advertising to see how supporters and opponents frame the debate, with a view to providing some suggestions for policy advocates to advance the discussion. Methods We used content and framing analyses to examine 329 Australian newspaper items mentioning alcohol advertising restrictions over 24 months. All items were coded for mentions of specific types of advertising and types of advertising restrictions, the presence of news frames that opposed or endorsed advertising restrictions, statements made within each frame and the news-actors who appeared. Results Restrictions were the main focus in only 36% of 329 items. Alcohol advertising was conceived of as television (47% and sport-related (56%. Restrictions were mentioned in non-specific terms (45%, or specified as restrictions on timing and placement (49%, or content (22%. Public health professionals (47% appeared more frequently than drinks industry representatives (18%. Five supportive news frames suggested the policy is a sensible public health response, essential to protect children, needed to combat the drinks industry, required to stop pervasive branding, or as only an issue in sport. Four unsupportive frames positioned restrictions as unnecessary for a responsible industry, an attack on legitimate commercial activities, ineffective and ‘nannyist’, or

  6. Intervention for children with word-finding difficulties: a parallel group randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Wendy; Hughes, Lucy Mari; Masterson, Jackie; Thomas, Michael; Fedor, Anna; Roncoli, Silvia; Fern-Pollak, Liory; Shepherd, Donna-Lynn; Howard, David; Shobbrook, Kate; Kapikian, Anna

    2017-07-31

    The study investigated the outcome of a word-web intervention for children diagnosed with word-finding difficulties (WFDs). Twenty children age 6-8 years with WFDs confirmed by a discrepancy between comprehension and production on the Test of Word Finding-2, were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 11) and waiting control (n = 9) groups. The intervention group had six sessions of intervention which used word-webs and targeted children's meta-cognitive awareness and word-retrieval. On the treated experimental set (n = 25 items) the intervention group gained on average four times as many items as the waiting control group (d = 2.30). There were also gains on personally chosen items for the intervention group. There was little change on untreated items for either group. The study is the first randomised control trial to demonstrate an effect of word-finding therapy with children with language difficulties in mainstream school. The improvement in word-finding for treated items was obtained following a clinically realistic intervention in terms of approach, intensity and duration.

  7. Life Design Counseling Group Intervention with Portuguese Adolescents: A Process and Outcome Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Paulo; Janeiro, Isabel Nunes; Duarte, Maria Eduarda

    2018-01-01

    This article examines the process and outcome of a life design counseling group intervention with students in Grades 9 and 12. First, we applied a quasi-experimental methodology to analyze the intervention's effectiveness in promoting career certainty, career decision-making, self-efficacy, and career adaptability in a sample of 236 students.…

  8. Honoring the Ways of American Indian Women: A Group Therapy Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWhirter, Paula T.; Robbins, Rockey; Vaughn, Karen; Youngbull, Natalie; Burks, Derek; Willmon-Haque, Sadie; Schuetz, Suzan; Brandes, Joyce A.; Nael, Andrea Zainab Omidy

    2010-01-01

    A culturally grounded group intervention for a typically underserved population of urban American Indian women is described. The intervention is designed to increase interpersonal connection, improve inter-tribal acceptance and trust, and enhance psychological well being of marginalized urban American Indian women. Topics used to structure the…

  9. Reducing Depression, Anxiety, and Trauma of Male Inmates: An HIV/AIDS Psychoeducational Group Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Elizabeth C.; Kiam, Risa; Green, Diane L.

    2000-01-01

    Reports on a quasi-experimental research study that found that a 10-session psychoeducational group intervention was effective in increasing knowledge of AIDS and decreasing depression, anxiety, and trauma symptoms among male inmates. The intervention consisted of both AIDS education topics and psychological support. Results indicate significant…

  10. Couple-Focused Group Intervention for Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manne, Sharon L.; Ostroff, Jamie S.; Winkel, Gary; Fox, Kevin; Grana, Generosa; Miller, Eric; Ross, Stephanie; Frazier, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a couple-focused group intervention on psychological adaptation of women with early stage breast cancer and evaluated whether perceived partner unsupportive behavior or patient functional impairment moderated intervention effects. Two hundred thirty-eight women were randomly assigned to receive either 6 sessions…

  11. The Intersection of NASA Astrophysics Education and Public Outreach and Higher Education: A Special Interest Group Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, M.; Smith, D.; Schultz, G.; Bianchi, L.; Blair, W.

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents highlights from a group discussion on how the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) education and public outreach (EPO) community could better support undergraduate astronomy education through EPO products and resources - current and future - targeted at the college level. The discussion was organized by the SMD Astrophysics EPO Forum through a Special Interest Group Meeting at the 2010 ASP Annual Meeting in Boulder. Our session took advantage of the simultaneous presence of EPO professionals and the Cosmos in the Classroom participants to seek out diverse perspectives on and experiences in higher education.

  12. Local conflicts of the 1980s in the Middle East and the interests of the Group of Seven

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nemych, O. V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The author studies local conflicts of the 1980s in the Middle East and the interests of the Group of Seven. The purpose of the article is to represent the motivations of G7 of solution local conflicts of the 1980s in the Middle East. The author identified that interests of Group of Seven in resolving of local conflicts 1980s in the Middle East are can be determined by numbers of economic and political factors. This article is based on the analysis of sources and historiography. As a result of this research the author came to the conclusion that control over it – in terms of pricing policy accomplished OPEC – was an important precondition for the economy depended on oil imports of G Seven countries. Political motives component of G7 participation in resolving local conflicts in the Middle East was the trying to prevent the spread of Soviet influence on this region. Priority actions in shaping strategy of Seven countries were actually delegated to the United States, who played the leader of the Western world in the fight against the socialist camp. As a result shown that the motives solution of local conflicts in the Middle East for the Group of Seven countries were built on its own geopolitical and economic interests, rather than on a deep analysis of the internal causes of crises in Afghanistan, Lebanon or Iran.

  13. Barriers to and Enablers of Contraceptive Use among Adolescent Females and their Interest in an Emergency Department-based Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernick, Lauren S; Schnall, Rebecca; Higgins, Tracy; Stockwell, Melissa; Castaño, Paula; Santelli, John; Dayan, Peter S

    2015-01-01

    Objective Over 15 million adolescents, many at high risk for pregnancy, use emergency departments (ED) in the United States annually, but little is known regarding reasons for failure to use contraceptives in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify the barriers to and enablers of contraceptive use among adolescent females using the ED and determine their interest in an ED-based pregnancy prevention intervention. Study Design We conducted semi-structured, open-ended interviews with females in an urban ED. Eligible females were 14-19 years old, sexually active, presenting for reproductive health complaints, and at risk for pregnancy, defined as non-use of effective (per the World Health Organization) contraception. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded based on thematic analysis. Enrollment continued until no new themes emerged. A modified Health Belief Model guided the organization of the data. Results Participants (n=14) were predominantly Hispanic (93%), insured (93%), and in a sexual relationship (86%). The primary barrier to contraceptive use was perceived health risk, including effects on menstruation, weight, and future fertility. Other barriers consisted of mistrust in contraceptives, ambivalent pregnancy intentions, uncertainty about the future, partner's desire for pregnancy, and limited access to contraceptives. Enablers of past contraceptive use included the presence of a school-based health clinic and clear plans for the future. All participants were receptive to ED-based pregnancy prevention interventions. Conclusions The identified barriers and enablers influencing hormonal contraceptive use can be used to inform the design of future ED-based adolescent pregnancy prevention interventions. PMID:25499588

  14. Interventions to improve social determinants of health among elderly ethnic minority groups: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pool, Michelle S.; Agyemang, Charles O.; Smalbrugge, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Like the European general population, ethnic minorities are aging. In this group, important social determinants of health (social participation, social isolation and loneliness) that lead to negative health outcomes frequently occur. Interventions targeting these determinants may decrease negative

  15. Group intervention for siblings of children with disabilities: a pilot study in a clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granat, Tina; Nordgren, Ingrid; Rein, George; Sonnander, Karin

    2012-01-01

    To study the effectiveness of a group intervention in a clinical setting designed to increase knowledge of disability and improve sibling relationship among siblings of children with disabilities. A self-selected sample of 54 younger and older siblings with typical development (ages 8-12 years) of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (9), Asperger syndrome (7), autistic disorder (13), physical disability (8) and intellectual disability (17) participated in collateral sibling groups. The Sibling Knowledge Interview (SKI) and Sibling Relationship Questionnaire (SRQ) were administered pre- and post-intervention. SKI scores increased (p sibling groups showed significantly different (p siblings of children with disabilities. In view of the limited empirical research on group interventions for siblings of children with disabilities future work is needed to investigate the effectiveness of such interventions. Particular attention should be given to siblings of children with autism and siblings of children with intellectual disability.

  16. Children of mentally ill parents—a pilot study of a group intervention program

    OpenAIRE

    Christiansen, Hanna; Anding, Jana; Schrott, Bastian; Röhrle, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The transgenerational transmission of mental disorders is one of the most prominent risk factors for the development of psychological disorders. Children of mentally ill parents are a vulnerable high risk group with overall impaired development and high rates of psychological disorders. To date there are only a few evidence based intervention programs for this group overall and hardly any in Germany. We translated the evidence based Family Talk Intervention by Beardslee (2009) and ...

  17. Spine segmentation from C-arm CT data sets: application to region-of-interest volumes for spinal interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerger, C.; Lorenz, C.; Babic, D.; Hoppenbrouwers, J.; Homan, R.; Nachabe, R.; Racadio, J. M.; Grass, M.

    2017-03-01

    Spinal fusion is a common procedure to stabilize the spinal column by fixating parts of the spine. In such procedures, metal screws are inserted through the patients back into a vertebra, and the screws of adjacent vertebrae are connected by metal rods to generate a fixed bridge. In these procedures, 3D image guidance for intervention planning and outcome control is required. Here, for anatomical guidance, an automated approach for vertebra segmentation from C-arm CT images of the spine is introduced and evaluated. As a prerequisite, 3D C-arm CT images are acquired covering the vertebrae of interest. An automatic model-based segmentation approach is applied to delineate the outline of the vertebrae of interest. The segmentation approach is based on 24 partial models of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar vertebrae which aggregate information about (i) the basic shape itself, (ii) trained features for image based adaptation, and (iii) potential shape variations. Since the volume data sets generated by the C-arm system are limited to a certain region of the spine the target vertebra and hence initial model position is assigned interactively. The approach was trained and tested on 21 human cadaver scans. A 3-fold cross validation to ground truth annotations yields overall mean segmentation errors of 0.5 mm for T1 to 1.1 mm for C6. The results are promising and show potential to support the clinician in pedicle screw path and rod planning to allow accurate and reproducible insertions.

  18. Focus groups to increase the cultural acceptability of a contingency management intervention for American Indian and Alaska Native Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirchak, Katherine A; Leickly, Emily; Herron, Jalene; Shaw, Jennifer; Skalisky, Jordan; Dirks, Lisa G; Avey, Jaedon P; McPherson, Sterling; Nepom, Jenny; Donovan, Dennis; Buchwald, Dedra; McDonell, Michael G

    2018-07-01

    Many American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) people seek evidence-based, cost-effective, and culturally acceptable solutions for treating alcohol use disorders. Contingency management (CM) is a feasible, low-cost approach to treating alcohol use disorders that uses "reinforcers" to promote and support alcohol abstinence. CM has not been evaluated among AI/AN communities. This study explored the cultural acceptability of CM and adapted it for use in diverse AI/AN communities. We conducted a total of nine focus groups in three AI/AN communities: a rural reservation, an urban health clinic, and a large Alaska Native healthcare system. Respondents included adults in recovery, adults with current drinking problems, service providers, and other interested community members (n = 61). Focus group questions centered on the cultural appropriateness of "reinforcers" used to incentivize abstinence and the cultural acceptability of the intervention. Focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded independently by two study team members using both a priori and emergent codes. We then analyzed coded data. Across all three locations, focus group participants described the importance of providing both culturally specific (e.g., bead work and cultural art work supplies), as well as practical (e.g., gas cards and bus passes) reinforcers. Focus group participants underscored the importance of providing reinforcers for the children and family of intervention participants to assist with reengaging with family and rebuilding trust that may have been damaged during alcohol use. Respondents indicated that they believed CM was in alignment with AI/AN cultural values. There was consensus that Elders or a well-respected community member implementing this intervention would enhance participation. Focus group participants emphasized use of the local AI/AN language, in addition to the inclusion of appropriate cultural symbols and imagery in the delivery of the intervention. A CM

  19. A randomized controlled trial of support group intervention after breast cancer treatment: results on sick leave, health care utilization and health economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björneklett, Helena Granstam; Rosenblad, Andreas; Lindemalm, Christina; Ojutkangas, Marja-Leena; Letocha, Henry; Strang, Peter; Bergkvist, Leif

    2013-01-01

    More than 50% of breast cancer patients are diagnosed before the age of 65. Returning to work after treatment is, therefore, of interest for both the individual and society. The aim was to study the effect of support group intervention on sick leave and health care utilization in economic terms. Of 382 patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer, 191 + 191 patients were randomized to an intervention group or to a routine control group, respectively. The intervention group received support intervention on a residential basis for one week, followed by four days of follow-up two months later. The support intervention included informative-educational sections, relaxation training, mental visualization and non-verbal communication. Patients answered a questionnaire at baseline, two, six and 12 months about sick leave and health care utilization. There was a trend towards longer sick leave and more health care utilization in the intervention group. The difference in total costs was statistically significantly higher in the intervention group after 12 months (p = 0.0036). Costs to society were not reduced with intervention in its present form.

  20. How are clinical commissioning groups managing conflicts of interest under primary care co-commissioning in England? A qualitative analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Valerie; Allen, Pauline; McDermott, Imelda; Checkland, Kath; Warwick-Giles, Lynsey; Gore, Oz; Bramwell, Donna; Coleman, Anna

    2017-11-08

    From April 2015, NHS England (NHSE) started to devolve responsibility for commissioning primary care services to clinical commissioning groups (CCGs). The aim of this paper is to explore how CCGs are managing potential conflicts of interest associated with groups of GPs commissioning themselves or their practices to provide services. We carried out two telephone surveys using a sample of CCGs. We also used a qualitative case study approach and collected data using interviews and meeting observations in four sites (CCGs). We conducted 57 telephone interviews and 42 face-to-face interviews with general practitioners (GPs) and CCG staff involved in primary care co-commissioning and observed 74 meetings of CCG committees responsible for primary care co-commissioning. Conflicts of interest were seen as an inevitable consequence of CCGs commissioning primary care. Particular problems arose with obtaining unbiased clinical input for new incentive schemes and providing support to GP provider federations. Participants in meetings concerning primary care co-commissioning declared conflicts of interest at the outset of meetings. Different approaches were pursued regarding GPs involvement in subsequent discussions and decisions with inconsistency in the exclusion of GPs from meetings. CCG senior management felt confident that the new governance structures and policies dealt adequately with conflicts of interest, but we found these arrangements face limitations. While the revised NHSE statutory guidance on managing conflicts of interest (2016) was seen as an improvement on the original (2014), there still remained some confusion over various terms and concepts contained therein. Devolving responsibility for primary care co-commissioning to CCGs created a structural conflict of interest. The NHSE statutory guidance should be refined and clarified so that CCGs can properly manage conflicts of interest. Non-clinician members of committees involved in commissioning primary care

  1. Interventions to improve social determinants of health among elderly ethnic minority groups: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, Michelle S; Agyemang, Charles O; Smalbrugge, Martin

    2017-12-01

    Like the European general population, ethnic minorities are aging. In this group, important social determinants of health (social participation, social isolation and loneliness) that lead to negative health outcomes frequently occur. Interventions targeting these determinants may decrease negative health outcomes. The goal of this article was to identify effective interventions that improve social participation, and minimise social isolation and loneliness in community dwelling elderly ethnic minorities. An electronic database (PubMed) was systematically searched using an extensive search strategy, for intervention studies in English, French, Dutch of German, without time limit. Additional articles were found using references. Articles were included if they studied an intervention aimed to improve social participation or minimise social isolation or loneliness and were focusing on community dwelling elderly ethnic minorities. Data regarding studies characteristics and results were extracted. Six studies (three randomized controlled trials, three non-controlled intervention studies) were included in the review. All studies were group-based interventions and had a theoretical basis. Five out of six studies showed improvement on a social participation, -isolation or loneliness outcome. Type of intervention included volunteering-, educational- and physical activities. In three studies active participation of the participant was required, these interventions were not more effective than other interventions. Some interventions improved the included social determinants of health in community dwelling elderly ethnic minorities. Investment in further development and implementation of these interventions may help to improve social determinants of health in these populations. It is necessary to evaluate these interventions in the European setting. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  2. Interventions to improve physical activity among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups: an umbrella review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craike, Melinda; Wiesner, Glen; Hilland, Toni A; Bengoechea, Enrique Garcia

    2018-05-15

    People from socioeconomically disadvantaged population groups are less likely to be physically active and more likely to experience adverse health outcomes than those who are less disadvantaged. In this umbrella review we examined across all age groups, (1) the effectiveness of interventions to improve physical activity among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, (2) the characteristics of effective interventions, and (3) directions for future research. PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus were searched up to May 2017 to identify systematic reviews reporting physical activity interventions in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations or sub-groups. Two authors independently conducted study screening and selection, data extraction (one author, with data checked by two others) and assessment of methodological quality using the 'Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews' scale. Results were synthesized narratively. Seventeen reviews met our inclusion criteria, with only 5 (30%) reviews being assessed as high quality. Seven (41%) reviews focused on obesity prevention and an additional four focused on multiple behavioural outcomes. For pre school children, parent-focused, group-based interventions were effective in improving physical activity. For children, school-based interventions and policies were effective; few studies focused on adolescents and those that did were generally not effective; for adults, there was mixed evidence of effectiveness but characteristics such as group-based interventions and those that focused on physical activity only were associated with effectiveness. Few studies focused on older adults. Across all ages, interventions that were more intensive tended to be more effective. Most studies reported short-term, rather than longer-term, outcomes and common methodological limitations included high probability of selection bias, low response rates, and high attrition. Interventions can be successful at improving physical activity among children from

  3. The Effect of a Personalized Dementia Care Intervention for Caregivers From Australian Minority Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Lily Dongxia; De Bellis, Anita; Kyriazopoulos, Helena; Draper, Brian; Ullah, Shahid

    2016-02-01

    Most caregiver interventions in a multicultural society are designed to target caregivers from the mainstream culture and exclude those who are unable to speak English. This study addressed the gap by testing the hypothesis that personalized caregiver support provided by a team led by a care coordinator of the person with dementia would improve competence for caregivers from minority groups in managing dementia. A randomised controlled trial was utilised to test the hypothesis. Sixty-one family caregivers from 10 minority groups completed the trial. Outcome variables were measured prior to the intervention, at 6 and 12 months after the commencement of trial. A linear mixed effect model was used to estimate the effectiveness of the intervention. The intervention group showed a significant increase in the caregivers' sense of competence and mental components of quality of life. There were no significant differences in the caregivers' physical components of quality of life. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. STARS experiential group intervention: a complex trauma treatment approach for survivors of human trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Elizabeth K; Azar, Naomi; Bhattacharyya, Sriya; Malebranche, Dominique A; Brennan, Kelsey E

    2018-01-01

    This is the abstract that was submitted online with the paper: Despite the fact that many survivors of human trafficking have experienced complex trauma, there are no established interventions designed to specifically address these impacts. Leaders in the field of complex trauma have advocated for the need for somatic approaches to intervention. This paper presents STARS Experiential Group treatment, the first structured bodybased group intervention that has been designed to address complex trauma in survivors of human trafficking. Three pilot groups were run in residential settings with adolescent and adult survivors of sex trafficking. Two adaptations were utilized, with one focusing on application of expressive arts modalities and the other incorporating theater games. Qualitative results, using thematic analysis, identified several themes related to challenges and potential benefits of these groups. Potential benefits of the STARS groups were found in the areas of Interpersonal Relationships, Regulation, and Self/ Identity, with fourteen sub-themes further describing positive impacts. Challenges within these areas are explored, to inform the development of group interventions for trafficking survivors. The results of this paper suggest that experiential, somatically-oriented group treatment shows promise as an important element of holistic intervention with trafficking survivors.

  5. Group interventions to improve health outcomes: a framework for their design and delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avenell Alison

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delivering an intervention to a group of patients to improve health outcomes is increasingly popular in public health and primary care, yet "group" is an umbrella term which encompasses a complex range of aims, theories, implementation processes and evaluation methods. We propose a framework for the design and process evaluation of health improvement interventions occurring in a group setting, which will assist practitioners, researchers and policy makers. Methods We reviewed the wider literature on health improvement interventions delivered to patient groups and identified a gap in the literature for designing, evaluating and reporting these interventions. We drew on our experiences conducting systematic reviews, intervention, mixed method and ethnographic studies of groups for breastfeeding and weight management. A framework for health improvement group design and delivery evolved through an iterative process of primary research, reference to the literature and research team discussion. Results Although there is an extensive literature on group processes in education, work, politics and psychological therapies, far less is known about groups where the aim is health improvement. Theories of behaviour change which are validated for individual use are often assumed to be generalisable to group settings, without being rigorously tested. Health improvement or behaviour change interventions delivered in a group setting are complex adaptive social processes with interactions between the group leader, participants, and the wider community and environment. Ecological models of health improvement, which embrace the complex relationship between behaviour, systems and the environment may be more relevant than an individual approach to behaviour change. Conclusion The evidence for effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of group compared with one-to-one interventions for many areas of health improvement in public health and primary care is

  6. The International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group thymic initiative: a state-of-the-art study of thymic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detterbeck, Frank; Korst, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Thymic malignancies are relatively rare tumors. A general lack of knowledge, misconceptions about benignancy, confusion about the definition of terms, and variability in reporting of outcomes have further hampered progress in these diseases. The International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group has emerged to counter these challenges and has brought together a worldwide multidisciplinary community determined to improve outcomes for these patients. Although the organization is young (initiated in 2010), major early accomplishments have created a foundation and infrastructure for scientific research. These include consensus definitions of terms, an unprecedented global database, development of practical clinical resources and, together with the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer, development of proposals for the first formal stage classification of these malignant tumors. Many articles have been published or are under way, and a second phase of projects building on the early success is proceeding. The greatest accomplishment of the International Thymic Malignancy Interest Group lies in the establishment of an open culture of collaboration and the engagement of a broad group of individuals united by a common mission. It is a testament to what can be achieved, despite ongoing and inherent challenges, by determination and a collective effort. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of pharmaceutical counselling on antimicrobial use in surgical wards: intervention study with historical control group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, Eva; Weber, Alexandra; Lohmann, Stefanie; Vetter-Kerkhoff, Cornelia; Strobl, Ralf; Jauch, Karl-Walter

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of pharmaceutical consulting on the quality of antimicrobial use in a surgical hospital department in a prospective controlled intervention study. Patients receiving pharmaceutical intervention (intervention group, IG, n = 317) were compared with a historical control group (control group, CG, n = 321). During the control period, antimicrobial use was monitored without intervention. During the subsequent intervention period, a clinical pharmacist reviewed the prescriptions and gave advice on medication. Intervention reduced the length of antimicrobial courses (IG = 10 days, CG = 11 days, incidence rate ratio for i.v. versus o.p. = 0.88, 95% confidence interval 0.84 to 0.93) and shortened i.v. administration (IG = 8 days, CG = 10 days, hazard rate = 1.76 in favour of switch from i.v. to p.o., 95% confidence interval 1.23 to 2.52). Intervention also helped to avoid useless combination therapy and reduced total costs for antimicrobials. A clinical pharmacist who reviews prescriptions can promote an increase in efficiency, for example, by shortening the course of treatment. Counselling by ward-based clinical pharmacists was shown to be effective to streamline antimicrobial therapy in surgical units and to increase drug safety. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Combined use of focalized meditation and group psychological intervention in patients with terminal chronic renal failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enma Taimara Cisneros Acosta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: chronic renal failure is within the first 35 death causes in the country within the last five years.Objective: to determine the effectiveness of the combined use of the group psychological intervention with the focalized meditation (FM in the psychological rehabilitation of patients suffering from terminal chronic renal failure who underwent hemodialysis treatment in “Juan Bruno Zayas” General Hospital in Santiago de Cuba from January to June, 2014.Methods: a pre-test, post-test and control group intervention was carried out. The study sample was divided into three groups: one for the group psychological intervention (GPI, another one for the focalized meditation FM and the other one for the combined use of them both. The research process had three stages: the diagnostic phase with the use of: interview, observation, state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI, Beck Diagnostic Inventory (BDI, and coping ways questionnaire; the intervention, where treatment was imposed with six sessions of group psychological intervention to a group, eight sessions of focalized meditation to another one and the combination of them both to the other one; and the last phase, which was the post-intervention one, was carried out to evaluate the changes of the impaired adjustment and coping with emotional states, applying the same diagnostic techniques.Results: after the application of the therapeutic modalities, the results were: in the groups treated with the GPI and FM separately, the 80 % of the subjects reduced their anxiety levels; meanwhile, with the combination of the techniques, improvement was for the 100 % of the patients. The variable depression had a similar behavior. As for the coping styles: in the GPI group, 80 % of the subjects got active coping styles and the 20 % got mixed ones; in the FM group, the 40 % showed active styles, another 40 % passive styles, and 20 % got mixed ones; in the group with the combined treatment, the results were the

  9. Recent trends in Australian percutaneous coronary intervention practice: insights from the Melbourne Interventional Group registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bryan P; Ajani, Andrew E; Clark, David J; Duffy, Stephen J; Andrianopoulos, Nick; Brennan, Angela L; Loane, Philippa; Reid, Christopher M

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) practice trends and 12-month outcomes in Australia in the era of drug-eluting stents (DES). Prospective study of consecutive patients undergoing 9204 PCIs between 1 April 2004 and 31 March 2008 at seven Victorian public hospitals. Temporal trends in baseline characteristics and in-hospital and 12-month clinical outcomes including death, myocardial infarction (MI), target vessel revascularisation (TVR) and composite major adverse cardiac events (MACE), from year to year. Between 2004-2005 and 2007-2008, the mean age of patients undergoing PCI was stable (65 ± 12 years), and comorbidities such as hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, peripheral arterial disease and stroke increased (P < 0.05). There were fewer elective and more urgent PCIs, especially for MI < 24 hours (17.6% in 2004-2005 to 27.2% in 2007-2008, P < 0.01). Overall stent use remained high (mean, 94.6%), but use of DES declined steadily (53.9% in 2004-2005 to 32.0% in 2007-2008, P < 0.01), despite increases in complex lesions. Planned clopidogrel therapy of ≥ 12 months after insertion of DES increased from 54.7% in 2004-2005 to 98.0% in 2007-2008 (P < 0.01). The overall procedural success rate was high (mean, 95.9%), and 12-month rates of mortality (3.8%), MI (4.8%), TVR (6.8%) and stent thrombosis (1.8%) remained low. Selective use of DES was an independent predictor of freedom from MACE at 12 months (odds ratio, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.56-0.81). Use of DES declined steadily from 2004-2005 to 2007-2008, despite increasing patient risk profile and lesion complexity. Procedural success remained high and 12-month adverse outcomes remained low, with increasing use of prolonged dual antiplatelet therapy.

  10. The effectiveness of a short-term group music therapy intervention for parents who have a child with a disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Kate E; Berthelsen, Donna; Nicholson, Jan M; Walker, Sue; Abad, Vicky

    2012-01-01

    The positive relationship between parent-child interactions and optimal child development is well established. Families of children with disabilities may face unique challenges in establishing positive parent-child relationships; yet, there are few studies examining the effectiveness of music therapy interventions to address these issues. In particular, these studies have been limited by small sample size and the use of measures of limited reliability and validity. This study examined the effectiveness of a short-term group music therapy intervention for parents of children with disabilities and explored factors associated with better outcomes for participating families. Participants were 201 mother-child dyads, where the child had a disability. Pre- and post-intervention parental questionnaires and clinician observation measures were completed to examine outcomes of parental wellbeing, parenting behaviors, and child development. Descriptive data, t-tests for repeated measures and a predictive model tested via logistic regression are presented. Significant improvements pre to post intervention were found for parent mental health, child communication and social skills, parenting sensitivity, parental engagement with child and acceptance of child, child responsiveness to parent, and child interest and participation in program activities. There was also evidence for high parental satisfaction and that the program brought social benefits to families. Reliable change on six or more indicators of parent or child functioning was predicted by attendance and parent education. This study provides positive evidence for the effectiveness of group music therapy in promoting improved parental mental health, positive parenting and key child developmental areas.

  11. Using the Solving Problems Together Psychoeducational Group Counseling Model as an Intervention for Negative Peer Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kimberly R.; Rushing, Jeri Lynn; Khurshid, Ayesha

    2011-01-01

    Problem-focused interventions are considered to be one of the most effective group counseling strategies with adolescents. This article describes a problem-focused group counseling model, Solving Problems Together (SPT), that focuses on working with students who struggle with negative peer pressure. Adapted from the teaching philosophy of…

  12. A Strengths-Based Group Intervention for Women Who Experienced Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker-Williams, Hayley J.; Fouché, Ansie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the benefits of a ''survivor to thriver'' strengths-based group intervention program to facilitate posttraumatic growth in women survivors of child sexual abuse. Method: A quasi-experimental, one group, pretest, posttest, time-delay design was employed using qualitative methods to evaluate the benefits of the…

  13. Body Talk: A School-based Group Intervention for Working with Disordered Eating Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daigneault, Susan Dahlgren

    2000-01-01

    Describes a school-based group intervention designed to address issues of body image, self-esteem, weight, and eating disturbances. This 10-session group provides female high school students with opportunities to explore their concerns about relationships, appearance, and what it means to be female. Provides descriptions of narrative techniques…

  14. Group Motivational Interviewing in Schools: Development of a Health Promotion Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Jemma L.; Bravo, Paulina; Gobat, Nina; Rollnick, Stephen; Jerzembek, Gabrielle; Whitehead, Sarah; Chanon, Sue; Kelson, Mark; Adams, Orla; Murphy, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In the light of the shortcomings of curriculum-based health promotion in secondary schools, group motivational interviewing provides a potential alternative approach. This two-phase study set out to establish the key components, feasibility and acceptability of a group motivational interviewing intervention, focused on alcohol…

  15. Impact of a group intervention with mothers and babies on child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Oré

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the impact on child development of a group intervention with mothers and their eight-month-old babies from a marginal urban district of Lima. The groups, control and treatment, were randomized and child development was assessed before and after with the BSID-II. The intervention had a general positive impact in the children’s development, but no significant differences were found between both groups in the Mental Development Index or the Psychomotor Development Index. There was a significant effect (p < .05 in two of the BSID-II Behavioral Scale factors.

  16. Meaning-based group counseling for bereavement: bridging theory with emerging trends in intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Christopher J; Smith, Nathan Grant; Henry, Melissa; Berish, Mel; Milman, Evgenia; Körner, Annett; Copeland, Laura S; Chochinov, Harvey M; Cohen, S Robin

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of scholarship has evaluated the usefulness of meaning-based theories in the context of bereavement counseling. Although scholars have discussed the application of meaning-based theories for individual practice, there is a lack of inquiry regarding its implications when conducting bereavement support groups. The objective of this article is to bridge meaning-based theories with bereavement group practice, leading to a novel intervention and laying the foundation for future efficacy studies. Building on recommendations specified in the literature, this article outlines the theoretical paradigms and structure of a short-term meaning-based group counseling intervention for uncomplicated bereavement.

  17. Exploring change in a group-based psychological intervention for multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Martina; Bonino, Silvia; Graziano, Federica; Calandri, Emanuela

    2018-07-01

    The study is focused on a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention aimed at promoting the quality of life and psychological well-being of multiple sclerosis patients. The study investigates how the group intervention promoted change among participants and fostered their adjustment to the illness. The intervention involved six groups of patients (a total of 41 patients) and included four consecutive sessions and a 6-month follow-up. To explore change, verbatim transcripts of the intervention sessions were analyzed using a mixed-methods content analysis with qualitative data combined with descriptive statistics. The categories of resistance and openness to change were used to describe the process of change. Resistance and openness to change coexisted during the intervention. Only in the first session did resistance prevail over openness to change; thereafter, openness to change gradually increased and stabilized over time, and openness to change was then always stronger than resistance. The study builds on previous research on the effectiveness of group-based psychological interventions for multiple sclerosis patients and gives methodological and clinical suggestions to health care professionals working with multiple sclerosis patients. Implications for rehabilitation The study suggests that a group-based cognitive behavioral intervention for multiple sclerosis patients focused on the promotion of identity redefinition, a sense of coherence and self-efficacy in dealing with multiple sclerosis fosters the process of change and may be effective in promoting patients' adjustment to their illness. Health care professionals leading group-based psychological interventions for multiple sclerosis patients should be aware that resistance and openness to change coexist in the process of change. The study suggests that the duration of the intervention is a crucial factor: a minimum of three sessions appears to be necessary for group participants to develop greater openness

  18. Coming to the party of their own volition: Interest groups, the Lesotho Highlands Water Project Phase 1 and change in the water sector

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Meissner, Richard

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Interest groups are omnipresent phenomena of most political societies. They are present because of their attempts to influence public policy and their representation role. These roles are fundamental agential roles. Through these roles interest...

  19. A cognitive/behavioral group intervention for weight loss in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Mary; Wyne, Kathleen

    2006-03-01

    Obesity and diabetes have caused problems for individuals with schizophrenia long before atypical antipsychotic agents. The prevalence of obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and the Metabolic Syndrome has increased in people with schizophrenia as compared to the general population. Risk reduction studies for persons with obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease indicate that cognitive/behavioral interventions that promote motivation and provide strategies to overcome the barriers in adherence to diet and activity modification are effective interventions for weight management and risk reduction. In the landmark multi-center randomized-controlled trial study, the Diabetes Prevention Project (DPP), a cognitive/behavioral intervention, was more successful in producing weight loss and preventing diabetes than the drugs metformin, troglitazone or placebo. This pilot study examined the effectiveness of a cognitive/behavioral group intervention, modified after the DPP program, in individuals with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder taking atypical antipsychotics in a large urban public mental health system. Outcome measures included body weight, body mass index, waist-hip ratios, and fasting glucose levels. Both groups demonstrated elevated fasting glucose levels and were obese with a mean BMI of 33. The group that received the cognitive/behavioral group intervention lost more weight than the treatment as usual group. The CB group participants lost an average of 5.4 lb or 2.9% of body weight, and those in the control group lost 1.3 lb or 0.6% body weight. The range of weight loss for the treatment group was from 1 to 20 lb. This pilot study has demonstrated that weight loss is possible with cognitive/behavioral interventions in a population with a psychotic disorder.

  20. Skin test concentrations for systemically administered drugs -- an ENDA/EAACI Drug Allergy Interest Group position paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockow, K; Garvey, L H; Aberer, W

    2013-01-01

    Skin tests are of paramount importance for the evaluation of drug hypersensitivity reactions. Drug skin tests are often not carried out because of lack of concise information on specific test concentrations. The diagnosis of drug allergy is often based on history alone, which is an unreliable...... indicator of true hypersensitivity.To promote and standardize reproducible skin testing with safe and nonirritant drug concentrations in the clinical practice, the European Network and European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Interest Group on Drug Allergy has performed a literature...... search on skin test drug concentration in MEDLINE and EMBASE, reviewed and evaluated the literature in five languages using the GRADE system for quality of evidence and strength of recommendation. Where the literature is poor, we have taken into consideration the collective experience of the group...

  1. Developing clinical practice guidelines: target audiences, identifying topics for guidelines, guideline group composition and functioning and conflicts of interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, Martin P; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Shekelle, Paul; Schünemann, Holger J; Woolf, Steven

    2012-07-04

    Clinical practice guidelines are one of the foundations of efforts to improve health care. In 1999, we authored a paper about methods to develop guidelines. Since it was published, the methods of guideline development have progressed both in terms of methods and necessary procedures and the context for guideline development has changed with the emergence of guideline clearing houses and large scale guideline production organisations (such as the UK National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence). It therefore seems timely to, in a series of three articles, update and extend our earlier paper. In this first paper we discuss: the target audience(s) for guidelines and their use of guidelines; identifying topics for guidelines; guideline group composition (including consumer involvement) and the processes by which guideline groups function and the important procedural issue of managing conflicts of interest in guideline development.

  2. Who benefits? Outcome following a coping skills group intervention for traumatically brain injured individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, Katie; Ponsford, Jennie

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the variables associated with positive psychological outcome following a group intervention for 33 individuals with traumatic brain injury. Evaluation study which used multiple regression analysis to examine the variables associated with change in psychological adjustment following a 10-session cognitive behaviour therapy-based group. The predictor variables were age at injury, time since injury, injury severity, self-awareness, pre-morbid intellectual function, memory function, executive function and level of depression and anxiety prior to intervention. The predictor variables contributed a significant proportion of the variance in percentage change in depression. The major finding was that better outcomes following intervention were associated with greater self-awareness of injury-related deficits. The present study identified a number of variables that were associated with improvement in depression following psychological intervention and may assist future treatment resources to be directed most effectively.

  3. Dose to patients and professionals in cardiology interventional: Progress of multicenter group Doccaci

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, R. M.; Vano, E.; Fernandez, J. M.; Goicolea Ruigomez, J.; Pifarre, X.; Escaned, J.; Rovira, J. J.; Garcia del Blanco, B.; Carrera, F.; Diaz, J. F.; Ordiales, J. M.; Nogales, J. M.; Hernandez, J.; Bosa, F.; Rosales, F.; Saez, J. R.; Soler, M. M.; Romero, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    The multidisciplinary group and multicenter DOCCACI (dosimetry and quality assurance in interventional cardiology), sponsored by the section of haemodynamics of the Spanish society of Cardiology, is intended to propose reference levels to doses received by patients in interventional cardiology procedures such as recommended by the International Commission on radiological protection It also investigates the doses received by professionals, in particular dose in Crystallyne whose recommended limit dose has been reduced recently from 150 to 20 mSv/year. (Author)

  4. Controlling prescription drug costs: regulation and the role of interest groups in Medicare and the Veterans Health Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frakt, Austin B; Pizer, Steven D; Hendricks, Ann M

    2008-12-01

    Medicare and the Veterans Health Administration (VA) both finance large outpatient prescription drug programs, though in very different ways. In the ongoing debate on how to control Medicare spending, some suggest that Medicare should negotiate directly with drug manufacturers, as the VA does. In this article we relate the role of interest groups to policy differences between Medicare and the VA and, in doing so, explain why such a large change to the Medicare drug program is unlikely. We argue that key policy differences are attributable to stable differences in interest group involvement. While this stability makes major changes in Medicare unlikely, it suggests the possibility of leveraging VA drug purchasing to achieve savings in Medicare. This could be done through a VA-administered drug-only benefit for Medicare-enrolled veterans. Such a partnership could incorporate key elements of both programs: capacity to accept large numbers of enrollees (like Medicare) and leverage to negotiate prescription drug prices (like the VA). Moreover, it could be implemented at no cost to the VA while achieving savings for Medicare and beneficiaries.

  5. Effectiveness of a mobile cooperation intervention during the clinical practicum of nursing students: a parallel group randomized controlled trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandell-Laine, Camilla; Saarikoski, Mikko; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Salminen, Leena; Suomi, Reima; Leino-Kilpi, Helena

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe a study protocol for a study evaluating the effectiveness of a mobile cooperation intervention to improve students' competence level, self-efficacy in clinical performance and satisfaction with the clinical learning environment. Nursing student-nurse teacher cooperation during the clinical practicum has a vital role in promoting the learning of students. Despite an increasing interest in using mobile technologies to improve the clinical practicum of students, there is limited robust evidence regarding their effectiveness. A multicentre, parallel group, randomized, controlled, pragmatic, superiority trial. Second-year pre-registration nursing students who are beginning a clinical practicum will be recruited from one university of applied sciences. Eligible students will be randomly allocated to either a control group (engaging in standard cooperation) or an intervention group (engaging in mobile cooperation) for the 5-week the clinical practicum. The complex mobile cooperation intervention comprises of a mobile application-assisted, nursing student-nurse teacher cooperation and a training in the functions of the mobile application. The primary outcome is competence. The secondary outcomes include self-efficacy in clinical performance and satisfaction with the clinical learning environment. Moreover, a process evaluation will be undertaken. The ethical approval for this study was obtained in December 2014 and the study received funding in 2015. The results of this study will provide robust evidence on mobile cooperation during the clinical practicum, a research topic that has not been consistently studied to date. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Identity development, intelligence structure, and interests: a cross-sectional study in a group of Italian adolescents during the decision-making process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pellerone M

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Monica Pellerone,1 Alessia Passanisi,1 Mario Filippo Paolo Bellomo2 1Faculty of Human and Social Science, “Kore” University of Enna, Enna, 2Credito Emiliano Bank, Piazza Armerina, Italy Background: Forming one’s identity is thought to be the key developmental task of adolescence, but profound changes in personality traits also occur in this period. The negotiation of complex social settings, the creation of an integrated identity, and career choice are major tasks of adolescence. The adolescent, having to make choices for his or her future, has not only to consider his or her own aspirations and interests but also to possess a capacity for exploration and commitment; in fact, career commitments can be considered as a fit between the study or career that is chosen and personal values, skills, and preferences. Methods: The objective of the study reported here was to investigate the role of identity on profile of interests; the relation between identity and decisional style; the correlation between identity, aptitudes, interests, and school performance; and the predictive variables to school success. The research involved 417 Italian students who live in Enna, a small city located in Sicily, Italy, aged 16–19 years (197 males and 220 females in the fourth year (mean =17.2, standard deviation =0.52 and the fifth year (mean =18.2, standard deviation =0.64 of senior secondary school. The research lasted for one school year; the general group of participants consisted of 470 students, and although all participants agreed to be part of the research, there was a dropout rate of 11.28%. They completed the Ego Identity Process Questionnaire to measure their identity development, the Intelligence Structure Test to investigate aptitudes, the Self-Directed Search to value interests, and General Decision Making Style questionnaire to describe their individual decisional style. Results: The data showed that high-school performance was positively

  7. Recruitment and group composition strategies for family-based substance misuse prevention interventions: an exploratory evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Segrott, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to report findings from an evaluation of the Strengthening Families Programme 10-14 (UK) (SFP 10-14 UK), focusing on the strategies used to recruit families into a universal prevention intervention, the approach taken to group composition, and the experiences of participating families.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – Methods comprised interviews with programme coordinating team members, a focus group with programme facilitators, focus groups with parents and you...

  8. Group music interventions for dementia-associated anxiety: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ing-Randolph, Avis R; Phillips, Linda R; Williams, Ann B

    2015-11-01

    This systematic review examines the few published studies using group music interventions to reduce dementia-associated anxiety, the delivery of such interventions, and proposes changes to nursing curriculum for the future. Literature review. All quantitative studies from 1989 to 2014 were searched in CINAHL and PubMed databases. Only published articles written in English were included. Studies excluded were reviews, non-human subjects, reports, expert opinions, subject age less than 65, papers that were theoretical or philosophical in nature, individual music interventions, case studies, studies without quantification of changes to anxiety, and those consisting of less than three subjects. Components of each study are analyzed and compared to examine the risk for bias. Eight articles met the inclusion criteria for review. Subject dementia severity ranged from mild to severe among studies reviewed. Intervention delivery and group sizes varied among studies. Seven reported decreases to anxiety after a group music intervention. Group music interventions to treat dementia-associated anxiety is a promising treatment. However, the small number of studies and the large variety in methods and definitions limit our ability to draw conclusions. It appears that group size, age of persons with dementia and standardization of the best times for treatment to effect anxiety decreases all deserve further investigation. In addition, few studies have been conducted in the United States. In sum, while credit is due to the nurses and music therapists who pioneered the idea in nursing care, consideration of patient safety and improvements in music intervention delivery training from a healthcare perspective are needed. Finally, more research investigating resident safety and the growth of nursing roles within various types of facilities where anxiety is highest, is necessary. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Education and counselling group intervention for women treated for gynaecological cancer: does it help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekse, Ragnhild Johanne Tveit; Blaaka, Gunnhild; Buestad, Ingjerd; Tengesdal, Ellen; Paulsen, Anita; Vika, Margrethe

    2014-03-01

    Women who have been through gynaecological cancer, experience challenges on many levels after diagnosis and treatment. Studies show that, in order to help women in their rehabilitation process, there is a need for holistic care and follow-up. The aim of this qualitative study is to provide insight into women's own lived experiences of participating in an education and counselling group intervention after curative treatment for gynaecological cancer. A qualitative study based on data from three focus groups with 17 women who had participated in a nurse-led education and counselling group intervention after treatment for gynaecological cancer. The main findings show that participation in the rehabilitation group was described as a special community of mutual understanding and belonging. Education and the sharing of knowledge provided a clearer vocabulary for, and understanding of, the women's own lived experiences. The presence of dedicated and professional care workers was reported to be essential for the outcome of the group intervention. Attending a nurse-led education and counselling group intervention had a positive impact on various aspects of the women's lived experiences. The programme also provided professionals with important insights into the patients' views and feelings regarding cancer treatment, trajectories and rehabilitation. This knowledge has already proven itself useful in clinical practice for improving staff communication skills and psycho-social support related to gynaecological cancer care. © 2013 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2013 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  10. Group interventions for patients with cancer and HIV disease: part IV. Clinical and policy recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leszcz, Molyn; Sherman, Allen; Mosier, Julie; Burlingame, Gary M; Cleary, Trish; Ulman, Kathleen Hubbs; Simonton, Stephanie; Latif, Umaira; Strauss, Bernhard; Hazelton, Lara

    2004-10-01

    Group interventions have assumed a growing role in primary prevention and supportive care for cancer and HIV disease. Earlier sections of this Special Report examined empirical findings for these interventions and provided recommendations for future research. The current section offers brief recommendations for service providers, policymakers, and stakeholders. Group services now occupy an increasingly prominent place in primary prevention programs and medical settings. In previous sections of this Special Report (Sherman, Leszcz et al., 2004; Sherman, Mosier et al., 2004a, 2004b) we examined the efficacy of different group interventions at different phases of cancer or HIV disease, considered characteristics of the intervention and the participants that might influence outcomes, and discussed mechanisms of action. Methodological challenges and priorities for future research were highlighted. In this, the final section, we offer brief recommendations for service providers, policymakers, and other stakeholders. We consider some of the barriers that constrain use of empirically-based group interventions and note how these programs might be implemented more widely and effectively.

  11. Taking snapshots of preventive interventions : On the effectiveness of preventive interventions for youth and how it relates to implementation and conflict of interest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goossens, F.X.

