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Sample records for intertransverse process fusion

  1. Radiographic, biomechanical, and histological evaluation of rhBMP-2 in a 3-level intertransverse process spine fusion: an ovine study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Jeffrey M; Wang, Mei; Lawson, Joshua; Badura, Jeffrey M; DuBose, Kimberly Bailey

    2016-12-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to evaluate bone grafts consisting of rhBMP-2 on an absorbable collagen sponge with a ceramic composite bulking agent, rhBMP-2, directly on a ceramic-collagen sponge carrier or iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) in combination with local bone graft to effect fusion in a multisegmental instrumented ovine lumbar intertransverse process fusion model. METHODS Thirty-six sheep had a single treatment at 3 spinal levels in both the right and left intertransverse process spaces. Group 1 sheep were treated with 7.5 cm(3) of autograft consisting of ICBG plus local bone for each intertransverse process space. For Groups 2-4, 4 cm(3) of local bone was placed within the intertransverse process space followed by 4.5-5 cm(3) of the rhBMP-2 graft material. Group 2 animals received 1.5 mg/cm(3) rhBMP-2 on an absorbable collagen sponge with a commercial bone void filler consisting of Type I lyophilized collagen with a biphasic hydroxyapatite/β-tricalcium phosphate ceramic with local bone. Group 3 animals received 0.75 mg/m cm(3) of rhBMP-2 on a collagen ceramic sponge carrier with local bone. Group 4 animals received 1.35 mg/cm(3) of rhBMP-2 on the same collagen ceramic sponge carrier with local bone. Sheep were euthanized 6 months postoperatively. Manual palpation, biomechanical testing, CT, radiography, and undecalcified histology were performed to assess the presence of fusion associated with the treatments. RESULTS All animals in Groups 2-4 that received grafts containing rhBMP-2 achieved radiographic and CT fusion at all 3 levels. In Group 1 (bone autograft alone), only 19% of the levels demonstrated radiographic fusion, 14% resulted in possible radiographic fusion, and 67% of the levels demonstrated radiographic nonfusion. Biomechanical testing showed that Groups 2-4 demonstrated similar stiffness of the L2-5 segment in all 6 loading directions, with each of the 3 groups having significantly greater stiffness than the autograft-only group

  2. Posterolateral inter-transverse lumbar fusion in a mouse model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobyn Justin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spinal fusion is a common orthopaedic procedure that has been previously modeled using canine, lapine, and rodent subjects. Despite the increasing availability of genetically modified mouse strains, murine models have only been infrequently described. Purpose To present an efficient and minimally traumatic procedure for achieving spinal fusion in a mouse model and determine the optimal rhBMP-2 dose to achieve sufficient fusion mass. Method MicroCT reconstructions of the unfused mouse spine and human spine were compared to design a surgical approach. In phase 1, posterolateral lumbar spine fusion in the mouse was evaluated using 18 animals allocated to three experimental groups. Group 1 received decortication only (n = 3, Group 2 received 10 μg rhBMP-2 in a collagen sponge bilaterally (n = 6, and Group 3 received 10 μg rhBMP-2 + decortication (n = 9. The surgical technique was assessed for intra-operative safety, efficacy, access and reproducibility. Spines were harvested for analysis at 3 weeks (Groups 1, 2 and 1, 2, and 3 weeks (Group 3. In phase 2, a dose response study was carried out in an additional 18 animals with C57BL6 mice receiving sponges containing 0, 0.5, 1, 2.5, 5 μg of rhBMP-2 per sponge bilaterally. Results The operative procedure via midline access was rapid and reproducible, and fusion of the murine articular processes was found to be analogous to the human procedure. Unlike reports from other species, decortication alone (Group 1 yielded no new bone formation. Addition of rhBMP-2 (Groups 2 and 3 yielded a significant bone mass that bridged the L4-L6 vertebrae. The subsequent dose response experiment revealed that 0.5 μg rhBMP-2 per sponge was sufficient to create a fusion mass. Conclusion We describe a new approach for mouse lumbar spine fusion that is safe, efficient, and highly reproducible. The technique we employed is analogous to the human midline procedure and may be highly

  3. Effect of nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen composite and bone morphogenetic protein-2 on lumbar intertransverse fusion in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙天胜; 关凯; 时述山; 朱兵; 郑永军; 崔福斋; 张伟; 廖素三

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of nano-hydroxyapatite/collagen (nHA/collagen) composite as a graft extender and enhancer when combined with recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) on lumbar intertransverse fusion in rabbits.Methods: Sixty-four adult female New Zealand white rabbits, aged 1 year and weighing 3.5-4.5 kg, underwent similar posterolateral intertransverse process arthrodesis and were randomly divided into 4 groups based on different grafts: autogenous cancellous bone alone (ACB group), nHA/collagen alone (HAC group), half autogenous cancellous bone and half nHA/collagen (ACB+HAC group) and nHA/collagen combined with rhBMP-2 (HAC+BMP group). The fusion masses were analyzed by manual palpation, radiography, biomechanical testing and histological examination. Results: Fusion was observed in 4 cases in the 6th week and in 5 cases in the 10th week after surgery in ACB group. No case showed fusion in HAC group. In ACB+HAC group, there was fusion in 3 cases in the 6th week and in 4 cases in the 10th week after surgery. In HAC+BMP group, fusion in 1 case was found in the 4th week, in 5 cases in the 6th week and in 6 cases in the 10th week after surgery. It suggested that ACB, ACB+HAC and HAC+BMP groups showed similar fusion ratio and mechanical strength in the 6th and 10th week after surgery. According to the microstructure analysis of the samples, nHA/collagen had no negative effect when implanted together with ilium autograft. In HAC+BMP group, new bone-like tissue was observed in the 2nd week postoperatively, and nearly all of the implanted composites were replaced by mature bone matrix and new bones in 10th week postoperatively.Conclusions: The nHA/collagen, especially combined with rhBMP-2, is a promising bone substitute, for it has quick biodegradation, fine bone-bending ability, and high osteoconductivity on posterolateral spinal fusion in rabbits.

  4. Intertransverse lumbar interbody fusion: A biomechanical in vitro study%腰椎横突间入路椎体间融合术的生物力学评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤俊君; 王新伟; 袁文; 董军; 顾韬

    2008-01-01

    目的 观察腰椎横突间入路椎体间融合术(ILIF)及附加椎弓根钉固定后的生物力学稳定性.方法 采用小牛脊柱运动节段标本12具,依序进行不同处理后分为以下7组:(1)正常对照组(IS);(2)左侧小关节切除+椎间融合器植入组(TLIF);(3)TLIF附加同侧椎弓根钉固定组;(4)TLIF附加双侧椎弓根钉固定组;(5)左侧横突间入路椎间融合器植入组(ILIF);(6)ILIF附加同侧椎弓根钉固定组;(7)ILIF附加双侧椎弓根钉固定组.分别测试各组在轴向压缩、前屈、后伸、左右侧屈时的载荷-应变、载荷-位移变化以及轴向刚度和双向扭转稳定性等生物力学指标,并进行统计学比较.结果 所有生物力学指标中ILIF组稳定性均大于TLIF组(P0.05). 结论 ILIF手术生物力学稳定性优于TLIF手术;ILIF附加同侧椎弓根钉固定与附加双侧椎弓根钉固定生物力学稳定性相当,使用ILIF术式附加侧同椎弓根螺钉固定,可提供较好的即刻稳定性.%Objective To assess the relative stability and kinematics of the lumbar segmental stiffness among intertransverse lumbar interbody fusion (ILIF) with or without transpedicular screw rod fixation and transforaminar lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) with or without transpedicular screw rod fixation.Methods Twelve fresh frozen bovine lumbar functional spinal units (FSU) were prepared for biomechanical test.According to the different treatments,the specimens were divided into 7 groups: (1) intact specimens (IS);(2) specimens were treated by left unilateral facetectomy and had homolateral anatomical threaded cages inserted (TLIF);(3) TLIF with homolateral pedicle screw fixation (TLIF+HPSF);(4) TLIF with bilateral pedicle screw fixation (TLIF+BPSF);(5) specimens had anatomical threaded cages inserted on the left by intertransverse process approach (ILIF);(6) ILIF with homolateral pedicle screw fixation (ILIF+HPSF);(7) ILIF with bilateral pedicle screw fixation (ILIF+BPSF).Data were

  5. The role of spinal instrumentation in augmenting lumbar posterolateral fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Y; Cunningham, B W; Cappuccino, A; Kaneda, K; McAfee, P C

    1996-02-01

    Using a sheep model, clinically practical posterolateral intertransverse process fusion was successfully achieved and biomechanically tested to determine the load-sharing environment provided by spinal instrumentation and posterolateral fusion mass following solid arthrodesis. To quantify the in vivo load-sharing capacity of spinal instrumentation on augmenting the posterolateral intertransverse fusion. The hypothesis was that transpedicular screw fixation maintains the biomechanical contribution to the posterolateral fusion stability even after successful arthrodesis because of its providing anterior and middle column support. Although many previous studies have documented the biological and biomechanical advantages of posterolateral fusion, it is known that posterolateral fusion without spinal instrumentation allowed significant remaining motion at the fused segment even after the solid arthrodesis. Whether spinal instrumentation, especially transpedicular screw fixation, augments in vivo posterolateral fusion stability after solid arthrodesis has not been previously investigated. Radiographic, macroscopic, and biomechanical analyses of a posterolateral intertransverse process fusion model were performed on 18 sheep at 4 months postoperatively. The load-sharing contribution of the spinal instrumentation was calculated based on the stability with or without spinal instrumentation tested in five loading modalities. Histomorphometry of the vertebral body spanned by spinal instrumentation provided the information regarding the biological effect of the load-sharing capacity of spinal instrumentation on bone remodeling. All sheep who received posterolateral intertransverse process fusion demonstrated successful solid arthrodesis and high biomechanical quality of the posterolateral fusion mass when compared to previous posterolateral fusion models. The significant difference in stiffness between fixation and subsequent fixation removal was observed in flexion, despite

  6. Information Fusion and Cognitive Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    2010. U.S. Government or Federal Purpose Rights License 14. ABSTRACT In sensor fusion one expects that solutions from individual sensors when...Dan Fuhrman • S. S. Iyengar Th K il th• omas a a • Rudy Kalman • R. L. Kashyap • Qilian Liang • S. K. Mitra • Arye Nehorai • Athina Petropulu...SYSTEMS (IEEE MFI 2010) SEPTEMBER 5-7 2010, , The theme of IEEE MFI 2010 was Here the goal of multi-sensor fusion systems is to achieve human

  7. Perceptual reasoning in adaptive fusion processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadar, Ivan

    2002-07-01

    The author previously published a unified perceptual reasoning system framework for adaptive sensor fusion and situation assessment. Ths framework is re-examined to highlight the role of human perceptual reasoning and to establish the relationship between human perceptual reasoning and the Joint Director of Laboratories (JDL) fusion levels. Mappings between the fusion levels and the elements of perceptual reasoning are defined. Methods to populate the knowledge bases associated with each component of the perceptual reasoning system are highlighted. The concept and application of perception, the resultant system architecture and its candidate renditions using distributed interacting software agents (ISA) are discussed. The perceptual reasoning system is shown to be a natural governing mechanism for extracting, associating and fusing information from multiple sources while adaptively controlling the fusion level processes for optimum fusion performance. The unified modular system construct is shown to provide a formal framework to accommodate various implementation alternatives. The application of this architectural concept is illustrated for distributed fusion systems architectures and is sued to illustrate the benefits of the adaptive perceptual reasoning system concept.

  8. Occupational safety in the fusion design process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moshonas, K. E-mail: kmoshonas@sympatico.ca; Langman, V.J

    2001-04-01

    The radiological hazards associated with the operation and maintenance of fusion machines are cause for safety and regulatory concerns. Current experience in the nuclear industry, and at operating tokamaks confirm that a high level of occupational safety can be achieved through an effective planning process. For fusion facilities with increased hazard levels resulting from the introduction of large quantities of tritium, and higher neutron flux and fluence, a process must be implemented during the design phase to address both the worker safety and the regulatory requirements. Such a process has been developed and was used for the radiological occupational safety assessment of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The purpose of this paper is to describe the approach used, including, the implementation of the as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) principle for individual and collective doses in an evolving design, and the demonstration of adequate radiological occupational safety during the design process.

  9. Atomic and molecular processes in fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janev, R.K. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-01-01

    The role of atomic and molecular processes in achieving and maintaining the conditions for thermonuclear burn in a magnetically confined fusion plasma is described. Emphasis is given to the energy balance and power and particle exhaust issues. The most important atomic and molecular processes which affect the radiation losses and impurity transport in the core plasma, the neutral particle transport in the plasma edge and the radiative cooling of divertor plasmas are discussed in greater detail. (author)

  10. Three-dimensional model for fusion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olson, A.P.

    1984-01-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) emit unusual spectra of radiation which is interpreted to signify extreme distance, extreme power, or both. The status of AGNs was recently reviewed by Balick and Heckman. It seems that the greatest conceptual difficulty with understanding AGNs is how to form a coherent phenomenological model of their properties. What drives the galactic engine. What and where are the mass-flows of fuel to this engine. Are there more than one engine. Do the engines have any symmetry properties. Is observed radiation isotropically emitted from the source. If it is polarized, what causes the polarization. Why is there a roughly spherical cloud of ionized gas about the center of our own galaxy, the Milky Way. The purpose of this paper is to discuss a new model, based on fusion processes which are not axisymmetric, uniform, isotropic, or even time-invariant. Then, the relationship to these questions will be developed. A unified model of fusion processes applicable to many astronomical phenomena will be proposed and discussed.

  11. Sensor fusion for intelligent process control.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connors, John J. (PPG Industries, Inc., Harmar Township, PA); Hill, Kevin (PPG Industries, Inc., Harmar Township, PA); Hanekamp, David (PPG Industries, Inc., Harmar Township, PA); Haley, William F. (PPG Industries, Inc., Wichita Falls, TX); Gallagher, Robert J.; Gowin, Craig (PPG Industries, Inc., Batavia, IL); Farrar, Arthur R. (PPG Industries, Inc., Wichita Falls, TX); Sheaffer, Donald A.; DeYoung, Mark A. (PPG Industries, Inc., Mt. Zion, IL); Bertram, Lee A.; Dodge, Craig (PPG Industries, Inc., Mt. Zion, IL); Binion, Bruce (PPG Industries, Inc., Mt. Zion, IL); Walsh, Peter M.; Houf, William G.; Desam, Padmabhushana R. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Tiwary, Rajiv (PPG Industries, Inc., Harmar Township, PA); Stokes, Michael R. (PPG Industries, Inc.); Miller, Alan J. (PPG Industries, Inc., Mt. Zion, IL); Michael, Richard W. (PPG Industries, Inc., Lincoln, AL); Mayer, Raymond M. (PPG Industries, Inc., Harmar Township, PA); Jiao, Yu (PPG Industries, Inc., Harmar Township, PA); Smith, Philip J. (University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT); Arbab, Mehran (PPG Industries, Inc., Harmar Township, PA); Hillaire, Robert G.

    2004-08-01

    An integrated system for the fusion of product and process sensors and controls for production of flat glass was envisioned, having as its objective the maximization of throughput and product quality subject to emission limits, furnace refractory wear, and other constraints. Although the project was prematurely terminated, stopping the work short of its goal, the tasks that were completed show the value of the approach and objectives. Though the demonstration was to have been done on a flat glass production line, the approach is applicable to control of production in the other sectors of the glass industry. Furthermore, the system architecture is also applicable in other industries utilizing processes in which product uniformity is determined by ability to control feed composition, mixing, heating and cooling, chemical reactions, and physical processes such as distillation, crystallization, drying, etc. The first phase of the project, with Visteon Automotive Systems as industrial partner, was focused on simulation and control of the glass annealing lehr. That work produced the analysis and computer code that provide the foundation for model-based control of annealing lehrs during steady state operation and through color and thickness changes. In the second phase of the work, with PPG Industries as the industrial partner, the emphasis was on control of temperature and combustion stoichiometry in the melting furnace, to provide a wider operating window, improve product yield, and increase energy efficiency. A program of experiments with the furnace, CFD modeling and simulation, flow measurements, and sensor fusion was undertaken to provide the experimental and theoretical basis for an integrated, model-based control system utilizing the new infrastructure installed at the demonstration site for the purpose. In spite of the fact that the project was terminated during the first year of the second phase of the work, the results of these first steps toward implementation

  12. Level 5: user refinement to aid the fusion process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Erik P.; Plano, Susan

    2003-04-01

    The revised JDL Fusion model Level 4 process refinement covers a broad spectrum of actions such as sensor management and control. A limitation of Level 4 is the purpose of control - whether it be for user needs or system operation. Level 5, User Refinement, is a modification to the Revised JDL model that distinguishes between machine process refinement and user refinement. User refinement can either be human control actions or refinement of the user's cognitive model. In many cases, fusion research concentrates on the machine and does not take full advantage of the human as not only a qualified expert to refine the fusion process, but also as customer for whom the fusion system is designed. Without user refinement, sensor fusion is incomplete, inadequate, and the user neglects its worthiness. To capture user capabilities, we explore the concept of user refinement through decision and action based on situational leadership models. We develop a Fuse-Act Situational User Refinement (FASUR) model that details four refinement behaviors: Neglect, Consult, Rely, and Interact and five refinement functions: Planning, Organizing, Coordinating, Directing, and Controlling. Process refinement varies for different systems and different user information needs. By designing a fusion system with a specific user in mind, vis Level 5, a fusion architecture can meet user's information needs for varying situations, extend user sensing capabilities for action, and increase the human-machine interaction.

  13. Simulation of sub-barrier fusion process including dynamical deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hata, Kentaro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-05-01

    Four reactions ({sup 40}Ca+{sup 40}Ca, {sup 58}Ni+{sup 58}Ni, {sup 64}Ni+{sup 64}Ni and {sup 74}Ge+{sup 74}Ge) were simulated as examples of spherical nuclei, {sup 40}Ca and {sup 58}Ni and dynamical deformation, {sup 64}Ni and {sup 74}Ge. The experimental excited functions of sub-barrier fusion reaction were reproduced with high accuracy without free parameters. The sub-barrier fusion process had supposed to pass one-dimensional fusion process estimated by the principle of least action on the potential surface with a freedom of nuclear deformation. (S.Y.)

  14. Fusion and subtraction post-processing in body MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Tom A.; Olsen, Oeystein E. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2014-09-02

    Interpreting complex paediatric body MRI studies requires the integration of information from multiple sequences. Image processing software, some freely available, allows the radiologist to use simple and rapid post-processing techniques that may aid diagnosis. We demonstrate the use of fusion and subtraction post-processing techniques with examples from four areas of application: enterography, oncological imaging, musculoskeletal imaging and MR fistulography. (orig.)

  15. Perceptual reasoning managed situation assessment and adaptive fusion processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadar, Ivan

    2001-08-01

    A unified perceptual reasoning system framework for adaptive sensor fusion and situation assessment is presented. The concept and application of perception, the resultant system architecture and its candidate renditions using knowledge- based systems and associative memory are discussed. The perceptual reasoning system is shown to be a natural governing mechanism for extracting, associating and fusing information from multiple sources while adaptively controlling the Joint Director of Laboratories (JDL) Fusion Model processes for optimum fusion system performance. The unified modular system construct is shown to provide a formal framework to accommodate various implementation alternatives. The application of this architectural concept is illustrated for representative network centric surveillance system architecture. A target identification system using Dempster-Shafer declarations level fusion is used to demonstrate the benefits of the adaptive perceptual reasoning system and the iterative evidential reasoning method.

  16. The Verneuil flame fusion process: substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueltzen, M.

    1993-09-01

    On the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the Verneuil method, a brief review is given on the applications of this process in the field of crystal growth and materials processing together with a comprehensive bibliography.

  17. Local autogeneous bone grafts fusion in the treatment of lumbar spondylolisthesis%局部自体骨植骨融合治疗腰椎滑脱症临床体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马维疆; 周丰华

    2011-01-01

    Objective Of posterior surgery in patients with spondylolisthesis local autologous bone implanted in the interbody and intertransverse fusion for the treatment experience.Methods 68patients with spondylolisthesis treated with posterior laminectomy bite addition to all of the spinous process,lamina,facet of autologous bone graft in the interbody and intertransverse fusion and pedicle screw fixation.Results 68 patients were followed up for 6 months to 7 years.Follow-up showed 67 patients were healed vertebral,clinical symptoms disappeared.One case without bone fusion.Satisfaction rate of 98.5%.Conclusions Posterior partial autologous bone graft surgery in interbody and intertransverse fusion for the treatment of spondylolisthesis is a really effective,simple,safe,less complications and low cost of surgical care.%目的 探讨腰椎滑脱症患者后路手术局部自体骨植于椎体间及横突间融合治疗效果.方法 对68例腰椎滑脱症患者采用后路全椎板减压咬除的棘突、椎板、关节突自体骨移植于椎体间及横突间融合加椎弓根钉系统固定.结果 68例均获随访,时间6月~7年.随访结果显示,67例患者椎体获骨性愈合,临床症状消失;1例未获骨性融合;满意率达98.5%.结论 后路手术局部自体骨移植于椎体间及横突间融合治疗腰椎滑脱症是一种疗效确实、具有操作简单、安全,并发症少、医疗费用低的术式.

  18. Biomechanical and radiographic comparison of demineralized bone matrix, and a coralline hydroxyapatite in a rabbit spinal fusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Robert A; York-Ely, Amanda M; Zhukauskas, Rasa; Arola, Travis; Howell, John; Hartill, Caroline; Cobb, Ronald R; Fox, Casey

    2010-09-01

    The use of bone grafts is an essential component in spinal fusion. Autologous bone has been shown to result in long-term stable arthrodesis between spinal motion segments. However, autograft can be associated with significant morbidity and a limited supply. Alternatives, such as allogeneic demineralized bone matrix (DBM), are a potential source and supplement to autograft bone. The current study compares the ability of a DBM product (BioSet RT) and a coralline hydroxyapatite (Pro Osteon 500R), for inducing spinal fusion in a rabbit model. BioSet RT, alone or in combination with autograft, and Pro Osteon 500R were implanted in the posterior lateral inter-transverse process region of the rabbit spine. The spines were evaluated at 18 weeks for fusion of the L4-L5 transverse processes using a total of 33 skeletally mature male rabbits; 4 naïve animals were also included in the study. Samples were evaluated radiographically, histologically, by palpation, and through mechanical strength testing. Radiographical, histological, and palpation measurements demonstrated the ability of BioSet RT to induce new bone formation and bridging fusion comparable to autograft. This material performed well alone or in combination with autograft material. Despite significantly higher biomechanical testing results, minimal bone formation and fusion was recorded for the Pro Osteon 500R-treated group. This in vivo study demonstrates the ability of BioSet RT to induce new bone formation, and there was a clear relationship between bridging bone and mechanical strength.

  19. Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Mahaffey, James A

    2012-01-01

    As energy problems of the world grow, work toward fusion power continues at a greater pace than ever before. The topic of fusion is one that is often met with the most recognition and interest in the nuclear power arena. Written in clear and jargon-free prose, Fusion explores the big bang of creation to the blackout death of worn-out stars. A brief history of fusion research, beginning with the first tentative theories in the early 20th century, is also discussed, as well as the race for fusion power. This brand-new, full-color resource examines the various programs currently being funded or p

  20. Intelligent processing techniques for sensor fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Katherine A.; Smith, Bart; Allen, Doug; Morris, Norman; Bjork, Charles A., Jr.; Deal-Giblin, Kim; Rushing, John A.

    1998-03-01

    Intelligent processing techniques which can effectively combine sensor data from disparate sensors by selecting and using only the most beneficial individual sensor data is a critical element of exoatmospheric interceptor systems. A major goal of these algorithms is to provide robust discrimination against stressing threats in poor a priori conditions, and to incorporate adaptive approaches in off- nominal conditions. This paper summarizes the intelligent processing algorithms being developed, implemented and tested to intelligently fuse data from passive infrared and active LADAR sensors at the measurement, feature and decision level. These intelligent algorithms employ dynamic selection of individual sensors features and the weighting of multiple classifier decisions to optimize performance in good a priori conditions and robustness in poor a priori conditions. Features can be dynamically selected based on an estimate of the feature confidence which is determined from feature quality and weighting terms derived from the quality of sensor data and expected phenomenology. Multiple classifiers are employed which use both fuzzy logic and knowledge based approaches to fuse the sensor data and to provide a target lethality estimate. Target designation decisions can be made by fusing weighted individual classifier decisions whose output contains an estimate of the confidence of the data and the discrimination decisions. The confidence in the data and decisions can be used in real time to dynamically select different sensor feature data or to request additional sensor data on specific objects that have not been confidently identified as being lethal or non- lethal. The algorithms are implemented in C within a graphic user interface framework. Dynamic memory allocation and the sequentialy implementation of the feature algorithms are employed. The baseline set of fused sensor discrimination algorithms with intelligent processing are described in this paper. Example results

  1. Fuzzy Methods and Image Fusion in a Digital Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Vlach

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the basics of image processing were laid more than 50 years ago, significant development occurred mainly in the last 25 years with the entrance of personal computers and today's problems are already very sophisticated and quick. This article is a contribution to the study of the use of fuzzy logic methods and image fusion for image processing using LabVIEW tools for quality management, in this case especially in the jewelry industry.  

  2. IMAGE ENHANCEMENT USING IMAGE FUSION AND IMAGE PROCESSING TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Arjun Nelikanti

    2015-01-01

    Principle objective of Image enhancement is to process an image so that result is more suitable than original image for specific application. Digital image enhancement techniques provide a multitude of choices for improving the visual quality of images. Appropriate choice of such techniques is greatly influenced by the imaging modality, task at hand and viewing conditions. This paper will provide a combination of two concepts, image fusion by DWT and digital image processing techniques. The e...

  3. The materials production and processing facility at the Spanish National Centre for fusion technologies (TechnoFusion)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, A., E-mail: rpp@fis.uc3m.es [Departamento de Fisica, UC3M, Avda de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Monge, M.A.; Pareja, R. [Departamento de Fisica, UC3M, Avda de la Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain); Hernandez, M.T. [LNF-CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Jimenez-Rey, D. [CMAM, UAM, C/Faraday 3, 28049, Madrid (Spain); Roman, R.; Gonzalez, M.; Garcia-Cortes, I. [LNF-CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Perlado, M. [IFN, ETSII, UPM, C/Jose Gutierrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Ibarra, A. [LNF-CIEMAT, Avda, Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    In response to the urgent request from the EU Fusion Program, a new facility (TechnoFusion) for research and development of fusion materials has been planned with support from the Regional Government of Madrid and the Ministry of Science and Innovation of Spain. TechnoFusion, the National Centre for Fusion Technologies, aims screening different technologies relevant for ITER and DEMO environments while promoting the contribution of international companies and research groups into the Fusion Programme. For this purpose, the centre will be provided with a large number of unique facilities for the manufacture, testing (a triple-beam multi-ion irradiation, a plasma-wall interaction device, a remote handling for under ionizing radiation testing) and analysis of critical fusion materials. Particularly, the objectives, semi-industrial scale capabilities and present status of the TechnoFusion Materials Production and Processing (MPP) facility are presented. Previous studies revealed that the MPP facility will be a very promising infrastructure for the development of new materials and prototypes demanded by the fusion technology and therefore some of them will be here briefly summarized.

  4. Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Robin

    1990-10-01

    The book abounds with fascinating anecdotes about fusion's rocky path: the spurious claim by Argentine dictator Juan Peron in 1951 that his country had built a working fusion reactor, the rush by the United States to drop secrecy and publicize its fusion work as a propaganda offensive after the Russian success with Sputnik; the fortune Penthouse magazine publisher Bob Guccione sank into an unconventional fusion device, the skepticism that met an assertion by two University of Utah chemists in 1989 that they had created "cold fusion" in a bottle. Aimed at a general audience, the book describes the scientific basis of controlled fusion--the fusing of atomic nuclei, under conditions hotter than the sun, to release energy. Using personal recollections of scientists involved, it traces the history of this little-known international race that began during the Cold War in secret laboratories in the United States, Great Britain and the Soviet Union, and evolved into an astonishingly open collaboration between East and West.

  5. Application of the JDL data fusion process model to hard/soft information fusion in the condition monitoring of aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Joseph T.

    2014-05-01

    Hard/soft information fusion has been proposed as a way to enhance diagnostic capability for the condition monitoring of machinery. However, there is a limited understanding of where hard/soft information fusion could and should be applied in the condition monitoring of aircraft. Condition-based maintenance refers to the philosophy of performing maintenance when the need arises, based upon indicators of deterioration in the condition of the machinery. The addition of the multisensory capability of human cognition to electronic sensors may create a fuller picture of machinery condition. Since 1988, the Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) data fusion process model has served as a framework for information fusion research. Advances are described in the application of hard/soft information fusion in condition monitoring using terms that condition-based maintenance professionals in aviation will recognize. Emerging literature on hard/soft information fusion in condition monitoring is organized into the levels of the JDL data fusion process model. Gaps in the literature are identified, and the author's ongoing research is discussed. Future efforts will focus on building domain-specific frameworks and experimental design, which may provide a foundation for improving flight safety, increasing mission readiness, and reducing the cost of maintenance operations.

  6. Application of the JDL data fusion process model for cyber security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacobe, Nicklaus A.

    2010-04-01

    A number of cyber security technologies have proposed the use of data fusion to enhance the defensive capabilities of the network and aid in the development of situational awareness for the security analyst. While there have been advances in fusion technologies and the application of fusion in intrusion detection systems (IDSs), in particular, additional progress can be made by gaining a better understanding of a variety of data fusion processes and applying them to the cyber security application domain. This research explores the underlying processes identified in the Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) data fusion process model and further describes them in a cyber security context.

  7. Process models and model-data fusion in dendroecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel eGuiot

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Dendrochronology (i.e. the study of annually dated tree-ring time series has proved to be a powerful technique to understand tree-growth. This paper intends to show the interest of using ecophysiological modeling not only to understand and predict tree-growth (dendroecology but also to reconstruct past climates (dendroclimatology. Process models have been used for several decades in dendroclimatology, but it is only recently that methods of model-data fusion have led to significant progress in modeling tree-growth as a function of climate and in reconstructing past climates. These model-data fusion (MDF methods, mainly based on the Bayesian paradigm, have been shown to be powerful for both model calibration and model inversion. After a rapid survey of tree-growth modeling, we illustrate MDF with examples based on series of Southern France Aleppo pines and Central France oaks. These examples show that if plants experienced CO2 fertilization, this would have a significant effect on tree-growth which in turn would bias the climate reconstructions. This bias could be extended to other environmental non-climatic factors directly or indirectly affecting annual ring formation and not taken into account in classical empirical models, which supports the use of more complex process-based models. Finally, we conclude by showing the interest of the data assimilation methods applied in climatology to produce climate re-analyses.

  8. Efficacy comparison of Accell Evo3 and Grafton demineralized bone matrix putties against autologous bone in a rat posterolateral spine fusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brecevich, Antonio T; Kiely, Paul D; Yoon, B Victor; Nguyen, Joseph T; Cammisa, Frank P; Abjornson, Celeste

    2017-06-01

    Spinal fusion procedures are intended to stabilize the spinal column for a multitude of disorders including abnormal curvature, traumatic instability, degenerative instability, and damage from infections or tumors. As an aid in the bone healing response, bone graft materials are used to bridge joints for arthrodesis and promote unions in pseudoarthrosis. Currently, the gold standard for stabilizing fusion masses in spinal procedures involves using the osteogenic, osteoinductive, and osteoconductive properties of autologous iliac crest corticocancellous bone. However, considerable morbidity is associated with harvesting the autologous graft. Donor site complications including infection, large hematomas, and pain have been reported at rates as high as 50% (Boden and Jeffrey, 1995). Biologically, the rate of bone repair dictates the rate at which the fusion mass will unite under autologous graft conditions. The purpose of this study is to compare the quality and rate of fusion between Accell Evo3 and Grafton demineralized bone matrix (DBM), with the gold standard iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) as the control, in athymic rat posterolateral fusion. This study was a randomized, controlled study in a laboratory setting at the Hospital for Special Surgery in New York City. Blinded observations were made, which created an assessment of outcomes for successful fusions between each method. Forty-eight (48) athymic rats were used in this study and underwent posterolateral lumbar fusion. They were assessed at either 3 weeks or 9 weeks to see the rate and efficacy of fusion. Outcome measures will be the efficacy of the different bone grafts and their success rates of fusion in the rats. A comparison of the quality and rate of fusion between Accell Evo3® (DBM A) and Grafton (DBM B), with the gold standard iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) as the control, was performed using the established posterolateral intertransverse process on an athymic rat model. Materials were evaluated for

  9. Detection, information fusion, and temporal processing for intelligence in recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casasent, D. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The use of intelligence in vision recognition uses many different techniques or tools. This presentation discusses several of these techniques for recognition. The recognition process is generally separated into several steps or stages when implemented in hardware, e.g. detection, segmentation and enhancement, and recognition. Several new distortion-invariant filters, biologically-inspired Gabor wavelet filter techniques, and morphological operations that have been found very useful for detection and clutter rejection are discussed. These are all shift-invariant operations that allow multiple object regions of interest in a scene to be located in parallel. We also discuss new algorithm fusion concepts by which the results from different detection algorithms are combined to reduce detection false alarms; these fusion methods utilize hierarchical processing and fuzzy logic concepts. We have found this to be most necessary, since no single detection algorithm is best for all cases. For the final recognition stage, we describe a new method of representing all distorted versions of different classes of objects and determining the object class and pose that most closely matches that of a given input. Besides being efficient in terms of storage and on-line computations required, it overcomes many of the problems that other classifiers have in terms of the required training set size, poor generalization with many hidden layer neurons, etc. It is also attractive in its ability to reject input regions as clutter (non-objects) and to learn new object descriptions. We also discuss its use in processing a temporal sequence of input images of the contents of each local region of interest. We note how this leads to robust results in which estimation efforts in individual frames can be overcome. This seems very practical, since in many scenarios a decision need not be made after only one frame of data, since subsequent frames of data enter immediately in sequence.

  10. Spinal fusion of lumbar intertransverse process in rabbits using two different densities of autologous marrow mesenchymal stem cells combined with β-TCP%两种接种密度骨髓基质干细胞复合β-TCP对兔腰椎横突间融合的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘玮敏; 胡蕴玉; 陈俊伟; 郑芬芳; 郑振耀; 毕龙

    2009-01-01

    [目的]观察两种不同接种密度的骨髓基质干细胞(bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells ,BMSCs),在成骨诱导分化后复合β-TCP应用于兔腰椎横突间脊柱融合的术后融合效果.[方法]应用BMSCs/β-TCP复合体对随机分为两组(低密度接种组和高密度接种组)的实验兔进行腰椎横突间非去皮质骨脊柱融合术,观察两组动物术后大体腰椎融合率、影像学特征、骨矿含量(bone mineralization content,BMC),骨密度(bone mineralization density,BMD)和矿化组织体积(bone mineralization tissue volume,BMV)及组织形态学变化.[结果]与低密度接种组比较,高密度接种组术后融合率明显提高,可达到71.4%(P<0.05).显微CT图像结果显示高密度接种组横突间不仅新骨形成量多,而且融合稳固,且其BMC、BMD和BMV及新骨生成率均高于低密度接种组(P<0.05).[结论]使用接种密度为10×106 cells/ ml的人工骨具有较好的融合效果,融合率可达到71.4%,这一点为临床应用BMSCs复合生物材料体外构建人工骨应用于非去皮质骨脊柱后路融合有一定的指导意义.

  11. Approximating multileg processes: Higgs production via W-fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Philippides, K

    2003-01-01

    Meaningful approximations for multileg processes at tree level are constructed which circumvent the problems of unitarity violation and gauge invariance. In this article we study the LHC: pp to ZZ + 2 jets + X and the Linear Collider: e/sup +/e/sup -/ to ZZ nu /sub e/ nu /sub e/ processes both of which contain the W-fusion scattering process for off-shell Ws. Using the pinch technique the signal and background, which contribute coherently, are separated in a well defined and gauge invariant way thus defining a resonant approximation which behaves well at high energies. The speed of the numerical calculation is greatly reduced compared to the lengthy calculation of the complete set of diagrams while at the same time the approximations describe very well the full result not only close to the resonance but also beyond it, as shown in various differential distributions of the cross section. The problem of regulating the resonant Higgs diagram is treated both with the naive approach of adding a constant width to t...

  12. Hybrid manufacturing processes for fusion welding and friction stir welding of aerospace grade aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gegesky, Megan Alexandra

    Friction stir welding and processing can provide for joints in aerospace grade aluminum alloys that have preferable material properties as compared to fusion welding techniques. Aerospace grade aluminum alloys such as AA2024-T3 and AA7075-T6 are considered non-weldable by traditional fusion welding techniques. Improved mechanical properties over previously used techniques are usually preferable for aerospace applications. Therefore, by combining traditional fusion welding and friction stir processing techniques, it could be plausible to create more difficult geometries in manufactured parts instead of using traditional techniques. While this combination of fusion welding and friction stir processing is not a new technology, its introduction to aerospace grade aluminum alloys as well as non-weldable alloys, is new. This is brought about by a lowered required clamping force required by adding a fusion weld before a friction stir processing technique. The changes in properties associated with joining techniques include: microstructural changes, changes in hardness, tensile strength, and corrosion resistance. This thesis illustrates these changes for the non-weldable AA2024-T351 and AA7075-T651 as well as the weldable alloy AA5052-H32. The microhardness, tensile strength and corrosion resistance of the four processing states: base material, fusion welded material, friction stir welded material, and friction stir processed fusion welded material is studied. The plausibility of this hybrid process for the three different materials is characterized, as well as plausible applications for this joining technique.

  13. Tunneling process in heavy-ion fusion and fission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kondratyev, V.; Bonasera, A.

    1998-10-01

    We present a model towards the many-body description of sub-barrier fusion and spontaneous fission based on the semiclassical Vlasov equation and the Feynman path integral method. We define suitable collective variables from the Vlasov solution and use the imaginary time technique for the dynamics below the Coulomb barrier. (author)

  14. Fusion-Fission Hybrid for Fissile Fuel Production without Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratoni, M; Moir, R W; Kramer, K J; Latkowski, J F; Meier, W R; Powers, J J

    2012-01-02

    Two scenarios are typically envisioned for thorium fuel cycles: 'open' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th and fission of {sup 233}U in situ without reprocessing or 'closed' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th followed by reprocessing, and recycling of {sup 233}U either in situ or in critical fission reactors. This study evaluates a third option based on the possibility of breeding fissile material in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor and burning the same fuel in a critical reactor without any reprocessing or reconditioning. This fuel cycle requires the hybrid and the critical reactor to use the same fuel form. TRISO particles embedded in carbon pebbles were selected as the preferred form of fuel and an inertial laser fusion system featuring a subcritical blanket was combined with critical pebble bed reactors, either gas-cooled or liquid-salt-cooled. The hybrid reactor was modeled based on the earlier, hybrid version of the LLNL Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE1) system, whereas the critical reactors were modeled according to the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) and the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) design. An extensive neutronic analysis was carried out for both the hybrid and the fission reactors in order to track the fuel composition at each stage of the fuel cycle and ultimately determine the plant support ratio, which has been defined as the ratio between the thermal power generated in fission reactors and the fusion power required to breed the fissile fuel burnt in these fission reactors. It was found that the maximum attainable plant support ratio for a thorium fuel cycle that employs neither enrichment nor reprocessing is about 2. This requires tuning the neutron energy towards high energy for breeding and towards thermal energy for burning. A high fuel loading in the pebbles allows a faster spectrum in the hybrid blanket; mixing dummy carbon pebbles with fuel pebbles enables a softer spectrum in

  15. Information fusion in signal and image processing major probabilistic and non-probabilistic numerical approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Bloch, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    The area of information fusion has grown considerably during the last few years, leading to a rapid and impressive evolution. In such fast-moving times, it is important to take stock of the changes that have occurred. As such, this books offers an overview of the general principles and specificities of information fusion in signal and image processing, as well as covering the main numerical methods (probabilistic approaches, fuzzy sets and possibility theory and belief functions).

  16. Correlative radiological, self-assessment and clinical analysis of evolution in instrumented dorsal and lateral fusion for degenerative lumbar spine disease. Autograft versus coralline hydroxyapatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korovessis, Panagiotis; Koureas, Georgios; Zacharatos, Spyridon; Papazisis, Zisis; Lambiris, Elias

    2005-09-01

    radiological evidence for non-union on the plain roentgenograms and CT scans. Radiological fusion was achieved 1 year postoperatively and was observed in all groups and vertebral segments. Six months postoperatively there was an obvious resorption of hydroxyapatite granules at the intertransverse intersegmental spaces in the right side of the spines of group B and both sides of group C. The resorption of hydroxyapatite was completed 1 year postoperatively. Bone bridging started in the third month postoperatively in all instrumented spines and all levels posteriorly as well as between the transverse processes in the spines of the group A and on the left side of the spines of group B where IBG was applied. SF-36, ODI, and R-M score improved postoperatively in a similar way in all groups. There was one pedicle screw breakage at the lowermost instrumented level in group A and two in group C without radiologically visible pseudarthrosis, which were considered as having non-union. Operative time and blood loss were less in the patients of group C, while donor site complaints were observed in the patients of the groups A and B only. This study showed that autologous IBG remains the "gold standard" for achieving solid posterior instrumented lumbar fusion, to which each new graft should be compared. The incorporation of coralline hydroxyapatite mixed with local bone and bone marrow needs adequate bleeding bone surface. Subsequently, hydroxyapatite was proven in this series to not be appropriate for intertransverse posterolateral fusion, because the host bone in this area is little. However, the use of hydroxyapatite over the decorticated laminae that represents a wide host area was followed by solid dorsal fusion within the expected time.

  17. Conversion and Distribution of Lead and Tin in NaOH-NaNO3 Fusion Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingxin; Guo, Xueyi

    2017-04-01

    Oxidizing alkali fusion process has been studied to extract amphoteric metals. Transformation and distribution behaviors of typical amphoteric metals Pb and Sn in the NaOH-NaNO3 fusion process are systemically studied by theoretical analysis and experimental verification done in this work. Functions of NaOH and NaNO3 in the fusion process were also investigated. The results show the fused products, Na2PbO3 and Na2SnO3, are captured in the flux, and Na2PbO4 is speculated to reduce to Pb(II) in the following leaching process. By measuring solubility data of NaOH-Na2SnO3-PbO-H2O system, a strategy of crystallization is proposed to separate Sn with Pb in concentrated alkaline solution, and slice Na2Sn(OH)6 is obtained as a product.

  18. Experimental Research on Spinal Fusion with Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 and Bone Marrow Tromal Cell Composited Tricalcium Phosphate (TCP)%重组人骨形成蛋白2/骨髓间充质干细胞复合磷酸三钙应用于脊柱融合的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小荣; 吴良绍; 方煌

    2012-01-01

    This paper is aimed to assess the efficacy of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) and bone marrow stromal cell (BMSCs) composited tricalcium phosphate (TCP) in a rat model of posterolateral lumbar intertransverse process fusion. Rat BMSCs were cultured in vitro. Twenty SD rats underwent single-level bilateral intertransverse process spine arthrodesis at L4 and L5. These rats were assigned to two groups according to the graft materials. They received: 10 of the total were treated with the BMSCs with rhBMP-2 and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) as the experimental group,and the other 10 with TCP treatment alone as the control group. All the animals were killed at 4 weeks after surgery and the spine fusion results were assessed by gross inspection, manual palpation, radiography and histology. The fusion rate, the tensile strength and stiffness of the solidly fused levels in the experimental group were statistically higher than that of the controlled group(P<0. 05). These results showed that the spinal fusion could be improved mechanically when rhBMP-2 and BMSCs were added into the TCP.%观察重组人骨形成蛋白2(rhBMP-2)与骨髓间充质干细胞(BMSCs)复合磷酸三钙(TCP)应用于大鼠腰椎横突间融合的愈合情况.体外培养大鼠BMSCs,20只SD大鼠均行单节段双侧L4,5横突间植骨融合术,依植入物的不同分为实验组与对照组,每组10只.实验组植入复合rhBMP-2和BMSCs的TCP,对照组只植入TCP.术后4周处死动物,取出腰椎,通过大体观察、手法检测、影像学、组织学等方法分析融合状况.结果表明应用rhBMP-2和BMSCs的TCP组新骨形成良好,脊柱融合效果好,生物力学强度高,融合率显著高于对照组(P<0.05).结果提示:应用rhBMP-2和BMSCs有利于复合材料成骨和脊柱融合.

  19. Jet angular correlation in vector-boson fusion processes at hadron colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Hagiwara, Kaoru; Mawatari, Kentarou

    2009-01-01

    Higgs boson and massive-graviton productions in association with two jets via vector-boson fusion (VBF) processes and their decays into a vector-boson pair at hadron colliders are studied. They include scalar and tensor boson production processes via weak-boson fusion in quark-quark collisions, gluon fusion in quark-quark, quark-gluon and gluon-gluon collisions, as well as their decays into a pair of weak bosons or virtual gluons which subsequently decay into $\\ell\\bar\\ell$, $q\\bar q$ or $gg$. We give the helicity amplitudes explicitly for all the VBF subprocesses, and show that the VBF amplitudes dominate the exact matrix elements not only for the weak-boson fusion processes but also for all the gluon fusion processes when appropriate selection cuts are applied, such as a large rapidity separation between two jets and a slicing cut for the transverse momenta of the jets. We also show that our off-shell vector-boson current amplitudes reduce to the standard quark and gluon splitting amplitudes with appropriat...

  20. Infrared processing and sensor fusion for anti-personnel land-mine detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schavemaker, J.G.M.; Cremer, F.; Schutte, K.; Breejen, E. den

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of infrared processing and sensor fusion obtained within the European research project GEODE (Ground Explosive Ordnance DEtection) that strives for the realization of a vehicle-mounted, multi-sensor anti-personnel land-mine detection system for humanitarian demin

  1. Short-Term Forecasting of Taiwanese Earthquakes Using a Universal Model of Fusion-Fission Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheong, S.A.; Tan, T.L.; Chen, C.-C.; Chang, W.-L.; Liu, Z.; Chew, L.Y.; Sloot, P.M.A.; Johnson, N.F.

    2014-01-01

    Predicting how large an earthquake can be, where and when it will strike remains an elusive goal in spite of the ever-increasing volume of data collected by earth scientists. In this paper, we introduce a universal model of fusion-fission processes that can be used to predict earthquakes starting fr

  2. Fusion process of Lennard-Jones clusters: global minima and magic numbers formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.; Greiner, Walter

    2004-01-01

    We present a new theoretical framework for modeling the fusion process of Lennard–Jones (LJ) clusters. Starting from the initial tetrahedral cluster configuration, adding new atoms to the system and absorbing its energy at each step, we find cluster growing paths up to the cluster size of 150 atoms...

  3. Short-Term Forecasting of Taiwanese Earthquakes Using a Universal Model of Fusion-Fission Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheong, S.A.; Tan, T.L.; Chen, C.-C.; Chang, W.-L.; Liu, Z.; Chew, L.Y.; Sloot, P.M.A.; Johnson, N.F.

    2014-01-01

    Predicting how large an earthquake can be, where and when it will strike remains an elusive goal in spite of the ever-increasing volume of data collected by earth scientists. In this paper, we introduce a universal model of fusion-fission processes that can be used to predict earthquakes starting

  4. Fusion process of Lennard-Jones clusters: global minima and magic numbers formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.; Greiner, Walter

    2004-01-01

    We present a new theoretical framework for modeling the fusion process of Lennard–Jones (LJ) clusters. Starting from the initial tetrahedral cluster configuration, adding new atoms to the system and absorbing its energy at each step, we find cluster growing paths up to the cluster size of 150 atoms...

  5. Probing dark matter at the LHC using vector boson fusion processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannoy, Andres G; Dutta, Bhaskar; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Will; Kamon, Teruki; Luiggi, Eduardo; Melo, Andrew; Sheldon, Paul; Sinha, Kuver; Wang, Kechen; Wu, Sean

    2013-08-09

    Vector boson fusion processes at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) provide a unique opportunity to search for new physics with electroweak couplings. A feasibility study for the search of supersymmetric dark matter in the final state of two vector boson fusion jets and large missing transverse energy is presented at 14 TeV. Prospects for determining the dark matter relic density are studied for the cases of wino and bino-Higgsino dark matter. The LHC could probe wino dark matter with mass up to approximately 600 GeV with a luminosity of 1000  fb(-1).

  6. Collaborative multicue fusion using the cross-diffusion process for salient object detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jin-Gang; Gao, Changxin; Tian, Jinwen

    2016-03-01

    Salient object detection is very useful in a large variety of image and vision-related applications. A recent trend in salient object detection is to explore novel top-down visual cues and combine them with bottom-up saliency to improve the performance. However, a basic and important problem, i.e., how to effectively fuse multiple visual cues, has rarely been addressed in previous works. To this end, the paper presents a multicue fusion method using the cross-diffusion process (CDP) for salient object detection. The CDP algorithm is deployed to combine the affinity matrices constructed over individual visual cue channels, which is then embedded into a saliency propagation framework to accomplish salient object detection. Different from other multicue fusion strategies, our proposed approach allows for collaborative fusion, that is, the individual visual cues to be fused are able to interact and exchange information with each other during the fusion procedure, which can possibly correct the noise or corruption included in the individual visual cue channels, leading to more robust and effective fusion results. Intensive experiments on publicly available datasets demonstrate the effectiveness and superior performance of our proposed method.

  7. Measurement of powder bed density in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, G.; Donmez, A.; Slotwinski, J.; Moylan, S.

    2016-11-01

    Many factors influence the performance of additive manufacturing (AM) processes, resulting in a high degree of variation in process outcomes. Therefore, quantifying these factors and their correlations to process outcomes are important challenges to overcome to enable widespread adoption of emerging AM technologies. In the powder bed fusion AM process, the density of the powder layers in the powder bed is a key influencing factor. This paper introduces a method to determine the powder bed density (PBD) during the powder bed fusion (PBF) process. A complete uncertainty analysis associated with the measurement method was also described. The resulting expanded measurement uncertainty, U PBD (k  =  2), was determined as 0.004 g · cm-3. It was shown that this expanded measurement uncertainty is about three orders of magnitude smaller than the typical powder bed density. This method enables establishing correlations between the changes in PBD and the direction of motion of the powder recoating arm.

  8. System and method for cognitive processing for data fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Tuan A. (Inventor); Duong, Vu A. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A system and method for cognitive processing of sensor data. A processor array receiving analog sensor data and having programmable interconnects, multiplication weights, and filters provides for adaptive learning in real-time. A static random access memory contains the programmable data for the processor array and the stored data is modified to provide for adaptive learning.

  9. JDL level 0 and 1 algorithms for processing and fusion of hard sensor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimland, Jeffrey C.; Iyer, Ganesh M.; Agumamidi, Rachana R.; Pisupati, Soumya V.; Graham, Jake

    2011-06-01

    A current trend in information fusion involves distributed methods of combining both conventional "hard" sensor data and human-based "soft" information in a manner that exploits the most useful and accurate capabilities of each modality. In addition, new and evolving technologies such as Flash LIDAR have greatly enhanced the ability of a single device to rapidly sense attributes of a scene in ways that were not previously possible. At the Pennsylvania State University we are participating in a multi-disciplinary university research initiative (MURI) program funded by the U.S. Army Research Office to investigate issues related to fusing hard and soft data in counterinsurgency (COIN) situations. We are developing level 0 and level 1 methods (using the Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) data fusion process model) for fusion of physical ("hard") sensor data. Techniques include methods for data alignment, tracking, recognition, and identification for a sensor suite that includes LIDAR, multi-camera systems, and acoustic sensors. The goal is to develop methods that dovetail on-going research in soft sensor processing. This paper describes various hard sensor processing algorithms and their evolving roles and implementations within a distributed hard and soft information fusion system.

  10. Molecular dynamics simulations of cluster fission and fusion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyalin, Andrey G.; Obolensky, Oleg I.; Solov'yov, Ilia

    2004-01-01

    Results of molecular dynamics simulations of fission reactions Na_10^2+ --> Na_7^+ +Na_3^+ and Na_18^2+ --> 2Na_9^+ are presented. The dependence of the fission barriers on the isomer structure of the parent cluster is analyzed. It is demonstrated that the energy necessary for removing homothetic...... groups of atoms from the parent cluster is largely independent of the isomer form of the parent cluster. The importance of rearrangement of the cluster structure during the fission process is elucidated. This rearrangement may include transition to another isomer state of the parent cluster before actual...... separation of the daughter fragments begins and/or forming a "neck" between the separating fragments. A novel algorithm for modeling the cluster growth process is described. This approach is based on dynamic search for the most stable cluster isomers and allows one to find the optimized cluster geometries...

  11. Molecular dynamics simulations of cluster fission and fusion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyalin, Andrey G.; Obolensky, Oleg I.; Solov'yov, Ilia

    2004-01-01

    Results of molecular dynamics simulations of fission reactions Na_10^2+ --> Na_7^+ +Na_3^+ and Na_18^2+ --> 2Na_9^+ are presented. The dependence of the fission barriers on the isomer structure of the parent cluster is analyzed. It is demonstrated that the energy necessary for removing homothetic...... groups of atoms from the parent cluster is largely independent of the isomer form of the parent cluster. The importance of rearrangement of the cluster structure during the fission process is elucidated. This rearrangement may include transition to another isomer state of the parent cluster before actual...

  12. Soft sensor design by multivariate fusion of image features and process measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lin, Bao; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a multivariate data fusion procedure for design of dynamic soft sensors where suitably selected image features are combined with traditional process measurements to enhance the performance of data-driven soft sensors. A key issue of fusing multiple sensor data, i.e. to determine...... oxides (NOx) emission of cement kilns. On-site tests demonstrate improved performance over soft sensors based on conventional process measurements only....

  13. All-IP-Ethernet architecture for real-time sensor-fusion processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Kei; Inaba, Mary; Tezuka, Hiroshi; Tomari, Hisanobu; Koizumi, Kenichi; Kondo, Shuya

    2016-03-01

    Serendipter is a device that distinguishes and selects very rare particles and cells from huge amount of population. We are currently designing and constructing information processing system for a Serendipter. The information processing system for Serendipter is a kind of sensor-fusion system but with much more difficulties: To fulfill these requirements, we adopt All IP based architecture: All IP-Ethernet based data processing system consists of (1) sensor/detector directly output data as IP-Ethernet packet stream, (2) single Ethernet/TCP/IP streams by a L2 100Gbps Ethernet switch, (3) An FPGA board with 100Gbps Ethernet I/F connected to the switch and a Xeon based server. Circuits in the FPGA include 100Gbps Ethernet MAC, buffers and preprocessing, and real-time Deep learning circuits using multi-layer neural networks. Proposed All-IP architecture solves existing problem to construct large-scale sensor-fusion systems.

  14. Effect of impurities on kinetic transport processes in fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Stefanie

    2010-12-10

    Within the framework of this thesis, different problems arising in connection with impurities have been investigated. Collisional damping of zonal flows in tokamaks: Since the Coulomb collision frequency increases with increasing ion charge, heavy, highly charged impurities play an important role in this process. The effect of such impurities on the linear response of the plasma to an external potential perturbation, as caused by zonal flows, is calculated with analytical methods. In comparison with a pure plasma, the damping of the flows occurs, as expected, considerably faster; for experimentally relevant parameters, the enhancement exceeds the effective charge Z{sub eff} of the plasma. Impurity transport driven by microturbulence in tokamaks: With regard to impurities, it is especially important whether the resulting flows are directed inwards or outwards, since they are deleterious for core energy confinement on the one hand, but on the other hand help protecting plasma-facing components from too high energy fluxes in the edge region. A semi-analytical model is presented describing the resulting impurity fluxes and the stability boundary of the underlying mode. The main goal is to bridge the gap between, on the one hand, costly numerical simulations, which are applicable to a broad range of problems but yield scarcely traceable results, and, on the other hand, analytical theory, which might ease the interpretation of the results but is so far rather rudimentary. The model is based on analytical formulae whenever possible but resorts to a numerical treatment when the approximations necessary for an analytical solution would lead to a substantial distortion of the results. Both the direction of the impurity flux and the stability boundary are found to depend sensitively on the plasma parameters such as the impurity density and the temperature gradient. Pfirsch-Schlueter transport in stellarators: Due to geometry effects, collisional transport plays a much more

  15. Infrared thermography for laser-based powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moylan, Shawn; Whitenton, Eric; Lane, Brandon; Slotwinski, John [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2014-02-18

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to revolutionize discrete part manufacturing, but improvements in processing of metallic materials are necessary before AM will see widespread adoption. A better understanding of AM processes, resulting from physics-based modeling as well as direct process metrology, will form the basis for these improvements. Infrared (IR) thermography of AM processes can provide direct process metrology, as well as data necessary for the verification of physics-based models. We review selected works examining how IR thermography was implemented and used in various powder-bed AM processes. This previous work, as well as significant experience at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in temperature measurement and IR thermography for machining processes, shapes our own research in AM process metrology with IR thermography. We discuss our experimental design, as well as plans for future IR measurements of a laser-based powder bed fusion AM process.

  16. Infrared thermography for laser-based powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moylan, Shawn; Whitenton, Eric; Lane, Brandon; Slotwinski, John

    2014-02-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to revolutionize discrete part manufacturing, but improvements in processing of metallic materials are necessary before AM will see widespread adoption. A better understanding of AM processes, resulting from physics-based modeling as well as direct process metrology, will form the basis for these improvements. Infrared (IR) thermography of AM processes can provide direct process metrology, as well as data necessary for the verification of physics-based models. We review selected works examining how IR thermography was implemented and used in various powder-bed AM processes. This previous work, as well as significant experience at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in temperature measurement and IR thermography for machining processes, shapes our own research in AM process metrology with IR thermography. We discuss our experimental design, as well as plans for future IR measurements of a laser-based powder bed fusion AM process.

  17. Narrow-Band Processing and Fusion Approach for Explosive Hazard Detection in FLGPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    for the NIITEK ground penetrating radar using order weighted averaging operators for landmine detection‖, Proc. SPIE 5415, 953-962 (2004). [6...proposes an effective anomaly detection algorithm for a forward-looking ground - penetrating radar (FLGPR). One challenge for threat detection using FLGPR...explosive hazards detection, ground - penetrating radar , narrow-band processing, false alarm rejection, fusion, Gabor filters Timothy C. Havens, James M

  18. Endoscopic decompression combined with interspinous process implant fusion for lumbar spinal stenosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gang; ZHAO Jian-ning; Akira Dezawa

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To propose a new technique to treat lumbar spinal stenosis with median approach endoscopic decompression combined with interspinous process implant fusion and evaluate the initial clinical outcome. Methods: This study involved 30 patients who had neurogenic commitment claudication over 2 years and were resistant to conservative therapy. All cases were treated using the median approach endoscopic decompression combined with interspinous process implant fusion in 21306. Clinical signs and radicular pain were noted and evaluated preoperatively and at the 1st month and 3rd month postoperatively. Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) score was used to evaluate leg and back pain. X-ray films at flexion and extension were applied to evaluate the range of motion at involved segments. Results: There was a significant increase in JOA score postoperatively, but no significant difference preoperatively or postoperatively between the two groups.The range of motion at involved segments was significantly higher in the control group. Conclusions: The median approach endoscopic decom-pression is an ideal method for bilateral radicuiopathy result-ing from lumbar spinal canal stenosis. The combination with interspinous process implant fusion can stabilize the spine. The initial clinical outcome is exUent. Preservation of adjacent level disease can be assessed only in long-term follow-up.

