WorldWideScience

Sample records for interval change analysis

  1. Analysis of Interval Changes on Mammograms for Computer Aided Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-05-01

    comparisons, we plan to develop automated methods to correspondence between these control points was established detect the interval changes as a part...BS, Chicago, IL • Z Huo, PhD. M.L. Giger. PhD L.A. Venta . MD • to assist radiologists in the detection of pulmonary nodules in benig’ C.J. Vyborny

  2. Real analysis on intervals

    CERN Document Server

    Choudary, A D R

    2014-01-01

    The book targets undergraduate and postgraduate mathematics students and helps them develop a deep understanding of mathematical analysis. Designed as a first course in real analysis, it helps students learn how abstract mathematical analysis solves mathematical problems that relate to the real world. As well as providing a valuable source of inspiration for contemporary research in mathematics, the book helps students read, understand and construct mathematical proofs, develop their problem-solving abilities and comprehend the importance and frontiers of computer facilities and much more. It offers comprehensive material for both seminars and independent study for readers with a basic knowledge of calculus and linear algebra. The first nine chapters followed by the appendix on the Stieltjes integral are recommended for graduate students studying probability and statistics, while the first eight chapters followed by the appendix on dynamical systems will be of use to students of biology and environmental scie...

  3. Computer-Aided Interval Change Analysis of Microcalcifications on Mammograms for Breast Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    34Classification of malignant and benign microcalcifications by texture analysis," Medical Physics 22, 938, 1995. 6. Y. Jiang, R. M. Nishikawa, D...34 Medical Physics 25, 2007-2019, 1998. 9. Y. Jiang, R. M. Nishikawa, and J. Papaioannou, "Dependence of computer classification of clustered...microcalcifications on the correct detection of microcalcifications " Medical Physics 28, 1949-1957, 2001. 10. M. F. Salfity, R. M. Nishikawa, Y. Jiang

  4. Automatic Error Analysis Using Intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, E. J.; Cloud, M. J.

    2012-01-01

    A technique for automatic error analysis using interval mathematics is introduced. A comparison to standard error propagation methods shows that in cases involving complicated formulas, the interval approach gives comparable error estimates with much less effort. Several examples are considered, and numerical errors are computed using the INTLAB…

  5. Reliability and Analysis of Changes in Bite Marks at Different Time Intervals and Temperature Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Khare Sinha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study is to assess time-dependent changes in the morphology of bitemarks and to investigate the utility of matching bitemarks on both perishable and non-perishable objects with the passage of time at different temperatures. Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted at Maharana Pratap College of Dentistry and Research Centre, Gwalior, India. 20 volunteers were asked to bite 6 items each. These included perishable and nonperishable items. Perishable items were apple, banana and Burfi, (a milk-based popular sweet confectionary while non-perishable items included wax, clay, and rubber. Photographs were taken with a digital camera at 0-hours and 24-hours after biting these objects at temperature ranges of 24 ºC to 28 ºC and 36 ºC to 40 ºC, respectively. Life-size photographs of these bitten objects were printed on transparent overlays and compared to hand drawn transparencies prepared from suspect dentition using an X-ray viewer. The comparison of all the 960 transparencies was done by two researchers, independently. Results: All objects gave a positive identification of the biter on matching just after biting. After24-hours, all items also showed positive matching except banana and apples. Conclusion: This proposed method is simple, reliable and less technique sensitive. It narrows down the subjectivity of interpretation. It highlights that due to decomposition changes occur in perishable food items and more so in apples and bananas, making bitemarks less reliable evidence.

  6. Interval arithmetic operations for uncertainty analysis with correlated interval variables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao Jiang; Chun-Ming Fu; Bing-Yu Ni; Xu Han

    2016-01-01

    A new interval arithmetic method is proposed to solve interval functions with correlated intervals through which the overestimation problem existing in interval analy-sis could be significantly alleviated. The correlation between interval parameters is defined by the multidimensional par-allelepiped model which is convenient to describe the correlative and independent interval variables in a unified framework. The original interval variables with correlation are transformed into the standard space without correlation, and then the relationship between the original variables and the standard interval variables is obtained. The expressions of four basic interval arithmetic operations, namely addi-tion, subtraction, multiplication, and division, are given in the standard space. Finally, several numerical examples and a two-step bar are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Sensitivity analysis of soil parameters based on interval

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Interval analysis is a new uncertainty analysis method for engineering struc-tures. In this paper, a new sensitivity analysis method is presented by introducing interval analysis which can expand applications of the interval analysis method. The interval anal-ysis process of sensitivity factor matrix of soil parameters is given. A method of parameter intervals and decision-making target intervals is given according to the interval analysis method. With FEM, secondary developments are done for Marc and the Duncan-Chang nonlinear elastic model. Mutual transfer between FORTRAN and Marc is implemented. With practial examples, rationality and feasibility are validated. Comparison is made with some published results.

  8. The Fundamental Theorems of Interval Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    van Emden, M. H.; Moa, B.

    2007-01-01

    Expressions are not functions. Confusing the two concepts or failing to define the function that is computed by an expression weakens the rigour of interval arithmetic. We give such a definition and continue with the required re-statements and proofs of the fundamental theorems of interval arithmetic and interval analysis. Revision Feb. 10, 2009: added reference to and acknowledgement of P. Taylor.

  9. Fourier Analysis of Musical Intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2008-01-01

    Use of a microphone attached to a computer to capture musical sounds and software to display their waveforms and harmonic spectra has become somewhat commonplace. A recent article in "The Physics Teacher" aptly demonstrated the use of MacScope in just such a manner as a way to teach Fourier analysis. A logical continuation of this project is to…

  10. Interval Finite Element Analysis of Wing Flutter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiaojun; Qiu Zhiping

    2008-01-01

    The influences of uncertainties in structural parameters on the flutter speed of wing are studied. On the basis of the deterministic flutter analysis model of wing, the uncertainties in structural parameters are considered and described by interval numbers. By virtue of first-order Taylor series expansion, the lower and upper bound curves of the transient decay rate coefficient versus wind velocity are given. So the interval estimation of the flutter critical wind speed of wing can be obtained, which is more reasonable than the point esti- mation obtained by the deterministic flutter analysis and provides the basis for the further non-probabilistic interval reliability analysis of wing flutter. The flow chart for interval finite element model of flutter analysis of wing is given. The proposed interval finite element model and the stochastic finite element model for wing flutter analysis are compared by the examples of a three degrees of freedorn airfoil and fuselage and a 15° swepthack wing, and the results have shown the effectiveness and feasibility of the presented model. The prominent advantage of the proposed interval finite element model is that only the bounds of uncertain parameters axe required, and the probabilistic distribution densities or other statistical characteristics are not needed.

  11. Generation interval contraction and epidemic data analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Kenah, Eben; Robins, James M

    2008-01-01

    The generation interval is the time between the infection time of an infected person and the infection time of his or her infector. Probability density functions for generation intervals have been an important input for epidemic models and epidemic data analysis. In this paper, we specify a general stochastic SIR epidemic model and prove that the mean generation interval decreases when susceptible persons are at risk of infectious contact from multiple sources. The intuition behind this is that when a susceptible person has multiple potential infectors, there is a ``race'' to infect him or her in which only the first infectious contact leads to infection. In an epidemic, the mean generation interval contracts as the prevalence of infection increases. We call this global competition among potential infectors. When there is rapid transmission within clusters of contacts, generation interval contraction can be caused by a high local prevalence of infection even when the global prevalence is low. We call this loc...

  12. Advanced Interval Management: A Benefit Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timer, Sebastian; Peters, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This document is the final report for the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC)- sponsored task order 'Possible Benefits for Advanced Interval Management Operations.' Under this research project, Architecture Technology Corporation performed an analysis to determine the maximum potential benefit to be gained if specific Advanced Interval Management (AIM) operations were implemented in the National Airspace System (NAS). The motivation for this research is to guide NASA decision-making on which Interval Management (IM) applications offer the most potential benefit and warrant further research.

  13. Combination of structural reliability and interval analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiping Qiu; Di Yang; saac Elishakoff

    2008-01-01

    In engineering applications,probabilistic reliability theory appears to be presently the most important method,however,in many cases precise probabilistic reliability theory cannot be considered as adequate and credible model of the real state of actual affairs.In this paper,we developed a hybrid of probabilistic and non-probabilistic reliability theory,which describes the structural uncertain parameters as interval variables when statistical data are found insufficient.By using the interval analysis,a new method for calculating the interval of the structural reliability as well as the reliability index is introduced in this paper,and the traditional probabilistic theory is incorporated with the interval analysis.Moreover,the new method preserves the useful part of the traditional probabilistic reliability theory,but removes the restriction of its strict requirement on data acquisition.Example is presented to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the proposed theory.

  14. Recurrence interval analysis of trading volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fei; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2010-06-01

    We study the statistical properties of the recurrence intervals τ between successive trading volumes exceeding a certain threshold q. The recurrence interval analysis is carried out for the 20 liquid Chinese stocks covering a period from January 2000 to May 2009, and two Chinese indices from January 2003 to April 2009. Similar to the recurrence interval distribution of the price returns, the tail of the recurrence interval distribution of the trading volumes follows a power-law scaling, and the results are verified by the goodness-of-fit tests using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) statistic, the weighted KS statistic and the Cramér-von Mises criterion. The measurements of the conditional probability distribution and the detrended fluctuation function show that both short-term and long-term memory effects exist in the recurrence intervals between trading volumes. We further study the relationship between trading volumes and price returns based on the recurrence interval analysis method. It is found that large trading volumes are more likely to occur following large price returns, and the comovement between trading volumes and price returns is more pronounced for large trading volumes.

  15. Assessment of histological changes in antemortem gingival tissues fixed at various time intervals: A method of estimation of postmortem interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalakshmi, V.; Gururaj, N.; Sathya, R.; Sabarinath, T. R.; Sivapathasundharam, B.; Kalaiselvan, S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Conventional methods to estimate the time of death are adequate, but a histological method is yet unavailable to assess postmortem interval (PMI). The autolytic changes that occur in an unfixed antemortem gingival tissue which reflects histologically at an early stage are similar to changes that occur in postmortem tissue. These histological changes can be used and applied in a postmortem tissue as a method to assess PMI. Aims: The aim of the study is to assess the histological changes in a gingival tissue left unfixed for various time intervals and to correlate the findings with duration. Materials and Methods: Sixty gingival tissues obtained from patients following therapeutic extractions, impactions, gingivectomy and crown lengthening procedures were used. Each tissue obtained was divided into two pieces and labeled as “A”, the control group and “ B” the study group. Tissues labeled “A” were fixed in 10% formalin immediately and tissues labeled“B” were placed in closed containers and fixed after 15, 30, 45 min, 1, 2, and 4 h time interval. Of the sixty tissues in the study group “ B”, ten tissues were used for each time interval under investigation. All the fixed tissues were processed, stained, assessed, and analyzed statistically using Pearson correlation and regression analysis. Results: Histological changes appear at 15 min in an unfixed antemortem tissue. At 2 h interval, all layers with few cells in basal cell layer are involved. At 4 h interval, loss of stratification and complete homogenization of cells in the superficial layers with prominent changes in basal layer is evident. There was a positive correlation (<1.0) between the time interval and the appearance of the histological changes. Conclusion: Histological changes such as complete homogenization of cells in superficial layers and loss of epithelial architecture at 4 h in unfixed antemortem tissue may be used as a criterion to estimate PMI, after further studies

  16. Assessment of histological changes in antemortem gingival tissues fixed at various time intervals: A method of estimation of postmortem interval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Mahalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Conventional methods to estimate the time of death are adequate, but a histological method is yet unavailable to assess postmortem interval (PMI. The autolytic changes that occur in an unfixed antemortem gingival tissue which reflects histologically at an early stage are similar to changes that occur in postmortem tissue. These histological changes can be used and applied in a postmortem tissue as a method to assess PMI. Aims: The aim of the study is to assess the histological changes in a gingival tissue left unfixed for various time intervals and to correlate the findings with duration. Materials and Methods: Sixty gingival tissues obtained from patients following therapeutic extractions, impactions, gingivectomy and crown lengthening procedures were used. Each tissue obtained was divided into two pieces and labeled as “A”, the control group and “ B” the study group. Tissues labeled “A” were fixed in 10% formalin immediately and tissues labeled“B” were placed in closed containers and fixed after 15, 30, 45 min, 1, 2, and 4 h time interval. Of the sixty tissues in the study group “ B”, ten tissues were used for each time interval under investigation. All the fixed tissues were processed, stained, assessed, and analyzed statistically using Pearson correlation and regression analysis. Results: Histological changes appear at 15 min in an unfixed antemortem tissue. At 2 h interval, all layers with few cells in basal cell layer are involved. At 4 h interval, loss of stratification and complete homogenization of cells in the superficial layers with prominent changes in basal layer is evident. There was a positive correlation (<1.0 between the time interval and the appearance of the histological changes.Conclusion: Histological changes such as complete homogenization of cells in superficial layers and loss of epithelial architecture at 4 h in unfixed antemortem tissue may be used as a criterion to estimate PMI, after

  17. QT interval changes in term pregnant women living at moderately ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-12-20

    Dec 20, 2015 ... Objective: This study aimed to compare the QT interval changes in women with term pregnancy living at ... as an increase in circulating volume, heart rate, and cardiac ..... exercise before and after an himalayan expedition.

  18. Assessment of Reliable Change Using 95% Credible Intervals for the Differences in Proportions: A Statistical Analysis for Case-Study Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unicomb, Rachael; Colyvas, Kim; Harrison, Elisabeth; Hewat, Sally

    2015-06-01

    Case-study methodology studying change is often used in the field of speech-language pathology, but it can be criticized for not being statistically robust. Yet with the heterogeneous nature of many communication disorders, case studies allow clinicians and researchers to closely observe and report on change. Such information is valuable and can further inform large-scale experimental designs. In this research note, a statistical analysis for case-study data is outlined that employs a modification to the Reliable Change Index (Jacobson & Truax, 1991). The relationship between reliable change and clinical significance is discussed. Example data are used to guide the reader through the use and application of this analysis. A method of analysis is detailed that is suitable for assessing change in measures with binary categorical outcomes. The analysis is illustrated using data from one individual, measured before and after treatment for stuttering. The application of this approach to assess change in categorical, binary data has potential application in speech-language pathology. It enables clinicians and researchers to analyze results from case studies for their statistical and clinical significance. This new method addresses a gap in the research design literature, that is, the lack of analysis methods for noncontinuous data (such as counts, rates, proportions of events) that may be used in case-study designs.

  19. Application of Interval Analysis to Error Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-01

    We give simple examples of ways in which interval arithmetic can be used to alert instabilities in computer algorithms , roundoff error accumulation, and even the effects of hardware inadequacies. This paper is primarily tutorial. (Author)

  20. Modal interval analysis new tools for numerical information

    CERN Document Server

    Sainz, Miguel A; Calm, Remei; Herrero, Pau; Jorba, Lambert; Vehi, Josep

    2014-01-01

    This book presents an innovative new approach to interval analysis. Modal Interval Analysis (MIA) is an attempt to go beyond the limitations of classic intervals in terms of their structural, algebraic and logical features. The starting point of MIA is quite simple: It consists in defining a modal interval that attaches a quantifier to a classical interval and in introducing the basic relation of inclusion between modal intervals by means of the inclusion of the sets of predicates they accept. This modal approach introduces interval extensions of the real continuous functions, identifies equivalences between logical formulas and interval inclusions, and provides the semantic theorems that justify these equivalences, along with guidelines for arriving at these inclusions. Applications of these equivalences in different areas illustrate the obtained results. The book also presents a new interval object: marks, which aspire to be a new form of numerical treatment of errors in measurements and computations.

  1. Workspace Analysis of the Orthoglide using Interval Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chablat, Damien; Merlet, Jean-Pierre

    2002-01-01

    This paper addresses the workspace analysis of the orthoglide, a 3-DOF parallel mechanism designed for machining applications. This machine features three fixed parallel linear joints which are mounted orthogonally and a mobile platform which moves in the Cartesian x-y-z space with fixed orientation. The workspace analysis is conducted on the bases of prescribed kinetostatic performances. The interesting features of the orthoglide are a regular Cartesian workspace shape, uniform performances in all directions and good compactness. Interval analysis based methods for computing the dextrous workspace and the largest cube enclosed in this workspace are presented.

  2. Setting confidence intervals in coincidence search analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Baggio, L; Baggio, Lucio; Prodi, Giovanni A.

    2003-01-01

    The main technique that has been used to estimate the rate of gravitational wave (gw) bursts is to search for coincidence among times of arrival of candidate events in different detectors. Coincidences are modeled as a (possibly non-stationary) random time series background with gw events embedded in it, at random times but constant average rate. It is critical to test whether the statistics of the coincidence counts is Poisson, because the counts in a single detector often are not. At some point a number of parameters are tuned to increase the chance of detection by reducing the expected background: source direction, epoch vetoes based on sensitivity, goodness-of-fit thresholds, etc. Therefore, the significance of the confidence intervals itself has to be renormalized. This review is an insight of the state-of-the-art methods employed in the recent search performed by the International Gravitational Event Collaboration for the worldwide network of resonant bar detectors.

  3. Assessment of Reliable Change Using 95% Credible Intervals for the Differences in Proportions: A Statistical Analysis for Case-Study Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unicomb, Rachael; Colyvas, Kim; Harrison, Elisabeth; Hewat, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Case-study methodology studying change is often used in the field of speech-language pathology, but it can be criticized for not being statistically robust. Yet with the heterogeneous nature of many communication disorders, case studies allow clinicians and researchers to closely observe and report on change. Such information is valuable…

  4. Assessment of Reliable Change Using 95% Credible Intervals for the Differences in Proportions: A Statistical Analysis for Case-Study Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unicomb, Rachael; Colyvas, Kim; Harrison, Elisabeth; Hewat, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Case-study methodology studying change is often used in the field of speech-language pathology, but it can be criticized for not being statistically robust. Yet with the heterogeneous nature of many communication disorders, case studies allow clinicians and researchers to closely observe and report on change. Such information is valuable…

  5. Interval analysis and automatic result verification

    CERN Document Server

    Mayer, Günter

    2017-01-01

    The series is devoted to the publication of monographs and high-level textbooks in mathematics, mathematical methods and their applications. Apart from covering important areas of current interest, a major aim is to make topics of an interdisciplinary nature accessible to the non-specialist. The works in this series are addressed to advanced students and researchers in mathematics and theoretical physics. In addition, it can serve as a guide for lectures and seminars on a graduate level. The series de Gruyter Studies in Mathematics was founded ca. 30 years ago by the late Professor Heinz Bauer and Professor Peter Gabriel with the aim to establish a series of monographs and textbooks of high standard, written by scholars with an international reputation presenting current fields of research in pure and applied mathematics. While the editorial board of the Studies has changed with the years, the aspirations of the Studies are unchanged. In times of rapid growth of mathematical knowledge carefully written monogr...

  6. Implementation and Analysis of Interval SRT Radix-2 Division Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milind R. Patel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Interval arithmetic gives computation for closed bound set of real numbers which provides two values for single result. It gives confirmation that the error which exists due to the mathematical computation does not exceed over defined accuracy. Interval arithmetic provides higher precision and accuracy than the floating point arithmetic. Software computation for interval arithmetic is quite slow. Hardware implementation of the interval arithmetic provides considerable improvement in speed with respect to its software approach. We have used floating point hardware for interval arithmetic to improve the speed of computation. We present the implementation and analysis of interval radix-2 SRT division algorithm in double precision. SRT division gives faster response when partial remainder is relatively small in computation.

  7. The influence of speed and interval variation of serial stimuli on physiological change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, A.

    1970-01-01

    Studied changes in heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), blood volume pulse (BVP), respiration speed (RS), and alpha rhythm (AR) under conditions of the variation of the speed and intervals of auditory stimuli in a serial 2-choice response task. The analysis of variance of the percentage sc

  8. Interval Analysis of the Finite Element Method for Stochastic Structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长虹; 刘筱玲; 陈虬

    2004-01-01

    A random parameter can be transformed into an interval number in the structural analysis with the concept of the confidence interval. Hence, analyses of uncertain structural systems can be used in the traditional FEM software. In some cases, the amount of solutions in stochastic structures is nearly as many as that in the traditional structural problems. In addition, a new method to evaluate the failure probability of structures is presented for the needs of the modern engineering design.

  9. Electrocardiographic QT interval and mortality: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yiyi; Post, Wendy S.; Blasco-Colmenares, Elena; Dalal, Darshan; Tomaselli, Gordon F.; Guallar, Eliseo

    2011-01-01

    Background Extremely abnormal prolongation of the electrocardiographic QT interval is associated with malignant ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. However, the implications of variations in QT-interval length within normal limits for mortality in the general population are still unclear. Methods We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the relation of QT interval with mortality endpoints. Inverse-variance weighted random-effects models were used to summarize the relative risks across studies. Twenty-three observational studies were included. Results The pooled relative risk estimates comparing the highest with the lowest categories of QT-interval length were 1.35 (95% confidence interval = 1.24–1.46) for total mortality, 1.51 (1.29–1.78) for cardiovascular mortality, 1.71 (1.36–2.15) for coronary heart disease mortality, and 1.44 (1.01–2.04) for sudden cardiac death. A 50 msec increase in QT interval was associated with a relative risk of 1.20 (1.15–1.26) for total mortality, 1.29 (1.15–1.46) for cardiovascular mortality, 1.49 (1.25–1.76) for coronary heart disease mortality, and 1.24 (0.97–1.60) for sudden cardiac death. Conclusions We found consistent associations between prolonged QT interval and increased risk of total, cardiovascular, coronary, and sudden cardiac death. QT-interval length is a determinant of mortality in the general population. PMID:21709561

  10. Fault detection of a benchmark wind turbine using interval analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeipour, Seyed Mojtaba; Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Bak, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    is nonlinear. We use an effective wind speed estimator to estimate the effective wind speed and then using interval analysis and monotonicity of the aerodynamic torque with respect to the effective wind speed, we can apply the method to the nonlinear system. The fault detection algorithm checks the consistency...

  11. Correlative Peak Interval Prediction and Analysis of Chaotic Sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qun Ding

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a digital circuit design for the logistic-map module used in chaotic stream ciphers, analyzes the factors that may affect the output of the sequences, and develops a calculation method for estimating the output sequential correlative peak interval. With the respective tests using different initial values, the values of parameter u and the computational precisions, extensive experiments   have   been   carried   out.   A   formula   for calculating correlative peak interval is proposed. Moreover, the relationships among precision, parameter u and correlative peak interval is provided. To ensure the security of the plaintext which is encrypted by the output sequence of the logistic-map, a proper precision could be chosen according to the formula. It provides a theoretic basis for the actual application of the chaos cryptology. The basic theory and methods have a significant implication on the statistical analysis and practical applications of the digital chaotic sequences. A diagram that presents the relationship among precision, parameter u and correlative peak interval has been generated for analysis.

  12. Interval analysis for Certified Numerical Solution of Problems in Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Merlet, Jean-Pierre

    2009-01-01

    International audience; Interval analysis is a relatively new mathematical tool that allows one to deal with problems that may have to be solved numerically with a computer. Examples of such problems are system solving and global optimization but numerous other problems may be addressed as well. This approach has the following general advantages: 1 it allows to find solutions of a problem only within some finite domain which make sense as soon as the unknowns in the problem are physical param...

  13. Safety estimation of structural systems via interval analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xiaojun; Wang Lei; Qiu Zhiping

    2013-01-01

    Considering that the uncertain information has serious influences on the safety of structural systems and is always limited,it is reasonable that the uncertainties are generally described as interval sets.Based on the non-probabilistic set-theoretic theory,which is applied to measuring the safety of structural components and further combined with the branch-and-bound method for the probabilistic reliability analysis of structural systems,the non-probabilistic branch-and-bound method for determining the dominant failure modes of an uncertain structural system is given.Meanwhile,a new system safety measuring index obtained by the non-probabilistic set-theoretic model is investigated.Moreover,the compatibility between the classical probabilistic model as well as the proposed interval-set model will be discussed to verify the physical meaning of the safety measure in this paper.Some numerical examples are utilized to illustrate the validity and feasibility of the developed method.

  14. Perceptual Changes in Response to Two Regimens of Interval Training in Sedentary Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Schubert, Matthew M; Palumbo, Elyse; Stirling, Douglas; McMillan, David W; Gallant, Rachael; Dewoskin, Ruthie

    2016-04-01

    This study examined acute and chronic changes in perceptual measures (rating of perceived exertion [RPE], affect, and arousal) in response to 2 regimens of high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Twenty-three healthy sedentary women (mean ± SD age and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max = 23.0 ± 5.7 years and 30.1 ± 4.4 ml·kg·min, respectively) were randomized to complete 12 weeks of one of 2 HIIT regimes, whereas an additional 7 women served as sedentary controls. Training was performed 3 days per week on a cycle ergometer and consisted of up to ten 1-minute bouts at moderate (60-80%Wmax = moderate intensity [MOD]) or more intense (80-90%Wmax = HI) workloads separated by active recovery. At baseline and every 3 weeks, RPE, affect, and arousal were measured during training using validated scales. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to examine acute and chronic changes in these variables to HIIT. Data revealed significant (p Training led to a significant reduction in RPE, whereas both affect and arousal were unchanged (p > 0.05) after HIIT. Completion of moderate or more intense interval training reduces perceptions of RPE during training yet does not alter arousal or affect. RPE was reduced via training, yet large dependence on anaerobic metabolism during HIIT may minimize training-induced changes in affect.

  15. Preference and resistance to change in concurrent variable-interval schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Matthew C; Williams, Ben A

    2002-02-01

    Pigeons were trained on a multiple schedule in which separate concurrent schedules were presented in the two components of the schedule. During one component, concurrent variable-interval 40-sec variable-interval 80-sec schedules operated. In the second component, concurrent variable-interval 40-sec variable-interval 20-sec schedules operated. After stable baseline performance was obtained in both components, extinction probe choice tests were presented to assess preference between the variable-interval 40-sec schedules from the two components. The variable-interval 40-sec schedule paired with the variable-interval 80-sec schedule was preferred over the variable-interval 40-sec schedule paired with the variable-interval 20-sec schedule. The subjects were also exposed to several resistance-to-change manipulations: (1) prefeeding prior to the experimental session, (2) a free-food schedule added to timeout periods separating components, and (3) extinction. The results indicated that preference and resistance to change do not necessarily covary.

  16. Higher risk of pre-eclampsia after change of partner. An effect of longer interpregnancy intervals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basso, Olga; Christensen, Kaare; Olsen, J.

    2001-01-01

    together with a sample of women with two births (26,596 women). A long interpregnancy interval was associated with a higher risk of pre-eclampsia in women with no previous pre-eclampsia when the father was the same. We estimated the risk of pre-eclampsia in second birth according to paternal change...... in different models. Although partner change was associated with an increased risk of pre-eclampsia in women with no history of pre-eclampsia, this effect disappeared after adjustment for the interpregnancy interval. We saw, however, different results when we stratified on the length of the interval. Our...

  17. Volatility return intervals analysis of the Japanese market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, W.-S.; Wang, F. Z.; Havlin, S.; Kaizoji, T.; Moon, H.-T.; Stanley, H. E.

    2008-03-01

    We investigate scaling and memory effects in return intervals between price volatilities above a certain threshold q for the Japanese stock market using daily and intraday data sets. We find that the distribution of return intervals can be approximated by a scaling function that depends only on the ratio between the return interval τ and its mean . We also find memory effects such that a large (or small) return interval follows a large (or small) interval by investigating the conditional distribution and mean return interval. The results are similar to previous studies of other markets and indicate that similar statistical features appear in different financial markets. We also compare our results between the period before and after the big crash at the end of 1989. We find that scaling and memory effects of the return intervals show similar features although the statistical properties of the returns are different.

  18. Changes in Team Cognition after a Retention Interval: The Benefits of Mixing It up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jamie C.; Cooke, Nancy J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the retention of team cognition with changes in team membership. Hypotheses are developed from shared cognition and interactive team cognition theories. We report a study of the effects of Short (3-6 weeks) versus Long (10-13 weeks) retention intervals and change (Mixed) versus no change (Intact) in team membership during the…

  19. Changes in Team Cognition after a Retention Interval: The Benefits of Mixing It up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Jamie C.; Cooke, Nancy J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the retention of team cognition with changes in team membership. Hypotheses are developed from shared cognition and interactive team cognition theories. We report a study of the effects of Short (3-6 weeks) versus Long (10-13 weeks) retention intervals and change (Mixed) versus no change (Intact) in team membership during the…

  20. The lower limit of interval efficiency in Data Envelopment Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Rahmani Parchikolaei

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In data envelopment analysis technique, the relative efficiency of the homogenous decision making units is calculated. These calculations are done based on the classical model of linear programming such as CCR,BCC,.... Because of maximizing the weighted sum of outputs to that in inputs of one unit under certain conditions, the obtained efficiency in all of these models is the upper limit of exact relative efficiency. In other words, the efficiency is calculatedfrom the optimistic viewpoint. To caculated the lower limit of efficiency, i.e. the efficiency obtained from a pessimistic viewpoint for certain weights, the existing models cannot calculate the exact lower limit and in some cases, there exist some models that show an incorrect lower limit. Through the model introduced in the present study, we can calculate the exact lower limit of the interval efficiency. The designed model can be obtained by minimizing the ratio of weighted sum of outputs to that of inputs for every unit under certion conditions. The exact lower limit can be calculated in all states through our adopted model.

  1. INTERVAL TIME SERIES ANALYSIS WITH AN APPLICATION TO THE STERLING-DOLLAR EXCHANGE RATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Traditional econometrics has long employed "points" to measure time series data.In reallife situations,however,it suffers the loss of volatility information,since many variables are bounded by intervals in a given period.To address this issue,this paper provides a new methodology for interval time series analysis.The concept of "interval stochastic process" is formally defined as a counterpart of "stochastic process" in point-based econometrics.The authors introduce the concepts of interval stationarity,interval statistics(including interval mean,interval variance,etc.)and propose an interval linear model to investigate the dynamic relationships between interval processes.A new interval-based optimization approach for estimation is proposed,and corresponding evaluation criteria are derived.To demonstrate that the new interval method provides valid results,an empirical example on the sterling-dollar exchange rate is presented.

  2. Changes in infant disposable diaper weights at selected intervals post-wetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlisle, Joan; Moore, Amanda; Cooper, Alyssa; Henderson, Terri; Mayfield, Debbie; Taylor, Randa; Thomas, Jennifer; Van Fleet, Laduska; Askanazi, David; Fineberg, Naomi; Sun, Yanhui

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric acute care nurses questioned the practice of weighing disposable infant diapers immediately after voiding. This study asked the research question, "Does volume of saline, diaper configuration, and/or size of diaper statistically effect changes in diaper weights over time?" The method was an experimental, laboratory model. Pre-set volumes of saline were added to disposable diapers that were then left folded or unfolded. Each diaper was weighed immediately post-wetting and re-weighed at hourly intervals for seven hours. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA) with balanced data (F-test). Diaper weight changes over time were statistically significant for all time points and for all volumes regardless of diaper size; however, the changes in weight were small and without clinical significance. It is appropriate to weigh diapers at the end of eight hours without risk of altering subsequent fluid management of patients in open-air, non-humidified environments. This practice has led to more efficient use of nurses' time with fewer interruptions for patients and families.

  3. Evaluating therapeutic outcome in epileptic patients using the changes of interval and duration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Seizure frequency is in abnormal distribution, and it is not enough to express the trend of concentration using means, and its median loses a lot of information, thus it lacks of a standard for evaluating the therapeutic effects based on seizure frequency.OBJECTIVE: To establish a method for evaluating the therapeutic effects on anti-epileptic drugs using changes of interval and duration of seizure.DESIGN: A prospective cohort study.SETTING: Zhumadian Psychiatric Hospital.PARTICIPANTS: Outpatients and inpatients suffering from epilepsy attending firstly visited Zhumadian Psychiatric Hospital from June 2001 to June 2002 were enrolled. They were diagnosed as epileptic according to the International Classification of Epileptic Seizure by International League Against Epilepsy (1981) based on the clinical history, physical examination, and investigations. The interval time was no more than 6 months. Informed consent was obtained from all the subjects, and the study was approved by the hospital ethical committee.METHODS: ① For the first visit and each follow-up, the following data were recorded, including general demographic information, seizure type, the date and time of ictus, the duration of ictus, and inducement or situation related, according to which the following indexes could be calculated, including seizure styles,interval, duration, cluster frequency and cluster duration. The information from the first review was noted as annals A. The second interview was taken at the end of the evaluating period; the information from the second review was noted as annals B. The third interview was taken within two weeks after the second one;the information from the third review was noted as annals C. The annals B or the annals C were respectively compared with the annals A in the light of the same types or the same styles of the same patient. Summation of the scores of interval change and duration change of the same type or the same style and 5 of basic score

  4. Postural Change-associated Alterations in QT/QTc Intervals on Electrocardiograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Kubo, MD

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In a new drug development, regulatory authorities recommend the “thorough QT/QTc study”, in which the use of a positive control group was recommended for evaluating assay sensitivity that allows the detection of a QT/QTc interval prolongation about 5 msec. The effects of postural change on the QT/QTc intervals were examined to determine its potential usefulness as a nonpharmacological positive control. Standard 12-lead electrocardiograms of 72 healthy male subjects (mean age: 22.6 ± 2.0 years were recorded in the morning and evening in 6 positions (supine, 30-degree semisitting, standing, supine, 90-degree sitting, and standing. The QT-RR relationships during postural changes seemed to be similar in the morning and the evening. The QTc interval calculated by the Fridericia's or Framingham's formula shortened in the sitting (7 to 10 msec and the standing position (11 to 14 msec compared to that in the supine position. On the other hand, the QTc interval calculated by the Bazett's formula prolonged by nearly 4 msec in the sitting position and by nearly 9 msec in the standing position. The results suggest that the difference in QTc interval during postural change, especially from supine to sitting position, could be useful as a nonpharmacological positive control.

  5. Estimation of Early Postmortem Interval Through Biochemical and Pathological Changes in Rat Heart and Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo El-Noor, Mona Mohamed; Elhosary, Naema Mahmoud; Khedr, Naglaa Fathi; El-Desouky, Kareema Ibraheem

    2016-03-01

    Accurate estimation of time passed since death is a complicated task in forensic medicine especially in homicide or unwitnessed death investigations. Changes in oxidant/antioxidant parameters were investigated if it can be relied upon in estimating the early postmortem interval (EPI) in rat heart and kidney, and whether these changes were correlated with histopathological findings in these tissues. Heart and kidney tissues of 84 male albino rats were divided into 2 parts. One part used for estimation of levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and total thiol as well as the activity of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione S transferase, and catalase. The second part was examined histopathologically. It was found that MDA and NO were significantly increased earlier in the heart than kidney tissues. Meanwhile, total thiol, catalase, glutathione S transferase, and GR were commenced to be significantly decreased in the heart before kidney tissues. Linear regression analysis of independent variables of heart was found to be of a high predictive value of 97.2% (EPI = 8.607 - 0.240 GR + 0.002 MDA + 0.014 NO). Structural deterioration of heart started 3 to 4 hours compared with renal sections that began 5 to 6 hours after death. The relationship between oxidant and antioxidant parameters is crucial in determining the EPI. The kidney was found to be more resistible to oxidative damage. Further research on humans is needed.

  6. Biochemistry changes that occur after death: potential markers for determining post-mortem interval.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea E Donaldson

    Full Text Available Death is likely to result in very extensive biochemical changes in all body tissues due to lack of circulating oxygen, altered enzymatic reactions, cellular degradation, and cessation of anabolic production of metabolites. These biochemical changes may provide chemical markers for helping to more accurately determine the time since death (post-mortem interval, which is challenging to establish with current observation-based methodologies. In this study blood pH and changes in concentration of six metabolites (lactic acid, hypoxanthine, uric acid, ammonia, NADH and formic acid were examined post-mortem over a 96 hour period in blood taken from animal corpses (rat and pig and blood from rats and humans stored in vitro. The pH and the concentration of all six metabolites changed post-mortem but the extent and rate of change varied. Blood pH in corpses fell from 7.4 to 5.1. Concentrations of hypoxanthine, ammonia, NADH and formic acid all increased with time and these metabolites may be potential markers for post-mortem interval. The concentration of lactate increased and then remained at an elevated level and changes in the concentration were different in the rat compared to the human and pig. This is the first systematic study of multiple metabolic changes post-mortem and demonstrates the nature and extent of the changes that occur, in addition to identifying potential markers for estimating post-mortem interval.

  7. QT interval changes in term pregnant women living at moderately high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batmaz, G; Aksoy, A N; Aydın, S; Ay, N K; Dane, B

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the QT interval changes in women with term pregnancy living at moderately high altitude (1890 m in Erzurum, Turkey) with those of women living at sea level (31 m in İstanbul, Turkey). One-hundred ten women (n = 55, for each group) with full-term and single child pregnancies. Two different locations in that state were selected: İstanbul, Turkey, which is at 31 m above sea level (Group 1) and Erzurum, Turkey, at 1890 m above sea level (Group 2). Physicians from the two locations participated in the study. We estimated QTc, QTc Max, QTc Min, QT, and QTcd intervals. Moderately high altitude group had significantly longer QT parameters (QTc, QTc Max, QTc Min, QT, and QTcd intervals) compared with sea level group (P anges occur in term pregnant women living moderately high altitude. These changes may be associated with pregnancy-related cardiovascular complications in moderately high altitude.

  8. Variable-ratio versus variable-interval schedules: response rate, resistance to change, and preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevin, J A; Randolph; Holland, S; McLean, A P

    2001-07-01

    Two experiments asked whether resistance to change depended on variable-ratio as opposed to variable-interval contingencies of reinforcement and the different response rates they establish. In Experiment 1, pigeons were trained on multiple random-ratio random-interval schedules with equated reinforcer rates. Baseline response rates were disrupted by intercomponent food, extinction, and prefeeding. Resistance to change relative to baseline was greater in the interval component, and the difference was correlated with the extent to which baseline response rates were higher in the ratio component. In Experiment 2, pigeons were trained on multiple variable-ratio variable-interval schedules in one half of each session and on concurrent chains in the other half in which the terminal links corresponded to the multiple-schedule components. The schedules were varied over six conditions, including two with equated reinforcer rates. In concurrent chains, preference strongly overmatched the ratio of obtained reinforcer rates. In multiple schedules, relative resistance to response-independent food during intercomponent intervals, extinction, and intercomponent food plus extinction depended on the ratio of obtained reinforcer rates but was less sensitive than was preference. When reinforcer rates were similar, both preference and relative resistance were greater for the variable-interval schedule, and the differences were correlated with the extent to which baseline response rates were higher on the variable-ratio schedule, confirming the results of Experiment 1. These results demonstrate that resistance to change and preference depend in part on response rate as well as obtained reinforcer rate, and challenge the independence of resistance to change and preference with respect to response rate proposed by behavioral momentum theory.

  9. Repaired supraspinatus tendons in clinically improving patients: Early postoperative findings and interval changes on MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Eun; Park, Ji Seon; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Rhee, Yong Girl [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, So Hee; Park, So Young; Jin Wook [Dept. of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gangdong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    To demonstrate and further determine the incidences of repaired supraspinatus tendons on early postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in clinically improving patients and to evaluate interval changes on follow-up MRIs. Fifty patients, who showed symptomatic and functional improvements after supraspinatus tendon repair surgery and who underwent postoperative MRI twice with a time interval, were included. The first and the second postoperative MRIs were obtained a mean of 4.4 and 11.5 months after surgery, respectively. The signal intensity (SI) patterns of the repaired tendon on T2-weighted images from the first MRI were classified into three types of heterogeneous high SI with fluid-like bright high foci (type I), heterogeneous high SI without fluid-like bright high foci (type II), and heterogeneous or homogeneous low SI (type III). Interval changes in the SI pattern, tendon thickness, and rotator cuff interval thickness between the two postoperative MRIs were evaluated. The SI patterns on the first MRI were type I or II in 45 tendons (90%) and type III in five (10%). SI decreased significantly on the second MRI (p < 0.050). The mean thickness of repaired tendons and rotator cuff intervals also decreased significantly (p < 0.050). Repaired supraspinatus tendons exhibited high SI in 90% of clinically improving patients on MRI performed during the early postsurgical period. The increased SI and thickness of the repaired tendon decreased on the later MRI, suggesting a gradual healing process rather than a retear.

  10. Adhesive capsulitis: sonographic changes in the rotator cuff interval with arthroscopic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.C.; Connell, D. [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Sykes, C. [St.F.X.Cabrini Hospital, Department of Radiology, Melbourne (Australia); Saifuddin, A. [Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); UCL, Institute of Orthopaedics and Musculoskeletal Sciences, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-09-01

    To evaluate the sonographic findings of the rotator interval in patients with clinical evidence of adhesive capsulitis immediately prior to arthroscopy. We prospectively compared 30 patients with clinically diagnosed adhesive capsulitis (20 females, 10 males, mean age 50 years) with a control population of 10 normal volunteers and 100 patients with a clinical suspicion of rotator cuff tears. Grey-scale and colour Doppler sonography of the rotator interval were used. Twenty-six patients (87%) demonstrated hypoechoic echotexture and increased vascularity within the rotator interval, all of whom had had symptoms for less than 1 year. Three patients had hypoechoic echotexture but no increase in vascularity, and one patient had a normal sonographic appearance. All patients were shown to have fibrovascular inflammatory soft-tissue changes in the rotator interval at arthroscopy commensurate with adhesive capsulitis. None of the volunteers or the patients with a clinical diagnosis of rotator cuff tear showed such changes. Sonography can provide an early accurate diagnosis of adhesive capsulitis by assessing the rotator interval for hypoechoic vascular soft tissue. (orig.)

  11. Multifactor analysis of multiscaling in volatility return intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengzhong; Yamasaki, Kazuko; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2009-01-01

    We study the volatility time series of 1137 most traded stocks in the U.S. stock markets for the two-year period 2001-2002 and analyze their return intervals τ , which are time intervals between volatilities above a given threshold q . We explore the probability density function of τ , Pq(τ) , assuming a stretched exponential function, Pq(τ)˜e-τγ . We find that the exponent γ depends on the threshold in the range between q=1 and 6 standard deviations of the volatility. This finding supports the multiscaling nature of the return interval distribution. To better understand the multiscaling origin, we study how γ depends on four essential factors, capitalization, risk, number of trades, and return. We show that γ depends on the capitalization, risk, and return but almost does not depend on the number of trades. This suggests that γ relates to the portfolio selection but not on the market activity. To further characterize the multiscaling of individual stocks, we fit the moments of τ , μm≡⟨(τ/⟨τ⟩)m⟩1/m , in the range of 10return but not on the number of trades, and its tendency is opposite to that of γ . Moreover, we show that δ decreases with increasing γ approximately by a linear relation. The return intervals demonstrate the temporal structure of volatilities and our findings suggest that their multiscaling features may be helpful for portfolio optimization.

  12. Fuzzy interval Finite Element/Statistical Energy Analysis for mid-frequency analysis of built-up systems with mixed fuzzy and interval parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Hui; Yu, Dejie; Yin, Shengwen; Xia, Baizhan

    2016-10-01

    This paper introduces mixed fuzzy and interval parametric uncertainties into the FE components of the hybrid Finite Element/Statistical Energy Analysis (FE/SEA) model for mid-frequency analysis of built-up systems, thus an uncertain ensemble combining non-parametric with mixed fuzzy and interval parametric uncertainties comes into being. A fuzzy interval Finite Element/Statistical Energy Analysis (FIFE/SEA) framework is proposed to obtain the uncertain responses of built-up systems, which are described as intervals with fuzzy bounds, termed as fuzzy-bounded intervals (FBIs) in this paper. Based on the level-cut technique, a first-order fuzzy interval perturbation FE/SEA (FFIPFE/SEA) and a second-order fuzzy interval perturbation FE/SEA method (SFIPFE/SEA) are developed to handle the mixed parametric uncertainties efficiently. FFIPFE/SEA approximates the response functions by the first-order Taylor series, while SFIPFE/SEA improves the accuracy by considering the second-order items of Taylor series, in which all the mixed second-order items are neglected. To further improve the accuracy, a Chebyshev fuzzy interval method (CFIM) is proposed, in which the Chebyshev polynomials is used to approximate the response functions. The FBIs are eventually reconstructed by assembling the extrema solutions at all cut levels. Numerical results on two built-up systems verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  13. Determinants of birth intervals in Vietnam: a hazard model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, I; Thang, N M

    1993-06-01

    There was absence of any regional differences in parity progressions and length of birth intervals, although urban-rural differences persisted at most birth orders, suggesting that, as in other studies, the urban-rural differentials are the primary source of variations in fertility between different areas of a country. The significantly higher probability of a subsequent birth after birth order 2 in areas with high infant mortality compared to those with low infant mortality suggests that women in the high-risk provinces may be more likely to advance beyond parity 2 and continue on into the advanced parities. The provinces identified as having high infant mortality had also been identified in other studies as the provinces with the highest crude birth rates and population growth rates, the least available family planning services, and highest crude death rates. Mothers' education was consistently related to the likelihood of another birth at each birth order, with the most-educated women experiencing a significantly lower probability of having a subsequent birth at every birth order. This concurs with results in other studies, suggesting that the woman's education is a prime determinant of fertility and that increasing the educational attainment of women is one of the most beneficial measures to reduce fertility. The significant relationship between the previous birth interval of the index child and the probability that the index child would be followed by a subsequent birth conforms with other studies of birth interval dynamics that suggest that pregnancy-spacing for a given woman remains constant throughout her reproductive career.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Lethal pedestrian--passenger car collisions in Berlin. Changed injury patterns in two different time intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Edwin; Tischer, Anja; Maxeiner, H

    2009-04-01

    To expand the passive safety of automobiles protecting traffic participants technological innovations were done in the last decades. Objective of our retrospective analysis was to examine if these technical modifications led to a clearly changed pattern of injuries of pedestrians whose death was caused by the accidents. Another reduction concerns the exclusion of injured car passengers--only pedestrians walking or standing at the moment of collision were included. We selected time intervals 1975-1985 and 1991-2004 (=years of construction of the involved passenger cars). The cars were classified depending on their frontal construction in types as presented by Schindler et al. [Schindler V, Kühn M, Weber S, Siegler H, Heinrich T. Verletzungsmechanismen und Wirkabschätzungen der Fahrzegfrontgestaltung bei Pkw-Fussgänger-Kollisionen. Abschlussbericht im Auftrag der Deutschen Versicherungswirtschaft e.V. TU-Berlin Fachgebiet Kraftfahrzeuge (GDV) 2004:36-40]. In both periods more than 90% of all cars were from the usual types small/medium/large class. Hundred and thirty-four autopsy records of such cases from Department of Forensic Medicine (Charité Berlin) data were analysed. The data included technical information of the accidents and vehicles and the external and internal injuries of the victims. The comparison of the two periods showed a decrease of serious head injuries and femoral fractures but an increase of chest-, abdominal and pelvic injuries. This situation could be explained by an increased occurrence of soft-face-constructions and changed front design of modern passenger cars, resulting in a favourable effects concerning head impact to the car during accident. Otherwise the same kinetic energy was transferred to the (complete) victim - but because of a displacement of main focus of impact the pattern of injuries modified (went distally).

  15. Interval finite element method and its application on anti-slide stability analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Guo-jian; SU Jing-bo

    2007-01-01

    The problem of interval correlation results in interval extension is discussed by the relationship of interval-valued functions and real-valued functions. The methods of reducing interval extension are given. Based on the ideas of the paper, the formulas of sub-interval perturbed finite element method based on the elements are given. The sub-interval amount is discussed and the approximate computation formula is given. At the same time, the computational precision is discussed and some measures of improving computational efficiency are given. Finally, based on sub-interval perturbed finite element method and anti-slide stability analysis method, the formula for computing the bounds of stability factor is given. It provides a basis for estimating and evaluating reasonably anti-slide stability of structures.

  16. Response analysis based on smallest interval-set of parameters for structures with uncertainty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-jun WANG; Lei WANG; Zhi-ping QIU

    2012-01-01

    An integral analytic process from quantification to propagation based on limited uncertain parameters is investigated to deal with practical engineering problems.A new method by use of the smallest interval-set/hyper-rectangle containing all experimental data is proposed to quantify the parameter uncertainties. With the smallest parameter interval-set,the uncertainty propagation evaluation of the most favorable response and the least favorable response of the structures is studied based on the interval analysis.The relationship between the proposed interval analysis method (IAM) and the classical IAM is discussed.Two numerical examples are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the proposed method.

  17. Flight Deck Interval Management Avionics: Eye-Tracking Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorella, Kara; Harden, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Interval Management (IM) is one NexGen method for achieving airspace efficiencies. In order to initiate IM procedures, Air Traffic Control provides an IM clearance to the IM aircraft's pilots that indicates an intended spacing from another aircraft (the target to follow - or TTF) and the point at which this should be achieved. Pilots enter the clearance in the flight deck IM (FIM) system; and once the TTF's Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast signal is available, the FIM algorithm generates target speeds to meet that IM goal. This study examined four Avionics Conditions (defined by the instrumentation and location presenting FIM information) and three Notification Methods (defined by the visual and aural alerts that notified pilots to IM-related events). Current commercial pilots flew descents into Dallas/Fort-Worth in a high-fidelity commercial flight deck simulation environment with realistic traffic and communications. All 12 crews experienced each Avionics Condition, where order was counterbalanced over crews. Each crew used only one of the three Notification Methods. This paper presents results from eye tracking data collected from both pilots, including: normalized number of samples falling within FIM displays, normalized heads-up time, noticing time, dwell time on first FIM display look after a new speed, a workload-related metric, and a measure comparing the scan paths of pilot flying and pilot monitoring; and discusses these in the context of other objective (vertical and speed profile deviations, response time to dial in commanded speeds, out-of-speed-conformance and reminder indications) and subjective measures (workload, situation awareness, usability, and operational acceptability).

  18. Benign cystic nodules may have ultrasonographic features mimicking papillary thyroid carcinoma during interval changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Soo; Kim, Mi Ra; Mok, Ji Young; Huh, Jung Eun; Jeon, Yun Kyung; Kim, Bo Hyun; Kim, Seong-Jang; Kim, Yong Ki; Kim, In Joo

    2011-01-01

    It had been observed that some cystic nodules change morphologically with ultrasonographic (US) features suspicious for malignancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the US characteristics of benign cystic nodules mimicking papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) during interval changes. Between January 2009 and October 2009, 26 patients with benign cystic nodules showing marked hypoechogenicity in US during the follow-up period were enrolled. During the same period, 38 patients with marked hypoechogenicity in US were enrolled for the PTC group. We evaluated the differences in US characteristics between the 2 groups. Nodule size, margin, echogenic dot and vascularity were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Nodule shape was significantly different between the 2 groups with a lower prevalence of taller than wide in the benign cystic group (11.5% vs. 39.5%, P=0.022). Other coexisting cystic nodules were more frequently observed in benign cystic group (48.3% vs. 5.3%, P=0.001). If echogenic dot was detected in benign cystic nodule, it was more than 1 mm in size without posterior acoustic shadowing unlike echogenic dots in the PTC group. In conclusion, some of the benign cystic nodules may have suspicious malignant features on US during interval changes. A careful assessment of US findings and a previous history may be of value in discriminating them from PTC.

  19. Prognostic value of QTc interval dispersion changes during exercise testing in hypertensive men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Dragan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The prognostic significance of QTc dispersion changes during exercise testing (ET in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy is not clear. OBJECTIVE The aim was to study the dynamics of QTc interval dispersion (QTcd in patients (pts with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH during the exercise testing and its prognostic significance. METHOD In the study we included 55 men (aged 53 years with hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy and a negative ET (LVH group, 20 men (aged 58 years with a positive ET and 20 healthy men (aged 55 years. There was no statistically significant difference in the left ventricular mass index (LVMI between LVH group and ILVH group (160.9±14.9 g/m2 and 152.8±22.7 g/m2. The first ECG was done before the ET and the second one was done during the first minute of recovery, with calculation of QTc dispersion. The patients were followed during five years for new cardiovascular events. RESULTS During the ET, the QTcd significantly increased in LVH group (56.8±18.0 - 76.7±22.6 ms; p<0.001. A statistically significant correlation was found between the amount of ST segment depression at the end of ET and QTc dispersion at the beginning and at the end of ET (r=0.673 and r=0.698; p<0.01. The QTc dispersion was increased in 35 (63.6% patients and decreased in 20 (36.4% patients during the ET. Three patients (5.4% in the first group had adverse cardiovascular events during the five-year follow-up. A multiple stepwise regression model was formed by including age, LVMI, QTc interval, QTc dispersion and change of QTc dispersion during the ET. There was no prognostic significance of QTc interval and QTc dispersion during five-year follow-up in regard to adverse cardiovascular events, but prognostic value was found for LVMI (coefficient β=0.480; p<0.001. CONCLUSION The increase of QTc interval dispersion is common in men with positive ET for myocardial ischemia and there is a correlation between QTc dispersion and

  20. Low Carbon-Oriented Optimal Reliability Design with Interval Product Failure Analysis and Grey Correlation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yixiong Feng

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The problem of large amounts of carbon emissions causes wide concern across the world, and it has become a serious threat to the sustainable development of the manufacturing industry. The intensive research into technologies and methodologies for green product design has significant theoretical meaning and practical value in reducing the emissions of the manufacturing industry. Therefore, a low carbon-oriented product reliability optimal design model is proposed in this paper: (1 The related expert evaluation information was prepared in interval numbers; (2 An improved product failure analysis considering the uncertain carbon emissions of the subsystem was performed to obtain the subsystem weight taking the carbon emissions into consideration. The interval grey correlation analysis was conducted to obtain the subsystem weight taking the uncertain correlations inside the product into consideration. Using the above two kinds of subsystem weights and different caution indicators of the decision maker, a series of product reliability design schemes is available; (3 The interval-valued intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IVIFSs were employed to select the optimal reliability and optimal design scheme based on three attributes, namely, low carbon, correlation and functions, and economic cost. The case study of a vertical CNC lathe proves the superiority and rationality of the proposed method.

  1. VO2max trainability and high intensity interval training in humans: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Andrew P; Carter, Rickey E; Ogle, Eric A; Joyner, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Endurance exercise training studies frequently show modest changes in VO2max with training and very limited responses in some subjects. By contrast, studies using interval training (IT) or combined IT and continuous training (CT) have reported mean increases in VO2max of up to ~1.0 L · min(-1). This raises questions about the role of exercise intensity and the trainability of VO2max. To address this topic we analyzed IT and IT/CT studies published in English from 1965-2012. Inclusion criteria were: 1)≥ 3 healthy sedentary/recreationally active humans training duration 6-13 weeks, 3) ≥ 3 days/week, 4) ≥ 10 minutes of high intensity work, 5) ≥ 1:1 work/rest ratio, and 6) results reported as mean ± SD or SE, ranges of change, or individual data. Due to heterogeneity (I(2) value of 70), statistical synthesis of the data used a random effects model. The summary statistic of interest was the change in VO2max. A total of 334 subjects (120 women) from 37 studies were identified. Participants were grouped into 40 distinct training groups, so the unit of analysis was 40 rather than 37. An increase in VO2max of 0.51 L · min(-1) (95% CI: 0.43 to 0.60 L · min(-1)) was observed. A subset of 9 studies, with 72 subjects, that featured longer intervals showed even larger (~0.8-0.9 L · min(-1)) changes in VO2max with evidence of a marked response in all subjects. These results suggest that ideas about trainability and VO2max should be further evaluated with standardized IT or IT/CT training programs.

  2. VO2max trainability and high intensity interval training in humans: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew P Bacon

    Full Text Available Endurance exercise training studies frequently show modest changes in VO2max with training and very limited responses in some subjects. By contrast, studies using interval training (IT or combined IT and continuous training (CT have reported mean increases in VO2max of up to ~1.0 L · min(-1. This raises questions about the role of exercise intensity and the trainability of VO2max. To address this topic we analyzed IT and IT/CT studies published in English from 1965-2012. Inclusion criteria were: 1≥ 3 healthy sedentary/recreationally active humans <45 yrs old, 2 training duration 6-13 weeks, 3 ≥ 3 days/week, 4 ≥ 10 minutes of high intensity work, 5 ≥ 1:1 work/rest ratio, and 6 results reported as mean ± SD or SE, ranges of change, or individual data. Due to heterogeneity (I(2 value of 70, statistical synthesis of the data used a random effects model. The summary statistic of interest was the change in VO2max. A total of 334 subjects (120 women from 37 studies were identified. Participants were grouped into 40 distinct training groups, so the unit of analysis was 40 rather than 37. An increase in VO2max of 0.51 L · min(-1 (95% CI: 0.43 to 0.60 L · min(-1 was observed. A subset of 9 studies, with 72 subjects, that featured longer intervals showed even larger (~0.8-0.9 L · min(-1 changes in VO2max with evidence of a marked response in all subjects. These results suggest that ideas about trainability and VO2max should be further evaluated with standardized IT or IT/CT training programs.

  3. Non-probabilistic fuzzy reliability analysis of pile foundation stability by interval theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Randomness and fuzziness are among the attributes of the influential factors for stability assessment of pile foundation.According to these two characteristics, the triangular fuzzy number analysis approach was introduced to determine the probability-distributed function of mechanical parameters. Then the functional function of reliability analysis was constructed based on the study of bearing mechanism of pile foundation, and the way to calculate interval values of the functional function was developed by using improved interval-truncation approach and operation rules of interval numbers. Afterwards, the non-probabilistic fuzzy reliability analysis method was applied to assessing the pile foundation, from which a method was presented for nonprobabilistic fuzzy reliability analysis of pile foundation stability by interval theory. Finally, the probability distribution curve of nonprobabilistic fuzzy reliability indexes of practical pile foundation was concluded. Its failure possibility is 0.91%, which shows that the pile foundation is stable and reliable.

  4. An efficient hybrid reliability analysis method with random and interval variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Shaojun; Pan, Baisong; Du, Xiaoping

    2016-09-01

    Random and interval variables often coexist. Interval variables make reliability analysis much more computationally intensive. This work develops a new hybrid reliability analysis method so that the probability analysis (PA) loop and interval analysis (IA) loop are decomposed into two separate loops. An efficient PA algorithm is employed, and a new efficient IA method is developed. The new IA method consists of two stages. The first stage is for monotonic limit-state functions. If the limit-state function is not monotonic, the second stage is triggered. In the second stage, the limit-state function is sequentially approximated with a second order form, and the gradient projection method is applied to solve the extreme responses of the limit-state function with respect to the interval variables. The efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method are demonstrated by three examples.

  5. Diffusion entropy analysis on the stride interval fluctuation of human gait

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, S M; Yang, H J; Zhao, F C; Zhou, P L; Zhou, T; Cai, Shi-Min; Wang, Bing-Hong; Yang, Hui-Jie; Zhao, Fang-Cui; Zhou, Pei-Ling; Zhou, Tao

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the diffusion entropy technique is applied to investigate the scaling behavior of stride interval fluctuations of human gait. The scaling behavior of the stride interval of human walking at normal, slow and fast rate are similar; with the scale-invariance exponents in the interval $[0.663,0.955]$, of which the mean value is $0.821\\pm0.011$. Dynamical analysis of these stride interval fluctuations reveals a self-similar pattern: Fluctuation at one time scale are statistically similar to those at multiple other time scales, at least over hundreds of steps, while the healthy subjects walk at their normal rate. The long-range correlations are observed during the spontaneous walking after the removal of the trend in the time series with Fourier filter. These findings uncover that the fractal dynamics of stride interval of human gait are normally intrinsic to the locomotor systems.

  6. Photosynthetic and Biochemical Changes in Response to Short Interval High ``g'' Exposure in Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Jyotsana; Vidyasagar, Pandit; Jagtap, Sagar; Kamble, Shailendra

    We have investigated the effect of short interval post imbibition high “g” exposure on wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum var.Lok-1) by evaluating the photosynthetic performance, chlorophyll “a” fluorescence biochemical indices and antioxidant response. Imbibed wheat seeds were exposed to high “g” ranging from 500 g to 2500 g for 10 min, allowed to germinate and grown for 5 days under normal gravity i.e. 1 g. Chlorophyll “a” fluorescence transient was examined in wheat seedling raised from hyper gravity treated seeds. Fv/Fm, PI, Fv/Fo decreased in high “g” treated seeds compared to control. Photosynthetic performance indices such as Transpiration rate, Stomatal conductance, Net photosynthetic rate, Intracellular CO2 concentration, Intrinsic water use efficiency also declined in wheat seedlings raised from High “g” treated seeds suggesting that high g reduces efficiency of photosynthesis in wheat seedlings. Results of Biochemical analysis showed reduced alpha- amylase activity in wheat seeds subjected to high “g” ranging from 500 g to 2500 g in a magnitude dependent manner. Decline in enzyme activity was positively correlated with higher starch content and lower reducing sugars in high “g” exposed wheat seeds. This possibly explains the reduced percent germination and growth in response to high “g”. Antioxidant enzyme activity (CAT and POX) significantly increased as a result of hypergravity exposure In conclusion, short interval high “g” exposure results in reduced growth and photosynthetic activity in wheat seedlings.

  7. Short-interval cortical inhibition and intracortical facilitation during submaximal voluntary contractions changes with fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Sandra K; McNeil, Chris J; Butler, Jane E; Gandevia, Simon C; Taylor, Janet L

    2016-09-01

    This study determined whether short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) change during a sustained submaximal isometric contraction. On 2 days, 12 participants (6 men, 6 women) performed brief (7-s) elbow flexor contractions before and after a 10-min fatiguing contraction; all contractions were performed at the level of integrated electromyographic activity (EMG) which produced 25 % maximal unfatigued torque. During the brief 7-s and 10-min submaximal contractions, single (test) and paired (conditioning-test) transcranial magnetic stimuli were applied over the motor cortex (5 s apart) to elicit motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in biceps brachii. SICI and ICF were elicited on separate days, with a conditioning-test interstimulus interval of 2.5 and 15 ms, respectively. On both days, integrated EMG remained constant while torque fell during the sustained contraction by ~51.5 % from control contractions, perceived effort increased threefold, and MVC declined by 21-22 %. For SICI, the conditioned MEP during control contractions (74.1 ± 2.5 % of unconditioned MEP) increased (less inhibition) during the sustained contraction (last 2.5 min: 86.0 ± 5.1 %; P contractions at 2 min (82.0 ± 3.8 %; P contractions (conditioned MEP 129.7 ± 4.8 % of unconditioned MEP) decreased (less facilitation) during the sustained contraction (last 2.5 min: 107.6 ± 6.8 %; P contractions after 2 min of recovery. Both intracortical inhibitory and facilitatory circuits become less excitable with fatigue when assessed during voluntary activity, but their different time courses of recovery suggest different mechanisms for the fatigue-related changes of SICI and ICF.

  8. Demographic and Socio-economic Determinants of Birth Interval Dynamics in Manipur: A Survival Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanajaoba Singh N,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The birth interval is a major determinant of levels of fertility in high fertility populations. A house-to-house survey of 1225 women in Manipur, a tiny state in North Eastern India was carried out to investigate birth interval patterns and its determinants. Using survival analysis, among the nine explanatory variables of interest, only three factors – infant mortality, Lactation and use of contraceptive devices have highly significant effect (P<0.01 on the duration of birth interval and only three factors – age at marriage of wife, parity and sex of child are found to be significant (P<0.05 on the duration variable.