    2017-01-01

    Intervention studies This dissertation describes three trials in which the effectiveness of three preventive interventions for youth were tested in the Netherlands. The interventions aim to improve the social and emotional development of children in elementary school (PATHS), reduce alcohol use and

  12. Groups 4 Health: Evidence that a social-identity intervention that builds and strengthens social group membership improves mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Catherine; Cruwys, Tegan; Haslam, S Alexander; Dingle, Genevieve; Chang, Melissa Xue-Ling

    2016-04-01

    Social isolation and disconnection have profound negative effects on mental health, but there are few, if any, theoretically-derived interventions that directly target this problem. We evaluate a new intervention, Groups 4 Health (G4H), a manualized 5-module psychological intervention that targets the development and maintenance of social group relationships to treat psychological distress arising from social isolation. G4H was tested using a non-randomized control design. The program was delivered to young adults presenting with social isolation and affective disturbance. Primary outcome measures assessed mental health (depression, general anxiety, social anxiety, and stress), well-being (life satisfaction, self-esteem) and social connectedness (loneliness, social functioning). Our secondary goal was to assess whether mechanisms of social identification were responsible for changes in outcomes. G4H was found to significantly improve mental health, well-being, and social connectedness on all measures, both on program completion and 6-month follow-up. In line with social identity theorizing, analysis also showed that improvements in depression, anxiety, stress, loneliness, and life satisfaction were underpinned by participants' increased identification both with their G4H group and with multiple groups. This study provides preliminary evidence of the potential value of G4H and its underlying mechanisms, but further examination is required in other populations to address issues of generalizability, and in randomized controlled trials to address its wider efficacy. Results of this pilot study confirm that G4H has the potential to reduce the negative health-related consequences of social disconnection. Future research will determine its utility in wider community contexts. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Testing the Efficacy of a Kindergarten Mathematics Intervention by Small Group Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Clarke

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This study used a randomized controlled trial design to investigate the ROOTS curriculum, a 50-lesson kindergarten mathematics intervention. Ten ROOTS-eligible students per classroom (n = 60 were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: a ROOTS five-student group, a ROOTS two-student group, and a no-treatment control group. Two primary research questions were investigated as part of this study: What was the overall impact of the treatment (the ROOTS intervention as compared with the control (business as usual? Was there a differential impact on student outcomes between the two treatment conditions (two- vs. five-student group? Initial analyses for the first research question indicated a significant impact on three outcomes and positive but nonsignificant impacts on three additional measures. Results for the second research question, comparing the two- and five-student groups, indicated negligible and nonsignificant differences. Implications for practice are discussed.

  14. A GROUP INTERVENTION PROGRAMME FOR ADULT SURVIVORS OF CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fouché, Ansie

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on the core components of the Survivor to Thriver strengths-based group intervention programme for women who experienced childhood sexual abuse. It advocates a balanced approach and draws on an eclectic mix of theories, and has been field tested with two groups of women. An exposition of the philosophical and theoretical underpinnings, a description of the context, the role of the expert companion, outcomes and activities of the programme, evaluation methods and standard of care is provided. Finally, critical reflections on the intervention are discussed as well as limitations and the way forward.

  15. Evaluation of support group interventions for children in troubled families: study protocol for a quasi-experimental control group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerfving, Annemi; Johansson, Fredrik; Elgán, Tobias H

    2014-01-24

    Support groups for children in troubled families are available in a majority of Swedish municipalities. They are used as a preventive effort for children in families with different parental problems such as addiction to alcohol/other drugs, mental illness, domestic violence, divorce situations, or even imprisonment. Children from families with these problems are a well-known at-risk group for various mental health and social problems. Support groups aim at strengthening children's coping behaviour, to improve their mental health and to prevent a negative psycho-social development. To date, evaluations using a control-group study design are scarce. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effects of support groups. This paper describes the design of an effectiveness study, initially intended as a randomized controlled trial, but instead is pursued as a quasi-experimental study using a non-randomized control group. The aim is to include 116 children, aged 7-13 years and one parent/another closely related adult, in the study. Participants are recruited via existing support groups in the Stockholm county district and are allocated either into an intervention group or a waiting list control group, representing care as usual. The assessment consists of questionnaires that are to be filled in at baseline and at four months following the baseline. Additionally, the intervention group completes a 12-month follow-up. The outcomes include the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ S11-16), the Kids Coping Scale, the "Ladder of life" which measures overall life satisfaction, and "Jag tycker jag är" (I think I am) which measures self-perception and self-esteem. The parents complete the SDQ P4-16 (parent-report version) and the Swedish scale "Familjeklimat" (Family Climate), which measures the emotional climate in the family. There is a need for evaluating the effects of support groups targeted to children from troubled families. This quasi-experimental study

  16. A qualitative evaluation of a group phone-based weight loss intervention for rural breast cancer survivors: Themes and mechanisms of success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzino, Tera L; Sporn, Nora J; Befort, Christie A

    2016-07-01

    Obesity is prevalent in breast cancer survivors and is a significant risk factor for recurrence and mortality. Weight management interventions for survivors have been diverse in design (in-person vs. phone-based, group vs. individual) and yielded varying weight loss results. Given these issues, participants themselves may provide insight into treatment-based factors that contributed to their weight loss outcomes. Here, we report qualitative results from interviews with survivors in a group phone-based weight loss intervention, with the objective of identifying mechanisms that facilitated or hindered adherence and weight loss. We explored interest in paying for continued treatment as an indicator of dissemination potential. Individual interviews were conducted with 186 rural, obese breast cancer survivors upon completion of a 6-month weight loss intervention that produced clinically meaningful weight loss (>5 %) in 91 % of participants. A thematic analysis of the interview data was performed. Five themes were identified as impacting adherence and success: (1) accountability; (2) importance of the group, with varying levels of connectedness; (3) dietary convenience; (4) difficulty maintaining intervention components that required more effort; and (5) importance of internal motivation to attributions of physical activity success or failure. Most were interested in paying to continue the program if it were extended beyond the study. Key intervention components that participants attributed to their success included supportive group processes and convenience. Results highlight the group phone-based approach as a potential venue for disseminating an effective weight loss program for breast cancer survivors. NCT01441011.

  17. The Introduction of an Undergraduate Interventional Radiology (IR) Curriculum: Impact on Medical Student Knowledge and Interest in IR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaikh, M.; Shaygi, B.; Asadi, H.; Thanaratnam, P.; Pennycooke, K.; Mirza, M.; Lee, M.

    2016-01-01

    IntroductionInterventional radiology (IR) plays a vital role in modern medicine, with increasing demand for services, but with a shortage of experienced interventionalists. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a recently introduced IR curriculum on perception, knowledge, and interest of medical students regarding various aspects of IR.MethodsIn 2014, an anonymous web-based questionnaire was sent to 309 4th year medical students in a single institution within an EU country, both before and after delivery of a 10-h IR teaching curriculum.ResultsSeventy-six percent (236/309) of the respondents participated in the pre-IR module survey, while 50 % (157/309) responded to the post-IR module survey. While 62 % (147/236) of the respondents reported poor or no knowledge of IR compared to other medical disciplines in the pre-IR module survey, this decreased to 17 % (27/157) in the post-IR module survey. The correct responses regarding knowledge of selected IR procedures improved from 70 to 94 % for venous access, 78 to 99 % for uterine fibroid embolization, 75 to 97 % for GI bleeding embolization, 60 to 92 % for trauma embolization, 71 to 92 % for tumor ablation, and 81 to 94 % for angioplasty and stenting in peripheral arterial disease. With regard to knowledge of IR clinical roles, responses improved from 42 to 59 % for outpatient clinic review of patients and having inpatient beds, 63–76 % for direct patient consultation, and 43–60 % for having regular ward rounds. The number of students who would consider a career in IR increased from 60 to 73 %.ConclusionDelivering an undergraduate IR curriculum increased the knowledge and understanding of various aspects of IR and also the general enthusiasm for pursuing this specialty as a future career choice.

  18. The Introduction of an Undergraduate Interventional Radiology (IR) Curriculum: Impact on Medical Student Knowledge and Interest in IR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaikh, M. [Bradford Royal Infirmary, Department of Radiology, Bradford Teaching Hospital Foundation Trust (United Kingdom); Shaygi, B. [Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital, Interventional Radiology Department (United Kingdom); Asadi, H., E-mail: asadi.hamed@gmail.com; Thanaratnam, P.; Pennycooke, K.; Mirza, M.; Lee, M., E-mail: mlee@rcsi.ie [Beaumont Hospital, Interventional Radiology Service, Department of Radiology (Ireland)

    2016-04-15

    IntroductionInterventional radiology (IR) plays a vital role in modern medicine, with increasing demand for services, but with a shortage of experienced interventionalists. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of a recently introduced IR curriculum on perception, knowledge, and interest of medical students regarding various aspects of IR.MethodsIn 2014, an anonymous web-based questionnaire was sent to 309 4th year medical students in a single institution within an EU country, both before and after delivery of a 10-h IR teaching curriculum.ResultsSeventy-six percent (236/309) of the respondents participated in the pre-IR module survey, while 50 % (157/309) responded to the post-IR module survey. While 62 % (147/236) of the respondents reported poor or no knowledge of IR compared to other medical disciplines in the pre-IR module survey, this decreased to 17 % (27/157) in the post-IR module survey. The correct responses regarding knowledge of selected IR procedures improved from 70 to 94 % for venous access, 78 to 99 % for uterine fibroid embolization, 75 to 97 % for GI bleeding embolization, 60 to 92 % for trauma embolization, 71 to 92 % for tumor ablation, and 81 to 94 % for angioplasty and stenting in peripheral arterial disease. With regard to knowledge of IR clinical roles, responses improved from 42 to 59 % for outpatient clinic review of patients and having inpatient beds, 63–76 % for direct patient consultation, and 43–60 % for having regular ward rounds. The number of students who would consider a career in IR increased from 60 to 73 %.ConclusionDelivering an undergraduate IR curriculum increased the knowledge and understanding of various aspects of IR and also the general enthusiasm for pursuing this specialty as a future career choice.

  19. Intervention group as a resource of Occupational Therapy: an experience with menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Diniz Rosa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Intervention group as a resource of Occupational Therapy is the main theme of this study. Herein we present an experience carried out in two universities in the areas of occupational therapy, pharmacy and medicine, more specifically in the field of gynecology regarding the care of climacteric woman. The first intervention occurred in 2004 with trainees of the occupational therapy course and medical school residents. However, the study was restarted in 2010 with expansion to the human resources and knowledge areas. The methodology was based on the transcripts of the remarks made after each group meeting, which was coordinated by the Occupational Therapy. Results showed that the intervention group process has helped participants in the understanding of this stage of life and has interfered in the changing of habits and attitudes, with great improvement in daily life organization. We concluded that the use of intervention group as a resource of Occupational Therapy and the liaison with other areas are of great importance because they enable the construction of a unique treatment plan for the group, given the contribution from each clinical area.

  20. EVALUATION OF WORK PLACE GROUP AND INTERNET BASED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INTERVENTIONS ON PSYCHOLOGICAL VARIABLES ASSOCIATED WITH EXERCISE BEHAVIOR CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberley A. Dawson

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to compare group-based and internet-based physical activity interventions in terms of desirability, participant characteristics, exercise self-efficacy, and barrier self-efficacy. Pretest questionnaires were completed prior to voluntary enrollment into either of the ten-week physical activity interventions. Both interventions were based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model. Interventions were followed with posttest questionnaires. Results demonstrated that the internet intervention attracted more participants, but only the group-based participants showed significant increases in exercise and barrier self-efficacy. At pretest, participants who selected the internet intervention were significantly lower in life and job satisfaction than those who selected the group intervention. Results suggest that traditional group-based exercise interventions are helpful for improving cognitions associated with exercise behavior change (e.g., exercise self-efficacy and that the internet intervention may help employees who fall into an "unhappy employee" typology

  1. Identity development, intelligence structure, and interests: a cross-sectional study in a group of Italian adolescents during the decision-making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellerone, Monica; Passanisi, Alessia; Bellomo, Mario Filippo Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Forming one's identity is thought to be the key developmental task of adolescence, but profound changes in personality traits also occur in this period. The negotiation of complex social settings, the creation of an integrated identity, and career choice are major tasks of adolescence. The adolescent, having to make choices for his or her future, has not only to consider his or her own aspirations and interests but also to possess a capacity for exploration and commitment; in fact, career commitments can be considered as a fit between the study or career that is chosen and personal values, skills, and preferences. The objective of the study reported here was to investigate the role of identity on profile of interests; the relation between identity and decisional style; the correlation between identity, aptitudes, interests, and school performance; and the predictive variables to school success. The research involved 417 Italian students who live in Enna, a small city located in Sicily, Italy, aged 16-19 years (197 males and 220 females) in the fourth year (mean =17.2, standard deviation =0.52) and the fifth year (mean =18.2, standard deviation =0.64) of senior secondary school. The research lasted for one school year; the general group of participants consisted of 470 students, and although all participants agreed to be part of the research, there was a dropout rate of 11.28%. They completed the Ego Identity Process Questionnaire to measure their identity development, the Intelligence Structure Test to investigate aptitudes, the Self-Directed Search to value interests, and General Decision Making Style questionnaire to describe their individual decisional style. The data showed that high-school performance was positively associated with rational decision-making style and identity diffusion predicted the use of avoidant style. Interests were related to identity exploration; the differentiation of preferences was related to identity commitment; investigative

  2. Statement on gender-affirmative approach to care from the pediatric endocrine society special interest group on transgender health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Ximena; Marinkovic, Maja; Eimicke, Toni; Rosenthal, Stephen M; Olshan, Jerrold S

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this Position Statement is to emphasize the importance of an affirmative approach to the health care of transgender individuals, as well as to improve the understanding of the rights of transgender youth. Transgender youth have optimal outcomes when affirmed in their gender identity, through support by their families and their environment, as well as appropriate mental health and medical care. The Pediatric Endocrine Society Special Interest Group on Transgender Health joins other academic societies involved in the care of children and adolescents in supporting policies that promote a safe and accepting environment for gender nonconforming/transgender youth, as well as adequate mental health and medical care. This document provides a summary of relevant definitions, information and current literature on which the medical management and affirmative approach to care of transgender youth are based.

  3. Researching the value system of interest groups as the starting point for directing urbanisation of the countryside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Golobič

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available When planning rehabilitation of transitory, rural space, where processes of restructuring agriculture intertwine with urban processes, key definitions concern places where restructuring agriculture and changes in land use are causing degradation and places where further urbanisation or re-naturation are the better option. In these definitions it is necessary to follow opinions and goals of users that are nevertheless difficult to obtain in a mode that can be directly integrated in standardised rational procedures of physical planning. The presented procedure facilitates the procurement of such knowledge and its transparent integration in local development plans. Thus we can identify interest groups, their viewpoints, and potential conflicts in initial value systems and check their conflicting or harmonising starting points in space.

  4. Tolerability and suitability of brief group mindfulness-oriented interventions in psychiatric inpatients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolitch, Katerina; Laliberté, Vincent; Yu, Ching; Strychowsky, Natalie; Segal, Marilyn; Looper, Karl J; Rej, Soham

    2016-09-01

    Mindfulness-oriented therapies have a positive impact on patients' overall well-being and alleviate many psychiatric conditions. However, little is known about their use in people with severe mental illness. We aimed to identify which clinical and sociodemographic factors are associated with suitability/tolerability of a brief group mindfulness-oriented therapy. This retrospective study examines pre-/post-data from 40 psychiatric inpatients who underwent one session of a 10-min mindfulness-oriented group intervention between January and March 2014. The main outcome was 'suitability for and tolerating the brief mindfulness-oriented group intervention'. We assessed potential correlates of the main outcome, including female gender, shorter hospitalisation, the absence of psychosis and good pre-morbid functioning. The intervention was well tolerated (92.5%) and 50% of patients met both of our relatively stringent suitability and tolerability criteria. Sociodemographic and clinical variables were not associated with suitability/tolerability. Tai chi was the most suitable/tolerable compared to body scan and mindful eating (76.5% vs. 35.7% vs. 22.2%, Fisher's exact p = 0.01, Bonferroni p mindfulness therapy interventions are very well tolerated and often suitable for acutely hospitalised psychiatric inpatients, including those with acute psychosis. Mindfulness-oriented intervention with an active component (e.g., tai chi, mindful walking) may potentially be best suited for this population.

  5. Effect of a group intervention for children and their parents who have cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Mariko; Heiney, Sue P; Osawa, Kaori; Ozawa, Miwa; Matsushima, Eisuke

    2017-10-01

    Although support programs for children whose parents have cancer have been described and evaluated, formal research has not been conducted to document outcomes. We adapted a group intervention called CLIMB®, originally developed in the United States, and implemented it in Tokyo, Japan, for school-aged children and their parents with cancer. The purpose of this exploratory pilot study was to examine the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of the Japanese version of the CLIMB® Program on children's stress and parents' quality of life and psychosocial distress. We enrolled children and parents in six waves of replicate sets for the six-week group intervention. A total of 24 parents (23 mothers and 1 father) diagnosed with cancer and 38 school-aged children (27 girls and 11 boys) participated in our study. Intervention fidelity, including parent and child satisfaction with the program, was examined. The impact of the program was analyzed using a quasiexperimental within-subject design comparing pre- and posttest assessments of children and parents in separate analyses. Both children and parents experienced high levels of satisfaction with the program. Children's posttraumatic stress symptoms related to a parent's illness decreased after the intervention as measured by the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder-Reaction Index. No difference was found in children's psychosocial stress. The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy scores indicated that parents' quality of life improved after the intervention in all domains except for physical well-being. However, no differences were found in parents' psychological distress and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Our results suggest that the group intervention using the CLIMB® Program relieved children's posttraumatic stress symptoms and improved parents' quality of life. The intervention proved the feasibility of delivering the program using manuals and training. Further research is needed to provide more substantiation

  6. Attitudes of older adults in a group-based exercise program towards a blended intervention; a focus-group study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Mehra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ageing is associated with a decline in daily functioning and mobility. A physically active life and physical exercise can minimize the decline of daily functioning and improve the physical-, psychological- and social functioning of older adults. Despite several advantages of group-based exercise programs, older adults participating in such interventions often do not meet the frequency, intensity or duration of exercises needed to gain health benefits. An exercise program that combines the advantages of group-based exercises led by an instructor with tailored home-based exercises can increase the effectiveness. Technology can assist in delivering a personalized program. The aim of the study was to determine the susceptibility of older adults currently participating in a nationwide group-based exercise program to such a blended exercise program. Eight focus-groups were held with adults of 55 years of age or older. Two researchers coded independently the remarks of the 30 participants that were included in the analysis according to the three key concepts of the Self Determination Theory: autonomy, competence and relatedness. The results show that maintaining self-reliance and keeping in touch with others were the main motives to participate in the weekly group-based exercises. Participants recognized benefits of doing additional home-based exercises, but had concerns regarding guidance, safety and motivation. Furthermore, some participants strongly rejected the idea to use technology to support them in doing exercises at home, but the majority was open to it. Insights are discussed how these findings can help design novel interventions that can increase the wellbeing of older adults and preserve an independent living.

  7. Group cohesion and social support in exercise classes: results from a danish intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the formation of group cohesion and social support in exercise classes among former sedentary adults, participating in a Danish community-based intervention. Furthermore, the aim is to analyze the impact of this process on exercise activity among the participants. A multimethod...... approach was used, analyzing both survey data and 18 personal interviews collected among 87 participants who completed the intervention project. Analysis was performed according to the grounded theory method. The formation of group cohesion was conditioned by the social composition of the group......, the teaching ability by the instructors, and the activity by itself. The cohesive group was characterized by an attitude of mutual support toward exercise activities. This mutual support facilitated development of self-efficacy beliefs among the participants improving their mastery expectation regarding...

  8. Observation interventions as a means to manipulate collective efficacy in groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruton, Adam M; Mellalieu, Stephen D; Shearer, David A

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this multistudy investigation was to examine observation as an intervention for the manipulation of individual collective efficacy beliefs. Study 1 compared the effects of positive, neutral, and negative video footage of practice trials from an obstacle course task on collective efficacy beliefs in assigned groups. The content of the observation intervention (i.e., positive, neutral, and negative video footage) significantly influenced the direction of change in collective efficacy (p team/sport vs. unfamiliar team/sport) on individual collective efficacy perceptions when observing positive footage of competitive basketball performance. Collective efficacy significantly increased for both the familiar and unfamiliar conditions postintervention, with the largest increase for the familiar condition (p individual perceptions of collective efficacy in group-based activities. The findings suggest that observations of any group displaying positive group characteristics are likely to increase collective efficacy beliefs; however, observation of one's own team leads to the greatest increases.

  9. Mediation and spillover effects in group-randomized trials: a case study of the 4Rs educational intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    VanderWeele, Tyler J.; Hong, Guanglei; Jones, Stephanie M.; Brown, Joshua L.

    2013-01-01

    Peer influence and social interactions can give rise to spillover effects in which the exposure of one individual may affect outcomes of other individuals. Even if the intervention under study occurs at the group or cluster level as in group-randomized trials, spillover effects can occur when the mediator of interest is measured at a lower level than the treatment. Evaluators who choose groups rather than individuals as experimental units in a randomized trial often anticipate that the desirable changes in targeted social behaviors will be reinforced through interference among individuals in a group exposed to the same treatment. In an empirical evaluation of the effect of a school-wide intervention on reducing individual students’ depressive symptoms, schools in matched pairs were randomly assigned to the 4Rs intervention or the control condition. Class quality was hypothesized as an important mediator assessed at the classroom level. We reason that the quality of one classroom may affect outcomes of children in another classroom because children interact not simply with their classmates but also with those from other classes in the hallways or on the playground. In investigating the role of class quality as a mediator, failure to account for such spillover effects of one classroom on the outcomes of children in other classrooms can potentially result in bias and problems with interpretation. Using a counterfactual conceptualization of direct, indirect and spillover effects, we provide a framework that can accommodate issues of mediation and spillover effects in group randomized trials. We show that the total effect can be decomposed into a natural direct effect, a within-classroom mediated effect and a spillover mediated effect. We give identification conditions for each of the causal effects of interest and provide results on the consequences of ignoring “interference” or “spillover effects” when they are in fact present. Our modeling approach

  10. Breakout: An Open Measurement and Intervention Tool for Distributed Peer Learning Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Calacci, Dan; Lederman, Oren; Shrier, David; Pentland, Alex 'Sandy'

    2016-01-01

    We present Breakout, a group interaction platform for online courses that enables the creation and measurement of face-to-face peer learning groups in online settings. Breakout is designed to help students easily engage in synchronous, video breakout session based peer learning in settings that otherwise force students to rely on asynchronous text-based communication. The platform also offers data collection and intervention tools for studying the communication patterns inherent in online lea...

  11. Effects of a Group Intervention on the Career Network Ties of Finnish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokisaari, Markku; Vuori, Jukka

    2011-01-01

    The authors evaluated how a group-based career intervention affected career network ties among Finnish adolescents as they made educational choices and prepared for their transition to secondary education. They examined the career-related network ties of 868 students during their last year in comprehensive school (junior high school) in a…

  12. Psychosocial group intervention for patients with primary breast cancer: A randomised trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, E. H.; Karlsen, R.; Christensen, J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To test the effectiveness of a psycho-educational group intervention to improve psychological distress measured by POMS TMD, Quality of Life measured by European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), the core and breast cancer module, Mental Adjustment measured by MA...

  13. A Psychoeducational School-Based Group Intervention for Socially Anxious Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilopoulos, Stephanos P.; Brouzos, Andreas; Damer, Diana E.; Mellou, Angeliki; Mitropoulou, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of a psychoeducational group for social anxiety aimed at elementary children. An 8-week psychoeducational program based on empirically validated risk factors was designed. Interventions included cognitive restructuring, anxiety management techniques, and social skills training. Pre-and posttest data from 3 groups…

  14. Mechanisms of Change in a Group Career Exploration Intervention: The Case of "Bryan"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerner, Emily A.; Fitzpatrick, Marilyn R.; Rozworska, Karolina A.; Hutman, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the case of one 16-year-old male who failed a career exploration class and then participated in a group intervention designed to increase his motivation to explore. Using a case study method, the authors triangulated video, questionnaire, observational, interview, and artefact data to identify the main themes that emerged for…

  15. Behavior Bingo: The Effects of a Culturally Relevant Group Contingency Intervention for Students with EBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Tai A.; Hawkins, Renee O.; Flowers, Emily M.; Kalra, Hilary D.; Richard, Jessie; Haas, Lauren E.

    2018-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD) have difficulty with academic engagement during independent seatwork tasks. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Behavior Bingo, a novel interdependent group contingency intervention, on the academic engagement, off-task, and disruptive behavior of students with…

  16. Engaging Urban Parents of Early Adolescents in Parenting Interventions: Home Visits vs. Group Sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finigan-Carr, Nadine M; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Haynie, Denise L; Cheng, Tina L

    2014-01-01

    Interventions targeting parents of young children have shown effectiveness, but research is lacking about best practices for engaging parents of early adolescents. Low levels of enrollment and attendance in parenting interventions present major problems for researchers and clinicians. Effective and efficient ways to engage and collaborate with parents to strengthen parenting practices and to promote healthy development of early adolescents are needed. This exploratory mixed methods study examined the feasibility of three methods of engaging parents in positive parenting activities. Participants were parents of youth ages 11-13 enrolled in three urban, public middle schools in neighborhoods characterized by high rates of community violence. Families ( N = 144) were randomized into one of three interventions: six home sessions, two home sessions followed by four group sessions, or six group sessions. The majority of parents were single, non-Hispanic, African American mothers. Urban parents of middle school students were more likely to participate in home visits than in group sessions; offering a combination did not increase participation in the group sessions. As only 34% of those who consented participated in the intervention, qualitative data were examined to explain the reasons for non-participation.

  17. A Group Intervention for HIV/STI Risk Reduction among Indian Couples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritu Nehra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV in India is transmitted primarily by heterosexual contact. The present study sought to test the feasibility of a group HIV/STI risk reduction intervention among heterosexual couples in India. Methods: Focus groups and key informant interviews were used in 2008 to culturally tailor the intervention. Thirty sexually active and HIV/STI negative couples were enrolled and assessed regarding risk behavior and sexual barrier acceptability. Gender-concordant group sessions used cognitive behavioral strategies for HIV/STI prevention. Results: At baseline, male condom use was low (36%; no participants reported use of female condoms or vaginal gels. HIV knowledge was low; women had more HIV knowledge and more positive attitudes towards condom use than men. Post-intervention, willingness to use all barrier products (t = 10.0, P< .001 and intentions to avoid risk behavior increased (t = 5.62, P< .001. Conclusion: This study illustrates the feasibility of utilizing a group intervention to enhance HIV/STI risk reduction among Indian couples.

  18. The effect of interventions on Twitter in four target groups using different measures of influence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Wijn, R.; Boertjes, E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of interventions on Twitter users is studied. We define influence in (a) number of participants, (b) size of the audience, (c) amount of activity, and (d) reach. Influence is studied for four different target groups: (a) politicians, (b) journalists, (c) employees and

  19. Influence of controlled and uncontrolled interventions on Twitter in different target groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maanen, P.P. van; Aarts, O.; Boertjes, E.; Wijn, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the influence of interventions on Twitter users is studied. We define influence in a) number of participants, b) size of the audience, c) amount of activity, and d) reach. Influence is studied for four different target groups: a) politicians, b) journalists, c) employees and d) the

  20. Mutuality in Mother-Child Interactions in an Antillean Intervention Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boomstra, Nienke W.; van Dijk, Marijn W. G.; van Geert, Paul L. C.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes a study on mutuality in mother-child interaction during reading and playing sessions. Within mother-child interaction, mutuality is seen as important in language acquisition. The study was executed within a group of Netherlands Antillean mother-child dyads who participated in an intervention programme. Mutuality was…

  1. Effects of a music therapy group intervention on enhancing social skills in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaGasse, A Blythe

    2014-01-01

    Research indicates that music therapy can improve social behaviors and joint attention in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD); however, more research on the use of music therapy interventions for social skills is needed to determine the impact of group music therapy. To examine the effects of a music therapy group intervention on eye gaze, joint attention, and communication in children with ASD. Seventeen children, ages 6 to 9, with a diagnosis of ASD were randomly assigned to the music therapy group (MTG) or the no-music social skills group (SSG). Children participated in ten 50-minute group sessions over a period of 5 weeks. All group sessions were designed to target social skills. The Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS), the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist (ATEC), and video analysis of sessions were used to evaluate changes in social behavior. There were significant between-group differences for joint attention with peers and eye gaze towards persons, with participants in the MTG demonstrating greater gains. There were no significant between-group differences for initiation of communication, response to communication, or social withdraw/behaviors. There was a significant interaction between time and group for SRS scores, with improvements for the MTG but not the SSG. Scores on the ATEC did not differ over time between the MTG and SSG. The results of this study support further research on the use of music therapy group interventions for social skills in children with ASD. Statistical results demonstrate initial support for the use of music therapy social groups to develop joint attention. © the American Music Therapy Association 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Telehealth Interventions Delivering Home-based Support Group Videoconferencing: Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banbury, Annie; Nancarrow, Susan; Dart, Jared; Gray, Leonard; Parkinson, Lynne

    2018-02-02

    Group therapy and education and support sessions are used within health care across a range of disciplines such as chronic disease self-management and psychotherapy interventions. However, there are barriers that constrain group attendance, such as mobility, time, and distance. Using videoconferencing may overcome known barriers and improve the accessibility of group-based interventions. The aim of this study was to review the literature to determine the feasibility, acceptability, effectiveness, and implementation of health professional-led group videoconferencing to provide education or social support or both, into the home setting. Electronic databases were searched using predefined search terms for primary interventions for patient education and/or social support. The quality of studies was assessed using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool. We developed an analysis framework using hierarchical terms feasibility, acceptability, effectiveness, and implementation, which were informed by subheadings. Of the 1634 records identified, 17 were included in this review. Home-based groups by videoconferencing are feasible even for those with limited digital literacy. Overall acceptability was high with access from the home highly valued and little concern of privacy issues. Some participants reported preferring face-to-face groups. Good information technology (IT) support and training is required for facilitators and participants. Communication can be adapted for the Web environment and would be enhanced by clear communication strategies and protocols. A range of improved outcomes were reported but because of the heterogeneity of studies, comparison of these across studies was not possible. There was a trend for improvement in mental health outcomes. Benefits highlighted in the qualitative data included engaging with others with similar problems; improved accessibility to groups; and development of health knowledge, insights, and skills. Videoconference groups were able to

  3. A Systematic Review of Group Social Skills Interventions, and Meta-analysis of Outcomes, for Children with High Functioning ASD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolstencroft, J; Robinson, L; Srinivasan, R; Kerry, E; Mandy, W; Skuse, D

    2018-07-01

    Group social skills interventions (GSSIs) are a commonly offered treatment for children with high functioning ASD. We critically evaluated GSSI randomised controlled trials for those aged 6-25 years. Our meta-analysis of outcomes emphasised internal validity, thus was restricted to trials that used the parent-report social responsiveness scale (SRS) or the social skills rating system (SSRS). Large positive effect sizes were found for the SRS total score, plus the social communication and restricted interests and repetitive behaviours subscales. The SSRS social skills subscale improved with moderate effect size. Moderator analysis of the SRS showed that GSSIs that include parent-groups, and are of greater duration or intensity, obtained larger effect sizes. We recommend future trials distinguish gains in children's social knowledge from social performance.

  4. An effective group psychoeducational intervention for improving compliance with vaginal dilation: A randomized controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffries, Sherryl A.; Robinson, John W.; Craighead, Peter S.; Keats, Melanie R.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Although vaginal dilation is often recommended to minimize or prevent vaginal scarring after pelvic radiotherapy, compliance with this recommendation has historically been very low. Therefore, effective intervention strategies are needed to enhance compliance with vaginal dilation after radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer. Methods and Materials: This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial of a psychoeducational intervention specifically designed to increase compliance with vaginal dilation. The information-motivation-behavioral skills model of enhancing compliance with behavioral change was the basis for the intervention design. Forty-two sexually active women, 21 to 65 years of age, diagnosed with Stages Ic-III cervical or endometrial cancer, who received pelvic radiotherapy, were randomized to either the experimental psychoeducational group or the information-only control group. Assessment via questionnaire occurred before treatment and at 6-week, 6-month, 12-month, 18-month, and 24-month follow-up. Assessment via interview also occurred at 6-month, 12-month, 18-month, and 24-month follow-up. Results: The psychoeducational intervention was successful in increasing compliance with vaginal dilation. Conclusions: This study is the first randomized controlled study to demonstrate the effectiveness of an intervention in increasing compliance with the use of vaginal dilators

  5. Group social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, Debbie; Blainey, Sarah H

    2015-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterised by impairments in communication and social interaction. Social skills interventions have been found to ameliorate socio-communication deficits in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Little is known about the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (hf-ASD) - a clinical population who can present with more subtle core deficits, but comparable levels of impairment and secondary difficulties. A systematic review was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Five studies met the pre-specified review inclusion criteria: two quasi-experimental comparative trials and three single-arm interventions. There was a degree of variation in the structure, duration and content of the social skills interventions delivered, as well as several methodological limitations associated with included studies. Nevertheless, narrative analysis tentatively indicates that group social skills interventions may be effective for enhancing social knowledge and understanding, improving social functioning, reducing loneliness and potentially alleviating co-morbid psychiatric symptoms. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Teaching Emotional Intelligence: A Control Group Study of a Brief Educational Intervention for Emergency Medicine Residents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane L. Gorgas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Emotional Intelligence (EI is defined as an ability to perceive another’s emotional state combined with an ability to modify one’s own. Physicians with this ability are at a distinct advantage, both in fostering teams and in making sound decisions. Studies have shown that higher physician EI’s are associated with lower incidence of burn-out, longer careers, more positive patient-physician interactions, increased empathy, and improved communication skills. We explored the potential for EI to be learned as a skill (as opposed to being an innate ability through a brief educational intervention with emergency medicine (EM residents. Methods: This study was conducted at a large urban EM residency program. Residents were randomized to either EI intervention or control groups. The intervention was a two-hour session focused on improving the skill of social perspective taking (SPT, a skill related to social awareness. Due to time limitations, we used a 10-item sample of the Hay 360 Emotional Competence Inventory to measure EI at three time points for the training group: before (pre and after (post training, and at six-months post training (follow up; and at two time points for the control group: pre- and follow up. The preliminary analysis was a four-way analysis of variance with one repeated measure: Group x Gender x Program Year over Time. We also completed post-hoc tests. Results: Thirty-three EM residents participated in the study (33 of 36, 92%, 19 in the EI intervention group and 14 in the control group. We found a significant interaction effect between Group and Time (p<0.05. Post-hoc tests revealed a significant increase in EI scores from Time 1 to 3 for the EI intervention group (62.6% to 74.2%, but no statistical change was observed for the controls (66.8% to 66.1%, p=0.77. We observed no main effects involving gender or level of training. Conclusion: Our brief EI training showed a delayed but statistically significant

  7. The effects on mental health of group coaching following a physical activity intervention for women undergoing menopause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsborg, Peter; Andersen, Vinnie; Stelter, Reinhard

    2018-01-01

    ). In both cases the participants were randomized into a group coaching group or a waiting control group. Effects of the intervention were tested with repeated measures mixed MANOVA. No effect on exercise continuation was observed. However the results of this study showed that group coaching (GC) over...... and participants experience relapse. The aim of this study was to investigate a group coaching interventions effects, as a standalone intervention and as an add-on to a physical activity intervention, on exercise maintenance, stress, anxiety and depression. Stress and recovery questionnaire, hospital anxiety...... depression scale and exercise participation was administered before, after a 3 months group coaching intervention as well as at 3 months follow-up. The participants were menopausal women coming from a physical activity intervention (n=56), and a group recruited via an advertisement in a newspaper (n=44...

  8. Assessing handwriting intervention effectiveness in elementary school students: a two-group controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Roston, Karen Laurie; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Hinojosa, Jim

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of two approaches used in elementary schools to improve children's handwriting. Participants were 72 New York City public school students from the first and second grades. A nonequivalent pretest-posttest group design was used in which students engaged in handwriting activities using two approaches: intensive handwriting practice and visual-perceptual-motor activities. Handwriting speed, legibility, and visual-motor skills were examined after a 12-wk Handwriting Club using multivariate analysis of variance. The results showed that students in the intensive handwriting practice group demonstrated significant improvements in handwriting legibility compared with students in the visual-perceptual-motor activity group. No significant effects in handwriting speed and visual-motor skills were found between the students in intensive handwriting practice group and the students in visual-perceptual-motor activities group. The Handwriting Club model is a natural intervention that fits easily into existing school curriculums and can be an effective short-term intervention (response to intervention Tier II). Copyright © 2013 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  9. Evaluation of a psychoeducational group intervention for family and friends of youth with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Jessie; Jovev, Martina; Hulbert, Carol; McKechnie, Ben; McCutcheon, Louise; Betts, Jennifer; Chanen, Andrew M

    2017-01-01

    Despite high levels of burden and distress among families with a member who has borderline personality disorder (BPD), only two BPD specific family psychoeducation groups have been empirically evaluated. Neither of these is designed specifically for the family and friends of young people who are presenting early in the course of BPD. This study aimed to evaluate Making Sense of Borderline Personality Disorder (MS-BPD), a three-session, developmentally tailored, manualised psychoeducational group for the family and friends of youth with BPD features. The study employed a pre- and post-intervention, repeated measures design. Twenty-three participants completed self-report measures assessing for family burden, psychological distress, and knowledge about personality disorder. Demographic data were collected for the group participants and for their associated young person with BPD. Paired-samples t -tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of the MS-BPD intervention on participants' burden, distress and personality disorder knowledge. At the completion of session three (day 15), group participants reported significantly decreased subjective burden and increased personality disorder knowledge. Objective burden and distress remained unchanged. Family and friends of young people with BPD features experienced subjective, but not objective, benefit from attending a brief group-based psychoeducation intervention. Longer follow-up is likely to be required to detect behavioural change. The current findings support proceeding to a randomised controlled trial of MS-BPD.

  10. Moms in motion: a group-mediated cognitive-behavioral physical activity intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brawley Lawrence R

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When examining the prevalence of physical inactivity by gender and age, women over the age of 25 are at an increased risk for sedentary behavior. Childbearing and motherhood have been explored as one possible explanation for this increased risk. Post natal exercise studies to date demonstrate promising physical and psychological outcomes, however few physical activity interventions have been theory-driven and tailored to post natal exercise initiates. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a group-mediated cognitive behavioral intervention based upon social-cognitive theory and group dynamics (GMCB to a standard care postnatal exercise program (SE. Method A randomized, two-arm intervention design was used. Fifty-seven post natal women were randomized to one of two conditions: (1 a standard exercise treatment (SE and (2 a standard exercise treatment plus group-mediated cognitive behavioral intervention (GMCB. Participants in both conditions participated in a four-week intensive phase where participants received standard exercise training. In addition, GMCB participants received self-regulatory behavioral skills training via six group-mediated counseling sessions. Following the intensive phase, participants engaged in a four-week home-based phase of self-structured exercise. Measures of physical activity, barrier efficacy, and proximal outcome expectations were administered and data were analyzed using ANCOVA procedures. Results and discussion ANCOVA of change scores for frequency, minutes, and volume of physical activity revealed significant treatment effects over the intensive and home-based phases (p's Conclusion While both exercise programs resulted in improvements to exercise participation, the GMCB intervention produced greater improvement in overall physical activity, barrier efficacy and proximal outcome expectations.

  11. Examining the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale Among Members of an Alternative Sexuality Special Interest Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Robert J; Golom, Frank D; Gemberling, Tess M; Trost, Kristen; Lewis, Robin; Wright, Susan

    2018-05-01

    The present study contributes to a growing body of literature developing psychometrically and theoretically grounded measures of sexual orientation minority identity. We tested psychometric properties and construct validity of a 27-item measure, the Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual Identity Scale (LGBIS). The sample consisted of 475 adult (178 male, 237 female, 16 male-to-female, 14 female-to-male, and 30 gender queer persons) members of a special interest group, the National Coalition for Sexual Freedom. Participants completed a health needs questionnaire. Prominent findings included (1) confirmatory factor-analytic, internal consistency, and inter-correlation patterns support two LGBIS factor structures; (2) men, compared primarily to women, reported elevated scores on Acceptance Concerns, Concealment Motivation, Difficulty Process, and Negative Identity; (3) queer-identifying persons tended to report low Concealment Motivation, and high Identity Affirmation and Identity Centrality scores; (4) experimenting/fluid-identifying individuals tended toward higher Identity Uncertainty and Negative Identity, and lower Identity Centrality scores; (5) LGB community involvement was negatively associated with Concealment Motivation, Identity Uncertainty, and Negative Identity, and positively associated with Identity Superiority, Identity Affirmation, and Identity Centrality scores; and (6) Acceptance Concerns, Identity Uncertainty, and Internalized Homonegativity displayed significant positive associations with such mental health symptoms as general anxiety and posttraumatic stress. The LGBIS represents a useful approach to evaluating sexual orientation minority identity. Implications for identity theory, research, and practice are provided.

  12. The future of the pharmaceutical sciences and graduate education: recommendations from the AACP Graduate Education Special Interest Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu-Pong, Susanna; Gobburu, Jogarao; O'Barr, Stephen; Shah, Kumar; Huber, Jason; Weiner, Daniel

    2013-05-13

    Despite pharma's recent sea change in approach to drug discovery and development, U.S. pharmaceutical sciences graduate programs are currently maintaining traditional methods for master's and doctoral student education. The literature on graduate education in the biomedical sciences has long been advocating educating students to hone soft skills like communication and teamwork, in addition to maintaining excellent basic skills in research. However, recommendations to date have not taken into account the future trends in the pharmaceutical industry. The AACP Graduate Education Special Interest Group has completed a literature survey of the trends in the pharmaceutical industry and graduate education in order to determine whether our graduate programs are strategically positioned to prepare our graduates for successful careers in the next few decades. We recommend that our pharmaceutical sciences graduate programs take a proactive leadership role in meeting the needs of our future graduates and employers. Our graduate programs should bring to education the innovation and collaboration that our industry also requires to be successful and relevant in this century.

  13. An intervention to increase patients' trust in their physicians. Stanford Trust Study Physician Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, D H; Bloch, D A; Segal, E S

    1999-02-01

    To investigate the effect of a one-day workshop in which physicians were taught trust-building behaviors on their patients' levels of trust and on outcomes of care. In 1994, the study recruited 20 community-based family physicians and enrolled 412 consecutive adult patients from those physicians' practices. Ten of the physicians (the intervention group) were randomly assigned to receive a one-day training course in building and maintaining patients' trust. Outcomes were patients' trust in their physicians, patients' and physicians' satisfaction with the office visit, continuity in the patient-physician relationship, patients' adherence to their treatment plans, and the numbers of diagnostic tests and referrals. Physicians and patients in the intervention and control groups were similar in demographic and other data. There was no significant difference in any outcome. Although their overall ratings were not statistically significantly different, the patients of physicians in the intervention group reported more positive physician behaviors than did the patients of physicians in the control group. The trust-building workshop had no measurable effect on patients' trust or on outcomes hypothesized to be related to trust.

  14. Working with children from substance-affected families: the community-based group intervention TRAMPOLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Bröning

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Children from substance-affected families show an elevated risk for developing own substance-related or other mental disorders. Frequently, they experience violence, abuse and neglect in their families. Therefore, they are an important target group for preventive efforts. In Germany it is estimated that approx. 2.65 million children are affected by parental substance abuse or dependence. Only ten percent of them receive treatment when parents are treated. To date, no evaluated program for children from substance-affected families exists in Germany. Methods: A new group intervention for children from substance-affected families was developed and is currently being evaluated in a randomized-controlled multicenter study funded by the German Ministry of Health. The development process was simultaneously guided by theory, existing research knowledge and expert opinion. Promoting resilience in children affected by parental substance abuse is a key goal of the program. Results: The TRAMPOLINE manual describes a 9-session addiction-focused, modular group program for children aged 8 to 12 years with at least one substance-using parent. Weekly sessions last for 90 minutes and combine psychoeducational elements with exercises and role play. A two-session parent intervention component is also integrated in the program. Content, structure and theoretical background of the intervention are described. Discussion: TRAMPOLINE is a new interventive effort targeting children from substance-affected families. It is grounded in theory and practice. The results of the research in progress will provide fundamental information on the effectiveness of a structured group prevention program for German children from substance-abusing families. Thus, the study will contribute to creating a broader and more effective system of preventive help for this high-risk target group.

  15. Observations of Group Care Worker-Child Interaction in Residential Youth Care: Pedagogical Interventions and Child Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaanssen, I.L.W.; Delsing, M.J.M.H.; Geijsen, L.; Kroes, G.; Veerman, J.W.; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    The work of group care workers in residential youth care is often described as professional parenting. Pedagogical interventions of group care workers influence the quality of care for looked-after children. The aim of the current study was to observe the pedagogical interventions of group care

  16. Observations of Group Care Worker-Child Interaction in Residential Youth Care: Pedagogical Interventions and Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaanssen, Inge L. W.; Delsing, Marc J. M. H.; Geijsen, Luuk; Kroes, Gert; Veerman, Jan W.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The work of group care workers in residential youth care is often described as professional parenting. Pedagogical interventions of group care workers influence the quality of care for looked-after children. Objective: The aim of the current study was to observe the pedagogical interventions of group care workers within residential…

  17. Short-Term Impact of a Teen Pregnancy-Prevention Intervention Implemented in Group Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oman, Roy F; Vesely, Sara K; Green, Jennifer; Fluhr, Janene; Williams, Jean

    2016-11-01

    Youth living in group home settings are at significantly greater risk for sexual risk behaviors; however, there are no sexual health programs designed specifically for these youth. The study's purpose was to assess the effectiveness of a teen pregnancy-prevention program for youth living in group home foster care settings and other out-of-home placements. The study design was a cluster randomized controlled trial involving youth (N = 1,037) recruited from 44 residential group homes located in California, Maryland, and Oklahoma. Within each state, youth (mean age = 16.2 years; 82% male; 37% Hispanic, 20% African-American, 20% white, and 17% multiracial) in half the group homes were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 40 clusters) and the other half were randomly assigned to a control group that offered "usual care" (n = 40 clusters). The intervention (i.e., Power Through Choices [PTC]) was a 10-session, age-appropriate, and medically accurate sexual health education program. Compared to the control group, youth in the PTC intervention showed significantly greater improvements (p attitude areas, all three self-efficacy areas, and two of three behavioral intention areas. This is the first published randomized controlled trial of a teen pregnancy-prevention program designed for youth living in foster care settings and other out-of-home placements. The numerous significant improvements in short-term outcomes are encouraging and provide preliminary evidence that the PTC program is an effective pregnancy-prevention program. Copyright © 2016 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Treating disorganized attachment in the Group Attachment-Based Intervention (GABI©): A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knafo, Hannah; Murphy, Anne; Steele, Howard; Steele, Miriam

    2018-05-24

    This paper describes the treatment of a mother and child who demonstrated disorganized attachment behaviors in their interactions with one another. The mother, who was diagnosed with Borderline Personality Disorder, felt incapable of managing her aggressive toddler and his emotional needs. The dyad was referred for therapy due to concerns about his developmental progress, evident delays having been mainly attributed to the problems observed within the parent-child relationship. The primary intervention applied to working with the dyad was the Group Attachment-Based Intervention (GABI©), developed by Anne Murphy in collaboration with Miriam Steele and Howard Steele. The mother also received individual psychotherapy as a supplement to the dyadic and group work of GABI©. The process and outcome of this comprehensive approach to treating a vulnerable dyad is explored in this case study. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Religious Groups as Interest Groups: The United States Catholic Bishops in the Welfare Reform Debate of 1995–1996 and the Health Care Reform Debate of 2009–20101

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Marie Cammisa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The United States has a long history of religious influence on public policy: the anti-slavery movement, progressivism, prohibition, civil rights, abortion, school vouchers, school prayer and nuclear disarmament are all issues that have involved religion and religious groups in policymaking. In recent decades, the number of religious interest groups (as well as interest groups in general has greatly expanded, but the role that the religious organizations play as interest groups in the policy arena has received relatively little attention. How are they similar to and different from other interest groups? What tactics do they use? How successful are they? Under what conditions is success or failure more likely? This article examines Roman Catholic religious groups as interest groups in the congressional policymaking process. First, it places Catholic interest groups in the context of the interest group literature, and second, it examines Catholic interest groups’ activity in the passage of welfare reform in 1996 and in the passage of health care reform in 2010. In both cases, they played a greater role in context-setting than in actually changing provisions.