  19. Assessment of Data Fusion Algorithms for Earth Observation Change Detection Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iñigo Molina

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work a parametric multi-sensor Bayesian data fusion approach and a Support Vector Machine (SVM are used for a Change Detection problem. For this purpose two sets of SPOT5-PAN images have been used, which are in turn used for Change Detection Indices (CDIs calculation. For minimizing radiometric differences, a methodology based on zonal “invariant features” is suggested. The choice of one or the other CDI for a change detection process is a subjective task as each CDI is probably more or less sensitive to certain types of changes. Likewise, this idea might be employed to create and improve a “change map”, which can be accomplished by means of the CDI’s informational content. For this purpose, information metrics such as the Shannon Entropy and “Specific Information” have been used to weight the changes and no-changes categories contained in a certain CDI and thus introduced in the Bayesian information fusion algorithm. Furthermore, the parameters of the probability density functions (pdf’s that best fit the involved categories have also been estimated. Conversely, these considerations are not necessary for mapping procedures based on the discriminant functions of a SVM. This work has confirmed the capabilities of probabilistic information fusion procedure under these circumstances.

  20. D-D nuclear fusion processes induced in polyethylene foams by TW Laser-generated plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, L.; Cutroneo, M.; Cavallaro, S.; Ullschmied, J.

    2015-06-01

    Deuterium-Deuterium fusion processes were generated by focusing the 3 TW PALS Laser on solid deuterated polyethylene targets placed in vacuum. Deuterium ion acceleration of the order of 4 MeV was obtained using laser irradiance Iλ2 ˜ 5 × 1016 W μm2/cm2 on the target. Thin and thick targets, at low and high density, were irradiated and plasma properties were monitored "on line" and "off line". The ion emission from plasma was monitored with Thomson Parabola Spectrometer, track detectors and ion collectors. Fast semiconductor detectors based on SiC and fast plastic scintillators, both employed in time-of-flight configuration, have permitted to detect the characteristic 3.0 MeV protons and 2.45 MeV neutrons emission from the nuclear fusion reactions. From massive absorbent targets we have evaluated the neutron flux by varying from negligible values up to about 5 × 107 neutrons per laser shot in the case of foams targets, indicating a reaction rate of the order of 108 fusion events per laser shot using "advanced targets".

  1. D-D nuclear fusion processes induced in polyethylene foams by TW Laser-generated plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrisi L.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Deuterium-Deuterium fusion processes were generated by focusing the 3 TW PALS Laser on solid deuterated polyethylene targets placed in vacuum. Deuterium ion acceleration of the order of 4 MeV was obtained using laser irradiance Iλ2 ∼ 5 × 1016 W μm2/cm2 on the target. Thin and thick targets, at low and high density, were irradiated and plasma properties were monitored “on line” and “off line”. The ion emission from plasma was monitored with Thomson Parabola Spectrometer, track detectors and ion collectors. Fast semiconductor detectors based on SiC and fast plastic scintillators, both employed in time-of-flight configuration, have permitted to detect the characteristic 3.0 MeV protons and 2.45 MeV neutrons emission from the nuclear fusion reactions. From massive absorbent targets we have evaluated the neutron flux by varying from negligible values up to about 5 × 107 neutrons per laser shot in the case of foams targets, indicating a reaction rate of the order of 108 fusion events per laser shot using “advanced targets”.

  2. Study of the Fusion-Fission Process in the $^{35}Cl + ^{24}Mg$ Reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, C; Dayras, R; Cavallaro., Sl.

    1998-01-01

    Fusion-fission and fully energy-damped binary processes of the $^{35}$Cl+$^{24}$Mg reaction were investigated using particle-particle coincidence techniques at a $^{35}$Cl bombarding energy of E$_{lab}$ $\\approx$ 8 MeV/nucleon. Inclusive data were also taken in order to determine the partial wave distribution of the fusion process. The fragment-fragment correlation data show that the majority of events arises from a binary-decay process with a relatively large multiplicity of secondary light-charged particles emitted by the two primary excited fragments in the exit channel. No evidence is observed for ternary-breakup processes, as expected from the systematics recently established for incident energies below 15 MeV/nucleon and for a large number of reactions. The binary-process results are compared with predictions of statistical-model calculations. The calculations were performed using the Extended Hauser-Feshbach method, based on the available phase space at the scission point of the compound nucleus. This ...

  3. Fusion of product and process data: Batch-mode and real-time streaming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent De Sapio; Spike Leonard

    1999-12-01

    In today's DP product realization enterprise it is imperative to reduce the design-to-fabrication cycle time and cost while improving the quality of DP parts (reducing defects). Much of this challenge resides in the inherent gap between the product and process worlds. The lack of seamless, bi-directional flow of information prevents true concurrency in the product realization world. This report addresses a framework for product-process data fusion to help achieve next generation product realization. A fundamental objective is to create an open environment for multichannel observation of process date, and subsequent mapping of that data onto product geometry. In addition to the sensor-based observation of manufacturing processes, model-based process data provides an important complement to empirically acquired data. Two basic groups of manufacturing models are process physics, and machine kinematics and dynamics. Process physics addresses analytical models that describe the physical phenomena of the process itself. Machine kinematic and dynamic models address the mechanical behavior of the processing equipment. As a secondary objective, an attempt has been made in this report to address part of the model-based realm through the development of an open object-oriented library and toolkit for machine kinematics and dynamics. Ultimately, it is desirable to integrate design definition, with all types of process data; both sensor-based and model-based. Collectively, the goal is to allow all disciplines within the product realization enterprise to have a centralized medium for the fusion of product and process data.

  4. THERMAL AND VISIBLE SATELLITE IMAGE FUSION USING WAVELET IN REMOTE SENSING AND SATELLITE IMAGE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Ahrari

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Multimodal remote sensing approach is based on merging different data in different portions of electromagnetic radiation that improves the accuracy in satellite image processing and interpretations. Remote Sensing Visible and thermal infrared bands independently contain valuable spatial and spectral information. Visible bands make enough information spatially and thermal makes more different radiometric and spectral information than visible. However low spatial resolution is the most important limitation in thermal infrared bands. Using satellite image fusion, it is possible to merge them as a single thermal image that contains high spectral and spatial information at the same time. The aim of this study is a performance assessment of thermal and visible image fusion quantitatively and qualitatively with wavelet transform and different filters. In this research, wavelet algorithm (Haar and different decomposition filters (mean.linear,ma,min and rand for thermal and panchromatic bands of Landast8 Satellite were applied as shortwave and longwave fusion method . Finally, quality assessment has been done with quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative parameters such as Entropy, Standard Deviation, Cross Correlation, Q Factor and Mutual Information were used. For thermal and visible image fusion accuracy assessment, all parameters (quantitative and qualitative must be analysed with respect to each other. Among all relevant statistical factors, correlation has the most meaningful result and similarity to the qualitative assessment. Results showed that mean and linear filters make better fused images against the other filters in Haar algorithm. Linear and mean filters have same performance and there is not any difference between their qualitative and quantitative results.

  5. An Adaptive Altitude Information Fusion Method for Autonomous Landing Processes of Small Unmanned Aerial Rotorcraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xusheng Lei

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an adaptive information fusion method to improve the accuracy and reliability of the altitude measurement information for small unmanned aerial rotorcraft during the landing process. Focusing on the low measurement performance of sensors mounted on small unmanned aerial rotorcraft, a wavelet filter is applied as a pre-filter to attenuate the high frequency noises in the sensor output. Furthermore, to improve altitude information, an adaptive extended Kalman filter based on a maximum a posteriori criterion is proposed to estimate measurement noise covariance matrix in real time. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is proved by static tests, hovering flight and autonomous landing flight tests.

  6. Multiple DSP system for real time parallel processing and feedback control on fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, A.P.; Correia, C.M.B.; Varandas, C.A.F. [Associacao EURATOM, Lisboa (Portugal). Nucl. Inst. Superior Tecnico; Schneider, F. [Association EURATOM/IPP, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a specially designed system for real time parallel processing and feedback control on fusion experiments. The system is being implemented in PCI and VME modules, based on an array of four synchronizable DSPs, with 1 Mbyte of global RAM, 12 bits resolution, four analog inputs with sampling frequency up to 40 MSPS, two analog or waveform generator outputs with an update rate up to 100 MSPS, eight digital opto-coupled inputs/outputs and one external global trigger optical input. The user interface appears as a virtual instrument from LabView for Windows. (orig.) 7 refs.

  7. Process for manufacture of inertial confinement fusion targets and resulting product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masnari, Nino A.; Rensel, Walter B.; Robinson, Merrill G.; Solomon, David E.; Wise, Kensall D.; Wuttke, Gilbert H.

    1982-01-01

    An ICF target comprising a spherical pellet of fusion fuel surrounded by a concentric shell; and a process for manufacturing the same which includes the steps of forming hemispheric shells of a silicon or other substrate material, adhering the shell segments to each other with a fuel pellet contained concentrically therein, then separating the individual targets from the parent substrate. Formation of hemispheric cavities by deposition or coating of a mold substrate is also described. Coatings or membranes may also be applied to the interior of the hemispheric segments prior to joining.

  8. Cultural Conflicts and Fusion in the Process of Christianity Disseminating in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培平

    2012-01-01

      This paper focuses on cultural conflicts, mainly conflicts of God oriented and people oriented world view, different view towards human nature-virtue culture and guilt culture, the theology that all are equal before God and hierarchical order tradition, monotheism and polytheism, conflict between the doctrine and the concept of clan, briefly, that between Chinese traditional culture and Christian doctrine in the process of the religion disseminating in China. It also touches upon the beneficial attributes of Chinese culture for the fusion of the two culture patterns

  9. Sensitivity of mix in Inertial Confinement Fusion simulations to diffusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Jeremy; Cheng, Baolian; Rana, Verinder; Lim, Hyunkyung; Glimm, James; Sharp, David H.

    2015-11-01

    We explore two themes related to the simulation of mix within an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosion, the role of diffusion (viscosity, mass diffusion and thermal conduction) processes and the impact of front tracking on the growth of the hydrodynamic instabilities. Using the University of Chicago HEDP code FLASH, we study the sensitivity of post-shot simulations of a NIC cryogenic shot to the diffusion models and front tracking of the material interfaces. Results of 1D and 2D simulations are compared to experimental quantities and an analysis of the current state of fully integrated ICF simulations is presented.

  10. Numerical analysis of the heat transfer and fluid flow in the butt-fusion welding process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae Hyun; Choi, Sunwoong; Nam, Jaewook; Ahn, Kyung Hyun; Oh, Ju Seok

    2017-02-01

    Butt-fusion welding is an effective process for welding polymeric pipes. The process can be simplified into two stages. In heat soak stage, the pipe is heated using a hot plate contacted with one end of the pipe. In jointing stage, a pair of heated pipes is compressed against one another so that the melt regions become welded. In previous works, the jointing stage that is highly related to the welding quality was neglected. However, in this study, a finite element simulation is conducted including the jointing stage. The heat and momentum transfer are considered altogether. A new numerical scheme to describe the melt flow and pipe deformation for the butt-fusion welding process is introduced. High density polyethylene (HDPE) is used for the material. Flow via thermal expansion of the heat soak stage, and squeezing and fountain flow of the jointing stage are well reproduced. It is also observed that curling beads are formed and encounter the pipe body. The unique contribution of this study is its capability of directly observing the flow behaviors that occur during the jointing stage and relating them to welding quality.

  11. Process Model of A Fusion Fuel Recovery System for a Direct Drive IFE Power Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natta, Saswathi; Aristova, Maria; Gentile, Charles

    2008-11-01

    A task has been initiated to develop a detailed representative model for the fuel recovery system (FRS) in the prospective direct drive inertial fusion energy (IFE) reactor. As part of the conceptual design phase of the project, a chemical process model is developed in order to observe the interaction of system components. This process model is developed using FEMLAB Multiphysics software with the corresponding chemical engineering module (CEM). Initially, the reactants, system structure, and processes are defined using known chemical species of the target chamber exhaust. Each step within the Fuel recovery system is modeled compartmentally and then merged to form the closed loop fuel recovery system. The output, which includes physical properties and chemical content of the products, is analyzed after each step of the system to determine the most efficient and productive system parameters. This will serve to attenuate possible bottlenecks in the system. This modeling evaluation is instrumental in optimizing and closing the fusion fuel cycle in a direct drive IFE power reactor. The results of the modeling are presented in this paper.

  12. Unilateral fusion of the odontoid process with the atlas in Klippel-Feil syndrome: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, So Young; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Park, Ji Seon; Suk, Kyung Soo; Han, Mi Young [Kyunghee Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-15

    Klippel-Feil syndrome (KFS) displays congenital fusion of the cervical vertebrae; it is a relatively common condition and has many associated malformations such as Sprengel's deformity, scoliosis, rib anomalies, congenital defects of the brain or spinal cord, renal anomalies, congenital heart disease, deafness, cleft palate, cranial and facial asymmetry, and enteric cysts. There are various types of cervical fusion observed in KFS. However, fusion of the odontoid process with the atlas is a very rare finding. We report here on a 4-year-old boy with unilateral fusion of a separated odontoid process with the lateral mass of the atlas, and this was associated with a spontaneously closed ventricular septal defect, a small patent ductus arteriosus and a horseshoe kidney.

  13. Identification of in-line defects and failures during Additive Manufacturing Powder Bed Fusion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulga Simina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Additive Manufacturing (AM processes are enablers of new approaches in the field of production and design engineering, product design and business modelling. Beginning to view additive manufacturing in an industrial environment, reliable statements about the product quality are indispensable. Statements regarding compliance with geometric tolerances and exact quantifiable physical parameters, in terms of product certification are therefore imperative. The quality of the components must not only be sustainably secured but also reproducible at any time. Quality control and quality assurance are the prerequisite for highly customized unique parts, or even batch size 1 product, that can be produced by additive manufacturing as efficiently as conventional mass-produced parts. This paper will discuss an approach for the identification of in-line defects and failures during Additive Manufacturing Powder Bed Fusion processes using the example of the Selective Laser Sintering process.

  14. Data acquisition and processing system at the NOVETTE laser-fusion facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerbach, J.M.; Severyn, J.R.; Kroepfl, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    The computer hardware and software used for acquisition and processing of data from experiments at the NOVETTE laser fusion facility are described. Nearly two hundred sensors are used to measure the performance of millimeter extent targets irradiated by multi-kilojoule laser pulses. Sensor output is recorded on CAMAC based digitizers, CCD arrays, and film. CAMAC instrument outputs are acquired and collected by a network of LSI-11 microprocessors centrally controlled by a VAX 11/780. The user controls the system through menus presented on color video displays equipped with touch panels. The control VAX collects data from all microprocessors and CCD arrays and stores them in a file for transport to a second VAX 11/780 which is used for processing and final analysis. Transfer is done through a high speed fiber-optic link. Relational data bases are used extensively in the processing and archiving of data.

  15. Molecular Process Producing Oncogene Fusion in Lung Cancer Cells by Illegitimate Repair of DNA Double-Strand Breaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshitaka Seki

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Constitutive activation of oncogenes by fusion to partner genes, caused by chromosome translocation and inversion, is a critical genetic event driving lung carcinogenesis. Fusions of the tyrosine kinase genes ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase, ROS1 (c-ros oncogene 1, or RET (rearranged during transfection occur in 1%–5% of lung adenocarcinomas (LADCs and their products constitute therapeutic targets for kinase inhibitory drugs. Interestingly, ALK, RET, and ROS1 fusions occur preferentially in LADCs of never- and light-smokers, suggesting that the molecular mechanisms that cause these rearrangements are smoking-independent. In this study, using previously reported next generation LADC genome sequencing data of the breakpoint junction structures of chromosome rearrangements that cause oncogenic fusions in human cancer cells, we employed the structures of breakpoint junctions of ALK, RET, and ROS1 fusions in 41 LADC cases as “traces” to deduce the molecular processes of chromosome rearrangements caused by DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs and illegitimate joining. We found that gene fusion was produced by illegitimate repair of DSBs at unspecified sites in genomic regions of a few kb through DNA synthesis-dependent or -independent end-joining pathways, according to DSB type. This information will assist in the understanding of how oncogene fusions are generated and which etiological factors trigger them.

  16. Conserved leucines in N-terminal heptad repeat HR1 of envelope fusion protein F of group II nucleopolyhedroviruses are important for correct processing and essential for fusogenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, G.; Pan, X.; Vlak, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    The heptad repeat (HR), a conserved structural motif of class I viral fusion proteins, is responsible for the formation of a six-helix bundle structure during the envelope fusion process. The insect baculovirus F protein is a newly found budded virus envelope fusion protein which possesses common fe

  17. Multisensor Data Fusion for High Quality Data Analysis and Processing in Measurement and Instrumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-bo Huang; Yu-bin Lan; W.C.Hoffmann; R.E.Lacey

    2007-01-01

    Multisensor data fusion(MDF)is an emerging technology to fuse data from multiple sensors in order to make a more accurate estimation of the environment through measurement and detection.Applications of MDF cross a wide spectrum in military and civilian areas.With the rapid evolution of computers and the proliferation of micro-mechanical/electrical systems sensors,the utilization of MDF is being popularized in research and applications.This paper focuses on application of MDF for high quality data analysis and processing in measurement and instrumentation.A practical,general data fusion scheme was established on the basis of feature extraction and merge of data from multiple sensors.This scheme integrates artificial neural networks for high performance pattern recognition.A number of successful applications in areas of NDI(Non-Destructive Inspection)corrosion detection,food quality and safety characterization,and precision agriculture are described and discussed in order to motivate new applications in these or other areas.This paper gives an overall picture of using the MDF method to increase the accuracy of data analysis and processing in measurement and instrumentation in different areas of applications.

  18. Integrated process modeling for the laser inertial fusion Energy (LIFE) generation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W R; Anklam, T M; Erlandson, A C; Miles, R R; Simon, A J; Sawicki, R; Storm, E

    2009-10-22

    A concept for a new fusion-fission hybrid technology is being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The primary application of this technology is base-load electrical power generation. However, variants of the baseline technology can be used to 'burn' spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors or to perform selective transmutation of problematic fission products. The use of a fusion driver allows very high burn-up of the fission fuel, limited only by the radiation resistance of the fuel form and system structures. As a part of this process, integrated process models have been developed to aid in concept definition. Several models have been developed. A cost scaling model allows quick assessment of design changes or technology improvements on cost of electricity. System design models are being used to better understand system interactions and to do design trade-off and optimization studies. Here we describe the different systems models and present systems analysis results. Different market entry strategies are discussed along with potential benefits to US energy security and nuclear waste disposal. Advanced technology options are evaluated and potential benefits from additional R&D targeted at the different options is quantified.

  19. Integrated process modeling for the laser inertial fusion energy (LIFE) generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, W. R.; Anklam, T. M.; Erlandson, A. C.; Miles, R. R.; Simon, A. J.; Sawicki, R.; Storm, E.

    2010-08-01

    A concept for a new fusion-fission hybrid technology is being developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The primary application of this technology is base-load electrical power generation. However, variants of the baseline technology can be used to "burn" spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors or to perform selective transmutation of problematic fission products. The use of a fusion driver allows very high burn-up of the fission fuel, limited only by the radiation resistance of the fuel form and system structures. As a part of this process, integrated process models have been developed to aid in concept definition. Several models have been developed. A cost scaling model allows quick assessment of design changes or technology improvements on cost of electricity. System design models are being used to better understand system interactions and to do design trade-off and optimization studies. Here we describe the different systems models and present systems analysis results. Different market entry strategies are discussed along with potential benefits to US energy security and nuclear waste disposal. Advanced technology options are evaluated and potential benefits from additional R&D targeted at the different options is quantified.

  20. Process defects and in situ monitoring methods in metal powder bed fusion: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasso, Marco; Colosimo, Bianca Maria

    2017-04-01

    Despite continuous technological enhancements of metal Additive Manufacturing (AM) systems, the lack of process repeatability and stability still represents a barrier for the industrial breakthrough. The most relevant metal AM applications currently involve industrial sectors (e.g. aerospace and bio-medical) where defects avoidance is fundamental. Because of this, there is the need to develop novel in situ monitoring tools able to keep under control the stability of the process on a layer-by-layer basis, and to detect the onset of defects as soon as possible. On the one hand, AM systems must be equipped with in situ sensing devices able to measure relevant quantities during the process, a.k.a. process signatures. On the other hand, in-process data analytics and statistical monitoring techniques are required to detect and localize the defects in an automated way. This paper reviews the literature and the commercial tools for in situ monitoring of powder bed fusion (PBF) processes. It explores the different categories of defects and their main causes, the most relevant process signatures and the in situ sensing approaches proposed so far. Particular attention is devoted to the development of automated defect detection rules and the study of process control strategies, which represent two critical fields for the development of future smart PBF systems.

  1. QCD Corrections to Vector-Boson Fusion Processes in Warped Higgsless Models

    CERN Document Server

    Englert, C; Zeppenfeld, D

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the signatures of a representative Higgsless model with ideal fermion delocalization in vector-boson fusion processes, focusing on the gold- and silver-plated decay modes of the gauge bosons at the CERN-Large Hadron Collider. For this purpose, we have developed a fully-flexible parton-level Monte-Carlo program, which allows for the calculation of cross sections and kinematic distributions within experimentally feasible selection cuts at NLO-QCD accuracy. We find that Kaluza-Klein resonances give rise to very distinctive distributions of the decay leptons. Similar to the Standard Model case, within the Higgsless scenario the perturbative treatment of the vector-boson scattering processes is under excellent control.

  2. Multiple sensor detection of process phenomena in laser powder bed fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Brandon; Whitenton, Eric; Moylan, Shawn

    2016-05-01

    Laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) is an additive manufacturing (AM) process in which a high power laser melts metal powder layers into complex, three-dimensional shapes. LPBF parts are known to exhibit relatively high residual stresses, anisotropic microstructure, and a variety of defects. To mitigate these issues, in-situ measurements of the melt-pool phenomena may illustrate relationships between part quality and process signatures. However, phenomena such as spatter, plume formation, laser modulation, and melt-pool oscillations may require data acquisition rates exceeding 10 kHz. This hinders use of relatively data-intensive, streaming imaging sensors in a real-time monitoring and feedback control system. Single-point sensors such as photodiodes provide the temporal bandwidth to capture process signatures, while providing little spatial information. This paper presents results from experiments conducted on a commercial LPBF machine which incorporated synchronized, in-situ acquisition of a thermal camera, high-speed visible camera, photodiode, and laser modulation signal during fabrication of a nickel alloy 625 AM part with an overhang geometry. Data from the thermal camera provides temperature information, the visible camera provides observation of spatter, and the photodiode signal provides high temporal bandwidth relative brightness stemming from the melt pool region. In addition, joint-time frequency analysis (JTFA) was performed on the photodiode signal. JTFA results indicate what digital filtering and signal processing are required to highlight particular signatures. Image fusion of the synchronized data obtained over multiple build layers allows visual comparison between the photodiode signal and relating phenomena observed in the imaging detectors.

  3. Real-time detection of undersea mines: a complete screening and acoustic fusion processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacramone, Anthony; Desai, Mukund N.

    1999-08-01

    A complete mine detection/classification (D/C) system has been specified and implemented, which runs in real-time, and has been exercised on the latest available dual-frequency side-scan sonar acoustic image sets. The compete DC system is comprised of a collection of algorithms that has been developed and evolved at Draper Laboratory over the past decade. The detection process consists of image normalization, enhancement, segmentation, and feature extraction algorithms. The enhancement algorithm is a variant of a Markov Random Field based anomaly screener developed in FY-94. The feature that were extracted were those derived in FY-93. A distance constrained matching algorithm, which was developed in FY-95, is used to generate a list of high and low frequency fused tokens. The classification process involves the evaluation of a hierarchy of three multi-layer perceptron neural networks: HF, LF, and HF/LF fused. Research performed in FY-95 also concentrated on the development of several variants of information fusion with hierarchical neural networks. The 'discriminant-combining' variant of fusion was selected as part of this DC system. In addition, a classification post- processing and decision node statistic modification step, which was developed in FY-96, was included. This paper will describe the algorithm that were implemented. However, the emphasis will be on the performance results of processing the latest available side-scan imagery, comparison of single sensor vs dual-frequency sensor results, and the issues that were encountered while exercising the DC system on the new data set.

  4. Semantic intrusion detection with multisensor data fusion using complex event processing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Bhargavi; V Vaidehi

    2013-04-01

    Complex Event Processing (CEP) is an emerging technology for processing and identifying patterns of interest from multiple streams of events in real/near real time. Sensor network-based security and surveillance is a topic of recent research where events generated from distributed sensors at an unpredictable rate need to be analysed for possible threats and respond in a timely manner. Traditional software architectures like client/server architecture where the interactions are pull-based (DBMS) do not target the efficient processing of streams of events in real time. CEP which is a push-based system can process streaming data to identify the intrusion patterns in near real time and respond to the threats. An Intrusion Detection System (IDS) based on single sensor may fail to give accurate identification of intrusion. Hence there is a need for multisensor based IDS. A multisensor-based IDS enables identification of the intrusion patterns semantically by correlating the events and context information provided by multiple sensors. JDL multisource data fusion model is a well-known research model first established by the Joint Directorate Laboratories. This paper proposes JDL fusion framework-based CEP for semantic intrusion detection. The events generated from heterogeneous sensors are collected, aggregated using logical and spatiotemporal relations to form complex events which model the intrusion patterns. The proposed system is implemented and the results show that the proposed system out performs the pull-based solutions in terms of detection accuracy and detection time.

  5. Study of Multi-source Fusion B2C Business Process Reengineering of the Petri net Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Tian

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to fuse a multi-source B2C E-commerce system, this paper implements a new multi-source fusion B2C mode business system application development, which can provide customers with efficient and reliable comparison and cross-platform business system of choose and buy goods. By analyzing the Multi-source fusion B2C E-commerce system demand of business process reengineering and Petri net theory, the B2C electronic commerce system of multi-source fusion structure is proposed, graphical workflow modeling methods is adopted, the multi-source fusion of B2C business process reengineering Petri model is established, with the help of CPNtool simulation system and the establishment of correlation matrix analysis of the model. The experimental simulation analysis and output of experimental reports indicate that the business processes are properly designed, no deadlocks node exist at runtime, accessibility meets which provides the reference model for the development of multi-source fusion of B2C electronic commerce system.    

  6. Observation of Multiple Reconnections during Self-organization Process of High Temperature Fusion Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, H. K.; Tobias, B.; Choi, M. J.; Yun, G. S.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; Munsat, T.; Donné, A. J. H.; Spakman, G. W.; Textor Team

    2011-10-01

    Images of a high resolution 2-D Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI) diagnostic shows evidence of multiple magnetic reconnection processes during the internal disruption of a high temperature tokamak plasmas. The disruption induces magnetic self-organization of the toroidal plasma being accompanied by successive or simultaneous multiple layer reconnection. The degree of asymmetric deformation of the internal magnetic structure (m/n=1/1 mode) prior to temperature crash influences the outcome of the disruptive behavior. The observation is critical for the building block of first principle theoretical modeling of the sawtooth oscillation in current driven toroidal plasmas and the understandings can be applied to the impulsive disruptive behavior in flares of the solar, accretion disk and stellar coronae, Earth magnetospheric storms, and controlled fusion. Work supported by the NRF of Korea, the US DOE, the NWO of the Netherlands, and the EURATOM-FOM association.

  7. Short-Term Forecasting of Taiwanese Earthquakes Using a Universal Model of Fusion-Fission Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Siew Ann; Tan, Teck Liang; Chen, Chien-Chih; Chang, Wu-Lung; Liu, Zheng; Chew, Lock Yue; Sloot, Peter M. A.; Johnson, Neil F.

    2014-01-01

    Predicting how large an earthquake can be, where and when it will strike remains an elusive goal in spite of the ever-increasing volume of data collected by earth scientists. In this paper, we introduce a universal model of fusion-fission processes that can be used to predict earthquakes starting from catalog data. We show how the equilibrium dynamics of this model very naturally explains the Gutenberg-Richter law. Using the high-resolution earthquake catalog of Taiwan between Jan 1994 and Feb 2009, we illustrate how out-of-equilibrium spatio-temporal signatures in the time interval between earthquakes and the integrated energy released by earthquakes can be used to reliably determine the times, magnitudes, and locations of large earthquakes, as well as the maximum numbers of large aftershocks that would follow. PMID:24406467

  8. Whole fusion-fission process with Langevin approach and compared with analytical solution for barrier passage

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Jie

    2014-01-01

    We investigate time-dependent probability for a Brownian particle passing over the barrier to stay at a metastable potential pocket against escaping over the barrier. This is related to whole fusion-fission dynamical process and can be called the reverse Kramers problem. By the passing probability over the saddle point of inverse harmonic potential multiplying the exponential decay factor of a particle in the metastable potential, we present an approximate expression for the modified passing probability over the barrier, in which the effect of reflection boundary of potential is taken into account. Our analytical result and Langevin Monte-Carlo simulation show that the probability passing and against escaping over the barrier is a non-monotonous function of time and its maximal value is less than the stationary result of passing probability over the saddle point of inverse harmonic potential.

  9. Short-term forecasting of Taiwanese earthquakes using a universal model of fusion-fission processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Siew Ann; Tan, Teck Liang; Chen, Chien-Chih; Chang, Wu-Lung; Liu, Zheng; Chew, Lock Yue; Sloot, Peter M A; Johnson, Neil F

    2014-01-10

    Predicting how large an earthquake can be, where and when it will strike remains an elusive goal in spite of the ever-increasing volume of data collected by earth scientists. In this paper, we introduce a universal model of fusion-fission processes that can be used to predict earthquakes starting from catalog data. We show how the equilibrium dynamics of this model very naturally explains the Gutenberg-Richter law. Using the high-resolution earthquake catalog of Taiwan between Jan 1994 and Feb 2009, we illustrate how out-of-equilibrium spatio-temporal signatures in the time interval between earthquakes and the integrated energy released by earthquakes can be used to reliably determine the times, magnitudes, and locations of large earthquakes, as well as the maximum numbers of large aftershocks that would follow.

  10. Parameter-free effective field theory calculation for the solar proton-fusion and hep processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.S. Park; L.E. Marcucci; R. Schiavilla; M. Viviani; A. Kievsky; S. Rosati; K. Kubodera; D.P. Min; M. Rho

    2002-08-01

    Spurred by the recent complete determination of the weak currents in two-nucleon systems up to {Omicron}(Q{sup 3}) in heavy-baryon chiral perturbation theory, we carry out a parameter-free calculation of the threshold S-factors for the solar pp (proton-fusion) and hep processes in an effective field theory that combines the merits of the standard nuclear physics method and systematic chiral expansion. The power of the EFT adopted here is that one can correlate in a unified formalism the weak-current matrix elements of two-, three- and four-nucleon systems. Using the tritium {beta}-decay rate as an input to fix the only unknown parameter in the theory, we can evaluate the threshold S factors with drastically improved precision; the results are S{sub pp}(0) = 3.94 x (1 {+-} 0.004) x 10{sup -25} MeV-b and S{sub hep}(0) = (8.6 {+-} 1.3) x 10{sup -20} keV-b. The dependence of the calculated S-factors on the momentum cutoff parameter {Lambda} has been examined for a physically reasonable range of {Lambda}. This dependence is found to be extremely small for the pp process, and to be within acceptable levels for the hep process, substantiating the consistency of our calculational scheme.

  11. Effect of neutron transfer in the fusion process near and below the Coulomb barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachkov, V. A.; Adel, A.; Karpov, A. V.; Denikin, A. S.; Zagrebaev, V. I. [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR, Dubna, 141980, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Cairo University, Giza (Egypt); Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR, Dubna, 141980, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR, Dubna, 141980, Moscow region (Russian Federation) and International University ' Dubna' , Dubna, 141980, Moscow region (Russian Federation); Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, JINR, Dubna, 141980, Moscow region (Russian Federation)

    2012-10-20

    Near-barrier and sub-barrier fusion of weakly bound neutron-rich isotopes of lithium is explored within the empirical channel coupling model. Several combinations of colliding nuclei are proposed, for which strong enhancement of the sub-barrier fusion is predicted owing to coupling with neutron transfer channels.

  12. Searching for New Heavy Neutral Gauge Bosons using Vector Boson Fusion Processes at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Andres, Florez; Will, Johns; Young, Do oh; Paul, Sheldon; Dylan, Teague; Thomas, Weiler

    2016-01-01

    New massive resonances are predicted in many extensions to the Standard Model of particle physics and constitutes one of the most promising searches for new physics at the LHC. We present a feasibility study to search for new heavy neutral gauge bosons using vector boson fusion (VBF) processes, which become especially important as the LHC probes higher collision energies. In the context of the Sequential Standard Model (SeqSM), which predicts a neutral spin-1 $Z^{'}_{SeqSM}$ boson with the same couplings to the SM particles as the Z boson, we find that the VBF $Z^{'}_{SeqSM}$ production cross-section surpasses that of the Drell-Yan process at TeV scale masses. We consider the $Z^{'}_{SeqSM}\\to\\tau\\tau$ and $Z^{'}_{SeqSM}\\to\\mu\\mu$ decay modes to show that the requirement of a dilepton pair combined with two high $p_{T}$ forward jets with large separation in pseudorapidity and with large dijet mass is effective in reducing SM backgrounds, providing expected exclusion bounds (at 95\\% confidence level) of $m(Z^{...

  13. "PROCESS": a systems code for fusion power plants - Part 2:Engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kovari, M; Harrington, C; Kembleton, R; Knight, P; Lux, H; Morris, J

    2016-01-01

    PROCESS is a reactor systems code - it assesses the engineering and economic viability of a hypothetical fusion power station using simple models of all parts of a reactor system. PROCESS allows the user to choose which constraints to impose and which to ignore, so when evaluating the results it is vital to study the list of constraints used. New algorithms submitted by collaborators can be incorporated - for example safety, first wall erosion, and fatigue life will be crucial and are not yet taken into account. This paper describes algorithms relating to the engineering aspects of the plant. The toroidal field (TF) coils and the central solenoid are assumed by default to be wound from niobium-tin superconductor with the same properties as the ITER conductors. The winding temperature and induced voltage during a quench provide a limit on the current density in the TF coils. Upper limits are placed on the stresses in the structural materials of the TF coil, using a simple two-layer model of the inboard leg of ...

  14. Processing of spent NiMo and CoMo/Al2O3 catalysts via fusion with KHSO4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busnardo, Roberto Giovanini; Busnardo, Natália Giovanini; Salvato, Gustavo Nascimento; Afonso, Júlio Carlos

    2007-01-10

    This work describes a route for processing spent commercial hydrorefining (HDR) catalysts (CoMo and NiMo/Al2O3), containing support additives, for recovering active phase and support components. Samples were used as catalysts in diesel hydrotreaters. They had neither been submitted to mechanical stresses nor overheating while under operation. The route is based on fusion of samples with KHSO4. Four experimental parameters were optimized: reaction time, sample/flux mass ratio, temperature, and sample physical characteristics (ground/non-ground). After fusion, the solid was dissolved in water (90-100 degrees C); the insoluble matter presented low crystallization. Several phases were identified: silicates, spinel-like compounds and aluminosilicates. Cobalt, nickel, molybdenum and aluminum were recovered by conventional precipitation techniques or selective solvent-extraction procedures, with at least 85 wt.% yield. Final liquid colorless effluents are obtained as neutral solutions of alkali sulfates or chlorides and a water insoluble solid after fusion, which can be either sent to industrial dumps or co-processed. Fusion with KHSO4 was shown to be applicable to the catalysts of the present study, and the optimized experimental parameters are much less drastic than the conventional pyrometallurgical routes proposed in the literature.

  15. A Sensor Fusion Algorithm for Filtering Pyrometer Measurement Noise in the Czochralski Crystallization Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Komperød

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Czochralski (CZ crystallization process is used to produce monocrystalline silicon for solar cell wafers and electronics. Tight temperature control of the molten silicon is most important for achieving high crystal quality. SINTEF Materials and Chemistry operates a CZ process. During one CZ batch, two pyrometers were used for temperature measurement. The silicon pyrometer measures the temperature of the molten silicon. This pyrometer is assumed to be accurate, but has much high-frequency measurement noise. The graphite pyrometer measures the temperature of a graphite material. This pyrometer has little measurement noise. There is quite a good correlation between the two pyrometer measurements. This paper presents a sensor fusion algorithm that merges the two pyrometer signals for producing a temperature estimate with little measurement noise, while having significantly less phase lag than traditional lowpass- filtering of the silicon pyrometer. The algorithm consists of two sub-algorithms: (i A dynamic model is used to estimate the silicon temperature based on the graphite pyrometer, and (ii a lowpass filter and a highpass filter designed as complementary filters. The complementary filters are used to lowpass-filter the silicon pyrometer, highpass-filter the dynamic model output, and merge these filtered signals. Hence, the lowpass filter attenuates noise from the silicon pyrometer, while the graphite pyrometer and the dynamic model estimate those frequency components of the silicon temperature that are lost when lowpass-filtering the silicon pyrometer. The algorithm works well within a limited temperature range. To handle a larger temperature range, more research must be done to understand the process' nonlinear dynamics, and build this into the dynamic model.

  16. Glycoprotein processing in mutants of HSV-1 that induce cell fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Person, S.; Kousoulas, K.G.; Knowles, R.W.; Read, G.S.; Holland, T.C.; Keller, P.M.; Warner, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    The synthesis of viral-specified glycoproteins, and their appearance on cell surfaces, were compared for cells infected either with syncytial mutants of HSV-1 or with the parental strains from which the mutants were derived. The mutants MP and tsB5, representatives of two different viral genes that affect fusion, were employed in these studies. Cells infected with either mutant gave rise to reduce surface labeling of major viral-specified glycoproteins throughout infection relative to the parental strains. Putative glycoprotein precursors were synthesized in similar amounts throughout infection in mutant and wild-type infected cells. However, during a chase period after a pulse of labeling, fully glycosylated species of glycoproteins accumulated more slowly in mutant than in parent infected cells. The effect was clearly visible early in MP-infected cells and by 9 hr after infection for tsB5-infected cells, and increased thereafter. Apparently the decrease in appearance of glycoproteins on the cell surface of mutant-infected cells is due to a decrease in their rate of processing. 26 references, 7 figures.

  17. Semiclassical treatment of fusion and breakup processes of ^{6,8}He halo nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Fouad A.; Abdul-Hussien, Yousif A.

    2016-06-01

    A semiclassical approach has been used to study the effect of channel coupling on the calculations of the total fusion reaction cross section σ _{fus}, and the fusion barrier distribution D_{fus} for the systems 6He +^{238}U and 8He +^{197}Au. Since these systems invloves light exotic nuclei, breakup states channel play an important role that should be considered in the calculations. In semiclassical treatment, the relative motion between the projectile and target nuclei is approximated by a classical trajectory while the intrinsic dynamics is handled by time-dependent quantum mechanics. The calculations of the total fusion cross section σ _{fus}, and the fusion barrier distribution D_{fus} are compared with the full quantum mechanical calculations using the coupled-channels calculations with all order coupling using the computer code and with the available experimental data.

  18. A homological multi-information fusion method for processing gastric tumor tissue pathological images

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tian-gang; WANG Su-pin; QIN Chen

    2005-01-01

    A homological multi-information image fusion method was introduced for recognition of the gastric tumor pathological tissue images. The main purpose is that fewer procedures are used to provide more information and the result images could be easier to be understood than any other methods. First,multi-scale wavelet transform was used to extract edge feature ,and then watershed morphology was used to form multi-threshold grayscale contours. The research laid emphasis upon the homological tissue image fusion based on extended Bayesian algorithm ,which fusion result images of linear weighted algorithm was used to compare with the ones of extended Bayesian algorithm. The final fusion images are shown in Fig 5.The final image evaluation was made by information entropy,information correlativity and statistics methods. It is indicated that this method has more advantages for clinical application.

  19. Aberrant Processing of Deviant Stimuli in Schizophrenia Revealed by Fusion of FMRI and EEG Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Vd; Wu, L; Kiehl, Ka; Eichele, T; Pearlson, Gd

    2010-06-01

    BACKGROUND: Aberrant electrophysiological and hemodynamic processing of auditory oddball stimuli is among the most robustly documented findings in patients with schizophrenia. However, no study to date has directly examined linked patterns of electrical and hemodynamic differences in patients and controls. METHODS: In a recent paper we demonstrated a data-driven approach, joint independent component analysis (jICA) to fuse together functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and event-related potential (ERP) data and elucidated the chronometry of auditory oddball target detection in healthy control subjects. In this paper we extend our fusion method to identify specific differences in the neuronal chronometry of target detection for chronic schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls. RESULTS: We found one linked source, consistent with the N2 response, known to be related to cognitive processing of deviant stimuli, spatially localized to bilateral fronto-temporal regions. This source showed significant between-group differences both in amplitude response and in the fMRI/ERP distribution pattern. These findings are consistent with previous work showing N2 amplitude and latency abnormalities in schizophrenia, and provide new information about the linkage between the two. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we use a novel approach to isolate and identify a linked fMRI/ERP component which shows marked differences in chronic schizophrenia patients. We also demonstrate that jointly using both fMRI and ERP measures provides a fully picture of the underlying hemodynamic and electrical changes which are present in patients. Our approach also has broad applicability to other diseases such as autism, Alzheimer's disease, or bipolar disorder.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of TiO2 from ilmenite by caustic fusion process for photocatalytic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyono, J. E.; Soepriyanto, S.

    2017-01-01

    In this research, the use of TiO2 from Indonesian ilmenite will be developed using caustic fusion process and made into photocatalyst product that will be applied for water treatment applications. The research procedures include caustic fusion process involving the mixing of NaOH and ilmenite with a ratio of 1 : 4 at 650°C for 120 minutes. The result from this caustic fusion process, i.e. frit, was then washed with water and followed by acid leaching using sulfuric acid 45% to obtain precursor TiOSO4. This precursor was then hydrolyzed to produce white precipitates in the form of sol TiO(OH)2 which was then condensed for 24 hours. The precipitate was washed and dried before calcined at a temperature of 500°C for 1 hour. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) analysis is included to show the phases, morphology and the final composition of the synthesized TiO2 powder. UV-Vis Spectrometry was also used to calculate the band-gap energy and the photocatalytic ability of the synthesized TiO2 in the purification process of rhodamin-B.

  1. A two-step fusion process for multi-criteria decision applied to natural hazards in mountains

    CERN Document Server

    Tacnet, Jean-Marc; Dezert, Jean

    2010-01-01

    Mountain river torrents and snow avalanches gen- erate human and material damages with dramatic consequences. Knowledge about natural phenomenona is often lacking and expertise is required for decision and risk management purposes using multi-disciplinary quantitative or qualitative approaches. Expertise is considered as a decision process based on imperfect information coming from more or less reliable and conflicting sources. A methodology mixing the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), a multi-criteria aid-decision method, and information fusion using Belief Function Theory is described. Fuzzy Sets and Possibilities theories allow to transform quantitative and qualita- tive criteria into a common frame of discernment for decision in Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST ) and Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) contexts. Main issues consist in basic belief assignments elicitation, conflict identification and management, fusion rule choices, results validation but also in specific needs to make a difference between importa...

  2. Searching for new heavy neutral gauge bosons using vector boson fusion processes at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flórez, Andrés; Gurrola, Alfredo; Johns, Will; Oh, Young Do; Sheldon, Paul; Teague, Dylan; Weiler, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    New massive resonances are predicted in many extensions to the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics and constitutes one of the most promising searches for new physics at the LHC. We present a feasibility study to search for new heavy neutral gauge bosons using vector boson fusion (VBF) processes, which become especially important as the LHC probes higher collision energies. In particular, we consider the possibility that the discovery of a Z‧ boson may have eluded searches at the LHC. The coupling of the Z‧ boson to the SM quarks can be small, and thus the Z‧ would not be discoverable by the searches conducted thus far. In the context of a simplified phenomenological approach, we consider the Z‧ → ττ and Z‧ → μμ decay modes to show that the requirement of a dilepton pair combined with two high pT forward jets with large separation in pseudorapidity and with large dijet mass is effective in reducing SM backgrounds. The expected exclusion bounds (at 95% confidence level) are m (Z‧) < 1.8 TeV and m (Z‧) < 2.5 TeV in the ττjfjf and μμjfjf channels, respectively, assuming 1000 fb-1 of 13 TeV data from the LHC. The use of the VBF topology to search for massive neutral gauge bosons provides a discovery reach with expected significances greater than 5σ (3σ) for Z‧ masses up to 1.4 (1.6) TeV and 2.0 (2.2) TeV in the ττjfjf and μμjfjf channels.

  3. Spectroscopic Studies of Atomic and Molecular Processes in the Edge Region of Magnetically Confined Fusion Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, J. D.; Brezinsek, S.; Mertens, Ph.; Unterberg, B.

    2006-12-01

    Edge plasma studies are of vital importance for understanding plasma-wall interactions in magnetically confined fusion devices. These interactions determine the transport of neutrals into the plasma, and the properties of the plasma discharge. This presentation deals with optical spectroscopic studies of the plasma boundary, and their rôle in elucidating the prevailing physical conditions. Recorded spectra are of four types: emission spectra of ions and atoms, produced by electron impact excitation and by charge-exchange recombination, atomic spectra arising from electron impact-induced molecular dissociation and ionisation, visible spectra of molecular hydrogen and its isotopic combinations, and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectra. The atomic spectra are strongly influenced by the confining magnetic field (Zeeman and Paschen-Back effects), which produces characteristic features useful for species identification, temperature determination by Doppler broadening, and studies of chemical and physical sputtering. Detailed analysis of the Zeeman components in both optical and LIF spectra shows that atomic hydrogen is produced in various velocity classes, some related to the relevant molecular Franck-Condon energies. The latter reflect the dominant electron collision processes responsible for production of atoms from molecules. This assignment has been verified by gas-puffing experiments through special test limiters. The higher-energy flanks of hydrogen line profiles probably also show the influence of charge-exchange reactions with molecular ions accelerated in the plasma sheath (`scrape-off layer') separating limiter surfaces from the edge plasma, in analogy to acceleration in the cathode-fall region of gas discharges. While electron collisions play a vital rôle in generating the spectra, ion collisions with excited atomic radiators act through re-distribution of population among the atomic fine-structure sublevels, and momentum transfer to the atomic nuclei

  4. Trophoblast fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, Berthold; Gauster, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The villous trophoblast of the human placenta is the epithelial cover of the fetal chorionic villi floating in maternal blood. This epithelial cover is organized in two distinct layers, the multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast directly facing maternal blood and a second layer of mononucleated cytotrophoblasts. During pregnancy single cytotrophoblasts continuously fuse with the overlying syncytiotrophoblast to preserve this end-differentiated layer until delivery. Syncytial fusion continuously supplies the syncytiotrophoblast with compounds of fusing cytotrophoblasts such as proteins, nucleic acids and lipids as well as organelles. At the same time the input of cytotrophoblastic components is counterbalanced by a continuous release of apoptotic material from the syncytiotrophoblast into maternal blood. Fusion is an essential step in maintaining the syncytiotrophoblast. Trophoblast fusion was shown to be dependant on and regulated by multiple factors such as fusion proteins, proteases and cytoskeletal proteins as well as cytokines, hormones and transcription factors. In this chapter we focus on factors that may be involved in the fusion process of trophoblast directly or that may prepare the cytotrophoblast to fuse.

  5. Preserving Data about the Knowledge Creation Process: Developing an Archive on the Cold Fusion Controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewenstein, Bruce V.

    1991-01-01

    Describes the creation of the Cold Fusion Archive at Cornell University and raises questions about documenting how scientific knowledge is created, diffused, and evaluated. Types of materials collected are described; issues involving the acquisition, organization, and preservation of materials are addressed; and the scope and limitations of…

  6. Dynamical approach to fusion-fission process in superheavy mass region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aritomo Y.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to describe heavy-ion fusion reactions around the Coulomb barrier with an actinide target nucleus, we propose a model which combines the coupled-channels approach and a fluctuation-dissipation model for dynamical calculations. This model takes into account couplings to the collective states of the interacting nuclei in the penetration of the Coulomb barrier and the subsequent dynamical evolution of a nuclear shape from the contact configuration. In the fluctuation-dissipation model with a Langevin equation, the effect of nuclear orientation at the initial impact on the prolately deformed target nucleus is considered. Fusion-fission, quasifission and deep quasifission are separated as different Langevin trajectories on the potential energy surface. Using this model, we analyze the experimental data for the mass distribution of fission fragments (MDFF in the reaction of 36S+238U at several incident energies around the Coulomb barrier.

  7. Sensor data fusion and image processing for object and hazard detection; Sensordatenfusion und Bildverarbeitung zur Objekt- und Gefahrenerkennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catala Prat, Alvaro

    2011-03-15

    The present work deals with automatic detection and tracking of objects in driving situations as well as derivation of potential hazards. To do this, the data of a laser scanner and a camera is processed and fused. The work provides new methods in the area of immediate environment detection and modeling. Thus, it creates a basis for innovative driver assistance and automation systems. The aim of such systems is to improve driving safety, traffic efficiency and driving comfort. The methods introduced in this work can be classified into different abstraction levels: At sensor data level, the data is prepared and reduced. In this work, the focus is especially set on the detection of driving oscillations from camera images and on the detection of the driving corridor from the data of different sensors, used later as the primary area of interest. At object level the central data fusion is done. High reliability, availability and sensor independency are achieved by choosing a competitive object fusion approach. As an input of the data fusion, object observations from camera and laser scanner data are extracted. These are then fused at the aim of object detection and tracking, where aspects such as robustness against manoeuvring objects, measurement outliers, split and merge effects, as well as partial object observability are addressed. At application level, early detection of potential hazards is addressed. A statistical approach has been chosen and developed, in which hazards are handled as atypical situations. This general and expandable approach is exemplarily shown based on the detected object data. The presented strategies and methods have been developed systematically, implemented in a modular prototype and tested with simulated and real data. The test results of the data fusion system show a win in data quality and robustness, with which an improvement of driver assistance and automation systems can be reached. (orig.)

  8. Processing and fusion of passively acquired, millimeter and terahertz images of the human body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Li; Shen, Yanchun; Jin, Weiqi; Zhao, Guozhong; Cai, Yi

    2017-04-01

    A passive, millimeter wave (MMW) and terahertz (THz) dual-band imaging system composed of 94 and 250 GHz single-element detectors was used to investigate preprocessing and fusion algorithms for dual-band images. Subsequently, an MMW and THz image preprocessing and fusion integrated algorithm (MMW-THz IPFIA) was developed. In the algorithm, a block-matching and three-dimensional filtering denoising algorithm is employed to filter noise, an adaptive histogram equalization algorithm to enhance images, an intensity-based registration algorithm to register images, and a wavelet-based image fusion algorithm to fuse the preprocessed images. The performance of the algorithm was analyzed by calculating the SNR and information entropy of the actual images. This algorithm effectively reduces the image noise and improves the level of detail in the images. Since the algorithm improves the performance of the investigated imaging system, it should support practical technological applications. Because the system responds to blackbody radiation, its improvement is quantified herein using the static performance parameter commonly employed for thermal imaging systems, namely, the minimum detectable temperature difference (MDTD). An experiment was conducted in which the system's MDTD was measured before and after applying the MMW-THz IPFIA, verifying the improved performance that can be realized through its application.

  9. Conceptual approach for an in-line quality control system in Additive Manufacturing Powder Bed Fusion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fulga Simina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Additive Manufacturing is one of the genuine hopes for the forth industrial revolution since digital data is controlling the whole layered production process. At the same time the geometric freedom and tool-free production assures a high degree of individualisation. But to be the driving force behind a new industrial revolution, a qualification of additive manufacturing processes is necessary so that the resulting products meet the required quality and safety standards in the different fields of application such as in handling technology or medical technology. This paper will discuss a conceptual approach for the development of an in-line quality control system in Additive Manufacturing Powder Bed Fusion processes using the example of the Selective Laser Sintering process.

  10. A computational approach identifies two regions of Hepatitis C Virus E1 protein as interacting domains involved in viral fusion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, Roberto; Costantino, Angela; Tritarelli, Elena; Marcantonio, Cinzia; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Rapicetta, Maria; El Sawaf, Gamal; Giuliani, Alessandro; Ciccaglione, Anna Rita

    2009-07-29

    The E1 protein of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) can be dissected into two distinct hydrophobic regions: a central domain containing an hypothetical fusion peptide (FP), and a C-terminal domain (CT) comprising two segments, a pre-anchor and a trans-membrane (TM) region. In the currently accepted model of the viral fusion process, the FP and the TM regions are considered to be closely juxtaposed in the post-fusion structure and their physical interaction cannot be excluded. In the present study, we took advantage of the natural sequence variability present among HCV strains to test, by purely sequence-based computational tools, the hypothesis that in this virus the fusion process involves the physical interaction of the FP and CT regions of E1. Two computational approaches were applied. The first one is based on the co-evolution paradigm of interacting peptides and consequently on the correlation between the distance matrices generated by the sequence alignment method applied to FP and CT primary structures, respectively. In spite of the relatively low random genetic drift between genotypes, co-evolution analysis of sequences from five HCV genotypes revealed a greater correlation between the FP and CT domains than respect to a control HCV sequence from Core protein, so giving a clear, albeit still inconclusive, support to the physical interaction hypothesis.The second approach relies upon a non-linear signal analysis method widely used in protein science called Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA). This method allows for a direct comparison of domains for the presence of common hydrophobicity patterns, on which the physical interaction is based upon. RQA greatly strengthened the reliability of the hypothesis by the scoring of a lot of cross-recurrences between FP and CT peptides hydrophobicity patterning largely outnumbering chance expectations and pointing to putative interaction sites. Intriguingly, mutations in the CT region of E1, reducing the fusion process in

  11. Assessment of Osteogenic Ability of Spinal Fusion Model Using Multislice Computed Tomography%多层螺旋CT评价脊柱融合模型成骨过程的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张森; 杜湘珂; 张健

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析自体骨成骨与硫酸钙成骨的CT表现,结合同期病理学结果,探讨影像改变的病理机制.材料与方法 20只健康家兔建立腰椎融合模型,一侧植入医用硫酸钙,对侧植入自体髂骨.于术后3、6、12周行手术部位多层螺旋CT (MSCT)检查,观察植入物与自体骨融合状况.于术后12周,根据CT表现计算植骨融合率及MSCT评估腰椎融合的敏感度、特异度、阳性预测值(PPV)及阴性预测值(NPV).术后3、6周各随机处死1只家兔,获得同期病理对照,术后12周处死剩余18只家兔,获得最终时间点病理对照.结果 MSCT评估硫酸钙植骨一侧腰椎融合的敏感度、特异度均为100.0%,自体髂骨植骨侧分别为94.1%和100.0%.术后12周,硫酸钙植骨一侧融合率为88.9% (n=16),PPV为94.1%,NPV为100.0%;自体髂骨植骨一侧融合率为94.4% (n=17),PPV为100.0%,NPV为50.0%,两侧融合率差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 MSCT能够有效评价脊柱融合术后骨移植材料的成骨表现.%Purpose To evaluate calcium sulfate performance in the traverse process of vertebra using CT with histopathology as standard of reference. Materials and Methods Twenty rabbits undergoing surgeries of lumbar spinal fusion, inter-vertebral fusion and inter-transverse process bone graft were included in this study. An injectable form of calcium sulfate was implanted into the left traverse process in healthy rabbit. In comparison, autologous-iliac bone graft was implanted into the right traverse process of the same vertebra. Morphologic analysis of calcium sulfate as well as the subsequent bone response to calcium sulfate based on CT imaging was performed at 3, 6 and 12 weeks after implantation with histopathology as standard of reference. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for detecting fusion were calculated for MSCT scans by comparing the results of surgical exploration. Results

  12. Structural and mechanical evaluations of a topology optimized titanium interbody fusion cage fabricated by selective laser melting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Ying; Wirtz, Tobias; LaMarca, Frank; Hollister, Scott J

    2007-11-01

    A topology optimized lumbar interbody fusion cage was made of Ti-Al6-V4 alloy by the rapid prototyping process of selective laser melting (SLM) to reproduce designed microstructure features. Radiographic characterizations and the mechanical properties were investigated to determine how the structural characteristics of the fabricated cage were reproduced from design characteristics using micro-computed tomography scanning. The mechanical modulus of the designed cage was also measured to compare with tantalum, a widely used porous metal. The designed microstructures can be clearly seen in the micrographs of the micro-CT and scanning electron microscopy examinations, showing the SLM process can reproduce intricate microscopic features from the original designs. No imaging artifacts from micro-CT were found. The average compressive modulus of the tested caged was 2.97+/-0.90 GPa, which is comparable with the reported porous tantalum modulus of 3 GPa and falls between that of cortical bone (15 GPa) and trabecular bone (0.1-0.5 GPa). The new porous Ti-6Al-4V optimal-structure cage fabricated by SLM process gave consistent mechanical properties without artifactual distortion in the imaging modalities and thus it can be a promising alternative as a porous implant for spine fusion.

  13. Measurement of process dynamics through coaxially aligned high speed near-infrared imaging in laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Jason C.; Lane, Brandon M.; Yeung, Ho

    2017-05-01

    For process stability in laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) additive manufacturing (AM), control of melt pool dimensions is imperative. In order to control melt pool dimensions in real time, sampling frequencies in excess of 10 kHz may be required, which presents a challenge for many thermal and optical monitoring systems. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is currently developing the Additive Manufacturing Metrology Testbed (AMMT), which replicates a metal based laser powder bed fusion AM process while providing open architecture for control, sensing, and calibration sources. The system is outfitted with a coaxially aligned, near-infrared (NIR) high speed melt pool monitoring (MPM) system. Similar monitoring systems are incorporated into LPBF research testbeds, and appearing on commercial machines, but at lower available frame rates, which may limit observation of higher frequency events such as spatter or size fluctuations. This paper presents an investigation of the coaxial imaging systems of the AMMT to capture the process dynamics, and quantify the effects of dynamic fluctuations on melt pool size measurements. Analysis is carried out on a baseline experiment with no powder material added, melt pool size measurements collected in-situ are compared to ex-situ measurements, and results are discussed in terms of temporal bandwidth. Findings will show that, even at the frame rate and resolution presented, challenges in relating in-situ video signals to the ex-situ measurement analysis remain.

  14. The fusion-fission process in the reaction {sup 34}S+{sup 186}W near the interaction barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harca, I. M. [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, (FLNR JINR) Dubna, Russia and Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest - P.O. Box MG 11, RO 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Dmitriev, S.; Itkis, J.; Kozulin, E. M.; Knyazheva, G.; Loktev, T.; Novikov, K. [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, (FLNR JINR) Dubna (Russian Federation); Azaiez, F.; Gottardo, A.; Matea, I.; Verney, D. [IPN, CNRS/IN2P3, Univ. Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Chubarian, G. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3366 (United States); Hanappe, F. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Bruxelles (Belgium); Piot, J.; Schmitt, C. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Trzaska, W. H. [Accelerator Laboratory of University of Jyväskylä (JYFL), Jyväskylä (Finland); Vardaci, E. [Dipartamento di Scienze Fisiche and INFN (INFN-Na), Napoli (Italy)

    2015-02-24

    The reaction {sup 34}S+{sup 186}W at E{sub lab}=160 MeV was investigated with the aim of diving into the features of the fusion-fission process. Gamma rays in coincidence with binary reaction fragments were measured using the high efficiency gamma-ray spectrometer ORGAM at the TANDEM Accelerator facility of I.P.N., Orsay, and the time-of-flight spectrometer for fission fragments (FF) registration CORSET of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR), Dubna. The coupling of the ORGAM and CORSET setups offers the unique opportunity of extracting details for characterizing the fusion-fission process and gives information regarding production of neutron-rich heavy nuclei. The FF–γ coincidence method is of better use then the γ – γ coincidence method when dealing with low statistic measurements and also offers the opportunity to precisely correct the Dopler shift for in-flight emitted gamma rays. Evidence of symmetric and asymmetric fission modes were observed in the mass and TKE distributions, occurring due to shell effects in the fragments. Coincident measurements allow for discrimination between the gamma rays by accepting a specific range within the mass distribution of the reaction products. Details regarding the experimental setup, methods of processing the acquisitioned data and preliminary results are presented.

