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Sample records for interstitial clusters implications

  1. A general treatment of one- to three-dimensional diffusion reaction kinetics of interstitial clusters: Implications for the evolution of voids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinkaus, H.; Singh, B.N.; Golubov, S.I.

    2008-05-01

    In recent years, it has been shown that a number of striking features in the microstructural evolution occurring in metals under cascade damage generating irradiation (e.g. enhanced swelling near grain boundaries, decoration of dislocations with SIA loops, saturation of void growth and void lattice formation) can be rationalised in terms of intra-cascade clustering of vacancies and self-interstitial atoms (SIAs), differences in the thermal stability and mobility of the resulting clusters and one-dimensional (1D) glide diffusion of SIA clusters ('production bias model'). The 1D diffusion of SIA clusters is generally disturbed by changes between equivalent 1D diffusion paths and by transversal diffusion by self-climb, resulting in diffusion reaction kinetics between the 1D and 3D limiting cases. In this paper, a general treatment of such kinetics operating in systems containing random distributions of sinks is presented. The complicated partial sink strengths of different components of the system for the annihilation of SIA clusters are expressed by those for the simple 1D and 3D limiting cases. The effects of direction changes and transversal diffusion are first considered separately and are then combined. The significance of the present treatment for damage accumulation under cascade damage conditions is illustrated by applying it to the discussion of void growth characteristics, particularly of the conditions for saturation of void growth. (au)

  2. A general treatment of one- to three-dimensional diffusion reaction kinetics of interstitial clusters: Implications for the evolution of voids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinkaus, H. (Inst. Festkoerperforschung, Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany)); Singh, B.N. (Risoe DTU, Roskilde (Denmark)); Golubov, S.I. (Oak Ridge National Lab., Materials Science and Technology Div., TN (United States))

    2008-05-15

    In recent years, it has been shown that a number of striking features in the microstructural evolution occurring in metals under cascade damage generating irradiation (e.g. enhanced swelling near grain boundaries, decoration of dislocations with SIA loops, saturation of void growth and void lattice formation) can be rationalised in terms of intra-cascade clustering of vacancies and self-interstitial atoms (SIAs), differences in the thermal stability and mobility of the resulting clusters and one-dimensional (1D) glide diffusion of SIA clusters ('production bias model'). The 1D diffusion of SIA clusters is generally disturbed by changes between equivalent 1D diffusion paths and by transversal diffusion by self-climb, resulting in diffusion reaction kinetics between the 1D and 3D limiting cases. In this paper, a general treatment of such kinetics operating in systems containing random distributions of sinks is presented. The complicated partial sink strengths of different components of the system for the annihilation of SIA clusters are expressed by those for the simple 1D and 3D limiting cases. The effects of direction changes and transversal diffusion are first considered separately and are then combined. The significance of the present treatment for damage accumulation under cascade damage conditions is illustrated by applying it to the discussion of void growth characteristics, particularly of the conditions for saturation of void growth. (au)

  3. Time scales of transient enhanced diffusion: Free and clustered interstitials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowern, N. E. B.; Huizing, H. G. A.; Stolk, P. A.; Visser, C. C. G.; de Kruif, R. C. M.; Kyllesbech Larsen, K.; Privitera, V.; Nanver, L. K.; Crans, W.

    1996-12-01

    Transient enhanced diffusion (TED) and electrical activation after nonamorphizing Si implantations into lightly B-doped Si multilayers shows two distinct timescales, each related to a different class of interstitial defect. At 700°C, ultrafast TED occurs within the first 15 s with a B diffusivity enhancement of > 2 × 10 5. Immobile clustered B is present at low concentration levels after the ultrafast transient and persists for an extended period (˜ 10 2-10 3 s). The later phase of TED exhibits a near-constant diffusivity enhancement of ≈ 1 × 10 4, consistent with interstitial injection controlled by dissolving {113} interstitial clusters. The relative contributions of the ultrafast and regular TED regimes to the final diffusive broadening of the B profile depends on the proportion of interstitials that escape capture by {113} clusters growing within the implant damage region upon annealing. Our results explain the ultrafast TED recently observed after medium-dose B implantation. In that case there are enough B atoms to trap a large proportion of interstitials in SiB clusters, and the remaining interstitials contribute to TED without passing through an intermediate {113} defect stage. The data on the ultrafast TED pulse allows us to extract lower limits for the diffusivities of the Si interstitial ( DI > 2 × 10 -10 cm 2s -1) and the B interstitial(cy) defect ( DBi > 2 × 10 -13 cm 2s -1) at 700°C.

  4. Energetics of formation and migration of self-interstitials and self-interstitial clusters in α-iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirth, B.D.; Odette, G.R.; California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA; Maroudas, D.; Lucas, G.E.; California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA

    1997-01-01

    Energetic primary recoil atoms from fast neutron irradiation generate both isolated point defects and clusters of vacancies and interstitials. Self-interstitial mobility as well as defect cluster stability and mobility play key roles in the subsequent fate of defects and, hence, in the overall microstructural evolution under irradiation. Self-interstitials and two, three and four-member self-interstitial clusters are highly mobile at low temperatures as observed in molecular-dynamics simulations and high mobility probably also extends to larger clusters. In this study, the morphology, energetics and mobility of self-interstitials and small self-interstitial clusters in α-iron are studied by molecular-statics and molecular-dynamics simulations using a Finnis-Sinclair many-body interatomic potential. Self-interstitial migration is found to be a two-step process consisting of a rotation out of the split-dumbbell configuration into the split-dumbbell configuration and translational jumps through the crowdion configuration before returning to the dumbbell configuration. Self-interstitial clusters of type split-interstitials assembled on adjacent {110} planes migrate along directions in an amoeba-like fashion by sequential local dissociation and re-association processes. (orig.)

  5. Fine interstitial clusters as recombinators in decomposing solid solutions under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trushin, Yu.V.

    1991-01-01

    Behaviour of interstitial clusters and their roll in processes of radiation swelling of metals are described. It is shown that occurrence of coherent advanced precipitations during decomposition of solid solutions under irradiation leads to matrix supersaturation over interstitial atoms. This enhances recombination of unlike defects due to vacancy precipitation on fine interstitial clusters. Evaluation of cluster sizes was conducted

  6. First-principles studies of di-arsenic interstitial and its implications for arsenic-interstitial diffusion in crystalline silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yonghyun; Kirichenko, Taras A.; Kong, Ning; Larson, Larry; Banerjee, Sanjay K.

    2007-01-01

    We propose new structural configurations and novel diffusion mechanisms for neutral di-arsenic interstitial (As 2 I 2 ) in silicon with a first-principle density functional theory simulation within the generalized gradient approximation. With an assumption of excess silicon interstitials and high arsenic concentrations, neutral As 2 I 2 is expected to be favorable and mobile with low-migration barrier. Moreover, because the diffusion barrier of arsenic interstitial pairs (AsI) is very low ( 2 I 2 can be easily formed and likely intermediate stage of larger arsenic interstitial clusters

  7. Effect of impurities on the growth of {113} interstitial clusters in silicon under electron irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Nakai, K.; Hamada, K.; Satoh, Y.; Yoshiie, T.

    2011-01-01

    The growth and shrinkage of interstitial clusters on {113} planes were investigated in electron irradiated Czochralski grown silicon (Cz-Si), floating-zone silicon (Fz-Si), and impurity-doped Fz-Si (HT-Fz-Si) using a high voltage electron microscope. In Fz-Si, {113} interstitial clusters were formed only near the beam incident surface after a long incubation period, and shrank on subsequent irradiation from the backside of the specimen. In Cz-Si and HT-Fz-Si, {113} interstitial clusters nucle...

  8. Effect of impurities on the growth of {113} interstitial clusters in silicon under electron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, K.; Hamada, K.; Satoh, Y.; Yoshiie, T.

    2011-01-01

    The growth and shrinkage of interstitial clusters on {113} planes were investigated in electron irradiated Czochralski grown silicon (Cz-Si), floating-zone silicon (Fz-Si), and impurity-doped Fz-Si (HT-Fz-Si) using a high voltage electron microscope. In Fz-Si, {113} interstitial clusters were formed only near the beam incident surface after a long incubation period, and shrank on subsequent irradiation from the backside of the specimen. In Cz-Si and HT-Fz-Si, {113} interstitial clusters nucleated uniformly throughout the specimen without incubation, and began to shrink under prolonged irradiation at higher electron beam intensity. At lower beam intensity, however, the {113} interstitial cluster grew stably. These results demonstrate that the {113} interstitial cluster cannot grow without a continuous supply of impurities during electron irradiation. Detailed kinetics of {113} interstitial cluster growth and shrinkage in silicon, including the effects of impurities, are proposed. Then, experimental results are analyzed using rate equations based on these kinetics.

  9. One dimensional motion of interstitial clusters and void growth in Ni and Ni alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiie, T.; Ishizaki, T.; Xu, Q.; Satoh, Y.; Kiritani, M.

    2002-12-01

    One dimensional (1-D) motion of interstitial clusters is important for the microstructural evolution in metals. In this paper, the effect of 2 at.% alloying with elements Si (volume size factor to Ni: -5.81%), Cu (7.18%), Ge (14.76%) and Sn (74.08%) in Ni on 1-D motion of interstitial clusters and void growth was studied. In neutron irradiated pure Ni, Ni-Cu and Ni-Ge, well developed dislocation networks and voids in the matrix, and no defects near grain boundaries were observed at 573 K to a dose of 0.4 dpa by transmission electron microscopy. No voids were formed and only interstitial type dislocation loops were observed near grain boundaries in Ni-Si and Ni-Sn. The reaction kinetics analysis which included the point defect flow into planar sink revealed the existence of 1-D motion of interstitial clusters in Ni, Ni-Cu and Ni-Ge, and lack of such motion in Ni-Si and Ni-Sn. In Ni-Sn and Ni-Si, the alloying elements will trap interstitial clusters and thereby reduce the cluster mobility, which lead to the reduction in void growth.

  10. Effects of applied strain on nanoscale self-interstitial cluster formation in BCC iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Ning; Setyawan, Wahyu; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wang, Zhiguang

    2017-09-01

    The effect of applied strains on the configurational evolution of self-interstitial clusters in BCC iron (Fe) is explored with atomistic simulations. A novel cluster configuration is discovered at low temperatures (<600 K), which consists of <110> dumbbells and <111> crowdions in a specific configuration, resulting in an immobile defect. The stability and diffusion of this cluster at higher temperatures is explored. In addition, an anisotropy distribution factor of a particular [hkl] interstitial loop within the family of loops is calculated as a function of strain. The results show that loop anisotropy is governed by the angle between the stress direction and the orientation of the <111> crowdions in the loop, and directly linked to the stress induced preferred nucleation of self-interstitial atoms.

  11. Diffusion of He interstitial and di-He cluster at grain boundaries in α-Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, F.; Heinisch, H.L.; Kurtz, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    A systematic molecular dynamics study of the diffusion mechanisms of He interstitial and di-He cluster at two representative interfaces has been carried out in α-Fe. The diffusion coefficient of a He interstitial and the effective migration energies were determined. The He atom diffuses along the Σ11 grain boundary one-dimensionally along specific directions, while it migrates two-dimensionally at low temperatures, and three-dimensionally at higher temperatures, in the Σ3 grain boundary. The di-He interstitial cluster can migrate rapidly along the Σ3 interface at low temperatures, but not at the Σ11 interface. It has been observed that a di-He interstitial cluster can kick out a self interstitial atom (SIA) at high temperatures, forming a He 2 V complex. The SIA migrates rapidly near interfaces, whereas the He 2 V complex is immobile at the temperatures considered. This small cluster may serve as the smallest nucleation for the formation of helium bubbles at interfaces

  12. Effects of applied strain on nanoscale self-interstitial cluster formation in BCC iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ning; Setyawan, Wahyu; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wang, Zhiguang

    2017-09-01

    The effect of applied strains on the configurational evolution of self-interstitial clusters in BCC iron (Fe) is explored with atomistic simulations. A novel cluster configuration is discovered at low temperatures (family of 〈 hkl 〉 loops is calculated as a function of strain. The results show that loop anisotropy is governed by the angle between the stress direction and the orientation of the 〈 111 〉 crowdions in the loop, and directly linked to the stress induced preferred nucleation of self-interstitial atoms.

  13. Stability and mobility of self-interstitials and small interstitial clusters in α-iron: ab initio and empirical potential calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willaime, F.; Fu, C.C.; Marinica, M.C.; Dalla Torre, J.

    2005-01-01

    The stability and mobility of self-interstitials and small interstitial clusters, I n , in α-Fe is investigated by means of calculations performed in the framework of the density functional theory using the SIESTA code. The mono-, di- and tri-interstitials are shown to be made of (parallel) dumbbells and to migrate by nearest-neighbor translation-rotation jumps, according to Johnson's mechanism. The orientation of the dumbbells becomes energetically more favourable for I 5 and larger clusters. The performance of a semi-empirical potential recently developed for Fe, including ab initio self-interstitial data in the fitted properties, is evaluated over the present results. The superiority over previous semi-empirical potentials is confirmed. Finally the impact of the present results on the formation mechanism of loops, observed experimentally in α-Fe is discussed

  14. Migration mechanisms of self-interstitial atoms and their clusters in Fe-Cr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terentyev, D.; Malerba, L.

    2006-06-01

    The mobility of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) and their clusters in pure iron and iron-chromium alloys was studied by atomic scale modelling techniques. Molecular dynamics (MD) was used to simulate thermally activated motion, i.e. diffusion, and its mechanisms whereas molecular statics was used to estimate energies of interactions of SIA and SIA clusters with Cr-impurities. It is shown that the presence of Cr atoms reduces the diffusivity of SIAs and their clusters in a non monotonic way with increasing Cr concentration. The main reason for this reduction is the presence of a long-range attractive interaction between self-interstitials in the crowdion configuration and Cr atoms. The migration mechanisms behind this effect are discussed relying on the results obtained from the MD simulations. (author)

  15. The thermodynamic and kinetic interactions of He interstitial clusters with bubbles in W

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Danny, E-mail: danny-perez@lanl.gov; Sandoval, Luis; Voter, Arthur F. [Theoretical Division T-1, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Uberuaga, Blas P. [Materials Science and Technology MST-8, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States)

    2016-05-28

    Due to its enviable properties, tungsten is a leading candidate plasma facing material in nuclear fusion reactors. However, like many other metals, tungsten is known to be affected by the high doses of helium atoms incoming from the plasma. Indeed, the implanted interstitial helium atoms cluster together and, upon reaching a critical cluster size, convert into substitutional nanoscale He bubbles. These bubbles then grow by absorbing further interstitial clusters from the matrix. This process can lead to deleterious changes in microstructure, degradation of mechanical properties, and contamination of the plasma. In order to better understand the growth process, we use traditional and accelerated molecular dynamics simulations to investigate the interactions between interstitial He clusters and pre-existing bubbles. These interactions are characterized in terms of thermodynamics and kinetics. We show that the proximity of the bubble leads to an enhancement of the trap mutation rate and, consequently, to the nucleation of satellite bubbles in the neighborhood of existing ones. We also uncover a number of mechanisms that can lead to the subsequent annihilation of such satellite nanobubbles.

  16. Interstitial-mediated diffusion and clustering for transmutation elements Re and Os precipitation in W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong-Bo; Li, Yu-Hao; Lu, Guang-Hong

    Under high energy (14 eV) neutrons irradiation in nuclear fusion devoices, tungsten (W) will undergo transmutation to its near-neighbors in the periodic table, such as rhenium (Re), osmium (Os), etc. The transmutation elements Re and Os will precipitate and form new Re/Os-rich phase, and further significantly degrade the mechanical properties of W. Here, we have investigated the mechanism for the irradiation-induced Re/Os clustering in W using the first-principles method and thermodynamic models. It is found that there is strong attraction between Re/Os and self-interstitial atom (SIA) in W. The SIA can be easily trapped by Re/Os once overcoming a low energy barrier, and form W-Re/Os complex dumbbell. The diffusion energy barrier of W-Re/Os is much lower than that of Re/Os diffusing via mono-vacancy or even vacancy clusters. Further, the W-Re/Os can be easily trapped by the substitutional Re/Os atoms, and form high stable Re-Re/Os-Os dumbbell structure. Most importantly, the Re-Re/Os-Os dumbbell can serve as trapping centre for subsequent interstitial-Re/Os, leading to the growth of Re/Os-rich clusters in W. Our finding suggests an interstitial-mediated mechanism for the irradiation-induced Re/Os clustering in W. This research is supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program with Grant No. 2013GB109002, and the National Natural Science Foundation of China with Grant No. 11675011.

  17. Modeling of 1D motion of interstitial clusters in iron under HVEM irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Y.; Hamaoka, T.; Matsui, H.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: We examined 1D motion of interstitial clusters in Fe under electron irradiation at room temperature using high voltage electron microscopy (HVEM). We found that some impurities have essential effects on the experimental 1D motion behavior. The characteristics of experimental 1D motion were obtained as follows: 1) 1D motion appears as discrete jumps (namely, stepwise positional changes) at irregular intervals. 2) Sometimes a set of several successive jumps occurs between certain two points (back and forth motion). 3) The frequency of 1D jumps is almost proportional to the electron beam intensity, while the distribution of 1D jump distance does not change much with the intensity. Very few 1D jumps are observed with a 200 kV TEM at room temperature. 4) The distance and the frequency of 1D jumps are greatly reduced in a specimen of low purities. Taking account for effects of impurities, we propose a mechanism of the experimental 1D jumps, as follows. Small interstitial clusters are regarded to be essentially mobile as crowdion bundles. Then interstitial clusters in a stationary state are trapped by impurity atom(s), due to elastic interactions between impurities and crowdion bundle. The electron irradiation changes the cluster into a mobile state by a detrapping: for example, the impurity atom is displaced to apart from the crowdion bundle. Then the crowdion bundle makes a free 1D migration until it is trapped by another impurity atom. Because of small activation energy for 1D migration, we cannot observe the detailed 1D random walk process, but a stepwise positional change from an impurity to another impurity. The average size of interstitial clusters observed in the present experiments was around 5 nm, corresponding to a bundle of 300 crowdions. In a rough estimate assuming that an impurity atom on any crowdion in the crowdion bundle prevent the migration of the bundle, the mean free path is about 75 nm and 7.5 nm at the impurity

  18. Cluster dynamics modeling and experimental investigation of the effect of injected interstitials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaut, B.; Jourdan, T.; Malaplate, J.; Renault-Laborne, A.; Sefta, F.; Décamps, B.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of injected interstitials on loop and cavity microstructures is investigated experimentally and numerically for 304L austenitic stainless steel irradiated at 450 °C with 10 MeV Fe5+ ions up to about 100 dpa. A cluster dynamics model is parametrized on experimental results obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in a region where injected interstitials can be safely neglected. It is then used to model the damage profile and study the impact of self-ion injection. Results are compared to TEM observations on cross-sections of specimens. It is shown that injected interstitials have a significant effect on cavity density and mean size, even in the sink-dominated regime. To quantitatively match the experimental data in the self-ions injected area, a variation of some parameters is necessary. We propose that the fraction of freely migrating species may vary as a function of depth. Finally, we show that simple rate theory considerations do not seem to be valid for these experimental conditions.