  9. Changing reference intervals for haemoglobin in Denmark: Clinical and financial aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryberg-Nørholt, Judith; Frederiksen, Henrik; Nybo, Mads

    2017-10-15

    Based on international experiences and altering demography the reference intervals (RI) for haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations in blood were changed in Denmark in 2013 from 113 - 161 g/L to 117 - 153 g/L for women and from 129 - 177 g/L to 134 - 170 g/L for men. The aim of this study was to determine the derived change in prevalence of anaemia and the change in yearly health care costs of diagnostic investigations associated with the expected, as we hypothesized, increased prevalence and health care costs. Data from 96,314 non-hospitalised patients (55,341 females and 40,973 males, aged 18 - 105 years) from general practitioners and community specialists of Funen, Denmark, were extracted from the laboratory information system. The prevalence of anaemia according to the new and the old RI were investigated, and additional costs were calculated based on estimated additional blood analyses and nationally recommended endoscopic procedures. Changing the Hb RI increased the number of anaemic patients by 52% (3450 patients) over a two-year period. With new RI the proportion of anaemic elderly above 80 years was 20.5% for females and 43.9% for males. Annual costs of derived additional assessments due to the altered RI were estimated to be 5.7 million €, which equals the cost of 1214 knee replacement surgeries in Denmark. Changing the Hb RI has been expensive, despite the fact that no outcome studies have justified the alteration. The methodological approach for establishing new RI, here particularly for Hb, should be thoroughly considered. In general, physicians should use RI with caution.

  10. Analysis and synthesis for interval type-2 fuzzy-model-based systems

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Hongyi; Lam, Hak-Keung; Gao, Yabin

    2016-01-01

    This book develops a set of reference methods capable of modeling uncertainties existing in membership functions, and analyzing and synthesizing the interval type-2 fuzzy systems with desired performances. It also provides numerous simulation results for various examples, which fill certain gaps in this area of research and may serve as benchmark solutions for the readers. Interval type-2 T-S fuzzy models provide a convenient and flexible method for analysis and synthesis of complex nonlinear systems with uncertainties.

  11. QT Interval Variability Index and QT Interval Duration in Different Sleep Stages: Analysis of Polysomnographic Recordings in Nonapneic Male Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moonika Viigimae

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine whether different sleep stages, especially REM sleep, affect QT interval duration and variability in male patients without obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. Polysomnographic recordings of 30 patients were analyzed. Beat-to-beat QT interval variability was calculated using QTV index (QTVI formula. For QTc interval calculation, in addition to Bazett’s formula, linear and parabolic heart rate correction formulas with two separate α values were used. QTVI and QTc values were calculated as means of 2 awake, 3 NREM, and 3 REM sleep episodes; the duration of each episode was 300 sec. Mean QTVI values were not statistically different between sleep stages. Therefore, elevated QTVI values found in patients with OSA cannot be interpreted as physiological sympathetic impact during REM sleep and should be considered as a risk factor for potentially life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. The absence of difference of the mean QTc interval values between NREM and REM stages seems to confirm our conclusion that sympathetic surges during REM stage do not induce repolarization variability. In patients without notable structural and electrical remodeling of myocardium, physiological elevation in sympathetic activity during REM sleep remains subthreshold concerning clinically significant increase of myocardial electrical instability.

  12. Personalized metabolomics for predicting glucose tolerance changes in sedentary women after high-intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehnbaum, Naomi L; Gillen, Jenna B; Gibala, Martin J; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2014-08-28

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) offers a practical approach for enhancing cardiorespiratory fitness, however its role in improving glucose regulation among sedentary yet normoglycemic women remains unclear. Herein, multi-segment injection capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry is used as a high-throughput platform in metabolomics to assess dynamic responses of overweight/obese women (BMI > 25, n = 11) to standardized oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) performed before and after a 6-week HIIT intervention. Various statistical methods were used to classify plasma metabolic signatures associated with post-prandial glucose and/or training status when using a repeated measures/cross-over study design. Branched-chain/aromatic amino acids and other intermediates of urea cycle and carnitine metabolism decreased over time in plasma after oral glucose loading. Adaptive exercise-induced changes to plasma thiol redox and orthinine status were measured for trained subjects while at rest in a fasting state. A multi-linear regression model was developed to predict changes in glucose tolerance based on a panel of plasma metabolites measured for naïve subjects in their untrained state. Since treatment outcomes to physical activity are variable between-subjects, prognostic markers offer a novel approach to screen for potential negative responders while designing lifestyle modifications that maximize the salutary benefits of exercise for diabetes prevention on an individual level.

  13. Estimated Aerobic Capacity Changes in Adolescents with Obesity Following High Intensity Interval Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke E. Starkoff

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vigorous aerobic exercise may improve aerobic capacity (VO2max and cardiometabolic profiles in adolescents with obesity, independent of changes to weight. Our aim was to assess changes in estimated VO2max in obese adolescents following a 6-week exercise program of varying intensities. Adolescents with obesity were recruited from an American mid-west children’s hospital and randomized into moderate exercise (MOD or high intensity interval exercise (HIIE groups for a 6-week exercise intervention, consisting of cycle ergometry for 40 minutes, 3 days per week. Heart rate was measured every two minutes during each exercise session.  Estimated VO2max measured via Åstrand cycle test, body composition, and physical activity (PA enjoyment evaluated via questionnaire were assessed pre/post-intervention. Twenty-seven adolescents (age 14.7±1.5; 17 female, 10 male completed the intervention. Estimated VO2max increased only in the HIIE group (20.0±5.7 to 22.7±6.5 ml/kg/min, p=0.015. The HIIE group also demonstrated increased PA enjoyment, which was correlated with average heart rate achieved during the intervention (r=0.55; p=0.043. Six weeks of HIIE elicited improvements to estimated VO2max in adolescents with obesity. Furthermore, those exercising at higher heart rates demonstrated greater PA enjoyment, implicating enjoyment as an important determinant of VO2max, specifically following higher intensity activities.

  14. Multilayer perceptron for robust nonlinear interval regression analysis using genetic algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yi-Chung

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of fuzzy regression, computational models in intelligence such as neural networks have the capability to be applied to nonlinear interval regression analysis for dealing with uncertain and imprecise data. When training data are not contaminated by outliers, computational models perform well by including almost all given training data in the data interval. Nevertheless, since training data are often corrupted by outliers, robust learning algorithms employed to resist outliers for interval regression analysis have been an interesting area of research. Several approaches involving computational intelligence are effective for resisting outliers, but the required parameters for these approaches are related to whether the collected data contain outliers or not. Since it seems difficult to prespecify the degree of contamination beforehand, this paper uses multilayer perceptron to construct the robust nonlinear interval regression model using the genetic algorithm. Outliers beyond or beneath the data interval will impose slight effect on the determination of data interval. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method performs well for contaminated datasets.

  15. Multilayer Perceptron for Robust Nonlinear Interval Regression Analysis Using Genetic Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of fuzzy regression, computational models in intelligence such as neural networks have the capability to be applied to nonlinear interval regression analysis for dealing with uncertain and imprecise data. When training data are not contaminated by outliers, computational models perform well by including almost all given training data in the data interval. Nevertheless, since training data are often corrupted by outliers, robust learning algorithms employed to resist outliers for interval regression analysis have been an interesting area of research. Several approaches involving computational intelligence are effective for resisting outliers, but the required parameters for these approaches are related to whether the collected data contain outliers or not. Since it seems difficult to prespecify the degree of contamination beforehand, this paper uses multilayer perceptron to construct the robust nonlinear interval regression model using the genetic algorithm. Outliers beyond or beneath the data interval will impose slight effect on the determination of data interval. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method performs well for contaminated datasets. PMID:25110755

  16. Confidence intervals for a random-effects meta-analysis based on Bartlett-type corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noma, Hisashi

    2011-12-10

    In medical meta-analysis, the DerSimonian-Laird confidence interval for the average treatment effect has been widely adopted in practice. However, it is well known that its coverage probability (the probability that the interval actually includes the true value) can be substantially below the target level. One particular reason is that the validity of the confidence interval depends on the assumption that the number of synthesized studies is sufficiently large. In typical medical meta-analyses, the number of studies is fewer than 20. In this article, we developed three confidence intervals for improving coverage properties, based on (i) the Bartlett corrected likelihood ratio statistic, (ii) the efficient score statistic, and (iii) the Bartlett-type adjusted efficient score statistic. The Bartlett and Bartlett-type corrections improve the large sample approximations for the likelihood ratio and efficient score statistics. Through numerical evaluations by simulations, these confidence intervals demonstrated better coverage properties than the existing methods. In particular, with a moderate number of synthesized studies, the Bartlett and Bartlett-type corrected confidence intervals performed well. An application to a meta-analysis of the treatment for myocardial infarction with intravenous magnesium is presented.

  17. Heart Rate Fragmentation: A New Approach to the Analysis of Cardiac Interbeat Interval Dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Madalena D; Davis, Roger B; Goldberger, Ary L

    2017-01-01

    Background: Short-term heart rate variability (HRV) is most commonly attributed to physiologic vagal tone modulation. However, with aging and cardiovascular disease, the emergence of high short-term HRV, consistent with the breakdown of the neuroautonomic-electrophysiologic control system, may confound traditional HRV analysis. An apparent dynamical signature of such anomalous short-term HRV is frequent changes in heart rate acceleration sign, defined here as heart rate fragmentation. Objective: The aims were to: (1) introduce a set of metrics designed to probe the degree of sinus rhythm fragmentation; (2) test the hypothesis that the degree of fragmentation of heartbeat time series increases with the participants' age in a group of healthy subjects; (3) test the hypothesis that the heartbeat time series from patients with advanced coronary artery disease (CAD) are more fragmented than those from healthy subjects; and (4) compare the performance of the new fragmentation metrics with standard time and frequency domain measures of short-term HRV. Methods: We analyzed annotated, open-access Holter recordings (University of Rochester Holter Warehouse) from healthy subjects and patients with CAD using these newly introduced metrics of heart rate fragmentation, as well as standard time and frequency domain indices of short-term HRV, detrended fluctuation analysis and sample entropy. Results: The degree of fragmentation of cardiac interbeat interval time series increased significantly as a function of age in the healthy population as well as in patients with CAD. Fragmentation was higher for the patients with CAD than the healthy subjects. Heart rate fragmentation metrics outperformed traditional short-term HRV indices, as well as two widely used nonlinear measures, sample entropy and detrended fluctuation analysis short-term exponent, in distinguishing healthy subjects and patients with CAD. The same level of discrimination was obtained from the analysis of normal

  18. Muscle oxygen changes following Sprint Interval Cycling training in elite field hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Ben; Hamilton, David K; Cooper, Chris E

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the effects of Sprint Interval Cycling (SIT) on muscle oxygenation kinetics and performance during the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (IFT). Twenty-five women hockey players of Olympic standard were randomly selected into an experimental group (EXP) and a control group (CON). The EXP group performed six additional SIT sessions over six weeks in addition to their normal training program. To explore the potential training-induced change, EXP subjects additionally completed 5 x 30s maximal intensity cycle testing before and after training. During these tests near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measured parameters; oxyhaemoglobin + oxymyoglobin (HbO2+ MbO2), tissue deoxyhaemoglobin + deoxymyoglobin (HHb+HMb), total tissue haemoglobin (tHb) and tissue oxygenation (TSI %) were taken. In the EXP group (5.34 ± 0.14 to 5.50 ± 0.14 m.s(-1)) but not the CON group (pre = 5.37 ± 0.27 to 5.39 ± 0.30 m.s(-1)) significant changes were seen in the 30-15 IFT performance. EXP group also displayed significant post-training increases during the sprint cycling: ΔTSI (-7.59 ± 0.91 to -12.16 ± 2.70%); ΔHHb+HMb (35.68 ± 6.67 to 69.44 ± 26.48 μM.cm); and ΔHbO2+ MbO2 (-74.29 ± 13.82 to -109.36 ± 22.61 μM.cm). No significant differences were seen in ΔtHb (-45.81 ± 15.23 to -42.93 ± 16.24). NIRS is able to detect positive peripheral muscle oxygenation changes when used during a SIT protocol which has been shown to be an effective training modality within elite athletes.

  19. Muscle oxygen changes following Sprint Interval Cycling training in elite field hockey players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Jones

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of Sprint Interval Cycling (SIT on muscle oxygenation kinetics and performance during the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (IFT. Twenty-five women hockey players of Olympic standard were randomly selected into an experimental group (EXP and a control group (CON. The EXP group performed six additional SIT sessions over six weeks in addition to their normal training program. To explore the potential training-induced change, EXP subjects additionally completed 5 x 30s maximal intensity cycle testing before and after training. During these tests near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS measured parameters; oxyhaemoglobin + oxymyoglobin (HbO2+ MbO2, tissue deoxyhaemoglobin + deoxymyoglobin (HHb+HMb, total tissue haemoglobin (tHb and tissue oxygenation (TSI % were taken. In the EXP group (5.34 ± 0.14 to 5.50 ± 0.14 m.s(-1 but not the CON group (pre = 5.37 ± 0.27 to 5.39 ± 0.30 m.s(-1 significant changes were seen in the 30-15 IFT performance. EXP group also displayed significant post-training increases during the sprint cycling: ΔTSI (-7.59 ± 0.91 to -12.16 ± 2.70%; ΔHHb+HMb (35.68 ± 6.67 to 69.44 ± 26.48 μM.cm; and ΔHbO2+ MbO2 (-74.29 ± 13.82 to -109.36 ± 22.61 μM.cm. No significant differences were seen in ΔtHb (-45.81 ± 15.23 to -42.93 ± 16.24. NIRS is able to detect positive peripheral muscle oxygenation changes when used during a SIT protocol which has been shown to be an effective training modality within elite athletes.

  20. Personalized metabolomics for predicting glucose tolerance changes in sedentary women after high-intensity interval training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuehnbaum, Naomi L; Gillen, Jenna B; Gibala, Martin J; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) offers a practical approach for enhancing cardiorespiratory fitness, however its role in improving glucose regulation among sedentary yet normoglycemic women remains unclear...

  1. CHANGES IN HEART RATE, HEART RATE VARIABILITY AND QT INTERVAL IN WOMEN WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS DURING RITUXIMAB TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. S. Novikova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a proven high cardiovascular risk disease. High heart rate (HR, lower heart rate variabil- ity (HRV, and increased QT interval are considered as predictors of cardiovascular events in patients with coronary heart disease, chronic heart failure, and diabetes mellitus. In RA, there is a pronounced rise in HR, a reduction in HRV, and an increase in QT interval mainly due to the factors reflecting the severity of the disease. Rituximab (RTM is successfully used to treat patients with high RA activity. At the same time there are only a few pieces of evidence for the effect of the drug on the cardiovascular system. Objective: to study changes in HR, HRV, and QT interval values obtained during electrocardiography (ECG Holter monitoring (ECG HM in RTM-treated women during a 6-month follow-up. Subjects and methods: The investigation enrolled 55 women (mean age 50 years with a definite diagnosis of RA and its high activity. The patients were examined 6 months after administration of RTM. The latter was infused intra- venously twice (500 and 1000 mg in 22% and 78% of the patients, respectively during therapy with disease-modifying antirheumatic and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and glucocorticoids. The RA patients were divided into two groups: 1 a satisfactory/good effect of RTM according to the EULAR criteria (n = 41; 2 no effect (n = 14. Analysis of 24-hour ECG HM yielded the values of HR and mean duration of corrected QT interval (QTc. The tim- ing HRV values obtained at ECG HM were standardized from age and mean HR (SDNNn, RMSSDn, and pNN50n. Results. The baseline HRmin and HRmean values were higher and SDNNn was lower in the RA patients in Group 1 than those in Group 2 (p < 0.05. In Group 1, RTM therapy was accompanied by a reduction in HRmean and HRmin by 8% and by an increase in SDNNn by 3%, RMSSDn by 26%, and pNN50n by 33% whereas no significant changes in HR and HRV were found in Group 2. The RTM therapy

  2. Palaeoenvironmental changes during the Danian-Selandian boundary interval: The ichnological record at the Sopelana section (Basque Basin, W Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Tovar, F. J.; Uchman, A.; Orue-Etxebarria, X.; Apellaniz, E.

    2013-02-01

    Ichnological analysis was conducted in the Danian-Selandian (D-S) boundary interval from the Sopelana section (Basque Basin, northern Spain) to improve characterization of the recently defined Global Stratotype Section and Point of the base of the Selandian Stage (Middle Paleocene) in the nearby Zumaia section, and to interpret the Danian-Selandian boundary event with its associated palaeoenvironmental changes. The trace fossil assemblage of the boundary interval is relatively scarce and shows low diversity, consisting of Chondrites, Planolites, Thalassinoides, Trichichnus and Zoophycos, which cross-cut a diffuse, burrow-mottled background, typical of a normal burrowing tiered community. Distribution of trace fossils shows local drops in abundance and diversity just above the D-S boundary and about half a metre upwards into the succeeding Selandian. Generally, the Selandian part of the section has slightly lower trace fossil diversity and abundance. This is interpreted as due to a higher detrital food supply, corresponding to a sea-level fall, in contrast to a decreased food supply during the Selandian sea-level rise. Smaller-scale fluctuations of trace fossil diversity and abundance are also interpreted as due more to food content fluctuations in the sediment than to oxygenation of pore waters. Results reveal the minor influence of an extreme warming event (hyperthermal conditions) at the D-S boundary which affected the whole benthic habitat. Contrarily, a probable major effect of sea-level fluctuations can be envisaged, which determined variations in siliciclastic input and food content.

  3. Entropy Analysis of RR and QT Interval Variability during Orthostatic and Mental Stress in Healthy Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Baumert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Autonomic activity affects beat-to-beat variability of heart rate and QT interval. The aim of this study was to explore whether entropy measures are suitable to detect changes in neural outflow to the heart elicited by two different stress paradigms. We recorded short-term ECG in 11 normal subjects during an experimental protocol that involved head-up tilt and mental arithmetic stress and computed sample entropy, cross-sample entropy and causal interactions based on conditional entropy from RR and QT interval time series. Head-up tilt resulted in a significant reduction in sample entropy of RR intervals and cross-sample entropy, while mental arithmetic stress resulted in a significant reduction in coupling directed from RR to QT. In conclusion, measures of entropy are suitable to detect changes in neural outflow to the heart and decoupling of repolarisation variability from heart rate variability elicited by orthostatic or mental arithmetic stress.

  4. The effects of soil environment on postmortem interval: a macroscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaggers, Kimberley A; Rogers, Tracy L

    2009-11-01

    Burial environment, in particular soil moisture, has a significant impact on the type, rate, and extent of bone degradation, which ultimately affects estimations of the postmortem interval (PMI). The purpose of this research is to determine the effects of soil moisture on the color, weight, condition, and texture of bone as it relates to the PMI. Bone changes occurring over two different time intervals (2 and 5 months) were examined using 120 sus scrofa leg bones. During each time interval bones were buried in two soil environments, one of which was drier than the other. The bones in both environments lost weight over time but the net weight loss was greater for bones in the higher moisture environment. There was no change in color, texture, or overall condition, indicating that 150 days is not long enough for such alterations to occur, regardless of the moisture level of the burial environment.

  5. Significant variations in Weber fraction for changes in inter-onset interval of a click train over the range of intervals between 5 and 300 ms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungan, Pekcan; Yagcioglu, Suha

    2014-01-01

    It is a common psychophysical experience that a train of clicks faster than ca. 30/s is heard as one steady sound, whereas temporal patterns occurring on a slower time scale are perceptually resolved as individual auditory events. This phenomenon suggests the existence of two different neural mechanisms for processing of auditory sequences with fast and slow repetition rates. To test this hypothesis we used Weber's law, which is known to be valid for perception of time intervals. Discrimination thresholds and Weber fractions (WFs) for 12 base inter-click intervals (ICIs) between 5 and 300 ms were measured from 10 normal hearing subjects by using an "up-down staircase" algorithm. The mean WF, which is supposed to be constant for any perceptual mechanism according to Weber's law, displayed significant variation with click rate. WFs decreased sharply from an average value of around 5% at repetition rates below 20 Hz to about 0.5% at rates above 67 Hz. Parallel to this steep transition, subjects reported that at rates below 20 Hz they perceived periodicity as a fast tapping rhythm, whereas at rates above 50 Hz the perceived quality was a pitch. Such a dramatic change in WF indicated the existence of two separate mechanisms for processing the click rate for long and short ICIs, based on temporal and spectral features, respectively. A range of rates between 20 and 33 Hz, in which the rate discrimination threshold was maximum, appears to be a region where both of the presumed time and pitch mechanisms are relatively insensitive to rate alterations. Based on this finding, we speculate that the interval-based perception mechanism ceases to function at around 20 Hz and the spectrum-based mechanism takes over at around 33 Hz; leaving a transitional gap in between, where neither of the two mechanisms is as sensitive. Another notable finding was a significant drop in WF for ICI = 100 ms, suggesting a connection of time perception to the electroencephalography alpha rhythm.

  6. Fixed-point bifurcation analysis in biological models using interval polynomials theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigatos, Gerasimos G

    2014-06-01

    The paper proposes a systematic method for fixed-point bifurcation analysis in circadian cells and similar biological models using interval polynomials theory. The stages for performing fixed-point bifurcation analysis in such biological systems comprise (i) the computation of fixed points as functions of the bifurcation parameter and (ii) the evaluation of the type of stability for each fixed point through the computation of the eigenvalues of the Jacobian matrix that is associated with the system's nonlinear dynamics model. Stage (ii) requires the computation of the roots of the characteristic polynomial of the Jacobian matrix. This problem is nontrivial since the coefficients of the characteristic polynomial are functions of the bifurcation parameter and the latter varies within intervals. To obtain a clear view about the values of the roots of the characteristic polynomial and about the stability features they provide to the system, the use of interval polynomials theory and particularly of Kharitonov's stability theorem is proposed. In this approach, the study of the stability of a characteristic polynomial with coefficients that vary in intervals is equivalent to the study of the stability of four polynomials with crisp coefficients computed from the boundaries of the aforementioned intervals. The efficiency of the proposed approach for the analysis of fixed-point bifurcations in nonlinear models of biological neurons is tested through numerical and simulation experiments.

  7. Flood frequency analysis using multi-objective optimization based interval estimation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasiviswanathan, K. S.; He, Jianxun; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2017-02-01

    Flood frequency analysis (FFA) is a necessary tool for water resources management and water infrastructure design. Owing to the existence of variability in sample representation, distribution selection, and distribution parameter estimation, flood quantile estimation is subjected to various levels of uncertainty, which is not negligible and avoidable. Hence, alternative methods to the conventional approach of FFA are desired for quantifying the uncertainty such as in the form of prediction interval. The primary focus of the paper was to develop a novel approach to quantify and optimize the prediction interval resulted from the non-stationarity of data set, which is reflected in the distribution parameters estimated, in FFA. This paper proposed the combination of the multi-objective optimization approach and the ensemble simulation technique to determine the optimal perturbations of distribution parameters for constructing the prediction interval of flood quantiles in FFA. To demonstrate the proposed approach, annual maximum daily flow data collected from two gauge stations on the Bow River, Alberta, Canada, were used. The results suggest that the proposed method can successfully capture the uncertainty in quantile estimates qualitatively using the prediction interval, as the number of observations falling within the constructed prediction interval is approximately maximized while the prediction interval is minimized.

  8. Using Musical Intervals to Demonstrate Superposition of Waves and Fourier Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    What follows is a description of a demonstration of superposition of waves and Fourier analysis using a set of four tuning forks mounted on resonance boxes and oscilloscope software to create, capture and analyze the waveforms and Fourier spectra of musical intervals.

  9. Multiresolution wavelet analysis of heartbeat intervals discriminates healthy patients from those with cardiac pathology

    CERN Document Server

    Thurner, S; Teich, M C; Thurner, Stefan; Feurstein, Markus C.; Teich, Malvin C.

    1998-01-01

    We applied multiresolution wavelet analysis to the sequence of times between human heartbeats (R-R intervals) and have found a scale window, between 16 and 32 heartbeats, over which the widths of the R-R wavelet coefficients fall into disjoint sets for normal and heart-failure patients. This has enabled us to correctly classify every patient in a standard data set as either belonging to the heart-failure or normal group with 100% accuracy, thereby providing a clinically significant measure of the presence of heart-failure from the R-R intervals alone. Comparison is made with previous approaches, which have provided only statistically significant measures.

  10. Likelihood based observability analysis and confidence intervals for predictions of dynamic models

    CERN Document Server

    Kreutz, Clemens; Timmer, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Mechanistic dynamic models of biochemical networks such as Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) contain unknown parameters like the reaction rate constants and the initial concentrations of the compounds. The large number of parameters as well as their nonlinear impact on the model responses hamper the determination of confidence regions for parameter estimates. At the same time, classical approaches translating the uncertainty of the parameters into confidence intervals for model predictions are hardly feasible. In this article it is shown that a so-called prediction profile likelihood yields reliable confidence intervals for model predictions, despite arbitrarily complex and high-dimensional shapes of the confidence regions for the estimated parameters. Prediction confidence intervals of the dynamic states allow a data-based observability analysis. The approach renders the issue of sampling a high-dimensional parameter space into evaluating one-dimensional prediction spaces. The method is also applicable ...

  11. Significant variations in Weber fraction for changes in inter-onset interval of a click train over the range of intervals between 5 ms and 300 ms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekcan eUngan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available It is a common psychophysical experience that a train of clicks faster than ca. 30 per second is heard as one steady sound, whereas temporal patterns occurring on a slower time scale are perceptually resolved as individual auditory events. This phenomenon suggests the existence of two different neural mechanisms for processing of auditory sequences with fast and slow repetition rates. To test this hypothesis we used Weber’s law, which is known to be valid for perception of time intervals. Discrimination thresholds and Weber fractions (WF for twelve base inter-click intervals (ICI between 5 ms and 300 ms were measured from ten normal hearing subjects by using an up-down staircase algorithm. The mean WF, which is supposed to be constant for any perceptual mechanism according to Weber’s law, displayed significant variation with click rate. WFs decreased sharply from an average value of around 5% at repetition rates below 20 Hz to about 0.5% at rates above 67 Hz. Parallel to this steep transition, subjects reported that at rates below 20 Hz they perceived periodicity as a fast tapping rhythm, whereas at rates above 50 Hz the perceived quality was a pitch. Such a dramatic change in WF indicated the existence of two separate mechanisms for processing the click rate for long and short ICIs, based on temporal and spectral features, respectively. A range of rates between 20 Hz and 33 Hz, in which the rate discrimination threshold was maximum, appears to be a region where both of the presumed time and pitch mechanisms are relatively insensitive to rate alterations. Based on this finding, we speculate that the interval-based perception mechanism ceases to function at around 20 Hz and the spectrum-based mechanism takes over at around 33 Hz; leaving a transitional gap in between, where neither of the two mechanisms is as sensitive. Another notable finding was a significant drop in WF for ICI=100 ms, suggesting a connection of time perception to the EEG

  12. Significant variations in Weber fraction for changes in inter-onset interval of a click train over the range of intervals between 5 and 300 ms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungan, Pekcan; Yagcioglu, Suha

    2014-01-01

    It is a common psychophysical experience that a train of clicks faster than ca. 30/s is heard as one steady sound, whereas temporal patterns occurring on a slower time scale are perceptually resolved as individual auditory events. This phenomenon suggests the existence of two different neural mechanisms for processing of auditory sequences with fast and slow repetition rates. To test this hypothesis we used Weber’s law, which is known to be valid for perception of time intervals. Discrimination thresholds and Weber fractions (WFs) for 12 base inter-click intervals (ICIs) between 5 and 300 ms were measured from 10 normal hearing subjects by using an “up–down staircase” algorithm. The mean WF, which is supposed to be constant for any perceptual mechanism according to Weber’s law, displayed significant variation with click rate. WFs decreased sharply from an average value of around 5% at repetition rates below 20 Hz to about 0.5% at rates above 67 Hz. Parallel to this steep transition, subjects reported that at rates below 20 Hz they perceived periodicity as a fast tapping rhythm, whereas at rates above 50 Hz the perceived quality was a pitch. Such a dramatic change in WF indicated the existence of two separate mechanisms for processing the click rate for long and short ICIs, based on temporal and spectral features, respectively. A range of rates between 20 and 33 Hz, in which the rate discrimination threshold was maximum, appears to be a region where both of the presumed time and pitch mechanisms are relatively insensitive to rate alterations. Based on this finding, we speculate that the interval-based perception mechanism ceases to function at around 20 Hz and the spectrum-based mechanism takes over at around 33 Hz; leaving a transitional gap in between, where neither of the two mechanisms is as sensitive. Another notable finding was a significant drop in WF for ICI = 100 ms, suggesting a connection of time perception to the electroencephalography alpha

  13. High intensity interval training in a real world setting: a randomized controlled feasibility study in overweight inactive adults, measuring change in maximal oxygen uptake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Lunt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In research clinic settings, overweight adults undertaking HIIT (high intensity interval training improve their fitness as effectively as those undertaking conventional walking programs but can do so within a shorter time spent exercising. We undertook a randomized controlled feasibility (pilot study aimed at extending HIIT into a real world setting by recruiting overweight/obese, inactive adults into a group based activity program, held in a community park. METHODS: Participants were allocated into one of three groups. The two interventions, aerobic interval training and maximal volitional interval training, were compared with an active control group undertaking walking based exercise. Supervised group sessions (36 per intervention were held outdoors. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using VO2max (maximal oxygen uptake, results expressed in ml/min/kg, before and after the 12 week interventions. RESULTS: On ITT (intention to treat analyses, baseline (N = 49 and exit (N = 39 [Formula: see text]O2 was 25.3±4.5 and 25.3±3.9, respectively. Participant allocation and baseline/exit VO2max by group was as follows: Aerobic interval training N =  16, 24.2±4.8/25.6±4.8; maximal volitional interval training N = 16, 25.0±2.8/25.2±3.4; walking N = 17, 26.5±5.3/25.2±3.6. The post intervention change in VO2max was +1.01 in the aerobic interval training, -0.06 in the maximal volitional interval training and -1.03 in the walking subgroups. The aerobic interval training subgroup increased VO2max compared to walking (p = 0.03. The actual (observed, rather than prescribed time spent exercising (minutes per week, ITT analysis was 74 for aerobic interval training, 45 for maximal volitional interval training and 116 for walking (p =  0.001. On descriptive analysis, the walking subgroup had the fewest adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to earlier studies, the improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness in a

  14. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF QTC INTERVAL CHANGES WITH INTRAVENOUS ONDANSETRON AND PALONOSETRON IN PATIENTS UNDERGOING LAPROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Post - operative nausea and vomiting (PONV is a common and distressing symptom after surgery performed under general anesthesia. 5HT 3 antagonists are routinely used for PONV but are dreaded to cause QTc interval prolongation. The aim of our study was to compare the incidence of QTc interval prolongation and quantify the amount of QTc prolongation from the baseline value with IV ondansetron and Palonosetron when given for PONV prevention. 60 patients undergoing elective laproscopic surgery for cholelithiasis were randomly divided into 2 groups of 30 patients each and received 4mg of Ondansetron and 0.075mg of Palonosetron intravenously respectively before induction of anesthesia. Intraoperatively serial ECG was recorded at various intervals 0min, 3min, 15min, 1hr and 2hrs along with other routine monitoring and QTc was calculated in secs by Bazett Formula. RESULTS: The QTc interval was prolonged in Ondansetron group at all - time intervals as compared to Palonosetron group where prolongation was observed only at 3 min though this difference was statistically insignificant (P>0.05 . The difference between Ondansetron and Palonosetron group was comparable.

  15. [Investigation of reference intervals of blood gas and acid-base analysis assays in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Wang, Wei; Wang, Zhiguo

    2015-10-01

    To investigate and analyze the upper and lower limits and their sources of reference intervals in blood gas and acid-base analysis assays. The data of reference intervals were collected, which come from the first run of 2014 External Quality Assessment (EQA) program in blood gas and acid-base analysis assays performed by National Center for Clinical Laboratories (NCCL). All the abnormal values and errors were eliminated. Data statistics was performed by SPSS 13.0 and Excel 2007 referring to upper and lower limits of reference intervals and sources of 7 blood gas and acid-base analysis assays, i.e. pH value, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2), partial pressure of oxygen (PO2), Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Cl-. Values were further grouped based on instrument system and the difference between each group were analyzed. There were 225 laboratories submitting the information on the reference intervals they had been using. The three main sources of reference intervals were National Guide to Clinical Laboratory Procedures [37.07% (400/1 079)], instructions of instrument manufactures [31.23% (337/1 079)] and instructions of reagent manufactures [23.26% (251/1 079)]. Approximately 35.1% (79/225) of the laboratories had validated the reference intervals they used. The difference of upper and lower limits in most assays among 7 laboratories was moderate, both minimum and maximum (i.e. the upper limits of pH value was 7.00-7.45, the lower limits of Na+ was 130.00-156.00 mmol/L), and mean and median (i.e. the upper limits of K+ was 5.04 mmol/L and 5.10 mmol/L, the upper limits of PCO2 was 45.65 mmHg and 45.00 mmHg, 1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa), as well as the difference in P2.5 and P97.5 between each instrument system group. It was shown by Kruskal-Wallis method that the P values of upper and lower limits of all the parameters were lower than 0.001, expecting the lower limits of Na+ with P value 0.029. It was shown by Mann-Whitney that the statistic differences were found among instrument

  16. Using simulated noise to define optimal QT intervals for computer analysis of ambulatory ECG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, P E; Sellin, L C; Kinnunen, H O; Huikuri, H V

    1999-01-01

    The ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) is an important medical tool, not only for diagnosis of adverse cardiac events, but also to predict the risk of such events occurring. The 24-hour ambulatory ECG has certain problems and drawbacks because the signal is corrupted by noise from various sources and also several other conditions which may alter the ECG morphology. We have developed a Windows based program for the computer analysis of ambulatory ECG which attempts to address these problems. The software includes options for importing ECG data, different methods of waveform analysis, data-viewing, and exporting the extracted time series. In addition, the modular structure allows for flexible maintenance and expansion of the software. The ECG was recorded using a Holter device and oversampled to enhance the fidelity of the low sampling rate of the ambulatory ECG. The influence of different sampling rates on the interval variability were studied. The noise sensitivity of the implemented algorithm was tested with several types of simulated noise and the precision of the interval measurement was reported with SD values. Our simulations showed that, in most of the cases, defining the end of QT interval at the maximum of the T wave gave the most precise measurement. The definition of the onset of the ventricular repolarization duration is most precisely made on the maximum or descending maximal slope of the R wave. We also analyzed some examples of time series from patients using power spectrum estimates in order to validate the low level QT interval variability.

  17. CHANGES IN VALUES MEASURED WITH A LASER FLUORESCENCE SYSTEM FOR ENAMEL AND DENTIN ETHCED FOR DIFFERNT TIME INTERVALS - pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radostina Anastasova

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of the presented in vitro study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the laser fluorescent device DIAGNOdent in measuring changes in the level of mineralization of intact enamel surfaces etched for different time intervals and intact dentin etched for 30 sec. Material and methods: The study was performed on extracted human teeth. DIAGNOcam was used to measure the values of laser fluorescence of intact enamel and dentinal surfaces. Then the samples were treated with 37% H2PO3 etchant for 5, 30 and 60 sec for enamel surfaces and 30 sec for dentinal. Teeth were rinsed, dried and measured again with DIAGNOdent. Statistical analysis was done using statistical software SPSS 16.0 (SPSS Inc.. Results: After etching the enamel surfaces for 5, 30 and 60 seconds an average increase of 0,5 (0.62-1.1 was detected. The detected average values of increase of laser fluorescence for the enamel were 0.5 for 5 sec. ethching, 0.62 for 30 sec and 1.1 for 60 sec. The average increase for dentine was 0.26. Conclusions: Based on the limitations of the conducted study it may be concluded that changes in the degree of mineralization of tooth structures can be detected by using DIAGNOdent. Enamel etching for 5 sec and 30 sec lead to a comparative degree of change in the laser fluorescence. The obtained values after 60 sec. of etching revealed an almost double increase. The measured changes in enamel after etching are better pronounced than that in dentin.

  18. Changes In QTc Interval Duration Among Heroin Addicts On Methadone Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanovic Mirjana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to collect and unite facts known about the effect of methadone treatment on QTc interval prolongation that could determine precipitating factors in the development of heart arrhythmias and their consequences (Torsade de Pointes and sudden cardiac death, and to raise the methadone treatment safety level.

  19. DNA and RNA analysis of blood and muscle from bodies with variable postmortem intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob; Lesnikova, Iana; Funder, Anette Mariane Daa

    2014-01-01

    ranging from one to more than 14 days. It was not possible to collect blood from 38 % of the autopsy cases due to severe coagulation and hemolysis, whereas muscle tissue was available for all cases. PCR-amplifiable DNA could be extracted from 96 % of the frozen muscle specimens and from 93......The breakdown of DNA and RNA in decomposing human tissue represents a major obstacle for postmortem forensic molecular analysis. This study investigated the feasibility of performing PCR-based molecular analysis of blood and muscle tissue from 45 autopsy cases with defined postmortem intervals......) DNA fragments from all samples with postmortem intervals below 3 days whereas 400-600 bp long fragments typically could be amplified from the most decomposed muscle specimens. RNA was less stable than DNA in postmortem muscle tissue, yet selected mRNA molecules could be detected by reverse...

  20. Image Analysis on Corneal Opacity:A Novel Method to Estimate Postmortem Interval in Rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周兰; 刘艳; 刘良; 卓荦; 梁曼; 杨帆; 任亮; 朱少华

    2010-01-01

    Corneal opacity is one of the most commonly used parameters for estimating postmortem interval(PMI).This paper proposes a new method to study the relationship between changes of corneal opacity and PMI by processing and analyzing cornea images.Corneal regions were extracted from images of rabbits' eyes and described by color-based and texture-based features,which could represent the changes of cornea at different PMI.A KNN classifier was used to reveal the association of image features and PMI.The result of...

  1. Confidence intervals for intraclass correlation coefficients in a nonlinear dose-response meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetrashvili, Nino; Van den Heuvel, Edwin R

    2015-06-01

    This work is motivated by a meta-analysis case study on antipsychotic medications. The Michaelis-Menten curve is employed to model the nonlinear relationship between the dose and D2 receptor occupancy across multiple studies. An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) is used to quantify the heterogeneity across studies. To interpret the size of heterogeneity, an accurate estimate of ICC and its confidence interval is required. The goal is to apply a recently proposed generic beta-approach for construction the confidence intervals on ICCs for linear mixed effects models to nonlinear mixed effects models using four estimation methods. These estimation methods are the maximum likelihood, second-order generalized estimating equations and two two-step procedures. The beta-approach is compared with a large sample normal approximation (delta method) and bootstrapping. The confidence intervals based on the delta method and the nonparametric percentile bootstrap with various resampling strategies failed in our settings. The beta-approach demonstrates good coverages with both two-step estimation methods and consequently, it is recommended for the computation of confidence interval for ICCs in nonlinear mixed effects models for small studies.

  2. Personalized Metabolomics for Predicting Glucose Tolerance Changes in Sedentary Women After High-Intensity Interval Training

    OpenAIRE

    Kuehnbaum, Naomi L.; Gillen, Jenna B.; Gibala, Martin J.; Britz-McKibbin, Philip

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) offers a practical approach for enhancing cardiorespiratory fitness, however its role in improving glucose regulation among sedentary yet normoglycemic women remains unclear. Herein, multi-segment injection capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry is used as a high-throughput platform in metabolomics to assess dynamic responses of overweight/obese women (BMI > 25, n = 11) to standardized oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTTs) performed before and after...

  3. Adaptation of the QT interval to heart rate changes in isolated perfused guinea pig heart: influence of amiodarone and D-sotalol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padrini, R; Speranza, G; Nollo, G; Bova, S; Piovan, D; Antolini, R; Ferrari, M

    1997-05-01

    The inadequacy of the QT interval to shorten following heart rate increase is a feature of the inherited long QT syndrome and may have a role in the genesis of the typical arrhythmias associated with this syndrome (torsade des pointes). The aim of our study was to evaluate whether drugs that prolong the QT interval, such as amiodarone and D-sotalol, may also impair the ability of the QT interval to adapt to sudden heart rate changes. Experiments were carried out on isolated perfused guinea pig hearts (Langendorff preparation). Driving frequency was changed, in steps, every two minutes (Hz: 2.5-3-2.5-3.75-2.5-5-2.5), while epicardial ECG was continuously recorded on magnetic tape. QT interval was automatically measured by means of a beat-by-beat analysis program. D-sotalol was added to the perfusion medium at a concentration of 4 micrograms ml-1, while amiodarone was administered, before in vitro evaluation, for seven days (50 mg kg-1 per day, intraperitoneally). In control experiments two phases of QT adaptation were identified: an abrupt QT shortening at the first beat after frequency change (QT1), followed by a gradual, exponential QT shortening that reached a new steady state in about 1 min (half life: 13 sec). The electrical restitution curve (the relation between QT1 and the corresponding diastolic interval) had a rate constant of 57 +/- 8 ms. Neither drug changed the slow component of QT adaptation. However, both drugs increased the ability of QT to shorten upon premature stimulation: D-sotalol by increasing the rate constant of the restitution curve and amiodarone by decreasing the y-intercept. Our results indicate that D-sotalol and amiodarone do not impair QT shortening during tachycardia but, on the contrary, they may favour QT adaptation, thus reducing the likelihood of the potentially lethal 'R on T phenomenon'. This may be an additional mechanism by which these drugs can exert their antifibrillatory action.

  4. Interval Data Analysis with the Energy Charting and Metrics Tool (ECAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taasevigen, Danny J.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Koran, William

    2011-07-07

    Analyzing whole building interval data is an inexpensive but effective way to identify and improve building operations, and ultimately save money. Utilizing the Energy Charting and Metrics Tool (ECAM) add-in for Microsoft Excel, building operators and managers can begin implementing changes to their Building Automation System (BAS) after trending the interval data. The two data components needed for full analyses are whole building electricity consumption (kW or kWh) and outdoor air temperature (OAT). Using these two pieces of information, a series of plots and charts and be created in ECAM to monitor the buildings performance over time, gain knowledge of how the building is operating, and make adjustments to the BAS to improve efficiency and start saving money.

  5. Characterization of QT and RR interval series during acute myocardial ischemia by means of recurrence quantification analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yi; Sun, Zhongwei

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed to investigate the nonlinear dynamic properties of the fluctuations in ventricular repolarization, heart rate and their correlation during acute myocardial ischemia. From 13 ECG records in long-term ST-T database, 170 ischemic episodes were selected with the duration of 34 s to 23 min 18 s, and two 5-min episodes immediately before and after each ischemic episode as non-ischemic ones for comparison. QT interval (QTI) and RR interval (RRI) were extracted and the ectopic beats were removed. Recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) was performed on QTI and RRI series, respectively, and cross recurrence quantification analysis (CRQA) on paired normalized QTI and RRI series. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for statistical analysis. Results revealed that the RQA indexes for QTI and HRI series had the same changing trend during ischemia with more significantly changed indexes in QTI series. In the CRQA, indexes related to the vertical and horizontal structures in recurrence plot significantly increased, representing decreased dependency of QTI on RRI. Both QTI and RRI series showed reduced complexity during ischemia with higher sensitivity in ventricular repolarization. The weakened coupling between QTI and RRI suggests the decreased influence of sinoatrial node on QTI modulation during ischemia.

  6. Non-Linear Dynamic Analysis of Inter-Word Time Intervals in Psychotic Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todder, Doron; Avissar, Sofia; Schreiber, Gabriel

    2013-01-01

    "Language is a form and not a substance" - Ferdinand de Saussure Objective: Analyses of speech processes in schizophrenia are invariably focused on words as vocal signals. The results of such analyses are, however, strongly related to content, and may be language- and culture-dependent. Little attention has been paid to a pure measure of the form of speech, unrelated to its content: inter-words time intervals. 15 patients with schizophrenia and 15 healthy volunteers are recorded spontaneously speaking for 10-15 min. Recordings are analyzed for inter-words time intervals using the following non-linear dynamical methods: unstable periodic orbits, correlation dimension, bi-spectral analysis, and symbolic dynamics. The series of inter-word time intervals in normal speech have the characteristics of a low-dimensional chaotic attractor with a correlation dimension of [Formula: see text]. Deconstruction of the attractor appears in psychosis with re-establishment after anti-psychotic treatment. Shannon entropy, a measure of the complexity in the time series, calculated from symbolic dynamics, is higher for psychotic speech, which is also characterized by higher levels of phase coupling: higher bicoherence, obtained using bi-spectral analysis. Non-linear dynamical methods applied to ITIs thus enable a content-independent, pure measure of the form of normal thought, its distortion in psychosis, and its restoration under treatment.

  7. Multiscale analysis of heart beat interval increment series and its clinical significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG XiaoLin; NING XinBao; WANG XinLong

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of multiscale entropy (MSE) and multiscale standard deviation (MSD) are performed for both the heart rate interval series and the interval increment series. For the interval series, it is found that, it is impractical to discriminate the diseases of atrial fibrillation (AF) and congestive heart failure (CHF) unambiguously from the healthy. A clear discrimination from the healthy, both young and old, however, can be made in the MSE analysis of the increment series where we find that both CHF and AF sufferers have significantly low MSE values in the whole range of time scales investigated, which reveals that there are common dynamic characteristics underlying these two different diseases. In addition, we propose the sample entropy (SE) corresponding to time scale factor 4 of increment series as a diag-nosis index of both AF and CHF, and the reference threshold is recommended. Further indication that this index can help discriminate sensitively the mild heart failure (cardiac function classes 1 and 2) from the healthy gives a clue to early clinic diagnosis of CHF.

  8. MorePower 6.0 for ANOVA with relational confidence intervals and Bayesian analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jamie I D; Thompson, Valerie A

    2012-12-01

    MorePower 6.0 is a flexible freeware statistical calculator that computes sample size, effect size, and power statistics for factorial ANOVA designs. It also calculates relational confidence intervals for ANOVA effects based on formulas from Jarmasz and Hollands (Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology 63:124-138, 2009), as well as Bayesian posterior probabilities for the null and alternative hypotheses based on formulas in Masson (Behavior Research Methods 43:679-690, 2011). The program is unique in affording direct comparison of these three approaches to the interpretation of ANOVA tests. Its high numerical precision and ability to work with complex ANOVA designs could facilitate researchers' attention to issues of statistical power, Bayesian analysis, and the use of confidence intervals for data interpretation. MorePower 6.0 is available at https://wiki.usask.ca/pages/viewpageattachments.action?pageId=420413544 .

  9. A novel method of Newton iteration-based interval analysis for multidisciplinary systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Xiong, Chuang; Wang, RuiXing; Wang, XiaoJun; Wu, Di

    2017-09-01

    A Newton iteration-based interval uncertainty analysis method (NI-IUAM) is proposed to analyze the propagating effect of interval uncertainty in multidisciplinary systems. NI-IUAM decomposes one multidisciplinary system into single disciplines and utilizes a Newton iteration equation to obtain the upper and lower bounds of coupled state variables at each iterative step. NI-IUAM only needs to determine the bounds of uncertain parameters and does not require specific distribution formats. In this way, NI-IUAM may greatly reduce the necessity for raw data. In addition, NI-IUAM can accelerate the convergence process as a result of the super-linear convergence of Newton iteration. The applicability of the proposed method is discussed, in particular that solutions obtained in each discipline must be compatible in multidisciplinary systems. The validity and efficiency of NI-IUAM is demonstrated by both numerical and engineering examples.

  10. The Influence of Monitoring Interval on Data Measurement: An Analysis of Step Counts of University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Sigmundová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The pedometer is a widely used research tool for measuring the level and extent of physical activity (PA within population subgroups. The sample used in this study was drawn from a population of university students to examine the influence of the monitoring interval and alternate starting days on step-count activity patterns. The study was part of a national project during 2008–2010. Eligible subjects (641 were selected from a sample of 906 university students. The students wore pedometers continuously for 7 days excluding time for sleep and personal hygiene. Steps per day were logged on record sheets by each student. Data gathering spanned an entire week, and the results were sorted by alternate starting days, by activity for an entire week, by activity for only the weekdays of the one-week monitoring interval and for the two-day weekend. The statistical analysis included ANOVA, intra-class correlation (ICC analysis, and regression analysis. The ICC analysis suggested that monitoring starting on Monday (ICC = 0.71; 95%CI (0.61–0.79, Tuesday (ICC = 0.67; 95%CI (0.59–0.75 or Thursday (ICC = 0.68; 95%CI (0.55–0.79 improved reliability. The results of regression analysis also indicated that any starting day except Sunday is satisfactory as long as a minimum of four days of monitoring are used.

  11. Aerobic and anaerobic changes with high-intensity interval training in active college-aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemann, Ewa; Grzywacz, Tomasz; Łuszczyk, Marcin; Laskowski, Radoslaw; Olek, Robert A; Gibson, Ann L

    2011-04-01

    We investigated the aerobic and anaerobic benefits of high-intensity interval training performed at a work-to-rest ratio of 1:2 because little performance enhancement data exist based on this ratio. Recreationally active male volunteers (21 years, 184 cm, 81.5 kg) were randomly assigned to a training (interval training [IT] n = 10) or control group (n = 11). Baseline assessments were repeated after the last training session. Each participant underwent basic anthropometric assessment and performed a VO2max test on an electronically braked cycle ergometer and a 30-second Wingate test. Venous samples were acquired at the antecubital vein and subsequently processed for lactate (LA); samples were obtained at rest, and 5 and 15-minute post-Wingate test. The interval training used a cycling power output equivalent to 80% of VO2max (80% p VO2max) applied for 6 90-second bouts (each followed by 180-second rest) per session, 3 sessions per week, for 6 weeks. The control group maintained their normal routine for the 6-week period. Group × time repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed that IT improved VO2max (5.5 ml · kg(-1) · min), anaerobic threshold (3.8 ml · kg(-1) · min), work output (12.5 J · kg(-1)), glycolytic work (11.5 J · kg(-1)), mean power (0.3 W · kg), peak power (0.4 W · kg(-1)), and max power (0.4 W · kg(-1)); p training program may rapidly restore or improve a client's or athlete's maximal functional capacity.

  12. Remote sensing analysis of vegetation recovery following short-interval fires in Southern California shrublands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Ran; Dennison, Philip E; D'Antonio, Carla M; Moritz, Max A

    2014-01-01

    Increased fire frequency has been shown to promote alien plant invasions in the western United States, resulting in persistent vegetation type change. Short interval fires are widely considered to be detrimental to reestablishment of shrub species in southern California chaparral, facilitating the invasion of exotic annuals and producing "type conversion". However, supporting evidence for type conversion has largely been at local, site scales and over short post-fire time scales. Type conversion has not been shown to be persistent or widespread in chaparral, and past range improvement studies present evidence that chaparral type conversion may be difficult and a relatively rare phenomenon across the landscape. With the aid of remote sensing data covering coastal southern California and a historical wildfire dataset, the effects of short interval fires (vegetation cover was found in some lower elevation areas that were burned twice in short interval fires, where non-sprouting species are more common. However, extensive type conversion of chaparral to grassland was not evident in this study. Most variables, with the exception of elevation, were moderately or poorly correlated with differences in vegetation recovery.

  13. CHANGES IN VALUES MEASURED WITH A LASER FLUORESCENCE SYSTEM FOR ENAMEL AND DENTIN ETHCED FOR DIFFERNT TIME INTERVALS - pilot study.

    OpenAIRE

    Radostina Anastasova; Mirela Marinova-Takorova; Vladimir E. Panov

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the presented in vitro study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the laser fluorescent device DIAGNOdent in measuring changes in the level of mineralization of intact enamel surfaces etched for different time intervals and intact dentin etched for 30 sec. Material and methods: The study was performed on extracted human teeth. DIAGNOcam was used to measure the values of laser fluorescence of intact enamel and dentinal surfaces. Then the samples were treated with 37% H2...

  14. Gap analysis of pediatric reference intervals for risk biomarkers of cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoub, Sepideh; Chan, Man Khun; Adeli, Khosrow

    2006-06-01

    The childhood obesity epidemic has begun to compromise the health of the pediatric population by promoting premature development of atherosclerosis and the metabolic syndrome (MS), both of which significantly increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) early in life. As a result, recently, there has been increased recognition of the need to assess and closely monitor children and adolescents for risk factors of CVD and components of the MS. Serum/Plasma biomarkers including total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL-C, LDL-C, insulin and C-peptide have been used for this purpose for many years. Recently, emerging biomarkers such as apolipoprotein AI, apolipoprotein B, leptin, adiponectin, free fatty acids, and ghrelin have been proposed as tools that provide valuable complementary information to that obtained from traditional biomarkers, if not more powerful predictions of risk. In order for biomarkers to be clinically useful in accurately diagnosing and treating disorders, age-specific reference intervals that account for differences in gender, pubertal stage, and ethnic origin are a necessity. Unfortunately, to date, many critical gaps exist in the reference interval database of most of the biomarkers that have been identified. This review contains a comprehensive gap analysis of the reference intervals for emerging and traditional risk biomarkers of CVD and the MS and discusses the clinical significance and analytical considerations of each biomarker.

  15. Dynamic response analysis of structure under time-variant interval process model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Baizhan; Qin, Yuan; Yu, Dejie; Jiang, Chao

    2016-10-01

    Due to the aggressiveness of the environmental factor, the variation of the dynamic load, the degeneration of the material property and the wear of the machine surface, parameters related with the structure are distinctly time-variant. Typical model for time-variant uncertainties is the random process model which is constructed on the basis of a large number of samples. In this work, we propose a time-variant interval process model which can be effectively used to deal with time-variant uncertainties with limit information. And then two methods are presented for the dynamic response analysis of the structure under the time-variant interval process model. The first one is the direct Monte Carlo method (DMCM) whose computational burden is relative high. The second one is the Monte Carlo method based on the Chebyshev polynomial expansion (MCM-CPE) whose computational efficiency is high. In MCM-CPE, the dynamic response of the structure is approximated by the Chebyshev polynomials which can be efficiently calculated, and then the variational range of the dynamic response is estimated according to the samples yielded by the Monte Carlo method. To solve the dependency phenomenon of the interval operation, the affine arithmetic is integrated into the Chebyshev polynomial expansion. The computational effectiveness and efficiency of MCM-CPE is verified by two numerical examples, including a spring-mass-damper system and a shell structure.

  16. An experimental evaluation of electrical skin conductivity changes in postmortem interval and its assessment for time of death estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantürk, İsmail; Karabiber, Fethullah; Çelik, Safa; Şahin, M Feyzi; Yağmur, Fatih; Kara, Sadık

    2016-02-01

    In forensic medicine, estimation of the time of death (ToD) is one of the most important and challenging medico-legal problems. Despite the partial accomplishments in ToD estimations to date, the error margin of ToD estimation is still too large. In this study, electrical conductivity changes were experimentally investigated in the postmortem interval in human cases. Electrical conductivity measurements give some promising clues about the postmortem interval. A living human has a natural electrical conductivity; in the postmortem interval, intracellular fluids gradually leak out of cells. These leaked fluids combine with extra-cellular fluids in tissues and since both fluids are electrolytic, intracellular fluids help increase conductivity. Thus, the level of electrical conductivity is expected to increase with increased time after death. In this study, electrical conductivity tests were applied for six hours. The electrical conductivity of the cases exponentially increased during the tested time period, indicating a positive relationship between electrical conductivity and the postmortem interval.

  17. Fast Algorithm for Vectorcardiogram and Interbeat Intervals Analysis: Application for Premature Ventricular Contractions Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Jekova

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the adequacy of two non-orthogonal ECG leads from Holter recordings to provide reliable vectorcardiogram (VCG parameters. The VCG loop was constructed using the QRS samples in a fixed-size window around the fiducial point. We developed an algorithm for fast approximation of the VCG loop, estimation of its area and calculation of relative VCG characteristics, which are expected to be minimally dependent on the patient individuality and the ECG recording conditions. Moreover, in order to obtain independent from the heart rate temporal QRS characteristics, we introduced a parameter for estimation of the differences of the interbeat RR intervals. The statistical assessment of the proposed VCG and RR interval parameters showed distinguishing distributions for N and PVC beats. The reliability for PVC detection of the extracted parameter set was estimated independently with two classification methods - a stepwise discriminant analysis and a decision-tree-like classification algorithm, using the publicly available MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. The accuracy achieved with the stepwise discriminant analysis presented sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 95.6%, while the decision-tree-like technique assured sensitivity of 93.3% and specificity of 94.6%. We suggested possibilities for accuracy improvement with adequate electrodes placement of the Holter leads, supplementary analysis of the type of the predominant beats in the reference VCG matrix and smaller step for VCG loop approximation.

  18. 'Expected satiety' changes hunger and fullness in the inter-meal interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Brown, Steven; Hinton, Elanor C; Rogers, Peter J; Fay, Stephanie H

    2011-04-01

    Previously, we have shown that foods differ markedly in the satiety that they are expected to confer (compared calorie-for-calorie). In the present study we tested the hypothesis that 'expected satiety' plays a causal role in the satiety that is experienced after a food has been consumed. Before lunch, participants (N=32) were shown the ingredients of a fruit smoothie. Half were shown a small portion of fruit and half were shown a large portion. Participants then assessed the expected satiety of the smoothie and provided appetite ratings, before, and for three hours after its consumption. As anticipated, expected satiety was significantly higher in the 'large portion' condition. Moreover, and consistent with our hypothesis, participants reported significantly less hunger and significantly greater fullness in the large-portion condition. Importantly, this effect endured throughout the test period (for three hours). Together, these findings confirm previous reports indicating that beliefs and expectations can have marked effects on satiety and they show that this effect can persist well into the inter-meal interval. Potential explanations are discussed, including the prospect that satiety is moderated by memories of expected satiety that are encoded around the time that a meal is consumed.

  19. Characterising infant inter-breath interval patterns during active and quiet sleep using recurrence plot analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Philip I; Wilson, Stephen J; Suresh, Sadasivam; Cooper, David M

    2009-01-01

    Breathing patterns are characteristically different between active and quiet sleep states in infants. It has been previously identified that breathing dynamics are governed by a non-linear controller which implies the need for a nonlinear analytical tool. Further, it has been shown that quantified nonlinear variables are different between adult sleep states. This study aims to determine whether a nonlinear analytical tool known as recurrence plot analysis can characterize breath intervals of active and quiet sleep states in infants. Overnight polysomnograms were obtained from 32 healthy infants. The 6 longest periods each of active and quiet sleep were identified and a software routine extracted inter-breath interval data for recurrence plot analysis. Determinism (DET), laminarity (LAM) and radius (RAD) values were calculated for an embedding dimension of 4, 6, 8 and 16, and fixed recurrence of 0.5, 1, 2, 3.5 and 5%. Recurrence plots exhibited characteristically different patterns for active and quiet sleep. Active sleep periods typically had higher values of RAD, DET and LAM than for quiet sleep, and this trend was invariant to a specific choice of embedding dimension or fixed recurrence. These differences may provide a basis for automated sleep state classification, and the quantitative investigation of pathological breathing patterns.

  20. Interval Analysis: A New Tool for the Characterization of an Epoxy-Amine/Aluminum System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mickaël Pomes-Hadda

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Epoxy-amine/aluminum chemical systems or sandwich structures with and without interphase formation are prepared using two different curing cycles and are characterized with dielectric spectroscopy. The sample without interphase formation is obtained when the reaction between epoxy and amine groups is favored, which occurs at high temperature. The interphase formation results from the reaction between the amine group and aluminum surface at room temperature. Dielectric spectra are fitted using the Set Inversion Via Interval Analysis (SIVIA algorithm applied to DiElectric spectroscopy algorithm (SADE developed using the method of intervals analysis. A new approach is implemented using a sum of Debye relaxations to optimize and guarantee the fitting. The results achieved show a distribution of relaxation times, which always take place at the same time as demonstrated. In this study, five Debye relaxations were found which fit the β-relaxation with our model. Finally, we showed that the more intensive of our five β -relaxations follows the Arrhenius law.

  1. Interval arithmetic in calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairbekova, Gaziza; Mazakov, Talgat; Djomartova, Sholpan; Nugmanova, Salima

    2016-10-01

    Interval arithmetic is the mathematical structure, which for real intervals defines operations analogous to ordinary arithmetic ones. This field of mathematics is also called interval analysis or interval calculations. The given math model is convenient for investigating various applied objects: the quantities, the approximate values of which are known; the quantities obtained during calculations, the values of which are not exact because of rounding errors; random quantities. As a whole, the idea of interval calculations is the use of intervals as basic data objects. In this paper, we considered the definition of interval mathematics, investigated its properties, proved a theorem, and showed the efficiency of the new interval arithmetic. Besides, we briefly reviewed the works devoted to interval analysis and observed basic tendencies of development of integral analysis and interval calculations.

  2. Analysis of axial prestretch in the abdominal aorta with reference to post mortem interval and degree of atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horny, Lukas; Adamek, Tomas; Kulvajtova, Marketa

    2014-05-01

    It is a well-known fact that the length of an artery in situ and the length of an excised artery differs. Retraction of blood vessels is usually observed. This prestretch plays an important role in arterial physiology. We have recently determined that the decrease of axial prestretch in the human abdominal aorta is so closely correlated with age that it is suitable for forensic applications (estimation of the age at time of death for cadavers of unknown identity). Since post mortem autolysis may affect the reliability of an estimate based on axial prestretch, the present study aims to detail analysis of the effect of post mortem time. The abdominal aorta is a prominent site of atherosclerotic changes (ATH), which may potentially affect longitudinal prestretch. Thus ATH was also involved in the analysis. Axial prestretch in the human abdominal aorta, post mortem interval (PMI), and the degree of ATH were documented in 365 regular autopsies. The data was first age adjusted to remove any supposed correlation with age. After the age adjustment of the sample, the correlation analysis showed no significant PMI effects on the prestretch in non-putrefied bodies. Analysis of the prestretch variance with respect to ATH suggested that ATH is not a suitable factor to explain the prestretch variability remaining after the age adjustment. It was concluded that, although atherosclerotic plaques may certainly change the biomechanics of arteries, they do not significantly affect the longitudinal prestretch in the human abdominal aorta.

  3. Reliability and Confidence Interval Analysis of a CMC Turbine Stator Vane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Gyekenyesi, John P.; Mital, Subodh K.

    2008-01-01

    High temperature ceramic matrix composites (CMC) are being explored as viable candidate materials for hot section gas turbine components. These advanced composites can potentially lead to reduced weight, enable higher operating temperatures requiring less cooling and thus leading to increased engine efficiencies. However, these materials are brittle and show degradation with time at high operating temperatures due to creep as well as cyclic mechanical and thermal loads. In addition, these materials are heterogeneous in their make-up and various factors affect their properties in a specific design environment. Most of these advanced composites involve two- and three-dimensional fiber architectures and require a complex multi-step high temperature processing. Since there are uncertainties associated with each of these in addition to the variability in the constituent material properties, the observed behavior of composite materials exhibits scatter. Traditional material failure analyses employing a deterministic approach, where failure is assumed to occur when some allowable stress level or equivalent stress is exceeded, are not adequate for brittle material component design. Such phenomenological failure theories are reasonably successful when applied to ductile materials such as metals. Analysis of failure in structural components is governed by the observed scatter in strength, stiffness and loading conditions. In such situations, statistical design approaches must be used. Accounting for these phenomena requires a change in philosophy on the design engineer s part that leads to a reduced focus on the use of safety factors in favor of reliability analyses. The reliability approach demands that the design engineer must tolerate a finite risk of unacceptable performance. This risk of unacceptable performance is identified as a component's probability of failure (or alternatively, component reliability). The primary concern of the engineer is minimizing this risk in

  4. Systematic analysis of gene expression patterns associated with postmortem interval in human tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yizhang; Wang, Likun; Yin, Yuxin; Yang, Ence

    2017-07-14

    Postmortem mRNA degradation is considered to be the major concern in gene expression research utilizing human postmortem tissues. A key factor in this process is the postmortem interval (PMI), which is defined as the interval between death and sample collection. However, global patterns of postmortem mRNA degradation at individual gene levels across diverse human tissues remain largely unknown. In this study, we performed a systematic analysis of alteration of gene expression associated with PMI in human tissues. From the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) database, we evaluated gene expression levels of 2,016 high-quality postmortem samples from 316 donors of European descent, with PMI ranging from 1 to 27 hours. We found that PMI-related mRNA degradation is tissue-specific, gene-specific, and even genotype-dependent, thus drawing a more comprehensive picture of PMI-associated gene expression across diverse human tissues. Additionally, we also identified 266 differentially variable (DV) genes, such as DEFB4B and IFNG, whose expression is significantly dispersed between short PMI (S-PMI) and long PMI (L-PMI) groups. In summary, our analyses provide a comprehensive profile of PMI-associated gene expression, which will help interpret gene expression patterns in the evaluation of postmortem tissues.