  15. Barrier distribution from 28Si+154Sm quasielastic scattering: Coupling effects in the fusion process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Gurpreet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Barrier distribution for the 28Si+154Sm system has been extracted from large angle quasielastic scattering measurement to investigate the role of various channel couplings on fusion dynamics. The coupled channel calculations, including the collective excitation of the target and projectile, are observed to reproduce the experimental BD rather well. It seems that the role of neutron transfer, relative to collective excitation, is in fact weak in the 28Si+154Sm system even though it has positive Q-value for neutron transfer channels.

  16. Processing and fusion for human body terahertz dual-band passive image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Li; Shen, Yanchun; Jin, Weiqi; Zhao, Guozhong; Cai, Yi

    2016-11-01

    Compared with microwave, THz has higher resolution, and compared with infrared, THz has better penetrability. Human body radiate THz also, its photon energy is low, it is harmless to human body. So THz has great potential applications in the body searching system. Dual-band images may contain different information for the same scene, so THz dual-band imaging have been a significant research subject of THz technology. Base on the dual-band THz passive imaging system which is composed of a 94GHz and a 250GHz cell detector, this paper researched the preprocessing and fusion algorithm for THz dual-band images. Firstly, THz images have such problems: large noise, low SNR, low contrast, low details. Secondly, the stability problem of the optical mechanical scanning system makes the images less repetitive, obvious stripes and low definition. Aiming at these situations, this paper used the BM3D de-noising algorithm to filter noise and correct the scanning problem. Furthermore, translation, rotation and scaling exist between the two images, after registered by the intensity-base registration algorithm, and enhanced by the adaptive histogram equalization algorithm, the images are fused by image fusion algorithm based on wavelet. This effectively reduced the image noise, scan distortion and matching error, improved the details, enhanced the contrast. It is helpful to improve the detection efficiency of hidden objects too. Method in this paper has a substantial effect for improving the dual-band THz passive imaging system's performance and promoting technology practical.

  17. Muon Catalyzed Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, Edward A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Muon catalyzed fusion is a process in which a negatively charged muon combines with two nuclei of isotopes of hydrogen, e.g, a proton and a deuteron or a deuteron and a triton, to form a muonic molecular ion in which the binding is so tight that nuclear fusion occurs. The muon is normally released after fusion has taken place and so can catalyze further fusions. As the muon has a mean lifetime of 2.2 microseconds, this is the maximum period over which a muon can participate in this process. This article gives an outline of the history of muon catalyzed fusion from 1947, when it was first realised that such a process might occur, to the present day. It includes a description of the contribution that Drachrnan has made to the theory of muon catalyzed fusion and the influence this has had on the author's research.

  18. Process characterization for metal-affinity chromatography of an Fc fusion protein: a design-of-experiments approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, A A; Sorge, L; Boldman, J; Waugh, S

    2001-10-01

    The utility of a design-of-experiments approach was investigated for process characterization of a metal-affinity chromatographic purification process for an Fc fusion protein. This approach gave a better understanding of some of the key process variables as well as robustness for this step in the purification process. Single-variable experiments were employed to screen some of the potentially important variables in this step. Ranges for these variables were set based on prior experience in clinical manufacturing with similar processes. Following these experiments, a fractional factorial study was employed to further investigate the most important variables and their interactions. Key operational variables that had an impact on step yield and eluate purity were identified. In addition, the study helped identify a worst-case scenario for the step purity and helped assure that the rest of the process would successfully purify the product. This paper demonstrates the utility of a design-of-experiments approach for the characterization and validation of process chromatography steps in downstream processing. In addition, this study emphasizes the utility of robustness studies early in process development and establishes a strategy for future robustness studies.

  19. Viral membrane fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Stephen C., E-mail: harrison@crystal.harvard.edu

    2015-05-15

    Membrane fusion is an essential step when enveloped viruses enter cells. Lipid bilayer fusion requires catalysis to overcome a high kinetic barrier; viral fusion proteins are the agents that fulfill this catalytic function. Despite a variety of molecular architectures, these proteins facilitate fusion by essentially the same generic mechanism. Stimulated by a signal associated with arrival at the cell to be infected (e.g., receptor or co-receptor binding, proton binding in an endosome), they undergo a series of conformational changes. A hydrophobic segment (a “fusion loop” or “fusion peptide”) engages the target-cell membrane and collapse of the bridging intermediate thus formed draws the two membranes (virus and cell) together. We know of three structural classes for viral fusion proteins. Structures for both pre- and postfusion conformations of illustrate the beginning and end points of a process that can be probed by single-virion measurements of fusion kinetics. - Highlights: • Viral fusion proteins overcome the high energy barrier to lipid bilayer merger. • Different molecular structures but the same catalytic mechanism. • Review describes properties of three known fusion-protein structural classes. • Single-virion fusion experiments elucidate mechanism.

  20. Fusogenic activity of reconstituted newcastle disease virus envelopes: a role for the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase protein in the fusion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobaleda, C; Muñoz-Barroso, I; Sagrera, A; Villar, E

    2002-04-01

    Enveloped viruses, such as newcastle disease virus (NDV), make their entry into the host cell by membrane fusion. In the case of NDV, the fusion step requires both transmembrane hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) viral envelope glycoproteins. The HN protein should show fusion promotion activity. To date, the nature of HN-F interactions is a controversial issue. In this work, we aim to clarify the role of the HN glycoprotein in the membrane fusion step. Four types of reconstituted detergent-free NDV envelopes were used, on differing in their envelope protein contents. Fusion of the different virosomes and erythrocyte ghosts was monitored using the octadecyl rhodamine B chloride assay. Only the reconstituted envelopes having the F protein, even in the absence of HN protein, displayed residual fusion activity. Treatment of such virosomes with denaturing agents affecting the F protein abolished fusion, indicating that the fusion detected was viral protein-dependent. Interestingly, the rate of fusion in the reconstituted systems was similar to that of intact viruses in the presence of the inhibitor of HN sialidase activity 2,3-dehydro-2-deoxy-N-acetylneuraminic acid. The results show that the residual fusion activity detected in the reconstituted systems was exclusively due to F protein activity, with no contribution from the fusion promotion activity of HN protein.

  1. Application of Quality by Design to the characterization of the cell culture process of an Fc-Fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouiller, Yolande; Solacroup, Thomas; Deparis, Véronique; Barbafieri, Marco; Gleixner, Ralf; Broly, Hervé; Eon-Duval, Alex

    2012-06-01

    The production bioreactor step of an Fc-Fusion protein manufacturing cell culture process was characterized following Quality by Design principles. Using scientific knowledge derived from the literature and process knowledge gathered during development studies and manufacturing to support clinical trials, potential critical and key process parameters with a possible impact on product quality and process performance, respectively, were determined during a risk assessment exercise. The identified process parameters were evaluated using a design of experiment approach. The regression models generated from the data allowed characterizing the impact of the identified process parameters on quality attributes. The main parameters having an impact on product titer were pH and dissolved oxygen, while those having the highest impact on process- and product-related impurities and variants were pH and culture duration. The models derived from characterization studies were used to define the cell culture process design space. The design space limits were set in such a way as to ensure that the drug substance material would consistently have the desired quality.

  2. Image Processing on Geological Data in Vector Format and Multi-Source Spatial Data Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xing; Hu Guangdao; Qiu Yubao

    2003-01-01

    The geological data are constructed in vector format in geographical information system(GIS) while other data such as remote sensing images, geographical data and geochemical data are saved in raster ones. This paper converts the vector data into 8 bit images according to their importance to mineralization each by programming. We can communicate the geological meaning with the raster images by this method. The paper also fuses geographical data and geochemical data with the programmed strata data. The result shows that image fusion can express different intensities effectively and visualize the structure characters in 2 dimensions. Furthermore, it also can produce optimized information from multi-source data and express them more directly.

  3. Overview of processing technologies for tungsten-steel composites and FGMs for fusion applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matějíček Jiří

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten is a prime candidate material for the plasma-facing components in future fusion devices, e.g. ITER and DEMO. Because of the harsh and complex loading conditions and the differences in material properties, joining of the tungsten armor to the underlying construction and/or cooling parts is a complicated issue. To alleviate the thermal stresses at the joint, a sharp interface may be replaced by a gradual one with a smoothly varying composition. In this paper, several techniques for the formation of tungsten-steel composites and graded layers are reviewed. These include plasma spraying, laser cladding, hot pressing and spark plasma sintering. Structure, composition and selected thermal and mechanical properties of representative layers produced by each of these techniques are presented. A summary of advantages and disadvantages of the techniques and an assessment of their suitability for the production of plasma-facing components is provided.

  4. Effect of Process and Post-Process Conditions on the Mechanical Properties of an A357 Alloy Produced via Laser Powder Bed Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberta Aversa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A357 samples were realized by laser powder bed fusion (LPBF on building platforms heated up to different temperatures. The effect of the preheating temperature and of the post processing heat treatment on the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the samples was studied. It was demonstrated that building platform heating can act as an in situ ageing heat treatment following the fast cooling that arises during laser scanning. A 17% higher ultimate tensile strength was achieved by the selection of the optimum building platform temperature. Moreover, the possibility to further increase the mechanical properties by means of a direct ageing heat treatment was investigated.

  5. Analysis of the laser powder bed fusion additive manufacturing process through experimental measurement and finite element modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Alexander Jay

    The objective in this work is to provide rigourous experimental measurements to aid in the development of laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) additive manufacturing (AM). A specialized enclosed instrumented measurement system is designed to provide in situ experimental measurements of temperature and distortion. Experiments include comparisons of process parameters, materials and LPBF machines. In situ measurements of distortion and temperature made throughout the build process highlight inter-layer distortion effects previously undocumented for laser powder bed fusion. Results from these experiments are also be implemented in the development and validation of finite element models of the powder bed build process. Experimental analysis is extended from small-scale to larger part-scale builds where experimental post-build measurements are used in analysis of distortion profiles. Experimental results provided from this study are utilized in the validation of a finite element model capable of simulating production scale parts. The validated finite element model is then implemented in the analysis of the part to provide information regarding the distortion evolution process. A combination of experimental measurements and simulation results are used to identify the mechanism that results in the measured distortion profile for this geometry. Optimization of support structure primarily focuses on the minimization of material use and scan time, but no information regarding failure criteria for support structure is available. Tensile test samples of LPBF built support structure are designed, built, and tested to provide measurements of mechanical properties of the support structure. Experimental tests show that LPBF built support structure has only 30-40% of the ultimate tensile strength of solid material built in the same machine. Experimental measurement of LPBF built support structure provides clear failure criteria to be utilized in the future design and implementation of

  6. Predictive Simulation of Process Windows for Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing: Influence of the Powder Bulk Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Alexander M; Küng, Vera E; Pobel, Christoph; Markl, Matthias; Körner, Carolin

    2017-09-22

    The resulting properties of parts fabricated by powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes are determined by their porosity, local composition, and microstructure. The objective of this work is to examine the influence of the stochastic powder bed on the process window for dense parts by means of numerical simulation. The investigations demonstrate the unique capability of simulating macroscopic domains in the range of millimeters with a mesoscopic approach, which resolves the powder bed and the hydrodynamics of the melt pool. A simulated process window reveals the influence of the stochastic powder layer. The numerical results are verified with an experimental process window for selective electron beam-melted Ti-6Al-4V. Furthermore, the influence of the powder bulk density is investigated numerically. The simulations predict an increase in porosity and surface roughness for samples produced with lower powder bulk densities. Due to its higher probability for unfavorable powder arrangements, the process stability is also decreased. This shrinks the actual parameter range in a process window for producing dense parts.

  7. Predictive Simulation of Process Windows for Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing: Influence of the Powder Bulk Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M. Rausch

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The resulting properties of parts fabricated by powder bed fusion additive manufacturing processes are determined by their porosity, local composition, and microstructure. The objective of this work is to examine the influence of the stochastic powder bed on the process window for dense parts by means of numerical simulation. The investigations demonstrate the unique capability of simulating macroscopic domains in the range of millimeters with a mesoscopic approach, which resolves the powder bed and the hydrodynamics of the melt pool. A simulated process window reveals the influence of the stochastic powder layer. The numerical results are verified with an experimental process window for selective electron beam-melted Ti-6Al-4V. Furthermore, the influence of the powder bulk density is investigated numerically. The simulations predict an increase in porosity and surface roughness for samples produced with lower powder bulk densities. Due to its higher probability for unfavorable powder arrangements, the process stability is also decreased. This shrinks the actual parameter range in a process window for producing dense parts.

  8. Validation of the manufacturing process used to produce long-acting recombinant factor IX Fc fusion protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, J; Osborne, D; Dumont, J; Peters, R; Mei, B; Pierce, G F; Kobayashi, K; Euwart, D

    2014-07-01

    Recombinant factor IX Fc (rFIXFc) fusion protein is the first of a new class of bioengineered long-acting factors approved for the treatment and prevention of bleeding episodes in haemophilia B. The aim of this work was to describe the manufacturing process for rFIXFc, to assess product quality and to evaluate the capacity of the process to remove impurities and viruses. This manufacturing process utilized a transferable and scalable platform approach established for therapeutic antibody manufacturing and adapted for production of the rFIXFc molecule. rFIXFc was produced using a process free of human- and animal-derived raw materials and a host cell line derived from human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293H cells. The process employed multi-step purification and viral clearance processing, including use of a protein A affinity capture chromatography step, which binds to the Fc portion of the rFIXFc molecule with high affinity and specificity, and a 15 nm pore size virus removal nanofilter. Process validation studies were performed to evaluate identity, purity, activity and safety. The manufacturing process produced rFIXFc with consistent product quality and high purity. Impurity clearance validation studies demonstrated robust and reproducible removal of process-related impurities and adventitious viruses. The rFIXFc manufacturing process produces a highly pure product, free of non-human glycan structures. Validation studies demonstrate that this product is produced with consistent quality and purity. In addition, the scalability and transferability of this process are key attributes to ensure consistent and continuous supply of rFIXFc.

  9. The Asian Correction Can Be Quantitatively Forecasted Using a Statistical Model of Fusion-Fission Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Boon Kin; Cheong, Siew Ann

    2016-01-01

    The Global Financial Crisis of 2007-2008 wiped out US$37 trillions across global financial markets, this value is equivalent to the combined GDPs of the United States and the European Union in 2014. The defining moment of this crisis was the failure of Lehman Brothers, which precipitated the October 2008 crash and the Asian Correction (March 2009). Had the Federal Reserve seen these crashes coming, they might have bailed out Lehman Brothers, and prevented the crashes altogether. In this paper, we show that some of these market crashes (like the Asian Correction) can be predicted, if we assume that a large number of adaptive traders employing competing trading strategies. As the number of adherents for some strategies grow, others decline in the constantly changing strategy space. When a strategy group grows into a giant component, trader actions become increasingly correlated and this is reflected in the stock price. The fragmentation of this giant component will leads to a market crash. In this paper, we also derived the mean-field market crash forecast equation based on a model of fusions and fissions in the trading strategy space. By fitting the continuous returns of 20 stocks traded in Singapore Exchange to the market crash forecast equation, we obtain crash predictions ranging from end October 2008 to mid-February 2009, with early warning four to six months prior to the crashes. PMID:27706198

  10. Posterolateral fusion in spondylolisthesis of the lumbosacral segment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Jerez Labrada

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Since centuries ago it has been written about lumbar pain, still its treatment remains enigmatic. At present, all developed spinal surgery institutions use the transpedicular fixation methods, but we lack the right technology for what we use the posterolateral fusion. Objetive: to evaluate the results in the aplicate of the posterolateral fusion in spondylolisthesis of the lumbosacral segment. Methods: A Retrospective-descriptive, correlational, and of a series of cases study, carried out in traumatology and orthopaedics service of the Universitarian Provincial Hospital ¨Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima¨ of Cienfuegos, in which were included the 33 patients with spondylisthesis of the lumbosacral segment, who received inter-transversal posterolateral fusion. All the patients got plain anteroposterior and lateral radiography, including right and left slanting sights, to the doubtful cases dynamic sights with flexion and extension of the trunk were applied. To the patients with signs of radicular irritation, a digitalized axial tomography was applied. Results: The main etiological causes in these patients were the isthmic one, followed by degenerative and dysplastic ones. The posterolateral function was carried out alone or combined with other surgical techniques; to the patients with lumbar pain that also had associated signs of radicular irritation were applied exeresis of posterior arch with release of the endangered roots. The more frequent complication was the recurrent pain, present in 6 patients, followed by granuloma of the surgical wound. Conclusions: In spite of lacking a modern instrumentation system, the problem of spondylolisthesis can be solved with only dominating this traditional technique consistent in posterolateral fixation.

  11. Fusion strategies for selecting multiple tuning parameters for multivariate calibration and other penalty based processes: A model updating application for pharmaceutical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tencate, Alister J; Kalivas, John H; White, Alexander J

    2016-05-19

    New multivariate calibration methods and other processes are being developed that require selection of multiple tuning parameter (penalty) values to form the final model. With one or more tuning parameters, using only one measure of model quality to select final tuning parameter values is not sufficient. Optimization of several model quality measures is challenging. Thus, three fusion ranking methods are investigated for simultaneous assessment of multiple measures of model quality for selecting tuning parameter values. One is a supervised learning fusion rule named sum of ranking differences (SRD). The other two are non-supervised learning processes based on the sum and median operations. The effect of the number of models evaluated on the three fusion rules are also evaluated using three procedures. One procedure uses all models from all possible combinations of the tuning parameters. To reduce the number of models evaluated, an iterative process (only applicable to SRD) is applied and thresholding a model quality measure before applying the fusion rules is also used. A near infrared pharmaceutical data set requiring model updating is used to evaluate the three fusion rules. In this case, calibration of the primary conditions is for the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of tablets produced in a laboratory. The secondary conditions for calibration updating is for tablets produced in the full batch setting. Two model updating processes requiring selection of two unique tuning parameter values are studied. One is based on Tikhonov regularization (TR) and the other is a variation of partial least squares (PLS). The three fusion methods are shown to provide equivalent and acceptable results allowing automatic selection of the tuning parameter values. Best tuning parameter values are selected when model quality measures used with the fusion rules are for the small secondary sample set used to form the updated models. In this model updating situation, evaluation of

  12. Fusion strategies for selecting multiple tuning parameters for multivariate calibration and other penalty based processes: A model updating application for pharmaceutical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tencate, Alister J. [Department of Chemistry, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID 83209 (United States); Kalivas, John H., E-mail: kalijohn@isu.edu [Department of Chemistry, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID 83209 (United States); White, Alexander J. [Department of Physics and Optical Engineering, Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology, Terre Huate, IN 47803 (United States)

    2016-05-19

    New multivariate calibration methods and other processes are being developed that require selection of multiple tuning parameter (penalty) values to form the final model. With one or more tuning parameters, using only one measure of model quality to select final tuning parameter values is not sufficient. Optimization of several model quality measures is challenging. Thus, three fusion ranking methods are investigated for simultaneous assessment of multiple measures of model quality for selecting tuning parameter values. One is a supervised learning fusion rule named sum of ranking differences (SRD). The other two are non-supervised learning processes based on the sum and median operations. The effect of the number of models evaluated on the three fusion rules are also evaluated using three procedures. One procedure uses all models from all possible combinations of the tuning parameters. To reduce the number of models evaluated, an iterative process (only applicable to SRD) is applied and thresholding a model quality measure before applying the fusion rules is also used. A near infrared pharmaceutical data set requiring model updating is used to evaluate the three fusion rules. In this case, calibration of the primary conditions is for the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of tablets produced in a laboratory. The secondary conditions for calibration updating is for tablets produced in the full batch setting. Two model updating processes requiring selection of two unique tuning parameter values are studied. One is based on Tikhonov regularization (TR) and the other is a variation of partial least squares (PLS). The three fusion methods are shown to provide equivalent and acceptable results allowing automatic selection of the tuning parameter values. Best tuning parameter values are selected when model quality measures used with the fusion rules are for the small secondary sample set used to form the updated models. In this model updating situation, evaluation of

  13. Comparison of electron beam and laser beam powder bed fusion additive manufacturing process for high temperature turbine component materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dryepondt, Sebastien N [ORNL; Kirka, Michael M [ORNL; Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Ryan, Daniel [Solar Turbines, Inc.

    2016-04-01

    The evolving 3D printer technology is now at the point where some turbine components could be additive manufactured (AM) for both development and production purposes. However, this will require a significant evaluation program to qualify the process and components to meet current design and quality standards. The goal of the project was to begin characterization of the microstructure and mechanical properties of Nickel Alloy X (Ni-22Cr-18Fe-9Mo) test bars fabricated by powder bed fusion (PBF) AM processes that use either an electron beam (EB) or laser beam (LB) power source. The AM materials produced with the EB and LB processes displayed significant differences in microstructure and resultant mechanical properties. Accordingly, during the design analysis of AM turbine components, the specific mechanical behavior of the material produced with the selected AM process should be considered. Comparison of the mechanical properties of both the EB and LB materials to those of conventionally processed Nickel Alloy X materials indicates the subject AM materials are viable alternatives for manufacture of some turbine components.

  14. Service-oriented architecture of adaptive, intelligent data acquisition and processing systems for long-pulse fusion experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, J. [Grupo de Investigacion en Instrumentacion y Acustica Aplicada. Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Crta. Valencia Km-7 Madrid 28031 (Spain); Ruiz, M., E-mail: mariano.ruiz@upm.e [Grupo de Investigacion en Instrumentacion y Acustica Aplicada. Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Crta. Valencia Km-7 Madrid 28031 (Spain); Barrera, E.; Lopez, J.M.; Arcas, G. de [Grupo de Investigacion en Instrumentacion y Acustica Aplicada. Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Crta. Valencia Km-7 Madrid 28031 (Spain); Vega, J. [Asociacion EURATOM/CIEMAT para Fusion, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    The data acquisition systems used in long-pulse fusion experiments need to implement data reduction and pattern recognition algorithms in real time. In order to accomplish these operations, it is essential to employ software tools that allow for hot swap capabilities throughout the temporal evolution of the experiments. This is very important because processing needs are not equal during different phases of the experiment. The intelligent test and measurement system (ITMS) developed by UPM and CIEMAT is an example of a technology for implementing scalable data acquisition and processing systems based on PXI and CompactPCI hardware. In the ITMS platform, a set of software tools allows the user to define the processing algorithms associated with the different experimental phases using state machines driven by software events. These state machines are specified using the State Chart XML (SCXML) language. The software tools are developed using JAVA, JINI, an SCXML engine and several LabVIEW applications. Within this schema, it is possible to execute data acquisition and processing applications in an adaptive way. The power of SCXML semantics and the ability to work with XML user-defined data types allow for very easy programming of the ITMS platform. With this approach, the ITMS platform is a suitable solution for implementing scalable data acquisition and processing systems based on a service-oriented model with the ability to easily implement remote participation applications.

  15. Individual headless compression screws fixed with three-dimensional image processing technology improves fusion rates of isolated talonavicular arthrodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mei-Ming; Xia, Kang; Zhang, Hong-Xin; Cao, Hong-Hui; Yang, Zhi-Jin; Cui, Hai-Feng; Gao, Shang; Tang, Kang-Lai

    2017-01-23

    Screw fixation is a typical technique for isolated talonavicular arthrodesis (TNA), however, no consensus has been reached on how to select most suitable inserted position and direction. The study aimed to present a new fixation technique and to evaluate the clinical outcome of individual headless compression screws (HCSs) applied with three-dimensional (3D) image processing technology to isolated TNA. From 2007 to 2014, 69 patients underwent isolated TNA by using double Acutrak HCSs. The preoperative three-dimensional (3D) insertion model of double HCSs was applied by Mimics, Catia, and SolidWorks reconstruction software. One HCS oriented antegradely from the edge of dorsal navicular tail where intersected interspace between the first and the second cuneiform into the talus body along the talus axis, and the other one paralleled the first screw oriented from the dorsal-medial navicular where intersected at the medial plane of the first cuneiform. The anteroposterior and lateral X-ray examinations certified that the double HCSs were placed along the longitudinal axis of the talus. Postoperative assessment included the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society hindfoot (AOFAS), the visual analogue scale (VAS) score, satisfaction score, imaging assessments, and complications. At the mean 44-months follow-up, all patients exhibited good articular congruity and solid bone fusion at an average of 11.26 ± 0.85 weeks (range, 10 ~ 13 weeks) without screw loosening, shifting, or breakage. The overall fusion rates were 100%. The average AOFAS score increased from 46.62 ± 4.6 (range, 37 ~ 56) preoperatively to 74.77 ± 5.4 (range, 64-88) at the final follow-up (95% CI: -30.86 ~ -27.34; p < 0.001). The mean VAS score decreased from 7.01 ± 1.2 (range, 4 ~ 9) to 1.93 ± 1.3 (range, 0 ~ 4) (95% CI: 4.69 ~ 5.48; p < 0.001). One cases (1.45%) and three cases (4.35%) experienced wound infection and adjacent arthritis

  16. Search for the Standard Model Higgs Boson via Vector Boson Fusion Production Process in the Di-Tau Channels

    CERN Document Server

    The ATLAS collaboration

    2009-01-01

    We outline a search for the Standard Model Higgs boson decaying into a τ-pair in association with two jets, which is produced dominantly by the Vector Boson Fusion (VBF) process. The results indicate significant potential for a discovery in the low mass range. We consider fully leptonic, semi-leptonic, and, for the first time, fully hadronic tau decays. Mass reconstruction, central-jet veto, and jet tagging are discussed, and we present an approach to estimate the background from the data. Additional emphasis has been given to trigger issues and the impact of pileup. The results are based on an improved detector description, including misalignments, the most recent reconstruction software, and modern Monte Carlo event generators, including a revised prediction of the underlying event activity.

  17. Powder metallurgical processing of self-passivating tungsten alloys for fusion first wall application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López-Ruiz, P.; Ordás, N.; Iturriza, I. [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain); Walter, M.; Gaganidze, E. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Lindig, S.; Koch, F. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany); García-Rosales, C., E-mail: cgrosales@ceit.es [CEIT and Tecnun (University of Navarra), E-20018 San Sebastian (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    Self-passivating tungsten based alloys are expected to provide a major safety advantage compared to pure tungsten, presently the main candidate material for first wall armour of future fusion reactors. In case of a loss of coolant accident with simultaneous air ingress, a protective oxide scale will be formed on the surface of W avoiding the formation of volatile and radioactive WO{sub 3}. Bulk WCr12Ti2.5 alloys were manufactured by mechanical alloying (MA) and hot isostatic pressing (HIP), and their properties compared to bulk WCr10Si10 alloys from previous work. The MA parameters were adjusted to obtain the best balance between lowest possible amount of contaminants and effective alloying of the elemental powders. After HIP, a density >99% is achieved for the WCr12Ti2.5 alloy and a very fine and homogeneous microstructure with grains in the submicron range is obtained. Unlike the WCr10Si10 material, no intergranular ODS phase inhibiting grain growth was detected. The thermal and mechanical properties of the WCr10Si10 material are dominated by the silicide (W,Cr){sub 5}Si{sub 3}; it shows a sharp ductile-to brittle transition in the range 1273–1323 K. The thermal conductivity of the WCr12Ti2.5 alloy is close to 50 W/mK in the temperature range of operation; it exhibits significantly higher strength and lower DBTT – around 1170 K – than the WCr10Si10 material.

  18. Fusion of biological membranes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Katsov; M Müller; M Schick

    2005-06-01

    The process of membrane fusion has been examined by Monte Carlo simulation, and is found to be very different than the conventional picture. The differences in mechanism lead to several predictions, in particular that fusion is accompanied by transient leakage. This prediction has recently been verified. Self-consistent field theory is applied to examine the free energy barriers in the different scenarios.

  19. Improved GSO Optimized ESN Soft-Sensor Model of Flotation Process Based on Multisource Heterogeneous Information Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie-sheng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available For predicting the key technology indicators (concentrate grade and tailings recovery rate of flotation process, an echo state network (ESN based fusion soft-sensor model optimized by the improved glowworm swarm optimization (GSO algorithm is proposed. Firstly, the color feature (saturation and brightness and texture features (angular second moment, sum entropy, inertia moment, etc. based on grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM are adopted to describe the visual characteristics of the flotation froth image. Then the kernel principal component analysis (KPCA method is used to reduce the dimensionality of the high-dimensional input vector composed by the flotation froth image characteristics and process datum and extracts the nonlinear principal components in order to reduce the ESN dimension and network complex. The ESN soft-sensor model of flotation process is optimized by the GSO algorithm with congestion factor. Simulation results show that the model has better generalization and prediction accuracy to meet the online soft-sensor requirements of the real-time control in the flotation process.

  20. Improved GSO optimized ESN soft-sensor model of flotation process based on multisource heterogeneous information fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie-sheng; Han, Shuang; Shen, Na-na

    2014-01-01

    For predicting the key technology indicators (concentrate grade and tailings recovery rate) of flotation process, an echo state network (ESN) based fusion soft-sensor model optimized by the improved glowworm swarm optimization (GSO) algorithm is proposed. Firstly, the color feature (saturation and brightness) and texture features (angular second moment, sum entropy, inertia moment, etc.) based on grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) are adopted to describe the visual characteristics of the flotation froth image. Then the kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) method is used to reduce the dimensionality of the high-dimensional input vector composed by the flotation froth image characteristics and process datum and extracts the nonlinear principal components in order to reduce the ESN dimension and network complex. The ESN soft-sensor model of flotation process is optimized by the GSO algorithm with congestion factor. Simulation results show that the model has better generalization and prediction accuracy to meet the online soft-sensor requirements of the real-time control in the flotation process.

  1. Analysis and control of proteolysis of a fusion protein in Pichia pastoris fed-batch processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahic, Mehmedalija; Gustavsson, Malin; Jansen, Ann-Katrin; Martinelle, Mats; Enfors, Sven-Olof

    2003-04-10

    A fusion protein composed of a cellulose-binding module (CBM) from Neocallimastix patriciarum cellulase 6A and lipase B from Candida antarctica (CALB), was produced by Pichia pastoris Mut(+) in high-cell density bioreactor cultures. The production was induced by switching from growth on glycerol to growth on methanol. The lipase activity in the culture supernatant increased at an almost constant rate up to a value corresponding to 1.3 g x l(-1) of CBM-CALB. However, only about 40% of the product was of full-length according to Western blot analysis. This loss was due to a cleavage of the protein in the linker between the CBM and the CALB moieties. The cleavage was catalyzed by serine proteases in the culture supernatant. The CALB-moiety was subjected to further slow degradation by cell-associated proteolysis. Different strategies were used to reduce the proteolysis. Previous efforts to shorten the linker region resulted in a stable protein but with ten times reduced product concentration in bioreactor cultures (Gustavsson et al. 2001, Protein Eng. 14, 711-715). Addition of rich medium for protease substrate competition had no effect on the proteolysis of CBM-CALB. The kinetics for the proteolytic reactions, with and without presence of cells were shown to be influenced by pH. The fastest reaction, cleavage in the linker, was substantially reduced at pH values below 5.0. Decreasing the pH from 5.0 to 4.0 in bioreactor cultures resulted in an increase of the fraction of full-length product from 40 to 90%. Further improvement was achieved by decreasing the temperature from 30 to 22 degrees C during the methanol feed phase. By combining the optimal pH and the low temperature almost all product (1.5 g x l(-1)) was obtained as full-length protein with a considerably higher purity in the culture supernatant compared with the original cultivation.

  2. Fusion processing of itraconazole solid dispersions by kinetisol dispersing: a comparative study to hot melt extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNunzio, James C; Brough, Chris; Miller, Dave A; Williams, Robert O; McGinity, James W

    2010-03-01

    KinetiSol Dispersing (KSD) is a novel high energy manufacturing process investigated here for the production of pharmaceutical solid dispersions. Solid dispersions of itraconazole (ITZ) and hypromellose were produced by KSD and compared to identical formulations produced by hot melt extrusion (HME). Materials were characterized for solid state properties by modulated differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. Dissolution behavior was studied under supersaturated conditions. Oral bioavailability was determined using a Sprague-Dawley rat model. Results showed that KSD was able to produce amorphous solid dispersions in under 15 s while production by HME required over 300 s. Dispersions produced by KSD exhibited single phase solid state behavior indicated by a single glass transition temperature (T(g)) whereas compositions produced by HME exhibited two T(g)s. Increased dissolution rates for compositions manufactured by KSD were also observed compared to HME processed material. Near complete supersaturation was observed for solid dispersions produced by either manufacturing processes. Oral bioavailability from both processes showed enhanced AUC compared to crystalline ITZ. Based on the results presented from this study, KSD was shown to be a viable manufacturing process for the production of pharmaceutical solid dispersions, providing benefits over conventional techniques including: enhanced mixing for improved homogeneity and reduced processing times.

  3. Osteoclast Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marie Julie Møller, Anaïs; Delaissé, Jean-Marie; Søe, Kent

    2017-01-01

    suggesting that fusion partners may specifically select each other and that heterogeneity between the partners seems to play a role. Therefore, we set out to directly test the hypothesis that fusion factors have a heterogenic involvement at different stages of nuclearity. Therefore, we have analyzed...... on the nuclearity of fusion partners. While CD47 promotes cell fusions involving mono-nucleated pre-osteoclasts, syncytin-1 promotes fusion of two multi-nucleated osteoclasts, but also reduces the number of fusions between mono-nucleated pre-osteoclasts. Furthermore, CD47 seems to mediate fusion mostly through......Investigations addressing the molecular keys of osteoclast fusion are primarily based on end-point analyses. No matter if investigations are performed in vivo or in vitro the impact of a given factor is predominantly analyzed by counting the number of multi-nucleated cells, the number of nuclei per...

  4. Membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    At Stanford University, Boxer lab, I worked on membrane fusion of small unilamellar lipid vesicles to flat membranes tethered to glass surfaces. This geometry closely resembles biological systems in which liposomes fuse to plasma membranes. The fusion mechanism was studied using DNA zippering...... between complementary strands linked to the two apposing membranes closely mimicking the zippering mechanism of SNARE fusion complexes....

  5. Sensor fusion of 2D and 3D data for the processing of images of dental imprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methot, Jean-Francois; Mokhtari, Marielle; Laurendeau, Denis; Poussart, Denis

    1993-08-01

    This paper presents a computer vision system for the acquisition and processing of 3-D images of wax dental imprints. The ultimate goal of the system is to measure a set of 10 orthodontic parameters that will be fed to an expert system for automatic diagnosis of occlusion problems. An approach for the acquisition of range images of both sides of the imprint is presented. Range is obtained from a shape-from-absorption technique applied to a pair of grey-level images obtained at two different wavelengths. The accuracy of the range values is improved using sensor fusion between the initial range image and a reflectance image from the pair of grey-level images. The improved range image is segmented in order to find the interstices between teeth and, following further processing, the type of each tooth on the profile. Once each tooth has been identified, its accurate location on the imprint is found using a region- growing approach and its shape is reconstructed with third degree polynomial functions. The reconstructed shape will be later used by the system to find specific features that are needed to estimate the orthodontic parameters.

  6. Evaluation of a Change Detection Methodology by Means of Binary Thresholding Algorithms and Informational Fusion Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sanchez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Landcover is subject to continuous changes on a wide variety of temporal and spatial scales. Those changes produce significant effects in human and natural activities. Maintaining an updated spatial database with the occurred changes allows a better monitoring of the Earth’s resources and management of the environment. Change detection (CD techniques using images from different sensors, such as satellite imagery, aerial photographs, etc., have proven to be suitable and secure data sources from which updated information can be extracted efficiently, so that changes can also be inventoried and monitored. In this paper, a multisource CD methodology for multiresolution datasets is applied. First, different change indices are processed, then different thresholding algorithms for change/no_change are applied to these indices in order to better estimate the statistical parameters of these categories, finally the indices are integrated into a change detection multisource fusion process, which allows generating a single CD result from several combination of indices. This methodology has been applied to datasets with different spectral and spatial resolution properties. Then, the obtained results are evaluated by means of a quality control analysis, as well as with complementary graphical representations. The suggested methodology has also been proved efficiently for identifying the change detection index with the higher contribution.

  7. Kinetic timing: a novel mechanism that improves the accuracy of GTPase timers in endosome fusion and other biological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangpu; Qian, Hong

    2002-04-01

    The GTPase superfamily contains a large number of proteins that function as molecular switches by binding and hydrolyzing GTP molecules. They are localized at various intracellular organelles and control diverse cellular processes. For many GTPases, the lifetime of the activated, GTP-bound state is believed to serve as a timer in determining the activation time of a biological event such as membrane fusion and signal transduction. However, such a timer is intrinsically stochastic due to thermal noise at the level of single GTPase molecules. Here, we describe a mathematical model that shows how a directional GTPase cycle, in a nonequilibrium steady-state driven by GTP hydrolysis, can significantly reduce the variance in the lifetime of an activated GTPase molecule and thereby increase the accuracy and efficiency of the timer. This mechanism, termed kinetic timing, articulates a clear function for the energy consumption in GTPase-controlled biological processes. It provides a rationale for why biological timers utilize a GTP hydrolysis cycle rather than a simple GTP binding-dissociation equilibrium, and why the GTP-bound state is a better timer than the GDP-bound state. It also explains the necessity for the existence of multiple GTP-bound intermediates identified by fluorescence spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance studies.

  8. Laser-Driven Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the present status and future prospects of laser-driven fusion. Current research (which is classified under three main headings: laser-matter interaction processes, compression, and laser development) is also presented. (HM)

  9. Fusion rings and fusion ideals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Bak

    by the so-called fusion ideals. The fusion rings of Wess-Zumino-Witten models have been widely studied and are well understood in terms of precise combinatorial descriptions and explicit generating sets of the fusion ideals. They also appear in another, more general, setting via tilting modules for quantum...

  10. Role of neutron transfer processes on the 6Li+120Sn and 7Li+119Sn fusion reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fisichella M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The results concerning the study of 6Li+120Sn and 7Li+119Sn systems are presented. These two sistems are characterised by very similar structures of the interacting nuclei and by different Q-value for one-and two- neutron transfer. Our aim is to disentangle the possible effects due to the different n-transfer Q-values, at sub-barriers energies, by comparing the two fusion excitation function. In these experiments the fusion cross section has been measured by using a stack activation technique. No particular differences in the two fusion excitation functions have been observed.

  11. Fusion neutronics

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Yican

    2017-01-01

    This book provides a systematic and comprehensive introduction to fusion neutronics, covering all key topics from the fundamental theories and methodologies, as well as a wide range of fusion system designs and experiments. It is the first-ever book focusing on the subject of fusion neutronics research. Compared with other nuclear devices such as fission reactors and accelerators, fusion systems are normally characterized by their complex geometry and nuclear physics, which entail new challenges for neutronics such as complicated modeling, deep penetration, low simulation efficiency, multi-physics coupling, etc. The book focuses on the neutronics characteristics of fusion systems and introduces a series of theories and methodologies that were developed to address the challenges of fusion neutronics, and which have since been widely applied all over the world. Further, it introduces readers to neutronics design’s unique principles and procedures, experimental methodologies and technologies for fusion systems...

  12. An important effect of filamentation instability on laser fusion physical processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zunqi; Lin; Anle; Lei; Wei; Fan; Shenlei; Zhou; Li; Wang

    2013-01-01

    The process of high power laser interaction with the large scale length corona plasma produced by the leading edge of the laser pulse has been investigated. Early experimental results are re-analyzed and conclusions drawn. In particular,studies of the close connection of unstable filamentation instability with – mainly – two-plasmon decay and – partly –stimulated Raman scattering, stimulated Brillouin scattering, and resonance absorption are carried out in this paper. The positive and negative effects of filamentation instability are also discussed.

  13. 敏捷开发过程与CMMI实施融合研究%Research on Fusion of Agile Development Process and CMMI Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐俊; 彭章纲

    2011-01-01

    Introduces the basic characteristics of agile development process, compares the differences of agile development and traditional project management, puts forward the fusion strategies agile development processes and the CMMI implementation.%介绍敏捷开发过程的基本特征,比较敏捷开发与传统项目管理之间的差别,提出敏捷开发过程与CMMI实施的融合策略。

  14. Low energy molecule-surface interaction processes of relevance to next-generation fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snowdon, K.J.; Tawara, H.

    1996-03-01

    The mechanisms which may lead to molecular release or scattering from surfaces exposed to low energy (0.1-100 eV) particle irradiation or photon and electron irradiation are summarized. The charge and electronic state, angular, translational and internal energies of the departing molecules are, where possible, described and the physical origin of the characteristics of each distribution explained. On the basis of our current understanding of these surface processes, we argue for the use of medium- to high-Z metal surfaces in plasma facing components of the gas-blanket type divertor recently proposed for ITER. By operating such surfaces at sufficiently elevated temperatures, the release of highly vibrationally excited hydrogen molecules via Eley-Rideal-like surface recombination reactions could be suppressed. (author). 73 refs.

  15. Narrow-band processing and fusion approach for explosive hazard detection in FLGPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Timothy C.; Keller, James M.; Ho, K. C.; Ton, Tuan T.; Wong, David C.; Soumekh, Mehrdad

    2011-06-01

    This paper proposes an effective anomaly detection algorithm for a forward-looking ground-penetrating radar(FLGPR). One challenge for threat detection using FLGPR is its high dynamic range in response to different kinds of targets and clutter objects. The application of a fixed threshold for detection in a full-band radar image often yields a large number of false alarms. We propose a method that uses both narrow-band and full-band radar processing, coupled with a classifier that uses complex-valued Gabor filter responses as the features. We then fuse the narrow-band and fullband images into a composite confidence map and detect local maxima in this map to produce candidate alarm locations. Full-band radar images provide a high degree of image resolution, while narrow-band images provide a means to detect targets which have a unique narrow-band signature. Experimental results for our improved detection techniques are demonstrated on data sets collected at a US Army test site.

  16. Integrated cell and process engineering for improved transient production of a "difficult-to-express" fusion protein by CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Yusuf B; Estes, Scott D; Alves, Christina S; Sinacore, Marty S; James, David C

    2015-12-01

    Based on an optimized electroporation protocol, we designed a rapid, milliliter-scale diagnostic transient production assay to identify limitations in the ability of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells to produce a model "difficult-to-express" homodimeric Fc-fusion protein, Sp35Fc, that exhibited very low volumetric titer and intracellular formation of disulfide-bonded oligomeric aggregates post-transfection. As expression of Sp35Fc induced an unfolded protein response in transfected host cells, we utilized the transient assay to compare, in parallel, multiple functionally diverse strategies to engineer intracellular processing of Sp35Fc in order to increase production and reduce aggregation as two discrete design objectives. Specifically, we compared the effect of (i) co-expression of ER-resident molecular chaperones (BiP, PDI, CypB) or active forms of UPR transactivators (ATF6c, XBP1s) at varying recombinant gene load, (ii) addition of small molecules known to act as chemical chaperones (PBA, DMSO, glycerol, betaine, TMAO) or modulate UPR signaling (PERK inhibitor GSK2606414) at varying concentration, (iii) a reduction in culture temperature to 32°C. Using this information, we designed a biphasic, Sp35Fc-specific transient manufacturing process mediated by lipofection that utilized CypB co-expression at an optimal Sp35Fc:CypB gene ratio of 5:1 to initially maximize transfected cell proliferation, followed by addition of a combination of PBA (0.5 mM) and glycerol (1% v/v) at the onset of stationary phase to maximize cell specific production and eliminate Sp35Fc aggregation. Using this optimal, engineered process transient Sp35Fc production was significantly increased sixfold over a 12 day production process with no evidence of disulfide-bonded aggregates. Finally, transient production in clonally derived sub-populations (derived from parental CHO host) screened for a heritably improved capability to produce Sp35Fc was also significantly improved by the optimized

  17. Controlled fusion and plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2006-01-01

    Resulting from ongoing, international research into fusion processes, the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor (ITER) is a major step in the quest for a new energy source.The first graduate-level text to cover the details of ITER, Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics introduces various aspects and issues of recent fusion research activities through the shortest access path. The distinguished author breaks down the topic by first dealing with fusion and then concentrating on the more complex subject of plasma physics. The book begins with the basics of controlled fusion research, foll

  18. Remote sensing image fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Alparone, Luciano; Baronti, Stefano; Garzelli, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    A synthesis of more than ten years of experience, Remote Sensing Image Fusion covers methods specifically designed for remote sensing imagery. The authors supply a comprehensive classification system and rigorous mathematical description of advanced and state-of-the-art methods for pansharpening of multispectral images, fusion of hyperspectral and panchromatic images, and fusion of data from heterogeneous sensors such as optical and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images and integration of thermal and visible/near-infrared images. They also explore new trends of signal/image processing, such as

  19. Non-Gaussian fluctuations and non-Markovian effects in the nuclear fusion process: Langevin dynamics emerging from quantum molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Kai; Sakata, Fumihiko; Li, Zhu-Xia; Wu, Xi-Zhen; Zhang, Ying-Xun; Zhou, Shan-Gui

    2013-07-05

    Macroscopic parameters as well as precise information on the random force characterizing the Langevin-type description of the nuclear fusion process around the Coulomb barrier are extracted from the microscopic dynamics of individual nucleons by exploiting the numerical simulation of the improved quantum molecular dynamics. It turns out that the dissipation dynamics of the relative motion between two fusing nuclei is caused by a non-Gaussian distribution of the random force. We find that the friction coefficient as well as the time correlation function of the random force takes particularly large values in a region a little bit inside of the Coulomb barrier. A clear non-Markovian effect is observed in the time correlation function of the random force. It is further shown that an emergent dynamics of the fusion process can be described by the generalized Langevin equation with memory effects by appropriately incorporating the microscopic information of individual nucleons through the random force and its time correlation function.

  20. Synthesis and decay process of superheavy nuclei with Z=119-122 via hot-fusion reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghahramany, N.; Ansari, A. [Shiraz University, Department of Physics and Biruni Observatory, College of Science, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    In this research article attempts have been made to calculate the superheavy-nuclei synthesis characteristics including, the potential energy parameters, fusion probability, fusion and evaporation residue (ER) cross sections as well as, decay properties of compound nucleus and the residue nuclei formation probability for elements with Z=119-122 by using the hot-fusion reactions. It is concluded that, although a selection of double magic projectiles such as {sup 48}Ca with high binding energy, simplifies the calculations significantly due to spherical symmetric shape of the projectile, resulting in high evaporation residue cross section, unfortunately, nuclei with Z > 98 do not exist in quantities sufficient for constructing targets for the hot-fusion reactions. Therefore, practically our selection is fusion reactions with titanium projectile because the mass production of target nuclei for experimental purposes is more feasible. Based upon our findings, it is necessary, for new superheavy-nuclei production with Z > 119, to use neutron-rich projectiles and target nuclei. Finally, the maximal evaporation residue cross sections for the synthesis of superheavy elements with Z=119-122 have been calculated and compared with the previously founded ones in the literature. (orig.)

  1. Synthesis and decay process of superheavy nuclei with Z=119-122 via hot-fusion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahramany, N.; Ansari, A.

    2016-09-01

    In this research article attempts have been made to calculate the superheavy-nuclei synthesis characteristics including, the potential energy parameters, fusion probability, fusion and evaporation residue (ER) cross sections as well as, decay properties of compound nucleus and the residue nuclei formation probability for elements with Z=119-122 by using the hot-fusion reactions. It is concluded that, although a selection of double magic projectiles such as 48Ca with high binding energy, simplifies the calculations significantly due to spherical symmetric shape of the projectile, resulting in high evaporation residue cross section, unfortunately, nuclei with Z > 98 do not exist in quantities sufficient for constructing targets for the hot-fusion reactions. Therefore, practically our selection is fusion reactions with titanium projectile because the mass production of target nuclei for experimental purposes is more feasible. Based upon our findings, it is necessary, for new superheavy-nuclei production with Z > 119, to use neutron-rich projectiles and target nuclei. Finally, the maximal evaporation residue cross sections for the synthesis of superheavy elements with Z=119-122 have been calculated and compared with the previously founded ones in the literature.

  2. Digital three-dimensional image fusion processes for planning and evaluating orthodontics and orthognathic surgery. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plooij, Joanneke M; Maal, Thomas J J; Haers, Piet; Borstlap, Wilfred A; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie; Bergé, Stefaan J

    2011-04-01

    The three important tissue groups in orthognathic surgery (facial soft tissues, facial skeleton and dentition) can be referred to as a triad. This triad plays a decisive role in planning orthognathic surgery. Technological developments have led to the development of different three-dimensional (3D) technologies such as multiplanar CT and MRI scanning, 3D photography modalities and surface scanning. An objective method to predict surgical and orthodontic outcome should be established based on the integration of structural (soft tissue envelope, facial skeleton and dentition) and photographic 3D images. None of the craniofacial imaging techniques can capture the complete triad with optimal quality. This can only be achieved by 'image fusion' of different imaging techniques to create a 3D virtual head that can display all triad elements. A systematic search of current literature on image fusion in the craniofacial area was performed. 15 articles were found describing 3D digital image fusion models of two or more different imaging techniques for orthodontics and orthognathic surgery. From these articles it is concluded, that image fusion and especially the 3D virtual head are accurate and realistic tools for documentation, analysis, treatment planning and long term follow up. This may provide an accurate and realistic prediction model.

  3. Maltose-binding protein enhances secretion of recombinant human granzyme B accompanied by in vivo processing of a precursor MBP fusion protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Dälken

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The apoptosis-inducing serine protease granzyme B (GrB is an important factor contributing to lysis of target cells by cytotoxic lymphocytes. Expression of enzymatically active GrB in recombinant form is a prerequisite for functional analysis and application of GrB for therapeutic purposes. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We investigated the influence of bacterial maltose-binding protein (MBP fused to GrB via a synthetic furin recognition motif on the expression of the MBP fusion protein also containing an N-terminal α-factor signal peptide in the yeast Pichia pastoris. MBP markedly enhanced the amount of GrB secreted into culture supernatant, which was not the case when GrB was fused to GST. MBP-GrB fusion protein was cleaved during secretion by an endogenous furin-like proteolytic activity in vivo, liberating enzymatically active GrB without the need of subsequent in vitro processing. Similar results were obtained upon expression of a recombinant fragment of the ErbB2/HER2 receptor protein or GST as MBP fusions. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that combination of MBP as a solubility enhancer with specific in vivo cleavage augments secretion of processed and functionally active proteins from yeast. This strategy may be generally applicable to improve folding and increase yields of recombinant proteins.

  4. Sensoring Fusion Data from the Optic and Acoustic Emissions of Electric Arcs in the GMAW-S Process for Welding Quality Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eber Huanca Cayo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study shows the relationship between welding quality and optical-acoustic emissions from electric arcs, during welding runs, in the GMAW-S process. Bead on plate welding tests was carried out with pre-set parameters chosen from manufacturing standards. During the welding runs interferences were induced on the welding path using paint, grease or gas faults. In each welding run arc voltage, welding current, infrared and acoustic emission values were acquired and parameters such as arc power, acoustic peaks rate and infrared radiation rate computed. Data fusion algorithms were developed by assessing known welding quality parameters from arc emissions. These algorithms have showed better responses when they are based on more than just one sensor. Finally, it was concluded that there is a close relation between arc emissions and quality in welding and it can be measured from arc emissions sensing and data fusion algorithms.

  5. Sensoring fusion data from the optic and acoustic emissions of electric arcs in the GMAW-S process for welding quality assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfaro, Sadek Crisóstomo Absi; Cayo, Eber Huanca

    2012-01-01

    The present study shows the relationship between welding quality and optical-acoustic emissions from electric arcs, during welding runs, in the GMAW-S process. Bead on plate welding tests was carried out with pre-set parameters chosen from manufacturing standards. During the welding runs interferences were induced on the welding path using paint, grease or gas faults. In each welding run arc voltage, welding current, infrared and acoustic emission values were acquired and parameters such as arc power, acoustic peaks rate and infrared radiation rate computed. Data fusion algorithms were developed by assessing known welding quality parameters from arc emissions. These algorithms have showed better responses when they are based on more than just one sensor. Finally, it was concluded that there is a close relation between arc emissions and quality in welding and it can be measured from arc emissions sensing and data fusion algorithms.

  6. Low-energy (anti)neutrino physics with Borexino: Neutrinos from the primary proton-proton fusion process in the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Mosteiro, P; Benziger, J; Bick, D; Bonfini, G; Bravo, D; Caccianiga, B; Cadonati, L; Calaprice, F; Caminata, A; Cavalcante, P; Chavarria, A; Chepurnov, A; D'Angelo, D; Davini, S; Derbin, A; Empl, A; Etenko, A; Fomenko, K; Franco, D; Gabriele, F; Galbiati, C; Gazzana, S; Ghiano, C; Giammarchi, M; Goeger-Neff, M; Goretti, A; Gromov, M; Hagner, C; Hungerford, E; Ianni, Al; Ianni, An; Kobychev, V; Korablev, D; Korga, G; Kryn, D; Laubenstein, M; Lehnert, B; Lewke, T; Litvinovich, E; Lombardi, F; Lombardi, P; Ludhova, L; Lukyanchenko, G; Machulin, I; Manecki, S; Maneschg, W; Marcocci, S; Meindl, Q; Meroni, E; Meyer, M; Miramonti, L; Misiaszek, M; Montuschi, M; Muratova, V; Oberauer, L; Obolensky, M; Ortica, F; Otis, K; Pallavicini, M; Papp, L; Perasso, L; Pocar, A; Ranucci, G; Razeto, A; Re, A; Romani, A; Rossi, N; Saldanha, R; Salvo, C; Schoenert, S; Simgen, H; Skorokhvatov, M; Smirnov, O; Sotnikov, A; Sukhotin, S; Suvorov, Y; Tartaglia, R; Testera, G; Vignaud, D; Vogelaar, R B; von Feilitzsch, F; Wang, H; Winter, J; Wojcik, M; Wright, A; Wurm, M; Zaimidoroga, O; Zavatarelli, S; Zuber, K; Zuzel, G

    2015-01-01

    The Sun is fueled by a series of nuclear reactions that produce the energy that makes it shine. The primary reaction is the fusion of two protons into a deuteron, a positron and a neutrino. These neutrinos constitute the vast majority of neutrinos reaching Earth, providing us with key information about what goes on at the core of our star. Several experiments have now confirmed the observation of neutrino oscillations by detecting neutrinos from secondary nuclear processes in the Sun; this is the first direct spectral measurement of the neutrinos from the keystone proton-proton fusion. This observation is a crucial step towards the completion of the spectroscopy of pp-chain neutrinos, as well as further validation of the LMA-MSW model of neutrino oscillations.

  7. The elementary fusion modalities of osteoclasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søe, Kent; Hobolt-Pedersen, Anne-Sofie; Delaisse, Jean-Marie

    2015-01-01

    , are not known for the osteoclast. Here we show that osteoclast fusion partners are characterized by differences in mobility, nuclearity, and differentiation level. Our demonstration was based on time-laps videos of human osteoclast preparations from three donors where 656 fusion events were analyzed. Fusions......The last step of the osteoclast differentiation process is cell fusion. Most efforts to understand the fusion mechanism have focused on the identification of molecules involved in the fusion process. Surprisingly, the basic fusion modalities, which are well known for fusion of other cell types...... between a mobile and an immobile partner were most frequent (62%), while fusion between two mobile (26%) or two immobile partners (12%) was less frequent (pfusion partner contained more nuclei than the mobile one (p

  8. Cold fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Suk Yong; Sung, Ki Woong; Kang, Joo Sang; Lee, Jong Jik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-02-01

    So called `cold fusion phenomena` are not confirmed yet. Excess heat generation is very delicate one. Neutron generation is most reliable results, however, the records are erratic and the same results could not be repeated. So there is no reason to exclude the malfunction of testing instruments. The same arguments arise in recording {sup 4}He, {sup 3}He, {sup 3}H, which are not rich in quantity basically. An experiment where plenty of {sup 4}He were recorded is attached in appendix. The problem is that we are trying to search cold fusion which is permitted by nature or not. The famous tunneling effect in quantum mechanics will answer it, however, the most fusion rate is known to be negligible. The focus of this project is on the theme that how to increase that negligible fusion rate. 6 figs, 4 tabs, 1512 refs. (Author).

  9. Spinal Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... results in predictable healing. Autograft is currently the “gold standard” source of bone for a fusion. The ... pump. With this technique, the patient presses a button that delivers a predetermined amount of narcotic pain ...

  10. Graphical Geometric and Learning/Optimization-Based Methods in Statistical Signal and Image Processing Object Recognition and Data Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    models is computationally intractable). Applications ranging from hyperspectral data analysis to multimodal fusion for object classification will... CLASSIFICATION I18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 20. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT OR REPORT ON THIS PAGE OF ABSTRACT UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED...from complex signals in an unsupervised learning context. The principle we have adopted in this and in our other work in this area is that of maximizing

  11. Multi-layered nanoparticles for penetrating the endosome and nuclear membrane via a step-wise membrane fusion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, Hidetaka; Kudo, Asako; Minoura, Arisa; Yamaguti, Masaya; Khalil, Ikramy A; Moriguchi, Rumiko; Masuda, Tomoya; Danev, Radostin; Nagayama, Kuniaki; Kogure, Kentaro; Harashima, Hideyoshi

    2009-05-01

    Efficient targeting of DNA to the nucleus is a prerequisite for effective gene therapy. The gene-delivery vehicle must penetrate through the plasma membrane, and the DNA-impermeable double-membraned nuclear envelope, and deposit its DNA cargo in a form ready for transcription. Here we introduce a concept for overcoming intracellular membrane barriers that involves step-wise membrane fusion. To achieve this, a nanotechnology was developed that creates a multi-layered nanoparticle, which we refer to as a Tetra-lamellar Multi-functional Envelope-type Nano Device (T-MEND). The critical structural elements of the T-MEND are a DNA-polycation condensed core coated with two nuclear membrane-fusogenic inner envelopes and two endosome-fusogenic outer envelopes, which are shed in stepwise fashion. A double-lamellar membrane structure is required for nuclear delivery via the stepwise fusion of double layered nuclear membrane structure. Intracellular membrane fusions to endosomes and nuclear membranes were verified by spectral imaging of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between donor and acceptor fluorophores that had been dually labeled on the liposome surface. Coating the core with the minimum number of nucleus-fusogenic lipid envelopes (i.e., 2) is essential to facilitate transcription. As a result, the T-MEND achieves dramatic levels of transgene expression in non-dividing cells.

  12. Myoblast fusion in Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haralalka, Shruti [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Abmayr, Susan M., E-mail: sma@stowers.org [Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, MO 66160 (United States)

    2010-11-01

    The body wall musculature of a Drosophila larva is composed of an intricate pattern of 30 segmentally repeated muscle fibers in each abdominal hemisegment. Each muscle fiber has unique spatial and behavioral characteristics that include its location, orientation, epidermal attachment, size and pattern of innervation. Many, if not all, of these properties are dictated by founder cells, which determine the muscle pattern and seed the fusion process. Myofibers are then derived from fusion between a specific founder cell and several fusion competent myoblasts (FCMs) fusing with as few as 3-5 FCMs in the small muscles on the most ventral side of the embryo and as many as 30 FCMs in the larger muscles on the dorsal side of the embryo. The focus of the present review is the formation of the larval muscles in the developing embryo, summarizing the major issues and players in this process. We have attempted to emphasize experimentally-validated details of the mechanism of myoblast fusion and distinguish these from the theoretically possible details that have not yet been confirmed experimentally. We also direct the interested reader to other recent reviews that discuss myoblast fusion in Drosophila, each with their own perspective on the process . With apologies, we use gene nomenclature as specified by Flybase (http://flybase.org) but provide Table 1 with alternative names and references.