  19. The behavior of interstitials in irradiated graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedraza, D.F.

    1991-01-01

    A computer model is developed to simulate the behavior of self-interstitials with particular attention to clustering. Owing to the layer structure of graphite, atomistic simulations can be performed using a large parallelepipedic supercell containing a few layers. In particular, interstitial clustering is studied here using a supercell that contains two basal planes only. Frenkel pairs are randomly produced. Interstitials are placed at sites between the crystal planes while vacancies are distributed in the two crystal planes. The size of the computational cell is 20000 atoms and periodic boundary conditions are used in two dimensions. Vacancies are assumed immobile whereas interstitials are given a certain mobility. Two point defect sinks are considered, direct recombination of Frenkel pairs and interstitial clusters. The clusters are assumed to be mobile up to a certain size where they are presumed to become loop nuclei. Clusters can shrink by emission of singly bonded interstitials or by recombination of a peripheral interstitial with a neighboring vacancy. The conditions under which interstitial clustering occurs are reported. It is shown that when clustering occurs the cluster size population gradually shifts towards the largest size cluster. The implications of the present results for irradiation growth and irradiation-induced amorphization are discussed

  20. Transport, dissociation and rotation of small self-interstitial atom clusters in tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, W.H.; Zhang, C.G.; Li, Y.G.; Zeng, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical calculations have been performed to study the thermal motion of self-interstitial atom (SIA) clusters in tungsten (W). Molecular dynamics simulations show that SIA clusters exhibit a fast one-dimensional (1D) motion along the close packed 〈1 1 1〉 direction accompanied by a significant mass transport in this direction. A low frequency vibration mode is identified and considered to assist the motion of SIAs. The migration energy of SIA clusters are weakly dependent on their size in the average value of 0.019 eV, which is due to the strong interaction between SIAs revealed by calculating the potential energy curve of artificially moving the SIAs along 〈1 1 1〉 direction as well as nudged elastic band (NEB) method. The rotation process of SIA cluster is studied by activation–relaxation technique and the results show that SIA cluster presents complex rotation process. Our results on the motion SIA cluster may provide updated understanding on the performance decay of materials related to SIA defects

  1. The effects of self-interstitial clusters on cascade defect evolution beyond the primary damage state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinisch, H.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The intracascade evolution of the defect distributions of cascades in copper is investigated using stochastic annealing simulations applied to cascades generated with molecular dynamics (MD). The temperature and energy dependencies of annihilation, clustering and free defect production are determined for individual cascades. The annealing simulation results illustrate the strong influence on intracascade evolution of the defect configuration existing in the primary damage state. Another factor significantly affecting the evolution of the defect distribution is the rapid one-dimensional diffusion of small, glissile interstitial loops produced directly in cascades. This phenomenon introduces a cascade energy dependence of defect evolution that is apparent only beyond the primary damage state, amplifying the need for further study of the annealing phase of cascade evolution and for performing many more MD cascade simulations at higher energies.

  2. The effects of self-interstitial clusters on cascade defect evolution beyond the primary damage state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinisch, H.L.

    1997-01-01

    The intracascade evolution of the defect distributions of cascades in copper is investigated using stochastic annealing simulations applied to cascades generated with molecular dynamics (MD). The temperature and energy dependencies of annihilation, clustering and free defect production are determined for individual cascades. The annealing simulation results illustrate the strong influence on intracascade evolution of the defect configuration existing in the primary damage state. Another factor significantly affecting the evolution of the defect distribution is the rapid one-dimensional diffusion of small, glissile interstitial loops produced directly in cascades. This phenomenon introduces a cascade energy dependence of defect evolution that is apparent only beyond the primary damage state, amplifying the need for further study of the annealing phase of cascade evolution and for performing many more MD cascade simulations at higher energies

  3. Cluster dynamics models of irradiation damage accumulation in ferritic iron. I. Trap mediated interstitial cluster diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohnert, Aaron A.; Wirth, Brian D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996-2300 (United States)

    2015-04-21

    The microstructure that develops under low temperature irradiation in ferritic alloys is dominated by a high density of small (2–5 nm) defects. These defects have been widely observed to move via occasional discrete hops during in situ thin film irradiation experiments. Cluster dynamics models are used to describe the formation of these defects as an aggregation process of smaller clusters created as primary damage. Multiple assumptions regarding the mobility of these damage features are tested in the models, both with and without explicit consideration of such irradiation induced hops. Comparison with experimental data regarding the density of these defects demonstrates the importance of including such motions in a valid model. In particular, discrete hops inform the limited dependence of defect density on irradiation temperature observed in experiments, which the model was otherwise incapable of producing.

  4. Ethical implications of excessive cluster sizes in cluster randomised trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming, Karla; Taljaard, Monica; Forbes, Gordon; Eldridge, Sandra M; Weijer, Charles

    2018-02-20

    The cluster randomised trial (CRT) is commonly used in healthcare research. It is the gold-standard study design for evaluating healthcare policy interventions. A key characteristic of this design is that as more participants are included, in a fixed number of clusters, the increase in achievable power will level off. CRTs with cluster sizes that exceed the point of levelling-off will have excessive numbers of participants, even if they do not achieve nominal levels of power. Excessively large cluster sizes may have ethical implications due to exposing trial participants unnecessarily to the burdens of both participating in the trial and the potential risks of harm associated with the intervention. We explore these issues through the use of two case studies. Where data are routinely collected, available at minimum cost and the intervention poses low risk, the ethical implications of excessively large cluster sizes are likely to be low (case study 1). However, to maximise the social benefit of the study, identification of excessive cluster sizes can allow for prespecified and fully powered secondary analyses. In the second case study, while there is no burden through trial participation (because the outcome data are routinely collected and non-identifiable), the intervention might be considered to pose some indirect risk to patients and risks to the healthcare workers. In this case study it is therefore important that the inclusion of excessively large cluster sizes is justifiable on other grounds (perhaps to show sustainability). In any randomised controlled trial, including evaluations of health policy interventions, it is important to minimise the burdens and risks to participants. Funders, researchers and research ethics committees should be aware of the ethical issues of excessively large cluster sizes in cluster trials. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  5. Migration of Cr-vacancy clusters and interstitial Cr in α-Fe using the dimer method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, D.; Gao, F.; Hu, S. Y.; Sun, X.; Heinisch, H. L.; Henager, C. H.; Khaleel, M. A.; Hu, W. Y.; Terentyev, D.

    2010-01-01

    The migration mechanisms and the corresponding activation energies of Cr-vacancy (Cr-V) clusters and Cr interstitials in α-Fe have been investigated using the dimer and the nudged elastic-band methods. Dimer searches are employed to find the possible transition states of these defects and the lowest-energy paths are used to determine the energy barriers for migration. A substitutional Cr atom can migrate to a nearest-neighbor vacancy through an energy barrier of 0.56 eV but this simple mechanism alone is unlikely to lead to the long-distance migration of Cr unless there is a supersaturated concentration of vacancies in the system. The Cr-vacancy clusters can lead to long-distance migration of a Cr atom that is accomplished by Fe and Cr atoms successively jumping to nearest-neighbor vacancy positions, defined as a self-vacancy-assisted migration mechanism, with the migration energies ranging from 0.64 to 0.89 eV. In addition, a mixed Cr-Fe dumbbell interstitial can easily migrate through Fe lattices, with the migration energy barrier of 0.17, which is lower than that of the Fe-Fe interstitial. The on-site rotation of the Cr-Fe interstitial and Cr atom hopping from one site to another are believed to comprise the dominant migration mechanism. The calculated binding energies of Cr-V clusters are strongly dependent on the size of clusters and the concentration of Cr atoms in clusters.

  6. Effect of self-interstitial diffusion anisotropy in electron-irradiated zirconium: A cluster dynamics modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christien, F.; Barbu, A.

    2005-01-01

    A model based on the cluster dynamics approach was proposed in [A. Hardouin Duparc, C. Moingeon, N. Smetniansky-de-Grande, A. Barbu, J. Nucl. Mater. 302 (2002) 143] to describe point defect agglomeration in metals under irradiation. This model is restricted to materials where point defect diffusion is isotropic and is thus not applicable to anisotropic metals such as zirconium. Following the approach proposed by Woo [C.H. Woo, J. Nucl. Mater. 159 (1988) 237], we extended in this work the model to the case where self-interstitial atoms (SIA) diffusion is anisotropic. The model was then applied to the loop microstructure evolution of a zirconium thin foil irradiated with electrons in a high-voltage microscope. First, the inputs were validated by comparing the numerical results with Hellio et al. experimental results [C. Hellio, C.H. de Novion, L. Boulanger, J. Nucl. Mater. 159 (1988) 368]. Further calculations were made to evidence the effect of the thin foil orientation on the dislocation loop microstructure under irradiation. The result is that it is possible to reproduce for certain orientations the 'unexpected' vacancy loop growth experimentally observed in electron-irradiated zirconium [M. Griffiths, M.H. Loretto, R.E. Sallmann, J. Nucl. Mater. 115 (1983) 313; J. Nucl. Mater. 115 (1983) 323; Philos. Mag. A 49 (1984) 613]. This effect is directly linked to SIA diffusion anisotropy

  7. Empirical potential and elasticity theory modelling of interstitial dislocation loops in UO2 for cluster dynamics application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le-Prioux, Arno

    2017-01-01

    During irradiation in reactor, the microstructure of UO 2 changes and deteriorates, causing modifications of its physical and mechanical properties. The kinetic models used to describe these changes such as cluster dynamics (CRESCENDO calculation code) consider the main microstructural elements that are cavities and interstitial dislocation loops, and provide a rather rough description of the loop thermodynamics. In order to tackle this issue, this work has led to the development of a thermodynamic model of interstitial dislocation loops based on empirical potential calculations. The model considers two types of interstitial dislocation loops on two different size domains: Type 1: Dislocation loops similar to Frank partials in F.C.C. materials which are stable in the smaller size domain. Type 2: Perfect dislocation loops of Burgers vector (a/2)(110) stable in the larger size domain. The analytical formula used to compute the interstitial dislocation loop formation energies is the one for circular loops which has been modified in order to take into account the effects of the dislocation core, which are significant at smaller sizes. The parameters have been determined by empirical potential calculations of the formation energies of prismatic pure edge dislocation loops. The effect of the habit plane reorientation on the formation energies of perfect dislocation loops has been taken into account by a simple interpolation method. All the different types of loops seen during TEM observations are thus accounted for by the model. (author) [fr

  8. The Effects of One-Dimensional Glide on the Reaction Kinetics of Interstitial Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinisch, Howard L.; Singh, B N.; Golubov, S I.

    2000-01-01

    Collision cascades in metals produce small interstitial clusters and perfect dislocation loops that glide in thermally activated one-dimensional (1D) random walks. These gliding defects can change their Burgers vectors by thermal activation or by interactions with other defects. Their migration is therefore''mixed 1D/3D migration'' along a 3D path consisting of 1D segments. The defect reaction kinetics under mixed 1D/3D diffusion are different from pure 1D diffusion and pure 3D diffusion, both of which can be formulated within analytical rate theory models of microstructure evolution under irradiation. Atomic-scale kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) defect migration simulations are used to investigate the effects of mixed 1D/3D migration on defect reaction kinetics as a guide for implementing mixed 1D/3D migration into the analytical rate theory. The functional dependence of the sink strength on the sixe and concentration of sinks under mixed 1D/3D migration is shown to lie between that for pure 1D and pure 3D migration and varies with L, the average distance between direction changes of the gliding defects. It is shown that the sink strength in simulations for spherical sinks of radius R under mixed 1D/3D migration for values of L greater than R can be approximated by an expression that varies directly as R2. For small L, the form of the transition from mixed 1D/3D to pure 3D diffusion as L decreases is demonstrated in the simulations, the results of which can be used in the future development of an analytical expression describing this transition region

  9. Small interstitial clusters as opposite defect recombinators in decomposing solid solutions under irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, A.N.; Trushin, Yu.V.

    1988-01-01

    An attempt was made to make allowance for the role of binary and ternary interstitials in the kinetics of radiation point defects both in the presence and in the absence of coherent preseparation. It is shown that in solid solutions, decomposing under irradiation, recombination with binary and ternary interstitials proceeds more quickly than directly, and this difference is more pronounced (from 2 up to 20 time growth) due to defect flow for preseparation at the stage of coherent preseparation formation

  10. Ab initio study of interstitial cluster interaction with Re, Os, and Ta in W

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setyawan, Wahyu, E-mail: wahyu.setyawan@pnnl.gov; Nandipati, Giridhar; Kurtz, Richard J.

    2017-02-15

    The stability of tungsten self-interstitial atom (SIA) clusters is studied using first-principles methods. Clusters from one to seven SIAs are systematically explored from 1264 unique configurations. Finite-size effect of the simulation cell is corrected based on the scaling of formation energy versus inverse volume cell. Furthermore, the accuracy of the calculations is improved by treating the 5p semicore states as valence states. Configurations of the three most stable clusters in each cluster size n are presented, which consist of parallel [111] dumbbells. The evolution of these clusters leading to small dislocation loops is discussed. The binding energy of size-n clusters is analyzed relative to an n → (n-1) + 1 dissociation and is shown to increase with size. Extrapolation for n > 7 is presented using a dislocation loop model. In addition, the interaction of these clusters with a substitutional Re, Os, or Ta solute is explored by replacing one of the dumbbells with the solute. Re and Os strongly attract these clusters, but Ta strongly repels. The strongest interaction is found when the solute is located on the periphery of the cluster rather than in the middle. The magnitude of this interaction decreases with cluster size. Empirical fits to describe the trend of the solute binding energy are presented. - Highlights: • Systematic DFT exploration of tungsten SIA clusters from 1264 configurations. • Detailed structures of several most stable clusters are presented. • Novel finding of the trend of solute binding of Re, Os, and Ta with SIA clusters. • Empirical models that describe the trends of the solute binding energies.

  11. Ab initio study of interstitial cluster interaction with Re, Os, and Ta in W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setyawan, Wahyu; Nandipati, Giridhar; Kurtz, Richard J.

    2017-01-01

    The stability of tungsten self-interstitial atom (SIA) clusters is studied using first-principles methods. Clusters from one to seven SIAs are systematically explored from 1264 unique configurations. Finite-size effect of the simulation cell is corrected based on the scaling of formation energy versus inverse volume cell. Furthermore, the accuracy of the calculations is improved by treating the 5p semicore states as valence states. Configurations of the three most stable clusters in each cluster size n are presented, which consist of parallel [111] dumbbells. The evolution of these clusters leading to small dislocation loops is discussed. The binding energy of size-n clusters is analyzed relative to an n → (n-1) + 1 dissociation and is shown to increase with size. Extrapolation for n > 7 is presented using a dislocation loop model. In addition, the interaction of these clusters with a substitutional Re, Os, or Ta solute is explored by replacing one of the dumbbells with the solute. Re and Os strongly attract these clusters, but Ta strongly repels. The strongest interaction is found when the solute is located on the periphery of the cluster rather than in the middle. The magnitude of this interaction decreases with cluster size. Empirical fits to describe the trend of the solute binding energy are presented. - Highlights: • Systematic DFT exploration of tungsten SIA clusters from 1264 configurations. • Detailed structures of several most stable clusters are presented. • Novel finding of the trend of solute binding of Re, Os, and Ta with SIA clusters. • Empirical models that describe the trends of the solute binding energies.

  12. Self-interstitials, vacancies and their clusters in silicon and germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeger, A.; Foell, H.; Frank, W.

    1976-01-01

    The paper begins with a survey of knowledge about swirl defects in silicon. In particular, it is shown that recent identification of the A-swirls as dislocation loops of interstitial type strongly supports a previous suggestion that the predominant equilibrium defects controlling self-diffusion in silicon at high temperatures are self-interstitials. This is followed by a brief state-of-the-art report on self-interstitials in silicon, a field in which rapid progress has been made during the past half a decade. The discussion of vacancy-type defects, which stood in the limelight of the preceding conferences, is confined to some examples of recent interest, such as the interaction of vacancy-type defects with hydrogen atoms, positrons and positive muons. (author)

  13. Interstitial fluid flow in cancer: implications for disease progression and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munson, Jennifer M; Shieh, Adrian C

    2014-01-01

    As cancer progresses, a dynamic microenvironment develops that creates and responds to cellular and biophysical cues. Increased intratumoral pressure and corresponding increases in interstitial flow from the tumor bulk to the healthy stroma is an observational hallmark of progressing cancers. Until recently, the role of interstitial flow was thought to be mostly passive in the transport and dissemination of cancer cells to metastatic sites. With research spanning the past decade, we have seen that interstitial flow has a promigratory effect on cancer cell invasion in multiple cancer types. This invasion is one mechanism by which cancers can resist therapeutics and recur, but the role of interstitial flow in cancer therapy is limited to the understanding of transport of therapeutics. Here we outline the current understanding of the role of interstitial flow in cancer and the tumor microenvironment through cancer progression and therapy. We also discuss the current role of fluid flow in the treatment of cancer, including drug transport and therapeutic strategies. By stating the current understanding of interstitial flow in cancer progression, we can begin exploring its role in therapeutic failure and treatment resistance

  14. Changes in interstitial K+ and pH during exercise: implications for blood flow regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    that blood flow is affected by changes in K+ as low as 0.1 mmol/L. The vasodilatory effect of K+ can be inhibited with simultaneous barium infusion, indicating that inward rectifier potassium (Kir)channels are involved. Acidosis has a direct effect on blood flow and an indirect effect, mediated by changes...... with the microdialysis technique. Interstitial K+ accumulation is dependent on the intensity and duration of muscle activity and may reach 10 mmol/L during intense exercise, and the concentration in T-tubules may be even higher. Thus, interstitial K+ can reach a level that affects fibre excitability and the development...... of fatigue. It has also been demonstrated with microdialysis that the interstitial decrease in pH during muscle activity is larger than the reduction in blood pH. Ion changes in the interstitium may affect blood flow directly or indirectly. Infusion of K+ into the femoral artery in humans has demonstrated...