  20. A Preliminary Core Domain Set for Clinical Trials of Shoulder Disorders: A Report from the OMERACT 2016 Shoulder Core Outcome Set Special Interest Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchbinder, Rachelle; Page, Matthew J; Huang, Hsiaomin; Verhagen, Arianne P; Beaton, Dorcas; Kopkow, Christian; Lenza, Mario; Jain, Nitin B; Richards, Bethan; Richards, Pamela; Voshaar, Marieke; van der Windt, Danielle; Gagnier, Joel J

    2017-12-01

    The Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Shoulder Core Outcome Set Special Interest Group (SIG) was established to develop a core outcome set (COS) for clinical trials of shoulder disorders. In preparation for OMERACT 2016, we systematically examined all outcome domains and measurement instruments reported in 409 randomized trials of interventions for shoulder disorders published between 1954 and 2015. Informed by these data, we conducted an international Delphi consensus study including shoulder trial experts, clinicians, and patients to identify key domains that should be included in a shoulder disorder COS. Findings were discussed at a stakeholder premeeting of OMERACT. At OMERACT 2016, we sought consensus on a preliminary core domain set and input into next steps. There were 13 and 15 participants at the premeeting and the OMERACT 2016 SIG meeting, respectively (9 attended both meetings). Consensus was reached on a preliminary core domain set consisting of an inner core of 4 domains: pain, physical function/activity, global perceived effect, and adverse events including death. A middle core consisted of 3 domains: emotional well-being, sleep, and participation (recreation and work). An outer core of research required to inform the final COS was also formulated. Our next steps are to (1) analyze whether participation (recreation and work) should be in the inner core, (2) conduct a third Delphi round to finalize definitions and wording of domains and reach final endorsement for the domains, and (3) determine which instruments fulfill the OMERACT criteria for measuring each domain.

  1. Interest (mis)alignments in representative negotiations: Do pro-social agents fuel or reduce inter-group conflict?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aaldering, H.; Greer, L.L.; van Kleef, G.A.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2013-01-01

    In representative negotiations, interests of the representative and the represented constituency are not always aligned. We investigated how interest (mis)alignment and representative’s social value orientation influence representative negotiations. Past theory and research on the principal-agent

  2. Health Technology Assessment for Molecular Diagnostics: Practices, Challenges, and Recommendations from the Medical Devices and Diagnostics Special Interest Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Susan; Polisena, Julie; S Spinner, Daryl; Postulka, Anne; Y Lu, Christine; Tiwana, Simrandeep K; Faulkner, Eric; Poulios, Nick; Zah, Vladimir; Longacre, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Health technology assessments (HTAs) are increasingly used to inform coverage, access, and utilization of medical technologies including molecular diagnostics (MDx). Although MDx are used to screen patients and inform disease management and treatment decisions, there is no uniform approach to their evaluation by HTA organizations. The International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research Devices and Diagnostics Special Interest Group reviewed diagnostic-specific HTA programs and identified elements representing common and best practices. MDx-specific HTA programs in Europe, Australia, and North America were characterized by methodology, evaluation framework, and impact. Published MDx HTAs were reviewed, and five representative case studies of test evaluations were developed: United Kingdom (National Institute for Health and Care Excellence's Diagnostics Assessment Programme, epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase mutation), United States (Palmetto's Molecular Diagnostic Services Program, OncotypeDx prostate cancer test), Germany (Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Healthcare, human papillomavirus testing), Australia (Medical Services Advisory Committee, anaplastic lymphoma kinase testing for non-small cell lung cancer), and Canada (Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health, Rapid Response: Non-invasive Prenatal Testing). Overall, the few HTA programs that have MDx-specific methods do not provide clear parameters of acceptability related to clinical and analytic performance, clinical utility, and economic impact. The case studies highlight similarities and differences in evaluation approaches across HTAs in the performance metrics used (analytic and clinical validity, clinical utility), evidence requirements, and how value is measured. Not all HTAs are directly linked to reimbursement outcomes. To improve MDx HTAs, organizations should provide greater transparency, better communication and collaboration between industry and HTA

  3. Imaging in pleural mesothelioma: a review of the 11th International Conference of the International Mesothelioma Interest Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armato, Samuel G; Labby, Zacariah E; Coolen, Johan; Klabatsa, Astero; Feigen, Malcolm; Persigehl, Thorsten; Gill, Ritu R

    2013-11-01

    Imaging of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is essential to the diagnosis, assessment, and monitoring of this disease. The complex morphology and growth pattern of MPM, however, create unique challenges for image acquisition and interpretation. These challenges have captured the attention of investigators around the world, some of whom presented their work at the 2012 International Conference of the International Mesothelioma Interest Group (iMig 2012) in Boston, Massachusetts, USA, September 2012. The measurement of tumor thickness on computed tomography (CT) scans is the current standard of care in the assessment of MPM tumor response to therapy; in this context, variability among observers in the measurement task and in the tumor response classification categories derived from such measurements was reported. Alternate CT-based tumor response criteria, specifically direct measurement of tumor volume change and change in lung volume as a surrogate for tumor response, were presented. Dynamic contrast-enhanced CT has a role in other settings, but investigation into its potential use for imaging mesothelioma tumor perfusion only recently has been initiated. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron-emission tomography (PET) are important imaging modalities in MPM and complement the information provided by CT. The pointillism sign in diffusion-weighted MRI was reported as a potential parameter for the classification of pleural lesions as benign or malignant, and PET parameters that measure tumor activity and functional tumor volume were presented as indicators of patient prognosis. Also reported was the use of PET/CT in the management of patients who undergo high-dose radiation therapy. Imaging for MPM impacts everything from initial patient diagnosis to the outcomes of clinical trials; iMig 2012 captured this broad range of imaging applications as investigators exploit technology and implement multidisciplinary approaches toward the benefit of MPM patients

  4. The Visegrád Group as a Vehicle for Promoting National Interests in the European Union : The Case of the Czech Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neuman, Marek

    This contribution asks whether sub-regional integration projects such as the Visegrád Group may be understood as mechanisms for pursuing one Group member’s national interests while it stands at the European Union’s helm. I assess this question based on the case of the first Visegrád Group member to

  5. Survey of CAM interest, self-care, and satisfaction with health care for type 2 diabetes at group health cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley Ryan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Very little research has explored the factors that influence interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM treatments. We surveyed persons with sub-optimally controlled type 2 diabetes to evaluate potential relationships between interest in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM treatments, current self-care practices, motivation to improve self-care practices and satisfaction with current health care for diabetes. Methods 321 patients from a large integrated healthcare system with type 2 diabetes, who were not using insulin and had hemoglobin A1c values between 7.5-9.5%, were telephoned between 2009-2010 and asked about their self-care behaviors, motivation to change, satisfaction with current health care and interest in trying naturopathic (ND care for their diabetes. Responses from patients most interested in trying ND care were compared with those from patients with less interest. Results 219 (68.5% patients completed the survey. Nearly half (48% stated they would be very likely to try ND care for their diabetes if covered by their insurance. Interest in trying ND care was not related to patient demographics, health history, clinical status, or self-care behaviors. Patients with greater interest in trying ND care rated their current healthcare as less effective for controlling their blood sugar (mean response 5.9 +/- 1.9 vs. 6.6 +/- 1.5, p = 0.003, and were more determined to succeed in self-care (p = 0.007. Current CAM use for diabetes was also greater in ND interested patients. Conclusions Patients with sub-optimally controlled type 2 diabetes expressed a high level of interest in trying ND care. Those patients with the greatest interest were less satisfied with their diabetes care, more motivated to engage in self-care, and more likely to use other CAM therapies for their diabetes.

  6. Interprofessional communication skills training for serious illness: evaluation of a small-group, simulated patient intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Alison M; Engelberg, Ruth A; Back, Anthony L; Ford, Dee W; Downey, Lois; Shannon, Sarah E; Doorenbos, Ardith Z; Edlund, Barbara; Christianson, Phyllis; Arnold, Richard W; O'Connor, Kim; Kross, Erin K; Reinke, Lynn F; Cecere Feemster, Laura; Fryer-Edwards, Kelly; Alexander, Stewart C; Tulsky, James A; Curtis, J Randall

    2014-02-01

    Communication with patients and families is an essential component of high-quality care in serious illness. Small-group skills training can result in new communication behaviors, but past studies have used facilitators with extensive experience, raising concerns this is not scalable. The objective was to investigate the effect of an experiential communication skills building workshop (Codetalk), led by newly trained facilitators, on internal medicine trainees' and nurse practitioner students' ability to communicate bad news and express empathy. Trainees participated in Codetalk; skill improvement was evaluated through pre- and post- standardized patient (SP) encounters. The subjects were internal medicine residents and nurse practitioner students at two universities. The study was carried out in anywhere from five to eight half-day sessions over a month. The first and last sessions included audiotaped trainee SP encounters coded for effective communication behaviors. The primary outcome was change in communication scores from pre-intervention to post-intervention. We also measured trainee characteristics to identify predictors of performance and change in performance over time. We enrolled 145 trainees who completed pre- and post-intervention SP interviews-with participation rates of 52% for physicians and 14% for nurse practitioners. Trainees' scores improved in 8 of 11 coded behaviors (p<0.05). The only significant predictors of performance were having participated in the intervention (p<0.001) and study site (p<0.003). The only predictor of improvement in performance over time was participating in the intervention (p<0.001). A communication skills intervention using newly trained facilitators was associated with improvement in trainees' skills in giving bad news and expressing empathy. Improvement in communication skills did not vary by trainee characteristics.

  7. The development and feasibility of an online aphasia group intervention and networking program - TeleGAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Rachelle; Theodoros, Deborah; Hill, Anne J; Russell, Trevor

    2017-09-04

    Aphasia group therapy offers many benefits, however people with aphasia report difficulty accessing groups and speech-language pathologists are faced with many challenges in providing aphasia group therapy. Telerehabilitation may offer an alternative service delivery option. An online aphasia group therapy program - Telerehabilitation Group Aphasia Intervention and Networking (TeleGAIN) - has been developed according to the guidelines of the Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for complex interventions. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development of TeleGAIN and the results of a pilot trial to determine feasibility and acceptability. The development of TeleGAIN was informed through literature reviews in relevant topic areas, consideration of expert opinion and application of the social cognitive theory. TeleGAIN was then modelled through a feasibility pilot trial with four people with aphasia. TeleGAIN appeared to be feasible and acceptable to participants and able to be implemented as planned. Participant satisfaction with treatment was high and results suggested some potential for improvements in language functioning and communication-related quality of life. TeleGAIN appeared to be feasible and acceptable, however the study highlighted issues related to technology, clinical implementation and participant-specific factors that should be addressed prior to a larger trial.

  8. Is the modernisation of postgraduate medical training in the Netherlands successful? Views of the NVMO Special Interest Group on Postgraduate Medical Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheele, Fedde; Van Luijk, Scheltus; Mulder, Hanneke; Baane, Coby; Den Rooyen, Corry; De Hoog, Matthijs; Fokkema, Joanne; Heineman, Erik; Sluiter, Henk

    Background: Worldwide, the modernisation of medical education is leading to the design and implementation of new postgraduate curricula. In this article, the Special Interest Group for postgraduate medical education of the Netherlands Association for Medical Education (NVMO) reports on the

  9. Well Baby Group Care: Evaluation of a Promising Intervention for Primary Obesity Prevention in Toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machuca, Hildred; Arevalo, Sandra; Hackley, Barbara; Applebaum, Jo; Mishkin, Arielle; Heo, Moonseong; Shapiro, Alan

    2016-06-01

    Nationally, approximately 24% of preschool children are overweight or obese, with low-income communities disproportionately affected. Few interventions to prevent obesity in children at greatest risk have demonstrated positive results. Therefore, we evaluated the effectiveness of a novel group well-child care intervention for primary obesity prevention at age 2 years. Well Baby Group (WBG) is an alternative to traditional well-child care offered at a federally qualified health center in the South Bronx. Facilitated by a pediatrician and nutritionist, WBG fosters positive dietary behaviors, responsive parenting and feeding practices, and peer support during the first 18 months of life. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to test the effect of WBG on rates of overweight/obesity at 2 years (BMI-for-age ≥85th percentile) using a nonrandomized comparison group of children receiving traditional care at our center over the same period. Characteristics of mothers and infants were comparable between intervention (n = 47) and comparison (n = 140) groups. Children enrolled in WBG were significantly less likely to be overweight/obese at 2 years than children receiving traditional well-child care (2.1% vs. 15.0%; OR 0.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.94; p = 0.02). In multivariable regression analysis, WBG remained a significant independent protective factor (OR 0.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.93; p = 0.04), adjusting for birthweight and parity. WBG, a replicable model integrated into primary care visits, affords a unique opportunity to intervene consistently and early, providing families in at-risk communities with increased provider time, intensive education, and ongoing support. Further study of group well-child care for primary obesity prevention is warranted to confirm the effectiveness of the model.

  10. Supporting self-management by Community Matrons through a group intervention; an action research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkham, Abigail M; Ersser, Steven J

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility and impact of a group intervention by Community Matrons to support those living with multiple long-terms conditions. Little evidence exists as to how the role of the Community Matron (CM) should be delivered to effectively enhance disease self-management and levels of self-efficacy for the service users. This qualitative participatory action research study explored the use of group work as a method of intervention by CMs. A purposive sample of 29 participants was recruited. Each patient group had 8-10 participants, led by a CM working in both the researcher and practitioner role, operating over 12-month period. Data were collected by participant observation, researcher reflexive account and interviews. Grounded theory method was used to systematically analyse the data. Three main data categories emerged: (i) comparison by patients that leads to re-motivation of the self; (ii) learning, leading to enhanced self-management techniques, through storytelling and understanding of each other's experiences; and (iii) ownership that resulted in the self-awareness, cognisance and insight into the role of the support group they were based in and how it benefited them. The core category of 'Taking back the self - understanding the whole,' conveyed the impact that this care delivery method had upon readjusting the balance of power between health professional and service users and its consequence in refreshing and improving their self-management and the patients' self-efficacy. It was concluded that CM intervention using a model of group learning can lead to more effective and efficient support, through improving self-efficacy and patients' related self-management ability. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Definition of a COPD self-management intervention: International Expert Group consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effing, Tanja W; Vercoulen, Jan H; Bourbeau, Jean; Trappenburg, Jaap; Lenferink, Anke; Cafarella, Paul; Coultas, David; Meek, Paula; van der Valk, Paul; Bischoff, Erik W M A; Bucknall, Christine; Dewan, Naresh A; Early, Frances; Fan, Vincent; Frith, Peter; Janssen, Daisy J A; Mitchell, Katy; Morgan, Mike; Nici, Linda; Patel, Irem; Walters, Haydn; Rice, Kathryn L; Singh, Sally; Zuwallack, Richard; Benzo, Roberto; Goldstein, Roger; Partridge, Martyn R; van der Palen, Job

    2016-07-01

    There is an urgent need for consensus on what defines a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) self-management intervention. We aimed to obtain consensus regarding the conceptual definition of a COPD self-management intervention by engaging an international panel of COPD self-management experts using Delphi technique features and an additional group meeting.In each consensus round the experts were asked to provide feedback on the proposed definition and to score their level of agreement (1=totally disagree; 5=totally agree). The information provided was used to modify the definition for the next consensus round. Thematic analysis was used for free text responses and descriptive statistics were used for agreement scores.In total, 28 experts participated. The consensus round response rate varied randomly over the five rounds (ranging from 48% (n=13) to 85% (n=23)), and mean definition agreement scores increased from 3.8 (round 1) to 4.8 (round 5) with an increasing percentage of experts allocating the highest score of 5 (round 1: 14% (n=3); round 5: 83% (n=19)).In this study we reached consensus regarding a conceptual definition of what should be a COPD self-management intervention, clarifying the requisites for such an intervention. Operationalisation of this conceptual definition in the near future will be an essential next step. The content of this work is not subject to copyright. Design and branding are copyright ©ERS 2016.

  12. Evaluation of Group Intervention for Mothers/Caretakers of Kindergarten Children with Externalizing Behavioral Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Turini Bolsoni-Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative parental practices may influence the onset and maintenance of externalizing behavior problems, and positive parenting seem to improve children's social skills and reduce behavior problems. The objective of the present study was to describe the effects of an intervention designed to foster parents' social skills related to upbringing practices in order to reduce externalizing problems in children aged 4 to 6 years. Thirteen mothers and two care taker grandmothers took part in the study with an average of four participants per group. To assess intervention effects, we used a repeated measure design with control, pre, and post intervention assessments. Instruments used were: (a An interview schedule that evaluates the social interactions between parents and children functionally, considering each pair of child¿s and parent's behaviors as context for one another; (b A Social Skills Inventory; (c Child Behavior Checklist - CBCL. Intervention was effective in improving parent general social skills, decreasing negative parental practices and decreasing child behavior problems.

  13. Epidemiological differences of lower urinary tract symptoms among female subpopulations and group level interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avasarala Atchuta Kameswararao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: 1 To study the risk factor profiles of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS among adolescent girls, housewives and working women and its socioeconomic and quality of life losses. 2 To undertake risk factor modifications using the adolescent girls. Design and Setting: Cross-sectional descriptive study followed by educational intervention. Statistical Methods: Cluster sampling, Proportions, confidence intervals, Chi square and t-Tests and Logistic regression. Materials and Methods: House to house survey was done in two villages and one urban ward. Seventy-five housewives, 75 working women and 180 adolescent girls were asked about the risk factors and losses due to LUTS. Three teams of adolescent girls were utilized to bring about behavioral modifications. Impact was measured through user perspectives obtained from the participants. Results: Risk factors, social, economic and quality of life losses were different among the three female populations. Overall prevalence of LUTS among the three groups is 61(18.5%. Improper anal washing technique, malnutrition, presence of vaginal discharge, use of unsanitary menstrual pads, pinworm infestation and use of bad toilets were the significant causes among girls. Presence of sexually transmitted diseases was a contributing factor among housewives and working women. Prolonged sitting the posture was also contributing to LUTS among working women. Seventy-four per cent of beneficiaries expressed that intervention is useful. Conclusions: The causes for LUTS and their consequences were differing among the three female subpopulations. Specific group level interventions using trained girls were successful.

  14. Superwellness Program: a cognitive-behavioral therapy-based group intervention to reduce weight gain in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura R. Magni

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral therapy-based intervention (Superwellness Program on weight gain compared with a treatment-as-usual (TAU approach in patients treated with antipsychotics, and to evaluate the relationship between body mass index (BMI variation and clinical variables. Method: Eighty-five patients treated with antipsychotics were allocated across two groups, experimental (n=59 and control (n=26. The Superwellness Program (experimental group consisted of 32 twice-weekly 1-hour sessions, conducted by a psychologist and a nutritionist/nurse, concurrently with moderate food intake and moderate physical activity plans. Sociodemographic, clinical, and biological variables were collected at baseline, at the end of intervention (16 weeks, and after 6 months. Results: BMI change from baseline differed significantly between the experimental and control groups, with a larger decrease in the experimental group (F = 5.5, p = 0.021. Duration of illness moderated the effect of treatment on BMI (p = 0.026. No significant (p = 0.499 effect of intervention during the follow-up period was found. Interestingly, the intervention indirectly induced a significant (p = 0.024 reduction in metabolic risk by reducing BMI. Conclusion: A cognitive-behavioral therapy-based intervention could be useful in reducing weight in a clinical population taking antipsychotics, with consequent benefit to physical and mental health.

  15. Interesting Interest Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup

    2012-01-01

    on spatial invariance of interest points under changing acquisition parameters by measuring the spatial recall rate. The scope of this paper is to investigate the performance of a number of existing well-established interest point detection methods. Automatic performance evaluation of interest points is hard......Not all interest points are equally interesting. The most valuable interest points lead to optimal performance of the computer vision method in which they are employed. But a measure of this kind will be dependent on the chosen vision application. We propose a more general performance measure based...... position. The LED illumination provides the option for artificially relighting the scene from a range of light directions. This data set has given us the ability to systematically evaluate the performance of a number of interest point detectors. The highlights of the conclusions are that the fixed scale...

  16. Cost-utility of a specific collaborative group intervention for patients with functional somatic syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konnopka, Alexander; König, Hans-Helmut; Kaufmann, Claudia; Egger, Nina; Wild, Beate; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Herzog, Wolfgang; Schellberg, Dieter; Schaefert, Rainer

    2016-11-01

    Collaborative group intervention (CGI) in patients with functional somatic syndromes (FSS) has been shown to improve mental quality of life. To analyse incremental cost-utility of CGI compared to enhanced medical care in patients with FSS. An economic evaluation alongside a cluster-randomised controlled trial was performed. 35 general practitioners (GPs) recruited 300 FSS patients. Patients in the CGI arm were offered 10 group sessions within 3months and 2 booster sessions 6 and 12months after baseline. Costs were assessed via questionnaire. Quality adjusted life years (QALYs) were calculated using the SF-6D index, derived from the 36-item short-form health survey (SF-36). We calculated patients' net-monetary-benefit (NMB), estimated the treatment effect via regression, and generated cost-effectiveness acceptability curves. Using intention-to-treat analysis, total costs during the 12-month study period were 5777EUR in the intervention, and 6858EUR in the control group. Controlling for possible confounders, we found a small, but significant positive intervention effect on QALYs (+0.017; p=0.019) and an insignificant cost saving resulting from a cost-increase in the control group (-10.5%; p=0.278). NMB regression showed that the probability of CGI to be cost-effective was 69% for a willingness to pay (WTP) of 0EUR/QALY, increased to 92% for a WTP of 50,000EUR/QALY and reached the level of 95% at a WTP of 70,375EUR/QALY. Subgroup analyses yielded that CGI was only cost-effective in severe somatic symptom severity (PHQ-15≥15). CGI has a high probability to be a cost-effective treatment for FSS, in particular for patients with severe somatic symptom severity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence and characteristics of smokers interested in internet-based smoking cessation interventions: cross-sectional findings from a national household survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jamie; Michie, Susan; Raupach, Tobias; West, Robert

    2013-03-18

    An accurate and up-to-date estimate of the potential reach of Internet-based smoking cessation interventions (ISCIs) would improve calculations of impact while an understanding of the characteristics of potential users would facilitate the design of interventions. This study reports the prevalence and the sociodemographic, smoking, and Internet-use characteristics of smokers interested in using ISCIs in a nationally representative sample. Data were collected using cross-sectional household surveys of representative samples of adults in England. Interest in trying an Internet site or "app" that was proven to help with stopping smoking was assessed in 1128 adult smokers in addition to sociodemographic characteristics, dependence, motivation to quit, previous attempts to quit smoking, Internet and handheld computer access, and recent types of information searched online. Of a representative sample of current smokers, 46.6% (95% CI 43.5%-49.6%) were interested in using an Internet-based smoking cessation intervention. In contrast, only 0.3% (95% CI 0%-0.7%) of smokers reported having used such an intervention to support their most recent quit attempt within the past year. After adjusting for all other background characteristics, interested smokers were younger (OR=0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.99), reported stronger urges (OR=1.29, 95% CI 1.10-1.51), were more motivated to quit within 3 months (OR=2.16, 95% CI 1.54-3.02), and were more likely to have made a quit attempt in the past year (OR=1.76, 95% CI 1.30-2.37), access the Internet at least weekly (OR=2.17, 95% CI 1.40-3.36), have handheld computer access (OR=1.65, 95% CI 1.22-2.24), and have used the Internet to search for online smoking cessation information or support in past 3 months (OR=2.82, 95% CI 1.20-6.62). There was no association with social grade. Almost half of all smokers in England are interested in using online smoking cessation interventions, yet fewer than 1% have used them to support a quit attempt in the

  18. A Systematic Review of Training Interventions Addressing Sexual Violence against Marginalized At-Risk Groups of Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouta, Christiana; Pithara, Christalla; Zobnina, Anna; Apostolidou, Zoe; Christodoulou, Josie; Papadakaki, Maria; Chliaoutakis, Joannes

    2015-01-01

    Women from marginalized groups working in occupations such as domestic work are at increased risk for sexual violence. Scarce evidence exists about training interventions targeting such groups. The article aims to identify community and workplace-based training interventions aiming to increase capacity among marginalized at-risk women to deal with…

  19. The Effectiveness of Group Social Work Intervention With Developmental Approach on Psychosocial Empowerment of Female-Headed Households

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Torabi Momen

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion According to the study results, group social work intervention sessions with psychosocial developmental approach to empowering female-headed households is effective. The wider use of this type of intervention by professionals can empower and improve the lives of this group of people.

  20. Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Lee, Jung-Sook

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents), Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. After 15 weeks, the music intervention group showed significant reduction of aggression and improvement of self-esteem compared with the control group. All outcome measures were significantly lower in the music intervention group than prior to treatment, while there was no change in the control group. These findings suggest that music can reduce aggressive behavior and improve self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Music intervention is an easily accessible therapy for children and as such may be an effective intervention for aggressive behavior. Further more, objective and replicable measures are required from a randomized controlled trial with a larger sample size and active comparable control. PMID:18955314

  1. Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-Esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ae-Na Choi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents, Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. After 15 weeks, the music intervention group showed significant reduction of aggression and improvement of self-esteem compared with the control group. All outcome measures were significantly lower in the music intervention group than prior to treatment, while there was no change in the control group. These findings suggest that music can reduce aggressive behavior and improve self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Music intervention is an easily accessible therapy for children and as such may be an effective intervention for aggressive behavior. Further more, objective and replicable measures are required from a randomized controlled trial with a larger sample size and active comparable control.

  2. [Goal analysis and goal operationalisation: a group intervention for the enhancement of work motivation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Rana; Fiedler, Rolf G; Dietrich, Hilke; Greitemann, Bernhard; Heuft, Gereon

    2010-08-01

    Work motivation, mental well-being and competencies of self-regulation are linked to successful job-related reintegration after rehabilitation. Based on the Diagnostical Instrument to assess Work motivation (Diagnostikinstrument für Arbeitsmotivation DIAMO) and existing training programs, a new group intervention, the goal analysis and goal operationalization, was developed and evaluated. The objective of this intervention, designed for participants of a rehabilitation program was to enhance work motivation and volitional control processes (self-regulation and self-control), to encourage job-related goal orientation and to thereby increase the probability of goal achievement. In a quasi-experimental longitudinal design 207 patients (111 experimental group/96 control group) were tested. The experimental group took part in the job-related training (ZAZO) in addition to the usual rehabilitation. The evaluation was conducted through various scales at t0 (beginning) and t1 (end of the training). Scales for the measurement of work motivation, mental well-being, status of rehabilitation, competencies of self-regulation and the subjective prognosis of the ability to work were used. As direct effects of the training an enhancement of work motivation and of an improved subjective prognosis of the ability to work were expected. Accordingly, a positive influence on the subjective well-being as indirect effects, were anticipated in the long run, the experimental group should also show an enhanced job-related reintegration. Participants of the experimental group showed significantly higher values on particular scales of the Diagnostical Instrument of Work motivation as opposed to the control group (curiosity motive, attitudes to work and contact motive). Most notably, significant interactional effects could be found on the scale for the subjective prognosis of the ability to work, which is a highly reliable instrument and important predictor for prospective job

  3. U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group Proceedings, San Antonio, Texas, May 16–18, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, Eve L.; Spangler, Lawrence E.

    2017-05-15

    karst hydrogeologic systems. As a result, numerous federal, state, and local agencies have a strong interest in the study of karst terrains.Many of the major springs and aquifers in the United States have developed in carbonate rocks, such as the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina; the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system in parts of Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma; and the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system in west-central Texas. These aquifers, and the springs that discharge from them, serve as major water-supply sources and form unique ecological habitats. Competition for the water resources of karst aquifers is common, and urban development and the lack of attenuation of contaminants in karst areas due to dissolution features that form direct pathways into karst aquifers can impact the ecosystem and water quality associated with these aquifers.The concept for developing a platform for interaction among scientists within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) working on karst-related studies evolved from the November 1999 National Groundwater Meeting of the USGS. As a result, the Karst Interest Group (KIG) was formed in 2000. The KIG is a loose-knit, grass-roots organization of USGS and non-USGS scientists and researchers devoted to fostering better communication among scientists working on, or interested in, karst science. The primary mission of the KIG is to encourage and support interdisciplinary collaboration and technology transfer among scientists working in karst areas. Additionally, the KIG encourages collaborative studies between the different mission areas of the USGS as well as with other federal and state agencies, and with researchers from academia and institutes.To accomplish its mission, the KIG has organized a series of workshops that have been held near nationally important karst areas. To date (2017) seven KIG workshops, including the workshop documented in this report, have been held. The workshops

  4. U.S. Geological Survey Karst Interest Group Proceedings, Carlsbad, New Mexico, April 29-May 2, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniansky, Eve L.; Spangler, Lawrence E.; Kuniansky, Eve L.; Spangler, Lawrence E.

    2014-01-01

    strong interest in the study of karst terrains.Many of the major springs and aquifers in the United States have developed in carbonate rocks, such as the Floridan aquifer system in Florida and parts of Alabama, Georgia, and South Carolina; the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system in parts of Arkansas, Kansas, Missouri, and Oklahoma; and the Edwards-Trinity aquifer system in west-central Texas. These aquifers, and the springs that discharge from them, serve as major water-supply sources and as unique ecological habitats. Competition for the water resources of karst aquifers is common, and urban development and the lack of attenuation of contaminants in karst areas can impact the ecosystem and water quality of these aquifers.The concept for developing a platform for interaction among scientists within the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) working on karst-related studies evolved from the November 1999 National Ground-Water Meeting of the USGS. As a result, the Karst Interest Group (KIG) was formed in 2000. The KIG is a loose-knit, grass-roots organization of USGS and non-USGS scientists and researchers devoted to fostering better communication among scientists working on, or interested in, karst science. The primary mission of the KIG is to encourage and support interdisciplinary collaboration and technology transfer among scientists working in karst areas. Additionally, the KIG encourages collaborative studies between the different mission areas of the USGS as well as other federal and state agencies, and with researchers from academia and institutes. The KIG also encourages younger scientists by participation of students in the poster and oral sessions.To accomplish its mission, the KIG has organized a series of workshops that are held near nationally important karst areas. To date (2014) six KIG workshops, including the workshop documented in this report, have been held. The workshops typically include oral and poster sessions on selected karst-related topics and research, as well

  5. Psychosocial group rehabilitation for lonely older people: favourable processes and mediating factors of the intervention leading to alleviated loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savikko, Niina; Routasalo, Pirkko; Tilvis, Reijo; Pitkälä, Kaisu

    2010-03-01

    Loneliness among community-dwelling older people is a common problem, with serious health consequences. The favourable processes and mediating factors of a psychosocial group rehabilitation intervention in alleviating older people's loneliness were evaluated. Altogether, 117 lonely, home-dwelling individuals (aged ≥75 years) participated in a psychosocial group rehabilitation intervention. The content comprised (i) art and inspiring activities, (ii) group exercise and discussions or (iii) therapeutic writing and group therapy. The psychosocial group rehabilitation intervention was evaluated from the group leaders' diaries and by observing the groups. Experiences of loneliness and social participation were collected by postintervention questionnaires from the participants. Data were analysed using methodological triangulation. Doing things together and sharing experiences with their peers inspired lively discussions, created a feeling of togetherness and led to participants' empowerment and increased self-esteem. The intervention socially activated the participants, and their feelings of loneliness had been alleviated during the intervention. Several common favourable processes and mediating factors were identified in the psychosocial group rehabilitation intervention that led to alleviation of loneliness among older people. Relevance to clinical practice.  The psychosocial group rehabilitation intervention gives nurses an effective tool to support older people's psychosocial resources by activating them and alleviating their loneliness. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Family forest landowners' interest in forest carbon offset programs: Focus group findings from the Lake States, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristell A. Miller; Stephanie A. Snyder; Mike A. Kilgore; Mae A. Davenport

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, focus groups were organized with individuals owning 20+ acres in the Lake States region of the United States (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) to discuss various issues related to forest carbon offsetting. Focus group participants consisted of landowners who had responded to an earlier mail-back survey (2010) on forest carbon offsets. Two focus groups were...

  7. Technology use and interest among low-income parents of young children: differences by age group and ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swindle, Taren M; Ward, Wendy L; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bokony, Patti; Pettit, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    To examine demographic differences in frequency of use of technologies and interest in receiving nutrition information via technology by low-income parents and caregivers. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. Head Start and state-funded child care programs. A total of 806 parents and caregivers from low-income families. A 20-item survey assessed frequency of use and interest in technologies (dependent variables) and collected participant age and ethnicity (independent variables). Multivariate ANOVA analysis investigated whether age, ethnicity, and their interactions were related to frequency of use and interest in technology types. Daily rates of usage for Internet, text messaging, and cell phone use were over 60%. However, Twitter and blogs were accessed daily by interaction of ethnicity and age was nonsignificant. However, main effects for ethnicity (Wilks' λ = .85; F = 3.13; P < .001) and age (Wilks' λ = .89; F = 2.29; P < .001) were observed. Facebook, e-mail, texting, and smartphone applications may be innovative modalities to engage with low-income parents and caregivers aged ≤ 45. However, some strategies may be ineffective for reaching Hispanic families as they reported less use of the Internet, Facebook, and e-mail as well as less interest in e-mail. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Motivational intervention to enhance post-detoxification 12-Step group affiliation: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vederhus, John-Kåre; Timko, Christine; Kristensen, Oistein; Hjemdahl, Bente; Clausen, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    To compare a motivational intervention (MI) focused on increasing involvement in 12-Step groups (TSGs; e.g. Alcoholics Anonymous) versus brief advice (BA) to attend TSGs. Patients were assigned randomly to either the MI or BA condition, and followed-up at 6 months after discharge. One hundred and forty substance use disorder (SUD) patients undergoing in-patient detoxification (detox) in Norway. The primary outcome was TSG affiliation measured with the Alcoholics Anonymous Affiliation Scale (AAAS), which combines meeting attendance and TSG involvement. Substance use and problem severity were also measured. At 6 months after treatment, compared with the BA group, the MI group had higher TSG affiliation [0.91 point higher AAAS score; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.04 to 1.78; P = 0.041]. The MI group reported 3.5 fewer days of alcohol use (2.1 versus 5.6 days; 95% CI = -6.5 to -0.6; P = 0.020) and 4.0 fewer days of drug use (3.8 versus 7.8 days; 95% CI = -7.5 to -0.4; P = 0.028); however, abstinence rates and severity scores did not differ between conditions. Analyses controlling for duration of in-patient treatment did not alter the results. A motivational intervention in an in-patient detox ward was more successful than brief advice in terms of patient engagement in 12-Step groups and reduced substance use at 6 months after discharge. There is a potential benefit of adding a maintenance-focused element to standard detox. © 2014 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  9. Identifying HIV most-at-risk groups in Malawi for targeted interventions. A classification tree model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emina, Jacques B O; Madise, Nyovani; Kuepie, Mathias; Zulu, Eliya M; Ye, Yazoume

    2013-05-28

    To identify HIV-socioeconomic predictors as well as the most-at-risk groups of women in Malawi. A cross-sectional survey. Malawi The study used a sample of 6395 women aged 15-49 years from the 2010 Malawi Health and Demographic Surveys. Individual HIV status: positive or not. Findings from the Pearson χ(2) and χ(2) Automatic Interaction Detector analyses revealed that marital status is the most significant predictor of HIV. Women who are no longer in union and living in the highest wealth quintiles households constitute the most-at-risk group, whereas the less-at-risk group includes young women (15-24) never married or in union and living in rural areas. In the light of these findings, this study recommends: (1) that the design and implementation of targeted interventions should consider the magnitude of HIV prevalence and demographic size of most-at-risk groups. Preventive interventions should prioritise couples and never married people aged 25-49 years and living in rural areas because this group accounts for 49% of the study population and 40% of women living with HIV in Malawi; (2) with reference to treatment and care, higher priority must be given to promoting HIV test, monitoring and evaluation of equity in access to treatment among women in union disruption and never married or women in union aged 30-49 years and living in urban areas; (3) community health workers, households-based campaign, reproductive-health services and reproductive-health courses at school could be used as canons to achieve universal prevention strategy, testing, counselling and treatment.

  10. Interventions for improving patients' trust in doctors and groups of doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, Alix; Cash-Gibson, Lucinda; Car, Josip; Sheikh, Aziz; McKinstry, Brian

    2014-03-04

    Trust is a fundamental component of the patient-doctor relationship and is associated with increased satisfaction, adherence to treatment, and continuity of care. Our 2006 review found little evidence that interventions improve patients' trust in their doctor; therefore an updated search was required to find out if there is further evidence of the effects of interventions that may improve trust in doctors or groups of doctors. To update our earlier review assessing the effects of interventions intended to improve patients' trust in doctors or a group of doctors. In 2003 we searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, Health Star, PsycINFO, CINAHL, LILACS, African Trials Register, African Health Anthology, Dissertation Abstracts International and the bibliographies of studies selected for inclusion. We also contacted researchers active in the field. We updated and re-ran the searches on available original databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library issue 2, 2013), MEDLINE (OvidSP), EMBASE (OvidSP), PsycINFO (OvidSP), CINAHL (Ebsco)) as well as Proquest Dissertations and Current Contents for the period 2003 to 18 March 2013. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-randomised controlled trials, controlled before and after studies, and interrupted time series of interventions (informative, educational, behavioural, organisational) directed at doctors or patients (or carers) where trust was assessed as a primary or secondary outcome. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Where mentioned, we extracted data on adverse effects. We synthesised data narratively. We included 10 randomised controlled trials (including 7 new trials) involving 11,063 patients. These studies were all undertaken in North America, and all but two involved primary care.  As expected, there was considerable heterogeneity between

  11. Reaching the poor with health interventions: programme-incidence analysis of seven randomised trials of women's groups to reduce newborn mortality in Asia and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houweling, Tanja A J; Morrison, Joanna; Alcock, Glyn; Azad, Kishwar; Das, Sushmita; Hossen, Munir; Kuddus, Abdul; Lewycka, Sonia; Looman, Caspar W; Magar, Bharat Budhathoki; Manandhar, Dharma S; Akter, Mahfuza; Dube, Albert Lazarous Nkhata; Rath, Shibanand; Saville, Naomi; Sen, Aman; Tripathy, Prasanta; Costello, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Efforts to end preventable newborn deaths will fail if the poor are not reached with effective interventions. To understand what works to reach vulnerable groups, we describe and explain the uptake of a highly effective community-based newborn health intervention across social strata in Asia and Africa. We conducted a secondary analysis of seven randomised trials of participatory women's groups to reduce newborn mortality in India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Malawi. We analysed data on 70,574 pregnancies. Socioeconomic and sociodemographic differences in group attendance were tested using logistic regression. Qualitative data were collected at each trial site (225 focus groups, 20 interviews) to understand our results. Socioeconomic differences in women's group attendance were small, except for occasional lower attendance by elites. Sociodemographic differences were large, with lower attendance by young primigravid women in African as well as in South Asian sites. The intervention was considered relevant and interesting to all socioeconomic groups. Local facilitators ensured inclusion of poorer women. Embarrassment and family constraints on movement outside the home restricted attendance among primigravid women. Reproductive health discussions were perceived as inappropriate for them. Community-based women's groups can help to reach every newborn with effective interventions. Equitable intervention uptake is enhanced when facilitators actively encourage all women to attend, organise meetings at the participants' convenience and use approaches that are easily understandable for the less educated. Focused efforts to include primigravid women are necessary, working with families and communities to decrease social taboos. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Managing diversity in organisations: practitioner and academic perspectives: report from a gender in management special interest group research event

    OpenAIRE

    Beauregard, T. Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - This report aims to provide a brief summary of the presentations made by researchers and practitioners at the Gender in Management Special Interest Group’s research event, Managing Diversity in Organisations: Practitioner and Academic Perspectives.\\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach - The research seminar was chaired by Dr. Adelina Broadbridge (University of Stirling) and Dr. Gillian Maxwell (Glasgow Caledonian University), and featured five presentations related to diversity in org...

  13. Mindfulness Training Improves Attentional Task Performance in Incarcerated Youth: A Group Randomized Controlled Intervention Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelle R Leonard

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the impact of cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness training (CBT/MT on attentional task performance in incarcerated adolescents. Attention is a cognitive system necessary for managing cognitive demands and regulating emotions. Yet persistent and intensive demands, such as those experienced during high-stress intervals like incarceration and the events leading to incarceration, may deplete attention resulting in cognitive failures, emotional disturbances, and impulsive behavior. We hypothesized that CBT/MT may mitigate these deleterious effects of high stress and protect against degradation in attention over the high-stress interval of incarceration. Using a group randomized controlled trial design, we randomly assigned dormitories of incarcerated youth, ages 16 to 18, to a CBT/MT intervention (youth n = 147 or an active control intervention (youth n = 117. Both arms received approximately 750 minutes of intervention in a small-group setting over a 3-5 week period. Youth in the CBT/MT arm also logged the amount of out-of-session time spent practicing MT exercises. The Attention Network Test was used to index attentional task performance at baseline and 4 months post-baseline. Overall, task performance degraded over time in all participants. The magnitude of performance degradation was significantly less in the CBT/MT vs. control arm. Further, within the CBT/MT arm, performance degraded over time in those with no outside-of-class practice time, but remained stable over time in those who practiced mindfulness exercises outside of the session meetings. Thus, these findings suggest that sufficient CBT/MT practice may protect against functional attentional impairments associated with high-stress intervals. Keywords: adolescent development, incarcerated adolescents, detained adolescents, stress, attention, mindfulness meditation.

  14. A Multi-Family Group Intervention for Adolescent Depression: The BEST MOOD Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Lucinda A; Lewis, Andrew J; Toumbourou, John W; Knight, Tess; Bertino, Melanie D; Pryor, Reima

    2017-06-01

    Depression is the most common mental disorder for young people, and it is associated with educational underachievement, self-harm, and suicidality. Current psychological therapies for adolescent depression are usually focused only on individual-level change and often neglect family or contextual influences. The efficacy of interventions may be enhanced with a broader therapeutic focus on family factors such as communication, conflict, support, and cohesion. This article describes a structured multi-family group approach to the treatment of adolescent depression: Behaviour Exchange Systems Therapy for adolescent depression (BEST MOOD). BEST MOOD is a manualized intervention that is designed to address both individual and family factors in the treatment of adolescent depression. BEST MOOD adopts a family systems approach that also incorporates psychoeducation and elements of attachment theories. The program consists of eight multifamily group therapy sessions delivered over 2 hours per week, where parents attend the first four sessions and young people and siblings join from week 5. The program design is specifically aimed to engage youth who are initially resistant to treatment and to optimize youth and family mental health outcomes. This article presents an overview of the theoretical model, session content, and evaluations to date, and provides a case study to illustrate the approach. © 2016 Family Process Institute.