  13. Use of capillary electrophoresis-sodium dodecyl sulfate to monitor disulfide scrambled forms of an Fc fusion protein during purification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hapuarachchi, Suminda; Fodor, Szilan; Apostol, Izydor; Huang, Gang

    2011-07-15

    Overexpression of recombinant Fc fusion proteins in Escherichia coli frequently results in the production of inclusion bodies that are subsequently used to produce fully functional protein by an in vitro refolding process. During the refolding step, misfolded proteins such as disulfide scrambled forms can be formed, and purification steps are used to remove these product-related impurities to produce highly purified therapeutic proteins. A variety of analytical methods are commonly used to monitor protein variants throughout the purification process. Capillary electrophoresis (CE)-based techniques are gaining popularity for such applications. In this work, we used a nonreduced capillary electrophoresis-sodium dodecyl sulfate (nrCE-SDS) method for the analysis of disulfide scrambled forms in a fusion protein. Under denatured nonreduced conditions, an extra post-shoulder peak was observed at all purification steps. Detailed characterization revealed that the peak was related to the disulfide scrambled forms and was isobaric with the correctly folded product. In addition, when sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) was used during the CE-SDS peak characterization, we observed that the migration order of scrambled forms is reversed on CE-SDS versus SDS-PAGE. This illustrates the importance of establishing proper correlation of these two techniques when they are used interchangeably to guide the purification process and to characterize proteins.

  14. UV-visible-DAD and 1H-NMR spectroscopy data fusion for studying the photodegradation process of azo-dyes using MCR-ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Cristina; Pilar Callao, M; Larrechi, M Soledad

    2013-12-15

    The photodegradation process of three azo-dyes - Acid Orange 61, Acid Red 97 and Acid Brown 425 - was monitored simultaneously by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy with diode array detector (UV-vis-DAD) and (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H-NMR). Multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) was applied to obtain the concentration and spectral profile of the chemical compounds involved in the process. The analysis of the H-NMR data suggests there are more intermediate compounds than those obtained with the UV-vis-DAD data. The fusion of UV-vis-DAD and the (1)H-NMR signal before the multivariate analysis provides better results than when only one of the two detector signals was used. It was concluded that three degradation products were present in the medium when the three azo-dyes had practically degraded. This study is the first application of UV-vis-DAD and (1)H-NMR spectroscopy data fusion in this field and illustrates its potential as a quick method for evaluating the evolution of the azo-dye photodegradation process. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Measurement of neutrino flux from the primary proton--proton fusion process in the Sun with Borexino detector

    OpenAIRE

    Smirnov, O. Y.; Agostini, M.; Appel, S; Bellini, G; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Choi, K; D'Angelo, D.

    2015-01-01

    Neutrino produced in a chain of nuclear reactions in the Sun starting from the fusion of two protons, for the first time has been detected in a real-time detector in spectrometric mode. The unique properties of the Borexino detector provided an oppurtunity to disentangle pp-neutrino spectrum from the background components. A comparison of the total neutrino flux from the Sun with Solar luminosity in photons provides a test of the stability of the Sun on the 10$^{5}$ years time scale, and sets...

  16. High Level Information Fusion (HLIF) with nested fusion loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Fischer, Amber

    2013-05-01

    Situation modeling and threat prediction require higher levels of data fusion in order to provide actionable information. Beyond the sensor data and sources the analyst has access to, the use of out-sourced and re-sourced data is becoming common. Through the years, some common frameworks have emerged for dealing with information fusion—perhaps the most ubiquitous being the JDL Data Fusion Group and their initial 4-level data fusion model. Since these initial developments, numerous models of information fusion have emerged, hoping to better capture the human-centric process of data analyses within a machine-centric framework. 21st Century Systems, Inc. has developed Fusion with Uncertainty Reasoning using Nested Assessment Characterizer Elements (FURNACE) to address challenges of high level information fusion and handle bias, ambiguity, and uncertainty (BAU) for Situation Modeling, Threat Modeling, and Threat Prediction. It combines JDL fusion levels with nested fusion loops and state-of-the-art data reasoning. Initial research has shown that FURNACE is able to reduce BAU and improve the fusion process by allowing high level information fusion (HLIF) to affect lower levels without the double counting of information or other biasing issues. The initial FURNACE project was focused on the underlying algorithms to produce a fusion system able to handle BAU and repurposed data in a cohesive manner. FURNACE supports analyst's efforts to develop situation models, threat models, and threat predictions to increase situational awareness of the battlespace. FURNACE will not only revolutionize the military intelligence realm, but also benefit the larger homeland defense, law enforcement, and business intelligence markets.

  17. The pair production of Charged and Neutral Higgs bosons in W and Z gauge boson fusion process

    CERN Document Server

    Morozumi, Takuya

    2012-01-01

    We study the signatures of a two Higgs doublet model of Davidson and Logan. The model includes an extra Higgs doublet with the vacuum expectation value (VEV) much smaller than the one of the standard model like Higgs. The smaller VEV is related to the origin of the small neutrino mass in the two Higgs doublet model. In the model, a single non-standard model like Higgs production of weak gauge boson fusion is suppressed due to the smallness of the vacuum expectation value. In contrast to the single Higgs production, the cross section of the Higgs pair production due to gauge boson fusion is not suppressed. Using the model, we compute the charged Higgs and neutral Higgs pair production cross section in W Z annihilation channel. In the two Higgs doublet model, the charged Higgs H^+ decays into a pair of the charged anti-lepton and right-handed neutrino. The neutral Higgs boson decays into right-handed neutrino and left-handed anti-neutrino pair which is invisible. A single charged anti-lepton and three neutrinos...

  18. Social representations among university professors affected by a process of academic-administrative fusion. The case of Universidad Autónoma de Entre Ríos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Roxana Vivas

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is to socialize the case study results on the merger of tertiary institutes at Universidad Autónoma de Entre Ríos (Argentina and the faculty’s social representations among the Latin American community. For this study, we follow three theoretical approaches: Burton Clark’s internism, Lidia Fernández’s institutional dynamics and Brown, Delhom, Clark and Lang’s contributions on mergers. Based on 22 focused interviews, a descriptive study was carried out. In order to examine qualitative data, the illustrative mode, through textual excerpts, was combined to the analytical mode, through category building. This allows interpreting the process in the: teaching work structure, fusion-related meanings, dismemberment of identity, modalities and strategies, and the communicative process aspects. A thoroughful study of these personal and institutional processes helps understand conflict generating “black boxes”, thus bringing new elements in to further mergers

  19. Fusion Machinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jakob Balslev; Milosevic, Ira

    2015-01-01

    the vesicular SNARE VAMP2/synaptobrevin-2 and the target (plasma membrane) SNAREs SNAP25 and syntaxin-1 results in fusion and release of neurotransmitter, synchronized to the electrical activity of the cell by calcium influx and binding to synaptotagmin. Formation of the SNARE complex is tightly regulated...... and appears to start with syntaxin-1 bound to an SM (Sec1/Munc18-like) protein. Proteins of the Munc13-family are responsible for opening up syntaxin and allowing sequential binding of SNAP-25 and VAMP2/synaptobrevin-2. N- to C-terminal “zippering” of the SNARE domains leads to membrane fusion...

  20. Atomic data for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A. (eds.); Barnett, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research.

  1. Fusion Welding Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    RD-AlSO 253 FUSION WELDING RESEARCH(U) MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH L/I CAMBRIDGE DEPT OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING T W EAGAR ET AL. 30 RPR 85...NUMBER 12. GOV’ ACCESSION NO. 3. RECICIE-S CATALOG NUMBER 4. T TL V nd Subtitle) S. P OFRPR PERIOD COVERED 5t h A~nnual Technical Report Fusion Welding ...research S on welding processes. Studies include metal vapors in the arc, development of a high speed infrared temperature monitor, digital signal

  2. Peaceful Uses of Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, E.

    1958-07-03

    Applications of thermonuclear energy for peaceful and constructive purposes are surveyed. Developments and problems in the release and control of fusion energy are reviewed. It is pointed out that the future of thermonuclear power reactors will depend upon the construction of a machine that produces more electric energy than it consumes. The fuel for thermonuclear reactors is cheap and practically inexhaustible. Thermonuclear reactors produce less dangerous radioactive materials than fission reactors and, when once brought under control, are not as likely to be subject to dangerous excursions. The interaction of the hot plasma with magnetic fields opens the way for the direct production of electricity. It is possible that explosive fusion energy released underground may be harnessed for the production of electricity before the same feat is accomplished in controlled fusion processes. Applications of underground detonations of fission devices in mining and for the enhancement of oil flow in large low-specific-yield formations are also suggested.

  3. Multi-sensor fusion development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bish, Sheldon; Rohrer, Matthew; Scheffel, Peter; Bennett, Kelly

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) and McQ Inc. are developing a generic sensor fusion architecture that involves several diverse processes working in combination to create a dynamic task-oriented, real-time informational capability. Processes include sensor data collection, persistent and observational data storage, and multimodal and multisensor fusion that includes the flexibility to modify the fusion program rules for each mission. Such a fusion engine lends itself to a diverse set of sensing applications and architectures while using open-source software technologies. In this paper, we describe a fusion engine architecture that combines multimodal and multi-sensor fusion within an Open Standard for Unattended Sensors (OSUS) framework. The modular, plug-and-play architecture of OSUS allows future fusion plugin methodologies to have seamless integration into the fusion architecture at the conceptual and implementation level. Although beyond the scope of this paper, this architecture allows for data and information manipulation and filtering for an array of applications.

  4. Application of the quality by design approach to the drug substance manufacturing process of an Fc fusion protein: towards a global multi-step design space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eon-duval, Alex; Valax, Pascal; Solacroup, Thomas; Broly, Hervé; Gleixner, Ralf; Strat, Claire L E; Sutter, James

    2012-10-01

    The article describes how Quality by Design principles can be applied to the drug substance manufacturing process of an Fc fusion protein. First, the quality attributes of the product were evaluated for their potential impact on safety and efficacy using risk management tools. Similarly, process parameters that have a potential impact on critical quality attributes (CQAs) were also identified through a risk assessment. Critical process parameters were then evaluated for their impact on CQAs, individually and in interaction with each other, using multivariate design of experiment techniques during the process characterisation phase. The global multi-step Design Space, defining operational limits for the entire drug substance manufacturing process so as to ensure that the drug substance quality targets are met, was devised using predictive statistical models developed during the characterisation study. The validity of the global multi-step Design Space was then confirmed by performing the entire process, from cell bank thawing to final drug substance, at its limits during the robustness study: the quality of the final drug substance produced under different conditions was verified against predefined targets. An adaptive strategy was devised whereby the Design Space can be adjusted to the quality of the input material to ensure reliable drug substance quality. Finally, all the data obtained during the process described above, together with data generated during additional validation studies as well as manufacturing data, were used to define the control strategy for the drug substance manufacturing process using a risk assessment methodology.

  5. Plasma Processes : A simple and efficient levitation technique for noncontact coating of inertial confinement fusion targets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K K Mishra; R K Khardekar; Rashmi Chouhan; R K Gupta

    2000-11-01

    A simple and very efficient gas jet levitation technique for levitating inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets has been developed. A low velocity gas jet through diverging nozzle generates precisely controlled low Reynolds number flow pattern, capable of levitating polymer microballoons up to 2500 m diameter. Different shaped diverging nozzle are investigated, satisfactory levitation is achieved with simple conical shapes. With this setup microballoon can be levitated for hours with excellent stability, continuous rotation and at the desired height (reproducible with in less than 100 m). The height of stabilization depends upon cone angle of diverging nozzle and velocity of levitating gas. This technique is very robust and highly insensitive to external disturbances like nonuniform temperature fields and vibrations. This setup is very economical to fabricate, easy to operate and can be used efficiently in various spray coating application involving plastic and metallic layers on microballoons.

  6. Measurement of neutrino flux from the primary proton--proton fusion process in the Sun with Borexino detector

    CERN Document Server

    Smirnov, O Y; Appel, S; Bellini, G; Benziger, J; Bick, D; Bonfini, G; Bravo, D; Caccianiga, B; Calaprice, F; Caminata, A; Cavalcante, P; Chepurnov, A; Choi, K; D'Angelo, D; Davini, S; Derbin, A; Di Noto, L; Drachnev, I; Empl, A; Etenko, A; Fomenko, K; Franco, D; Gabriele, F; Galbiati, C; Ghiano, C; Giammarchi, M; Goeger-Neff, M; Goretti, A; Gromov, M; Hagner, C; Hungerford, E; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jedrzejczak, K; Kaiser, M; Kobychev, V; Korablev, D; Korga, G; Kryn, D; Laubenstein, M; Lehnert, B; Litvinovich, E; Lombardi, F; Lombardi, P; Ludhova, L; Lukyanchenko, G; Machulin, I; Manecki, S; Maneschg, W; Marcocci, S; Meroni, E; Meyer, M; Miramonti, L; Misiaszek, M; Mosteiro, P; Muratova, V; Neumair, B; Oberauer, L; Obolensky, M; Ortica, F; Otis, K; Pagani, L; Pallavicini, M; Papp, L; Perasso, L; Pocar, A; Ranucci, G; Razeto, A; Re, A; Romani, A; Roncin, R; Rossi, N; Schönert, S; Semenov, D; Simgen, H; Skorokhvatov, M; Sotnikov, A; Sukhotin, S; Suvorov, Y; Tartaglia, R; Testera, G; Thurn, J; Toropova, M; Unzhakov, E; Vogelaar, R B; von Feilitzsch, F; Wang, H; Weinz, S; Winter, J; Wojcik, M; Wurm, M; Yokley, Z; Zaimidoroga, O; Zavatarelli, S; Zuber, K; Zuzel, G

    2015-01-01

    Neutrino produced in a chain of nuclear reactions in the Sun starting from the fusion of two protons, for the first time has been detected in a real-time detector in spectrometric mode. The unique properties of the Borexino detector provided an oppurtunity to disentangle pp-neutrino spectrum from the background components. A comparison of the total neutrino flux from the Sun with Solar luminosity in photons provides a test of the stability of the Sun on the 10$^{5}$ years time scale, and sets a strong limit on the power production in the unknown energy sources in the Sun of no more than 4\\% of the total energy production at 90\\% C.L.

  7. Measurement of neutrino flux from the primary proton-proton fusion process in the Sun with Borexino detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, O. Yu.; Agostini, M.; Appel, S.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonfini, G.; Bravo, D.; Caccianiga, B.; Calaprice, F.; Caminata, A.; Cavalcante, P.; Chepurnov, A.; Choi, K.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Di Noto, L.; Drachnev, I.; Empl, A.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Gabriele, F.; Galbiati, C.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Goeger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Gromov, M.; Hagner, C.; Hungerford, E.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Jedrzejczak, K.; Kaiser, M.; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lehnert, B.; Litvinovich, E.; Lombardi, F.; Lombardi, P.; Ludhova, L.; Lukyanchenko, G.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Marcocci, S.; Meroni, E.; Meyer, M.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Neumair, B.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Otis, K.; Pagani, L.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Perasso, L.; Pocar, A.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Roncin, R.; Rossi, N.; Schönert, S.; Semenov, D.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Thurn, J.; Toropova, M.; Unzhakov, E.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Wang, H.; Weinz, S.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Yokley, Z.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2016-11-01

    Neutrino produced in a chain of nuclear reactions in the Sun starting from the fusion of two protons, for the first time has been detected in a real-time detector in spectrometric mode. The unique properties of the Borexino detector provided an oppurtunity to disentangle pp-neutrino spectrum from the background components. A comparison of the total neutrino flux from the Sun with Solar luminosity in photons provides a test of the stability of the Sun on the 105 years time scale, and sets a strong limit on the power production in the unknown energy sources in the Sun of no more than 4% of the total energy production at 90% C.L.

  8. Tension-induced vesicle fusion: pathways and pore dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shillcock, Julian C.

    2008-01-01

    and eventually opens a pore to complete the fusion process. In pathway II, at higher tension, a stalk is formed during the fusion process that is then transformed by transmembrane pore formation into a fusion pore. Whereas the latter pathway II resembles stalk pathways as observed in other simulation studies...... fusion time on membrane tension implies that the fusion process is completed by overcoming two energy barriers with scales of 13kBT and 11kBT. The fusion pore radius as a function of time has also been extracted from the simulations, and provides a quantitative measure of the fusion dynamics which...

  9. 计算机辅助的腰椎单节段融合后邻近节段的力学变化研究%Computer assisted analysis in adjacent segment disease after singe-level lumbar fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫家智; 林欣; 王磊; 崔维; 曾峥

    2011-01-01

    目的 利用有限元分析方法,建立L2-L5多节段腰椎有限元模型,模拟L3-L4后路单节段经椎弓根钉棒固定手术,观察融合后邻近节段L2-L3和L4-L5椎间盘的应力变化.方法 建立A、B、C 3组L2-L5的有限元模型.A组:L3-L4未手术固定,无椎间盘退变;B组:L3-L4手术固定,术前邻近节段无退变;C组:L3-L4手术固定组,术前邻近节段已有退变;在0.3、0.5、1.0、2.0 MPa 4种轴向压力作下,比较各组作为邻近节段的L2-L3椎间盘和L4-L5椎间盘的应力变化.结果 得出A组、B组、C组的L2-L3椎间盘和L4-L5椎间盘最大主应力平均值,经统计学处理结果,L2-L3椎间盘的A组和B组之间在4种受力情况下,应力都无显著性差异,L2-L3椎间盘的A组和C组间及L4-L5椎间盘各组间在4种受力情况下,应力都有显著性差异.结论 单节段后路腰椎固定融合不是引起邻近节段退变的重要原因;但邻近节段的椎间盘如果已经发生退变,则可能是影响形成的重要因素.%Objective To evlutate the biomechanical alterations occuring at the adjacent segment after posterior intertransverse fusion in L3 - L4 segment with the finite element analysis. Methods Three 3D finite element models of the human L2 - L5 segments of Group A, Group B, Group C were established. Group A: uninstrumented fusions, with healthy discs of adjacent segment( L2 - L3, L4 - L5 ), Group B: posterior intertransverse fusion in L3 - L4 segment with healthy discs, GroupC: posterior intertransverse fusion in L3 -L4 segment, with degenerated discs of adjacent segment ( L2 - L3, L4 - L5 ) . The stress on the discs of adjacent segment( L2 - L3, L4 - L5 ) under axial pressure(0.3 MPa, 0.5 MPa, 1.0 MPa, 2.0 MPa) was analysed. Results The stress on the disc L2 - L3 was no statistically significant difficence between Group A and Group B, but there was statistically significant difficence between Group A and Group C;The stress on the disc L3 - L4 was statistically

  10. Processes in massive nuclei reactions and the way to complete fusion of reactants. What perspectives for the synthesis of heavier superheavy elements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandaglio, G.; Nasirov, A. K.; Curciarello, F.; De Leo, V.; Romaniuk, M.; Fazio, G.; Giardina, G.

    2012-12-01

    By using the dinuclear system (DNS) model we determine the capture of reactants at the first stage of reaction, the competition between the DNS decay by the quasifission (QF) and the complete fusion (CF) process up to formation of the compound nucleus (CN) having compact shape. Further evolution of the CN is considered as its fission into two fragments or formation of evaporation residues (ER) by its cooling after emission of neutrons or/and charged light particles. Disappearance of the CN fission barrier due to its fast rotation leads to the fast fission (FF) by formation of fissionlike fragments. The results of calculations for the mass symmetric 136Xe+136Xe reaction, almost mass symmetric 108Mo+144Ba reaction, and mass asymmetric like 24Mg+238U and 34S+248Cm reactions are discussed. The fusion probability PCN calculated for many massive nuclei reactions leading to formation of superheavy nuclei have been analyzed. The reactions which can lead in perspective to the synthesis of superheavy elements in the Z = 120 - 126 range and, eventually, also to heaviest nuclei, are discussed.

  11. Processes in massive nuclei reactions and the way to complete fusion of reactants. What perspectives for the synthesis of heavier superheavy elements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romaniuk M.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available By using the dinuclear system (DNS model we determine the capture of reactants at the first stage of reaction, the competition between the DNS decay by the quasifission (QF and the complete fusion (CF process up to formation of the compound nucleus (CN having compact shape. Further evolution of the CN is considered as its fission into two fragments or formation of evaporation residues (ER by its cooling after emission of neutrons or/and charged light particles. Disappearance of the CN fission barrier due to its fast rotation leads to the fast fission (FF by formation of fissionlike fragments. The results of calculations for the mass symmetric 136Xe+136Xe reaction, almost mass symmetric 108Mo+144Ba reaction, and mass asymmetric like 24Mg+238U and 34S+248Cm reactions are discussed. The fusion probability PCN calculated for many massive nuclei reactions leading to formation of superheavy nuclei have been analyzed. The reactions which can lead in perspective to the synthesis of superheavy elements in the Z = 120 − 126 range and, eventually, also to heaviest nuclei, are discussed.

  12. Magnetic fusion; La fusion magnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This document is a detailed lecture on thermonuclear fusion. The basic physics principles are recalled and the technological choices that have led to tokamaks or stellarators are exposed. Different aspects concerning thermonuclear reactors such as safety, economy and feasibility are discussed. Tore-supra is described in details as well as the ITER project.

  13. Mechanisms of influenza viral membrane fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blijleven, Jelle S; Boonstra, Sander; Onck, Patrick R; van der Giessen, Erik; van Oijen, Antoine M

    2016-12-01

    Influenza viral particles are enveloped by a lipid bilayer. A major step in infection is fusion of the viral and host cellular membranes, a process with large kinetic barriers. Influenza membrane fusion is catalyzed by hemagglutinin (HA), a class I viral fusion protein activated by low pH. The exact nature of the HA conformational changes that deliver the energy required for fusion remains poorly understood. This review summarizes our current knowledge of HA structure and dynamics, describes recent single-particle experiments and modeling studies, and discusses their role in understanding how multiple HAs mediate fusion. These approaches provide a mechanistic picture in which HAs independently and stochastically insert into the target membrane, forming a cluster of HAs that is collectively able to overcome the barrier to membrane fusion. The new experimental and modeling approaches described in this review hold promise for a more complete understanding of other viral fusion systems and the protein systems responsible for cellular fusion.

  14. Intense fusion neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuteev, B. V.; Goncharov, P. R.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Khripunov, V. I.

    2010-04-01

    The review describes physical principles underlying efficient production of free neutrons, up-to-date possibilities and prospects of creating fission and fusion neutron sources with intensities of 1015-1021 neutrons/s, and schemes of production and application of neutrons in fusion-fission hybrid systems. The physical processes and parameters of high-temperature plasmas are considered at which optimal conditions for producing the largest number of fusion neutrons in systems with magnetic and inertial plasma confinement are achieved. The proposed plasma methods for neutron production are compared with other methods based on fusion reactions in nonplasma media, fission reactions, spallation, and muon catalysis. At present, intense neutron fluxes are mainly used in nanotechnology, biotechnology, material science, and military and fundamental research. In the near future (10-20 years), it will be possible to apply high-power neutron sources in fusion-fission hybrid systems for producing hydrogen, electric power, and technological heat, as well as for manufacturing synthetic nuclear fuel and closing the nuclear fuel cycle. Neutron sources with intensities approaching 1020 neutrons/s may radically change the structure of power industry and considerably influence the fundamental and applied science and innovation technologies. Along with utilizing the energy produced in fusion reactions, the achievement of such high neutron intensities may stimulate wide application of subcritical fast nuclear reactors controlled by neutron sources. Superpower neutron sources will allow one to solve many problems of neutron diagnostics, monitor nano-and biological objects, and carry out radiation testing and modification of volumetric properties of materials at the industrial level. Such sources will considerably (up to 100 times) improve the accuracy of neutron physics experiments and will provide a better understanding of the structure of matter, including that of the neutron itself.

  15. Fusion Policy Advisory Committee (FPAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This document is the final report of the Fusion Policy Advisory Committee. The report conveys the Committee's views on the matters specified by the Secretary in his charge and subsequent letters to the Committee, and also satisfies the provisions of Section 7 of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Engineering Act of 1980, Public Law 96-386, which require a triennial review of the conduct of the national Magnetic Fusion Energy program. Three sub-Committee's were established to address the large number of topics associated with fusion research and development. One considered magnetic fusion energy, a second considered inertial fusion energy, and the third considered issues common to both. For many reasons, the promise of nuclear fusion as a safe, environmentally benign, and affordable source of energy is bright. At the present state of knowledge, however, it is uncertain that this promise will become reality. Only a vigorous, well planned and well executed program of research and development will yield the needed information. The Committee recommends that the US commit to a plan that will resolve this critically important issue. It also outlines the first steps in a development process that will lead to a fusion Demonstration Power Plant by 2025. The recommended program is aggressive, but we believe the goal is reasonable and attainable. International collaboration at a significant level is an important element in the plan.

  16. Membrane fusion during poxvirus entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Bernard

    2016-12-01

    Poxviruses comprise a large family of enveloped DNA viruses that infect vertebrates and invertebrates. Poxviruses, unlike most DNA viruses, replicate in the cytoplasm and encode enzymes and other proteins that enable entry, gene expression, genome replication, virion assembly and resistance to host defenses. Entry of vaccinia virus, the prototype member of the family, can occur at the plasma membrane or following endocytosis. Whereas many viruses encode one or two proteins for attachment and membrane fusion, vaccinia virus encodes four proteins for attachment and eleven more for membrane fusion and core entry. The entry-fusion proteins are conserved in all poxviruses and form a complex, known as the Entry Fusion Complex (EFC), which is embedded in the membrane of the mature virion. An additional membrane that encloses the mature virion and is discarded prior to entry is present on an extracellular form of the virus. The EFC is held together by multiple interactions that depend on nine of the eleven proteins. The entry process can be divided into attachment, hemifusion and core entry. All eleven EFC proteins are required for core entry and at least eight for hemifusion. To mediate fusion the virus particle is activated by low pH, which removes one or more fusion repressors that interact with EFC components. Additional EFC-interacting fusion repressors insert into cell membranes and prevent secondary infection. The absence of detailed structural information, except for two attachment proteins and one EFC protein, is delaying efforts to determine the fusion mechanism.

  17. Tame Fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.D. Scott

    2003-01-01

    The first section of this paper covers preliminaries. Essentially, the next four cover units. It is shown that a compatible nearring with DCCR is Nnilpotent if and only if every maximal right N-subgroup is a right ideal. The last five sections relate to fusion (I.e., N-groups minimal for being generated by Nsubgroups, where each is N-isomorphic to a given N-group). Right N-subgroups of a tame nearring N with DCCR, minimal for not annihilating a minimal ideal from the left, are self monogenic and N-isomorphic. That this holds for any collection of minimal ideals is significant. Here, the right N-subgroup involved is a 'fusion product' of the 'components'.

  18. Carpal Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Carpal fusion may be seen in hereditary and nonhereditary conditions such as acrocallosal syndrome,acromegaly, Apert syndrome, arthrogryposis, Carpenter syndrome, chromosomal abnormalities, ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft (EEC) syndrome, the F form of acropectorovertebral dysgenesis or the F syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, Holt-Oram syndrome, Leopard syndrome, multiple synostosis syndrome, oligosyndactyly syndrome, Pfeiffer-like syndrome, scleroderma, split hand and foot malformatio...

  19. Fusion rules of equivariantizations of fusion categories

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We determine the fusion rules of the equivariantization of a fusion category $\\mathcal{C}$ under the action of a finite group $G$ in terms of the fusion rules of $\\mathcal{C}$ and group-theoretical data associated to the group action. As an application we obtain a formula for the fusion rules in an equivariantization of a pointed fusion category in terms of group-theoretical data. This entails a description of the fusion rules in any braided group-theoretical fusion category.

  20. Fusion rules of equivariantizations of fusion categories

    OpenAIRE

    Burciu, Sebastian; Natale, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    We determine the fusion rules of the equivariantization of a fusion category $\\mathcal{C}$ under the action of a finite group $G$ in terms of the fusion rules of $\\mathcal{C}$ and group-theoretical data associated to the group action. As an application we obtain a formula for the fusion rules in an equivariantization of a pointed fusion category in terms of group-theoretical data. This entails a description of the fusion rules in any braided group-theoretical fusion category.

  1. Optimization process for the design of the DCLL blanket for the European DEMOnstration fusion reactor according to its nuclear performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Iole; Rapisarda, David; Fernández-Berceruelo, Iván; Ibarra, Angel

    2017-07-01

    The research study focuses on the neutronic design analysis and optimization of one of the options for a fusion reactor designed as DCLL (dual coolant lithium-lead). The main objective has been to develop an efficient and technologically viable modular DCLL breeding blanket (BB) using the DEMO generic design specifications established within the EUROfusion Programme. The final neutronic design has to satisfy the requirements of: tritium self-sufficiency; BB thermal efficiency; preservation of plasma confinement; temperature limits imposed by materials; and radiation limits to guarantee the largest operational life for all the components. Therefore, a 3D fully heterogeneous DCLL neutronic model has been developed for the DEMO baseline 2014 determining its behaviour under the real operational conditions of the DEMO reactor. Consequent actions have been adopted to improve its performances. Neutronic assessments have specially addressed tritium breeding ratio, multiplication energy factor, power density distributions, damage and shielding responses. The model has then been adapted to the subsequent DEMO baseline 2015 (with a more powerful and bigger plasma, smaller divertor and bigger blanket segments), implying new design choices to improve the reactor nuclear performances.

  2. Dissipative Particle Dynamics of tension-induced membrane fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shillcock, Julian C.

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies of tension-induced membrane fusion using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations are briefly reviewed. The stochastic nature of the fusion process makes it necessary to simulate a large number of fusion attempts in order to obtain reliable fusion statistics and to extract...

  3. Energy Dependence of the Fusion Barrier for Heavy Nuclear Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhu-xia; WUXi-zhen; TIANJun-long; WANGNing

    2003-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of the fusion potential barrier for heavy nuclear systems is studied by means of the improved quantum molecular dynamics model. It is found that the fusion potential barrier experienced in a realistic fusion process (the dynamic fusion potential barrier) reduces with decrease of incident energies.

  4. Laser powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing: Effects of main physical processes on dynamical melt flow and pore formation from mesoscopic powder simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Khairallah, Saad A; Rubenchik, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    There is a need in laser powder-bed fusion of metals to produce high quality parts without pores by better understanding the complex interplay of process parameters. This study considers the main physical phenomena involved in laser powder interactions using a high fidelity three-dimensional mesoscopic simulation model of 316L stainless steel powder. The model emphasizes the importance of the recoil pressure and the Marangoni effect in generating strong dynamical melt flow and the role of radiative and evaporative cooling at capping the maximum surface temperature. The melt track is divided into an indentation, transition and tail end regions, each being the stage of specific physical effects. Pore formation mechanisms are observed at the edge of a scan track, at the melt pool bottom center during collapse of the indentation, and at the end of the melt track during laser power ramp down. Remedies to these undesirable pores are discussed.

  5. Peptides and membrane fusion : Towards an understanding of the molecular mechanism of protein-induced fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pecheur, EI; Sainte-Marie, J; Bienvenue, A; Hoekstra, D

    1999-01-01

    Processes such as endo- or exocytosis, membrane recycling, fertilization and enveloped viruses infection require one or more critical membrane fusion reactions. A key feature in viral and cellular fusion phenomena is the involvement of specific fusion proteins. Among the few well-characterized fusio

  6. Iterative guided image fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Toet

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We propose a multi-scale image fusion scheme based on guided filtering. Guided filtering can effectively reduce noise while preserving detail boundaries. When applied in an iterative mode, guided filtering selectively eliminates small scale details while restoring larger scale edges. The proposed multi-scale image fusion scheme achieves spatial consistency by using guided filtering both at the decomposition and at the recombination stage of the multi-scale fusion process. First, size-selective iterative guided filtering is applied to decompose the source images into approximation and residual layers at multiple spatial scales. Then, frequency-tuned filtering is used to compute saliency maps at successive spatial scales. Next, at each spatial scale binary weighting maps are obtained as the pixelwise maximum of corresponding source saliency maps. Guided filtering of the binary weighting maps with their corresponding source images as guidance images serves to reduce noise and to restore spatial consistency. The final fused image is obtained as the weighted recombination of the individual residual layers and the mean of the approximation layers at the coarsest spatial scale. Application to multiband visual (intensified and thermal infrared imagery demonstrates that the proposed method obtains state-of-the-art performance for the fusion of multispectral nightvision images. The method has a simple implementation and is computationally efficient.

  7. Imaging multiple intermediates of single-virus membrane fusion mediated by distinct fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Kye-Il; Tai, April; Lee, Chi-Lin; Wong, Clement; Wang, Pin

    2010-09-01

    Membrane fusion plays an essential role in the entry of enveloped viruses into target cells. The merging of viral and target cell membranes is catalyzed by viral fusion proteins, which involves multiple sequential steps in the fusion process. However, the fusion mechanisms mediated by different fusion proteins involve multiple transient intermediates that have not been well characterized. Here, we report a synthetic virus platform that allows us to better understand the different fusion mechanisms driven by the diverse types fusion proteins. The platform consists of lentiviral particles coenveloped with a surface antibody, which serves as the binding protein, along with a fusion protein derived from either influenza virus (HAmu) or Sindbis virus (SINmu). By using a single virus tracking technique, we demonstrated that both HAmu- and SINmu-bearing viruses enter cells through clathrin-dependent endocytosis, but they required different endosomal trafficking routes to initiate viral fusion. Direct observation of single viral fusion events clearly showed that hemifusion mediated by SINmu upon exposure to low pH occurs faster than that mediated by HAmu. Monitoring sequential fusion processes by dual labeling the outer and inner leaflets of viral membranes also revealed that the SINmu-mediated hemifusion intermediate is relatively long-lived as compared with that mediated by HAmu. Taken together, we have demonstrated that the combination of this versatile viral platform with the techniques of single virus tracking can be a powerful tool for revealing molecular details of fusion mediated by various fusion proteins.

  8. FUSION WORLD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Caroline; 黄颖(翻译)

    2009-01-01

    Fusion World”科技展示体验中心是英国设计公司MET Studio为新加坡科技研究局(A*Star)的科学工程委员会(SERC)所设计的,位于启汇城的办公地点,用于展示该委员会的精选技术作品,以吸引潜在的客户和启汇城内的学生购买群体。

  9. Deployment of membrane fusion protein domains during fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentz, J; Mittal, A

    2000-01-01

    It is clear that both viral and intracellular membrane fusion proteins contain a minimal set of domains which must be deployed at the appropriate time during the fusion process. An account of these domains and their functions is given here for the four best-described fusion systems: influenza HA, sendai virus F1, HIV gp120/41 and the neuronal SNARE core composed of synaptobrevin (syn), syntaxin (stx) and the N- and C-termini of SNAP25 (sn25), together with the Ca(2+)binding protein synaptotagmin (syt). Membrane fusion begins with the binding of the virion or vesicle to the target membrane via receptors. The committed step in influenza HA- mediated fusion begins with an aggregate of HAs (at least eight) with some of their HA2 N-termini, a.k.a. fusion peptides, embedded into the viral bilayer (Bentz, 2000 a). The hypothesis presented in Bentz (2000 b) is that the conformational change of HA to the extended coiled coil extracts the fusion peptides from the viral bilayer. When this extraction occurs from the center of the site of restricted lipid flow, it exposes acyl chains and parts of the HA transmembrane domains to the aqueous media, i.e. a hydrophobic defect is formed. This is the 'transition state' of the committed step of fusion. It is stabilized by a 'dam' of HAs, which are inhibited from diffusing away by the rest of the HAs in the aggregate and because that would initially expose more acyl chains to water. Recruitment of lipids from the apposed target membrane can heal this hydrophobic defect, initiating lipid mixing and fusion. The HA transmembrane domains are required to be part of the hydrophobic defect, because the HA aggregate must be closely packed enough to restrict lipid flow. This hypothesis provides a simple and direct coupling between the energy released by the formation of the coiled coil to the energy needed to create and stabilize the high energy intermediates of fusion. Several of these essential domains have been described for the viral fusion

  10. Plasma thermal performance of a dual-process PVD/PS tungsten coating on carbon-based panels for nuclear fusion application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyunmyung; Lee, Ho Jung; Kim, Sung Hwan; Jang, Changheui, E-mail: chjang@kaist.ac.kr

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Plasma thermal performance of a dual-process PVD/PS W coating was evaluated. • Steady-state heat fluxes of 1–3 MW/m{sup 2} were applied to the W coated specimens. • Less micro-pores and grain growth were observed for the dual-process coating. • Loss of coating thickness was observed for the simple PS W coating. • Dual-process PVD/PS W coating was resistant to erosion due to the surface PVD layer. - Abstract: Various tungsten (W) coating techniques have been used for the application of plasma facing material in nuclear fusion devices, which resulted in limited success. In this study, a dual-process W coating structure was developed on a graphite substrate to improve the thermal performance of the coating structure. The dual-process coating structure consisted of a thin (∼7 μm) multilayer W/Mo physical vapor deposition (PVD) coating layer deposited on top of the relatively thick (∼160 μm) plasma spray (PS) W coating on a graphite substrate panel. Then the coated sample was exposed to plasma heat flux of 1–3 MW/m{sup 2} for 300 s. With addition of a thin surface PVD coating layer, the microstructure change in underlying PS W coating was substantially reduced compared to the simple PS W coating structure. The thickness of overall coating structure was maintained for the dual-process PVD/PS coated samples after the thermal loading tests, while a significant reduction in thickness due to surface erosion was observed for the simple PS W coated samples. The improvement in surface erosion resistance in the dual-process coating structure was discussed in view of the characteristics of PVD and PS coating layers.

  11. Data Fusion and Sensors Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we take the model of Laser range finder based on synchronized scanner as example, show how to use data fusion method in the process of sensor model designing to get more robust output. Also we provide our idea on the relation of sensor model, data fusion and system structure, and in the paper, there is a solution that transform the parameter space to get linear model for Kalman filter.

  12. Carpal Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Jalalshokouhi*

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Carpal fusion may be seen in hereditary and nonhereditary conditions such as acrocallosal syndrome,acromegaly, Apert syndrome, arthrogryposis, Carpenter syndrome, chromosomal abnormalities, ectrodactyly-ectodermal dysplasia-cleft (EEC syndrome, the F form of acropectorovertebral dysgenesis or the F syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, Holt-Oram syndrome, Leopard syndrome, multiple synostosis syndrome, oligosyndactyly syndrome, Pfeiffer-like syndrome, scleroderma, split hand and foot malformation, Stickler syndrome, thalidomide embryopathy, Turner syndrome and many other conditions as mentioned in Rubinstein-Taybi's book. Sometimes there is no known causative disease.Diagnosis is usually made by plain X-ray during studying a syndrome or congenital disease or could be an incidental finding like our patients. Hand bone anomalies are more common in syndromes or other congenital or non-hereditary conditions, but polydactyly, syndactyly or oligodactyly and carpal fusions are interesting. X-ray is the modality of choice, but MRI and X-ray CT with multiplanar reconstructions may be used for diagnosis.

  13. Effects of Powder Attributes and Laser Powder Bed Fusion (L-PBF) Process Conditions on the Densification and Mechanical Properties of 17-4 PH Stainless Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrinki, Harish; Dexter, Michael; Barmore, Brenton; Enneti, Ravi; Pasebani, Somayeh; Badwe, Sunil; Stitzel, Jason; Malhotra, Rajiv; Atre, Sundar V.

    2016-03-01

    The effects of powders attributes (shape and size distribution) and critical processing conditions (energy density) on the densification and mechanical properties of laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) 17-4 PH stainless steel were studied using four types of powders. The % theoretical density, ultimate tensile strength and hardness of both water- and gas-atomized powders increased with increased energy density. Gas-atomized powders showed superior densification and mechanical properties when processed at low energy densities. However, the % theoretical density and mechanical properties of water-atomized powders were comparable to gas-atomized powders when sintered at a high energy density of 104 J/mm3. An important result of this study was that, even at high % theoretical density (97% ± 1%), the properties of as-printed parts could vary over a relatively large range (UTS: 500-1100 MPa; hardness: 25-39 HRC; elongation: 10-25%) depending on powder characteristics and process conditions. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of using relatively inexpensive water-atomized powders as starting raw material instead of the typically used gas-atomized powders to fabricate parts using L-PBF techniques by sintering at high energy densities.

  14. Study of fusion Q-value rule in sub-barrier fusion of heavy ions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xing-Xing; ZHANG Gao-Long; ZHANG Huan-Qiao

    2015-01-01

    A vast body of fusion data has been analyzed for different projectiles and target nuclei.It is indicated that the sub-barrier fusion depends on the fusion Q-value.In terms of a recently introduced fusion Q-value rule and an energy scaling reduction procedure,the experimental fusion excitation functions are reduced and compared with each other.It is found that the reduced fusion excitations of selected fusion systems show a similar trend.The fusion data for massive nuclei are in agreement with the Q-value rule.In the fusion process,the Q contribution should be considered.Within this approach,the sub-barrier fusion cross sections of most fusion systems can be predicted without involving any structure effects of colliding nuclei.Instances of disagreement are presented in a few fusion systems.The use of the energy scaling as a criterion of possible experimental data inconsistency is discussed.More precise experimental fusion data need to be measured.

  15. Line tension at lipid phase boundaries as driving force for HIV fusion peptide-mediated fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sung-Tae; Kiessling, Volker; Tamm, Lukas K.

    2016-04-01

    Lipids and proteins are organized in cellular membranes in clusters, often called `lipid rafts'. Although raft-constituent ordered lipid domains are thought to be energetically unfavourable for membrane fusion, rafts have long been implicated in many biological fusion processes. For the case of HIV gp41-mediated membrane fusion, this apparent contradiction can be resolved by recognizing that the interfaces between ordered and disordered lipid domains are the predominant sites of fusion. Here we show that line tension at lipid domain boundaries contributes significant energy to drive gp41-fusion peptide-mediated fusion. This energy, which depends on the hydrophobic mismatch between ordered and disordered lipid domains, may contribute tens of kBT to fusion, that is, it is comparable to the energy required to form a lipid stalk intermediate. Line-active compounds such as vitamin E lower line tension in inhomogeneous membranes, thereby inhibit membrane fusion, and thus may be useful natural viral entry inhibitors.

  16. Fundamental processes of plasma and reactive gas surface treatment for the recovery of hydrogen isotopes from carbon co-deposits in fusion devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Soeren

    2014-11-01

    The use of carbon-based plasma-facing wall components offers many advantages for plasma operation in magnetic confinement nuclear fusion devices. However, through reactions with the hydrogen based fusion plasma, carbon forms amorphous hydrogenated carbon co-deposits (a-C:H) in the vacuum vessels. If tritium is used to fuel the reactor, this co-deposition can quickly lead to an inacceptable high tritium inventory. Through co-deposition with carbon about 10% of the tritium injected into the reactor can be trapped. Even with other wall materials co-deposition can be significant. A method to recover the hydrogen isotopes from the co-deposits is necessary. The method has to be compatible with the requirements of the devices and nuclear fusion plasma operation. In this work thermo-chemical removal by neutral gases (TCR) and removal by plasmas is investigated. Models are developed to describe the involved processes of both removal methods. TCR is described using a reaction-diffusion model. Within this model the reactive gas diffuses into the co-deposits and subsequently reacts in a thermally activated process. The co-deposits are pyrolysed, forming volatile gases, e.g. CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. These gases are pumped from the vacuum vessel and recycled. Applying the model to literature observations enables to connect data on exposure temperature, pressure, time and co-deposit properties. Two limits of TCR (reaction- or diffusion-limited) are identified. Plasma removal sputters co-deposits by their chemical and physical interaction with the impinging ions. The description uses a 0D plasma model from the literature which derives plasma parameters from the balance of input power to plasma power losses. The model is extended with descriptions of the plasma sheath and ion-surface interactions to derive the co-deposit removal rates. Plasma removal can be limited by this ion induced surface release rate or the rate of pumping of the released species. To test the models dedicated

  17. Filling the gap between geophysics and geotechnics in landslide process understanding: a data fusion methodology to integrate multi-source information in hydro-mechanical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernadie, S.; Gance, J.; Grandjean, G.; Malet, J.

    2013-12-01

    The population increase and the rising issue of climate change impact the long term stability of mountain slopes. So far, it is not yet possible to assess in all cases conditions for failure, reactivation or rapid surges of slopes. The main reason identified by Van Asch et al. (2007) is the excessive conceptualization of the slope in the models. Therefore to improve our forecasting capability, considering local information such as the local slope geometry, the soil material variability, hydrological processes and the presence of fissures are of first importance. Geophysical imaging, combined with geotechnical tests, is an adapted tool to obtain such detailed information. The development of near-surface geophysics in the last three decades encourages the use of multiple geophysical methods for slope investigations. However, fusion of real data is little used in this domain and a gap still exists between the data processed by the geophysicists and the slope hydro-mechanical models developed by the geotechnical engineers. Starting from this statement, we propose a methodological flowchart of multi-source geophysical and geotechnical data integration to construct a slope hydro-mechanical model of a selected profile at the Super-Sauze landslide. Based on data fusion concepts, the methodology aims at integrating various data in order to create a geological and a geotechnical model of the slope profile. The input data consist in seismic and geoelectrical tomographies (that give access to a spatially distributed information on the soil physical state) supplemented by punctual geotechnical tests (dynamic penetration tests). The tomograms and the geotechnical tests are combined into a unique interpreted model characterized by different geotechnical domains. We use the fuzzy logic clustering method in order to take into account the uncertainty coming from each input data. Then an unstructured finite element mesh, adapted to the resolution of the different input data and

  18. Catalysed fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Farley, Francis

    2012-01-01

    A sizzling romance and a romp with subatomic particles at CERN. Love, discovery and adventure in the city where nations meet and beams collide. Life in a large laboratory. As always, the challenges are the same. Who leads? Who follows? Who succeeds? Who gets the credit? Who gets the women or the men? Young Jeremy arrives in CERN and joins the quest for green energy. Coping with baffling jargon and manifold dangers, he is distracted by radioactive rats, lovely ladies and an unscrupulous rival. Full of doubts and hesitations, he falls for a dazzling Danish girl, who leads him astray. His brilliant idea leads to a discovery and a new route to cold fusion. But his personal life is scrambled. Does it bring fame or failure? Tragedy or triumph?

  19. Image processing with cellular nonlinear networks implemented on field-programmable gate arrays for real-time applications in nuclear fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazzo, S.; Murari, A.; Vagliasindi, G.; Arena, P.; Mazon, D.; de Maack, A.; Jet-Efda Contributors

    2010-08-01

    In the past years cameras have become increasingly common tools in scientific applications. They are now quite systematically used in magnetic confinement fusion, to the point that infrared imaging is starting to be used systematically for real-time machine protection in major devices. However, in order to guarantee that the control system can always react rapidly in case of critical situations, the time required for the processing of the images must be as predictable as possible. The approach described in this paper combines the new computational paradigm of cellular nonlinear networks (CNNs) with field-programmable gate arrays and has been tested in an application for the detection of hot spots on the plasma facing components in JET. The developed system is able to perform real-time hot spot recognition, by processing the image stream captured by JET wide angle infrared camera, with the guarantee that computational time is constant and deterministic. The statistical results obtained from a quite extensive set of examples show that this solution approximates very well an ad hoc serial software algorithm, with no false or missed alarms and an almost perfect overlapping of alarm intervals. The computational time can be reduced to a millisecond time scale for 8 bit 496×560-sized images. Moreover, in our implementation, the computational time, besides being deterministic, is practically independent of the number of iterations performed by the CNN—unlike software CNN implementations.

  20. Data Fusion Concepts and Ideas

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, H B

    2012-01-01

    “Data Fusion: Concepts and Ideas” provides a comprehensive introduction to the concepts and idea of multisensor data fusion. This textbook is an extensively revised second edition of the author's successful book: "Multi-Sensor Data Fusion: An Introduction". The book is self-contained and no previous knowledge of multi-sensor data fusion is assumed. The reader is made familiar with tools taken from a wide range of diverse subjects including: neural networks, signal processing, statistical estimation, tracking algorithms, computer vision and control theory which are combined by using a common statistical framework. As a consequence, the underlying pattern of relationships that exists between the different methodologies is made evident. The book is illustrated with many real-life examples taken from a diverse range of applications and contains an extensive list of modern references. The new completely revised and updated edition includes nearly 70 pages of new material including a full new chapter as well as...

  1. Nuclear Fusion Fuel Cycle Research Perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Hongsuk; Koo, Daeseo; Park, Jongcheol; Kim, Yeanjin [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Sei-Hun [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    As a part of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) Project, we at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and our National Fusion Research Institute (NFRI) colleagues are investigating nuclear fusion fuel cycle hardware including a nuclear fusion fuel Storage and Delivery System (SDS). To have a better knowledge of the nuclear fusion fuel cycle, we present our research efforts not only on SDS but also on the Fuel Supply System (FS), Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP), Isotope Separation System (ISS), and Detritiation System (DS). To have better knowledge of the nuclear fusion fuel cycle, we presented our research efforts not only on SDS but also on the Fuel Supply System (FS), Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP), Isotope Separation System (ISS), and Detritiation System (DS). Our efforts to enhance the tritium confinement will be continued for the development of cleaner nuclear fusion power plants.

  2. Organotypic three-dimensional culture model of mesenchymal and epithelial cells to examine tissue fusion events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissue fusion during early mammalian development requires coordination of multiple cell types, the extracellular matrix, and complex signaling pathways. Fusion events during processes including heart development, neural tube closure, and palatal fusion are dependent on signaling ...

  3. Parâmetros operacionais no processamento de zeólitas desativadas por fusão com KHSO4 Experimental parameters for spent zeolites processing via fusion with KHSO4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Aragão de Mendonça

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a study on the determination of the optimal experimental conditions for processing spent commercial zeolites in order to recover lanthanide elements and eventually other elements. The process is based on the fusion of the sample with potassium hydrogenosulfate (KHSO4. Three experimental parameters were studied: temperature, reaction time and catalyst/flux mass ratio. After fusion the solid was dissolved in water and the amount of insoluble matter was used to determine the efficiency of the process. The optimized experimental parameters depend on the composition of the sample processed. Under such conditions the insoluble residue corresponds to SiO2. Lanthanide elements and aluminum present in solution were isolated by conventional precipitation techniques; the yields were at least 75 wt%. The final generated wastes correspond to neutral colorless solutions containing alkali chlorides/sulfates and solids that can be disposed of in industrial dumps.

  4. Transference of particles in the fusion process of {sup 6}He + {sup 209}Bi; Transferencia de particulas en el proceso de fusion de {sup 6}He + {sup 209}Bi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lizcano, D.; Aguilera, E.F.; Martinez Q, E. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In a recent work were reported measurements done to energy which was to the Coulomb barrier for the {sup 6} He + {sup 209} Bi system. The fusion excitation function measured for this system shows a strong enhancement with respect to the predictions of the penetration model of unidimensional barrier at minor energies to the Coulombian barrier. In basis with the results obtained for different degrees of freedom it was determined with the CCDEF code, that the transfer of 2 neutrons of {sup 6} He to binding states to {sup 209} Bi, producing {sup 211} Bi, is the mechanism looked as the best candidate for explain the great enhancement in the fusion excitation function of this system at energies under Coulomb barrier. It is corroborated what was affirmed by others authors about the strength value at 1.5 MeV as a typical value for the transference of two particles between the projectile and the target. (Author)

  5. Enhancement of the neutral-beam stopping cross section in fusion plasmas due to multistep collision processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boley, C.D.; Janev, R.K.; Post, D.E.

    1983-10-01

    Multistep processes involving excited atomic states are found to produce a substantial increase in the stopping cross section for a neutral hydrogen beam injected into a plasma, and thus to reduce the beam penetration. For typical plasma and beam parameters of current large tokamak experiments, the stopping cross-sectional enhancement is found to vary from 25% to 50% depending on the beam energy, plasma density, and impurity level. For neutral hydrogen beams with energies greater than or equal to 500 keV, envisioned in tokamak amd mirror reactor designs, the enhancement can be as large as 80 to 90%.

  6. Powder Metallurgy Processing of a WxTaTiVCr High-Entropy Alloy and Its Derivative Alloys for Fusion Material Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waseem, Owais Ahmed; Ryu, Ho Jin

    2017-05-16

    The WxTaTiVCr high-entropy alloy with 32at.% of tungsten (W) and its derivative alloys with 42 to 90at.% of W with in-situ TiC were prepared via the mixing of elemental W, Ta, Ti, V and Cr powders followed by spark plasma sintering for the development of reduced-activation alloys for fusion plasma-facing materials. Characterization of the sintered samples revealed a BCC lattice and a multi-phase structure. The selected-area diffraction patterns confirmed the formation of TiC in the high-entropy alloy and its derivative alloys. It revealed the development of C15 (cubic) Laves phases as well in alloys with 71 to 90at.% W. A mechanical examination of the samples revealed a more than twofold improvement in the hardness and strength due to solid-solution strengthening and dispersion strengthening. This study explored the potential of powder metallurgy processing for the fabrication of a high-entropy alloy and other derived compositions with enhanced hardness and strength.

  7. Visualization of membrane fusion, one particle at a time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otterstrom, Jason; van Oijen, Antoine M

    2013-03-12

    Protein-mediated fusion between phospholipid bilayers is a fundamental and necessary mechanism for many cellular processes. The short-lived nature of the intermediate states visited during fusion makes it challenging to capture precise kinetic information using classical, ensemble-averaging biophysical techniques. Recently, a number of single-particle fluorescence microscopy-based assays that allow researchers to obtain highly quantitative data about the fusion process by observing individual fusion events in real time have been developed. These assays depend upon changes in the acquired fluorescence signal to provide a direct readout for transitions between the various fusion intermediates. The resulting data yield meaningful and detailed kinetic information about the transitory states en route to productive membrane fusion. In this review, we highlight recent in vitro and in vivo studies of membrane fusion at the single-particle level in the contexts of viral membrane fusion and SNARE-mediated synaptic vesicle fusion. These studies afford insight into mechanisms of coordination between fusion-mediating proteins as well as coordination of the overall fusion process with other cellular processes. The development of single-particle approaches to investigate membrane fusion and their successful application to a number of model systems have resulted in a new experimental paradigm and open up considerable opportunities to extend these methods to other biological processes that involve membrane fusion.

  8. In-situ evaluation for corrosion process at fusion boundary of stainless steel strip overlay joints in H2S containing solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Yang; PAN Chun-xu; FU Qiang

    2004-01-01

    The present work studied the corrosion properties around the fusion boundaries of 2.25Cr-1Mo steel with stainless steel strip overlay joints under as welded condition and after post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) in H2 S containing solution (NACE TM-01-77 standard) with different time. An in-situ observation method was introduced for evaluating corrosive progress in the fusion boundary in H2 S containing solution, that is, the samples were marked firstly at the boundary and then treated in the solution for variant time. Each time after the corrosion treatment, the observations were kept to focus at the same marked area by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to observe the corrosion progress. The results reveal that the fusion boundary is the worst region for corrosion resistance when comparing with other boundaries, and a broad fusion boundary has a stronger resistance for "hydrogen induced disbonding" than a narrow one.

  9. Report from the Committee of Visitors on its Review of the Processes and Procedures used to Manage the Theory and Computations Program, Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2004-03-01

    A Committee of Visitors (COV) was formed to review the procedures used by the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences to manage its Theory and Computations program. The COV was pleased to conclude that the research portfolio supported by the OFES Theory and Computations Program was of very high quality. The Program supports research programs at universities, research industries, and national laboratories that are well regarded internationally and address questions of high relevance to the DOE. A major change in the management of the Theory and Computations program over the past few years has been the introduction of a system of comparative peer review to guide the OFES Theory Team in selecting proposals for funding. The COV was impressed with the success of OFES in its implementation of comparative peer review and with the quality of the reviewers chosen by the OFES Theory Team. The COV concluded that the competitive peer review process has improved steadily over the three years that it has been in effect and that it has improved both the fairness and accountability of the proposal review process. While the COV commends OFES in its implementation of comparative review, the COV offers the following recommendations in the hope that they will further improve the comparative peer review process: The OFES should improve the consistency of peer reviews. We recommend adoption of a “results-oriented” scoring system in their guidelines to referees (see Appendix II), a greater use of review panels, and a standard format for proposals; The OFES should further improve the procedures and documentation for proposal handling. We recommend that the “folders” documenting funding decisions contain all the input from all of the reviewers, that OFES document their rationale for funding decisions which are at variance with the recommendation of the peer reviewers, and that OFES provide a Summary Sheet within each folder; The OFES should better communicate the procedures used to

  10. The Dark Side of Cell Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bastida-Ruiz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Cell fusion is a physiological cellular process essential for fertilization, viral entry, muscle differentiation and placental development, among others. In this review, we will highlight the different cancer cell-cell fusions and the advantages obtained by these fusions. We will specially focus on the acquisition of metastatic features by cancer cells after fusion with bone marrow-derived cells. The mechanism by which cancer cells fuse with other cells has been poorly studied thus far, but the presence in several cancer cells of syncytin, a trophoblastic fusogen, leads us to a cancer cell fusion mechanism similar to the one used by the trophoblasts. The mechanism by which cancer cells perform the cell fusion could be an interesting target for cancer therapy.

  11. Pionic fusion in light-ion systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joulaeizadeh, L.; Gasparic, I.; Amir-Ahmadi, H. R.; Bacelar, J.; Caplar, R.; Eslami-Kalantari, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Löhner, H.; Mardanpour, H.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Moeini, H.; Ramazani-Moghaddam-Arani, A. A.; Shende, S. V.; Stephan, E.

    2011-01-01

    The role of pions in the nuclear interaction has been studied in pionic fusion experiments using the AGOR accelerator facility at KVI. Pionic fusion is a highly coherent process in which two nuclei fuse to a united nucleus and the available centre-of-mass (C.M.) energy is emitted through the pion ch

  12. Quantum design using a multiple internal reflections method in a study of fusion processes in the capture of alpha-particles by nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Maydanyuk, Sergei P; Belchikov, Sergei V

    2015-01-01

    A high precision method to determine fusion in the capture of $\\alpha$-particles by nuclei is presented. For $\\alpha$-capture by $^{40}{\\rm Ca}$ and $^{44}{\\rm Ca}$, such an approach gives (1) the parameters of the $\\alpha$--nucleus potential and (2) fusion probabilities. This method found new parametrization and fusion probabilities and decreased the error by $41.72$ times for $\\alpha + ^{40}{\\rm Ca}$ and $34.06$ times for $\\alpha + ^{44}{\\rm Ca}$ in a description of experimental data in comparison with existing results. We show that the sharp angular momentum cutoff proposed by Glas and Mosel is a rough approximation, Wong's formula and the Hill-Wheeler approach determine the penetrability of the barrier without a correct consideration of the barrier shape, and the WKB approach gives reduced fusion probabilities. Based on our fusion probability formula, we explain the difference between experimental cross-sections for $\\alpha + ^{40}{\\rm Ca}$ and $\\alpha + ^{44}{\\rm Ca}$, which is connected with the theory ...

  13. Probe transfer with and without membrane fusion in a fluorescence fusion assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohki, S; Flanagan, TD; Hoekstra, D

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of the R(18) fusion assay was made during the fusion of the Sendai virus with erythrocyte ghosts. The increase in R(18) fluorescence, reflecting the interaction process, was evaluated in terms of the different processes that in principle may contribute to this increase, that is, monomeri

  14. Fusion Plasma Theory project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This Project Summary book is a published compilation consisting of short descriptions of each project supported by the Fusion Plasma Theory and Computing Group of the Advanced Physics and Technology Division of the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy. The summaries contained in this volume were written by the individual contractors with minimal editing by the Office of Fusion Energy. Previous summaries were published in February of 1982 and December of 1987. The Plasma Theory program is responsible for the development of concepts and models that describe and predict the behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. Emphasis is given to the modelling and understanding of the processes controlling transport of energy and particles in a toroidal plasma and supporting the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A tokamak transport initiative was begun in 1989 to improve understanding of how energy and particles are lost from the plasma by mechanisms that transport them across field lines. The Plasma Theory program has actively-participated in this initiative. Recently, increased attention has been given to issues of importance to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Particular attention has been paid to containment and thermalization of fast alpha particles produced in a burning fusion plasma as well as control of sawteeth, current drive, impurity control, and design of improved auxiliary heating. In addition, general models of plasma behavior are developed from physics features common to different confinement geometries. This work uses both analytical and numerical techniques. The Fusion Theory program supports research projects at US government laboratories, universities and industrial contractors. Its support of theoretical work at universities contributes to the office of Fusion Energy mission of training scientific manpower for the US Fusion Energy Program.