  15. Distribution of mast cell subtypes in interstitial cystitis: implications for novel diagnostic and therapeutic strategies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Shabana T; Birch, Brian R; Voegeli, David; Fader, Mandy; Foria, Vipul; Cooper, Alan J; Walls, Andrew F; Lwaleed, Bashir A

    2018-05-15

    To identify the presence and geographical distribution of mast cell (MC) subtypes: MC T (tryptase positive-chymase negative) and MC TC (tryptase positive-chymase positive) in bladder tissue. Bladder tissue was obtained from patients with painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (n=14) and normal histology from University Hospital Southampton tissue bank. Sequential tissue slices were immunohistochemically stained for MC subtypes using anti-MC tryptase (for MC T and MC TC ) and anti-MC chymase (for MC TC ). Stained sections were photographed, and positively stained MCs were quantified using ImageJ. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and individual paired t-tests. There was a significant difference in the density of MCs between each layer of the disease bladder, with the greatest accumulation within the detrusor (p<0.001). There was a significant increase in MC TC subtype in the lamina (p=0.009) in painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis. Our results suggest that mastocytosis is present within all layers of disease bladder, especially the muscle layer. The varying increase in MC subtypes in the lamina and mucosa may explain the variability in painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis symptoms. A high influx of MC TC in the mucosa of individuals who also had ulceration noted within their diagnostic notes may be of the Hunner's ulcer subclassification. These findings suggest a relationship between the pathogenesis of MC subtypes and the clinical presentation of painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis. A cohort study would further elucidate the diagnostic and/or therapeutic potential of MCs in patients with painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Implications of defect clusters formed in cascades on free defect generation and microstructural development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedersich, H.

    1992-12-01

    A large fraction of the defects produced by irradiation with energetic neutrons or heavy ions originates in cascades. Not only increased recombination of vacancy and interstitial defects but also significant clustering of like defects occur. Both processes reduce the number of point defects available for long range migration. Consequences of defect clustering in cascades will be discussed in a semi-quantitative form with the aid of calculations using a very simplified model: Quasi-steady-state distributions of immobile vacancy and/or interstitial clusters develop which, in turn, can become significant sinks for mobile defects, and, therefore reduce their lifetime. Although cluster sinks will cause segregation and, potentially, precipitation of second phases due to local changes of composition, the finite lifetime of clusters will not lead to lasting, local compositional changes. A transition from highly dense interstitial and vacancy cluster distributions to the void swelling regime occurs when the thermal evaporation of vacancies from small vacancy clusters becomes significant at higher temperatures. Unequal clustering of vacancies and interstitials leads to an imbalance of their fluxes of in the matrix and, hence, to unequal contributions to atom transport by interstitials and by vacancies even in the quasi-steady state approximation

  17. Self-interstitial atom clusters as obstacles to glide of 1/3{11-bar 00} edge dislocations in α-zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voskoboynikov, R.E.; Osetsky, Yu.N.; Bacon, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    Atomic-scale details of interaction of a 1/3 {11-bar 00} edge dislocation with clusters of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) in α-zirconium has been studied by computer simulation. Four typical clusters are considered. A triangular cluster of five SIAs lying within a basal plane bisected by the dislocation glide plane is not absorbed by the dislocation but acts as a moderately strong obstacle. A 3-D SIA cluster lying across the glide plane is completely absorbed by the dislocation by creation of super-jogs, and is a weak obstacle. Interaction of the dislocation with glissile SIA loops with perfect Burgers vector inclined at 60 deg. to the dislocation glide plane shows that the process depends on the vector orientation. Defects of the two orientations are strong obstacles, and one, which initially forms a sessile segment on the dislocation line, is particularly so

  18. Behaviors of transmutation elements Re and Os and their effects on energetics and clustering of vacancy and self-interstitial atoms in W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yu-Hao; Zhou, Hong-Bo; Jin, Shuo; Zhang, Ying; Deng, Huiqiu; Lu, Guang-Hong

    2017-04-01

    We investigate the behaviors of rhenium (Re) and osmium (Os) and their interactions with point defects in tungsten (W) using a first-principles method. We show that Re atoms are energetically favorable to disperse separately in bulk W due to the Re-Re repulsive interaction. Despite the attractive interaction between Os atoms, there is still a large activation energy barrier of 1.10 eV at the critical number of 10 for the formation of Os clusters in bulk W based on the results of the total nucleation free energy change. Interestingly, the presence of vacancy can significantly reduce the total nucleation free energy change of Re/Os clusters, suggesting that vacancy can facilitate the nucleation of Re/Os in W. Re/Os in turn has an effect on the stability of the vacancy clusters (V n ) in W, especially for small vacancy clusters. A single Re/Os atom can raise the total binding energies of V2 and V3 obviously, thus enhancing their formation. Further, we demonstrate that there is a strong attractive interaction between Re/Os and self-interstitial atoms (SIAs). Re/Os could increase the diffusion barrier of SIAs and decrease their rotation barrier, while the interstitial-mediated path may be the optimal diffusion path of Re/Os in W. Consequently, the synergistic effect between Re/Os and point defects plays a key role in Re/Os precipitation and the evolution of defects in irradiated W.

  19. Recombination radius of a Frenkel pair and capture radius of a self-interstitial atom by vacancy clusters in bcc Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Kenichi; Stoller, Roger E; Xu, Haixuan

    2015-01-01

    The recombination radius of a Frenkel pair is a fundamental parameter for the object kinetic Monte Carlo (OKMC) and mean field rate theory (RT) methods that are used to investigate irradiation damage accumulation in irradiated materials. The recombination radius in bcc Fe has been studied both experimentally and numerically, however there is no general consensus about its value. The detailed atomistic processes of recombination also remain uncertain. Values from 1.0a 0 to 3.3a 0 have been employed as a recombination radius in previous studies using OKMC and RT. The recombination process of a Frenkel pair is investigated at the atomic level using the self-evolved atomistic kinetic Monte Carlo (SEAKMC) method in this paper. SEAKMC calculations reveal that a self-interstitial atom recombines with a vacancy in a spontaneous reaction from several nearby sites following characteristic pathways. The recombination radius of a Frenkel pair is estimated to be 2.26a 0 by taking the average of the recombination distances from 80 simulation cases. In addition, we apply these procedures to the capture radius of a self-interstitial atom by a vacancy cluster. The capture radius is found to gradually increase with the size of the vacancy cluster. The fitting curve for the capture radius is obtained as a function of the number of vacancies in the cluster. (paper)

  20. Interstitial nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papper, S

    1980-01-01

    There are many causes of interstitial nephritis other than pyelonephritis. The term interstitial nephritis does not connote a single etiologic or pathogenetic mechanism; it rather arbitrarily places together a wider variety of renal diseases that have a predilection for early and major involvement of the renal interstitium. The prototype of acute interstitial nephritis is acute pyelonephritis. In addition, there is a drug-related acute interstitial disease that is probably of immunological nature and usually reverses with discontinuance of the offending drug. Chronic interstitial nephritis includes many diverse illnesses. Nonobstructive pyelonephritis occurs but its prevalence is debated. Analgesic abuse nephropathy is not rare and is potentially reversible. Papillary necrosis has many causes and a wide spectrum of clinical presentations. Heavy metals, such as lead, cause interstitial nephritis. Balkan nephropathy occurs in an endemic area and although not bacterial in origin is of unknown cause.

  1. Molecular dynamics simulations of the interaction between 60 deg. dislocation and self-interstitial cluster in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Yuhang; Meng Qingyuan; Zhao Wei

    2009-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the interaction between 60 deg. shuffle dislocation and tetrainterstitial (I 4 ) cluster in silicon, using Stillinger-Weber (SW) potential to calculate the interatomic forces. Based on Parrinello-Rahman method, shear stress is exerted on the model to move the dislocation. Simulation results show that the I 4 cluster can bend the dislocation line and delay the dislocation movement. During the course of intersection the dislocation line sections relatively far away from the I 4 cluster accelerate first, and then decelerate. The critical shear stress unpinning the 60 deg. dislocation from the I 4 cluster decreases as the temperature increases in the models.

  2. The effects of one-dimensional migration of self-interstitial clusters on the formation of void lattices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinisch, H.L.; Singh, B.N.

    2002-01-01

    under pure 3-D SIA migration, but they are extremely stable, relative to random arrays of voids, under 1-D SIA migration. Void lattices remain stable even under the condition of fairly frequent changes in the Burgers vectors of the 1-D migrating SIA clusters. Clusters with average 1-D path segments...

  3. Interstitial cystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms get better. Reduce or stop consuming caffeine, chocolate, carbonated beverages, citrus drinks, and foods with a ... rarely done anymore Support Groups Some people may benefit from taking part in interstitial cystitis support groups . ...

  4. Interstitial Cystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... relieve symptoms. Diet. Alcohol, tomatoes, spices, carbonated drinks, chocolate, caffeine, citrus fruits and drinks, pickled foods, artificial ... at scheduled times and using relaxation techniques. Physical therapy. People who have interstitial cystitis may have painful ...

  5. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of interstitial diffusion in Ni–Cr alloys and implications for radiation induced segregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, L., E-mail: lmbarnard@wisc.edu; Morgan, D., E-mail: ddmorgan@wisc.edu

    2014-06-01

    In this study, ab initio molecular dynamics, implemented via density functional theory, is used to simulate self-interstitial diffusion in pure Ni and in the Ni-18 at.% Cr model alloy. Interstitial tracer diffusivities are measured from simulation results for pure Ni and for both Ni and Cr in the Ni–18Cr alloy. An Arrhenius function fit to these tracer diffusivities is then used in a rate theory model for radiation induced segregation, along with the experimentally measured vacancy diffusivities. It is predicted that interstitial diffusion has a tendency to cause Cr enrichment near grain boundaries, partially counterbalancing the tendency for vacancy diffusion to cause Cr depletion. This results in more mild Cr depletion than would result if only the vacancy diffusion were accounted for, in better agreement with experiment. This physical description of RIS in Ni–Cr alloys, which invokes the effects of both vacancy and interstitial diffusion, is distinct from the conventional description which accounts only for the effect of vacancy diffusion.

  6. Ab initio molecular dynamics simulation of interstitial diffusion in Ni–Cr alloys and implications for radiation induced segregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, L.; Morgan, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, ab initio molecular dynamics, implemented via density functional theory, is used to simulate self-interstitial diffusion in pure Ni and in the Ni-18 at.% Cr model alloy. Interstitial tracer diffusivities are measured from simulation results for pure Ni and for both Ni and Cr in the Ni–18Cr alloy. An Arrhenius function fit to these tracer diffusivities is then used in a rate theory model for radiation induced segregation, along with the experimentally measured vacancy diffusivities. It is predicted that interstitial diffusion has a tendency to cause Cr enrichment near grain boundaries, partially counterbalancing the tendency for vacancy diffusion to cause Cr depletion. This results in more mild Cr depletion than would result if only the vacancy diffusion were accounted for, in better agreement with experiment. This physical description of RIS in Ni–Cr alloys, which invokes the effects of both vacancy and interstitial diffusion, is distinct from the conventional description which accounts only for the effect of vacancy diffusion

  7. Mapping world cultures: Cluster formation, sources and implications

    OpenAIRE

    Simcha Ronen; Oded Shenkar

    2013-01-01

    This paper extends and builds on Ronen and Shenkar’s synthesized cultural clustering of countries based on similarity and dissimilarity in work-related attitudes. The new map uses an updated dataset, and expands coverage to world areas that were non-accessible at the time. Cluster boundaries are drawn empirically rather than intuitively, and the plot obtained is triple nested, indicating three levels of similarity across given country pairs. Also delineated are cluster adjacency and cluster c...

  8. Effect of thermal friction on the generation and transport of interstitial defects in irradiated metals

    CERN Document Server

    Dudarev, S L

    2002-01-01

    Generation of interstitial and vacancy defects under 14.1 MeV neutron irradiation is expected to drive the evolution of microstructure of materials in a future fusion power station. We investigate effects of thermal friction associated with the interaction between mobile clusters of interstitial atoms produced in collision cascades and phonon excitations. Phonons give rise to the random Brownian motion of clusters in the crystal lattice. Phonon excitations are also responsible for the dissipation of energy of rapidly moving clusters formed at the periphery of collision cascades. We investigate how the coefficient of thermal friction depends on the structure of clusters. We also discuss implications of our findings for understanding the origin of higher resistance of bcc metals to irradiation and the connection between this phenomenon and the long-range effect observed in experiments on ion implantation.

  9. Interstitial Granulomatous Dermatitis (IGD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Tebeica

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 42 years old male patient suffering from skin changes , which appeared in the last 7-8 years.  Two biopsies were performed during the evolution of the lesion. Both showed similar findings that consisted in a busy dermis with interstitial, superficial and deep infiltrates of lymphocytes and histiocytes dispersed among collagen bundles, with variable numbers of neutrophils scattered throughout. Some histiocytes were clustered in poorly formed granuloma that included rare giant cells, with discrete Palisades and piecemeal collagen degeneration, but without mucin deposition or frank necrobiosis of collagen. The clinical and histologic findings were supportive for interstitial granulomatous dermatitis. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis (IGD is a poorly understood entity that was regarded by many as belonging to the same spectrum of disease or even synonym with palisaded and neutrophilic granulomatous dermatitis (PNGD. Although IGD and PNGD were usually related to connective tissue disease, mostly rheumatoid arthritis, some patients with typical histologic findings of IGD never develop autoimmune disorders, but they have different underlying conditions, such as metabolic diseases, lymphoproliferative disorders or other malignant tumours. These observations indicate that IGD and PNGD are different disorders with similar manifestations.

  10. HOXA genes cluster: clinical implications of the smallest deletion

    OpenAIRE

    Pezzani, Lidia; Milani, Donatella; Manzoni, Francesca; Baccarin, Marco; Silipigni, Rosamaria; Guerneri, Silvana; Esposito, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Background HOXA genes cluster plays a fundamental role in embryologic development. Deletion of the entire cluster is known to cause a clinically recognizable syndrome with mild developmental delay, characteristic facies, small feet with unusually short and big halluces, abnormal thumbs, and urogenital malformations. The clinical manifestations may vary with different ranges of deletions of HOXA cluster and flanking regions. Case presentation We report a girl with the smallest deletion reporte...

  11. Interstitial radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scardino, P.T.; Bretas, F.

    1987-01-01

    The authors now have 20 years of experience with modern techniques of brachytherapy. The large number of patients treated in medical centers around the world and the widespread use of this type of radiotherapy have provided us with substantial information about the indications and contraindications, advantages and disadvantages, pitfalls and complications, as well as the results of these techniques. Although the focus of this review is the experience at Baylor using the combined technique of gold seed implantation plus external beam irradiation, the alternative forms of brachytherapy will be described and compared. The authors' intention is to provide the busy clinician with a succinct and informative review indicating the status of modern interstitial radiotherapy and describing day-to-day approach and results

  12. TURBULENCE AND DYNAMO IN GALAXY CLUSTER MEDIUM: IMPLICATIONS ON THE ORIGIN OF CLUSTER MAGNETIC FIELDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hao; Collins, David C.; Norman, Michael L.; Li Hui; Li Shengtai

    2009-01-01

    We present self-consistent cosmological magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations that simultaneously follow the formation of a galaxy cluster and the magnetic field ejection by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). We find that the magnetic fields ejected by the AGNs, though initially distributed in relatively small volumes, can be transported throughout the cluster and be further amplified by the intracluster medium (ICM) turbulence during the cluster formation process. The ICM turbulence is shown to be generated and sustained by the frequent mergers of smaller halos. Furthermore, a cluster-wide dynamo process is shown to exist in the ICM and amplify the magnetic field energy and flux. The total magnetic energy in the cluster can reach ∼10 61 erg while micro Gauss (μG) fields can distribute over ∼ Mpc scales throughout the whole cluster. This finding shows that magnetic fields from AGNs, being further amplified by the ICM turbulence through small-scale dynamo processes, can be the origin of cluster-wide magnetic fields.

  13. Implications of multiple high-redshift galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoyle, Ben; Jimenez, Raul; Verde, Licia

    2011-01-01

    To date, 14 high-redshift (z>1.0) galaxy clusters with mass measurements have been observed, spectroscopically confirmed, and are reported in the literature. These objects should be exceedingly rare in the standard Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model. We conservatively approximate the selection functions of these clusters' parent surveys and quantify the tension between the abundances of massive clusters as predicted by the standard ΛCDM model and the observed ones. We alleviate the tension, considering non-Gaussian primordial perturbations of the local type, characterized by the parameter f NL , and derive constraints on f NL arising from the mere existence of these clusters. At the 95% confidence level, f NL >467, with cosmological parameters fixed to their most likely WMAP5 values, or f NL > or approx. 123 (at 95% confidence) if we marginalize over prior WMAP5 parameters. In combination with f NL constraints from cosmic microwave background and halo bias, this determination implies a scale dependence of f NL at ≅3σ. Given the assumptions made in the analysis, we expect any future improvements to the modeling of the non-Gaussian mass function, survey volumes, or selection functions to increase the significance of f NL >0 found here. In order to reconcile these massive, high-z clusters with f NL =0, their masses would need to be systematically lowered by 1.5σ, or the σ 8 parameter should be ∼3σ higher than cosmic microwave background (and large-scale structure) constraints. The existence of these objects is a puzzle: it either represents a challenge to the ΛCDM paradigm or it is an indication that the mass estimates of clusters are dramatically more uncertain than we think.

  14. Industrial clusters in the Finnish economy. Strategies and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luukkainen, S.

    2001-04-01

    Technology is currently the most important determinant of the long-term economic growth as it explains for at least half of the growth of the industrialised nations. Economists have demonstrated that R and D performed by the innovating company generates widespread value in the economy through technology diffusion. The objective of the private financing is, however, to increase the value of the innovating company and the spillovers to other companies are there not so important. The market failure created by the R and D spillovers is thus one of the main justifications for government policies. The advancement of spillovers by government's actions can be called cluster policy. The objective of this study is to produce knowledge to support decision making in the realisation of an efficient cluster-oriented technology policy. The Finnish industrial clusters are identified by a quantitative value chain analysis, and their economic profiles are analysed. Also, a solid framework is presented that describes how to evaluate the economic impacts of a R and D project from the cluster policy point of view. The clusters should be seen as a technology policy tools, by which the domestic industrial structures can be analysed and developed. In this kind of decision making it is important to understand the mechanisms of technology diffusion. Concrete technology policy occurs in the selection of the publicly financed R and D projects. In the selection of the supported-projects it is crucial to evaluate the economic impacts of project proposals in advance. That is why economic indicators like measures of spillovers are needed The governments should fund R and D projects that have the highest social rate of return and would otherwise be underfunded or delayed. (orig.)

  15. Cluster formation in liverwort-associated methylobacteria and its implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutschera, U.; Thomas, J.; Hornschuh, M.