  15. [A group cognitive behavioral intervention for people registered in supported employment programs: CBT-SE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, T; Corbière, M; Lysaker, P H

    2014-06-01

    Supported employment programs are highly effective in helping people with severe mental illness obtain competitive jobs quickly. However, job tenure is often a problem for many. Of the various obstacles to job tenure documented, dysfunctional beliefs regarding the workplace and one's own abilities has been proposed as a therapeutic target. The purpose of this article is threefold: (1) to describe the development and the content of a novel group cognitive behavioral intervention designed to increase job tenure for people receiving supported employment services; (2) to present the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention; and (3) to investigate some preliminary data regarding employment outcomes. A group CBT intervention offered during 8 sessions over the course of one month, in order to respect the rapid job search principle of IPS (individual placement and support), was developed. The content was tailored to facilitate the learning of skills specific to the workplace, such as recognizing and managing one's stressors at work, determining and modifying dysfunctional thoughts (e.g. not jumping to conclusions, finding alternatives, seeking facts), overcoming obstacles (e.g. problem solving), improving one's self-esteem as a worker (recognizing strengths and qualities), dealing with criticism, using positive assertiveness, finding coping strategies (for symptoms and stress) to use at work, negotiating work accommodations and overcoming stigma. A trial is currently underway, with half the participants receiving supported employment as well as CBT-SE and the other half receiving only supported employment. A subsample of the first 24 participants having completed the 12-month follow-up were used for the analyses, including 12 having received at least 3 sessions out of the 8 group sessions and 12 receiving only supported employment. Feasibility and acceptability were determined by the group therapists' feedback, the participants' feedback as well as attendance to

  16. The effectiveness of a health promotion with group intervention by clinical trial. Study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Campo Osaba Maria-Antonia

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The promotion of health and the interventions in community health continue to be one of the pending subjects of our health system. The most prevalent health problems (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes... are for the most part related to life habits. We propose a holistic and integral approach as the best option for tackling behavior and its determinants. The research team has elaborated the necessary educational material to realize group teaching, which we call "Health Workshops". The goal of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of these Health Workshops in the following terms: Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL, incorporate and maintain a balanced diet, do physical activity regularly, maintain risk factors such as tension, weight, cholesterol within normal limits and diminish cardiovascular risk. Methods/Design Controlled and random clinical testing, comparing a group of persons who have participated in the Health Workshops with a control group of similar characteristics who have not participated in the Health Workshops. Field of study: the research is being done in Health Centers of the city of Barcelona, Spain. Population studied: The group is composed of 108 persons that are actually doing the Health Workshops, and 108 that are not and form the control group. They are assigned at random to one group or the other. Data Analysis: With Student's t-distribution test to compare the differences between numerical variables or their non parametric equivalent if the variable does not comply with the criteria of normality. (Kolmogorov-Smirnof test. Chi-square test to compare the differences between categorical variables and the Logistic Regression Model to analyze different meaningful variables by dichotomous analysis related to the intervention. Discussion The Health Workshop proposed in the present study constitutes an innovative approach in health promotion, placing the emphasis on the person's self

  17. Creating an Interest in Research and Development as a Means of Reducing the Gap between Theory and Practice in Primary Care: An Interventional Study Based on Strategic Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morténius, Helena

    2014-01-01

    Today, healthcare professionals are faced with the challenge of implementing research results in an optimal way. It is therefore important to create a climate that is conducive to research and development (R&D). For this reason, new strategies are required to enhance healthcare professionals’ interest in innovative thinking and R&D. Strategic communication with roots in sociology, psychology and political science was employed as a means of achieving long-term behavioural change. The aim of this study was to describe, follow up and evaluate a primary care intervention based on strategic communication intended to increase healthcare professionals’ interest in R&D over time. An interventional cohort study comprising all staff members (N = 1276) in a Swedish primary care area was initiated in 1997 and continued for 12 years. The intention to engage in R&D was measured on two occasions; at 7 and 12 years. Both descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were employed. The results demonstrated that the positive attitude to R&D increased over time, representing a first step towards new thinking and willingness to change work practices for the benefit of the patient. Strategic communication has not been previously employed as a scientific tool to create a long-term interest in R&D within primary care. PMID:25162708

  18. Creating an Interest in Research and Development as a Means of Reducing the Gap between Theory and Practice in Primary Care: An Interventional Study Based on Strategic Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Morténius

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Today, healthcare professionals are faced with the challenge of implementing research results in an optimal way. It is therefore important to create a climate that is conducive to research and development (R&D. For this reason, new strategies are required to enhance healthcare professionals’ interest in innovative thinking and R&D. Strategic communication with roots in sociology, psychology and political science was employed as a means of achieving long-term behavioural change. The aim of this study was to describe, follow up and evaluate a primary care intervention based on strategic communication intended to increase healthcare professionals’ interest in R&D over time. An interventional cohort study comprising all staff members (N = 1276 in a Swedish primary care area was initiated in 1997 and continued for 12 years. The intention to engage in R&D was measured on two occasions; at 7 and 12 years. Both descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were employed. The results demonstrated that the positive attitude to R&D increased over time, representing a first step towards new thinking and willingness to change work practices for the benefit of the patient. Strategic communication has not been previously employed as a scientific tool to create a long-term interest in R&D within primary care.

  19. Creating an interest in research and development as a means of reducing the gap between theory and practice in primary care: an interventional study based on strategic communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morténius, Helena

    2014-08-26

    Today, healthcare professionals are faced with the challenge of implementing research results in an optimal way. It is therefore important to create a climate that is conducive to research and development (R&D). For this reason, new strategies are required to enhance healthcare professionals' interest in innovative thinking and R&D. Strategic communication with roots in sociology, psychology and political science was employed as a means of achieving long-term behavioural change. The aim of this study was to describe, follow up and evaluate a primary care intervention based on strategic communication intended to increase healthcare professionals' interest in R&D over time. An interventional cohort study comprising all staff members (N = 1276) in a Swedish primary care area was initiated in 1997 and continued for 12 years. The intention to engage in R&D was measured on two occasions; at 7 and 12 years. Both descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were employed. The results demonstrated that the positive attitude to R&D increased over time, representing a first step towards new thinking and willingness to change work practices for the benefit of the patient. Strategic communication has not been previously employed as a scientific tool to create a long-term interest in R&D within primary care.

  20. How can a brief intervention contribute to coping with back pain? A focus group study about participants’ experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ree, Eline; Harris, A.; Indahl, A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our aim was to explore how individuals who had participated in a brief back and neck pain intervention perceived connections between the intervention and their subsequent coping. METHODS: Three focus group discussions were conducted with a sample of ten employees aged 20-67 years, who...... had participated in a brief intervention for back and neck pain, perceived the intervention as helpful and had returned or remained at work subsequent to the intervention. Participants were invited to share stories of how the intervention had made a positive difference to their work situation...... and everyday life and helped them cope with their complaints. Systematic text condensation was used for analysis. RESULTS: Analysis revealed several aspects of how the participants considered the intervention to be helpful. They emphasized the importance of having the information delivered in a comprehensible...

  1. Agent Based Simulation of Group Emotions Evolution and Strategy Intervention in Extreme Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Agent based simulation method has become a prominent approach in computational modeling and analysis of public emergency management in social science research. The group emotions evolution, information diffusion, and collective behavior selection make extreme incidents studies a complex system problem, which requires new methods for incidents management and strategy evaluation. This paper studies the group emotion evolution and intervention strategy effectiveness using agent based simulation method. By employing a computational experimentation methodology, we construct the group emotion evolution as a complex system and test the effects of three strategies. In addition, the events-chain model is proposed to model the accumulation influence of the temporal successive events. Each strategy is examined through three simulation experiments, including two make-up scenarios and a real case study. We show how various strategies could impact the group emotion evolution in terms of the complex emergence and emotion accumulation influence in extreme events. This paper also provides an effective method of how to use agent-based simulation for the study of complex collective behavior evolution problem in extreme incidents, emergency, and security study domains.

  2. Adjustment to cancer: exploring patients' experiences of participating in a psychodramatic group intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menichetti, J; Giusti, L; Fossati, I; Vegni, E

    2016-09-01

    The main purpose of the present study was to understand the subjective experience of patients adjusting to cancer by focusing on how that experience might be affected by participating in a psychodramatic group intervention. In-depth interviews using an interpretative-phenomenological approach were conducted with eight cancer patients involved in a psychodrama group. Four key themes were identified: (1) outside and inside relationships; (2) identities: nurturing other selves; (3) a feelings' gym: performing the internal world; and (4) many ends: mourning death and dying. Participation in cancer group using a psychodramatic approach provided positive results. In detail, the group setting: (1) favoured relationships in which it was possible to freely express oneself and (2) empowered patients in their feelings of being able to give and receive help; the psychodramatic approach: (1) supported the physical mobilisation of sense of agency and (2) permitted to deal with the grieving process. Cancer healthcare pathways would benefit from psychotherapeutic programmes using a similar approach, since psychodrama by actively involving body seems to works on areas that are often underwhelmed by other approaches, such as (i.e., physical mobilisation, body engagement, grieving adjustment). Psychodrama supports patients to achieve insights into their own possibilities to actively participate in their own life situations despite having cancer and undergoing treatment for it. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Weight change in control group participants in behavioural weight loss interventions: a systematic review and meta-regression study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waters Lauren

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Unanticipated control group improvements have been observed in intervention trials targeting various health behaviours. This phenomenon has not been studied in the context of behavioural weight loss intervention trials. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-regression of behavioural weight loss interventions to quantify control group weight change, and relate the size of this effect to specific trial and sample characteristics. Methods Database searches identified reports of intervention trials meeting the inclusion criteria. Data on control group weight change and possible explanatory factors were abstracted and analysed descriptively and quantitatively. Results 85 trials were reviewed and 72 were included in the meta-regression. While there was no change in control group weight, control groups receiving usual care lost 1 kg more than control groups that received no intervention, beyond measurement. Conclusions There are several possible explanations why control group changes occur in intervention trials targeting other behaviours, but not for weight loss. Control group participation may prevent weight gain, although more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  4. A cognitive behavioral based group intervention for children with a chronic illness and their parents: a multicentre randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuengel Carlo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Coping with a chronic illness (CI challenges children's psychosocial functioning and wellbeing. Cognitive-behavioral intervention programs that focus on teaching the active use of coping strategies may prevent children with CI from developing psychosocial problems. Involvement of parents in the intervention program may enhance the use of learned coping strategies in daily life, especially on the long-term. The primary aim of the present study is to examine the effectiveness of a cognitive behavioral based group intervention (called 'Op Koers' 1 for children with CI and of a parallel intervention for their parents. A secondary objective is to investigate why and for whom this intervention works, in order to understand the underlying mechanisms of the intervention effect. Methods/design This study is a multicentre randomized controlled trial. Participants are children (8 to 18 years of age with a chronic illness, and their parents, recruited from seven participating hospitals in the Netherlands. Participants are randomly allocated to two intervention groups (the child intervention group and the child intervention combined with a parent program and a wait-list control group. Primary outcomes are child psychosocial functioning, wellbeing and child disease related coping skills. Secondary outcomes are child quality of life, child general coping skills, child self-perception, parental stress, quality of parent-child interaction, and parental perceived vulnerability. Outcomes are evaluated at baseline, after 6 weeks of treatment, and at a 6 and 12-month follow-up period. The analyses will be performed on the basis of an intention-to-treat population. Discussion This study evaluates the effectiveness of a group intervention improving psychosocial functioning in children with CI and their parents. If proven effective, the intervention will be implemented in clinical practice. Strengths and limitations of the study design are discussed

  5. A HOLISTIC GROUP PSYCHOTHERAPEUTIC INTERVENTION FOR THE TREATMENT OF IRRITABLE BOWEL SYNDROME AND ITS COMORBID DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Bush

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to ascertain the effects of a holistic short-term group intervention in the treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome (/BS with comorbid depression and anxiety. The sample consisted of 24 South African women who had been diagnosed with severe IBS. Furthermore, each participant had to have associated moderate to severe depression and anxiety. The group design was a pre-test, post-test control group design where the experimental group (n = 12 received group intervention and the members of the control group (n = 12 received no intervention until after completion of the research. All the participants completed the Functional Bowel Disorder Severity Index and the Depression and Anxiety subscales of the Personality Assessment Inventory before commencement of group therapy for Group 1 and one month after completion of this intervention. The effect of the intervention was determined by utilising comparative statistics. The findings indicate that holistic short-term group therapy results in significant improvement in terms of depreSSion and anxiety scores, but that IBS symptom severity remains unchanged. It is recommended that further research be conducted to ascertain whether holistic group therapy of a longer duration has a greater impact on the IBS symptom severity.

  6. The Effect of the Student Success Skills Small Group Counseling Intervention on Factors Associated with Dropout Potential in High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Jodie

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this study is to add to the outcome research on effective school counseling interventions and to specifically evaluate the effectiveness of the Student Success Skills (SSS) small group intervention with students identified as having drop out potential in the 9th grade. This study analyzed two years of pre-existing, non-identifiable…

  7. Associations between Culturally Relevant Recruitment Strategies and Participant Interest, Enrollment and Generalizability in a Weight-loss Intervention for African American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Lauren E; Wilson, Dawn K; Kitzman-Ulrich, Heather; Lyerly, Jordan E; Gause, Haylee M; Resnicow, Ken

    2016-07-21

    Culturally relevant recruitment strategies may be an important approach for recruiting ethnic minorities for interventions. Previous research has examined associations between recruitment strategies and enrollment of African Americans (AA), but has not explored more deeply the role of incorporating sociocultural values into recruitment strategies. Our current study explores whether sociocultural recruitment mediums were associated with demographics, interest and enrollment in a weight-loss intervention. Sociocultural mediums included community partnerships, culturally relevant ads, sociocultural events, or word-of-mouth. Non-sociocultural mediums included community/school events that did not specifically target AAs. Analyses examined whether demographics of enrolled families differed by recruitment strategy and if recruitment strategy predicted scheduling a baseline visit, enrolling in a run-in phase, and enrolling in the intervention program. Families recruited from culturally relevant ads, sociocultural events, or word-of-mouth were 1.96 times more likely to schedule a baseline visit (OR=1.96, 95% CI=1.05, 3.68) than families recruited from non-sociocultural mediums. No differences were found for sociocultural mediums on enrolling in the run-in phase or the intervention. However, among enrolled families, those recruited from sociocultural mediums were less likely to be employed (X(2) [1, N=142] =5.53, P<.05) and more likely to have lower income (X(2) [1, N=142] =13.57, P<.05). Sociocultural mediums were associated with scheduling a baseline visit, but not enrollment. They were, however, effective in recruiting a more generalizable sample among enrolled participants based on demographic characteristics. Integrating sociocultural values into recruitment methods may be a valuable strategy for increasing interest in participation among underrepresented AA families.

  8. The Effectiveness of Group Spiritual Intervention on Self-esteem and Happiness among Men Undergoing Methadone Maintenance Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Amir; Behrouzi, Mahvash Kashkouli; Salari, Nader; Bazrafshan, Mohammad-Rafi; Rahmati, Mahmoud

    2018-05-10

    Drug dependence or substance use disorder not only affects a person's life but also brings a lot of challenges for families and communities and imposes heavy burdens on them. There are various therapies in the domain of addiction whose main purposes are to reduce or to cut down substance abuse. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of group spiritual intervention on self-esteem and happiness among male clients undergoing methadone maintenance treatment. This study was an intervention study in which 60 clients affected with substance abuse and undergoing methadone maintenance treatment were recruited. The study samples were selected through convenience sampling method and then divided randomly into two groups of 30 individuals: intervention and control. The intervention group attended group spiritual interventions for 10 sessions. Self-esteem and happiness among the study participants were also measured through Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and Oxford Happiness Questionnaire before and after the intervention. The results showed a significant difference between both intervention and control groups in terms of self-esteem and happiness (P˂0.05); so that the participants in the intervention group demonstrated a significant improvement in their self-esteem and happiness. It was concluded that group spiritual intervention as a useful method could be effective in enhancing self-esteem and happiness among addicted individuals undergoing methadone maintenance treatment. The given treatment could be also used as a complementary therapy beside methadone maintenance treatment to reduce the likelihood of people returning to substance abuse. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Multicomponent interdisciplinary group intervention for self-management of fibromyalgia: a mixed-methods randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Bourgault

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficacy of the PASSAGE Program, a structured multicomponent interdisciplinary group intervention for the self-management of FMS.A mixed-methods randomized controlled trial (intervention (INT vs. waitlist (WL was conducted with patients suffering from FMS. Data were collected at baseline (T0, at the end of the intervention (T1, and 3 months later (T2. The primary outcome was change in pain intensity (0-10. Secondary outcomes were fibromyalgia severity, pain interference, sleep quality, pain coping strategies, depression, health-related quality of life, patient global impression of change (PGIC, and perceived pain relief. Qualitative group interviews with a subset of patients were also conducted. Complete data from T0 to T2 were available for 43 patients.The intervention had a statistically significant impact on the three PGIC measures. At the end of the PASSAGE Program, the percentages of patients who perceived overall improvement in their pain levels, functioning and quality of life were significantly higher in the INT Group (73%, 55%, 77% respectively than in the WL Group (8%, 12%, 20%. The same differences were observed 3 months post-intervention (Intervention group: 62%, 43%, 38% vs Waitlist Group: 13%, 13%, 9%. The proportion of patients who reported ≥ 50% pain relief was also significantly higher in the INT Group at the end of the intervention (36% vs 12% and 3 months post-intervention (33% vs 4%. Results of the qualitative analysis were in line with the quantitative findings regarding the efficacy of the intervention. The improvement, however, was not reflected in the primary outcome and other secondary outcome measures.The PASSAGE Program was effective in helping FMS patients gain a sense of control over their symptoms. We suggest including PGIC in future clinical trials on FMS as they appear to capture important aspects of the patients' experience.International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number

  10. Evaluation of an Intervention to Foster Time Perspective and Career Decidedness in a Group of Italian Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Lea; Nota, Laura; Soresi, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    A structured 10-didactic unit intervention was devised to foster adolescents' time perspective and career decidedness. The study was conducted with 50 adolescents who were selected from a group of 624; 25 of the participants were randomly assigned to the control group and 25 were assigned to the experimental group. They were selected according to…

  11. Nutrition interventions in women in low-income groups in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Annie S

    2007-02-01

    In the UK the mental and physical health and well-being of millions of women are influenced by living in poverty. Low educational attainment, unemployment, low pay and poor areas of residence exacerbate the challenges of obtaining optimal food choices, dietary intake and healthy eating patterns. Poorer women are more likely to eat low amounts of fruits and vegetables, whole grains and fish, and higher amounts of sugar and sweetened drinks compared with more affluent women. Diet contributes to the health inequalities evident in high rates of diet-related morbidity (including obesity) and mortality (including IHD and stroke) and in maternal and child health considerations (including breast-feeding and family diet practices). There is a dearth of research on effective interventions undertaken with low-income women, reflecting some of the challenges of engaging and evaluating programmes with this 'hard to reach' subpopulation. Intervention programmes from the USA, including WISEWOMAN, the Women's Health Initiative, the American Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children and the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program provide models for changing behaviour amongst women in the UK, although overall effects of such programmes are fairly modest. Lack of evidence does not mean that that policy work should be not be undertaken, but it is essential that policy work should be evaluated for its ability to engage with target groups as well as for the behavioural change and health outcomes.

  12. Group of family companions of hospitalized patients: an occupational therapy intervention strategy in a general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ferreira Dahdah

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a consensus in the literature that the company of a family member during the hospitalization period increases patient recovery. However, this can have some negative effects on the caregiver’s health. With the purpose of reducing these negatives effects, it is useful to let family members express themselves. The State Hospital of Ribeirão Preto created a Group of Family Companions coordinated by the Occupational Therapy and Social Service. This study focuses on the assistance offered in a general hospital to families that undergo the whole illness and hospitalization process of their family member, suffering the impacts of this process in their daily lives, and on the intervention of Occupational Therapy in these cases.

  13. Functional Assessment Based Parent Intervention in Reducing Children’s Challenging Behaviors: Exploratory Study of Group Training

    OpenAIRE

    Angel Fettig; Michaelene M. Ostrosky

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of group parent training on children’s challenging behaviors in home settings. Eight parents of young children with challenging behaviors were trained in a large group setting on using functional assessment to design interventions that fit the strengths and needs of individual families. The training included information sharing and collaborating with parents on designing functional-assessment based interventions. An Interrupted Time Series Design was used to ex...

  14. Radiation effects analysis in a group of interventional radiologists using biological and physical dosimetry methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos, M., E-mail: WEMLmirapas@iqn.upv.e [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Montoro, A.; Almonacid, M. [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia (Spain); Ferrer, S. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Barquinero, J.F. [Biological Dosimetry Service, Unit of Anthropology, Department of Animal and Vegetable Biology and Ecology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB) (Spain); Tortosa, R. [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia (Spain); Verdu, G. [Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, Polytechnic University of Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Rodriguez, P. [Biological Dosimetry Service, Unit of Anthropology, Department of Animal and Vegetable Biology and Ecology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB) (Spain); Barrios, L.L. [Department of Physiology and Cellular Biology, Unit of Cellular Biology (UAB) (Spain); Villaescusa, J.I. [Radiation Protection Service, Hospital Universitario La Fe Valencia (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    Interventional radiologists and staff members are frequently exposed to protracted and fractionated low doses of ionizing radiation, which extend during all their professional activities. These exposures can derive, due to the effects of direct and scattered radiation, in deterministic effects (radiodermitis, aged skin, cataracts, telangiectasia in nasal region, vasocellular epitelioms, hands depilation) and/or stochastic ones (cancer incidence). A methodology has been proposed for estimating the radiation risk or detriment from a group of six exposed interventional radiologists of the Hospital Universitario La Fe (Valencia, Spain), which had developed general exposition symptoms attributable to deterministic effects of ionizing radiation. Equivalent doses have been periodically registered using TLD's and wrist dosimeters, H{sub p}(10) and H{sub p}(0.07), respectively, and estimated through the observation of translocations in lymphocytes of peripheral blood (biological methods), by extrapolating the yield of translocations to their respective dose-effect curves. The software RADRISK has been applied for estimating radiation risks in these occupational radiation exposures. This software is based on transport models from epidemiological studies of population exposed to external sources of ionizing radiation, such as Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors [UNSCEAR, Sources and effects of ionizing radiation: 2006 report to the general assembly, with scientific annexes. New York: United Nations; 2006]. The minimum and maximum average excess ratio for skin cancer has been, using wrist physical doses, of [1.03x10{sup -3}, 5.06x10{sup -2}], concluding that there is not an increased risk of skin cancer incidence. The minimum and maximum average excess ratio for leukemia has been, using TLD physical doses, of [7.84x10{sup -2}, 3.36x10{sup -1}], and using biological doses, of [1.40x10{sup -1}, 1.51], which is considerably higher than incidence rates, showing an

  15. Is the modernisation of postgraduate medical training in the Netherlands successful? Views of the NVMO Special Interest Group on Postgraduate Medical Education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheele, Fedde; van Luijk, Scheltus; Mulder, Hanneke; Baane, Coby; den Rooyen, Corry; de Hoog, Matthijs; Fokkema, Joanne; Heineman, Erik; Sluiter, Henk

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, the modernisation of medical education is leading to the design and implementation of new postgraduate curricula. In this article, the Special Interest Group for postgraduate medical education of the Netherlands Association for Medical Education (NVMO) reports on the experiences in the

  16. The Role of Support Groups, Advocacy Groups,andOther Interested Parties in Improving the Care of Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Pleas and Warnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee PeterA

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the era of advocacy groups, it seems appropriate to contemplate how best to utilize them for patient benefit in the management of those with disorders of sex development (DSD, including those with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH. Such interactions, to be constructive, require a spirit of cooperation to optimize outcomes. A traditional view of advocacy groups as a type of defender of patients' rights appears outdated and it is time that the benefits of their participation be fully realized. Open dialogue with all patients/families, including those who feel harmed by prior care are paramount. We discuss several recent examples of interactions that illustrate how dialogue in the name of "advocacy" can have a negative impact on developing a framework for ongoing constructive dialogue and actions. Such approaches completely change the dynamics of subsequent interactions. Physicians involved in the care of individuals with DSD, including those with CAH, and patients should be aware of confrontational techniques and legal implications that may be used by some advocacy groups. Hopefully recent efforts to promote a multidisciplinary care approach for patients with DSD/CAH will continue to foster mutual cooperation between team members, where the common goal is improving patient/family outcomes and quality of life.

  17. The Role of Support Groups, Advocacy Groups, and Other Interested Parties in Improving the Care of Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia: Pleas and Warnings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Houk

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the era of advocacy groups, it seems appropriate to contemplate how best to utilize them for patient benefit in the management of those with disorders of sex development (DSD, including those with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH. Such interactions, to be constructive, require a spirit of cooperation to optimize outcomes. A traditional view of advocacy groups as a type of defender of patients' rights appears outdated and it is time that the benefits of their participation be fully realized. Open dialogue with all patients/families, including those who feel harmed by prior care are paramount. We discuss several recent examples of interactions that illustrate how dialogue in the name of “advocacy” can have a negative impact on developing a framework for ongoing constructive dialogue and actions. Such approaches completely change the dynamics of subsequent interactions. Physicians involved in the care of individuals with DSD, including those with CAH, and patients should be aware of confrontational techniques and legal implications that may be used by some advocacy groups. Hopefully recent efforts to promote a multidisciplinary care approach for patients with DSD/CAH will continue to foster mutual cooperation between team members, where the common goal is improving patient/family outcomes and quality of life.

  18. An intervention to reduce HIV risk behavior of substance-using men who have sex with men: a two-group randomized trial with a nonrandomized third group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Mansergh

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Substance use during sex is associated with sexual risk behavior among men who have sex with men (MSM, and MSM continue to be the group at highest risk for incident HIV in the United States. The objective of this study is to test the efficacy of a group-based, cognitive-behavioral intervention to reduce risk behavior of substance-using MSM, compared to a randomized attention-control group and a nonrandomized standard HIV-testing group.Participants (n = 1,686 were enrolled in Chicago, Los Angeles, New York City, and San Francisco and randomized to a cognitive-behavioral intervention or attention-control comparison. The nonrandomized group received standard HIV counseling and testing. Intervention group participants received six 2-h group sessions focused on reducing substance use and sexual risk behavior. Attention-control group participants received six 2-h group sessions of videos and discussion of MSM community issues unrelated to substance use, sexual risk, and HIV/AIDS. All three groups received HIV counseling and testing at baseline. The sample reported high-risk behavior during the past 3 mo prior to their baseline visit: 67% reported unprotected anal sex, and 77% reported substance use during their most recent anal sex encounter with a nonprimary partner. The three groups significantly (p0.05 from each other at 3-, 6-, and 12-mo follow-up. Outcomes for the 2-arm comparisons were not significantly different at 12-mo follow-up (e.g., unprotected anal sex, odds ratio = 1.14, confidence interval = 0.86-1.51, nor at earlier time points. Similar results were found for each outcome variable in both 2- and 3-arm comparisons.These results for reducing sexual risk behavior of substance-using MSM are consistent with results of intervention trials for other populations, which collectively suggest critical challenges for the field of HIV behavioral interventions. Several mechanisms may contribute to statistically indistinguishable reductions in risk

  19. Awareness tool for safe and responsible driving (OSCAR): a potential educational intervention for increasing interest, openness and knowledge about the abilities required and compensatory strategies among older drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Audet, Thérèse; Gélinas, Isabelle; Bédard, Michel; Langlais, Marie-Ève; Therrien, France-Hélène; Renaud, Judith; Coallier, Jean-Claude; D'Amours, Monia

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study aimed to verify the impact of the awareness tool for safe and responsible driving (OSCAR) on older adults' (1) interest, openness, and knowledge about the abilities and compensatory strategies required for safe driving; (2) awareness of changes that have occurred in their own driving abilities; and (3) actual utilization of compensatory strategies. A preexperimental design, including a pretest (T0) and posttest (T1) 8 to 10 weeks after exposure to the intervention, was used with 48 drivers aged between 67 and 84. The participants had a valid driving license and drove at least once a week. Overall, the results demonstrate that OSCAR increased interest, openness, and knowledge about the abilities and compensatory strategies of older drivers (P driving, OSCAR also improved awareness of the changes that could negatively impact safe driving and enhanced utilization of compensatory strategies. While promoting safe driving and the prevention of crashes and injuries, this intervention could ultimately help older adults maintain or increase their transportation mobility. More studies are needed to further evaluate OSCAR and identify ways to improve its effectiveness.

  20. REGIONAL OUTCROPS WITH DIDACTIC INTEREST AND SEDIMENTARY FACIES ASSOCIATION OF THE ITARARÉ GROUP AT SÃO PAULO (BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Bergamaschi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to locate and identify the outcrops considered iconic and valuable as references, not only from the point of view of Cultural or Didactic Tourism, but also in paleoenvironmental reconstruction studies, based on the lithologies that comprise the Itararé Group, in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. This work also intends to relate these sites to outcrops of sedimentary facies, in an area located at south of Itu and Porto Feliz, and north of Sorocaba. The Itararé Group lies within the Paraná Basin (Paleozoic, and is composed by sedimentary sequences associated with the record of the Permo-Carboniferous glaciation event that occurred in the Gondwana supercontinent. This work is based on observations of outcrops in a macro- and mesoscopic scale, considering the characterization of external and internal aspects of the layer, the stratigraphic sequence in the outcrop, and the continuity of the layers within the mapped area. The study area has outcrops where the evidences of glaciomarine deposits predominate. Sedimentary sequences deposited in a subaquatic low-energy environment, as well as episodic deposits, in which relatively more energetic phases alternated with low hydrodynamic conditions are well-developed in the study area. There are also fluvio-deltaic environmental occurrences related to sea level oscillations linked with glacier advances and receding.

  1. Effectiveness of a Web-Based Computer-Tailored Multiple-Lifestyle Intervention for People Interested in Reducing their Cardiovascular Risk: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Vera; Dörenkämper, Julia; Reinwand, Dominique Alexandra; Wienert, Julian; De Vries, Hein; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-04-11

    Web-based computer-tailored interventions for multiple health behaviors can improve the strength of behavior habits in people who want to reduce their cardiovascular risk. Nonetheless, few randomized controlled trials have tested this assumption to date. The study aim was to test an 8-week Web-based computer-tailored intervention designed to improve habit strength for physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption among people who want to reduce their cardiovascular risk. In a randomized controlled design, self-reported changes in perceived habit strength, self-efficacy, and planning across different domains of physical activity as well as fruit and vegetable consumption were evaluated. This study was a randomized controlled trial involving an intervention group (n=403) and a waiting control group (n=387). Web-based data collection was performed in Germany and the Netherlands during 2013-2015. The intervention content was based on the Health Action Process Approach and involved personalized feedback on lifestyle behaviors, which indicated whether participants complied with behavioral guidelines for physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption. There were three Web-based assessments: baseline (T0, N=790), a posttest 8 weeks after the baseline (T1, n=206), and a follow-up 3 months after the baseline (T2, n=121). Data analysis was conducted by analyzing variances and structural equation analysis. Significant group by time interactions revealed superior treatment effects for the intervention group, with substantially higher increases in self-reported habit strength for physical activity (F1,199=7.71, P=.006, Cohen's d=0.37) and fruit and vegetable consumption (F1,199=7.71, P=.006, Cohen's d=0.30) at posttest T1 for the intervention group. Mediation analyses yielded behavior-specific sequential mediator effects for T1 planning and T1 self-efficacy between the intervention and habit strength at follow-up T2 (fruit and vegetable consumption: beta=0.12, 95

  2. Healthy Parent Carers programme: development and feasibility of a novel group-based health-promotion intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra J. Borek

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Parent carers of disabled children report poor physical health and mental wellbeing. They experience high levels of stress and barriers to engagement in health-related behaviours and with ‘standard’ preventive programmes (e.g. weight loss programmes. Interventions promoting strategies to improve health and wellbeing of parent carers are needed, tailored to their specific needs and circumstances. Methods We developed a group-based health promotion intervention for parent carers by following six steps of the established Intervention Mapping approach. Parent carers co-created the intervention programme and were involved in all stages of the development and testing. We conducted a study of the intervention with a group of parent carers to examine the feasibility and acceptability. Standardised questionnaires were used to assess health and wellbeing pre and post-intervention and at 2 month follow up. Participants provided feedback after each session and took part in a focus group after the end of the programme. Results The group-based Healthy Parent Carers programme was developed to improve health and wellbeing through engagement with eight achievable behaviours (CLANGERS – Connect, Learn, be Active, take Notice, Give, Eat well, Relax, Sleep, and by promoting empowerment and resilience. The manualised intervention was delivered by two peer facilitators to a group of seven parent carers. Feedback from participants and facilitators was strongly positive. The study was not powered or designed to test effectiveness but changes in measures of participants’ wellbeing and depression were in a positive direction both at the end of the intervention and 2 months later which suggest that there may be a potential to achieve benefit. Conclusions The Healthy Parent Carers programme appears feasible and acceptable. It was valued by, and was perceived to have benefited participants. The results will underpin future refinement of the

  3. TU-EF-210-04: AAPM Task Groups in Interventional Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farahani, K.

    2015-01-01

    The use of therapeutic ultrasound to provide targeted therapy is an active research area that has a broad application scope. The invited talks in this session will address currently implemented strategies and protocols for both hyperthermia and ablation applications using therapeutic ultrasound. The role of both ultrasound and MRI in the monitoring and assessment of these therapies will be explored in both pre-clinical and clinical applications. Katherine Ferrara: High Intensity Focused Ultrasound, Drug Delivery, and Immunotherapy Rajiv Chopra: Translating Localized Doxorubicin Delivery to Pediatric Oncology using MRI-guided HIFU Elisa Konofagou: Real-time Ablation Monitoring and Lesion Quantification using Harmonic Motion Imaging Keyvan Farahani: AAPM Task Groups in Interventional Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy Learning Objectives: Understand the role of ultrasound in localized drug delivery and the effects of immunotherapy when used in conjunction with ultrasound therapy. Understand potential targeted drug delivery clinical applications including pediatric oncology. Understand the technical requirements for performing targeted drug delivery. Understand how radiation-force approaches can be used to both monitor and assess high intensity focused ultrasound ablation therapy. Understand the role of AAPM task groups in ultrasound imaging and therapies. Chopra: Funding from Cancer Prevention and Research Initiative of Texas (CPRIT), Award R1308 Evelyn and M.R. Hudson Foundation; Research Support from Research Contract with Philips Healthcare; COI are Co-founder of FUS Instruments Inc Ferrara: Supported by NIH, UCDavis and California (CIRM and BHCE) Farahani: In-kind research support from Philips Healthcare

  4. TU-EF-210-04: AAPM Task Groups in Interventional Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahani, K. [National Cancer Institute (United States)

    2015-06-15

    The use of therapeutic ultrasound to provide targeted therapy is an active research area that has a broad application scope. The invited talks in this session will address currently implemented strategies and protocols for both hyperthermia and ablation applications using therapeutic ultrasound. The role of both ultrasound and MRI in the monitoring and assessment of these therapies will be explored in both pre-clinical and clinical applications. Katherine Ferrara: High Intensity Focused Ultrasound, Drug Delivery, and Immunotherapy Rajiv Chopra: Translating Localized Doxorubicin Delivery to Pediatric Oncology using MRI-guided HIFU Elisa Konofagou: Real-time Ablation Monitoring and Lesion Quantification using Harmonic Motion Imaging Keyvan Farahani: AAPM Task Groups in Interventional Ultrasound Imaging and Therapy Learning Objectives: Understand the role of ultrasound in localized drug delivery and the effects of immunotherapy when used in conjunction with ultrasound therapy. Understand potential targeted drug delivery clinical applications including pediatric oncology. Understand the technical requirements for performing targeted drug delivery. Understand how radiation-force approaches can be used to both monitor and assess high intensity focused ultrasound ablation therapy. Understand the role of AAPM task groups in ultrasound imaging and therapies. Chopra: Funding from Cancer Prevention and Research Initiative of Texas (CPRIT), Award R1308 Evelyn and M.R. Hudson Foundation; Research Support from Research Contract with Philips Healthcare; COI are Co-founder of FUS Instruments Inc Ferrara: Supported by NIH, UCDavis and California (CIRM and BHCE) Farahani: In-kind research support from Philips Healthcare.

  5. Children with autism spectrum disorder and social skills groups at school: a randomized trial comparing intervention approach and peer composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasari, Connie; Dean, Michelle; Kretzmann, Mark; Shih, Wendy; Orlich, Felice; Whitney, Rondalyn; Landa, Rebecca; Lord, Catherine; King, Bryan

    2016-02-01

    Peer relationships improve for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in clinic-based social skills groups but rarely generalize to real world contexts. This study compares child outcomes of two social skills interventions conducted in schools with children in Kindergarten through fifth grade. Children with ASD were randomized to one of two interventions that varied on group composition (mixed typical and ASD vs. all ASD or social difficulties) and intervention approach (didactic SKILLS based vs. activity-based ENGAGE groups). Interventions were implemented at school for 8 weeks (16 sessions) with an 8-week follow-up. Innovative measures of peer nomination and playground peer engagement, as well as teacher reports of child behavior problems and teacher-child relationship were analyzed for 137 children with ASD across four sites. On the primary outcome of social network connections from the peer nomination measure, there was no main effect of treatment, but there were moderator effects. Children with low teacher-child closeness or high conflict improved more in their social connections if they received the SKILLS intervention, whereas children with higher teacher-child closeness improved more if they received the ENGAGE intervention. Only two secondary outcome measures yielded significant effects of treatment. Children in the SKILLS groups increased peer engagement and decreased isolation during recess. Child behavior problems and teacher-child closeness moderated peer engagement such that children with higher behavior problems and lower closeness benefitted more from SKILLS groups. These findings suggest that social skills groups conducted at school can affect both peer engagement during recess as well as peer acceptability. Child characteristics and teacher-child relationship prior to intervention yield important information on who might benefit from a specific social skills intervention. © 2015 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  6. Effects of resource-building group intervention on career management and mental health in work organizations: randomized controlled field trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuori, Jukka; Toppinen-Tanner, Salla; Mutanen, Pertti

    2012-03-01

    A resource-building group intervention was developed to enhance career management, mental health, and job retention in work organizations. The in-company training program provided employees with better preparedness to manage their own careers. The program activities were universally implemented using an organization-level, 2-trainer model with trainers from the human resources management and occupational health services. The study was a within-organizations, randomly assigned field experimental study; it investigated the impacts of the intervention on immediate career management preparedness and later mental health and intentions to retire early. A total of 718 eligible individuals returned a questionnaire in 17 organizations and became voluntary participants. The respondents were randomly assigned to either an intervention (N = 369) or a comparison group (N = 349). Those in the intervention group were invited to group intervention workshops, whereas those in the comparison group received printed information about career and health-related issues. The 7-month follow-up results showed that the program significantly decreased depressive symptoms and intentions to retire early and increased mental resources among the group participants compared to the others. The mediation analyses demonstrated that the increase in career management preparedness as a proximal impact of the intervention mediated the longer term mental health effects. Those who benefited most from the intervention as regards their mental health were employees with elevated levels of depression or exhaustion and younger employees, implying additional benefits of a more targeted use of the intervention. The results demonstrated the benefits of the enhancement of individual-level career management and resilience resources as career and health promotion practice in work organizations.

  7. HIV/STI Prevention Among Heterosexually Active Black Adolescents With Mental Illnesses: Focus Group Findings for Intervention Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawner, Bridgette M; Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Wingood, Gina; Reason, Janaiya; Mack, Niya

    Heterosexually active Black adolescents with mental illnesses are at increased risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. However, few HIV/STI prevention interventions exist for this demographic. We held seven focus groups (N = 33) to elucidate social, cultural, and psychological factors that influence HIV/STI risk-related sexual behaviors in this understudied population. Seven themes emerged: (a) Blackness and media portrayals, (b) Blackness as a source of cultural resilience and pride, (c) psychosocial determinants of condom use, (d) consequences of engaging in sexual activity, (e) attitudes and beliefs toward sexual behaviors, (f) benefits of sexual activity, and (g) coping mechanisms. Participants also supported the feasibility of and interest in HIV/STI prevention programs integrated with mental health treatment. Transportation, potential breaches of confidentiality, and time were noted barriers to participation. Psychoeducational, skills-based programs are needed to address the sequelae of mental illnesses as they relate to the sexual decision-making process in adolescents. Copyright © 2017 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Utility of Home-Practice in Mindfulness-Based Group Interventions: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Annette; White, Ross; Eames, Catrin; Crane, Rebecca

    2018-01-01

    A growing body of research supports the efficacy of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs). MBIs consider home-practice as essential to increasing the therapeutic effects of the treatment. To date however, the synthesis of the research conducted on the role of home-practice in controlled MBI studies has been a neglected area. This review aimed to conduct a narrative synthesis of published controlled studies, evaluating mindfulness-based group interventions, which have specifically measured home-practice. Empirical research literature published until June 2016 was searched using five databases. The search strategy focused on mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), and home-practice. Included studies met the following criteria: controlled trials, participants 18 years and above, evaluations of MBSR or MBCT, utilised standardised quantitative outcome measures and monitored home-practice using a self-reported measure. Fourteen studies met the criteria and were included in the review. Across all studies, there was heterogeneity in the guidance and resources provided to participants and the approaches used for monitoring home-practice. In addition, the guidance on the length of home-practice was variable across studies, which indicates that research studies and teachers are not adhering to the published protocols. Finally, only seven studies examined the relationship between home-practice and clinical outcomes, of which four found that home-practice predicted improvements on clinical outcome measures. Future research should adopt a standardised approach for monitoring home-practice across MBIs. Additionally, studies should assess whether the amount of home-practice recommended to participants is in line with MBSR/MBCT manualised protocols. Finally, research should utilise experimental methodologies to explicitly explore the relationship between home-practice and clinical outcomes.

  9. Nutritional care of Danish medical inpatients: Effect on dietary intake and the occupational groups' perspectives of intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen Lillian

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many patients do not eat and drink sufficiently during hospitalisation. The clinical consequences of this under nutrition include lassitude, an increased risk of complications and prolonged convalescence. The aim of the study was 1 to introduce intervention targeting nutritional care for medical inpatients, 2 to investigate the effect of this intervention, and 3 to investigate the occupational groups' attitudes towards nutritional intervention and nutritional care in general. Methods The design was to determinate the extent to which the protein and energy requirements of medical inpatients were met before and after intervention. Dietary protein and energy intakes were assessed by 72-hour weighed food records. A total number of 108 medical patients at four bed sections and occupational groups in the two intervention bed sections, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark participated. The intervention included introduction and implementation of nursing procedures targeting nutritional care during a five-month investigation period using standard food produced at the hospital. The effect of intervention for independent groups of patients were tested by one-way analysis of variance. After the intervention occupational groups were interviewed in focus groups. Results Before the intervention hospital food on average met 72% of the patients' protein requirement and 85% of their energy requirement. After intervention hospital food satisfied 85% of the protein and 103% of the energy requirements of 14 patients in one intervention section and 56% of the protein and 76% of the energy requirement of 17 patients in the other intervention section. Hospital food satisfied 61% of the protein and 75% of the energy requirement in a total of 29 controls. From the occupational groups' point of view lack of time, lack of access to food, and lack of knowledge of nutritional care for patients were identified as barriers to better integration of

  10. The role of citizen public-interest groups in the decision-making process of a science-intensive culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    This study explores how concerns about the environment have escalated in the past three decades from being peripheral to that of a mainstream social movement. Most environmental concerns stem from the deployment of technologies where technical expertise is essential to effective participation in the decision-making process. The manner in which the current policy for the disposal of low-level radioactive waste was devised and passed by Congress provides the information base through which the role of citizen groups in the decision-making process in a science-intensive culture is explored, as they seek to overcome the adverse environmental impacts and economic inequities of this Act. The actual process by which citizens have confronted this current flawed policy is described, which includes how technical expertise from various sources made the citizens' case credible and effective. Several existing and theoretical models of citizen participation are described. Recommendations and conclusions are presented briefly, and a recommended model based on the concept of sustainable development is proposed

  11. Specific collaborative group intervention for patients with medically unexplained symptoms in general practice: a cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefert, R; Kaufmann, C; Wild, B; Schellberg, D; Boelter, R; Faber, R; Szecsenyi, J; Sauer, N; Guthrie, E; Herzog, W

    2013-01-01

    Patients with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) are frequent in primary care and substantially impaired in their quality of life (QoL). Specific training of general practitioners (GPs) alone did not demonstrate sustained improvement at later follow-up in current reviews. We evaluated a collaborative group intervention. We conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial. Thirty-five GPs recruited 304 MUS patients (intervention group: 170; control group: 134). All GPs were trained in diagnosis and management of MUS (control condition). Eighteen randomly selected intervention GPs participated in training for a specific collaborative group intervention. They conducted 10 weekly group sessions and 2 booster meetings in their practices, together with a psychosomatic specialist. Six and 12 months after baseline, QoL was assessed with the Short-Form 36. The primary outcome was the physical composite score (PCS), and the secondary outcome was the mental composite score (MCS). At 12 months, intention-to-treat analyses showed a significant between-group effect for the MCS (p = 0.023) but not for the PCS (p = 0.674). This effect was preceded by a significant reduction of somatic symptom severity (15-item somatic symptom severity scale of the Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ-15) at 6 months (p = 0.008) that lacked significance at 12 months (p = 0.078). As additional between-group effects at 12 months, per-protocol analyses showed less health anxiety (Whiteley-7; p = 0.038) and less psychosocial distress (PHQ; p = 0.024); GP visits were significantly (p = 0.042) reduced in the intervention group. Compared to pure GP training, collaborative group intervention achieved a progressive, clinically meaningful improvement in mental but not physical QoL. It could bridge gaps between general practice and mental health care. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. European survey of diagnosis and management of the polycystic ovary syndrome: results of the ESE PCOS Special Interest Group's Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Gerard; Dewailly, Didier; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Escobar-Morreale, Hector F; Franks, Steven; Gambineri, Alessandra; Kelestimur, Fahrettin; Macut, Djuro; Micic, Dragan; Pasquali, Renato; Pfeifer, Marija; Pignatelli, Duarte; Pugeat, Michel; Yildiz, Bulent

    2014-10-01

    There is evidence for differences between endocrinologists and other specialists in their approach to diagnosis and management of the polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). A mailed survey consisting of a simple questionnaire aiming to understand current practice for diagnosis and management of the PCOS by specialists across Europe. The questionnaire consisted of 23 questions grouped to achieve information on i) the general characteristics of the respondents, ii) patients with PCOS seen by endocrinologists, iii) the main diagnostic criteria, iv) biochemical parameters used in the differential diagnosis of hyperandrogenism, v) long-term concerns, and, finally vi) treatment choices. A total of 357 questionnaires representing 13.3% of the members of European Society of Endocrinology (ESE) were available for final analysis; 93% of the respondents were endocrinologists In relation to the diagnostic criteria, respondents were most likely to select menstrual irregularity as the most frequent criteria used for the diagnosis of PCOS although very high rates were achieved for the use of hirsutism and biochemical hyperandrogenism. It therefore appears that the NIH criteria were followed by the majority of respondents. The most frequent biochemical parameters in the differential diagnosis of hyperandrogenism were total testosterone or free androgen index. Obesity and type 2 diabetes were regarded as the principal long-term concerns for PCOS. The most common treatments for patients with PCOS were metformin (33%), lifestyle modification (25%), and oral contraceptives (22%). More direct treatments of infertility include clomiphene citrate alone or in combination with metformin, prescribed by 9 and 23%, respectively, whereas only 6% used other methods for induction of ovulation. The survey produced by ESE is a good start for evaluating the perspective in the diagnosis and treatment of PCOS by endocrinologists in Europe. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  13. The comparative effectiveness of a team-based versus group-based physical activity intervention for cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Cindy L; Onicescu, Georgiana; Cartmell, Kathleen B; Sterba, Katherine R; Tomsic, James; Alberg, Anthony J

    2012-08-01

    Physical activity benefits cancer survivors, but the comparative effectiveness of a team-based delivery approach remains unexplored. The hypothesis tested was that a team-based physical activity intervention delivery approach has added physical and psychological benefits compared to a group-based approach. A team-based sport accessible to survivors is dragon boating, which requires no previous experience and allows for diverse skill levels. In a non-randomized trial, cancer survivors chose between two similarly structured 8-week programs, a dragon boat paddling team (n = 68) or group-based walking program (n = 52). Three separate intervention rounds were carried out in 2007-2008. Pre-post testing measured physical and psychosocial outcomes. Compared to walkers, paddlers had significantly greater (all p team cohesion, program adherence/attendance, and increased upper-body strength. For quality-of-life outcomes, both interventions were associated with pre-post improvements, but with no clear-cut pattern of between-intervention differences. These hypothesis-generating findings suggest that a short-term, team-based physical activity program (dragon boat paddling) was associated with increased cohesion and adherence/attendance. Improvements in physical fitness and psychosocial benefits were comparable to a traditional, group-based walking program. Compared to a group-based intervention delivery format, the team-based intervention delivery format holds promise for promoting physical activity program adherence/attendance in cancer survivors.