  5. DYNAMIC OF CHANGES OF BLOOD PLASMA ENERGY METABOLISM PARAMETERS IN SUCKLING COWS DURING CALVING INTERVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Pavlik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effect of environmental condition changes during gazing period on energy metabolism parameters was investigated. Totally 40 Aberdeen Angus cows were selected for observation. Calving all of cows was situated into March. The feeding ration for the animals was comprised by pasture during the grazing period and corn silage, hay and granulated distiller’s grains during the winter period. At average age 9 days before calving, and subsequently 10, 81, 151, 189 and 273 days after calving, blood was sampled and analysed for glucose and NEFA (non-esterified fatty acid concentrations on KONELAB T20xt automatic analyser (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Finland and currently available commercial kits (Biovendor-Laboratorni medicina, Czech Republic. A rapid increase (p < 0.05 of glucose concentration was detected in blood plasma of cows in period before calving to 81 days post partum. Average value of glucose concentration at 273 days postpartum was significant (p < 0.05 lower comparing to day 189. The highest concentrations of NEFA in blood plasma of cows were found at 10 day postpartum. After that, during the persisted higher temperature period the NEFA concentration decreased significantly (p < 0.01 till 189 days postpartum. At the end of monitored period concentration of NEFA in blood plasma significantly decreased (p < 0.05. Changes of hot and cold season during the grazing period probably according to forage quality and had significant effects on blood plasma NEFA and glucose concentrations.

  6. [The concept of reference change values (RCV). Will it supersede reference intervals?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walz, Brigitte; Fierz, Walter

    2015-02-01

    Reference values are generally used to allow a decision on whether a laboratory value is in the normal range or if it mirrors a pathological process. This decision is especially difficult to take, when the pathological process is just starting and the values are relatively close to the normal range. Particularly in this phase, the decision is extremely important. Harris and later on Fraser have realized that there are two variables that contribute to the credibility and significance of a measured analyte. 1. The imprecision of the measurement itself. These values have become relatively low in recent years: they amount to values between 1 and 5 %. 2. The within person biological variability, which can be 100 % or more. Both variables combined yield the "reference change value" (RCV) to define the minimal significant difference between two measurements at different time points. When using this concept, differences between two measurements can be detected before the normal range is exceeded. For any given patient the reference values of a population is actually not of primary concern. It is important to know that his personal data exceed his personal normal range, which is dependent on RCV. For many analytes in clinical chemistry and hematology the use of RCV rather than the normal range as reference improves the decision making process in a clinical setting.

  7. Interval analysis method and convex models for impulsive response of structures with uncertain-but-bounded external loads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiping Qiu; Xiaojun Wang

    2006-01-01

    Two non-probabilistic, set-theoretical methods for determining the maximum and minimum impulsive responses of structures to uncertain-but-bounded impulses are presented. They are, respectively, based on the theories of interval mathematics and convex models. The uncertain-but-bounded impulses are assumed to be a convex set, hyper-rectangle or ellipsoid. For the two non-probabilistic methods, less prior information is required about the uncertain nature of impulses than the probabilistic model. Comparisons between the interval analysis method and the convex model, which are developed as an anti-optimization problem of finding the least favorable impulsive response and the most favorable impulsive response, are made through mathematical analyses and numerical calculations.The results of this study indicate mat under the condition of the interval vector being determined from an ellipsoid containing the uncertain impulses, the width of the impulsive responses predicted by the interval analysis method is larger than that by the convex model; under the condition of the ellipsoid being determined from an interval vector containing the uncertain impulses, the width Of the interval impulsive responses obtained by the interval analysis method is smaller than that by the convex model.

  8. Changes in mitochondrial function and mitochondria associated protein expression in response to 2-weeks of high intensity interval training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace eVincent

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: High-intensity short-duration interval training (HIT stimulates functional and metabolic adaptation in skeletal muscle, but the influence of HIT on mitochondrial function remains poorly studied in humans. Mitochondrial metabolism, as well as mitochondrial-associated protein expression were tested in untrained participants performing HIT over a two-week period. Methods: Eight males performed a single-leg cycling protocol (12 x 1 min intervals at 120% peak power output, 90 s recovery, 4 days/week. Muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis were taken pre- and post-HIT. Mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized fibres, citrate synthase (CS activity and protein expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator (PGC-1α and respiratory complex components were measured. Results: HIT training improved peak power and time to fatigue. Increases in absolute oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS capacities and CS activity were observed, but not in the ratio of CCO to the electron transport system (CCO/ETS, the respiratory control ratios (RCR-1 and RCR-2 or mitochondrial-associated protein expression. Specific increases in OXPHOS flux were not apparent after normalization to CS, indicating that gross changes mainly resulted from increased mitochondrial mass. Conclusion: Over only 2 weeks HIT significantly increased mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle independently of detectable changes in mitochondrial-associated and mitogenic protein expression.

  9. Interval sentinel lymph nodes in melanoma: a digital pathology analysis of Ki67 expression and microvascular density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinaccio, Christian; Giudice, Giuseppe; Nacchiero, Eleonora; Robusto, Fabio; Opinto, Giuseppina; Lastilla, Gaetano; Maiorano, Eugenio; Ribatti, Domenico

    2016-08-01

    The presence of interval sentinel lymph nodes in melanoma is documented in several studies, but controversies still exist about the management of these lymph nodes. In this study, an immunohistochemical evaluation of tumor cell proliferation and neo-angiogenesis has been performed with the aim of establishing a correlation between these two parameters between positive and negative interval sentinel lymph nodes. This retrospective study reviewed data of 23 patients diagnosed with melanoma. Bioptic specimens of interval sentinel lymph node were retrieved, and immunohistochemical reactions on tissue sections were performed using Ki67 as a marker of proliferation and CD31 as a blood vessel marker for the study of angiogenesis. The entire stained tissue sections for each case were digitized using Aperio Scanscope Cs whole-slide scanning platform and stored as high-resolution images. Image analysis was carried out on three selected fields of equal area using IHC Nuclear and Microvessel analysis algorithms to determine positive Ki67 nuclei and vessel number. Patients were divided into positive and negative interval sentinel lymph node groups, and the positive interval sentinel lymph node group was further divided into interval positive with micrometastasis and interval positive with macrometastasis subgroups. The analysis revealed a significant difference between positive and negative interval sentinel lymph nodes in the percentage of Ki67-positive nuclei and mean vessel number suggestive of an increased cellular proliferation and angiogenesis in positive interval sentinel lymph nodes. Further analysis in the interval positive lymph node group showed a significant difference between micro- and macrometastasis subgroups in the percentage of Ki67-positive nuclei and mean vessel number. Percentage of Ki67-positive nuclei was increased in the macrometastasis subgroup, while mean vessel number was increased in the micrometastasis subgroup. The results of this study suggest

  10. Cervical cancer screening in Australia: modelled evaluation of the impact of changing the recommended interval from two to three years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howard Kirsten

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The National Cervical Screening Program in Australia currently recommends that sexually active women between the ages of 18-70 years attend routine screening every 2 years. The publically funded National HPV Vaccination Program commenced in 2007, with catch-up in females aged 12-26 years conducted until 2009; and this may prompt consideration of whether the screening interval and other aspects of the organized screening program could be reviewed. The aim of the current evaluation was to assess the epidemiologic outcomes and cost implications of changing the recommended screening interval in Australia to 3 years. Methods We used a modelling approach to evaluate the effects of moving to a 3-yearly recommended screening interval. We used data from the Victorian Cervical Cytology Registry over the period 1997-2007 to model compliance with routine screening under current practice, and registry data from other countries with 3-yearly recommendations to inform assumptions about future screening behaviour under two alternative systems for screening organisation - retention of a reminder-based system (as in New Zealand, or a move to a call-and-recall system (as in England. Results A 3-yearly recommendation is predicted to be of similar effectiveness to the current 2-yearly recommendation, resulting in no substantial change to the total number of incident cervical cancer cases or cancer deaths, or to the estimated 0.68% average cumulative lifetime risk of cervical cancer in unvaccinated Australian women. However, a 3-yearly screening policy would be associated with decreases in the annual number of colposcopy and biopsy procedures performed (by 4-10% and decreases in the number of treatments for pre-invasive lesions (by 2-4%. The magnitude of the decrease in the number of diagnostic procedures and treatments would depend on the method of screening organization, with call-and-recall screening associated with the highest reductions. The

  11. The effect of esmolol on corrected-QT interval, corrected-QT interval dispersion changes seen during anesthesia induction in hypertensive patients taking an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahit Çeker

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The importance of minimizing the exaggerated sympatho-adrenergic responses and QT interval and QT interval dispersion changes that may develop due to laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation during anesthesia induction in the hypertensive patients is clear. Esmolol decreases the hemodynamic response to laryngoscopy and intubation. However, the effect of esmolol in decreasing the prolonged QT interval and QT interval dispersion as induced by laryngoscopy and intubation is controversial. We investigated the effect of esmolol on the hemodynamic, and corrected-QT interval and corrected-QT interval dispersion changes seen during anesthesia induction in hypertensive patients using angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors. METHODS: 60 ASA I-II patients, with essential hypertension using angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors were included in the study. The esmolol group received esmolol at a bolus dose of 500 mcg/kg followed by a 100 mcg/kg/min infusion which continued until the 4th min after intubation. The control group received 0.9% saline similar to the esmolol group. The mean blood pressure, heart rate values and the electrocardiogram records were obtained as baseline values before the anesthesia, 5 min after esmolol and saline administration, 3 min after the induction and 30 s, 2 min and 4 min after intubation. RESULTS: The corrected-QT interval was shorter in the esmolol group (p = 0.012, the corrected-QT interval dispersion interval was longer in the control group (p = 0.034 and the mean heart rate was higher in the control group (p = 0.022 30 s after intubation. The risk of arrhythmia frequency was higher in the control group in the 4-min period following intubation (p = 0.038. CONCLUSION: Endotracheal intubation was found to prolong corrected-QT interval and corrected-QT interval dispersion, and increase the heart rate during anesthesia induction with propofol in hypertensive patients using angiotensin converting

  12. Interval analysis of transient temperature field with uncertain-but-bounded parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chong; Qiu, ZhiPing

    2014-10-01

    Based on the traditional finite volume method, a new numerical technique is presented for the transient temperature field prediction with interval uncertainties in both the physical parameters and initial/boundary conditions. New stability theory applicable to interval discrete schemes is developed. Interval ranges of the uncertain temperature field can be approximately yielded by two kinds of parameter perturbation methods. Different order Neumann series are adopted to approximate the interval matrix inverse. By comparing the results with traditional Monte Carlo simulation, a numerical example is given to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model and methods.

  13. Doxycycline supplementation allows for the culture of human ESCs/iPSCs with media changes at 3-day intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mi-Yoon; Oh, Boram; Rhee, Yong-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hun

    2015-11-01

    Culturing human embryonic stem and induced pluripotent stem cells (hESCs/iPSCs) is one of the most costly and labor-intensive tissue cultures, as media containing expensive factors/cytokines should be changed every day to maintain and propagate undifferentiated hESCs/iPSCs in vitro. We recently reported that doxycycline, an anti-bacterial agent, had dramatic effects on hESC/iPSC survival and promoted self-renewal. In this study, we extended the effects of doxycycline to a more practical issue to save cost and labor in hESC/iPSC cultures. Regardless of cultured cell conditions, hESCs/iPSCs in doxycycline-supplemented media were viable and proliferating for at least 3 days without media change, while none or few viable cells were detected in the absence of doxycycline in the same conditions. Thus, hESCs/iPSCs supplemented with doxycycline can be cultured for a long period of time with media changes at 3-day intervals without altering their self-renewal and pluripotent properties, indicating that doxycycline supplementation can reduce the frequency of media changes and the amount of media required by 1/3. These findings strongly encourage the use of doxycycline to save cost and labor in culturing hESCs/iPSCs.

  14. Computer analysis of the RR interval-contractility relationship during random stimulation of the isolated heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.; Strackee, J.; Capelle, F.J.L. van; Perron, J.C. du

    1968-01-01

    Hemodynamic variability in patients with atrial fibrillation may originate from a direct influence of the variations in RR intervals on myocardial contractility. With the aid of a computer the serial autocorrelation function and the histogram of the RR intervals of patients with atrial fibrillation

  15. Individual Case Analysis of Postmortem Interval Time on Brain Tissue Preservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Blair

    Full Text Available At autopsy, the time that has elapsed since the time of death is routinely documented and noted as the postmortem interval (PMI. The PMI of human tissue samples is a parameter often reported in research studies and comparable PMI is preferred when comparing different populations, i.e., disease versus control patients. In theory, a short PMI may alleviate non-experimental protein denaturation, enzyme activity, and other chemical changes such as the pH, which could affect protein and nucleic acid integrity. Previous studies have compared PMI en masse by looking at many different individual cases each with one unique PMI, which may be affected by individual variance. To overcome this obstacle, in this study human hippocampal segments from the same individuals were sampled at different time points after autopsy creating a series of PMIs for each case. Frozen and fixed tissue was then examined by Western blot, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry to evaluate the effect of extended PMI on proteins, nucleic acids, and tissue morphology. In our results, immunostaining profiles for most proteins remained unchanged even after PMI of over 50 h, yet by Western blot distinctive degradation patterns were observed in different protein species. Finally, RNA integrity was lower after extended PMI; however, RNA preservation was variable among cases suggesting antemortem factors may play a larger role than PMI in protein and nucleic acid integrity.

  16. Individual Case Analysis of Postmortem Interval Time on Brain Tissue Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Jeffrey A; Wang, Chunyu; Hernandez, Damarys; Siedlak, Sandra L; Rodgers, Mark S; Achar, Rojan K; Fahmy, Lara M; Torres, Sandy L; Petersen, Robert B; Zhu, Xiongwei; Casadesus, Gemma; Lee, Hyoung-Gon

    2016-01-01

    At autopsy, the time that has elapsed since the time of death is routinely documented and noted as the postmortem interval (PMI). The PMI of human tissue samples is a parameter often reported in research studies and comparable PMI is preferred when comparing different populations, i.e., disease versus control patients. In theory, a short PMI may alleviate non-experimental protein denaturation, enzyme activity, and other chemical changes such as the pH, which could affect protein and nucleic acid integrity. Previous studies have compared PMI en masse by looking at many different individual cases each with one unique PMI, which may be affected by individual variance. To overcome this obstacle, in this study human hippocampal segments from the same individuals were sampled at different time points after autopsy creating a series of PMIs for each case. Frozen and fixed tissue was then examined by Western blot, RT-PCR, and immunohistochemistry to evaluate the effect of extended PMI on proteins, nucleic acids, and tissue morphology. In our results, immunostaining profiles for most proteins remained unchanged even after PMI of over 50 h, yet by Western blot distinctive degradation patterns were observed in different protein species. Finally, RNA integrity was lower after extended PMI; however, RNA preservation was variable among cases suggesting antemortem factors may play a larger role than PMI in protein and nucleic acid integrity.

  17. Analysis of calibration interval of turbine meters used in natural gas delivery points

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Fernanda M. [TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoguto Bolivia Brasil, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    In natural gas pipeline operation, an accurate measurement of flow at delivery points provides the basis for the company billing and ensures a relationship of credibility with customers. So, the measurement management system must ensure that the equipment responsible for natural gas measurement is calibrated, although it does not mean that a high frequency of calibration must be adopted, since the calibration costs may increase without relevant gains being perceived. Therefore studying calibration frequency becomes really important in order to find the optimal point between reliability and cost. This paper aimed to evaluate the calibration frequency of the turbine flow meters used in TBG - Transportadora Brasileira Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil to measure processed gas flow at delivery points. Historical calibration data were used in commercial statistical software, which is normally used for lifetime analysis of equipment. Following such procedure, each time a meter was rejected at a calibration, it was considered a fail. The results obtained indicate that the tow year calibration interval used by TBG ensures the probability of failure, translated by the probability of producing incorrect results, of only 3%, considering their process conditions. (author)

  18. Leading change: a concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Brantley, Heather V; Ford, Debra J

    2017-04-01

    To report an analysis of the concept of leading change. Nurses have been called to lead change to advance the health of individuals, populations, and systems. Conceptual clarity about leading change in the context of nursing and healthcare systems provides an empirical direction for future research and theory development that can advance the science of leadership studies in nursing. Concept analysis. CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, Psychology and Behavioral Sciences Collection, Health Business Elite and Business Source Premier databases were searched using the terms: leading change, transformation, reform, leadership and change. Literature published in English from 2001 - 2015 in the fields of nursing, medicine, organizational studies, business, education, psychology or sociology were included. Walker and Avant's method was used to identify descriptions, antecedents, consequences and empirical referents of the concept. Model, related and contrary cases were developed. Five defining attributes of leading change were identified: (a) individual and collective leadership; (b) operational support; (c) fostering relationships; (d) organizational learning; and (e) balance. Antecedents were external or internal driving forces and organizational readiness. The consequences of leading change included improved organizational performance and outcomes and new organizational culture and values. A theoretical definition and conceptual model of leading change were developed. Future studies that use and test the model may contribute to the refinement of a middle-range theory to advance nursing leadership research and education. From this, empirically derived interventions that prepare and enable nurses to lead change to advance health may be realized. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Analysis of the effect of different intensities and rest interval on the perceived exertion of athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.O. Damasceno

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The research examined the effects of different intensities and different rest intervals of strength training on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE in young athletes. Participated in the study 23 young men, aged 17.06 ± .73 years, 68.01 ± 8.09 kg of body mass, and 173.65 �� 5.61 cm of height. They were submitted to the appropriateness of charges (5 RM, 10 RM or 15 RM and rest intervals (30, 60 or 120 s and then asked to point perceived exertion according to the OMNI-RES scale. A two-way ANOVA was used and significant differences were analyzed by post-hoc Bonferroni. For RPE there were no significant differences between the intensities in the recovery intervals evaluated. For intervals with the same intensity, there were differences between 15 RM and range of 120 and 60 s with 15 RM and 30 s intervals. Intensities of 10 and 5 RM, in the range of 120 s showed significant differences. It follows that the smaller the rest interval the greater the levels of fatigue regardless of the number of repetitions performed in all intensities and it may be inferred that the RPE was sensitive to reduction in the rest interval.

  20. Human processing of short temporal intervals as revealed by an ERP waveform analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitaka eNakajima

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the time course over which the human brain processes information about durations up to ~300 ms, we reanalyzed the data that were previously reported by Mitsudo et al. (2009 using a multivariate analysis method. Event-related potentials were recorded from 19 scalp electrodes on 11 (9 original and 2 additional participants while they judged whether two neighboring empty time intervals—called t1 and t2 and marked by three tone bursts—had equal durations. There was also a control condition in which the participants were presented the same temporal patterns but without a judgment task. In the present reanalysis, we sought to visualize how the temporal patterns were represented in the brain over time. A correlation matrix across channels was calculated for each temporal pattern. Geometric separations between the correlation matrices were calculated, and subjected to multidimensional scaling. We performed such analyses for a moving 100-ms time window after the t1 presentations. In the windows centered at < 100 ms after the t2 presentation, the analyses revealed the local maxima of categorical separation between temporal patterns of perceptually equal durations versus perceptually unequal durations, both in the judgment condition and in the control condition. Such categorization of the temporal patterns was prominent only in narrow temporal regions. The analysis indicated that the participants determined whether the two neighboring time intervals were of equal duration mostly within 100 ms after the presentation of the temporal patterns. A very fast brain activity was related to the perception of elementary temporal patterns without explicit judgments. This is consistent with the findings of Mitsudo et al., and it is in line with the processing time hypothesis proposed by Nakajima et al. (2004. The validity of the correlation matrix analyses turned out to be an effective tool to grasp the overall responses of the brain to temporal

  1. AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF SAMPLING INTERVAL FOR EXCHANGE RATE FORECASTING WITH NEURAL NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wei; K. K. Lai; Y. Nakamori; WANG Shouyang

    2003-01-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been widely used as a promising alternative approach for forecast task because of their several distinguishing features. In this paper, we investigate the effect of different sampling intervals on predictive performance of ANNs in forecasting exchange rate time series. It is shown that selection of an appropriate sampling interval would permit the neural network to model adequately the financial time series. Too short or too long a sampling interval does not provide good forecasting accuracy. In addition, we discuss the effect of forecasting horizons and input nodes on the prediction performance of neural networks.

  2. QT Interval Prolongation Associated with Intramuscular Ziprasidone in Chinese Patients: A Case Report and a Comprehensive Literature Review with Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-Bin Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intramuscular (IM ziprasidone has been associated with QTc interval prolongations in patients with preexisting risk factors. A 23-year-old male Chinese schizophrenia patient experienced an increase of QTc interval of 83 milliseconds (ms after receiving 20 mg IM ziprasidone (baseline and increased QT/QTc were, respectively, 384/418 and 450/501. This was rated as a probable adverse drug reaction (ADR by the Liverpool ADR causality assessment tool. A systematic review including all types of trials reporting the effect of IM ziprasidone on the QTc interval prolongation identified 19 trials with a total of 1428 patients. Mean QTc change from baseline to end of each study was −3.7 to 12.8 ms after IM ziprasidone. Four randomized trials (3 of 4 published in Chinese were used to calculate a meta-analysis of QTc interval prolongation which showed no significant differences between IM ziprasidone and IM haloperidol groups (risk ratio 0.49 to 4.31, 95% confidence interval 0.09 to 19.68, P = 0.06 to 0.41. However, our review included two cases of patients who experienced symptoms probably related to QTc prolongation after IM ziprasidone. Thus, careful screening and close monitoring, including baseline ECG, should be considered in patients receiving IM ziprasidone for the first time.

  3. QT interval prolongation in opioid agonist treatment: analysis of continuous 12-lead electrocardiogram recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbister, Geoffrey K; Brown, Amanda L; Gill, Anthony; Scott, Alexander J; Calver, Leonie; Dunlop, Adrian J

    2017-10-01

    Methadone is a widely used opioid agonist treatment associated with QT prolongation and torsades de pointes. We investigated the QT interval in patients treated with methadone or buprenorphine using continuous 12-lead Holter recordings. We prospectively made 24-h Holter recordings in patients prescribed methadone or buprenorphine, compared to controls. After their normal dose a continuous 12-lead Holter recorder was attached for 24 h. Digital electrocardiograms were extracted hourly from the Holter recordings. The QT interval was measured automatically (H-scribe software, Mortara Pty Ltd) and checked manually. The QT interval was plotted against heart rate (HR) on the QT nomogram to determine abnormality. Demographics, dosing, medical history and laboratory investigations were recorded. There were 58 patients (19 methadone, 20 buprenorphine and 19 control); median age 35 years (20-56 years); 33 males. Baseline characteristics were similar. Median dose of methadone was 110 mg day(-1) (70-170 mg day(-1) ) and buprenorphine was 16 mg day(-1) (12-32 mg day(-1) ). Seven participants had abnormal QT intervals. There was a significant difference in the proportion of prescribed methadone with abnormal QT intervals, 7/19 (37%; 95% confidence interval: 17-61%), compared to controls 0/19 (0%; 95% confidence interval: 0-21%; P = 0.008), but no difference between buprenorphine and controls (0/20). QT vs. HR plots showed patients prescribed methadone had higher QT-HR pairs over 24 h compared to controls. There was no difference in dose for patients prescribed methadone with abnormal QT intervals and those without. Methadone is associated with prolonged QT intervals, but there was no association with dose. Buprenorphine did not prolong the QT interval. Twenty four-hour Holter recordings using the QT nomogram is a feasible method to assess the QT interval in patients prescribed methadone. © 2017 The Authors. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology published by John

  4. CHANGES IN VALUES MEASURED WITH DIAGNOdent FOR ENAMEL AND DENTIN OF DECIDUOUS TEETH ETCHED FOR DIFFERENT TIME INTERVALS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir E. Panov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental caries continues to affect a large percentage of children and currently advises that if diagnosed at an early stage can be reversed with minimally invasive treatments. There a large number of methods for early diagnostics. Purpose: The aim of the presented in vitro study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the laser fluorescent device DIAGNOdent pen in measuring changes in the level of mineralization of intact deciduous teeth enamel surfaces etched for different intervals and of intact dentin etched for 30 seconds. Material and methods: The study was performed on extracted children teeth. DIAGNOdent was used to measure the values of laser fluorescence of intact enamel and dentinal surfaces. Samples were treated with 37% H2PO3 etched for 5 sec., 30 sec. and 60 sec. for enamel surfaces and 30 sec. for dentinal. Teeth were rinsed, dried and measured again with DIAGNOdent. Results: After etching the enamel surfaces for 5 sec., 30 sec. and 60 sec. an average increase of 1.55 (0.85-2.2 was detected. The detected average values of increase of laser fluorescence for the enamel were 0.85 for 5 sec. ethching; 1.6 for 30 sec. and 2.2 for 60 sec. The average increase in the dentine was 3.5. Conclusions: Based on the limitations of the conducted study it may be concluded that the changes in the degree of mineralization of deciduous tooth structures can be detected by DIAGNOdent. Enamel etching for 5 sec., 30 sec. and 60 sec. lead to a comparative degree of change in the laser fluorescence. The obtained values after 30 sec. of etching revealed almost a double increase compared to 5 sec. etching and 3-fold for those at the 60 sec. The measured changes after etching in the dentin were better expressed than those in the enamel.

  5. Survival Analysis of Patients with Interval Cancer Undergoing Gastric Cancer Screening by Endoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamashima, Chisato; Shabana, Michiko; Okamoto, Mikizo; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kishimoto, Takuji

    2015-01-01

    Aims Interval cancer is a key factor that influences the effectiveness of a cancer screening program. To evaluate the impact of interval cancer on the effectiveness of endoscopic screening, the survival rates of patients with interval cancer were analyzed. Methods We performed gastric cancer-specific and all-causes survival analyses of patients with screen-detected cancer and patients with interval cancer in the endoscopic screening group and radiographic screening group using the Kaplan-Meier method. Since the screening interval was 1 year, interval cancer was defined as gastric cancer detected within 1 year after a negative result. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to investigate the risk factors associated with gastric cancer-specific and all-causes death. Results A total of 1,493 gastric cancer patients (endoscopic screening group: n = 347; radiographic screening group: n = 166; outpatient group: n = 980) were identified from the Tottori Cancer Registry from 2001 to 2008. The gastric cancer-specific survival rates were higher in the endoscopic screening group than in the radiographic screening group and the outpatients group. In the endoscopic screening group, the gastric cancer-specific survival rate of the patients with screen-detected cancer and the patients with interval cancer were nearly equal (P = 0.869). In the radiographic screening group, the gastric cancer-specific survival rate of the patients with screen-detected cancer was higher than that of the patients with interval cancer (P = 0.009). For gastric cancer-specific death, the hazard ratio of interval cancer in the endoscopic screening group was 0.216 for gastric cancer death (95%CI: 0.054-0.868) compared with the outpatient group. Conclusion The survival rate and the risk of gastric cancer death among the patients with screen-detected cancer and patients with interval cancer were not significantly different in the annual endoscopic screening. These results suggest the potential of

  6. Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) Lubrication Interval Test and Evaluation (LITE). Post-Test Grease Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Johnny L.; Martinez, James E.; Devivar, Rodrigo V.

    2015-01-01

    The Solar Alpha Rotary Joint (SARJ) is a mechanism of the International Space Station (ISS) that orients the solar power generating arrays toward the sun as the ISS orbits our planet. The orientation with the sun must be maintained to fully charge the ISS batteries and maintain all the other ISS electrical systems operating properly. In 2007, just a few months after full deployment, the starboard SARJ developed anomalies that warranted a full investigation including ISS Extravehicular Activity (EVA). The EVA uncovered unexpected debris that was due to degradation of a nitride layer on the SARJ bearing race. ISS personnel identified the failure root-cause and applied an aerospace grease to lubricate the area associated with the anomaly. The corrective action allowed the starboard SARJ to continue operating within the specified engineering parameters. The SARJ LITE (Lubrication Interval Test and Evaluation) program was initiated by NASA, Lockheed Martin, and Boeing to simulate the operation of the ISS SARJ for an extended time. The hardware was designed to test and evaluate the exact material components used aboard the ISS SARJ, but in a controlled area where engineers could continuously monitor the performance. After running the SARJ LITE test for an equivalent of 36+ years of continuous use, the test was opened to evaluate the metallography and lubrication. We have sampled the SARJ LITE rollers and plate to fully assess the grease used for lubrication. Chemical and thermal analysis of these samples has generated information that has allowed us to assess the location, migration, and current condition of the grease. The collective information will be key toward understanding and circumventing any performance deviations involving the ISS SARJ in the years to come.

  7. Trends in P Value, Confidence Interval, and Power Analysis Reporting in Health Professions Education Research Reports: A Systematic Appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbott, Eduardo F; Serrano, Valentina P; Rethlefsen, Melissa L; Pandian, T K; Naik, Nimesh D; West, Colin P; Pankratz, V Shane; Cook, David A

    2017-06-20

    To characterize reporting of P values, confidence intervals (CIs), and statistical power in health professions education research (HPER) through manual and computerized analysis of published research reports. The authors searched PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL on May 7, 2016, for comparative research studies. For manual analysis of abstracts and main texts, they randomly sampled 250 HPER reports published in 1985, 1995, 2005, and 2015, and 100 biomedical research reports published in 1985 and 2015. Automated computerized analysis of abstracts included all HPER reports published 1970-2015. In the 2015 HPER sample, P values were reported in 69/100 abstracts and 94 main texts. CIs were reported in 6 abstracts and 22 main texts. Most P values (≥ 77%) were ≤ .05. Across all years, 60/164 two-group HPER studies had ≥ 80% power to detect a between-group difference of 0.5 standard deviations. From 1985 to 2015, the proportion of HPER abstracts reporting a CI did not change significantly (odds ratio [OR] 2.87; 95% CI 1.04, 7.88) whereas that of main texts reporting a CI increased (OR 1.96; 95% CI 1.39, 2.78). Comparison with biomedical studies revealed similar reporting of P values, but more frequent use of CIs in biomedicine. Automated analysis of 56,440 HPER abstracts found 14,867 (26.3%) reporting a P value, 3,024 (5.4%) reporting a CI, and increased reporting of P values and CIs from 1970 to 2015. P values are ubiquitous in HPER, CIs are rarely reported, and most studies are underpowered. Most reported P values would be considered statistically significant.

  8. Remote sensing clustering analysis based on object-based interval modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hui; Liang, Tianheng; Hu, Dan; Yu, Xianchuan

    2016-09-01

    In object-based clustering, image data are segmented into objects (groups of pixels) and then clustered based on the objects' features. This method can be used to automatically classify high-resolution, remote sensing images, but requires accurate descriptions of object features. In this paper, we ascertain that interval-valued data model is appropriate for describing clustering prototype features. With this in mind, we developed an object-based interval modeling method for high-resolution, multiband, remote sensing data. We also designed an adaptive interval-valued fuzzy clustering method. We ran experiments utilizing images from the SPOT-5 satellite sensor, for the Pearl River Delta region and Beijing. The results indicate that the proposed algorithm considers both the anisotropy of the remote sensing data and the ambiguity of objects. Additionally, we present a new dissimilarity measure for interval vectors, which better separates the interval vectors generated by features of the segmentation units (objects). This approach effectively limits classification errors caused by spectral mixing between classes. Compared with the object-based unsupervised classification method proposed earlier, the proposed algorithm improves the classification accuracy without increasing computational complexity.

  9. Gait in children with cerebral palsy - Observer reliability of Physician Rating Scale and Edinburgh Visual Gait Analysis Interval Testing Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maathuis, KGB; van der Schans, CP; van Iperen, A; Rietman, HS; Geertzen, JHB

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the inter- and intra-observer reliability of the Physician Rating Scale (PRS) and the Edinburgh Visual Gait Analysis Interval Testing (GAIT) scale for use in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Both assessment scales are quantitative observational scales, evaluating

  10. Gait in children with cerebral palsy : observer reliability of Physician Rating Scale and Edinburgh Visual Gait Analysis Interval Testing scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maathuis, KGB; van der Schans, CP; van Iperen, A; Rietman, HS; Geertzen, JHB

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the inter- and intra-observer reliability of the Physician Rating Scale (PRS) and the Edinburgh Visual Gait Analysis Interval Testing (GAIT) scale for use in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Both assessment scales are quantitative observational scales, evaluating

  11. The Jackknife Interval Estimation of Parametersin Partial Least Squares Regression Modelfor Poverty Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pudji Ismartini

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the major problem facing the data modelling at social area is multicollinearity. Multicollinearity can have significant impact on the quality and stability of the fitted regression model. Common classical regression technique by using Least Squares estimate is highly sensitive to multicollinearity problem. In such a problem area, Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR is a useful and flexible tool for statistical model building; however, PLSR can only yields point estimations. This paper will construct the interval estimations for PLSR regression parameters by implementing Jackknife technique to poverty data. A SAS macro programme is developed to obtain the Jackknife interval estimator for PLSR.

  12. Interval availability analysis of a two-echelon, multi-item system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Hanbali, A.M.; Heijden, van der M.C.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the interval availability of a two-echelon, multi-item spare part inventory system. We consider a scenario inspired by a situation that we encountered at Thales Netherlands, a manufacturer of naval sensors and naval command and control systems. Modeling the complete system a

  13. Interval availability analysis of a two-echelon, multi-item system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Al Hanbali, Ahmad; Heijden, van der Matthieu

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the interval availability of a two-echelon, multi-item spare part inventory system. We consider a scenario inspired by a situation that we encountered at Thales Netherlands, a manufacturer of naval sensors and naval command and control systems. Modeling the complete system a

  14. Genetic analysis on accumulated productivity and calving intervals in Nelore cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Daniela do Amaral; Berton, Mariana Piatto; Buzanskas, Marcos Eli; Chud, Tatiane Cristina Seleguim; Grupioni, Natália Vinhal; de Paz, Claudia Cristina Paro; Lôbo, Raysildo Barbosa; Munari, Danísio Prado

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for accumulated productivity (ACP), first calving interval (CI1), second calving interval (CI2), and mean calving interval (MCI) in Nelore beef cattle. The ACP trait is a reproduction index and comprises the total number of calves born per dam, weight of weaned calves, and age of the dam at calving. Genetic parameters were estimated by the average information restricted maximum likelihood method in two-trait analyses. The average heritability estimate for ACP was 0.17 (0.03). For CI1, CI2, and MCI, the heritability estimates were 0.02, 0.02, and 0.06, respectively. Genetic correlations between ACP with CI1, CI2, and MCI were -0.16 ± 0.47, -0.29 ± 0.53, and -0.40 ± 0.27, respectively. Despite of the low heritability estimates obtained in our study, reproduction traits should be further studied and their inclusion in the selection criteria must be evaluated in order to improve the performance of females because these traits are of great economic importance in beef cattle. Accumulated productivity could contribute to decrease the mean calving interval in Nelore cattle.

  15. Regional climate change mitigation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowlands, Ian H. [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment, and Univ. of Waterloo (Canada)

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore some of the key methodological issues that arise from an analysis of regional climate change mitigation options. The rationale for any analysis of regional mitigation activities, emphasising both the theoretical attractiveness and the existing political encouragement and the methodology that has been developed are reviewed. The differences arising from the fact that mitigation analyses have been taken from the level of the national - where the majority of the work has been completed to date - to the level of the international - that is, the `regional` - will be especially highlighted. (EG)

  16. A modified hybrid uncertain analysis method for dynamic response field of the LSOAAC with random and interval parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Bin; Zhou, Bin

    2016-07-01

    For the prediction of dynamic response field of the luffing system of an automobile crane (LSOAAC) with random and interval parameters, a hybrid uncertain model is introduced. In the hybrid uncertain model, the parameters with certain probability distribution are modeled as random variables, whereas, the parameters with lower and upper bounds are modeled as interval variables instead of given precise values. Based on the hybrid uncertain model, the hybrid uncertain dynamic response equilibrium equation, in which different random and interval parameters are simultaneously included in input and output terms, is constructed. Then a modified hybrid uncertain analysis method (MHUAM) is proposed. In the MHUAM, based on random interval perturbation method, the first-order Taylor series expansion and the first-order Neumann series, the dynamic response expression of the LSOAAC is developed. Moreover, the mathematical characteristics of extrema of bounds of dynamic response are determined by random interval moment method and monotonic analysis technique. Compared with the hybrid Monte Carlo method (HMCM) and interval perturbation method (IPM), numerical results show the feasibility and efficiency of the MHUAM for solving the hybrid LSOAAC problems. The effects of different uncertain models and parameters on the LSOAAC response field are also investigated deeply, and numerical results indicate that the impact made by the randomness in the thrust of the luffing cylinder F is larger than that made by the gravity of the weight in suspension Q . In addition, the impact made by the uncertainty in the displacement between the lower end of the lifting arm and the luffing cylinder a is larger than that made by the length of the lifting arm L .

  17. Parametric statistical change point analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Jie

    2000-01-01

    This work is an in-depth study of the change point problem from a general point of view and a further examination of change point analysis of the most commonly used statistical models Change point problems are encountered in such disciplines as economics, finance, medicine, psychology, signal processing, and geology, to mention only several The exposition is clear and systematic, with a great deal of introductory material included Different models are presented in each chapter, including gamma and exponential models, rarely examined thus far in the literature Other models covered in detail are the multivariate normal, univariate normal, regression, and discrete models Extensive examples throughout the text emphasize key concepts and different methodologies are used, namely the likelihood ratio criterion, and the Bayesian and information criterion approaches A comprehensive bibliography and two indices complete the study

  18. Changing habits, changing climate : a foundation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enright, W. [Canadian Inst. of Child Health, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2001-03-01

    If Canada intends to meet its greenhouse gas reduction target of 6 per cent below 1990 levels, a fundamental shift in energy use by Canadians is required. The health sector will also be required to change. Global climate change is expected to affect regions differently, some might get wetter, some might get warmer, and others still might get colder. Climate changes will influence a number of health determinants: the geographical range of disease organisms and vectors; temperature extremes and violent weather events; air, food and water quality; the stability of ecosystems. There is a requirement to strongly regulate the emissions of carbon dioxide, methane and other greenhouse gases to limit health risks. Increased air pollution could negatively affect large numbers of people, especially asthma sufferers and people suffering from chronic respiratory ailments and cardiovascular diseases. Changes in precipitation and temperature could increase insect-borne diseases. Water sources could be badly affected by drought, flooding or increased glacial runoff. The thinning of the ozone layer could result in additional skin cancers, impaired vision and other diseases. The document explores the various impacts resulting from climate change. A chapter is devoted to each topic: air pollution, temperature extremes, extreme weather events, vector borne diseases, drought and increased evaporation, food supply and ecosystem range, sea level rise, stratospheric ozone depletion and describes the health impacts. In addition, a chapter deals with aboriginal communities. The topic of environmental refugees is discussed, followed by an historical perspective into climate change policy in Canada. The author concludes with adaptation measures. Further emphasis must be placed on priority topics such as the estimation of future emissions and modelling of climate processes. refs., tabs., figs.

  19. Incidence and risk of QTc interval prolongation among cancer patients treated with vandetanib: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiajie Zang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vandetanib is a multikinase inhibitor that is under assessment for the treatment of various cancers. QTc interval prolongation is one of the major adverse effects of this drug, but the reported incidence varies substantially among clinical trials. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to obtain a better understanding in the risk of QTc interval prolongation among cancer patients administered vandetanib. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eligible studies were phase II and III prospective clinical trials that involved cancer patients who were prescribed vandetanib 300 mg/d and that included data on QTc interval prolongation. The overall incidence and risk of QTc interval prolongation were calculated using random-effects or fixed-effects models, depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies. Nine trials with 2,188 patients were included for the meta-analysis. The overall incidence of all-grade and high-grade QTc interval prolongation was 16.4% (95% CI, 8.1-30.4% and 3.7% (8.1-30.4%, respectively, among non-thyroid cancer patients, and 18.0% (10.7-28.6% and 12.0% (4.5-28.0%, respectively, among thyroid cancer patients. Patients with thyroid cancer who had longer treatment duration also had a higher incidence of high-grade events, with a relative risk of 3.24 (1.57-6.71, than patients who had non-thyroid cancer. Vandetanib was associated with a significantly increased risk of all-grade QTc interval prolongation with overall Peto odds ratios of 7.26 (4.36-12.09 and 5.70 (3.09-10.53 among patients with non-thyroid cancer and thyroid cancer, respectively, compared to the controls. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Treatment with vandetanib is associated with a significant increase in the overall incidence and risk of QTc interval prolongation. Different cancer types and treatment durations may affect the risk of developing high-grade QTc interval prolongation.

  20. Robust fault detection in bond graph framework using interval analysis and Fourier-Motzkin elimination technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Mayank Shekhar; Chatti, Nizar; Declerck, Philippe

    2017-09-01

    This paper addresses the fault diagnosis problem of uncertain systems in the context of Bond Graph modelling technique. The main objective is to enhance the fault detection step based on Interval valued Analytical Redundancy Relations (named I-ARR) in order to overcome the problems related to false alarms, missed alarms and robustness issues. These I-ARRs are a set of fault indicators that generate the interval bounds called thresholds. A fault is detected once the nominal residuals (point valued part of I-ARRs) exceed the thresholds. However, the existing fault detection method is limited to parametric faults and it presents various limitations with regards to estimation of measurement signal derivatives, to which I-ARRs are sensitive. The novelties and scientific interest of the proposed methodology are: (1) to improve the accuracy of the measurements derivatives estimation by using a dedicated sliding mode differentiator proposed in this work, (2) to suitably integrate the Fourier-Motzkin Elimination (FME) technique within the I-ARRs based diagnosis so that measurements faults can be detected successfully. The latter provides interval bounds over the derivatives which are included in the thresholds. The proposed methodology is studied under various scenarios (parametric and measurement faults) via simulations over a mechatronic torsion bar system.

  1. Effects of changes in frequency on guinea pig ventricular action potential duration and on QT interval under different experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Savigny, L; Hohnloser, S; Antoni, H

    1981-01-01

    Isolated perfused guinea pig hearts (Langendorff preparation) were arrested by carbachol (0.1-0.2 mg/l) and electrically stimulated in the region of the av-conducting system. The QT interval was determined by means of extracellular electrodes at different driving frequencies. Separate experiments were performed on papillary muscles from the right ventricle to measure the duration of the transmembrane action potential under comparable conditions. At 35 degrees C (Ke+ 5.4 mmol/l) increasing the frequency of stimulation (range 12-120/min) caused the action potential duration (APD) to decrease to a greater extent than the QT interval. Stepwise rising of the external K+ concentration up to 16.2 mmol/l produced a nearly parallel shift to the APD-frequency relation to lower values. Again, the QT interval was less affected by increasing the external K+ concentration than the APD. Stepwise reduction of the temperature down to 20 degrees C prolonged the APD as well as the QT interval, the effects being more pronounced at lower than at higher stimulation frequencies. Under all examined experimental conditions, the APD proved to be markedly shorter than the QT interval even when the latter is diminished by the duration of QRS. The results suggest that no close relation exists between the APD and the QT interval. The observed divergencies may be due to functional differences among various parts of the ventricles.

  2. Meta-analysis and its application in global change research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI XiangDong; PENG ChangHui; TIAN DaLun; SUN JianFeng

    2007-01-01

    Meta-analysis is a quantitative synthetic research method that statistically integrates results from individual studies to find common trends and differences. With increasing concern over global change, meta-analysis has been rapidly adopted in global change research. Here, we introduce the methodologies, advantages and disadvantages of meta-analysis, and review its application in global climate change research, including the responses of ecosystems to global warming and rising CO2 and O3 concentrations, the effects of land use and management on climate change and the effects of disturbances on biogeochemistry cycles of ecosystem. Despite limitation and potential misapplication, meta-analysis has been demonstrated to be a much better tool than traditional narrative review in synthesizing results from multiple studies. Several methodological developments for research synthesis have not yet been widely used in global climate change researches such as cumulative meta-analysis and sensitivity analysis. It is necessary to update the results of meta-analysis on a given topic at regular intervals by including newly published studies. Emphasis should be put on multi-factor interaction and long-term experiments. There is great potential to apply meta-analysis to global climate change research in China because research and observation networks have been established (e.g. ChinaFlux and CERN), which create the need for combining these data and results to provide support for governments' decision making on climate change. It is expected that meta-analysis will be widely adopted in future climate change research.

  3. Associations between changes in city and address specific temperature and QT interval--the VA Normative Aging Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amar J Mehta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The underlying mechanisms of the association between ambient temperature and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are not well understood, particularly for daily temperature variability. We evaluated if daily mean temperature and standard deviation of temperature was associated with heart rate-corrected QT interval (QTc duration, a marker of ventricular repolarization in a prospective cohort of older men. METHODS: This longitudinal analysis included 487 older men participating in the VA Normative Aging Study with up to three visits between 2000-2008 (n = 743. We analyzed associations between QTc and moving averages (1-7, 14, 21, and 28 days of the 24-hour mean and standard deviation of temperature as measured from a local weather monitor, and the 24-hour mean temperature estimated from a spatiotemporal prediction model, in time-varying linear mixed-effect regression. Effect modification by season, diabetes, coronary heart disease, obesity, and age was also evaluated. RESULTS: Higher mean temperature as measured from the local monitor, and estimated from the prediction model, was associated with longer QTc at moving averages of 21 and 28 days. Increased 24-hr standard deviation of temperature was associated with longer QTc at moving averages from 4 and up to 28 days; a 1.9°C interquartile range increase in 4-day moving average standard deviation of temperature was associated with a 2.8 msec (95%CI: 0.4, 5.2 longer QTc. Associations between 24-hr standard deviation of temperature and QTc were stronger in colder months, and in participants with diabetes and coronary heart disease. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: In this sample of older men, elevated mean temperature was associated with longer QTc, and increased variability of temperature was associated with longer QTc, particularly during colder months and among individuals with diabetes and coronary heart disease. These findings may offer insight of an important underlying mechanism of

  4. Reliability of the interval death rate analysis for estimating the time course of the motoneurone afterhyperpolarization in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonell, Christopher William; Ivanova, Tanya Dimitrova; Garland, S Jayne

    2007-05-15

    The reliability of the afterhyperpolarization (AHP) time course, as estimated by the interval death rate (IDR) analysis was evaluated both within and between investigators. The IDR analysis uses the firing history of a single motor unit train at low tonic firing rates to calculate an estimate of the AHP time course [Matthews PB. Relationship of firing intervals of human motor units to the trajectory of post-spike after-hyperpolarization and synaptic noise. J Physiol 1996;492:597-628]. Single motor unit trains were collected from the tibialis anterior (TA) to determine intra-rater reliability (within investigator). Data from the first dorsal interosseus (FDI), collected in a previous investigation [Gossen ER, Ivanova TD, Garland SJ. The time course of the motoneurone afterhyperpolarization is related to motor unit twitch speed in human skeletal muscle. J Physiol 2003;552:657-64], were used to examine the inter-rater reliability (between investigators). The lead author was blinded to the original time constants and file identities for the re-analysis. The intra-rater reliability of the AHP time constant in the TA data was high (r(2)=0.88; pFDI data was also strong (r(2)=0.92; pFDI. It is concluded that the interval death rate analysis is a reliable tool for estimating the AHP time course with experienced investigators.

  5. A Comparative Study between Two Three-DOF Parallel Kinematic Machines using Kinetostatic Criteria and Interval Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Chablat, Damien; Merlet, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    This paper addresses the workspace analysis of two 3-DOF translational parallel mechanisms designed for machining applications. The two machines features three fixed linear joints. The joint axes of the first machine are orthogonal whereas these of the second are parallel. In both cases, the mobile platform moves in the Cartesian $x-y-z$ space with fixed orientation. The workspace analysis is conducted on the basis of prescribed kinetostatic performances. Interval analysis based methods are used to compute the dextrous workspace and the largest cube enclosed in this workspace.

  6. An Interval Analysis Based Study for the Design and the Comparison of 3-DOF Parallel Kinematic Machines

    CERN Document Server

    Chablat, Damien; Majou, Félix; Merlet, Jean-Pierre

    2004-01-01

    This paper addresses an interval analysis based study that is applied to the design and the comparison of 3-DOF parallel kinematic machines. Two design criteria are used, (i) a regular workspace shape and, (ii) a kinetostatic performance index that needs to be as homogeneous as possible throughout the workspace. The interval analysis based method takes these two criteria into account: on the basis of prescribed kinetostatic performances, the workspace is analysed to find out the largest regular dextrous workspace enclosed in the Cartesian workspace. An algorithm describing this method is introduced. Two 3-DOF translational parallel mechanisms designed for machining applications are compared using this method. The first machine features three fixed linear joints which are mounted orthogonally and the second one features three linear joints which are mounted in parallel. In both cases, the mobile platform moves in the Cartesian x-y-z space with fixed orientation.

  7. Uncertainty analysis of neural network based flood forecasting models: An ensemble based approach for constructing prediction interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasiviswanathan, K.; Sudheer, K.

    2013-05-01

    Artificial neural network (ANN) based hydrologic models have gained lot of attention among water resources engineers and scientists, owing to their potential for accurate prediction of flood flows as compared to conceptual or physics based hydrologic models. The ANN approximates the non-linear functional relationship between the complex hydrologic variables in arriving at the river flow forecast values. Despite a large number of applications, there is still some criticism that ANN's point prediction lacks in reliability since the uncertainty of predictions are not quantified, and it limits its use in practical applications. A major concern in application of traditional uncertainty analysis techniques on neural network framework is its parallel computing architecture with large degrees of freedom, which makes the uncertainty assessment a challenging task. Very limited studies have considered assessment of predictive uncertainty of ANN based hydrologic models. In this study, a novel method is proposed that help construct the prediction interval of ANN flood forecasting model during calibration itself. The method is designed to have two stages of optimization during calibration: at stage 1, the ANN model is trained with genetic algorithm (GA) to obtain optimal set of weights and biases vector, and during stage 2, the optimal variability of ANN parameters (obtained in stage 1) is identified so as to create an ensemble of predictions. During the 2nd stage, the optimization is performed with multiple objectives, (i) minimum residual variance for the ensemble mean, (ii) maximum measured data points to fall within the estimated prediction interval and (iii) minimum width of prediction interval. The method is illustrated using a real world case study of an Indian basin. The method was able to produce an ensemble that has an average prediction interval width of 23.03 m3/s, with 97.17% of the total validation data points (measured) lying within the interval. The derived

  8. A new upper bound for the norm of interval matrices with application to robust stability analysis of delayed neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faydasicok, Ozlem; Arik, Sabri

    2013-08-01

    The main problem with the analysis of robust stability of neural networks is to find the upper bound norm for the intervalized interconnection matrices of neural networks. In the previous literature, the major three upper bound norms for the intervalized interconnection matrices have been reported and they have been successfully applied to derive new sufficient conditions for robust stability of delayed neural networks. One of the main contributions of this paper will be the derivation of a new upper bound for the norm of the intervalized interconnection matrices of neural networks. Then, by exploiting this new upper bound norm of interval matrices and using stability theory of Lyapunov functionals and the theory of homomorphic mapping, we will obtain new sufficient conditions for the existence, uniqueness and global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium point for the class of neural networks with discrete time delays under parameter uncertainties and with respect to continuous and slope-bounded activation functions. The results obtained in this paper will be shown to be new and they can be considered alternative results to previously published corresponding results. We also give some illustrative and comparative numerical examples to demonstrate the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed robust stability condition.

  9. Monte Carlo simulation of parameter confidence intervals for non-linear regression analysis of biological data using Microsoft Excel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Ronald J W; Mytilinaios, Ioannis; Maitland, Luke; Brown, Angus M

    2012-08-01

    This study describes a method to obtain parameter confidence intervals from the fitting of non-linear functions to experimental data, using the SOLVER and Analysis ToolPaK Add-In of the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. Previously we have shown that Excel can fit complex multiple functions to biological data, obtaining values equivalent to those returned by more specialized statistical or mathematical software. However, a disadvantage of using the Excel method was the inability to return confidence intervals for the computed parameters or the correlations between them. Using a simple Monte-Carlo procedure within the Excel spreadsheet (without recourse to programming), SOLVER can provide parameter estimates (up to 200 at a time) for multiple 'virtual' data sets, from which the required confidence intervals and correlation coefficients can be obtained. The general utility of the method is exemplified by applying it to the analysis of the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, the growth inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by chlorhexidine and the further analysis of the electrophysiological data from the compound action potential of the rodent optic nerve.

  10. AnyExpress: Integrated toolkit for analysis of cross-platform gene expression data using a fast interval matching algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hyunchul

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cross-platform analysis of gene express data requires multiple, intricate processes at different layers with various platforms. However, existing tools handle only a single platform and are not flexible enough to support custom changes, which arise from the new statistical methods, updated versions of reference data, and better platforms released every month or year. Current tools are so tightly coupled with reference information, such as reference genome, transcriptome database, and SNP, which are often erroneous or outdated, that the output results are incorrect and misleading. Results We developed AnyExpress, a software package that combines cross-platform gene expression data using a fast interval-matching algorithm. Supported platforms include next-generation-sequencing technology, microarray, SAGE, MPSS, and more. Users can define custom target transcriptome database references for probe/read mapping in any species, as well as criteria to remove undesirable probes/reads. AnyExpress offers scalable processing features such as binding, normalization, and summarization that are not present in existing software tools. As a case study, we applied AnyExpress to published Affymetrix microarray and Illumina NGS RNA-Seq data from human kidney and liver. The mean of within-platform correlation coefficient was 0.98 for within-platform samples in kidney and liver, respectively. The mean of cross-platform correlation coefficients was 0.73. These results confirmed those of the original and secondary studies. Applying filtering produced higher agreement between microarray and NGS, according to an agreement index calculated from differentially expressed genes. Conclusion AnyExpress can combine cross-platform gene expression data, process data from both open- and closed-platforms, select a custom target reference, filter out undesirable probes or reads based on custom-defined biological features, and perform quantile-normalization with

  11. Changes in cisternal udder compartment induced by milking interval in dairy goats milked once or twice daily

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salama, A A K; Caja, G; Such, X

    2004-01-01

    intervals, cisterns of goats milked 1x did not become larger than cisterns of goats milked 2x after 5 wk of treatment. The highest correlation between cisternal area and cisternal milk was detected at 8 h after milking (r = 0.74). Primiparous goats had smaller cisternal areas and less cisternal milk than...... milking. Nevertheless, cisternal size did not increased after 1x milking, probably because of lesser milk yield. Multiparous goats had larger cisterns than primiparous goats and were able to store more milk in their cisterns at all milking intervals. Because of the high capacity of goat cisterns, no milk...

  12. The Analysis of Curved Beam Using B-Spline Wavelet on Interval Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibo Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A B-spline wavelet on interval (BSWI finite element is developed for curved beams, and the static and free vibration behaviors of curved beam (arch are investigated in this paper. Instead of the traditional polynomial interpolation, scaling functions at a certain scale have been adopted to form the shape functions and construct wavelet-based elements. Different from the process of the direct wavelet addition in the other wavelet numerical methods, the element displacement field represented by the coefficients of wavelets expansions is transformed from wavelet space to physical space by aid of the corresponding transformation matrix. Furthermore, compared with the commonly used Daubechies wavelet, BSWI has explicit expressions and excellent approximation properties, which guarantee satisfactory results. Numerical examples are performed to demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency with respect to previously published formulations for curved beams.

  13. ENTROPY-COST RATIO MAXIMIZATION MODEL FOR EFFICIENT STOCK PORTFOLIO SELECTION USING INTERVAL ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainak Dey

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new stock portfolio selection model in non-stochastic environment. Following the principle of maximum entropy, a new entropy-cost ratio function is introduced as the objective function. The uncertain returns, risks and dividends of the securities are considered as interval numbers. Along with the objective function, eight different types of constraints are used in the model to convert it into a pragmatic one. Three different models have been proposed by defining the future financial market optimistically, pessimistically and in the combined form to model the portfolio selection problem. To illustrate the effectiveness and tractability of the proposed models, these are tested on a set of data from Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE. The solution has been done by genetic algorithm.

  14. An integrated petrophysical and rock physics analysis to improve reservoir characterization of Cretaceous sand intervals in Middle Indus Basin, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeem, Tahir; Chun, Wang Yan; MonaLisa; Khalid, Perveiz; Xue Qing, Liu; Ehsan, Muhammad Irfan; Jawad Munawar, Muhammad; Wei, Xie

    2017-03-01

    The sand intervals of the Lower Goru Formation of the Cretaceous age, widely distributed in the Middle and Lower Indus Basin of Pakistan, are proven reservoirs. However, in the Sawan gas field of the Middle Indus Basin, these sandstone intervals are very deep and extremely heterogeneous in character, which makes it difficult to discriminate lithologies and fluid saturation. Based on petrophysical analysis and rock physics modeling, an integrated approach is adopted to discriminate between lithologies and fluid saturation in the above-mentioned sand intervals. The seismic velocities are modeled using the Xu–White clay–sand mixing rock physics model. The calibrated rock physics model shows good consistency between measured and modeled velocities. The correlation between measured and modeled P and S wave velocities is 92.76% and 84.99%, respectively. This calibrated model has been successfully used to estimate other elastic parameters, even in those wells where both shear and sonic logs were missing. These estimated elastic parameters were cross-plotted to discriminate between the lithology and fluid content in the target zone. Cross plots clearly separate the shale, shaly sand, and gas-bearing sand clusters, which was not possible through conventional petrophysical analysis. These data clusters have been exported to the corresponding well for the purpose of interpolation between wells and to analyze the lateral and vertical variations in lithology and fluid content in the reservoir zone.

  15. Monte Carlo-based interval transformation analysis for multi-criteria decision analysis of groundwater management strategies under uncertain naphthalene concentrations and health risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lixia; He, Li; Lu, Hongwei; Chen, Yizhong

    2016-08-01

    A new Monte Carlo-based interval transformation analysis (MCITA) is used in this study for multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) of naphthalene-contaminated groundwater management strategies. The analysis can be conducted when input data such as total cost, contaminant concentration and health risk are represented as intervals. Compared to traditional MCDA methods, MCITA-MCDA has the advantages of (1) dealing with inexactness of input data represented as intervals, (2) mitigating computational time due to the introduction of Monte Carlo sampling method, (3) identifying the most desirable management strategies under data uncertainty. A real-world case study is employed to demonstrate the performance of this method. A set of inexact management alternatives are considered in each duration on the basis of four criteria. Results indicated that the most desirable management strategy lied in action 15 for the 5-year, action 8 for the 10-year, action 12 for the 15-year, and action 2 for the 20-year management.

  16. Prognostic 2.0: software tool for heart rate variability analysis and QT interval dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Alfonso; Rueda, Oscar L.; Bautista, Lola X.; Martinez, Víctor E.; Lopez, Eddie R.; Gomez, Mario F.; Alvarez, Alexander

    2007-09-01

    Cardiovascular diseases, in particular Acute Myocardial Infarction (AMI) are the first cause of death in industrialized countries. Measurements of indicators of the behavior of the autonomic nervous system, such as the Heart Rate Variability (HRV) and the QT Interval Dispersion (QTD) in the acute phase of the AMI (first 48 hours after the event) give a good estimation of the subsequent cardiac events that could present a person who had suffered an AMI. This paper describes the implementation of the second version of Prognostic-AMI, a software tool that automate the calculation of such indicators. It uses the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) to de-noise the signals an to detect the QRS complex and the T-wave from a conventional electrocardiogram of 12 leads. Indicators are measured in both time and frequency domain. A pilot trial performed on a sample population of 76 patients shows that people who had had cardiac complications in the acute phase of the AMI have low values in the indicators of HRV and QTD.

  17. The Effect of Irrigation Intervals and Intecropped Marjoram (Origanum vulgare with Saffron (Crocus sativus on Possible Cooling Effect of Corms for Climate Change Adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Koocheki

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effect of irrigation intervals and intecropped marjoram (Origanum vulgare (as a shading crop for reducing the possible effects of soil warming due to climate change on the growth and yield of saffron (Crocus sativus, a field experiment was conducted as split-plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications, during 2008 and 2009 at the Agricultural Research Station of Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran. Three irrigation intervals (every 7, 14, and 21 days and three planting combinations (1:0 (pure stand of saffron, 1:1 (one row of saffron + one row of marjoram, 2:1 (two rows of saffron + one row of marjoram and 3:1 (three rows of saffron + one row of marjoram were allocated to main and sub plots, respectively. Results indicated that the simple effects of irrigation interval and planting combination on the flower number, flower weight and economical yield of saffron were significant (p≤0.01. Also, the interaction effects between irrigation interval and planting combination on the flower number, flower weight and economical yield of saffron were significant (p≤0.01. The highest and the lowest of saffron economical yield were observed in the irrigation intervals with every 14 (0.27 g.m-2 and 7 days (0.09 g.m-2, respectively. Also, the maximum and the minimum economical yield of saffron were observed in 1:1 (0.20 g.m-2 and pure stand of saffron (0.15 g.m-2, respectively. With increasing irrigation intervals, the growth characteristics and economical yield of saffron were enhanced. It seems that the intercropped saffron with marjoram increased the flower number and economical yield of saffron due to decreasing soil temperature which could be regarded as an alternative to the possible effect of soil warming for climate change adaptation.

  18. The use of computed neutron coincidence counting with time interval analysis for the analysis of Fork-measurements on a fresh MOX-LWR fuel assembly under water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeten, P.; Bruggeman, M.; Carchon, R

    1998-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of different important parameters on measurement results for various fork-detectors. Computed Neutron Coincidence Counting (CNCC) with Time Interval Analysis (TIA) was used for this study. The performance of the electronics for the different fork-detectors was studied by investigating the deadtime perturbed zone of the Rossi-alpha distribution in TIA. The measurement revealed anomalies in the performance of the electronics of the IAEA BWR and LANL fork-detector. The IAEA PWR fork-detector functioned well and the deadtime parameter was calculated. The optimal setting for the pre delay was investigated and it was found that a pre delay of 10 micro seconds should be considered as an optimum between excluding from analysis data in the deadtime perturbed zone and keeping a high signal-to-noise ratio. For the shift register electronics used with the fork-detectors, a pre delay of only 4.5 micro seconds was used. The study of the pre delay and the deadtime showed that the calculated triples-rate is strongly dependent on these parameters. An accurate determination of the triple-rate in this type of measurements has proven to be quite difficult and requires proper operation of the electronics, a correct pre delay and an accurate deadtime correction formalism. By varying the boron concentration in water, the change of the decay time of the Rossi-alpha distribution was clearly observed. This change is due to the variation of the thermal multiplication. The variation of this decay time with the boron concentration proves that Boehnel's model for fast neutron multiplication is not valid under these measurement conditions and that a model for fast and thermal multiplication should be used in order to obtain unbiased measurement results. CNCC with TIA has proved to be a valuable tool in which parameter settings can be varied a posterori and the optimal setting can be determined for each measurement. Moreover, the

  19. Preliminary safety analysis of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in persons with chronic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Daniel L; Boyne, Pierce; Rockwell, Bradley; Gerson, Myron; Khoury, Jane; Kissela, Brett; Dunning, Kari

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess safety via electrocardiographic (ECG), blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and orthopedic responses to 3 different high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols in persons with stroke. Eighteen participants (10 male; 61.9 + 8.3 years of age; 5.8 + 4.2 years poststroke) completed a symptom-limited graded exercise test (GXT) with ECG monitoring to screen for eligibility and determine HR peak. The 3 HIIT protocols involved repeated 30 s bursts of treadmill walking at maximum speed alternated with rest periods of 30 s (P30), 1 min (P60), or 2 min (P120). Sessions were performed in random order and included 5 min warm up, 20 min HIIT, and 5 min cool down. Variables measured included ECG activity, BP, HR, signs and symptoms of cardiovascular intolerance, and orthopedic concerns. Generalized linear mixed models and Tukey-Kramer adjustment were used to compare protocols using p HIIT session. HIIT elicited HRs in excess of 88% of measured HRpeak including 6 (P30), 8 (P60), and 2 (P120) participants eliciting a HR response above their GXT HRpeak. Both maximum BP and HR were significantly higher in P30 and P60 relative to P120. Preliminary data indicate that persons with chronic stroke who have been prescreened with an ECG stress test, a symptom-limited GXT, and a harness for fall protection may safely participate in HIIT, generating substantially higher HRs than what is seen in traditional moderate intensity training.