    2007-08-01

    Pink-pigmented methylotropic bacteria of the genus Methylobacterium inhabit the surfaces of plant organs. In bryophytes, these methylobacteria enhance cell growth, but the nature of this plant-microbe interaction is largely unknown. In this study, methylobacteria were isolated from the upper surface of the free-living thalli of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha L. Identification of one strain by 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene-targeted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and other data show that these microbes represent an undescribed species of the genus Methylobacterium ( Methylobacterium sp.). The growth-promoting activity of these wild-type methylobacteria was tested and compared with that of the type strain Methylobacterium mesophilicum. Both types of methylobacteria stimulated surface expansion of isolated gemmae from Marchantia polymorpha by about 350%. When suspended in water, the liverwort-associated bacteria ( Methylobacterium sp.) formed dense clusters of up to 600 cells. In liquid cultures of Methylobacterium mesophilicum, single cells were observed, but no clustering occurred. We suggest that the liverwort-associated methylobacteria are co-evolved symbionts of the plants: Cluster formation may be a behavior that enhances the survival of the epiphytic microbes during periods of drought of these desiccation-tolerant lower plants.

  16. Imaging focal and interstitial fibrosis with cardiovascular magnetic resonance in athletes with left ventricular hypertrophy: implications for sporting participation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Waterhouse, Deirdre F

    2012-11-01

    Long-term high-intensity physical activity is associated with morphological changes, termed as the \\'athlete\\'s heart\\'. The differentiation of physiological cardiac adaptive changes in response to high-level exercise from pathological changes consistent with an inherited cardiomyopathy is imperative. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging allows definition of abnormal processes occurring at the tissue level, including, importantly, myocardial fibrosis. It is therefore vital in accurately making this differentiation. In this review, we will review the role of CMR imaging of fibrosis, and detail CMR characterisation of myocardial fibrosis in various cardiomyopathies, and the implications of fibrosis. Additionally, we will outline advances in imaging fibrosis, in particular T1 mapping. Finally we will address the role of CMR in pre-participation screening.

  17. Enriched gas in clusters and the dynamics of galaxies and clusters: implications for theories of galaxy formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binney, J.; Silk, J.

    1978-01-01

    Recent developments in relation to the origin of galaxies are cited: the discovery that the intergalactic medium which seems to pervade rich clusters of galaxies has an iron abundance that lies within an order of magnitude of the solar value; the discovery that elliptical galaxies rotate much more slowly than the models of these galaxies had predicted; and the results of studies of cosmological infall in the context of the formation of galaxies and galaxy clusters, which have shown that the resulting density profile is fairly insensitive to initial conditions. After discussing the implications of these recent observations of X-ray clusters and of the rotation of elliptical galaxies, an attempt is made to construct a picture of the formation of elliptical and spiral galaxies in which galaxies form continuously from redshift z approximately 100 onwards. It is suggested that at a redshift z of roughly 5, a fundamental change occurred in the manner in which the cosmic material fragmented into stellar objects. It seems possible that explanations of a variety of puzzling aspects of galactic evolution, including the formation of Population I disks, the origin of the hot intracluster gas, the mass-to-light ratio stratification of galaxies, and the nature of the galaxy luminosity function, should all be sought in the context of this change of regime. Some remarks are made about gas in poor groups of galaxies and the interaction of disk galaxies with their environments. (U.K.)

  18. Age-related collagen turnover of the interstitial matrix and basement membrane: Implications of age- and sex-dependent remodeling of the extracellular matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kehlet, Stephanie N.; Willumsen, Nicholas; Armbrecht, Gabriele

    2018-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a vital role in maintaining normal tissue function. Collagens are major components of the ECM and there is a tight equilibrium between degradation and formation of these proteins ensuring tissue health and homeostasis. As a consequence of tissue turnover, small...... collagen fragments are released into the circulation, which act as important biomarkers in the study of certain tissue-related remodeling factors in health and disease. The aim of this study was to establish an age-related collagen turnover profile of the main collagens of the interstitial matrix (type I...... an increased turnover. In summary, collagen turnover is affected by age and sex with the interstitial matrix and the basement membrane being differently regulated. The observed changes needs to be accounted for when measuring ECM related biomarkers in clinical studies....

  19. Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Clusters in Latin America Natural Resource – Implication and Future Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Bas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural resources play a very important role in the economy of the Latin America countries, but follow the classical models of resource exploitation and scale do not add much more value to the products or services like other knowledge-based industries (biotechnology or IT. The cluster approach assembled around the pattern of innovation and entrepreneurship characteristics can help to improve these kinds of industries. Nevertheless, the “Natural Resource Clusters” have a particular task and they are based primary in environmental characteristics. However, this type of clusters is very different from “Technology Clusters” with a high innovation and entrepreneurship structure that needs explicitly more intellectual capacities and non-specific environmental characteristics. The authors suggest that in Latin America, clusters, innovation and entrepreneurship based in the natural resources has a supplementary significance, but they need add much value based in the knowledge. This article discuss the challenge of Latin American economies and the implication to transform the natural resources based industries in others with more innovation and knowledge based assets and shows a framework based on Chile’s particular experiences on salmon; wine and mining industries. Economics implications and future research are discussed.

  20. Acute interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuervo M, Francisco; Carrillo Bayona, Jorge; Ojeda, Paulina

    2004-01-01

    The paper refers to a 71 year-old patient, to who is diagnosed acute interstitial pneumonia; with square of 20 days of evolution of cough dry emetizant, fever, general uneasiness, migraine, progressive dyspnoea and lost of weight

  1. Intracranial interstitial radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willis, D.; Rittenmeyer, H.; Hitchon, P.

    1986-01-01

    Primary malignant brain tumors are fatal, with 90% of patients having these tumors dying within two years following diagnosis. Cranial interstitial radiation therapy, a technique under investigation to control these tumors, involves implantation of radioactive iodine 125 seeds into the tumor bed by stereotaxic technique. The interstitial radiation technique, monitoring of radiation, and nursing care of patients are discussed. Case histories are presented, along with discussion of results attained using this therapy, and its future

  2. Velo-cardio-facial and partial DiGeorge phenotype in a child with interstitial deletion at 10p13 - implications for cytogenetics and molecular biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipson, A.; Sholler, G.; Issacs, D. [Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Sydney (Australia)] [and others

    1996-11-11

    We report on a female with a interstitial deletion of 10p13 and a phenotype similar to that seen with the 22q deletion syndromes (DiGeorge/velo-cardio-facial). She had a posterior cleft palate, perimembranous ventricular septal defect, dyscoordinate swallowing, T-cell subset abnormalities, small ears, maxillary and mandibular hypoplasia, broad nasal bridge, deficient alae nasi, contractures of fingers and developmental delay. This could indicate homology of some developmental genes at 22q and 10p so that patients with the velocardiofacial phenotype who do not prove to be deleted on 22q are candidates for a 10p deletion. 58 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Migration of di- and tri-interstitials in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posselt, M.; Gao, F.; Zwicker, D.

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive study on the migration of di- and tri-interstitials in silicon is performed using classical molecular dynamics simulations with the Stillinger-Weber potential. The initial di- and tri-interstitial configurations with the lowest formation energies are determined, and then, the defect migration is investigated for temperatures between 800 and 1600 K. The defect diffusivity and the self-diffusion coefficient per defect are calculated. Compared to the mono-interstitial, the di-interstitial migrates faster, whereas the tri-interstitial diffuses slower. The migration mechanism of the di-interstitial shows a pronounced dependence on the temperature. Like in the case of the mono-interstitial, the mobility of the di-interstitial is higher than the mobility of the lattice atoms during the defect diffusion. On the other hand, the tri-interstitial mobility is lower than the corresponding atomic mobility. The implications of the present results for the analysis of experimental data on defect evolution and migration are discussed

  4. clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-09-27

    Sep 27, 2017 ... Author for correspondence (zh4403701@126.com). MS received 15 ... lic clusters using density functional theory (DFT)-GGA of the DMOL3 package. ... In the process of geometric optimization, con- vergence thresholds ..... and Postgraduate Research & Practice Innovation Program of. Jiangsu Province ...

  5. clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    environmental as well as technical problems during fuel gas utilization. ... adsorption on some alloys of Pd, namely PdAu, PdAg ... ried out on small neutral and charged Au24,26,27, Cu,28 ... study of Zanti et al.29 on Pdn (n = 1–9) clusters.

  6. Age-related collagen turnover of the interstitial matrix and basement membrane: Implications of age- and sex-dependent remodeling of the extracellular matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehlet, Stephanie N; Willumsen, Nicholas; Armbrecht, Gabriele; Dietzel, Roswitha; Brix, Susanne; Henriksen, Kim; Karsdal, Morten A

    2018-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a vital role in maintaining normal tissue function. Collagens are major components of the ECM and there is a tight equilibrium between degradation and formation of these proteins ensuring tissue health and homeostasis. As a consequence of tissue turnover, small collagen fragments are released into the circulation, which act as important biomarkers in the study of certain tissue-related remodeling factors in health and disease. The aim of this study was to establish an age-related collagen turnover profile of the main collagens of the interstitial matrix (type I and III collagen) and basement membrane (type IV collagen) in healthy men and women. By using well-characterized competitive ELISA-assays, we assessed specific fragments of degraded (C1M, C3M, C4M) and formed (PINP, Pro-C3, P4NP7S) type I, III and IV collagen in serum from 617 healthy men and women ranging in ages from 22 to 86. Subjects were divided into 5-year age groups according to their sex and age. Groups were compared using Kruskal-Wallis adjusted for Dunn's multiple comparisons test and Mann-Whitney t-test. Age-specific changes in collagen turnover was most profound for type I collagen. PINP levels decreased in men with advancing age, whereas in women, the level decreased in early adulthood followed by an increase around the age of menopause (age 40-60). Sex-specific changes in type I, III and IV collagen turnover was present at the age around menopause (age 40-60) with women having an increased turnover. In summary, collagen turnover is affected by age and sex with the interstitial matrix and the basement membrane being differently regulated. The observed changes needs to be accounted for when measuring ECM related biomarkers in clinical studies.

  7. Dislocation climb and interstitial loop growth under cascade damage irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.H.; Semenov, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of intracascade clustering and recombination in radiation damage have been considered previously in semiquantitative calculations involving vacancy accumulation at voids, within the concept of production bias. To model void swelling and microstructural evolution quantitatively, similar effects on dislocation climb and interstitial loop growth have to be considered. In this regard, at elevated temperatures (such as in the peak-swelling temperature regime), the concentration of freely migrating vacancies is much higher than that of the interstitials, owing to the evaporation from the primary vacancy clusters (i.e. those produced by intracascade clustering). It is not immediately obvious how the dislocations can be net interstitials sinks, and hence that the observed nucleation and growth of the interstitial loops at elevated temperatures can be correctly predicted as in the conventional theory. To address these basic questions, a rate theory model is formulated in this paper, which describes the dislocation climb and loop growth in the presence of intracascade primary clusters. Within this model, conservation equations for the concentrations and average radii of the two kinds of primary cluster are derived, and the corresponding steady-state concentrations and average radii are calculated. From this, the dislocation climb velocity and interstitial loop growth rate are calculated. On the basis of the results of this calculation, some of the basic questions of production bias are discussed. (Author)

  8. Modelling of initial stages of interstitial solid solution decomposition in bcc metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanter, M S

    1982-01-01

    By means of a model of deformation interaction of interstitial atoms added by interlocking of the nearest positions the configuration of cluster of alien atoms intruded into octahedral ..cap alpha..-Fe, V, Nb and Ta interstitially sites is computerized. The cluster structure is determined by elastic properties, of the crystal lattice of the metal-solvent. Clusters in ..cap alpha..-Fe have a plate form in a plane (001) of half lattice period width, in V, Nb and Ta - of monatomic plate in a plane (110). Clusters of interstitials must be sufficiently stable and arise even in solutions low concentration.

  9. Gold cluster carbonyls: saturated adsorption of CO on gold cluster cations, vibrational spectroscopy, and implications for their structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielicke, André; von Helden, Gert; Meijer, Gerard; Pedersen, David B; Simard, Benoit; Rayner, David M

    2005-06-15

    We report on the interaction of carbon monoxide with cationic gold clusters in the gas phase. Successive adsorption of CO molecules on the Au(n)(+) clusters proceeds until a cluster size specific saturation coverage is reached. Structural information for the bare gold clusters is obtained by comparing the saturation stoichiometry with the number of available equivalent sites presented by candidate structures of Au(n)(+). Our findings are in agreement with the planar structures of the Au(n)(+) cluster cations with n < or = 7 that are suggested by ion mobility experiments [Gilb, S.; Weis, P.; Furche, F.; Ahlrichs, R.; Kappes, M. M. J. Chem. Phys. 2001, 116, 4094]. By inference we also establish the structure of the saturated Au(n)(CO)(m)(+) complexes. In certain cases we find evidence suggesting that successive adsorption of CO can distort the metal cluster framework. In addition, the vibrational spectra of the Au(n)(CO)(m)(+) complexes in both the CO stretching region and in the region of the Au-C stretch and the Au-C-O bend are measured using infrared photodepletion spectroscopy. The spectra further aid in the structure determination of Au(n)(+), provide information on the structure of the Au(n)(+)-CO complexes, and can be compared with spectra of CO adsorbates on deposited clusters or surfaces.

  10. Interstitial irradiation for craniopharyngioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlas, O.; Bayindir, C.; Can, M.

    2000-01-01

    The results of interstitial irradiation treatment for craniopharyngioma in two patients with six year follow-ups are presented. Stereotactic interstitial irradiation with iodine-125 sources as sole therapy was employed in two adult patients who refused surgical resection. The diagnoses were confirmed by stereotactic biopsy. The first tumour which underwent interstitial irradiation was solid and 4 cm in diameter, and the second, 2.7 cm in diameter, had both cystic and solid components. The implanted iodine-125 seeds delivered 67 Gy and 60 Gy to tumour periphery at the rate of 12 and 14 cGy/h, respectively, were removed at the end of designated radiation periods. Tumour shrinkage and central hypo density, first observed 3 months after irradiation, continued until one tumour shrank to less than 1 cm at 12 months, and the other disappeared completely at 24 months. In both cases functional integrity was restored, and neither radiation induced toxicity nor recurrence has occurred six years after treatment. The results in these two cases suggest that solid craniopharyngiomas are sensitive to interstitial irradiation. (author)

  11. Tumor interstitial fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina; Olsen, Charlotta J.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) is a proximal fluid that, in addition to the set of blood soluble phase-borne proteins, holds a subset of aberrantly externalized components, mainly proteins, released by tumor cells and tumor microenvironment through various mechanisms, which include classical...

  12. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis (IGD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tebeica, Tiberiu; Voicu, Cristiana; Patterson, James W.; Mangarov, Hristo; Lotti, T.; Wollina, Uwe; Lotti, Jacopo; França, Katlein; Batashki, Atanas; Tchernev, Georgi

    2017-01-01

    We report the case of a 42 years old male patient suffering from skin changes, which appeared in the last 7-8 years. Two biopsies were performed during the evolution of the lesion. Both showed similar findings that consisted in a busy dermis with interstitial, superficial and deep infiltrates of

  13. Serial changes and prognostic implications of CT findings in combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema: comparison with fibrotic idiopathic interstitial pneumonias alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geewon; Kim, Ki Uk; Lee, Ji Won; Suh, Young Ju; Jeong, Yeon Joo

    2017-05-01

    Background Although fibrotic idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) alone and those combined with pulmonary emphysema are naturally progressive diseases, the process of deterioration and outcomes are variable. Purpose To evaluate and compare serial changes of computed tomography (CT) abnormalities and prognostic predictive factors in fibrotic IIPs alone and those combined with pulmonary emphysema. Material and Methods A total of 148 patients with fibrotic IIPs alone (82 patients) and those combined with pulmonary emphysema (66 patients) were enrolled. Semi-quantitative CT analysis was used to assess the extents of CT characteristics which were evaluated on initial and follow-up CT images. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the effects of clinical and CT variables on survival. Results Significant differences were noted between fibrotic scores, as determined using initial CT scans, in the fibrotic IIPs alone (21.22 ± 9.83) and those combined with pulmonary emphysema groups (14.70 ± 7.28) ( P pulmonary emphysema group. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis showed changes in the extent of GGO (hazard ratio, 1.056) and the presence of lung cancer (hazard ratio, 4.631) were predictive factors of poor survivals. Conclusion Although patients with fibrotic IIPs alone and those combined with pulmonary emphysema have similar mortalities, lung cancer was more prevalent in patients with fibrotic IIPs combined with pulmonary emphysema. Furthermore, changes in the extent of GGO and the presence of lung cancer were independent prognostic factors of poor survivals.

  14. [Nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis: a clinicopathologic entity, histologic pattern or unclassified group of heterogeneous interstitial pneumonitis?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, António; Moura, M Conceição Souto; Cruz, M Rosa; Gomes, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    Nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis (NSIP) initially described by Katzenstein and Fiorelli in 1994, seems to be a distinct clinicopathologic entity among idiopathic interstitial pneumonitis (IIP). Besides different histologic features from other IIP, NSIP is characterized by a better long-term outcome, associated with a better steroids responsiveness than idiopathic pulmonar fibrosis (IPF), where usually were included. Thus, differentiating NSIP from other IIP, namely IPF is very significant, since it has important therapeutic and prognostic implications. NSIP encloses different pathologies, namely those with inflammatory predominance (cellular subtype) or fibrous predominance (fibrosing subtype). NSIP is reviewed and discussed by the authors, after two clinical cases description.

  15. Modeling of interstitial diffusion of ion-implanted boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichko, O.I.; Knyazheva, N.V.

    2009-01-01

    A model of the interstitial diffusion of ion-implanted boron during rapid thermal annealing of silicon layers previously amorphized by implantation of germanium has been proposed. It is supposed that the boron interstitials are created continuously during annealing due to generation, dissolution, or rearrangement of the clusters of impurity atoms which are formed in the ion-implanted layers with impurity concentration above the solubility limit. The local elastic stresses arising due to the difference of boron atomic radius and atomic radius of silicon also contribute to the generation of boron interstitials. A simulation of boron redistribution during thermal annealing for 60 s at a temperature of 850 C has been carried out. The calculated profile agrees well with the experimental data. A number of the parameters of interstitial diffusion have been derived. In particular, the average migration length of nonequilibrium boron interstitials is equal to 12 nm. It was also obtained that approximately 1.94% of boron atoms were converted to the interstitial sites, participated in the fast interstitial migration, and then became immobile again transferring into a substitutional position or forming the electrically inactive complexes with crystal lattice defects. (authors)

  16. The Malaysian Intermodal Terminal System: The Implication on the Malaysian Maritime Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Rosni Othman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The maritime sector in Malaysia is best known globally due to the Straits of Malacca and being a nation surrounded by sea. Malaysia also has a substantial maritime industry consisting of numerous shipyards, ports and terminal faculties, ship services and a plethora of other companies and institutions with maritime oriented activities and become essential components of the Malaysia's maritime clusters. Issues such as underutilised intermodal terminals, uneven proportions in the freight transport infrastructure and road and seaport congestions prevent Malaysian seaports from achieving their full potential in serving their respective hinterlands. The key factors to improve Malaysian dry port or intermodal terminals are transport network; container planning; competition; location and, externalities. The paper does not only present the critical challenges faced by Malaysian intermodal terminals especially dry ports and the implications for seaport competency but it also provides strategies to utilise the Malaysian freight multimodal system to amplify seaports
tm performance in serving their hinterlands. As such, this may warrant policy makers to devise a comprehensive national master plan for the maritime sector in order for Malaysia to further develop her maritime industry and economies.