  14. The effects of two self-regulation interventions to increase self-efficacy and group exercise behavior in fitness clubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkamp, P.J.C.; Rooijen, M. van; Wolfhagen, P.; Steenbergen, B.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the adoption and maintenance of group exercise behavior are scarce. The objective of this study is to test two self-efficacy based interventions to increase barrier self-efficacy and group exercise behavior. In total 122 participants (Mage 42.02 yr.; SD 12.29; 67% females) were recruited

  15. The Effects of Two Self-Regulation Interventions to Increase Self-Efficacy and Group Exercise Behavior in Fitness Clubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkamp, J.; van Rooijen, M.; Wolfhagen, P.; Steenbergen, B.

    2016-01-01

    Studies on the adoption and maintenance of group exercise behavior are scarce. The objective of this study is to test two self-efficacy based interventions to increase barrier self-efficacy and group exercise behavior. In total 122 participants (Mage 42.02 yr.; SD 12.29; 67% females) were recruited

  16. Group antenatal intervention to reduce perinatal stress and depressive symptoms related to intergenerational conflicts: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Sharron S K; Lam, T H

    2012-11-01

    Intergenerational conflicts are a major source of stress, which might lead to depression in new mothers. The conflict is heightened when grandparents are involved in childcare. To examine the effectiveness of an interpersonal psychotherapy oriented group intervention to reduce stress and depressive symptoms in new mothers and enhance happiness and self-efficacy in managing intergenerational conflict in childcare. This study is one of the intervention projects of FAMILY: A Jockey Club Initiative for a Harmonious Society, funded by The Hong Kong Jockey Club Charities Trust. Multisite randomized controlled trial with two arms: an intervention group attended an additional 4-week program and a control group who received usual care only. Six Maternal and Child Health Centres in Hong Kong From September 2009 to January 2010, 156 pregnant women who would have grandparents involved in childcare were recruited at their 14-32 weeks' gestation. Participants were randomized to groups using computer generated random sequences by blinded recruitment staff. Primary outcomes were stress and depressive symptoms immediately after the intervention and 6-8 weeks after delivery. Secondary outcomes were happiness and self-efficacy in managing conflict. After screening 2870 pregnant women, 156 eligible participants were randomized. Intention-to-treat analysis showed that the intervention group (n=78) had significantly lower perceived stress (p=0.017; Cohen d=0.38) and greater happiness (p=0.004; Cohen d=0.41) than the control group (n=78) immediately after the intervention. However, the effects were not sustained at postnatal follow-up. Subgroup analysis showed that participants with depressive symptoms (EPDS>12) at baseline reported significantly lower stress, greater happiness (p=0.035 and 0.037, respectively; both Cohen d=0.61), greater self-efficacy in managing conflict (p=0.012; Cohen d=0.76) than the control group after the intervention. Also, after delivery, they had significantly

  17. Long-term follow-up of a randomized study of support group intervention in women with primary breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björneklett, Helena Granstam; Rosenblad, Andreas; Lindemalm, Christina; Ojutkangas, Marja-Leena; Letocha, Henry; Strang, Peter; Bergkvist, Leif

    2013-04-01

    Despite a fairly good prognosis, many breast-cancer patients suffer from symptoms such as anxiety, depression and fatigue, which may affect health-related quality of life and may persist for several years. The aim of the present study was to perform a long-term follow-up of a randomized study of support group intervention in women after primary breast cancer treatment. Three hundred and eighty two women with primary breast cancer were randomized to support group intervention or control group, 181 in each group. Women in the intervention group participated in 1 week of intervention followed by 4 days of follow-up 2 months later. This is a long-term follow-up undertaken, in average, 6.5 years after randomization. Patients answered the questionnaires the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer, quality of life questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the breast cancer module questionnaire (BR 23), the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HAD) and the Norwegian version of the fatigue scale (FQ). After adjusting for treatment with chemotherapy, age, marriage, education and children at home, there was a significant improvement in physical, mental and total fatigue (FQ), cognitive function, body image and future perspective (EORTC QLQ C30 and BR23) in the intervention group compared with controls. The proportion of women affected by high anxiety and depression scores were not significantly different between the groups. Support intervention significantly improved cognitive function, body image, future perspective and fatigue, compared with to the findings in the control group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [A Group Cognitive-Behavioural Intervention to Prevent Depression Relapse in Individuals Having Recently Returned to Work: Protocol and Feasibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, Tania; Corbière, Marc

    Workplace depression is one of the major causes for sick leave and loss of productivity at work. Many studies have investigated factors predicting return to work for people with depression, including studies evaluating return to work programs and organizational factors. Yet, a paucity of studies have targeted the prevention of depressive relapses at work, even though more than half of those having had a depression will have a depressive relapse in the near future.Objectives This article describes a research protocol involving a novel group intervention based on cognitive behavioural principles with the aim to optimize return to work and diminish risk of depressive relapses.Method This pilot study follows a randomized controlled trial design, with half the participants (N=25) receiving the group intervention and the other half (N=25) receiving usual services. The theoretical and empirical underpinnings of the intervention are described, along with a detailed presentation of the intervention and of the study's objectives. The group intervention consists of 8 sessions whereby Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) principles and techniques are applied to the following themes: (1) Coping with stress at work; (2) Recognizing and modifying my dysfunctional beliefs linked to work; (3) Overcoming obstacles linked to work functioning and maintaining work; (4) Negotiating needed work adjustments with the support of the immediate supervisor; (5) Finding my strengths and competencies related to work; (6) Accepting criticism and asserting myself appropriately at work; (7) Uncovering my best coping strategies for work.Results Qualitative information pertaining to the first two cohorts' participants' subjective appreciation of the group experience revealed that the intervention was perceived as very useful by all, with group support, namely harmony and interpersonal support, as well as CBT strategies being mentioned specifically.Conclusion Finally, the potential relevance of the

  19. The group matters: an explorative study of group cohesion and quality of life in cancer patients participating in physical exercise intervention during treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midtgaard, J; Rorth, M; Stelter, R; Adamsen, L

    2006-03-01

    A series of studies have shown that physical activity improves cancer patients functional capacity and quality of life (QOL). Few of these studies have included physical exercise carried out in a group setting. However, patient's experience with the in-group processes remains unexplored. This study investigated group cohesion and changes in QOL in 55 cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy who participated in a 9 h weekly group exercise programme for 6 weeks. The study used a method triangulation component design. Seven qualitative group interviews were conducted post-intervention. QOL (SF-36; EORTC QLQ-C30) was assessed at baseline and after Week 6. The interviews revealed that group cohesion was an interim goal aimed to maximize peak performance potential by patients. Group cohesion was characterized by a special 'esprit de corps' and enabled the group members to feel like sport teams. The programme made purposeful togetherness possible while allowing the patients an opportunity to let their illness fade into the background. Questionnaire data showed significant improvements in mental health, social and emotional functioning. This study identified a conceptualization of group cohesion that forms a valuable basis for a larger randomized controlled trial to conclude whether the observed changes are a result of this specific intervention.

  20. The impact of reduced worktime on sleep and perceived stress - a group randomized intervention study using diary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Helena; Lekander, Mats; Rajaleid, Kristiina; Hellgren, Carina; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn; Barck-Holst, Peter; Kecklund, Göran

    2017-03-01

    Objective Insufficient time for recovery between workdays may cause fatigue and disturbed sleep. This study evaluated the impact of an intervention that reduced weekly working hours by 25% on sleep, sleepiness and perceived stress for employees within the public sector. Method Participating workplaces (N=33) were randomized into intervention and control groups. Participants (N=580, 76% women) worked full-time at baseline. The intervention group (N=354) reduced worktime to 75% with preserved salary during 18 months. Data were collected at baseline and after 9 and 18 months follow-up. Sleep quality, sleep duration, sleepiness, perceived stress,and worries and stress at bedtime were measured with diary during one week per data collection. Result A multilevel mixed model showed that compared with the control group, at the 18-month follow-up, the intervention group had improved sleep quality and sleep duration (+23 minutes) and displayed reduced levels of sleepiness, perceived stress, and worries and stress at bedtime on workdays (Psleep length. Effect sizes were small (Cohen's f2sleep quality and worries and stress at bedtime as additional between-group factors did not influence the results. Conclusion A 25% reduction of weekly work hours with retained salary resulted in beneficial effects on sleep, sleepiness and perceived stress both on workdays and days off. These effects were maintained over an 18-month period. This randomized intervention thus indicates that reduced worktime may improve recovery and perceived stress.

  1. Using intervention mapping to develop a theory-driven, group-based complex intervention to support self-management of osteoarthritis and low back pain (SOLAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Deirdre A; Murphy, Laura Currie; Hayes, David; Hall, Amanda M; Toomey, Elaine; McDonough, Suzanne M; Lonsdale, Chris; Walsh, Nicola E; Guerin, Suzanne; Matthews, James

    2016-04-26

    The Medical Research Council framework provides a useful general approach to designing and evaluating complex interventions, but does not provide detailed guidance on how to do this and there is little evidence of how this framework is applied in practice. This study describes the use of intervention mapping (IM) in the design of a theory-driven, group-based complex intervention to support self-management (SM) of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and chronic low back pain (CLBP) in Ireland's primary care health system. The six steps of the IM protocol were systematically applied to develop the self-management of osteoarthritis and low back pain through activity and skills (SOLAS) intervention through adaptation of the Facilitating Activity and Self-management in Arthritis (FASA) intervention. A needs assessment including literature reviews, interviews with patients and physiotherapists and resource evaluation was completed to identify the programme goals, determinants of SM behaviour, consolidated definition of SM and required adaptations to FASA to meet health service and patient needs and the evidence. The resultant SOLAS intervention behavioural outcomes, performance and change objectives were specified and practical application methods selected, followed by organised programme, adoption, implementation and evaluation plans underpinned by behaviour change theory. The SOLAS intervention consists of six weekly sessions of 90-min education and exercise designed to increase participants' physical activity level and use of evidence-based SM strategies (i.e. pain self-management, pain coping, healthy eating for weight management and specific exercise) through targeting of individual determinants of SM behaviour (knowledge, skills, self-efficacy, fear, catastrophizing, motivation, behavioural regulation), delivered by a trained physiotherapist to groups of up to eight individuals using a needs supportive interpersonal style based on self-determination theory

  2. A Systematic Review of Interventions to Improve Initiation of Mental Health Care Among Racial-Ethnic Minority Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Tauler, Su Yeon; Eun, John; Corbett, Dawn; Collins, Pamela Y

    2018-05-02

    The objective of this systematic review was to identify interventions to improve the initiation of mental health care among racial-ethnic minority groups. The authors searched three electronic databases in February 2016 and independently assessed eligibility of 2,065 titles and abstracts on the basis of three criteria: the study design included an intervention, the participants were members of racial-ethnic minority groups and lived in the United States, and the outcome measures included initial access to or attitudes toward mental health care. The qualitative synthesis involved 29 studies. Interventions identified included collaborative care (N=10), psychoeducation (N=7), case management (N=5), colocation of mental health services within existing services (N=4), screening and referral (N=2), and a change in Medicare medication reimbursement policy that served as a natural experiment (N=1). Reduction of disparities in the initiation of antidepressants or psychotherapy was noted in seven interventions (four involving collaborative care, two involving colocation of mental health services, and one involving screening and referral). Five of these disparities-reducing interventions were tested among older adults only. Most (N=23) interventions incorporated adaptations designed to address social or cultural barriers to care. Interventions that used a model of integrated care reduced racial-ethnic disparities in the initiation of mental health care.

  3. Reducing the volume of antibiotic prescriptions: a peer group intervention among physicians serving a community with special ethnic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilf-Miron, Rachel; Ron, Naama; Ishai, Shlomit; Chory, Hana; Abboud, Louis; Peled, Ronit

    2012-05-01

    Antibiotics are a front-line weapon against many infectious diseases. However, antibiotic overuse is the key driver of drug resistance. Previously published studies have suggested benefits of using peer-to-peer education, working with group leaders to build trust and maintain confidentiality within a quality initiative. We hypothesized that working with physicians as a peer group might be beneficial in influencing antibiotic prescribing patterns. To describe and evaluate a peer group model for an intervention to reduce the volume of antibiotic prescriptions among physicians with above average prescribing rates serving an Arab community in northern Israel. Primary care physicians in a defined geographic area who served Arab communities and had high antibiotic prescribing rates--defined as above average number of antibiotic prescriptions per office visit compared with regional and organizational averages--were recruited for the intervention. All other physicians from the same region served as a comparison group. The intervention was administered during 2007 and was completed in early 2008. Four structured meetings scheduled 2 months apart, in which the group explored the issues related to antibiotic overuse, included the following topics: adherence to clinical guidelines; the special position physicians serving Arab communities hold and the influence it has on their practices; pressure due to consumer demands; and suggestions for possible strategies to face ethnic sensitivity, mainly because of the special ties the physicians have with their communities. T-tests for independent samples were used to perform between-group comparisons for each quarter and year of observation from 2006 through 2010, and t-tests for paired samples were used to compare pre-intervention with post-intervention antibiotic prescribing rates. In the 2006 pre-intervention period, the antibiotic prescribing rates were 0.17 for the peer group (n = 11 physicians) and 0.15 for the comparison group

  4. The Visegrád Group as a Vehicle for Promoting National Interests in the European Union: The Case of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuman Marek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution asks whether sub-regional integration projects such as the Visegrád Group may be understood as mechanisms for pursuing one Group member’s national interests while it stands at the European Union’s helm. I assess this question based on the case of the first Visegrád Group member to assume the EU Council presidency: the Czech Republic. Examining three specific policy areas – the reinvention of the EU’s Eastern neighbourhood policy; the strengthening of EU energy security; and the incorporation of a stronger human rights and external democratisation approach into EU foreign policy – this case study presents a mixed picture. It confirms the potential of the Visegrád Group to be a vehicle for furthering the national preferences of one Group member while it holds the rotating EU Council presidency. Whether or not this potential is fully realised will depend primarily on the degree to which the interests of the four Visegrád countries converge.

  5. Effects of Group Drumming Interventions on Anxiety, Depression, Social Resilience and Inflammatory Immune Response among Mental Health Service Users

    OpenAIRE

    Fancourt, Daisy; Perkins, Rosie; Ascenso, Sara; Carvalho, Livia A.; Steptoe, Andrew; Williamon, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Growing numbers of mental health organizations are developing community music-making interventions for service users; however, to date there has been little research into their efficacy or mechanisms of effect. This study was an exploratory examination of whether 10 weeks of group drumming could improve depression, anxiety and social resilience among service users compared with a non-music control group (with participants allocated to group by geographical location.) Significant improvements ...

  6. A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Group Intervention for Hypersexual Disorder: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, Jonas; Kaldo, Viktor; Arver, Stefan; Dhejne, Cecilia; Öberg, Katarina Görts

    2017-07-01

    to ensure treatment effectiveness. Hallberg J, Kaldo V, Arver S, et al. A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Group Intervention for Hypersexual Disorder: A Feasibility Study. J Sex Med 2017;14:950-958. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Group Social Skills Interventions for Adults with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, Debbie; Blainey, Sarah H.

    2015-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterised by impairments in communication and social interaction. Social skills interventions have been found to ameliorate socio-communication deficits in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Little is known about the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with…

  8. Definition of a COPD self-management intervention: International Expert Group consensus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, T.W.; Vercoulen, Jan H.; Bourbeau, Jean; Trappenburg, Jaap C.A.; Lenferink, Anke; Cafarella, Paul; Coultas, David; Meek, Paula; van der Valk, Paul; Bischoff, Erik W.M.A.; Bucknall, Christine E.; Dewan, Naresh A.; Early, Frances; Fan, Vincent; Frith, Peter; Janssen, Daisy J.A.; Mitchell, Katy; Morgan, Mike; Nici, Linda; Patel, Irem; Walters, Haydn; Rice, Kathryn L.; Singh, Sally J.; ZuWallack, Richard; Benzo, Roberto; Goldstein, Roger S.; Partridge, Martyn R.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria

    2016-01-01

    There is an urgent need for consensus on what defines a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) self-management intervention. We aimed to obtain consensus regarding the conceptual definition of a COPD self-management intervention by engaging an international panel of COPD self-management

  9. Micro power plants - interests, conflicts and possibilities - a focus group study with emphasis on business and environmental stakeholders; Smaakraftverk - interesser, konflikter og muligheter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerck, M.; Vistad, O.I.

    2009-05-15

    In recent years, interest for the development of micro hydro-electric power plants have been on the increase. There are many and often varying public interests associated with energy development. We have particularly examined the main arguments that are used and what values seem to be based on prevailing attitudes and opinions. Our selected study sites are three municipalities with a relatively extensive small hydro power development: Foerde, Sogn and Fjordane, Hordaland and Kvinnherad Sirdal in Vest-Agder. We have used qualitative methods through semi-structured interviews and discussions in groups, so-called focus groups. Focus groups create an interaction between group participants that can bring out more information than by interviewing each participant individually. Qualitative methods are used to capture the phenomena and assessments that are difficult to quantify or measure, such as people's views and assessments. Our data is not documented facts, but 'assessments of reality.' We had two focus groups in each municipality, a group with representatives from interested organizations in conservation, outdoor recreation, or personal scientific expertise / interest (referred to as environmental groups), and one with representatives from landowners, developers, and other economic interests (called Business Groups). For many of the topics we touched upon such varied viewpoints fairly systematically between our two groups. Business groups see great economic opportunities for both local communities and landowners, arguing that while the development of small hydro power is a very important environmental measure because it allows renewable energy without adverse climate effects and will replace the climate damaging coal in Europe. Environmental groups argue that the new small hydro energy produces no net greenhouse benefit because it only comes on top of polluting coal power, it replaces it. They think it is important to question the environmental impact

  10. Effects of Multiple Cleaning and Disinfection Interventions on Infectious Diseases in Children: A Group Randomized Trial in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Hai Qun; Li, Tao; Shen, Jin; Li, Jin; Peng, Pin Zhang; Ye, Heng Ping; Zhang, Liu Bo

    2015-11-01

    To assess the effectiveness of multiple cleaning and disinfection interventions in the homes and kindergartens, in reducing gastrointestinal and respiratory illnesses of children. From October 2010 to September 2011, we performed a prospective, controlled study in China. 408 children under 5 years old were recruited and group randomized into intervention and control groups. Families and kindergartens in the intervention group were provided with antibacterial products for hand hygiene and surface cleaning or disinfection for one year. Each child's illness symptoms and sick leave were recorded every day. A total of 393 children completed the study, with similar baseline demographics in each of the 2 groups. Except for abdominal pain, the odds of symptoms (fever, cough and expectoration, runny nose and nasal congestion, diarrhea), illness (acute respiratory illness and gastrointestinal illness), and sick leave per person each month were significantly reduced by interventions. The rates of fever, diarrhea, acute respiratory illness, gastrointestinal illness and sick leave per person per year were significantly decreased as well. Not only the acute respiratory and gastrointestinal illness but the sick leave rate in children were significantly reduced by multiple interventions. Copyright © 2015 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  11. Clinical outcomes of an early intervention program for preschool children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in a community group setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eapen, Valsamma; Crnčec, Rudi; Walter, Amelia

    2013-01-07

    Available evidence indicates that early intervention programs, such as the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), can positively affect key outcomes for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, programs involving resource intensive one-to-one clinical intervention are not readily available or deliverable in the community, resulting in many children with ASD missing out on evidence-based intervention during their early and most critical preschool years. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the ESDM for preschool-aged children with ASD using a predominantly group-based intervention in a community child care setting. Participants were 26 children (21 male) with ASD with a mean age of 49.6 months. The ESDM, a comprehensive early intervention program that integrates applied behaviour analysis with developmental and relationship-based approaches, was delivered by trained therapists during the child's attendance at a child care centre for preschool-aged children with ASD. Children received 15-20 hours of group-based, and one hour of one-to-one, ESDM intervention per week. The average intervention period was ten months. Outcome measures were administered pre- and post-intervention, and comprised a developmental assessment - the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL); and two parent-report questionnaires - the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and Vineland Adaptive Behaviours Scales-Second Edition (VABS-II). Statistically significant post-intervention improvements were found in children's performance on the visual reception, receptive language and expressive language domains of the MSEL in addition to their overall intellectual functioning, as assessed by standardised developmental quotients. Parents reported significant increases in their child's receptive communication and motor skills on the VABS-II, and a significant decrease in autism-specific features on the SCQ. These effects were of around medium size, and appeared to be in excess of what may

  12. Nurse-led group consultation intervention reduces depressive symptoms in men with localised prostate cancer: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schofield, Penelope; Gough, Karla; Lotfi-Jam, Kerryann; Bergin, Rebecca; Ugalde, Anna; Dudgeon, Paul; Crellin, Wallace; Schubach, Kathryn; Foroudi, Farshard; Tai, Keen Hun; Duchesne, Gillian; Sanson-Fisher, Rob; Aranda, Sanchia

    2016-01-01

    Radiotherapy for localised prostate cancer has many known and distressing side effects. The efficacy of group interventions for reducing psychological morbidity is lacking. This study investigated the relative benefits of a group nurse-led intervention on psychological morbidity, unmet needs, treatment-related concerns and prostate cancer-specific quality of life in men receiving curative intent radiotherapy for prostate cancer. This phase III, two-arm cluster randomised controlled trial included 331 men (consent rate: 72 %; attrition: 5 %) randomised to the intervention (n = 166) or usual care (n = 165). The intervention comprised four group and one individual consultation all delivered by specialist uro-oncology nurses. Primary outcomes were anxious and depressive symptoms as assessed by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Unmet needs were assessed with the Supportive Care Needs Survey-SF34 Revised, treatment-related concerns with the Cancer Treatment Scale and quality of life with the Expanded Prostate Cancer Index −26. Assessments occurred before, at the end of and 6 months post-radiotherapy. Primary outcome analysis was by intention-to-treat and performed by fitting a linear mixed model to each outcome separately using all observed data. Mixed models analysis indicated that group consultations had a significant beneficial effect on one of two primary endpoints, depressive symptoms (p = 0.009), and one of twelve secondary endpoints, procedural concerns related to cancer treatment (p = 0.049). Group consultations did not have a significant beneficial effect on generalised anxiety, unmet needs and prostate cancer-specific quality of life. Compared with individual consultations offered as part of usual care, the intervention provides a means of delivering patient education and is associated with modest reductions in depressive symptoms and procedural concerns. Future work should seek to confirm the clinical feasibility and cost-effectiveness of group

  13. Group motivational intervention in overweight/obese patients in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease in the primary healthcare area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Cristóbal, Juan José; Panisello Royo, Josefa Ma; Alonso-Villaverde Grote, Carlos; Pérez Santos, José Ma; Muñoz Lloret, Anna; Rodríguez Cortés, Francisca; Travé Mercadé, Pere; Benavides Márquez, Francisca; Martí de la Morena, Pilar; González Burgillos, Ma José; Delclós Baulies, Marta; Bleda Fernández, Domingo; Quillama Torres, Elida

    2010-03-18

    The global mortality caused by cardiovascular disease increases with weight. The Framingham study showed that obesity is a cardiovascular risk factor independent of other risks such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and smoking. Moreover, the main problem in the management of weight-loss is its maintenance, if it is achieved. We have designed a study to determine whether a group motivational intervention, together with current clinical practice, is more efficient than the latter alone in the treatment of overweight and obesity, for initial weight loss and essentially to achieve maintenance of the weight achieved; and, secondly, to know if this intervention is more effective for reducing cardiovascular risk factors associated with overweight and obesity. This 26-month follow up multi-centre trial, will include 1200 overweight/obese patients. Random assignment of the intervention by Basic Health Areas (BHA): two geographically separate groups have been created, one of which receives group motivational intervention (group intervention), delivered by a nurse trained by an expert phsychologist, in 32 group sessions, 1 to 12 fortnightly, and 13 to 32, monthly, on top of their standard program of diet, exercise, and the other (control group), receiving the usual follow up, with regular visits every 3 months. By addressing currently unanswered questions regarding the maintenance in weight loss in obesity/overweight, upon the expected completion of participant follow-up in 2012, the IMOAP trial should document, for the first time, the benefits of a motivational intervention as a treatment tool of weight loss in a primary care setting. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01006213.

  14. Attitudes of older adults in a group-based exercise program toward a blended intervention: a focus-group study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehra, Sumit; Dadema, Tessa; Kröse, Ben J A; Visser, Bart; Engelbert, Raoul H H; Van Den Helder, Jantine; Weijs, Peter J M

    2016-01-01

    Ageing is associated with a decline in daily functioning and mobility. A physically active life and physical exercise can minimize the decline of daily functioning and improve the physical-, psychological- and social functioning of older adults. Despite several advantages of group-based exercise

  15. Attitudes of Older Adults in a Group-Based Exercise Program Toward a Blended Intervention : A Focus-Group Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehra, S.; Dadema, T.; Kröse, B.J.A.; Visser, B.; Engelbert, R.H.H.; Van Den Helder, J.; Weijs, P.J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Ageing is associated with a decline in daily functioning and mobility. A physically active life and physical exercise can minimize the decline of daily functioning and improve the physical-, psychological- and social functioning of older adults. Despite several advantages of group-based exercise

  16. Attitudes of Older Adults in a Group-Based Exercise Program Toward a Blended Intervention; A Focus-Group Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mehra, Sumit; Dadema, Tessa; Krose, Ben J. A.; Visser, Bart; Engelbert, Raoul H. H.; van den Helder, Jantine; Weijs, Peter J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Ageing is associated with a decline in daily functioning and mobility. A physically active life and physical exercise can minimize the decline of daily functioning and improve the physical-, psychological- and social functioning of older adults. Despite several advantages of group-based exercise

  17. Conflict of Interest Policies and Industry Relationships of Guideline Development Group Members: A Cross-Sectional Study of Clinical Practice Guidelines for Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosgrove, Lisa; Krimsky, Sheldon; Wheeler, Emily E; Peters, Shannon M; Brodt, Madeline; Shaughnessy, Allen F

    2017-01-01

    Because of increased attention to the issue of trustworthiness of clinical practice guidelines, it may be that both transparency and management of industry associations of guideline development groups (GDGs) have improved. The purpose of the present study was to assess a) the disclosure requirements of GDGs in a cross-section of guidelines for major depression; and, b) the extent and type of conflicts of panel members. Treatment guidelines for major depression were identified and searched for conflict of interest policies and disclosure statements. Multi-modal screens for undeclared conflicts were also conducted. Fourteen guidelines with a total of 172 panel members were included in the analysis. Eleven of the 14 guidelines (78%) had a stated conflict of interest policy or disclosure statement, although the policies varied widely. Most (57%) of the guidelines were developed by panels that had members with industry financial ties to drug companies that manufacture antidepressant medication. However, only a minority of total panel members (18%) had such conflicts of interest. Drug company speakers bureau participation was the most common type of conflict. Although some progress has been made, organizations that develop guidelines should continue to work toward greater transparency and minimization of financial conflicts of interest.

  18. Social problem solving and social performance after a group social skills intervention for childhood brain tumor survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Fiona; Vannatta, Kathryn; Barrera, Maru

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the ability of a group social skills intervention program for childhood brain tumor survivors to effect two steps of the social information processing model: social problem solving and social performance. Participants were 15 survivors (eight men and seven women) aged 7-15 years. The intervention consisted of eight 2-h weekly sessions focused on social skills including friendship making. Social problem solving, using hypothetical scenarios, was assessed during sessions 1 and 8. Social performance was observed during intervention sessions 1, 4, and 8. Compared with session 1, significant increases were found in social performance: frequency of maintaining eye contact and social conversations with peers over the course of the intervention. No significant changes in social problem solving were noted. This pilot study is the first to report improvements related to group social skills intervention at the level of observed social performance over the course of intervention. The lack of change in social problem solving suggests that survivors may possess the social knowledge required for social situations but have difficulty enacting social behaviors. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The Effects of a Short-term Cognitive Behavioral Group Intervention on Bam Earthquake Related PTSD Symptoms in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Naderi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nObjective :Post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD may be the first reaction after disasters. Many studies have shown the efficacy of cognitive- behavioral therapy in treatment of post traumatic stress disorder. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of group CBT in adolescent survivors of a large scale disaster (Bam earthquake. "n "nMethods: In a controlled trial, we evaluated the efficacy of a short term method of group cognitive-behavioral therapy in adolescent survivors of Bam earthquake who had PTSD symptoms and compared it with a control group. The adolescents who had severe PTSD or other psychiatric disorders that needed pharmacological interventions were excluded. We evaluated PTSD symptoms using Post traumatic Stress Scale (PSS pre and post intervention and compared them with a control group. "n "nResults: 100 adolescents were included in the study and 15 were excluded during the intervention. The mean age of the participants was 14.6±2.1 years. The mean score of total PTSD symptoms and the symptoms of avoidance was reduced after interventions, and was statistically significant. The mean change of re-experience and hyper arousal symptoms of PTSD were not significant. "n "nConclusion: Psychological debriefing and group cognitive behavioral therapy may be effective in reducing some of the PTSD symptoms.

  20. Inclusion of underserved racial and ethnic groups in cancer intervention research using new media: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Hayley S; Shelton, Rachel C; Mitchell, Jamie; Eaton, Tara; Valera, Pamela; Katz, Anne

    2013-12-01

    An increasing number of behavioral and psychosocial cancer interventions incorporate new media elements that are digital, networked, and interactive. However, it is unclear to what extent new media is being leveraged to benefit underserved racial and ethnic groups who disproportionately bear the burden of cancer. This inquiry is timely in light of growing evidence that these groups are receptive to new media. A systematic literature review was conducted to assess the inclusion of these groups in research on cancer-related new media interventions and use of new media to reduce racial and ethnic cancer disparities. A systematic search of three databases was conducted for articles published between January 2000 and March 2012 that presented studies of user experience with a behavioral or psychosocial cancer-related intervention with at least one new media component. Thirty-six articles were included in the final review. In about one-quarter of the studies, less than 20% of participants were African American, Latino, Asian American, or American Indian. In less than 10% of the studies, 80% or more of the samples were members of the aforementioned groups. Almost one-third of the studies reviewed were categorized as disparity focused but limited data were available on racial and ethnic differences in responses to new media interventions. Findings suggest that the promise and potential of new media cancer interventions are largely unrealized among the underserved. Additional research is needed to investigate a wide range of issues related to the development and delivery of such interventions in diverse racial and ethnic groups.

  1. Nutrient adequacy during weight loss interventions: a randomized study in women comparing the dietary intake in a meal replacement group with a traditional food group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bovee Vicki

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Safe and effective weight control strategies are needed to stem the current obesity epidemic. The objective of this one-year study was to document and compare the macronutrient and micronutrient levels in the foods chosen by women following two different weight reduction interventions. Methods Ninety-six generally healthy overweight or obese women (ages 25–50 years; BMI 25–35 kg/m2 were randomized into a Traditional Food group (TFG or a Meal Replacement Group (MRG incorporating 1–2 meal replacement drinks or bars per day. Both groups had an energy-restricted goal of 5400 kJ/day. Dietary intake data was obtained using 3-Day Food records kept by the subjects at baseline, 6 months and one-year. For more uniform comparisons between groups, each diet intervention consisted of 18 small group sessions led by the same Registered Dietitian. Results Weight loss for the 73% (n = 70 completing this one-year study was not significantly different between the groups, but was significantly different (p ≤ .05 within each group with a mean (± standard deviation weight loss of -6.1 ± 6.7 kg (TFG, n = 35 vs -5.0 ± 4.9 kg (MRG, n = 35. Both groups had macronutrient (Carbohydrate:Protein:Fat ratios that were within the ranges recommended (50:19:31, TFG vs 55:16:29, MRG. Their reported reduced energy intake was similar (5729 ± 1424 kJ, TFG vs 5993 ± 2016 kJ, MRG. There was an improved dietary intake pattern in both groups as indicated by decreased intake of saturated fat (≤ 10%, cholesterol ( Conclusion In this one-year university-based intervention, both dietitian-led groups successfully lost weight while improving overall dietary adequacy. The group incorporating fortified meal replacements tended to have a more adequate essential nutrient intake compared to the group following a more traditional food group diet. This study supports the need to incorporate fortified foods and/or dietary supplements while following an energy

  2. Community Engagement in a complex intervention to improve access to primary mental health care for hard-to-reach groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Jonathan; Dowrick, Christopher; Burroughs, Heather; Beatty, Susan; Edwards, Suzanne; Bristow, Kate; Clarke, Pam; Hammond, Jonathan; Waheed, Waquas; Gabbay, Mark; Gask, Linda

    2015-12-01

    Despite the availability of effective evidence-based treatments for depression and anxiety, many 'harder-to-reach' social and patient groups experience difficulties accessing treatment. We developed a complex intervention, the AMP (Improving Access to Mental Health in Primary Care) programme, which combined community engagement (CE), tailored (individual and group) psychosocial interventions and primary care involvement. To develop and evaluate a model for community engagement component of the complex intervention. This paper focuses on the development of relationships between stakeholders, their engagement with the issue of access to mental health and with the programme through the CE model. Our evaluation draws on process data, qualitative interviews and focus groups, brought together through framework analysis to evaluate the issues and challenges encountered. A case study of the South Asian community project carried out in Longsight in Greater Manchester, United Kingdom. Complex problems require multiple local stakeholders to work in concert. Assets based approaches implicitly make demands on scarce time and resources. Community development approaches have many benefits, but perceptions of open-ended investment are a barrier. The time-limited nature of a CE intervention provides an impetus to 'do it now', allowing stakeholders to negotiate their investment over time and accommodating their wider commitments. Both tangible outcomes and recognition of process benefits were vital in maintaining involvement. CE interventions can play a key role in improving accessibility and acceptability by engaging patients, the public and practitioners in research and in the local service ecology. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A randomized controlled trial of a manual-based psychosocial group intervention for young people with epilepsy [PIE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorris, Liam; Broome, Helen; Wilson, Margaret; Grant, Cathy; Young, David; Baker, Gus; Balloo, Selina; Bruce, Susan; Campbell, Jo; Concannon, Bernie; Conway, Nadia; Cook, Lisa; Davis, Cheryl; Downey, Bruce; Evans, Jon; Flower, Diane; Garlovsky, Jack; Kearney, Shauna; Lewis, Susan; Stephens, Victoria; Turton, Stuart; Wright, Ingram

    2017-07-01

    We conducted an exploratory RCT to examine feasibility and preliminary efficacy for a manual-based psychosocial group intervention aimed at improving epilepsy knowledge, self-management skills, and quality of life in young people with epilepsy. Eighty-three participants (33:50m/f; age range 12-17years) were randomized to either the treatment or control group in seven tertiary paediatric neuroscience centres in the UK, using a wait-list control design. Participants were excluded if they reported suicidal ideation and/or scored above the cut off on mental health screening measures, or if they had a learning disability or other neurological disorder. The intervention consisted of six weekly 2-hour sessions using guided discussion, group exercises and role-plays facilitated by an epilepsy nurse and a clinical psychologist. At three month follow up the treatment group (n=40) was compared with a wait-list control group (n=43) on a range of standardized measures. There was a significant increase in epilepsy knowledge in the treatment group (p=0.02). Participants receiving the intervention were also significantly more confident in speaking to others about their epilepsy (p=0.04). Quality of life measures did not show significant change. Participants reported the greatest value of attending the group was: Learning about their epilepsy (46%); Learning to cope with difficult feelings (29%); and Meeting others with epilepsy (22%). Caregiver and facilitator feedback was positive, and 92% of participants would recommend the group to others. This brief psychosocial group intervention was effective in increasing participants' knowledge of epilepsy and improved confidence in discussing their epilepsy with others. We discuss the qualitative feedback, feasibility, strengths and limitations of the PIE trial. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Psycho Educational Group Intervention for Women at Increased Risk for Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kash, Kathryn

    1998-01-01

    The goals of this study are to: (1) examine the impact of a psychoeducational intervention on the intermediate outcome variables of knowledge of breast cancer and risk factors, breast cancer beliefs, cancer attitudes, and coping skills...

  5. Psycho Educational Group Intervention for Women at Increased Risk for Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kash, Kathryn

    1997-01-01

    The goals of this study are: (1) to examine the impact of a psychoeducational intervention on the intermediate outcome variables of knowledge of breast cancer and risk factors, breast cancer beliefs, cancer attitudes, and coping...

  6. Psycho Educational Group Intervention for Women at Increased Risk for Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kash, Kathryn

    1998-01-01

    ... in women at increased risk for breast cancer; (2) examine the impact of a psychoeducational intervention on the endpoint variables of quality of life and adherence to screening in women at increased risk for breast cancer; and (3...

  7. Psycho Educational Group Intervention for Women at Increased Risk for Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kash, Kathryn

    1997-01-01

    ... skills in women at increased risk for breast cancer; (2) to examine the impact of a psychoeducational intervention on the endpoint variables of quality of life and adherence to screening in women at increased risk for breast cancer; and (3...

  8. Worksite interventions for preventing physical deterioration among employees in job-groups with high physical work demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Jørgensen, Marie B; Gram, Bibi

    2010-01-01

    ) characterized by high physical work demands, musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence. METHODS/DESIGN: A novel approach of the FINALE programme is that the interventions, i.e. 3 randomized controlled trials (RCT) and 1 exploratory case-control study are tailored to the physical work......BACKGROUND: A mismatch between individual physical capacities and physical work demands enhance the risk for musculoskeletal disorders, poor work ability and sickness absence, termed physical deterioration. However, effective intervention strategies for preventing physical deterioration in job...... groups with high physical demands remains to be established. This paper describes the background, design and conceptual model of the FINALE programme, a framework for health promoting interventions at 4 Danish job groups (i.e. cleaners, health-care workers, construction workers and industrial workers...

  9. Group supervision for healthcare professionals within primary care for patients with psychosomatic health problems: a pilot intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullington, Jennifer; Cronqvist, Agneta

    2018-03-01

    In primary health care, efficacious treatment strategies are lacking for these patients, although the most prominent symptoms accounting for consultation in primary care often cannot be related to any biological causes. The aim was to explore whether group supervision from a specific phenomenological theory of psychosomatics could provide healthcare professionals treating patients with psychosomatic health issues within primary care a deeper understanding of these conditions and stimulate profession-specific treatment strategies. Our research questions were as follows: (i) What is the healthcare professionals' understanding of psychosomatics before and after the intervention? (ii) What are the treatment strategies for this group of patients before and after the intervention? The study was an explorative qualitative intervention pilot study. The six participants from a primary healthcare setting in a medium-sized city in Sweden participated in the study. A supervision group was formed, based on a mix of professions, age, gender and years of clinical experience. Supervision consisted of one 75-minutes meeting every month during the course of 6 months. Participants were interviewed before and after the supervision intervention. The study showed two distinct categories emerged from the data. One category of healthcare professionals espoused a psycho-educative approach, while the other lacked a cohesive approach. The supervision improved the second category of healthcare professionals' understanding of psychosomatics. The psycho-educative group did not change their understanding of psychosomatics, although they felt strengthened in their approach by the supervision. Profession-specific strategies were not developed. This pilot study indicates that a relatively short supervision intervention can aid clinicians in their clinical encounters with these patients; however, further research is necessary to ascertain the value of the specific phenomenologically based

  10. Going beyond: an adventure- and recreation-based group intervention promotes well-being and weight loss in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voruganti, Lakshmi N P; Whatham, Jeff; Bard, Eleanor; Parker, Gayle; Babbey, Candice; Ryan, Janet; Lee, Suganya; MacCrimmon, Duncan J

    2006-08-01

    To undertake a preliminary study to assess the feasibility of clinical implementation and evaluate the effectiveness of a novel adventure- and recreation-based group intervention in the rehabilitation of individuals with schizophrenia. In a 2-year, prospective, case-control study, 23 consecutively referred, clinically stabilized schizophrenia patients received the new intervention over an 8-month period; 31 patients on the wait list, considered the control group, received standard clinical care that included some recreational activities. Symptom severity, self-esteem, self-appraised cognitive abilities, and functioning were documented for both groups with standardized rating scales administered at baseline, on completion of treatment, and at 12 months posttreatment. Treatment adherence was 97%, and there were no dropouts. Patients in the study group showed marginal improvement in perceived cognitive abilities and on domain-specific functioning measures but experienced a significant improvement in their self-esteem and global functioning (P < 0.05), as well as a weight loss of over 12 lb. Improvement was sustained over 1 year with further occupational and social gains. In the context of overcoming barriers to providing early intervention for youth and preventing metabolic problems among older adults with schizophrenia, adventure- and recreation-based interventions could play a useful complementary role.

  11. Effectiveness of a School-Based Early Intervention CBT Group Programme for Children with Anxiety Aged 5-7 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruocco, Sylvia; Gordon, Jocelynne; McLean, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Early manifestations of anxiety in childhood confer significant distress and life interference. This study reports on the first controlled trial of the "Get Lost Mr. Scary" programme, a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy group intervention for children with anxiety aged 5-7 years. Participants were 134 children (65 males and 69 females) drawn…

  12. The Effects of Two Self-Regulation Interventions to Increase Self-Efficacy and Group Exercise Behavior in Fitness Clubs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Middelkamp, Maaike van Rooijen, Peter Wolfhagen, Bert Steenbergen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the adoption and maintenance of group exercise behavior are scarce. The objective of this study is to test two self-efficacy based interventions to increase barrier self-efficacy and group exercise behavior. In total 122 participants (Mage 42.02 yr.; SD 12.29; 67% females were recruited and randomly assigned to one control and two experimental groups. The control group was limited to participate in one virtual group exercise program only (group 1. The first experimental group was able to self-set their activities and participate in multiple group exercise programs (group 2. The second experimental group received an additional monthly coaching protocol to manage self-set goals (group 3. A validated scale for barrier self-efficacy was used, group exercise sessions were measured and drop-out rates were registered. An ANOVA indicated that mean amount of sessions of group 1 and 3, and 2 and 3 differed significantly (p < 0.05 in 12 weeks. Descriptive statistics demonstrate mean group exercise sessions over the total of 12 weeks of 2.74 (SD 4.65 in the control group; 4.75 (SD 6.08 in the first experimental group, and 12.25 (SD 9.07 for the second experimental group. Regression analysis indicated that self-efficacy at 8-weeks explained the highest variance in overall group exercise sessions (R2 = 0.18; p < 0.05. Overall drop-out rates were 88% in group 1, 78% in group 2 and 48% in group 3. The results showed that group exercise behavior can significantly be improved by a coaching protocol on self-set goals. Future research should address the effectiveness of self-set activities and self-set goals for a longer period of time and in other types of exercise programs.

  13. Data analysis methods for assessing palliative care interventions in one-group pre–post studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Ioroi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Studies of palliative care are often performed using single-arm pre–post study designs that lack causal inference. Thus, in this study, we propose a novel data analysis approach that incorporates risk factors from single-arm studies instead of using paired t-tests to assess intervention effects. Methods: Physical, psychological and social evaluations of eligible cancer inpatients were conducted by a hospital-based palliative care team. Quality of life was assessed at baseline and after 7 days of symptomatic treatment using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C15-PAL. Among 35 patients, 9 were discharged within 1 week and 26 were included in analyses. Structural equation models with observed measurements were applied to estimate direct and indirect intervention effects and simultaneously consider risk factors. Results: Parameters were estimated using full models that included associations among covariates and reduced models that excluded covariates with small effects. The total effect was calculated as the sum of intervention and covariate effects and was equal to the mean of the difference (0.513 between pre- and post-intervention quality of life (reduced model intervention effect, 14.749; 95% confidence intervals, −4.407 and 33.905; p = 0.131; covariate effect, −14.236; 95% confidence interval, −33.708 and 5.236; p = 0.152. Conclusion: Using the present analytical method for single-arm pre–post study designs, factors that modulate effects of interventions were modelled, and intervention and covariate effects were distinguished based on structural equation model.

  14. Group Cognitive-Behavior Therapy and Supportive Art and Sport Interventions on Bam Earthquake Related Post Traumatic Stress Symptoms in Children: A Field Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narges Joshaghani

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "n Objective: "n "nThe main objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of psychological therapies and art/sport supportive interventions separately,and in combination on post traumatic stress symptoms in children and compare them with a control group . "nMethods: In a field trial, we evaluated the efficacy of group behavioral therapy, art and sport supportive interventions in Bam earthquake children survivors with PTSD symptoms and compared it with a control group. Before and after interventions we evaluated the PTSD symptoms using K-SADS-PL semi-structural interview for each group and compared them using appropriate statistical methods. "nResults: The participants were 200 individuals who were randomized in four groups according to an intervention program including: Group behavioral therapy; Group behavioral therapy plus art and sport interventions; Art and sport interventions; and control group. During the interventions, 39 individuals were excluded. None of the participants had severed PTSD or other psychiatry disorders that needed pharmacological interventions. In interventional groups, the reduction of total PTSD symptoms and the symptoms of re-experience, avoidance and hyper arousal was not statistically significant. However, in the control group, the PTSD symptoms increased during the study which was statistically significant. "nConclusion: Group behavior therapy and supportive interventions (art and sport may have preventive effects on PTSD symptoms.

  15. Group psychological intervention for postnatal depression: a nested qualitative study with British South Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masood, Yumna; Lovell, Karina; Lunat, Farah; Atif, Najia; Waheed, Waquas; Rahman, Atif; Mossabir, Rahena; Chaudhry, Nasim; Husain, Nusrat

    2015-11-25

    Postnatal depression affects 10-15 % of all mothers in Western societies and remains a major public health concern for women from diverse cultures. British Pakistani and Indian women have a higher prevalence of depression in comparison to their white counterparts. Research has shown that culturally adapted interventions using Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) may be acceptable and may help to address the needs of this population. The aim of this study was to assess the acceptability and overall experience of the Positive Health Programme by British South Asian mothers. This was a nested qualitative study, part of an exploratory randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted to test the feasibility and acceptability of a culturally-adapted intervention (Positive Health Programme or PHP) for postnatal depression in British South Asian women. In-depth interviews (N = 17) were conducted to determine the views of the participants on the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention. The participants found the intervention acceptable and experienced an overall positive change in their attitudes, behaviour, and increased self-confidence. The findings suggest that the culturally adapted Positive Health Programme is acceptable to British South Asian women. These results support that culturally sensitive interventions may lead to better health outcomes and overall satisfaction. Protocol registered on Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01838889.