  20. THE COMPILATION OF SHANNON ENTROPY MEASUREMENT EQUATION FOR NONLINEAR DYNAMIC SYSTEMS BY USING THE INTERVAL ANALYSIS METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Machekhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the issue of measurement of dynamic variables of open nonlinear dynamical systems. Most of real physical and biological systems in the surrounding world are the nonlinear dynamic systems. The spatial, temporal and spatio-temporal structures are formed in such systems because of dissipation. The collective effects that associated with the processes of self-organization and evolution are possible there too. The objective of this research is a compilation of the Shannon entropy measurement equations for case of nonlinear dynamical systems. It’s proposed to use the interval mathematics methods for this. It is shown that the measurement and measurement results analysis for variables with complex dynamics, as a rule, cannot be described by classical metrological approaches, that metrological documents, for example GUM, contain. The reason of this situation is the mismatch between the classical mathematical and physical approaches on the one hand and processes that occur in real dynamic systems on the other hand. For measurement of nonlinear dynamical systems variables the special measurement model and measurement results analysis model are created. They are based on Open systems theory, Dynamical chaos theory and Information theory. It’s proposed to use the fractal, entropic and temporal scales as tools for evaluation of a systems state. As a result of research the Shannon entropy measurement equations, based on interval representations of measurement results. are created, like for an individual dynamic variable as for nonlinear dynamic system. It is shown that the measurement equations, based on interval mathematics methods, contains the exact solutions and allows take into account full uncertainty. The new results will complement the measurement model and the measurement results analysis model for case of nonlinear dynamic systems.

  1. High-Intensity Interval Training for Overweight Adolescents: Program Acceptance of a Media Supported Intervention and Changes in Body Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Herget

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available High-intensity interval training (HIIT consists of short intervals of exercise at high intensity intermitted by intervals of lower intensity and is associated with improvement of body composition and metabolic health in adults. Studies in overweight adolescents are scarce. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in overweight adolescents to compare acceptance and attendance of HIIT with or without weekly motivational encouragement through text messages and access to a study website. HIIT was offered for six months (including summer vacation twice a week (60 min/session. Participation rates were continuously assessed and acceptance was measured. Clinical parameters were assessed at baseline and after six months. Twenty-eight adolescents participated in this study (age 15.5 ± 1.4; 54% female. The standard deviation score for body mass index over all participants was 2.33 at baseline and decreased by 0.026 (95% CI −0.048 to 0.10 units, p = 0.49. Waist to height ratio was 0.596 at baseline and decreased by 0.013 (95% CI 0.0025 to 0.024, p = 0.023. Participation within the first two months ranged from 65% to 75%, but fell to 15% within the last three months. Attendance in the intervention group was 14% (95% CI −8 to 37, p = 0.18, higher than the control group. Overall program content was rated as “good” by participants, although high drop-out rates were observed. Summer months constitute a serious problem regarding attendance. The use of media support has to be assessed further in appropriately powered trials.

  2. High-Intensity Interval Training for Overweight Adolescents: Program Acceptance of a Media Supported Intervention and Changes in Body Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herget, Sabine; Reichardt, Sandra; Grimm, Andrea; Petroff, David; Käpplinger, Jakob; Haase, Michael; Markert, Jana; Blüher, Susann

    2016-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) consists of short intervals of exercise at high intensity intermitted by intervals of lower intensity and is associated with improvement of body composition and metabolic health in adults. Studies in overweight adolescents are scarce. We conducted a randomized controlled trial in overweight adolescents to compare acceptance and attendance of HIIT with or without weekly motivational encouragement through text messages and access to a study website. HIIT was offered for six months (including summer vacation) twice a week (60 min/session). Participation rates were continuously assessed and acceptance was measured. Clinical parameters were assessed at baseline and after six months. Twenty-eight adolescents participated in this study (age 15.5 ± 1.4; 54% female). The standard deviation score for body mass index over all participants was 2.33 at baseline and decreased by 0.026 (95% CI −0.048 to 0.10) units, p = 0.49. Waist to height ratio was 0.596 at baseline and decreased by 0.013 (95% CI 0.0025 to 0.024), p = 0.023. Participation within the first two months ranged from 65% to 75%, but fell to 15% within the last three months. Attendance in the intervention group was 14% (95% CI −8 to 37), p = 0.18, higher than the control group. Overall program content was rated as “good” by participants, although high drop-out rates were observed. Summer months constitute a serious problem regarding attendance. The use of media support has to be assessed further in appropriately powered trials. PMID:27834812

  3. interval functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Chatfield

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Suppose N is a Banach space of norm |•| and R is the set of real numbers. All integrals used are of the subdivision-refinement type. The main theorem [Theorem 3] gives a representation of TH where H is a function from R×R to N such that H(p+,p+, H(p,p+, H(p−,p−, and H(p−,p each exist for each p and T is a bounded linear operator on the space of all such functions H. In particular we show that TH=(I∫abfHdα+∑i=1∞[H(xi−1,xi−1+−H(xi−1+,xi−1+]β(xi−1+∑i=1∞[H(xi−,xi−H(xi−,xi−]Θ(xi−1,xiwhere each of α, β, and Θ depend only on T, α is of bounded variation, β and Θ are 0 except at a countable number of points, fH is a function from R to N depending on H and {xi}i=1∞ denotes the points P in [a,b]. for which [H(p,p+−H(p+,p+]≠0 or [H(p−,p−H(p−,p−]≠0. We also define an interior interval function integral and give a relationship between it and the standard interval function integral.

  4. Confidence intervals for intraclass correlation coefficients in a nonlinear dose-response meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demetrashvili, Nino; Van den Heuvel, Edwin R.

    This work is motivated by a meta-analysis case study on antipsychotic medications. The Michaelis-Menten curve is employed to model the nonlinear relationship between the dose and D2 receptor occupancy across multiple studies. An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) is used to quantify the

  5. Common pitfalls in statistical analysis: "P" values, statistical significance and confidence intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Ranganathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the second part of a series on pitfalls in statistical analysis, we look at various ways in which a statistically significant study result can be expressed. We debunk some of the myths regarding the ′P′ value, explain the importance of ′confidence intervals′ and clarify the importance of including both values in a paper

  6. Common pitfalls in statistical analysis: “P” values, statistical significance and confidence intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Priya; Pramesh, C. S.; Buyse, Marc

    2015-01-01

    In the second part of a series on pitfalls in statistical analysis, we look at various ways in which a statistically significant study result can be expressed. We debunk some of the myths regarding the ‘P’ value, explain the importance of ‘confidence intervals’ and clarify the importance of including both values in a paper PMID:25878958

  7. Multifractal age? Multifractal analysis of cardiac interbeat intervals in assessing of healthy aging

    CERN Document Server

    Makowiec, Danuta; Wdowczyk-Szulc, Joanna; Zarczynska-Buchowiecka, Marta; Gruchal, Marcin; Rynkiewicz, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    24-hour Holter recordings of 124 healthy people at different age are studied. The nocturnal signals of young people reveal the presence of the multiplicative structure. This structure is significantly weaker in diurnal signals and becomes less evident for elderly people. Multifractal analysis allows us to propose qualitative and quantitative methods to estimate the advancement of the aging process for healthy humans.

  8. Confidence intervals for intraclass correlation coefficients in a nonlinear dose-response meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demetrashvili, Nino; Van den Heuvel, Edwin R.

    2015-01-01

    This work is motivated by a meta-analysis case study on antipsychotic medications. The Michaelis-Menten curve is employed to model the nonlinear relationship between the dose and D2 receptor occupancy across multiple studies. An intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) is used to quantify the hetero

  9. Tracking time interval changes of pulmonary nodules on follow-up 3D CT images via image-based risk score of lung cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Ohmatsu, H.; Kusumoto, M.; Tsuchida, T.; Eguchi, K.; Kaneko, M.; Moriyama, N.

    2013-03-01

    In this paper, we present a computer-aided follow-up (CAF) scheme to support physicians to track interval changes of pulmonary nodules on three dimensional (3D) CT images and to decide the treatment strategies without making any under or over treatment. Our scheme involves analyzing CT histograms to evaluate the volumetric distribution of CT values within pulmonary nodules. A variational Bayesian mixture modeling framework translates the image-derived features into an image-based risk score for predicting the patient recurrence-free survival. Through applying our scheme to follow-up 3D CT images of pulmonary nodules, we demonstrate the potential usefulness of the CAF scheme which can provide the trajectories that can characterize time interval changes of pulmonary nodules.

  10. The Correlation Analysis of Weight Change of Dialysis Interval Period and the Malnutrition in Maintenance Hemodialysis Patients%透析间期体重变化与透析患者营养状况的关系的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲向阳; 张晓君

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨透析间期体重增长(IDWG)对维持性血液透析(MHD)患者营养状况的影响并分析相关因素。方法:选取ESRD接受MHD患者71例,根据患者透析间期平均体重变化(IDWG)分两组:控制良好者为A组(平均IDWG%<3.5%),控制不良者为B组(平均IDWG%≥3.5%),分别检测每次透析间期体重增长(IDWG)、干体重(DW)、体重指数BMI、人体学指标、实验室指标。结果:观察1年后A、B两组DW、BMI比较差异有统计学意义,人体学指标比较差异有统计学意义,实验室指标比较HB、RBC、TC、TG、LPɑ、HCO-3、nPCR、SPKT/V、ALB、CRP差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);Ca、P、iPTH、BS、GHB比较差异无统计学意义。结论:血液透析患者营养不良的发生率较高,IDWG控制良好者可减少MHD患者营养不良的发生,控制不良者促进MHD患者营养不良的发生。%Objective: To explore the influence of the intermediate dialysis weight change of maintenance hemodialysis patients and analyze correlative factor of the malnutrition.Method: 71 patients with the end-stage renal disease who requiring maintenance hemodialysis were selected. All patients were divided two groups according to the intermediate dialysis weight change. To detect the indexes respectively. The dry weight (DW), intermediate dialysis weight growth, the change of DW and BMI anthropometric indicators.Result: There were statistically significant of the DW, BMI, between group A and B after 12 months later. There were statistically significant differences in HB, RBC, TC, TG, LPɑ, HCO-3, nPCR, SPKT/V, ALB, and CRP between group A and B, while there were no statistically significant differences in Ca, P, iPTH, BS, GHB.Conclusion: IDWG has advancing effect to the malnutrition of maintenance hemodialysis patients. Correlation with hypertension, hyperlipemia and chronic inflammation state could enhance malnutrition through hypertension

  11. Detection of cosmogeophysical periodicities by the statistical analysis of intervals between the dates of birth of genetic relatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poghosyan, G. V.

    2013-12-01

    A statistical analysis of time intervals between the dates of birth of genetic relatives has been carried out on the basis of 33 family trees. Using the Monte Carlo method, a significant departure of the distribution of birthdays from random results is detected relative to two long-period solar harmonics known from the theory of the Earth tides, i.e., a solar elliptical wave ( S a ) with a period of an anomalistic year (365.259640 days) and a solar declinational wave ( S sa ) with a period of half of the tropical year (182.621095 days). Further research requires larger statistical samples and involves clarifying the effect of long-period lunar harmonics, i.e., an lunar elliptical wave ( M m ) with a period of an anomalistic month (27.554551 days) and a lunar declinational wave ( M f ) with a period of half of a tropical month (13.660791 day), as well as the impact of important lunar and solar tides of time intervals with periods of half (14.765294 days, the interval between syzygial tides at new and full moon) and a whole (29.530588 days) synodic month. It is known that the periodic compression and stretching of the Earth's crust at the time of the tides by means of the piezoelectric effect lead to the generation of long-period electric oscillations with periods corresponding to the harmonics of the theory of the Earth tides. The detection of these harmonics in connection with biological processes will make it possible to determine the impact of regular cosmogeophysical fluctuations (tidal waves) on the processes in the biosphere.

  12. [Activation-dependent characteristics of the electroencephalogram during visual information--processing: Results of an automatic interval analysis (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastek, R; Gille, H G; Gruner, P; Otto, E; Ullsperger, P

    1976-01-01

    EEG signal from fronto-occipital derivation was recorded in 16 Ss during a mental performance test (modified "Konzentrations-Leistungs-Test" including four levels of performance). A balanced changer-over design was used. Interval histograms in four frequency bands (theta, alpha, beta-1 and beta-2 bands) were determined on the basis of peak detection. A total of 44 characteristics were derived and tested (multi-factor analyses of variance, multiple mean comparison and rank tests). Twenty eight of these characteristics were proved to be dependent on activation. In the visual information-processing performances chosen, it could be demonstrated that the intraindividual changes of the spontaneous EEG activity were related predominantly to the perceptual components of the performance. On the other hand, the influence of the performance rate and of the mental-arithmetic itself was of minor relevance. During higher activation an increase in the relative abudance of the theta-band activity was also observed.

  13. INTERVAL ARITHMETIC AND STATIC INTERVAL FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭书祥; 吕震宙

    2001-01-01

    When the uncertainties of structures may be bounded in intervals, through some suitable discretization, interval finite element method can be constructed by combining the interval analysis with the traditional finite element method(FEM). The two parameters,median and deviation, were used to represent the uncertainties of interval variables. Based on the arithmetic rules of intervals, some properties and arithmetic rules of interval variables were demonstrated. Combining the procedure of interval analysis with FEM, a static linear interval finite element method was presented to solve the non-random uncertain structures. The solving of the characteristic parameters of n-freedom uncertain displacement field of the static governing equation was transformed into 2 n-order linear equations. It is shown by a numerical example that the proposed method is practical and effective.

  14. Interval Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... versus continuous exercise in patients with coronary artery disease: A meta-analysis. Heart, Lung & Circulation. 2015;24:149. Sharman JE, et al. Exercise and cardiovascular risk in patients with hypertension. American Journal of ...

  15. The effects of high-intensity interval training on glucose regulation and insulin resistance: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelleyman, C; Yates, T; O'Donovan, G; Gray, L J; King, J A; Khunti, K; Davies, M J

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to quantify the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on markers of glucose regulation and insulin resistance compared with control conditions (CON) or continuous training (CT). Databases were searched for HIIT interventions based upon the inclusion criteria: training ≥2 weeks, adult participants and outcome measurements that included insulin resistance, fasting glucose, HbA1c or fasting insulin. Dual interventions and participants with type 1 diabetes were excluded. Fifty studies were included. There was a reduction in insulin resistance following HIIT compared with both CON and CT (HIIT vs. CON: standardized mean difference [SMD] = -0.49, confidence intervals [CIs] -0.87 to -0.12, P = 0.009; CT: SMD = -0.35, -0.68 to -0.02, P = 0.036). Compared with CON, HbA1c decreased by 0.19% (-0.36 to -0.03, P = 0.021) and body weight decreased by 1.3 kg (-1.9 to -0.7, P < 0.001). There were no statistically significant differences between groups in other outcomes overall. However, participants at risk of or with type 2 diabetes experienced reductions in fasting glucose (-0.92 mmol L(-1), -1.22 to -0.62, P < 0.001) compared with CON. HIIT appears effective at improving metabolic health, particularly in those at risk of or with type 2 diabetes. Larger randomized controlled trials of longer duration than those included in this meta-analysis are required to confirm these results.

  16. A comparative analysis of spectral exponent estimation techniques for 1/f(β) processes with applications to the analysis of stride interval time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Alexander; Brach, Jennifer S; Perera, Subashan; Sejdić, Ervin

    2014-01-30

    The time evolution and complex interactions of many nonlinear systems, such as in the human body, result in fractal types of parameter outcomes that exhibit self similarity over long time scales by a power law in the frequency spectrum S(f)=1/f(β). The scaling exponent β is thus often interpreted as a "biomarker" of relative health and decline. This paper presents a thorough comparative numerical analysis of fractal characterization techniques with specific consideration given to experimentally measured gait stride interval time series. The ideal fractal signals generated in the numerical analysis are constrained under varying lengths and biases indicative of a range of physiologically conceivable fractal signals. This analysis is to complement previous investigations of fractal characteristics in healthy and pathological gait stride interval time series, with which this study is compared. The results of our analysis showed that the averaged wavelet coefficient method consistently yielded the most accurate results. Class dependent methods proved to be unsuitable for physiological time series. Detrended fluctuation analysis as most prevailing method in the literature exhibited large estimation variances. The comparative numerical analysis and experimental applications provide a thorough basis for determining an appropriate and robust method for measuring and comparing a physiologically meaningful biomarker, the spectral index β. In consideration of the constraints of application, we note the significant drawbacks of detrended fluctuation analysis and conclude that the averaged wavelet coefficient method can provide reasonable consistency and accuracy for characterizing these fractal time series. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. High-intensity interval training in patients with lifestyle-induced cardiometabolic disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Kassia S; Wisløff, Ulrik; Coombes, Jeff S

    2014-08-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a strong determinant of morbidity and mortality. In athletes and the general population, it is established that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) is superior to moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) in improving CRF. This is a systematic review and meta-analysis to quantify the efficacy and safety of HIIT compared to MICT in individuals with chronic cardiometabolic lifestyle diseases. The included studies were required to have a population sample of chronic disease, where poor lifestyle is considered as a main contributor to the disease. The procedural quality of the studies was assessed by use of a modified Physiotherapy Evidence Base Database (PEDro) scale. A meta-analysis compared the mean difference (MD) of preintervention versus postintervention CRF (VO2peak) between HIIT and MICT. 10 studies with 273 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Participants had coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and obesity. There was a significantly higher increase in the VO2peak after HIIT compared to MICT (MD 3.03 mL/kg/min, 95% CI 2.00 to 4.07), equivalent to 9.1%. HIIT significantly increases CRF by almost double that of MICT in patients with lifestyle-induced chronic diseases. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Prediction of inspection intervals using the Markov analysis; Prediccion de intervalos de inspeccion utilizando analisis de Markov

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rea, R.; Arellano, J. [IIE, Calle Reforma 113, Col. Palmira, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)]. e-mail: rrea@iie.org.mx

    2005-07-01

    To solve the unmanageable number of states of Markov of systems that have a great number of components, it is intends a modification to the method of Markov, denominated Markov truncated analysis, in which is assumed that it is worthless the dependence among faults of components. With it the number of states is increased in a lineal way (not exponential) with the number of components of the system, simplifying the analysis vastly. As example, the proposed method was applied to the system HPCS of the CLV considering its 18 main components. It thinks about that each component can take three states: operational, with hidden fault and with revealed fault. Additionally, it takes into account the configuration of the system HPCS by means of a block diagram of dependability to estimate their unavailability at level system. The results of the model here proposed are compared with other methods and approaches used to simplify the Markov analysis. It also intends the modification of the intervals of inspection of three components of the system HPCS. This finishes with base in the developed Markov model and in the maximum time allowed by the code ASME (NUREG-1482) to inspect components of systems that are in reservation in nuclear power plants. (Author)

  19. Explorations in Statistics: The Analysis of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran-Everett, Douglas; Williams, Calvin L.

    2015-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This tenth installment of "Explorations in Statistics" explores the analysis of a potential change in some physiological response. As researchers, we often express absolute change as percent change so we can…

  20. Packet error rate analysis of digital pulse interval modulation in intersatellite optical communication systems with diversified wavefront deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jin; Wang, Dayan; Xie, Wanqing

    2015-02-20

    Diversified wavefront deformation is an inevitable phenomenon in intersatellite optical communication systems, which will decrease system performance. In this paper, we investigate the description of wavefront deformation and its influence on the packet error rate (PER) of digital pulse interval modulation (DPIM). With the wavelet method, the diversified wavefront deformation can be described by wavelet parameters: coefficient, dilation, and shift factors, where the coefficient factor represents the depth, dilation factor represents the area, and shift factor is for location. Based on this, the relationship between PER and wavelet parameters is analyzed from a theoretical viewpoint. Numerical results illustrate the validity of theoretical analysis: PER increases with the depth and area and decreases if location gets farther from the center of the optical antenna. In addition to describing diversified deformation, the advantage of the wavelet method over Zernike polynomials in computational complexity is shown via numerical example. This work provides a feasible method for the description along with influence analysis of diversified wavefront deformation from a practical viewpoint and will be helpful for designing optical systems.

  1. UV–Vis and ATR–FTIR spectroscopic investigations of postmortem interval based on the changes in rabbit plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; He, Haijun; Li, Bing; Lin, Hancheng; Zhang, Yinming; Zhang, Ji

    2017-01-01

    Estimating PMI is of great importance in forensic investigations. Although many methods are used to estimate the PMI, a few investigations focus on the postmortem redistribution. In this study, ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) measurement combined with visual inspection indicated a regular diffusion of hemoglobin into plasma after death showing the redistribution of postmortem components in blood. Thereafter, attenuated total reflection–Fourier transform infrared (ATR–FTIR) spectroscopy was used to confirm the variations caused by this phenomenon. First, full-spectrum partial least-squares (PLS) and genetic algorithm combined with PLS (GA-PLS) models were constructed to predict the PMI. The performance of GA-PLS model was better than that of full-spectrum PLS model based on its root mean square error (RMSE) of cross-validation of 3.46 h (R2 = 0.95) and the RMSE of prediction of 3.46 h (R2 = 0.94). The investigation on the similarity of spectra between blood plasma and formed elements also supported the role of redistribution of components in spectral changes in postmortem plasma. These results demonstrated that ATR-FTIR spectroscopy coupled with the advanced mathematical methods could serve as a convenient and reliable tool to study the redistribution of postmortem components and estimate the PMI. PMID:28753641

  2. Reinvestigating an interval of the English Wealden (non-marine Lower Cretaceous): Integrated analysis for palaeoenvironmental and climate cyclicities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sames, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    Although increasing over the last years, relatively few studies on changing palaeoenvironments and climate cycles in non-marine archives of the Cretaceous greenhouse Earth do exist. This is primarily a result of the nature of non-marine or terrestrial deposits - strong lateral facies change on local scales and the strong local to regional control of deposition - as well as the lack of high-resolution stratigraphy and correlations to the marine record. On the other hand, major advances in the refinements of the Cretaceous timescale now facilitate the correlation and dating of short-term sea-level records and their supposable relation to climate and/or tectonic events with appropriate resolution, i.e. on Milankovitch scales. Innovations and progress in non-marine bio-, magneto- and chemostratigraphy as well as growing data on Lower and Upper Cretaceous non-marine successions are promising towards approaches for supraregional correlation of these deposits and their appropriate correlation to the Cretaceous marine standard sections. However, convincing evidence for orbitally (climate) driven cyclicity in non-marine Lower Cretaceous deposits is thus far sparse. The non-marine Wealden deposits of England have been used eponymous for widely distributed similar Lower Cretaceous non-marine facies, and they are a 'classical' example for a Mesozoic non-marine succession for which depositional cycles have been suggested since the 1970s, including the famous ostracod 'faunicycles' by F.W. Anderson, but so far lack convincing analyses and remain to be tested. The project 'Lower Cretaceous Climate and Non-marine Stratigraphy (LCCNS)' funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) analyses a chosen interval of the English Wealden at the Clock House Brickworks pit (near Capel, Surrey, England, UK) for orbitally/climate driven cyclicities with an interdisciplinary methodology: micropalaeontology, sedimentology, and geochemistry. Ostracod (aquatic microcrustaceans with calcified shell

  3. Sequence analysis of leg movements during sleep with different intervals (90 s) in restless legs syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Raffaele; Rundo, Francesco; Silvani, Alessandro; Zucconi, Marco; Aricò, Debora; Bruni, Oliviero; Cosentino, Filomena I I; Ferini-Strambi, Luigi; Manconi, Mauro

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to define the time structure of leg movements during sleep occurring with an intermovement interval (onset-to-onset) shorter than 10 s in patients with restless legs syndrome and controls, and to compare it to the structure of movements with intervals of 10-90 s or >90 s. Polysomnographic recordings of 141 untreated patients and 68 age-matched normal controls were analysed. All movements were detected and classified into three categories, separated by intervals of 90 s. The number of movements included in each category was significantly higher in patients than in controls. The movements with an interval of >90 s occurred steadily during the night, whereas the hourly distribution of movements with intervals of 90 s. The time structure features of the three categories of movements considered in this study were found to be clearly different. This, together with previous observations on the differential effects of dopamine agonists on movements with different intervals, suggests that movements with intervals of 90 s are regulated by neurotransmitter mechanisms different from those modulating movements with an interval of 10-90 s. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  4. Cardiac parasympathetic outflow during dynamic exercise in humans estimated from power spectral analysis of P-P interval variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Nakamoto, Tomoko; Matsukawa, Kanji; Ishii, Kei; Watanabe, Tae; Sekikawa, Kiyokazu; Hamada, Hironobu

    2016-03-01

    What is the central question of this study? Should we use the high-frequency (HF) component of P-P interval as an index of cardiac parasympathetic nerve activity during moderate exercise? What is the main finding and its importance? The HF component of P-P interval variability remained even at a heart rate of 120-140 beats min(-1) and was further reduced by atropine, indicating incomplete cardiac vagal withdrawal during moderate exercise. The HF component of R-R interval is invalid as an estimate of cardiac parasympathetic outflow during moderate exercise; instead, the HF component of P-P interval variability should be used. The high-frequency (HF) component of R-R interval variability has been widely used as an indirect estimate of cardiac parasympathetic (vagal) outflow to the sino-atrial node of the heart. However, we have recently found that the variability of the R-R interval becomes much smaller during dynamic exercise than that of the P-P interval above a heart rate (HR) of ∼100 beats min(-1). We hypothesized that cardiac parasympathetic outflow during dynamic exercise with a higher intensity may be better estimated using the HF component of P-P interval variability. To test this hypothesis, the HF components of both P-P and R-R interval variability were analysed using a Wavelet transform during dynamic exercise. Twelve subjects performed ergometer exercise to increase HR from the baseline of 69 ± 3 beats min(-1) to three different levels of 100, 120 and 140 beats min(-1). We also examined the effect of atropine sulfate on the HF components in eight of the 12 subjects during exercise at an HR of 140 beats min(-1) . The HF component of P-P interval variability was significantly greater than that of R-R interval variability during exercise, especially at the HRs of 120 and 140 beats min(-1). The HF component of P-P interval variability was more reduced by atropine than that of R-R interval variability. We conclude that cardiac parasympathetic outflow to the

  5. 3D Indoor Building Environment Reconstruction using Least Square Adjustment, Polynomial Kernel, Interval Analysis and Homotopy Continuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Ali; Anton, François; Rahman, Alias Abdul; Mioc, Darka

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays, municipalities intend to have 3D city models for facility management, disaster management and architectural planning. Indoor models can be reconstructed from construction plans but sometimes, they are not available or very often, they differ from `as-built' plans. In this case, the buildings and their rooms must be surveyed. One of the most utilized methods of indoor surveying is laser scanning. The laser scanning method allows taking accurate and detailed measurements. However, Terrestrial Laser Scanner is costly and time consuming. In this paper, several techniques for indoor 3D building data acquisition have been investigated. For reducing the time and cost of indoor building data acquisition process, the Trimble LaserAce 1000 range finder is used. The proposed approache use relatively cheap equipment: a light Laser Rangefinder which appear to be feasible, but it needs to be tested to see if the observation accuracy is sufficient for the 3D building modelling. The accuracy of the rangefinder is evaluated and a simple spatial model is reconstructed from real data. This technique is rapid (it requires a shorter time as compared to others), but the results show inconsistencies in horizontal angles for short distances in indoor environments. The range finder horizontal angle sensor was calibrated using a least square adjustment algorithm, a polynomial kernel, interval analysis and homotopy continuation.

  6. Effects of high-intensity interval training on cardiometabolic health: a systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batacan, Romeo B; Duncan, Mitch J; Dalbo, Vincent J; Tucker, Patrick S; Fenning, Andrew S

    2017-03-01

    The current review clarifies the cardiometabolic health effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in adults. A systematic search (PubMed) examining HIIT and cardiometabolic health markers was completed on 15 October 2015. Sixty-five intervention studies were included for review and the methodological quality of included studies was assessed using the Downs and Black score. Studies were classified by intervention duration and body mass index classification. Outcomes with at least 5 effect sizes were synthesised using a random-effects meta-analysis of the standardised mean difference (SMD) in cardiometabolic health markers (baseline to postintervention) using Review Manager 5.3. Short-term (ST) HIIT (HIIT (≥12 weeks) significantly improved waist circumference (SMD -0.20, 95% CI -0.38 to -0.01; pHIIT demonstrated no effect on insulin, lipid profile, C reactive protein or interleukin 6 in overweight/obese populations. In normal weight populations, ST-HIIT and LT-HIIT significantly improved VO2 max, but no other significant effects were observed. Current evidence suggests that ST-HIIT and LT-HIIT can increase VO2 max and improve some cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight/obese populations.

  7. An Improved Integral Inequality to Stability Analysis of Genetic Regulatory Networks With Interval Time-Varying Delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xian; Wu, Ligang; Cui, Shaochun

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on stability analysis for a class of genetic regulatory networks with interval time-varying delays. An improved integral inequality concerning on double-integral items is first established. Then, we use the improved integral inequality to deal with the resultant double-integral items in the derivative of the involved Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional. As a result, a delay-range-dependent and delay-rate-dependent asymptotical stability criterion is established for genetic regulatory networks with differential time-varying delays. Furthermore, it is theoretically proven that the stability criterion proposed here is less conservative than the corresponding one in [Neurocomputing, 2012, 93: 19-26]. Based on the obtained result, another stability criterion is given under the case that the information of the derivatives of delays is unknown. Finally, the effectiveness of the approach proposed in this paper is illustrated by a pair of numerical examples which give the comparisons of stability criteria proposed in this paper and some literature.

  8. Prairie Change Analysis 1991-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This dataset displays the results of a prairie/savanna change analysis study completed in May 2010. The area reviewed consists of 1,521 sites identified by...

  9. A comparative analysis of spectral exponent estimation techniques for 1/fβ processes with applications to the analysis of stride interval time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Alexander; Brach, Jennifer S.; Perera, Subashan; Sejdić, Ervin

    2013-01-01

    Background The time evolution and complex interactions of many nonlinear systems, such as in the human body, result in fractal types of parameter outcomes that exhibit self similarity over long time scales by a power law in the frequency spectrum S(f) = 1/fβ. The scaling exponent β is thus often interpreted as a “biomarker” of relative health and decline. New Method This paper presents a thorough comparative numerical analysis of fractal characterization techniques with specific consideration given to experimentally measured gait stride interval time series. The ideal fractal signals generated in the numerical analysis are constrained under varying lengths and biases indicative of a range of physiologically conceivable fractal signals. This analysis is to complement previous investigations of fractal characteristics in healthy and pathological gait stride interval time series, with which this study is compared. Results The results of our analysis showed that the averaged wavelet coefficient method consistently yielded the most accurate results. Comparison with Existing Methods: Class dependent methods proved to be unsuitable for physiological time series. Detrended fluctuation analysis as most prevailing method in the literature exhibited large estimation variances. Conclusions The comparative numerical analysis and experimental applications provide a thorough basis for determining an appropriate and robust method for measuring and comparing a physiologically meaningful biomarker, the spectral index β. In consideration of the constraints of application, we note the significant drawbacks of detrended fluctuation analysis and conclude that the averaged wavelet coefficient method can provide reasonable consistency and accuracy for characterizing these fractal time series. PMID:24200509

  10. Derivation and analysis on the analytical structure of interval type-2 fuzzy controller with two nonlinear fuzzy sets for each input variable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bin-bin LEI; Xue-chao DUAN; Hong BAO; Qian XU

    2016-01-01

    Type-2 fuzzy controllers have been mostly viewed as black-box function generators. Revealing the analytical struc-ture of any type-2 fuzzy controller is important as it will deepen our understanding of how and why a type-2 fuzzy controller functions and lay a foundation for more rigorous system analysis and design. In this study, we derive and analyze the analytical structure of an interval type-2 fuzzy controller that uses the following identical elements: two nonlinear interval type-2 input fuzzy sets for each variable, four interval type-2 singleton output fuzzy sets, a Zadeh AND operator, and the Karnik-Mendel type reducer. Through dividing the input space of the interval type-2 fuzzy controller into 15 partitions, the input-output relationship for each local region is derived. Our derivation shows explicitly that the controller is approximately equivalent to a nonlinear proportional integral or proportional differential controller with variable gains. Furthermore, by comparing with the analytical structure of its type-1 counterpart, potential advantages of the interval type-2 fuzzy controller are analyzed. Finally, the reliability of the analysis results and the effectiveness of the interval type-2 fuzzy controller are verified by a simulation and an experiment.

  11. Kernel principal component analysis for change detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Morton, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    region acquired at two different time points. If change over time does not dominate the scene, the projection of the original two bands onto the second eigenvector will show change over time. In this paper a kernel version of PCA is used to carry out the analysis. Unlike ordinary PCA, kernel PCA...... with a Gaussian kernel successfully finds the change observations in a case where nonlinearities are introduced artificially....

  12. Histopathologic evaluation of postmortem autolytic changes in bluegill (Lepomis macrohirus and crappie (Pomoxis anularis at varied time intervals and storage temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jami George

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Information is lacking on preserving fish carcasses to minimize postmortem autolysis artifacts when a necropsy cannot be performed immediately. The purpose of this study was to qualitatively identify and score histologic postmortem changes in two species of freshwater fish (bluegill—Lepomis macrochirus; crappie—Pomoxis annularis, at varied time intervals and storage temperatures, to assess the histologic quality of collected samples. A pooled sample of 36 mix sex individuals of healthy bluegill and crappie were euthanized, stored either at room temperature, refrigerated at 4 °C, or frozen at −20 °C, and then necropsied at 0, 4, 24, and 48 h intervals. Histologic specimens were evaluated by light microscopy. Data showed that immediate harvesting of fresh samples provides the best quality and refrigeration would be the preferred method of storage if sample collection had to be delayed for up to 24 h. When sample collection must be delayed more than 24 h, the preferred method of storage to minimize autolysis artifacts is freezing if evaluation of the gastrointestinal tract is most important, or refrigeration if gill histology is most important. The gill arch, intestinal tract, followed by the liver and kidney were the most sensitive organs to autolysis.

  13. [Changes in autonomic nerve function during the normal menstrual cycle measured by the coefficient of variation of R-R intervals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, M; Hirano, T; Okamura, Y

    1989-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a change in autonomic nerve function during the menstrual cycle. The subjects were 20 females (average age 26.1 years +/- 4.6) with a normal menstrual cycle. The coefficient of variation of R-R intervals (CV R.R) was measured to investigate autonomic function in the menstrual, follicular, ovulatory, luteal, and premenstrual phases. Average CV R-R for all phases was 5.2 +/- 1.9%. And the CV R-R tended to be lower in those in their 30s than in those in their 20s. And no noticeable difference was seen in the CV R-R among the 5 phases of the menstrual cycle. On the other hand, the CV R-R of 11 females with premenstrual syndrome was low in the ovulatory, luteal and premenstrual phases. These results, which provide basic data for clinical use, suggest the following. (1) The age of subjects should be taken into consideration. (2) Changes in the CV R-R during the menstrual cycle are negligible. (3) However, in those showing symptoms associated with the menstrual cycle such as premenstrual syndrome, changes during the menstrual cycle should be taken into account. At the same time psychological changes in the subjects were evaluated by the following tests: Cornell Medical Index, Taylor's manifest anxiety scale, and Zung's self-rating depression scale. The results of these tests did not vary significantly during the menstrual cycle.

  14. Management of change through force field analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baulcomb, Jean Sandra

    2003-07-01

    Today's NHS is rapidly changing, placing more emphasis on the managerial responsibilities of ward managers. Managing change is seen as being skilled at creating, acquiring and transferring knowledge to reflect new knowledge and insights. Defining core concepts is often difficult and requires the drawing on models/theories of change for guidance. Guidance from Lewin's (1951) force field analysis demonstrates the complexities of the change process and how driving and resisting forces were incorporated within the planning and implementation phases. Findings outline the benefits of a small scale change for staff, patients and the organization when successfully used to introduce a change of shift pattern within a progressively busy haematology day unit, in order to meet service demands without additional funding. Conclusions have been drawn in relation to the process and recommendations for practice made to further enhance care delivery within the unit.

  15. An assessment of fixed interval timing in free-flying honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica: an analysis of individual performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Philip Arthur Craig

    Full Text Available Interval timing is a key element of foraging theory, models of predator avoidance, and competitive interactions. Although interval timing is well documented in vertebrate species, it is virtually unstudied in invertebrates. In the present experiment, we used free-flying honey bees (Apis mellifera ligustica as a model for timing behaviors. Subjects were trained to enter a hole in an automated artificial flower to receive a nectar reinforcer (i.e. reward. Responses were continuously reinforced prior to exposure to either a fixed interval (FI 15-sec, FI 30-sec, FI 60-sec, or FI 120-sec reinforcement schedule. We measured response rate and post-reinforcement pause within each fixed interval trial between reinforcers. Honey bees responded at higher frequencies earlier in the fixed interval suggesting subject responding did not come under traditional forms of temporal control. Response rates were lower during FI conditions compared to performance on continuous reinforcement schedules, and responding was more resistant to extinction when previously reinforced on FI schedules. However, no "scalloped" or "break-and-run" patterns of group or individual responses reinforced on FI schedules were observed; no traditional evidence of temporal control was found. Finally, longer FI schedules eventually caused all subjects to cease returning to the operant chamber indicating subjects did not tolerate the longer FI schedules.

  16. Measurement of Trained Speech Patterns in Stuttering: Interjudge and Intrajudge Agreement of Experts by Means of Modified Time-Interval Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpermann, Anke; Huber, Walter; Natke, Ulrich; Willmes, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    Improved fluency after stuttering therapy is usually measured by the percentage of stuttered syllables. However, outcome studies rarely evaluate the use of trained speech patterns that speakers use to manage stuttering. This study investigated whether the modified time interval analysis can distinguish between trained speech patterns, fluent…

  17. Discrimination of the Healthy and Sick Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System by a New Wavelet Analysis of Heartbeat Intervals

    CERN Document Server

    Ashkenazy, Yu; Levitan, J; Moelgaard, H; Bloch-Thomsen, P E; Saermark, K

    1998-01-01

    We demonstrate that it is possible to distinguish with a complete certainty between healthy subjects and patients with various dysfunctions of the cardiac nervous system by way of multiresolutional wavelet transform of RR intervals. We repeated the study of Thurner et al on different ensemble of subjects. We show that reconstructed series using a filter which discards wavelet coefficients related with higher scales enables one to classify individuals for which the method otherwise is inconclusive. We suggest a delimiting diagnostic value of the standard deviation of the filtered, reconstructed RR interval time series in the range of $\\sim 0.035$ (for the above mentioned filter), below which individuals are at risk.

  18. Simple parametric survival analysis with anonymized register data: A cohort study with truncated and interval censored event and censoring times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiansen Ivar S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To preserve patient anonymity, health register data may be provided as binned data only. Here we consider as example, how to estimate mean survival time after a diagnosis of metastatic colorectal cancer from Norwegian register data on time to death or censoring binned into 30 day intervals. All events occurring in the first three months (90 days after diagnosis were removed to achieve comparability with a clinical trial. The aim of the paper is to develop and implement a simple, and yet flexible method for analyzing such interval censored and truncated data. Methods Considering interval censoring a missing data problem, we implement a simple multiple imputation strategy that allows flexible sensitivity analyses with respect to the shape of the censoring distribution. To allow identification of appropriate parametric models, a χ2-goodness-of-fit test--also imputation based--is derived and supplemented with diagnostic plots. Uncertainty estimates for mean survival times are obtained via a simulation strategy. The validity and statistical efficiency of the proposed method for varying interval lengths is investigated in a simulation study and compared with simpler alternatives. Results Mean survival times estimated from the register data ranged from 1.2 (SE = 0.09 to 3.2 (0.31 years depending on period of diagnosis and choice of parametric model. The shape of the censoring distribution within intervals did generally not influence results, whereas the choice of parametric model did, even when different models fit the data equally well. In simulation studies both simple midpoint imputation and multiple imputation yielded nearly unbiased analyses (relative biases of -0.6% to 9.4% and confidence intervals with near-nominal coverage probabilities (93.4% to 95.7% for censoring intervals shorter than six months. For 12 month censoring intervals, multiple imputation provided better protection against bias, and coverage probabilities

  19. Analysis of Forest Biodiversity Changes in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    By reference of the evaluative data of forest biodiversity changes in China from 1973 to 1998, the variation analysis models of the pressure index of forest biodiversity, forest ecosystem diversity and forest species diversity, as well as the general index of forest biodiversity are developed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Furthermore established is the relevant model of mutation of forest diversity potential functions. This paper points out that changes of forest biodiversity...

  20. Crossover Analysis of CHANG'E-1 Laser Altimeter Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, W.; Yue, Z.; Di, K.

    2011-08-01

    This paper presents a preliminary result of crossover analysis and adjustment of Chang'E-1(CE-1) Laser Altimeter (LAM) data of the Moon for global and regional mapping applications. During the operation of Chang'E-1 from November 28, 2007 to December 4, 2008, the laser altimeter acquired 1400 orbital profiles with about 9.12 million altimetric points. In our experiment, we derived more than 1.38 million crossovers from 1395 ground tracks covering the entire lunar surface after eliminating outliers of orbits and altimetric points. A method of least-squares crossover adjustment with a series of basis functions of time (trigonometric functions and polynomials) is developed to reconcile the LAM data by minimizing the crossover residuals globally. The normal equations are very large but sparse; therefore they are stored and solved using sparse matrix technique. In a test area (0°N~60°N, 50°W~0°W), the crossover residuals are reduced from 62.1m to 32.8m, and the quality of the DEM generated from the adjusted LAM data is improved accordingly. We will optimize the method for the global adjustment to generate a high precision consistent global DEM, which can be used as absolute control for lunar mapping with orbital images.

  1. AMD-associated genes encoding stress-activated MAPK pathway constituents are identified by interval-based enrichment analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paul SanGiovanni

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine whether common DNA sequence variants within groups of genes encoding elements of stress-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathways are, in aggregate, associated with advanced AMD (AAMD. METHODS: We used meta-regression and exact testing methods to identify AAMD-associated SNPs in 1177 people with AAMD and 1024 AMD-free elderly peers from 3 large-scale genotyping projects on the molecular genetics of AMD. SNPs spanning independent AAMD-associated genomic intervals were examined with a multi-locus-testing method (INRICH for enrichment within five sets of genes encoding constituents of stress-activated MAPK signaling cascades. RESULTS: Four-of-five pathway gene sets showed enrichment with AAMD-associated SNPs; findings persisted after adjustment for multiple testing in two. Strongest enrichment signals (P = 0.006 existed in a c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK/MAPK cascade (Science Signaling, STKE CMP_10827. In this pathway, seven independent AAMD-associated regions were resident in 6 of 25 genes examined. These included sequence variants in: 1 three MAP kinase kinase kinases (MAP3K4, MAP3K5, MAP3K9 that phosphorylate and activate the MAP kinase kinases MAP2K4 and MAP2K7 (molecules that phosphorylate threonine and tyrosine residues within the activation loop of JNK; 2 a target of MAP2K7 (JNK3A1 that activates complexes involved in transcriptional regulation of stress related genes influencing cell proliferation, apoptosis, motility, metabolism and DNA repair; and 3 NR2C2, a transcription factor activated by JNK1A1 (a drugable molecule influencing retinal cell viability in model systems. We also observed AAMD-related sequence variants resident in genes encoding PPP3CA (a drugable molecule that inactivates MAP3K5, and two genes (TGFB2, TGFBR2 encoding factors involved in MAPK sensing of growth factors/cytokines. CONCLUSIONS: Linkage disequilibrium (LD-independent genomic enrichment analysis yielded

  2. Stability on FInite Time Interval and Time—Dependent Bifurcation Analysis of Duffing‘s Equations6

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CuncaiHUA; QishaoLU

    1999-01-01

    The concept of stability on finite time interval is proposed and some stability theorems are established.The delayed bifurcation transition of Duffing's equations with a time-dependent parameter is analyzed.Function is used to predict the bifurcation transition value.The sensitivity of the solutions to initial values and parameters is also studied.

  3. Analysis of risk factors for the interval time, number and pattern of hepatic metastases from gastric cancer after radical gastrectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Yu Deng; Han Liang; Dan Sun; Hong-Jie Zhan; Ru-Peng Zhang

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the risk factors for interval time,number and pattern of hepatic metastases from gastric cancer after radical gastrectomy, and provide evidence for predicting and preventing hepatic metastasis from gastric cancer after radical gastrectomy. METHODS: A retrospective study of 87 patients with hepatic metastasis who underwent radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer from 1996 to 2001. The data was analyzed to evaluate significant risk factors for interval time, number and pattern of hepatic metastases originating from gastric cancer after radical gastrectomy.RESULTS: The size of gastric cancer and lymph node metastases were independently correlated with the interval time of hepatic metastases; the depth of invasion was independently correlated with the number of hepatic metastases; while the depth of invasion and Lauren classification were independently correlated with the pattern of hepatic metastases.CONCLUSION: We evaluated the interval time of hepatic metastases with the size of gastric cancer and lymph node metastases. The depth of invasion could be used to evaluate the number of hepatic metastases, while the depth of invasion and the Lauren classification could be used to evaluate the pattern of hepatic metastases in patients who underwent radical gastrectomy.

  4. Global fuel consumption optimization of an open-time terminal rendezvous and docking with large-eccentricity elliptic-orbit by the method of interval analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongliang; Xu, Shijie

    2016-11-01

    By defining two open-time impulse points, the optimization of a two-impulse, open-time terminal rendezvous and docking with target spacecraft on large-eccentricity elliptical orbit is proposed in this paper. The purpose of optimization is to minimize the velocity increment for a terminal elliptic-reference-orbit rendezvous and docking. Current methods for solving this type of optimization problem include for example genetic algorithms and gradient based optimization. Unlike these methods, interval methods can guarantee that the globally best solution is found for a given parameterization of the input. The non-linear Tschauner- Hempel(TH) equations of the state transitions for a terminal elliptic target orbit are transformed form time domain to target orbital true anomaly domain. Their homogenous solutions and approximate state transition matrix for the control with a short true anomaly interval can be used to avoid interval integration. The interval branch and bound optimization algorithm is introduced for solving the presented rendezvous and docking optimization problem and optimizing two open-time impulse points and thruster pulse amplitudes, which systematically eliminates parts of the control and open-time input spaces that do not satisfy the path and final time state constraints. Several numerical examples are undertaken to validate the interval optimization algorithm. The results indicate that the sufficiently narrow spaces containing the global optimization solution for the open-time two-impulse terminal rendezvous and docking with target spacecraft on large-eccentricity elliptical orbit can be obtained by the interval algorithm (IA). Combining the gradient-based method, the global optimization solution for the discontinuous nonconvex optimization problem in the specifically remained search space can be found. Interval analysis is shown to be a useful tool and preponderant in the discontinuous nonconvex optimization problem of the terminal rendezvous and

  5. Successive RR Interval Analysis of PVC With Sinus Rhythm Using Fractal Dimension, Poincaré Plot and Sample Entropy Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Maksudul Hasan

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Premature ventricular contractions (PVC are premature heartbeats originating from the ventricles of the heart. These heartbeats occur before the regular heartbeat. The Fractal analysis is most mathematical models produce intractable solutions. Some studies tried to apply the fractal dimension (FD to calculate of cardiac abnormality. Based on FD change, we can identify different abnormalities present in Electrocardiogram (ECG. Present of the uses of Poincaré plot indexes and the sample entropy (SE analyses of heart rate variability (HRV from short term ECG recordings as a screening tool for PVC. Poincaré plot indexes and the SE measure used for analyzing variability and complexity of HRV. A clear reduction of standard deviation (SD projections in Poincaré plot pattern observed a significant difference of SD between healthy Person and PVC subjects. Finally, a comparison shows for FD, SE and Poincaré plot parameters.

  6. Effects of low-level x-irradiation on cat cerebella at different postnatal intervals. III. Changes in the morphology of interneurons in the molecular layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, W.J.; Stromberg, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    The whole head of infant kittens was irradiated with fractionated doses of 150 R and 200 R at different postnatal intervals. Experimental age conditions consisted of a newborn, 1-week, 2-week, 3-week, and a 4-week age condition while the age of sacrifice remained constant at 70 days. Going analysis revealed that the interneurons found in the molecular layer of the newborn, 1-week and 2-week condition were basket cells. Stellate cells were found in increasing numbers in the 3-week and 4-week conditions. Basket cells were found to occupy the entire molecular layer in the newborn and 1-week conditions resulting in an abnormal axonal plexus. The position of the basket cell soma was found to be in the same plane as its axonal projection. A hypothesis is presented to account for the decreased dendritic arborization and the increased length of the primary dendrite before branching, the ectopic basket cell and their abnormally directed dendritic growth, and the difference in behavioral deficits between the newborn and the 1-week conditions.

  7. Interval probabilistic neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Piotr A; Kulczycki, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    Automated classification systems have allowed for the rapid development of exploratory data analysis. Such systems increase the independence of human intervention in obtaining the analysis results, especially when inaccurate information is under consideration. The aim of this paper is to present a novel approach, a neural networking, for use in classifying interval information. As presented, neural methodology is a generalization of probabilistic neural network for interval data processing. The simple structure of this neural classification algorithm makes it applicable for research purposes. The procedure is based on the Bayes approach, ensuring minimal potential losses with regard to that which comes about through classification errors. In this article, the topological structure of the network and the learning process are described in detail. Of note, the correctness of the procedure proposed here has been verified by way of numerical tests. These tests include examples of both synthetic data, as well as benchmark instances. The results of numerical verification, carried out for different shapes of data sets, as well as a comparative analysis with other methods of similar conditioning, have validated both the concept presented here and its positive features.

  8. A systematic review and meta-analysis of interval training versus moderate-intensity continuous training on body adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keating, S E; Johnson, N A; Mielke, G I; Coombes, J S

    2017-08-01

    Interval training (including high-intensity interval training [HIIT] and sprint interval training [SIT]) is promoted in both scientific and lay media as being a superior and time-efficient method for fat loss compared with traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). We evaluated the efficacy of HIIT/SIT when directly compared with MICT for the modulation of body adiposity. Databases were searched to 31 August 2016 for studies with exercise training interventions with minimum 4-week duration. Meta-analyses were conducted for within-group and between-group comparisons for total body fat percentage (%) and fat mass (kg). To investigate heterogeneity, we conducted sensitivity and meta-regression analyses. Of the 6,074 studies netted, 31 were included. Within-group analyses demonstrated reductions in total body fat (%) (HIIT/SIT: -1.26 [95% CI: -1.80; -0.72] and MICT: -1.48 [95% CI: -1.89; -1.06]) and fat mass (kg) (HIIT/SIT: -1.38 [95% CI: -1.99; -0.77] and MICT: -0.91 [95% CI: -1.45; -0.37]). There were no differences between HIIT/SIT and MICT for any body fat outcome. Analyses comparing MICT with HIIT/SIT protocols of lower time commitment and/or energy expenditure tended to favour MICT for total body fat reduction (p = 0.09). HIIT/SIT appears to provide similar benefits to MICT for body fat reduction, although not necessarily in a more time-efficient manner. However, neither short-term HIIT/SIT nor MICT produced clinically meaningful reductions in body fat. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  9. Analysis of topology changes in multibody systems

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical systems with time-varying topology appear frequently in natural or human-made artificial systems. The nature of topology transitions is a key characteristic in the functioning of such systems. In this paper, a concept to decouple kinematic and kinetic quantities at the time of topology transition is used. This approach is based on the use of impulsive bilateral constraints and it is a useful tool for the analysis of energy redistribution and velocity change when these constraint...

  10. Multivariate analysis of longitudinal rates of change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Matthew; Heagerty, Patrick J

    2016-12-10

    Longitudinal data allow direct comparison of the change in patient outcomes associated with treatment or exposure. Frequently, several longitudinal measures are collected that either reflect a common underlying health status, or characterize processes that are influenced in a similar way by covariates such as exposure or demographic characteristics. Statistical methods that can combine multivariate response variables into common measures of covariate effects have been proposed in the literature. Current methods for characterizing the relationship between covariates and the rate of change in multivariate outcomes are limited to select models. For example, 'accelerated time' methods have been developed which assume that covariates rescale time in longitudinal models for disease progression. In this manuscript, we detail an alternative multivariate model formulation that directly structures longitudinal rates of change and that permits a common covariate effect across multiple outcomes. We detail maximum likelihood estimation for a multivariate longitudinal mixed model. We show via asymptotic calculations the potential gain in power that may be achieved with a common analysis of multiple outcomes. We apply the proposed methods to the analysis of a trivariate outcome for infant growth and compare rates of change for HIV infected and uninfected infants. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Analysis and Representation of Changes in Change Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper,factors lead to changes and what changes should be considered are firstly discussed.Then changes to be represented by set theory is given.Twelve basic change types are described in detail.At last the paper points out that the change between geo-objects and pixels in images is not all corresponding and it causes the difficulty of accurate and robust change detection techniques.

  12. A novel approach for enhancing green supply chain management using converged interval-valued triangular fuzzy numbers-grey relation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Tseng, Ming-Lang; Lim, Ming; Wu, Kuo-Jui; Zhou, Li

    2017-01-01

    The existing literatures are lacking on the cost and benefit concerns, screening the measures and convergence of interval-valued triangular fuzzy numbers-grey relation analysis (IVTFN-GRA) weight together. Nonetheless, Green supply chain management is always suffering the linguistic preferences and system incomplete information in evaluation process to enhance the performance. Yet, those previous studies are merely based on un-converged weight results. Hence, this study proposed a hybrid meth...

  13. Delay-Range-Dependent Global Robust Passivity Analysis of Discrete-Time Uncertain Recurrent Neural Networks with Interval Time-Varying Delay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Yu Lu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines a passivity analysis for a class of discrete-time recurrent neural networks (DRNNs with norm-bounded time-varying parameter uncertainties and interval time-varying delay. The activation functions are assumed to be globally Lipschitz continuous. Based on an appropriate type of Lyapunov functional, sufficient passivity conditions for the DRNNs are derived in terms of a family of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs. Two numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness and applicability.

  14. Piglet birth weight and litter uniformity: effects of weaning-to-pregnancy interval and body condition changes in sows of different parities and crossbred lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wientjes, J G M; Soede, N M; Knol, E F; van den Brand, H; Kemp, B

    2013-05-01

    Piglet birth weight and litter uniformity were studied in sows of different parities and crossbred lines in relation to: 1) weaning-to-pregnancy interval (WPI) and 2) sow body condition changes (in BW and backfat thickness) during lactation and gestation in sows with a short WPI (≤7d). At the Institute for Pig Genetics (IPG) research farm, individual piglet birth weights and sow body condition (BW and backfat thickness at farrowing and weaning) were measured for 949 TOPIGS20 and 889 TOPIGS40 sows with >4 total born piglets, inseminated between 2003 and 2011. In all analyses, mean piglet birth weight and birth weight SD and CV were corrected for total number born. Total number born was greater in sows with a WPI of 8 to 21 d (+1.2 piglets; n = 72) and >21 d (+0.7 piglets; n = 182), compared with sows with a WPI ≤7 d (P piglet birth weight was not affected by WPI. Birth weight SD (-23 g) and CV (-1.7%) were lower in sows with a WPI >21 d, compared with sows with a WPI ≤7 d (P piglet birth weight. Only in TOPIGS20 sows, more BW loss during lactation was related with greater subsequent birth weight SD (β = 0.83 g/kg, P piglet/kg BW increase for parity 2 (P piglet/kg BW increase (P piglet birth weight. To conclude, this study shows that litter uniformity is compromised by severe sow body condition loss during lactation and improved in sows with a prolonged WPI. These effects are likely related with (insufficient) restoration of follicle development.

  15. Co-Prescription of QT-Interval Prolonging Drugs: An Analysis in a Large Cohort of Geriatric Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Schächtele

    Full Text Available Drug-induced QT-interval prolongation is associated with occurrence of potentially fatal Torsades de Pointes arrhythmias (TdP. So far, data regarding the overall burden of QT-interval prolonging drugs (QT-drugs in geriatric patients are limited.This study was performed to assess the individual burden of QT-interval prolonging drugs (QT-drugs in geriatric polymedicated patients and to identify the most frequent and risky combinations of QT-drugs.In the discharge medication of geriatric patients between July 2009 and June 2013 from the Geriatrics in Bavaria-Database (GiB-DAT (co-prescriptions of QT-drugs were investigated. QT-drugs were classified according to a publicly available reference site (CredibleMeds® as ALL-QT-drugs (associated with any QT-risk or High-risk-QT-drugs (corresponding to QT-drugs with known risk of Torsades de Pointes according to CredibleMeds® and in addition as SmPC-high-risk-QT-drugs (according to the German prescribing information (SmPC contraindicated co-prescription with other QT-drugs.Of a cohort of 130,434 geriatric patients (mean age 81 years, 67% women, prescribed a median of 8 drugs, 76,594 patients (58.7% received at least one ALL-QT-drug. Co-prescriptions of two or more ALL-QT-drugs were observed in 28,768 (22.1% patients. Particularly risky co-prescriptions of High-risk-QT-drugs or SmPC-high-risk-QT-drugs with at least on further QT-drug occurred in 55.9% (N = 12,633 and 54.2% (N = 12,429 of these patients, respectively. Consideration of SmPCs (SmPC-high-risk-QT-drugs allowed the identification of an additional 15% (N = 3,999 patients taking a risky combination that was not covered by the commonly used CredibleMeds® classification. Only 20 drug-drug combinations accounted for more than 90% of these potentially most dangerous co-prescriptions.In a geriatric study population co-prescriptions of two and more QT-drugs were common. A considerable proportion of QT-drugs with higher risk only could be detected by

  16. New results on delay-range-dependent stability analysis for interval time-varying delay systems with non-linear perturbations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Pin-Lin

    2015-07-01

    This paper studies the problem of the stability analysis of interval time-varying delay systems with nonlinear perturbations. Based on the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF), a sufficient delay-range-dependent criterion for asymptotic stability is derived in terms of linear matrix inequality (LMI) and integral inequality approach (IIA) and delayed decomposition approach (DDA). Further, the delay range is divided into two equal segments for stability analysis. Both theoretical and numerical comparisons have been provided to show the effectiveness and efficiency of the present method. Two well-known examples are given to show less conservatism of our obtained results and the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  17. Analysis of Conceptual Change and Status Change in Sixth-Graders Concepts of Force and Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessey, Mary Gertrude

    The Conceptual Change Model (CCM) was formulated over a decade ago to describe learning as a process in which an individuals change their conceptions by capturing new or exchanging existing conceptions for new ones. Central to the learning process is the status of the new and existing conceptions as seen by the learner. The CCM predicts that conceptual changes do not occur without corresponding changes in status. A review of the literature reveals that although the CCM has been extensively cited, the prediction of status change has not been investigated. This study sought to determine the feasibility of revealing and monitoring the status of sixth graders' conceptions of force and motion, and to probe the relationship between the revealed status of the students' conceptions and corresponding changes in the content of those. Status determination comes directly from the students' metaconceptual comments about the intelligibility, plausibility, and fruitfulness of their own conceptions. The study was conducted in three phases. In Phase I (7 weeks), the students learned the technical language of the CCM and established a consensus about a set of descriptors for each of the technical terms. Phase II (10 weeks), was a unit on force and motion, content not previously studied by the students. Data was gathered at key intervals, by having the students comment on both the content and status of selected force explanations. In Phase III (after a six week delay), further data about status and content was gathered. The analysis concluded that first, extensive and varied evidence exists of the students' ability to use the technical language reliable and with meaning. Second, when the students provide direct evidence of the status of their conceptions, status analysis becomes a low-inference task suitable for use in normal classrooms. Lastly, the data support the model's prediction of a correlation between conceptual exchange and changes in plausibility but do not support the

  18. [Analysis of serum lipids levels and the establishment of reference intervals for serum lipids in middle and late pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Chunmei; Yue, Chaoyan; Zhang, Chunyi; Li, Xiaotian

    2015-12-01

    To explore the serum lipids levels in healthy pregnant women, and to establish the reference intervals of serum lipids in middle and late pregnancy. Triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TCH), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), apo-lipoprotein-A(APO-A) and apo-lipoprotein-B (APO-B) were measured in 3 200 pregnant women and 3 200 healthy women of childbearing age(the control group) from January 2014 to Febuary 2015 in Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University. In the healthy pregnant women, serum lipids were measured at 14-20, 24-28 and 37-40 gestational weeks, respectively. All the parameters were detected by Hitachi 7180 automatic biochemical analyzer. The test results were calculated and determined by the C28-A3 standard of the National Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. And the normal reference intervals of serum lipids in middle and late pregnancy were defined as 2.5%-97.5%. (1) The levels of TG, TCH, HDL, LDL, APO-A and APO-B in the control group were 0.8, 4.2, 1.0, 2.7 mmol/L and 1.1, 0.8 g/L, respectively. The levels of TG, TCH, HDL, LDL, APO-A and APO-B in middle and late pregnancy were significantly higher than those in the control group (Plipids levels at 14-20, 24-28 and 37-40 gestational weeks in healthy pregnant women were compared with the control group as following. The TG levels were 1.9, 3.8 and 4.4 folds of the control group; the TCH levels were 1.1, 1.5 and 1.5 folds of the control group; the HDL levels were 1.2, 1.6 and 1.5 folds of the control group; the LDL levels were 1.1, 1.4 and 1.4 folds of the control group; the APO-A levels were 1.3, 1.4 and 1.5 folds of the control group; and the APO-B levels were 1.1, 1.5 and 1.5 fold of the control group respectively. The TG level was the most increased, and it increased gradually with gestational age (Plipids at 14-20, 24-28 and 37-40 gestational weeks in healthy pregnant women were as following. The TG levels were 0.7-3.9, 1.7-6.3 and 1.6-8.1 mmol

  19. Determination of reference intervals of glycated albumin and hemoglobin A1c in healthy pregnant Japanese women and analysis of their time courses and influencing factors during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Yuji; Shimizu, Ikki; Omori, Yasue; Nakabayashi, Masao

    2012-01-01

    Glycemic control is an important issue in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and in diabetic pregnant women. We determined the reference intervals of glycated albumin (GA) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) as glycemic control markers in healthy Japanese pregnant women and analyzed their time courses and factors that influence these variables during pregnancy. 676 women were screened for the present study. After the exclusion of non-pregnant and puerperal women, 574 women were studied to determine the reference intervals. HbA1c, GA, casual plasma glucose, urinary glucose, urinary protein, and body mass index (BMI) (non-pregnancy) were measured. HbA1c levels significantly decreased in the second trimester of pregnancy and increased in the third trimester, while GA levels significantly decreased towards the third trimester. Casual plasma glucose levels decreased in the first trimester and subsequently remained constant. The reference intervals of GA and HbA1c in the healthy pregnant women were 11.5-15.7% and 4.5-5.7%, respectively. GA levels were lower (ppregnant women with proteinuria. In the obese group, GA levels were lower (ppregnant women were determined. Strict glycemic control is essential to reduce perinatal complications. GA appears to be a useful marker for pregnant women, since it can be measured easily and changes rapidly and markedly.