  17. Interstitial pregnancy: role of MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filhastre, M.; Lesnik, A.; Dechaud, H.; Taourel, P.

    2005-01-01

    We report the MRI features of two cases of interstitial pregnancy. In both cases, MRI was able to localize the ectopic pregnancy by showing a gestational structure surrounded by a thick wall in the upper part of the uterine wall separated from the endometrium by an uninterrupted junctional zone. Because US may confuse angular and interstitial pregnancies and because interstitial pregnancy has a particular evolutive course, MR imaging may play a key role in the diagnosis and management of women with interstitial pregnancy. (orig.)

  18. Sleep, Dietary, and Exercise Behavioral Clusters Among Truck Drivers With Obesity: Implications for Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Ryan; Thompson, Sharon V; Wipfli, Brad; Hanson, Ginger; Elliot, Diane L; Anger, W Kent; Bodner, Todd; Hammer, Leslie B; Hohn, Elliot; Perrin, Nancy A

    2016-03-01

    The objectives of the study were to describe a sample of truck drivers, identify clusters of drivers with similar patterns in behaviors affecting energy balance (sleep, diet, and exercise), and test for cluster differences in health safety, and psychosocial factors. Participants' (n = 452, body mass index M = 37.2, 86.4% male) self-reported behaviors were dichotomized prior to hierarchical cluster analysis, which identified groups with similar behavior covariation. Cluster differences were tested with generalized estimating equations. Five behavioral clusters were identified that differed significantly in age, smoking status, diabetes prevalence, lost work days, stress, and social support, but not in body mass index. Cluster 2, characterized by the best sleep quality, had significantly lower lost workdays and stress than other clusters. Weight management interventions for drivers should explicitly address sleep, and may be maximally effective after establishing socially supportive work environments that reduce stress exposures.

  19. Collateral Damage: the Implications of Utrecht Star Cluster Astrophysics for Galaxy Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruijssen, J. M. D.

    2013-01-01

    Until the early 2000s, the research portfolio of the Astronomical Institute in Utrecht (SIU) did not include galaxy evolution. Somewhat serendipitously, this changed with the advent of the star cluster group. In only a few years, a simple framework was developed to describe and quantify the properties of dynamically evolving star cluster populations. Since then, the ‘Utrecht cluster disruption model’ has shown that the galactic environment plays an important role in setting the evolution of stellar clusters. From this simple result, it follows that cluster populations bear some imprint of the characteristics and histories of their host galaxies, and that star clusters can be used to trace galaxy evolution—an aim for which the Utrecht star cluster models were never designed, but which they are well-capable of fulfilling. I review some of the work in this direction, with a strong emphasis on the contributions from the SIU.

  20. Nature of interstitially induced lattice strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emin, D.

    1978-01-01

    The addition of interstitial atoms to a metal lattice has been likened to the addition of extra billiard balls to an array of tangentially touching billiard balls. In such a picture the increased clustering of interstitials can lead to the buildup of larger and larger strain fields which ultimately are associated with the production of broken bonds. Simple models of the strain fields associated with the addition of particles to a lattice in which the force exerted between the added atoms and host atoms is finite have been studied. From these studies one can define situations in which the billiard-ball approach has qualitative validity and those in which it is inappropriate. Basically, those situations in which the displacements of the host atoms can be represented as involving acoustic phonons yield long-range strain fields analogous to those of the billiard-ball model with the radius of the extra billiard ball being determined by the stiffness of the host lattice and the forces between the added atom and the surrounding host atoms. If the displacements produced by the added atoms are represented as involving primarily optical phonons the displacement pattern is short-ranged and not described by the usual elasticity theory. For example, Vegard's law does not apply in these instances. Such concerns arise in considering the strains induced by interstitial helium in tritides

  1. Clustering mechanism of oxocarboxylic acids involving hydration reaction: Implications for the atmospheric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Kupiainen-Määttä, Oona; Zhang, Haijie; Li, Hao; Zhong, Jie; Kurtén, Theo; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Zhang, Shaowen; Zhang, Yunhong; Ge, Maofa; Zhang, Xiuhui; Li, Zesheng

    2018-06-01

    The formation of atmospheric aerosol particles from condensable gases is a dominant source of particulate matter in the boundary layer, but the mechanism is still ambiguous. During the clustering process, precursors with different reactivities can induce various chemical reactions in addition to the formation of hydrogen bonds. However, the clustering mechanism involving chemical reactions is rarely considered in most of the nucleation process models. Oxocarboxylic acids are common compositions of secondary organic aerosol, but the role of oxocarboxylic acids in secondary organic aerosol formation is still not fully understood. In this paper, glyoxylic acid, the simplest and the most abundant atmospheric oxocarboxylic acid, has been selected as a representative example of oxocarboxylic acids in order to study the clustering mechanism involving hydration reactions using density functional theory combined with the Atmospheric Clusters Dynamic Code. The hydration reaction of glyoxylic acid can occur either in the gas phase or during the clustering process. Under atmospheric conditions, the total conversion ratio of glyoxylic acid to its hydration reaction product (2,2-dihydroxyacetic acid) in both gas phase and clusters can be up to 85%, and the product can further participate in the clustering process. The differences in cluster structures and properties induced by the hydration reaction lead to significant differences in cluster formation rates and pathways at relatively low temperatures.

  2. Tumorous interstitial lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinkel, E.; Meyer, E.; Mundinger, A.; Helwig, A.; Blum, U.; Wuertemberger, G.

    1990-01-01

    The radiological findings in pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis and in leukemic pulmonary infiltrates mirror the tumor-dependent monomorphic interstitial pathology of lung parenchyma. It is a proven fact that pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis is caused by hematogenous tumor embolization to the lungs; pathogenesis by contiguous lymphangitic spread is the exception. High-resolution CT performed as a supplement to the radiological work-up improves the sensitivity for pulmonary infiltrates in general and thus makes the differential diagnosis decided easier. Radiological criteria cannot discriminate the different forms of leukemia. Plain chest X-ray allows the diagnosis of pulmonary involvement in leukemia due to tumorous infiltrates and of tumor- or therapy-induced complications. It is essential that the radiological findings be interpreted with reference to the stage of tumor disease and the clinical parameters to make the radiological differential diagnosis of opportunistic infections more reliable. (orig.) [de

  3. The gamma-ray pulsar population of globular clusters: implications for the GeV excess

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooper, Dan [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Center for Particle Astrophysics, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Linden, Tim, E-mail: dhooper@fnal.gov, E-mail: linden.70@osu.edu [Ohio State University, Center for Cosmology and AstroParticle Physcis (CCAPP), Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2016-08-01

    It has been suggested that the GeV excess, observed from the region surrounding the Galactic Center, might originate from a population of millisecond pulsars that formed in globular clusters. With this in mind, we employ the publicly available Fermi data to study the gamma-ray emission from 157 globular clusters, identifying a statistically significant signal from 25 of these sources (ten of which are not found in existing gamma-ray catalogs). We combine these observations with the predicted pulsar formation rate based on the stellar encounter rate of each globular cluster to constrain the gamma-ray luminosity function of millisecond pulsars in the Milky Way's globular cluster system. We find that this pulsar population exhibits a luminosity function that is quite similar to those millisecond pulsars observed in the field of the Milky Way (i.e. the thick disk). After pulsars are expelled from a globular cluster, however, they continue to lose rotational kinetic energy and become less luminous, causing their luminosity function to depart from the steady-state distribution. Using this luminosity function and a model for the globular cluster disruption rate, we show that millisecond pulsars born in globular clusters can account for only a few percent or less of the observed GeV excess. Among other challenges, scenarios in which the entire GeV excess is generated from such pulsars are in conflict with the observed mass of the Milky Way's Central Stellar Cluster.

  4. Differences Between Ward's and UPGMA Methods of Cluster Analysis: Implications for School Psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Robert L.; Dougherty, Donna

    1988-01-01

    Compared the efficacy of two methods of cluster analysis, the unweighted pair-groups method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA) and Ward's method, for students grouped on intelligence, achievement, and social adjustment by both clustering methods. Found UPGMA more efficacious based on output, on cophenetic correlation coefficients generated by each…

  5. TESTING STRICT HYDROSTATIC EQUILIBRIUM IN SIMULATED CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR A1689

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, S. M.; Umetsu, K.; Chiu, I.-N.; Chen, P.; Hearn, N.; Broadhurst, T.; Bryan, G.; Shang, C.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate mass determination of clusters of galaxies is crucial if they are to be used as cosmological probes. However, there are some discrepancies between cluster masses determined based on gravitational lensing and X-ray observations assuming strict hydrostatic equilibrium (i.e., the equilibrium gas pressure is provided entirely by thermal pressure). Cosmological simulations suggest that turbulent gas motions remaining from hierarchical structure formation may provide a significant contribution to the equilibrium pressure in clusters. We analyze a sample of massive clusters of galaxies drawn from high-resolution cosmological simulations and find a significant contribution (20%-45%) from non-thermal pressure near the center of relaxed clusters, and, in accord with previous studies, a minimum contribution at about 0.1 R vir , growing to about 30%-45% at the virial radius, R vir . Our results strongly suggest that relaxed clusters should have significant non-thermal support in their core region. As an example, we test the validity of strict hydrostatic equilibrium in the well-studied massive galaxy cluster A1689 using the latest high-resolution gravitational lensing and X-ray observations. We find a contribution of about 40% from non-thermal pressure within the core region of A1689, suggesting an alternate explanation for the mass discrepancy: the strict hydrostatic equilibrium is not valid in this region.

  6. Binary Black Hole Mergers from Globular Clusters: Implications for Advanced LIGO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carl L; Morscher, Meagan; Pattabiraman, Bharath; Chatterjee, Sourav; Haster, Carl-Johan; Rasio, Frederic A

    2015-07-31

    The predicted rate of binary black hole mergers from galactic fields can vary over several orders of magnitude and is extremely sensitive to the assumptions of stellar evolution. But in dense stellar environments such as globular clusters, binary black holes form by well-understood gravitational interactions. In this Letter, we study the formation of black hole binaries in an extensive collection of realistic globular cluster models. By comparing these models to observed Milky Way and extragalactic globular clusters, we find that the mergers of dynamically formed binaries could be detected at a rate of ∼100 per year, potentially dominating the binary black hole merger rate. We also find that a majority of cluster-formed binaries are more massive than their field-formed counterparts, suggesting that Advanced LIGO could identify certain binaries as originating from dense stellar environments.

  7. Interstitial Cells of Blood Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Pucovský

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood vessels are made up of several distinct cell types. Although it was originally thought that the tunica media of blood vessels was composed of a homogeneous population of fully differentiated smooth muscle cells, more recent data suggest the existence of multiple smooth muscle cell subpopulations in the vascular wall. One of the cell types contributing to this heterogeneity is the novel, irregularly shaped, noncontractile cell with thin processes, termed interstitial cell, found in the tunica media of both veins and arteries. While the principal role of interstitial cells in veins seems to be pacemaking, the role of arterial interstitial cells is less clear. This review summarises the knowledge of the functional and structural properties of vascular interstitial cells accumulated so far, offers hypotheses on their physiological role, and proposes directions for future research.

  8. Ecosystem health pattern analysis of urban clusters based on emergy synthesis: Results and implication for management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Meirong; Fath, Brian D.; Yang, Zhifeng; Chen, Bin; Liu, Gengyuan

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of ecosystem health in urban clusters will help establish effective management that promotes sustainable regional development. To standardize the application of emergy synthesis and set pair analysis (EM–SPA) in ecosystem health assessment, a procedure for using EM–SPA models was established in this paper by combining the ability of emergy synthesis to reflect health status from a biophysical perspective with the ability of set pair analysis to describe extensive relationships among different variables. Based on the EM–SPA model, the relative health levels of selected urban clusters and their related ecosystem health patterns were characterized. The health states of three typical Chinese urban clusters – Jing-Jin-Tang, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta – were investigated using the model. The results showed that the health status of the Pearl River Delta was relatively good; the health for the Yangtze River Delta was poor. As for the specific health characteristics, the Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta urban clusters were relatively strong in Vigor, Resilience, and Urban ecosystem service function maintenance, while the Jing-Jin-Tang was relatively strong in organizational structure and environmental impact. Guidelines for managing these different urban clusters were put forward based on the analysis of the results of this study. - Highlights: • The use of integrated emergy synthesis and set pair analysis model was standardized. • The integrated model was applied on the scale of an urban cluster. • Health patterns of different urban clusters were compared. • Policy suggestions were provided based on the health pattern analysis

  9. Electron Tomography of Nanoparticle Clusters: Implications for Atmospheric Lifetimes and Radiative Forcing of Soot

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanPoppel, Laura H.; Friedrich, Heiner; Spinsby, Jacob; Chung, Serena H.; Seinfeld, John H.; Buseck, Peter R.

    2005-01-01

    Nanoparticles are ubiquitous in nature. Their large surface areas and consequent chemical reactivity typically result in their aggregation into clusters. Their chemical and physical properties depend on cluster shapes, which are commonly complex and unknown. This is the first application of electron tomography with a transmission electron microscope to quantitatively determine the three-dimensional (3D) shapes, volumes, and surface areas of nanoparticle clusters. We use soot (black carbon, BC) nanoparticles as an example because it is a major contributor to environmental degradation and global climate change. To the extent that our samples are representative, we find that quantitative measurements of soot surface areas and volumes derived from electron tomograms differ from geometrically derived values by, respectively, almost one and two orders of magnitude. Global sensitivity studies suggest that the global burden and direct radiative forcing of fractal BC are only about 60% of the value if it is assumed that BC has a spherical shape.

  10. Cosmological Implications of the Effects of X-Ray Clusters on the Cosmic Microwave Background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, William R.

    1996-01-01

    We have been carrying forward a program to confront X-ray observations of clusters and their evolution as derived from X-ray observatories with observations of the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR). In addition to the material covered in our previous reports (including three published papers), most recently we have explored the effects of a cosmological constant on the predicted Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect from the ensemble of clusters. In this report we summarize that work from which a paper will be prepared.

  11. ENTROPY AT THE OUTSKIRTS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS AS IMPLICATIONS FOR COSMOLOGICAL COSMIC-RAY ACCELERATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Yutaka; Ohira, Yutaka; Yamazaki, Ryo

    2013-01-01

    Recently, gas entropy at the outskirts of galaxy clusters has attracted much attention. We propose that the entropy profiles could be used to study cosmic-ray (CR) acceleration around the clusters. If the CRs are effectively accelerated at the formation of clusters, the kinetic energy of infalling gas is consumed by the acceleration and the gas entropy should decrease. As a result, the entropy profiles become flat at the outskirts. If the acceleration is not efficient, the entropy should continue to increase outward. By comparing model predictions with X-ray observations with Suzaku, which show flat entropy profiles, we find that the CRs have carried ∼< 7% of the kinetic energy of the gas away from the clusters. Moreover, the CR pressure at the outskirts can be ∼< 40% of the total pressure. On the other hand, if the entropy profiles are not flat at the outskirts, as indicated by combined Plank and ROSAT observations, the carried energy and the CR pressure should be much smaller than the above estimations.

  12. Three Ancient Halo Subgiants: Precise Parallaxes, Compositions, Ages, and Implications for Globular Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    VandenBerg, Don A.; Bond, Howard E.; Nelan, Edmund P.

    2014-01-01

    very soon after the Big Bang. (Stellar models that neglect diffusive processes seem to be ruled out as they would predict that HD 140283 is ~1.5 Gyr older than the universe.) The field halo subgiants appear to be older than globular clusters of similar metallicities: if distances close to those implied...

  13. Clusters of orthologous genes for 41 archaeal genomes and implications for evolutionary genomics of archaea

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf Yuri I; Novichkov Pavel S; Sorokin Alexander V; Makarova Kira S; Koonin Eugene V

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background An evolutionary classification of genes from sequenced genomes that distinguishes between orthologs and paralogs is indispensable for genome annotation and evolutionary reconstruction. Shortly after multiple genome sequences of bacteria, archaea, and unicellular eukaryotes became available, an attempt on such a classification was implemented in Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs). Rapid accumulation of genome sequences creates opportunities for refining COGs ...

  14. Seismotectonic Implications Of Clustered Regional GPS Velocities In The San Francisco Bay Region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graymer, R. W.; Simpson, R.

    2012-12-01

    We have used a hierarchical agglomerative clustering algorithm with Euclidean distance and centroid linkage, applied to continuous GPS observations for the Bay region available from the U.S. Geological Survey website. This analysis reveals 4 robust, spatially coherent clusters that coincide with 4 first-order structural blocks separated by 3 major fault systems: San Andreas (SA), Southern/Central Calaveras-Hayward-Rodgers Creek-Maacama (HAY), and Northern Calaveras-Concord-Green Valley-Berryessa-Bartlett Springs (NCAL). Because observations seaward of the San Gregorio (SG) fault are few in number, the cluster to the west of SA may actually contain 2 major structural blocks not adequately resolved: the Pacific plate to the west of the northern SA and a Peninsula block between the Peninsula SA and the SG fault. The average inter-block velocities are 11, 10, and 9 mm/yr across SA, HAY, and NCAL respectively. There appears to be a significant component of fault-normal compression across NCAL, whereas SA and HAY faults appear to be, on regional average, purely strike-slip. The velocities for the Sierra Nevada - Great Valley (SNGV) block to the west of NCAL are impressive in their similarity. The cluster of these velocities in a velocity plot forms a tighter grouping compared with the groupings for the other cluster blocks, suggesting a more rigid behavior for this block than the others. We note that for 4 clusters, none of the 3 cluster boundaries illuminate geologic structures other than north-northwest trending dominantly strike-slip faults, so plate motion is not accommodated by large-scale fault-parallel compression or extension in the region or by significant plastic deformation , at least over the time span of the GPS observations. Complexities of interseismic deformation of the upper crust do not allow simple application of inter-block velocities as long-term slip rates on bounding faults. However, 2D dislocation models using inter-block velocities and typical

  15. The role of silicon interstitials in the deactivation and reactivation of high concentration boron profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboy, Maria [Campus Miguel Delibes, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)]. E-mail: marabo@tel.uva.es; Pelaz, Lourdes [Campus Miguel Delibes, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Marques, Luis A. [Campus Miguel Delibes, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Lopez, Pedro [Campus Miguel Delibes, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Barbolla, Juan [Campus Miguel Delibes, University of Valladolid, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Venezia, V.C. [Philips Research Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Duffy, R. [Philips Research Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Griffin, Peter B. [Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)

    2004-12-15

    Boron cluster formation and dissolution in high concentration B profiles and the role of Si interstitials in these processes are analyzed by kinetic non-lattice Monte Carlo atomistic simulations. For this purpose, we use theoretical structures as simplifications of boron implants into preamorphized Si, followed by low-temperature solid phase epitaxial (SPE) regrowth or laser thermal annealing process. We observe that in the presence of high B concentrations (above 10{sup 20} cm{sup -3}), significant deactivation occurs during high temperature anneal, even in the presence of only equilibrium Si interstitials. The presence of additional Si interstitials from an end of range (EOR) damage region accelerates the deactivation process and makes B deactivation slightly higher. We show that B deactivation and reactivation processes can be clearly correlated to the evolution of Si interstitial defects at the EOR. The minimum level of activation occurs when the Si interstitial defects at EOR dissolve or form very stable defects.