  16. Association of intervention outcomes with practice capacity for change: Subgroup analysis from a group randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weyer Sharon

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between health care practices' capacity for change and the results and sustainability of interventions to improve health care delivery is unclear. Methods In the setting of an intervention to increase preventive service delivery (PSD, we assessed practice capacity for change by rating motivation to change and instrumental ability to change on a one to four scale. After combining these ratings into a single score, random effects models tested its association with change in PSD rates from baseline to immediately after intervention completion and 12 months later. Results Our measure of practices' capacity for change varied widely at baseline (range 2–8; mean 4.8 ± 1.6. Practices with greater capacity for change delivered preventive services to eligible patients at higher rates after completion of the intervention (2.7% per unit increase in the combined effort score, p Conclusion Greater capacity for change is associated with a higher probability that a practice will attain and sustain desired outcomes. Future work to refine measures of this practice characteristic may be useful in planning and implementing interventions that result in sustained, evidence-based improvements in health care delivery.

  17. A Group Therapeutic Songwriting Intervention for Family Caregivers of People Living With Dementia: A Feasibility Study With Thematic Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Felicity A; Stretton-Smith, Phoebe; Clark, Imogen N; Tamplin, Jeanette; Lee, Young-Eun C

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to test the feasibility of implementing a group songwriting program with family caregivers (FCGs) of people living with dementia. Fourteen FCGs consented to participate in either the songwriting group ( n = 8) or control condition ( n = 6). Participants completed baseline and 7-week measures of depression (PHQ-9), perceptions of their caregiving experience (PACQ), and perceptions of their relationship with the care recipient (QCPR). A six-session group songwriting program was implemented across two sites, focusing on participants co-creating a song about their caregiving experiences. Participation and retention rates were high suggesting the intervention was acceptable. An observed pre-post effect size for the PHQ-9 in the experimental group ( d = 0.64) and control group ( d = -0.33) suggests the measure is sensitive to change over a short period of time in this population and has the potential to detect significant change in a larger controlled trial. Qualitative analysis of focus group interviews suggested the songwriting process allowed participants to share their entire caregiver journey with others, differentiating the intervention from standard carer support groups. Participants described group songwriting as enabling them to find connections with other caregivers, create a group identity, and gain insight into their carer journey, subsequently leading to the development of inner strength and personal growth. Qualitative findings suggest coping may be a more relevant construct to measure than caregiver-patient relationship quality or caregivers' perception of caregiving.

  18. Effects of Group 1 versus Group 2 carbapenems on the susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii to carbapenems: a before and after intervention study of carbapenem-use stewardship.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Kyung Yoon

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Antimicrobial stewardship programs have been proposed for reducing bacterial resistance in the hospital environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a carbapenem-use stewardship program on the susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii to Group 2 carbapenems. METHODS: A before and after intervention study was conducted at a university hospital from September 2008 to February 2013. Three study periods were defined: Phase I, pre-intervention (months 1-18; Phase II, a postintervention period during which ertapenem use was mandated but carbapenem use was not restricted (months 19-36; and Phase III, a postintervention period during which Group 2 carbapenem use was restricted (months 37-54. RESULTS: During the study period, intervention resulted in diminished consumption of Group 2 carbapenems (antimicrobial use density (AUD: 21.3±6.0 in Phase I, 18.8±6.0 in Phase II, 16.1±4.4 in Phase III; P = 0.028 and increased consumption of ertapenem (AUD: 2.7±1.7 in Phase I, 7.2±4.5 in Phase II, 9.1±5.3 in Phase III; P<0.001. The use of autoregressive-error models showed that in contrast with ertapenem use, the use of Group 2 carbapenem during the previous one month was positively and significantly associated with a subsequent increase in the proportion of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB (P = 0.031. CONCLUSIONS: Implementing a carbapenem-use stewardship program featuring the preferential use of ertapenem for treating appropriate indications of infection resulted in reduced use of Group 2 carbapenems and had a positive impact on the susceptibility of A. baumannii to carbapenems. This approach could be integrated into CRAB-control strategies in hospitals.

  19. Strengthening family coping resources: the feasibility of a multifamily group intervention for families exposed to trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser, Laurel J; Donohue, April; Hodgkinson, Stacy; Medoff, Deborah; Black, Maureen M

    2010-12-01

    Families exposed to urban poverty face a disproportionate risk of exposure to repeated trauma. Repeated exposures can lead to severe and chronic reactions in multiple family members with effects that ripple throughout the family system. Interventions for distressed families residing in traumatic contexts, such as low-income, urban settings are desperately needed. This report presents preliminary data in support of Strengthening Family Coping Resources, a trauma-focused, multifamily, skill-building intervention. Strengthening Family Coping Resources is designed for families living in traumatic contexts with the goal of reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and other trauma-related disorders in children and caregivers. Results from open trials suggest Strengthening Family Coping Resources is a feasible intervention with positive effects on children's symptoms of trauma-related distress.

  20. [Changing laws of serum high mobility group box 1 protein in septic rats and the intervention effect of xuebijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shi-bing; He, Xian-di; Wang, Hua-xue; Zheng, Sheng-yong; Deng, Xi-ming; Duan, Li-bin

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the changing laws of serum high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) in septic rats and intervention effect of Xuebijing on it. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (5 mg/kg BW) was intravenously injected into the tail vein of healthy male Wistar rats to prepare the sepsis rat model. In Experiment 1: 50 Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups, i.e., the normal group (A, n=10); the LPS model group (B, n=10), the LPS +Xuebijing treatment group (C, n=30). Rats in the C group were further divided into three subgroups, i.e., 2 h before LPS injection (group C1), 2 h after LPS injection (group C2), and 8 h after LPS injection (group C3), 10 in each group. Blood samples were collected from the caudal vein to detect serum HMGB1 levels by Western blot at 4, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after LPS injection. Experiment 2: 30 Wistar rats were equally divided into the LPS model group (D) and the LPS + Xuebijing treatment group (E), 15 in each group. They were treated as rats in the B group and the C1 group respectively. Five rats were sacrificed at 12, 24, and 48 h after LPS injection in the two groups. Blood as well as the tissue samples were harvested to measure such indices as ALT, AST, Cr, and BUN, as well as pathological changes of liver, lung, and kidney. (1) Compared with the A group, serum HMGB1 levels were higher at various time points in the B group (P decrement in the C3 group was less than that in the C1 and C2 groups (P multiple organ dysfunction. Xuebijing could reduce the serum levels of HMGB1, improve biochemical parameters, and attenuate severe inflammatory response of liver, lung, and kidney tissues in septic rats. Besides, the earlier use, the better effect obtained.

  1. A teachable moment communication process for smoking cessation talk: description of a group randomized clinician-focused intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flocke Susan A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Effective clinician-patient communication about health behavior change is one of the most important and most overlooked strategies to promote health and prevent disease. Existing guidelines for specific health behavior counseling have been created and promulgated, but not successfully adopted in primary care practice. Building on work focused on creating effective clinician strategies for prompting health behavior change in the primary care setting, we developed an intervention intended to enhance clinician communication skills to create and act on teachable moments for smoking cessation. In this manuscript, we describe the development and implementation of the Teachable Moment Communication Process (TMCP intervention and the baseline characteristics of a group randomized trial designed to evaluate its effectiveness. Methods/Design This group randomized trial includes thirty-one community-based primary care clinicians practicing in Northeast Ohio and 840 of their adult patients. Clinicians were randomly assigned to receive either the Teachable Moments Communication Process (TMCP intervention for smoking cessation, or the delayed intervention. The TMCP intervention consisted of two, 3-hour educational training sessions including didactic presentation, skill demonstration through video examples, skills practices with standardized patients, and feedback from peers and the trainers. For each clinician enrolled, 12 patients were recruited for two time points. Pre- and post-intervention data from the clinicians, patients and audio-recorded clinician‒patient interactions were collected. At baseline, the two groups of clinicians and their patients were similar with regard to all demographic and practice characteristics examined. Both physician and patient recruitment goals were met, and retention was 96% and 94% respectively. Discussion Findings support the feasibility of training clinicians to use the Teachable Moments

  2. Brief intervention, physical exercise and cognitive behavioural group therapy for patients with chronic low back pain (The CINS trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A; Moe, T F; Eriksen, H R; Tangen, T; Lie, S A; Tveito, T H; Reme, S E

    2017-09-01

    Cognitive-behavioural treatments (CBT) and physical group exercise (PE) have both shown promising effects in reducing disability and increasing work participation among chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients. A brief cognitive intervention (BI) has previously been demonstrated to reduce work disability in CLBP. The aim of this study was to test if the effect of BI could be further increased by adding either group CBT or group PE. A total of 214 patients, all sick listed 2-10 months due to CLBP, were randomized to BI (n = 99), BI + group CBT (n = 55) or BI + group PE (n = 60). Primary outcome was increased work participation at 12 months, whereas secondary outcomes included pain-related disability, subjective health complaints, anxiety, depression, coping and fear avoidance. There were no significant differences between the groups in work participation at 12 months follow-up (χ 2  = 1.15, p = 0.56). No significant differences were found on the secondary outcomes either, except for a statistically significant reduction (time by group) in pseudoneurology one domain of subjective health complaints (sleep problems, tiredness, dizziness, anxiety, depression, palpitation, heat flushes) (F 2,136  = 3.109, p = 0.048) and anxiety (F 2,143  = 4.899, p = 0.009) for the groups BI + group CBT and BI + group PE, compared to BI alone. However, these differences were not significant in post hoc analyses (Scheffé adjusted). There was no support for an effect of the added group CBT or group PE treatments to a brief cognitive intervention in this study of patients on sick leave due to low back pain. Our study demonstrates that treatments that previously were found to be effective and are included in most treatment guidelines, such as group cognitive-behavior therapy and exercise, were not effective in this given context compared to a brief, cognitive intervention. This implies that an optimized brief intervention is difficult to outperform in patients on

  3. Developing Agreed and Accepted Understandings of Spirituality and Spiritual Care Concepts among Members of an Innovative Spirituality Interest Group in the Republic of Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona Timmins

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A Spirituality Interest Group (SIG was set up in in the School of Nursing and Midwifery, Trinity College Dublin, Republic of Ireland (ROI, in March 2013. This paper reports on some of the journey and requirements involved in developing the group. It highlights the essential work of establishing agreed understandings in an objective way in order for the group to move forward with action. These agreed understandings have contributed to the group’s success. Outlining the group’s journey in arriving at agreements may be of use to others considering creating similar groups. One key action taken to determine the suitability of the group’s aims and terms of reference was the distribution of a Survey Monkey to group members (n = 28 in 2014. One early meeting of the group discussed future goals and direction using the responses of this anonymous survey. This paper reports on the results of the survey regarding the establishment of the SIG and the development of a shared understanding of spiritual care among the members. There is consensus in the group that the spiritual care required by clients receiving healthcare ought to be an integrated effort across the healthcare team. However, there is an acceptance that spirituality and spiritual care are not always clearly understood concepts in practice. By developing shared or at least accepted understandings of spirituality and spiritual care, SIG hopes to be able to underpin both research and practice with solid foundational conceptual understanding, and in the process also to meet essential prerequisites for achieving the group’s aims.

  4. "In our stories": The perspectives of women living with HIV on an evidence-based group intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Sannisha K; Grimes, Tiffany; Miller, Lauren; Ursillo, Alyssa; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn

    2017-07-01

    A qualitative study among women living with HIV assessed the aspects of an evidence-based intervention targeting HIV transmission risk reduction (Women Involved in Life Learning from Other Women [WiLLOW]) that women valued and how their lives were impacted. Thirty-one women (80.6% African American) completed interviews. Women valued the personal stories and positive group dynamics (i.e. safety, trust, openness, getting feedback, bonding, and socializing). As a result of WiLLOW, women embraced a strong woman image, joined groups, changed behaviors, accepted their HIV status, became optimistic, and spoke up/advocated in their relationships and communities. Interventions for HIV-positive women may benefit from incorporating the sharing of stories in their curricula and factors that build positive group dynamics.

  5. Reducing Schoolchildren With Reactive Aggression Through Child, Parent, and Conjoint Parent-Child Group Interventions: A Longitudinal Outcome Effectiveness Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Annis Lai Chu

    2017-10-10

    This study was the first to evaluate the effectiveness of three different group interventions to reduce children's reactive aggression based on the social information processing (SIP) model. In the first stage of screening, 3,734 children of Grades 4-6 completed the Reactive-Proactive Aggression Questionnaire (RPQ) to assess their reactive and proactive aggression. Respondents with a total score of z ≥ 1 on the RPQ were shortlisted for the second stage of screening by qualitative interview. Interviews with 475 children were conducted to select those who showed reactive aggression featuring a hostile attributional bias. Finally, 126 children (97 males and 29 females) aged 8 to 14 (M = 9.71, SD = 1.23) were selected and randomly assigned to one of the three groups: a child group, a parent group, and a parent-child group. A significant Time × Intervention effect was found for general and reactive aggression. The parent-child group and child group showed a significant drop in general aggression and reactive aggression from posttest to 6-month follow-up, after controlling for baseline scores, sex, and age. However, the parent group showed no treatment effect: reactive aggression scores were significantly higher than those in the child group at 6-month follow-up. This study has provided strong evidence that children with reactive aggression need direct and specific treatment to reconstruct the steps of the SIP involving the selection and interpretation of cues. The intervention could help to prevent severe violent crimes at the later stage of a reactive aggressor. © 2017 Family Process Institute.

  6. HIV/AIDS infected mothers' experience of a group intervention to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Education ... A secondary study was conducted within a broader National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded longitudinal study on resilience in South African mothers and ... Data were collected over a period of five years in multiple waves of intervention implementation. ... OTHER RESOURCES.

  7. Personality-Informed Interventions for Healthy Aging: Conclusions from a National Institute on Aging Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Hampson, Sarah; Clarkin, John

    2014-01-01

    We describe 2 frameworks in which personality dimensions relevant to health, such as Conscientiousness, can be used to inform interventions designed to promote health aging. First, contemporary data and theory do not suggest that personality is "immutable," but instead focus on questions of who changes, in what way, why, when, and how.…

  8. Depression in Adolescents with ASD: A Pilot RCT of a Group Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santomauro, Damian; Sheffield, Jeanie; Sofronoff, Kate

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a potentially life threatening affective disorder that is highly prevalent in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of a cognitive behavioural intervention for depression in adolescents with ASD. Participants were randomly assigned to the…

  9. Effects of Group 1 versus Group 2 carbapenems on the susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii to carbapenems: a before and after intervention study of carbapenem-use stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Young Kyung; Yang, Kyung Sook; Lee, Seung Eun; Kim, Hyun Jeong; Sohn, Jang Wook; Kim, Min Ja

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship programs have been proposed for reducing bacterial resistance in the hospital environment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of a carbapenem-use stewardship program on the susceptibility of Acinetobacter baumannii to Group 2 carbapenems. A before and after intervention study was conducted at a university hospital from September 2008 to February 2013. Three study periods were defined: Phase I, pre-intervention (months 1-18); Phase II, a postintervention period during which ertapenem use was mandated but carbapenem use was not restricted (months 19-36); and Phase III, a postintervention period during which Group 2 carbapenem use was restricted (months 37-54). During the study period, intervention resulted in diminished consumption of Group 2 carbapenems (antimicrobial use density (AUD): 21.3±6.0 in Phase I, 18.8±6.0 in Phase II, 16.1±4.4 in Phase III; P = 0.028) and increased consumption of ertapenem (AUD: 2.7±1.7 in Phase I, 7.2±4.5 in Phase II, 9.1±5.3 in Phase III; Pcarbapenem during the previous one month was positively and significantly associated with a subsequent increase in the proportion of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) (P = 0.031). Implementing a carbapenem-use stewardship program featuring the preferential use of ertapenem for treating appropriate indications of infection resulted in reduced use of Group 2 carbapenems and had a positive impact on the susceptibility of A. baumannii to carbapenems. This approach could be integrated into CRAB-control strategies in hospitals.

  10. Black women, work, stress, and perceived discrimination: the focused support group model as an intervention for stress reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, V M

    1995-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the use of two components (small and large groups) of a community-based intervention, the Focused Support Group (FSG) model, to alleviate employment-related stressors in Black women. Participants were assigned to small groups based on occupational status. Groups met for five weekly 3-hr sessions in didactic or small- and large-group formats. Two evaluations following the didactic session and the small and large group sessions elicited information on satisfaction with each of the formats, self-reported change in stress, awareness of interpersonal and sociopolitical issues affecting Black women in the labor force, assessing support networks, and usefulness of specific discussion topics to stress reduction. Results indicated the usefulness of the small- and large-group formats in reduction of self-reported stress and increases in personal and professional sources of support. Discussions on race and sex discrimination in the workplace were effective in overall stress reduction. The study highlights labor force participation as a potential source of stress for Black women, and supports the development of culture- and gender-appropriate community interventions as viable and cost-effective methods for stress reduction.

  11. Long-Term Improvements in Knowledge and Psychosocial Factors of a Teen Pregnancy Prevention Intervention Implemented in Group Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Jennifer; Oman, Roy F; Lu, Minggen; Clements-Nolle, Kristen D

    2017-06-01

    Youth in out-of-home care have higher rates of sexual risk behaviors and pregnancy than youth nationally. This study aimed to determine if Power Through Choices (PTC), a teen pregnancy prevention program developed for youth in out-of-home care, significantly improves knowledge and psychosocial outcomes regarding HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), sexual activity and contraception methods, long term. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted with 1,036 ethnically diverse youths (aged 13-18 years) recruited from 44 residential group homes in three states. Intervention participants received the 10-session PTC intervention; control participants received usual care. Participants were administered self-report surveys at baseline, after intervention, 6 and 12 months after the intervention. Survey items assessed knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and behavioral intentions regarding HIV and STIs, sexual activity and contraception methods. Random intercept logistic regression analyses were used to assess differences between the intervention and control groups. Compared with youth in the control group, youth in the PTC intervention demonstrated significant improvements in knowledge about anatomy and fertility (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.07, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-1.11), HIV and STIs (AOR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.002-1.07), and methods of protection (AOR = 1.06, 95% CI = 1.03-1.09), as well as self-efficacy regarding self-efficacy to communicate with a partner (AOR = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.04-1.26), plan for protected sex and avoid unprotected sex (AOR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.04-1.28), and where to get methods of birth control (AOR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.01-1.26) 12 months after the intervention. Findings suggest that the PTC intervention can have positive long-term knowledge and psychosocial effects regarding contraception methods on youth in out-of-home care. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by

  12. Adapting health promotion interventions to meet the needs of ethnic minority groups: mixed-methods evidence synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jj; Davidson, E; Bhopal, Rs; White, M; Johnson, Mrd; Netto, G; Deverill, M; Sheikh, A

    2012-01-01

    There is now a considerable body of evidence revealing that a number of ethnic minority groups in the UK and other economically developed countries experience disproportionate levels of morbidity and mortality compared with the majority white European-origin population. Across these countries, health-promoting approaches are increasingly viewed as the long-term strategies most likely to prove clinically effective and cost-effective for preventing disease and improving health outcomes in those with established disease. To identify, appraise and interpret research on the approaches employed to maximise the cross-cultural appropriateness and effectiveness of health promotion interventions for smoking cessation, increasing physical activity and improving healthy eating for African-, Chinese- and South Asian-origin populations. Two national conferences; seven databases of UK guidelines and international systematic reviews of health promotion interventions aimed at the general population, including the Clinical Evidence, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence and Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network databases (1950-2009); 11 databases of research on adapted health promotion interventions for ethnic minority populations, including BIOSIS, EMBASE and MEDLINE (1950-2009); and in-depth qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of researchers and health promoters. Theoretically based, mixed-methods, phased programme of research that involved user engagement, systematic reviews and qualitative interviews, which were integrated through a realist synthesis. Following a launch conference, two reviewers independently identified and extracted data from guidelines and systematic reviews on the effectiveness of interventions for the general population and any guidance offered in relation to how to interpret this evidence for ethnic minority populations. Data were thematically analysed. Reviewers then independently identified and critically appraised studies

  13. Effect of a group intervention in the primary healthcare setting on continuing adherence to physical exercise routines in obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Rey-Moya, Luz Maria; Castilla-Álvarez, Carmen; Pichiule-Castañeda, Myrian; Rico-Blázquez, Milagros; Escortell-Mayor, Esperanza; Gómez-Quevedo, Rosa

    2013-08-01

    To determine the effect of a seven-week-long, group-delivered, nurse-monitored, exercise training programme on the adherence of obese women to physical exercise routines at 12 months. The worldwide obesity epidemic is posing huge public health challenges. The main cause of obesity in Europe is very possibly a sedentary lifestyle. Uncertainty exists regarding whether people will continue to exercise once a structured intervention programme of physical activity ends. No-control-group (before-after) intervention study. One Hundred Seventy-Four women from the Madrid region (Spain) aged ≥ 45 years with a body mass index of ≥30 undertook a maximum of 21 × 1 hour exercise training programme sessions (three per week) over seven weeks starting in February 2009. The number of women making use of exercise training programme before the intervention, and at 6 and 12 months postintervention, was recorded using the Nursing Outcome Classification. Information was collected by interviewing the study subjects. Bivariate (McNemar and Student's t-tests) and multivariate (binary logistic regression) analyses were then performed. The Nursing Outcome Classification Indicator 'Does the subject follow an exercise training programme?' showed that at the end of one year, the percentage of women who remained adhered to exercise training programme increased in those who completed the study (from 11-41%). As the number of programmed exercise training programme sessions completed increased beyond 14, so too did the likelihood of adhering to an exercise training programme regime at one year. The results show that an exercise training programme intervention can encourage obese women to continue exercising after exercise interventions end. This type of intervention could provide a valuable means of helping women lose weight and improve their health. It may also have important economic benefits for health systems. Clinical trials with longer follow-up times and in other populations are needed

  14. Implicit User Interest Profile

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, K

    2002-01-01

    User interest profile presents items that the users are interested in. Typically those items can be listed or grouped. Listing is good but it does not possess interests at different abstraction levels - the higher-level interests are more general, while the lower-level ones are more specific. Furthermore, more general interests, in some sense, correspond to longer-term interests, while more specific interests correspond to shorter-term interests. This hierarchical user interest profile has obvious advantages: specifying user's specific interests and general interests and representing their relationships. Current user interest profile structures mostly do not use implicit method, nor use an appropriate clustering algorithm especially for conceptually hierarchical structures. This research studies building a hierarchical user interest profile (HUIP) and the hierarchical divisive algorithm (HDC). Several users visit hundreds of web pages and each page is recorded in each users profile. These web pages are used t...

  15. Support groups for children and adolescents bereaved by suicide: Lots of interventions, little evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journot-Reverbel, Katia; Raynaud, Jean-Philippe; Bui, Eric; Revet, Alexis

    2017-04-01

    Though many different interventions are proposed for suicide-bereaved children and adolescents, few data exist concerning their efficiency. This literature review focused on psychosocial interventions specifically targeting children and adolescents bereaved by suicide to try to provide some validate therapeutic guidelines propositions for clinicians. We only found two articles specifically targeting children or adolescents: both of them seemed to show some efficacy in reducing some psychosocial variables (anxiety, depression…) in suicide-bereaved children but results were limited by methodological problems. This review failed to provide evidence-based guidelines propositions for suicide-bereaved children and underline the crucial need for research in this field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development and pilot-testing of a cognitive behavioral coping skills group intervention for patients with chronic hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna M. Evon, Ph.D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial interventions for patients with chronic hepatitis C viral (HCV infection are needed to attenuate the impact of extrahepatic symptoms, comorbid conditions, and treatment side effects on HCV health outcomes. We adapted empirically-supported interventions for similar patient populations to develop a Cognitive Behavioral Coping Skills group intervention for HCV patients (CBCS-HCV undergoing treatment. The objectives of this paper are to describe the research activities associated with CBCS-HCV development and pilot testing, including: (1 formative work leading to intervention development; (2 preliminary study protocol; and (3 pilot feasibility testing of the intervention and study design. Formative work included a literature review, qualitative interviews, and adaption, development, and review of study materials. A preliminary study protocol is described. We evaluate the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial (RCT of the CBCS-HCV with 12 study participants in Wave 1 testing to examine: (a feasibility of intervention delivery; (b patient acceptability; (c recruitment, enrollment, retention; (d feasibility of conducting a RCT; (d therapist protocol fidelity; and (e feasibility of data collection. Numerous lessons were learned. We found very high rates of data collection, participant attendance, engagement, retention and acceptability, and therapist protocol fidelity. We conclude that many aspects of the CBCS-HCV intervention and study protocol were highly feasible. The greatest challenge during this Wave 1 pilot study was efficiency of participant enrollment due to changes in standard of care treatment. These findings informed two additional waves of pilot testing to examine effect sizes and potential improvements in clinical outcomes, with results forthcoming.

  17. Group Patient Education: Effectiveness of a Brief Intervention in People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Primary Health Care in Greece: A Clinically Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merakou, K.; Knithaki, A.; Karageorgos, G.; Theodoridis, D.; Barbouni, A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to assess the impact of a brief patient group education intervention in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The sample, 193 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus who were patients at the diabetic clinic of a primary health care setting in Attica, was assigned to two groups, intervention (138 individuals) and control group (55…

  18. Effectiveness and specificity of a classroom-based group intervention in children and adolescents exposed to war in Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Elie G; Fayyad, John; Nasser Karam, Aimee; Cordahi Tabet, Caroline; Melhem, Nadine; Mneimneh, Zeina; Dimassi, Hani

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness and specificity of a classroom-based psychosocial intervention after war. All students (n=2500) of six villages in Southern Lebanon designated as most heavily exposed to war received a classroom-based intervention delivered by teachers, consisting of cognitive-behavioural and stress inoculation training strategies. A random sample of treated students (n=101) and a matched control group (n=93) were assessed one month post-war and one year later. Mental disorders and psychosocial stressors were assessed using the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents - Revised with children and parents. War exposure was measured using the War Events Questionnaire. The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD), separation anxiety disorder (SAD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was examined pre-war, one month post-war (pre-intervention), and one year post-war. Specificity of treatment was determined by rating teachers' therapy diaries. The rates of disorders peaked one month post-war and decreased over one year. There was no significant effect of the intervention on the rates of MDD, SAD or PTSD. Post-war MDD, SAD and PTSD were associated with pre-war SAD and PTSD, family violence parameters, financial problems and witnessing war events. These findings have significant policy and public health implications, given current practices of delivering universal interventions immediately post-war.

  19. Operating Experience Report: Counterfeit, Suspect and Fraudulent Items. Working Group on Operating Experience. Proceedings and Analysis on an Item of Generic Interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The NEA Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) believes that sharing operating experience from the national operating experience feedback programmes are a major element in the industry's and regulatory body's efforts to ensure the continued safe operation of nuclear facilities. Considering the importance of these issues, the Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) established a working group, PWG no.1 (Principle Working Group Number 1) to assess operating experience in the late 1970's, which was later renamed the Working Group on Operating Experience (WGOE). In 1978, the CSNI approved the establishment of a system to collect international operating experience data. The accident at Three Mile Island shortly after added impetus to this and led to the start of the Incident Reporting System (IRS). In 1983, the IRS database was moved to the International Agency for Atomic Energy (IAEA) to be operated as a joint database by IAEA and NEA for the benefit of all of the member countries of both organisations. In 2006, the WGOE was moved to be under the umbrella of the Committee on Nuclear Regulatory Activities (CNRA) in NEA. In 2009, the scope of the Incident Reporting System was expanded and re-named the International Reporting System for Operating Experience (although, the acronym remains the same). The purpose of WGOE is to facilitate the exchange of information, experience, and lessons learnt related to operating experience between member countries. The working group continues its mission to identify trending and issues that should be addressed in specialty areas of CNRA and CSNI working groups. The CSFI (Counterfeit, Suspect, and Fraudulent Items) issue was determined to be the Issue of Generic Interest at the April 2010 WGOE meeting. The Issue of Generic Interest is determined by the working group members for an in-depth discussion. They are often emerging issues in operating experience that a country or several countries would to the share

  20. Examining the efficacy of a brief group protective behavioral strategies skills training alcohol intervention with college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Shannon R; Napper, Lucy E; LaBrie, Joseph W; Martens, Matthew P

    2014-12-01

    College students' use of protective behavioral strategies (PBS; e.g., determining not to exceed a set number of drinks, avoiding drinking games) is related to lower levels of alcohol consumption and problems. The present study evaluated the efficacy of a novel brief, single-session group PBS skills training intervention aimed at increasing college students' use of PBS and reducing risky drinking and consequences. Participants (N = 226) were heavy-drinking incoming first-year college women randomized to either a PBS skills training intervention or study skills control condition. Participants attended a 45-min group session and completed online surveys pre- and postintervention (1 month and 6 months). We conducted a series of 2 × 2 × 3 repeated-measures ANCOVAs with condition and baseline mental health (anxiety/depression) as the between-subjects factors and time as the within-subjects factor. Intervention participants, relative to controls, reported significantly greater increases in PBS use and reductions in both heavy episodic drinking and alcohol consequences. The intervention was particularly effective in increasing PBS use at 1 month among participants with high anxiety. Further, tests of moderated mediation showed a significant conditional indirect effect of condition on 1-month consequences through PBS use among participants with high levels of anxiety. Findings provide preliminary support for a brief PBS-specific group intervention to reduce alcohol risk among college women, particularly anxious women. Future research is needed to strengthen the long-term effectiveness of the present approach and further explore the moderating effects of mental health.

  1. A systematic review of training interventions addressing sexual violence against marginalized at-risk groups of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouta, Christiana; Pithara, Christalla; Zobnina, Anna; Apostolidou, Zoe; Christodoulou, Josie; Papadakaki, Maria; Chliaoutakis, Joannes

    2015-12-01

    Women from marginalized groups working in occupations such as domestic work are at increased risk for sexual violence. Scarce evidence exists about training interventions targeting such groups. The article aims to identify community and workplace-based training interventions aiming to increase capacity among marginalized at-risk women to deal with sexual violence. A systematic review was applied. Inclusion criteria were English language published between 2003 and 2013; reporting on delivery and/or evaluation; focusing on any form of sexual violence; delivered to professionals, affected or at-risk women; targeting migrant, at-risk women or domestic workers. Data were extracted on the setting, content, evaluation process and target population. Four studies which focused on prevention or responding to sexual violence were included. One study provided sexual violence training to vulnerable female and one provided a HIV prevention intervention to marginalized women. Learning objectives included increasing knowledge around issues of sexual violence and/or gender and human rights, prevention and response strategies. Two studies aimed to train trainers. All studies conducted an outcome evaluation and two a process evaluation. It seems there is a gap on participatory empowerment training for marginalized women. Community train-the-trainer interventions are imperative to protect themselves and deal with the risk of sexual violence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Paraneoplastic itch: an expert position statement from the Special Interest Group (SIG) of the International Forum on the Study of Itch (IFSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshaar, Elke; Weiss, Melanie; Mettang, Thomas; Yosipovitch, Gil; Zylicz, Zbigniew

    2015-03-01

    In clinical practice, the term "paraneoplastic itch" is used to describe itch in patients with cancer. Patients with hematological or solid tumor malignancies can be affected. In general, paraneoplastic itch is considered a rare disorder. However, paraneoplastic itch in hematological malignancies such as polycythemia vera and lymphoma are relatively frequent while other forms of paraneoplastic itch are in fact extremely rare. The true frequency of this symptom is unclear, epidemiological data in this field are limited. Itch in malignant disease may additionally impair patients' quality of life. A population-based cohort study showed that chronic itch without concomitant skin changes is a risk factor for having undiagnosed hematologic and bile duct malignancies. Paraneoplastic itch is rather resistant to treatment. In 2012, an interdisciplinary interest group of physicians and researchers was founded, aiming to generate a clear definition of paraneoplastic itch. In this paper we briefly review the current knowledge and aim to define what can be summarized under the term "paraneoplastic itch".

  3. Active placebo control groups of pharmacological interventions were rarely used but merited serious consideration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jakob Solgaard; Bielefeldt, Andreas Ørsted; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn

    2017-01-01

    groups based on a random sample of 200 PubMed indexed placebo-controlled randomized drug trials published in October 2013. In a systematic review, we identified and characterized trials with active placebo control groups irrespective of publication time. In a third substudy, we reviewed publications...... with substantial methodological comments on active placebo groups (searches in PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and HighWirePress). Results The prevalence of trials with active placebo groups published in 2013 was 1 out of 200 (95% confidence interval: 0–2), 0.5% (0–1%). We identified...

  4. Interest Matters: The Importance of Promoting Interest in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harackiewicz, Judith M; Smith, Jessi L; Priniski, Stacy J

    2016-10-01

    Interest is a powerful motivational process that energizes learning, guides academic and career trajectories, and is essential to academic success. Interest is both a psychological state of attention and affect toward a particular object or topic, and an enduring predisposition to reengage over time. Integrating these two definitions, the four-phase model of interest development guides interventions that promote interest and capitalize on existing interests. Four interest-enhancing interventions seem useful: attention-getting settings, contexts evoking prior individual interest, problem-based learning, and enhancing utility value. Promoting interest can contribute to a more engaged, motivated, learning experience for students.

  5. A 1-year videoconferencing-based psychoeducational group intervention following bariatric surgery: results of a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Beate; Hünnemeyer, Katharina; Sauer, Helene; Hain, Bernhard; Mack, Isabelle; Schellberg, Dieter; Müller-Stich, Beat Peter; Weiner, Rudolf; Meile, Tobias; Rudofsky, Gottfried; Königsrainer, Alfred; Zipfel, Stephan; Herzog, Wolfgang; Teufel, Martin

    2015-01-01

    For severely obese patients, bariatric surgery has been recommended as an effective therapy. The Bariataric Surgery and Education (BaSE) study aimed to assess the efficacy of a videoconferencing-based psychoeducational group intervention in patients after bariatric surgery. The BaSE study is a randomized, controlled multicenter clinical trial involving 117 patients undergoing bariatric surgery (mean preoperative body mass index [BMI] 49.9 kg/m(2), SD 6.4). Patients were enrolled between May 2009 and November 2012 and were randomly assigned to receive either conventional postsurgical visits or, in addition, a videoconferencing-based 1-year group program. Primary outcome measures were weight in kilograms, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and general self-efficacy (GSE). Secondary outcome measures were depression symptoms and eating behavior. 94% of the patients completed the study. Mean weight loss for all patients was 45.9 kg (SD 16.4) 1 year after surgery (mean excess weight loss [EWL] 63%). Intention-to-treat analyses revealed no differences in weight loss, EWL, HRQOL, or self-efficacy between study groups at 1 year after surgery. However, patients with clinically significant depression symptoms (CSD) at baseline assigned to the intervention group (n = 29) had a significantly better HRQOL (P = .03), lower depression scores (P = .02), and a trend for a better EWL (.06) 1 year after surgery compared with the control group (n = 20). We could not prove the efficacy of the group program for the whole study sample. However, results indicate that the intervention is effective for the important subgroup of patients with CSD. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of formative research and social network theory to develop a group walking intervention: Sumter County on the Move!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forthofer, Melinda; Burroughs-Girardi, Ericka; Stoisor-Olsson, Liliana; Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A; Pekuri, Linda M

    2016-10-01

    Although social support is a frequently cited enabler of physical activity, few studies have examined how to harness social support in interventions. This paper describes community-based formative research to design a walking program for mobilizing naturally occurring social networks to support increases in walking behavior. Focus group methods were used to engage community members in discussions about desired walking program features. The research was conducted with underserved communities in Sumter County, South Carolina. The majority of focus group participants were women (76%) and African American (92%). Several important themes emerged from the focus group results regarding attitudes toward walking, facilitators of and barriers to walking, ideal walking program characteristics, and strategies for encouraging community members to walk. Most noteably, the role of existing social networks as a supportive influence on physical activity was a recurring theme in our formative research and a gap in the existing evidence base. The resulting walking program focused on strategies for mobilizing, supporting and reinforcing existing social networks as mechanisms for increasing walking. Our approach to linking theory, empirical evidence and community-based formative research for the development of a walking intervention offers an example for practitioners developing intervention strategies for a wide range of behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of Individual and Group Contingency Interventions on Attendance in Adolescent Part-Time Employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovits, Shira Melody; Sturmey, Peter; Alvero, Alicia M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of individual and group monetary contingencies on the attendance of adolescent part-time employees. Attendance increased in both individual and group contingency phases; however staff questionnaire responses indicated a preference for the individual contingencies. Future research should consider staff acceptability…

  8. International Cultural Immersion: Assessing the Influence of a Group Intervention on Intercultural Sensitivity for Counselor Trainees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barden, Sejal M.; Shannonhouse, Laura; Mobley, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Scholars (e.g., Bemak & Chung, 2004) underscore the need for group workers to be culturally sensitive. One group training strategy, cultural immersion, is often employed to develop cultural sensitivity. However, no studies have utilized quasi-experimental methodologies to assess differences in cultural sensitivity between trainees that immerse…

  9. Patient-reported outcomes and adult patients' disease experience in the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies. report from the OMERACT 11 Myositis Special Interest Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexanderson, Helene; Del Grande, Maria; Bingham, Clifton O; Orbai, Ana-Maria; Sarver, Catherine; Clegg-Smith, Katherine; Lundberg, Ingrid E; Song, Yeong Wook; Christopher-Stine, Lisa

    2014-03-01

    The newly formed Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Myositis Special Interest Group (SIG) was established to examine patient-reported outcome measures (PROM) in myositis. At OMERACT 11, a literature review of PROM used in the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) and other neuromuscular conditions was presented. The group examined in more detail 2 PROM more extensively evaluated in patients with IIM, the Myositis Activities Profile, and the McMaster-Toronto Arthritis Patient Preference Disability Questionnaire, through the OMERACT filter of truth, discrimination, and feasibility. Preliminary results from a qualitative study of patients with myositis regarding their symptoms were discussed that emphasized the range of symptoms experienced: pain, physical tightness/stiffness, fatigue, disease effect on emotional life and relationships, and treatment-related side effects. Following discussion of these results and following additional discussions since OMERACT 11, a research agenda was developed. The next step in evaluating PROM in IIM will require additional focus groups with a spectrum of patients with different myositis disease phenotypes and manifestations across a range of disease activity, and from multiple international settings. The group will initially focus on dermatomyositis and polymyositis in adults. Qualitative analysis will facilitate the identification of commonalities and divergent patient-relevant aspects of disease, insights that are critical given the heterogeneous manifestations of these diseases. Based on these qualitative studies, existing myositis PROM can be examined to more thoroughly assess content validity, and will be important to identify gaps in domain measurement that will be required to develop a preliminary core set of patient-relevant domains for IIM.

  10. Efficacy of a group-based multimedia HIV prevention intervention for drug-involved women under community supervision: project WORTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Goddard-Eckrich, Dawn; Chang, Mingway; Wu, Elwin; Hunt, Tim; Epperson, Matt; Shaw, Stacey A; Rowe, Jessica; Almonte, Maria; Witte, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This study is designed to address the need for evidence-based HIV/STI prevention approaches for drug-involved women under criminal justice community supervision. We tested the efficacy of a group-based traditional and multimedia HIV/STI prevention intervention (Project WORTH: Women on the Road to Health) among drug-involved women under community supervision. We randomized 306 women recruited from community supervision settings to receive either: (1) a four-session traditional group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention (traditional WORTH); (2) a four-session multimedia group-based HIV/STI prevention intervention that covered the same content as traditional WORTH but was delivered in a computerized format; or (3) a four-session group-based Wellness Promotion intervention that served as an attention control condition. The study examined whether the traditional or multimedia WORTH intervention was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to Wellness Promotion; and whether multimedia WORTH was more efficacious in reducing risks when compared to traditional WORTH. Primary outcomes were assessed over the 12-month post-intervention period and included the number of unprotected sex acts, the proportion of protected sex acts, and consistent condom use. At baseline, 77% of participants reported unprotected vaginal or anal sex (n = 237) and 63% (n = 194) had multiple sex partners. Women assigned to traditional or multimedia WORTH were significantly more likely than women assigned to the control condition to report an increase in the proportion of protected sex acts (β = 0.10; 95% CI = 0.02-0.18) and a decrease in the number of unprotected sex acts (IRR = 0.72; 95% CI = 0.57-0.90). The promising effects of traditional and multimedia WORTH on increasing condom use and high participation rates suggest that WORTH may be scaled up to redress the concentrated epidemics of HIV/STIs among drug-involved women in the criminal justice system. Clinical

  11. Effects of an expressive writing intervention on a group of public employees subjected to work relocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarquini, Matteo; Di Trani, Michela; Solano, Luigi

    2016-02-15

    Pennebaker's writing technique has yielded good results on health, psychological and performance dimensions. In spite of the positive outcomes, the technique has rarely been applied directly within the workplace and its effects on burnout have never been tested. 18 public employees subjected to work relocation were asked to write about their present work situation or another difficult event of their life (Writing Group), while another 17 were not assigned any writing task (Control Group). To assess whether there was an improvement in burnout, alexithymia and psychological well-being in the Writing Group compared with the baseline measurement and the Control Group. While the baseline levels in the Writing and Control Groups in the 3 dimensions considered were similar, scores in the Writing Group at both a second (1 month after the end of the procedure) and third measurement (7 months after the end) improved when compared with the baseline, whereas those in the Control Group worsened. Pennebaker's writing technique appears to promote adaptive coping strategies in stressful situations, and to increase occupational and psychological well-being as well as the ability to process emotions. It also appears to buffer the negative effects of work-related stress.

  12. Active placebo control groups of pharmacological interventions were rarely used but merited serious consideration: a methodological overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jakob Solgaard; Bielefeldt, Andreas Ørsted; Hróbjartsson, Asbjørn

    2017-07-01

    Active placebos are control interventions that mimic the side effects of the experimental interventions in randomized trials and are sometimes used to reduce the risk of unblinding. We wanted to assess how often randomized clinical drug trials use active placebo control groups; to provide a catalog, and a characterization, of such trials; and to analyze methodological arguments for and against the use of active placebo. An overview consisting of three thematically linked substudies. In an observational substudy, we assessed the prevalence of active placebo groups based on a random sample of 200 PubMed indexed placebo-controlled randomized drug trials published in October 2013. In a systematic review, we identified and characterized trials with active placebo control groups irrespective of publication time. In a third substudy, we reviewed publications with substantial methodological comments on active placebo groups (searches in PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, and HighWirePress). The prevalence of trials with active placebo groups published in 2013 was 1 out of 200 (95% confidence interval: 0-2), 0.5% (0-1%). We identified and characterized 89 randomized trials (published 1961-2014) using active placebos, for example, antihistamines, anticholinergic drugs, and sedatives. Such trials typically involved a crossover design, the experimental intervention had noticeable side effects, and the outcomes were patient-reported. The use of active placebos was clustered in specific research settings and did not appear to reflect consistently the side effect profile of the experimental intervention, for example, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors were compared with active placebos in pain trials but not in depression trials. We identified and analyzed 25 methods publications with substantial comments. The main argument for active placebo was to reduce risk of unblinding; the main argument against was the risk of unintended therapeutic effect. Pharmacological

  13. Effects of a novel multimodal group intervention on myocardial perfusion in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theissen, P.; Schicha, H.; Albus, C.; Koehle, K.; Griebenow, R.; Son, P.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Recently, it could be shown that a multimodal intervention can promote health behavior in patients with CHD. Purpose of the actual study was to evaluate the effects on somatic endpoints, e.g. myocardial perfusion. We randomly assigned 77 patients (age 54 ± 6.9 y, male 87 %) with angiographically documented CHD to a multimodal group intervention plus standardized cardiological care (INT n=39) or standardized cardiological care only (CO n = 38). The intervention, for out-patients only, consisted of 77.5 hours of group-psychotherapy, relaxation and exercise training, and teaching lessons for one year. A Thallium myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MyoSc) (after bicycle exercise test and at rest; 70 - 110 MBq Thallium-201, SPECT-technique, quantitative wash-out (w.-o.) analysis derived from polar maps) was performed at baseline, after 2 years, and 3 years, respectively: A w.-o. increase res. decrease by 5 % or more indicated an improved / a diminished myocardial perfusion within the affected coronary artery territory. Results were analyzed on an intention to treat basis. 70/77 patients (91 %) completed the study (drop-outs CO n=4, INT n=3). After 2 years (1st interval), there was no significant difference between groups. After 3 years (2nd interval) 36/39 patients (92.3 %) of INT showed a stable or improved myocardial perfusion, compared to 18/38 patients (47.4 %) of CO (p= 0.008). The recent data analysis demonstrates the extra benefit of a multimodal intervention, compared to standardized cardiological care alone, on myocardial perfusion in CHD patients. (author)

  14. The associations between regional gray matter structural changes and changes of cognitive performance in control groups of intervention studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikaru eTakeuchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In intervention studies of cognitive training, the challenging cognitive tests, which were used as outcome measures, are generally completed in more than a few hours. Here, utilizing the control groups’ data from three 1-week intervention studies in which young healthy adult subjects underwent a wide range of cognitive tests and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI before and after the intervention period, we investigated how regional gray matter (GM density (rGMD of the subjects changed through voxel-based morphometry (VBM. Statistically significant increases in rGMD were observed in the anatomical cluster that mainly spread around the bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC and the right superior frontal gyrus (rSFG. Moreover, mean rGMD within this cluster changes were significantly and positively correlated with performance changes in the Stroop task, and tended to positively correlate with performance changes in a divergent thinking task. Affected regions are considered to be associated with performance monitoring (dACC and manipulation of the maintained information including generating associations (rSFG, and both are relevant to the cognitive functions measured in the cognitive tests. Thus, the results suggest that even in the groups of the typical control group in intervention studies including those of the passive one, experimental or non-experimental factors can result in an increase in the regional GM structure and form the association between such neural changes and improvements related to these cognitive tests. These results suggest caution toward the experimental study designs without control groups.

  15. U.S. Geological Survey Subsidence Interest Group conference, Edwards Air Force Base, Antelope Valley, California, November 18-19, 1992; abstracts and summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Keith R.; Galloway, Devin L.; Leake, Stanley A.