  20. Big Boss Interval Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alparslan-Gok, S.Z.; Brânzei, R.; Tijs, S.H.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper big boss interval games are introduced and various characterizations are given. The structure of the core of a big boss interval game is explicitly described and plays an important role relative to interval-type bi-monotonic allocation schemes for such games. Specifically, each element

  1. 房颤合并RR间期延长的动态心电图分析%Analysis of Dynamic Electrocardiogram RR Interval Prolonged Combine Atrial Fibrillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑守景; 陈伟玲

    2014-01-01

    目的:总结分析房颤合并有RR间期延长的动态心电图特点,以有效的指导临床治疗。方法:对60例房颤合并有RR间期延长患者的动态心电图进行回顾性分析,根据RR间期延长发作时间将所有患者分为睡眠组(仅在22∶00-7∶00发作,患者27例)及非睡眠组(24 h内均有发作,患者33例)。对两组患者的平均心室率(HR)、RR间期延长次数、RR间期延长平均时间及黑矇晕厥发生频率进行统计,并对两组以上资料进行对比分析。结果:睡眠组HR明显高于非睡眠组(P<0.05);而RR间期延长次数、RR间期延长平均时间及黑矇晕厥发生频率方面均明显低于非睡眠组(P<0.05)。结论:与睡眠无关的房颤合并有RR间期延长患者其病情重于仅于睡眠时发作房颤合并有RR间期延长患者,临床更应重视。%Objective:To analysis the characteristics of dynamic electrocardiogram of atrial fibrillation with RR interval prolongation,to guide the clinical treatment.Method:Retrospective analysis dynamic electrocardiogram of 60 patients atrial fibrillation with RR interval prolongation.Accorded to the prolongation of the RR interval time of onset of all patients were divided into sleep group(only in 22∶00 to 7∶00 attack,27 cases)and non sleep group(24 hours had seizures,33 cases).Analyzed the average heart rate (HR),RR interval prolonged prolongation of the RR interval number,average time and black mask or syncope statistical frequency of two groups.Result:The HR of sleep group was significantly higher than that in non sleep group(P<0.05);and prolonged RR interval prolongation of the RR interval number,average time and black mask syncope occurred frequency of sleep group were significantly lower than those in non sleep group(P<0.05). Conclusion:Atrial fibrillation with RR interval prolongation in non sleep group is severe illness than sleep group,more attention shall be paid to the clinical.

  2. Factorial Based Response Surface Modeling with Confidence Intervals for Optimizing Thermal Optical Transmission Analysis of Atmospheric Black Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    We demonstrate how thermal-optical transmission analysis (TOT) for refractory light-absorbing carbon in atmospheric particulate matter was optimized with empirical response surface modeling. TOT employs pyrolysis to distinguish the mass of black carbon (BC) from organic carbon (...

  3. 复杂金融系统的重现时间间隔分析%Recurrence interval analysis of complex financial systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任飞; 顾高峰; 蒋志强; 周炜星

    2011-01-01

    This paper uses the methods of complex science,and studies the statistical properties of probability distribution and memory effect of the recurrence intervals, defined as the intervals between extreme events in financial markets. Relatively accurate analysis is performed by using various goodness-of-fit tests and memory effect detecting methods. The application of the recurrence interval analysis in financial complex systems is systematically introduced, including the empirical studies of recurrence intervals of volatilities, realized volatilities, returns and trading volumes. Based upon this study,we perform a primarily risk estimation for the stock market. Furthermore, an order driven model is introduced. The dynamics of the recurrence intervals between extreme events is studied by mimicking the order submission process of the investors in stock markets. This work may provide a theoretical foundation for the risk estimation and avoiding of extreme events in the Chinese stock market.%依据复杂性科学的思路,研究了金融市场大波动极端事件的重现时间间隔,考察了中国股市高频数据的重现时间间隔分布和时间关联特性,介绍了几种分布检验和关联测度方法,从不同角度进行精确分析.其次,系统介绍了重现时间间隔分析方法在金融复杂系统研究中的应用,对波动率、已实现波动率、收益率和交易量的重现时间间隔进行了实证分析,并在此基础上进行初步市场风险估计.最后,介绍了基于委托驱动的微观模型,通过模拟交易人的委托下单过程模拟市场的价格波动演化,研究大波动极端事件重现时间间隔的动力学机理,为中国股市大波动极端事件的风险估计和规避提供理论依据.

  4. 基于区间分析的实物期权定价%Real Option Pricing based on Interval Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李汶华; 丁慧娟; 郭均鹏

    2012-01-01

    Real option pricing models usually assume that the present value of expected cash flows and expected costs are definite values. However, there is a high uncertainty in venture capital investment, thus the assumption is unrealistic. To deal with this problem, a new approach based on interval analysis is proposed. First, the estimation of distribution function based on interval analysis is discussed in details. Second, based on interval analysis, by expressing the uncertain input variables with random variables, using the Black-Scholes formula to price the real option, we get the distribution function of the option value. An example is given to demonstrate the validity of the proposed approach.%实物期权定价中一般假定期望现金流现值和投资成本为确定值,实际上,由于风险投资项目的高度不确定性,该假设是不现实的.针对此问题,提出了基于区间分析的实物期权定价方法.详细介绍了基于区间分析的分布函数估计方法;提出了在实物期权定价中将不确定的输入变量表示为随机变量,基于区间分析,并利用Black-Scholes公式为之定价,得到期权值的分布函数;最后,通过实例验证了该方法的有效性.

  5. Poincaré plot analysis of autocorrelation function of RR intervals in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Shin-Shin; Wu, Kung-Tai; Lin, Chen-Yang; Lee, Steven; Chen, Gau-Yang; Kuo, Cheng-Deng

    2014-08-01

    The Poincaré plot of RR intervals (RRI) is obtained by plotting RRIn+1 against RRIn. The Pearson correlation coefficient (ρRRI), slope (SRRI), Y-intercept (YRRI), standard deviation of instantaneous beat-to-beat RRI variability (SD1RR), and standard deviation of continuous long-term RRI variability (SD2RR) can be defined to characterize the plot. Similarly, the Poincaré plot of autocorrelation function (ACF) of RRI can be obtained by plotting ACFk+1 against ACFk. The corresponding Pearson correlation coefficient (ρACF), slope (SACF), Y-intercept (YACF), SD1ACF, and SD2ACF can be defined similarly to characterize the plot. By comparing the indices of Poincaré plots of RRI and ACF between patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and patients with patent coronary artery (PCA), we found that the ρACF and SACF were significantly larger, whereas the RMSSDACF/SDACF and SD1ACF/SD2ACF were significantly smaller in AMI patients. The ρACF and SACF correlated significantly and negatively with normalized high-frequency power (nHFP), and significantly and positively with normalized very low-frequency power (nVLFP) of heart rate variability in both groups of patients. On the contrary, the RMSSDACF/SDACF and SD1ACF/SD2ACF correlated significantly and positively with nHFP, and significantly and negatively with nVLFP and low-/high-frequency power ratio (LHR) in both groups of patients. We concluded that the ρACF, SACF, RMSSDACF/SDACF, and SD1ACF/SD2ACF, among many other indices of ACF Poincaré plot, can be used to differentiate between patients with AMI and patients with PCA, and that the increase in ρACF and SACF and the decrease in RMSSDACF/SDACF and SD1ACF/SD2ACF suggest an increased sympathetic and decreased vagal modulations in both groups of patients.

  6. Coastal change analysis program implemented in Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Elijah W.; Nelson, G.A.; Sapkota, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    Landsat Thematic Mapper images from 1990 to 1996 and collateral data sources were used to classify the land cover of the Mermentau River Basin (MRB) within the Chenier Plain of coastal Louisiana. Landcover classes followed the definition of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Coastal Change Analysis Program; however, classification methods had to be developed as part of this study for attainment of these national classification standards. Classification method developments were especially important when classes were spectrally inseparable, when classes were part of spatial and spectral continuums, when the spatial resolution of the sensor included more than one landcover type, and when human activities caused abnormal transitions in the landscape. Most classification problems were overcome by using one or a combination of techniques, such as separating the MRB into subregions of commonality, applying masks to specific land mixtures, and highlighting class transitions between years that were highly unlikely. Overall, 1990, 1993, and 1996 classification accuracy percentages (associated kappa statistics) were 80% (0.79), 78% (0.76), and 86% (0.84), respectively. Most classification errors were associated with confusion between managed (cultivated land) and unmanaged grassland classes; scrub shrub, grasslands and forest classes; water, unconsolidated shore and bare land classes; and especially in 1993, between water and floating vegetation classes. Combining cultivated land and grassland classes and water and floating vegetation classes into single classes accuracies for 1990, 1993, and 1996 increased to 82%, 83%, and 90%, respectively. To improve the interpretation of landcover change, three indicators of landcover class stability were formulated. Location stability was defined as the percentage of a landcover class that remained as the same class in the same location at the beginning and the end of the monitoring period. Residence stability was

  7. Conceptual risk assessment framework for global change risk analysis SRP

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Elphinstone, CD

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This report is submitted as a deliverable of the SRP project Global Change Risk Analysis which aims at applying risk analysis as a unifying notion for quantifying and communicating threats to ecosystem services originating from global change...

  8. Is the pain visual analogue scale linear and responsive to change? An exploration using Rasch analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Kersten

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Pain visual analogue scales (VAS are commonly used in clinical trials and are often treated as an interval level scale without evidence that this is appropriate. This paper examines the internal construct validity and responsiveness of the pain VAS using Rasch analysis. METHODS: Patients (n = 221, mean age 67, 58% female with chronic stable joint pain (hip 40% or knee 60% of mechanical origin waiting for joint replacement were included. Pain was scored on seven daily VASs. Rasch analysis was used to examine fit to the Rasch model. Responsiveness (Standardized Response Means, SRM was examined on the raw ordinal data and the interval data generated from the Rasch analysis. RESULTS: Baseline pain VAS scores fitted the Rasch model, although 15 aberrant cases impacted on unidimensionality. There was some local dependency between items but this did not significantly affect the person estimates of pain. Daily pain (item difficulty was stable, suggesting that single measures can be used. Overall, the SRMs derived from ordinal data overestimated the true responsiveness by 59%. Changes over time at the lower and higher end of the scale were represented by large jumps in interval equivalent data points; in the middle of the scale the reverse was seen. CONCLUSIONS: The pain VAS is a valid tool for measuring pain at one point in time. However, the pain VAS does not behave linearly and SRMs vary along the trait of pain. Consequently, Minimum Clinically Important Differences using raw data, or change scores in general, are invalid as these will either under- or overestimate true change; raw pain VAS data should not be used as a primary outcome measure or to inform parametric-based Randomised Controlled Trial power calculations in research studies; and Rasch analysis should be used to convert ordinal data to interval data prior to data interpretation.

  9. Simulation Research of Interval Analysis Method for Measuring 220 Rn%多时间分析方法测量220Rn的仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜拥军; 付德顺; 曹真伟; 易凌帆

    2014-01-01

    The kind of multiple time analysis method was used to measure and track the bas-ic principle of radon activity and the corresponding calculation formula .According to ran-dom nuclear signal in time a poison distribution ,it produces the data of decay pulse serials of radon and its daughters by using matlab and using time interval method analyzed .the re-sults show that the time interval analysis method was effectiveness for measuring the low activity radon events in the high background .%采用多时间分析方法测量和追踪氡活度,以M atlab软件仿真方式,对产生220 Rn及其子体的核脉冲随机序列数据进行多时间分析,结果表明,该方法能够在天然本底和其他本底环境(如222 Rn)的干扰(氡混合场中)情况下有效测量低活度220 Rn的平均浓度。

  10. The interval ordering problem

    CERN Document Server

    Dürr, Christoph; Spieksma, Frits C R; Nobibon, Fabrice Talla; Woeginger, Gerhard J

    2011-01-01

    For a given set of intervals on the real line, we consider the problem of ordering the intervals with the goal of minimizing an objective function that depends on the exposed interval pieces (that is, the pieces that are not covered by earlier intervals in the ordering). This problem is motivated by an application in molecular biology that concerns the determination of the structure of the backbone of a protein. We present polynomial-time algorithms for several natural special cases of the problem that cover the situation where the interval boundaries are agreeably ordered and the situation where the interval set is laminar. Also the bottleneck variant of the problem is shown to be solvable in polynomial time. Finally we prove that the general problem is NP-hard, and that the existence of a constant-factor-approximation algorithm is unlikely.

  11. 车辆跟驰安全距离的区间分析方法%Interval Analysis Method for Safety Distance of Car-following

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余朝蓬; 王营; 高峰

    2009-01-01

    In the car-following process, there are some uncertain parameters in the vehicle brake system and the driver, such as the brake acceleration, the action time of the vehicle arrester and the response time of the driver, etc. Generally, the ranges of these uncertain parameters are easy to be found, but the effect of them on the car-following process is one of the hard issues. This paper used the interval number to describe the uncertain parameters in the car-following process. Based on the approximate computational method of the safety distance, the interval analysis was employed to calculate the safety distance of vehicles under two typical conditions. The results show that the safety distance calculated by the interval analysis method is not a certain value, but an interval value. Therefore, the intervalanalysis method can forecast the effects of the uncertain parameters on the safety distance in the car-following process.%在车辆跟驰过程中,车辆制动系统和驾驶员自身的一些参数均具有一定程度的不确定性,例如车辆的制动减速度、车辆制动器的作用时间及驾驶员的反应时间等.这些不确定量的变化范围通常比较容易确定,然而,如何预测这些不确定量对车辆跟驰行为的影响是目前已有车辆跟驰模型较难以解决的问题之一.文中使用区间数学中的区间数来描述车辆跟驰过程中的车辆制动系统和驾驶员自身参数的不确定性,基于车辆跟驰过程中车辆安全距离的近似计算公式,采用区间分析方法计算了两种典型工况下的车辆安全距离.结果表明,该方法计算得到的车辆安全距离不是确定值而是区间值或者说是一个变化范围,因此能更加真实地预测各种不确定量对车辆安全距离的影响.

  12. Dissimilar Physiological and Perceptual Responses Between Sprint Interval Training and High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Kimberly M; Olive, Brittany; LaValle, Kaylyn; Thompson, Heather; Greer, Kevin; Astorino, Todd A

    2016-01-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIIT) and sprint interval training (SIT) elicit similar cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations vs. endurance training. No study, however, has investigated acute physiological changes during HIIT vs. SIT. This study compared acute changes in heart rate (HR), blood lactate concentration (BLa), oxygen uptake (VO2), affect, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) during HIIT and SIT. Active adults (4 women and 8 men, age = 24.2 ± 6.2 years) initially performed a VO2max test to determine workload for both sessions on the cycle ergometer, whose order was randomized. Sprint interval training consisted of 8 bouts of 30 seconds of all-out cycling at 130% of maximum Watts (Wmax). High-intensity interval training consisted of eight 60-second bouts at 85% Wmax. Heart rate, VO2, BLa, affect, and RPE were continuously assessed throughout exercise. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed a significant difference between HIIT and SIT for VO2 (p HIIT (209.3 ± 40.3 kcal) vs. SIT (193.5 ± 39.6 kcal). During HIIT, subjects burned significantly more calories and reported lower perceived exertion than SIT. The higher VO2 and lower BLa in HIIT vs. SIT reflected dissimilar metabolic perturbation between regimens, which may elicit unique long-term adaptations. If an individual is seeking to burn slightly more calories, maintain a higher oxygen uptake, and perceive less exertion during exercise, HIIT is the recommended routine.

  13. Interval Scheduling: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolen, A.W.J.; Lenstra, J.K.; Papadimitriou, C.H.; Spieksma, F.C.R.

    2007-01-01

    In interval scheduling, not only the processing times of the jobs but also their starting times are given. This article surveys the area of interval scheduling and presents proofs of results that have been known within the community for some time. We first review the complexity and approximability o

  14. Estimating duration intervals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); B.L.K. Vroomen (Björn)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractDuration intervals measure the dynamic impact of advertising on sales. More precise, the p per cent duration interval measures the time lag between the advertising impulse and the moment that p per cent of its effect has decayed. In this paper, we derive an expression for the duration

  15. Simultaneous Interval Graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Jampani, Krishnam Raju

    2010-01-01

    In a recent paper, we introduced the simultaneous representation problem (defined for any graph class C) and studied the problem for chordal, comparability and permutation graphs. For interval graphs, the problem is defined as follows. Two interval graphs G_1 and G_2, sharing some vertices I (and the corresponding induced edges), are said to be `simultaneous interval graphs' if there exist interval representations R_1 and R_2 of G_1 and G_2, such that any vertex of I is mapped to the same interval in both R_1 and R_2. Equivalently, G_1 and G_2 are simultaneous interval graphs if there exist edges E' between G_1-I and G_2-I such that G_1 \\cup G_2 \\cup E' is an interval graph. Simultaneous representation problems are related to simultaneous planar embeddings, and have applications in any situation where it is desirable to consistently represent two related graphs, for example: interval graphs capturing overlaps of DNA fragments of two similar organisms; or graphs connected in time, where one is an updated versi...

  16. Electrocardiographic Screening for Prolonged QT Interval to Reduce Sudden Cardiac Death in Psychiatric Patients: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Poncet

    Full Text Available Sudden cardiac death is a leading cause of mortality in psychiatric patients. Long QT (LQT is common in this population and predisposes to Torsades-de-Pointes (TdP and subsequent mortality.To estimate the cost-effectiveness of electrocardiographic screening to detect LQT in psychiatric inpatients.We built a decision analytic model based on a decision tree to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and utility of LQT screening from a health care perspective. LQT proportion parameters were derived from an in-hospital cross-sectional study. We performed experts' elicitation to estimate the risk of TdP, given extent of QT prolongation. A TdP reduction of 65% after LQT detection was based on positive drug dechallenge rate and through adequate treatment and electrolyte adjustments. The base-case model uncertainty was assessed with one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Finally, the TdP related mortality and TdP avoidance parameters were varied in a two-way sensitivity analysis to assess their effect on the Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio (ICER.Costs, Quality Ajusted Life Year (QALY, ICER, and probability of cost effectiveness thresholds ($ 10,000, $25,000, and $50,000 per QALY.In the base-case scenario, the numbers of patients needed to screen were 1128 and 2817 to avoid one TdP and one death, respectively. The ICER of systematic ECG screening was $8644 (95%CI, 3144-82 498 per QALY. The probability of cost-effectiveness was 96% at a willingness-to-pay of $50,000 for one QALY. In sensitivity analyses, results were sensitive to the case-fatality of TdP episodes and to the TdP reduction following the diagnosis of LQT.In psychiatric hospitals, performing systematic ECG screening at admission help reduce the number of sudden cardiac deaths in a cost-effective fashion.

  17. Socio-economic inequalities in stage at diagnosis, and in time intervals on the lung cancer pathway from first symptom to treatment: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Lynne F; Sowden, Sarah; Rubin, Greg; White, Martin; Adams, Jean

    2017-05-01

    Cancer diagnosis at an early stage increases the chance of curative treatment and of survival. It has been suggested that delays on the pathway from first symptom to diagnosis and treatment may be socio-economically patterned, and contribute to socio-economic differences in receipt of treatment and in cancer survival. This review aimed to assess the published evidence for socio-economic inequalities in stage at diagnosis of lung cancer, and in the length of time spent on the lung cancer pathway. MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL databases were searched to locate cohort studies of adults with a primary diagnosis of lung cancer, where the outcome was stage at diagnosis or the length of time spent within an interval on the care pathway, or a suitable proxy measure, analysed according to a measure of socio-economic position. Meta-analysis was undertaken when there were studies available with suitable data. Of the 461 records screened, 39 papers were included in the review (20 from the UK) and seven in a final meta-analysis for stage at diagnosis. There was no evidence of socio-economic inequalities in late stage at diagnosis in the most, compared with the least, deprived group (OR=1.04, 95% CI=0.92 to 1.19). No socio-economic inequalities in the patient interval or in time from diagnosis to treatment were found. Socio-economic inequalities in stage at diagnosis are thought to be an important explanatory factor for survival inequalities in cancer. However, socio-economic inequalities in stage at diagnosis were not found in a meta-analysis for lung cancer. CRD42014007145. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. GC-MS analysis of cuticular lipids in recent and older scavenger insect puparia. An approach to estimate the postmortem interval (PMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frere, B; Suchaud, F; Bernier, G; Cottin, F; Vincent, B; Dourel, L; Lelong, A; Arpino, P

    2014-02-01

    An analytical method was developed to characterize puparia cuticular lipids (hydrocarbons, waxes) and to compare the molecular distribution patterns in the extracts from either recent or older puparia. Acid-catalyzed transesterification and solvent extraction and purification, followed by combined gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, were optimized for the determination of hydrocarbons and fatty acid ethyl esters from transesterified waxes, extracted from a single species of a fly scavenger (Hydrotaea aenescens Wiedemann, 1830). Comparison between recent (2012) or older (1997) puparia contents has highlighted significant composition differences, in particular, a general decrease of the chain length in the n-alkane distribution pattern and, on the contrary, an increase of the ester chain length. Both extracts contain traces of three hopane hydrocarbon congeners. Preliminary results evidence the change in puparia lipid composition over time, thus potentially providing new indices for estimating postmortem interval.

  19. Meta-analysis comparing maintenance strategies with continuous therapy and complete chemotherapy-free interval strategies in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lei; Wang, Jing; Li, Huihui; Che, Juanjuan; Cao, Bangwei

    2016-05-31

    There is as yet no consensus as to the best choice among the three treatment options (maintenance, complete chemotherapy-free intervals [CFIs], and continuous) for metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). We performed a meta-analysis of six trials (N = 2, 454 patients) to compare the safety and efficacy of those three treatment strategies. Maintenance appeared to offer an advantage over CFI with respect to progression-free survival (PFS) (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.53, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40-0.69). PFS and overall survival (OS) were comparable between the maintenance and continuous strategies (HR: 1.18, 95% CI, 0.96-1.46; HR: 1.05, 95% CI, 0.98-1.27, respectively), as was OS between the maintenance and CFI strategies (HR: 0.84; 95% CI, 0.70-1.00). The incidence of grade 3/4 toxicity, including neutropenia, neuropathy, hand-foot syndrome and fatigue, was lower with maintenance than with continuous therapy. A maintenance regimen utilizing bevacizumab-based doublets appeared to confer a slight advantage over bevacizumab monotherapy with respect to PFS (P = 0.011). Maintenance appeared to reduce cumulative grade 3/4 toxicity as compared to the continuous strategy, while showing comparable efficacy. Bevacizumab-based doublets appeared to be of particular value in patients with metastatic CRC.

  20. Genetic analysis of age at first service, return rate, litter size, and weaning-to-first service interval of gilts and sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, B; Bakken, M; Vangen, O; Rekaya, R

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate genetic parameters of seven traits related to sow reproductive performance. Data on all Norwegian Landrace pigs (NL) born in nucleus herds and raised in nucleus or multiplying herds from 1990 to 2000 were extracted from the Norwegian national recording scheme. Reproductive traits investigated were age at first service (AFS), return rate in gilts (RRg), age at first farrowing (AFF), live-born piglets in the first litter (NBA1), interval from weaning to first service after first litter (WTS1), return rate after first litter (RR1), live-born piglets in the second litter (NBA2), and interval from weaning to first service after second litter (WTS2). After editing, the data set comprised 12,583 to 56,042 records, depending on the trait. A mixed linear and a joint linear threshold animal model were used to estimate (co)variance components. A full Bayesian approach via Gibbs sampling was adopted. The statistical model used for analysis included contemporary groups of herd-year (-season), purebred or crossbred litter, single or double insemination, mating type, parity in which the animal was born, a regression on lactation length, and an additive genetic effect. Neither the estimated heritabilities nor the genetic correlations differed much between the two approaches, but there was a tendency for higher genetic correlations using the joint linear threshold model approach. Average heritabilities were as follows: AFS = 0.31; RRg = 0.03; RR1 = 0.02; NBA1 = 0.12; NBA2 = 0.14; WTS1 = 0.08; and WTS2 = 0.03. The highest genetic correlations were estimated between NBA1 and NBA2 (r(g) = 0.95), RR1 and WTS1 (r(g) = 0.93), and between WTS1 and WTS2 (r(g) = 0.78). The estimated genetic correlation between NBA and WTS were close to zero. Selection for increased NBA will slightly increase AFS and reduce the probability of a return. Selection for decreased AFS will have a favorable effect on WTS intervals; however, selection for decreased AFS seems to

  1. NAVY ERP: An Analysis of Change Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Resistance to Change .........................................................................16...state of equilibrium is broken, bringing about disequilibrium and the ability to overcome or decrease the resistance to change (Hayes, 2010). In...1977) and further simplified by Dannemiller and Jacobs (1992), as follows: D (dissatisfaction) x V (vision) x F (first steps) > R ( resistance to change ).

  2. Analysis of heart rate variability and QT interval dispersion in hyperthyroidism patients%甲亢患者心率变异性及QT间期离散度分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜琼颖; 井艳

    2015-01-01

    ObjectiveTo research the changes of heart rate variability and QT interval dispersion (QTd) in hyperthyroidism patients.MethodsThere were 52 hyperthyroidism patients as hyperthyroidism group and 49 healthy people as control group. A retrospective analysis was made on their 24 h dynamic electrocardiogram and conventional standard 12-lead electrocardiogram. Minimum heart rate, maximum heart rate, and average heart rate values, standard deviation in all sinus cardiac RR interphase (NN interval) (SDNN) in heart rate variability, standard deviation average in RR interphase (SDANN), proportion of adjacent NN difference >50 ms in total number of sinus heart beat (PNN50), adjacent RR interphase root-mean-square (RMSSD), maximum QT interval (QTmax), minimum QT interval (QTmin), QT interval dispersion (QTmax-QTmin) were analyzed and compared in the two groups.ResultsThe hyperthyroidism group had higher minimum heart rate, maximum heart rate, and average heart rate than the control group, and their difference had statistical significance (P50 ms的个数占总窦性心搏个数的百分比(PNN50)、相邻RR间期差值的均方根(RMSSD)以及最大QT间期(QTmax)、最小QT间期(QTmin)、QT间期离散度(QTmax-QTmin).结果 甲亢组患者的最小心率、最大心率、平均心率均较对照组增高, 差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);SDNN、PNN50、SDANN、RMSSD均较对照组降低, 差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05);QTd较对照组增大, 差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 甲亢患者心率变异性及QT离散度异常率较高, 自主神经对心脏的调节能力降低, 易发生恶性心律失常及心源性猝死, 临床上应对该类患者给予高度重视, 减少猝死的发生.

  3. Wavelet Transform Analysis of the Power Spectrum of Centre of Pressure Signals to Detect the Critical Point Interval of Postural Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neeraj Kumar; Snoussi, Hichem; Hewson, David; Duchêne, Jacques

    The aim of this study was to develop a method to detecting the critical point interval (CPI) when sensory feedback is used as part of a closed-loop postural control strategy. Postural balance was evaluated using centre of pressure (COP) displacements from a force plate for 17 control and 10 elderly subjects under eyes open, eyes closed, and vibration conditions. A modified local-maximum-modulus wavelet transform analysis using the power spectrum of COP signals was used to calculate CPI. Lower CPI values indicate increased closed-loop postural control with a quicker response to sensory input. Such a strategy requires greater energy expenditure due to the repeated muscular interventions to remain stable. The CPI for elderly occurred significantly quicker than for controls, indicating tighter control of posture. Similar results were observed for eyes closed and vibration conditions. The CPI parameter can be used to detect differences in postural control due to ageing.

  4. Robust stability analysis for Markovian jumping stochastic neural networks with mode-dependent time-varying interval delay and multiplicative noise

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hua-Guang; Fu Jie; Ma Tie-Dong; Tong Shao-Cheng

    2009-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the problem of robust stability for a class of Markovian jumping stochastic neural networks (MJSNNs) subject to mode-dependent time-varying interval delay and state-multiplicative noise.Based on the Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional and a stochastic analysis approach,some new delay-dependent sufficient conditions are obtained in the linear matrix inequality (LMI) format such that delayed MJSNNs are globally asymptotically stable in the mean-square sense for all admissible uncertainties.An important feature of the results is that the stability criteria are dependent on not only the lower bound and upper bound of delay for all modes but also the covariance matrix consisting of the correlation coefficient.Numerical examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness.

  5. A new method of assessing cardiac autonomic function and its comparison with spectral analysis and coefficient of variation of R-R interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toichi, M; Sugiura, T; Murai, T; Sengoku, A

    1997-01-12

    A new non-linear method of assessing cardiac autonomic function was examined in a pharmacological experiment in ten healthy volunteers. The R-R interval data obtained under a control condition and in autonomic blockade by atropine and by propranolol were analyzed by each of the new methods employing Lorenz plot, spectral analysis and the coefficient of variation. With our method we derived two measures, the cardiac vagal index and the cardiac sympathetic index, which indicate vagal and sympathetic function separately. These two indices were found to be more reliable than those obtained by the other two methods. We anticipate that the non-invasive assessment of short-term cardiac autonomic function will come to be performed more reliably and conveniently by this method.

  6. A comparative study on change vector analysis based change detection techniques

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sartajvir Singh; Rajneesh Talwar

    2014-12-01

    Detection of Earth surface changes are essential to monitor regional climatic, snow avalanche hazard analysis and energy balance studies that occur due to air temperature irregularities. Geographic Information System (GIS) enables such research activities to be carried out through change detection analysis. From this viewpoint, different change detection algorithms have been developed for land-use land-cover (LULC) region. Among the different change detection algorithms, change vector analysis (CVA) has level headed capability of extracting maximuminformation in terms of overall magnitude of change and the direction of change between multispectral bands from multi-temporal satellite data sets. Since past two–three decades, many effective CVA based change detection techniques e.g., improved change vector analysis (ICVA), modified change vector analysis (MCVA) and change vector analysis posterior-probability space (CVAPS), have been developed to overcome the difficulty that exists in traditional change vector analysis (CVA). Moreover, many integrated techniques such as cross correlogram spectral matching (CCSM) based CVA. CVA uses enhanced principal component analysis (PCA) and inverse triangular (IT) function, hyper-spherical direction cosine (HSDC), and median CVA (m-CVA), as an effective LULC change detection tools. This paper comprises a comparative analysis on CVA based change detection techniques such as CVA, MCVA, ICVA and CVAPS. This paper also summarizes the necessary integrated CVA techniques along with their characteristics, features and shortcomings. Based on experiment outcomes, it has been evaluated that CVAPS technique has greater potential than other CVA techniques to evaluate the overall transformed information over three differentMODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data sets of different regions. Results of this study are expected to be potentially useful for more accurate analysis of LULC changes which will, in turn

  7. Understanding coastal change using shoreline trend analysis supported by cluster-based segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burningham, Helene; French, Jon

    2017-04-01

    Shoreline change analysis is a well defined and widely adopted approach for the examination of trends in coastal position over different timescales. Conventional shoreline change metrics are best suited to resolving progressive quasi-linear trends. However, coastal change is often highly non-linear and may exhibit complex behaviour including trend-reversals. This paper advocates a secondary level of investigation based on a cluster analysis to resolve a more complete range of coastal behaviours. Cluster-based segmentation of shoreline behaviour is demonstrated with reference to a regional-scale case study of the Suffolk coast, eastern UK. An exceptionally comprehensive suite of shoreline datasets covering the period 1881 to 2015 is used to examine both centennial- and intra-decadal scale change in shoreline position. Analysis of shoreline position changes at a 100 m alongshore interval along 74 km of coastline reveals a number of distinct behaviours. The suite of behaviours varies with the timescale of analysis. There is little evidence of regionally coherent shoreline change. Rather, the analyses reveal a complex interaction between met-ocean forcing, inherited geological and geomorphological controls, and evolving anthropogenic intervention that drives changing foci of erosion and deposition.

  8. An Optimization-Based Approach to Calculate Confidence Interval on Mean Value with Interval Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kais Zaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a methodology for construction of confidence interval on mean values with interval data for input variable in uncertainty analysis and design optimization problems. The construction of confidence interval with interval data is known as a combinatorial optimization problem. Finding confidence bounds on the mean with interval data has been generally considered an NP hard problem, because it includes a search among the combinations of multiple values of the variables, including interval endpoints. In this paper, we present efficient algorithms based on continuous optimization to find the confidence interval on mean values with interval data. With numerical experimentation, we show that the proposed confidence bound algorithms are scalable in polynomial time with respect to increasing number of intervals. Several sets of interval data with different numbers of intervals and type of overlap are presented to demonstrate the proposed methods. As against the current practice for the design optimization with interval data that typically implements the constraints on interval variables through the computation of bounds on mean values from the sampled data, the proposed approach of construction of confidence interval enables more complete implementation of design optimization under interval uncertainty.

  9. High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT Induces Specific Changes in Respiration and Electron Leakage in the Mitochondria of Different Rat Skeletal Muscles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionizio Ramos-Filho

    Full Text Available High intensity interval training (HIIT is characterized by vigorous exercise with short rest intervals. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 plays a key role in muscle adaptation. This study aimed to evaluate whether HIIT promotes similar H2O2 formation via O2 consumption (electron leakage in three skeletal muscles with different twitch characteristics. Rats were assigned to two groups: sedentary (n=10 and HIIT (n=10, swimming training. We collected the tibialis anterior (TA-fast, gastrocnemius (GAST-fast/slow and soleus (SOL-slow muscles. The fibers were analyzed for mitochondrial respiration, H2O2 production and citrate synthase (CS activity. A multi-substrate (glycerol phosphate (G3P, pyruvate, malate, glutamate and succinate approach was used to analyze the mitochondria in permeabilized fibers. Compared to the control group, oxygen flow coupled to ATP synthesis, complex I and complex II was higher in the TA of the HIIT group by 1.5-, 3.0- and 2.7-fold, respectively. In contrast, oxygen consumed by mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPdH was 30% lower. Surprisingly, the oxygen flow coupled to ATP synthesis was 42% lower after HIIT in the SOL. Moreover, oxygen flow coupled to ATP synthesis and complex II was higher by 1.4- and 2.7-fold in the GAST of the HIIT group. After HIIT, CS activity increased 1.3-fold in the TA, and H2O2 production was 1.3-fold higher in the TA at sites containing mGPdH. No significant differences in H2O2 production were detected in the SOL. Surprisingly, HIIT increased H2O2 production in the GAST via complex II, phosphorylation, oligomycin and antimycin by 1.6-, 1.8-, 2.2-, and 2.2-fold, respectively. Electron leakage was 3.3-fold higher in the TA with G3P and 1.8-fold higher in the GAST with multiple substrates. Unexpectedly, the HIIT protocol induced different respiration and electron leakage responses in different types of muscle.

  10. High Intensity Interval Training (HIIT) Induces Specific Changes in Respiration and Electron Leakage in the Mitochondria of Different Rat Skeletal Muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Filho, Dionizio; Chicaybam, Gustavo; de-Souza-Ferreira, Eduardo; Guerra Martinez, Camila; Kurtenbach, Eleonora; Casimiro-Lopes, Gustavo; Galina, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) is characterized by vigorous exercise with short rest intervals. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) plays a key role in muscle adaptation. This study aimed to evaluate whether HIIT promotes similar H2O2 formation via O2 consumption (electron leakage) in three skeletal muscles with different twitch characteristics. Rats were assigned to two groups: sedentary (n=10) and HIIT (n=10, swimming training). We collected the tibialis anterior (TA-fast), gastrocnemius (GAST-fast/slow) and soleus (SOL-slow) muscles. The fibers were analyzed for mitochondrial respiration, H2O2 production and citrate synthase (CS) activity. A multi-substrate (glycerol phosphate (G3P), pyruvate, malate, glutamate and succinate) approach was used to analyze the mitochondria in permeabilized fibers. Compared to the control group, oxygen flow coupled to ATP synthesis, complex I and complex II was higher in the TA of the HIIT group by 1.5-, 3.0- and 2.7-fold, respectively. In contrast, oxygen consumed by mitochondrial glycerol phosphate dehydrogenase (mGPdH) was 30% lower. Surprisingly, the oxygen flow coupled to ATP synthesis was 42% lower after HIIT in the SOL. Moreover, oxygen flow coupled to ATP synthesis and complex II was higher by 1.4- and 2.7-fold in the GAST of the HIIT group. After HIIT, CS activity increased 1.3-fold in the TA, and H2O2 production was 1.3-fold higher in the TA at sites containing mGPdH. No significant differences in H2O2 production were detected in the SOL. Surprisingly, HIIT increased H2O2 production in the GAST via complex II, phosphorylation, oligomycin and antimycin by 1.6-, 1.8-, 2.2-, and 2.2-fold, respectively. Electron leakage was 3.3-fold higher in the TA with G3P and 1.8-fold higher in the GAST with multiple substrates. Unexpectedly, the HIIT protocol induced different respiration and electron leakage responses in different types of muscle.

  11. An Integrated Analysis of Changes in Water Stress in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichs, T.; Lehner, B.; Alcamo, J.

    2002-01-01

    Future changes in water availability with climate change and changes in water use due to socio-economic development are to occur in parallel. In an integrated analysis we bring together these aspects of global change in a consistent manner, and analyse the water stress situation in Europe. We find...

  12. Analysis of farmers' adaptation strategies to climate change in cocoa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of farmers' adaptation strategies to climate change in cocoa ... Changing climate and weather patterns are predicted to have severe negative impacts on ... out of eight Local Government Areas (LGAs) producing cocoa in Kwara State.

  13. Effects of low-level x-irradiation on cat cerebella at different postnatal intervals. II. Changes in Purkinje cell morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, W.J.; Stromberg, M.W.

    1977-01-01

    The whole-head of infant kittens was irradiated with fractionated doses of 150 R and 200 R at different postnatal intervals. Experimental age conditions consisted of an irradiated newborn, 1-week, 2-week, 3-week, and a 4-week age condition while the age of sacrifice remained constant at 70 days. The molecular layer thickness was reduced by 47 percent in the newborn, 40 percent in the 1-week group, 17 percent in the 2-week group, 19 percent in the 3-week group and by 9 percent in the 4-week group. An evaluation of Golgi impregnated material revealed that the dendritic arborizations of Purkinje cells were consistently reduced the earlier the age at which radiation was begun. A reduction in spiny branchlets was seen in all of the experimental conditions. Climbing fibers were found to conform to the abnormal dendritic arborizations of the Purkinje cells, and were reduced in complexity in the early radiation treatment groups. This suggested that climbing fibers had no influence upon the dendritic growth pattern, but instead were under the influence of the Purkinje cell dendritic growth.

  14. Changes in Quality of Native and Frozenthawed Semen in Relation to Two Collections Performed in a 24-hour Interval and Adition of Clarified Egg Yolk to Extender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folková P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of repeated semen collection and the substitution of normal egg yolk with clarified egg yolk to commercially produced semen extender on qualitative parameters of frozen-thawed canine semen. Two semen collections were scheduled in a 24-hour interval and in each of six dogs, three 1st and three 2nd collections were performed. The frozen-thawed sperm samples were prepared either with clarified or normal egg yolk and motility and viability were evaluated. The effect of the sequence of semen collection was demonstrated by significant differences in motility and also in viability of sperms both in native and frozen-thawed ejaculate. The percentage of viable sperms was significantly higher in samples from the 2nd compared to the 1st collection. This trend was the same also in motility except in native ejaculate. The addition of clarified egg yolk was beneficial for higher survival of sperms immediately after thawing and also after 30 min of incubation, compared to samples with normal egg yolk. Sperm motility evaluated after thawing was higher in samples with clarified egg yolk, without an apparent connection with semen collection sequence. The decrease of values of the qualitative parameters of sperms observed in the period of 30 min of incubation was significantly slowed down when clarified egg yolk was used. This was especially obvious in samples from the 2nd collection.

  15. Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) Regional Land Cover Data and Change Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  16. Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) High Resolution Land Cover and Change Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized high resolution land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S....

  17. Decision-Making Using Efficient Confidence-Intervals with Meta-Analysis of Spatial Panel Data for Socioeconomic Development Project-Managers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Sahai

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available It is quite common to have access to geospatial (temporal/spatial panel data generated by a set of similar data for analyses in a meta-data setup. Within this context, researchers often employ pooling methods to evaluate the efficacy of meta-data analysis. One of the simplest techniques used to combine individual-study results is the fixed-effects model, which assumes that a true-effect is equal for all studies. An alternative, and intuitively-more-appealing method, is the random-effects model. A paper was presented by the first author, and his co-authors addressing the efficient estimation problem, using this method in the aforesaid meta-data setup of the ‘Geospatial Data’ at hand, in Map World Forum meeting in 2007 at Hyderabad; INDIA. The purpose of this paper had been to address the estimation problem of the fixed-effects model and to present a simulation study of an efficient confidence-interval estimation of a mean true-effect using the panel-data and a random-effects model, too in order to establish appropriate ‘confidence interval’ estimation for being readily usable in a decision-makers’ setup. The present paper continues the same perspective, and proposes a much more efficient estimation strategy furthering the gainful use of the ‘Geospatial Panel-Data’ in the Global/Continental/ Regional/National contexts of “Socioeconomic & other Developmental Issues’. The ‘Statistical Efficient Confidence Interval Estimation Theme’ of the paper(s has a wider ambit than its applicability in the context of ‘Socioeconomic Development’ only. This ‘Statistical Theme’ is, as such, equally gainfully applicable to any area of application in the present world-order at large inasmuch as the “Data-Mapping” in any context, for example, the issues in the topically significant area of “Global Environmental Pollution-Mitigation for Arresting the Critical phenomenon of Global Warming”. Such similar issues are tackle-able more

  18. The effect of the interval-between-sessions on prefrontal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on cognitive outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedoncker, Josefien; Brunoni, Andre R; Baeken, Chris; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne

    2016-10-01

    Recently, there has been wide interest in the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on cognitive functioning. However, many methodological questions remain unanswered. One of them is whether the time interval between active and sham-controlled stimulation sessions, i.e. the interval between sessions (IBS), influences DLPFC tDCS effects on cognitive functioning. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis was performed of experimental studies published in PubMed, Science Direct, and other databases from the first data available to February 2016. Single session sham-controlled within-subject studies reporting the effects of tDCS of the DLPFC on cognitive functioning in healthy controls and neuropsychiatric patients were included. Cognitive tasks were categorized in tasks assessing memory, attention, and executive functioning. Evaluation of 188 trials showed that anodal vs. sham tDCS significantly decreased response times and increased accuracy, and specifically for the executive functioning tasks, in a sample of healthy participants and neuropsychiatric patients (although a slightly different pattern of improvement was found in analyses for both samples separately). The effects of cathodal vs. sham tDCS (45 trials), on the other hand, were not significant. IBS ranged from less than 1 h to up to 1 week (i.e. cathodal tDCS) or 2 weeks (i.e. anodal tDCS). This IBS length had no influence on the estimated effect size when performing a meta-regression of IBS on reaction time and accuracy outcomes in all three cognitive categories, both for anodal and cathodal stimulation. Practical recommendations and limitations of the study are further discussed.

  19. Faecal haemoglobin concentration influences risk prediction of interval cancers resulting from inadequate colonoscopy quality: analysis of the Taiwanese Nationwide Colorectal Cancer Screening Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia; Chuang, Shu-Ling; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Fann, Jean Ching-Yuan; Chang, Dun-Cheng; Lee, Yi-Chia; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Chou, Chu-Kuang; Hsu, Wen-Feng; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chiu, Han-Mo

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Interval colorectal cancer (CRC) after colonoscopy may affect effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of screening programmes. We aimed to investigate whether and how faecal haemoglobin concentration (FHbC) of faecal immunochemical testing (FIT) affected the risk prediction of interval cancer (IC) caused by inadequate colonoscopy quality in a FIT-based population screening programme. Design From 2004 to 2009, 29 969 subjects underwent complete colonoscopy after positive FIT in the Taiwanese Nationwide CRC Screening Program. The IC rate was traced until the end of 2012. The incidence of IC was calculated in relation to patient characteristics, endoscopy-related factors (such adenoma detection rate (ADR)) and FHbC. Poisson regression analysis was performed to assess the potential risk factors for colonoscopy IC. Results One hundred and sixty-two ICs developed after an index colonoscopy and the estimated incidence was 1.14 per 1000 person-years of observation for the entire cohort. Increased risk of IC was most remarkable in the uptake of colonoscopy in settings with ADR lower than 15% (adjusted relative risk (aRR)=3.09, 95% CI 1.55 to 6.18) and then higher FHbC (μg Hb/g faeces) (100–149: aRR=2.55, 95% CI 1.52 to 4.29, ≥150: aRR=2.74, 95% CI 1.84 to 4.09) with adjustment for older age and colorectal neoplasm detected at baseline colonoscopy. Similar findings were observed for subjects with negative index colonoscopy. Conclusions Colonoscopy ICs arising from FIT-based population screening programmes were mainly influenced by inadequate colonoscopy quality and independently predicted by FHbC that is associated with a priori chance of advanced neoplasm. This finding is helpful for future modification of screening logistics based on FHbC. PMID:26515543

  20. Changes in aerobic capacity and glycaemic control in response to reduced-exertion high-intensity interval training (REHIT) are not different between sedentary men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Richard S; Tardif, Nicolas; Thompson, Dylan; Vollaard, Niels B J

    2016-11-01

    Previously it has been reported that reduced-exertion high-intensity interval training (REHIT; total training time of 3 × 10 min per week) improves maximal aerobic capacity in both sedentary men and women, but improves insulin sensitivity in men only. The aim of the present study was to determine whether there is a true sex difference in response to REHIT, or that these findings can be explained by the large interindividual variability in response inherent to all exercise training. Thirty-five sedentary participants (18 women; mean ± SD age for men and women, respectively: age, 33 ± 9 and 36 ± 9 years; body mass index, 25.1 ± 2.1 and 24.1 ± 3.5 kg·m(-2); maximal aerobic capacity, 38.6 ± 8.3 and 31.6 ± 4.6 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) completed a 6-week REHIT programme consisting of eighteen 10-min unloaded cycling sessions with 1 (first session) or 2 (all other sessions) "all-out" 10-20-s sprints against a resistance of 5% of body mass. Maximal aerobic capacity and oral glucose tolerance test-derived insulin sensitivity were determined before and after training. REHIT was associated with an increase in maximal aerobic capacity (2.54 ± 0.65 vs. 2.78 ± 0.68 L·min(-1), main effect of time: p sex. In conclusion, REHIT improves the key health marker of aerobic capacity within a minimal total training time-commitment. There is large interindividual variability in responses to REHIT, but sex differences in the responses are not apparent.

  1. BIRTH INTERVAL AMONG NOMAD WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Keyvan

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available To have an, idea about the relation between the length of birth interval and lactation, and birth control program this study have been done. The material for such analysis was nomad women's fertility history that was in their reproductive period (15-44. The material itself was gathered through a health survey. The main sample was composed of 2,165 qualified women, of whom 49 due to previous or presently using contraceptive methods and 10 for the lack of enough data were excluded from 'this study. Purpose of analysis was to find a relation between No. of live births and pregnancies with total duration of married life (in other word, total months which the women were at risk of pregnancy. 2,106 women which their fertility history was analyzed had a totally of272, 502 months married life. During this time 8,520 live births did occurred which gave a birth interval of 32 months. As pregnancy termination could be through either live birth, still birth or abortion (induced or spontaneous, bringing all together will give No. of pregnancies which have occurred during this period (8,520 + 124 + 328 = 8,972 with an average of interpregnancy interval of 30.3 months. Considering the length of components of birth interval: Post partum amenorrhea which depends upon lactation. - Anovulatory cycles (2 month - Ooulatory exposure, in the absence of contraceptive methods (5 months - Pregnancy (9 months.Difference between the length, of birth interval from the sum of the mentioned period (except the first component, (2 + 5+ 9 = 16 will be duration of post partum amenorrhea (32 - 16 = 16, or in other word duration of breast feeding among nomad women. In this study it was found that, in order to reduce birth by 50% a contraceptive method with 87% effectiveness is needed.

  2. Audit and Change Analysis of Spreadsheets

    CERN Document Server

    Nash, John C; Adler, Andy

    2008-01-01

    Because spreadsheets have a large and growing importance in real-world work, their contents need to be controlled and validated. Generally spreadsheets have been difficult to verify, since data and executable information are stored together. Spreadsheet applications with multiple authors are especially difficult to verify, since controls over access are difficult to enforce. Facing similar problems, traditional software engineering has developed numerous tools and methodologies to control, verify and audit large applications with multiple developers. We present some tools we have developed to enable 1) the audit of selected, filtered, or all changes in a spreadsheet, that is, when a cell was changed, its original and new contents and who made the change, and 2) control of access to the spreadsheet file(s) so that auditing is trustworthy. Our tools apply to OpenOffice.org calc spreadsheets, which can generally be exchanged with Microsoft Excel.

  3. Developmental intervals during the larval and juvenile stages of the Antarctic myctophid fish Electrona antarctica in relation to changes in feeding and swimming functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moteki, Masato; Tsujimura, Eri; Hulley, Percy-Alexander

    2017-06-01

    The Antarctic myctophid fish species Electrona antarctica is believed to play a key role in the Southern Ocean food web, but there have been few studies on its early life history. This study examined the developmental changes in the external morphology and osteology of E. antarctica from the early larva to juvenile stages through the transformation phase and inferred changes in its behaviour and feeding mode. Once the larvae reached 12-13 mm body length (BL), they adopted a primordial suction feeding mode along with the acquisition of early swimming capabilities. Thereafter, both swimming and feeding functions were enhanced through fin development and ossification and acquisition of elements of the jaw and suspensorium. These processes indicate that larvae transition from the planktonic to nektonic phase upon reaching 12-13 mm BL when they enhance their both swimming and feeding abilities with growth. Transformation occurred when larvae reached 19-21 mm BL with changes such as discontinuous increases in eye diameter and upper jaw length and the appearance of photophores and dense body pigmentation. Osteological development of swimming- and feeding-related structures were mostly complete after transformation. Rapid changes in external morphology and osteology during the transformation stage are most likely related to ontogenetic vertical migration into deep waters.

  4. Size-change Termination and Bound Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, James Emil

    2006-01-01

    Despite its simplicity, the size-change termination principle, presented by Lee, Jones and Ben-Amram in [LJB01], is surprisingly strong and is able to show termination for a large class of programs. A significant limitation for its use, however, is the fact that the SCT requires data types...

  5. Importance of dam BW change and calf birth weight in double-muscled Belgian Blue cattle and its relationship with parity and calving interval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiems, L O; Ampe, B

    2015-01-01

    Factors affecting calving interval (CI) in double-muscled Belgian Blue (DMBB) beef cows were investigated with regard to the BW yield (BWY) of the cow-calf pair, using 834 CI records from 386 females with parities 1 to 6. The effect of parity and CI on BWY was also studied. Cow-calf pair BWY was defined as calf birth weight plus dam BWY per CI. CI (mean±s.e.: 404±1.9 days) was affected by parity, calving season, suckling and calf birth weight/dam weight. Primiparous cows had a shorter CI than cows with three or more calvings (P<0.05), with an intermediate CI for second-calf cows. Spring calvings resulted in a shorter CI than summer and autumn calvings, with intermediate values for winter calvings. Suckling dams had longer CIs than non-suckling dams. There were interactions (P<0.05) between calving season and suckling, and between calving season and mating system. Shortest CIs were observed for spring calvings in case of non-suckling and for summer calvings in case of suckling. Longest CIs were observed for autumn calvings in case of natural service (NS) and for winter calvings in case of artificial insemination (AI). Calf birth weight/dam weight of 6% to 10% resulted in shorter CI than a ratio of <6% (P<0.05). Body condition and mating system (NS v. AI) did not affect CI. Daily cow-calf pair BWY was affected by parity (P<0.001) and CI (P=0.013), with a tendency for an interaction (P=0.094). Daily cow-calf pair BWY did not differ for CIs of <12 to 16 months in primiparous cows and was lowest for a CI of 13 to 15 months in second-calf cows, whereas the effect of CI was more variable in older cows. Dam contribution to cow-calf pair BWY was larger than calf birth weight in first- and second-calf cows, and increased with increasing CI. Dam contribution to cow-calf pair BWY was smaller than calf birth weight in older cows, varying from 0.2 to 1.0 depending on CI. A short CI is advised for DMBB cows because of a larger BWY and more efficient nutrient utilisation.

  6. Effects of 16-week high-intensity interval training using upper and lower body ergometers on aerobic fitness and morphological changes in healthy men: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osawa Y

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Yusuke Osawa,1,2,* Koichiro Azuma,3,* Shogo Tabata,3 Fuminori Katsukawa,2 Hiroyuki Ishida,2 Yuko Oguma,2 Toshihide Kawai,4 Hiroshi Itoh,4 Shigeo Okuda,5 Hideo Matsumoto3 1Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan; 2Sports Medicine Research Center, Keio University, Kanagawa, Japan; 3Institute for Integrated Sports Medicine, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan; 5Department of Radiology, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan *Yusuke Osawa and Koichiro Azuma are co-first authors of this article Abstract: It is unclear whether combined leg and arm high-intensity interval training (HIIT improves fitness and morphological characteristics equal to those of leg-based HIIT programs. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of HIIT using leg-cycling (LC and arm-cranking (AC ergometers with an HIIT program using only LC. Effects on aerobic capacity and skeletal muscle were analyzed. Twelve healthy male subjects were assigned into two groups. One performed LC-HIIT (n=7 and the other LC- and AC-HIIT (n=5 twice weekly for 16 weeks. The training programs consisted of eight to 12 sets of >90% VO2 (the oxygen uptake that can be utilized in one minute peak for 60 seconds with a 60-second active rest period. VO2 peak, watt peak, and heart rate were measured during an LC incremental exercise test. The cross-sectional area (CSA of trunk and thigh muscles as well as bone-free lean body mass were measured using magnetic resonance imaging and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The watt peak increased from baseline in both the LC (23%±38%; P<0.05 and the LC–AC groups (11%±9%; P<0.05. The CSA of the quadriceps femoris muscles also increased from baseline in both the LC (11%±4%; P<0.05 and the LC–AC groups (5%±5%; P<0.05. In contrast, increases were observed in the CSA of

  7. [Neuronal changes in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve during intervals of hypoxic exposures in animals with diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mel'nikova, O V; Kolesnik, Iu M

    1999-01-01

    Changes of neurons of dorsal motor nucleus of nervus vagus were studied in adaptation to hypoxia, experimental diabetes mellitus and its correction by means of interrupted hypoxic effects. It was established previously that interrupted hypoxic training exerted stimulating effect on insulin synthesizing function of pancreas. As a result of the present study the increase of morphofunctional activity of neurons was found in all experimental series although it was greater manifested in animals with experimental diabetes mellitus who were subjected to actions of hypoxia. The changes of morphofunctional activity of dorsal motor nucleus of nervus vagus established allow to conclude on the significant role these structure plays in realization of stimulating effect of interrupted actions of hypoxia on the state of insulin synthesizing function of pancreas and clinical characteristics of the experimental diabetes mellitus.

  8. Product interval automata

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Deepak D’Souza; P S Thiagarajan

    2002-04-01

    We identify a subclass of timed automata called product interval automata and develop its theory. These automata consist of a network of timed agents with the key restriction being that there is just one clock for each agent and the way the clocks are read and reset is determined by the distribution of shared actions across the agents. We show that the resulting automata admit a clean theory in both logical and language theoretic terms. We also show that product interval automata are expressive enough to model the timed behaviour of asynchronous digital circuits.

  9. [The QT interval: standardization, limits and interpretation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouali, S; Ben Salem, H; Gribaa, R; Kacem, S; Hammas, S; Fradi, S; Neffeti, E; Remedi, F; Boughzela, E

    2012-02-01

    Despite clinical importance of ventricular repolarisation, it remains difficult to analyse. Conventionally, quantification of the electrocardiographic ventricular repolarization is usually performed with reference to axis of the T wave and QT interval duration. A variety of factors can prolong the QT interval, such as drug effects, electrolyte imbalances, and myocardial ischemia. The biggest risk with prolongation of the QT interval is the development of torsades de pointes. Commonly accepted reference ranges for the electrocardiogram (ECG) have been in use, with little change, for many years. Populations throughout the world present several differences: age, ethnic compositions, and are exposed to different environmental factors. Recent studies have reported reference data for QT interval in healthy population and have evaluated the influence of age, gender, QRS duration and heart rate on this interval. In this review, we address several issues relative to the measurement, and interpretation of QT interval and its adjustment for rate, age, gender and QRS duration.

  10. Cost benefit analysis for climate change adaption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierland, van E.C.; Weikard, H.P.; Wesseler, J.H.H.; Groeneveld, R.A.; Ansink, E.J.H.; Bruin, de K.; Rietveld, P.; Bockarjova, M.; Hofkes, M.; Brouwer, R.; Dekker, T.

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this programme was on the development of decision making tools based on cost benefit analysis under uncertainty, for analysing adaptation and mitigation options related to spatial planning in the Netherlands. The full programme focused on the methodological issues for cost benefit analy

  11. An Analysis of Systematic Elemental Changes in Decomposing Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walden, Steven J; Mulville, Jacqui; Rowlands, Jeffrey P; Evans, Sam L

    2017-03-10

    The aim of this pilot study was to investigate compositional changes in bone during decomposition. Elemental concentrations of barium, calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, zinc and phosphorus in porcine bone (as an experimental analog for human bone) were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The samples were taken from porcine bone subjected to shallow burial and surface depositions at 28-day intervals for a period of 140 days. Results indicated that ICP-OES elemental profiling has potential to be developed as a forensic test for determining whether a bone sample originates from the early stages of soft tissue putrefaction. Significant changes in iron, sodium and potassium concentrations were found over 140 days. These elements are known to be primarily associated with proteins and/or tissue fluids within the bone. Changes in their respective concentrations may therefore be linked to dehydration over time and in turn may be indicative of time since deposition.

  12. Optimal Approximation of Quadratic Interval Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshelev, Misha; Taillibert, Patrick

    1997-01-01

    Measurements are never absolutely accurate, as a result, after each measurement, we do not get the exact value of the measured quantity; at best, we get an interval of its possible values, For dynamically changing quantities x, the additional problem is that we cannot measure them continuously; we can only measure them at certain discrete moments of time t(sub 1), t(sub 2), ... If we know that the value x(t(sub j)) at a moment t(sub j) of the last measurement was in the interval [x-(t(sub j)), x + (t(sub j))], and if we know the upper bound D on the rate with which x changes, then, for any given moment of time t, we can conclude that x(t) belongs to the interval [x-(t(sub j)) - D (t - t(sub j)), x + (t(sub j)) + D (t - t(sub j))]. This interval changes linearly with time, an is, therefore, called a linear interval function. When we process these intervals, we get an expression that is quadratic and higher order w.r.t. time t, Such "quadratic" intervals are difficult to process and therefore, it is necessary to approximate them by linear ones. In this paper, we describe an algorithm that gives the optimal approximation of quadratic interval functions by linear ones.

  13. Methodology to characterize an unsampled oil interval, integrating PVT (Pressure/Volumen/Temperature) analysis and production log; Metodologia para caracterizacao de oleo de intervalo nao-amostrado, integrando analise PVT e perfil de producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcon, Diogo Reato; Souza, Ana Paula Martins de; Vieira, Alexandre J.M. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This work presents a new methodology for characterizing an unsampled oil interval, using basically production log data and PVT analyses available in the well. The methodology was applied to a real case, where the live oil samples were collected during a well test run in three different depths, revealing some evidence of a compositional grading due to gravity. Each individual sample was a mixture of the fluid produced from the reservoir bottom to the sampling point, since the whole interval was perforated and the isolation had to be made with a packer. The first sample was corresponding to the mixture of lower and all upper oils. The other two samples are only the heavier and that oil with part of the one from the upper interval. In order to identify the fluid properties from the upper interval, needed for production development studies, the following procedure was devised: equation-of-state tuning, reproducing the sampled fluid properties; conversion of volumetric flowrates from production log into mass and molar flowrates; flowrate ratio calculation, between the upper and lower intervals; upper interval fluid composition estimative; upper interval fluid properties simulation, using the previously tuned equation-of-state, thus generating what was considered a representative, synthetic PVT analysis. (author)

  14. Change impact analysis for software product lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihen Maâzoun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A software product line (SPL represents a family of products in a given application domain. Each SPL is constructed to provide for the derivation of new products by covering a wide range of features in its domain. Nevertheless, over time, some domain features may become obsolete with the apparition of new features while others may become refined. Accordingly, the SPL must be maintained to account for the domain evolution. Such evolution requires a means for managing the impact of changes on the SPL models, including the feature model and design. This paper presents an automated method that analyzes feature model evolution, traces their impact on the SPL design, and offers a set of recommendations to ensure the consistency of both models. The proposed method defines a set of new metrics adapted to SPL evolution to identify the effort needed to maintain the SPL models consistently and with a quality as good as the original models. The method and its tool are illustrated through an example of an SPL in the Text Editing domain. In addition, they are experimentally evaluated in terms of both the quality of the maintained SPL models and the precision of the impact change management.

  15. Vehicle Ride Comfort Optimization Based on Interval Analysis%基于区间分析的汽车平顺性优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢慧超; 姜潮; 张智罡; 于盛

    2014-01-01

    An uncertainty optimization model for the ride comfort of vehicle suspension is built based on in-terval analysis technique. With suspension spring stiffness and shock absorber damping as design variables, minimi-zing the root mean square of car body acceleration as objective, and the stiffness and natural frequency of suspension as constraints, and by means of tolerance indicator and possibility degree of interval, the uncertainty optimization model is transformed into a certainty one, which is then solved with SQP and NSGA-II. On the premise of assuring the objective of ride comfort, the symmetric tolerance of design variables is maximized with manufacturing cost re-duced. Finally the scheme proposed is applied to the ride comfort optimization of suspension vibration system with both 2 DOF quarter car body model and 7 DOF whole car body model.%基于区间分析方法,建立了一种汽车悬架平顺性的不确定性优化模型。以悬架弹簧刚度和减振器阻尼为设计参数,车身加速度均方根值最小化为目标,悬架刚度和固有频率等为约束,并使用区间描述设计变量的制造和测量误差。利用公差指标和区间可能度,将该不确定性优化模型转化为确定性优化问题,并利用序列二次规划法和非支配排序遗传算法进行求解;在保证平顺性目标的前提下,使设计变量的对称公差最大化,以降低制造成本。最后,该方法被应用于两自由度1/4车身和7自由度整车车身悬架振动系统的平顺性优化。

  16. Interval methods: An introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achenie, L.E.K.; Kreinovich, V.; Madsen, Kaj

    2006-01-01

    . An important characteristic of the computer performance in scientific computing is the accuracy of the Computation results. Often, we can estimate this accuracy by using traditional statistical techniques. However, in many practical situations, we do not know the probability distributions of different...... the potential for solving increasingly difficult computational problems. However, given the complexity of modern computer architectures, the task of realizing this potential needs careful attention. A main concern of HPC is the development of software that optimizes the performance of a given computer...... measurement, estimation, and/or roundoff errors, we only know estimates of the upper bounds on the corresponding measurement errors, i.e., we only know an interval of possible values of each such error. The papers from the following chapter contain the description of the corresponding '' interval computation...

  17. Varieties of Confidence Intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousineau, Denis

    2017-01-01

    Error bars are useful to understand data and their interrelations. Here, it is shown that confidence intervals of the mean (CI M s) can be adjusted based on whether the objective is to highlight differences between measures or not and based on the experimental design (within- or between-group designs). Confidence intervals (CIs) can also be adjusted to take into account the sampling mechanisms and the population size (if not infinite). Names are proposed to distinguish the various types of CIs and the assumptions underlying them, and how to assess their validity is explained. The various CIs presented here are easily obtained from a succession of multiplicative adjustments to the basic (unadjusted) CI width. All summary results should present a measure of precision, such as CIs, as this information is complementary to effect sizes.

  18. Applications of interval computations

    CERN Document Server

    Kreinovich, Vladik

    1996-01-01

    Primary Audience for the Book • Specialists in numerical computations who are interested in algorithms with automatic result verification. • Engineers, scientists, and practitioners who desire results with automatic verification and who would therefore benefit from the experience of suc­ cessful applications. • Students in applied mathematics and computer science who want to learn these methods. Goal Of the Book This book contains surveys of applications of interval computations, i. e. , appli­ cations of numerical methods with automatic result verification, that were pre­ sented at an international workshop on the subject in EI Paso, Texas, February 23-25, 1995. The purpose of this book is to disseminate detailed and surveyed information about existing and potential applications of this new growing field. Brief Description of the Papers At the most fundamental level, interval arithmetic operations work with sets: The result of a single arithmetic operation is the set of all possible results as the o...