  15. Multisensor Data Fusion for Automotive Engine Fault Diagnosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王赟松; 褚福磊; 何永勇; 郭丹

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes mainly a decision-level data fusion technique for fault diagnosis for electronically controlled engines.Experiments on a SANTANA AJR engine show that the data fusion method provides good engine fault diagnosis.In data fusion methods, the data level fusion has small data preprocessing loads and high accuracy, but requires commensurate sensor data and has poor operational performance.The decision-level fusion based on Dempster-Shafer evidence theory can process noncommensurate data and has robust operational performance, reduces ambiguity, increases confidence, and improves system reliability, but has low fusion accuracy and high data preprocessing cost.The feature-level fusion provides good compromise between the above two methods, which becomes gradually mature.In addition, acquiring raw data is a precondition to perform data fusion, so the system for signal acquisition and processing for an automotive engine test is also designed by the virtual instrument technology.

  16. Influence of projectile breakup on complete fusion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Mukherjee; M K Pradhan

    2010-07-01

    Complete fusion excitation functions for 11,10B+159Tb and 6,7Li+159Tb have been reported at energies around the respective Coulomb barriers. The measurements show significant suppression of complete fusion cross-sections at energies above the barrier for 10B+159Tb and 6,7Li+159Tb reactions, when compared to those for 11B+159Tb. The comparison shows that the extent of suppression of complete fusion cross-sections is correlated with the -separation energies of the projectiles. Also, the measured incomplete fusion cross-sections show that the -particle emanating channel is the favoured incomplete fusion process. Inclusive measurement of the -particles produced in 6Li+159Tb reaction has been carried out. Preliminary CDCC calculations carried out to estimate the - yield following 6Li breaking up into + fail to explain the measured -yield. Transfer processes seem to be important contributors.

  17. Cold nuclear fusion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huang Zhenqiang Huang Yuxiang

    2013-01-01

    ...... And with a magnetic moment of light nuclei controlled cold nuclear collide fusion, belongs to the nuclear energy research and development in the field of applied technology "cold nuclear collide fusion...

  18. Fusion science and technology at CIEMAT; Ciencia y Tecnologia de fusion en el Ciemat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, J.

    2012-07-01

    The presence of the agency Fusion for Energy and the significant participation of Spanish industry in the ITER project bring Spain to a relevant position in the development of fusion. This article reviews briefly the role of Ciemat in the process leading to this situation and analyzers the scientific and technological role of Ciemat in the present and future phases of the fusion programme. (Author)

  19. A Model for Membrane Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngatchou, Annita

    2010-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a tumor of the adrenal gland which originates from chromaffin cells and is characterized by the secretion of excessive amounts of neurotransmitter which lead to high blood pressure and palpitations. Pheochromocytoma contain membrane bound granules that store neurotransmitter. The release of these stored molecules into the extracellular space occurs by fusion of the granule membrane with the cell plasma membrane, a process called exocytosis. The molecular mechanism of this membrane fusion is not well understood. It is proposed that the so called SNARE proteins [1] are the pillar of vesicle fusion as their cleavage by clostridial toxin notably, Botulinum neurotoxin and Tetanus toxin abrogate the secretion of neurotransmitter [2]. Here, I describe how physical principles are applied to a biological cell to explore the role of the vesicle SNARE protein synaptobrevin-2 in easing granule fusion. The data presented here suggest a paradigm according to which the movement of the C-terminal of synaptobrevin-2 disrupts the lipid bilayer to form a fusion pore through which molecules can exit.

  20. Plasma physics for controlled fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2016-01-01

    This new edition presents the essential theoretical and analytical methods needed to understand the recent fusion research of tokamak and alternate approaches. The author describes magnetohydrodynamic and kinetic theories of cold and hot plasmas in detail. The book covers new important topics for fusion studies such as plasma transport by drift turbulence, which depend on the magnetic configuration and zonal flows. These are universal phenomena of microturbulence. They can modify the onset criterion for turbulent transport, instabilities driven by energetic particles as well as alpha particle generation and typical plasma models for computer simulation. The fusion research of tokamaks with various new versions of H modes are explained. The design concept of ITER, the international tokamak experimental reactor, is described for inductively driven operations as well as steady-state operations using non-inductive drives. Alternative approaches of reversed-field pinch and its relaxation process, stellator includi...

  1. Cold fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1989-11-01

    I am pleased to forward to you the Final Report of the Cold Fusion Panel. This report reviews the current status of cold fusion and includes major chapters on Calorimetry and Excess Heat, Fusion Products and Materials Characterization. In addition, the report makes a number of conclusions and recommendations, as requested by the Secretary of Energy.

  2. Multisensor image fusion guidelines in remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, C.

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing delivers multimodal and -temporal data from the Earth's surface. In order to cope with these multidimensional data sources and to make the most of them, image fusion is a valuable tool. It has developed over the past few decades into a usable image processing technique for extracting information of higher quality and reliability. As more sensors and advanced image fusion techniques have become available, researchers have conducted a vast amount of successful studies using image fusion. However, the definition of an appropriate workflow prior to processing the imagery requires knowledge in all related fields - i.e. remote sensing, image fusion and the desired image exploitation processing. From the findings of this research it can be seen that the choice of the appropriate technique, as well as the fine-tuning of the individual parameters of this technique, is crucial. There is still a lack of strategic guidelines due to the complexity and variability of data selection, processing techniques and applications. This paper gives an overview on the state-of-the-art in remote sensing image fusion including sensors and applications. Putting research results in image fusion from the past 15 years into a context provides a new view on the subject and helps other researchers to build their innovation on these findings. Recommendations of experts help to understand further needs to achieve feasible strategies in remote sensing image fusion.

  3. Implementing interactive decision support: A case for combining cyberinfrastructure, data fusion, and social process to mobilize scientific knowledge in sustainability problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    Geosciences are becoming increasingly data intensive, particularly in relation to sustainability problems, which are multi-dimensional, weakly structured and characterized by high levels of uncertainty. In the case of complex resource management problems, the challenge is to extract meaningful information from data and make sense of it. Simultaneously, scientific knowledge alone is insufficient to change practice. Creating tools, and group decision support processes for end users to interact with data are key challenges to transforming science-based information into actionable knowledge. The ENCOMPASS project began as a multi-year case study in the Atacama Desert of Chile to design and implement a knowledge transfer model for energy-water-mining conflicts in the region. ENCOMPASS combines the use of cyberinfrastructure (CI), automated data collection, interactive interfaces for dynamic decision support, and participatory modelling to support social learning. A pilot version of the ENCOMPASS CI uses open source systems and serves as a structure to integrate and store multiple forms of data and knowledge, such as DEM, meteorological, water quality, geomicrobiological, energy demand, and groundwater models. In the case study, informatics and data fusion needs related to scientific uncertainty around deep groundwater flowpaths and energy-water connections. Users may upload data from field sites with handheld devices or desktops. Once uploaded, data assets are accessible for a variety of uses. To address multi-attributed decision problems in the Atacama region a standalone application with touch-enabled interfaces was created to improve real-time interactions with datasets by groups. The tool was used to merge datasets from the ENCOMPASS CI to support exploration among alternatives and build shared understanding among stakeholders. To date, the project has increased technical capacity among stakeholders, resulted in the creation of both for-profit and non

  4. Hendra virus fusion protein transmembrane domain contributes to pre-fusion protein stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Stacy; Nagy, Tamas; Moseley, Hunter; Fried, Michael; Dutch, Rebecca Ellis

    2017-02-17

    Enveloped viruses utilize fusion (F) proteins studding the surface of the virus to facilitate membrane fusion with a target cell membrane. Fusion of the viral envelope with a cellular membrane is required for release of viral genomic material so the virus can ultimately reproduce and spread. To drive fusion, the F protein undergoes an irreversible conformational change, transitioning from a meta-stable pre-fusion conformation to a more thermodynamically stable post-fusion structure. Understanding the elements which control stability of the pre-fusion state and triggering to the post-fusion conformation is important for understanding F protein function. Mutations in F protein transmembrane (TM) domains implicated the TM domain in the fusion process, but the structural and molecular details in fusion remain unclear. Previously, analytical ultracentrifugation was utilized to demonstrate that isolated TM domains of Hendra virus F protein associate in a monomer-trimer equilibrium (Smith EC, et al. Trimeric transmembrane domain interactions in paramyxovirus fusion proteins. 2013. J Biol Chem. 288, 35726). To determine factors driving this association, 140 paramyxovirus F protein TM domain sequences were analyzed. A heptad repeat of β-branched residues was found and analysis of the Hendra virus F TM domain revealed a heptad repeat leucine-isoleucine zipper motif (LIZ). Replacement of the LIZ with alanine resulted in dramatically reduced TM-TM association. Mutation of the LIZ in the whole protein resulted in decreased protein stability, including pre-fusion conformation stability. Together our data suggest that the heptad repeat LIZ contributed to TM-TM association and is important for F protein function and pre-fusion stability.

  5. The Role of the JET Project in Global Fusion Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vagn Orla

    1983-01-01

    The aim of nuclear fusion research is to make fusion energy available as a new energy source. Fusion processes occur naturally in the sun, where hydrogen nuclei release energy by combining to form helium. A fusion reactor on earth will require even higher temperatures than in the interior...... of the sun, and it will be based on deuterium and tritium reactions. JET (Joint European Torus) is a major fusion experiment now under construction near Abingdon in the UK It is aimed at producing conditions approximating those necessary in a fusion reactor. The results expected from JET should permit...... a realistic evaluation of the prospects for fusion power and serve as a basis for the design of the next major fusion experiment....

  6. Revisions to the JDL data fusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Alan N.; Bowman, Christopher L.; White, Franklin E.

    1999-03-01

    The Data Fusion Model maintained by the Joint Directors of Laboratories (JDL) Data Fusion Group is the most widely-used method for categorizing data fusion-related functions. This paper discusses the current effort to revise the expand this model to facilitate the cost-effective development, acquisition, integration and operation of multi- sensor/multi-source systems. Data fusion involves combining information - in the broadest sense - to estimate or predict the state of some aspect of the universe. These may be represented in terms of attributive and relational states. If the job is to estimate the state of a people, it can be useful to include consideration of informational and perceptual states in addition to the physical state. Developing cost-effective multi-source information systems requires a method for specifying data fusion processing and control functions, interfaces, and associate databases. The lack of common engineering standards for data fusion systems has been a major impediment to integration and re-use of available technology: current developments do not lend themselves to objective evaluation, comparison or re-use. This paper reports on proposed revisions and expansions of the JDL Data FUsion model to remedy some of these deficiencies. This involves broadening the functional model and related taxonomy beyond the original military focus, and integrating the Data Fusion Tree Architecture model for system description, design and development.

  7. Economics of fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1977-10-15

    This report provides the results of a study of methods of economic analysis applied to the evaluation of fusion research. The study recognizes that a hierarchy of economic analyses of research programs exists: standard benefit-cost analysis, expected value of R and D information, and expected utility analysis. It is shown that standard benefit-cost analysis, as commonly applied to research programs, is inadequate for the evaluation of a high technology research effort such as fusion research. A methodology for performing an expected value analysis is developed and demonstrated and an overview of an approach to perform an expected utility analysis of fusion research is presented. In addition, a potential benefit of fusion research, not previously identified, is discussed and rough estimates of its magnitude are presented. This benefit deals with the effect of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns. The results of this study indicate that it is both appropriate and possible to perform an expected value analysis of fusion research in order to assess the economics of a fusion research program. The results indicate further that the major area of benefits of fusion research is likely due to the impact of a fusion research program on optimal fossil fuel consumption patterns and it is recommended that this benefit be included in future assessments of fusion research economics.

  8. Materials research for fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaster, J.; Moeslang, A.; Muroga, T.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion materials research started in the early 1970s following the observation of the degradation of irradiated materials used in the first commercial fission reactors. The technological challenges of fusion energy are intimately linked with the availability of suitable materials capable of reliably withstanding the extremely severe operational conditions of fusion reactors. Although fission and fusion materials exhibit common features, fusion materials research is broader. The harder mono-energetic spectrum associated with the deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons (14.1 MeV compared to hydrogen and helium as transmutation products that might lead to a (at present undetermined) degradation of structural materials after a few years of operation. Overcoming the historical lack of a fusion-relevant neutron source for materials testing is an essential pending step in fusion roadmaps. Structural materials development, together with research on functional materials capable of sustaining unprecedented power densities during plasma operation in a fusion reactor, have been the subject of decades of worldwide research efforts underpinning the present maturity of the fusion materials research programme.

  9. Characterization of a structural intermediate of flavivirus membrane fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Stiasny

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Viral membrane fusion proceeds through a sequence of steps that are driven by triggered conformational changes of viral envelope glycoproteins, so-called fusion proteins. Although high-resolution structural snapshots of viral fusion proteins in their prefusion and postfusion conformations are available, it has been difficult to define intermediate structures of the fusion pathway because of their transient nature. Flaviviruses possess a class II viral fusion protein (E mediating fusion at acidic pH that is converted from a dimer to a trimer with a hairpin-like structure during the fusion process. Here we show for tick-borne encephalitis virus that exposure of virions to alkaline instead of acidic pH traps the particles in an intermediate conformation in which the E dimers dissociate and interact with target membranes via the fusion peptide without proceeding to the merger of the membranes. Further treatment to low pH, however, leads to fusion, suggesting that these monomers correspond to an as-yet-elusive intermediate required to convert the prefusion dimer into the postfusion trimer. Thus, the use of nonphysiological conditions allows a dissection of the flavivirus fusion process and the identification of two separate steps, in which membrane insertion of multiple copies of E monomers precedes the formation of hairpin-like trimers. This sequence of events provides important new insights for understanding the dynamic process of viral membrane fusion.

  10. Observation of incomplete fusion at low angular momenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Devendra P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Present work deals with experimental studies of incomplete fusion reaction dynamics using off-line γ-ray spectrometry at energies as low as ≈3-6 MeV/nucleon. Excitation functions for five reaction products populated via complete and/or incomplete fusion processes in 16O+130Te system have been measured and compared with the predictions of the statistical model code PACE4. A significant enhancement in the measured excitation functions compared to theoretical predictions for α-emitting channels has been observed and is attributed to incomplete fusion processes. The relative strength of incomplete fusion has been found to increase with projectile energy. Results show that incomplete fusion is associated even for angular momenta lesser than the critical angular momentum for complete fusion and also reveals importance of incomplete fusion even at energies as low as ≈3-6 MeV/nucleon.

  11. Next Level of Data Fusion for Human Face Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Mrinal Kanti; Bhattacharjee, Debotosh; Basu, Dipak Kumar; Nasipuri, Mita

    2011-01-01

    This paper demonstrates two different fusion techniques at two different levels of a human face recognition process. The first one is called data fusion at lower level and the second one is the decision fusion towards the end of the recognition process. At first a data fusion is applied on visual and corresponding thermal images to generate fused image. Data fusion is implemented in the wavelet domain after decomposing the images through Daubechies wavelet coefficients (db2). During the data fusion maximum of approximate and other three details coefficients are merged together. After that Principle Component Analysis (PCA) is applied over the fused coefficients and finally two different artificial neural networks namely Multilayer Perceptron(MLP) and Radial Basis Function(RBF) networks have been used separately to classify the images. After that, for decision fusion based decisions from both the classifiers are combined together using Bayesian formulation. For experiments, IRIS thermal/visible Face Database h...

  12. Seismic data fusion anomaly detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrity, Kyle; Blasch, Erik; Alford, Mark; Ezekiel, Soundararajan; Ferris, David

    2014-06-01

    Detecting anomalies in non-stationary signals has valuable applications in many fields including medicine and meteorology. These include uses such as identifying possible heart conditions from an Electrocardiography (ECG) signals or predicting earthquakes via seismographic data. Over the many choices of anomaly detection algorithms, it is important to compare possible methods. In this paper, we examine and compare two approaches to anomaly detection and see how data fusion methods may improve performance. The first approach involves using an artificial neural network (ANN) to detect anomalies in a wavelet de-noised signal. The other method uses a perspective neural network (PNN) to analyze an arbitrary number of "perspectives" or transformations of the observed signal for anomalies. Possible perspectives may include wavelet de-noising, Fourier transform, peak-filtering, etc.. In order to evaluate these techniques via signal fusion metrics, we must apply signal preprocessing techniques such as de-noising methods to the original signal and then use a neural network to find anomalies in the generated signal. From this secondary result it is possible to use data fusion techniques that can be evaluated via existing data fusion metrics for single and multiple perspectives. The result will show which anomaly detection method, according to the metrics, is better suited overall for anomaly detection applications. The method used in this study could be applied to compare other signal processing algorithms.

  13. Advanced algorithms for distributed fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, A.; Smith, C.; Colony, M.; Bowman, C.; Pei, R.; Huynh, T.; Brown, C.

    2008-03-01

    The US Military has been undergoing a radical transition from a traditional "platform-centric" force to one capable of performing in a "Network-Centric" environment. This transformation will place all of the data needed to efficiently meet tactical and strategic goals at the warfighter's fingertips. With access to this information, the challenge of fusing data from across the batttlespace into an operational picture for real-time Situational Awareness emerges. In such an environment, centralized fusion approaches will have limited application due to the constraints of real-time communications networks and computational resources. To overcome these limitations, we are developing a formalized architecture for fusion and track adjudication that allows the distribution of fusion processes over a dynamically created and managed information network. This network will support the incorporation and utilization of low level tracking information within the Army Distributed Common Ground System (DCGS-A) or Future Combat System (FCS). The framework is based on Bowman's Dual Node Network (DNN) architecture that utilizes a distributed network of interlaced fusion and track adjudication nodes to build and maintain a globally consistent picture across all assets.

  14. Tritium management in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galloway, T.R.

    1978-05-01

    This is a review paper covering the key environmental and safety issues and how they have been handled in the various magnetic and inertial confinement concepts and reference designs. The issues treated include: tritium accident analyses, tritium process control, occupational safety, HTO formation rate from the gas-phase, disposal of tritium contaminated wastes, and environmental impact--each covering the Joint European Tokamak (J.E.T. experiment), Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), Russian T-20, The Next Step (TNS) designs by Westinghouse/ORNL and General Atomic/ANL, the ANL and ORNL EPR's, the G.A. Doublet Demonstration Reactor, the Italian Fintor-D and the ORNL Demo Studies. There are also the following full scale plant reference designs: UWMAK-III, LASL's Theta Pinch Reactor Design (RTPR), Mirror Fusion Reactor (MFR), Tandem Mirror Reactor (TMR), and the Mirror Hybrid Reactor (MHR). There are four laser device breakeven experiments, SHIVA-NOVA, LLL reference designs, ORNL Laser Fusion power plant, the German ''Saturn,'' and LLL's Laser Fusion EPR I and II.

  15. Fusion and reactions of exotic nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Benítez A.M.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Close to the drip lines, the scattering cross sections of halo nuclei show a different behaviour as compared to the tightly bound projectiles of the stability line. Several experiments carried out in the last decade have been dedicated to investigate the competition between transfer, breakup and fusion channels at energies around and below the Coulomb barrier. The rather complex scenario gives rise to conflicting conclusions concerning the effect of breakup and transfer on reaction dynamics and the sub-barrier fusion process. In this work we discuss recent experimental findings in fusion and reactions of 6He halo nucleus at energies around the Coulomb barrier.

  16. Magnetic fusion technology

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic Fusion Technology describes the technologies that are required for successful development of nuclear fusion power plants using strong magnetic fields. These technologies include: ? magnet systems, ? plasma heating systems, ? control systems, ? energy conversion systems, ? advanced materials development, ? vacuum systems, ? cryogenic systems, ? plasma diagnostics, ? safety systems, and ? power plant design studies. Magnetic Fusion Technology will be useful to students and to specialists working in energy research.

  17. Fusion research principles

    CERN Document Server

    Dolan, Thomas James

    2013-01-01

    Fusion Research, Volume I: Principles provides a general description of the methods and problems of fusion research. The book contains three main parts: Principles, Experiments, and Technology. The Principles part describes the conditions necessary for a fusion reaction, as well as the fundamentals of plasma confinement, heating, and diagnostics. The Experiments part details about forty plasma confinement schemes and experiments. The last part explores various engineering problems associated with reactor design, vacuum and magnet systems, materials, plasma purity, fueling, blankets, neutronics

  18. Magnetic fusion reactor economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-12-01

    An almost primordial trend in the conversion and use of energy is an increased complexity and cost of conversion systems designed to utilize cheaper and more-abundant fuels; this trend is exemplified by the progression fossil fission {yields} fusion. The present projections of the latter indicate that capital costs of the fusion ``burner`` far exceed any commensurate savings associated with the cheapest and most-abundant of fuels. These projections suggest competitive fusion power only if internal costs associate with the use of fossil or fission fuels emerge to make them either uneconomic, unacceptable, or both with respect to expensive fusion systems. This ``implementation-by-default`` plan for fusion is re-examined by identifying in general terms fusion power-plant embodiments that might compete favorably under conditions where internal costs (both economic and environmental) of fossil and/or fission are not as great as is needed to justify the contemporary vision for fusion power. Competitive fusion power in this context will require a significant broadening of an overly focused program to explore the physics and simbiotic technologies leading to more compact, simplified, and efficient plasma-confinement configurations that reside at the heart of an attractive fusion power plant.

  19. Frontiers in fusion research

    CERN Document Server

    Kikuchi, Mitsuru

    2011-01-01

    Frontiers in Fusion Research provides a systematic overview of the latest physical principles of fusion and plasma confinement. It is primarily devoted to the principle of magnetic plasma confinement, that has been systematized through 50 years of fusion research. Frontiers in Fusion Research begins with an introduction to the study of plasma, discussing the astronomical birth of hydrogen energy and the beginnings of human attempts to harness the Sun's energy for use on Earth. It moves on to chapters that cover a variety of topics such as: * charged particle motion, * plasma kinetic theory, *

  20. Magnetic-confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongena, J.; Koch, R.; Wolf, R.; Zohm, H.

    2016-05-01

    Our modern society requires environmentally friendly solutions for energy production. Energy can be released not only from the fission of heavy nuclei but also from the fusion of light nuclei. Nuclear fusion is an important option for a clean and safe solution for our long-term energy needs. The extremely high temperatures required for the fusion reaction are routinely realized in several magnetic-fusion machines. Since the early 1990s, up to 16 MW of fusion power has been released in pulses of a few seconds, corresponding to a power multiplication close to break-even. Our understanding of the very complex behaviour of a magnetized plasma at temperatures between 150 and 200 million °C surrounded by cold walls has also advanced substantially. This steady progress has resulted in the construction of ITER, a fusion device with a planned fusion power output of 500 MW in pulses of 400 s. ITER should provide answers to remaining important questions on the integration of physics and technology, through a full-size demonstration of a tenfold power multiplication, and on nuclear safety aspects. Here we review the basic physics underlying magnetic fusion: past achievements, present efforts and the prospects for future production of electrical energy. We also discuss questions related to the safety, waste management and decommissioning of a future fusion power plant.

  1. Fusion of Nonionic Vesicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulut, Sanja; Oskolkova, M. Z.; Schweins, R.

    2010-01-01

    We present an experimental study of vesicle fusion using light and neutron scattering to monitor fusion events. Vesicles are reproducibly formed with an extrusion procedure using an single amphiphile triethylene glycol mono-n-decyl ether in water. They show long-term stability for temperatures...... around 20 C, but at temperatures above 26 C we observe an increase in the scattered intensity due to fusion. The system is unusually well suited for the study of basic mechanisms of vesicle fusion. The vesicles are flexible with a bending rigidity of only a few k(H)T. The monolayer spontaneous curvature...

  2. Prospects for bubble fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigmatulin, R.I. [Tyumen Institute of Mechanics of Multiphase Systems (TIMMS), Marx (Russian Federation); Lahey, R.T. Jr. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    1995-09-01

    In this paper a new method for the realization of fusion energy is presented. This method is based on the superhigh compression of a gas bubble (deuterium or deuterium/thritium) in heavy water or another liquid. The superhigh compression of a gas bubble in a liquid is achieved through forced non-linear, non-periodic resonance oscillations using moderate amplitudes of forcing pressure. The key feature of this new method is a coordination of the forced liquid pressure change with the change of bubble volume. The corresponding regime of the bubble oscillation has been called {open_quotes}basketball dribbling (BD) regime{close_quotes}. The analytical solution describing this process for spherically symmetric bubble oscillations, neglecting dissipation and compressibility of the liquid, has been obtained. This solution shown no limitation on the supercompression of the bubble and the corresponding maximum temperature. The various dissipation mechanisms, including viscous, conductive and radiation heat losses have been considered. It is shown that in spite of these losses it is possible to achieve very high gas bubble temperatures. This because the time duration of the gas bubble supercompression becomes very short when increasing the intensity of compression, thus limiting the energy losses. Significantly, the calculated maximum gas temperatures have shown that nuclear fusion may be possible. First estimations of the affect of liquid compressibility have been made to determine possible limitations on gas bubble compression. The next step will be to investigate the role of interfacial instability and breaking down of the bubble, shock wave phenomena around and in the bubble and mutual diffusion of the gas and the liquid.

  3. Soldier systems sensor fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Kathryne M.

    1998-08-01

    This paper addresses sensor fusion and its applications in emerging Soldier Systems integration and the unique challenges associated with the human platform. Technology that,provides the highest operational payoff in a lightweight warrior system must not only have enhanced capabilities, but have low power components resulting in order of magnitude reductions coupled with significant cost reductions. These reductions in power and cost will be achieved through partnership with industry and leveraging of commercial state of the art advancements in microelectronics and power sources. As new generation of full solution fire control systems (to include temperature, wind and range sensors) and target acquisition systems will accompany a new generation of individual combat weapons and upgrade existing weapon systems. Advanced lightweight thermal, IR, laser and video senors will be used for surveillance, target acquisition, imaging and combat identification applications. Multifunctional sensors will provide embedded training features in combat configurations allowing the soldier to 'train as he fights' without the traditional cost and weight penalties associated with separate systems. Personal status monitors (detecting pulse, respiration rate, muscle fatigue, core temperature, etc.) will provide commanders and highest echelons instantaneous medical data. Seamless integration of GPS and dead reckoning (compass and pedometer) and/or inertial sensors will aid navigation and increase position accuracy. Improved sensors and processing capability will provide earlier detection of battlefield hazards such as mines, enemy lasers and NBC (nuclear, biological, chemical) agents. Via the digitized network the situational awareness database will automatically be updated with weapon, medical, position and battlefield hazard data. Soldier Systems Sensor Fusion will ultimately establish each individual soldier as an individual sensor on the battlefield.

  4. 基于环行多宇宙量子编码算法的图像融合处理%Image Fusion Processing Based on Multi-universe Quantum Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵明省; 魏雪峰

    2013-01-01

    针对图像融合中量子算法存在的缺点,提出多宇宙并行算法.首先通过量子比特编码来确定宇宙中的个体;然后把量子群分成若干个独立的宇宙,宇宙内部为环行拓朴结构,通过自适应比例产生不同压力来对量子宇宙之间进行信息交换;最后对图像融合处理包括高、低频部分以及评价指标的建立.实验结果表明该算法融合结果清晰、处理速度快.%According to quantum algorithm of image fusion to the disadvantages of parallel algorithm,multi-universe is proposed.Firstly,by quantum bit code to determine the individual in the universe.Then,the quantum group of divided into many independent of the universe,the universe for parallel internal topology structure,using quantum revolving door update,through individual quantum universe adaptive scale to produce different pressure for the exchange of information between quantum universe.The image fusion processing including high and low frequency part and the establishment of the evaluation indexes.The experimental results show that the algorithm the fusion results clearly,processing speed faster.

  5. Fusion probability in heavy nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Tathagata; Nath, S.; Pal, Santanu

    2015-03-01

    Background: Fusion between two massive nuclei is a very complex process and is characterized by three stages: (a) capture inside the potential barrier, (b) formation of an equilibrated compound nucleus (CN), and (c) statistical decay of the CN leading to a cold evaporation residue (ER) or fission. The second stage is the least understood of the three and is the most crucial in predicting yield of superheavy elements (SHE) formed in complete fusion reactions. Purpose: A systematic study of average fusion probability, PCN> , is undertaken to obtain a better understanding of its dependence on various reaction parameters. The study may also help to clearly demarcate onset of non-CN fission (NCNF), which causes fusion probability, PCN, to deviate from unity. Method: ER excitation functions for 52 reactions leading to CN in the mass region 170-220, which are available in the literature, have been compared with statistical model (SM) calculations. Capture cross sections have been obtained from a coupled-channels code. In the SM, shell corrections in both the level density and the fission barrier have been included. PCN> for these reactions has been extracted by comparing experimental and theoretical ER excitation functions in the energy range ˜5 %-35% above the potential barrier, where known effects of nuclear structure are insignificant. Results: PCN> has been shown to vary with entrance channel mass asymmetry, η (or charge product, ZpZt ), as well as with fissility of the CN, χCN. No parameter has been found to be adequate as a single scaling variable to determine PCN> . Approximate boundaries have been obtained from where PCN> starts deviating from unity. Conclusions: This study quite clearly reveals the limits of applicability of the SM in interpreting experimental observables from fusion reactions involving two massive nuclei. Deviation of PCN> from unity marks the beginning of the domain of dynamical models of fusion. Availability of precise ER cross sections

  6. Cell fusion and nuclear fusion in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Daisuke; Ohtsu, Mina; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2016-12-01

    Eukaryotic cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane and have a large nucleus containing the genomic DNA, which is enclosed by a nuclear envelope consisting of the outer and inner nuclear membranes. Although these membranes maintain the identity of cells, they sometimes fuse to each other, such as to produce a zygote during sexual reproduction or to give rise to other characteristically polyploid tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that the mechanisms of plasma membrane or nuclear membrane fusion in plants are shared to some extent with those of yeasts and animals, despite the unique features of plant cells including thick cell walls and intercellular connections. Here, we summarize the key factors in the fusion of these membranes during plant reproduction, and also focus on "non-gametic cell fusion," which was thought to be rare in plant tissue, in which each cell is separated by a cell wall.

  7. Status and problems of fusion reactor development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, U

    2001-03-01

    Thermonuclear fusion of deuterium and tritium constitutes an enormous potential for a safe, environmentally compatible and sustainable energy supply. The fuel source is practically inexhaustible. Further, the safety prospects of a fusion reactor are quite favourable due to the inherently self-limiting fusion process, the limited radiologic toxicity and the passive cooling property. Among a small number of approaches, the concept of toroidal magnetic confinement of fusion plasmas has achieved most impressive scientific and technical progress towards energy release by thermonuclear burn of deuterium-tritium fuels. The status of thermonuclear fusion research activity world-wide is reviewed and present solutions to the complicated physical and technological problems are presented. These problems comprise plasma heating, confinement and exhaust of energy and particles, plasma stability, alpha particle heating, fusion reactor materials, reactor safety and environmental compatibility. The results and the high scientific level of this international research activity provide a sound basis for the realisation of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), whose goal is to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of a fusion energy source for peaceful purposes.

  8. Mechanics of post-fusion exocytotic vesicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Thomas; Wu, Zhanghan; Liu, Jian

    2017-06-01

    Exocytosis is an important cellular process controlled by metabolic signaling. It involves vesicle fusion to the plasma membrane, followed by the opening of a fusion pore, and the subsequent release of the vesicular lumen content into the extracellular space. While most modeling efforts focus on the events leading to membrane fusion, how the vesicular membrane remodels after fusing to plasma membrane remains unclear. This latter event dictates the nature and the efficiency of exocytotic vesicular secretions, and is thus critical for exocytotic function. We provide a generic membrane mechanical model to systematically study the fate of post-fusion vesicles. We show that while membrane stiffness favors full-collapse vesicle fusion into the plasma membrane, the intravesicular pressure swells the vesicle and causes the fusion pore to shrink. Dimensions of the vesicle and its associated fusion pore further modulate this mechanical antagonism. We systematically define the mechanical conditions that account for the full spectrum of the observed vesicular secretion modes. Our model therefore can serve as a unified theoretical framework that sheds light on the elaborate control mechanism of exocytosis.

  9. Myoblast fusion: Experimental systems and cellular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schejter, Eyal D

    2016-12-01

    Fusion of myoblasts gives rise to the large, multi-nucleated muscle fibers that power and support organism motion and form. The mechanisms underlying this prominent form of cell-cell fusion have been investigated by a variety of experimental approaches, in several model systems. The purpose of this review is to describe and discuss recent progress in the field, as well as point out issues currently unresolved and worthy of further investigation. Following a description of several new experimental settings employed in the study of myoblast fusion, a series of topics relevant to the current understanding of the process are presented. These pertain to elements of three major cellular machineries- cell-adhesion, the actin-based cytoskeleton and membrane-associated elements- all of which play key roles in mediating myoblast fusion. Among the issues raised are the diversity of functions ascribed to different adhesion proteins (e.g. external cell apposition and internal recruitment of cytoskeleton regulators); functional significance of fusion-associated actin structures; and discussion of alternative mechanisms employing single or multiple fusion pore formation as the basis for muscle cell fusion.

  10. Fundamental processes of fuel removal by cyclotron frequency range plasmas and integral scenario for fusion application studied with carbon co-deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möller, S.; Wauters, T.; Kreter, A.; Petersson, P.; Carrasco, A. G.

    2015-08-01

    Plasma impact removal using radio frequency heated plasmas is a candidate method to control the co-deposit related tritium inventory in fusion devices. Plasma parameters evolve according to the balance of input power to losses (transport, radiation, collisions). Material is sputtered by the ion fluxes with impact energies defined by the plasma sheath. H2, D2 and 18O2 plasmas are produced in the carbon limiter tokamak TEXTOR. Pre-characterised a-C:D layers are exposed to study local removal rates. The D2 plasma exhibits the highest surface release rate of 5.7 ± 0.9 ∗ 1019 D/m2s. Compared to this the rate of the O2 plasma is 3-fold smaller due to its 11-fold lower ion flux density. Re-deposition of removed carbon is observed, indicating that pumping and ionisation are limiting the removal in TEXTOR. Presented models can explain the observations and allow tailoring removal discharges. An integral application scenario using ICWC and thermo-chemical removal is presented, allowing to remove 700 g T from a-C:DT co-deposits in 20 h with fusion compatible wall conditions using technical specifications similar to ITER.

  11. Nuclear fusion inside condense matters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jing-tang

    2007-01-01

    This article describes in detail the nuclear fusion inside condense matters--the Fleischmann-Pons effect, the reproducibility of cold fusions, self-consistentcy of cold fusions and the possible applications.

  12. Sensor fusion method for machine performance enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mou, J.I. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); King, C.; Hillaire, R. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Integrated Manufacturing Systems Center; Jones, S.; Furness, R. [Ford Motor Co., Dearborn, MI (United States)

    1998-03-01

    A sensor fusion methodology was developed to uniquely integrate pre-process, process-intermittent, and post-process measurement and analysis technology to cost-effectively enhance the accuracy and capability of computer-controlled manufacturing equipment. Empirical models and computational algorithms were also developed to model, assess, and then enhance the machine performance.

  13. Sensor Data Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plascencia, Alfredo; Stepán, Petr

    2006-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is to present a sensor fusion approach to scene environment mapping as part of a Sensor Data Fusion (SDF) architecture. This approach involves combined sonar array with stereo vision readings.  Sonar readings are interpreted using probability density functions...

  14. Complementary Advanced Fusion Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    homographic computer vision image fusion, out-of-sequence measurement and track data handling, Nash bargaining approaches to sensor management... homographic fusion notions are identified together with the Nash approach, the pursuit-evasion approach to threat situation outcome determination, and the

  15. Controlled Nuclear Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasstone, Samuel

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by The United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Importance of Fusion Energy; Conditions for Nuclear Fusion; Thermonuclear Reactions in Plasmas; Plasma Confinement by Magnetic Fields; Experiments With Plasmas; High-Temperature…

  16. Controlled thermonuclear fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Bobin, Jean Louis

    2014-01-01

    The book is a presentation of the basic principles and main achievements in the field of nuclear fusion. It encompasses both magnetic and inertial confinements plus a few exotic mechanisms for nuclear fusion. The state-of-the-art regarding thermonuclear reactions, hot plasmas, tokamaks, laser-driven compression and future reactors is given.

  17. Cell fusions in mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Lars-Inge; Bjerregaard, Bolette; Talts, Jan Fredrik

    2008-01-01

    Cell fusions are important to fertilization, placentation, development of skeletal muscle and bone, calcium homeostasis and the immune defense system. Additionally, cell fusions participate in tissue repair and may be important to cancer development and progression. A large number of factors appe...

  18. Compact fusion reactors

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Fusion research is currently to a large extent focused on tokamak (ITER) and inertial confinement (NIF) research. In addition to these large international or national efforts there are private companies performing fusion research using much smaller devices than ITER or NIF. The attempt to achieve fusion energy production through relatively small and compact devices compared to tokamaks decreases the costs and building time of the reactors and this has allowed some private companies to enter the field, like EMC2, General Fusion, Helion Energy, Lawrenceville Plasma Physics and Lockheed Martin. Some of these companies are trying to demonstrate net energy production within the next few years. If they are successful their next step is to attempt to commercialize their technology. In this presentation an overview of compact fusion reactor concepts is given.

  19. Dynamical effects in fusion with exotic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo-Phuoc, K.; Simenel, C.; Simpson, E. C.

    2016-08-01

    Background: Reactions with stable beams have demonstrated strong interplay between nuclear structure and fusion. Exotic beam facilities open new perspectives to understand the impact of neutron skin, large isospin, and weak binding energies on fusion. Microscopic theories of fusion are required to guide future experiments. Purpose: To investigate new effects of exotic structures and dynamics in near-barrier fusion with exotic nuclei. Method: Microscopic approaches based on the Hartree-Fock (HF) mean-field theory are used for studying fusion barriers in -54Ca40+116Sn reactions for even isotopes. Bare potential barriers are obtained assuming frozen HF ground-state densities. Dynamical effects on the barrier are accounted for in time-dependent Hartree-Fock (TDHF) calculations of the collisions. Vibrational couplings are studied in the coupled-channel framework and near-barrier nucleon transfer is investigated with TDHF calculations. Results: The development of a neutron skin in exotic calcium isotopes strongly lowers the bare potential barrier. However, this static effect is not apparent when dynamical effects are included. On the contrary, a fusion hindrance is observed in TDHF calculations with the most neutron-rich calcium isotopes which cannot be explained by vibrational couplings. Transfer reactions are also important in these systems due to charge equilibration processes. Conclusions: Despite its impact on the bare potential, the neutron skin is not seen as playing an important role in the fusion dynamics. However, the charge transfer with exotic projectiles could lead to an increase of the Coulomb repulsion between the fragments, suppressing fusion. The effects of transfer and dissipative mechanisms on fusion with exotic nuclei deserve further studies.

  20. Fusion Pore Diameter Regulation by Cations Modulating Local Membrane Anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doron Kabaso

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The fusion pore is an aqueous channel that is formed upon the fusion of the vesicle membrane with the plasma membrane. Once the pore is open, it may close again (transient fusion or widen completely (full fusion to permit vesicle cargo discharge. While repetitive transient fusion pore openings of the vesicle with the plasma membrane have been observed in the absence of stimulation, their frequency can be further increased using a cAMP-increasing agent that drives the opening of nonspecific cation channels. Our model hypothesis is that the openings and closings of the fusion pore are driven by changes in the local concentration of cations in the connected vesicle. The proposed mechanism of fusion pore dynamics is considered as follows: when the fusion pore is closed or is extremely narrow, the accumulation of cations in the vesicle (increased cation concentration likely leads to lipid demixing at the fusion pore. This process may affect local membrane anisotropy, which reduces the spontaneous curvature and thus leads to the opening of the fusion pore. Based on the theory of membrane elasticity, we used a continuum model to explain the rhythmic opening and closing of the fusion pore.

  1. Non-destructive testing of high heat flux components of fusion devices by infrared thermography: modeling and signal processing; Controle non destructif par thermographie infrarouge des composants face au plasma des machines de fusion controlee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cismondi, F

    2007-07-01

    In Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) the joint of the CFC armour material onto the metallic CuCrZr heat sink needs to be significant defects free. Detection of material flaws is a major issue of the PFCs acceptance protocol. A Non-Destructive Technique (NDT) based upon active infrared thermography allows testing PFCs on SATIR tests bed in Cadarache. Up to now defect detection was based on the comparison of the surface temperature evolution of the inspected component with that of a supposed 'defect-free' one (used as a reference element). This work deals with improvement of thermal signal processing coming from SATIR. In particular the contributions of the thermal modelling and statistical signal processing converge in this work. As for thermal modelling, the identification of a sensitive parameter to defect presence allows improving the quantitative estimation of defect Otherwise Finite Element (FE) modeling of SATIR allows calculating the so called deterministic numerical tile. Statistical approach via the Monte Carlo technique extends the numerical tile concept to the numerical population concept. As for signal processing, traditional statistical treatments allow a better localization of the bond defect processing thermo-signal by itself, without utilising a reference signal. Moreover the problem of detection and classification of random signals can be solved by maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio. Two filters maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio are optimized: the stochastic matched filter aims at detects detection and the constrained stochastic matched filter aims at defects classification. Performances are quantified and methods are compared via the ROC curves. (author)

  2. Effect of Fuelling Depth on the Fusion Performance and Particle Confinement of a Fusion Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shijia; Wang, Shaojie

    2016-12-01

    The fusion performance and particle confinement of an international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER)-like fusion device have been modeled by numerically solving the energy transport equation and the particle transport equation. The effect of fuelling depth has been investigated. The plasma is primarily heated by the fusion produced alpha particles and the loss process of particles and energy in the scrape-off layer has been taken into account. To study the effect of fuelling depth on fusion performance, the ITERH-98P(y,2) scaling law has been used to evaluate the transport coefficients. It is shown that the particle confinement and fusion performance are significantly dependent on the fuelling depth. Deviation of 10% of the minor radius on fuelling depth can make the particle confinement change by ∼ 61% and the fusion performance change by ∼ 108%. The enhancement of fusion performance is due to the better particle confinement induced by deeper particle fuelling. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11175178 and 11375196) and the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (No. 2014GB113000)

  3. Effect of pulsed current micro plasma arc welding process parameters on fusion zone grain size and ultimate tensile strength of Inconel 625 sheets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kondapalli Siva Prasad; Chalamalasetti Srinivasa Rao; Damera Nageswara Rao

    2012-01-01

    The paper focuses on developing mathematical models to predict grain size and ultimate tensile strength of pulsed current micro plasma arc welded Inconel 625 nickel alloy.Four factors,five levels,central composite rotatable design matrix is used to optimize the number of experiments.The mathematical models have been developed by response surface method.The adequacy of the models is checked by analysis of variance technique.By using the developed mathematical models,grain size and ultimate tensile strength of the joints can be predicted with 99%0 confidence level.Contour plots are drawn to study the interaction effect of pulsed current micro plasma arc welding parameters on fusion zone grain size and ultimate tensile strength of Inconel 625 weld ioints.

  4. Analysis of two separate Higgs boson production processes which decay to two W bosons: vector boson fusion production with a fully leptonic final state and only one reconstructed jet; and WH production with the final state signature WWW*->lvlvqq

    CERN Document Server

    Gormsen, Helle

    2016-01-01

    The possible separation of signal and background for two Higgs boson processes is investigated comparing the significance achieved from an analysis fully based on binary selection criteria with an event selection applying a boosted decision tree as a multivariate method. The two examined channels are: vector boson fusion production of the Higgs particle with the decay H -> WW* -> lvlv, with only one of the two tag jets reconstructed; and the Higgs-strahlung process from a W boson with the signature WH -> WWW* -> lvlvqq. The results for the VBF and WH analysis are obtained from data samples corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3.2 fb^-1 and 5.8 fb^-1 respectively and a center-of-mass energy of sqrt(s)=13 TeV.

  5. Geodata fusion study by the Open Geospatial Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percivall, George

    2013-05-01

    Making new connections in existing data is a powerful method to gain understanding of the world. Data fusion is not a new topic, but new approaches provide opportunities to enhance this ubiquitous process. Interoperability based on open standards is radically changing the classical domains of data fusion while inventing entirely new ways to discern relationships in data with little structure. Associations based on locations and times are of the most primary type. The Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) conducted a Fusion Standards study with recommendations implemented in testbeds. In the context of this study, Data Fusion was defined as: "the act or process of combining or associating data or information regarding one or more entities considered in an explicit or implicit knowledge framework to improve one's capability (or provide a new capability) for detection, identification, or characterization of that entity". Three categories were used to organize this study: Observation Fusion, Feature fusion, and Decision fusion. The study considered classical fusion as exemplified by the JDL and OODA models as well as how fusion is achieved by new technology such as web-based mash-ups and mobile Internet. The study considers both OGC standards as well open standards from other standards organizations. These technologies and standards aid in bringing structure to unstructured data as well as enabling a major new thrust in Decision Fusion.

  6. Fusion Studies in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Yuichi

    2016-05-01

    A new strategic energy plan decided by the Japanese Cabinet in 2014 strongly supports the steady promotion of nuclear fusion development activities, including the ITER project and the Broader Approach activities from the long-term viewpoint. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) in Japan formulated the Third Phase Basic Program so as to promote an experimental fusion reactor project. In 2005 AEC has reviewed this Program, and discussed on selection and concentration among many projects of fusion reactor development. In addition to the promotion of ITER project, advanced tokamak research by JT-60SA, helical plasma experiment by LHD, FIREX project in laser fusion research and fusion engineering by IFMIF were highly prioritized. Although the basic concept is quite different between tokamak, helical and laser fusion researches, there exist a lot of common features such as plasma physics on 3-D magnetic geometry, high power heat load on plasma facing component and so on. Therefore, a synergetic scenario on fusion reactor development among various plasma confinement concepts would be important.

  7. Design and realization of a real-time processing system for radar network fusion%一种雷达组网融合实时处理系统设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨科技; 郑成波; 傅其祥; 王伟

    2011-01-01

    Radar network is an important method to improve the target detecting and anti-jamming ability of radar system.It designed and fulfilled a real-time processing system using ADSP TS201 for the data fusion of netted radar.It mainly described the configuration of a parallel processing system which used two ADSP TS201s,and also analyzed the algorithm calculate burden and result of it.The system could content the real-time processing need of both centralized and distributed netted radar fusion.The diversity of netted radar signal processing could be sufficed by the system because of its flexibility and scalability.%雷达组网对于提高雷达系统目标探测及抗干扰能力具有重要的意义。设计并实现了一种基于ADSPTS201的组网雷达数据融合实时处理系统。主要阐述了双ADSPTS201并行处理系统的结构、算法量的估计与结果分析。系统可满足集中式组网融合和分布式组网融合的实时处理需求。该系统还具有灵活性和可扩展性,可满足组网雷达信号处理的多样性要求。

  8. Control of Fusion and Solubility in Fusion Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Craven, David A

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we consider the control of fusion in fusion systems, proving three previously known, non-trivial results in a new, largely elementary way. We then reprove a result of Aschbacher, that the product of two strongly closed subgroups is strongly closed; to do this, we consolidate the theory of quotients of fusion systems into a consistent theory. We move on considering p-soluble fusion systems, and prove that they are constrained, allowing us to effectively characterize fusion systems of p-soluble groups. This leads us to recast Thompson Factorization for Qd(p)-free fusion systems, and consider Thompson Factorization for more general fusion systems.

  9. A NOVEL REGION FEATURE USED IN MULTISENSOR IMAGE FUSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new region feature which emphasized the salience of target region and its neighbors is proposed.In region segmentation-based multisensor image fusion scheme, the presented feature can be extracted from each segmented region to determine the fusion weight. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed feature has extensive application scope and it provides much more information for each region. It can not only be used in image fusion but also be used in other image processing applications.

  10. Fusion of perceptions for perceptual robotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciftcioglu, O.; Bittermann, M.S.; Sariyildiz, I.S.

    2006-01-01

    Fusion of perception information for perceptual robotics is described. The visual perception is mathematically modelled as a probabilistic process obtaining and interpreting visual data from an environment. The visual data is processed in a multiresolutional form via wavelet transform and optimally

  11. 一种不确定性复杂大时滞过程的融合控制策略%A Sort of fusion control strategy for uncertainty complex process with large time lag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毕波

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the puzzle of being lower in control precision of complicated large lag process resulted by uncertainty,the paper presented a sort of control strategy based on algorithm fusion. In the paper,it studied the control puzzle and cybernetics characteristic,based on the complex process characteristic with large lag,fused that the integral control is propitious to eliminate the steady error,Smith estimator control is helpful for time lag compensation,and fuzzy control is conducive to deal with some uncertainty controls.Based on the integration of their respective ad-vantages,it gave a sort of I-Fuzzy-Smith control algorithm.Based on MATLAB simulation,it took the inertial process with large time lag as an example,and conducted the comparative study re-spectively by PID,Fuzzy-Smith and I-Fuzzy-Smith control,and the response demonstrated that the fusion control strategy would be more advantages in respect of system dynamic &static per-formance and robustness than others.The research result shows that the proposed fusion control strategy is high in control precision,and shows very strong robustness.%针对不确定性导致的复杂大时滞过程控制精度低的问题,提出了一种基于算法融合的控制策略。研究了控制难点与控制论特性,基于大时滞复杂过程特性,融合了积分控制有利于消除稳态误差,Smith预估控制有利于时滞的补偿,模糊控制有利于处理某些不确定性控制,集成各自的优势,给出了一种I-Fuzzy-Smith控制算法。基于Matlab仿真,以大时滞惯性过程为例,分别采用PID、Fuzzy-Smith和I-Fuzzy-Smith控制进行了比较研究,响应验证了融合控制策略在系统动、静态性能和鲁棒性方面的优势。研究结果表明:提出的融合控制策略控制精度高,并表现出很强的鲁棒性。

  12. Tissue identification with micro-magnetic resonance imaging in a caprine spinal fusion model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. Uffen; M.R. Krijnen; R.J. Hoogendoorn; G.J. Strijkers; V. Everts; P.I. Wuisman; T.H. Smit

    2008-01-01

    Nonunion is a major complication of spinal interbody fusion. Currently X-ray and computed tomography (CT) are used for evaluating the spinal fusion process. However, both imaging modalities have limitations in judgment of the early stages of this fusion process, as they only visualize mineralized bo

  13. Sampling Based Average Classifier Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hou

    2014-01-01

    fusion algorithms have been proposed in literature, average fusion is almost always selected as the baseline for comparison. Little is done on exploring the potential of average fusion and proposing a better baseline. In this paper we empirically investigate the behavior of soft labels and classifiers in average fusion. As a result, we find that; by proper sampling of soft labels and classifiers, the average fusion performance can be evidently improved. This result presents sampling based average fusion as a better baseline; that is, a newly proposed classifier fusion algorithm should at least perform better than this baseline in order to demonstrate its effectiveness.

  14. Fusion plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2012-01-01

    This revised and enlarged second edition of the popular textbook and reference contains comprehensive treatments of both the established foundations of magnetic fusion plasma physics and of the newly developing areas of active research. It concludes with a look ahead to fusion power reactors of the future. The well-established topics of fusion plasma physics -- basic plasma phenomena, Coulomb scattering, drifts of charged particles in magnetic and electric fields, plasma confinement by magnetic fields, kinetic and fluid collective plasma theories, plasma equilibria and flux surface geometry, plasma waves and instabilities, classical and neoclassical transport, plasma-materials interactions, radiation, etc. -- are fully developed from first principles through to the computational models employed in modern plasma physics. The new and emerging topics of fusion plasma physics research -- fluctuation-driven plasma transport and gyrokinetic/gyrofluid computational methodology, the physics of the divertor, neutral ...

  15. Cold nuclear fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Zhenqiang Huang Yuxiang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In normal temperature condition, the nuclear force constraint inertial guidance method, realize the combination of deuterium and tritium, helium and lithium... And with a magnetic moment of light nuclei controlled cold nuclear collide fusion, belongs to the nuclear energy research and development in the field of applied technology "cold nuclear collide fusion". According to the similarity of the nuclear force constraint inertial guidance system, the different velocity and energy of the ion beam mixing control, developed ion speed dc transformer, it is cold nuclear fusion collide, issue of motivation and the nuclear power plant start-up fusion and power transfer system of the important equipment, so the merger to apply for a patent

  16. Fusion Revisits CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    It's going to be a hot summer at CERN. At least in the Main Building, where from 13 July to 20 August an exhibition is being hosted on nuclear fusion, the energy of the Stars. Nuclear fusion is the engine driving the stars but also a potential source of energy for mankind. The exhibition shows the different nuclear fusion techniques and research carried out on the subject in Europe. Inaugurated at CERN in 1993, following collaboration between Lausanne's CRPP-EPFL and CERN, with input from Alessandro Pascolini of Italy's INFN, this exhibition has travelled round Europe before being revamped and returning to CERN. 'Fusion, Energy of the Stars', from 13 July onwards, Main Building

  17. Optical Fiber Fusion Splicing

    CERN Document Server

    Yablon, Andrew D

    2005-01-01

    This book is an up-to-date treatment of optical fiber fusion splicing incorporating all the recent innovations in the field. It provides a toolbox of general strategies and specific techniques that the reader can apply when optimizing fusion splices between novel fibers. It specifically addresses considerations important for fusion splicing of contemporary specialty fibers including dispersion compensating fiber, erbium-doped gain fiber, polarization maintaining fiber, and microstructured fiber. Finally, it discusses the future of optical fiber fusion splicing including silica and non-silica based optical fibers as well as the trend toward increasing automation. Whilst serving as a self-contained reference work, abundant citations from the technical literature will enable readers to readily locate primary sources.

  18. Safety of magnetic fusion facilities: Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    This document provides guidance for the implementation of the requirements identified in DOE-STD-6002-96, Safety of Magnetic Fusion Facilities: Requirements. This guidance is intended for the managers, designers, operators, and other personnel with safety responsibilities for facilities designated as magnetic fusion facilities. While the requirements in DOE-STD-6002-96 are generally applicable to a wide range of fusion facilities, this Standard, DOE-STD-6003-96, is concerned mainly with the implementation of those requirements in large facilities such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Using a risk-based prioritization, the concepts presented here may also be applied to other magnetic fusion facilities. This Standard is oriented toward regulation in the Department of Energy (DOE) environment as opposed to regulation by other regulatory agencies. As the need for guidance involving other types of fusion facilities or other regulatory environments emerges, additional guidance volumes should be prepared. The concepts, processes, and recommendations set forth here are for guidance only. They will contribute to safety at magnetic fusion facilities.

  19. Economically competitive fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J. Ward

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Not since the oil crisis of the 1970s has the perception that energy is a crucial and precious resource been as strong as it is today. The need for a new approach to world energy supply, driven by concerns over resources, pollution, and security, is leading to a reappraisal of fusion. Fusion has enormous potential and major safety and environmental advantages, and hence could make a large difference to energy supplies.

  20. Fusion ignition research experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale Meade

    2000-07-18

    Understanding the properties of high gain (alpha-dominated) fusion plasmas in an advanced toroidal configuration is the largest remaining open issue that must be addressed to provide the scientific foundation for an attractive magnetic fusion reactor. The critical parts of this science can be obtained in a compact high field tokamak which is also likely to provide the fastest and least expensive path to understanding alpha-dominated plasmas in advanced toroidal systems.

  1. Fusion, cold fusion, and space policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotegard, D. (CST Ltd. (United States))

    1991-01-01

    This paper critiques Americal science policy through a consideration of two examples-cold fusion and asteroid mining. It points out that the failure of central planning in science and technology policy is just as marked as in more mundane activities. It highlights the current low level of debate and points out some technical issues that need to be addressed. It concludes with evidence that the alliance of flawed policy options is further lowering the level of debate. (author).

  2. Y fuse? Sex chromosome fusions in fishes and reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, Matthew W; Kirkpatrick, Mark; Otto, Sarah P; Vamosi, Jana C; Peichel, Catherine L; Valenzuela, Nicole; Kitano, Jun

    2015-05-01

    Chromosomal fusion plays a recurring role in the evolution of adaptations and reproductive isolation among species, yet little is known of the evolutionary drivers of chromosomal fusions. Because sex chromosomes (X and Y in male heterogametic systems, Z and W in female heterogametic systems) differ in their selective, mutational, and demographic environments, those differences provide a unique opportunity to dissect the evolutionary forces that drive chromosomal fusions. We estimate the rate at which fusions between sex chromosomes and autosomes become established across the phylogenies of both fishes and squamate reptiles. Both the incidence among extant species and the establishment rate of Y-autosome fusions is much higher than for X-autosome, Z-autosome, or W-autosome fusions. Using population genetic models, we show that this pattern cannot be reconciled with many standard explanations for the spread of fusions. In particular, direct selection acting on fusions or sexually antagonistic selection cannot, on their own, account for the predominance of Y-autosome fusions. The most plausible explanation for the observed data seems to be (a) that fusions are slightly deleterious, and (b) that the mutation rate is male-biased or the reproductive sex ratio is female-biased. We identify other combinations of evolutionary forces that might in principle account for the data although they appear less likely. Our results shed light on the processes that drive structural changes throughout the genome.

  3. Y fuse? Sex chromosome fusions in fishes and reptiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew W Pennell

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chromosomal fusion plays a recurring role in the evolution of adaptations and reproductive isolation among species, yet little is known of the evolutionary drivers of chromosomal fusions. Because sex chromosomes (X and Y in male heterogametic systems, Z and W in female heterogametic systems differ in their selective, mutational, and demographic environments, those differences provide a unique opportunity to dissect the evolutionary forces that drive chromosomal fusions. We estimate the rate at which fusions between sex chromosomes and autosomes become established across the phylogenies of both fishes and squamate reptiles. Both the incidence among extant species and the establishment rate of Y-autosome fusions is much higher than for X-autosome, Z-autosome, or W-autosome fusions. Using population genetic models, we show that this pattern cannot be reconciled with many standard explanations for the spread of fusions. In particular, direct selection acting on fusions or sexually antagonistic selection cannot, on their own, account for the predominance of Y-autosome fusions. The most plausible explanation for the observed data seems to be (a that fusions are slightly deleterious, and (b that the mutation rate is male-biased or the reproductive sex ratio is female-biased. We identify other combinations of evolutionary forces that might in principle account for the data although they appear less likely. Our results shed light on the processes that drive structural changes throughout the genome.