    1995-01-01

    with this unprecedented increase in pumpage, substantial amounts of land subsidence were observed in several areas of the United States, most notably in Arizona, California, and Texas. Beginning in 1955, under the direction of Joseph Poland, the Geological Survey began the "Mechanics of Aquifers Project," which focused largely on the processes that resulted in land subsidence due to the withdrawal of ground water. This research team gained international renown as they advanced the scientific understanding of aquifer mechanics and land-subsidence theory. The results of field studies by members of this research group not only verified the validity of the application of Terzaghi's consolidation theory to compressible aquifers, but they also provided definitions, methods of quantification, and confirmation of the interrelation among hydraulic head declines, aquifer-system compaction, and land subsidence. In addition to conducting pioneering research, this group also formed a "center of expertise," providing a focal point within the Geological Survey for the dissemination of technology and scientific understanding in aquifer mechanics. However, when the "Mechanics of Aquifers Project" was phased out in 1984, the focal point for technology transfer no longer existed. Interest among various state and local agencies in land subsidence has persisted, and the Geological Survey has continued to participate in a broad spectrum of cooperative and Federally funded projects in aquifer mechanics and land subsidence. These projects are designed to identify and monitor areas with the potential for land subsidence, to conduct basic research in the processes that control land subsidence and the development of earth fissures, as well as to develop new quantitative tools to predict aquifer-system deformation. In 1989 an ad hoc "Aquifer Mechanics and Subsidence Interest Group" (referred to herein as the "Subsidence Interest Group") was formed

  16. Engaging stakeholders and target groups in prioritising a public health intervention: the Creating Active School Environments (CASE) online Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Katie L; Atkin, Andrew J; Corder, Kirsten; Suhrcke, Marc; Turner, David; van Sluijs, Esther M F

    2017-01-13

    Stakeholder engagement and public involvement are considered as integral to developing effective public health interventions and is encouraged across all phases of the research cycle. However, limited guidelines and appropriate tools exist to facilitate stakeholder engagement-especially during the intervention prioritisation phase. We present the findings of an online 'Delphi' study that engaged stakeholders (including young people) in the process of prioritising secondary school environment-focused interventions that aim to increase physical activity. Web-based data collection using an online Delphi tool enabling participation of geographically diverse stakeholders. 37 stakeholders participated, including young people (age 13-16 years), parents, teachers, public health practitioners, academics and commissioners; 33 participants completed both rounds. Participants were asked to prioritise a (short-listed) selection of school environment-focused interventions (eg, standing desks, outdoor design changes) based on the criteria of 'reach', 'equality', 'acceptability', 'feasibility', 'effectiveness' and 'cost'. Participants were also asked to rank the criteria and the effectiveness outcomes (eg, physical activity, academic achievement, school enjoyment) from most to least important. Following feedback along with any new information provided, participants completed round 2 4 weeks later. The intervention prioritisation process was feasible to conduct and comments from participants indicated satisfaction with the process. Consensus regarding intervention strategies was achieved among the varied groups of stakeholders, with 'active lessons' being the favoured approach. Participants ranked 'mental health and well-being' as the most important outcome followed by 'enjoyment of school'. The most important criteria was 'effectiveness', followed by 'feasibility'. This novel approach to engaging a wide variety of stakeholders in the research process was feasible to conduct

  17. A Systematic Review of CPAP Adherence Across Age Groups: Clinical and Empiric Insights for Developing CPAP Adherence Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, A.M.; Gooneratne, N.; Marcus, C.L.; Ofer, D.; Richards, K.C.; Weaver, T.E.

    2011-01-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is a highly efficacious treatment for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) but adherence to the treatment limits its overall effectiveness across all age groups of patients. Factors that influence adherence to CPAP include disease and patient characteristics, treatment titration procedures, technological device factors and side effects, and psychological and social factors. These influential factors have guided the development of interventions to promote CPAP adherence. Various intervention strategies have been described and include educational, technological, psychosocial, pharmacological, and multi-dimensional approaches. Though evidence to date has led to innovative strategies that address adherence in CPAP-treated children, adults, and older adults, significant opportunities exist to develop and test interventions that are clinically applicable, specific to subgroups of patients likely to demonstrate poor adherence, and address the multifactorial nature of CPAP adherence. The translation of CPAP adherence promotion interventions to clinical practice is imperative to improve health and functional outcomes in all persons with CPAP-treated OSA. PMID:21652236

  18. Novel Three-Day, Community-Based, Nonpharmacological Group Intervention for Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain (COPERS: A Randomised Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie J C Taylor

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chronic musculoskeletal pain is the leading cause of disability worldwide. The effectiveness of pharmacological treatments for chronic pain is often limited, and there is growing concern about the adverse effects of these treatments, including opioid dependence. Nonpharmacological approaches to chronic pain may be an attractive alternative or adjunctive treatment. We describe the effectiveness of a novel, theoretically based group pain management support intervention for chronic musculoskeletal pain.We conducted a multi-centre, pragmatic, randomised, controlled effectiveness and cost-effectiveness (cost-utility trial across 27 general practices and community musculoskeletal services in the UK. We recruited 703 adults with musculoskeletal pain of at least 3 mo duration between August 1, 2011, and July 31, 2012, and randomised participants 1.33:1 to intervention (403 or control (300. Intervention participants were offered a participative group intervention (COPERS delivered over three alternate days with a follow-up session at 2 wk. The intervention introduced cognitive behavioural approaches and was designed to promote self-efficacy to manage chronic pain. Controls received usual care and a relaxation CD. The primary outcome was pain-related disability at 12 mo (Chronic Pain Grade [CPG] disability subscale; secondary outcomes included the CPG disability subscale at 6 mo and the following measured at 6 and 12 mo: anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale [HADS], pain acceptance (Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire, social integration (Health Education Impact Questionnaire social integration and support subscale, pain-related self-efficacy (Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, pain intensity (CPG pain intensity subscale, the census global health question (2011 census for England and Wales, health utility (EQ-5D-3L, and health care resource use. Analyses followed the intention-to-treat principle, accounted for clustering by course

  19. Smoking cessation at the workplace. Results of a randomised controlled intervention study. Worksite physicians from the AIREL group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, T; Nicaud, V; Slama, K; Hirsch, A; Imbernon, E; Goldberg, M; Calvel, L; Desobry, P; Favre-Trosson, J P; Lhopital, C; Mathevon, P; Miara, D; Miliani, A; Panthier, F; Pons, G; Roitg, C; Thoores, M

    2000-05-01

    To compare the effects of a worksite intervention by the occupational physician offering simple advice of smoking cessation with a more active strategy of advice including a "quit date" and extra support. Employees of an electrical and gas company seen at the annual visit by their occupational physicians. CRITERIA END POINTS: Smoking point prevalence defined as the percentage of smokers who were non-smokers at one year. Secondary criteria were the percentage of smokers who stopped smoking for more than six months and the difference in prevalence of smoking in both groups. Randomised controlled trial. The unit of randomisation was the work site physician and a random sample of the employees of whom he or she was in charge. The length of the follow up was one year. Each of 30 work site physicians included in the study 100 to 150 employees. Among 504 subjects classified as smokers at baseline receiving simple advice (group A) and 591 the more active programme (group B), 68 (13.5%) in group A and 109 (18. 4%) were non-smokers one year later (p=0.03; p=0.01 taking the occupational physician as the statistical unit and using a non-parametric test). Twenty three subjects (4.6%) in group A and 36 (6.1%) in group B (p=0.26) declared abstinence of six months or more. Among non-smokers at baseline, 3.4% in both groups were smokers after one year follow up. The prevalence of smokers did not differ significantly at baseline (32.9% and 32.4%, p=0.75). After the intervention the prevalence of smoking was 30.8% in group A and 28. 7% in group B (p=0.19). An increase of the mean symptoms score for depression in those who quit was observed during this period. A simple cessation intervention strategy during a mandatory annual examination, targeting a population of smokers independently of their motivation to stop smoking or their health status, showed a 36% relative increase of the proportion of smokers who quit smoking as compared with what can be achieved through simple advice.

  20. Challenges and opportunities in international molecular cancer prevention research: An ASPO Molecular Epidemiology and the Environment and International Cancer Prevention Interest Groups Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epplein, Meira; Bostick, Roberd M; Mu, Lina; Ogino, Shuji; Braithwaite, Dejana; Kanetsky, Peter A

    2014-11-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer estimates that over half of the new cancer cases and almost two-thirds of the cancer deaths in 2012 occurred in low and middle income countries. To discuss the challenges and opportunities to reducing the burden of cancer worldwide, the Molecular Epidemiology and the Environment and the International Issues in Cancer Special Interest Groups joined forces to hold a session during the 38th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Preventive Oncology (March 2014, Arlington, Virginia). The session highlighted three topics of particular interest to molecular cancer prevention researchers working internationally, specifically: 1) biomarkers in cancer research; 2) environmental exposures and cancer; and 3) molecular pathological epidemiology. A major factor for successful collaboration illuminated during the discussion was the need for strong, committed, and reliable international partners. A key element of establishing such relationships is to thoroughly involve individual international collaborators in the development of the research question; engaged international collaborators are particularly motivated to champion and shepherd the project through all necessary steps, including issues relating to institutional review boards, political sensitivity, laboratory-based assays, and tumor subtyping. Also essential is allotting time for the building, maintaining, and investing in such relationships so that successful international collaborations may take root and bloom. While there are many challenges inherent to international molecular cancer research, the opportunities for furthering the science and prevention of cancer worldwide are great, particularly at this time of increasing cancer incidence and prevalence in low and middle income countries. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. Comparative effectiveness of Pilates and yoga group exercise interventions for chronic mechanical neck pain: quasi-randomised parallel controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunleavy, K; Kava, K; Goldberg, A; Malek, M H; Talley, S A; Tutag-Lehr, V; Hildreth, J

    2016-09-01

    To determine the effectiveness of Pilates and yoga group exercise interventions for individuals with chronic neck pain (CNP). Quasi-randomised parallel controlled study. Community, university and private practice settings in four locations. Fifty-six individuals with CNP scoring ≥3/10 on the numeric pain rating scale for >3 months (controls n=17, Pilates n=20, yoga n=19). Exercise participants completed 12 small-group sessions with modifications and progressions supervised by a physiotherapist. The primary outcome measure was the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Secondary outcomes were pain ratings, range of movement and postural measurements collected at baseline, 6 weeks and 12 weeks. Follow-up was performed 6 weeks after completion of the exercise classes (Week 18). NDI decreased significantly in the Pilates {baseline: 11.1 [standard deviation (SD) 4.3] vs Week 12: 6.8 (SD 4.3); mean difference -4.3 (95% confidence interval -1.64 to -6.7); PPilates and yoga group exercise interventions with appropriate modifications and supervision were safe and equally effective for decreasing disability and pain compared with the control group for individuals with mild-to-moderate CNP. Physiotherapists may consider including these approaches in a plan of care. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01999283. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Combat-related, chronic posttraumatic stress disorder: implications for group-therapy intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makler, S; Sigal, M; Gelkopf, M; Kochba, B B; Horeb, E

    1990-07-01

    The patient with combat-related chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder suffers from a wide spectrum of maladaptive behaviors. This paper delineates the work that has been done with such a population in group therapy. The plan that is proposed takes into account three interrelated sets of factors: factors important for creating an effective working relation; curative factors; and particular themes. Each of these factors is analyzed in the light of the particularities of group work with such a population. Each of the points discussed is based upon the relevant literature, upon the experience of the therapist, and illustrated with examples.

  3. Efficacy of group social skills interventions for youth with autism spectrum disorder: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Jacquelyn A; Kang, Erin; Lerner, Matthew D

    2017-03-01

    Group-based social skills interventions (GSSIs) are widely used for treating social competence among youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), but their efficacy is unclear. Previous meta-analysis of the literature on well-designed trials of GSSIs is limited in size and scope, collapsing across highly heterogeneous sources (parents; youths; teachers; observers; behavioral tasks). The current meta-analysis of randomized control trials (RCTs) was conducted to ascertain overall effectiveness of GSSIs and differences by reporting sources. Nineteen RCTs met inclusion criteria. Results show that overall positive aggregate effects were medium (g=0.51, pskilled social behaviors (social knowledge; g=1.15, psocial performance; g=0.28, p=0.31). Social skills interventions presently appear modestly effective for youth with ASD, but may not generalize to school settings or self-reported social behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Infusing Mindfulness-Based Interventions in Support Groups for Grieving College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Therese L.; Ohrt, Jonathan H.

    2018-01-01

    Approximately 39-49% of college students have experienced grief due to death in the past 24 months. Students' grief is often complicated due to the nature of their developmental characteristics (e.g., searching for autonomy, identity development, career direction, academic pressure, and formation of intimate relationships). Group mindfulness-based…

  5. Worrying about What Others Think: A Social-Comparison Concern Intervention in Small Learning Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micari, Marina; Pazos, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Small-group learning has become commonplace in education at all levels. While it has been shown to have many benefits, previous research has demonstrated that it may not always work to the advantage of every student. One potential problem is that less-prepared students may feel anxious about participating, for fear of looking "dumb" in…

  6. A Parent-Only Group Intervention for Children with Anxiety Disorders: Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thienemann, Margo; Moore, Phoebe; Tompkins, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Working to optimize treatment outcome and use resources efficiently, investigators conducted the first test of an existing parent-only group cognitive-behavioral therapy protocol to treat 24 children 7 to 16 years old with primary anxiety disorder diagnoses. Method: Over the course of 7 months, the authors evaluated a manual-based…

  7. HIV/AIDS Infected Mothers' Experience of a Group Intervention to Enhance Their Children's Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eloff, Irma; Finestone, Michelle; Forsyth, Brian

    2016-01-01

    A secondary study was conducted within a broader National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded longitudinal study on resilience in South African mothers and children affected by HIV/AIDS (Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a 24-week support group intervention…

  8. Pilot study of a mindfulness-based, multi-component, in-school group sleep intervention in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Bei; Byrne, Michelle L; Ivens, Clare; Waloszek, Joanna; Woods, Michael J; Dudgeon, Paul; Murray, Greg; Nicholas, Christian L; Trinder, John; Allen, Nicholas B

    2013-05-01

    Existing literature links poor sleep and anxiety symptoms in adolescents. This pilot study aimed to develop a practical method through which a program to improve sleep could reach adolescents in need and to examine the feasibility of a mindfulness-based, multi-component group sleep intervention using sleep and anxiety as outcome measures. Sixty-two grade 9 students (aged 13-15) at a girls' school were screened with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS). Ten participants with self-reported poor sleep were enrolled into a six-session program based on Bootzin & Stevens, with added stress/anxiety-specific components. Sessions covered key aspects of basic mindfulness concepts and practice, sleep hygiene, sleep scheduling, evening/daytime habits, stimulus control, skills for bedtime worries and healthy attitudes to sleep. Treatment changes were measured by pre-post scores on the PSQI, SCAS and 7-day actigraphy-measured sleep. The program demonstrated high acceptability, with a completion rate of 90%. Based on effect-size analysis, participants showed significant improvement on objective sleep onset latency (SOL), sleep efficiency and total sleep time; actigraphy data also showed significantly earlier bedtime, rise time and smaller day-to-day bedtime variation. Post-intervention global PSQI scores were significantly lower than that of pre-intervention, with significant improvement in subjective SOL, sleep quality and sleep-related daytime dysfunction. There were small improvements on some subscales of the SCAS, but change on its total score was minimal. A mindfulness-based, multi-component, in-school group sleep intervention following brief screening is feasible, and has the potential to improve sleep. Its impact on anxiety needs further investigation. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Primary Prevention Programme for Burnout-Endangered Teachers: Follow-Up Effectiveness of a Combined Group and Individual Intervention of AFA Breathing Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Goetz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Early retirement of teachers due to burnout is frequent in Germany. In this study short- and medium-term effects of AFA breathing therapy were evaluated. Methods. This study was designed as a longitudinal controlled intervention design with four points of measurements: before assessment (T1, after intervention (T2, three months (follow up 1 (T3 after intervention, and six months (follow up 2 after intervention (T4. The intervention lasted a total of 11 weeks (weekly group therapy for eight weeks and three weeks of individual breathing session. The effects of intervention were measured with the questionnaire “work-related behaviour and experience Patterns” (AVEM at four times. Results. In the intervention group 64 teachers and in the self-selected control group 27 teachers were included. The AVEM scales “subjective significance of work” and “professional ambition” changed over time and within both groups (interaction effect. Significant improvements over the four measurements were observed in the intervention group in two AVEM scales: “emotional distancing” (F=6.3; P<0.01 and “balance and mental stability” (F=4.4; P<0.02. Conclusions. AFA breathing therapy showed short- and medium-term effects in the intervention group over four points of measurements. It may be assumed that breath therapy supports teachers in resisting occupational demand.

  10. Powerful Tools for Caregivers, a Group Psychoeducational Skill-Building Intervention for Family Caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel M. Rosney

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Care providers consistently report negative consequences to their mental health as a direct result of their caregiving responsibilities. Specifically, they describe higher levels of distress, mental health problems, and depressive symptoms compared to their non-caregiving matched controls. Powerful Tools for Caregivers (PTC is a national program that aims to empower caregivers to better care for themselves and enhance their self-efficacy. The purpose of the present study was to determine and quantify the effectiveness of the PTC program through pre/post data analysis. Methods: PTC intervention was evaluated at two questionnaire time points: pre-PTC and post-PTC between June 30, 2004 and Oct 16, 2013. Paired sample t-tests (n=409 were conducted using SPSS Statistics Version 22 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY. Results: PTC increased caregivers who conducted self-care behaviors, who demonstrated self-efficacy, management of depressing emotions and those who used community resources. Conclusion: PTC results in caregivers reporting that they are taking better care of themselves, reacting to their emotions in a healthier manner, gaining more confidence in their caregiving abilities and coping skills, and becoming more knowledgeable about receiving assistance from their community resources.

  11. Exploring the feasibility and acceptability of a recovery-focused group therapy intervention for adults with bipolar disorder: trial protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Alison K; Baker, Amanda; Jones, Steven; Lobban, Fiona; Kay-Lambkin, Frances; Attia, John; Banfield, Michelle

    2018-01-31

    Improving accessible, acceptable recovery-oriented service provision for people with bipolar disorder (BD) is an important priority. Mindfulness and acceptance-based cognitive and behavioural therapies (or 'third -wave' CBT) may prove fruitful due to the considerable overlap between these approaches and key features of personal recovery. Groups also confer therapeutic benefits consistent with personal recovery and may improve recovery-oriented service provision by adding another modality for accessing support. The primary objective of this trial is to explore the feasibility and acceptability of a new recovery-focused group therapy (RfGT) intervention for adults with BD. This is the first published feasibility assessment of a time-limited RfGTrecovery-focused group therapy intervention for BD. This protocol describes an open feasibility study, utilising a pre-treatment design versus post- treatment design and nested qualitative evaluation. Participants will be recruited from the Central Coast region of New South Wales, Australia, from primary care providers, specialist mental health services, non-government organisations and via self-referral. The primary outcomes are feasibility and acceptability as indexed by recruitment, retention, intervention adherence, adverse events (if any) and detailed consumer feedback. Clinical outcomes and process measures will be assessed to inform future research. Primary outcome data will utiliseuse descriptive statistics (eg, summarizingsummarising recruitment, demographics, attendance, attrition and intervention adherence). Secondary outcomes will be assessed using repeated-measures analysis of covariance across all time points (including change, effect size and variability). Ethical approval has been granted by the Northern Sydney Local Health District HREChuman research ethics committee (HREC) (HREC/16/HAWKE/69) and The University of Newcastle HREC (H-2016-0107). The Ffindings will be used to improve the intervention per user

  12. Consensus definition of sarcopenia, cachexia and pre-cachexia: joint document elaborated by Special Interest Groups (SIG) "cachexia-anorexia in chronic wasting diseases" and "nutrition in geriatrics".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscaritoli, M; Anker, S D; Argilés, J; Aversa, Z; Bauer, J M; Biolo, G; Boirie, Y; Bosaeus, I; Cederholm, T; Costelli, P; Fearon, K C; Laviano, A; Maggio, M; Rossi Fanelli, F; Schneider, S M; Schols, A; Sieber, C C

    2010-04-01

    Chronic diseases as well as aging are frequently associated with deterioration of nutritional status, loss muscle mass and function (i.e. sarcopenia), impaired quality of life and increased risk for morbidity and mortality. Although simple and effective tools for the accurate screening, diagnosis and treatment of malnutrition have been developed during the recent years, its prevalence still remains disappointingly high and its impact on morbidity, mortality and quality of life clinically significant. Based on these premises, the Special Interest Group (SIG) on cachexia-anorexia in chronic wasting diseases was created within ESPEN with the aim of developing and spreading the knowledge on the basic and clinical aspects of cachexia and anorexia as well as of increasing the awareness of cachexia among health professionals and care givers. The definition, the assessment and the staging of cachexia, were identified as a priority by the SIG. This consensus paper reports the definition of cachexia, pre-cachexia and sarcopenia as well as the criteria for the differentiation between cachexia and other conditions associated with sarcopenia, which have been developed in cooperation with the ESPEN SIG on nutrition in geriatrics. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  13. Is the modernisation of postgraduate medical training in the Netherlands successful? Views of the NVMO Special Interest Group on Postgraduate Medical Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheele, Fedde; Van Luijk, Scheltus; Mulder, Hanneke; Baane, Coby; Rooyen, Corry Den; De Hoog, Matthijs; Fokkema, Joanne; Heineman, Erik; Sluiter, Henk

    2014-02-01

    Worldwide, the modernisation of medical education is leading to the design and implementation of new postgraduate curricula. In this article, the Special Interest Group for postgraduate medical education of the Netherlands Association for Medical Education (NVMO) reports on the experiences in the Netherlands. To provide insight into the shift in the aims of postgraduate training, as well as into the diffusion of distinct curricular activities, introduced during the process of modernisation. Based on three levels of training described by Frenk et al., the process of modernisation in the Netherlands is reviewed in a narrative way, using the expert views of the NVMO-SIG on PGME as a source of information. Educational science has effectively been incorporated and has until now mainly been applied on the level of informative learning to create 'medical expertise'. Implementing change on the level of formative learning for 'professional performance' has until now been a slow and arduous process, but the concept of reflection on practice has been firmly embraced. The training on the level of transformative learning is still in its early stages. The discussion about the aims of modern medical education could benefit from a more structured and transdisciplinary approach. Research is warranted on the interface between health care provision and those sciences that specialise in generic professional skills and in the societal context. Training professionals and educating 'enlightened change agents' for transformation in health care requires more governance and support from academic leaders with a broader perspective on the future of health care.

  14. Infant-mother attachment can be improved through group intervention: a preliminary evaluation in Spain in a non-randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Bárbara; Alonso-Arbiol, Itziar; Cantero, María José; Abubakar, Amina

    2011-11-01

    The quality of infant-mother attachment has been linked to competence in different domains of child development. Research indicates that early intervention can enhance the quality of infant-mother attachment, though its efficacy in a group format has yet to be evaluated. The current study is aimed at examining the usefulness of a group intervention in enhancing infant-mother attachment. An intervention aimed at addressing aspects such as maternal responsivity, sensitivity and childrearing behaviour was developed by the researchers and experienced psychologists. The intervention spanned a period of 14 months starting from the third quarter of pregnancy. The intervention was evaluated among 24 mothers from the Basque region of Spain. The sample consisted of children of both genders in a similar proportion: 45.8% were boys and 54.2% were girls. The children in this sample were full-term born and did not present symptoms of any serious pre- or postnatal complications. The intervention had a statistically non-significant medium effect. Infants whose mothers had received the intervention showed higher rates of secure attachment compared to children from the control group, as assessed by the Strange Situation observation procedure. A potentially significant confounding variable, maternal attachment, was balanced across the intervention and comparison groups. We can tentatively point out that a group intervention may enhance the quality of infant-mother attachment. Nevertheless, because the study design was not randomized, the results of this study remain preliminary and need replication in a full randomized controlled trial designed study.

  15. Conducting online focus groups on Facebook to inform health behavior change interventions: Two case studies and lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thrul, Johannes; Belohlavek, Alina; Hambrick, D'Arius; Kaur, Manpreet; Ramo, Danielle E

    2017-09-01

    Online social media offer great potential for research participant recruitment and data collection. We conducted synchronous (real-time) online focus groups (OFGs) through Facebook with the target population of young adult substance users to inform development of Facebook health behavior change interventions. In this paper we report methods and lessons learned for future studies. In the context of two research studies participants were recruited through Facebook and assigned to one of five 90-minute private Facebook OFGs. Study 1 recruited for two OFGs with young adult sexual and/or gender minority (SGM) smokers (range: 9 to 18 participants per group); Study 2 recruited for three groups of young adult smokers who also engage in risky drinking (range: 5 to 11 participants per group). Over a period of 11 (Study 1) and 22 days (Study 2), respectively, we recruited, assessed eligibility, collected baseline data, and assigned a diverse sample of participants from all over the US to Facebook groups. For Study 1, 27 of 35 (77%) participants invited attended the OFGs, and 25 of 32 (78%) for Study 2. Participants in Study 1 contributed an average of 30.9 (SD=8.9) comments with an average word count of 20.1 (SD=21.7) words, and 36.0 (SD=12.3) comments with 11.9 (SD=13.5) words on average in Study 2. Participants generally provided positive feedback on the study procedures. Facebook can be a feasible and efficient medium to conduct synchronous OFGs with young adults. This data collection strategy has the potential to inform health behavior change intervention development.

  16. Biomarkers to Stratify Risk Groups among Children with Malnutrition in Resource-Limited Settings and to Monitor Response to Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Christine J; Arndt, Michael B; Walson, Judd L

    2017-01-01

    Despite global efforts to reduce childhood undernutrition, current interventions have had little impact on stunting and wasting, and the mechanisms underlying growth faltering are poorly understood. There is a clear need to distinguish populations of children most likely to benefit from any given intervention and to develop tools to monitor response to therapy prior to the development of morbid sequelae. In resource-limited settings, environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is common among children, contributing to malnutrition and increasing childhood morbidity and mortality risk. In addition to EED, early alterations in the gut microbiota can adversely affect growth through nutrient malabsorption, altered metabolism, gut inflammation, and dysregulation of the growth hormone axis. We examined the evidence linking EED and the gut microbiome to growth faltering and explored novel biomarkers to identify subgroups of children at risk of malnutrition due to underlying pathology. These and other biomarkers could be used to identify specific groups of children at risk of malnutrition and monitor response to targeted interventions. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Acceptability and feasibility of potential intervention strategies for influencing sedentary time at work: focus group interviews in executives and employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cocker, Katrien; Veldeman, Charlene; De Bacquer, Dirk; Braeckman, Lutgart; Owen, Neville; Cardon, Greet; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2015-02-18

    Occupational sitting can be the largest contributor to overall daily sitting time in white-collar workers. With adverse health effects in adults, intervention strategies to influence sedentary time on a working day are needed. Therefore, the present aim was to examine employees' and executives' reflections on occupational sitting and to examine the potential acceptability and feasibility of intervention strategies to reduce and interrupt sedentary time on a working day. Seven focus groups (four among employees, n = 34; three among executives, n = 21) were conducted in a convenience sample of three different companies in Flanders (Belgium), using a semi-structured questioning route in five themes [personal sitting patterns; intervention strategies during working hours, (lunch) breaks, commuting; and intervention approach]. The audiotaped interviews were verbatim transcribed, followed by a qualitative inductive content analysis in NVivo 10. The majority of participants recognized they spend their working day mostly sitting and associated this mainly with musculoskeletal health problems. Participants suggested a variety of possible strategies, primarily for working hours (standing during phone calls/meetings, PC reminders, increasing bathroom use by drinking more water, active sitting furniture, standing desks, rearranging the office) and (lunch) breaks (physical activity, movement breaks, standing tables). However, several barriers were reported, including productivity concerns, impracticality, awkwardness of standing, and the habitual nature of sitting. Facilitating factors were raising awareness, providing alternatives for simply standing, making some strategies obligatory and workers taking some personal responsibility. There are some strategies targeting sedentary time on a working day that are perceived to be realistic and useful. However several barriers emerged, which future trials and practical initiatives should take into account.

  18. Effectiveness of the Relaxation Response-Based Group Intervention for Treating Depressed Chinese American Immigrants: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Yeung

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study examined the feasibility, safety and efficacy of an 8-week Relaxation Response (RR-based group. Methods: Twenty-two depressed Chinese American immigrants were recruited. Outcomes measures were response and remission rates, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, Clinical Global Impressions Scale, Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire, and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support Scale. Results: Participants (N = 22 were 82% female, mean age was 53 (±12. After intervention, completers (N = 15 showed a 40% response rate and a 27% remission rate, and statistically significant improvement in most outcome measures. Discussion: The RR-based group is feasible and safe in treating Chinese American immigrants with depression.

  19. Health Professionals' Explanations of Suicidal Behaviour: Effects of Professional Group, Theoretical Intervention Model, and Patient Suicide Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothes, Inês Areal; Henriques, Margarida Rangel

    2017-12-01

    In a help relation with a suicidal person, the theoretical models of suicidality can be essential to guide the health professional's comprehension of the client/patient. The objectives of this study were to identify health professionals' explanations of suicidal behaviors and to study the effects of professional group, theoretical intervention models, and patient suicide experience in professionals' representations. Two hundred and forty-two health professionals filled out a self-report questionnaire. Exploratory principal components analysis was used. Five explanatory models were identified: psychological suffering, affective cognitive, sociocommunicational, adverse life events, and psychopathological. Results indicated that the psychological suffering and psychopathological models were the most valued by the professionals, while the sociocommunicational was seen as the least likely to explain suicidal behavior. Differences between professional groups were found. We concluded that training and reflection on theoretical models in general and in communicative issues in particular are needed in the education of health professionals.

  20. Awareness of Stress-Reduction Interventions on Work Attitudes: The Impact of Tenure and Staff Group in Australian Universities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pignata, Silvia; Winefield, Anthony H; Provis, Chris; Boyd, Carolyn M

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the impact of staff group role and length of organizational tenure in the relationship between the awareness of stress interventions (termed intervention awareness: IA) and the work-related attitudinal outcomes of university employees. A two-wave longitudinal study of a sample of 869 employees from 13 universities completed a psychosocial work factors and health questionnaire. Hierarchical regression analyses examined the contribution of staff role and different lengths of organizational tenure with IA and employees' reports of job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, trust in senior management, and perceived procedural justice. Employees' length of tenure affected the relation between IA and work attitudes, and there were also differences between academic and non-academic staff groups. For non-academic employees, IA predicted job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, trust in senior management, and perceived procedural justice. However, for academics, IA only predicted job satisfaction and trust which identifies a need to increase the visibility of organizational interventions. Across the tenure groups, IA predicted: (1) perceived procedural justice for employees with five or less years of tenure; (2) job satisfaction for employees with 0-19 years of tenure; (3) trust in senior management for employees with 6-19 years of tenure; and (4) affective organizational commitment for employees with a tenure length of 6-10 years. Employees working at the university for an intermediate period had the most positive perceptions of their organization in terms of IA, job satisfaction, trust in senior management, and affective organizational commitment, whereas employees with 20-38 years of tenure had the least positive perceptions. Results suggest that employees in the middle of their careers report the most positive perceptions of their university. The findings highlight the need to attend to contextual issues in organizational

  1. Awareness of stress-reduction interventions on work attitudes: the impact of tenure and staff group in Australian universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pignata

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the impact of staff group role and length of organizational tenure in the relationship between the awareness of stress interventions (termed intervention awareness: IA and the work-related attitudinal outcomes of university employees. A two-wave longitudinal study of a sample of 869 employees from 13 universities completed a psychosocial work factors and health questionnaire. Hierarchical regression analyses examined the contribution of staff role and different lengths of organizational tenure with IA and employees’ reports of job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, trust in senior management, and perceived procedural justice. Employees' length of tenure affected the relation between IA and work attitudes, and there were also differences between academic and non-academic staff groups. For non-academic employees, IA predicted job satisfaction, affective organizational commitment, trust in senior management, and perceived procedural justice. However, for academics, IA only predicted job satisfaction and trust which identifies a need to increase the visibility of organizational interventions. Across the tenure groups, IA predicted: (1 perceived procedural justice for employees with five or less years of tenure; (2 job satisfaction for employees with 0–19 years of tenure; (3 trust in senior management for employees with 6–19 years of tenure; and (4 affective organizational commitment for employees with a tenure length of 6–10 years. Employees working at the university for an intermediate period had the most positive perceptions of their organization in terms of IA, job satisfaction, trust in senior management, and affective organizational commitment, whereas employees with 20–38 years of tenure had the least positive perceptions. Results suggest that employees in the middle of their careers report the most positive perceptions of their university. The findings highlight the need to attend to contextual

  2. Explaining the impact of a women's group led community mobilisation intervention on maternal and newborn health outcomes: the Ekjut trial process evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinha Rajesh

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few large and rigorous evaluations of participatory interventions systematically describe their context and implementation, or attempt to explain the mechanisms behind their impact. This study reports process evaluation data from the Ekjut cluster-randomised controlled trial of a participatory learning and action cycle with women's groups to improve maternal and newborn health outcomes in Jharkhand and Orissa, eastern India (2005-2008. The study demonstrated a 45% reduction in neonatal mortality in the last two years of the intervention, largely driven by improvements in safe practices for home deliveries. Methods A participatory learning and action cycle with 244 women's groups was implemented in 18 intervention clusters covering an estimated population of 114 141. We describe the context, content, and implementation of this intervention, identify potential mechanisms behind its impact, and report challenges experienced in the field. Methods included a review of intervention documents, qualitative structured discussions with group members and non-group members, meeting observations, as well as descriptive statistical analysis of data on meeting attendance, activities, and characteristics of group attendees. Results Six broad, interrelated factors influenced the intervention's impact: (1 acceptability; (2 a participatory approach to the development of knowledge, skills and 'critical consciousness'; (3 community involvement beyond the groups; (4 a focus on marginalized communities; (5 the active recruitment of newly pregnant women into groups; (6 high population coverage. We hypothesize that these factors were responsible for the increase in safe delivery and care practices that led to the reduction in neonatal mortality demonstrated in the Ekjut trial. Conclusions Participatory interventions with community groups can influence maternal and child health outcomes if key intervention characteristics are preserved and tailored to

  3. OARSI/OMERACT initiative to define states of severity and indication for joint replacement in hip and knee osteoarthritis. An OMERACT 10 Special Interest Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gossec, Laure; Paternotte, Simon; Bingham, Clifton O

    2011-01-01

    To define pain and physical function cutpoints that would, coupled with structural severity, define a surrogate measure of "need for joint replacement surgery," for use as an outcome measure for potential structure-modifying interventions for osteoarthritis (OA)....

  4. Mom Power: preliminary outcomes of a group intervention to improve mental health and parenting among high-risk mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzik, Maria; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Alfafara, Emily A; Schuster, Melisa M; Miller, Nicole M; Waddell, Rachel M; Stanton Kohler, Emily

    2015-06-01

    Maternal psychopathology and traumatic life experiences may adversely impact family functioning, the quality of the parent-child relationship and the attachment bond, placing the child's early social-emotional development at risk. Attachment-based parenting interventions may be particularly useful in decreasing negative outcomes for children exposed to risk contexts, yet high risk families frequently do not engage in programs to address mental health and/or parenting needs. This study evaluated the effects of Mom Power (MP), a 13-session parenting and self-care skills group program for high-risk mothers and their young children (age parenting competence, and engagement in treatment. Mothers were referred from community health providers for a phase 1 trial to assess feasibility, acceptability, and pilot outcomes. At baseline, many reported several identified risk factors, including trauma exposure, psychopathology, poverty, and single parenthood. Ninety-nine mother-child pairs were initially recruited into the MP program with 68 women completing and providing pre- and post-self-report measures assessing demographics and trauma history (pre-assessment only), maternal mental health (depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)), parenting, and intervention satisfaction. Results indicate that MP participation was associated with reduction in depression, PTSD, and caregiving helplessness. A dose response relationship was evident in that, despite baseline equivalence, women who attended ≥70 % of the 10 groups (completers; N = 68) improved on parenting and mental health outcomes, in contrast to non-completers (N = 12). Effects were most pronounced for women with a mental health diagnosis at baseline. The intervention was perceived as helpful and user-friendly. Results indicate that MP is feasible, acceptable, and holds promise for improving maternal mental health and parenting competence among high-risk dyads. Further research is warranted to evaluate

  5. Assisted reproductive medicine in Poland --Fertility and Sterility Special Interest Group of the Polish Gynaecological Society (SPiN PTG) 2012 report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicka, Anna; Spaczyńiski, Robert Z; Kurzawa, Rafał

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this report is to present data concerning results and complications related to infertility treatment using assisted reproductive technology (ART) and insemination (IUI) in Poland in 2012. The report was prepared by the Fertility and Sterility Special Interest Group of the Polish Gynaecological Society (SPiN PTG), based on individual data provided by fertility clinics. Reporting was voluntary data were not subject to external verification. The report presents the availability and the structure of infertility treatment services, the number of procedures performed, their effectiveness and the most common complications. In 2014, 34 Polish fertility clinics provided information to the report, presenting data from 2012. The total number of reported treatment cycles using ART was 17,116 (incl. 10,714 fresh IVF/ICSI) and 14,727 IUI. The clinical pregnancy rate per cycle was on average 33.7% for fresh IVF/ICSI and 13.3% for IUI. The prevalence of multiple births was 15.7% and 6.2%, in case of IVF/ICSI and IUI methods respectively The most frequent complication in the course of treatment using ART was ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)--severe OHSS constituted 0.68% of all stimulated cycles. The SPiN PTG report shows the average effectiveness and safety of ART and was the only proof of responsibility and due diligence of fertility centres in Poland. However, due to the lack of a central register of fertility clinics, facultative participation in the report as well as incomplete information on pregnancy and delivery rate, the collected data do not reflect the full spectrum of Polish reproductive medicine.

  6. Promoting Awareness about Psychological Consequences of Living in a Community Oppressed by the Mafia: A Group-Analytic Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Giordano

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The effects of the Mafia have been extensively studied from sociological, economic, and historical points of view. However, little research has investigated the influence of the Mafia on individuals and communities in terms of its psychological and social impact. In order to contribute to the advancement of our understanding of the psychological effects of the Mafia on individuals and communities and to promote a participative process of social change, a group analytic intervention was conducted within a Community Based Participatory Research carried out in Corleone, a small Sicilian town with a historically recognized role in the evolution of the Mafia, as well as in the fight against its control. Qualitative findings from the group intervention revealed the development of an awareness process that allowed participants to become aware of their social unconscious anxieties and defenses and to recognize and manage the strong emotional impact related to the Mafia's presence in their lives. Highlighting how psychological processes can have negative impacts on individual and collective capacity to pursuit transformation and resilience, this article provides important insight on how clinical psychology may operate in socio-cultural contexts to promote the reconstruction of the traumatic social dimensions in the community.

  7. An emergency department intervention to protect an overlooked group of children at risk of significant harm.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kaye, P

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Parental psychiatric disorder, especially depression, personality disorder and deliberate self-harm, is known to put children at greater risk of mental illness, neglect or physical, emotional and sexual abuse. Without a reliable procedure to identify children of parents presenting with these mental health problems, children at high risk of significant harm can be easily overlooked. Although deliberate self-harm constitutes a significant proportion of emergency presentations, there are no guidelines which address the emergency physician\\'s role in identifying and assessing risk to children of these patients. METHODS: A robust system was jointly developed with the local social services child protection team to identify and risk-stratify children of parents with mental illness. This allows us to intervene when we identify children at immediate risk of harm and to ensure that social services are aware of potential risk to all children in this group. The referral process was audited repeatedly to refine the agreed protocol. RESULTS: The proportion of patients asked by the emergency department personnel about dependent children increased and the quality of information received by the social services child protection team improved. CONCLUSIONS: All emergency departments should acknowledge the inadequacy of information available to them regarding patients\\' children and consider a policy of referral to social services for all children of parents with mental health presentations. This process can only be developed through close liaison within the multidisciplinary child protection team.

  8. Using the collaborative intervention planning framework to adapt a health-care manager intervention to a new population and provider group to improve the health of people with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Gomes, Arminda P; Meyreles, Quisqueya; Capitelli, Lucia; Younge, Richard; Dragatsi, Dianna; Alvarez, Juana; Manrique, Yamira; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2014-11-30

    Health-care manager interventions improve the physical health of people with serious mental illness (SMI) and could be widely implemented in public mental health clinics. Local adaptations and customization may be needed to increase the reach of these interventions in the public mental health system and across different racial and ethnic communities. In this study, we describe how we used the collaborative intervention planning framework to customize an existing health-care manager intervention to a new patient population (Hispanics with SMI) and provider group (social workers) to increase its fit with our local community. The study was conducted in partnership with a public mental health clinic that serves predominantly Hispanic clients. A community advisory board (CAB) composed of researchers and potential implementers (e.g., social workers, primary care physicians) used the collaborative intervention planning framework, an approach that combines community-based participatory research principles and intervention mapping (IM) procedures, to inform intervention adaptations. The adaptation process included four steps: fostering collaborations between CAB members; understanding the needs of the local population through a mixed-methods needs assessment, literature reviews, and group discussions; reviewing intervention objectives to identify targets for adaptation; and developing the adapted intervention. The application of this approach enabled the CAB to identify a series of cultural and provider level-adaptations without compromising the core elements of the original health-care manager intervention. Reducing health disparities in people with SMI requires community engagement, particularly when preparing existing interventions to be used with new communities, provider groups, and practice settings. Our study illustrates one approach that can be used to involve community stakeholders in the intervention adaptation process from the very beginning to enhance the

  9. Understanding Process in Group-Based Intervention Delivery: Social Network Analysis and Intra-entity Variability Methods as Windows into the "Black Box".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy Elreda, Lauren; Coatsworth, J Douglas; Gest, Scott D; Ram, Nilam; Bamberger, Katharine

    2016-11-01

    Although the majority of evidence-based programs are designed for group delivery, group process and its role in participant outcomes have received little empirical attention. Data were collected from 20 groups of participants (94 early adolescents, 120 parents) enrolled in an efficacy trial of a mindfulness-based adaptation of the Strengthening Families Program (MSFP). Following each weekly session, participants reported on their relations to group members. Social network analysis and methods sensitive to intraindividual variability were integrated to examine weekly covariation between group process and participant progress, and to predict post-intervention outcomes from levels and changes in group process. Results demonstrate hypothesized links between network indices of group process and intervention outcomes and highlight the value of this unique analytic approach to studying intervention group process.

  10. An individual-based versus group-based exercise and counselling intervention for improving quality of life in breast cancer survivors. A feasibility and efficacy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Fiona; Munro, Aime; Martin, Eric; Magrani, Paula; Buchan, Jena; Smith, Cathie; Piggott, Ben; Philpott, Martin

    2012-10-01

    Cancer and its treatments produce lingering side-effects that undermine the quality of life (QOL) of survivors. Exercise and psycho-therapies increase QOL among survivors, however, research is needed to identify intervention characteristics most associated with such improvements. This research aimed to assess the feasibility of a 9 week individual or group based exercise and counselling program, and to examine if a group based intervention is as effective at improving the QOL of breast cancer survivors as an individual-based intervention. A three group design was implemented to compare the efficacy of a 9 week individual (IEC n = 12) and group based exercise and counselling (GEC n = 14) intervention to a usual care (UsC n = 10) group on QOL of thirty-six breast cancer survivors. Across all groups, 90% of participants completed the interventions, with no adverse effects documented. At the completion of the intervention, there was a significant difference between groups for change in global QOL across time (p group (1.8 points). The effect size was moderate (0.70). Although the GEC improved QOL by almost 10.0 points, this increase did not reach significance. Both increases were above the minimally important difference of 7-8 points. These preliminary results suggest a combined exercise and psychological counseling program is both a feasible and acceptable intervention for breast cancer survivors. Whilst both the individual and group interventions improved QOL above the clinically important difference, only the individual based intervention was significant when compared to UsC. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Effects of Group Drumming Interventions on Anxiety, Depression, Social Resilience and Inflammatory Immune Response among Mental Health Service Users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisy Fancourt

    Full Text Available Growing numbers of mental health organizations are developing community music-making interventions for service users; however, to date there has been little research into their efficacy or mechanisms of effect. This study was an exploratory examination of whether 10 weeks of group drumming could improve depression, anxiety and social resilience among service users compared with a non-music control group (with participants allocated to group by geographical location. Significant improvements were found in the drumming group but not the control group: by week 6 there were decreases in depression (-2.14 SE 0.50 CI -3.16 to -1.11 and increases in social resilience (7.69 SE 2.00 CI 3.60 to 11.78, and by week 10 these had further improved (depression: -3.41 SE 0.62 CI -4.68 to -2.15; social resilience: 10.59 SE 1.78 CI 6.94 to 14.24 alongside significant improvements in anxiety (-2.21 SE 0.50 CI -3.24 to -1.19 and mental wellbeing (6.14 SE 0.92 CI 4.25 to 8.04. All significant changes were maintained at 3 months follow-up. Furthermore, it is now recognised that many mental health conditions are characterised by underlying inflammatory immune responses. Consequently, participants in the drumming group also provided saliva samples to test for cortisol and the cytokines interleukin (IL 4, IL6, IL17, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP 1. Across the 10 weeks there was a shift away from a pro-inflammatory towards an anti-inflammatory immune profile. Consequently, this study demonstrates the psychological benefits of group drumming and also suggests underlying biological effects, supporting its therapeutic potential for mental health.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01906892.

  12. Effectiveness of integrated body-mind-spirit group intervention on the well-being of Indian patients with depression: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreevani, Rentala; Reddemma, Konduru; Chan, Cecilia L W; Leung, Pamela Pui Yu; Wong, Venus; Chan, Celia Hoi Yan

    2013-09-01

    Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide. There is a need to develop effective strategies to treat depression and prevent recurrence. Treatments that combine pharmacological and psychotherapeutic approaches are preferred for treating severe forms of depression. The study assesses the effect of an integrated body-mind-spirit group intervention in patients with depression. This pilot study was a pretest-posttest design study. Thirty adult patients diagnosed with depression attending the psychiatric outpatient department at a district hospital were randomly assigned to either the intervention group or comparison group. Each group had 15 patients. The intervention group received both the intervention and routine hospital treatment and underwent four group integrated body-mind-spirit group intervention therapy sessions. These sessions were held once per week on either Saturday or Sunday, with each session lasting more than 3 hours. Comparison group participants received routine hospital treatment only. Outcome measures, including level of depression, well-being, and work and social adjustment, were measured using the Beck Depression Inventory-II, body-mind-spirit well-being scale, and work and social adjustment scale. Both groups were evaluated at baseline, 1 month, 2 months, and 3 months. Results showed that both groups had significant reductions in the level of depression, improvements in well-being, and work and social adjustment at 3-month follow-up compared with baseline. In addition, the intervention group showed significant mean differences in levels of depression, well-being, and work and social adjustment compared with the comparison group. The integrated body-mind-spirit group intervention model appears to reduce depressive symptoms and improve well-being in patients with depression.

  13. Music interventions and group participation skills of preschoolers with visual impairments: raising questions about music, arousal, and attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Sheri L

    2003-01-01

    The purposes of this pilot study were two-fold: First, to document and compare attentive behavior during music and play-based group instructional sessions and second, to document and compare 4 group participation behaviors during music and play-based sessions. The 4 group participation behaviors included facing a central speaker, following onestep directions, manipulating objects according to their function, and remaining seated. Six of the 12 children enrolled completed the study, with all participants enrolled in an early intervention program due to visual impairments. Study participants were between the ages of 4 and 6 years inclusively. Children participated in 4, 30-minute instructional sessions. Two instructional sessions were music-based and two were play-based with the 4 sessions equally distributed across a 2-week period. An ABBA design was used to control for possible order effects. Each session was videotaped to facilitate collection of behavioral data. Statistical analysis of these data revealed that attentive behavior was significantly higher during music based-sessions (t(5) = 5.81; p =.002). Mean scores for the remaining group participation behaviors were higher in the music condition, but these differences were not statistically significant. Discussion regarding differential outcomes among participants, as well as an exploration of theories related to music, arousal, and attention are discussed in an effort to guide future research.