  19. Scaling and memory in recurrence intervals of Internet traffic

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Shi-Min; Zhou, Tao; Gu, Jun; Zhou, Pei-Ling

    2009-01-01

    By studying the statistics of recurrence intervals, $\\tau$, between volatilities of Internet traffic rate changes exceeding a certain threshold $q$, we find that the probability distribution functions, $P_{q}(\\tau)$, for both byte and packet flows, show scaling property as $P_{q}(\\tau)=\\frac{1}{\\overline{\\tau}}f(\\frac{\\tau}{\\overline{\\tau}})$. The scaling functions for both byte and packet flows obeys the same stretching exponential form, $f(x)=A\\texttt{exp}(-Bx^{\\beta})$, with $\\beta \\approx 0.45$. In addition, we detect a strong memory effect that a short (or long) recurrence interval tends to be followed by another short (or long) one. The detrended fluctuation analysis further demonstrates the presence of long-term correlation in recurrence intervals.

  20. Analysis of solid-liquid phase change heat transfer enhancement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张寅平; 王馨

    2002-01-01

    Solid-liquid phase change processes have two important features: the process is an approximately isothermal process and the heat of fusion of phase change material tends to be much greater than its specific heat. Therefore, if any phase change material adjacent to a hot or cold surface undergoes phase change, the heat transfer rate on the surface will be noticeably enhanced. This paper presents a novel insight into the mechanisms of heat transfer enhancement induced by solid-liquid phase change based on the analogy analysis for heat conduction with an internal heat source and solid-liquid phase change heat transfer. Three degrees of surface heat transfer enhancement for different conditions are explored, and corresponding formulae are written to describe them. The factors influencing the degrees of heat transfer enhancement are clarified and their effects quantitatively analyzed. Both the novel insight and the analysis contribute to effective application of phase change heat transfer enhancement technique.

  1. RISMA: A Rule-based Interval State Machine Algorithm for Alerts Generation, Performance Analysis and Monitoring Real-Time Data Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Shaban; El-Desouky, Aly

    2013-04-01

    The monitoring of real-time systems is a challenging and complicated process. So, there is a continuous need to improve the monitoring process through the use of new intelligent techniques and algorithms for detecting exceptions, anomalous behaviours and generating the necessary alerts during the workflow monitoring of such systems. The interval-based or period-based theorems have been discussed, analysed, and used by many researches in Artificial Intelligence (AI), philosophy, and linguistics. As explained by Allen, there are 13 relations between any two intervals. Also, there have also been many studies of interval-based temporal reasoning and logics over the past decades. Interval-based theorems can be used for monitoring real-time interval-based data processing. However, increasing the number of processed intervals makes the implementation of such theorems a complex and time consuming process as the relationships between such intervals are increasing exponentially. To overcome the previous problem, this paper presents a Rule-based Interval State Machine Algorithm (RISMA) for processing, monitoring, and analysing the behaviour of interval-based data, received from real-time sensors. The proposed intelligent algorithm uses the Interval State Machine (ISM) approach to model any number of interval-based data into well-defined states as well as inferring them. An interval-based state transition model and methodology are presented to identify the relationships between the different states of the proposed algorithm. By using such model, the unlimited number of relationships between similar large numbers of intervals can be reduced to only 18 direct relationships using the proposed well-defined states. For testing the proposed algorithm, necessary inference rules and code have been designed and applied to the continuous data received in near real-time from the stations of International Monitoring System (IMS) by the International Data Centre (IDC) of the Preparatory

  2. 基于区间分析的汽车制动器不确定性优化%Uncertainty Optimization of Vehicle Brakes Based on Interval Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕辉; 于德介

    2015-01-01

    为抑制不确定参数汽车制动器的制动噪声,基于区间分析理论,将响应面法与优化技术相结合,提出了一种降低系统复模态负阻尼比以提高汽车制动器稳定性的优化方法。该方法采用拉丁超立方试验设计在设计变量和不确定参数构成的混合空间内采样,建立了包含不确定参数的制动器系统复模态负阻尼比的响应面近似模型;以系统结构参数为设计变量,以最小化系统复模态负阻尼比为优化目标,利用基于区间分析的不确定性优化方法对响应面近似模型进行优化。对某型车的浮钳盘式制动器的优化结果表明,采用该方法对汽车制动器进行优化,能在整个使用周期内有效减小制动器不稳定模态的负阻尼比,从而提高制动器的稳定性。%To suppress the noise of vehicle brakes with uncertain parameters, an optimization scheme by re-ducing the negative damping ratio of the complex mode of brake system to improve the brake stability is presented based on the theory of interval analysis and combining response surface method with optimization technique. The scheme adopts the Latin hypercube design of experiment to conduct sampling within the mixed space formed by de-sign variables and uncertain parameters and create a response surface approximation model for the negative damping ratio of the complex mode of brake system with uncertain parameters. With the structural parameters of brake system as design variables and minimizing the negative damping ratio of its complex mode as optimization objective, an opti-mization is performed on response surface approximation model with an uncertainty optimization scheme based on in-terval analysis. The results of the optimization on the float caliper disc brake of a vehicle show that the optimization on vehicle brakes using the scheme presented can effectively reduce the negative damping ratio of unstable mode of brake system in entire life

  3. Zero- vs. one-dimensional, parametric vs. non-parametric, and confidence interval vs. hypothesis testing procedures in one-dimensional biomechanical trajectory analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataky, Todd C; Vanrenterghem, Jos; Robinson, Mark A

    2015-05-01

    Biomechanical processes are often manifested as one-dimensional (1D) trajectories. It has been shown that 1D confidence intervals (CIs) are biased when based on 0D statistical procedures, and the non-parametric 1D bootstrap CI has emerged in the Biomechanics literature as a viable solution. The primary purpose of this paper was to clarify that, for 1D biomechanics datasets, the distinction between 0D and 1D methods is much more important than the distinction between parametric and non-parametric procedures. A secondary purpose was to demonstrate that a parametric equivalent to the 1D bootstrap exists in the form of a random field theory (RFT) correction for multiple comparisons. To emphasize these points we analyzed six datasets consisting of force and kinematic trajectories in one-sample, paired, two-sample and regression designs. Results showed, first, that the 1D bootstrap and other 1D non-parametric CIs were qualitatively identical to RFT CIs, and all were very different from 0D CIs. Second, 1D parametric and 1D non-parametric hypothesis testing results were qualitatively identical for all six datasets. Last, we highlight the limitations of 1D CIs by demonstrating that they are complex, design-dependent, and thus non-generalizable. These results suggest that (i) analyses of 1D data based on 0D models of randomness are generally biased unless one explicitly identifies 0D variables before the experiment, and (ii) parametric and non-parametric 1D hypothesis testing provide an unambiguous framework for analysis when one׳s hypothesis explicitly or implicitly pertains to whole 1D trajectories.

  4. One-way ANOVA based on interval information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesamian, Gholamreza

    2016-08-01

    This paper deals with extending the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to the case where the observed data are represented by closed intervals rather than real numbers. In this approach, first a notion of interval random variable is introduced. Especially, a normal distribution with interval parameters is introduced to investigate hypotheses about the equality of interval means or test the homogeneity of interval variances assumption. Moreover, the least significant difference (LSD method) for investigating multiple comparison of interval means is developed when the null hypothesis about the equality of means is rejected. Then, at a given interval significance level, an index is applied to compare the interval test statistic and the related interval critical value as a criterion to accept or reject the null interval hypothesis of interest. Finally, the method of decision-making leads to some degrees to accept or reject the interval hypotheses. An applied example will be used to show the performance of this method.

  5. Confidence intervals for annual wind power production******

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensoussan Alain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind power is an intermittent resource due to wind speed intermittency. However wind speed can be described as a stochastic process with short memory. This allows us to derive a central limit theorem for the annual or pluri-annual wind power production and then get quantiles of the wind power production for one, ten or twenty years future periods. On the one hand, the interquantile spread offers a measurement of the intrinsic uncertainties of wind power production. On the other hand, different quantiles with different periods of time are used by financial institutions to quantify the financial risk of the wind turbine. Our method is then applied to real datasets corresponding to a French wind turbine. Since confidence intervals can be enhanced by taking into account seasonality, we present some tools for change point analysis on wind series.

  6. Lower inter-partum interval and unhealthy life-style factors are inversely associated with n-3 essential fatty acids changes during pregnancy: a prospective cohort with Brazilian women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thatiana J P Pinto

    Full Text Available To analyze serum fatty acids concentrations during healthy pregnancy and evaluate whether socioeconomic, demographic, obstetric, nutritional, anthropometric and lifestyle factors are associated with their longitudinal changes.A prospective cohort of 225 pregnant women was followed in the 5th-13th, 20th-26th and 30th-36th weeks of gestation. Serum samples were collected in each trimester of pregnancy and analyzed to determine the fatty acids composition using a high-throughput robotic direct methylation method coupled with fast gas-liquid chromatography. The independent variables comprised the subjects' socioeconomic and demographic status, obstetric history, early pregnancy body mass index (BMI, dietary and lifestyle parameters. Analyses were performed using linear mixed-effects models.The overall absolute concentrations of fatty acids increased from the 1st to the 2nd trimester and slightly increased from the 2nd to the 3rd trimester. Early pregnancy BMI, inter-partum interval and weekly fish intake were the factors associated with changes in eicosapentaenoic + docosahexaenoic acids (EPA+DHA and total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs. Early pregnancy BMI, age and monthly per-capita income were inversely associated with the changes in the n-6/n-3 ratio. Alcohol consumption was positively associated with the n-6/n-3 ratio.Early pregnancy BMI was positively associated with EPA+DHA and total n-3 PUFAs, while presenting a reduced weekly fish intake and a lower inter-partum interval were associated with lower levels of n-3 PUFAs. A lower per-capita family income and a drinking habit were factors that were positively associated with a higher n-6/n-3 ratio.

  7. Interval methods: An introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achenie, L.E.K.; Kreinovich, V.; Madsen, Kaj

    2006-01-01

    This chapter contains selected papers presented at the Minisymposium on Interval Methods of the PARA'04 Workshop '' State-of-the-Art in Scientific Computing ''. The emphasis of the workshop was on high-performance computing (HPC). The ongoing development of ever more advanced computers provides....... An important characteristic of the computer performance in scientific computing is the accuracy of the Computation results. Often, we can estimate this accuracy by using traditional statistical techniques. However, in many practical situations, we do not know the probability distributions of different...... '' techniques, and the applications of these techniques to various problems of scientific computing....

  8. [Mammographic screening. An analysis of the characteristics of interval carcinomas observed in the program in the province of Firenze (1989-1991)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciatto, S; Rosselli del Turco, M; Bonardi, R; Bianchi, S

    1994-04-01

    The authors evaluated 30 interval cancers consecutively observed from 1989 to 1991 and compared them to 98 screening-detected cancers observed in the same period. Interval cancers have a more advanced stage (stage I = 13 lesions, stage II + = 17 lesions) with respect to screening-detected cancers (stage 0 = 10 lesions, stage I = 61 lesions, stage II + = 27 lesions). This finding seems unrelated to an intrinsically higher aggressivity of interval cancers (length biased sampling) which do not differ significantly from screening-detected cancers as far as histopathologic characteristics of prognostic value are concerned. Diagnostic delay due to technical or reading error (9 cases), to radiologically occult cancer in clear (10 cases) or dense parenchymal areas (11 cases) is most likely. This seems to be confirmed by the low frequency observed among interval cancers of easily visible lesions such as isolated microcalcifications (3% vs. 35%) or stellate opacities (13% vs. 31%), and by the higher frequency of opacities with irregular margins (57% vs. 26%) which are more likely masked by dense parenchyma. The chances of reducing interval cancer rate by attempting to increase sensitivity or by increasing screening frequency are discussed, as well as the possible negative consequences of such protocols in terms of cost-effectiveness.

  9. Análisis multivariado de propiedades químicas en Oxisoles con diferentes niveles de intervención agrícola Multivariate analysis of chemical properties in Oxisols with different levels of intervention agricultural

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús H Camacho-Tamayo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available La intervención humana en la producción agrícola influye directamente en la calidad del suelo, promoviendo alteraciones en las propiedades físicas y químicas, mediante el uso de fertilizantes, correctivos y prácticas de labranza. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar los cambios en las propiedades químicas de dos Oxisoles (Typic Hapludox y Typic Haplustox, con diferentes niveles de intervención (cultivos de pasto Brachiaria y rotaciones de maíz y soya, en el municipio de Puerto López (Meta-Colombia. Las muestras fueron tomadas en 42 puntos, distanciados 25 m perpendicularmente, entre 0 y 0.10 m y 0.10 y 0.20 m de profundidad, para un total de 168 muestras en los dos lotes. Los datos fueron analizados mediante análisis de varianza y técnicas de análisis multivariado, a través de componentes principales y agrupamiento jerárquico. Las propiedades estudiadas fueron carbono orgánico, pH, acidez intercambiable, aluminio intercambiable, P, Ca, Mg, P, Na, capacidad de intercambio catiónica efectiva (CICE, suma de bases y saturación de bases. La intervención agrícola se ve reflejada principalmente en la capa superficial del suelo, donde se presentaron los mayores valores de CO, Ca, Mg, K, P, SB y CICE, debido a la presencia de residuos de cosecha, así como a la aplicación de fertilizantes y correctivos.Human intervention in agricultural production affects directly soil quality by promoting changes in physical and chemical properties through the use of fertilizers, correctives and tillage practices (Brachiria and corn- soybean. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the chemical properties of two Oxisols (Typic Hapludox y Typic Haplustox with different intervention levels, in the municipality of Puerto Lopez (Meta-Colombia. Samples were taken at 42 points, spaced 25 m perpendicularly between 0-0, 10 my 0.10 and 0.20 m of deep, for a total of 168 samples in both fields. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance

  10. Sparse principal component analysis in hyperspectral change detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Larsen, Rasmus; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack

    2011-01-01

    This contribution deals with change detection by means of sparse principal component analysis (PCA) of simple differences of calibrated, bi-temporal HyMap data. Results show that if we retain only 15 nonzero loadings (out of 126) in the sparse PCA the resulting change scores appear visually very ...

  11. 集对分析理论在风电场风速区间预测中的应用%Application of Set Pair Analysis in Wind Speed Interval Prediction for Wind Farms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭钰锋; 孙頔; 于继来; 于达仁; 郭涛; 马呈霞

    2014-01-01

    Wind farm output power is directly depended on the wind speed,and it is necessary to improve the prediction accuracy of the wind speed.Taking the difficulty of improving the wind speed point forecast accuracy into account,this paper presents a method for wind speed interval prediction based on the set pair analysis theory.This method uses the training data of wind direction,temperature,pressure,humidity,etc.,which are the influential factors of wind speed.On the other hand,by considering the error distribution of the wind speed point forecast and the change rate of wind speed,the classified collection which the predictive value of the wind speed in a certain period in the future belongs to is determined.The upper and lower limits of the classified collection are taken as the upper and lower limits of the wind speed prediction interval,thus the wind speed interval prediction is realized.By using the training and prediction data that come from a wind farm in China,the effectiveness of the wind speed interval prediction based on the set pair analysis theory is verified.In fact,the proposed method can also be used for wind power prediction.%风力发电的出力直接取决于风速,因此需要提高风速的预测精度。考虑到风速点预测精度的提高有较难克服的瓶颈,文中提出一种针对风速的区间预测方法,将集对分析原理引入风速的区间预测中,利用风向、温度、气压、湿度等影响因素的训练数据,并考虑风速点预测的结果误差分布及风速变化率的影响,确定未来某时间段内风速的预测值所属的分类集合,以该分类集合的上下限作为风速预测区间的上下限,从而实现了风速的区间预测。以国内某风电场的数据进行训练和预测,验证了基于集对分析理论的风速区间预测方法的有效性,同时所提方法的预测结果可以用于风电场功率预测。

  12. Interval-based Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Montanari

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the synthesis problem for Halpern and Shoham's modal logic of intervals extended with an equivalence relation over time points, abbreviated HSeq. In analogy to the case of monadic second-order logic of one successor, the considered synthesis problem receives as input an HSeq formula phi and a finite set Sigma of propositional variables and temporal requests, and it establishes whether or not, for all possible evaluations of elements in Sigma in every interval structure, there exists an evaluation of the remaining propositional variables and temporal requests such that the resulting structure is a model for phi. We focus our attention on decidability of the synthesis problem for some meaningful fragments of HSeq, whose modalities are drawn from the set A (meets, Abar (met by, B (begins, Bbar (begun by, interpreted over finite linear orders and natural numbers. We prove that the fragment ABBbareq is decidable (non-primitive recursive hard, while the fragment AAbarBBbar turns out to be undecidable. In addition, we show that even the synthesis problem for ABBbar becomes undecidable if we replace finite linear orders by natural numbers.

  13. Chaos on the interval

    CERN Document Server

    Ruette, Sylvie

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this book is to survey the relations between the various kinds of chaos and related notions for continuous interval maps from a topological point of view. The papers on this topic are numerous and widely scattered in the literature; some of them are little known, difficult to find, or originally published in Russian, Ukrainian, or Chinese. Dynamical systems given by the iteration of a continuous map on an interval have been broadly studied because they are simple but nevertheless exhibit complex behaviors. They also allow numerical simulations, which enabled the discovery of some chaotic phenomena. Moreover, the "most interesting" part of some higher-dimensional systems can be of lower dimension, which allows, in some cases, boiling it down to systems in dimension one. Some of the more recent developments such as distributional chaos, the relation between entropy and Li-Yorke chaos, sequence entropy, and maps with infinitely many branches are presented in book form for the first time. The author gi...

  14. Count-to-count time interval distribution analysis in a fast reactor; Estudio de la distribucion de intervalos de tiempo entre detecciones consecutivas de neutrones en un reactor rapido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Navarro Gomez, A.

    1973-07-01

    The most important kinetic parameters have been measured at the zero power fast reactor CORAL-I by means of the reactor noise analysis in the time domain, using measurements of the count-to-count time intervals. (Author) 69 refs.

  15. DYNAMIC OPTIMIZATION FOR UNCERTAIN STRUCTURES USING INTERVAL METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChertSub-A-; WuJie; LiuChun

    2003-01-01

    An interval optimization method for the dynamic response of structures with interval parameters is presented. The matrices of structures with interval parameters are given. Combining the interval extension with the perturbation, the method for interval dynamic response analysis is derived. The interval optimization problem is transformed into a corresponding deterministic one. Because the mean values and the uncertainties of the interval parameters can be elected design variables, more information of the optimization results can be obtained by the present method than that obtained by the deterministic one. The present method is implemented for a truss structure. The numerical results show that the method is effective.

  16. Using Event Structure Analysis to Understand Planned Social Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Stevenson

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors explore the application of Event Structure Analysis in understanding the linkages between events in planned social change. An illustrative example from the Comprehensive Strategy for Serious, Violent and Chronic Juvenile Offenders is used to highlight the key features of Event Structure Analysis.

  17. Interval ANOVA simultaneous component analysis (i-ASCA) applied to spectroscopic data to study the effect of fundamental fermentation variables in beer fermentation metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grassi, Silvia; Lyndgaard, Christian Bøge; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the effect of different settings on beer fermentation process applying an interval-based version of ASCA on FT-IR data. Three main factors (yeast type, temperature, fermentation time) are included in the experimental design, being high sources of variation in brewing...... and temperature, in smaller variable regions. The proposed approach demonstrates how interval-ASCA on FT-IR data, isolating the variation in the data according to the experimental design used, allows a rapid and accurate test for parameter control in beer manufacturing....

  18. Bio-physical vs. Economic Uncertainty in the Analysis of Climate Change Impacts on World Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, T. W.; Lobell, D. B.

    2010-12-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that agricultural production could be greatly affected by climate change, but there remains little quantitative understanding of how these agricultural impacts would affect economic livelihoods in poor countries. The recent paper by Hertel, Burke and Lobell (GEC, 2010) considers three scenarios of agricultural impacts of climate change, corresponding to the fifth, fiftieth, and ninety fifth percentiles of projected yield distributions for the world’s crops in 2030. They evaluate the resulting changes in global commodity prices, national economic welfare, and the incidence of poverty in a set of 15 developing countries. Although the small price changes under the medium scenario are consistent with previous findings, their low productivity scenario reveals the potential for much larger food price changes than reported in recent studies which have hitherto focused on the most likely outcomes. The poverty impacts of price changes under the extremely adverse scenario are quite heterogeneous and very significant in some population strata. They conclude that it is critical to look beyond central case climate shocks and beyond a simple focus on yields and highly aggregated poverty impacts. In this paper, we conduct a more formal, systematic sensitivity analysis (SSA) with respect to uncertainty in the biophysical impacts of climate change on agriculture, by explicitly specifying joint distributions for global yield changes - this time focusing on 2050. This permits us to place confidence intervals on the resulting price impacts and poverty results which reflect the uncertainty inherited from the biophysical side of the analysis. We contrast this with the economic uncertainty inherited from the global general equilibrium model (GTAP), by undertaking SSA with respect to the behavioral parameters in that model. This permits us to assess which type of uncertainty is more important for regional price and poverty outcomes. Finally, we undertake a

  19. Detection of Functional Change Using Cluster Trend Analysis in Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Stuart K.; Mansberger, Steven L.; Demirel, Shaban

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Global analyses using mean deviation (MD) assess visual field progression, but can miss localized changes. Pointwise analyses are more sensitive to localized progression, but more variable so require confirmation. This study assessed whether cluster trend analysis, averaging information across subsets of locations, could improve progression detection. Methods A total of 133 test–retest eyes were tested 7 to 10 times. Rates of change and P values were calculated for possible re-orderings of these series to generate global analysis (“MD worsening faster than x dB/y with P trend analysis detects subsequently confirmed deterioration sooner than either global or pointwise analyses. PMID:28715580

  20. Determination of Polymers Thermal Degradation by Color Change Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Rojas González

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: It has been observed that thermal degradation of thermoplastic polymers, when they are reprocessed by injection, extrusion and extrusion / injection, undergo color changes in the product, although it not has been established as this change occurs. Method: It analyzed the effect on thermal degradation caused by polymer type, processing type, polymer grade, rotation speed of the extrusion screw and number of reprocessing, which is quantified by the color change using an empirical equation, with experimental data obtained by analysis through a microcolor colorimeter. Results: It was found that the color change analysis provides information about progress of the thermal degradation and stability of thermoplastic polymers, which are undergoing to multiple reprocessing events and processes. Conclusions: It was established that this technique can be implemented as a simple and efficient measure of thermoplastic products quality control, according to their color change.

  1. An Integrated Analysis of Changes in Water Stress in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henrichs, T.; Lehner, B.; Alcamo, J.

    2002-01-01

    that today high water stress exists in one-fifth of European river basin area. Under a scenario projection, increases in water use throughout Eastern Europe are accompanied by decreases in water availability in most of Southern Europe--combining these trends leads to a marked increase in water stress......Future changes in water availability with climate change and changes in water use due to socio-economic development are to occur in parallel. In an integrated analysis we bring together these aspects of global change in a consistent manner, and analyse the water stress situation in Europe. We find...

  2. Detection of lung cancer through low-dose CT screening (NELSON) : a prespecifi ed analysis of screening test performance and interval cancers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horeweg, Nanda; Scholten, Ernst Th; de Jong, Pim A.; van der Aalst, Carlijn M.; Weenink, Carla; Lammers, Jan-Willem J.; Nackaerts, Kristiaan; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; ten Haaf, Kevin; Yousaf-Khan, Uraujh A.; Heuvelmans, Marjolein A.; Thunnissen, Erik; Oudkerk, Matthijs; Mali, Willem; de Koning, Harry J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Low-dose CT screening is recommended for individuals at high risk of developing lung cancer. However, CT screening does not detect all lung cancers: some might be missed at screening, and others can develop in the interval between screens. The NELSON trial is a randomised trial to assess

  3. Global Optimization using Interval Analysis: Interval Optimization for Aerospace Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kampen, E.

    2010-01-01

    Optimization is an important element in aerospace related research. It is encountered for example in trajectory optimization problems, such as: satellite formation flying, spacecraft re-entry optimization and airport approach and departure optimization; in control optimization, for example in adapti

  4. Land-use/land-cover change detection using change-vector analysis in posterior probability space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuehong; Chen, Jin; Shen, Miaogen; Yang, Wei

    2008-10-01

    Land use/land cover change is an important field in global environmental change research. Remote sensing is a valuable data source from which land use/land cover change information can be extracted efficiently. A number of techniques for accomplishing change detection using satellite imagery have been formulated, applied, and evaluated, which can be generally grouped into two types. (1) Those based on spectral classification of the input data such as post-classification comparison and direct two-date classification; and (2) those based on radiometric change between different acquisition dates. The shortage of type 1 is cumulative error in image classification of an individual date. However, radiometric change approaches has a strict requirement for reliable image radiometry. In light of the above mentioned drawbacks of those two types of change detection methods, this paper presents a new method named change vector analysis in posterior probability space (CVAPS). Change-vector analysis (CVA) is one of the most successful radiometric change-based approaches. CVAPS approach incorporates post-classification comparison method and CVA approach, which is expected to inherit the advantages of two traditional methods and avoid their defects at the same time. CVAPS includes the following four steps. (1) Images in different periods are classified by certain classifier which can provide posterior probability output. Then, the posterior probability can be treated as a vector, the dimension of which is equal to the number of classes. (2) A procedure similar with CVA is employed. Compared with traditional CVA, new method analyzes the change vector in posterior probability space instead of spectral feature space. (3) A semiautomatic method, named Double-Window Flexible Pace Search (DFPS), is employed to determine the threshold of change magnitude. (4) Change category is discriminated by cosines of the change vectors. CVAPS approach was applied and validated by a case study of

  5. Involvement of the autonomic nervous system in diurnal variation of corrected QT intervals in common marmosets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Masaki; Komatsu, Ryuichi; Isobe, Takehito; Tabo, Mitsuyasu; Ishikawa, Tomohisa

    2013-01-01

    Our previous study has shown that the corrected QT (QTc) interval of the electrocardiogram is longer during the dark period than during the light period in telemetered common marmosets. In the present study, we investigated the involvement of sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activities in the changes of QTc interval associated with the light-dark cycle.Telemetry transmitters were implanted in six common marmosets to continuously record the electrocardiogram. The QT intervals obtained were corrected for the RR interval by applying individual probabilistic QT-rate correction formulae. Power spectral analysis of heart rate variability was performed to quantify each autonomic nervous function. Changes in QTc intervals and autonomic nervous tones were associated with the light-dark cycle. Parasympathetic nervous activity and QTc intervals significantly increased by approximately 10 ms during the dark period.Atropine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, suppressed the increased parasympathetic tone and QTc prolongation during the dark period. In contrast, propranolol, a β-adrenoceptor antagonist, decreased the sympathetic activity and increased QTc intervals during the light period. These results suggest that the parasympathetic nerve functions prolong QTc intervals during the dark period, while the sympathetic nerve functions shorten them during the light period in common marmosets.

  6. Climate Change Signal Analysis for Northeast Asian Surface Temperature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeong-Hyeong LEE; Byungsoo KIM; Keon-Tae SOHN; Won-Tae KOWN; Seung-Ki MIN

    2005-01-01

    Climate change detection, attribution, and prediction were studied for the surface temperature in the Northeast Asian region using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data and three coupled-model simulations from ECHAM4/OPYC3, HadCM3, and CCCma GCMs (Canadian Centre for Climate Modeling and Analysis general circulation model). The Bayesian fingerprint approach was used to perform the detection and attribution test for the anthropogenic climate change signal associated with changes in anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) and sulfate aerosol (SO42-) concentrations for the Northeast Asian temperature. It was shown that there was a weak anthropogenic climate change signal in the Northeast Asian temperature change. The relative contribution of CO2 and SOl- effects to total temperature change in Northeast Asia was quantified from ECHAM4/OPYC3 and CCCma GCM simulations using analysis of variance. For the observed temperature change for the period of 1959-1998, the CO2 effect contributed 10%-21% of the total variance and the direct cooling effect of SO42- played a less important role (0% 7%) than the CO2effect. The prediction of surface temperature change was estimated from the second CO2+SO24- scenario run of ECHAM4/OPYC3 which has the least error in the simulation of the present-day temperature field near the Korean Peninsula. The result shows that the area-mean surface temperature near the Korean Peninsula will increase by about 1.1° by the 2040s relative to the 1990s.

  7. Contribution of the calving interval to dairy farm profitability: results of a cluster analysis of FADN data for a major milk production area in southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dono

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study we investigated the potential economic impact of good management of the calving interval on dairy farms. This involved the assessment of economics and production of a sample of farms, selected from the Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN, and located in Sardinia, Italy. Two farm models were derived from clustering the sample by k-means, which were validated by verifying their consistency in relation to nutritional needs, feed supply and milk production of the herds. Differences in indices of performance and dynamics were found (e.g. ROE is -0.8% vs 4.7%, with evident linkages between economic performance, greater efficiency, reproductive capacity, and potential turnover. The model better performing reflected greater economic feeding efficiency and a shorter calving interval. Hence, management, more than structural aspects, determined the economic results of the sampled farms.

  8. Effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) on fitness in adults: a meta-analysis of controlled and non-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Matthew; Taylor, Kathryn L; Batterham, Alan M; Hopkins, Will G

    2014-07-01

    Low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) appears to be an efficient and practical way to develop physical fitness. Our objective was to estimate meta-analysed mean effects of HIT on aerobic power (maximum oxygen consumption [VO(2max)] in an incremental test) and sprint fitness (peak and mean power in a 30-s Wingate test). Five databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, BIOSIS and Web of Science) were searched for original research articles published up to January 2014. Search terms included 'high intensity', 'HIT', 'sprint', 'fitness' and 'VO(2max)'. Inclusion criteria were fitness assessed pre- and post-training; training period ≥2 weeks; repetition duration 30-60 s; work/rest ratio intensity described as maximal or near maximal; adult subjects aged >18 years. The final data set consisted of 55 estimates from 32 trials for VO(2max), 23 estimates from 16 trials for peak sprint power, and 19 estimates from 12 trials for mean sprint power. Effects on fitness were analysed as percentages via log transformation. Standard errors calculated from exact p values (where reported) or imputed from errors of measurement provided appropriate weightings. Fixed effects in the meta-regression model included type of study (controlled, uncontrolled), subject characteristics (sex, training status, baseline fitness) and training parameters (number of training sessions, repetition duration, work/rest ratio). Probabilistic magnitude-based inferences for meta-analysed effects were based on standardized thresholds for small, moderate and large changes (0.2, 0.6 and 1.2, respectively) derived from between-subject standard deviations (SDs) for baseline fitness. A mean low-volume HIT protocol (13 training sessions, 0.16 work/rest ratio) in a controlled trial produced a likely moderate improvement in the VO(2max) of active non-athletic males (6.2 %; 90 % confidence limits ±3.1 %), when compared with control. There were possibly moderate improvements in the VO(2max) of sedentary males (10

  9. Structural decomposition analysis on energy intensity changes at regional level

    OpenAIRE

    Hua Liao; Ce Wang; Zhi-Shuang Zhu; Xiao-Wei Ma

    2012-01-01

    As China's energy intensity fluctuated in recent years, it is necessary to examine whether this fluctuations happened at a regional level. This paper conducts a decomposition model by using the structural decomposition analysis (SDA) method at a regional level. Then this model is employed to empirically analyze the changes of Beijing's energy intensity. The conclusions are as follows: during 2002-2010, except petroleum, the energy intensity decreased and the changes were mostly attributed to ...

  10. 二项分布参数p置信区间评估算法分析%Analysis of a Binomial Parameter p Confidence Interval Evaluation Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘镇瑜; 王军; 王凌艳; 林秋杰; 霍烁烁

    2013-01-01

    Binomial distribution was frequently encountered in various tests. There were many parameter evaluation methods,but the performances were not ideal even in engineering standards. According to discrete characteristics of the binomial distribution,we sug-gested a confidence interval evaluation brute algorithm of binomial distribution parameter p. The algorithm traversed p with fine step,and corrected every confidence interval to adapt to the level of significance. When it traversed all parameters,the confidence interval could be obtained. Three evaluation indicators of confidence interval were provided. Compared with other methods,this algorithm was correct and effective.%二项分布是各种试验中经常遇到的一种分布类型,当前有很多参数评估方法,但是包括工程标准在内的很多方法性能并不是很优。根据二项分布离散性的特点提出了一种二项分布参数 p置信区间评估的暴力算法。算法对二项分布参数 p进行精细步长的遍历,在每一个参数值点根据置信水平对置信区间进行修正,遍历完所有的参数即可得到所需的置信区间。给出置信区间的3项评价指标,通过和其他置信区间评估方法的对比分析可知,算法正确、有效。

  11. Predicting restoration of kidney function during CRRT-free intervals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heise Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Renal failure is common in critically ill patients and frequently requires continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT. CRRT is discontinued at regular intervals for routine changes of the disposable equipment or for replacing clogged filter membrane assemblies. The present study was conducted to determine if the necessity to continue CRRT could be predicted during the CRRT-free period. Materials and methods In the period from 2003 to 2006, 605 patients were treated with CRRT in our ICU. A total of 222 patients with 448 CRRT-free intervals had complete data sets and were used for analysis. Of the total CRRT-free periods, 225 served as an evaluation group. Twenty-nine parameters with an assumed influence on kidney function were analyzed with regard to their potential to predict the restoration of kidney function during the CRRT-free interval. Using univariate analysis and logistic regression, a prospective index was developed and validated in the remaining 223 CRRT-free periods to establish its prognostic strength. Results Only three parameters showed an independent influence on the restoration of kidney function during CRRT-free intervals: the number of previous CRRT cycles (medians in the two outcome groups: 1 vs. 2, the "Sequential Organ Failure Assessment"-score (means in the two outcome groups: 8.3 vs. 9.2 and urinary output after the cessation of CRRT (medians in two outcome groups: 66 ml/h vs. 10 ml/h. The prognostic index, which was calculated from these three variables, showed a satisfactory potential to predict the kidney function during the CRRT-free intervals; Receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis revealed an area under the curve of 0.798. Conclusion Restoration of kidney function during CRRT-free periods can be predicted with an index calculated from three variables. Prospective trials in other hospitals must clarify whether our results are generally transferable to other patient populations.

  12. Analysis of ECG Tp and Te interval on the clinical value of coronary heart disease%心电图 Tp-Te 间期对冠心病患者的临床诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁莹; 刘海; 张民

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨心电图T波峰末( Tp-Te )间期对冠心病患者的临床诊断价值。方法回顾性分析2010年5月-2013年5月入住的110例心脏病患者的临床资料,其中62例为冠心病患者( CHD组),48例为非冠心病患者(非CHD组)。对2组患者Tp-Te 间期、Tp-Te 间期离散度及J波进行测量,并对心电图进行记录。结果(1)2组V2导联Tp-Te 间期、V6导联Tp-Te 间期比较,差异具有统计学意义( P <0|.05, P <0.01),但Tp-Te 间期离散度比较,差异无统计学意义( P >0.05);(2)不同支数冠状动脉狭窄组间V2导联Tp-Te 间期、V6导联Tp-Te间期及Tp-Te 间期离散度比较,差异均无统计学意义( P >0.05);(3)冠心病患者中,有J波组与无J波组V2导联Tp-Te 间期、V6导联Tp-Te 间期及Tp-Te 间期离散度比较,差异均无统计学意义( P >0.05)。结论心电图Tp-Te 间期对冠心病的诊断具有一定的临床价值;冠脉狭窄支数或缺血性J波对Tp-Te 间期并非惟一的影响因素。%Objective To explore the electrocardiogram T wave end ( Tp-Te ) interval of coronary heart disease in clinical diagnostic value .Methods Retrospective analysis of May 2010 to May 2013 110 cases clinical data of inpatients with heart disease , including 62 cases of coronary heart disease ( CHD group ) , 48 cases of non-coronary heart disease ( non-CHD group).On two groups of patients T p-Te interval, Tp-Te interval dispersion and J wave measurements , and ECG recording.Re-sults (1) 2 group V2 lead Tp-Te interval, V6 lead Tp-Te interval value, the difference was statistically significant ( P 0.05);(2)Diffe rent counts coronary stenosis group V2 lead Tp-Te interval, V6 lead Tp-Te interval and Tp-Te interval dispersion,the difference was not statistically significant ( P >0.05) ;(3)Coronary artery disease patients, J wave group and non-J wave group V2 J wave ECG Tp-Te interval, V6 lead Tp-Te interval

  13. Dynamic characteristic analysis of an open-loop system for an intelligent beam with interval parameters%区间参数智能梁结构开环系统动力特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王敏娟; 陈建军; 魏永祥; 张超; 马洪波

    2012-01-01

    Structures with a piezoelectric intelligent beam were taken as study objects here. According to the method of interval analysis, the interval models of mass matrix and stiffness matrices with interval variables for structural physical parameters and geometric dimensions were built. From Rayleigh quotient for dynamic characteristic of structural vibration, and based on the interval algorithms, the computation expressions of natural frequencies of a structural open-loop system were deduced. Through an example, the effects of the uncertainty of the structural interval parameters on the structural natural frequency were inspected, and the model constructed and the method proposed here were verified. It was shown that the interval coefficient method is applicable in dealing with the dynamic characteristic of an open-loop system of an intelligent beam.%以区间参数压电智能梁结构为研究对象,在材料性能参数和几何尺寸为区间变量时采用区间分析法建立了结构质量矩阵和刚度矩阵的区间模型.从求解结构振动动态特性的Rayleigh商出发,利用区间变量运算法则推导出了结构开环系统固有频率的数字特征表达式.通过算例,考察了区间参数对结构固有频率特性的影响,验证了所建模型和方法的可行性与合理性.研究结果表明,文中利用区间系数分析法来研究压电智能梁结构开环系统的动力特性具有一定的工程应用价值.

  14. Topographic modeling and analysis of the landing site of Chang'E-3 on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bo; Li, Fei; Ye, Lei; Qiao, Si; Huang, Jun; Wu, Xueying; Zhang, He

    2014-11-01

    The Chinese lunar probe Chang'E-3, carrying the “Jade Rabbit” lunar rover, successfully landed in the Sinus Iridum area on the Moon on December 14, 2013. This paper presents the characterization activities that were done for the selection of the landing area, including topographic modeling and analysis based on multisource lunar remote sensing data. Seven meter-resolution Chang'E-2 imagery and Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter data were integrated to generate a digital elevation model (DEM) with a resolution of 20 m for the entire Sinus Iridum landing area. Long baseline slopes were assessed according to this DEM for all of this area. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter narrow-angle camera images and 1.5 m-resolution Chang'E-2 imagery were used to derive DEMs with higher resolution (4 m) at several local regions within the Sinus Iridum landing area. Slope analyses at lander footprint scale (˜8 m) were performed in these local regions. Craters were detected from the DEMs and the derived orthophotos, and size-frequency distributions were generated. Crater morphological statistics, including the depth/diameter ratios, rim height/diameter ratios and wall slopes, were analyzed. The results showed that the Sinus Iridum landing area is relatively flat. Most of the area has slopes of less than 15°. The steeper slopes are mainly alongside craters and ridges. The crater size-frequency distribution is close to the equilibrium distribution. The crater ages, as indicated by their morphological statistics, vary from mature to relatively fresh in different regions. These topographic modeling and analysis results were used for strategic planning to identify the landing site for the Chang'E-3 and made a useful contribution to the success of the Chang'E-3 mission.

  15. Transmission line sag calculations using interval mathematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaalan, H. [Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Washington, DC (United States)]|[US Merchant Marine Academy, Kings Point, NY (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Electric utilities are facing the need for additional generating capacity, new transmission systems and more efficient use of existing resources. As such, there are several uncertainties associated with utility decisions. These uncertainties include future load growth, construction times and costs, and performance of new resources. Regulatory and economic environments also present uncertainties. Uncertainty can be modeled based on a probabilistic approach where probability distributions for all of the uncertainties are assumed. Another approach to modeling uncertainty is referred to as unknown but bounded. In this approach, the upper and lower bounds on the uncertainties are assumed without probability distributions. Interval mathematics is a tool for the practical use and extension of the unknown but bounded concept. In this study, the calculation of transmission line sag was used as an example to demonstrate the use of interval mathematics. The objective was to determine the change in cable length, based on a fixed span and an interval of cable sag values for a range of temperatures. The resulting change in cable length was an interval corresponding to the interval of cable sag values. It was shown that there is a small change in conductor length due to variation in sag based on the temperature ranges used in this study. 8 refs.

  16. Modeling Change Over Time: Conceptualization, Measurement, Analysis, and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-12

    2007 to 29-11-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Modeling Change Over Time: Conceptualization, Measurement, Analysis, and Interpretation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER...Multilevel Modeling Portal (www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/ mlm /) and the Web site of the Center for Multilevel Modeling (http://multilevel.ioe.ac.uk/index.html

  17. Intrasubject registration for change analysis in medical imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staring, M.

    2008-01-01

    Image matching is important for the comparison of medical images. Comparison is of clinical relevance for the analysis of differences due to changes in the health of a patient. For example, when a disease is imaged at two time points, then one wants to know if it is stable, has regressed, or

  18. Shoreline change analysis of Vedaranyam coast, Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesan, Usha; Thulasiraman, N; Deepthi, K; Kathiravan, K

    2013-06-01

    The coastal zone is one of the nation's greatest environmental and economic assets. The present research aims at studying the shoreline changes along Vedaranyam coast using conventional and modern techniques including field sampling, remote sensing, and geographical information system (GIS). The study area was divided into three zones. Dynamic Land/Sea polygon analysis was performed to obtain the shore line changes at different time periods between 1930 and 2005. From the multidate shoreline maps, the rate of shoreline change was computed using linear regression rate and end point rate. Further, the shoreline was classified into eroding, accreting, and stable regions through GIS analysis. The eroding, accreting, and stable coastal stretch along Vedaranyam is observed as 18 %, 80.5 %, and 1.5 %, respectively. Net shoreline movement is seaward, i.e., the coast is progressive with an average rate of 5 m/year. A maximum shoreline displacement of 1.3 km towards the sea is observed near Point Calimere. During the Asian Tsunami 2004, the eastern part of the study area showed high erosion. Sediment transport paths derived from the grain size analysis of beach sediments collected during different seasons help to identify the major sediment source and sinks. Point Calimere acts as the major sink for sediments whereas Agastiyampalli and Kodiakkarai are found to be the major sources for the sediment supply along the Vedaranyam coast. Shoreline change study from field and satellite data using GIS analysis confirms that Vedaranyam coast is accreting in nature.

  19. Changes in latent fingerprint examiners' markup between analysis and comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulery, Bradford T; Hicklin, R Austin; Roberts, Maria Antonia; Buscaglia, JoAnn

    2015-02-01

    After the initial analysis of a latent print, an examiner will sometimes revise the assessment during comparison with an exemplar. Changes between analysis and comparison may indicate that the initial analysis of the latent was inadequate, or that confirmation bias may have affected the comparison. 170 volunteer latent print examiners, each randomly assigned 22 pairs of prints from a pool of 320 total pairs, provided detailed markup documenting their interpretations of the prints and the bases for their comparison conclusions. We describe changes in value assessments and markup of features and clarity. When examiners individualized, they almost always added or deleted minutiae (90.3% of individualizations); every examiner revised at least some markups. For inconclusive and exclusion determinations, changes were less common, and features were added more frequently when the image pair was mated (same source). Even when individualizations were based on eight or fewer corresponding minutiae, in most cases some of those minutiae had been added during comparison. One erroneous individualization was observed: the markup changes were notably extreme, and almost all of the corresponding minutiae had been added during comparison. Latents assessed to be of value for exclusion only (VEO) during analysis were often individualized when compared to a mated exemplar (26%); in our previous work, where examiners were not required to provide markup of features, VEO individualizations were much less common (1.8%).

  20. Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting with short relaxation intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amthor, Thomas; Doneva, Mariya; Koken, Peter; Sommer, Karsten; Meineke, Jakob; Börnert, Peter

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate a technique for improving the performance of Magnetic Resonance Fingerprinting (MRF) in repetitive sampling schemes, in particular for 3D MRF acquisition, by shortening relaxation intervals between MRF pulse train repetitions. A calculation method for MRF dictionaries adapted to short relaxation intervals and non-relaxed initial spin states is presented, based on the concept of stationary fingerprints. The method is applicable to many different k-space sampling schemes in 2D and 3D. For accuracy analysis, T1 and T2 values of a phantom are determined by single-slice Cartesian MRF for different relaxation intervals and are compared with quantitative reference measurements. The relevance of slice profile effects is also investigated in this case. To further illustrate the capabilities of the method, an application to in-vivo spiral 3D MRF measurements is demonstrated. The proposed computation method enables accurate parameter estimation even for the shortest relaxation intervals, as investigated for different sampling patterns in 2D and 3D. In 2D Cartesian measurements, we achieved a scan acceleration of more than a factor of two, while maintaining acceptable accuracy: The largest T1 values of a sample set deviated from their reference values by 0.3% (longest relaxation interval) and 2.4% (shortest relaxation interval). The largest T2 values showed systematic deviations of up to 10% for all relaxation intervals, which is discussed. The influence of slice profile effects for multislice acquisition is shown to become increasingly relevant for short relaxation intervals. In 3D spiral measurements, a scan time reduction of 36% was achieved, maintaining the quality of in-vivo T1 and T2 maps. Reducing the relaxation interval between MRF sequence repetitions using stationary fingerprint dictionaries is a feasible method to improve the scan efficiency of MRF sequences. The method enables fast implementations of 3D spatially resolved

  1. Analysis of changing hidden energy flow in Vietnam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen Thi Anh Tuyet [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8501 (Japan)]. E-mail: a_tuyet@yahoo.com; Ishihara, Keiichi N. [Graduate School of Energy Science, Kyoto University, Yoshida Honmachi, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto, 606-8501 (Japan)]. E-mail: ishihara@energy.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2006-09-15

    The energy consumption in production process is changing especially in developing countries by substituting technology. Input-output analysis for energy flows has been developing and is one of the best solutions for investigating macroscopic exchanges of both economy and energy. Since each element in the Leontief inverse contains both direct and indirect effects of any change in final demand, to separate those direct and indirect effects, the power series expansion is available. In this work, the changes of embodied energy intensity in Vietnam from 1996 to 2000 were analyzed using the structural decomposition and its power series expansion. By illustrating the change of causal relationship between direct energy consumption and embodied energy consumption, the change of hidden energy flow, which indicates how the changing embodied energy builds up the change of direct energy consumption in every sector, can be seen. In the case study, the rice processing sector, which is one of the important food processing sectors in Vietnam, is focused. By drawing a diagrammatic map for the change of hidden energy flow, it is clarified that in the case of raising embodied energy intensity, cultivation sector and trade and repaired service sector are the main contributors, and, on the contrary, in the case of reducing embodied energy intensity, paper pulp sector is the main contributor.

  2. A targeted change-detection procedure by combining change vector analysis and post-classification approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Su; Chen, Dongmei; Yu, Jie

    2016-04-01

    In remote sensing, conventional supervised change-detection methods usually require effective training data for multiple change types. This paper introduces a more flexible and efficient procedure that seeks to identify only the changes that users are interested in, here after referred to as "targeted change detection". Based on a one-class classifier "Support Vector Domain Description (SVDD)", a novel algorithm named "Three-layer SVDD Fusion (TLSF)" is developed specially for targeted change detection. The proposed algorithm combines one-class classification generated from change vector maps, as well as before- and after-change images in order to get a more reliable detecting result. In addition, this paper introduces a detailed workflow for implementing this algorithm. This workflow has been applied to two case studies with different practical monitoring objectives: urban expansion and forest fire assessment. The experiment results of these two case studies show that the overall accuracy of our proposed algorithm is superior (Kappa statistics are 86.3% and 87.8% for Case 1 and 2, respectively), compared to applying SVDD to change vector analysis and post-classification comparison.

  3. Seasonal changes in the microbial community of a salt marsh, measured by phospholipid fatty acid analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keith-Roach, Miranda; Bryan, N.D.; Bardgett, R.D.;

    2002-01-01

    to characterise biogeochemical processes occurring at this site. Phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis of sediment samples collected at monthly intervals was used to measure seasonal changes in microbial biomass and community structure. The PLFA data were analysed using multivariate techniques (Ward's method...... defined, showing differences in the community structure over the course of a year. At all times, the microbial community was dominated by PLFA associated with aerobic bacteria, but this was most pronounced in summer (August). The abundance of branched fatty acids, a measure of the biomass of anaerobes......, started to increase later in the year than did those associated with aerobes and the fungal biomarker 18:2omega6 showed a brief late-summer peak. The salt marsh remained mildly oxic throughout the year despite the increase in microbial respiration, suggested by the large increases in the abundance of PLFA...

  4. Analysis of Onset Mechanisms of a Sphingosine 1-Phosphate Receptor Modulator Fingolimod-Induced Atrioventricular Conduction Block and QT-Interval Prolongation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, Yukihiro [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Toho University, 5-21-16 Omori-nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo 143–8540 (Japan); Pharmaceutical Research Center, Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., 760 Morooka-cho, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 222–8567 (Japan); Nakamura, Yuji [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Toho University, 5-21-16 Omori-nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo 143–8540 (Japan); Kitahara, Ken [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Toho University, 5-21-16 Omori-nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo 143–8540 (Japan); Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Toho University, 6-11-1 Omori-nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo 143–8541 (Japan); Harada, Takuma [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Toho University, 5-21-16 Omori-nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo 143–8540 (Japan); Kato, Kazuhiko; Ninomiya, Tomohisa [Pharmaceutical Research Center, Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., 760 Morooka-cho, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 222–8567 (Japan); Cao, Xin [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Toho University, 5-21-16 Omori-nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo 143–8540 (Japan); Ohara, Hiroshi [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Toho University, 5-21-16 Omori-nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo 143–8540 (Japan); Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Toho University, 6-11-1 Omori-nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo 143–8541 (Japan); Izumi-Nakaseko, Hiroko [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Toho University, 5-21-16 Omori-nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo 143–8540 (Japan); Suzuki, Kokichi [Pharmaceutical Research Center, Meiji Seika Pharma Co., Ltd., 760 Morooka-cho, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 222–8567 (Japan); Ando, Kentaro [Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Toho University, 5-21-16 Omori-nishi, Ota-ku, Tokyo 143–8540 (Japan); and others

    2014-11-15

    Fingolimod, a sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor subtype 1, 3, 4 and 5 modulator, has been used for the treatment of patients with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis, but atrioventricular conduction block and/or QT-interval prolongation have been reported in some patients after the first dose. In this study, we directly compared the electropharmacological profiles of fingolimod with those of siponimod, a modulator of sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor subtype 1 and 5, using in vivo guinea-pig model and in vitro human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) assay to better understand the onset mechanisms of the clinically observed adverse events. Fingolimod (0.01 and 0.1 mg/kg) or siponimod (0.001 and 0.01 mg/kg) was intravenously infused over 10 min to the halothane-anaesthetized guinea pigs (n = 4), whereas the effects of fingolimod (1 μmol/L) and siponimod (1 μmol/L) on hERG current were examined (n = 3). The high doses of fingolimod and siponimod induced atrioventricular conduction block, whereas the low dose of siponimod prolonged PR interval, which was not observed by that of fingolimod. The high dose of fingolimod prolonged QT interval, which was not observed by either dose of siponimod. Meanwhile, fingolimod significantly inhibited hERG current, which was not observed by siponimod. These results suggest that S1P receptor subtype 1 in the heart could be one of the candidates for fingolimod- and siponimod-induced atrioventricular conduction block since S1P receptor subtype 5 is localized at the brain, and that direct I{sub Kr} inhibition may play a key role in fingolimod-induced QT-interval prolongation. - Highlights: • Fingolimod and siponimod are S1P{sub 1,3,4,5} and S1P{sub 1,5} receptor modulators, respectively. • Fingolimod and siponimod induced AV block in the halothane-anesthetized guinea pigs. • S1P{sub 1} in the hearts may be the target of fingolimod- and siponimod-induced AV block. • Fingolimod directly inhibited hERG current, which was not

  5. Detection of Functional Change Using Cluster Trend Analysis in Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Stuart K; Mansberger, Steven L; Demirel, Shaban

    2017-05-01

    Global analyses using mean deviation (MD) assess visual field progression, but can miss localized changes. Pointwise analyses are more sensitive to localized progression, but more variable so require confirmation. This study assessed whether cluster trend analysis, averaging information across subsets of locations, could improve progression detection. A total of 133 test-retest eyes were tested 7 to 10 times. Rates of change and P values were calculated for possible re-orderings of these series to generate global analysis ("MD worsening faster than x dB/y with P cluster analyses ("n locations [or clusters] worsening faster than x dB/y with P cluster analysis criterion, and 4.1 years (95% CI, 4.0-4.5) for the best pointwise criterion. However, for pointwise analysis, only 38% of these changes were confirmed, compared with 61% for clusters and 76% for MD. The time until 25% of eyes showed subsequently confirmed deterioration was 6.3 years (95% CI, 6.0-7.2) for global, 6.3 years (95% CI, 6.0-7.0) for pointwise, and 6.0 years (95% CI, 5.3-6.6) for cluster analyses. Although the specificity is still suboptimal, cluster trend analysis detects subsequently confirmed deterioration sooner than either global or pointwise analyses.

  6. Explorative data analysis for changes in neural activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blythe, Duncan A. J.; Meinecke, Frank C.; von Bünau, Paul; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2013-04-01

    Neural recordings are non-stationary time series, i.e. their properties typically change over time. Identifying specific changes, e.g., those induced by a learning task, can shed light on the underlying neural processes. However, such changes of interest are often masked by strong unrelated changes, which can be of physiological origin or due to measurement artifacts. We propose a novel algorithm for disentangling such different causes of non-stationarity and in this manner enable better neurophysiological interpretation for a wider set of experimental paradigms. A key ingredient is the repeated application of Stationary Subspace Analysis (SSA) using different temporal scales. The usefulness of our explorative approach is demonstrated in simulations, theory and EEG experiments with 80 brain-computer interfacing subjects.

  7. Static response analysis of structures with interval parameters using the second-order Taylor series expansion and the DCA for QB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Qiu, Zhiping; Zhang, Xudong

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, based on the second-order Taylor series expansion and the difference of convex functions algorithm for quadratic problems with box constraints (the DCA for QB), a new method is proposed to solve the static response problem of structures with fairly large uncertainties in interval parameters. Although current methods are effective for solving the static response problem of structures with interval parameters with small uncertainties, these methods may fail to estimate the region of the static response of uncertain structures if the uncertainties in the parameters are fairly large. To resolve this problem, first, the general expression of the static response of structures in terms of structural parameters is derived based on the second-order Taylor series expansion. Then the problem of determining the bounds of the static response of uncertain structures is transformed into a series of quadratic problems with box constraints. These quadratic problems with box constraints can be solved using the DCA approach effectively. The numerical examples are given to illustrate the accuracy and the efficiency of the proposed method when comparing with other existing methods.

  8. Factors that prolong the 'postmortem interval until finding' (PMI-f) among community-dwelling elderly individuals in Japan: analysis of registration data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tomoko; Tamiya, Nanako; Takahashi, Hideto; Yamazaki, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Hideki; Sakano, Shoji; Kashiwagi, Masayo; Miyaishi, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    To clarify the factors affecting 'postmortem interval until finding' (PMI-f) among elderly unexpected death cases. Cross-sectional study. All area of Yamagata prefecture in Japan. Entering subjects were 5675 elderly cases with age of ≥65 years selected from all 9002 cases of unexpected death from 2002 to 2007 in Yamagata prefecture between 2002 and 2007. Our final study subjects consisted of 3387 cases sampled with several criteria to assess the factors to prolong PMI-f. The outcome was the postmortem interval until finding (PMI-f) as the time from death until finding the body which we defined in this study. 'Living alone' showed the highest adjusted HR (3.73, 95% CI 3.37 to 4.13), also 'unnatural death' (1.50, 1.28 to 1.75), 'found at own home' (1.37, 1.22 to 1.55) and 'younger subjects' (0.99, 0.98 to 0.99). In the model including interactions with the household situation, we found 'male subjects living alone' and 'female subjects living with family' tended to be found later. PMI-f is an effective outcome for quantitative analyses of risk of bodies left. To prevent the elderly dead bodies left for long time, it is necessary to keep regular home-based contact with elderly individuals living alone.

  9. Thermal analysis of physical and chemical changes occuring during regeneration of activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radić Dejan B.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High-temperature thermal process is a commercial way of regeneration of spent granular activated carbon. The paper presents results of thermal analysis conducted in order to examine high-temperature regeneration of spent activated carbon, produced from coconut shells, previously used in drinking water treatment. Results of performed thermogravimetric analysis, derivative thermogravimetric analysis, and differential thermal analysis, enabled a number of hypotheses to be made about different phases of activated carbon regeneration, values of characteristic parameters during particular process phases, as well as catalytic impact of inorganic materials on development of regeneration process. Samples of activated carbon were heated up to 1000°C in thermogravimetric analyser while maintaining adequate oxidizing or reducing conditions. Based on diagrams of thermal analysis for samples of spent activated carbon, temperature intervals of the first intense mass change phase (180-215°C, maximum of exothermic processes (400-450°C, beginning of the second intense mass change phase (635-700°C, and maximum endothermic processes (800-815°C were deter-mined. Analysing and comparing the diagrams of thermal analysis for new, previously regenerated and spent activated carbon, hypothesis about physical and chemical transformations of organic and inorganic adsorbate in spent activated carbon are given. Transformation of an organic adsorbate in the pores of activated carbon, results in loss of mass and an exothermic reaction with oxygen in the vapour phase. The reactions of inorganic adsorbate also result the loss of mass of activated carbon during its heating and endothermic reactions of their degradation at high temperatures.

  10. The Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) Version 4.0 - An ArcGIS extension for calculating shoreline change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieler, E. Robert; Himmelstoss, Emily A.; Zichichi, Jessica L.; Ergul, Ayhan

    2009-01-01

    The Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.0 is a software extension to ESRI ArcGIS v.9.2 and above that enables a user to calculate shoreline rate-of-change statistics from multiple historic shoreline positions. A user-friendly interface of simple buttons and menus guides the user through the major steps of shoreline change analysis. Components of the extension and user guide include (1) instruction on the proper way to define a reference baseline for measurements, (2) automated and manual generation of measurement transects and metadata based on user-specified parameters, and (3) output of calculated rates of shoreline change and other statistical information. DSAS computes shoreline rates of change using four different methods: (1) endpoint rate, (2) simple linear regression, (3) weighted linear regression, and (4) least median of squares. The standard error, correlation coefficient, and confidence interval are also computed for the simple and weighted linear-regression methods. The results of all rate calculations are output to a table that can be linked to the transect file by a common attribute field. DSAS is intended to facilitate the shoreline change-calculation process and to provide rate-of-change information and the statistical data necessary to establish the reliability of the calculated results. The software is also suitable for any generic application that calculates positional change over time, such as assessing rates of change of glacier limits in sequential aerial photos, river edge boundaries, land-cover changes, and so on.

  11. The Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) Version 4.0 - An ArcGIS Extension for Calculating Shoreline Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieler, E. Robert; Himmelstoss, Emily A.; Zichichi, Jessica L.; Ergul, Ayhan

    2009-01-01

    The Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) version 4.0 is a software extension to ESRI ArcGIS v.9.2 and above that enables a user to calculate shoreline rate-of-change statistics from multiple historic shoreline positions. A user-friendly interface of simple buttons and menus guides the user through the major steps of shoreline change analysis. Components of the extension and user guide include (1) instruction on the proper way to define a reference baseline for measurements, (2) automated and manual generation of measurement transects and metadata based on user-specified parameters, and (3) output of calculated rates of shoreline change and other statistical information. DSAS computes shoreline rates of change using four different methods: (1) endpoint rate, (2) simple linear regression, (3) weighted linear regression, and (4) least median of squares. The standard error, correlation coefficient, and confidence interval are also computed for the simple and weighted linear-regression methods. The results of all rate calculations are output to a table that can be linked to the transect file by a common attribute field. DSAS is intended to facilitate the shoreline change-calculation process and to provide rate-of-change information and the statistical data necessary to establish the reliability of the calculated results. The software is also suitable for any generic application that calculates positional change over time, such as assessing rates of change of glacier limits in sequential aerial photos, river edge boundaries, land-cover changes, and so on.

  12. Demonstrating Change with Astronaut Photography Using Object Based Image Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollier, Andi; Jagge, Amy

    2017-01-01

    Every day, hundreds of images of Earth flood the Crew Earth Observations database as astronauts use hand held digital cameras to capture spectacular frames from the International Space Station. The variety of resolutions and perspectives provide a template for assessing land cover change over decades. We will focus on urban growth in the second fastest growing city in the nation, Houston, TX, using Object-Based Image Analysis. This research will contribute to the land change science community, integrated resource planning, and monitoring of the rapid rate of urban sprawl.

  13. The Processing and Analysis of Lunar Penetrating Radar Channel-1 Data from Chang'E-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yun-ze

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Lunar Penetrating Radar (LPR, which is one of the most important science payloads onboard the Chang'E-3 (CE-3 rover, is used to obtain electromagnetic image less than 100 m beneath the lunar surface. This paper describes the system composition and working mechanism of the LPR and presents a detailed analysis of its data. We investigated special signal-processing methods and present the result of channel-1 data. The result shows that the effective echo occurs at depths greater than 100 m. Moreover, an unusual reflection exists at depth of 40 m, which may be the boundary of two geological units beneath the lunar surface.

  14. Minimax confidence intervals in geomagnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Philip B.

    1992-01-01

    The present paper uses theory of Donoho (1989) to find lower bounds on the lengths of optimally short fixed-length confidence intervals (minimax confidence intervals) for Gauss coefficients of the field of degree 1-12 using the heat flow constraint. The bounds on optimal minimax intervals are about 40 percent shorter than Backus' intervals: no procedure for producing fixed-length confidence intervals, linear or nonlinear, can give intervals shorter than about 60 percent the length of Backus' in this problem. While both methods rigorously account for the fact that core field models are infinite-dimensional, the application of the techniques to the geomagnetic problem involves approximations and counterfactual assumptions about the data errors, and so these results are likely to be extremely optimistic estimates of the actual uncertainty in Gauss coefficients.

  15. Rapid Analysis and Time Interval Deconvolution for Comprehensive Fuel Compound Group Classification and Speciation Using Gas Chromatography-Vacuum Ultraviolet Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Phillip; Garbalena, Manuel; Schug, Kevin A

    2016-11-15

    A time interval deconvolution (TID) method was devised to integrate a gas chromatography-vacuum ultraviolet (GC-VUV) data set in order to provide bulk characterization and speciation of finished gasoline samples. The method was demonstrated using a commercially available standard and tested on a series of ASTM gasoline proficiency samples. Very good correlation (R(2) ∼ 0.97-0.99) between GC-VUV and measurements using various ASTM methods was achieved. A key advantage of the TID method applied to GC-VUV data sets is that a large number of coelution events can be tolerated, resulting in significantly easier and faster separations, approximately 30 min in the case of gasoline. Methods for determining relative response factors, VUV reference libraries, and generalization to other types of complex samples are also discussed.