  4. Fusion-Fission process and gamma spectroscopy of binary products in light heavy ion collisions (40 {<=} A{sub CN} {<=} 60); Processus de fusion-fission et spectroscopie gamma des produits binaires dans les collisions entre ions lourds legers (40 {<=} A{sub NC} {<=} 60)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouicer, Rachid [Institut de Recherche Subatomique, CNRS-IN2P3 - Universite Louis Pasteur, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    1997-11-21

    During the work on which this Thesis is based, the significant role of the Fusion-Fission Asymmetric mechanism in light heavy ion collisions (A{sub NC} {<=} 60) has been emphasized. The Spin Dis-alignment in the oblate-oblate system has supplied evidence for the first time for the Butterfly mode in a resonant-like reaction. These two aspects, one macroscopic and the other more closely related to microscopic effects are certainly different from a conceptual point of view but are quite complementary for a global understanding of dinuclear systems. In the first part, inclusive and exclusive measurements of the {sup 35}Cl + {sup 12}C and {sup 35}Cl + {sup 24}Mg reaction have been performed at 8 MeV/nucleon in the Saclay experiment. These measurements have permitted us to verify the origin of products which have given rise of the asymmetric fusion-fission mechanism and which have demonstrated that the three-body process in this energy range is very weak. In the second part the {sup 28}Si + {sup 28}Si reaction has been performed at the resonance energy E{sub lab}> = 111.6 MeV at Strasbourg with the Eurogam phase II multi-detector array and VIVITRON accelerator. An angular momentum J{sup {pi}} 38{sup +} for inelastic and mutual channels of the {sup 28}Si + {sup 28}Si exit channel has been measured and has supplied evidence for a spin dis-alignment which has been interpreted in the framework of a molecular model by Butterfly motion. The spectroscopic study of {sup 32}S nucleus, has revealed the occurrence of a new {gamma}-ray transition 0{sup +}(8507.8 keV) {yields} 2{sub 1}{sup +}(2230.2 keV). (author) 105 refs., 116 figs., 26 tabs.

  5. Quantitative and comparative analysis of hyperspectral data fusion performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 张晔; 李硕; 沈毅

    2002-01-01

    Hyperspectral data fusion technique is the key to hyperspectral data processing in recent years. Manyfusion methods have been proposed, but little research has been done to evaluate the performances of differentdata fusion methods. In order to meet the urgent need, quantitative correlation analysis (QCA) is proposed toanalyse and compare the performances of different fusion methods directly from data before and after fusion. Ex-periment results show that the new method is effective and the results of comparison are in agreement with theresults of application.

  6. A novel approach for quality control system using sensor fusion of infrared and visual image processing for laser sealing of food containers

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Habaibeh, A; Shi, F.; Brown, N; Kerr, D; Jackson, M.; Parkin, RM

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new mechatronic approach of using infrared thermography combined with image processing for the quality control of a laser sealing process for food containers. The suggested approach uses an on-line infrared system to assess the heat distribution within the container seal in order to guarantee the integrity of the process. Visual image processing is then used for quality assurance to guarantee optimum sealing. The results described in this paper show examples of the capab...

  7. Dynamical simulation of the fission process and anisotropy of the fission fragment angular distributions of excited nuclei produced in fusion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslamizadeh, H.

    2016-10-01

    Abstract. A stochastic approach based on four-dimensional Langevin equations was applied to calculate the anisotropy of fission fragment angular distributions, average prescission neutron multiplicity, and the fission probability in a wide range of fissile parameters for the compound nuclei 197Tl,225Pa,248Cf , and 264Rf produced in fusion reactions. Three collective shape coordinates plus the projection of total spin of the compound nucleus to the symmetry axis K were considered in the four-dimensional dynamical model. In the dynamical calculations, nuclear dissipation was generated through the chaos-weighted wall and window friction formula. Furthermore, in the dynamical calculations the dissipation coefficient of K ,γk was considered as a free parameter, and its magnitude inferred by fitting measured data on the anisotropy of fission fragment angular distributions for the compound nuclei 197Tl,225Pa,248Cf , and 264Rf. Comparison of the calculated results for the anisotropy of fission fragment angular distributions with the experimental data showed that the results of the calculations are in good agreement with the experimental data by using values of the dissipation coefficient of K equal to (0.185-0.205), (0.175-0.192), (0.077-0.090), and (0.075-0.085) (MeVzs ) -1 /2 for the compound nuclei 197Tl,225Pa,248Cf , and 264Rf, respectively. It was also shown that the influence of the dissipation coefficient of K on the results of the calculations of the prescission neutron multiplicity and fission probability is small.

  8. Image Fusion Using Pca in Cs Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. T. Sadeghi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Compressive sampling (CS, also called Compressed Sensing, has generated a tremendous amount of excitement in the image processing community. It provides an alternative to Shannon/Nyquist sampling when the signal under acquisition is known to be sparse or compressible. In this paper, we propose a new efficient image fusion method for compressed sensing imaging. In this method, we calculate the twodimensional discrete cosine transform of multiple input images, these achieved measurements are multiplied with sampling filter, so compressed images are obtained. we take inverse discrete cosine transform of them. Finally, fused image achieves from these results by using PCA fusion method. This approach also is implemented for multi-focus and noisy images. Simulation results show that our methodprovides promising fusion performance in both visual comparison and comparison using objective measures. Moreover, because this method does not need to recovery process the computational time is decreased very much.

  9. Visualization of Membrane Fusion, One Particle at a Time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otterstrom, Jason; van Oijen, Antoine M.

    2013-01-01

    Protein-mediated fusion between phospholipid bilayers is a fundamental and necessary mechanism for many cellular processes. The short-lived nature of the intermediate states visited during fusion makes it challenging to capture precise kinetic information using classical, ensemble-averaging biophysi

  10. Comparative Analysis of Various Image Fusion Techniques For Biomedical Images: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayera Nahvi,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Image Fusion is a process of combining the relevant information from a set of images, into a single image, wherein the resultant fused image will be more informative and complete than any of the input images. This paper discusses implementation of DWT technique on different images to make a fused image having more information content. As DWT is the latest technique for image fusion as compared to simple image fusion and pyramid based image fusion, so we are going to implement DWT as the image fusion technique in our paper. Other methods such as Principal Component Analysis (PCA based fusion, Intensity hue Saturation (IHS Transform based fusion and high pass filtering methods are also discussed. A new algorithm is proposed using Discrete Wavelet transform and different fusion techniques including pixel averaging, min-max and max-min methods for medical image fusion. KEYWORDS:

  11. ETS fusion genes in prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasi Tandefelt, Delila; Boormans, Joost; Hermans, Karin; Trapman, Jan

    2014-06-01

    Prostate cancer is very common in elderly men in developed countries. Unravelling the molecular and biological processes that contribute to tumor development and progressive growth, including its heterogeneity, is a challenging task. The fusion of the genes ERG and TMPRSS2 is the most frequent genomic alteration in prostate cancer. ERG is an oncogene that encodes a member of the family of ETS transcription factors. At lower frequency, other members of this gene family are also rearranged and overexpressed in prostate cancer. TMPRSS2 is an androgen-regulated gene that is preferentially expressed in the prostate. Most of the less frequent ETS fusion partners are also androgen-regulated and prostate-specific. During the last few years, novel concepts of the process of gene fusion have emerged, and initial experimental results explaining the function of the ETS genes ERG and ETV1 in prostate cancer have been published. In this review, we focus on the most relevant ETS gene fusions and summarize the current knowledge of the role of ETS transcription factors in prostate cancer. Finally, we discuss the clinical relevance of TMRPSS2-ERG and other ETS gene fusions in prostate cancer.

  12. Mitochondrial Fusion Proteins and Human Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Ranieri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are highly dynamic, complex organelles that continuously alter their shape, ranging between two opposite processes, fission and fusion, in response to several stimuli and the metabolic demands of the cell. Alterations in mitochondrial dynamics due to mutations in proteins involved in the fusion-fission machinery represent an important pathogenic mechanism of human diseases. The most relevant proteins involved in the mitochondrial fusion process are three GTPase dynamin-like proteins: mitofusin 1 (MFN1 and 2 (MFN2, located in the outer mitochondrial membrane, and optic atrophy protein 1 (OPA1, in the inner membrane. An expanding number of degenerative disorders are associated with mutations in the genes encoding MFN2 and OPA1, including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2A and autosomal dominant optic atrophy. While these disorders can still be considered rare, defective mitochondrial dynamics seem to play a significant role in the molecular and cellular pathogenesis of more common neurodegenerative diseases, for example, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. This review provides an overview of the basic molecular mechanisms involved in mitochondrial fusion and focuses on the alteration in mitochondrial DNA amount resulting from impairment of mitochondrial dynamics. We also review the literature describing the main disorders associated with the disruption of mitochondrial fusion.

  13. Sparse Recovery from Combined Fusion Frame Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Boufounos, Petros T; Rauhut, Holger

    2009-01-01

    Sparse representations have emerged as a powerful tool in signal and information processing, culminated by the success of new acquisition and processing techniques such as Compressed Sensing (CS). Fusion frames are very rich new signal representation methods that use collections of subspaces instead of vectors to represent signals. This work combines these exciting fields to introduce a new sparsity model for fusion frames. Signals that are sparse under the new model can be compressively sampled and uniquely reconstructed in ways similar to sparse signals using standard CS. The combination provides a promising new set of mathematical tools and signal models useful in a variety of applications. With the new model, a sparse signal has energy in very few of the subspaces of the fusion frame, although it does not need to be sparse within each of the subspaces it occupies. This sparsity model is captured using a mixed l1/l2 norm for fusion frames. A signal sparse in a fusion frame can be sampled using very few ran...

  14. A global energy model with fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechon, Yolanda [CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: yolanda.lechon@ciemat.es; Cabal, H. [CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Varela, M. [CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Saez, R. [CIEMAT, Avda Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Eherer, C. [TUG/ITP, Petersgasse 16, 8010 Graz (Austria); Baumann, M. [TUG/ITP, Petersgasse 16, 8010 Graz (Austria); Dueweke, J. [IPP, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hamacher, T. [IPP, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Tosato, G.C. [EFDA Close Support Unit, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2005-11-15

    Some analysts expect a complete shift of the global energy system in the 21st century, away from fossil fuels to either renewable sources or new nuclear technologies [L. Schrattenholzer, A roadmap to a sustainable global energy system, in: Proceedings of the International Energy Workshop, Paris, June, 2004]. Fusion might become a corner stone of the future energy system. The construction and successful operation of ITER is a necessary condition to reach this goal. Within the Socio Economic Research on Fusion (SERF) programme guided by EFDA, a consortium between CIEMAT, TU Graz (TUG), ENEA and IPP open to other European energy and fusion research laboratories has been formed to analyse the possible role of fusion in the future energy system. Using TIMES, a single region global model has been constructed including fusion as an energy option. Background of the model is a detailed bottom-up description of the complete energy system starting from mining process up to the various demand sectors. The model dynamics is determined by an optimisation process, in which total surplus is maximized. The paper will present the first attempts to set-up a single region global model and the first results.

  15. Context Representation and Fusion: Advancements and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asad Masood Khattak

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The acceptance and usability of context-aware systems have given them the edge of wide use in various domains and has also attracted the attention of researchers in the area of context-aware computing. Making user context information available to such systems is the center of attention. However, there is very little emphasis given to the process of context representation and context fusion which are integral parts of context-aware systems. Context representation and fusion facilitate in recognizing the dependency/relationship of one data source on another to extract a better understanding of user context. The problem is more critical when data is emerging from heterogeneous sources of diverse nature like sensors, user profiles, and social interactions and also at different timestamps. Both the processes of context representation and fusion are followed in one way or another; however, they are not discussed explicitly for the realization of context-aware systems. In other words most of the context-aware systems underestimate the importance context representation and fusion. This research has explicitly focused on the importance of both the processes of context representation and fusion and has streamlined their existence in the overall architecture of context-aware systems’ design and development. Various applications of context representation and fusion in context-aware systems are also highlighted in this research. A detailed review on both the processes is provided in this research with their applications. Future research directions (challenges are also highlighted which needs proper attention for the purpose of achieving the goal of realizing context-aware systems.

  16. Context Representation and Fusion: Advancements and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattak, Asad Masood; Akbar, Noman; Aazam, Mohammad; Ali, Taqdir; Khan, Adil Mehmood; Jeon, Seokhee; Hwang, Myunggwon; Lee, Sungyoung

    2014-01-01

    The acceptance and usability of context-aware systems have given them the edge of wide use in various domains and has also attracted the attention of researchers in the area of context-aware computing. Making user context information available to such systems is the center of attention. However, there is very little emphasis given to the process of context representation and context fusion which are integral parts of context-aware systems. Context representation and fusion facilitate in recognizing the dependency/relationship of one data source on another to extract a better understanding of user context. The problem is more critical when data is emerging from heterogeneous sources of diverse nature like sensors, user profiles, and social interactions and also at different timestamps. Both the processes of context representation and fusion are followed in one way or another; however, they are not discussed explicitly for the realization of context-aware systems. In other words most of the context-aware systems underestimate the importance context representation and fusion. This research has explicitly focused on the importance of both the processes of context representation and fusion and has streamlined their existence in the overall architecture of context-aware systems’ design and development. Various applications of context representation and fusion in context-aware systems are also highlighted in this research. A detailed review on both the processes is provided in this research with their applications. Future research directions (challenges) are also highlighted which needs proper attention for the purpose of achieving the goal of realizing context-aware systems. PMID:24887042

  17. Lateral Lumbar Interbody Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Alexander; Girardi, Federico; Sama, Andrew; Lebl, Darren; Cammisa, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) is a relatively new technique that allows the surgeon to access the intervertebral space from a direct lateral approach either anterior to or through the psoas muscle. This approach provides an alternative to anterior lumbar interbody fusion with instrumentation, posterior lumbar interbody fusion, and transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion for anterior column support. LLIF is minimally invasive, safe, better structural support from the apophyseal ring, potential for coronal plane deformity correction, and indirect decompression, which have has made this technique popular. LLIF is currently being utilized for a variety of pathologies including but not limited to adult de novo lumbar scoliosis, central and foraminal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, and adjacent segment degeneration. Although early clinical outcomes have been good, the potential for significant neurological and vascular vertebral endplate complications exists. Nevertheless, LLIF is a promising technique with the potential to more effectively treat complex adult de novo scoliosis and achieve predictable fusion while avoiding the complications of traditional anterior surgery and posterior interbody techniques. PMID:26713134

  18. Application of Real-time Data Processing Method Based on Information Fusion%基于信息融合的实时数据处理方法应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄越平; 陶爱科; 苏涛; 刘小军

    2012-01-01

    This paper takes raise the data processing effect based on engineering application of command and control data processing systern (DPS), it researches the current data processing method and designs an improvement real-time data processing system. The system applies multi-sensor data fusion (MSDF) technique, multi-target tracking technique and Kalman Filter method in the DPS. It solves the prohlems that result in of the sail vestige disorder of phenomenon multi sensor more to follow same target because of multi sensor accuracy and data sample rate dissimilarity. It solves the problems of airplanes to organize into teams a take-off, greatly the area be mobile, the airplanes organize into teams and cross flights, situation comprehensive, command and control, real-time measure and control leading etc. The contents of applied system includes system structure and data process method, multi-sensor data fusion model, variety filtering algorithm, real-timedata imitate and actual system application.%文章以实际工程背景为出发点,以提高某指挥控制数据处理系统的处理效果为目的,在对当前已有的数据处理方式、方法深入剖析的基础上,综合运用多传感器信息融合技术、多目标跟踪技术、Kalman滤波技术等多种数据处理方法设计了一套改进的数据处理系统。解决了多传感器跟踪同一目标时,因各传感器精度、数据采样率不同而造成的航迹混乱的现象;解决了飞机编队起飞、大空域机动、空中编队和交叉飞行等复杂状态下的跟踪、态势综合、指挥控制、实时测控引导问题;应用系统设计包括系统体系结构与处理流程、多传感器融合算法模型、多种滤波算法、实测数据仿真和实际系统应用等问题。

  19. Measures of information for multilevel data fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxenham, Martin G.; Kewley, Douglas J.; Nelson, Mark J.

    1996-06-01

    In many commercial and military activities such as manufacturing, robotics, surveillance, target tracking and military command and control, information may be gathered by a variety of sources. The types of sources which may be used cover a broad spectrum and the data collected may be either numerical or linguistic in nature. Data fusion is the process in which data from multiple sources are combined to provide enhanced information quality and availability over that which is available from any individual source. The question is how to assess these enhancements. Using the U.S. JDL Model, the process of data fusion can be divided into several distinct levels. The first three levels are object refinement, situation refinement and threat refinement. Finally, at the fourth level (process refinement) the performance of the system is monitored to enable product improvement and sensor suite management. This monitoring includes the use of measures of information from the realm of generalized information theory to assess the improvements or degradation due to the fusion processing. The premise is that decreased uncertainty equates to increased information. At each level, the uncertainty may be represented in different ways. In this paper we give an overview of the existing measures of uncertainty and information, and propose some new measures for the various levels of the data fusion process.

  20. Thermal and dynamical properties of fusion-fission and fusion-evaporation processes in sup 2 sup 0 Ne + sup 1 sup 5 sup 9 Tb and sup 2 sup 0 Ne + sup 1 sup 6 sup 9 Tm reactions between 8 and 16 MeV/nucleon

    CERN Document Server

    Keutgen, T; El-Masri, Y; Ghisalberti, C; Tilquin, I; Lebreton, L; Ninane, A; Lehmann, J; Roberfroid, V; Michel, L; Regimbart, R; Natowitz, J B; Hagel, K; Wada, R; Charity, R J

    1999-01-01

    We have undertaken a study of the thermal and the dynamical properties of fission and evaporation processes through the observation of neutron and light charged particle (LCP) emission (p, alpha) in collisions of sup 2 sup 0 Ne + sup 1 sup 5 sup 9 Tb and sup 2 sup 0 Ne + sup 1 sup 6 sup 9 Tm at 8, 10, 13 and 16 MeV/nucleon using the neutron multidetector DEMON. Both systems lead to the formation of compound nuclei (CN) with initial excitation energies (E* sub z) ranging between 100 and 250 MeV. These CN, formed through complete (CF) or incomplete (IF) fusion reactions, decay through either fission or evaporation residue (ER) formation. Our experimental goal in this study is to establish, as a function of E* sub x , i) sigma sub E sub R /sigma sub f sub i sub s sub s sub i sub o sub n cross-section ratios, ii) pre- and post-scission neutron and LCP multiplicities with a clear cut assignment to CF and IF processes and iii) to try to consistently interpret these data in the framework of the recently modified sta...

  1. Process limitations of a whole-cell P450 catalyzed reaction using a CYP153A-CPR fusion construct expressed in Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundemo, M. T.; Notonier, S.; Striedner, G.

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450s are interesting biocatalysts due to their ability to hydroxylate non-activated hydrocarbons in a selective manner. However, to date only a few P450-catalyzed processes have been implemented in industry due to the difficulty of developing economically feasible processes. In this s...

  2. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2002-04-01

    The objective of SCK-CEN's programme on fusion reactor materials is to contribute to the knowledge on the radiation-induced behaviour of fusion reactor materials and components as well as to help the international community in building the scientific and technical basis needed for the construction of the future reactor. Ongoing projects include: the study of the mechanical and chemical (corrosion) behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation and water coolant environment; the investigation of the characteristics of irradiated first wall material such as beryllium; investigations on the management of materials resulting from the dismantling of fusion reactors including waste disposal. Progress and achievements in these areas in 2001 are discussed.

  3. Multibiometrics Belief Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kisku, Dakshina Ranjan; Gupta, Phalguni

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a multimodal biometric system through Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) for face and ear biometrics with belief fusion of the estimated scores characterized by Gabor responses and the proposed fusion is accomplished by Dempster-Shafer (DS) decision theory. Face and ear images are convolved with Gabor wavelet filters to extracts spatially enhanced Gabor facial features and Gabor ear features. Further, GMM is applied to the high-dimensional Gabor face and Gabor ear responses separately for quantitive measurements. Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm is used to estimate density parameters in GMM. This produces two sets of feature vectors which are then fused using Dempster-Shafer theory. Experiments are conducted on multimodal database containing face and ear images of 400 individuals. It is found that use of Gabor wavelet filters along with GMM and DS theory can provide robust and efficient multimodal fusion strategy.

  4. Fusion research at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-03-01

    The ORNL Fusion Program includes the experimental and theoretical study of two different classes of magnetic confinement schemes - systems with helical magnetic fields, such as the tokamak and stellarator, and the ELMO Bumpy Torus (EBT) class of toroidally linked mirror systems; the development of technologies, including superconducting magnets, neutral atomic beam and radio frequency (rf) heating systems, fueling systems, materials, and diagnostics; the development of databases for atomic physics and radiation effects; the assessment of the environmental impact of magnetic fusion; and the design of advanced demonstration fusion devices. The program involves wide collaboration, both within ORNL and with other institutions. The elements of this program are shown. This document illustrates the program's scope; and aims by reviewing recent progress.

  5. Medical Image Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitra Rafizadeh

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Technological advances in medical imaging in the past two decades have enable radiologists to create images of the human body with unprecedented resolution. MRI, PET,... imaging devices can quickly acquire 3D images. Image fusion establishes an anatomical correlation between corresponding images derived from different examination. This fusion is applied either to combine images of different modalities (CT, MRI or single modality (PET-PET."nImage fusion is performed in two steps:"n1 Registration: spatial modification (eg. translation of model image relative to reference image in order to arrive at an ideal matching of both images. Registration methods are feature-based and intensity-based approaches."n2 Visualization: the goal of it is to depict the spatial relationship between the model image and refer-ence image. We can point out its clinical application in nuclear medicine (PET/CT.

  6. Sensor Data Fusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plascencia, Alfredo; Stepán, Petr

    2006-01-01

    The main contribution of this paper is to present a sensor fusion approach to scene environment mapping as part of a Sensor Data Fusion (SDF) architecture. This approach involves combined sonar array with stereo vision readings.  Sonar readings are interpreted using probability density functions...... to the occupied and empty regions. Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) feature descriptors are interpreted using gaussian probabilistic error models. The use of occupancy grids is proposed for representing the sensor readings. The Bayesian estimation approach is applied to update the sonar array......  and the SIFT descriptors' uncertainty grids. The sensor fusion yields a significant reduction in the uncertainty of the occupancy grid compared to the individual sensor readings....

  7. 单枚cage置入结合单侧侧后方植骨融合加椎弓根螺钉固定治疗腰椎滑脱症%Treatment of lumbar spondylolisthesis with transpedicle instrument fixation system, mono-cage and semi-intertransverse process arthrodesis with bone grafting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅荣成; 廉凯; 丁援建; 王明才; 莫树喜; 涂万荣

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨单枚cage斜向置入结合对侧侧后方植骨融合加椎弓根螺钉固定治疗腰椎滑脱症的临床疗效.方法 对42例腰椎滑脱患者行后路减压和椎弓根螺钉固定,单侧斜向放置单枚cage,对侧侧后方植骨融合治疗,随访观察患者的症状、体征改善程度、融合率和手术节段椎间隙高度的变化.结果 所有患者均获得随访,时间2年~4年5个月,临床疗效综合评价:优32例,良5例,可3例,差2例.症状改善率92.9%.患者满意程度为88%,融合率为90.5%,最终随访时椎间隙高度平均减少1.5 mm.未出现螺钉折断和明显的复位丢失现象.结论 单枚cage置入结合对侧侧后方植骨融合加椎弓根螺钉固定治疗腰椎滑脱症对后柱破坏少,具有较高稳定性.

  8. Quantum controlled fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrios, Eduardo; Gruebele, Martin; Wolynes, Peter G.

    2017-09-01

    Quantum-controlled motion of nuclei, starting from the nanometer-size ground state of a molecule, can potentially overcome some of the difficulties of thermonuclear fusion by compression of a fuel pellet or in a bulk plasma. Coherent laser control can manipulate nuclear motion precisely, achieving large phase space densities for the colliding nuclei. We combine quantum wavepacket propagation of D and T nuclei in a field-bound molecule with coherent control by a shaped laser pulse to demonstrate enhancement of nuclear collision rates. Atom-smashers powered by coherent control may become laboratory sources of particle bursts, and even assist muonic fusion.

  9. Fusion Propulsion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-07-01

    of propellant can be millions of times greater than the fuel, only a tiny fraction can completely push out the fuel. If the plasma is moving at a... push -plate for various explosive yields. It appears that the maximum specific impulse for such a system is -4000 to 5000 sec and increasing the base...Energy Agency, 1977, p. 507. Bourque, R.F., "OHTE as a Fusion Reactor," Proc. 4th Topl. Mt,. Tecnology of Controlled NV?4clear Fusion, King of Prussia

  10. Fusion Reactor Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decreton, M

    2000-07-01

    SCK-CEN's research and development programme on fusion reactor materials includes: (1) the study of the mechanical behaviour of structural materials under neutron irradiation (including steels, inconel, molybdenum, chromium); (2) the determination and modelling of the characteristics of irradiated first wall materials such as beryllium; (3) the detection of abrupt electrical degradation of insulating ceramics under high temperature and neutron irradiation; (4) the study of the dismantling and waste disposal strategy for fusion reactors.; (5) a feasibility study for the testing of blanket modules under neutron radiation. Main achievements in these topical areas in the year 1999 are summarised.

  11. Fusion and regenerative therapies: is immortality really recessive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzing, Alexandra; Hescheler, Jürgen; Sethe, Sebastian

    2007-12-01

    Harnessing cellular fusion as a potential tool for regenerative therapy has been under tentative investigation for decades. A look back the history of fusion experiments in gerontology reveals that whereas some studies indicate that aging-related changes are conserved in fused cells, others have demonstrated that fusion can be used as a tool to revoke cellular senescence and induce tissue regeneration. Recent findings about the role of fusion processes in tissue homeostasis, replenishment, and repair link insights from fusion studies of previous decades with modern developments in stem cell biology and regenerative medicine. We suggest that age-associated loss of regenerative capacity is associated with a decline of effectiveness in stem cell fusion. We project how studies into the fusion of stem cells with tissue cells, or the fusion between activator stem cells and patient cells might help in the development of applications that "rejuvenate" certain target cells, thereby strategically reinstating a regeneration cascade. The outlook is concluded with a discussion of the next research milestones and the potential hazards of fusion therapies.

  12. Observation of incomplete fusion reactions at l < l {sub crit}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Abhishek, E-mail: abhishekyadav117@gmail.com; Sharma, Vijay R., E-mail: abhishekyadav117@gmail.com; Singh, Devendra P., E-mail: abhishekyadav117@gmail.com; Unnati,; Singh, B. P.; Prasad, R. [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (UP) - 202 002 (India); Singh, Pushpendra P. [GSI-Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research GmbH, D-64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Bala, Indu; Kumar, R.; Muralithar, S.; Singh, R. P. [NP-Group: Inter-University Accelerator Center, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi - 110 067 (India); Sharma, M. K. [Department of Physics, S. V. College, Aligarh- 202 001 (India)

    2014-08-14

    In order to understand the presence of incomplete fusion at low energies i.e. 4-7MeV/nucleon and also to study its dependence on various entrance-channel parameters, the two type of measurements (i) excitation function for {sup 12}C+{sup 159}Tb, and (ii) forward recoil ranges for {sup 12}C+{sup 159}Tb systems have been performed. The experimentally measured excitation functions have been analyzed within the framework of compound nucleus decay using statistical model code PACE4. Analysis of data suggests the production of xn/px)n-channels via complete fusion, as these are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, while, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of α-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones, which has been attributed due to the incomplete fusion processes. Further, the incomplete fusion events observed in case of forward recoil range measurements have been explained on the basis of the breakup fusion model, where these events may be attributed to the fusion of {sup 8}Be and/or {sup 4}He from {sup 12}C projectile to the target nucleus. In the present work, the SUMRULE model calculations are found to highly underestimate the observed incomplete fusion cross-sections which indicate that the l-values lower than l {sub crit} (limit of complete fusion) significantly contribute to the incomplete fusion reactions.

  13. Adaptive fusion of infrared and visible images in dynamic scene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Yin, Yafeng; Man, Hong; Desai, Sachi

    2011-11-01

    Multiple modalities sensor fusion has been widely employed in various surveillance and military applications. A variety of image fusion techniques including PCA, wavelet, curvelet and HSV has been proposed in recent years to improve human visual perception for object detection. One of the main challenges for visible and infrared image fusion is to automatically determine an optimal fusion strategy for different input scenes along with an acceptable computational cost. This paper, we propose a fast and adaptive feature selection based image fusion method to obtain high a contrast image from visible and infrared sensors for targets detection. At first, fuzzy c-means clustering is applied on the infrared image to highlight possible hotspot regions, which will be considered as potential targets' locations. After that, the region surrounding the target area is segmented as the background regions. Then image fusion is locally applied on the selected target and background regions by computing different linear combination of color components from registered visible and infrared images. After obtaining different fused images, histogram distributions are computed on these local fusion images as the fusion feature set. The variance ratio which is based on Linear Discriminative Analysis (LDA) measure is employed to sort the feature set and the most discriminative one is selected for the whole image fusion. As the feature selection is performed over time, the process will dynamically determine the most suitable feature for the image fusion in different scenes. Experiment is conducted on the OSU Color-Thermal database, and TNO Human Factor dataset. The fusion results indicate that our proposed method achieved a competitive performance compared with other fusion algorithms at a relatively low computational cost.

  14. Fusion calculations for 40Ca+40Ca, 48Ca+48Ca, 40Ca+48Ca and p+208Pb systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jie; Zhang, Haifei; Bao, Xiaojun; Li, Junqing; Zhang, Hongfei

    2014-09-01

    The fusion cross sections of calcium isotopes and proton induced fusion have been calculated in terms of a coupled-channels formulation. Results indicated that there are big differences between the two fusion types. In the calculations of calcium isotopes fusion, the pair-transfer coupling has been applied in addition to the vibrational coupling, the combined effects showed that pair-transfer has played a significant role in the fusion process for the asymmetric 40Ca+48Ca system. The result of proton induced fusion for p+208Pb system successfully presents the fusion oscillation, which agrees with the experimental data rather well.

  15. Systematics for low energy incomplete fusion: Still a puzzle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to have a better and clear picture of incomplete fusion reactions at energies ≈4-7MeV/nucleon, the excitation function measurements have been performed for 18O+159Tb system. The experimental data have been analyzed within the framework of compound nucleus decay. The cross-section for xn/pxn-channels are found to be well reproduced by PACE4 predictions, which suggest their production via complete fusion process. However, a significant enhancement in the excitation functions of α-emitting channels has been observed over the theoretical ones, which has been attributed due to the incomplete fusion processes. The incomplete fusion fractions have been deduced at each studied energy and compared with other nearby systems for better insight into the underlying dynamics. The incomplete fusion fraction has been found to be sensitive to the projectile’s energy and α-Q-value.

  16. Flavivirus cell entry and membrane fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jolanda M.; Moesker, Bastiaan; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela; Wilschut, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Flaviviruses, such as dengue virus and West Nile virus, are enveloped viruses that infect cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and fusion from within acidic endosomes. The cell entry process of flaviviruses is mediated by the viral E glycoprotein. This short review will address recent advance

  17. Flavivirus cell entry and membrane fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Jolanda M.; Moesker, Bastiaan; Rodenhuis-Zybert, Izabela; Wilschut, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Flaviviruses, such as dengue virus and West Nile virus, are enveloped viruses that infect cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and fusion from within acidic endosomes. The cell entry process of flaviviruses is mediated by the viral E glycoprotein. This short review will address recent advance

  18. Implication of Culture: User Roles in Information Fusion for Enhanced Situational Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    IF community has rallied behind the Data Fusion Information Group (DFIG) process model (that replaces the JDL model) with its revisions and...Llinas, C. Bowman, G. Rogova, A. Steinberg, E. Waltz, & F. White, “Revisiting the JDL Data Fusion Model II”, Fusion2004. [39] M. L. Davidson

  19. Reaction mechanisms in heavy ion fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubian J.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the reaction mechanisms involved in heavy ion fusion. We begin with collisions of tightly bound systems, considering three energy regimes: energies above the Coulomb barrier, energies just below the barrier and deep sub-barrier energies. We show that channel coupling effects may influence the fusion process at above-barrier energies, increasing or reducing the cross section predicted by single barrier penetration model. Below the Coulomb barrier, it enhances the cross section, and this effect increases with the system’s size. It is argued that this behavior can be traced back to the increasing importance of Coulomb coupling with the charge of the collision partners. The sharp drop of the fusion cross section observed at deep sub-barrier energies is addressed and the theoretical approaches to this phenomenon are discussed. We then consider the reaction mechanisms involved in fusion reactions of weakly bound systems, paying particular attention to the calculations of complete and incomplete fusion available in the literature.

  20. Slantlet Transform for Multispectral Image Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan H.M. Al-Helali

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Image fusion is a process by which multispectral and panchromatic images, or some of their features, are combined together to form a high spatial/high spectral resolutions image. The successful fusion of images acquired from different modalities or instruments is a great importance issue in remote sensing applications. Approach: A new method of image fusion was introduced. It was based on a hybrid transform, which is an extension of Ridgelet transform. It used the slantlet transform instead of wavelet transform in the final steps of Ridgelet transform. The slantlet transform was an orthogonal discrete wavelet transform with two zero moments and with improved time localization. Results: Since edges and noise played fundamental role in image understanding, this hybrid transform was proved to be good way to enhance the edges and reduce the noise. Conclusion: The proposed method of fusion presented richer information in spatial and spectral domains simultaneously as well as it had reached an optimum fusion result.

  1. Fusion Control Strategy Based on I-Fuzzy-Smith Algorithm for Complex Process with Large Lag%大时滞复杂过程中基于I-Fuzzy-Smith算法的融合控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪元敏

    2013-01-01

    Aimed at the puzzle to actualize the high quality control in complex process with large lag,the paper presented a sort of fusion control strategy based on the integration of integral, fuzzy and Smith estimator control algorithm.In the paper,it studied the cybernetics characteristic of complex process with large lag and its control puzzle,integrated itself superiority of integral, fuzzy and Smith estimator control,gave a sort of I-Fuzzy-Smith fusion control algorithm.It took a complex process of large inertia with large lag as an example,under the environment of Matlab, and made the detailed simulation experiment in contrast such as robustness etc.The system re-sponse curve demonstrated that the I-Fuzzy-Smith based control algorithm excels than others in dynamical and steady control quality and robustness.The research result shows that the pro-posed control algorithm is high in control precision,better in dynamical and steady control quality, and very strong robustness.%针对大时滞复杂过程难以实施高品质控制,提出了一种基于I-Fuzzy-Smith算法的融合控制策略。研究了大时滞复杂过程的控制论特性与控制难点,以及集成模糊、Smith预估和积分控制各自的优势,给出了将其融合的I-Fuzzy-Smith控制算法。以大惯性大时滞过程为例,基于Matlab仿真对融合控制进行了比较研究,系统响应验证了I-Fuzzy-Smith控制算法的动、静态控制品质和鲁棒性优于另外两种算法。研究结果表明:提出的融合策略控制精度高,系统动、静态控制品质好,表现出很强的鲁棒性。

  2. PI(4,5)P2 regulates myoblast fusion through Arp2/3 regulator localization at the fusion site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothe, Ingo; Deng, Su; Baylies, Mary

    2014-06-01

    Cell-cell fusion is a regulated process that requires merging of the opposing membranes and underlying cytoskeletons. However, the integration between membrane and cytoskeleton signaling during fusion is not known. Using Drosophila, we demonstrate that the membrane phosphoinositide PI(4,5)P2 is a crucial regulator of F-actin dynamics during myoblast fusion. PI(4,5)P2 is locally enriched and colocalizes spatially and temporally with the F-actin focus that defines the fusion site. PI(4,5)P2 enrichment depends on receptor engagement but is upstream or parallel to actin remodeling. Regulators of actin branching via Arp2/3 colocalize with PI(4,5)P2 in vivo and bind PI(4,5)P2 in vitro. Manipulation of PI(4,5)P2 availability leads to impaired fusion, with a reduction in the F-actin focus size and altered focus morphology. Mechanistically, the changes in the actin focus are due to a failure in the enrichment of actin regulators at the fusion site. Moreover, improper localization of these regulators hinders expansion of the fusion interface. Thus, PI(4,5)P2 enrichment at the fusion site encodes spatial and temporal information that regulates fusion progression through the localization of activators of actin polymerization.

  3. Acidification triggers Andes hantavirus membrane fusion and rearrangement of Gc into a stable post-fusion homotrimer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acuña, Rodrigo; Bignon, Eduardo A; Mancini, Roberta; Lozach, Pierre-Yves; Tischler, Nicole D

    2015-11-01

    The hantavirus membrane fusion process is mediated by the Gc envelope glycoprotein from within endosomes. However, little is known about the specific mechanism that triggers Gc fusion activation, and its pre- and post-fusion conformations. We established cell-free in vitro systems to characterize hantavirus fusion activation. Low pH was sufficient to trigger the interaction of virus-like particles with liposomes. This interaction was dependent on a pre-fusion glycoprotein arrangement. Further, low pH induced Gc multimerization changes leading to non-reversible Gc homotrimers. These trimers were resistant to detergent, heat and protease digestion, suggesting characteristics of a stable post-fusion structure. No acid-dependent oligomerization rearrangement was detected for the trypsin-sensitive Gn envelope glycoprotein. Finally, acidification induced fusion of glycoprotein-expressing effector cells with non-susceptible CHO cells. Together, the data provide novel information on the Gc fusion trigger and its non-reversible activation involving lipid interaction, multimerization changes and membrane fusion which ultimately allow hantavirus entry into cells.

  4. Current fusion power plant design concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gore, B.F.; Murphy, E.S.

    1976-09-01

    Nine current U.S. designs for fusion power plants are described in this document. Summary tabulations include a tenth concept, for which the design document was unavailable during preparation of the descriptions. The information contained in the descriptions was used to define an envelope of fusion power plant characteristics which formed the basis for definition of reference first commercial fusion power plant design. A brief prose summary of primary plant features introduces each of the descriptions contained in the body of this document. In addition, summary tables are presented. These tables summarize in side-by-side fashion, plant parameters, processes, combinations of materials used, requirements for construction materials, requirements for replacement materials during operation, and production of wastes.

  5. Image Pixel Fusion for Human Face Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Bhowmik, Mrinal Kanti; Nasipuri, Mita; Basu, Dipak Kumar; Kundu, Mahantapas

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a technique for fusion of optical and thermal face images based on image pixel fusion approach. Out of several factors, which affect face recognition performance in case of visual images, illumination changes are a significant factor that needs to be addressed. Thermal images are better in handling illumination conditions but not very consistent in capturing texture details of the faces. Other factors like sunglasses, beard, moustache etc also play active role in adding complicacies to the recognition process. Fusion of thermal and visual images is a solution to overcome the drawbacks present in the individual thermal and visual face images. Here fused images are projected into an eigenspace and the projected images are classified using a radial basis function (RBF) neural network and also by a multi-layer perceptron (MLP). In the experiments Object Tracking and Classification Beyond Visible Spectrum (OTCBVS) database benchmark for thermal and visual face images have been used. Compar...

  6. Converting energy from fusion into useful forms

    CERN Document Server

    Kovari, M; Jenkins, I; Kiely, C

    2014-01-01

    If fusion power reactors are to be feasible, it will still be necessary to convert the energy of the nuclear reaction into usable form. The heat produced will be removed from the reactor core by a primary coolant, which might be water, helium, molten lithium-lead, molten lithium-containing salt, or CO2. The heat could then be transferred to a conventional Rankine cycle or Brayton (gas turbine) cycle. Alternatively it could be used for thermochemical processes such as producing hydrogen or other transport fuels. Fusion presents new problems because of the high energy neutrons released. These affect the selection of materials and the operating temperature, ultimately determining the choice of coolant and working cycle. The limited temperature ranges allowed by present day irradiated structural materials, combined with the large internal power demand of the plant, will limit the overall thermal efficiency. The operating conditions of the fusion power source, the materials, coolant, and energy conversion system w...

  7. Fusion engineering device design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    The US Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. During 1981, the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), developed a baseline design for the FED. This design is summarized herein.

  8. Fusion Engineering Device design description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, C.A.; Steiner, D.; Smith, G.E.

    1981-12-01

    The US Magnetic Fusion Engineering Act of 1980 calls for the operation of a Fusion Engineering Device (FED) by 1990. It is the intent of the Act that the FED, in combination with other testing facilities, will establish the engineering feasibility of magnetic fusion energy. During 1981, the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC), under the guidance of a Technical Management Board (TMB), developed a baseline design for the FED. This design is summarized herein.

  9. International fusion og spaltning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone L.

    Bogen analyserer de nye muligheder fra 2007 i europæisk ret med hensyn til fusion eller spaltning mellem aktieselskaber og anpartsselskaber med hjemsted i forskellige europæiske lande. Bogen gennemgår de nye muligheder for strukturændringer, der herved er opstået mulighed for, og den sætter fokus...

  10. Fusion reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1989-01-01

    This paper discuses the following topics on fusion reactor materials: irradiation, facilities, test matrices, and experimental methods; dosimetry, damage parameters, and activation calculations; materials engineering and design requirements; fundamental mechanical behavior; radiation effects; development of structural alloys; solid breeding materials; and ceramics.

  11. International fusion og spaltning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone L.

    Bogen analyserer de nye muligheder fra 2007 i europæisk ret med hensyn til fusion eller spaltning mellem aktieselskaber og anpartsselskaber med hjemsted i forskellige europæiske lande. Bogen gennemgår de nye muligheder for strukturændringer, der herved er opstået mulighed for, og den sætter fokus...

  12. Synergetic Multisensor Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-11-30

    technology have led to increased interest in using DEMs for navigation and other applications. In particular, DEMs are attractive for use in aircraft...Multisensor Fusion for Computer Vision [67]. 30 6. POSI!IONAL zSTIM&TION TECEnIQUzs FOR AN OUTDOOR MOBLE ROBOT The autonomous navigation of mobile robots is

  13. Muon catalyzed fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, K. [Advanced Meson Science Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Nagamine, K. [Muon Science Laboratory, IMSS-KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Matsuzaki, T. [Advanced Meson Science Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kawamura, N. [Muon Science Laboratory, IMSS-KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan)

    2005-12-15

    The latest progress of muon catalyzed fusion study at the RIKEN-RAL muon facility (and partly at TRIUMF) is reported. The topics covered are magnetic field effect, muon transfer to {sup 3}He in solid D/T and ortho-para effect in dd{mu} formation.

  14. Bouillabaisse sushi fusion power

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    "If avant-garde cuisine is any guide, Japanese-French fusion does not work all that well. And the interminable discussions over the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) suggest that what is true of cooking is true of physics" (1 page)

  15. Hugging fusion and related topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamoto, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1997-07-01

    An important problem related to the synthesis of very heavy nuclides by fusion of two heavy-ions is the extra push effect. To avoid it, we propose a hugging fusion, which is the fusion of two well-deformed heavy-ions. (author)

  16. Fusion cross sections measurements with MUSIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnelli, P. F. F.; Fernández Niello, J. O.; Almaraz-Calderon, S.; Rehm, K. E.; Albers, M.; Digiovine, B.; Esbensen, H.; Henderson, D.; Jiang, C. L.; Nusair, O.; Palchan-Hazan, T.; Pardo, R. C.; Ugalde, C.; Paul, M.; Alcorta, M.; Bertone, P. F.; Lai, J.; Marley, S. T.

    2014-09-01

    The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. The interaction between exotic nuclei plays an important role for understanding the reaction mechanism of the fusion processes as well as for the energy production in stars. With the advent of radioactive beams new frontiers for fusion reaction studies have become accessible. We have performed the first measurements of the total fusion cross sections in the systems 10 , 14 , 15C + 12C using a newly developed active target-detector system (MUSIC). Comparison of the obtained cross sections with theoretical predictions show a good agreement in the energy region accessible with existing radioactive beams. This type of comparison allows us to calibrate the calculations for cases that cannot be studied in the laboratory with the current experimental capabilities. The high efficiency of this active detector system will allow future measurements with even more neutron-rich isotopes. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE Office of Nuclear Physics under Contract No. DE-AC02-06CH11357 and the Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Argentina, Grant SJ10/39.

  17. [On Atomic Nuclear Fusion Processes at Low-Temperatures. An Enhancement of the Probability of Transition through a Potential Barrier Due to the So-Called Barrier Anti-Zeno Effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namiot, V A

    2016-01-01

    It is known that in quantum mechanics the act of observing the experiment can affect the experimental findings in some cases. In particular, it happens under the so-called Zeno effect. In this work it is shown that in contrast to the "standard" Zeno-effect where the act of observing a process reduces the probability of its reality, an inverse situation when a particle transmits through a potential barrier (a so-called barrier anti-Zeno effect) can be observed, the observation of the particle essentially increases the probability of its transmission through the barrier. The possibility of using the barrier anti-Zeno effect is discussed to explain paradoxical results of experiments on "cold nuclear fusion" observed in various systems including biological ones. (According to the observers who performed the observations, the energy generation, which could not be explained by any chemical processes, as well as the change in the isotope and even element composition of the studied object may occur in these systems.

  18. Intelligence Based Fusion Control Strategy for Complex Vulcanizing Process%复杂硫化过程的智能融合控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴玉玲

    2013-01-01

    针对硫化过程中因模糊性与不确定性导致的塑胶产品成形过程难以控制、产品质量稳定性差的问题,提出了一种智能融合控制策略.总结了复杂硫化过程中的控制难点,探讨了硫化过程的控制论特性,研究了对不确定性复杂过程的控制策略,讨论了控制模型,提出了智能融合控制策略,基于仿人智能构造了基本控制算法.仿真结果显示该策略的鲁棒性强与控制精度高.研究结果表明:智能融合控制策略对不确定性复杂硫化过程实施控制是可行与有效的.%The vulcanization of plastic & rubber products is a typical complex control process with uncertainty.Aimed at the puzzle that the shaping process of plastic & rubber products is difficult to control resulted from fuzzification and uncertainty,and poor in stability of product quality in the process of vulcanization,the paper proposed a sort of intelligence based control strategy based on human simulated intelligent controller.In the paper,it summed up the control puzzles in the process of complex vulcanization,explored the cybernetics characteristic of vulcanizing process,researched on the control strategy of complex process with uncertainty,proposed a sort of intelligence based control strategy,discussed control model,and constructed the control algorithm based on human simulated intelligence.It made the simulation experiment,and the curve of algorithm response demonstrated that it could be stronger in robustness,and higher in control precision compared with PID controller.The research result shows that it is feasible and effective to the proposed control strategy based on human simulated intelligence in actualizing control for complex vulcanizing process with uncertainty.

  19. Influence so fusion processes in the evolution of modeling. Bardenas Reales (Navarra); Influencia de los procesos de sofusion (piping) en la evolucion del modelado. Bardenas Reales (Navarra)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desir, G.; Gutierrez, M.

    2009-07-01

    Piping processes are controlled by many interacting factors, such as the index of dispersion and the sodium content, SAR and ESP. To it is necessary to join the density of cracking and the slope of the hillsides on which it develops. In the study area climatic characteristics together with soil structure and chemical and mineralogical composition of the substrate has a key role in Pipings formation. Cracking is linked to the presence of dispersive clays with high contents in SAR and ESP, which give the rates of swelling until 12%. The process presence of piping is linked to two concrete situations: the massive intermediate levels of the intermediate Holocene filling sediments and the sediments deposited by the gullies: whereas in the tertiary materials it does not manage to develop. The size and scale of the pipes studied show a clear relationship among the level thickness, slope and hydraulic gradient. In the Holocene landfills the principal bounding factor is the levels thickness since the lower laminated levels do not facilitate the continuity in depth of the process due to the high number of discontinuities, generating centimeter-scale conduits that are always on duty to the drainage network. (Author) 5 refs.

  20. Current trends in medical image registration and fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma El-Zahraa Ahmed El-Gamal

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, medical image registration and fusion processes are considered as a valuable assistant for the medical experts. The role of these processes arises from their ability to help the experts in the diagnosis, following up the diseases’ evolution, and deciding the necessary therapies regarding the patient’s condition. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to focus on medical image registration as well as medical image fusion. In addition, the paper presents a description of the common diagnostic images along with the main characteristics of each of them. The paper also illustrates most well-known toolkits that have been developed to help the working with the registration and fusion processes. Finally, the paper presents the current challenges associated with working with medical image registration and fusion through illustrating the recent diseases/disorders that were addressed through such an analyzing process.

  1. Alphavirus Entry and Membrane Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Kielian

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of enveloped animal viruses has greatly advanced our understanding of the general properties of membrane fusion and of the specific pathways that viruses use to infect the host cell. The membrane fusion proteins of the alphaviruses and flaviviruses have many similarities in structure and function. As reviewed here, alphaviruses use receptor-mediated endocytic uptake and low pH-triggered membrane fusion to deliver their RNA genomes into the cytoplasm. Recent advances in understanding the biochemistry and structure of the alphavirus membrane fusion protein provide a clearer picture of this fusion reaction, including the protein’s conformational changes during fusion and the identification of key domains. These insights into the alphavirus fusion mechanism suggest new areas for experimental investigation and potential inhibitor strategies for anti-viral therapy.

  2. Fusion of perceptions for perceptual robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Ciftcioglu, O.; Bittermann, M.S.; Sariyildiz, I.S.

    2006-01-01

    Fusion of perception information for perceptual robotics is described. The visual perception is mathematically modelled as a probabilistic process obtaining and interpreting visual data from an environment. The visual data is processed in a multiresolutional form via wavelet transform and optimally estimated via extended Kalman filtering in each resolution level and the outcomes are fused for each data block. The measurement involves visual perception in the virtual reality which has direct i...

  3. Simulation of erosion and deposition processes of many-component surface layers in fusion devices; Simulation von Erosion- und Depositionsprozessen mehrkomponentiger Oberflaechenschichten in Fusionsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droste, S.

    2007-02-15

    The present choice of first wall materials in ITER will unavoidably lead to the formation of mixed carbon, tungsten and beryllium layers. Predictive modelling of erosion processes, impurity transport and deposition processes is important. For this the 3D Monte-Carlo code ERO can be used. In this thesis ERO has been coupled to the existing Monte-Carlo code SDTrimSP to describe material mixing processes in wall components correctly. SDTrimSP describes the surface by calculating the transport of ions in solids. It keeps track of the depth dependent material concentration caused by the implantation of projectiles in the solid. The calculation of movements of the recoil atoms within the solid gives reflection coefficients and sputtering yields. Since SDTrimSP does not consider chemical processes a new method has been developed to implement chemical erosion of carbon by the impact of hydrogen projectiles. The new code ERO-SDTrimSP was compared to TEXTOR experiments which were carried out to study the formation of mixed surface layers. In these experiments methane CH4 was injected through drillings in graphite and tungsten spherical limiters into the plasma. A pronounced substrate dependence was observed. The deposition efficiency, i.e. the ratio of the locally deposited to the injected amount of carbon, was 4% for graphite and 0.3% for tungsten. The deposition-dominated area on the graphite limiter covers a five times larger area than on the tungsten limiter. Modelling of this experiment with ERO-SDTrimSP also showed a clear substrate dependence with 2% deposition efficiency for graphite and less than 0.5% for tungsten. An important result of the comparison between experiment and simulation was that the effective sticking of hydrocarbon radicals hitting the surface must be negligible. Furthermore, it was shown that local re-deposited carbon layers are 10 times more effectively eroded than ordinary graphite. Simulation of the impurity transport in the plasma was checked

  4. FUSION OF MULTI FOCUSED IMAGES USING HDWT FOR MACHINE VISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Arumuga Perumal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available During image acquisition in machine vision, due to limited depth of field of lens, it is possible to take clear image of the objects in the scene which are in focus only. The remaining objects in the scene will be out of focus. A possible solution to bring clear images of all objects in the scene is image fusion. Image fusion is a process of combining multiple images to form the composite image with extended information content. This paper uses three band expansive higher density discrete wavelet transform to fuse two numbers of images focusing different objects in the same scene and also proposes three methods for image fusion. Experimental results on multi focused image fusion are presented in terms of root mean square, peak signal to noise ratio and quality index to illustrate the proposed fusion methods.

  5. LIFE: The Case for Early Commercialization of Fusion Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anklam, T; Simon, A J; Powers, S; Meier, W R

    2010-11-30

    This paper presents the case for early commercialization of laser inertial fusion energy (LIFE). Results taken from systems modeling of the US electrical generating enterprise quantify the benefits of fusion energy in terms of carbon emission, nuclear waste and plutonium production avoidance. Sensitivity of benefits-gained to timing of market-entry is presented. These results show the importance of achieving market entry in the 2030 time frame. Economic modeling results show that fusion energy can be competitive with other low-carbon energy sources. The paper concludes with a description of the LIFE commercialization path. It proposes constructing a demonstration facility capable of continuous fusion operations within 10 to 15 years. This facility will qualify the processes and materials needed for a commercial fusion power plant.

  6. Review of Fusion Systems and Contributing Technologies for SIHS-TD (Examen des Systemes de Fusion et des Technologies d’Appui pour la DT SIHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-31

    de la DT - SIHS. L’équipe des sous-systèmes de vision de la DT - SIHS planifie le développement à court terme d’un banc d’essai de fusion...references, the researcher systematically added additional keywords to refine the search. In general, this process produced many irrelevant references...development. State of the art fusion processing system architectures are described. The report analyses selected fusion systems based on their ability to

  7. A study on the fusion reactor - Development of electrical insulation coating processes for vacuum vessel components of KT-2 tokamak by plasma spray techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sang Hee; Choi, Byung Yong; Ahn, Hyun; Ju, Won Tae; Eom, You Sub [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-08-01

    For the fabrication of insulation coatings with good vacuum tightness, mechanical and electrical properties needed for voltage breaker and plasma facing components of tokamak vacuum vessel, a plasma spraying system equipped= with an improved power supply and a precision powder feeder is employed for the development of the optimum processes for ceramic insulation coatings. The material properties of the ceramic coatings for tokamak vacuum vessel components are evaluated by material tests and analyses to determine optimum processing parameters for insulation coatings. As a result of material evaluation for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-TiO{sub 2} ceramic insulation coatings fabricated, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-3%TiO{sub 2} ceramic turn out to be the best insulation coating for tokamak use in respect of electrical and mechanical properties. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coating with dielectric strength values of more than 26 kV/mm can also be applicable to tokamak vacuum vessel components for electric insulation by improving its low adhesive strength. 23 refs., 9 tabs., 14 figs. (author)

  8. New Characterizations of Fusion Bases and Riesz Fusion Bases in Hilbert Spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Asgari, Mohammad Sadegh

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we investigate a new notion of bases in Hilbert spaces and similar to fusion frame theory we introduce fusion bases theory in Hilbert spaces. We also introduce a new definition of fusion dual sequence associated with a fusion basis and show that the operators of a fusion dual sequence are continuous projections. Next we define the fusion biorthogonal sequence, Bessel fusion basis, Hilbert fusion basis and obtain some characterizations of them. we study orthonormal fusion systems...

  9. Plasma physics for controlled fusion. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Kenro

    2016-08-01

    This new edition presents the essential theoretical and analytical methods needed to understand the recent fusion research of tokamak and alternate approaches. The author describes magnetohydrodynamic and kinetic theories of cold and hot plasmas in detail. The book covers new important topics for fusion studies such as plasma transport by drift turbulence, which depend on the magnetic configuration and zonal flows. These are universal phenomena of microturbulence. They can modify the onset criterion for turbulent transport, instabilities driven by energetic particles as well as alpha particle generation and typical plasma models for computer simulation. The fusion research of tokamaks with various new versions of H modes are explained. The design concept of ITER, the international tokamak experimental reactor, is described for inductively driven operations as well as steady-state operations using non-inductive drives. Alternative approaches of reversed-field pinch and its relaxation process, stellator including quasi-symmetric system, open-end system of tandem mirror and inertial confinement are also explained. Newly added and updated topics in this second edition include zonal flows, various versions of H modes, and steady-state operations of tokamak, the design concept of ITER, the relaxation process of RFP, quasi-symmetric stellator, and tandem mirror. The book addresses graduate students and researchers in the field of controlled fusion.

  10. Pionic fusion in light-ion systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joulaeizadeh, L., E-mail: l.joulaeizadeh@tudelft.n [KVI, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Gasparic, I. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Amir-Ahmadi, H.R.; Bacelar, J. [KVI, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Caplar, R. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Zagreb (Croatia); Eslami-Kalantari, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Loehner, H.; Mardanpour, H.; Messchendorp, J.G.; Moeini, H.; Ramazani-Moghaddam-Arani, A.; Shende, S.V. [KVI, University of Groningen, Groningen (Netherlands); Stephan, E. [Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Katowice (Poland)

    2011-01-03

    The role of pions in the nuclear interaction has been studied in pionic fusion experiments using the AGOR accelerator facility at KVI. Pionic fusion is a highly coherent process in which two nuclei fuse to a united nucleus and the available centre-of-mass (C.M.) energy is emitted through the pion channel. The examined reactions were {sup 4}He({sup 3}He, {pi}{sup 0}){sup 7}Be and {sup 6}Li({sup 4}He, {pi}{sup 0}){sup 10}B{sup *} and both reactions were performed at C.M. energies about 10 MeV above the coherent pion production threshold. Here, the experimental results for the {sup 6}Li({sup 4}He, {pi}{sup 0}){sup 10}B{sup *} reaction will be presented and discussed. In order to provide sensitivity to the full dynamics and relevant processes involved in the pionic fusion reaction, almost the full angular distribution of neutral pions has been determined. In a phenomenological analysis, the contributions of Legendre polynomials to reproduce the behaviour of the angular distribution have been studied. The results of this analysis confirm the importance of the clustering correlations for the {sup 6}Li({sup 4}He, {pi}{sup 0}){sup 10}B{sup *} reaction. The mass dependence of the pionic fusion reaction is in agreement with the results of the existing models extrapolated to this reaction.

  11. Pionic fusion in light-ion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joulaeizadeh, L.; Gašparić, I.; Amir-Ahmadi, H. R.; Bacelar, J.; Čaplar, R.; Eslami-Kalantari, M.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Löhner, H.; Mardanpour, H.; Messchendorp, J. G.; Moeini, H.; Ramazani-Moghaddam-Arani, A.; Shende, S. V.; Stephan, E.

    2011-01-01

    The role of pions in the nuclear interaction has been studied in pionic fusion experiments using the AGOR accelerator facility at KVI. Pionic fusion is a highly coherent process in which two nuclei fuse to a united nucleus and the available centre-of-mass (C.M.) energy is emitted through the pion channel. The examined reactions were 4He(3He, π0)7Be and 6Li(4He, π0)10B* and both reactions were performed at C.M. energies about 10 MeV above the coherent pion production threshold. Here, the experimental results for the 6Li(4He, π0)10B* reaction will be presented and discussed. In order to provide sensitivity to the full dynamics and relevant processes involved in the pionic fusion reaction, almost the full angular distribution of neutral pions has been determined. In a phenomenological analysis, the contributions of Legendre polynomials to reproduce the behaviour of the angular distribution have been studied. The results of this analysis confirm the importance of the clustering correlations for the 6Li(4He, π0)10B* reaction. The mass dependence of the pionic fusion reaction is in agreement with the results of the existing models extrapolated to this reaction.