  16. Cluster-cluster clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, J.; Dekel, A.; Efstathiou, G.; Frenk, C.S.; Yale Univ., New Haven, CT; California Univ., Santa Barbara; Cambridge Univ., England; Sussex Univ., Brighton, England)

    1985-01-01

    The cluster correlation function xi sub c(r) is compared with the particle correlation function, xi(r) in cosmological N-body simulations with a wide range of initial conditions. The experiments include scale-free initial conditions, pancake models with a coherence length in the initial density field, and hybrid models. Three N-body techniques and two cluster-finding algorithms are used. In scale-free models with white noise initial conditions, xi sub c and xi are essentially identical. In scale-free models with more power on large scales, it is found that the amplitude of xi sub c increases with cluster richness; in this case the clusters give a biased estimate of the particle correlations. In the pancake and hybrid models (with n = 0 or 1), xi sub c is steeper than xi, but the cluster correlation length exceeds that of the points by less than a factor of 2, independent of cluster richness. Thus the high amplitude of xi sub c found in studies of rich clusters of galaxies is inconsistent with white noise and pancake models and may indicate a primordial fluctuation spectrum with substantial power on large scales. 30 references

  17. Interstitial cystitis: painful bladder syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R F Sholan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial cystitis, or painful bladder syndrome, is a chronic inflammatory disease of a bladder of unknown etiology. It negatively affects the quality of life, causes depressive disorders, anxiety, and sexual dysfunction. Despite numerous studies, the etiology of interstitial cystitis is still unclear and it’s considered as painful bladder syndrome with multifactorial origin. According to the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 470/100 000 people (60/100 000 men, 850/100 000 women are diagnosed with interstitial cystitis. Diagnosis of the disease is difficult and is substantially based on clinical symptoms. Pelvic pain, urinary urgency, frequency and nocturia are the basic complaints in this pathology. The diagnosis requires exclusion of diseases with similar manifestations. So interstitial cystitis is frequently misdiagnosed as urinary tract infection, overactive bladder, urethral obstruction or diverticulosis, chronic prostatitis, bladder cancer, vulvodynia, endometriosis, and chronic pelvic pain. Etiopathogenesis of the disease is uncertain, which makes etiologic treatment impossible. Currently scientific discussions on the causes of disease continue as well as different treatment regimens are offered, but are often ineffective, palliative and temporary. The treatment for intersticial cystitis should focus on restoring normal bladder function, prevention of relapse of symptoms and improvement of patients’ quality of life. The literature review presents current view on the terminology, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis.

  18. Star formation in globular clusters and dwarf galaxies and implications for the early evolution of galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Douglas N. C.; Murray, Stephen D.

    1991-01-01

    Based upon the observed properties of globular clusters and dwarf galaxies in the Local Group, we present important theoretical constraints on star formation in these systems. These constraints indicate that protoglobular cluster clouds had long dormant periods and a brief epoch of violent star formation. Collisions between protocluster clouds triggered fragmentation into individual stars. Most protocluster clouds dispersed into the Galactic halo during the star formation epoch. In contrast, the large spread in stellar metallicity in dwarf galaxies suggests that star formation in their pregenitors was self-regulated: we propose the protocluster clouds formed from thermal instability in the protogalactic clouds and show that a population of massive stars is needed to provide sufficient UV flux to prevent the collapsing protogalactic clouds from fragmenting into individual stars. Based upon these constraints, we propose a unified scenario to describe the early epochs of star formation in the Galactic halo as well as the thick and thin components of the Galactic disk.

  19. Cosmological implication of wide field Sunyaev-Zel'dovich galaxy clusters survey: exploration by simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juin, Jean-Baptiste

    2005-01-01

    The goal of my Phd research is to prepare the data analysis of the near future wide-field observations of galaxy clusters detected by Sunyaev Zel'dovitch effect. I set up a complete chain of original tools to carry out this study. These tools allow me to highlight critical and important points of selection effects that has to be taken into account in future analysis. Analysis chain is composed by: a simulation of observed millimeter sky, state-of-the-art algorithms of SZ galaxy clusters extraction from observed maps, a statistical model of selection effects of the whole detection chain and, finally, tools to constrain, from detected SZ sources catalog, the cosmological parameters. I focus myself on multi-channel experiments equipped with large bolometer camera. I use these tools for a prospecting on Olimpo experiment. (author) [fr

  20. Concurrent formation of supermassive stars and globular clusters: implications for early self-enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieles, Mark; Charbonnel, Corinne; Krause, Martin G. H.; Hénault-Brunet, Vincent; Agertz, Oscar; Lamers, Henny J. G. L. M.; Bastian, Nathan; Gualandris, Alessia; Zocchi, Alice; Petts, James A.

    2018-04-01

    We present a model for the concurrent formation of globular clusters (GCs) and supermassive stars (SMSs, ≳ 103 M⊙) to address the origin of the HeCNONaMgAl abundance anomalies in GCs. GCs form in converging gas flows and accumulate low-angular momentum gas, which accretes onto protostars. This leads to an adiabatic contraction of the cluster and an increase of the stellar collision rate. A SMS can form via runaway collisions if the cluster reaches sufficiently high density before two-body relaxation halts the contraction. This condition is met if the number of stars ≳ 106 and the gas accretion rate ≳ 105 M⊙/Myr, reminiscent of GC formation in high gas-density environments, such as - but not restricted to - the early Universe. The strong SMS wind mixes with the inflowing pristine gas, such that the protostars accrete diluted hot-hydrogen burning yields of the SMS. Because of continuous rejuvenation, the amount of processed material liberated by the SMS can be an order of magnitude higher than its maximum mass. This `conveyor-belt' production of hot-hydrogen burning products provides a solution to the mass budget problem that plagues other scenarios. Additionally, the liberated material is mildly enriched in helium and relatively rich in other hot-hydrogen burning products, in agreement with abundances of GCs today. Finally, we find a super-linear scaling between the amount of processed material and cluster mass, providing an explanation for the observed increase of the fraction of processed material with GC mass. We discuss open questions of this new GC enrichment scenario and propose observational tests.

  1. CLUSTERING OF SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY III PHOTOMETRIC LUMINOUS GALAXIES: THE MEASUREMENT, SYSTEMATICS, AND COSMOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Shirley; White, Martin; Schlegel, David J.; Seljak, Uros; Reid, Beth; Cuesta, Antonio; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Seo, Hee-Jong; De Putter, Roland; Ross, Ashley J.; Percival, Will J.; Saito, Shun; Schlafly, Eddie; Hernández-Monteagudo, Carlos; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Blanton, Michael; Skibba, Ramin; Schneider, Don; Mena, Olga; Viel, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) surveyed 14,555 deg 2 , and delivered over a trillion pixels of imaging data. We present a study of galaxy clustering using 900,000 luminous galaxies with photometric redshifts, spanning between z = 0.45 and z = 0.65, constructed from the SDSS using methods described in Ross et al. This data set spans 11,000 deg 2 and probes a volume of 3 h –3 Gpc 3 , making it the largest volume ever used for galaxy clustering measurements. We describe in detail the construction of the survey window function and various systematics affecting our measurement. With such a large volume, high-precision cosmological constraints can be obtained given careful control and understanding of the observational systematics. We present a novel treatment of the observational systematics and its applications to the clustering signals from the data set. In this paper, we measure the angular clustering using an optimal quadratic estimator at four redshift slices with an accuracy of ∼15%, with a bin size of δ l = 10 on scales of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs; at l ∼ 40-400). We also apply corrections to the power spectra due to systematics and derive cosmological constraints using the full shape of the power spectra. For a flat ΛCDM model, when combined with cosmic microwave background Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7 (WMAP7) and H 0 constraints from using 600 Cepheids observed by Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3; HST), we find Ω Λ = 0.73 ± 0.019 and H 0 to be 70.5 ± 1.6 s –1 Mpc –1 km. For an open ΛCDM model, when combined with WMAP7 + HST, we find Ω K = 0.0035 ± 0.0054, improved over WMAP7+HST alone by 40%. For a wCDM model, when combined with WMAP7+HST+SN, we find w = –1.071 ± 0.078, and H 0 to be 71.3 ± 1.7 s –1 Mpc –1 km, which is competitive with the latest large-scale structure constraints from large spectroscopic surveys such as the SDSS Data Release 7 (DR7) and WiggleZ. We also find that systematic-corrected power

  2. CLUSTERING OF SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY III PHOTOMETRIC LUMINOUS GALAXIES: THE MEASUREMENT, SYSTEMATICS, AND COSMOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Shirley; White, Martin; Schlegel, David J.; Seljak, Uros; Reid, Beth [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd, MS 50R-5045, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cuesta, Antonio; Padmanabhan, Nikhil [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Seo, Hee-Jong [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, LBL and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); De Putter, Roland [ICC, University of Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ross, Ashley J.; Percival, Will J. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Saito, Shun [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, CA (United States); Schlafly, Eddie [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden St. MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hernandez-Monteagudo, Carlos [Centro de Estudios de Fisica del Cosmos de Aragon (CEFCA), Plaza de San Juan 1, planta 2, E-44001 Teruel (Spain); Sanchez, Ariel G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Blanton, Michael [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Skibba, Ramin [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Schneider, Don [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mena, Olga [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC (Spain); Viel, Matteo, E-mail: cwho@lbl.gov [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy); and others

    2012-12-10

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) surveyed 14,555 deg{sup 2}, and delivered over a trillion pixels of imaging data. We present a study of galaxy clustering using 900,000 luminous galaxies with photometric redshifts, spanning between z = 0.45 and z = 0.65, constructed from the SDSS using methods described in Ross et al. This data set spans 11,000 deg{sup 2} and probes a volume of 3 h {sup -3} Gpc{sup 3}, making it the largest volume ever used for galaxy clustering measurements. We describe in detail the construction of the survey window function and various systematics affecting our measurement. With such a large volume, high-precision cosmological constraints can be obtained given careful control and understanding of the observational systematics. We present a novel treatment of the observational systematics and its applications to the clustering signals from the data set. In this paper, we measure the angular clustering using an optimal quadratic estimator at four redshift slices with an accuracy of {approx}15%, with a bin size of {delta}{sub l} = 10 on scales of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs; at l {approx} 40-400). We also apply corrections to the power spectra due to systematics and derive cosmological constraints using the full shape of the power spectra. For a flat {Lambda}CDM model, when combined with cosmic microwave background Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7 (WMAP7) and H{sub 0} constraints from using 600 Cepheids observed by Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3; HST), we find {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0.73 {+-} 0.019 and H{sub 0} to be 70.5 {+-} 1.6 s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1} km. For an open {Lambda}CDM model, when combined with WMAP7 + HST, we find {Omega}{sub K} = 0.0035 {+-} 0.0054, improved over WMAP7+HST alone by 40%. For a wCDM model, when combined with WMAP7+HST+SN, we find w = -1.071 {+-} 0.078, and H{sub 0} to be 71.3 {+-} 1.7 s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1} km, which is competitive with the latest large-scale structure constraints from large spectroscopic

  3. Dynamic lifetimes of cagelike water clusters immersed in liquid water and their implications for hydrate nucleation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, G.J.; Zhang, Y.G.; Li, M.; Wu, C.H. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Inst. of Geology and Geophysics, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory of the Study of Earth' s Deep Interior

    2008-07-01

    In hydrate research fields, the hydrate nucleation mechanism still remains as an unsolved question. The static lifetimes of cagelike water clusters (CLWC) immersed in bulk liquid water have recently been measured by performing molecular dynamics simulations in the methane-water system, during which the member-water molecules of CLWCs are not allowed to exchange with their surrounding water molecules. This paper presented a study that measured the dynamic lifetimes of CLWCs permitting such water exchanges. The study involved re-analysis of previous simulation data that were used to study the effect of methane adsorption on the static lifetimes of a dodecahedral water cluster (DWC). The dynamic lifetimes of the DWC were calculated. The results of lifetime measurements of DWC in different systems were provided. The implications of this study for hydrate nucleation were also discussed. It was found that the dynamic lifetimes of CLWCs were not less than the static lifetimes previously obtained, and their ratio increased with the lifetime values. The results strengthened that CLWCs are metastable structures in liquid water and the occurrence probability of long-lived CLWCs will increase if one uses the dynamic lifetimes instead of the static lifetimes. 13 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  4. Origin of unbalanced reaction of vacancies and interstitials during irradiation with cascades and influence on microstructural evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiritani, M.; Yoshiie, T.; Kojima, S.; Satoh, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Based upon the underlying premise that all the microstructure evolution during irradiation results from the asymetrical reaction between vacancies and interstitials, the origin of the asymetry is sought and categorized, and the mechanism of defect structure evolution for each source of asymetry is investigated. The role of neutral sinks and the influence of dislocations are examined for the cases of irradiation with and without cascade damage. Vacancy cluster formation directly from cascades is found to favor the generation of freely migrating interstitials. Stochastic fluctuations of the point defect reactions under the balanced condition of vacancy and interstitial is experimentally detected, and the important role of the fluctuations is found in the determination of the fate of small interstitial cluster embryos produced by cascade damage. The influence of the unbalanced point defect reaction starting from difference in spacial distribution between vacancies and interstitials formed by cascade collisions is discussed as one of the important origins of vacancy dominant reactions. (orig.)

  5. Clusters of orthologous genes for 41 archaeal genomes and implications for evolutionary genomics of archaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Yuri I

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An evolutionary classification of genes from sequenced genomes that distinguishes between orthologs and paralogs is indispensable for genome annotation and evolutionary reconstruction. Shortly after multiple genome sequences of bacteria, archaea, and unicellular eukaryotes became available, an attempt on such a classification was implemented in Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs. Rapid accumulation of genome sequences creates opportunities for refining COGs but also represents a challenge because of error amplification. One of the practical strategies involves construction of refined COGs for phylogenetically compact subsets of genomes. Results New Archaeal Clusters of Orthologous Genes (arCOGs were constructed for 41 archaeal genomes (13 Crenarchaeota, 27 Euryarchaeota and one Nanoarchaeon using an improved procedure that employs a similarity tree between smaller, group-specific clusters, semi-automatically partitions orthology domains in multidomain proteins, and uses profile searches for identification of remote orthologs. The annotation of arCOGs is a consensus between three assignments based on the COGs, the CDD database, and the annotations of homologs in the NR database. The 7538 arCOGs, on average, cover ~88% of the genes in a genome compared to a ~76% coverage in COGs. The finer granularity of ortholog identification in the arCOGs is apparent from the fact that 4538 arCOGs correspond to 2362 COGs; ~40% of the arCOGs are new. The archaeal gene core (protein-coding genes found in all 41 genome consists of 166 arCOGs. The arCOGs were used to reconstruct gene loss and gene gain events during archaeal evolution and gene sets of ancestral forms. The Last Archaeal Common Ancestor (LACA is conservatively estimated to possess 996 genes compared to 1245 and 1335 genes for the last common ancestors of Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota, respectively. It is inferred that LACA was a chemoautotrophic hyperthermophile

  6. Thermotransport in interstitial solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogel'son, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of literature data the problem of thermotransport of impurities (H, N, O, C) in interstitial solid solutions is considered. It is shown that from experimental data on the thermotransport an important parameter of dissolved atoms can be found which characterizes atom state in these solutions-enthalpy of transport

  7. Photo-induced transformation process at gold clusters-semiconductor interface: Implications for the complexity of gold clusters-based photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siqi; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2016-03-01

    The recent thrust in utilizing atomically precise organic ligands protected gold clusters (Au clusters) as photosensitizer coupled with semiconductors for nano-catalysts has led to the claims of improved efficiency in photocatalysis. Nonetheless, the influence of photo-stability of organic ligands protected-Au clusters at the Au/semiconductor interface on the photocatalytic properties remains rather elusive. Taking Au clusters-TiO2 composites as a prototype, we for the first time demonstrate the photo-induced transformation of small molecular-like Au clusters to larger metallic Au nanoparticles under different illumination conditions, which leads to the diverse photocatalytic reaction mechanism. This transformation process undergoes a diffusion/aggregation mechanism accompanied with the onslaught of Au clusters by active oxygen species and holes resulting from photo-excited TiO2 and Au clusters. However, such Au clusters aggregation can be efficiently inhibited by tuning reaction conditions. This work would trigger rational structural design and fine condition control of organic ligands protected-metal clusters-semiconductor composites for diverse photocatalytic applications with long-term photo-stability.

  8. Recent Developments of the Local Effect Model (LEM) - Implications of clustered damage on cell transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsässer, Thilo

    Exposure to radiation of high-energy and highly charged ions (HZE) causes a major risk to human beings, since in long term space explorations about 10 protons per month and about one HZE particle per month hit each cell nucleus (1). Despite the larger number of light ions, the high ionisation power of HZE particles and its corresponding more complex damage represents a major hazard for astronauts. Therefore, in order to get a reasonable risk estimate, it is necessary to take into account the entire mixed radiation field. Frequently, neoplastic cell transformation serves as an indicator for the oncogenic potential of radiation exposure. It can be measured for a small number of ion and energy combinations. However, due to the complexity of the radiation field it is necessary to know the contribution to the radiation damage of each ion species for the entire range of energies. Therefore, a model is required which transfers the few experimental data to other particles with different LETs. We use the Local Effect Model (LEM) (2) with its cluster extension (3) to calculate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neoplastic transformation. It was originally developed in the framework of hadrontherapy and is applicable for a large range of ions and energies. The input parameters for the model include the linear-quadratic parameters for the induction of lethal events as well as for the induction of transformation events per surviving cell. Both processes of cell inactivation and neoplastic transformation per viable cell are combined to eventually yield the RBE for cell transformation. We show that the Local Effect Model is capable of predicting the RBE of neoplastic cell transformation for a broad range of ions and energies. The comparison of experimental data (4) with model calculations shows a reasonable agreement. We find that the cluster extension results in a better representation of the measured RBE values. With this model it should be possible to better

  9. TECHNOLOGICAL CLUSTERING IN SÃO JOSE DOS CAMPOS: TRAJECTORIES AND IMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina dos Santos

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the relationship among entrepreneurship, innovation and growth path regarding the technological cluster in São Jose dos Campos, state of São Paulo. This is an exploratory and descriptive study, supported by documental research and questionnaires applied in a non-probabilistic sample. The results show a relevant social reorganization since CTA/ITA were implemented, in the early Fifties’, which coincides with the arrival of international companies, attracted by the Geographic aspects, high qualified manpower availability and tax benefits. Since then, the municipality has experienced an intense migratory flow of professionals, professors, civil and military students. CTA and ITA generate a considerable level of technological knowledge spillover. Due to it, a number of new companies have started-up operations locally in fields such as Aeronautics, Airspace, Automobile and Petrochemical, which promoted a remarkable social and economic development. Nevertheless, the small and medium technology-based enterprises seem to show high dependence of the core companies in the region that leads to initial stages of internationalization.