  16. Sustainability analysis of bioenergy based land use change under climate change and variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, C.; Chaubey, I.; Brouder, S. M.; Bowling, L. C.; Cherkauer, K. A.; Frankenberger, J.; Goforth, R. R.; Gramig, B. M.; Volenec, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Sustainability analyses of futuristic plausible land use and climate change scenarios are critical in making watershed-scale decisions for simultaneous improvement of food, energy and water management. Bioenergy production targets for the US are anticipated to impact farming practices through the introduction of fast growing and high yielding perennial grasses/trees, and use of crop residues as bioenergy feedstocks. These land use/land management changes raise concern over potential environmental impacts of bioenergy crop production scenarios, both in terms of water availability and water quality; impacts that may be exacerbated by climate variability and change. The objective of the study was to assess environmental, economic and biodiversity sustainability of plausible bioenergy scenarios for two watersheds in Midwest US under changing climate scenarios. The study considers fourteen sustainability indicators under nine climate change scenarios from World Climate Research Programme's (WCRP's) Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 3 (CMIP3). The distributed hydrological model SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) was used to simulate perennial bioenergy crops such as Miscanthus and switchgrass, and corn stover removal at various removal rates and their impacts on hydrology and water quality. Species Distribution Models (SDMs) developed to evaluate stream fish response to hydrology and water quality changes associated with land use change were used to quantify biodiversity sustainability of various bioenergy scenarios. The watershed-scale sustainability analysis was done in the St. Joseph River watershed located in Indiana, Michigan, and Ohio; and the Wildcat Creek watershed, located in Indiana. The results indicate streamflow reduction at watershed outlet with increased evapotranspiration demands for high-yielding perennial grasses. Bioenergy crops in general improved in-stream water quality compared to conventional cropping systems (maize-soybean). Water

  17. Comparative Analysis of Interval, Skipped, and Key-vertebral Pedicle Screw Strategies for Correction in Patients With Lenke Type 1 Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Xu, Xi-Ming; Lu, Yanghu; Wei, Xian-Zhao; Zhu, Xiao-Dong; Li, Ming

    2016-03-01

    Pedicle screw constructs have become the mainstay for surgical correction in patients with spinal deformities. To reduce or avoid the risk of pedicle screw-based complications and to decrease the costs associated with pedicle screw instrumentation, some authors have introduced interval, skipped, and key-vertebral pedicle screw strategies for correction. However, there have been no comparisons of outcomes among these 3 pedicle screw-placement strategies.The aim of this study was to compare the correlative clinical outcomes of posterior correction and fusion with pedicle screw fixation using these 3 surgical strategies.Fifty-six consecutive patients with Lenke type 1 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis were included in this study. Twenty patients were treated with the interval pedicle screw strategy (IPSS), 20 with the skipped pedicle screw strategy (SPSS), and 16 with the key-vertebral pedicle screw strategy (KVPSS). Coronal and sagittal radiographs were analyzed before surgery, at 1 week after surgery, and at the last follow-up after surgery.There were no significant differences among the 3 groups regarding preoperative radiographic parameters. No significant difference was found between the IPSS and SPSS groups in correction of the main thoracic curve (70.8% vs 70.0%; P = 0.524). However, there were statistically significant differences between the IPSS and KVPSS groups (70.8% vs 64.9%) and between the SPSS and KVPSS groups (70.0% vs 64.9%) in correction of the main thoracic curve (P SPSS group was significantly higher than those in the IPSS (P SPSS and KVPSS groups (P SPSS, it can achieve a satisfactory clinical outcome and is more cost-effective.

  18. Factors that prolong the ‘postmortem interval until finding’ (PMI-f) among community-dwelling elderly individuals in Japan: analysis of registration data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Tomoko; Tamiya, Nanako; Takahashi, Hideto; Yamazaki, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Hideki; Sakano, Shoji; Kashiwagi, Masayo; Miyaishi, Satoru

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To clarify the factors affecting ‘postmortem interval until finding’ (PMI-f) among elderly unexpected death cases. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting All area of Yamagata prefecture in Japan. Participants Entering subjects were 5675 elderly cases with age of ≥65 years selected from all 9002 cases of unexpected death from 2002 to 2007 in Yamagata prefecture between 2002 and 2007. Our final study subjects consisted of 3387 cases sampled with several criteria to assess the factors to prolong PMI-f. Primary outcome measures The outcome was the postmortem interval until finding (PMI-f) as the time from death until finding the body which we defined in this study. Results ‘Living alone’ showed the highest adjusted HR (3.73, 95% CI 3.37 to 4.13), also ‘unnatural death’ (1.50, 1.28 to 1.75), ‘found at own home’ (1.37, 1.22 to 1.55) and ‘younger subjects’ (0.99, 0.98 to 0.99). In the model including interactions with the household situation, we found ‘male subjects living alone’ and ‘female subjects living with family’ tended to be found later. Conclusions PMI-f is an effective outcome for quantitative analyses of risk of bodies left. To prevent the elderly dead bodies left for long time, it is necessary to keep regular home-based contact with elderly individuals living alone. PMID:23024252

  19. Sex Change in Clownfish: Molecular Insights from Transcriptome Analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Casas, Laura

    2016-10-17

    Sequential hermaphroditism is a unique reproductive strategy among teleosts that is displayed mainly in fish species living in the coral reef environment. The reproductive biology of hermaphrodites has long been intriguing; however, very little is known about the molecular pathways underlying their sex change. Here, we provide the first de novo transcriptome analyses of a hermaphrodite teleost´s undergoing sex change in its natural environment. Our study has examined relative gene expression across multiple groups—rather than just two contrasting conditions— and has allowed us to explore the differential expression patterns throughout the whole process. Our analysis has highlighted the rapid and complex genomic response of the brain associated with sex change, which is subsequently transmitted to the gonads, identifying a large number of candidate genes, some well-known and some novel, involved in the process. The present study provides strong evidence of the importance of the sex steroidogenic machinery during sex change in clownfish, with the aromatase gene playing a central role, both in the brain and the gonad. This work constitutes the first genome-wide study in a social sex-changing species and provides insights into the genetic mechanism governing social sex change and gonadal restructuring in protandrous hermaphrodites.

  20. Sex Change in Clownfish: Molecular Insights from Transcriptome Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Laura; Saborido-Rey, Fran; Ryu, Taewoo; Michell, Craig; Ravasi, Timothy; Irigoien, Xabier

    2016-01-01

    Sequential hermaphroditism is a unique reproductive strategy among teleosts that is displayed mainly in fish species living in the coral reef environment. The reproductive biology of hermaphrodites has long been intriguing; however, very little is known about the molecular pathways underlying their sex change. Here, we provide the first de novo transcriptome analyses of a hermaphrodite teleost´s undergoing sex change in its natural environment. Our study has examined relative gene expression across multiple groups—rather than just two contrasting conditions— and has allowed us to explore the differential expression patterns throughout the whole process. Our analysis has highlighted the rapid and complex genomic response of the brain associated with sex change, which is subsequently transmitted to the gonads, identifying a large number of candidate genes, some well-known and some novel, involved in the process. The present study provides strong evidence of the importance of the sex steroidogenic machinery during sex change in clownfish, with the aromatase gene playing a central role, both in the brain and the gonad. This work constitutes the first genome-wide study in a social sex-changing species and provides insights into the genetic mechanism governing social sex change and gonadal restructuring in protandrous hermaphrodites. PMID:27748421

  1. Characterizing Global Fire Return Intervals from the MODIS Data Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubkova, M.; Boschetti, L.

    2016-12-01

    The term `fire regimes' was originally introduced in order to characterize spatial and temporal pattern and ecosystem impacts of fire on the landscape (Gill 1975). The availability of global, multiannual satellite fire data records has made it possible to investigate the spatial and temporal patterns of fire at the continental and global scale, yet there is no universal definition of fire regimes nor which fire characteristics to include, how to define them and what scale is considered appropriate for mapping fire characteristics (Morgan et al. 2001). There were several attempts to combine various fire characteristics to create a global map of fire regimes (Chuvieco et al. 2008, Archibald et al. 2013) conducting the analysis over fixed resolution cells (e.g. 0.5 degrees), but no explicit analysis of what scale is more appropriate to describe fire regimes has been conducted so far. This study focuses on fire return interval - one of the metrics commonly included in what constitutes a `fire regime' and conducts an analysis of the consistency of the results as a function of the scale of the aggregation. Fifteen years of MODIS data (2001-2015), the longest currently available, were used for this analysis. The analysis shows that regular, sub-degree cells are suitable for fire-prone areas like Africa and Australia where fire is likely to be observed within the cell during the study period, but not for forests with longer fire return intervals (e.g. > 100 years in boreal forests). Non-regular subdivisions, such as ecoregion maps, which have been previously used for sub-continental fire regime analysis (Malamud et al. 2005, Westerling et al. 2002) are able to characterize properly longer fire return intervals. The present analysis is the first step in a comprehensive, quantitative assessment of global fire activity trends with the MODIS fire record, and in the investigation of whether there is a relationship between fire pattern and changing climate.

  2. Reference Intervals in Neonatal Hematology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Erick; Christensen, Robert D

    2015-09-01

    The various blood cell counts of neonates must be interpreted in accordance with high-quality reference intervals based on gestational and postnatal age. Using very large sample sizes, we generated neonatal reference intervals for each element of the complete blood count (CBC). Knowledge of whether a patient has CBC values that are too high (above the upper reference interval) or too low (below the lower reference interval) provides important insights into the specific disorder involved and in many instances suggests a treatment plan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis of Water Utilization System Using Concentration Interval Analysis Method (Ⅱ) Discontinuous Process%基于浓度间隔分析的用水系统集成(Ⅱ)不连续过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永健; 袁希钢; 罗神青

    2007-01-01

    The first part of the series of this article proposed a systematic method for the synthesis of continuous water-using system involving both non-mass-transfer-based and mass-transfer-based operations.This article, by extending the method, proposes a time-dependent concentration interval analysis (CIA) method to solve the problems associated with the synthesis of discontinuous or batch water-using systems involving both non-mass- transfer-based and mass-transfer-based operation.This method can effectively identify the possibility of water reuse and the amount of water reused under time constraints for minimizing the consumption of freshwater in single or repeated batch/discontinuous water-using systems.Moreover, on the basis of the heuristic method adapted from concentration interval analysis method for the continuous process network design, the network design for the discontinuous or batch process can be obtained through the designs for every time interval.Case study illustrates that the method presented in this article can simultaneously minimize the freshwater consumption in single or repeated batch/discontinuous water system and can determine a preferable storage tank capacity for some problems.

  4. Climate Change: a critical analysis from Ecological Economy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    It is a critical and comparative analysis between environmental economics and ecological economics, and then establish the implications for policy instruments to deal with the phenomenon of climate change. From the comparison looks at some tools used by the Environmental Economics for Decision-making, given the specific environmental problems and limitations of neoclassical economics in the economic field does not provide the desired results. From Ecological Economics approaches are how decis...

  5. Identifying Changes of Complex Flood Dynamics with Recurrence Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendi, D.; Merz, B.; Marwan, N.

    2016-12-01

    Temporal changes in flood hazard system are known to be difficult to detect and attribute due to multiple drivers that include complex processes that are non-stationary and highly variable. These drivers, such as human-induced climate change, natural climate variability, implementation of flood defense, river training, or land use change, could impact variably on space-time scales and influence or mask each other. Flood time series may show complex behavior that vary at a range of time scales and may cluster in time. Moreover hydrological time series (i.e. discharge) are often subject to measurement errors, such as rating curve error especially in the case of extremes where observation are actually derived through extrapolation. This study focuses on the application of recurrence based data analysis techniques (recurrence plot) for understanding and quantifying spatio-temporal changes in flood hazard in Germany. The recurrence plot is known as an effective tool to visualize the dynamics of phase space trajectories i.e. constructed from a time series by using an embedding dimension and a time delay, and it is known to be effective in analyzing non-stationary and non-linear time series. Sensitivity of the common measurement errors and noise on recurrence analysis will also be analyzed and evaluated against conventional methods. The emphasis will be on the identification of characteristic recurrence properties that could associate typical dynamic to certain flood events.

  6. A Change Impact Analysis to Characterize Evolving Program Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rungta, Neha Shyam; Person, Suzette; Branchaud, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    Change impact analysis techniques estimate the potential effects of changes made to software. Directed Incremental Symbolic Execution (DiSE) is an intraprocedural technique for characterizing the impact of software changes on program behaviors. DiSE first estimates the impact of the changes on the source code using program slicing techniques, and then uses the impact sets to guide symbolic execution to generate path conditions that characterize impacted program behaviors. DiSE, however, cannot reason about the flow of impact between methods and will fail to generate path conditions for certain impacted program behaviors. In this work, we present iDiSE, an extension to DiSE that performs an interprocedural analysis. iDiSE combines static and dynamic calling context information to efficiently generate impacted program behaviors across calling contexts. Information about impacted program behaviors is useful for testing, verification, and debugging of evolving programs. We present a case-study of our implementation of the iDiSE algorithm to demonstrate its efficiency at computing impacted program behaviors. Traditional notions of coverage are insufficient for characterizing the testing efforts used to validate evolving program behaviors because they do not take into account the impact of changes to the code. In this work we present novel definitions of impacted coverage metrics that are useful for evaluating the testing effort required to test evolving programs. We then describe how the notions of impacted coverage can be used to configure techniques such as DiSE and iDiSE in order to support regression testing related tasks. We also discuss how DiSE and iDiSE can be configured for debugging finding the root cause of errors introduced by changes made to the code. In our empirical evaluation we demonstrate that the configurations of DiSE and iDiSE can be used to support various software maintenance tasks

  7. John Buridan's Sophismata and interval temporal semantics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uckelman, S.L.; Johnston, S.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we look at the suitability of modern interval-based temporal logic for modeling John Buridan’s treatment of tensed sentences in his Sophismata. Building on the paper [Øhrstrøm 1984], we develop Buridan’s analysis of temporal logic, paying particular attention to his notions of negation

  8. Effects of Interval Training Programme on Resting Heart Rate in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of Interval Training Programme on Resting Heart Rate in Subjects ... Results: Findings of the study revealed significant effect of exercise training program on HR. Also, changes in V02max negatively correlated with changes in HR (r= ...

  9. 药物致Q-T间期延长的文献分析%Literature Analysis of Drug-induced Q-T Interval Prolongation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆维静; 任晓蕾; 张海英

    2013-01-01

    近年来,临床实践有许多药物都会导致Q-T间期延长甚至尖端扭转型室性心律失常(TdP)。本文通过对1979年-2013年国内医药期刊公开报道的药物致Q-T间期延长的个案进行统计和分析,总结了56个病例的一般情况、引起Q-T间期延长的药物、发生时间及转归等,致Q-T间期延长药物中排在前三位的分别为抗心律失常药、抗微生物药、抗组胺药。大部分患者在用药后一个月内出现,停药及对症治疗后好转。临床医师应正确地认识药物致Q-T间期延长发生机制和易感因素,才能保证临床安全有效地使用药物。%Many medications can cause QT prolongation and torsades de pointes ventricular tachycardia (TdP), which were gradually discovered in recent years. Based on year 1979-2013 domestic medical journals and public report about drug-induced QT prolongation were collected and analyzed. Total of 56 cases were collected and summarized in respect of general condition of patients, drugs involved, occurrence times of ADR, outcomes and so on. The top three classes of drugs causing Q-T interval prolongation are antiarrhythmic drugs, antimicrobials and antihistamines. Most ADRs occurred within one month after treatment. ADRs relieved after drug withdrawal and symptomatic treatment. Physicians should pay more attention to the medications’ mechanisms and risk factors of drug-induced Q-T interval prolongation to ensure medication administration safety.

  10. [Proportional hazards model of birth intervals among marriage cohorts since the 1960s].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, K

    1987-01-01

    With a view to investigating the possibility of an attitudinal change towards the timing of 1st and 2nd births, proportional hazards model analysis of the 1st and 2nd birth intervals and univariate life table analysis were both carried out. Results showed that love matches and conjugal families immediately after marriage are accompanied by a longer 1st birth interval than others, even after controlling for other independent variables. Marriage cohort analysis also shows a net effect on the relative risk of having a 1st birth. Marriage cohorts since the mid-1960s demonstrate a shorter 1st birth interval than the 1961-63 cohort. With regard to the 2nd birth interval, longer 1st birth intervals, arranged marriages, conjugal families immediately following marriage, and higher ages at 1st marriage of women tended to provoke a longer 2nd birth interval. There is no interaction between the 1st birth interval and marriage cohort. Once other independent variables were controlled, with the exception of the marriage cohorts of the early 1970s, the authors found no effect of marriage cohort on the relative risk of having a 2nd birth. This suggests that an attitudinal change towards the timing of births in this period was mainly restricted to that of a 1st birth. Fluctuations in the 2nd birth interval during the 1970-72 marriage cohort were scrutinized in detail. As a result, the authors found that conjugal families after marriage, wives with low educational status, women with husbands in white collar professions, women with white collar fathers, and wives with high age at 1st marriage who married during 1970-72 and had a 1st birth interval during 1972-74 suffered most from the pronounced rise in the 2nd birth interval. This might be due to the relatively high sensitivity to a change in socioeconomic status; the oil crisis occurring around the time of marriage and 1st birth induced a delay in the 2nd birth. The unanimous decrease in the 2nd birth interval among the 1973

  11. 一般分布区间型符号数据的描述统计与分析%Descriptive statistics and analysis of interval symbolic data with general distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭均鹏; 李汶华; 高峰

    2011-01-01

    以对大规模个体数据通过打包形成的区间型符号数据为研究对象,针对个体在区间内往往不服从均匀分布的实际情况,研究一般分布的区间型符号数据的描述统计和分析方法.对符号数据分析进行了概述,并定义了一般分布的区间变量.研究了一般分布的区间变量的经验分布函数和经验联合分布函数.在此基础上,讨论了一般分布区间变量的描述统计量的求解.最后给出了算例,运用一般分布区间型符号数据的因子分析方法,以中国股市为背景进行了应用研究.结论表明:以往研究基于均匀分布假设所给出的描述统计量的计算,可看作文中所给求解公式的特例.另外,研究方法基于经验分布理论,无需知道个体在区间内服从分布函数的具体表达式,且在计算过程中充分利用了区间内的个体信息.%Interval symbolic data gained by data packaging on the original individuals of a sample are subjects of this paper. The individuals are always non-uniformly distributed within the intervals. Regarding this situation, this paper concentrates on descriptive statistics and analysis of generally distributed interval data, within which each individual is arbitrarily distributed. The basic theory of symbolic data analysis was first introduced. Then the definition of generally distributed interval was proposed. In the following, the study on empirical distribution function and empirical joint distribution function for generally distributed interval symbolic data were put forward. Based on this, the descriptive statistics of generally distributed interval variables were obtained. Finally a numerical example was given. And an application study in Chinese stock market was carried through using factor analysis of generally distributed interval symbolic data. Research shows that the previous works supposing uniform distribution are especial case of this work. Besides this, the method presented in

  12. Growth Curve Analysis and Change-Points Detection in Extremes

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Rui

    2016-05-15

    The thesis consists of two coherent projects. The first project presents the results of evaluating salinity tolerance in barley using growth curve analysis where different growth trajectories are observed within barley families. The study of salinity tolerance in plants is crucial to understanding plant growth and productivity. Because fully-automated smarthouses with conveyor systems allow non-destructive and high-throughput phenotyping of large number of plants, it is now possible to apply advanced statistical tools to analyze daily measurements and to study salinity tolerance. To compare different growth patterns of barley variates, we use functional data analysis techniques to analyze the daily projected shoot areas. In particular, we apply the curve registration method to align all the curves from the same barley family in order to summarize the family-wise features. We also illustrate how to use statistical modeling to account for spatial variation in microclimate in smarthouses and for temporal variation across runs, which is crucial for identifying traits of the barley variates. In our analysis, we show that the concentrations of sodium and potassium in leaves are negatively correlated, and their interactions are associated with the degree of salinity tolerance. The second project studies change-points detection methods in extremes when multiple time series data are available. Motived by the scientific question of whether the chances to experience extreme weather are different in different seasons of a year, we develop a change-points detection model to study changes in extremes or in the tail of a distribution. Most of existing models identify seasons from multiple yearly time series assuming a season or a change-point location remains exactly the same across years. In this work, we propose a random effect model that allows the change-point to vary from year to year, following a given distribution. Both parametric and nonparametric methods are developed

  13. Arctic climate change and oil spill risk analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William B. Samuels; David E. Amstutz; Heather A. Crowley

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to:1) describe the effects of climate change in the Arctic and its impact on circulation,2) describe hindcast data used in the Ocean Energy Management,Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE) Oil Spill Risk Analysis (OSRA) model,3)evaluate alternatives such as using forecast results in the OSRA model,and 4) recommend future studies.Effects of climate change on winds,sea ice,ocean circulation and river discharge in the Arctic and impacts on surface circulation can be evaluated only through a series of specially designed numerical experiments using highresolution coupled ice-ocean models to elucidate the sensitivity of the models to various parameterizations or forcings.The results of these experiments will suggest what mechanisms are most important in controlling model response and guide inferences on how OSRA may respond to different climate change scenarios.Climatological change in the Arctic could lead to drastic alterations of wind,sea ice cover and concentration,and surface current fields all of which would influence hypothetical oil spill trajectories.Because of the pace at which conditions are changing,BOEMRE needs to assess whether forecast ice/ocean model results might contain useful information for the purposes of calculating hypothetical oil spill trajectories.

  14. Analysis of Nigerian insurers’ perceptions of climate change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelda Anne Elum

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, global agricultural productivity has been increasingly affected by climate change. It is believed that societal adoption of insurance as an adaptive response to climate change can have significant implications for insurers. The study investigates empirically insurers’ perceptions of climate change and the challenges they face in Nigeria. It examines the proposition that insurance firms in Nigeria are not mindful of the impact of climate change. The study applied the use of descriptive statistics, Kendall’s coefficient of concordance and principal component analysis on collected primary data. It was found that insurers in Nigeria were highly aware of climate change and its impact but did not believe it affects their operational costs and payments of claims. Although there is great scope for insurers to increase their client base in the Nigerian market, insurers face challenges of insurance rate-cutting, low patronage and environmental factors. The study concludes that there is a need for insurance regulators to enforce a level playing field for all firms. It also advocates for public support of private insurers to enhance insurance coverage for agriculture, the largest employer of labour in the country.

  15. Existence test for asynchronous interval iterations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kaj; Caprani, O.; Stauning, Ole

    1997-01-01

    In the search for regions that contain fixed points ofa real function of several variables, tests based on interval calculationscan be used to establish existence ornon-existence of fixed points in regions that are examined in the course ofthe search. The search can e.g. be performed...... as a synchronous (sequential) interval iteration:In each iteration step all components of the iterate are calculatedbased on the previous iterate. In this case it is straight forward to base simple interval existence and non-existencetests on the calculations done in each step of the iteration. The search can also...... be performed as an asynchronous (parallel) iteration: Only a few components are changed in each stepand this calculation is in general based on components from differentprevious iterates. For the asynchronous iteration it turns out thatsimple tests of existence and non-existence can be based...

  16. Explorations in Statistics: Confidence Intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran-Everett, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Learning about statistics is a lot like learning about science: the learning is more meaningful if you can actively explore. This third installment of "Explorations in Statistics" investigates confidence intervals. A confidence interval is a range that we expect, with some level of confidence, to include the true value of a population parameter…

  17. Thermal sensitivity analysis data utilizing Q10 scanning, Boltzmann slope factor and the change of molar heat capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, KyeongJin

    2016-03-01

    As a further elaboration of the recently devised Q10 scanning analysis ("Exceptionally high thermal sensitivity of rattlesnake TRPA1 correlates with peak current amplitude" [1]), the interval between current data points at two temperatures was shortened and the resulting parameters representing thermal sensitivities such as peak Q10s and temperature points of major thermosensitivity events are presented for two TRPA1 orthologues from rattlesnakes and boas. In addition, the slope factors from Boltzmann fitting and the change of molar heat capacity of temperature-evoked currents were evaluated and compared as alternative ways of thermal sensitivity appraisal of TRPA1 orthologues.

  18. Complex sound analysis in the lesser bulldog bat: evidence for a mechanism for processing frequency elements of frequency modulated signals over restricted time intervals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roverud, R C

    1994-05-01

    A stereotypical approach phase vocalization response of the lesser bulldog bat, Noctilio albiventris, to artificial echoes simulating a virtual approaching object was used to assess the ability of the bat to analyze and extract distance information from the artificial echoes. The performance of the bat was not significantly different when presented with naturally structured CF/FM echoes containing FM elements that sweep continuously from about 75-55 kHz in 4 ms or with CF/FM echoes containing FM components constructed from a series of 98 pure tone frequency steps, each with a duration of 0.04 ms. The performance of the bat remained unchanged when the duration of the tone steps was increased up to 0.08 ms but declined sharply to a level that was significantly below that seen with a naturally structured echo when the steps were 0.09 ms or longer. The performance of the bat depended on the duration of the individual tone steps, which could not exceed a specific upper limit of about 0.08 ms. The study suggests that the bats have adaptations for processing individual narrow band segments of FM signals over specific time intervals.

  19. Single-Trial Analysis of Inter-Beat Interval Perturbations Accompanying Single-Switch Scanning: Case Series of Three Children With Severe Spastic Quadriplegic Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Brian; Chau, Tom

    2016-02-01

    Single-switch access in conjunction with scanning remains a fundamental solution in restoring communication for many children with profound physical disabilities. However, untimely switch inaction and unintentional switch activations can lead to user frustration and impede functional communication. A previous preliminary study, in the context of a case series with three single-switch users, reported that correct, accidental and missed switch activations could elicit cardiac deceleration and increased phasic skin conductance on average, while deliberate switch non-use was associated with autonomic nonresponse. The present study investigated the possibility of using blood volume pulse recordings from the same three pediatric single-switch users to track the aforementioned switch events on a single-trial basis. Peaks of the line length time series derived from the empirical mode decomposition of the inter-beat interval time series matched, on average, a high percentage (above 80%) of single-switch events, while unmatched peaks coincided moderately (below 37%) with idle time during scanning. These results encourage further study of autonomic measures as complementary information channels to enhance single-switch access.

  20. Real time measurement of RR intervals using a digital signal processor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttfield, A C; Bolton, M P

    2005-01-01

    The accurate measurement of beat to beat intervals is essential for subsequent heart rate variability analysis. Where the ECG is used to derive the intervals, timing can be affected by artefacts such as muscle noise, electrode instability and also shape changes in the QRS complex. Identifying the QRS time by correlation methods can minimize the uncertainty but the method is computationally intensive. We have developed a real time RR interval measurement system using a correlation technique running on a low cost digital signal processor (TMS320C31). Sampling rate is 1 KHz. Timing resolution is +/- 1 ms. The correlation process uses an averaged complex from the actual ECG and has an adaptive noise threshold. The high processing speed of a DSP has proved ideal for accurate RR interval measurement. The system is described and test results with various signal to noise ratios and different types of noise are presented.

  1. Heart rate dependency of JT interval sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hnatkova, Katerina; Johannesen, Lars; Vicente, Jose; Malik, Marek

    2017-08-09

    Little experience exists with the heart rate correction of J-Tpeak and Tpeak-Tend intervals. In a population of 176 female and 176 male healthy subjects aged 32.3±9.8 and 33.1±8.4years, respectively, curve-linear and linear relationship to heart rate was investigated for different sections of the JT interval defined by the proportions of the area under the vector magnitude of the reconstructed 3D vectorcardiographic loop. The duration of the JT sub-section between approximately just before the T peak and almost the T end was found heart rate independent. Most of the JT heart rate dependency relates to the beginning of the interval. The duration of the terminal T wave tail is only weakly heart rate dependent. The Tpeak-Tend is only minimally heart rate dependent and in studies not showing substantial heart rate changes does not need to be heart rate corrected. For any correction formula that has linear additive properties, heart rate correction of JT and JTpeak intervals is practically the same as of the QT interval. However, this does not apply to the formulas in the form of Int/RR(a) since they do not have linear additive properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A novel approach for system change pathway analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walaa Ibrahim Gabr

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is directed toward presenting a novel approach based on “consolidity charts” for the analysis of natural and man-made systems during their change pathway or course of life. The physical significance of the consolidity chart (region is that it marks the boundary of all system interactive behavior resulting from all exhaustive internal and external influences. For instance, at a specific event state, the corresponding consolidity region describes all the plausible points of normalized input–output (fuzzy or non-fuzzy interactions. These charts are developed as each event step for zone scaling of system parameters changes due to affected events or varying environments “on and above” their normal operation or set points and following the “time driven-event driven-parameters change” paradigm. Examples of the consolidity trajectory movement in the regions or patterns centers in the proposed charts of various consolidity classes are developed showing situations of change pathways from the unconsolidated form to the consolidated ones and vice versa. It is shown that the regions comparisons are based on type of consolidity region geometric shapes properties. Moreover, it is illustrated that the centerlines connecting consolidity regions during the change pathway could follow some certain type of trajectories designated as “consolidity pathway trajectory” that could assume various forms including zigzagging patterns depending on the consecutive affected influences. Implementation procedures are elaborated for the consolidity chart analysis of four real life case studies during their conventional and unconventional change pathways, describing: (i the drug concentration production problem, (ii the prey–predator population problem, (iii the spread of infectious disease problem and (iv the HIV/AIDS Epidemic problem. These solved case studies have lucidly demonstrated the applicability and effectiveness of the suggested

  3. Reliability analysis of digital protection system based on interval theory%基于区间理论的数字化保护系统可靠性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖飞; 吕飞鹏

    2013-01-01

    This paper puts forward two new programs for improving the redundancy configuration of traditional digital protection, and takes advantage of the GO methodology for modeling analysis. Considering the uncertainty of initial data of digital protection, interval values are used to revise them and interval evaluation is conducted based on the reliability model. Since the interval values contain the uncertain risks, the results are more scientific and practical. The proposed method is testified by an example and is proved to be effective.%  对传统的数字化保护系统冗余配置,提出了两种新的改进方案,并利用 GO 法进行建模分析。考虑数字化保护系统可靠性原始数据的不确定性,采用区间数值的方法来对原始数据进行修正,并结合提出的可靠性模型,对保护系统进行区间评估。由于区间值结果包含了不确定的风险因素,因此得到结果更科学、更符合实际。最后的算例对所提方法进行了验证,说明了该方法的有效性。

  4. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 to 2001 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  5. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2006 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  6. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  7. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 to 2001 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  8. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 to 2001 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  9. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 to 2016 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  10. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1975 to 1985 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  11. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 to 2016 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  12. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2006 to 2016 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  13. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 to 2001 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  14. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1975 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  15. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 to 1996 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  16. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 to 2016 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  17. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2010 to 2016 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  18. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 to 2005 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  19. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  20. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1975 to 2001 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  1. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 to 1996 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  2. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  3. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1975 to 2006 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  4. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1975 to 1996 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  5. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1975 to 2016 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  6. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 to 2006 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  7. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 to 2006 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  8. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 to 2006 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  9. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 to 2010 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  10. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 to 2006 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  11. 区间参数结构可靠性分析新模型%New model for reliability analysis of structures with interval parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙文彩; 杨自春

    2011-01-01

    In view of defects in the assumption of uniform distribution of uncertain information, an advanced description approach named fragment description model was proposed by using Chebyshev inequality and “3σ” principle. The interval bounds were considered as the edge of 3σ of stochastic variable. Based on the Chebyshev inequality, a series of conservative assumptions were made which were equal to assumptions of higher dispersion degree. The conservative probability density function named fragment description was given. The technique of sample data generation was proposed. The Monte Carlo simulation method for non-probabilistic reliability was given. The two examples given prove the feasibility and reasonableness of fragment description model. Comparison with other models shows that the fragment description approach can better reflect the reality of engineering and that the analytical results are more accurate and valid.%针对未确知性信息的区间均布假定盲目保守的缺陷,结合工程参变量的典型特征,运用Chebyshev不等式和"3σ原则",并在遵循工程安全原则的前提下,基于若干保守假定提出并建立了未确知性信息的分段描述模型,给出了分段描述随机数生成策略和非概率可靠度计算的Monte Carlo仿真方法.通过算例进行了模型验证,并与区间均布假定和概率分布假定作了比较.结果表明:分段描述方法相对于区间均布假定能更好地反映工程实际而不引起附加风险,计算结果精确、有效.

  12. Leading edge analysis of transcriptomic changes during pseudorabies virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Damarius S; Miller, Laura C

    2016-12-01

    Eight RNA samples taken from the tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN) of pigs that were either infected or non-infected with a feral isolate of porcine pseudorabies virus (PRV) were used to investigate changes in gene expression related to the pathogen. The RNA was processed into fastq files for each library prior to being analyzed using Illumina Digital Gene Expression Tag Profiling sequences (DGETP) which were used as the downstream measure of differential expression. Analyzed tags consisted of 21 base pair sequences taken from time points 1, 3, 6, and 14 days' post infection (dpi) that generated 1,927,547 unique tag sequences. Tag sequences were analyzed for differential transcript expression and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) to uncover transcriptomic changes related to PRV pathology progression. In conjunction with the DGETP and GSEA, the study also incorporated use of leading edge analysis to help link the TBLN transcriptome data to clinical progression of PRV at each of the sampled time points. The purpose of this manuscript is to provide useful background on applying the leading edge analysis to GSEA and expression data to help identify genes considered to be of high biological interest. The data in the form of fastq files has been uploaded to the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) (GSE74473) database.

  13. Nationwide Multicenter Reference Interval Study for 28 Common Biochemical Analytes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Liangyu; Chen, Ming; Liu, Min; Tao, Zhihua; Li, Shijun; Wang, Liang; Cheng, Xinqi; Qin, Xuzhen; Han, Jianhua; Li, Pengchang; Hou, Li'an; Yu, Songlin; Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Qiu, Ling

    2016-03-01

    A nationwide multicenter study was conducted in the China to explore sources of variation of reference values and establish reference intervals for 28 common biochemical analytes, as a part of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, Committee on Reference Intervals and Decision Limits (IFCC/C-RIDL) global study on reference values. A total of 3148 apparently healthy volunteers were recruited in 6 cities covering a wide area in China. Blood samples were tested in 2 central laboratories using Beckman Coulter AU5800 chemistry analyzers. Certified reference materials and value-assigned serum panel were used for standardization of test results. Multiple regression analysis was performed to explore sources of variation. Need for partition of reference intervals was evaluated based on 3-level nested ANOVA. After secondary exclusion using the latent abnormal values exclusion method, reference intervals were derived by a parametric method using the modified Box-Cox formula. Test results of 20 analytes were made traceable to reference measurement procedures. By the ANOVA, significant sex-related and age-related differences were observed in 12 and 12 analytes, respectively. A small regional difference was observed in the results for albumin, glucose, and sodium. Multiple regression analysis revealed BMI-related changes in results of 9 analytes for man and 6 for woman. Reference intervals of 28 analytes were computed with 17 analytes partitioned by sex and/or age. In conclusion, reference intervals of 28 common chemistry analytes applicable to Chinese Han population were established by use of the latest methodology. Reference intervals of 20 analytes traceable to reference measurement procedures can be used as common reference intervals, whereas others can be used as the assay system-specific reference intervals in China.

  14. Comparisons of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Values in Penumbra, Infarct, and Normal Brain Regions in Acute Ischemic Stroke: Confirmatory Data Using Bootstrap Confidence Intervals, Analysis of Variance, and Analysis of Means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Mejia, Mariana; Roldan-Valadez, Ernesto

    2016-03-01

    There is no consensus about apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in acute stroke regions that could be used by clinicians in a day-to-day clinical practice; regional measures using confidence intervals (CIs) and a graphic representation of means are scarce in the literature. Our aim in this study was to compare ADC values in infarct, penumbra, and normal brain regions in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). This is a retrospective study of 100 magnetic resonance imaging data sets from AIS patients. ADC values were measured in the infarct, penumbra, and normal regions. Three hundred measurements underwent 1-way analysis of variance, analysis of means, and calculation of 95% and 84% CIs. There was a statistically significant difference at the P level less than .025 in ADC values for the 3 regions (F[2, 297] = 168.039, P ≤ .001), with no overlap of the CIs for the means among the regions: normal brain (mean [M] = .847, standard deviation [SD] = .103, 95% CI: .825-.866), infarct (M = .533, SD = .157, 95% CI: .501-.563), and penumbra (M = .764, SD = .110, 95% CI: .740-.787). ADC values might be used as reference data in acute stroke-specific populations; CIs would provide radiologists and clinicians with additional quantitative tools to evaluate penumbra, infarct, and normal brain tissue and to tailor follow-up and treatment options for selected patients. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of Dynamic Electrocardiograms Characteristics in Long R-R Intervals of Atrial Fibrillation%房颤伴长R-R间期的动态心电图特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁华民; 戴红艳; 王晏平; 张俊义

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析房颤合并长R-R间期(>1.5 s)的动态心电图(DCG)特点,探讨DCG对房颤合并房室传导阻滞的诊断价值.方法将DCG记录到的186例房颤伴长R-R间期者分为睡眠相关组和睡眠无关组,分析平均心室率、长R-R间期昼夜发生频度及伴随症状.结果睡眠无关组患者睡眠及非睡眠时平均心室率均小于睡眠相关组;睡眠无关组长R-R间期、逸搏及逸搏心律发生频率明显高于睡眠相关组;睡眠相关组患者长间歇时不伴黑矇或晕厥,而睡眠无关组患者长间歇时有22例出现黑矇或晕厥,均发生在清醒状态时.结论分析房颤患者DCG长R-R间期发生的频度、时间等特征有助于判断生理性或病理性房室传导阻滞.%Objective To analyse the characteristics of dynamic electrocardiograms (DCG) in long R-R intervals of atrial fibrillation (AF), and explore the role of DCG in the diagnosis of atrioventrieular block (AVB) in AF patients. Methods 186 AF patients with long R-R intervals are divided into two groups: sleep-related group and non-sleep-related group, and analysis is accomplished on the average ventricular rates, frequencies of long R-R intervals, and the accompanying symptoms. Results The average ventricular rates are significantly lower in non-sleep-related group than those in sleep-related group, both during sleeping time and non-sleeping time. The frequencies of long R-R intervals, escape beats and escape rhythms are significantly higher in non-sleep-related group compared with sleep-related group. No amaurosis or syncope occurs in sleep-related group, while 22 of such symptoms happen in non-sleep-related group during non-sleeping time. Conclusion Analysis of characteristics of frequencies and time in long R-R intervals of DCG may be helpful in the judgment of physiological or pathological AVB in AF patients.

  16. Circular Interval Arithmetic Applied on LDMT for Linear Interval System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Ehidiamhen Uwamusi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the LDMT Factorization of a general nxn matrix arising from system of interval linear equations. We paid special emphasis on Interval Cholesky Factorization. The basic computational tool used is the square root method of circular interval arithmetic in a sense analogous to Gargantini and Henrici as well as the generalized square root method due to Petkovic which enables the construction of the square root of the resulting diagonal matrix. We also made use of Rump’s method for multiplying two intervals expressed in the form of midpoint-radius respectively. Numerical example of matrix factorization in this regard is given which forms the basis of discussion. It is shown that LDMT even though is a numerically stable method for any diagonally dominant matrix it also can lead to excess width of the solution set. It is also pointed out that in spite of the above mentioned objection to interval LDMT it has in addition , the advantage that in the presence of several solution sets sharing the same interval matrix the LDMT Factorization requires to be computed only once which helps in saving substantial computational time. This may be found applicable in the development of military hard ware which requires shooting at a single point but produces multiple broadcast at all other points

  17. DESCRIPTIVE ANALYSIS OF CORPORATE CULTURE FOLLOWING THE CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenko Zahariev

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Corporate culture more sensibly makes additions to the economic knowledge, accompanies the strategy and tactics in management. It feels in manners and overall activity of the organization - it is empathy and tolerance, respect and responsibility. The new corporate culture transforms each participant, changes his/her mind in the general collaborations and working habits. The new corporate culture requires improving the management style. It is no longer necessary the leader only to rule, to administer and control, but to lead and inspire. The leader sets challenging targets, optimizes the performance of the teams, fuels an optimistic mood and faith, gains agreement between workers, monitors and evaluate the work in a fair way. Current study raises the problem of interpreting cultural profiles in modern organizations and analyzes corporate culture after the changes during the transition period in Bulgaria. The descriptive analysis of corporate culture allows the relatively precise identification of its various types based on the accepted classification signs.

  18. Process Analysis in Container Shipping Network Structure Form Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chao

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Being aimed at the influence of ship-size and cargo-demand changes on container shipping networks, to reveal the evolution process of container shipping networks structure form, this paper respectively designed the operation models for two major container shipping networks structure forms: Multi-port-calling network and Hub-and-spoke network, to maximizing the investment efficiency. Based on the above models, a comprehensively integrated operation model of container shipping networks is built and the evolution process of container shipping networks structure form with changing of both ship-size and cargo demands is analyzed. Finally, through a case study, results show that the comprehensive integrated operation model is very effective in the analysis of evolution process of container shipping networks structure forms.

  19. Demographic changes in towns of Central Serbia: Comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipović Marko

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to intensive urbanization, Central Serbia's urban population reached almost 60% in the total population. Despite the fact that the urban residents share in Serbia is still bellow the level of urbanization in developed countries, in which the percentage of urban residents exudes 70% (in majority of cases even more than 80%, it is an impression that demographic "resources" of rural areas have bean rather exhausted and that all demographic revitalization potential of Central Serbia is concentrated in towns. This paper treats the demographic changes which encompassed the towns of Central Serbia since 1981 census onwards, with special emphasis on the population migrations as well as on the natural growth, i.e. age - gender structure formation featuring the towns of Central Serbia. The changes will be analyzed trough a comparative analysis at the level of small, medium sized towns and big cities, while Belgrade will be represent as a special category.

  20. Rock size-frequency distribution analysis at the Chang'E-3 landing site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Kaichang; Xu, Bin; Peng, Man; Yue, Zongyu; Liu, Zhaoqin; Wan, Wenhui; Li, Lichun; Zhou, Jianliang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the rock size-frequency distribution at the Chang'E-3 landing site. Using 84 Navcam stereo images acquired at 7 waypoints by the Yutu rover and an interactive stereo image processing system, a total of 582 rocks larger than 0.05 m in diameter were identified and measured. The statistical results of the size-frequency distribution show that the cumulative fractional area covered by rocks versus their diameter follows a simple exponential function and has a convex-up shape on log-log graphs with the slope increasing with diameter. The cumulative number of rocks versus diameter derived by numerically integrating the cumulative fractional area also shows a good fit with the data. A diameter-height relationship was also determined from height and diameter ratios. The observed rock statistics were also compared with those from other lunar missions, including the Surveyor, Apollo, and Lunokhod missions; results suggest that the rock distribution at the Chang'E-3 landing site is similar to that found by Surveyor III.

  1. Determination of the Optimal Sampling Interval for Cyclostratigraphic Analysis by Using Sampling Theorem and Accumulation Rates%利用采样定理与沉积速率确定旋回分析最佳采样间隔

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵庆乐; 吴怀春; 李海燕; 张世红

    2011-01-01

    旋回地层学方法近年来被成功应用于年代确定及重大地质事件天文影响因素的判别.采样是旋回分析中最重要的一步,目前大多使用地球物理、地球化学替代性指标.采样频率过高.会大大增加测量和计算的工作量,同时也会增加随机干扰或其他非气候因素的干扰;采样频率过低,可能识别不出其中所包含的米兰柯维奇旋回成分.为确定一个最佳的采样间隔,通过对80~100Ma理论日照量曲线及两个实测剖面3种采样间隔(密集采样问隔与约等于一个岁差周期沉积厚度四分之一和一半的采样间隔)数据分别进行谱估计并比较谱估计结果.发现在满足采样定理的前提下,以一个岁差周期沉积厚度的约一半作为采样间隔,既可以分析出全部的米兰柯维奇旋回信号,又具有最少的工作量,是旋回分析的最佳采样间隔.实际采样中需根据平均沉积速率来确定这个最佳采样间隔.%In recent years, cyclostratigraphy has been successfully applied to dating strata and recongnizing the possible astronomical forcing on major geological events. Sampling is one of the most important routines in cyclostratigraphic analysis to get the suitable geophysical or geochemical paleoclimate proxies. However, the workload will be significantly increased and random noises or other non-climatic noises will be introduced if the sampling frequency is too high; on the contrary, a lower sampling frequency may make it difficult to recognize Milankovitch signals in successions. In order to identify an optimal sampling interval, we used theoretic daily insolation data of time intervals of 80-100 Ma and two geological datasets to estimate each power spectra at three sampling intervals (high resolution, one quarter and half of one precession cycle), and then compared corresponding spectra analysis results. As a result, under the condition of satisfying the sampling theorem, sampling interval which

  2. The lucid interval associated with epidural bleeding: evolving understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganz, Jeremy C

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this paper was to elucidate the evolution of our understanding of the term "lucid interval." A number of texts were reviewed to assess their suitability for analysis. The primary requirement was that the text contain detailed descriptions of a series of patients. Details of the clinical course, the findings and timing of surgery, and, when relevant, the time of death and postmortem findings were required. Books written by Henri-François Le Dran, Percival Pott, and James Hill fulfilled these criteria. Surgical findings included the presence and type of fractures, changes in the bone, separation of periosteum, malodorous or purulent material, tense brain, and hematoma. Postmortem findings supplemented and/or complemented the surgical findings. The courses of the patients were then tabulated, and the correlation between different clinical and operative findings was thereby determined. Our understanding of a lucid interval began in the early 18th century with the work of Henri-François Le Dran and Percival Pott in London. They did not, however, demonstrate an interval without symptoms between trauma and deterioration in patients with epidural hematomas (EDHs). The interval they described was longer than usually expected with EDHs and occurred exclusively in patients who had a posttraumatic infection. In 1751, James Hill, from Dumfries, Scotland, described the first hematoma-related lucid interval in a patient with a subdural hematoma. The first case of a lucid interval associated with an EDH was described by John Abernethy. In the 19th century, Jonathan Hutchinson and Walter Jacobson described the interval as it is known today, in cases of EDH. The most recent work on the topic came from studies in Cincinnati and Oslo, where it was demonstrated that bleeding can separate dura mater and that hemorrhage into the epidural space can be shunted out via the veins. This shunting could delay the accumulation of a hematoma and thus the rise in intracranial pressure

  3. Changing housework, changing health? A longitudinal analysis of how changes in housework are associated with functional somatic symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landstedt, Evelina; Harryson, Lisa; Hammarström, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to analyse how changes in housework over the course of adulthood are related to somatic health in Swedish men and women. Methods Data were drawn from 2 waves of the Northern Swedish Cohort Study, response rate 94.3%, N=1,001. A subsample of cohabiting individuals was selected (n=328 women, 300 men). Outcome variable was functional somatic symptoms (FSS) at age 42. Associations were assessed in multivariate general linear models with adjustment for confounders and somatic health at age 30. Results Housework is primarily performed by women, and women's responsibility for and performance of housework increased from ages 30 to 42. These changes were associated with elevated levels of FSS at age 42 in women. Men reported considerably lower responsibility for and performed less housework compared with women, the load of housework for men does not change substantially from ages 30 to 42 and no associations with FSS were identified. Conclusions The gendered division of housework means that women are particularly exposed to a heavy workload. Women's responsibility for and performance of housework increase between ages 30 and 42 and this threatens to be embodied in the form FSS. We conclude that housework should be considered an important source of stress in addition to that from waged work and that a deeper understanding of the links between housework and health requires a gender theoretical analysis. PMID:27369590

  4. Climate change risk analysis framework (CCRAF) a probabilistic tool for analyzing climate change uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legget, J.; Pepper, W.; Sankovski, A.; Smith, J.; Tol, R.; Wigley, T.

    2003-04-01

    Potential risks of human-induced climate change are subject to a three-fold uncertainty associated with: the extent of future anthropogenic and natural GHG emissions; global and regional climatic responses to emissions; and impacts of climatic changes on economies and the biosphere. Long-term analyses are also subject to uncertainty regarding how humans will respond to actual or perceived changes, through adaptation or mitigation efforts. Explicitly addressing these uncertainties is a high priority in the scientific and policy communities Probabilistic modeling is gaining momentum as a technique to quantify uncertainties explicitly and use decision analysis techniques that take advantage of improved risk information. The Climate Change Risk Assessment Framework (CCRAF) presented here a new integrative tool that combines the probabilistic approaches developed in population, energy and economic sciences with empirical data and probabilistic results of climate and impact models. The main CCRAF objective is to assess global climate change as a risk management challenge and to provide insights regarding robust policies that address the risks, by mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and by adapting to climate change consequences. The CCRAF endogenously simulates to 2100 or beyond annual region-specific changes in population; GDP; primary (by fuel) and final energy (by type) use; a wide set of associated GHG emissions; GHG concentrations; global temperature change and sea level rise; economic, health, and biospheric impacts; costs of mitigation and adaptation measures and residual costs or benefits of climate change. Atmospheric and climate components of CCRAF are formulated based on the latest version of Wigley's and Raper's MAGICC model and impacts are simulated based on a modified version of Tol's FUND model. The CCRAF is based on series of log-linear equations with deterministic and random components and is implemented using a Monte-Carlo method with up to 5000

  5. Analysis on the R-R interval time series of automobile long distance drivers; Kosoku doro no chojikan soko ni yoru R-R kankakuji keiretsu kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyoshi, M.; Takata, K. [Daido Institute of Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Yokoyama, K. [Nagoya Municipal Women`s College, Nagoya (Japan); Yoshioka, T.; Watanabe, Y. [Toyota National College of Technology, Aichi (Japan)

    1995-04-20

    Analyses were performed on change in living body information as time elapses while driving a car, the differences between automobile drivers and fellow passengers, and between automobile drivers and motorcycle drivers. A comparison on body temperatures in automobile drivers and motorcycle drivers shows sharper changes in the motorcycle drivers. Motorcycles, being different from automobiles, put the drivers exposed to atmosphere during driving, applying larger living body load. Adrenalin increases its concentration when a human is under mental load, so does noradrenalin when under physical load. Both of adrenalin and noradrenalin showed an increasing trend in the afternoon as compared with in the morning. From the comparison with the normal daily life, fellow passengers have also large mental living body load, who were found to have concentration change of nearly two times or more than that in normal conditions. A subject who rode in a car in the first experiment and drove a motorcycle in the second experiment was discovered to have his right hand grasping power decreased remarkably after the second experiment. Fatigue factors unique to motorcycle driving are thought the engine vibration, the hot air, the need of taking balance of the motorcycle attitudes, and stress from noise. 14 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Interval Estimation of Seismic Hazard Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlecka-Sikora, Beata; Lasocki, Stanislaw

    2016-11-01

    The paper considers Poisson temporal occurrence of earthquakes and presents a way to integrate uncertainties of the estimates of mean activity rate and magnitude cumulative distribution function in the interval estimation of the most widely used seismic hazard functions, such as the exceedance probability and the mean return period. The proposed algorithm can be used either when the Gutenberg-Richter model of magnitude distribution is accepted or when the nonparametric estimation is in use. When the Gutenberg-Richter model of magnitude distribution is used the interval estimation of its parameters is based on the asymptotic normality of the maximum likelihood estimator. When the nonparametric kernel estimation of magnitude distribution is used, we propose the iterated bias corrected and accelerated method for interval estimation based on the smoothed bootstrap and second-order bootstrap samples. The changes resulted from the integrated approach in the interval estimation of the seismic hazard functions with respect to the approach, which neglects the uncertainty of the mean activity rate estimates have been studied using Monte Carlo simulations and two real dataset examples. The results indicate that the uncertainty of mean activity rate affects significantly the interval estimates of hazard functions only when the product of activity rate and the time period, for which the hazard is estimated, is no more than 5.0. When this product becomes greater than 5.0, the impact of the uncertainty of cumulative distribution function of magnitude dominates the impact of the uncertainty of mean activity rate in the aggregated uncertainty of the hazard functions. Following, the interval estimates with and without inclusion of the uncertainty of mean activity rate converge. The presented algorithm is generic and can be applied also to capture the propagation of uncertainty of estimates, which are parameters of a multiparameter function, onto this function.

  7. Critical discourse analysis: understanding change in maternity services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Meredith; Francis, Karen; Chapman, Ysanne

    2012-02-01

    This paper provides an example of the use of critical discourse analysis (CDA) in the area of maternity care policy and describes the process of CDA as an effective research method for understanding the influences of change in the context of Australian maternity services. CDA is a methodological approach that examines how discourse is formed and given power, as a result of how power is used, who uses it and the context within which this usage takes place. The application of CDA is described in this study for the purpose of examining key-stakeholder use of knowledge and power for the purpose of influencing the direction of the maternity services reform. The CDA theoretical framework guided discourse identification and analysis of the purpose behind the discourse through examination of power relationships between key stakeholders. The use of a theoretical lens in the form of neoliberalism to supplement the theoretical framework facilitated the exposure of forces intrinsic to the maternity care context driving change.

  8. 基于区间的耐压球壳非概率可靠性分析%Non-Probabilistic Reliability Analysis of Spherical Pressure Hulls Based on Interval Number Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    操安喜; 崔维成

    2014-01-01

    针对深海耐压球壳结构设计中不确定参数统计数据较少的现实情况,基于非概率可靠性分析理论,将影响球壳结构可靠性的不确定参数用区间变量来描述,采用极限载荷区间大于或等于所受载荷区间的满意程度来表征结构的可靠性指标。通过区间运算,获得了定量的结构非概率可靠性指标,该指标可供设计人员参考。以“蛟龙号”载人球壳为例,验证了该方法的实用性和有效性。%Sampling information of uncertain parameters on deep-sea pressure hull is rare, which affects the reliability of pressure hull structures. A non-probabilistic reliability analysis method is applied. Interval number is used to describe uncertain parameter, while satisfactory degree of a statement, that the predicted collapse pressure interval is larger than the loading interval, is defined and considered as a probability index. The obtained probability index can be referenced by designers. A non-probability analysis of the spherical shell of"Jiaolong"manned submersible is performed, and the method is proved to be valid and practical.

  9. Empirical Analysis of Urban Residents’ Perceived Climatic Change Risks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peihui; DAI; Lingling; HUANG

    2014-01-01

    The impact of climate change on human survival and security,urban development is even more profound,and receives more and more attention. To explore the perceived status of urban residents for the risks of climate change and put forward corresponding countermeasures and suggestions,taking Wuhan for example,from the microscopic point of urban residents,we use factor analysis to classify the perceived risks and recognized risk reduction measures,use cluster analysis to divide the urban residents into five groups,and use variance analysis to explore differences in the choice of measures between different cluster groups. We draw the following conclusions: the risk of deterioration of the ecological environment,the risk of economic damage,the risk of damage to the mental health,the risk of damage to the physical health and the risk of damage to the political harmony are the main risks of climate change for urban residents; individuals and families to develop good habits,businesses and governments to strengthen energy conservation,schools and other agencies to carry on the propaganda and education,carrying out multi-agent environment improvement,learn from the West are their recognized risk reduction measures. Depending on the perceived risk,the urban residents are clustered into five groups: those who are concerned about the body and politics,those who are concerned about the mental health,those who are concerned about the economic development,those who are concerned about the ecological safety,and those who ignore the climatic change. For the roles of individual and the family,business and government in the environmental protection,different groups have unanimous views,while for other measures,different groups have different understanding. It is concluded that individuals and families to develop environmentally friendly habits,government to strengthen regulation,businesses to take environmental responsibility,schools to strengthen publicity and education,and exploring

  10. Dynamics of Stride Interval Characteristics during Continuous Stairmill Climbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffalt, Peter C.; Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Renz, Jessica J.; Mukherjee, Mukul; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    It has been shown that statistical persistence in stride intervals characteristics exist during walking, running and cycling and were speed-dependent among healthy young adults. The purpose of this study was to determine if such statistical persistence in stride time interval, stride length and stride speed also exists during self-paced continuous stairmill climbing and if the strength is dependent on stepping rate. Stride time, stride length, and stride speed were collected from nine healthy participants during 3 min of stairmill climbing at 100, 110, and 120% of their preferred stepping rate (PSR) and 5 min of treadmill walking at preferred walking speed (PWS). The amount of variability (assessed by standard deviation and coefficient of variation) and dynamics (assessed by detrended fluctuation analysis and sample entropy) of the stride time, stride length, and stride speed time series were investigated. The amounts of variability were significantly higher during stairmill climbing for the stride time, stride length, and stride speed and did only change with increased stepping rate for stride speed. In addition to a more irregular pattern during stairmill climbing, the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) revealed that the stride length fluctuations were statistical anti-persistent for all subjects. On a group level both stride time and stride speed fluctuations were characterized by an uncorrelated pattern which was more irregular compared to that during treadmill walking. However, large inter-participant differences were observed for these two variables. In addition, the dynamics did not change with increase in stepping rate. PMID:28878688

  11. Sensitivity analysis on parameter changes in underground mine ventilation systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gary; KOCSIS Charles; HARDCASTLE Steve

    2011-01-01

    A more efficient mine ventilation system,the ventilation-on-demand (VOD) system,has been proposed and tested in Canadian mines recently.In order to supply the required air volumes to the production areas of a mine,operators need to know the cause and effect of any changes requested from the VOD system.The sensitivity analysis is developed through generating a cause and effect matrix of sensitivity factors on given parameter changes in a ventilation system.This new utility,which was incorporated in the 3D-CANVENT mine ventilation simulator,is able to predict the airflow distributions in a ventilation network when underground conditions and ventilation controls are changed.For a primary ventilation system,the software can determine the optimal operating speed of the main fans to satisfy the airflow requirements in underground workings without necessarily using booster fans and regulators locally.An optimized fan operating speed time-table would assure variable demand-based fresh air delivery to the production areas effectively,while generating significant savings in energy consumption and operating cost.

  12. Sodium loading changes urinary protein excretion: a proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongboonkerd, Visith; Klein, Jon B; Pierce, William M; Jevans, Anthony W; Arthur, John M

    2003-06-01

    Plasma sodium concentration is maintained even when sodium intake is altered. Sodium homeostasis may involve changes in renal tubular protein expression that are reflected in the urine. We used proteomic analysis to investigate changes in urinary protein excretion in response to acute sodium loading. Rats were given deionized water followed by hypertonic (2.7%) saline for 28 h each. Urinary protein expression was determined during the final 4 h of each treatment. Acute sodium loading increased urinary sodium excretion (4.53 +/- 1.74 vs. 1.70 +/- 0.27 mmol/day, P = 0.029). Urinary proteins were separated by two-dimensional PAGE and visualized by Sypro ruby staining. Differentially expressed proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry followed by peptide mass fingerprinting. The abundance of a total of 45 protein components was changed after acute sodium loading. Neutral endopeptidase, solute carrier family 3, meprin 1alpha, diphor-1, chaperone heat shock protein 72, vacuolar H(+)-ATPase, ezrin, ezrin/radixin/moesin-binding protein, glutamine synthetase, guanine nucleotide-binding protein, Rho GDI-1, and chloride intracellular channel protein 1 were decreased, whereas albumin and alpha-2u globulin were increased. Some of these proteins have previously been shown to be associated with tubular transport. These data indicate that alterations in the excretion of several urinary proteins occur during acute sodium loading.

  13. Systolic Time Intervals and New Measurement Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakolian, Kouhyar

    2016-06-01

    Systolic time intervals have been used to detect and quantify the directional changes of left ventricular function. New methods of recording these cardiac timings, which are less cumbersome, have been recently developed and this has created a renewed interest and novel applications for these cardiac timings. This manuscript reviews these new methods and addresses the potential for the application of these cardiac timings for the diagnosis and prognosis of different cardiac diseases.

  14. The substantive and practical significance of citation impact differences between institutions: Guidelines for the analysis of percentiles using effect sizes and confidence intervals

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Richard; Bornmann, Lutz

    2014-01-01

    In our chapter we address the statistical analysis of percentiles: How should the citation impact of institutions be compared? In educational and psychological testing, percentiles are already used widely as a standard to evaluate an individual's test scores - intelligence tests for example - by comparing them with the percentiles of a calibrated sample. Percentiles, or percentile rank classes, are also a very suitable method for bibliometrics to normalize citations of publications in terms o...

  15. Analysis on Longitudinal Dose according to Change of Field Width

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Won Seok; Shin, Ryung Mi; Oh, Byung Cheon; Jo, Jun Young; Kim, Gi Chul; Choi, Tae Gu [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Kyunghee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Back, Jong Geal [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Yensei Caner Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    To analyze the accuracy of tumor volume dose following field width change, to check the difference of dose change by using self-made moving car, and to evaluate practical delivery tumor dose when tomotherapy in the treatment of organ influenced by breathing. By using self-made moving car, the difference of longitudinal movement (0.0 cm, 1.0 cm, 1.5 cm, 2.0 cm) was applied and compared calculated dose with measured dose according to change of field width (1.05 cm, 2.50 cm, 5.02 cm) and apprehended margin of error. Then done comparative analysis in degree of photosensitivity of DQA film measured by using Gafchromic EBT film. Dose profile and Gamma histogram were used to measure degree of photosensitivity of DQA film. When field width were 1.05 cm, 2.50 cm, 5.02 cm, margin of error of dose delivery coefficient was -2.00%, -0.39%, -2.55%. In dose profile of Gafchromic EBT film's analysis, the movement of moving car had greater motion toward longitudinal direction and as field width was narrower, big error increased considerably at high dose part compared to calculated dose. The more field width was narrowed, gamma index had a large considerable influence of moving at gamma histogram. We could check the difference of longitudinal dose of moving organ. In order to small field width and minimize organ moving due to breathing, it is thought to be needed to develop breathing control unit and fixation tool.

  16. Changes in soil organic carbon in croplands subjected to fertilizer management: a global meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pengfei; Zhang, Wen; Wang, Guocheng; Sun, Wenjuan; Huang, Yao

    2016-06-01

    Cropland soil organic carbon (SOC) is undergoing substantial alterations due to both environmental and anthropogenic changes. Although numerous case studies have been conducted, there remains a lack of quantification of the consequences of such environmental and anthropogenic changes on the SOC sequestration across global agricultural systems. Here, we conducted a global meta-analysis of SOC changes under different fertilizer managements, namely unbalanced application of chemical fertilizers (UCF), balanced application of chemical fertilizers (CF), chemical fertilizers with straw application (CFS), and chemical fertilizers with manure application (CFM). We show that topsoil organic carbon (C) increased by 0.9 (0.7–1.0, 95% confidence interval (CI)) g kg‑1 (10.0%, relative change, hereafter the same), 1.7 (1.2–2.3) g kg‑1 (15.4%), 2.0 (1.9–2.2) g kg‑1 (19.5%) and 3.5 (3.2–3.8) g kg‑1 (36.2%) under UCF, CF, CFS and CFM, respectively. The C sequestration durations were estimated as 28–73 years under CFS and 26–117 years under CFM but with high variability across climatic regions. At least 2.0 Mg ha‑1 yr‑1 C input is needed to maintain the SOC in ~85% cases. We highlight a great C sequestration potential of applying CF, and adopting CFS and CFM is highly important for either improving or maintaining current SOC stocks across all agro–ecosystems.

  17. Changes in Intake of Fruits and Vegetables and Weight Change in United States Men and Women Followed for Up to 24 Years: Analysis from Three Prospective Cohort Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoia, Monica L; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Cahill, Leah E; Hou, Tao; Ludwig, David S; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B; Rimm, Eric B

    2015-09-01

    Current dietary guidelines recommend eating a variety of fruits and vegetables. However, based on nutrient composition, some particular fruits and vegetables may be more or less beneficial for maintaining or achieving a healthy weight. We hypothesized that greater consumption of fruits and vegetables with a higher fiber content or lower glycemic load would be more strongly associated with a healthy weight. We examined the association between change in intake of specific fruits and vegetables and change in weight in three large, prospective cohorts of 133,468 United States men and women. From 1986 to 2010, these associations were examined within multiple 4-y time intervals, adjusting for simultaneous changes in other lifestyle factors, including other aspects of diet, smoking status, and physical activity. Results were combined using a random effects meta-analysis. Increased intake of fruits was inversely associated with 4-y weight change: total fruits -0.53 lb per daily serving (95% CI -0.61, -0.44), berries -1.11 lb (95% CI -1.45, -0.78), and apples/pears -1.24 lb (95% CI -1.62, -0.86). Increased intake of several vegetables was also inversely associated with weight change: total vegetables -0.25 lb per daily serving (95% CI -0.35, -0.14), tofu/soy -2.47 lb (95% CI, -3.09 to -1.85 lb) and cauliflower -1.37 lb (95% CI -2.27, -0.47). On the other hand, increased intake of starchy vegetables, including corn, peas, and potatoes, was associated with weight gain. Vegetables having both higher fiber and lower glycemic load were more strongly inversely associated with weight change compared with lower-fiber, higher-glycemic-load vegetables (p fruits and non-starchy vegetables is inversely associated with weight change, with important differences by type suggesting that other characteristics of these foods influence the magnitude of their association with weight change.