  12. Mitochondrial fusion, fission, and mitochondrial toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Joel N; Leuthner, Tess C; Luz, Anthony L

    2017-08-05

    Mitochondrial dynamics are regulated by two sets of opposed processes: mitochondrial fusion and fission, and mitochondrial biogenesis and degradation (including mitophagy), as well as processes such as intracellular transport. These processes maintain mitochondrial homeostasis, regulate mitochondrial form, volume and function, and are increasingly understood to be critical components of the cellular stress response. Mitochondrial dynamics vary based on developmental stage and age, cell type, environmental factors, and genetic background. Indeed, many mitochondrial homeostasis genes are human disease genes. Emerging evidence indicates that deficiencies in these genes often sensitize to environmental exposures, yet can also be protective under certain circumstances. Inhibition of mitochondrial dynamics also affects elimination of irreparable mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and transmission of mtDNA mutations. We briefly review the basic biology of mitodynamic processes with a focus on mitochondrial fusion and fission, discuss what is known and unknown regarding how these processes respond to chemical and other stressors, and review the literature on interactions between mitochondrial toxicity and genetic variation in mitochondrial fusion and fission genes. Finally, we suggest areas for future research, including elucidating the full range of mitodynamic responses from low to high-level exposures, and from acute to chronic exposures; detailed examination of the physiological consequences of mitodynamic alterations in different cell types; mechanism-based testing of mitotoxicant interactions with interindividual variability in mitodynamics processes; and incorporating other environmental variables that affect mitochondria, such as diet and exercise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The MARVEL domain protein, Singles Bar, is required for progression past the pre-fusion complex stage of myoblast fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Beatriz; Maeland, Anne D; Gisselbrecht, Stephen S; Bloor, James W; Brown, Nicholas H; Michelson, Alan M

    2007-07-15

    Multinucleated myotubes develop by the sequential fusion of individual myoblasts. Using a convergence of genomic and classical genetic approaches, we have discovered a novel gene, singles bar (sing), that is essential for myoblast fusion. sing encodes a small multipass transmembrane protein containing a MARVEL domain, which is found in vertebrate proteins involved in processes such as tight junction formation and vesicle trafficking where--as in myoblast fusion--membrane apposition occurs. sing is expressed in both founder cells and fusion competent myoblasts preceding and during myoblast fusion. Examination of embryos injected with double-stranded sing RNA or embryos homozygous for ethane methyl sulfonate-induced sing alleles revealed an identical phenotype: replacement of multinucleated myofibers by groups of single, myosin-expressing myoblasts at a stage when formation of the mature muscle pattern is complete in wild-type embryos. Unfused sing mutant myoblasts form clusters, suggesting that early recognition and adhesion of these cells are unimpaired. To further investigate this phenotype, we undertook electron microscopic ultrastructural studies of fusing myoblasts in both sing and wild-type embryos. These experiments revealed that more sing mutant myoblasts than wild-type contain pre-fusion complexes, which are characterized by electron-dense vesicles paired on either side of the fusing plasma membranes. In contrast, embryos mutant for another muscle fusion gene, blown fuse (blow), have a normal number of such complexes. Together, these results lead to the hypothesis that sing acts at a step distinct from that of blow, and that sing is required on both founder cell and fusion-competent myoblast membranes to allow progression past the pre-fusion complex stage of myoblast fusion, possibly by mediating fusion of the electron-dense vesicles to the plasma membrane.

  14. A Multi-Disciplinary University Research Initiative in Hard and Soft Information Fusion: Overview, Research Strategies and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Thrusts addressed are framed around the major functional components of the JDL Fusion Process; these include: 1. Source Characterization of Soft...Level 2 data fusion environment. The primary Research Thrusts addressed are framed around the major functional components of the JDL Fusion Process

  15. [Rumination and cognitive fusion in dementia family caregivers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Moreno, Rosa; Márquez-González, María; Losada, Andrés; Fernández-Fernández, Virginia; Nogales-González, Celia

    2015-01-01

    Rumination has been described as a dysfunctional coping strategy related to emotional distress. Recently, it has been highlighted from the Acceptance and Commitment Therapy therapeutic approach, the negative role that cognitive fusion (the extent to which we are psychologically tangled with and dominated by the form or content of our thoughts) has on the explanation of distress. The aim of this study is to simultaneously analyze the role of rumination and cognitive fusion in the caregiving stress process. The sample of 176 dementia caregivers was divided in four groups, taking into account their levels of rumination and cognitive fusion: HRHF=high rumination+high cognitive fusion; HRLF=high rumination+low cognitive fusion; LRHF= low rumination+high cognitive fusion; and LRLC=low rumination and low cognitive fusion. Caregiver stress factors, frequency of pleasant events, experiential avoidance, coherence and satisfaction with personal values, depression, anxiety and satisfaction with life, were measured. The HRHF group showed higher levels of depression, anxiety, experiential avoidance and lower levels of satisfaction with life, frequency of pleasant events, coherence and satisfaction with personal values, than the other three groups. Considering simultaneously rumination and cognitive fusion may contribute to a better understanding of caregiver coping and distress. Copyright © 2014 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Resveratrol stimulates mitochondrial fusion by a mechanism requiring mitofusin-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Ellen L; Moradi, Fereshteh; Maddalena, Lucas A; Valente, Andrew J F; Fonseca, Joao; Stuart, Jeffrey A

    2017-04-01

    Resveratrol (RES) is a plant-derived stilbene associated with a wide range of health benefits. Mitochondria are a key downstream target of RES, and in some cell types RES promotes mitochondrial biogenesis, altered cellular redox status, and a shift toward oxidative metabolism. Mitochondria exist as a dynamic network that continually remodels via fusion and fission processes, and the extent of fusion is related to cellular redox status and metabolism. We investigated RES's effects on mitochondrial network morphology in several cell lines using a quantitative approach to measure the extent of network fusion. 48 h continuous treatment with 10-20 μM RES stimulated mitochondrial fusion in C2C12 myoblasts, PC3 cancer cells, and mouse embryonic fibroblasts stimulated significant increases in fusion in all instances, resulting in larger and more highly branched mitochondrial networks. Mitofusin-2 (Mfn2) is a key protein facilitating mitochondrial fusion, and its expression was also stimulated by RES. Using Mfn2-null cells we demonstrated that RES's effects on mitochondrial fusion, cellular respiration rates, and cell growth are all dependent upon the presence of Mfn2. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Mfn2 and mitochondrial fusion are affected by RES in ways that appear to relate to RES's known effects on cellular metabolism and growth.

  17. Alternate laser fusion drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleasance, L.D.

    1979-11-01

    Over the past few years, several laser systems have been considered as possible laser fusion drivers. Recently, there has been an increasing effort to evaluate these systems in terms of a reactor driver application. The specifications for such a system have become firmer and generally more restrictive. Several of the promising candidates such as the group VI laser, the metal vapor excimers and some solid state lasers can be eliminated on the basis of inefficiency. New solid state systems may impact the long range development of a fusion driver. Of the short wavelength gas lasers, the KrF laser used in conjunction with Raman compression and pulse stacking techniques is the most promising approach. Efficiencies approaching 10% may be possible with this system. While technically feasible, these approaches are complex and costly and are unsatisfying in an aethetic sense. A search for new lasers with more compelling features is still needed.

  18. Fusion Data Grid Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shasharina, Svetlana; Wang, Nanbor

    2004-11-01

    Simulations and experiments in the fusion and plasma physics community generate large datasets at remote sites. Visualization and analysis of these datasets are difficult because of the incompatibility among the various data formats adopted by simulation, experiments, and analysis tools, and the large sizes of analyzed data. Grids and Web Services technologies are capable of providing solutions for such heterogeneous settings, but need to be customized to the field-specific needs and merged with distributed technologies currently used by the community. This paper describes how we are addressing these issues in the Fusion Grid Service under development. We also present performance results of relevant data transfer mechanisms including binary SOAP, DIME, GridFTP and MDSplus and CORBA. We will describe the status of data converters (between HDF5 and MDSplus data types), developed in collaboration with MIT (J. Stillerman). Finally, we will analyze bottlenecks of MDSplus data transfer mechanism (work performed in collaboration with General Atomics (D. Schissel and M. Qian).

  19. Modular Aneutronic Fusion Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Pajer, Yosef Razin, Michael Paluszek, A.H. Glasser and Samuel Cohen

    2012-05-11

    NASA's JUNO mission will arrive at Jupiter in July 2016, after nearly five years in space. Since operational costs tend to rise with mission time, minimizing such times becomes a top priority. We present the conceptual design for a 10MW aneutronic fusion engine with high exhaust velocities that would reduce transit time for a Jupiter mission to eighteen months and enable more challenging exploration missions in the solar system and beyond. __________________________________________________

  20. Fusion development and technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following: superconducting magnet technology; high field superconductors; advanced magnetic system and divertor development; poloidal field coils; gyrotron development; commercial reactor studies--aries; ITER physics: alpha physics and alcator R D for ITER; lower hybrid current drive and heating in the ITER device; ITER superconducting PF scenario and magnet analysis; ITER systems studies; and safety, environmental and economic factors in fusion development.

  1. Fc-fusion mimetics

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The Fc-fusion mimetic RpR 2 was prepared by disulfide bridging conjugation using a PEG in the place of the Fc. RpR 2 displayed higher affinity for VEGF than aflibercept caused primarily by a slower dissociation rate, which can prolong a drug at its site of action. RpRs have considerable potential for development as stable, organ specific therapeutics.

  2. Materials for Fusion Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Matějíček

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview of materials foreseen for use or already used in fusion devices is given. The operating conditions, material requirements and characteristics of candidate materials in several specific application segments are briefly reviewed. These include: construction materials, electrical insulation, permeation barriers and plasma facing components. Special attention will be paid to the latter and to the issues of plasma-material interaction, materials joining and fuctionally graded interlayers.

  3. Accelerator based fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Keh-Fei; Chao, Alexander Wu

    2017-08-01

    A feasibility study of fusion reactors based on accelerators is carried out. We consider a novel scheme where a beam from the accelerator hits the target plasma on the resonance of the fusion reaction and establish characteristic criteria for a workable reactor. We consider the reactions d+t\\to n+α,d+{{}3}{{H}\\text{e}}\\to p+α , and p+{{}11}B\\to 3α in this study. The critical temperature of the plasma is determined from overcoming the stopping power of the beam with the fusion energy gain. The needed plasma lifetime is determined from the width of the resonance, the beam velocity and the plasma density. We estimate the critical beam flux by balancing the energy of fusion production against the plasma thermo-energy and the loss due to stopping power for the case of an inert plasma. The product of critical flux and plasma lifetime is independent of plasma density and has a weak dependence on temperature. Even though the critical temperatures for these reactions are lower than those for the thermonuclear reactors, the critical flux is in the range of {{10}22}-{{10}24}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-2}~{{\\text{s}}-1} for the plasma density {ρt}={{10}15}~\\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-3} in the case of an inert plasma. Several approaches to control the growth of the two-stream instability are discussed. We have also considered several scenarios for practical implementation which will require further studies. Finally, we consider the case where the injected beam at the resonance energy maintains the plasma temperature and prolongs its lifetime to reach a steady state. The equations for power balance and particle number conservation are given for this case.

  4. (Fusion energy research)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, C.A. (ed.)

    1988-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY88); tokamak fusion test reactor; Princeton beta Experiment-Modification; S-1 Spheromak; current drive experiment; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical plasma; tokamak modeling; compact ignition tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; Engineering Department; Project Planning and Safety Office; quality assurance and reliability; and technology transfer.

  5. EDITORIAL: Plasma Surface Interactions for Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    by researchers in fusion, material, and physical sciences. Representatives from many fusion research laboratories attended, and 25 talks were given, the majority of them making up the content of these Workshop proceedings. The presentations of all talks and further information on the Workshop are available at http://www-cfadc.phy.ornl.gov/psif/home.html. The workshop talks dealt with identification of needs from the perspective of integrated fusion simulation and ITER design, recent developments and perspectives on computation of plasma-facing surface properties using the current and expected new generation of computation capability, and with the status of dedicated laboratory experiments which characterize the underlying processes of PSIF. The Workshop summary and conclusions are being published in Nuclear Fusion 45 (2005). We are indebted to Lynda Saddiq and Fay Ownby, secretaries in the Physics Division of ORNL, whose special efforts, devotion, and expertise made possible both the Workshop and these Proceedings. J T Hogan, P S Krstic and F W Meyer Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6372, USA

  6. Adhesion and Fusion of Muscle Cells Are Promoted by Filopodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Dagan; Dhanyasi, Nagaraju; Schejter, Eyal D; Shilo, Ben-Zion

    2016-08-01

    Indirect flight muscles (IFMs) in Drosophila are generated during pupariation by fusion of hundreds of myoblasts with larval muscle templates (myotubes). Live observation of these muscles during the fusion process revealed multiple long actin-based protrusions that emanate from the myotube surface and require Enabled and IRSp53 for their generation and maintenance. Fusion is blocked when formation of these filopodia is compromised. While filopodia are not required for the signaling process underlying critical myoblast cell-fate changes prior to fusion, myotube-myoblast adhesion appears to be filopodia dependent. Without filopodia, close apposition between the cell membranes is not achieved, the cell-adhesion molecule Duf is not recruited to the myotube surface, and adhesion-dependent actin foci do not form. We therefore propose that the filopodia are necessary to prime the heterotypic adhesion process between the two cell types, possibly by recruiting the cell-adhesion molecule Sns to discrete patches on the myoblast cell surface.

  7. Processing and evaluation of image matching tools in radiotherapy; Mise en oeuvre et evaluation d'outils de fusion d'image en radiotherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bondiau, P.Y

    2004-11-15

    Cancer is a major problem of public health. Treatment can be done in a general or loco-regional way, in this last case medical images are important as they specify the localization of the tumour. The objective of the radiotherapy is to deliver a curative dose of radiation in the target volume while sparing the organs at risks (O.A.R.). The determination of the accurate localization of the targets volume as well as O.A.R. make it possible to define the ballistic of irradiation beams. After the description of the principles of radiotherapy and cancers treatment, we specify the clinical stakes of ocular, cerebral and prostatic tumours. We present a state of the art of image matching, the various techniques reviewed with an aim of being didactic with respect to the medical community. The results of matching are presented within the framework of the planning of the cerebral and prostatic radiotherapy in order to specify the types of applicable matching in oncology and more particularly in radiotherapy. Then, we present the prospects for this type of application according to various anatomical areas. Applications of automatic segmentation and the evaluation of the results in the framework of brain tumour are described after a review of the various segmentation methods according to anatomical localizations. We will see an original application: the digital simulation of the virtual tumoral growth and the comparison with the real growth of a cerebral tumour presented by a patient. Lastly, we will expose the future developments possible of the tools for image processing in radiotherapy as well as the tracks of research to be explored in oncology. (author)

  8. Towards fusion energy as a sustainable energy source: Activities at DTU Physics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jesper; Christensen, Alexander Simon; Dam, Magnus

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear fusion – the process from which the Sun derives its energy – holds the potential to become a clean,safe, highly efficient, and virtually inexhaustible energy source for the future. To mimic this process on earth, experimental fusion devices seek to heat gas to millions of degrees (creating...... a fusion plasma) and to confine it within magnetic fields. Learning how such plasmas behave and can be controlled is a crucial step towards realizing fusion as a sustainable energy source.At the Plasma Physics and Fusion Energy (PPFE) section at DTU Physics, we are exploring these issues,focusing on areas...... of high priority on the way towards a working fusion power plant. On the theoreticalfront, we are simulating plasma turbulence and transport of heat and particles in fusion plasmas (Fig. 1a). These issues play a key role in determining how the plasma behaves globally and how well it remains confined...

  9. Inertial fusion energy; L'energie de fusion inertielle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Decroisette, M.; Andre, M.; Bayer, C.; Juraszek, D. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, Dir. des Systemes d' Information (CEA/DIF), 91 (France); Le Garrec, B. [CEA Centre d' Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques d' Aquitaine, 33 - Le Barp (France); Deutsch, C. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Migus, A. [Institut d' Optique Centre scientifique, 91 - Orsay (France)

    2005-07-01

    We first recall the scientific basis of inertial fusion and then describe a generic fusion reactor with the different components: the driver, the fusion chamber, the material treatment unit, the target factory and the turbines. We analyse the options proposed at the present time for the driver and for target irradiation scheme giving the state of art for each approach. We conclude by the presentation of LMJ (laser Megajoule) and NIF (national ignition facility) projects. These facilities aim to demonstrate the feasibility of laboratory DT ignition, first step toward Inertial Fusion Energy. (authors)

  10. Inertial Fusion Power Plant Concept of Operations and Maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anklam, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Knutson, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dunne, A. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kasper, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sheehan, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lang, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Roberts, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mau, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Parsons and LLNL scientists and engineers performed design and engineering work for power plant pre-conceptual designs based on the anticipated laser fusion demonstrations at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Work included identifying concepts of operations and maintenance (O&M) and associated requirements relevant to fusion power plant systems analysis. A laser fusion power plant would incorporate a large process and power conversion facility with a laser system and fusion engine serving as the heat source, based in part on some of the systems and technologies advanced at NIF. Process operations would be similar in scope to those used in chemical, oil refinery, and nuclear waste processing facilities, while power conversion operations would be similar to those used in commercial thermal power plants. While some aspects of the tritium fuel cycle can be based on existing technologies, many aspects of a laser fusion power plant presents several important and unique O&M requirements that demand new solutions. For example, onsite recovery of tritium; unique remote material handling systems for use in areas with high radiation, radioactive materials, or high temperatures; a five-year fusion engine target chamber replacement cycle with other annual and multi-year cycles anticipated for major maintenance of other systems, structures, and components (SSC); and unique SSC for fusion target waste recycling streams. This paper describes fusion power plant O&M concepts and requirements, how O&M requirements could be met in design, and how basic organizational and planning issues can be addressed for a safe, reliable, economic, and feasible fusion power plant.

  11. Inertial fusion power plant concept of operations and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Brad; Dunne, Mike; Kasper, Jack; Sheehan, Timothy; Lang, Dwight; Anklam, Tom; Roberts, Valerie; Mau, Derek

    2015-02-01

    Parsons and LLNL scientists and engineers performed design and engineering work for power plant pre-conceptual designs based on the anticipated laser fusion demonstrations at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Work included identifying concepts of operations and maintenance (O&M) and associated requirements relevant to fusion power plant systems analysis. A laser fusion power plant would incorporate a large process and power conversion facility with a laser system and fusion engine serving as the heat source, based in part on some of the systems and technologies advanced at NIF. Process operations would be similar in scope to those used in chemical, oil refinery, and nuclear waste processing facilities, while power conversion operations would be similar to those used in commercial thermal power plants. While some aspects of the tritium fuel cycle can be based on existing technologies, many aspects of a laser fusion power plant presents several important and unique O&M requirements that demand new solutions. For example, onsite recovery of tritium; unique remote material handling systems for use in areas with high radiation, radioactive materials, or high temperatures; a five-year fusion engine target chamber replacement cycle with other annual and multi-year cycles anticipated for major maintenance of other systems, structures, and components (SSC); and unique SSC for fusion target waste recycling streams. This paper describes fusion power plant O&M concepts and requirements, how O&M requirements could be met in design, and how basic organizational and planning issues can be addressed for a safe, reliable, economic, and feasible fusion power plant.

  12. The Multifaceted Role of SNARE Proteins in Membrane Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Pluhackova, Kristyna; Böckmann, Rainer A

    2017-01-01

    Membrane fusion is a key process in all living organisms that contributes to a variety of biological processes including viral infection, cell fertilization, as well as intracellular transport, and neurotransmitter release. In particular, the various membrane-enclosed compartments in eukaryotic cells need to exchange their contents and communicate across membranes. Efficient and controllable fusion of biological membranes is known to be driven by cooperative action of SNARE proteins, which constitute the central components of the eukaryotic fusion machinery responsible for fusion of synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane. During exocytosis, vesicle-associated v-SNARE (synaptobrevin) and target cell-associated t-SNAREs (syntaxin and SNAP-25) assemble into a core trans-SNARE complex. This complex plays a versatile role at various stages of exocytosis ranging from the priming to fusion pore formation and expansion, finally resulting in the release or exchange of the vesicle content. This review summarizes current knowledge on the intricate molecular mechanisms underlying exocytosis triggered and catalyzed by SNARE proteins. Particular attention is given to the function of the peptidic SNARE membrane anchors and the role of SNARE-lipid interactions in fusion. Moreover, the regulatory mechanisms by synaptic auxiliary proteins in SNARE-driven membrane fusion are briefly outlined.

  13. Design of a fusion reactor for eutectic alloys Pb- Li; Diseno de un reactor de fusion para aleaciones autecticas Pb-Li

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinones, J.; Barrena Perez, M. I.; Gomez de Salazar, J. M.; Serrano, L.; Duran, S.; Conde, E.; Barrado, A. I.; Fernandez, M.; Sedano, L.; Soria Munoz, A.

    2010-07-01

    Given the interest that have the Pb-Li eutectic alloys in the field of production of tritium, designed to optimize energy through nuclear fusion processes, in this paper, we present the design, construction and commissioning of a fusion reactor of Pb-Li alloys eutectic and the optimal process conditions, for these alloys.

  14. Fusion excitation functions involving transitional nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rehm, K.E.; Jiang, C.L.; Esbensen, H. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Measurements of fusion excitation functions involving transitional nuclei {sup 78}Kr and {sup 100}Mo showed a different behavior at low energies, if compared to measurements with {sup 86}Kr and {sup 92}Mo. This points to a possible influence of nuclear structure on the fusion process. One way to characterize the structure of vibrational nuclei is via their restoring force parameters C{sub 2} which can be calculated from the energy of the lowest 2{sup +} state and the corresponding B(E2) value. A survey of the even-even nuclei between A = 28-150 shows strong variations in C{sub 2} values spanning two orders of magnitude. The lowest values for C{sub 2} are observed for {sup 78}Kr, {sup 104}Ru and {sup 124}Xe followed by {sup 74,76}Ge, {sup 74,76}Se, {sup 100}Mo and {sup 110}Pd. In order to learn more about the influence of {open_quotes}softness{close_quotes} on the sub-barrier fusion enhancement, we measured cross sections for evaporation residue production for the systems {sup 78}Kr + {sup 104}Ru and {sup 78}Kr + {sup 76}Ge with the gas-filled magnet technique. For both systems, fusion excitation functions involving the closed neutron shell nucleus {sup 86}Kr were measured previously. The data are presently being analyzed.

  15. COLOUR IMAGE REPRESENTION OF MULTISPECTRAL IMAGE FUSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preema Mole

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The availability of imaging sensors operating in multiple spectral bands has led to the requirement of image fusion algorithms that would combine the image from these sensors in an efficient way to give an image that is more perceptible to human eye. Multispectral Image fusion is the process of combining images optically acquired in more than one spectral band. In this paper, we present a pixel-level image fusion that combines four images from four different spectral bands namely near infrared(0.76-0.90um, mid infrared(1.55-1.75um,thermal- infrared(10.4-12.5um and mid infrared(2.08-2.35um to give a composite colour image. The work coalesces a fusion technique that involves linear transformation based on Cholesky decomposition of the covariance matrix of source data that converts multispectral source images which are in grayscale into colour image. This work is composed of different segments that includes estimation of covariance matrix of images, cholesky decomposition and transformation ones. Finally, the fused colour image is compared with the fused image obtained by PCA transformation.

  16. Atlanto-occipital fusion: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monalisa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The atlas is the first cervical vertebra. In the history of anatomy, due to its primary function of supporting the skull, it has been innumerably compared with Atlas the Greek God, who holds the globe of the earth on his shoulders. This vertebra is devoid of a body and has two prominent lateral masses bearing a pair of superior concave facets and inferior smooth facets each. Atlanto-occipital fusion may be unilateral or bilateral, complete or incomplete and symptomatic or asymptomatic. In our, case atlanto-occipital fusion was observed in the skull of a male cadaver. Our study will be of significance to clinicians in the specialties of radiodiagnosis, orthopedics, neurosurgery and anesthesiology. Because of a lack of knowledge of developmental malformation in the craniocervical region, sudden death can occur during clinical manipulation. Head and neck surgeons must keep in mind that such anomaly can exist without any prior symptoms. The specimen seen represents a case of congenital fusion. The articular processes of the specimen are fused between the occipital and the atlas bones. Atlanto-occipital fusion decreases the diameter of the foramen magnum and produce neurovascular symptoms.

  17. Tracking and sensor data fusion methodological framework and selected applications

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Sensor Data Fusion is the process of combining incomplete and imperfect pieces of mutually complementary sensor information in such a way that a better understanding of an underlying real-world phenomenon is achieved. Typically, this insight is either unobtainable otherwise or a fusion result exceeds what can be produced from a single sensor output in accuracy, reliability, or cost. This book provides an introduction Sensor Data Fusion, as an information technology as well as a branch of engineering science and informatics. Part I presents a coherent methodological framework, thus providing th

  18. A framework of region-based dynamic image fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhong-hua; QIN Zheng; LIU Yu

    2007-01-01

    A new framework of region-based dynamic image fusion is proposed. First, the technique of target detection is applied to dynamic images (image sequences) to segment images into different targets and background regions. Then different fusion rules are employed in different regions so that the target information is preserved as much as possible. In addition, steerable non-separable wavelet frame transform is used in the process of multi-resolution analysis, so the system achieves favorable characters of orientation and invariant shift. Compared with other image fusion methods, experimental results showed that the proposed method has better capabilities of target recognition and preserves clear background information.

  19. Fusion fuel cycle: material requirements and potential effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teofilo, V.L.; Bickford, W.E.; Long, L.W.; Price, B.A.; Mellinger, P.J.; Willingham, C.E.; Young, J.K.

    1980-10-01

    Environmental effluents that may be associated with the fusion fuel cycle are identified. Existing standards for controlling their release are summarized and anticipated regulatory changes are identified. The ability of existing and planned environmental control technology to limit effluent releases to acceptable levels is evaluated. Reference tokamak fusion system concepts are described and the principal materials required of the associated fuel cycle are analyzed. These materials include the fusion fuels deuterium and tritium; helium, which is used as a coolant for both the blanket and superconducting magnets; lithium and beryllium used in the blanket; and niobium used in the magnets. The chemical and physical processes used to prepare these materials are also described.

  20. Presence detection under optimum fusion in an ultrasonic sensor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sriram; Pandharipande, Ashish

    2012-04-01

    Reliable presence detection is a requirement in energy-efficient occupancy-adaptive indoor lighting systems. A system of multiple ultrasonic sensors is considered for presence detection, and the performance gain from optimum fusion is studied. Two cases are considered wherein an individual sensor determines presence based on (i) local detection by processing echoes at its receiver, and (ii) the optimum Chair-Varshney fusion rule using multiple sensor detection results. The performance gains of using optimum fusion over local detection are characterized under different sensor system configurations and it is shown that improved detection sensitivity is obtained over a larger detection coverage region.

  1. A New capitalism in Brazil? Fusions & acquisitions on Lula government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Martines Belieiro Junior

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims analyze the phenomenon of fusions and acquisitions of companies in Brazil during the government of ex-president Luis Ignacio Lula da Silva, from 2003 to 2010. The adopted point of view is the one of relations between the State an d the economy trying to investigate what the new role of the private capital in the contemporary Brazil. The basic hypothesis that guide this work is to explain the fusions and acquisitions in a broader context of State support to the process of fusions and acquisitions as a new way of global insertion of Brazilian capitalism in a moment of international competitiveness.

  2. Multi-sensor image fusion and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Blum, Rick S

    2005-01-01

    Taking another lesson from nature, the latest advances in image processing technology seek to combine image data from several diverse types of sensors in order to obtain a more accurate view of the scene: very much the same as we rely on our five senses. Multi-Sensor Image Fusion and Its Applications is the first text dedicated to the theory and practice of the registration and fusion of image data, covering such approaches as statistical methods, color-related techniques, model-based methods, and visual information display strategies.After a review of state-of-the-art image fusion techniques,

  3. The Hemifused State on the Pathway to Membrane Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Jason M.; O'Shaughnessy, Ben

    2012-04-01

    Fusion of compartments enclosed by membrane bilayers enables secretion and other vital cellular processes and is widely studied in model synthetic membrane systems. Experiments suggest the fusion pathway passes through a hemifused intermediate where only outer monolayers are fused. Here we show membrane tension and divalent cations drive vesicles to hemifused equilibrium with expanded hemifusion diaphragms (HDs) where inner monolayers engage. Predicted HD sizes agree with recent measurements of Nikolaus [Biophys. J. 98, 1192 (2010).BIOJAU0006-349510.1016/j.bpj.2009.11.042]. The fusion pathway is completed by HD lysis provided HD tension is sufficiently high.

  4. EDITORIAL: The Nuclear Fusion Award The Nuclear Fusion Award

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Nuclear Fusion Award ceremony for 2009 and 2010 award winners was held during the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in Daejeon. This time, both 2009 and 2010 award winners were celebrated by the IAEA and the participants of the 23rd IAEA Fusion Energy Conference. The Nuclear Fusion Award is a paper prize to acknowledge the best distinguished paper among the published papers in a particular volume of the Nuclear Fusion journal. Among the top-cited and highly-recommended papers chosen by the Editorial Board, excluding overview and review papers, and by analyzing self-citation and non-self-citation with an emphasis on non-self-citation, the Editorial Board confidentially selects ten distinguished papers as nominees for the Nuclear Fusion Award. Certificates are given to the leading authors of the Nuclear Fusion Award nominees. The final winner is selected among the ten nominees by the Nuclear Fusion Editorial Board voting confidentially. 2009 Nuclear Fusion Award nominees For the 2009 award, the papers published in the 2006 volume were assessed and the following papers were nominated, most of which are magnetic confinement experiments, theory and modeling, while one addresses inertial confinement. Sabbagh S.A. et al 2006 Resistive wall stabilized operation in rotating high beta NSTX plasmas Nucl. Fusion 46 635-44 La Haye R.J. et al 2006 Cross-machine benchmarking for ITER of neoclassical tearing mode stabilization by electron cyclotron current drive Nucl. Fusion 46 451-61 Honrubia J.J. et al 2006 Three-dimensional fast electron transport for ignition-scale inertial fusion capsules Nucl. Fusion 46 L25-8 Ido T. et al 2006 Observation of the interaction between the geodesic acoustic mode and ambient fluctuation in the JFT-2M tokamak Nucl. Fusion 46 512-20 Plyusnin V.V. et al 2006 Study of runaway electron generation during major disruptions in JET Nucl. Fusion 46 277-84 Pitts R.A. et al 2006 Far SOL ELM ion energies in JET Nucl. Fusion 46 82-98 Berk H.L. et al 2006

  5. Multifocus Image Fusion in Q-Shift DTCWT Domain Using Various Fusion Rules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingzhong Tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multifocus image fusion is a process that integrates partially focused image sequence into a fused image which is focused everywhere, with multiple methods proposed in the past decades. The Dual Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DTCWT is one of the most precise ones eliminating two main defects caused by the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT. Q-shift DTCWT was proposed afterwards to simplify the construction of filters in DTCWT, producing better fusion effects. A different image fusion strategy based on Q-shift DTCWT is presented in this work. According to the strategy, firstly, each image is decomposed into low and high frequency coefficients, which are, respectively, fused by using different rules, and then various fusion rules are innovatively combined in Q-shift DTCWT, such as the Neighborhood Variant Maximum Selectivity (NVMS and the Sum Modified Laplacian (SML. Finally, the fused coefficients could be well extracted from the source images and reconstructed to produce one fully focused image. This strategy is verified visually and quantitatively with several existing fusion methods based on a plenty of experiments and yields good results both on standard images and on microscopic images. Hence, we can draw the conclusion that the rule of NVMS is better than others after Q-shift DTCWT.

  6. Premature Activation of the Paramyxovirus Fusion Protein before Target Cell Attachment with Corruption of the Viral Fusion Machinery*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzan, Shohreh F.; Palermo, Laura M.; Yokoyama, Christine C.; Orefice, Gianmarco; Fornabaio, Micaela; Sarkar, Aurijit; Kellogg, Glen E.; Greengard, Olga; Porotto, Matteo; Moscona, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Paramyxoviruses, including the childhood pathogen human parainfluenza virus type 3, enter host cells by fusion of the viral and target cell membranes. This fusion results from the concerted action of its two envelope glycoproteins, the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and the fusion protein (F). The receptor-bound HN triggers F to undergo conformational changes that render it competent to mediate fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. We proposed that, if the fusion process could be activated prematurely before the virion reaches the target host cell, infection could be prevented. We identified a small molecule that inhibits paramyxovirus entry into target cells and prevents infection. We show here that this compound works by an interaction with HN that results in F-activation prior to receptor binding. The fusion process is thereby prematurely activated, preventing fusion of the viral membrane with target cells and precluding viral entry. This first evidence that activation of a paramyxovirus F can be specifically induced before the virus contacts its target cell suggests a new strategy with broad implications for the design of antiviral agents. PMID:21799008

  7. Fusion methodologies in crisis management higher level fusion and decision making

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, Peter

    2016-01-01

    This book emphasizes a contemporary view on the role of higher level fusion in designing crisis management systems. It provides the formal foundations, architecture, and implementation strategies required for building dynamic current and future situational pictures. It goes on to discuss the state-of-the-art computational approaches to designing such processes and their inherent challenges. This book integrates recent advances in decision theory with those in fusion methodology to define an end-to-end framework for decision support in crisis management. The text discusses modern fusion and decision support methods for dealing with heterogeneous and often unreliable, low fidelity, contradictory, and redundant data and information, as well as rare, unknown, unconventional or even unimaginable critical situations. The book also examines the role of context in situation management, cognitive aspects of decision making and situation management, approaches to domain representation, visualization, as well as the rol...

  8. Repeat use of human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2 for second level lumbar arthrodesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kern; Dumonski, Mark; Stanley, Tom; Ponnappan, Ravi; Phillips, Frank M

    2011-02-01

    Prospective randomized controlled animal model. The purpose of this study is to determine whether the readministration of human recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) induces an immune response and inhibits successful fusion in repeat posterolateral spinal surgery. Little research has been performed on the effectiveness or immunoreactivity of rhBMP-2 (Infuse, Medtronic, Memphis, TN) in the context of its reuse in posterolateral fusion spinal surgery at adjacent levels. A total of 34 New Zealand White rabbits underwent posterior intertransverse process fusion with the use of rhBMP-2 delivered on an absorbable collagen sponge (rhBMP-2/ACS). Two rabbits were killed early leaving 32 total rabbits. Serologic studies (Type I bovine collagen and rhBMP-2 antibodies) were obtained at 2-week intervals throughout the experiment. At 10 weeks, posteroanterior radiographs confirmed solid fusion masses in all rabbits. The 32 rabbits were randomly separated into 2 groups of 16, and each group underwent an adjacent level, bilateral intertransverse process fusion with either rhBMP-2/ACS or iliac crest. There was no statistical difference in fusion rates with repeat use of rhBMP-2 (n = 15/16, 94%) or iliac crest (n = 11/16, 69%) (P = 0.17) at the adjacent level. Four rabbits (n = 4/32, 13%) developed rhBMP-2 antibodies. Of these 4 rabbits, 1 developed anti-rhBMP antibodies after the first exposure and 3 developed antibodies after the second surgery. Eight rabbits (n = 8/32, 25%) developed collagen antibodies with 7 rabbits developing antibodies after the first exposure and 1 rabbit developing antibodies after the second exposure. The development of antibodies did not effect fusion rates. No rabbit demonstrated evidence of a systemic or anaphylactic reaction to repeat exposure to rhBMP-2. rhBMP-2 appears to be successful in promoting intertransverse fusions when used in both primary and repeat fusion environments. The infrequent development of antibodies to rhBMP-2 after

  9. Cold nuclear fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsyganov, E.N., E-mail: edward.tsyganov@coldfusion-power.com [Cold Fusion Power, International (United States); Bavizhev, M.D. [LLC “Radium”, Moscow (Russian Federation); Buryakov, M.G. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation); Dabagov, S.B. [RAS P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute, Leninsky pr. 53, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI, Kashirskoe shosse 31, 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation); Golovatyuk, V.M.; Lobastov, S.P. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR), Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    If target deuterium atoms were implanted in a metal crystal in accelerator experiments, a sharp increase in the probability of DD-fusion reaction was clearly observed when compared with the reaction’s theoretical value. The electronic screening potential, which for a collision of free deuterium atoms is about 27 eV, reached 300–700 eV in the case of the DD-fusion in metallic crystals. These data leads to the conclusion that a ban must exist for deuterium atoms to be in the ground state 1s in a niche filled with free conduction electrons. At the same time, the state 2p whose energy level is only 10 eV above that of state 1s is allowed in these conditions. With anisotropy of 2p, 3p or above orbitals, their spatial positions are strictly determined in the lattice coordinate system. When filling out the same potential niches with two deuterium atoms in the states 2p, 3p or higher, the nuclei of these atoms can be permanently positioned without creating much Coulomb repulsion at a very short distance from each other. In this case, the transparency of the potential barrier increases dramatically compared to the ground state 1s for these atoms. The probability of the deuterium nuclei penetrating the Coulomb barrier by zero quantum vibration of the DD-system also increases dramatically. The so-called cold nuclear DD-fusion for a number of years was registered in many experiments, however, was still rejected by mainstream science for allegedly having no consistent scientific explanation. Finally, it received the validation. Below, we outline the concept of this explanation and give the necessary calculations. This paper also considers the further destiny of the formed intermediate state of {sup 4}He{sup ∗}.

  10. Influenza Virus-Mediated Membrane Fusion: Determinants of Hemagglutinin Fusogenic Activity and Experimental Approaches for Assessing Virus Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Daniel

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hemagglutinin (HA is the viral protein that facilitates the entry of influenza viruses into host cells. This protein controls two critical aspects of entry: virus binding and membrane fusion. In order for HA to carry out these functions, it must first undergo a priming step, proteolytic cleavage, which renders it fusion competent. Membrane fusion commences from inside the endosome after a drop in lumenal pH and an ensuing conformational change in HA that leads to the hemifusion of the outer membrane leaflets of the virus and endosome, the formation of a stalk between them, followed by pore formation. Thus, the fusion machinery is an excellent target for antiviral compounds, especially those that target the conserved stem region of the protein. However, traditional ensemble fusion assays provide a somewhat limited ability to directly quantify fusion partly due to the inherent averaging of individual fusion events resulting from experimental constraints. Inspired by the gains achieved by single molecule experiments and analysis of stochastic events, recently-developed individual virion imaging techniques and analysis of single fusion events has provided critical information about individual virion behavior, discriminated intermediate fusion steps within a single virion, and allowed the study of the overall population dynamics without the loss of discrete, individual information. In this article, we first start by reviewing the determinants of HA fusogenic activity and the viral entry process, highlight some open questions, and then describe the experimental approaches for assaying fusion that will be useful in developing the most effective therapies in the future.

  11. Tracing myoblast fusion in Drosophila embryos by fluorescent actin probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haralalka, Shruti; Abmayr, Susan M

    2015-01-01

    Myoblast fusion in the Drosophila embryo is a highly elaborate process that is initiated by Founder Cells and Fusion-Competent Myoblasts (FCMs). It occurs through an asymmetric event in which actin foci assemble in the FCMs at points of cell-cell contact and direct the formation of membrane protrusions that drive fusion. Herein, we describe the approach that we have used to image in living embryos the highly dynamic actin foci and actin-rich projections that precede myoblast fusion. We discuss resources currently available for imaging actin and myogenesis, and our experience with these resources if available. This technical report is not intended to be comprehensive on providing instruction on standard microscopy practices or software utilization. However, we discuss microscope parameters that we have used in data collection, and our experience with image processing tools in data analysis.

  12. Fusion Advanced Design Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Guebaly, Laila [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Henderson, Douglass [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Wilson, Paul [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Blanchard, Jake [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-03-24

    During the January 1, 2013 – December 31, 2015 contract period, the UW Fusion Technology Institute personnel have actively participated in the ARIES-ACT and FESS-FNSF projects, led the nuclear and thermostructural tasks, attended several project meetings, and participated in all conference calls. The main areas of effort and technical achievements include updating and documenting the nuclear analysis for ARIES-ACT1, performing nuclear analysis for ARIES-ACT2, performing thermostructural analysis for ARIES divertor, performing disruption analysis for ARIES vacuum vessel, and developing blanket testing strategy and Materials Test Module for FNSF.

  13. A fusion-inhibiting peptide against Rift Valley fever virus inhibits multiple, diverse viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey W Koehler

    Full Text Available For enveloped viruses, fusion of the viral envelope with a cellular membrane is critical for a productive infection to occur. This fusion process is mediated by at least three classes of fusion proteins (Class I, II, and III based on the protein sequence and structure. For Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV, the glycoprotein Gc (Class II fusion protein mediates this fusion event following entry into the endocytic pathway, allowing the viral genome access to the cell cytoplasm. Here, we show that peptides analogous to the RVFV Gc stem region inhibited RVFV infectivity in cell culture by inhibiting the fusion process. Further, we show that infectivity can be inhibited for diverse, unrelated RNA viruses that have Class I (Ebola virus, Class II (Andes virus, or Class III (vesicular stomatitis virus fusion proteins using this single peptide. Our findings are consistent with an inhibition mechanism similar to that proposed for stem peptide fusion inhibitors of dengue virus in which the RVFV inhibitory peptide first binds to both the virion and cell membranes, allowing it to traffic with the virus into the endocytic pathway. Upon acidification and rearrangement of Gc, the peptide is then able to specifically bind to Gc and prevent fusion of the viral and endocytic membranes, thus inhibiting viral infection. These results could provide novel insights into conserved features among the three classes of viral fusion proteins and offer direction for the future development of broadly active fusion inhibitors.

  14. Technical Developments for Harnessing Controlled Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, G.; Zoletnik, S.; Jacob, W.

    This chapter gives the conditions for achieving power production using nuclear fusion reactions. The two basic schemes for plasma confinement, inertial and magnetic, are briefly considered and the present technical solutions are outlined. The physical and chemical processes taking place between the hot plasma and the containing vessel wall are discussed in more detail. At the end of the chapter, the present status of research and the planned future development plans are summarized.

  15. Development of Radiation Fusion Biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Lee, Ju Woon; Park, Sang Hyun

    2010-04-15

    {center_dot} Development of Radiation Fusion Technology with Food Technology by the Application of High Dose Irradiation - To develop fundamental technology using high dose irradiation, effects of high dose irradiation on food components, combined effects of irradiation with food engineering, irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant foodborne bacteria were studied. - To develop E-beam irradiation technology, irradiation conditions for E-beam and domination effects of E-beam irradiation were determined. The physical marker for E-beam irradiated foods or not was developed. - To develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready-to-eat foods and low toxic animal feeds were developed. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for new irradiated foods and application of E-beam was introduced. {center_dot} Development of modulators against degenerative aging using radiation fusion technology - Confirmation of similarity of radiation-induced aging and normal aging by comparative analysis study - Selection of degenerative aging biomarkers related to immune/hematopoiesis, oxidative damage, molecular signaling, lipid metabolism - Establishment of optimal radiation application conditions for aging modeling - Validation of biomarkers and models using substances {center_dot} Development of biochips and kits using RI detection technology for life science - Establishment of kinase-substrate interaction analysis using RI detection technique (More than 30 times detection sensitivity compared to conventional fluorescence detection techniques). - The RI detection technique reduces the overall experiment time, as the use of blocking agent can be avoided, offer minimum non-specific binding, and facilitates a rapid data analysis with a simplify the process of chip manufacturing

  16. Simulation of National Intelligence Process with Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    Spread of Quality Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-18 3.12. Adaline Neural Network Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-19 4.1...Network known as the Adaline which comes from adaptive linear element [3]. The adaline is a single node network that learns to recognize linear patterns...by minimizing the errors between 3-18 the network’s output and the desired output. An image of the adaline is shown in Figure 3.12. Figure 3.12

  17. PROCESS MANAGEMENT MODELS AND FUSION ORGANIZATION CULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Duro Horvat; Marinko KovaCiC; Ljiljana Kristijan Ivanek

    2014-01-01

    Radical new technologies like the Internet technology and multimedia, telecommunication technology, nanotechnology and new material technology form completely new economic reality in an evolutional way. Existing organizational structures, mainly in creative industry segment and high technologies, are not in the position of achieving maximal result. It is due to the strong traditional resource in fluence and classical managerial concepts. Finding out suitable organizational forms for acting in...

  18. Value Driven Information Processing and Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    by your agreement who graduated during this period and will receive scholarships or fellowships for further studies in science, mathematics...For exam - ple, with the rounding quantizer assumed above, one still need infinite quantization levels (hence infinite bits for representation) when the

  19. 9. European fusion theory conference. Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-10-01

    The aim of the conference was to provide a discussion forum covering all areas of magnetic fusion-oriented theoretical activities in Europe. The following main topics are included: multidimensional equilibria and operational limits; magnetic topology, macroinstabilities and magnetic reconnection; microinstabilities, turbulence, structures and transport processes; plasma rotation and radial electric fields; RF heating, current drive, helicity injection and non-resonant forces; plasma edge and divertor physics; computational modelling in magnetic fusion research. (LN)

  20. Melting or nucleon transfer in fusion of heavy nuclei?

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz-Torres, A; Antonenko, N V; Scheid, W

    2000-01-01

    The time-dependent transition between a diabatic interaction potential in the entrance channel and an adiabatic potential during the fusion process is investigated within the two-center shell model. A large hindrance is obtained for the motion to smaller elongations of near symmetric dinuclear systems. The comparison of the calculated energy thresholds for the complete fusion in different relevant collective variables shows that the dinuclear system prefers to evolve in the mass asymmetry coordinate by nucleon transfer to the compound nucleus.

  1. Measurements of vector boson fusion with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Hays, Chris; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Measurements are presented of single $W$ and $Z$ boson production in a vector-boson-fusion topology using ATLAS data collected at the LHC. The measurements include the fiducial cross sections in $\\sqrt{s} = 7$ and 8 TeV $pp$ collisions of $W$ and $Z$ production with jets produced via the electroweak interaction, of which vector-boson fusion is a component, and with jets produced via the strong process. Differential measurements are also shown.

  2. Lineage development of cell fusion hybrids upon somatic reprogramming

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Tese de mestrado. Biologia (Biologia Molecular e Genética). Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Ciências, 2011 Somatic cell reprogramming has been extensively studied over the last years and opened new perspectives in the use of pluripotent cells for regenerative biomedical purposes. Spontaneous cell fusion has been suggested to be involved in regenerative processes in vivo. Strong evidences support the hypothesis that the reprogrammed hybrids resulting from the fusion between a pluripote...

  3. Application of data fusion on multi-function earth drill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡长胜; 赵伟民; 李瑰贤; 杨春蕾; 牛红; 胡长军

    2003-01-01

    taking the bucket of multi-function earth drill as an example, combining with the conception of multi-sensor integration and data fusion, adopting the terrene column chart and digging torque formula as control dependence, the detecting method of the earth drill's working state is introduced. Multi-sensor data fusion is done with the aid of BP neural network in Matlab. The data to be interfused are pre-processed and the program of simulation and "point checking" is given.

  4. Fusion reactors-high temperature electrolysis (HTE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillo, J.A. (ed.)

    1978-01-01

    Results of a study to identify and develop a reference design for synfuel production based on fusion reactors are given. The most promising option for hydrogen production was high-temperature electrolysis (HTE). The main findings of this study are: 1. HTE has the highest potential efficiency for production of synfuels from fusion; a fusion to hydrogen energy efficiency of about 70% appears possible with 1800/sup 0/C HTE units and 60% power cycle efficiency; an efficiency of about 50% possible with 1400/sup 0/C HTE units and 40% power cycle efficiency. 2. Relative to thermochemical or direct decomposition methods HTE technology is in a more advanced state of development, 3. Thermochemical or direct decomposition methods must have lower unit process or capital costs if they are to be more attractive than HTE. 4. While design efforts are required, HTE units offer the potential to be quickly run in reverse as fuel cells to produce electricity for restart of Tokamaks and/or provide spinning reserve for a grid system. 5. Because of the short timescale of the study, no detailed economic evaluation could be carried out.A comparison of costs could be made by employing certain assumptions. For example, if the fusion reactor-electrolyzer capital installation is $400/(KW(T) ($1000/KW(E) equivalent), the H/sub 2/ energy production cost for a high efficiency (about 70 %) fusion-HTE system is on the same order of magnitude as a coal based SNG plant based on 1976 dollars. 6. The present reference design indicates that a 2000 MW(th) fusion reactor could produce as much at 364 x 10/sup 6/ scf/day of hydrogen which is equivalent in heating value to 20,000 barrels/day of gasoline. This would fuel about 500,000 autos based on average driving patterns. 7. A factor of three reduction in coal feed (tons/day) could be achieved for syngas production if hydrogen from a fusion-HTE system were used to gasify coal, as compared to a conventional syngas plant using coal-derived hydrogen.

  5. Clean steels for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelles, D.S.

    1995-03-01

    Fusion energy production has an inherent advantage over fission: a fuel supply with reduced long term radioactivity. One of the leading candidate materials for structural applications in a fusion reactor is a tungsten stabilized 9% chromium Martensitic steel. This alloy class is being considered because it offers the opportunity to maintain that advantage in the reactor structure as well as provide good high temperature strength and radiation induced swelling and embrittlement resistance. However, calculations indicate that to obtain acceptable radioactivity levels within 500 years after service, clean steel will be required because the niobium impurity levels must be kept below about 2 appm and nickel, molybdenum, nitrogen, copper, and aluminum must be intentionally restricted. International efforts are addressing the problems of clean steel production. Recently, a 5,000 kg heat was vacuum induction melted in Japan using high purity commercial raw materials giving niobium levels less than 0.7 appm. This paper reviews the need for reduced long term radioactivity, defines the advantageous properties of the tungsten stabilized Martensitic steel class, and describes the international efforts to produce acceptable clean steels.

  6. JENDL fusion file 99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiba, Satoshi; Fukahori, Tokio; Shibata, Keiichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Yu Baosheng [China Institute of Atomic Energy, Beijing (China); Kosako, Kazuaki [Sumitomo Atomic Industries, Tokyo (Japan); Yamamuro, Nobuhiro [Data Engineering Co. Ltd., Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2002-02-01

    The double-differential cross sections (DDXs) of secondary neutrons have been evaluated for 79 isotopes and 13 natural elements ranging from H to Bi to improve the accuracy of predictions for the neutronics calculations in the D-T thermonuclear fusion applications. The data given in JENDL-3.1, which was the newest version of JENDL general purpose file when this project was initiated, was combined with new calculations based on the optical model, DWBA, pre-equilibrium and multi-step statistical models, and the DDX data were generated based on various kinds of systematics for medium-mass nuclei. Different methods were employed for light nuclei to which the above method could not be applied. In addition, the DDXs for emission of charged particles (p, d, t, {sup 3}He and {alpha}-particle) were given for {sup 2}H, {sup 9}Be and elements heavier or equal to F. The present results give an overall good description of the measured DDX data of both the neutron and charged particles emission channels. The data were compiled in ENDF-6 format, and released in 1999 as a special purpose file of JENDL family, namely, JENDL Fusion File 99. (author)

  7. Utility requirements for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vondrasek, R.J.

    1982-02-01

    This report describes work done and results obtained during performance of Task 1 of a study of Utility Requirements and Criteria for Fusion Options. The work consisted of developing a list of utility requirements for fusion optics containing definition of the requirements and showing their relative importance to the utility industry. The project team members developed a preliminary list which was refined by discussions and literature searches. The refined list was recast as a questionnaire which was sent to a substantial portion of the utility industry in this country. Forty-three questionnaire recipients responded including thirty-two utilities. A workshop was held to develop a revised requirements list using the survey responses as a major input. The list prepared by the workshop was further refined by a panel consisting of vice presidents of the three project team firms. The results of the study indicate that in addition to considering the cost of energy for a power plant, utilities consider twenty-three other requirements. Four of the requirements were judged to be vital to plant acceptability: Plant Capital Cost, Financial Liability, Plant Safety and Licensability.

  8. The optimal algorithm for Multi-source RS image fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei; Huang, Shui-Guang; Li, Zeng-Shun; Shen, Hao; Li, Jun-Shuai; Wang, Peng-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    In order to solve the issue which the fusion rules cannot be self-adaptively adjusted by using available fusion methods according to the subsequent processing requirements of Remote Sensing (RS) image, this paper puts forward GSDA (genetic-iterative self-organizing data analysis algorithm) by integrating the merit of genetic arithmetic together with the advantage of iterative self-organizing data analysis algorithm for multi-source RS image fusion. The proposed algorithm considers the wavelet transform of the translation invariance as the model operator, also regards the contrast pyramid conversion as the observed operator. The algorithm then designs the objective function by taking use of the weighted sum of evaluation indices, and optimizes the objective function by employing GSDA so as to get a higher resolution of RS image. As discussed above, the bullet points of the text are summarized as follows.•The contribution proposes the iterative self-organizing data analysis algorithm for multi-source RS image fusion.•This article presents GSDA algorithm for the self-adaptively adjustment of the fusion rules.•This text comes up with the model operator and the observed operator as the fusion scheme of RS image based on GSDA. The proposed algorithm opens up a novel algorithmic pathway for multi-source RS image fusion by means of GSDA.

  9. Constancy and diversity in the flavivirus fusion peptide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seligman, Stephen J

    2008-01-01

    Background Flaviviruses include the mosquito-borne dengue, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever and West Nile and the tick-borne encephalitis viruses. They are responsible for considerable world-wide morbidity and mortality. Viral entry is mediated by a conserved fusion peptide containing 16 amino acids located in domain II of the envelope protein E. Highly orchestrated conformational changes initiated by exposure to acidic pH accompany the fusion process and are important factors limiting amino acid changes in the fusion peptide that still permit fusion with host cell membranes in both arthropod and vertebrate hosts. The cell-fusing related agents, growing only in mosquitoes or insect cell lines, possess a different homologous peptide. Results Analysis of 46 named flaviviruses deposited in the Entrez Nucleotides database extended the constancy in the canonical fusion peptide sequences of mosquito-borne, tick-borne and viruses with no known vector to include more recently-sequenced viruses. The mosquito-borne signature amino acid, G104, was also found in flaviviruses with no known vector and with the cell-fusion related viruses. Despite the constancy in the canonical sequences in pathogenic flaviviruses, mutations were surprisingly frequent with a 27% prevalence of nonsynonymous mutations in yellow fever virus fusion peptide sequences, and 0 to 7.4% prevalence in the others. Six of seven yellow fever patients whose virus had fusion peptide mutations died. In the cell-fusing related agents, not enough sequences have been deposited to estimate reliably the prevalence of fusion peptide mutations. However, the canonical sequences homologous to the fusion peptide and the pattern of disulfide linkages in protein E differed significantly from the other flaviviruses. Conclusion The constancy of the canonical fusion peptide sequences in the arthropod-borne flaviviruses contrasts with the high prevalence of mutations in most individual viruses. The discrepancy may be the

  10. Constancy and diversity in the flavivirus fusion peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seligman Stephen J

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flaviviruses include the mosquito-borne dengue, Japanese encephalitis, yellow fever and West Nile and the tick-borne encephalitis viruses. They are responsible for considerable world-wide morbidity and mortality. Viral entry is mediated by a conserved fusion peptide containing 16 amino acids located in domain II of the envelope protein E. Highly orchestrated conformational changes initiated by exposure to acidic pH accompany the fusion process and are important factors limiting amino acid changes in the fusion peptide that still permit fusion with host cell membranes in both arthropod and vertebrate hosts. The cell-fusing related agents, growing only in mosquitoes or insect cell lines, possess a different homologous peptide. Results Analysis of 46 named flaviviruses deposited in the Entrez Nucleotides database extended the constancy in the canonical fusion peptide sequences of mosquito-borne, tick-borne and viruses with no known vector to include more recently-sequenced viruses. The mosquito-borne signature amino acid, G104, was also found in flaviviruses with no known vector and with the cell-fusion related viruses. Despite the constancy in the canonical sequences in pathogenic flaviviruses, mutations were surprisingly frequent with a 27% prevalence of nonsynonymous mutations in yellow fever virus fusion peptide sequences, and 0 to 7.4% prevalence in the others. Six of seven yellow fever patients whose virus had fusion peptide mutations died. In the cell-fusing related agents, not enough sequences have been deposited to estimate reliably the prevalence of fusion peptide mutations. However, the canonical sequences homologous to the fusion peptide and the pattern of disulfide linkages in protein E differed significantly from the other flaviviruses. Conclusion The constancy of the canonical fusion peptide sequences in the arthropod-borne flaviviruses contrasts with the high prevalence of mutations in most individual viruses

  11. A novel technique using hydrophilic polymers to promote axonal fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravinder Bamba

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of traumatic peripheral nerve injury remains a considerable concern for clinicians. With minimal innovations in surgical technique and a limited number of specialists trained to treat peripheral nerve injury, outcomes of surgical intervention have been unpredictable. The inability to manipulate the pathophysiology of nerve injury (i.e., Wallerian degeneration has left scientists and clinicians depending on the slow and lengthy process of axonal regeneration (~1 mm/day. When axons are severed, the endings undergo calcium-mediated plasmalemmal sealing, which limits the ability of the axon to be primarily repaired. Polythethylene glycol (PEG in combination with a bioengineered process overcomes the inability to fuse axons. The mechanism for PEG axonal fusion is not clearly understood, but multiple studies have shown that a providing a calcium-free environment is essential to the process known as PEG fusion. The proposed mechanism is PEG-induced lipid bilayer fusion by removing the hydration barrier surrounding the axolemma and reducing the activation energy required for membrane fusion to occur. This review highlights PEG fusion, its past and current studies, and future directions in PEG fusion.

  12. A novel technique using hydrophilic polymers to promote axonal fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ravinder Bamba; D Colton Riley; Nathaniel D Kelm; Mark D Does; Richard D Dortch; Wesley P hTayer

    2016-01-01

    The management of traumatic peripheral nerve injury remains a considerable concern for clinicians. With minimal innovations in surgical technique and a limited number of specialists trained to treat peripheral nerve injury, outcomes of surgical intervention have been unpredictable. The inability to manipulate the pathophysiology of nerve injury (i.e., Wallerian degeneration) has left scientists and clinicians depending on the slow and lengthy process of axonal regeneration (~1 mm/day). When axons are severed, the endings undergo calcium-mediated plasmalemmal sealing, which limits the ability of the axon to be primarily re-paired. Polythethylene glycol (PEG) in combination with a bioengineered process overcomes the inability to fuse axons. The mechanism for PEG axonal fusion is not clearly understood, but multiple studies have shown that a providing a calcium-free environment is essential to the process known as PEG fusion. The proposed mechanism is PEG-induced lipid bilayer fusion by removing the hydration barrier surrounding the axolemma and reducing the activation energy required for membrane fusion to occur. This review highlights PEG fusion, its past and current studies, and future directions in PEG fusion.

  13. Formalization and web-based implementation of spatial data fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiemann, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    Spatial data fusion plays an important role for spatial information retrieval from disconnected data sources and is thus a precondition for comprehensive and consistent decision making. In particular on the Web, it can help to combine spatial data from the variety of existing, but distributed sources, e.g. as provided by Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI). However, standardized spatial data processing on the Web still lacks broad acceptance beyond the scientific domain. This article describes a formalization and service-based implementation of the spatial data fusion process. The formalization builds on a set theoretic description of the considered domain and derives a number of possible fusion objectives. Geoprocessing patterns are used to describe commonly used sub-routines of the fusion process and therefore support the workflow composition. The implementation is based on open standards and comprises a Web-client, several geoprocessing services and a fusion engine to support the Web-based compilation and execution of spatial data fusion workflows in an ad hoc manner.

  14. The quest for fusion power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Steven C.

    2016-05-01

    Fusion power is one of a very few sustainable options to replace fossil fuels as the world's primary energy source. Although the conditions for fusion have been reached, much remains to be done to turn scientific success into commercial electrical power.

  15. Sensor fusion for social robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Duffy, Brian R.; Garcia, C; Rooney, Colm, (Thesis); O'Hare, G.M.P.

    2000-01-01

    This paper advocates the application of sensor fusion for the visualisation of social robotic behaviour. Experiments with the Virtual Reality Workbench integrate the key elements of Virtual Reality and robotics in a coherent and systematic manner. The deliberative focusing of attention and sensor fusion between vision systems and sonar sensors is implemented on autonomous mobile robots functioning in standard office environments

  16. Cellulose binding domain fusion proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoseyov, Oded; Shpiegl, Itai; Goldstein, Marc A.; Doi, Roy H.

    1998-01-01

    A cellulose binding domain (CBD) having a high affinity for crystalline cellulose and chitin is disclosed, along with methods for the molecular cloning and recombinant production thereof. Fusion products comprising the CBD and a second protein are likewise described. A wide range of applications are contemplated for both the CBD and the fusion products, including drug delivery, affinity separations, and diagnostic techniques.

  17. The status of cold fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storms, E.

    This report attempts to update the status of the phenomenon of cold fusion. The new field is continuing to grow as a variety of nuclear reactions are discovered to occur in a variety of chemical environments at modest temperatures. However, it must be cautioned that most scientists consider cold fusion as something akin to UFO's, ESP, and numerology.