  10. Three ancient halo subgiants: precise parallaxes, compositions, ages, and implications for globular clusters , ,

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VandenBerg, Don A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 1700 STN CSC, Victoria, B.C., V8W 2Y2 (Canada); Bond, Howard E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Nelan, Edmund P. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Nissen, P. E. [Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Schaefer, Gail H. [The CHARA Array of Georgia State University, Mount Wilson Observatory, Mount Wilson, CA 91023 (United States); Harmer, Dianne, E-mail: vandenbe@uvic.ca, E-mail: heb11@psu.edu, E-mail: nelan@stsci.edu, E-mail: pen@phys.au.dk, E-mail: schaefer@chara-array.org, E-mail: diharmer@noao.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States)

    2014-09-10

    The most accurate ages for the oldest stars are those obtained for nearby halo subgiants because they depend almost entirely on just the measured parallaxes and absolute oxygen abundances. In this study, we have used the Fine Guidance Sensors on the Hubble Space Telescope to determine trigonometric parallaxes, with precisions of 2.1% or better, for the Population II subgiants HD 84937, HD 132475, and HD 140283. High quality spectra have been used to derive their surface abundances of O, Fe, Mg, Si, and Ca, which are assumed to be 0.1-0.15 dex less than their initial abundances due to the effects of diffusion. Comparisons of isochrones with the three subgiants on the (log T {sub eff}, M{sub V} ) diagram yielded ages of 12.08 ± 0.14, 12.56 ± 0.46, and 14.27 ± 0.38 Gyr for HD 84937, HD 132475, and HD 140283, in turn, where each error bar includes only the parallax uncertainty. The total uncertainty is estimated to be ∼ ± 0.8 Gyr (larger in the case of the near-turnoff star HD 84937). Although the age of HD 140283 is greater than the age of the universe as inferred from the cosmic microwave background by ∼0.4-0.5 Gyr, this discrepancy is at a level of <1σ. Nevertheless, the first Population II stars apparently formed very soon after the Big Bang. (Stellar models that neglect diffusive processes seem to be ruled out as they would predict that HD 140283 is ∼1.5 Gyr older than the universe.) The field halo subgiants appear to be older than globular clusters of similar metallicities: if distances close to those implied by the RR Lyrae standard candle are assumed, M 92 and M 5 are younger than HD 140283 and HD 132475 by ∼1.5 and ∼1.0 Gyr, respectively.

  11. [Network clusters of symptoms as elementary syndromes of psychopathology: implications for clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goekoop, R; Goekoop, J G

    2016-01-01

    In a recent publication we reported the existence of around 11 (to 15) 'elementary syndromes' that may combine in various ways, rather like 'building blocks', to explain the wide range of psychiatric symptoms. 'Bridge symptoms' seem to be responsible both for combining large sets of symptoms into elementary syndromes and for combining the various elementary syndromes to form one globally connected network structure. To discuss the implication of these findings for clinical practice. We performed a network analysis of symptom scores. Elementary syndromes provide a massive simplification of the description of psychiatric disease. Instead of the more than 300 categories in DSM-5, we now need to consider only a handful of elementary syndromes and personality domains. This modular representation of psychiatric illnesses allows us to make a complete, systematic and efficient assessment of patients and a systematic review of treatment options. Clinicians, patients, managerial staff and insurance companies can verify whether symptom reduction is taking place in the most important domains of psychopathology. Unlike classic multidimensional methods of disease description, network models of psychopathology can be used to explain comorbidity patterns, predict the clinical course of psychopathology and to designate primary targets for therapeutic interventions. A network view on psychopathology could significantly improve everyday clinical practice.

  12. Interstitial microwave hyperthermia treatment investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siauve, N; Lormel, C

    2012-01-01

    Microwave ablation also called interstitial hyperthermia is a medical procedure used in the treatment of many cancers, cardiac arrhythmias and other medical conditions. With this medical therapy, an electromagnetic source (antenna) is directly positioned in the target tissue and a sufficient power is injected to necrosis the tissue. The aim of this study is to propose a design procedure and develop the associated tools, for determining the optimal shape, dimensions, type and operating frequency of antenna according to the target volume. In this context, a 3D numerical predictive model of temperature elevation induced by the electric fields and two benches for thermal and electrical tissues properties characterization have been developed. To validate the procedure and the different tools, an experimental bench test which includes interstitial antenna, external microwave generator, phantom that represents the target tissue and measurement system of temperature and electric field has been elaborated.

  13. Interstitial lung disease: Diagnostic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kaushik Saha

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a final common pathway of a broad heterogeneous group of parenchymal lung disorders. It is characterized by progressive fibrosis of the lung leading to restriction and diminished oxygen transfer. Clinically, the presenting symptoms of ILD are non-specific (cough and progressive dyspnea on exertion) and are often attributed to other diseases, thus delaying diagnosis and timely therapy. Clues from the medical history along with the clinical context and radiolo...

  14. THE COSMOLOGICAL IMPACT OF LUMINOUS TeV BLAZARS. III. IMPLICATIONS FOR GALAXY CLUSTERS AND THE FORMATION OF DWARF GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfrommer, Christoph; Chang, Philip; Broderick, Avery E.

    2012-01-01

    A subset of blazars are powerful TeV emitters, dominating the extragalactic component of the very high energy gamma-ray universe (E ∼> 100 GeV). These TeV gamma rays generate ultrarelativistic electron-positron pairs via pair production with the extragalactic background light. While it has generally been assumed that the kinetic energy of these pairs cascades to GeV gamma rays via inverse Compton scattering, we have argued in Broderick et al. (Paper I in this series) that plasma beam instabilities are capable of dissipating the pairs' energy locally on timescales short in comparison to the inverse Compton cooling time, heating the intergalactic medium (IGM) with a rate that is independent of density. This dramatically increases the entropy of the IGM after redshift z ∼ 2, with a number of important implications for structure formation: (1) this suggests a scenario for the origin of the cool core (CC)/non-cool core (NCC) bimodality in galaxy clusters and groups. Early-forming galaxy groups are unaffected because they can efficiently radiate the additional entropy, developing a CC. However, late-forming groups do not have sufficient time to cool before the entropy is gravitationally reprocessed through successive mergers—counteracting cooling and potentially raising the core entropy further. This may result in a population of X-ray dim groups/clusters, consistent with X-ray stacking analyses of optically selected samples. Hence, blazar heating works differently than feedback by active galactic nuclei, which we show can balance radiative cooling but is unable to transform CC into NCC clusters on the buoyancy timescale due to the weak coupling between the mechanical energy to the cluster gas. (2) We predict a suppression of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) power spectrum template on angular scales smaller than 5' due to the globally reduced central pressure of groups and clusters forming after z ∼ 1. This allows for a larger rms amplitude of the density power

  15. Resistivity studies of interstitial helium mobility in niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.G.; Birnbaum, H.K.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The mobility of interstitial helium in Nb and Nb-O alloys was studied in the temperature range of 10-383 K using resistivity measurements. The helium was introduced by radioactive decay of solute tritium (approximately 1 at%). At T < 100 K the resistivity increased due to conversion of tritium trapped at oxygen interstititals to helium. The formation of helium caused a very significant resistance increase at room temperature and above. The results suggest that helium is mobile at temperatures above 295 K and that the precipitation of large helium bubbles occurs along grain boundaries. The mobile helium species may either be single interstitials or small helium clusters. The activation enthalpy for the diffusion of the mobile helium species was estimated to be about 55 kJ/mol (0.66 eV). (Auth.)

  16. MicroRNA-17-92 cluster promotes the proliferation and the chemokine production of keratinocytes: implication for the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weigang; Yi, Xiuli; An, Yawen; Guo, Sen; Li, Shuli; Song, Pu; Chang, Yuqian; Zhang, Shaolong; Gao, Tianwen; Wang, Gang; Li, Chunying

    2018-05-11

    Keratinocytes are the main epidermal cell type that constitutes the skin barrier against environmental damages, which emphasizes the balance between the growth and the death of keratinocytes in maintaining skin homeostasis. Aberrant proliferation of keratinocytes and the secretion of inflammatory factors from keratinocytes are related to the formation of chronic inflammatory skin diseases like psoriasis. MicroRNA-17-92 (miRNA-17-92 or miR-17-92) is a miRNA cluster that regulates cell growth and immunity, but the role of miR-17-92 cluster in keratinocytes and its relation to skin diseases have not been well investigated. In the present study, we initially found that miR-17-92 cluster promoted the proliferation and the cell-cycle progression of keratinocytes via suppressing cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B (CDKN2B). Furthermore, miR-17-92 cluster facilitated the secretion of C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 9 (CXCL9) and C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 10 (CXCL10) from keratinocytes by inhibiting suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1), which enhanced the chemotaxis for T lymphocytes formed by keratinocytes. In addition, we detected increased expression of miR-17-92 cluster in psoriatic lesions and the level of lesional miR-17-92 cluster was positively correlated with the disease severity in psoriasis patients. At last, miR-17-92 cluster was increased in keratinocytes by cytokines through the activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 1 (STAT1) signaling pathway. Our findings demonstrate that cytokine-induced overexpression of miR-17-92 cluster can promote the proliferation and the immune function of keratinocytes, and thus may contribute to the development of inflammatory skin diseases like psoriasis, which implicates miR-17-92 cluster as a potential therapeutic target for psoriasis and other skin diseases with similar inflammatory pathogenesis.

  17. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marten, K.

    2007-01-01

    The most important smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are respiratory bronchiolitis, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. Although traditionally considered to be discrete entities, smoking-related ILDs often coexist, thus accounting for the sometimes complex patterns encountered on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Further studies are needed to elucidate the causative role of smoking in the development of pulmonary fibrosis

  18. Clinical Implications of Cluster Analysis-Based Classification of Acute Decompensated Heart Failure and Correlation with Bedside Hemodynamic Profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Ahmad

    Full Text Available Classification of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF is based on subjective criteria that crudely capture disease heterogeneity. Improved phenotyping of the syndrome may help improve therapeutic strategies.To derive cluster analysis-based groupings for patients hospitalized with ADHF, and compare their prognostic performance to hemodynamic classifications derived at the bedside.We performed a cluster analysis on baseline clinical variables and PAC measurements of 172 ADHF patients from the ESCAPE trial. Employing regression techniques, we examined associations between clusters and clinically determined hemodynamic profiles (warm/cold/wet/dry. We assessed association with clinical outcomes using Cox proportional hazards models. Likelihood ratio tests were used to compare the prognostic value of cluster data to that of hemodynamic data.We identified four advanced HF clusters: 1 male Caucasians with ischemic cardiomyopathy, multiple comorbidities, lowest B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP levels; 2 females with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, few comorbidities, most favorable hemodynamics; 3 young African American males with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, most adverse hemodynamics, advanced disease; and 4 older Caucasians with ischemic cardiomyopathy, concomitant renal insufficiency, highest BNP levels. There was no association between clusters and bedside-derived hemodynamic profiles (p = 0.70. For all adverse clinical outcomes, Cluster 4 had the highest risk, and Cluster 2, the lowest. Compared to Cluster 4, Clusters 1-3 had 45-70% lower risk of all-cause mortality. Clusters were significantly associated with clinical outcomes, whereas hemodynamic profiles were not.By clustering patients with similar objective variables, we identified four clinically relevant phenotypes of ADHF patients, with no discernable relationship to hemodynamic profiles, but distinct associations with adverse outcomes. Our analysis suggests that ADHF classification using

  19. Implications of Pearl, Gold, Silver (PGS) craft industrial cluster towards settlements region in Karang Pule Village, Sekarbela District Of Mataram City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushanti, I. R.; Fitri, I. S.

    2017-06-01

    The existence of industry clusters in Mataram City gave effect to the surrounding residential areas [1]. In accordance Spatial Plan of Mataram City in 2011-2031 PGS industry cluster in the village of Karang Pule, Sekarbela district established as shopping tourism area. Distribution of industrial locations were in four of seven environments in Karang Pule. Distribution of PGS industry is divided into three (3) groups: craftsmen, craftsmen who is also a seller, and the seller (merchant). The location of the craftsmen, craftsmen who are also businessmen and entrepreneurs are also used as a dwelling house or workshop and store. So most of the people living in settlements around clusters of industry that there is a link between industry cluster and settlements. This study aims to determine the implications or the impact of the presence of PGS industry clusters the surrounding residential areas. The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative with the collection of primary data through direct observation and questionnaires. Based on direct observation on the shopping tourism area there are inequality between the conditions of industry clusters and settlements area by the presence of slums. The results showed that the PGS industry cluster impact on social, economic and environment near settlements area. Impacts that occur are: 1) the social aspect, there is a significant change in the level of education, social welfare and social disparities but less significant to the formation of institutions, particularly in community participation, 2) the economic aspect of the change status of community work, and increased revenue and 3) the environmental aspects of the change to the condition of the building, the quality of public housing, the presence of slums, changes in infrastructure and the environmental pollution.

  20. The interstitial pneumonitis induced by cytostatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrava, M.; Markova, I.; Mistina, L.

    1998-01-01

    The author presents a cause of 9-year old boy with ALL-F2B in the stage of the prevention treatment where in the its course the induced interstitial pneumonitis by cytostatics was developed. The bacterial, virus, mycological and parasitic causes of the interstitial pneumonitis on the basis of the bronchoscopy, BAL, CT, scintigraphy, laboratory and by cultivation were excluded. (authors)

  1. Chlorambucil-Induced Acute Interstitial Pneumonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammad Shafqat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorambucil is an alkylating agent commonly used in treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL. We report a case of interstitial pneumonitis developing in an 83-year-old man 1.5 months after completing a six-month course of chlorambucil for CLL. The interstitial pneumonitis responded to therapy with prednisone. We performed a systematic review of literature and identified 13 other case reports of chlorambucil-induced pulmonary toxicity, particularly interstitial pneumonitis. No unifying risk factor could be discerned and the mechanism of injury remains unknown. In contrast, major randomized trials of chlorambucil therapy in CLL have not reported interstitial pneumonitis as an adverse effect, which may be due to the rarity of the phenomenon or due to underreporting of events occurring after completion of treatment. Clinicians should consider drug-induced interstitial pneumonitis in the differential diagnosis of a suggestive syndrome developing even after discontinuation of chlorambucil.

  2. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) associated interstitial lung disease (ILD).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Dwyer, David N

    2013-10-01

    Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is the most common Connective Tissue Disease (CTD) and represents an increasing burden on global health resources. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) has been recognised as a complication of RA but its potential for mortality and morbidity has arguably been under appreciated for decades. New studies have underscored a significant lifetime risk of ILD development in RA. Contemporary work has identified an increased risk of mortality associated with the Usual Interstitial Pneumonia (UIP) pattern which shares similarity with the most devastating of the interstitial pulmonary diseases, namely Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF). In this paper, we discuss recent studies highlighting the associated increase in mortality in RA-UIP. We explore associations between radiological and histopathological features of RA-ILD and the prognostic implications of same. We emphasise the need for translational research in this area given the growing burden of RA-ILD. We highlight the importance of the respiratory physician as a key stakeholder in the multidisciplinary management of this disorder. RA-ILD focused research offers the opportunity to identify early asymptomatic disease and define the natural history of this extra articular manifestation. This may provide a unique opportunity to define key regulatory fibrotic events driving progressive disease. We also discuss some of the more challenging and novel aspects of therapy for RA-ILD.

  3. Postoperative interstitial radiotherapy of keloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavere, P.; Bonnafoux-Clavere, A.; Roullet, B.; Morzel, A.; Rhein, B.; Bonnetblanc, J.M.; Olivier, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    During an 8-year period, 21 patients with keloids (27 keloids) were treated with keloidectomy and post-operative interstitial radiotherapy by an iridium 192 wire. Only one patient had been previously treated by corticoids, without results. A dose of 12 Gy (three patients) to 15 Gy (18 patients) was delivered at a point 2.5 mm from the axis of the wire. The follow-up time was from 2 - 104 months. The success rate, at 7 months, was close to 88%. Ao recurrence occurred in three patients without relation to the method used, the lesion-age or the localization of the lesions. There were no side-effects. This method represents an effective, non-constraining and safe treatment for keloids if the contra-indications are respected

  4. Navigation system for interstitial brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strassmann, G.; Kolotas, C.; Heyd, R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the stud was to develop a computed tomography (CT) based electromagnetic navigation system for interstitial brachytherapy. This is especially designed for situations when needles have to be positioned adjacent to or within critical anatomical structures. In such instances interactive 3D visualisation of the needle positions is essential. The material consisted of a Polhemus electromagnetic 3D digitizer, a Pentium 200 MHz laptop and a voice recognition for continuous speech. In addition, we developed an external reference system constructed of Perspex which could be positioned above the tumour region and attached to the patient using a non-invasive fixation method. A specially designed needle holder and patient bed were also developed. Measurements were made on a series of phantoms in order to study the efficacy and accuracy of the navigation system. The mean navigation accuracy of positioning the 20.0 cm length metallic needles within the phantoms was in the range 2.0-4.1 mm with a maximum of 5.4 mm. This is an improvement on the accuracy of a CT-guided technique which was in the range 6.1-11.3 mm with a maximum of 19.4 mm. The mean reconstruction accuracy of the implant geometry was 3.2 mm within a non-ferromagnetic environment. We found that although the needles were metallic this did not have a significant influence. We also found for our experimental setups that the CT table and operation table non-ferromagnetic parts had no significant influence on the navigation accuracy. This navigation system will be a very useful clinical tool for interstitial brachytherapy applications, particularly when critical structures have to be avoided. It also should provide a significant improvement on our existing technique

  5. Stellar kinematics and structural properties of virgo cluster dwarf early-type galaxies from the SMAKCED project. I. Kinematically decoupled cores and implications for infallen groups in clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toloba, E.; Guhathakurta, P. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Van de Ven, G. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Boissier, S.; Boselli, A. [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille-LAM, Université d' Aix-Marseille and CNRS, UMR 7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Den Brok, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Falcón-Barroso, J.; Ryś, A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea s/n, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Hensler, G. [Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstraße 17, 1180 Vienna (Austria); Janz, J.; Lisker, T. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstraße 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H. [Division of Astronomy, Department of Physics, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu (Finland); Paudel, S. [Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CNRS/INSU, Université Paris Diderot, CEA/IRFU/SAp, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Peletier, R. F., E-mail: toloba@ucolick.org [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, Postbus 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)

    2014-03-10

    We present evidence for kinematically decoupled cores (KDCs) in two dwarf early-type (dE) galaxies in the Virgo cluster, VCC 1183 and VCC 1453, studied as part of the SMAKCED stellar absorption-line spectroscopy and imaging survey. These KDCs have radii of 1.''8 (0.14 kpc) and 4.''2 (0.33 kpc), respectively. Each of these KDCs is distinct from the main body of its host galaxy in two ways: (1) inverted sense of rotation and (2) younger (and possibly more metal-rich) stellar population. The observed stellar population differences are probably associated with the KDC, although we cannot rule out the possibility of intrinsic radial gradients in the host galaxy. We describe a statistical analysis method to detect, quantify the significance of, and characterize KDCs in long-slit rotation curve data. We apply this method to the two dE galaxies presented in this paper and to five other dEs for which KDCs have been reported in the literature. Among these seven dEs, there are four significant KDC detections, two marginal KDC detections, and one dE with an unusual central kinematic anomaly that may be an asymmetric KDC. The frequency of occurrence of KDCs and their properties provide important constraints on the formation history of their host galaxies. We discuss different formation scenarios for these KDCs in cluster environments and find that dwarf-dwarf wet mergers or gas accretion can explain the properties of these KDCs. Both of these mechanisms require that the progenitor had a close companion with a low relative velocity. This suggests that KDCs were formed in galaxy pairs residing in a poor group environment or in isolation whose subsequent infall into the cluster quenched star formation.