  14. Epidemiological evaluation quality of life in patients suffering from early rheumatoid arthritis: a pragmatic, prospective, randomized, blind allocation controlled of a modular program group intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Yousefi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Epidemiology has taken on new roles in the management of health care services. In this study, we developed a non-pharmacological self-management modular program group intervention and evaluated its efficacy as an adjunct therapy in patients suffering from early rheumatoid arthritis (RA. METHODS: Patients were randomized to either participate in a non-equivalent intervention group along with the standard of care or only receive standard-of-care treatment at a community rheumatology center. The outcomes measured were a pain visual analog scale (VAS, patient general health (GH on a VAS, and the Short Form 36 Health Survey version 2 scale measuring quality of life. These parameters were evaluated in the first week to obtain baseline values, and at 20, 32, 48, and 60 weeks to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention group. RESULTS: The patients were randomized, with 100 patients in the intervention group and 106 in the control group. The intervention and control groups were similar with regard to the percentage of women (86% vs. 89.6%, tobacco usage (25% vs. 19.8%, mean age (42.6±13.2 years vs. 46.6±10.9 years, and disease duration (15.3±6.7 months vs. 14.5±6.6 months. The mean outcomes were significantly different between the two groups, and post-hoc pairwise analysis demonstrated significant deterioration in the control group in contrast to improvement in the intervention group at the second, third, fourth, and fifth evaluations. Improvements were often seen as early as the 12-week and 24-week follow-up visits. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiology contributes to the evaluation of how well specific therapies or other health interventions prevent or control health problems. The modular program group intervention implemented in this study appears to be a suitable and feasible method to facilitate much more comprehensive management of early RA in socioeconomically challenged communities.

  15. A step-by-step translation of evidence into a psychosocial intervention for everyday activities in dementia: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebel, Clarissa M; Challis, David; Hooper, Nigel M; Ferris, Sally

    2018-03-01

    In order to increase the efficacy of psychosocial interventions in dementia, a step-by-step process translating evidence and public engagement should be adhered to. This paper describes such a process by involving a two-stage focus group with people with dementia (PwD), informal carers, and staff. Based on previous evidence, general aspects of effective interventions were drawn out. These were tested in the first stage of focus groups, one with informal carers and PwD and one with staff. Findings from this stage helped shape the intervention further specifying its content. In the second stage, participants were consulted about the detailed components. The extant evidence base and focus groups helped to identify six practical and situation-specific elements worthy of consideration in planning such an intervention, including underlying theory and personal motivations for participation. Carers, PwD, and staff highlighted the importance of rapport between practitioners and PwD prior to commencing the intervention. It was also considered important that the intervention would be personalised to each individual. This paper shows how valuable public involvement can be to intervention development, and outlines a process of public involvement for future intervention development. The next step would be to formally test the intervention.

  16. Can a Targeted, Group-Based CBT Intervention Reduce Depression and Anxiety and Improve Self-Concept in Primary-Age Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Paul; Cunningham, Enda

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study examined the impact of a 10 session, group-based, early-intervention cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme (Cool Connections) on anxiety, depression and self-concept in nine 8-11 year old pupils in Northern Ireland. The intervention was facilitated by a teacher, education welfare officer and two classroom assistants, with…

  17. Managing Repetitive Behaviours in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial of a New Parent Group Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahame, Victoria; Brett, Denise; Dixon, Linda; McConachie, Helen; Lowry, Jessica; Rodgers, Jacqui; Steen, Nick; Le Couteur, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Early intervention for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tends to focus on enhancing social-communication skills. We report the acceptability, feasibility and impact on child functioning of a new 8 weeks parent-group intervention to manage restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRB) in young children with ASD aged 3-7 years. Forty-five families took…

  18. A one-day couple group intervention to enhance sexual recovery for surgically treated men with prostate cancer and their partners: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittmann, Daniela; He, Chang; Mitchell, Staci; Wood, David P; Hola, Victor; Thelen-Perry, Steve; Montie, James E

    2013-01-01

    Researchers evaluated the acceptance and effectiveness of a group intervention that provided education about post-prostatectomy sexual recovery and peer support for couples. Couples valued the intervention and retained the information. Partners became accepting of erectile dysfunction and communicated more openly about upsetting topics.

  19. Improving Executive Functions in 5- and 6-year-olds: Evaluation of a Small Group Intervention in Prekindergarten and Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röthlisberger, Marianne; Neuenschwander, Regula; Cimeli, Patriza; Michel, Eva; Roebers, Claudia M.

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests a central role of executive functions for children's cognitive and social development during preschool years, especially in promoting school readiness. Interventions aiming to improve executive functions are therefore being called for. The present study examined the effect of a small group intervention implemented in kindergarten…

  20. Reaching the poor with health interventions: Programme-incidence analysis of seven randomised trials of women's groups to reduce newborn mortality in Asia and Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Houweling (Tanja); J. Morrison (Jonathan); G. Alcock (Glyn); K. Azad (Kishwar); S. Das (Sushmita); M. Hossen (Munir); A. Kuddus (Abdul); S. Lewycka (Sonia); C.W.N. Looman (Caspar); B.B. Magar (Bharat Budhathoki); D.S. Manandhar (Dharma S.); M. Akter (Mahfuza); A.L. Nkhata Dube (Albert Lazarous); S. Rath (Santosh); N. Saville (Naomi); A. Sen (Aman); P. Tripathy (Prasanta); A. Costello (Anthony); J. Bamjan (Jyoti); B.H. Aumon (Bedowra Haq); M. Madina (Mantu); F. Malamba (Florida); R.M. Basiya (Riddhima Mehta); S. Pathak (Shrijana); T. Phiri (Tambosi); A. Rosato (Antonio); K. Sah (Kabita); N.S. More (Neena Shah); S. Surve (Sweta); R. Tiwari (Rinku); C.O.F. Zamawe (Collins O.F.); D. Osrin (David)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground Efforts to end preventable newborn deaths will fail if the poor are not reached with effective interventions. To understand what works to reach vulnerable groups, we describe and explain the uptake of a highly effective community-based newborn health intervention across social

  1. A Randomised Group Comparison Controlled Trial of "Preschoolers with Autism": A Parent Education and Skills Training Intervention for Young Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonge, Bruce; Brereton, Avril; Kiomall, Melissa; Mackinnon, Andrew; Rinehart, Nicole J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To determine the effect of parent education on adaptive behaviour, autism symptoms and cognitive/language skills of young children with autistic disorder. Method: A randomised group comparison design involving a parent education and counselling intervention and a parent education and behaviour management intervention to control for parent…

  2. The Impact of Antenatal Psychological Group Interventions on Psychological Well-Being: A Systematic Review of the Qualitative and Quantitative Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Wadephul

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Depression, anxiety and stress in the perinatal period can have serious, long-term consequences for women, their babies and their families. Over the last two decades, an increasing number of group interventions with a psychological approach have been developed to improve the psychological well-being of pregnant women. This systematic review examines interventions targeting women with elevated symptoms of, or at risk of developing, perinatal mental health problems, with the aim of understanding the successful and unsuccessful features of these interventions. We systematically searched online databases to retrieve qualitative and quantitative studies on psychological antenatal group interventions. A total number of 19 papers describing 15 studies were identified; these included interventions based on cognitive behavioural therapy, interpersonal therapy and mindfulness. Quantitative findings suggested beneficial effects in some studies, particularly for women with high baseline symptoms. However, overall there is insufficient quantitative evidence to make a general recommendation for antenatal group interventions. Qualitative findings suggest that women and their partners experience these interventions positively in terms of psychological wellbeing and providing reassurance of their ‘normality’. This review suggests that there are some benefits to attending group interventions, but further research is required to fully understand their successful and unsuccessful features.

  3. The Impact of Antenatal Psychological Group Interventions on Psychological Well-Being: A Systematic Review of the Qualitative and Quantitative Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadephul, Franziska; Jones, Catriona; Jomeen, Julie

    2016-06-08

    Depression, anxiety and stress in the perinatal period can have serious, long-term consequences for women, their babies and their families. Over the last two decades, an increasing number of group interventions with a psychological approach have been developed to improve the psychological well-being of pregnant women. This systematic review examines interventions targeting women with elevated symptoms of, or at risk of developing, perinatal mental health problems, with the aim of understanding the successful and unsuccessful features of these interventions. We systematically searched online databases to retrieve qualitative and quantitative studies on psychological antenatal group interventions. A total number of 19 papers describing 15 studies were identified; these included interventions based on cognitive behavioural therapy, interpersonal therapy and mindfulness. Quantitative findings suggested beneficial effects in some studies, particularly for women with high baseline symptoms. However, overall there is insufficient quantitative evidence to make a general recommendation for antenatal group interventions. Qualitative findings suggest that women and their partners experience these interventions positively in terms of psychological wellbeing and providing reassurance of their 'normality'. This review suggests that there are some benefits to attending group interventions, but further research is required to fully understand their successful and unsuccessful features.

  4. A group music intervention using percussion instruments with familiar music to reduce anxiety and agitation of institutionalized older adults with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Huei-chuan; Lee, Wen-li; Li, Tzai-li; Watson, Roger

    2012-06-01

    This experimental study aimed to evaluate the effects of a group music intervention on anxiety and agitation of institutionalized older adults with dementia. A total of 60 participants were randomly assigned to an experimental or a control group. The experimental group received a 30-min music intervention using percussion instruments with familiar music in a group setting in mid afternoon twice weekly for 6 weeks, whereas the control group received usual care with no music intervention. The Rating of Anxiety in Dementia scale was used to assess anxiety, and Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory was used to assess agitation at baseline, week 4 and week 6. Repeated measures analysis of covariance indicated that older adults who received a group music intervention had a significantly lower anxiety score than those in the control group while controlling for pre-test score and cognitive level (F = 8.98, p = 0.004). However, the reduction of agitation between two groups was not significantly different. Anxiety and agitation are common in older adults with dementia and have been reported by caregivers as challenging care problems. An innovative group music intervention using percussion instruments with familiar music as a cost-effective approach has the potential to reduce anxiety and improve psychological well-being of those with dementia. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Effects of a brief cognitive behavioural therapy group intervention on baseline brain perfusion in adolescents with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosic-Vasic, Zrinka; Abler, Birgit; Grön, Georg; Plener, Paul; Straub, Joana

    2017-04-12

    A number of neuroimaging studies have identified altered regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) related to major depressive disorder (MDD) in adult samples, particularly in the lateral prefrontal, cingular and temporal regions. In contrast, neuroimaging investigations in adolescents with MDD are rare, although investigating young patients during a significant period of brain maturation might offer valuable insights into the neural mechanisms of MDD. We acquired perfusion images obtained with continuous arterial spin labelling in 21 medication-naive adolescents with MDD before and after a five-session cognitive behavioural group therapy (group CBT). A control group included medication-naive patients under treatment as usual while waiting for the psychotherapy. We found relatively increased rCBF in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC; BA 46), the right caudate nucleus and the left inferior parietal lobe (BA 40) after CBT compared with before CBT. Relatively increased rCBF in the right DLPFC postgroup CBT was confirmed by time (post vs. pre)×group (intervention/waiting list) interaction analyses. In the waiting group, relatively increased rCBF was found in the thalamus and the anterior cingulate cortex (BA 24). The relatively small number of patients included in this pilot study has to be considered. Our findings indicate that noninvasive resting perfusion scanning is suitable to identify CBT-related changes in adolescents with MDD. rCBF increase in the DLPFC following a significant reduction in MDD symptoms in adolescents might represent the core neural correlate of changes in 'top-down' cognitive processing, a possible correlate of improved self-regulation and cognitive control.

  6. A group-based counselling intervention for depression comorbid with HIV/AIDS using a task shifting approach in South Africa: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, I; Hanass Hancock, J; Bhana, A; Govender, K

    2014-04-01

    Co-morbid depression in HIV-positive patients on anti-retroviral (ART) treatment poses a public health threat. It compromises treatment adherence and accelerates disease progression. This study aimed to assess the feasibility of a group-based counselling intervention for depressed HIV-positive patients in primary health care (PHC) in South Africa using a task shifting approach. Using a randomized control design, 76 HIV-positive patients with co-morbid depression were initially recruited. This reduced to 34 in the final cohort. Participants were assessed using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9), Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-25) and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) at baseline and 3-month follow-up. The intervention was adapted from a local group-based Interpersonal Therapy (IPT) intervention. Process evaluation interviews were held with the HIV counsellors who delivered the intervention and a sub-sample of participants. Repeated measures ANOVA analysis showed significantly greater improvement on depression scores on the PHQ9 in the intervention group compared to the control group. A significant decline in the mean scores on the HSCL-25 was found for both groups although this was more pronounced for the intervention group. There was no significant improvement in the MSPSS scores. The small sample size of the final cohort affected the power of the study to detect significant differences between the intervention and control groups on the MSPSS. Longer term impact of the intervention is unknown. These preliminary findings suggest that group-based counselling for depression in HIV-positive patients can potentially be effectively delivered by appropriately trained and supported lay HIV counsellors. The need for a larger trial is indicated. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Parental perspectives on a behavioral health music intervention for adolescent/young adult resilience during cancer treatment: report from the children's oncology group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Sharron L; Robb, Sheri L; Phillips-Salimi, Celeste; Cherven, Brooke; Stegenga, Kristin; Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna; Roll, Lona; Donovan Stickler, Molly; Haase, Joan

    2013-02-01

    This article describes parental perspectives on the helpfulness and meaningfulness of a behavioral health music therapy intervention targeted to adolescents/young adults (AYA) with cancer undergoing stem cell transplantation. We demonstrate how qualitative methods may be used to understand critical aspects of an intervention and mechanisms by which the intervention impacts the target AYA outcomes of resilience and quality of life. A qualitative descriptive design was used to obtain parents' perspectives. A maximum-variation purposive sampling technique was used to sample 16 parents whose AYA had been randomized to the intervention group. A semistructured open-ended interview was conducted between 100 and 160 days after the AYA's transplant. Results were grouped into three categories: (1) helpfulness and meaningfulness of the intervention to AYA adjustment to the transplantation experience; (2) helpfulness and meaningfulness of the intervention for parents; and (3) AYA ability to participate in the intervention during the acute phase of transplant. Parents observed and interacted with their AYA who participated in a targeted behavioral intervention. Thus, parents were able to describe mechanisms through which the intervention was helpful and meaningful for the AYA and indirect personal benefits for themselves. The results suggest the importance of the targeted outcomes identified in the Resilience in Illness Model and mechanisms of action in the Contextual Support Model of Music Therapy, and identify approaches for future study. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Parental Perspectives on a Behavioral Health Music Intervention for Adolescent/Young Adult Resilience during Cancer Treatment: Report from the Children’s Oncology Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Sharron L.; Robb, Sheri L.; Phillips-Salimi, Celeste; Cherven, Brooke; Stegenga, Kristin; Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna; Roll, Lona; Stickler, Molly Donovan; Haase, Joan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This paper describes parental perspectives on the helpfulness and meaningfulness of a behavioral health music therapy intervention targeted to adolescents/young adults (AYA) with cancer undergoing stem cell transplantation. We demonstrate how qualitative methods may be used to understand critical aspects of an intervention and mechanisms by which the intervention impacts the target AYA outcomes resilience and quality of life. Methods A qualitative descriptive design was used to obtain parents’ perspectives. Maximum variation purposive sampling was used to sample 16 parents whose AYA had been randomized to the intervention group. A semi-structured, open-ended interview was conducted between 100 and 160 days following their AYA’s transplant. Results Results are grouped into three categories: (1) helpfulness and meaningfulness of the intervention to AYA adjustment to the transplantation experience; (2) helpfulness and meaningfulness of the intervention for parents; and (3) AYA ability to participate in the intervention during acute phase of transplantation. Conclusions Parents observed and interacted with their AYA who participated in a targeted, behavioral intervention. Thus parents were able to describe mechanisms through which the intervention was helpful and meaningful for the AYA and indirect personal benefits for themselves. The results suggest the importance of the targeted outcomes identified in the Resilience in Illness Model and mechanisms of action in the Contextual Support Model of Music Therapy and identifies approaches for future study. PMID:23332481

  9. CHILE: Outcomes of a group randomized controlled trial of an intervention to prevent obesity in preschool Hispanic and American Indian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Sally M; Myers, Orrin B; Cruz, Theresa H; Morshed, Alexandra B; Canaca, Glenda F; Keane, Patricia C; O'Donald, Elena R

    2016-08-01

    We examined the outcomes of the Child Health Initiative for Lifelong Eating and Exercise (CHILE) study, a group randomized controlled trial to design, implement, and test the efficacy of a trans-community intervention to prevent obesity in children enrolled in Head Start centers in rural American Indian and Hispanic communities in New Mexico. CHILE was a 5-year evidence-based intervention that used a socioecological approach to improving dietary intake and increasing physical activity of 1898 children. The intervention included a classroom curriculum, teacher and food service training, family engagement, grocery store participation, and healthcare provider support. Height and weight measurements were obtained four times (fall of 2008, spring and fall of 2009, and spring of 2010), and body mass index (BMI) z-scores in the intervention and comparison groups were compared. At baseline, demographic characteristics in the comparison and intervention groups were similar, and 33% of all the children assessed were obese or overweight. At the end of the intervention, there was no significant difference between the two groups in BMI z-scores. Obesity prevention research among Hispanic and AI preschool children in rural communities is challenging and complex. Although the CHILE intervention was implemented successfully, changes in overweight and obesity may take longer than 2years to achieve. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Mobile Health (mHealth) Versus Clinic-Based Group Intervention for People With Serious Mental Illness: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Zeev, Dror; Brian, Rachel M; Jonathan, Geneva; Razzano, Lisa; Pashka, Nicole; Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth; Drake, Robert E; Scherer, Emily A

    2018-05-25

    mHealth approaches that use mobile phones to deliver interventions can help improve access to care for people with serious mental illness. The goal was to evaluate how mHealth performs against more traditional treatment. A three-month randomized controlled trial was conducted of a smartphone-delivered intervention (FOCUS) versus a clinic-based group intervention (Wellness Recovery Action Plan [WRAP]). Participants were 163 clients, mostly from racial minority groups and with long-term, serious mental illness (schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, 49%; bipolar disorder, 28%; and major depressive disorder, 23%). Outcomes were engagement throughout the intervention; satisfaction posttreatment (three months); and improvement in clinical symptoms, recovery, and quality of life (assessed at baseline, posttreatment, and six months). Participants assigned to FOCUS were more likely than those assigned to WRAP to commence treatment (90% versus 58%) and remain fully engaged in eight weeks of care (56% versus 40%). Satisfaction ratings were comparably high for both interventions. Participants in both groups improved significantly and did not differ in clinical outcomes, including general psychopathology and depression. Significant improvements in recovery were seen for the WRAP group posttreatment, and significant improvements in recovery and quality of life were seen for the FOCUS group at six months. Both interventions produced significant gains among clients with serious and persistent mental illnesses who were mostly from racial minority groups. The mHealth intervention showed superior patient engagement and produced patient satisfaction and clinical and recovery outcomes that were comparable to those from a widely used clinic-based group intervention for illness management.

  11. A mixed methods study of peer-to-peer support in a group-based lifestyle intervention for adults with serious mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Naslund, John A; Bartels, Stephen J

    2016-12-01

    There is potential for peer support to enhance healthy lifestyle interventions targeting changes in body weight and fitness for adults with serious mental illness. The purpose of this study was to explore peer-to-peer support among individuals participating in a group lifestyle intervention that included social media to enhance in-person weight management sessions. A mixed methods study design was used to explore participants' perceptions and experiences of support from other group members during a 6-month group lifestyle intervention. Twenty-five individuals with serious mental illness reported their perceptions of the peer group environment and social support during the intervention. Seventeen of these individuals also participated in focus group interviews further exploring their experiences with group members. More than 80% of participants agreed that other group members were trustworthy and dependable, and 92% reported a high level of shared purpose and active participation in the group. Participants described how shared learning and group problem-solving activities fostered friendships and provided essential support for health behavior change. Sharing information, personal successes and challenges, and "being in the same boat" as other group members were key features of peer-to-peer support. Findings from this exploratory study suggest that participants enrolled in a group-based lifestyle intervention for people with serious mental illness experience peer-to-peer support in various ways that promote health behavior change. These findings highlight opportunities to enhance future lifestyle interventions with collaborative learning and social network technologies that foster peer support among participants. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. A Systematic Review of Promising Strategies of Faith-Based Cancer Education and Lifestyle Interventions Among Racial/Ethnic Minority Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Su-I; Cao, Xian

    2017-09-13

    Church-based interventions have been used to reach racial/ethnic minorities. In order to develop effective programs, we conducted a comprehensive systematic review of faith-based cancer prevention studies (2005~2016) to examine characteristics and promising strategies. Combination terms "church or faith-based or religion," "intervention or program," and "cancer education or lifestyle" were used in searching the five major databases: CINAHL; ERIC; Health Technology Assessments; MEDLINE; and PsycInfo. A total of 20 studies met study criteria. CDC's Community Guide was used to analyze and review group interventions. Analyses were organized by two racial groups: African American (AA) and Latino/Hispanic American groups. Results showed most studies reviewed focused on breast cancer alone or in combination with other cancers. Studies of Latino/Hispanic groups targeted more on uninsured, Medicare, or Medicaid individuals, whereas AA studies generally did not include specific insurance criteria. The sample sizes of the AA studies were generally larger. The majority of these studies reviewed used pre-post, posttest only with control group, or quasi-experience designs. The Health Belief Model was the most commonly used theory in both groups. Community-based participatory research and empowerment/ecological frameworks were also used frequently in the Latino/Hispanic studies. Small media and group education were the top two most popular intervention strategies in both groups. Although one-on-one strategy was used in some Latino studies, neither group used reducing client out-of-pocket costs strategy. Client reminders could also be used more in both groups as well. Current review showed church-based cancer education programs were effective in changing knowledge, but not always screening utilization. Results show faith-based cancer educational interventions are promising. To maximize intervention impact, future studies might consider using stronger study designs, incorporating a

  13. Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Group Intervention on Body Image Improving and Increasing Self-Esteem in Women with Breast Cancer after Mastectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Izadi-Ajirlo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to improve the body image and self-esteem among breast cancer patients after mastectomy. Materials & Methods: Our study comprised of 23 breast cancer patients in Imam Hossein Hospital, aged between 30-60 years, all of whom had undergone mastectomy and then radiotherapy. The study participants were selected through purposeful sampling and then randomly assigned to the case (10 and control (13 groups. The intervention program (cognitive behavioral group intervention consisted of 12 sessions of intervention (2 sessions per week each taking 90 minutes, in a 6 week process. Both group members completed the “body image and relationships scale” and the “Pope self- esteem questionnaire” before and after training. Analysis of covariance to eliminate the pretest effect on posttest results and ANOVA to determine the differences between the groups were used through SPSS 18 in this study. Results: This intervention was significantly effective on improving the mean score of body image and self- esteem in the breast cancer/mastectomy patients of the case group compared to that of the control group (P<0.01. Conclusion: Thus, cognitive behavioral group intervention can be effective in improving body image and increasing self-esteem among women with breast cancer after mastectomy.

  14. Effects of Group Counseling Programs, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, and Sports Intervention on Internet Addiction in East Asia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Nie, Jing; Wang, Yafeng

    2017-11-28

    To evaluate the effects of group counseling programs, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and sports intervention on Internet addiction (IA), a systematic search in ten databases was performed to identify eligible studies without language restrictions up to January 2017. A meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA) was performed, respectively. A total of 58 randomized controlled trials (RCTs), which included 2871 participants, were incorporated into our meta-analysis. The results showed that group counseling programs, CBT, and sports intervention could significantly reduce IA levels (group counseling program: standardized mean difference (SMD), -1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI), -1.89 to -0.85; CBT: SMD, -1.88; 95% CI, -2.53 to -1.23; sports intervention: SMD, -1.70; 95% CI, -2.14 to -1.26). For group counseling programs, this treatment was more effective in four dimensions of IA, including time management, interpersonal and health issues, tolerance, and compulsive Internet use. For CBT, this treatment yielded a positive change in depression, anxiousness, aggressiveness, somatization, social insecurity, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism. For sports intervention, the significant effects were also observed in all dimensions of the IA scale. Each of group counseling programs, cognitive behavioral therapy, and sports intervention had a significant effect on IA and psychopathological symptoms. Sports intervention could improve withdrawal symptoms especially.

  15. Effects of Group Counseling Programs, Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, and Sports Intervention on Internet Addiction in East Asia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of group counseling programs, cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT, and sports intervention on Internet addiction (IA, a systematic search in ten databases was performed to identify eligible studies without language restrictions up to January 2017. A meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis (TSA was performed, respectively. A total of 58 randomized controlled trials (RCTs, which included 2871 participants, were incorporated into our meta-analysis. The results showed that group counseling programs, CBT, and sports intervention could significantly reduce IA levels (group counseling program: standardized mean difference (SMD, −1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI, −1.89 to −0.85; CBT: SMD, −1.88; 95% CI, −2.53 to −1.23; sports intervention: SMD, −1.70; 95% CI, −2.14 to −1.26. For group counseling programs, this treatment was more effective in four dimensions of IA, including time management, interpersonal and health issues, tolerance, and compulsive Internet use. For CBT, this treatment yielded a positive change in depression, anxiousness, aggressiveness, somatization, social insecurity, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism. For sports intervention, the significant effects were also observed in all dimensions of the IA scale. Each of group counseling programs, cognitive behavioral therapy, and sports intervention had a significant effect on IA and psychopathological symptoms. Sports intervention could improve withdrawal symptoms especially.

  16. Resource-enhancing group intervention against depression at workplace: who benefits? A randomised controlled study with a 7-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahola, Kirsi; Vuori, Jukka; Toppinen-Tanner, Salla; Mutanen, Pertti; Honkonen, Teija

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether participation in a structured resource-enhancing group intervention at work would act as primary prevention against depression. The authors analysed whether the intervention resulted in universal, selected or indicated prevention. A total of 566 persons participated in a prospective, within-organisation, randomly assigned field experimental study, which consisted of 34 workshops in 17 organisations. The participants filled in a questionnaire, were randomly assigned to either intervention (n=296) or comparison (n=324) groups and returned another questionnaire 7 months later. The intervention, lasting four half-day sessions, was delivered by trainers from occupational health services and human resources. The aim of the structured programme was to enhance participants' career management preparedness by strengthening self-efficacy and inoculation against setbacks. The comparison group received a literature package. The authors measured depressive symptoms using the short version of the Beck Depression Inventory. A high number of depressive symptoms (over 9 points) were used as a proxy for depression. At follow-up, the odds of depression were lower in the intervention group (OR=0.40, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.85) than in the comparison group when adjusted for baseline depressive symptoms, job strain and socio-demographics. In addition, the odds of depression among those with job strain (OR=0.15, 95% CI 0.03-0.81) at baseline were lower after the intervention. The intervention had no statistically significant effect on those with depressive symptoms (over 4 points) at baseline. The resource-enhancing group intervention appeared to be successful as universal and selective prevention of potential depression.

  17. The effects of holistic health group interventions on improving the cognitive ability of persons with mild cognitive impairment: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kim-Wan; Ng, Petrus; Kwok, Timothy; Cheng, Daphne

    2017-01-01

    Persons with mild cognitive impairment (PwMCI) are at a higher risk of developing dementia than those without cognitive impairment. This research study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a holistic health group intervention, which is based on the holistic brain health approach as well as an Eastern approach to health care, on improving the cognitive ability of Chinese PwMCI. In a randomized controlled trial (RCT), 38 Chinese PwMCI were randomly assigned to either a 10-session holistic health intervention group or the control group. The holistic health treatment group attempted to promote the acceptance of their illness, enhance memory and coping skills, develop a positive lifestyle, maintain positive emotions, and facilitate emotional support among participants. The 10-session holistic health group intervention was structured, with each session conducted once per week and ~90 minutes in length. Control group patients and their family caregivers received standardized basic educational materials that provided basic information on cognitive decline for them to read at home. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test was used to assess the cognitive ability of PwMCI in the pre- and posttreatment periods by a research assistant who was blind to the group assignment of the participants. The paired-samples t -test indicated that the treatment group (n=18) showed significant improvement in the MoCA score, whereas the control group (n=20) did not. Moreover, 2×2 (group × time) repeated-measures analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) demonstrated that the holistic health group treatment was significantly more effective than the control intervention in improving the MoCA score, with a moderate effect size, and improving the delayed recall (ie, short-term memory), with a strong effect size, after controlling for age, sex, education, and marital status. This present RCT provides evidence to support the feasibility and effectiveness of the holistic health group intervention in

  18. Impulsivity-focused group intervention to reduce binge eating episodes in patients with binge eating disorder: study protocol of the randomised controlled IMPULS trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schag, Kathrin; Leehr, Elisabeth J; Martus, Peter; Bethge, Wolfgang; Becker, Sandra; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin E

    2015-12-18

    The core symptom of binge eating disorder (BED) is recurrent binge eating that is accompanied by a sense of loss of control. BED is frequently associated with obesity, one of the main public health challenges today. Experimental studies deliver evidence that general trait impulsivity and disorder-specific food-related impulsivity constitute risk factors for BED. Cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) is deemed to be the most effective intervention concerning BED. We developed a group intervention based on CBT and especially focusing on impulsivity. We hypothesise that such an impulsivity-focused group intervention is able to increase control over impulsive eating behaviour, that is, reduce binge eating episodes, further eating pathology and impulsivity. Body weight might also be influenced in the long term. The present randomised controlled trial investigates the feasibility, acceptance and efficacy of this impulsivity-focused group intervention in patients with BED. We compare 39 patients with BED in the experimental group to 39 patients with BED in the control group at three appointments: before and after the group intervention and in a 3-month follow-up. Patients with BED in the experimental group receive 8 weekly sessions of the impulsivity-focused group intervention with 5-6 patients per group. Patients with BED in the control group receive no group intervention. The primary outcome is the binge eating frequency over the past 4 weeks. Secondary outcomes comprise further eating pathology, general impulsivity and food-related impulsivity assessed by eye tracking methodology, and body weight. Additionally, we assess binge eating and other impulsive behaviour weekly in process analyses during the time period of the group intervention. This study has been approved by the ethics committee of the medical faculty of Eberhard Karls University Tübingen and the University Hospital Tübingen. Data are monitored by the Centre of Clinical Studies, University Hospital T

  19. A randomized controlled trial of a group intervention for siblings of children with cancer: Changes in symptoms of anxiety in siblings and caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Maru; Atenafu, Eshetu G; Schulte, Fiona; Nathan, Paul C; Hancock, Kelly; Saleh, Amani

    2018-06-01

    This study assessed the effects of a group intervention-Siblings Coping Together (SibCT)-on siblings' and caregivers' anxiety symptoms compared to controls, and potential moderators. Seventy healthy siblings of children on or off treatment (7-16 y old, 41 males) participated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with 2 arms/groups: SibCT (n = 41) and an attention control (CG) (n = 34). Both groups had eight 2-hour weekly sessions. EG followed SibCT's educational, social, and problem-solving activities. CG had planned games and crafts. Siblings and caregivers self-reported on anxiety symptoms at baseline, intervention end, and 3 months later. Multivariable mixed model analyses examined the intervention effect over time, and potential moderators (gender, on/off ill child's treatment). No main effects of group or time were found in sibling scores. A group × gender interaction (P siblings reported less total anxiety symptoms than male siblings, with no significant gender differences in the control group. Caregivers' total anxiety symptoms declined over time (P siblings in SibCT reported less anxiety compared with caregivers of CG. There was no clear SibCT intervention effect. SibCT may benefit female siblings, and caregivers whose ill child is on active treatment. Contextual factors (gender) seem to influence psychosocial intervention in this population. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Prevention of suicide and attempted suicide in Denmark. Epidemiological studies of suicide and intervention studies in selected risk groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordentoft, Merete

    2007-11-01

    The suicide rates in Denmark have been declining during the last two decades. The decline was relatively larger among women than among men. All age groups experienced a decline except the very young with stable rates and the very old with increasing rates. The Universal, Selective, Indicated (USI) model recommended by Institute of Medicine was used as a framework for the thesis. Universal preventive interventions are directed toward the entire population; selective interventions are directed toward individuals who are at greater risk for suicidal behaviour; and indicated preventions are targeted at individuals who have already begun self-destructive behaviour. At the universal level, a review was carried out to highlight the association between availability of methods for suicide and suicide rate. There were mostly studies of firearms, and the conclusion of the review was that there was clear indication of restricted access to lethal means was associated with decline in suicide with that specific method, and in many cases also with overall suicide mortality. Restricting access is especially important for methods with high case fatality rate. Our own study indicated a beneficial effect on suicide rates of restrictions in access to barbiturates, dextropropoxyphen, domestic gas and car exhaust with high content of carbon monoxide. Although a range of other factors in the society might also be of importance, it was concluded that restrictions in access to dangerous means for suicide were likely to play an important role in reducing suicide rates in Denmark, especially for women. At the selective level, there are several important risk groups such as psychiatric patients, persons with alcohol and drug abuse, persons with newly diagnosed severe physical illness, all who previously attempted suicide, and groups of homeless, institutionalized, prisoners and other socially excluded persons. The thesis focused on homeless persons and psychiatric patients, especially patients

  1. Effectiveness of Group Positive Parenting Program (Triple P) in Changing Child Behavior, Parenting Style, and Parental Adjustment: An Intervention Study in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Kato, Noriko; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of a group-based family intervention program known as the Group Positive Parenting Program (Triple P), with families in Japan. Reductions in children's behavioral problems, changes in dysfunctional parenting practices, and affects on parenting adjustment were examined. Participants of…

  2. Comparative Effects of Mindfulness and Support and Information Group Interventions for Parents of Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Other Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunsky, Yona; Hastings, Richard P.; Weiss, Jonathan A.; Palucka, Anna M.; Hutton, Sue; White, Karen

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated two community based interventions for parents of adults with autism spectrum disorder and other developmental disabilities. Parents in the mindfulness group reported significant reductions in psychological distress, while parents in the support and information group did not. Reduced levels of distress in the mindfulness group…

  3. Exploring the feasibility of the visual language in autism program for children in an early intervention group setting: views of parents, educators, and health professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donato, Cynthia; Shane, Howard C; Hemsley, Bronwyn

    2014-04-01

    To explore the views of key stakeholders on using visual supports for children with developmental disabilities in early intervention group settings. Specifically, this study aimed to determine stakeholders' views on the barriers to and facilitators for the use of visual supports in these settings to inform the feasibility of implementing an immersive Visual Language in Autism program. This study involved three focus groups of parents, educators, and health professionals at one Australian early intervention group setting. Lack of time, limited services, negative attitudes in society, and inconsistent use were cited as common barriers to using visual supports. Facilitators included having access to information and evidence on visual supports, increased awareness of visual supports, and the use of mobile technologies. The Visual Language in Autism program is feasible in early intervention group settings, if barriers to and facilitators for its use are addressed to enable an immersive visual language experience.

  4. Requirements on a community-based intervention for stimulating physical activity in physically disabled people: a focus group study amongst experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krops, Leonie A; Hols, Doortje H J; Folkertsma, Nienke; Dijkstra, Pieter U; Geertzen, Jan H B; Dekker, Rienk

    2017-06-14

    To explore ideas experts, working in the field of physical activity for people with a disability, pose on a stimulating movement intervention for physically disabled people longer than one year post rehabilitation or not familiar with rehabilitation. Four semi-structured focus groups were conducted with experts (n = 28). Transcripts were analysed following thematic analysis, using the integrated physical activity for people with a disability and intervention mapping model. Experts expressed no need for a new intervention, but, instead, a need for adapting an existing intervention, and increased collaboration between organisations. Such an adapted intervention should aim to change participants and environmental attitude towards physical activity, and to increase visibility of potential activities. Several methods were mentioned, for instance individual coaching. Potential participants should be personally approached via various intermediates. The intervention owner and government are responsible for stimulating physical activity and should finance an intervention together with health insurances and the user. According to experts adapting an existing intervention, together with increased collaboration between organisations, will be effective in stimulating physical activity in the target population. This study provides requirements on an intervention to stimulate physical activity, and suggestions for the approach of the target population, finance, and responsibility. Implications for Rehabilitation There is no need for designing a new intervention, but need for adaptation of an existing intervention for stimulating physical activity in physically disabled people. An intervention to stimulate physical activity in physically disabled people should aim to change participants and environmental attitude towards physical activity, and to increase the visibility of potential activities. Methods for stimulating physical activity in physically disabled people could be

  5. Report by the work-group on radiation protection in interventional radiology. Recommendations related to the improvement of radiation protection in interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    This report aims at proposing recommendations for the improvement of the quality of radiation protection of workers and patients in the field of interventional radiology. These recommendations concern the training of health personnel, the application of the optimization principle to health professionals and patients, dosimetry and the definition of diagnosis reference levels. More particularly, these recommendations concern professions involved in interventional radiology, and take into account the experience of other European Union State members and recommendations made by the IAEA. The authors analyze the equipment, radiological actions, procedures and doses, practitioners, equipment used for radio-guided interventions. They discuss doses received by patients, patient monitoring and radio-induced lesions. Then, they address the role and training of the different interveners in radiation protection, the equipment maintenance issue, and personnel dosimetry and protection

  6. Effectiveness of locomotion training in a home visit preventive care project: one-group pre-intervention versus post-intervention design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Shinya; Hashimoto, Mari; Aduma, Saori; Yasumura, Seiji

    2015-11-01

    Locomotion training in a home visit-type preventive-care program has been reported elsewhere. However, continuation of appropriate exercises in a home setting is difficult, and few reports are available on locomotion training in a home setting. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of locomotion training over 3 months in a home visit-type preventive-care program for improvement of motor function among elderly people. Nine hundred and fifty-eight elderly people in Tendo City in Japan who were not currently attending any preventive-care program were invited to participate in the study, and 87 were enrolled. In the pre-intervention and post-intervention assessments, we administered an interview survey (the Kihon Checklist), the timed one-leg standing test with eyes open and the sit-to-stand test, at the participants' homes. The intervention involved one set of training exercises with the participants standing on each leg for 1 min and squatting five or six times. The participants were asked to repeat one set of the exercises three times a day at home. In addition, the participants were regularly asked over the telephone about their performance of the exercises. Physical strength, cognitive function, and total scores of the Kihon Checklist were significantly lower after the intervention than before. In addition, the one-leg standing test time was significantly longer after the intervention (mean ± SD, 23.9 ± 35.4) than before (15.7 ± 20.5), and the sit-to-stand test time was significantly shorter after the intervention (13.0 ± 6.2) than before (14.8 ± 8.3). Locomotion training in a home-visit preventive-care program with telephone support effectively improved the motor function of elderly people who were not currently attending any preventive-care program organized by the long-term care insurance system.

  7. Cognitive behavioral group intervention for pain and well-being in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a study of feasibility and preliminary efficacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Johanne Jeppesen; Thastum, Mikael; Christensen, Anne Estmann

    2015-01-01

    the efficacy of psychological therapy in children with arthritis and with mixed results. The aim of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a cognitive behavioral therapy group intervention for children with JIA and their parents. METHODS: Nineteen children with JIA...... and their parents were allocated to six sessions' group cognitive-behavioral therapy (n = 9) or a waitlist control condition (n = 10). Results were measured from self-reported scales and one-week pain diaries. Clinical data was collected by a rheumatologist. RESULTS: The participation rate was low; 33...... % of the invited families participated. However, the participants rated the intervention's credibility and satisfaction with the intervention as high. The dropout rate was low and attendance rate high. Increased quality of life and improvements in adaptive pain cognitions was reported in the intervention condition...

  8. The DISC (Diabetes in Social Context) Study-evaluation of a culturally sensitive social network intervention for diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups: a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissenberg, Charlotte; Nierkens, Vera; Uitewaal, Paul J M; Geraci, Diana; Middelkoop, Barend J C; Nijpels, Giel; Stronks, Karien

    2012-03-19

    Compared to those in higher socioeconomic groups, diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups have less favourable metabolic control and experience more diabetes-related complications. They encounter specific barriers that hinder optimal diabetes self-management, including a lack of social support and other psychosocial mechanisms in their immediate social environments. Powerful Together with Diabetes is a culturally sensitive social network intervention specifically targeted to ethnic Dutch, Moroccan, Turkish, and Surinamese diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups. For ten months, patients will participate in peer support groups in which they will share experiences, support each other in maintaining healthy lifestyles, and learn skills to resist social pressure. At the same time, their significant others will also receive an intervention, aimed at maximizing support for and minimizing the negative social influences on diabetes self-management. This study aims to test the effectiveness of Powerful Together with Diabetes. We will use a quasi-experimental design with an intervention group (Group 1) and two comparison groups (Groups 2 and 3), N = 128 in each group. Group 1 will receive Powerful Together with Diabetes. Group 2 will receive Know your Sugar, a six-week group intervention that does not focus on the participants' social environments. Group 3 receives standard care only. Participants in Groups 1 and 2 will be interviewed and physically examined at baseline, 3, 10, and 16 months. We will compare their haemoglobin A1C levels with the haemoglobin A1C levels of Group 3. Main outcome measures are haemoglobin A1C, diabetes-related quality of life, diabetes self-management, health-related, and intermediate outcome measures. We will conduct a process evaluation and a qualitative study to gain more insights into the intervention fidelity, feasibility, and changes in the psychosocial mechanism in the participants' immediate social environments. With this

  9. The DISC (Diabetes in Social Context Study-evaluation of a culturally sensitive social network intervention for diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vissenberg Charlotte

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Compared to those in higher socioeconomic groups, diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups have less favourable metabolic control and experience more diabetes-related complications. They encounter specific barriers that hinder optimal diabetes self-management, including a lack of social support and other psychosocial mechanisms in their immediate social environments. Powerful Together with Diabetes is a culturally sensitive social network intervention specifically targeted to ethnic Dutch, Moroccan, Turkish, and Surinamese diabetic patients in lower socioeconomic groups. For ten months, patients will participate in peer support groups in which they will share experiences, support each other in maintaining healthy lifestyles, and learn skills to resist social pressure. At the same time, their significant others will also receive an intervention, aimed at maximizing support for and minimizing the negative social influences on diabetes self-management. This study aims to test the effectiveness of Powerful Together with Diabetes. Methods/Design We will use a quasi-experimental design with an intervention group (Group 1 and two comparison groups (Groups 2 and 3, N = 128 in each group. Group 1 will receive Powerful Together with Diabetes. Group 2 will receive Know your Sugar, a six-week group intervention that does not focus on the participants' social environments. Group 3 receives standard care only. Participants in Groups 1 and 2 will be interviewed and physically examined at baseline, 3, 10, and 16 months. We will compare their haemoglobin A1C levels with the haemoglobin A1C levels of Group 3. Main outcome measures are haemoglobin A1C, diabetes-related quality of life, diabetes self-management, health-related, and intermediate outcome measures. We will conduct a process evaluation and a qualitative study to gain more insights into the intervention fidelity, feasibility, and changes in the psychosocial mechanism in the

  10. ESC Working Group on Valvular Heart Disease Position Paper: assessing the risk of interventions in patients with valvular heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenhek, Raphael; Iung, Bernard; Tornos, Pilar; Antunes, Manuel J.; Prendergast, Bernard D.; Otto, Catherine M.; Kappetein, Arie Pieter; Stepinska, Janina; Kaden, Jens J.; Naber, Christoph K.; Acartürk, Esmeray; Gohlke-Bärwolf, Christa

    2012-01-01

    Aims Risk scores provide an important contribution to clinical decision-making, but their validity has been questioned in patients with valvular heart disease (VHD), since current scores have been mainly derived and validated in adults undergoing coronary bypass surgery. The Working Group on Valvular Heart Disease of the European Society of Cardiology reviewed the performance of currently available scores when applied to VHD, in order to guide clinical practice and future development of new scores. Methods and results The most widely used risk scores (EuroSCORE, STS, and Ambler score) were reviewed, analysing variables included and their predictive ability when applied to patients with VHD. These scores provide relatively good discrimination, i.e. a gross estimation of risk category, but cannot be used to estimate the exact operative mortality in an individual patient because of unsatisfactory calibration. Conclusion Current risk scores do not provide a reliable estimate of exact operative mortality in an individual patient with VHD. They should therefore be interpreted with caution and only used as part of an integrated approach, which incorporates other patient characteristics, the clinical context, and local outcome data. Future risk scores should include additional variables, such as cognitive and functional capacity and be prospectively validated in high-risk patients. Specific risk models should also be developed for newer interventions, such as transcatheter aortic valve implantation. PMID:21406443

  11. Self-interest versus group-interest in antiviral control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boven, M. van; Klinkenberg, D.; Pen, I.; Weissing, F.J.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2008-01-01

    Antiviral agents have been hailed to hold considerable promise for the treatment and prevention of emerging viral diseases like H5N1 avian influenza and SARS. However, antiviral drugs are not completely harmless, and the conditions under which individuals are willing to participate in a

  12. Threatening communication: diffusing the scientific evidence on fear appeal effectiveness among intervention developers and other groups of key actors

    OpenAIRE

    Kok, Gerjo; Verboon, Peter; Ruiter, Robert; Peters, Gjalt

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Threat-based (fear-appeal) interventions are often ineffective yet popular. The current paper reports the evaluation of an intervention that was designed to discourage using threatening communication and that targeted those responsible for this popularity (intervention developers, campaign leaders, policy makers, politicians, scientists and advertising professionals). METHODS: Of the 153 participants who started, 102 completed both the first phase and the six-week follow-up measur...

  13. Effectiveness of a group-based intervention to change medication beliefs and improve medication adherence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwikker, Hanneke E; van den Ende, Cornelia H; van Lankveld, Wim G; den Broeder, Alfons A; van den Hoogen, Frank H; van de Mosselaar, Birgit; van Dulmen, Sandra; van den Bemt, Bart J

    2014-03-01

    To assess the effect of a group-based intervention on the balance between necessity beliefs and concern beliefs about medication and on medication non-adherence in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Non-adherent RA patients using disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) were randomized to an intervention or control arm. The intervention consisted, amongst others, of two motivational interviewing-guided group sessions led by the same pharmacist. Control patients received brochures about their DMARDs. Questionnaires were completed up to 12 months follow-up. 123 patients (mean age: 60 years, female: 69%) were randomized. No differences in necessity beliefs and concern beliefs about medication and in medication non-adherence were detected between the intervent