  18. Fusion research programme in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shishir Deshpande; Predhiman Kaw

    2013-10-01

    The fusion energy research program of India is summarized in the context of energy needs and scenario of tokamak advancements on domestic and international fronts. In particular, the various technologies that will lead us to ultimately build a fusion power reactor are identified along with the steps being taken for their indigenous development.

  19. Magnetized Target Fusion Collaboration. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slough, John

    2012-04-18

    these IPAs have demonstrated the ability to rapidly form, accelerate and merge two hypervelocity FRCs into a compression chamber. The resultant FRC that was formed was hot (T{sub ion} ~ 400 eV), stationary, and stable with a configuration lifetime several times that necessary for the MTF liner experiments. The accelerator length was less than 1 meter, and the time from the initiation of formation to the establishment of the final equilibrium was less than 10 microseconds. With some modification, each accelerator can be made capable of producing FRCs suitable for the production of the target plasma for the MTF liner experiment. Based on the initial FRC merging/compression results, the design and methodology for an experimental realization of the target plasma for the MTF liner experiment can now be defined. The construction and testing of the key components for the formation of the target plasma at the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) will be performed on the IPA experiment, now at MSNW. A high density FRC plasmoid will be formed and accelerated out of each IPA into a merging/compression chamber similar to the imploding liner at AFRL. The properties of the resultant FRC plasma (size, temperature, density, flux, lifetime) will be obtained. The process will be optimized, and a final design for implementation at AFRL will be carried out. When implemented at AFRL it is anticipated that the colliding/merging FRCs will then be compressed by the liner. In this manner it is hoped that ultimately a plasma with ion temperatures reaching the 10 keV range and fusion gain near unity can be obtained.

  20. Adjoint affine fusion and tadpoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urichuk, Andrew; Walton, Mark A.

    2016-06-01

    We study affine fusion with the adjoint representation. For simple Lie algebras, elementary and universal formulas determine the decomposition of a tensor product of an integrable highest-weight representation with the adjoint representation. Using the (refined) affine depth rule, we prove that equally striking results apply to adjoint affine fusion. For diagonal fusion, a coefficient equals the number of nonzero Dynkin labels of the relevant affine highest weight, minus 1. A nice lattice-polytope interpretation follows and allows the straightforward calculation of the genus-1 1-point adjoint Verlinde dimension, the adjoint affine fusion tadpole. Explicit formulas, (piecewise) polynomial in the level, are written for the adjoint tadpoles of all classical Lie algebras. We show that off-diagonal adjoint affine fusion is obtained from the corresponding tensor product by simply dropping non-dominant representations.

  1. Structure information from fusion barriers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S V S Sastry; S Santra

    2000-06-01

    It is shown that the analysis of fusion barrier distributions is not always an unambiguous test or a ‘fingerprint’ of the structure information of the colliding nuclei. Examples are presented with same fusion barrier distributions for nuclei having different structures. The fusion excitation functions for 16O+208Pb, using the coupled reaction channel (CRC) method and correct structure information, have been analysed. The barrier distributions derived from these excitation functions including many of the significant channels are featureless, although these channels have considerable effects on the fusion excitation function. However, a simultaneous analysis of the fusion, elastic and quasi-elastic channels would fix the structure and the reaction unambiguously

  2. Adjoint affine fusion and tadpoles

    CERN Document Server

    Urichuk, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    We study affine fusion with the adjoint representation. For simple Lie algebras, elementary and universal formulas determine the decomposition of a tensor product of an integrable highest-weight representation with the adjoint representation. Using the (refined) affine depth rule, we prove that equally striking results apply to adjoint affine fusion. For diagonal fusion, a coefficient equals the number of nonzero Dynkin labels of the relevant affine highest weight, minus 1. A nice lattice-polytope interpretation follows, and allows the straightforward calculation of the genus-1 1-point adjoint Verlinde dimension, the adjoint affine fusion tadpole. Explicit formulas, (piecewise) polynomial in the level, are written for the adjoint tadpoles of all classical Lie algebras. We show that off-diagonal adjoint affine fusion is obtained from the corresponding tensor product by simply dropping non-dominant representations.

  3. Adjoint affine fusion and tadpoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urichuk, Andrew, E-mail: andrew.urichuk@uleth.ca [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4 (Canada); Walton, Mark A., E-mail: walton@uleth.ca [Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Lethbridge, Lethbridge, Alberta T1K 3M4 (Canada); International School for Advanced Studies (SISSA), via Bonomea 265, 34136 Trieste (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    We study affine fusion with the adjoint representation. For simple Lie algebras, elementary and universal formulas determine the decomposition of a tensor product of an integrable highest-weight representation with the adjoint representation. Using the (refined) affine depth rule, we prove that equally striking results apply to adjoint affine fusion. For diagonal fusion, a coefficient equals the number of nonzero Dynkin labels of the relevant affine highest weight, minus 1. A nice lattice-polytope interpretation follows and allows the straightforward calculation of the genus-1 1-point adjoint Verlinde dimension, the adjoint affine fusion tadpole. Explicit formulas, (piecewise) polynomial in the level, are written for the adjoint tadpoles of all classical Lie algebras. We show that off-diagonal adjoint affine fusion is obtained from the corresponding tensor product by simply dropping non-dominant representations.

  4. Fusion - 2050 perspective (in Polish)

    CERN Document Server

    Romaniuk, R S

    2013-01-01

    The results of strongly exothermic reaction of thermonuclear fusion between nuclei of deuterium and tritium are: helium nuclei and neutrons, plus considerable kinetic energy of neutrons of over 14 MeV. DT nuclides synthesis reaction is probably not the most favorable one for energy production, but is the most advanced technologically. More efficient would be possibly aneutronic fusion. The EU by its EURATOM agenda prepared a Road Map for research and implementation of Fusion as a commercial method of thermonuclear energy generation in the time horizon of 2050.The milestones on this road are tokomak experiments JET, ITER and DEMO, and neutron experiment IFMIF. There is a hope, that by engagement of the national government, and all research and technical fusion communities, part of this Road Map may be realized in Poland. The infrastructure build for fusion experiments may be also used for material engineering research, chemistry, biomedical, associated with environment protection, power engineering, security, ...

  5. Fusion characterization of biomass ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Teng; Fan, Chuigang; Hao, Lifang

    2016-01-01

    The ash fusion characteristics are important parameters for thermochemical utilization of biomass. In this research, a method for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash by Thermo-mechanical Analyzer, TMA, is described. The typical TMA shrinking ratio curve can be divided into two...... stages, which are closely related to ash melting behaviors. Several characteristics temperatures based on the TMA curves are used to assess the ash fusion characteristics. A new characteristics temperature, Tm, is proposed to represent the severe melting temperature of biomass ash. The fusion...... characteristics of six types of biomass ash have been measured by TMA. Compared with standard ash fusibility temperatures (AFT) test, TMA is more suitable for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash. The glassy molten areas of the ash samples are sticky and mainly consist of K-Ca-silicates....

  6. Information integration for data fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bray, O.H.

    1997-01-01

    Data fusion has been identified by the Department of Defense as a critical technology for the U.S. defense industry. Data fusion requires combining expertise in two areas - sensors and information integration. Although data fusion is a rapidly growing area, there is little synergy and use of common, reusable, and/or tailorable objects and models, especially across different disciplines. The Laboratory-Directed Research and Development project had two purposes: to see if a natural language-based information modeling methodology could be used for data fusion problems, and if so, to determine whether this methodology would help identify commonalities across areas and achieve greater synergy. The project confirmed both of the initial hypotheses: that the natural language-based information modeling methodology could be used effectively in data fusion areas and that commonalities could be found that would allow synergy across various data fusion areas. The project found five common objects that are the basis for all of the data fusion areas examined: targets, behaviors, environments, signatures, and sensors. Many of the objects and the specific facts related to these objects were common across several areas and could easily be reused. In some cases, even the terminology remained the same. In other cases, different areas had their own terminology, but the concepts were the same. This commonality is important with the growing use of multisensor data fusion. Data fusion is much more difficult if each type of sensor uses its own objects and models rather than building on a common set. This report introduces data fusion, discusses how the synergy generated by this LDRD would have benefited an earlier successful project and contains a summary information model from that project, describes a preliminary management information model, and explains how information integration can facilitate cross-treaty synergy for various arms control treaties.

  7. Probing of incomplete fusion dynamics by spin-distribution measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Pushpendra P. [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, A.M. University, Aligarh (UP) 202002 (India); NP Group, Inter-University Accelerator Center, PO Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India)], E-mail: pushpendrapsingh@gmail.com; Singh, B.P. [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, A.M. University, Aligarh (UP) 202002 (India)], E-mail: bpsinghamu@gmail.com; Sharma, M.K.; Gupta, Unnati [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, A.M. University, Aligarh (UP) 202002 (India); Kumar, Rakesh [NP Group, Inter-University Accelerator Center, PO Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Singh, D. [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, A.M. University, Aligarh (UP) 202002 (India); Singh, R.P.; Murlithar, S. [NP Group, Inter-University Accelerator Center, PO Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India); Ansari, M.A.; Prasad, R. [Accelerator Laboratory, Department of Physics, A.M. University, Aligarh (UP) 202002 (India); Bhowmik, R.K. [NP Group, Inter-University Accelerator Center, PO Box 10502, New Delhi 110067 (India)], E-mail: ranjan@iuac.ernet.in

    2009-01-12

    Aiming to probe incomplete fusion dynamics in {sup 16}O + {sup 169}Tm system, spin-distributions of various reaction products populated via xn-, {alpha}/2{alpha}xn-channels have been measured at E{approx}5.6MeV/nucleon. Prompt {gamma}-rays in coincidence with fast charged particles (Z=1,2) have been recorded to achieve the information about involved reaction processes on the basis of their experimentally observed spin-populations during de-excitation. The experimentally observed spin-distributions for direct-{alpha}-emitting channels (associated with incomplete fusion) have been found to be distinctly different than that observed for fusion-evaporation (complete fusion) channels. The mean value of driving input angular momenta associated with various direct-{alpha}/2{alpha}xn-channels have been found to be higher than that observed for fusion-evaporation xn/{alpha}xn-channels, and increases with direct-{alpha}-multiplicity in forward cone. Experimentally measured, normalized production yields of fusion-evaporation xn/{alpha}xn-channels have been found to be in good agreement with the predictions of theoretical model code PACE4. Further, in order to understand the feeding probability in both complete and incomplete fusion reaction products, an attempt has been made to generate feeding intensity profiles from spin-distribution data. It has been observed that the complete fusion products are strongly fed over a broad spin range, while incomplete fusion products are found to be less fed and/or the population of lower spin states are strongly hindered.

  8. Commercial objectives, technology transfer, and systems analysis for fusion power development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Stephen O.

    1988-03-01

    Fusion is an essentially inexhaustible source of energy that has the potential for economically attractive commercial applications with excellent safety and environmental characteristics. The primary focus for the fusion-energy development program is the generation of centralstation electricity. Fusion has the potential, however, for many other applications. The fact that a large fraction of the energy released in a DT fusion reaction is carried by high-energy neutrons suggests potentially unique applications. These include breeding of fissile fuels, production of hydrogen and other chemical products, transmutation or “burning” of various nuclear or chemical wastes, radiation processing of materials, production of radioisotopes, food preservation, medical diagnosis and medical treatment, and space power and space propulsion. In addition, fusion R&D will lead to new products and new markets. Each fusion application must meet certain standards of economic and safety and environmental attractiveness. For this reason, economics on the one hand, and safety and environment and licensing on the other hand, are the two primary criteria for setting long-range commercial fusion objectives. A major function of systems analysis is to evaluate the potential of fusion against these objectives and to help guide the fusion R&D program toward practical applications. The transfer of fusion technology and skills from the national laboratories and universities to industry is the key to achieving the long-range objective of commercial fusion applications.

  9. A method based on IHS cylindrical transform model for quality assessment of image fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaokun; Jia, Yonghong

    2005-10-01

    Image fusion technique has been widely applied to remote sensing image analysis and processing, and methods for quality assessment of image fusion in remote sensing have also become the research issues at home and abroad. Traditional assessment methods combine calculation of quantitative indexes and visual interpretation to compare fused images quantificationally and qualitatively. However, in the existing assessment methods, there are two defects: on one hand, most imdexes lack the theoretic support to compare different fusion methods. On the hand, there is not a uniform preference for most of the quantitative assessment indexes when they are applied to estimate the fusion effects. That is, the spatial resolution and spectral feature could not be analyzed synchronously by these indexes and there is not a general method to unify the spatial and spectral feature assessment. So in this paper, on the basis of the approximate general model of four traditional fusion methods, including Intensity Hue Saturation(IHS) triangle transform fusion, High Pass Filter(HPF) fusion, Principal Component Analysis(PCA) fusion, Wavelet Transform(WT) fusion, a correlation coefficient assessment method based on IHS cylindrical transform is proposed. By experiments, this method can not only get the evaluation results of spatial and spectral features on the basis of uniform preference, but also can acquire the comparison between fusion image sources and fused images, and acquire differences among fusion methods. Compared with the traditional assessment methods, the new methods is more intuitionistic, and in accord with subjective estimation.

  10. Oncofuse: a computational framework for the prediction of the oncogenic potential of gene fusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shugay, Mikhail; Ortiz de Mendíbil, Iñigo; Vizmanos, José L; Novo, Francisco J

    2013-10-15

    Gene fusions resulting from chromosomal aberrations are an important cause of cancer. The complexity of genomic changes in certain cancer types has hampered the identification of gene fusions by molecular cytogenetic methods, especially in carcinomas. This is changing with the advent of next-generation sequencing, which is detecting a substantial number of new fusion transcripts in individual cancer genomes. However, this poses the challenge of identifying those fusions with greater oncogenic potential amid a background of 'passenger' fusion sequences. In the present work, we have used some recently identified genomic hallmarks of oncogenic fusion genes to develop a pipeline for the classification of fusion sequences, namely, Oncofuse. The pipeline predicts the oncogenic potential of novel fusion genes, calculating the probability that a fusion sequence behaves as 'driver' of the oncogenic process based on features present in known oncogenic fusions. Cross-validation and extensive validation tests on independent datasets suggest a robust behavior with good precision and recall rates. We believe that Oncofuse could become a useful tool to guide experimental validation studies of novel fusion sequences found during next-generation sequencing analysis of cancer transcriptomes. Oncofuse is a naive Bayes Network Classifier trained and tested using Weka machine learning package. The pipeline is executed by running a Java/Groovy script, available for download at www.unav.es/genetica/oncofuse.html.

  11. ISAR imaging based on sparse subbands fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Tian, Biao; Xu, Shiyou; Chen, Zengping

    2015-12-01

    Data fusion using subbands, which can obtain a higher range resolution without altering the bandwidth, hardware, and sampling rate of the radar system, has attracted more and more attention in recent years. A method of ISAR imaging based on subbands fusion and high precision parameter estimation of geometrical theory of diffraction (GTD) model is presented in this paper. To resolve the incoherence problem in subbands data, a coherent processing method is adopted. Based on an all-pole model, the phase difference of pole and scattering coefficient between each sub-band is used to effectively estimate the incoherent components. After coherent processing, the high and low frequency sub-band data can be expressed as a uniform all-pole model. The gapped-data amplitude and phase estimation (GAPES) algorithm is used to fill up the gapped band. Finally, fusion data is gained by high precision parameter estimation of GTD-all-pole model with full-band data, such as scattering center number, scattering center type and amplitude. The experimental results of simulated data show the validity of the algorithm.

  12. DNA fusion gene vaccines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Peter Johannes; Bassi, Maria Rosaria; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2010-01-01

    DNA vaccines are versatile and safe, but limited immunogenicity has prevented their use in the clinical setting. Experimentally, immunogenicity may be enhanced by the use of new delivery technologies, by coadministration of cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular patterns, or by fusion...... of antigens into molecular domains that enhance antigen presentation. More specifically, the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines may benefit from increased protein synthesis, increased T-cell help and MHC class I presentation, and the addition of a range of specific cytokines and pathogen-associated molecular...... patterns that increase activation of the innate immune system. Importantly, viral-vectored vaccines that act through the induction of one or more of these factors also may benefit from cytokine coadministration and increased antigen presentation. In order to increase immunogenicity to the level achieved...

  13. Desensitized Optimal Filtering and Sensor Fusion Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlgaard, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Analytical Mechanics Associates, Inc., has developed a software toolkit that filters and processes navigational data from multiple sensor sources. A key component of the toolkit is a trajectory optimization technique that reduces the sensitivity of Kalman filters with respect to model parameter uncertainties. The sensor fusion toolkit also integrates recent advances in adaptive Kalman and sigma-point filters for non-Gaussian problems with error statistics. This Phase II effort provides new filtering and sensor fusion techniques in a convenient package that can be used as a stand-alone application for ground support and/or onboard use. Its modular architecture enables ready integration with existing tools. A suite of sensor models and noise distribution as well as Monte Carlo analysis capability are included to enable statistical performance evaluations.

  14. Health-Enabled Smart Sensor Fusion Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ray

    2012-01-01

    A process was designed to fuse data from multiple sensors in order to make a more accurate estimation of the environment and overall health in an intelligent rocket test facility (IRTF), to provide reliable, high-confidence measurements for a variety of propulsion test articles. The object of the technology is to provide sensor fusion based on a distributed architecture. Specifically, the fusion technology is intended to succeed in providing health condition monitoring capability at the intelligent transceiver, such as RF signal strength, battery reading, computing resource monitoring, and sensor data reading. The technology also provides analytic and diagnostic intelligence at the intelligent transceiver, enhancing the IEEE 1451.x-based standard for sensor data management and distributions, as well as providing appropriate communications protocols to enable complex interactions to support timely and high-quality flow of information among the system elements.

  15. Inertial Fusion Energy at Denim (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velarde, G.

    2005-07-01

    The paper describes the history and the research carried out in the field on Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) since 1966 at the Spanish Atomic Energy Commission (JEN) up to present time at the Institute of Nuclear Fusion (DENIM) of the Polytechnic University of Madrid (UPM), Late in the 70s, we developed the NORCLA code that was the first non-classified coupled code to analyze the different processes held in ICF. Since then, we have developed a set of more accurate codes such as the ARWEN (two-dimensional transport), JIMENA and ANALOP (Atomic physics), ACAB (safety and environmental), material and reactor chambers and advanced fuels. The paper tells also the origins of DENIM and all the efforts made to achieve an international declassification in ICF research. (Author)

  16. Plasma physics and fusion plasma electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bers, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Plasma is a ubiquitous state of matter at high temperatures. The electrodynamics of plasmas encompasses a large number of applications, from understanding plasmas in space and the stars, to their use in processing semiconductors, and their role in controlled energy generation by nuclear fusion. This book covers collective and single particle dynamics of plasmas for fully ionized as well as partially ionized plasmas. Many aspects of plasma physics in current fusion energy generation research are addressed both in magnetic and inertial confinement plasmas. Linear and nonlinear dynamics in hydrodynamic and kinetic descriptions are offered, making both simple and complex aspects of the subject available in nearly every chapter. The approach of dividing the basic aspects of plasma physics as "linear, hydrodynamic descriptions" to be covered first because they are "easier", and postponing the "nonlinear and kinetic descriptions" for later because they are "difficult" is abandoned in this book. For teaching purpose...

  17. Weighted Attribute Fusion Model for Face Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Sakthivel, S

    2010-01-01

    Recognizing a face based on its attributes is an easy task for a human to perform as it is a cognitive process. In recent years, Face Recognition is achieved with different kinds of facial features which were used separately or in a combined manner. Currently, Feature fusion methods and parallel methods are the facial features used and performed by integrating multiple feature sets at different levels. However, this integration and the combinational methods do not guarantee better result. Hence to achieve better results, the feature fusion model with multiple weighted facial attribute set is selected. For this feature model, face images from predefined data set has been taken from Olivetti Research Laboratory (ORL) and applied on different methods like Principal Component Analysis (PCA) based Eigen feature extraction technique, Discrete Cosine Transformation (DCT) based feature extraction technique, Histogram Based Feature Extraction technique and Simple Intensity based features. The extracted feature set obt...

  18. Fusion of hand and arm gestures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquin, D.; Benoit, E.; Sawada, H.; Ionescu, B.

    2005-12-01

    In order to improve the link between an operator and its machine, some human oriented communication systems are now using natural languages like speech or gesture. The goal of this paper is to present a gesture recognition system based on the fusion of measurements issued from different kind of sources. It is necessary to have some sensors that are able to capture at least the position and the orientation of the hand such as Dataglove and a video camera. Datagloge gives a measure of the hand posture and a video camera gives a measure of the general arm gesture which represents the physical and spatial properties of the gesture, and based on the 2D skeleton representation of the arm. The measurements used are partially complementary and partially redundant. The application is distributed on intelligent cooperating sensors. The paper presents the measurement of the hand and the arm gestures, the fusion processes, and the implementation solution.

  19. Alpha Heating and Burning Plasmas in Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, R.; Christopherson, A. R.; Bose, A.; Woo, K. M.

    2016-05-01

    Assessing the degree to which fusion alpha particles contribute to the fusion yield is essential to understanding the onset of the thermal runaway process of thermonuclear ignition. It is shown that in inertial confinement fusion, the yield enhancement due to alpha particle heating (before ignition occurs) depends on the generalized Lawson parameter that can be inferred from experimental observables. A universal curve valid for arbitrary laser-fusion targets shows the yield amplification due to alpha heating for a given value of the Lawson parameter. The same theory is used to determine the onset of the burning plasma regime when the alpha heating exceeds the compression work. This result can be used to assess the performance of current ignition experiments at the National Ignition Facility.

  20. ON THE STABILITY OF FUSION FRAMES (FRAMES OF SUBSPACES)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Sadegh Asgari

    2011-01-01

    A frame is an orthonormal basis-like collection of vectors in a Hilbert space,but need not be a basis or orthonormal.A fusion frame (frame of subspaces) is a frame-like collection of subspaces in a Hilbert space,thereby constructing a frame for the whole space by joining sequences of frames for subspaces.Moreover the notion of fusion frames provide a framework for applications and providing efficient and robust information processing algorithms.In this paper we study the conditions under which removing an element from a fusion frame,again we obtain another fusion frame.We give another proof of[5,Corollary 3.3(iii)]with extra information about the bounds.

  1. An Innovative Thinking-Based Intelligent Information Fusion Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huimin Lu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes an intelligent algorithm that can realize information fusion in reference to the relative research achievements in brain cognitive theory and innovative computation. This algorithm treats knowledge as core and information fusion as a knowledge-based innovative thinking process. Furthermore, the five key parts of this algorithm including information sense and perception, memory storage, divergent thinking, convergent thinking, and evaluation system are simulated and modeled. This algorithm fully develops innovative thinking skills of knowledge in information fusion and is a try to converse the abstract conception of brain cognitive science to specific and operable research routes and strategies. Furthermore, the influences of each parameter of this algorithm on algorithm performance are analyzed and compared with those of classical intelligent algorithms trough test. Test results suggest that the algorithm proposed in this study can obtain the optimum problem solution by less target evaluation times, improve optimization effectiveness, and achieve the effective fusion of information.

  2. Properties of ecosystems that are vulnerable during eco-fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Katsuhiko; Tokita, Kei

    2015-01-29

    When two ecosystems with separate evolutionary histories come into contact (eco-fusion), reciprocal invasions occur during their fusion. Asymmetries in the migration direction or extinction rate then occur (e.g., during the Great American Biotic Interchange, GABI). Hypotheses have been proposed to describe this process, but the ecosystem properties have not been adequately discussed. To identify the ecosystem properties that create vulnerability to species loss during eco-fusion, we conducted computer simulations of the fusion of ecosystems with independent evolutionary histories. With asymmetrical species extinction rates, the ecosystem with a higher extinction rate had a shorter food chain, a higher ratio of animal species to plant species, and a lower ratio of carnivores to herbivores. Most ecosystems that have undergone isolated evolution are vulnerable. These results may explain the vulnerability of South America's ecosystem during the GABI and that of modern Australia.

  3. Herpesvirus glycoproteins undergo multiple antigenic changes before membrane fusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L Glauser

    Full Text Available Herpesvirus entry is a complicated process involving multiple virion glycoproteins and culminating in membrane fusion. Glycoprotein conformation changes are likely to play key roles. Studies of recombinant glycoproteins have revealed some structural features of the virion fusion machinery. However, how the virion glycoproteins change during infection remains unclear. Here using conformation-specific monoclonal antibodies we show in situ that each component of the Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4 entry machinery--gB, gH/gL and gp150--changes in antigenicity before tegument protein release begins. Further changes then occurred upon actual membrane fusion. Thus virions revealed their final fusogenic form only in late endosomes. The substantial antigenic differences between this form and that of extracellular virions suggested that antibodies have only a limited opportunity to block virion membrane fusion.

  4. EDITORIAL: Stochasticity in fusion plasmas Stochasticity in fusion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unterberg, Bernhard

    2010-03-01

    Structure formation and transport in stochastic plasmas is a topic of growing importance in many fields of plasma physics from astrophysics to fusion research. In particular, the possibility to control transport in the boundary of confined fusion plasmas by resonant magnetic perturbations has been investigated extensively during recent years. A major research achievement was finding that the intense transient particle and heat fluxes associated with edge localized modes (here type-I ELMs) in magnetically confined fusion plasmas can be mitigated or even suppressed by resonant magnetic perturbation fields. This observation opened up a possible scheme to avoid too large erosion and material damage by such transients in future fusion devices such as ITER. However, it is widely recognized that a more basic understanding is needed to extrapolate the results obtained in present experiments to future fusion devices. The 4th workshop on Stochasticity in Fusion Plasmas was held in Jülich, Germany, from 2 to 4 March 2009. This series of workshops aims at gathering fusion experts from various plasma configurations such as tokamaks, stellarators and reversed field pinches to exchange knowledge on structure formation and transport in stochastic fusion plasmas. The workshops have attracted colleagues from both experiment and theory and stimulated fruitful discussions about the basics of stochastic fusion plasmas. Important papers from the first three workshops in 2003, 2005 and 2007 have been published in previous special issues of Nuclear Fusion (stacks.iop.org/NF/44/i=6, stacks.iop.org/NF/46/i=4 and stacks.iop.org/NF/48/i=2). This special issue comprises contributions presented at the 4th SFP workshop, dealing with the main subjects such as formation of stochastic magnetic layers, energy and particle transport in stochastic magnetic fields, plasma response to external, non-axis-symmetric perturbations and last but not least application of resonant magnetic perturbations for

  5. Report of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee. Panel on Integrated Simulation and Optimization of Magnetic Fusion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlburg, Jill [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Corones, James [Krell Inst., Ames, IA (United States); Batchelor, Donald [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bramley, Randall [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Greenwald, Martin [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Jardin, Stephen [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Krasheninnikov, Sergei [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Laub, Alan [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States); Leboeuf, Jean-Noel [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lindl, John [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lokke, William [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rosenbluth, Marshall [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Ross, David [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Schnack, Dalton [Science Applications International Corporation, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2002-11-01

    Fusion is potentially an inexhaustible energy source whose exploitation requires a basic understanding of high-temperature plasmas. The development of a science-based predictive capability for fusion-relevant plasmas is a challenge central to fusion energy science, in which numerical modeling has played a vital role for more than four decades. A combination of the very wide range in temporal and spatial scales, extreme anisotropy, the importance of geometric detail, and the requirement of causality which makes it impossible to parallelize over time, makes this problem one of the most challenging in computational physics. Sophisticated computational models are under development for many individual features of magnetically confined plasmas and increases in the scope and reliability of feasible simulations have been enabled by increased scientific understanding and improvements in computer technology. However, full predictive modeling of fusion plasmas will require qualitative improvements and innovations to enable cross coupling of a wider variety of physical processes and to allow solution over a larger range of space and time scales. The exponential growth of computer speed, coupled with the high cost of large-scale experimental facilities, makes an integrated fusion simulation initiative a timely and cost-effective opportunity. Worldwide progress in laboratory fusion experiments provides the basis for a recent FESAC recommendation to proceed with a burning plasma experiment (see FESAC Review of Burning Plasma Physics Report, September 2001). Such an experiment, at the frontier of the physics of complex systems, would be a huge step in establishing the potential of magnetic fusion energy to contribute to the world’s energy security. An integrated simulation capability would dramatically enhance the utilization of such a facility and lead to optimization of toroidal fusion plasmas in general. This science-based predictive capability, which was cited in the FESAC

  6. Principles of the mitochondrial fusion and fission cycle in neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagalinec, Michal; Safiulina, Dzhamilja; Liiv, Mailis; Liiv, Joanna; Choubey, Vinay; Wareski, Przemyslaw; Veksler, Vladimir; Kaasik, Allen

    2013-05-15

    Mitochondrial fusion-fission dynamics play a crucial role in many important cell processes. These dynamics control mitochondrial morphology, which in turn influences several important mitochondrial properties including mitochondrial bioenergetics and quality control, and they appear to be affected in several neurodegenerative diseases. However, an integrated and quantitative understanding of how fusion-fission dynamics control mitochondrial morphology has not yet been described. Here, we took advantage of modern visualisation techniques to provide a clear explanation of how fusion and fission correlate with mitochondrial length and motility in neurons. Our main findings demonstrate that: (1) the probability of a single mitochondrion splitting is determined by its length; (2) the probability of a single mitochondrion fusing is determined primarily by its motility; (3) the fusion and fission cycle is driven by changes in mitochondrial length and deviations from this cycle serves as a corrective mechanism to avoid extreme mitochondrial length; (4) impaired mitochondrial motility in neurons overexpressing 120Q Htt or Tau suppresses mitochondrial fusion and leads to mitochondrial shortening whereas stimulation of mitochondrial motility by overexpressing Miro-1 restores mitochondrial fusion rates and sizes. Taken together, our results provide a novel insight into the complex crosstalk between different processes involved in mitochondrial dynamics. This knowledge will increase understanding of the dynamic mitochondrial functions in cells and in particular, the pathogenesis of mitochondrial-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  7. Image fusion via nonlocal sparse K-SVD dictionary learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Li, Fangyi; Bai, Bendu; Shen, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    Image fusion aims to merge two or more images captured via various sensors of the same scene to construct a more informative image by integrating their details. Generally, such integration is achieved through the manipulation of the representations of the images concerned. Sparse representation plays an important role in the effective description of images, offering a great potential in a variety of image processing tasks, including image fusion. Supported by sparse representation, in this paper, an approach for image fusion by the use of a novel dictionary learning scheme is proposed. The nonlocal self-similarity property of the images is exploited, not only at the stage of learning the underlying description dictionary but during the process of image fusion. In particular, the property of nonlocal self-similarity is combined with the traditional sparse dictionary. This results in an improved learned dictionary, hereafter referred to as the nonlocal sparse K-SVD dictionary (where K-SVD stands for the K times singular value decomposition that is commonly used in the literature), and abbreviated to NL_SK_SVD. The performance of the NL_SK_SVD dictionary is applied for image fusion using simultaneous orthogonal matching pursuit. The proposed approach is evaluated with different types of images, and compared with a number of alternative image fusion techniques. The resultant superior fused images using the present approach demonstrates the efficacy of the NL_SK_SVD dictionary in sparse image representation.

  8. Service-based extensions to the JDL fusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antony, Richard T.; Karakowski, Joseph A.

    2008-04-01

    Extensions to a previously developed service-based fusion process model are presented. The model accommodates (1) traditional sensor data and human-generated input, (2) streaming and non-streaming data feeds, and (3) the fusion of both physical and non-physical entities. More than a dozen base-level fusion services are identified. These services provide the foundation functional decomposition of levels 0 - 2 in JDL fusion model. Concepts, such as clustering, link analysis and database mining, that have traditionally been only loosely associated with the fusion process, are shown to play key roles within this fusion framework. Additionally, the proposed formulation extends the concepts of tracking and cross-entity association to non-physical entities, as well as supports effective exploitation of a priori and derived context knowledge. Finally, the proposed framework is shown to support set theoretic properties, such as equivalence and transitivity, as well as the development of a pedigree summary metric that characterizes the informational distance between individual fused products and source data.

  9. Pinch me - I'm fusing! Fusion Power - what is it? What is a z pinch? And why are z-pinches a promising fusion power technology?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DERZON,MARK S.

    2000-03-01

    The process of combining nuclei (the protons and neutrons inside an atomic nucleus) together with a release of kinetic energy is called fusion. This process powers the Sun, it contributes to the world stockpile of weapons of mass destruction and may one day generate safe, clean electrical power. Understanding the intricacies of fusion power, promised for 50 years, is sometimes difficult because there are a number of ways of doing it. There is hot fusion, cold fusion and con-fusion. Hot fusion is what powers suns through the conversion of mass energy to kinetic energy. Cold fusion generates con-fusion and nobody really knows what it is. Even so, no one is generating electrical power for you and me with either method. In this article the author points out some basic features of the mainstream approaches taken to hot fusion power, as well as describe why z pinches are worth pursuing as a driver for a power reactor and how it may one day generate electrical power for mankind.

  10. Inspection of Fusion Joints in Plastic Pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connie Reichert

    2005-09-01

    The standard method of joining plastic pipe in the field is the butt fusion process. As in any pipeline application, joint quality greatly affects overall operational safety of the system. Currently no simple, reliable, cost-effective method exists for assessing the quality of fusion joints in the field. Visual examination and pressure testing are current nondestructive approaches, which do not provide any assurance about the long-term pipeline performance. This project developed, demonstrated, and validated an in-situ nondestructive inspection method for butt fusion joints in gas distribution plastic pipelines. The inspection system includes a laser-based image-recognition system that automatically generates and interprets digital images of pipe joints and assigns them a pass/fail rating, which eliminates operator bias in evaluating joint quality. An EWI-patented process, the Weld Zone Inspection Method (WZIM) was developed in which local heat is applied to the joint region to relax the residual stresses formed by the original joining operation, which reveals the surface condition of the joint. In cases where the joint is not formed under optimal conditions, and the intermolecular forces between contacting surfaces are not strong enough, the relaxation of macromolecules in the surface layer causes the material to pull back, revealing a fusion line. If the joint is sound, the bond line image does not develop. To establish initial feasibility of the approach, welds were performed under standard and nonstandard conditions. These welds were subjected to the WZIM and two destructive forms of testing: short-term tensile testing and long-term creep rupture testing. There appears to be a direct correlation between the WZIM and the destructive testing results. Although WZIM appears to be more sensitive than destructive testing can verify, the approach appears valid.

  11. Development of radiation fusion biotechnology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Uhee; Lee, Ju Woon; Park, Sang Hyun

    2012-04-15

    Development of Radiation Fusion Technology with Food Technology by the Application of High Dose Irradiation - To develop fundamental technology using high dose irradiation, effects of high dose irradiation on food components, combined effects of irradiation with food engineering, irradiation condition to destroy radiation resistant foodborne bacteria were studied. - To develop E-beam irradiation technology, irradiation conditions for E-beam and domination effects of E-beam irradiation were determined. The physical marker for E beam irradiated foods or not was developed. - To develop purposed foods to extreme environmental, ready to eat foods and low toxic animal feeds were developed. Through the fundamental researches, the legislation for new irradiated foods and application of E-beam was introduced. Development of modulators against degenerative aging using radiation fusion technology - Selection of 20 kinds of degenerative aging biomarkers related to immune/hematopoiesis, oxidative damage, molecular signaling, lipid metabolism - Establishment of optimal radiation application conditions for aging modeling (fractionated irradiation of total 5Gy, a lapse of 4 months or more - Selection of effective aging modulating substances by screening of 800 natural substances - Development of 1 multi-functional and high-efficacy aging modulator by combination of effective substances and evaluation by in vivo models Development of biochips and kits using RI detection technology for life science - Establishment of kinase substrate interaction analysis using RI detection technique (More than 100 times detection sensitivity compared to conventional fluorescence detection techniques). - The RI detection technique reduces the overall experiment time, as the use of blocking agent can be avoided, offer minimum non specific binding, and facilitates a rapid data analysis with a simplify the process of chip manufacturing. - Establishment of multi-channel type Lab on a chip (LOC) using

  12. Applications of Fusion Energy Sciences Research - Scientific Discoveries and New Technologies Beyond Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Amy [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Callis, Richard [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Efthimion, Philip [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Foster, John [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Keane, Christopher [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Onsager, Terry [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); O' Shea, Patrick [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Since the 1950s, scientists and engineers in the U.S. and around the world have worked hard to make an elusive goal to be achieved on Earth: harnessing the reaction that fuels the stars, namely fusion. Practical fusion would be a source of energy that is unlimited, safe, environmentally benign, available to all nations and not dependent on climate or the whims of the weather. Significant resources, most notably from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), have been devoted to pursuing that dream, and significant progress is being made in turning it into a reality. However, that is only part of the story. The process of creating a fusion-based energy supply on Earth has led to technological and scientific achievements of far-reaching impact that touch every aspect of our lives. Those largely unanticipated advances, spanning a wide variety of fields in science and technology, are the focus of this report. There are many synergies between research in plasma physics (the study of charged particles and fluids interacting with self-consistent electric and magnetic fields), high-energy physics, and condensed matter physics dating back many decades. For instance, the formulation of a mathematical theory of solitons, solitary waves which are seen in everything from plasmas to water waves to Bose-Einstein Condensates, has led to an equal span of applications, including the fields of optics, fluid mechanics and biophysics. Another example, the development of a precise criterion for transition to chaos in Hamiltonian systems, has offered insights into a range of phenomena including planetary orbits, two-person games and changes in the weather. Seven distinct areas of fusion energy sciences were identified and reviewed which have had a recent impact on fields of science, technology and engineering not directly associated with fusion energy: Basic plasma science; Low temperature plasmas; Space and astrophysical plasmas; High energy density

  13. Applications of Fusion Energy Sciences Research - Scientific Discoveries and New Technologies Beyond Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Amy [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Callis, Richard [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Efthimion, Philip [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Foster, John [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Keane, Christopher [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Onsager, Terry [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Boulder, CO (United States); O' Shea, Patrick [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Since the 1950s, scientists and engineers in the U.S. and around the world have worked hard to make an elusive goal to be achieved on Earth: harnessing the reaction that fuels the stars, namely fusion. Practical fusion would be a source of energy that is unlimited, safe, environmentally benign, available to all nations and not dependent on climate or the whims of the weather. Significant resources, most notably from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), have been devoted to pursuing that dream, and significant progress is being made in turning it into a reality. However, that is only part of the story. The process of creating a fusion-based energy supply on Earth has led to technological and scientific achievements of far-reaching impact that touch every aspect of our lives. Those largely unanticipated advances, spanning a wide variety of fields in science and technology, are the focus of this report. There are many synergies between research in plasma physics, (the study of charged particles and fluids interacting with self-consistent electric and magnetic fields), high-energy physics, and condensed matter physics dating back many decades. For instance, the formulation of a mathematical theory of solitons, solitary waves which are seen in everything from plasmas to water waves to Bose-Einstein Condensates, has led to an equal span of applications, including the fields of optics, fluid mechanics and biophysics. Another example, the development of a precise criterion for transition to chaos in Hamiltonian systems, has offered insights into a range of phenomena including planetary orbits, two-person games and changes in the weather. Seven distinct areas of fusion energy sciences were identified and reviewed which have had a recent impact on fields of science, technology and engineering not directly associated with fusion energy: Basic plasma science; Low temperature plasmas; Space and astrophysical plasmas; High energy density

  14. Processing Proteases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ødum, Anders Sebastian Rosenkrans

    Processing proteases are proteases which proteolytically activate proteins and peptides into their biologically active form. Processing proteases play an important role in biotechnology as tools in protein fusion technology. Fusion strategies where helper proteins or peptide tags are fused...... to the protein of interest are an elaborate method to optimize expression or purification systems. It is however critical that fusion proteins can be removed and processing proteases can facilitate this in a highly specific manner. The commonly used proteases all have substrate specificities to the N...... of few known proteases to have substrate specificity for the C-terminal side of the scissile bond. LysN exhibits specificity for lysine, and has primarily been used to complement trypsin in to proteomic studies. A working hypothesis during this study was the potential of LysN as a processing protease...

  15. Fusion Rings for Quantum Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    We study the fusion rings of tilting modules for a quantum group at a root of unity modulo the tensor ideal of negligible tilting modules. We identify them in type A with the combinatorial rings from Korff, C., Stroppel, C.: The sl(ˆn)k-WZNW fusion ring: a combinato-rial construction and a realis......We study the fusion rings of tilting modules for a quantum group at a root of unity modulo the tensor ideal of negligible tilting modules. We identify them in type A with the combinatorial rings from Korff, C., Stroppel, C.: The sl(ˆn)k-WZNW fusion ring: a combinato-rial construction...... and a realisation as quotient of quantum cohomology. Adv. Math. 225(1), 200–268, (2010) and give a similar description of the sp2n-fusion ring in terms of non-commutative symmetric functions. Moreover we give a presentation of all fusion rings in classical types as quotients of polynomial rings. Finally we also...... compute the fusion rings for type G2....

  16. Fusion characterization of biomass ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Teng [State Key Laboratory ofMultiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Zhongguancun North Second Street, Beijing 100190 (China); Sino-Danish Center for Education and Research, Beijing, 100190 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Fan, Chuigang; Hao, Lifang [State Key Laboratory ofMultiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Zhongguancun North Second Street, Beijing 100190 (China); Li, Songgeng, E-mail: sgli@ipe.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory ofMultiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Zhongguancun North Second Street, Beijing 100190 (China); Song, Wenli [State Key Laboratory ofMultiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Zhongguancun North Second Street, Beijing 100190 (China); Lin, Weigang [State Key Laboratory ofMultiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No. 1 Zhongguancun North Second Street, Beijing 100190 (China); Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2016-08-20

    Highlights: • A novel method is proposed to analyze fusion characteristics of biomass ash. • T{sub m} can represent the severe melting temperature of biomass ash. • Compared with AFT, TMA is the better choice to analyze the fusion characteristics of biomass ash. - Abstract: The ash fusion characteristics are important parameters for thermochemical utilization of biomass. In this research, a method for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash by Thermo-mechanical Analyzer, TMA, is described. The typical TMA shrinking ratio curve can be divided into two stages, which are closely related to ash melting behaviors. Several characteristics temperatures based on the TMA curves are used to assess the ash fusion characteristics. A new characteristics temperature, T{sub m}, is proposed to represent the severe melting temperature of biomass ash. The fusion characteristics of six types of biomass ash have been measured by TMA. Compared with standard ash fusibility temperatures (AFT) test, TMA is more suitable for measuring the fusion characteristics of biomass ash. The glassy molten areas of the ash samples are sticky and mainly consist of K-Ca-silicates.

  17. Diamond Ablators for Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biener, J; Mirkarimi, P B; Tringe, J W; Baker, S L; Wang, Y M; Kucheyev, S O; Teslich, N E; Wu, K J; Hamza, A V; Wild, C; Woerner, E; Koidl, P; Bruehne, K; Fecht, H

    2005-06-21

    Diamond has a unique combination of physical properties for the inertial confinement fusion ablator application, such as appropriate optical properties, high atomic density, high yield strength, and high thermal conductivity. Here, we present a feasible concept to fabricate diamond ablator shells. The fabrication of diamond capsules is a multi-step process, which involves diamond chemical vapor deposition on silicon mandrels followed by polishing, microfabrication of holes, and removing of the silicon mandrel by an etch process. We also discuss the pros and cons of coarse-grained optical quality and nanocrystalline chemical vapor deposition diamond films for the ablator application.

  18. Advanced fusion concepts: project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-12-01

    This report contains descriptions of the activities of all the projects supported by the Advanced Fusion Concepts Branch of the Office of Fusion Energy, US Department of Energy. These descriptions are project summaries of each of the individual projects, and contain the following: title, principle investigators, funding levels, purpose, approach, progress, plans, milestones, graduate students, graduates, other professional staff, and recent publications. Information is given for each of the following programs: (1) reverse-field pinch, (2) compact toroid, (3) alternate fuel/multipoles, (4) stellarator/torsatron, (5) linear magnetic fusion, (6) liners, and (7) Tormac. (MOW)

  19. Effect of aniseikonia on fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, P; Prakash, P

    1991-01-01

    Physiological aniseikonia is the basis of stereopsis but beyond certain limits it becomes an obstacle to fusion. It is not well established as to how much aniseikonia can be tolerated by the fusional mechanism. Different tests under different testing conditions have given a wide range of variation. On the synoptophore we had observed tolerance upto 35% aniseikonia in some cases. Under more physiological conditions on a polaroid dissociation stereoprojector we observed lesser baseline fusional vergences but tolerance in about 70% of the cases upto 30% aniseikonia while 25% could tolerate even 35% aniseikonia. However we realise that these indicate the maximal potential and not the symptom free tolerable limits.

  20. Effect of aniseikonia on fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Pradeep

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Physiological aniseikonia is the basis of stereopsis but beyond certain limits it becomes an obstacle to fusion. It is not well established as to how much aniseikonia can be tolerated by the fusional mechanism. Different tests under different testing conditions have given a wide range of variation. On the synoptophore we had observed tolerance upto 35% aniseikonia in some cases. Under more physiological conditions on a polaroid dissociation stereoprojector we observed lesser baseline fusional vergences but tolerance in about 70% of the cases upto 30% aniseikonia while 25% could tolerate even 35% aniseikonia. However we realise that these indicate the maximal potential and not the symptom free tolerable limits.

  1. Fusion Rings for Quantum Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    We study the fusion rings of tilting modules for a quantum group at a root of unity modulo the tensor ideal of negligible tilting modules. We identify them in type A with the combinatorial rings from [12] and give a similar description of the sp2n-fusion ring in terms of noncommutative symmetric...... functions. Moreover we give a presentation of all fusion rings in classical types as quotients of polynomial rings. Finally we also compute the fu- sion rings for type G2....

  2. Controlled fusion and plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document presents the several speeches that took place during the 22nd European Physical Society conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics in Bournemouth, UK, between the 2nd and 7th July 1995. The talks deal with new experiments carried out on several tokamaks, particularly Tore Supra, concerning plasma confinement and fusion. Some information on specific fusion devices or tokamak devices is provided, as well as results of experiments concerning plasma instability. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the 31 papers in this volume. (TEC).

  3. Fusion Rings for Quantum Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henning Haahr; Stroppel, Catharina

    2012-01-01

    We study the fusion rings of tilting modules for a quantum group at a root of unity modulo the tensor ideal of negligible tilting modules. We identify them in type A with the combinatorial rings from [12] and give a similar description of the sp2n-fusion ring in terms of noncommutative symmetric...... functions. Moreover we give a presentation of all fusion rings in classical types as quotients of polynomial rings. Finally we also compute the fu- sion rings for type G2....

  4. Introducing the Fission-Fusion Reaction Process: Using a Laser-Accelerated Th Beam to produce Neutron-Rich Nuclei towards the N=126 Waiting Point of the r Process

    CERN Document Server

    Habs, D; Gross, M; Allinger, K; Bin, J; Henig, A; Kiefer, D; Ma, W; Schreiber, J

    2010-01-01

    We propose to produce neutron-rich nuclei in the range of the astrophysical r process around the waiting point N=126 by fissioning a dense laser-accelerated thorium ion bunch in a thorium target (covered by a polyethylene layer), where the light fission fragments of the beam fuse with the light fission fragments of the target. Via laser Radiation Pressure Acceleration using a high-intensity, short pulse laser, very efficiently bunches of solid state density of 232Th can be generated from a first Th production target, placed on a CH2 backing. Laser accelerated Th ions with about 7 MeV/u will pass through a thin polyethylene layer placed in front of a thicker second Th foil closely behind the first target and desintegrate into light and heavy fission fragments. In addition light ions (p,C) from the CH2 backing of the first Th target will be accelerated as well, inducing the fission process of 232Th also in the second Th target. The laser-accelerated ion bunches with solid state density, which are about 10^15 ti...

  5. Contribution of sensor fusion to urban mapping: application to simulated SPOT 5-6 data

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    International audience; This communication intends to enhance the contribution of a sensor fusion method to urban mapping using the simulated SPOT 5-6 data. A new scheme is proposed for cartography of urban areas which takes into account the multispectral and the multiresolution nature of the data. This process makes use of classification and segmentation. An application of the sensor fusion method to analyse the simulated SPOT 5-6 data is presented. The benefits of using sensor fusion before...

  6. Pink1 regulates mitochondrial dynamics through interaction with the fission/fusion machinery

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yufeng; Ouyang, Yingshi; Yang, Lichuan; Beal, M. Flint; McQuibban, Angus; Vogel, Hannes; Lu, Bingwei

    2008-01-01

    Mitochondria form dynamic tubular networks that undergo frequent morphological changes through fission and fusion, the imbalance of which can affect cell survival in general and impact synaptic transmission and plasticity in neurons in particular. Some core components of the mitochondrial fission/fusion machinery, including the dynamin-like GTPases Drp1, Mitofusin, Opa1, and the Drp1-interacting protein Fis1, have been identified. How the fission and fusion processes are regulated under norma...

  7. A Fusion-Inhibiting Peptide against Rift Valley Fever Virus Inhibits Multiple, Diverse Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    opportunities to disrupt early stages in viral replication and prevent a productive infection [11,13]. Targeting this viral entry process with inhibitory...stage of the viral replication cycle. Enveloped viruses require fusion of viral and cellular membranes for the viral genome to enter the cell cytoplasm...Rad, Hercules, CA). Cell-cell fusion assay A plasmid based cell-cell fusion assay was developed similar to the alphavirus replicon-based system

  8. Enhanced Membrane Fusion in Sterol-enriched Vacuoles Bypasses the Vrp1p RequirementD⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Tedrick, Kelly; Trischuk, Tim; Lehner, Richard; Eitzen, Gary

    2004-01-01

    Organization of lipids into membrane microdomains is a vital mechanism of protein processing. Here we show that overexpression of ERG6, a gene involved in ergosterol synthesis, elevates sterol levels 1.5-fold on the vacuole membrane and enhances their homotypic fusion. The mechanism of sterol-enhanced fusion is not via more efficient sorting, but instead promotes increased kinetics of fusion subreactions. We initially isolated ERG6 as a suppressor of a vrp1Δ growth defect selective for vacuol...

  9. Enhanced Membrane Fusion in Sterol-enriched Vacuoles Bypasses the Vrp1p RequirementD⃞

    OpenAIRE

    Tedrick, Kelly; Trischuk, Tim; Lehner, Richard; Eitzen, Gary

    2004-01-01

    Organization of lipids into membrane microdomains is a vital mechanism of protein processing. Here we show that overexpression of ERG6, a gene involved in ergosterol synthesis, elevates sterol levels 1.5-fold on the vacuole membrane and enhances their homotypic fusion. The mechanism of sterol-enhanced fusion is not via more efficient sorting, but instead promotes increased kinetics of fusion subreactions. We initially isolated ERG6 as a suppressor of a vrp1Δ growth defect selective for vacuol...

  10. Cold nuclear fusion reactor and nuclear fusion rocket

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Zhenqiang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available "Nuclear restraint inertial guidance directly hit the cold nuclear fusion reactor and ion speed dc transformer" [1], referred to as "cold fusion reactor" invention patents, Chinese Patent Application No. CN: 200910129632.7 [2]. The invention is characterized in that: at room temperature under vacuum conditions, specific combinations of the installation space of the electromagnetic field, based on light nuclei intrinsic magnetic moment and the electric field, the first two strings of the nuclei to be bound fusion on the same line (track of. Re-use nuclear spin angular momentum vector inherent nearly the speed of light to form a super strong spin rotation gyro inertial guidance features, to overcome the Coulomb repulsion strong bias barrier to achieve fusion directly hit. Similar constraints apply nuclear inertial guidance mode for different speeds and energy ion beam mixing speed, the design of ion speed dc transformer is cold fusion reactors, nuclear fusion engines and such nuclear power plants and power delivery systems start important supporting equipment, so apply for a patent merger

  11. Optimization of membrane protein overexpression and purification using GFP fusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drew, David; Lerch, Mirjam; Kunji, Edmund; Slotboom, Dirk-Jan; de Gier, Jan-Willem

    2006-01-01

    Optimizing conditions for the overexpression and purification of membrane proteins for functional and structural studies is usually a Laborious and time-consuming process. This process can be accelerated using membrane protein-GFP fusions(1-3), which allows direct monitoring and visualization of mem

  12. Mathematical modelling and linear stability analysis of laser fusion cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanns, Torsten; Schulz, Wolfgang; Vossen, Georg; Thombansen, Ulrich

    2016-06-01

    A model for laser fusion cutting is presented and investigated by linear stability analysis in order to study the tendency for dynamic behavior and subsequent ripple formation. The result is a so called stability function that describes the correlation of the setting values of the process and the process' amount of dynamic behavior.

  13. Compound cryopump for fusion reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Kovari, M; Shephard, T

    2013-01-01

    We reconsider an old idea: a three-stage compound cryopump for use in fusion reactors such as DEMO. The helium "ash" is adsorbed on a 4.5 K charcoal-coated surface, while deuterium and tritium are adsorbed at 15-22 K on a second charcoal-coated surface. The helium is released by raising the first surface to ~30 K. In a separate regeneration step, deuterium and tritium are released at ~110 K. In this way, the helium can be pre-separated from other species. In the simplest design, all three stages are in the same vessel, with a single valve to close the pump off from the tokamak during regeneration. In an alternative design, the three stages are in separate vessels, connected by valves, allowing the stages to regenerate without interfering with each other. The inclusion of the intermediate stage would not affect the overall pumping speed significantly. The downstream exhaust processing system could be scaled down, as much of the deuterium and tritium could be returned directly to the reactor. This could reduce ...

  14. Image Fusion for Travel Time Tomography Inversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Linan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The travel time tomography technology had achieved wide application, the hinge of tomography was inversion algorithm, the ray path tracing technology had a great impact on the inversion results. In order to improve the SNR of inversion image, comprehensive utilization of inversion results with different ray tracing can be used. We presented an imaging fusion method based on improved Wilkinson iteration method. Firstly, the shortest path method and the linear travel time interpolation were used for forward calculation; then combined the improved Wilkinson iteration method with super relaxation precondition method to reduce the condition number of matrix and accelerate iterative speed, the precise integration method was used to solve the inverse matrix more precisely in tomography inversion process; finally, use wavelet transform for image fusion, obtain the final image. Therefore, the ill-conditioned linear equations were changed into iterative normal system through two times of treatment and using images with different forward algorithms for image fusion, it reduced the influence effect of measurement error on imaging. Simulation results showed that, this method can eliminate the artifacts in images effectively, it had extensive practical significance.

  15. Capturing a flavivirus pre-fusion intermediate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bärbel Kaufmann

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available During cell entry of flaviviruses, low endosomal pH triggers the rearrangement of the viral surface glycoproteins to a fusion-active state that allows the release of the infectious RNA into the cytoplasm. In this work, West Nile virus was complexed with Fab fragments of the neutralizing mAb E16 and was subsequently exposed to low pH, trapping the virions in a pre-fusion intermediate state. The structure of the complex was studied by cryo-electron microscopy and provides the first structural glimpse of a flavivirus fusion intermediate near physiological conditions. A radial expansion of the outer protein layer of the virion was observed compared to the structure at pH 8. The resulting approximately 60 A-wide shell of low density between lipid bilayer and outer protein layer is likely traversed by the stem region of the E glycoprotein. By using antibody fragments, we have captured a structural intermediate of a virus that likely occurs during cell entry. The trapping of structural transition states by antibody fragments will be applicable for other processes in the flavivirus life cycle and delineating other cellular events that involve conformational rearrangements.

  16. Complex Spectra in Fusion Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellermann, M.G. von; Jaspers, R. [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Bertschinger, G.; Biel, W.; Marchuk, O. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik; Giroud, C.; Zastrow, K.D. [UKAEA Culham Laboratory Euratom Association, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Jupen, C. [Univ. of Lund (Sweden). Physics Dept.; O' Mullane, M.; Summers, H.P.; Whiteford, A. [Univ. of Strathclyde, Glasgow (United Kingdom). Applied Physics Dept.

    2005-12-15

    The need for quantitative evaluation of complex line emission spectra as observed in hot fusion plasmas initiated a challenging development of sophisticated interpretation tools based on integrating advanced atomic modelling with detailed treatment of the plasma environment. The successful merging of the two worlds has led to routine diagnostic procedures which have contributed enormously to the understanding of underlying plasma processes and also to a wide acceptance of spectroscopy as a reliable diagnostic method. In this paper three characteristic types of spectra of current and continuing interest are presented. The first is that of medium/heavy species with many ionisation stages revealed in survey VUV and XUV spectra. Such species occur as control gases, as wall materials, as ablated heavy species and possible as layered wall dopants for monitoring erosion. The spectra are complex with line-like and quasi-continuum regions and are amenable to advanced ?pattern recognition' methods. The second type is of few electron, highly ionised systems observed as line-of-sight integrated passive emission spectra in the soft X-ray region. They are analysed successfully in terms of plasma parameters through matching of observation with predicted synthetic spectra. Examples used here include highly resolved helium-like emission spectra of argon, iron and titanium observed on the tokamaks TEXTOR and Tore Supra. The third type, and the emphasis of this work, comprises spectra linked to active beam spectroscopy, that is, charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) and beam emission spectroscopy (BES). In this case, a complex spectrum is again composed of a (usually) dominating active spectrum and an underlying passive emission spectrum. Its analysis requires modelling of both active and passive features. Examples used here are from the CXRS diagnostic at JET and TEXTOR. They display characteristic features of the main light impurity ions (C{sup +6}, He{sup +2}, N

  17. Hybrid Fusion for Biometrics: Combining Score-level and Decision-level Fusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tao, Q.; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2008-01-01

    A general framework of fusion at decision level, which works on ROCs instead of matching scores, is investigated. Under this framework, we further propose a hybrid fusion method, which combines the score-level and decision-level fusions, taking advantage of both fusion modes. The hybrid fusion

  18. New trends in fusion research

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    The efforts of the international fusion community aim at demonstrating the scientific feasibility of thermonuclear fusion energy power plants. Understanding the behavior of burning plasmas, i.e. plasmas with strong self-heating, represents a primary scientific challenge for fusion research and a new science frontier. Although integrated studies will only be possible, in new, dedicated experimental facilities, such as the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor (ITER), present devices can address specific issues in regimes relevant to burning plasmas. Among these are an improvement of plasma performance via a reduction of the energy and particle transport, an optimization of the path to ignition or to sustained burn using additional heating and a control of plasma-wall interaction and energy and particle exhaust. These lectures address recent advances in plasma science and technology that are relevant to the development of fusion energy. Mention will be made of the inertial confinement line of research, but...

  19. Pulsed Power Driven Fusion Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SLUTZ,STEPHEN A.

    1999-11-22

    Pulsed power is a robust and inexpensive technology for obtaining high powers. Considerable progress has been made on developing light ion beams as a means of transporting this power to inertial fusion capsules. However, further progress is hampered by the lack of an adequate ion source. Alternatively, z-pinches can efficiently convert pulsed power into thermal radiation, which can be used to drive an inertial fusion capsule. However, a z-pinch driven fusion explosion will destroy a portion of the transmission line that delivers the electrical power to the z-pinch. They investigate several options for providing standoff for z-pinch driven fusion. Recyclable Transmission Lines (RTLs) appear to be the most promising approach.

  20. Information fusion for palmprint authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiangqian; Wang, Kuanquan; Zhang, David

    2006-04-01

    A palmprint can be represented using different features and the different representations reflect the different characteristic of a palmprint. Fusion of multiple palmprint features may enhance the performance of a palmprint authentication system. This paper investigates the fusion of two types of palmprint information: the phase (called PalmCode) and the orientation (called OrientationCode). The PalmCode is extracted using the 2-D Gabor filters based algorithm and the OrientationCode is computed using several directional templates. Then several fusion strategies are investigated and compared. The experimental results show that the fusion of the PalmCode and OrientationCode using the Product, Sum and Weighted Sum strategies can greatly improve the accuracy of palmprint authentication, which is up to 99.6%.