  18. Prevalence of discordant microscopic changes with automated CBC analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano de Jesus Santos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:The most common cause of diagnostic error is related to errors in laboratory tests as well as errors of results interpretation. In order to reduce them, the laboratory currently has modern equipment which provides accurate and reliable results. The development of automation has revolutionized the laboratory procedures in Brazil and worldwide.Objective:To determine the prevalence of microscopic changes present in blood slides concordant and discordant with results obtained using fully automated procedures.Materials and method:From January to July 2013, 1,000 hematological parameters slides were analyzed. Automated analysis was performed on last generation equipment, which methodology is based on electrical impedance, and is able to quantify all the figurative elements of the blood in a universe of 22 parameters. The microscopy was performed by two experts in microscopy simultaneously.Results:The data showed that only 42.70% were concordant, comparing with 57.30% discordant. The main findings among discordant were: Changes in red blood cells 43.70% (n = 250, white blood cells 38.46% (n = 220, and number of platelet 17.80% (n = 102.Discussion:The data show that some results are not consistent with clinical or physiological state of an individual, and cannot be explained because they have not been investigated, which may compromise the final diagnosis.Conclusion:It was observed that it is of fundamental importance that the microscopy qualitative analysis must be performed in parallel with automated analysis in order to obtain reliable results, causing a positive impact on the prevention, diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic follow-up.

  19. Process-Driven Ecological Modeling for Landscape Change Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, S.; Reif, M. K.; Swannack, T. M.

    2013-12-01

    Landscape pattern is an important driver in ecosystem dynamics and can control system-level functions such as nutrient cycling, connectivity, biodiversity and carbon sequestration. However, the links between process, pattern and function remain ambiguous. Understanding the quantitative relationship between ecological processes and landscape pattern across temporal and spatial scales is vital for successful management and implementation of ecosystem-level projects. We used remote sensing imagery to develop critical landscape metrics to understand the factors influencing landscape change. Our study area, a coastal area in southwest Florida, is highly dynamic with critically eroding beaches and a range of natural and developed land cover types. Hurricanes in 2004 and 2005 caused a breach along the coast of North Captiva Island that filled in by 2010. We used a time series of light detection and ranging (lidar) elevation data and hyperspectral imagery from 2006 and 2010 to determine land cover changes. Landscape level metrics used included: Largest Patch Index, Class Area, Area-weighted mean area, Clumpiness, Area-weighted Contiguity Index, Number of Patches, Percent of landcover, Area-weighted Shape. Our results showed 1) 27% increase in sand/soil class as the channel repaired itself and shoreline was reestablished, 2) 40% decrease in the mudflat class area due to conversion to sand/soil and water, 3) 30% increase in non-wetland vegetation class as a result of new vegetation around the repaired channel, and 4) the water class only slightly increased though there was a marked increase in the patch size area. Thus, the smaller channels disappeared with the infilling of the channel, leaving much larger, less complex patches behind the breach. Our analysis demonstrated that quantification of landscape pattern is critical to linking patterns to ecological processes and understanding how both affect landscape change. Our proof of concept indicated that ecological processes

  20. Analysis of Terrestrial Water Storage Changes from GRACE and GLDAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Tajdarul H.; Famiglietti, James S.; Rodell, Matthew; Chen, Jianli; Wilson, Clark R.

    2008-01-01

    Since March 2002, the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) has provided first estimates of land water storage variations by monitoring the time-variable component of Earth's gravity field. Here we characterize spatial-temporal variations in terrestrial water storage changes (TWSC) from GRACE and compare them to those simulated with the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS). Additionally, we use GLDAS simulations to infer how TWSC is partitioned into snow, canopy water and soil water components, and to understand how variations in the hydrologic fluxes act to enhance or dissipate the stores. Results quantify the range of GRACE-derived storage changes during the studied period and place them in the context of seasonal variations in global climate and hydrologic extremes including drought and flood, by impacting land memory processes. The role of the largest continental river basins as major locations for freshwater redistribution is highlighted. GRACE-based storage changes are in good agreement with those obtained from GLDAS simulations. Analysis of GLDAS-simulated TWSC illustrates several key characteristics of spatial and temporal land water storage variations. Global averages of TWSC were partitioned nearly equally between soil moisture and snow water equivalent, while zonal averages of TWSC revealed the importance of soil moisture storage at low latitudes and snow storage at high latitudes. Evapotranspiration plays a key role in dissipating globally averaged terrestrial water storage. Latitudinal averages showed how precipitation dominates TWSC variations in the tropics, evapotranspiration is most effective in the midlatitudes, and snowmelt runoff is a key dissipating flux at high latitudes. Results have implications for monitoring water storage response to climate variability and change, and for constraining land model hydrology simulations.

  1. Measurement methods and accuracy analysis of Chang'E-5 Panoramic Camera installation parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Wei; Ren, Xin; Liu, Jianjun; Tan, Xu; Wang, Wenrui; Chen, Wangli; Zhang, Xiaoxia; Li, Chunlai

    2016-04-01

    Chang'E-5 (CE-5) is a lunar probe for the third phase of China Lunar Exploration Project (CLEP), whose main scientific objectives are to implement lunar surface sampling and to return the samples back to the Earth. To achieve these goals, investigation of lunar surface topography and geological structure within sampling area seems to be extremely important. The Panoramic Camera (PCAM) is one of the payloads mounted on CE-5 lander. It consists of two optical systems which installed on a camera rotating platform. Optical images of sampling area can be obtained by PCAM in the form of a two-dimensional image and a stereo images pair can be formed by left and right PCAM images. Then lunar terrain can be reconstructed based on photogrammetry. Installation parameters of PCAM with respect to CE-5 lander are critical for the calculation of exterior orientation elements (EO) of PCAM images, which is used for lunar terrain reconstruction. In this paper, types of PCAM installation parameters and coordinate systems involved are defined. Measurement methods combining camera images and optical coordinate observations are studied for this work. Then research contents such as observation program and specific solution methods of installation parameters are introduced. Parametric solution accuracy is analyzed according to observations obtained by PCAM scientifically validated experiment, which is used to test the authenticity of PCAM detection process, ground data processing methods, product quality and so on. Analysis results show that the accuracy of the installation parameters affects the positional accuracy of corresponding image points of PCAM stereo images within 1 pixel. So the measurement methods and parameter accuracy studied in this paper meet the needs of engineering and scientific applications. Keywords: Chang'E-5 Mission; Panoramic Camera; Installation Parameters; Total Station; Coordinate Conversion

  2. Study on correlation between urinary tract infection and interval of urine collection bag change in patients with Urology%集尿袋更换频率与泌尿外科患儿尿路感染相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵兴兰

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨泌尿外科患儿集尿袋更换频率与尿路感染的相关性以及护理预防对策,从而确定更换患儿集尿袋的最佳频率,降低尿路感染的风险,提高护理质量。方法将82例留置导尿的泌尿外科患儿随机分为试验组和对照组,各41例。试验组患儿集尿袋更换频率为1次/周,对照组患儿集尿袋更换频率为1次/d,追踪监测尿培养,比较分析两组患儿采用不同频率更换集尿袋与尿路感染的发生率之间的关系。结果与对照组相比,试验组在特定时间内尿培养检出阳性例数明显低于对照组,阳性率明显偏低,差异显著(P <0.05)。结论选择适当的集尿袋更换频率能够减少污染的机会,降低尿路感染的发生率,有利于提高护理质量,临床上集尿袋更换频率以每周1次较为有效。%Objective To explore the correlation between urinary tract infection and the interval of urine collection bag change,and find the nursing intervention to prevent the infection,decrease the risk of urinary tract infection,improve quality of nursing. Methods 82 cases were randomly divided into two groups randomly,test group and contract group. Change the urine collection bag in different interval with each group and check the urine culture.For test group,the drainage bags were replaced once pre seven days.For contract group,the drainage bags were replaced every day.Finally compare and analysis all positive culture,observe the urinary tract infection rate. Results The rates of positive urine culture were significantly different between the two groups.The urinary tract infection rate on test group is much lower than that of contract group. Conclusion Drainage bags replacement frequency may produce influence on the bacterial contamination and the urinary tract infection rate.So it's important to choose the right interval of urine collection bag change,which may decrease the bacterial contamination and

  3. Bony change of apical lesion healing process using fractal analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Min; Park, Hyok; Jeong, Ho Gul; Kim, Kee Deog; Park, Chang Seo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    To investigate the change of bone healing process after endodontic treatment of the tooth with an apical lesion by fractal analysis. Radiographic images of 35 teeth from 33 patients taken on first diagnosis, 6 months, and 1 year after endodontic treatment were selected. Radiographic images were taken by JUPITER computerized Dental X-ray System. Fractal dimensions were calculated three times at each area by Scion Image PC program. Rectangular region of interest (30 x 30) were selected at apical lesion and normal apex of each image. The fractal dimension at apical lesion of first diagnosis (L{sub 0}) is 0.940 {+-} 0.361 and that of normal area (N{sub 0}) is 1.186 {+-} 0.727 (p<0.05). Fractal dimension at apical lesion of 6 months after endodontic treatment (L{sub 1}) is 1.076 {+-} 0.069 and that of normal area (N{sub 1}) is 1.192 {+-} 0.055 (p<0.05). Fractal dimension at apical lesion of 1 year after endodontic treatment (L{sub 2}) is 1.163 {+-} 0.074 and that of normal area (N{sub 2}) is 1.225 {+-} 0.079 (p<0.05). After endodontic treatment, the fractal dimensions at each apical lesions depending on time showed statistically significant difference. And there are statistically significant different between normal area and apical lesion on first diagnosis, 6 months after, 1 year after. But the differences were grow smaller as time flows. The evaluation of the prognosis after the endodontic treatment of the apical lesion was estimated by bone regeneration in apical region. Fractal analysis was attempted to overcome the limit of subjective reading, and as a result the change of the bone during the healing process was able to be detected objectively and quantitatively.

  4. The dynamics of resistance to change: A sequential analysis of change agents in action

    OpenAIRE

    Klonek, F.E.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Kauffeld, S.

    2014-01-01

    Despite consensus that successful change management depends on how change is are communicated to the employees, the dynamic communication process between change agents and recipients remains largely unexplored. We discuss how change language can capture recipients' resistance to and readiness for change, in terms of change versus sustain talk, and adopt a coding instrument from clinical psychology (Motivational Interviewing Skill Code, MISC). We explored whether autonomy-restrictive change ag...

  5. Haemostatic reference intervals in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal Bela; Jørgensen, Maja; Klajnbard, Anna;

    2010-01-01

    Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age......-specific reference intervals for coagulation tests during normal pregnancy. Eight hundred one women with expected normal pregnancies were included in the study. Of these women, 391 had no complications during pregnancy, vaginal delivery, or postpartum period. Plasma samples were obtained at gestational weeks 13......-20, 21-28, 29-34, 35-42, at active labor, and on postpartum days 1 and 2. Reference intervals for each gestational period using only the uncomplicated pregnancies were calculated in all 391 women for activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, fibrin D-dimer, antithrombin, free protein S...

  6. Confidence intervals in Flow Forecasting by using artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagoulia, Dionysia; Tsekouras, George

    2014-05-01

    variable of different ANN structures [3]. The performance of each ANN structure is evaluated by the voting analysis based on eleven criteria, which are the root mean square error (RMSE), the correlation index (R), the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), the mean percentage error (MPE), the mean percentage error (ME), the percentage volume in errors (VE), the percentage error in peak (MF), the normalized mean bias error (NMBE), the normalized root mean bias error (NRMSE), the Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (E) and the modified Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient (E1). The next day flow for the test set is calculated using the best ANN structure's model. Consequently, the confidence intervals of various confidence levels for training, evaluation and test sets are compared in order to explore the generalisation dynamics of confidence intervals from training and evaluation sets. [1] H.S. Hippert, C.E. Pedreira, R.C. Souza, "Neural networks for short-term load forecasting: A review and evaluation," IEEE Trans. on Power Systems, vol. 16, no. 1, 2001, pp. 44-55. [2] G. J. Tsekouras, N.E. Mastorakis, F.D. Kanellos, V.T. Kontargyri, C.D. Tsirekis, I.S. Karanasiou, Ch.N. Elias, A.D. Salis, P.A. Kontaxis, A.A. Gialketsi: "Short term load forecasting in Greek interconnected power system using ANN: Confidence Interval using a novel re-sampling technique with corrective Factor", WSEAS International Conference on Circuits, Systems, Electronics, Control & Signal Processing, (CSECS '10), Vouliagmeni, Athens, Greece, December 29-31, 2010. [3] D. Panagoulia, I. Trichakis, G. J. Tsekouras: "Flow Forecasting via Artificial Neural Networks - A Study for Input Variables conditioned on atmospheric circulation", European Geosciences Union, General Assembly 2012 (NH1.1 / AS1.16 - Extreme meteorological and hydrological events induced by severe weather and climate change), Vienna, Austria, 22-27 April 2012.

  7. Analysis of wallboard containing a phase change material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, J. J.; Heberle, D. P.

    Phase change materials (PCMs) used on the interior of buildings hold the promise for improved thermal performance by reducing the energy requirements for space conditioning and by improving thermal comfort by reducing temperature swings inside the building. Efforts are underway to develop a gypsum wallboard containing a hydrocarbon PCM. With a phase change temperature in the room temperature range, the PCM wallboard adds substantially to the thermal mass of the building while serving the same architectural function as conventional wallboard. To determine the thermal and economic performance of this PCM wallboard, the Transient Systems Simulation Program (TRNSYS) was modified to accommodate walls that are covered with PCM plasterboard, and to apportion the direct beam solar radiation to interior surfaces of a building. The modified code was used to simulate the performance of conventional and direct-gain passive solar residential-sized buildings with and without PCM wallboard. Space heating energy savings were determined as a function of PCM wallboard characteristics. Thermal comfort improvements in buildings containing the PCM were qualified in terms of energy savings. The report concludes with a present worth economic analysis of these energy savings and arrives at system costs and economic payback based on current costs of PCMs under study for the wallboard application.

  8. Early warning of changing drinking water quality by trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomperi, Jani; Juuso, Esko; Leiviskä, Kauko

    2016-06-01

    Monitoring and control of water treatment plants play an essential role in ensuring high quality drinking water and avoiding health-related problems or economic losses. The most common quality variables, which can be used also for assessing the efficiency of the water treatment process, are turbidity and residual levels of coagulation and disinfection chemicals. In the present study, the trend indices are developed from scaled measurements to detect warning signs of changes in the quality variables of drinking water and some operating condition variables that strongly affect water quality. The scaling is based on monotonically increasing nonlinear functions, which are generated with generalized norms and moments. Triangular episodes are classified with the trend index and its derivative. Deviation indices are used to assess the severity of situations. The study shows the potential of the described trend analysis as a predictive monitoring tool, as it provides an advantage over the traditional manual inspection of variables by detecting changes in water quality and giving early warnings.

  9. Analysis of the changing Solar Radiation Angle on Hainan Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Zhiwu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the only tropical provinces in China, Hainan province has advantageous geographical location, and abundant solar energy resources. But because of Local ideas and habits, especially the lack of theoretical research on local solar resources, development and application of solar energy in Hainan is almost blank. In this paper, we studied the variation regularity of sunlight angle on Hainan tropical island, analyzed the revolution and rotation of the earth, and the change rule of sunlight angle caused by the sun’s movement between the tropic of cancer and the tropic of capricorn, deduced the change rule of sunlight angle in the spring equinox, the autumnal equinox, summer solstice and winter solstice day, and got the movement rules of solar elevation angle throughout the year. Theoretic analysis is consistent with field measurement results. These rules are of importance and can effectively guide the local People’s daily life and production, such as the reasonable layout of the buildings, floor distance between different heights of buildings, the direction of the lighting windows of tall buildings, installation angle of photovoltaic panels, and other similar solar energy absorbing and conversion equipment.

  10. Cultural change in Argentina during the sixties. An analysis of the daily newspaper La Nación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Agostini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a study of the process of cultural and social change developed in Argentina during the sixties, focusing on the appeal that authoritarianism might have had on society. Our hypothesis is that among middle classes, such appeal could have been lower than suggested in other research. From the analysis of “Columnas de la juventud” (youth columns, published by the daily newspaper La Nación –since 1965 to 1973-, we suggest that certain cultural transformations promoted by young people, were produced in a relatively short period of time –ten years-. During that interval, the representations that La Nación offered of such transformations turned from annoyance to fascination. This fact suggests that the acceptance of change in the standards of behaviour was very extended. The idea of an authoritarian society does not enable us to understand this process.

  11. Cambios en el uso de la terapia hormonal sustitutiva tras una intervención informativa dirigida a mujeres y prescriptores Changes in the use of hormone replacement therapy after an educational intervention aimed at women and prescribers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Mosquera Tenreiro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir las acciones desarrolladas en Asturias en 2004 y 2005 a partir de las recomendaciones de la Agencia Española del Medicamento (AEM sobre el uso de la terapia hormonal sustitutiva (THS después de la publicación del Women's Health Initiative y del Million Women Study. Métodos: Estudio casi experimental sin grupo control. Los datos utilizados fueron las ventas de THS entre 1996 y 2003, previamente a la intervención. En 2004-2005 se analizaron las ventas anuales de THS y el porcentaje estimado de mujeres que usaban este tratamiento respecto a la población de 50-59 años de edad. Para el análisis de la evolución de los costes se tomaron los precios de cada especialidad en pesetas hasta el año 2001 y en euros a partir de entonces. Resultados: Hubo un incremento de las ventas hasta el año 2001. A partir de entonces cambió la tendencia, con un descenso hasta 2005 del 73,6%. El descenso observado en el período 2004-2005 (49,1% fue el doble del producido durante 2002-2003 (24,5%. El porcentaje estimado de mujeres usuarias de THS entre 50 y 59 años habría sido de un 17,2% en 2001 y de un 4,1% en 2005. El gasto total de la THS experimentó un descenso similar, aunque Boltin® (tibolona duplicó sus ventas. Conclusiones: Las acciones para proporcionar una información sistemática e independiente a los profesionales y la población general son necesarias y eficaces. Es preciso investigar en el ámbito nacional la «epidemia» de la THS y sus costes en la salud, así como el uso de tibolona y sus efectos adversos.Objective: To describe changes in prescription of hormone replacement therapy (HRT in Asturias (Spain after the publication of the results of the Women's Health Initiative and the Million Women Study and following the recommendations of the Spanish Drugs Agency to women and prescribers (2004-2005. Methods: We performed a quasiexperimental study with no control group. The data used consisted of sales of HRT products

  12. Analysis of the Inlfuence of Wear Hefei-Wuhan High-speed Railway Bridge Structure of Shield Interval%盾构区间下穿合武高铁桥涵结构影响分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王尚伟

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on interval shield Erqi Road, a project of Wuhan Rail Transit Line 3 ~ Xingye Road Station under wear Wu high speed railway bridge and culvert structure, high-speed rail line design speed of 250km/h, set aside 300Km/h and the above conditions. The FLAC3D and ANSYS finite element calculation software and 3D stratum-structure model of high iron operation process of shield construction simulation calculation were carried out, and according to the results of analysis of shield interval, it proposed technical requirements and suggestions on design and construction..%本文以武汉轨道交通3号线一期工程二七路~兴业路站盾构区间下穿合武高铁桥涵结构为例,利用FLAC3D、ANSYS有限元计算软件,采用三维地层—结构模型对高铁运营过程中的盾构施工进行了模拟计算,并根据分析结果对盾构区间提出设计和施工方面的技术要求和建议。

  13. Almost primes in short intervals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper,we prove that the short interval(x-x101/232,x] contains at least an almost prime P2 for sufficiently large x,where P2 denotes an integer having at most two prime factors counted with multiplicity.

  14. Haemostatic reference intervals in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szecsi, Pal Bela; Jørgensen, Maja; Klajnbard, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age-specific refe......Haemostatic reference intervals are generally based on samples from non-pregnant women. Thus, they may not be relevant to pregnant women, a problem that may hinder accurate diagnosis and treatment of haemostatic disorders during pregnancy. In this study, we establish gestational age......-specific reference intervals for coagulation tests during normal pregnancy. Eight hundred one women with expected normal pregnancies were included in the study. Of these women, 391 had no complications during pregnancy, vaginal delivery, or postpartum period. Plasma samples were obtained at gestational weeks 13......-20, 21-28, 29-34, 35-42, at active labor, and on postpartum days 1 and 2. Reference intervals for each gestational period using only the uncomplicated pregnancies were calculated in all 391 women for activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), fibrinogen, fibrin D-dimer, antithrombin, free protein S...

  15. Robust misinterpretation of confidence intervals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Rink; Morey, Richard; Rouder, Jeffrey N.; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2014-01-01

    Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is undoubtedly the most common inferential technique used to justify claims in the social sciences. However, even staunch defenders of NHST agree that its outcomes are often misinterpreted. Confidence intervals (CIs) have frequently been proposed as a more

  16. Robust misinterpretation of confidence intervals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, R.; Morey, R.D.; Rouder, J.N.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2014-01-01

    Null hypothesis significance testing (NHST) is undoubtedly the most common inferential technique used to justify claims in the social sciences. However, even staunch defenders of NHST agree that its outcomes are often misinterpreted. Confidence intervals (CIs) have frequently been proposed as a more

  17. Haematological reference intervals in a multiethnic population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeli Ambayya

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Similar to other populations, full blood count reference (FBC intervals in Malaysia are generally derived from non-Malaysian subjects. However, numerous studies have shown significant differences between and within populations supporting the need for population specific intervals. METHODS: Two thousand seven hundred twenty five apparently healthy adults comprising all ages, both genders and three principal races were recruited through voluntary participation. FBC was performed on two analysers, Sysmex XE-5000 and Unicel DxH 800, in addition to blood smears and haemoglobin analysis. Serum ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor and C-reactive protein assays were performed in selected subjects. All parameters of qualified subjects were tested for normality followed by determination of reference intervals, measures of central tendency and dispersion along with point estimates for each subgroup. RESULTS: Complete data was available in 2440 subjects of whom 56% (907 women and 469 men were included in reference interval calculation. Compared to other populations there were significant differences for haemoglobin, red blood cell count, platelet count and haematocrit in Malaysians. There were differences between men and women, and between younger and older men; unlike in other populations, haemoglobin was similar in younger and older women. However ethnicity and smoking had little impact. 70% of anemia in premenopausal women, 24% in postmenopausal women and 20% of males is attributable to iron deficiency. There was excellent correlation between Sysmex XE-5000 and Unicel DxH 800. CONCLUSION: Our data confirms the importance of population specific haematological parameters and supports the need for local guidelines rather than adoption of generalised reference intervals and cut-offs.

  18. Significant Interval and Frequent Pattern Discovery in Web Log Data

    CERN Document Server

    Saxena, Kanak

    2010-01-01

    There is a considerable body of work on sequence mining of Web Log Data. We are using One Pass frequent Episode discovery (or FED) algorithm, takes a different approach than the traditional apriori class of pattern detection algorithms. In this approach significant intervals for each Website are computed first (independently) and these interval used for detecting frequent patterns/Episode and then the Analysis is performed on Significant Intervals and frequent patterns That can be used to forecast the user's behavior using previous trends and this can be also used for advertising purpose. This type of applications predicts the Website interest. In this approach, time-series data are folded over a periodicity (day, week, etc.) Which are used to form the Interval? Significant intervals are discovered from these time points that satisfy the criteria of minimum confidence and maximum interval length specified by the user.

  19. 基于浓度间隔分析的用水系统集成(Ⅰ)非传质操作%Synthesis of Water Utilization System Using Concentration Interval Analysis Method (Ⅰ) Non-Mass-Transfer-Based Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘永健; 袁希钢; 罗祎青

    2007-01-01

    A strategy for water and wastewater minimization is developed for continuous water utilization systems involving fixed flowrate (non-mass-transfer-based) operations, based on the fictitious operations that is introduced to represent the water losing and/or generating operations and a modified concentration interval analysis (MCIA) technique.This strategy is a simple, nongraphical, and noniterative procedure and is suitable for the quick yields of targets and the identification of pinch point location.Moreover, on the basis of the target method, a heuristic-based approach is also presented to generate water utilization networks, which could be demonstrated to be optimum ones.The proposed approaches are illustrated with example problems.

  20. RiskChanges Spatial Decision Support system for the analysis of changing multi-hazard risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Westen, Cees; Zhang, Kaixi; Bakker, Wim; Andrejchenko, Vera; Berlin, Julian; Olyazadeh, Roya; Cristal, Irina

    2015-04-01

    Within the framework of the EU FP7 Marie Curie Project CHANGES and the EU FP7 Copernicus project INCREO a spatial decision support system was developed with the aim to analyse the effect of risk reduction planning alternatives on reducing the risk now and in the future, and support decision makers in selecting the best alternatives. Central to the SDSS are the stakeholders. The envisaged users of the system are organizations involved in planning of risk reduction measures, and that have staff capable of visualizing and analyzing spatial data at a municipal scale. The SDSS should be able to function in different countries with different legal frameworks and with organizations with different mandates. These could be subdivided into Civil protection organization with the mandate to design disaster response plans, Expert organizations with the mandate to design structural risk reduction measures (e.g. dams, dikes, check-dams etc), and planning organizations with the mandate to make land development plans. The SDSS can be used in different ways: analyzing the current level of risk, analyzing the best alternatives for risk reduction, the evaluation of the consequences of possible future scenarios to the risk levels, and the evaluation how different risk reduction alternatives will lead to risk reduction under different future scenarios. The SDSS is developed based on open source software and following open standards, for code as well as for data formats and service interfaces. Code development was based upon open source software as well. The architecture of the system is modular. The various parts of the system are loosely coupled, extensible, using standards for interoperability, flexible and web-based. The Spatial Decision Support System is composed of a number of integrated components. The Risk Assessment component allows to carry out spatial risk analysis, with different degrees of complexity, ranging from simple exposure (overlay of hazard and assets maps) to

  1. The dynamics of resistance to change: A sequential analysis of change agents in action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klonek, F.E.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Kauffeld, S.

    2014-01-01

    Despite consensus that successful change management depends on how change is are communicated to the employees, the dynamic communication process between change agents and recipients remains largely unexplored. We discuss how change language can capture recipients' resistance to and readiness for ch

  2. The dynamics of resistance to change: A sequential analysis of change agents in action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klonek, F.E.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, N.K.; Kauffeld, S.

    2014-01-01

    Despite consensus that successful change management depends on how change is are communicated to the employees, the dynamic communication process between change agents and recipients remains largely unexplored. We discuss how change language can capture recipients' resistance to and readiness for

  3. Analysing uncertainties: Towards comparing Bayesian and interval probabilities'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blockley, David

    2013-05-01

    Two assumptions, commonly made in risk and reliability studies, have a long history. The first is that uncertainty is either aleatoric or epistemic. The second is that standard probability theory is sufficient to express uncertainty. The purposes of this paper are to provide a conceptual analysis of uncertainty and to compare Bayesian approaches with interval approaches with an example relevant to research on climate change. The analysis reveals that the categorisation of uncertainty as either aleatoric or epistemic is unsatisfactory for practical decision making. It is argued that uncertainty emerges from three conceptually distinctive and orthogonal attributes FIR i.e., fuzziness, incompleteness (epistemic) and randomness (aleatory). Characterisations of uncertainty, such as ambiguity, dubiety and conflict, are complex mixes of interactions in an FIR space. To manage future risks in complex systems it will be important to recognise the extent to which we 'don't know' about possible unintended and unwanted consequences or unknown-unknowns. In this way we may be more alert to unexpected hazards. The Bayesian approach is compared with an interval probability approach to show one way in which conflict due to incomplete information can be managed.

  4. The American Climate Prospectus: a risk-centered analysis of the economic impacts of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jina, A.; Houser, T.; Hsiang, S. M.; Kopp, R. E., III; Delgado, M.; Larsen, K.; Mohan, S.; Rasmussen, D.; Rising, J.; Wilson, P. S.; Muir-Wood, R.

    2014-12-01

    The American Climate Prospectus (ACP), the analysis underlying the Risky Business project, quantitatively assessed the climate risks posed to the United States' economy in six sectors - crop yields, energy demand, coastal property, crime, labor productivity, and mortality [1]. The ACP is unique in its characterization of the full probability distribution of economic impacts of climate change throughout the 21st century, making it an extremely useful basis for risk assessments. Three key innovations allow for this characterization. First, climate projections from CMIP5 models are scaled to a temperature probability distribution derived from a coarser climate model (MAGICC). This allows a more accurate representation of the whole distribution of future climates (in particular the tails) than a simple ensemble average. These are downscaled both temporally and spatially. Second, a set of local sea level rise and tropical cyclone projections are used in conjunction with the most detailed dataset of coastal property in the US in order to capture the risks of rising seas and storm surge. Third, we base many of our sectors on empirically-derived responses to temperature and precipitation. Each of these dose-response functions is resampled many times to populate a statistical distribution. Combining these with uncertainty in emissions scenario, climate model, and weather, we create the full probability distribution of climate impacts from county up to national levels, as well as model the effects upon the economy as a whole. Results are presented as likelihood ranges, as well as changes to return intervals of extreme events. The ACP analysis allows us to compare between sectors to understand the magnitude of required policy responses, and also to identify risks through time. Many sectors displaying large impacts at the end of the century, like those of mortality, have smaller changes in the near-term, due to non-linearities in the response functions. Other sectors, like

  5. Sensitivity analysis of hydraulic model to morphological changes and changes in flood inundation extent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, J. S.; Freer, J.; Bates, P. D.; Sear, D. A.

    2012-04-01

    Recent research into modelling floodplain inundation processes is primarily concentrated on the simulation of inundation flow without considering the influences of channel morphology and sediment delivery from upstream. River channels are often represented by simplified geometry and implicitly assumed to remain unchanged. However, during and after flood episodes the river bed elevation can change quickly and in some cases drastically. Despite this, the effect of channel geometry and topographic complexity on model results has been largely unexplored. To address this issue, the impact of channel cross-section geometry, and channel long-profile variability on flood inundation extent are examined using a simplified 1D-2D hydraulic model (LISFLOOD-FP) of the Cockermouth floods of November 2009 within an uncertainty analysis framework. The Cockermouth region provides a useful test site for such study because of the availability of channel and floodplain data, the collection of post-event water and wrack marks and the presence of pre-and post-event morphological surveyed data. More importantly, in some areas the river has undergone significant course change and additionally the deposition of stones and debris on the floodplain. The use of relatively simple formulations of critical velocities in the initiation of motion formula enables the construction of a series of hypothetical bedform scenarios among cross-sections. These scenarios can be used as input to LISFLOOD-FP. Slope gradient, Manning roughness coefficients, grain size characteristic, and critical shear stress will be considered in a Monte Carlo simulation framework. The November 2009 Cockermouth flood is simulated and the results are analysed to quantify the accuracy associated with each bedform scenario and to assess how different channel long-profiles affects the performance of LISFLOOD-FP. The study will further analyse and quantify the variability and uncertainty of flood inundation extent resulting from

  6. Heart rate-corrected QT interval helps predict mortality after intentional organophosphate poisoning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Hsuan Liu

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In this study, we investigated the outcomes for patients with intentional organophosphate poisoning. Previous reports indicate that in contrast to normal heart rate-corrected QT intervals (QTc, QTc prolongation might be indicative of a poor prognosis for patients exposed to organophosphates. METHODS: We analyzed the records of 118 patients who were referred to Chang Gung Memorial Hospital for management of organophosphate poisoning between 2000 and 2011. Patients were grouped according to their initial QTc interval, i.e., normal (0.44 s. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and mortality data were obtained for analysis. RESULTS: The incidence of hypotension in patients with prolonged QTc intervals was higher than that in the patients with normal QTc intervals (P = 0.019. By the end of the study, 18 of 118 (15.2% patients had died, including 3 of 75 (4.0% patients with normal QTc intervals and 15 of 43 (34.9% patients with prolonged QTc intervals. Using multivariate-Cox-regression analysis, we found that hypotension (OR = 10.930, 95% CI = 2.961-40.345, P = 0.000, respiratory failure (OR = 4.867, 95% CI = 1.062-22.301, P = 0.042, coma (OR = 3.482, 95% CI = 1.184-10.238, P = 0.023, and QTc prolongation (OR = 7.459, 95% CI = 2.053-27.099, P = 0.002 were significant risk factors for mortality. Furthermore, it was revealed that non-survivors not only had longer QTc interval (503.00±41.56 versus 432.71±51.21 ms, P = 0.002, but also suffered higher incidences of hypotension (83.3 versus 12.0%, P = 0.000, shortness of breath (64 versus 94.4%, P = 0.010, bronchorrhea (55 versus 94.4%, P = 0.002, bronchospasm (50.0 versus 94.4%, P = 0.000, respiratory failure (94.4 versus 43.0%, P = 0.000 and coma (66.7 versus 11.0%, P = 0.000 than survivors. Finally, Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that cumulative mortality was higher among patients with prolonged QTc

  7. Time series analysis for psychological research: examining and forecasting change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebb, Andrew T.; Tay, Louis; Wang, Wei; Huang, Qiming

    2015-01-01

    Psychological research has increasingly recognized the importance of integrating temporal dynamics into its theories, and innovations in longitudinal designs and analyses have allowed such theories to be formalized and tested. However, psychological researchers may be relatively unequipped to analyze such data, given its many characteristics and the general complexities involved in longitudinal modeling. The current paper introduces time series analysis to psychological research, an analytic domain that has been essential for understanding and predicting the behavior of variables across many diverse fields. First, the characteristics of time series data are discussed. Second, different time series modeling techniques are surveyed that can address various topics of interest to psychological researchers, including describing the pattern of change in a variable, modeling seasonal effects, assessing the immediate and long-term impact of a salient event, and forecasting future values. To illustrate these methods, an illustrative example based on online job search behavior is used throughout the paper, and a software tutorial in R for these analyses is provided in the Supplementary Materials. PMID:26106341

  8. Analysis of changes tendency on the polish beer market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Gołaś

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article shows the analysis of Polish beer market in progress. On the basis of the carried out research it can be stated that Polish beer industry can be rated as one of the most modern hi-tech in the world. It is caused by cooperation of foreign investors with the Polish market which has resulted in a strong consolidation and separating of three major breweries owning almost 90% of the national beer market. Very tough competition between huge producers has also brought benefits to consumers who have received better quality product at a lower price. Moreover, changes in consumers’ habits have occurred. This is described by reduction in consumption of hard liquors on behalf of soft alcohols with the major position of beer. Polish beer market is close to satisfying consumers’ demands. Beer consumption per one inhabitant in Poland is close to European mean but its development will not be so dynamic as before. The situation is caused by the risk arising from the law which is not clear. Moreover, increasing fiscal aggravations and costs of production which due to the increase of prices of raw materials are also critical.

  9. Time series analysis for psychological research: examining and forecasting change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jebb, Andrew T; Tay, Louis; Wang, Wei; Huang, Qiming

    2015-01-01

    Psychological research has increasingly recognized the importance of integrating temporal dynamics into its theories, and innovations in longitudinal designs and analyses have allowed such theories to be formalized and tested. However, psychological researchers may be relatively unequipped to analyze such data, given its many characteristics and the general complexities involved in longitudinal modeling. The current paper introduces time series analysis to psychological research, an analytic domain that has been essential for understanding and predicting the behavior of variables across many diverse fields. First, the characteristics of time series data are discussed. Second, different time series modeling techniques are surveyed that can address various topics of interest to psychological researchers, including describing the pattern of change in a variable, modeling seasonal effects, assessing the immediate and long-term impact of a salient event, and forecasting future values. To illustrate these methods, an illustrative example based on online job search behavior is used throughout the paper, and a software tutorial in R for these analyses is provided in the Supplementary Materials.

  10. Thermal analysis of a building brick containing phase change material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alawadhi, E.M. [Kuwait Univ., Safat (Kuwait). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the thermal analysis of a building brick containing phase change material (PCM) to be used in hot climates. The objective of using the PCM is to utilize its high latent heat of fusion to reduce the heat gain by absorbing the heat in the bricks through the melting process before it reaches the indoor space. The considered model consists of bricks with cylindrical holes filled with PCM. The problem is solved in a two-dimensional space using the finite element method. The thermal effectiveness of the proposed brick-PCM system is evaluated by comparing the heat flux at the indoor surface to a wall without the PCM during typical working hours. A paramedic study is conducted to assess the effect of different design parameters, such as the PCM's quantity, type, and location in the brick. The results indicate that the heat gain is significantly reduced when the PCM is incorporated into the brick, and increasing the quantity of the PCM has a positive effect. PCM cylinders located at the centerline of the bricks shows the best performance. (author)

  11. Changes in Fertility Decline in Rwanda: A Decomposition Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Claver Rutayisire

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available After having stalled in the 1990s, fertility in Rwanda resumed its downward trajectory between 2005 and 2010. The total fertility rate declined from 6.1 to 4.6 and modern contraceptive use increased. However, it is unclear which determinants lay behind the previous stall and the recent strong drop in fertility. This paper contributes to an ongoing debate on the impact of social upheavals on fertility decline. We use a decomposition analysis, focusing on the change in characteristics and reproductive behaviour of women and their contributions to levels of fertility during 1992–2000 and 2000–2010. Results show that due to widowhood and separation the proportion of women who were married decreased between 1992 and 2000, but their fertility increased in the same period due to replacement fertility and an unmet need for family planning. After 2000, postponement of marriage and lower infant mortality contributed to lower fertility, but the most important effect is the overall lower fertility due not only to improved family planning provision but perhaps also to the sensitizing campaigns of the Rwandan government.

  12. Bayesian hierarchical regression analysis of variations in sea surface temperature change over the past million years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Carolyn W.

    2016-09-01

    Statistical challenges often preclude comparisons among different sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions over the past million years. Inadequate consideration of uncertainty can result in misinterpretation, overconfidence, and biased conclusions. Here I apply Bayesian hierarchical regressions to analyze local SST responsiveness to climate changes for 54 SST reconstructions from across the globe over the past million years. I develop methods to account for multiple sources of uncertainty, including the quantification of uncertainty introduced from absolute dating into interrecord comparisons. The estimates of local SST responsiveness explain 64% (62% to 77%, 95% interval) of the total variation within each SST reconstruction with a single number. There is remarkable agreement between SST proxy methods, with the exception of Mg/Ca proxy methods estimating muted responses at high latitudes. The Indian Ocean exhibits a muted response in comparison to other oceans. I find a stable estimate of the proposed "universal curve" of change in local SST responsiveness to climate changes as a function of sin2(latitude) over the past 400,000 years: SST change at 45°N/S is larger than the average tropical response by a factor of 1.9 (1.5 to 2.6, 95% interval) and explains 50% (35% to 58%, 95% interval) of the total variation between each SST reconstruction. These uncertainty and statistical methods are well suited for application across paleoclimate and environmental data series intercomparisons.

  13. Distance Based Root Cause Analysis and Change Impact Analysis of Performance Regressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junzan Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Performance regression testing is applied to uncover both performance and functional problems of software releases. A performance problem revealed by performance testing can be high response time, low throughput, or even being out of service. Mature performance testing process helps systematically detect software performance problems. However, it is difficult to identify the root cause and evaluate the potential change impact. In this paper, we present an approach leveraging server side logs for identifying root causes of performance problems. Firstly, server side logs are used to recover call tree of each business transaction. We define a novel distance based metric computed from call trees for root cause analysis and apply inverted index from methods to business transactions for change impact analysis. Empirical studies show that our approach can effectively and efficiently help developers diagnose root cause of performance problems.

  14. The application of interval calculus in estimation of dynamic characteristics of structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Đorđe

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzed application of interval calculus in estimation of dynamic characteristics of linear systems. The eigen periods of oscillation of structures are affected by several parameters: geometrical characteristics of cross sections of members, magnitude of the mass concentrated in the floors and modulus of elasticity of materials. As a numerical example, the frame reinforced concrete structure was taken, for which the mentioned parameters are given in the form interval. The result is also obtained in the form of interval so it is possible to observe the direct effects on the value of the structural oscillation periods by changing one or several parameters. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR36016: Experimental and theoretical investigation of frames and plates with semi-rigid connections from the view of the second order theory and stability analysis i br. TR36028: Development and improvement of methods for analyses of soil-structure interaction based on theoretical and experimental research

  15. Changing pattern of symptoms in dengue patients over the years: A review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Kim Kuan Low

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To describe the pattern of vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain among dengue patients over the years in different age groups. Methods: Electronic databases were used to include studies that reported symptoms of vomiting, diarrhoea or/and abdominal pain. Confirmation of dengue was conducted by laboratory diagnosis. The exclusion criteria were case reports and studies which only described specific settings, focused only on dengue haemorrhagic fever or severe dengue and coinfection. Meta-analysis was performed on the overall prevalence of vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain which was then stratified according to years and different age groups. Results: Out of the 2 002 studies, 32 studies were included. All studies were conducted between 1995 and 2014. The studies were conducted in 18 countries with a total sample size of 69466. The predominant symptom was abdominal pain before 2004 but became vomiting thereafter. The prevalence of vomiting was constant throughout the years (20%–40%, but the prevalence of abdominal pain reduced from 30%–50% to 20%–30%. The prevalence of diarrhoea increased steadily from 5% to 30%. Abdominal pain was the predominant symptom in children (75.03% [95% confidence interval (CI: 64.89%–85.17%], while diarrhoea was predominant in adults (32.42% (95% CI: 23.96%–40.88%. For studies which included all ages, the predominant symptom was vomiting (45.18% (95% CI: 33.87%–56.49%. Conclusions: The knowledge of symptomatic pattern change could assist clinicians in diagnosing and managing dengue patients. Future studies could address the occurrence of this change and the difference in symptoms between children and adults.

  16. Xanthogranulomatous appendicitis in interval appendectomy specimens of children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Hakan Çavuşoğlu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Xanthogranulomatous inflammation is common in interval appendectomy specimens in adults, but it is unusual in children. Histopathologic specimens of interval appendectomy, within an 8-year period, were reevaluated to assess the true incidence. A computer search of the hospital database of all appendectomies was performed between January 2008 and June 2015 to identify all interval appendectomy cases. A total of 2694 patients underwent appendectomies. Of these, 13 were interval appendectomies. After pathologic evaluation, 2 (15.4% of the specimens were reported as xanthogranulomatous appendicitis (XA. Histopathologic examination of these interval appendectomy specimens, granulomas (59%, xanthogranulomatous inflammation (36% and Crohn-like changes (50% were common in adults. However, XA is a particularly rare clinical entity among children. Two cases of XA were reported in children in the English literature. One was a 12-year old boy that underwent interval appendectomy 6 weeks after an episode of acute appendicitis. The other was an 11-year old boy with acute (non-interval appendicitis, but the complete blood count was suggestive of an acute suppurative inflammation. These two cases are the 3rd and 4th cases of XA reported in children in the English literature, and both were managed by interval appendectomy. Thus, XA may be encountered in interval appendectomy specimens and association with IBD has to be ruled out.

  17. Interval Valued Neutrosophic Soft Topological Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjan Mukherjee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce the concept of interval valued neutrosophic soft topological space together with interval valued neutrosophic soft finer and interval valued neutrosophic soft coarser topology. We also define interval valued neutrosophic interior and closer of an interval valued neutrosophic soft set. Some theorems and examples are cites. Interval valued neutrosophic soft subspace topology are studied. Some examples and theorems regarding this concept are presented.

  18. Statistical intervals a guide for practitioners

    CERN Document Server

    Hahn, Gerald J

    2011-01-01

    Presents a detailed exposition of statistical intervals and emphasizes applications in industry. The discussion differentiates at an elementary level among different kinds of statistical intervals and gives instruction with numerous examples and simple math on how to construct such intervals from sample data. This includes confidence intervals to contain a population percentile, confidence intervals on probability of meeting specified threshold value, and prediction intervals to include observation in a future sample. Also has an appendix containing computer subroutines for nonparametric stati

  19. Statistical Design, Models and Analysis for the Job Change Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleser, Leon Jay

    1990-01-01

    Proposes statistical methodology for testing Loughead and Black's "job change thermostat." Discusses choice of target population; relationship between job satisfaction and values, perceptions, and opportunities; and determinants of job change. (SK)

  20. How Typewriters Changed Correspondence: An Analysis of Prescription and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Sue

    1984-01-01

    Notes changes in the visual organization of correspondence brought about by the typewriter. Discusses the development of these changes, drawing examples both from the prescriptions for and the practice of commercial correspondence. (FL)

  1. analysis and mapping of climate change risk and vulnerability in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    regarding vulnerability to climate change at the local scale. This study was ... prime contributor to food security (CEEPA, 2006). Climate ... developing world, home to half of the world's currently ... change impacts on the landscape to more.

  2. A Comparison of Momentary Time Sampling and Partial-Interval Recording for Assessment of Effects of Social Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radley, Keith C.; O'Handley, Roderick D.; Labrot, Zachary C.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment in social skills training often utilizes procedures such as partial-interval recording (PIR) and momentary time sampling (MTS) to estimate changes in duration in social engagements due to intervention. Although previous research suggests PIR to be more inaccurate than MTS in estimating levels of behavior, treatment analysis decisions…

  3. Trigonometric regressive spectral analysis reliably maps dynamic changes in baroreflex sensitivity and autonomic tone: the effect of gender and age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manja Reimann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The assessment of baroreflex sensitivity (BRS has emerged as prognostic tool in cardiology. Although available computer-assisted methods, measuring spontaneous fluctuations of heart rate and blood pressure in the time and frequency domain are easily applicable, they do not allow for quantification of BRS during cardiovascular adaption processes. This, however, seems an essential criterion for clinical application. We evaluated a novel algorithm based on trigonometric regression regarding its ability to map dynamic changes in BRS and autonomic tone during cardiovascular provocation in relation to gender and age. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We continuously recorded systemic arterial pressure, electrocardiogram and respiration in 23 young subjects (25+/-2 years and 22 middle-aged subjects (56+/-4 years during cardiovascular autonomic testing (metronomic breathing, Valsalva manoeuvre, head-up tilt. Baroreflex- and spectral analysis was performed using the algorithm of trigonometric regressive spectral analysis. There was an age-related decline in spontaneous BRS and high frequency oscillations of RR intervals. Changes in autonomic tone evoked by cardiovascular provocation were observed as shifts in the ratio of low to high frequency oscillations of RR intervals and blood pressure. Respiration at 0.1 Hz elicited an increase in BRS while head-up tilt and Valsalva manoeuvre resulted in a downregulation of BRS. The extent of autonomic adaption was in general more pronounced in young individuals and declined stronger with age in women than in men. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The trigonometric regressive spectral analysis reliably maps age- and gender-related differences in baroreflex- and autonomic function and is able to describe adaption processes of baroreceptor circuit during cardiovascular stimulation. Hence, this novel algorithm may be a useful screening tool to detect abnormalities in cardiovascular adaption processes even when

  4. International wood trade and forest change : A global analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kastner, Thomas; Erb, Karl-Heinz; Nonhebel, Sanderine

    2011-01-01

    Throughout history, humans have transformed natural forests into agricultural land, settlement areas and managed forests. Studies on the dynamics of forest change are one of the mainstays in land change science. The forest transition theory offers a powerful tool to analyze changes in human interfer

  5. Lunar Mare Dome Identification and Morphologic Properties Analysis Using Chang'E-2 Lunar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xingguo; Mu, Lingli; Li, Chunlai; Liu, Jianjun; Ren, Xin; Wang, Yuanyuan

    2016-04-01

    Identify the lunar mare dome and study the morphologic properties to know more knowledge about the structure will enhance the study of lunar volcanism. Traditionally, most lunar domes are identified by the scientists from exploring the images or topographic maps of the lunar surface with manual method, which already found out a bunch of lunar domes in specific local areas. For the purpose of getting more knowledge about global lunar dome, it is necessary to identify the lunar dome from the global lunar mare. However, it is hard to find new lunar domes from the global lunar mare only with manual method, since in that case, the large volume lunar data is needed and such work is too time consumed, so that, there are few researchers who have indentified and study the properties of the lunar dome from the perspective of lunar global scale. To solve the problem mentioned above, in this approach , CE-2 DEM, DOM data in 7m resolution were used in the detection and morphologic analysis of the lunar domes and a dome detection method based on topographic characteristics were developed.We firstly designed a method considering the morphologic characteristics to identify the lunar dome with Chang'E2(CE-2) lunar global data, after that, the initial identified result with properties is analyzed, and finally, by integrating the result with lunar domes already found by former researchers, we made some maps about the spatial distribution of the global lunar mare dome. With the CE-2 data covering the former lunar domes and the new found lunar domes, we surveyed and calculated some morphologic properties, and found that, lunar domes are circular or eclipse shaped, obviously different from background in topography,which has a average diameter between 3-25km, circular degree less than 1.54, with a average slope less than 10°, average height less than 650m and diameter/height less than 0.065. Almost all of the lunar domes are located in the extent of 58°N~54°S,167°W~180°E,and nearly

  6. Climate change threatens polar bear populations: a stochastic demographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Christine M; Caswell, Hal; Runge, Michael C; Regehr, Eric V; Amstrup, Steve C; Stirling, Ian

    2010-10-01

    The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) depends on sea ice for feeding, breeding, and movement. Significant reductions in Arctic sea ice are forecast to continue because of climate warming. We evaluated the impacts of climate change on polar bears in the southern Beaufort Sea by means of a demographic analysis, combining deterministic, stochastic, environment-dependent matrix population models with forecasts of future sea ice conditions from IPCC general circulation models (GCMs). The matrix population models classified individuals by age and breeding status; mothers and dependent cubs were treated as units. Parameter estimates were obtained from a capture-recapture study conducted from 2001 to 2006. Candidate statistical models allowed vital rates to vary with time and as functions of a sea ice covariate. Model averaging was used to produce the vital rate estimates, and a parametric bootstrap procedure was used to quantify model selection and parameter estimation uncertainty. Deterministic models projected population growth in years with more extensive ice coverage (2001-2003) and population decline in years with less ice coverage (2004-2005). LTRE (life table response experiment) analysis showed that the reduction in lambda in years with low sea ice was due primarily to reduced adult female survival, and secondarily to reduced breeding. A stochastic model with two environmental states, good and poor sea ice conditions, projected a declining stochastic growth rate, log lambdas, as the frequency of poor ice years increased. The observed frequency of poor ice years since 1979 would imply log lambdas approximately - 0.01, which agrees with available (albeit crude) observations of population size. The stochastic model was linked to a set of 10 GCMs compiled by the IPCC; the models were chosen for their ability to reproduce historical observations of sea ice and were forced with "business as usual" (A1B) greenhouse gas emissions. The resulting stochastic population

  7. Changes in cod muscle proteins during frozen storage revealed by proteome analysis and multivariate data analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgård, Inger Vibeke Holst; Nørrelykke, M.R.; Jessen, Flemming

    2006-01-01

    Multivariate data analysis has been combined with proteomics to enhance the recovery of information from 2-DE of cod muscle proteins during different storage conditions. Proteins were extracted according to 11 different storage conditions and samples were resolved by 2-DE. Data generated by 2-DE...... was subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and discriminant partial least squares regression (DPLSR). Applying PCA to 2-DE data revealed the samples to form groups according to frozen storage time, whereas differences due to different storage temperatures or chilled storage in modified atmosphere...... light chain 1, 2 and 3, triose-phosphate isomerase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, aldolase A and two ?-actin fragments, and a nuclease diphosphate kinase B fragment to change in concentration, during frozen storage. Application of proteomics, multivariate data analysis and MS/MS to analyse...

  8. Twentieth century Walker Circulation change: data analysis and model experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Qingjia [Leibniz-Institut fuer Meereswissenschaften, Kiel (Germany); Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, River and Coastal Environment Research Center, Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Ocean Circulation and Waves, Institute of Oceanology, Qingdao (China); Latif, Mojib; Park, Wonsun; Keenlyside, Noel S.; Martin, Thomas [Leibniz-Institut fuer Meereswissenschaften, Kiel (Germany); Semenov, Vladimir A. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Meereswissenschaften, Kiel (Germany); A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-05-15

    Recent studies indicate a weakening of the Walker Circulation during the twentieth century. Here, we present evidence from an atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) forced by the history of observed sea surface temperature (SST) that the Walker Circulation may have intensified rather than weakened. Observed Equatorial Indo-Pacific Sector SST since 1870 exhibited a zonally asymmetric evolution: While the eastern part of the Equatorial Pacific showed only a weak warming, or even cooling in one SST dataset, the western part and the Equatorial Indian Ocean exhibited a rather strong warming. This has resulted in an increase of the SST gradient between the Maritime Continent and the eastern part of the Equatorial Pacific, one driving force of the Walker Circulation. The ensemble experiments with the AGCM, with and without time-varying external forcing, suggest that the enhancement of the SST gradient drove an anomalous atmospheric circulation, with an enhancement of both Walker and Hadley Circulation. Anomalously strong precipitation is simulated over the Indian Ocean and anomalously weak precipitation over the western Pacific, with corresponding changes in the surface wind pattern. Some sensitivity to the forcing SST, however, is noticed. The analysis of twentieth century integrations with global climate models driven with observed radiative forcing obtained from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) database support the link between the SST gradient and Walker Circulation strength. Furthermore, control integrations with the CMIP models indicate the existence of strong internal variability on centennial timescales. The results suggest that a radiatively forced signal in the Walker Circulation during the twentieth century may have been too weak to be detectable. (orig.)

  9. NDVI changes in China between 1989 and 1999 using change vector analysis based on time series data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Change vector analysis (CVA) and principal component analysis in NDVI time-trajectories space are powerful tools to analyze land-cover change. The magnitude of the change vector indicates amplitude of the change, while its direction indicates the nature of the change. CVA is applied to two remotely sensed indicators of land surface conditions, NDVI and spatial structure, in order to improve the capability to detect and categorize land-cover change. The magnitude and type of changes are calculated in China from 1989 to 1999. Through the research, the main conclusions are drawn as follows: 1) The changes of NDVI are quite different between eastern China and western China, and the change range in the east is bigger than that in the west. The trend in NDVI time series is smoothly increasing, the increases happen mostly in Taiwan, Ftjian, Sichuan and Henan provinces and the decreases occur in Yunnan and Xinjiang. 2) The spatial structure index can indicate changes in theseasonal ecosystem dynamics for spatially heterogeneous landscapes. Most of spatial structurechanges, which occurred in southern China, correlated with vegetation growth processes and strike of mountains.

  10. Intervenção breve em organizações: mudança em coaching de executivos Intervención breve en organizaciones: mudanza en coaching de ejecutivos Brief intervention in organizations: change in executive coaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Aparecida Milaré

    2009-12-01

    , Personal Profile Analysis (PPA y Auto Análisis del Desempeño (AAD. Los resultados sugieren que el programa de coaching ayudó en la mejora de la eficacia adaptativa, permitiendo el desarrollo de competencias. El nivel de mudanza inicial ayudó en la elección de estrategias cognitivas. Límites metodológicos son apuntados.Executive coaching is a process designed to help professionals to reach organizational goals by learning new competences. Different proposals have been suggested in the literature with none or few empirical evidences of efficiency. This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of an executive coaching program developed and carried out by first author, and composed by four modules: self-perception; improvements identification; action plan elaboration / execution and follow-up. Participants were ten executives directed by their companies to accomplish a coaching process. Processes were assessed by comparing final to initial psychological measures. Instruments: Escala Diagnóstica Adaptativa Operacionalizada (EDAO-R, Escala de Estágios de Mudanças (EEM, Personal Profile Analysis (PPA e Autoanálise do Desempenho (AAD. Results suggested that the coaching improved the level of adaptive efficacy by the development of specific habilities. The initial stage of change allowed choosing the best cognitive strategy. Limits on the methodological were pointed out.

  11. Network-based analysis of software change propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rongcun; Huang, Rubing; Qu, Binbin

    2014-01-01

    The object-oriented software systems frequently evolve to meet new change requirements. Understanding the characteristics of changes aids testers and system designers to improve the quality of softwares. Identifying important modules becomes a key issue in the process of evolution. In this context, a novel network-based approach is proposed to comprehensively investigate change distributions and the correlation between centrality measures and the scope of change propagation. First, software dependency networks are constructed at class level. And then, the number of times of cochanges among classes is minded from software repositories. According to the dependency relationships and the number of times of cochanges among classes, the scope of change propagation is calculated. Using Spearman rank correlation analyzes the correlation between centrality measures and the scope of change propagation. Three case studies on java open source software projects Findbugs, Hibernate, and Spring are conducted to research the characteristics of change propagation. Experimental results show that (i) change distribution is very uneven; (ii) PageRank, Degree, and CIRank are significantly correlated to the scope of change propagation. Particularly, CIRank shows higher correlation coefficient, which suggests it can be a more useful indicator for measuring the scope of change propagation of classes in object-oriented software system.

  12. Talking Change - A comparative narrative analysis of language use amongst external consultants and internal change agents in delivering organisational change.

    OpenAIRE

    Muchatuta, Gashirai

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports an investigation into the existence of material differences between the respective approaches to change management of consultants and corporate managers. The narrative accounts proffered by participants are examined in three primary dimensions, sensemaking, sensegiving and overcoming resistance to change. Relationships between these dimensions are explored and an effort at establishing best practice approaches is made.

  13. Motor unit firing intervals and other parameters of electrical activity in normal and pathological muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang-Frederiksen, Anders; Smith, T; Høgenhaven, H

    1987-01-01

    analysis and the analysis of properties of individual motor unit potentials. To ensure comparable conditions we have examined motor unit firing intervals and turns at a force of 10% of maximum. The average of motor unit firing intervals and of interval variability was the same in controls and in patients......, and the diagnostic yield of the motor unit firing intervals analysis was none. Although the number of turns increased with decreasing motor unit firing intervals, this relation was physiological rather than pathophysiological. In patients with neurogenic disorders, interval variability indicated unstable firing...

  14. Bahamians and Climate Change: An Analysis of Risk Perception and Climate Change Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, R.; Owens, M. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Commonwealth of the Bahamas is forecasted to be adversely impacted by the effects of climate change. This presentation will present the results of an assessment of the risk perception toward climate change and climate change literacy among Bahamians. 499 Bahamians from the health care and hospitality industries participated in surveys and/or focus groups and three (3) areas of climate change literacy (attitude, behavior and knowledge) were analyzed as well as risk perception. In general, 1) Bahamians demonstrated an elementary understanding of the underlying causes of climate change, 2) possessed positive attitudes toward adopting new climate change policies, and 3) are already adjusting their behaviors in light of the current predictions. This research also resulted in the development of a model of the relationships between the climate literacy subscales (attitude, behavior and knowledge) and risk perception. This study also examined information sources and their impacts on climate change literacy. As the source of information is important in assessing the quality of the information, participants also identified the source(s) of most of their climate change information. The TV news was cited as the most common source for climate change information among Bahamians. As there is limited active research generating specific climate change information in the Bahamas, all the information Bahamians receive as it pertains to climate change is generated abroad. As a result, Bahamians must decipher through to make sense of it on an individual level. From the focus groups, many of the participants have been able to view possible changes through a cultural lens and are willing to make adjustments to maintain the uniqueness and viability of the Bahamas and to preserve it for generations. Continued study of Bahamians' climate change literacy will inform adaption and mitigation policy as well as individual action.

  15. Language and therapeutic change: a speech acts analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Lucia; Aristegui, Roberto; Krause, Mariane; Strasser, Katherine; Tomicic, Alemka; Valdes, Nelson; Altimir, Carolina; Ramirez, Ivonne; De La Parra, Guillermo; Dagnino, Paula; Echavarri, Orietta; Vilches, Oriana; Ben-Dov, Perla

    2008-05-01

    Drawing on the speech acts theory, a linguistic pattern was identified that could be expected to be associated to therapeutic change, characterized by being uttered in the first person singular and present indicative, and by being self-referential in its propositional content. The frequency of the pattern was examined among verbalizations defined as change moments in three therapies with different theoretical orientation. Results show that the majority of change moments have the specified pattern, and that this pattern is significantly more frequent in change moments than in random non-change-related verbalizations, and so, it does not pertain to therapeutic conversation in general. Implications are discussed concerning the possibility of using the linguistic pattern as an additional and complementary criterion in the identification of moments of change in the therapeutic process.

  16. Analysis of the event structure by the rapidity interval method in K/sup -/p interactions at 32 GeV/c and pp interactions at 69 GeV/c

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babintsev, V.V.; Bumazhnov, V.A.; Moiseev, A.M.; Ukhanov, M.N. (Gosudarstvennyj Nomitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Serpukhov. Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij); Nruglov, N.A.; Proskuryakov, A.S.; Smirnova, L.N. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1981-09-01

    The experimental material is obtained by measuring photographs with liquid-hydrogen bubble chamber ''Mirabel'' irradiated in the accelerator. Approximately 43000 completely measured events with n>=6 multiplicity of charged particles in K/sup -/p- interactions and approximately 5000 similar events in pp-interactions are used for the analysis. The method of the analysis of distributions in the value of rapidity gaps occupied by a fixed number m of charged particles is suggested. The structure of the distributions in the value rsub(m)sup(n) of the rapidity intervals involving m charged particles in events with n charged particles is analysed for K/sup -/p interactions at 32 GeV/c and pp interaction at 69 GeV/c. It is found that all distributions correspond to a smooth curve with a one maximum. The shape of the experimental distributions for K/sup -/p interactions is compared to the distributions for generated events associated with the multireggeon model.

  17. Analysis of 133 meioses places the genes for nevoid basal cell carcinoma (gorlin) syndrome and fanconi anemia group C in a 2.6-cM interval and contributes to the fine map of 9q22.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farndon, P.A.; Hardy, C.; Kilpatrick, M.W. [Birmingham Maternity Hospital, Edgbaston (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1994-09-15

    Four disease genes (NBCCS, ESS1, XPAC, FACC) map to 9q22.3-q31. A fine map of this region was produced by linkage and haplotype analysis using 12 DNA markers. The gene for nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS, Gorlin) has an important role in congenital malformations and carcinogenesis. Phase-known recombinants in a study of 133 meioses place NBCCS between (D9S12/D9S151) and D9S176. Haplotype analysis in a two-generation family suggests that NBCCS lies in a smaller interval of 2.6 cM centromeric to D9S287. These flanking markers will be useful clinically for gene tracking. Recombinants also map FACC (Fanconi anemia, group C) to the same region, between (D9S12/D9S151) and D9S287. The recombination rate between (D9S12/D9S151) and D9S53 in males is 8.3% and 13.2% in females, giving a sex-specific male:female ratio of 1:1.6 and a sex-averaged map distance of 10.4 cM. No double recombinants were detected, in agreement with the apparently complete level of interference predicted from the male chiasmata map. 19 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. A dynamic analysis of net migration and state employment change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruidl, J S; Pulver, G C

    1991-01-01

    "The dynamic relationship of net migration and employment change is examined for ten selected states of the U.S. using a multivariate time series approach--a vector autoregression (VAR) model. Granger causality tests and dynamic multipliers provide information on the dynamic process. The results suggest a state-level process in which employment change occurs first, and net migration follows with a lag. The procedure appears promising in investigating the timing of net migration and regional employment change."

  19. Using multivariate statistical analysis to assess changes in water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    analysis (CCA) showed that the environmental variables used in the analysis, discharge and month of ... International studies with regard to impacts on aquatic systems .... frequently used to assess for the impact of acidic deposition on.

  20. Automatic analysis of the slight change image for unsupervised change detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jilian; Sun, Weidong

    2015-01-01

    We propose an unsupervised method for slight change extraction and detection in multitemporal hyperspectral image sequence. To exploit the spectral signatures in hyperspectral images, autoregressive integrated moving average and fitting models are employed to create a prediction of single-band and multiband time series. Minimum mean absolute error index is then applied to obtain the preliminary change information image (PCII), which contains slight change information. After that, feature vectors are created for each pixel in the PCII using block processing and locally linear embedding. The final change detection (CD) mask is obtained by clustering the extracted feature vectors into changed and unchanged classes using k-means clustering algorithm with k=2. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method extracts the slight change information efficiently in the hyperspectral image sequence and outperforms the state-of-the-art CD methods quantitatively and qualitatively.