  6. Large stability and high catalytic activities of sub-nm metal (0) clusters: implications into the nucleation and growth theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñeiro, Yolanda; Buceta, David; Calvo, Javier; Huseyinova, Shahana; Cuerva, Miguel; Pérez, Ángel; Domínguez, Blanca; López-Quintela, M Arturo

    2015-07-01

    Clusters are stable catalytic species, which are produced during the synthesis of nanoparticles (NPs). Their existence contradicts the thermodynamic principles used to explain the formation of NPs by the classical nucleation and growth theories (NGTs). Using chemical and electrochemical methods we will show that depending on the experimental conditions one can produce either Ag clusters or Ag NPs. Moreover, using already prepared Ag clusters one can observe the disappearance of the usual induction period observed for the kinetics of NP formation, indicating that clusters catalyze the formation of NPs. Taking these data together with some previous examples of cluster-catalyzed anisotropic growth, we derived a qualitative approach to include the catalytic activities of clusters into the formation of NPs, which is incorporated into the NGT. Some qualitative conclusions about the main experimental parameters, which affect the formation of clusters versus NPs, as well as the catalytic mechanism versus the non-catalytic one, are also described. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. From solid solution to cluster formation of Fe and Cr in α-Zr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, P.A.; Wenman, M.R.; Gault, B.; Moody, M.P.; Ivermark, M.; Rushton, M.J.D.; Preuss, M.; Edwards, L.; Grimes, R.W.

    2015-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms by which the re-solution of Fe and Cr additions increase the corrosion rate of irradiated Zr alloys, the solubility and clustering of Fe and Cr in model binary Zr alloys was investigated using a combination of experimental and modelling techniques — atom probe tomography (APT), x-ray diffraction (XRD), thermoelectric power (TEP) and density functional theory (DFT). Cr occupies both interstitial and substitutional sites in the α-Zr lattice; Fe favours interstitial sites, and a low-symmetry site that was not previously modelled is found to be the most favourable for Fe. Lattice expansion as a function of Fe and Cr content in the α-Zr matrix deviates from Vegard's law and is strongly anisotropic for Fe additions, expanding the c-axis while contracting the a-axis. Matrix content of solutes cannot be reliably estimated from lattice parameter measurements, instead a combination of TEP and APT was employed. Defect clusters form at higher solution concentrations, which induce a smaller lattice strain compared to the dilute defects. In the presence of a Zr vacancy, all two-atom clusters are more soluble than individual point defects and as many as four Fe or three Cr atoms could be accommodated in a single Zr vacancy. The Zr vacancy is critical for the increased apparent solubility of defect clusters; the implications for irradiation induced microstructure changes in Zr alloys are discussed.

  8. From solid solution to cluster formation of Fe and Cr in α-Zr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, P.A., E-mail: burr.patrick@gmail.com [Centre for Nuclear Engineering and Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science & Technology Organisation, Menai, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Wenman, M.R. [Centre for Nuclear Engineering and Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Gault, B.; Moody, M.P. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford, OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Ivermark, M. [High Temperature Materials, Sandvik Materials Technology, 734 27 Hallstahammar (Sweden); University of Manchester, School of Materials, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Rushton, M.J.D. [Centre for Nuclear Engineering and Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Preuss, M. [University of Manchester, School of Materials, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Edwards, L. [Institute of Materials Engineering, Australian Nuclear Science & Technology Organisation, Menai, New South Wales 2234 (Australia); Grimes, R.W. [Centre for Nuclear Engineering and Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    To understand the mechanisms by which the re-solution of Fe and Cr additions increase the corrosion rate of irradiated Zr alloys, the solubility and clustering of Fe and Cr in model binary Zr alloys was investigated using a combination of experimental and modelling techniques — atom probe tomography (APT), x-ray diffraction (XRD), thermoelectric power (TEP) and density functional theory (DFT). Cr occupies both interstitial and substitutional sites in the α-Zr lattice; Fe favours interstitial sites, and a low-symmetry site that was not previously modelled is found to be the most favourable for Fe. Lattice expansion as a function of Fe and Cr content in the α-Zr matrix deviates from Vegard's law and is strongly anisotropic for Fe additions, expanding the c-axis while contracting the a-axis. Matrix content of solutes cannot be reliably estimated from lattice parameter measurements, instead a combination of TEP and APT was employed. Defect clusters form at higher solution concentrations, which induce a smaller lattice strain compared to the dilute defects. In the presence of a Zr vacancy, all two-atom clusters are more soluble than individual point defects and as many as four Fe or three Cr atoms could be accommodated in a single Zr vacancy. The Zr vacancy is critical for the increased apparent solubility of defect clusters; the implications for irradiation induced microstructure changes in Zr alloys are discussed.

  9. Chylothorax in dermatomyositis complicated with interstitial pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoda, Kentaro; Kiboshi, Takao; Shoda, Takeshi

    2017-04-01

    Chylothorax is a disease in which chyle leaks and accumulates in the thoracic cavity. Interstitial pneumonia and pneumomediastinum are common thoracic manifestations of dermatomyositis, but chylothorax complicated with dermatomyositis is not reported. We report a case of dermatomyositis with interstitial pneumonia complicated by chylothorax. A 77-year-old woman was diagnosed as dermatomyositis with Gottron's papules, skin ulcers, anti-MDA5 antibody and rapid progressive interstitial pneumonia. Treatment with betamethasone, tacrolimus and intravenous high-dose cyclophosphamide was initiated, and her skin symptoms and interstitial pneumonia improved once. However, right-sided chylothorax began to accumulate and gradually increase, and at the same time, her interstitial pneumonia began to exacerbate, and skin ulcers began to reappear on her fingers and auricles. Although her chylothorax improved by fasting and parenteral nutrition, she died due to further exacerbations of dermatomyositis and interstitial pneumonia in spite of steroid pulse therapy, increase in the betamethasone dosage, additional intravenous high-dose cyclophosphamide and plasma pheresis. An autopsy showed no lesions such as malignant tumors in the thoracic cavity. This is the first report of chylothorax complicated by dermatomyositis with interstitial pneumonia.

  10. HRCT of diffuse interstitial pneumonia during treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masashi; Sano, Akira; Imanaka, Kazufumi

    1989-01-01

    HRCT was carried out in twenty patients with diffuse interstitial pneumonia: 13 cases of IIP, 3 of BOOP, 2 of drug-induced pneumonia, 1 of rheumatoid lung and acute interstitial pneumonia of unknown origin. With special attention to inflammatory activity, the patients underwent HRCT periodically during the treatment. Correlative investigation between HRCT image and grade of accumulation in 67 Ga scintigraphy was also performed. Response to steroid therapy was clearly reflected on HRCT image, that was shown as decreasing pulmonary density or thinning of honeycomb wall. HRCT is considered to be useful in assessing the activity of diffuse interstitial pneumonia. (author)

  11. The diffuse interstitial lung disease - with emphasis in the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustillo P, Jose G; Pacheco, Pedro M; Matiz, Carlos; Ojeda, Paulina; Carrillo B, Jorge A.

    2003-01-01

    The term diffuse interstitial lung disease, it refers to those diseases that commit the interstice basically, the space between the membrane basal epithelial and endothelial, although the damage can also commit the outlying air spaces and the vessels; the supplement is centered in the diffuse interstitial lung illness of unknown cause; well-known as idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, making emphasis in the more frequents, the pulmonary fibrosis idiopathic or cryptogenic fibrosant alveolitis

  12. Interstitial Metabolic Monitoring During Hemorrhagic Shock

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pamnani, Motilal

    2004-01-01

    .... We hypothesize that decompensation results from potassium-mediated vasodilation and/or loss of cardiac contractility, and thus a method of measuring interstitial potassium should be a crucial part...

  13. Interstitial meiofauna of Namib sandy beaches

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1988-03-16

    Mar 16, 1988 ... Zoology Department, Institute for Coastal Research, University of Port Elizabeth, P.O. Box ... Oliff, Gardner, Turner & Sharp (1970) and later Dye, ... Wooldridge, Dye & ...... potential sources of food for interstitial organisms,.

  14. Implications of inflorescence clustering for the visitation rate by hummingbirds and fruit production by Heliconia bihai (L. L. (Heliconiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio César Corrêa Missagia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant spatial distribution can influence the activity of floral visitors. Flower clustering in patches may be more attractive to visitors and it supposedly influences the fruit production. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that in Heliconia bihai (L. L. (Heliconiaceae the inflorescence clustering size positively influences the visitation rate and fruit production by the species. The study was conducted at a stretch of Atlantic Forest, in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil. Five hummingbird species were registered as floral visitors. The average visitation rate (± standard deviation of hummingbirds was 2 (± 0.56 visits per hour per clustering. The amount of inflorescences per clustering positively influenced the visitation rate of hummingbirds, but it negatively influenced the amount of fruits produced per inflorescence. According to the results obtained, we suggest that the density of inflorescences in a clustering may negatively influence the number of flowers visited per inflorescence, due to an increased amount of inflorescences included in the foraging routes.

  15. Flock worker's lung: chronic interstitial lung disease in the nylon flocking industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, D G; Crausman, R S; Durand, K T; Nayer, A; Kuhn, C

    1998-08-15

    Two young men working at a nylon flocking plant in Rhode Island developed interstitial lung disease of unknown cause. Similar clusters at the same company's Canadian plant were reported previously. To define the extent, clinicopathologic features, and potential causes of the apparent disease outbreak. Case-finding survey and retrospective cohort study. Academic occupational medicine program. All workers employed at the Rhode Island plant on or after 15 June 1990. Symptomatic employees had chest radiography, pulmonary function tests, high-resolution computed tomography, and serologic testing. Those with unexplained radiographic or pulmonary function abnormalities underwent bronchoalveolar lavage, lung biopsy, or both. The case definition of "flock worker's lung" required histologic evidence of interstitial lung disease (or lavage evidence of lung inflammation) not explained by another condition. Eight cases of flock worker's lung were identified at the Rhode Island plant. Three cases were characterized by a high proportion of eosinophils (25% to 40%) in lavage fluid. Six of the seven patients who had biopsy had histologic findings of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, and the seventh had bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. All seven of these patients had peribronchovascular interstitial lymphoid nodules, usually with germinal centers, and most had lymphocytic bronchiolitis and interstitial fibrosis. All improved after leaving work. Review of the Canadian tissue specimens showed many similar histologic findings. Among the 165-member study cohort, a 48-fold or greater increase was seen in the sex-adjusted incidence rate of all interstitial lung disease. Work in the nylon flocking industry poses substantial risk for a previously unrecognized occupational interstitial lung disease. Nylon fiber is the suspected cause of this condition.

  16. Implications for gravitational lensing and the dark matter content in clusters of galaxies from spatially resolved x-ray spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewenstein, M.

    1994-01-01

    A simple method for deriving well-behaved temperature solutions to the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium for intracluster media with X-ray imaging observations is presented and applied to a series of generalized models as well as to observations of the Perseus cluster and Abell 2256. In these applications the allowed range in the ratio of nonbaryons to baryons as a function of radius is derived, taking into account the uncertainties and crude spatial resolution of the X-ray spectra and considering a range of physically reasonable mass models with various scale heights. Particular attention is paid to the central regions of the cluster, and it is found that the dark matter can be sufficiently concentrated to be consistent with the high central mass surface densities for moderate-redshift clusters from their gravitational lensing properties.

  17. Implications for Primordial Non-Gaussianity ($f_{NL}$) from weak lensing masses of high-z galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, Raul

    2009-01-01

    The recent weak lensing measurement of the dark matter mass of the high-redshift galaxy cluster XMMUJ2235.3-2557 of (8.5 +- 1.7) x 10^{14} Msun at z=1.4, indicates that, if the cluster is assumed to be the result of the collapse of dark matter in a primordial gaussian field in the standard LCDM model, then its abundance should be 3-10 if the non-Gaussianity parameter f^local_NL is in the range 150-200. This value is comparable to the limit for f_NL obtained by current constraints from the CMB. We conclude that mass determination of high-redshift, massive clusters can offer a complementary probe of primordial non-gaussianity.

  18. Spatial clustering of fatal, and non-fatal, suicide in new South Wales, Australia: implications for evidence-based prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torok, Michelle; Konings, Paul; Batterham, Philip J; Christensen, Helen

    2017-10-06

    Rates of suicide appear to be increasing, indicating a critical need for more effective prevention initiatives. To increase the efficacy of future prevention initiatives, we examined the spatial distribution of suicide deaths and suicide attempts in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, to identify where high incidence 'suicide clusters' were occurring. Such clusters represent candidate regions where intervention is critically needed, and likely to have the greatest impact, thus providing an evidence-base for the targeted prioritisation of resources. Analysis is based on official suicide mortality statistics for NSW, provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, and hospital separations for non-fatal intentional self-harm, provided through the NSW Health Admitted Patient Data Collection at a Statistical Area 2 (SA2) geography. Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques were applied to detect suicide clusters occurring between 2005 and 2013 (aggregated), for persons aged over 5 years. The final dataset contained 5466 mortality and 86,017 non-fatal intentional self-harm cases. In total, 25 Local Government Areas were identified as primary or secondary likely candidate regions for intervention. Together, these regions contained approximately 200 SA2 level suicide clusters, which represented 46% (n = 39,869) of hospital separations and 43% (n = 2330) of suicide deaths between 2005 and 2013. These clusters primarily converged on the Eastern coastal fringe of NSW. Crude rates of suicide deaths and intentional self-harm differed at the Local Government Areas (LGA) level in NSW. There was a tendency for primary suicide clusters to occur within metropolitan and coastal regions, rather than rural areas. The findings demonstrate the importance of taking geographical variation of suicidal behaviour into account, prior to development and implementation of prevention initiatives, so that such initiatives can target key problem areas where they are likely to have

  19. THE SUPERNOVA DELAY TIME DISTRIBUTION IN GALAXY CLUSTERS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR TYPE-Ia PROGENITORS AND METAL ENRICHMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maoz, Dan; Sharon, Keren; Avishay Gal-Yam

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the supernova (SN) delay time distribution (DTD)-the SN rate versus time that would follow a hypothetical brief burst of star formation-can shed light on SN progenitors and physics, as well as on the timescales of chemical enrichment in different environments. We compile recent measurements of the Type-Ia SN (SN Ia) rate in galaxy clusters at redshifts from z = 0 out to z = 1.45, just 2 Gyr after cluster star formation at z ∼ 3. We review the plausible range for the observed total iron-to-stellar mass ratio in clusters, based on the latest data and analyses, and use it to constrain the time-integrated number of SN Ia events in clusters. With these data, we recover the DTD of SNe Ia in cluster environments. The DTD is sharply peaked at the shortest time-delay interval we probe, 0Gyr -1.2±0.3 from t = 400 Myr to a Hubble time can satisfy both constraints. Shallower power laws such as t -1/2 cannot, assuming a single DTD, and a single star formation burst (either brief or extended) at high z. This implies that 50%-85% of SNe Ia explode within 1 Gyr of star formation. DTDs from double-degenerate (DD) models, which generically have ∼t -1 shapes over a wide range of timescales, match the data, but only if their predictions are scaled up by factors of 5-10. Single-degenerate (SD) DTDs always give poor fits to the data, due to a lack of delayed SNe and overall low numbers of SNe. The observations can also be reproduced with a combination of two SN Ia populations-a prompt SD population of SNe Ia that explodes within a few Gyr of star formation, and produces about 60% of the iron mass in clusters, and a DD population that contributes the events seen at z < 1.5. An alternative scenario of a single, prompt, SN Ia population, but a composite star formation history in clusters, consisting of a burst at high z, followed by a constant star formation rate, can reproduce the SN rates, but is at odds with direct measurements of star formation in clusters at 0 < z

  20. The HST Key Project on the Extragalactic Distance Scale. XV. A Cepheid Distance to the Fornax Cluster and Its Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Madore, Barry F.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Silbermann, N.; Harding, Paul; Huchra, John; Mould, Jeremy; Graham, John; Ferrarese, Laura; Gibson, Brad; Han, Mingsheng; Hoessel, John; Hughes, Shaun; Illingworth, Garth; Phelps, Randy; Sakai, Shoko

    1998-01-01

    Using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) 37 long-period Cepheid variables have been discovered in the Fornax Cluster spiral galaxy NGC 1365. The resulting V and I period-luminosity relations yield a true distance modulus of 31.35 +/- 0.07 mag, which corresponds to a distance of 18.6 +/- 0.6 Mpc. This measurement provides several routes for estimating the Hubble Constant. (1) Assuming this distance for the Fornax Cluster as a whole yields a local Hubble Constant of 70 +/-18_{random} [+/-7]_{syst...

  1. Properties of the probability distribution associated with the largest event in an earthquake cluster and their implications to foreshocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Jiancang; Ogata, Yosihiko

    2006-01-01

    The space-time epidemic-type aftershock sequence model is a stochastic branching process in which earthquake activity is classified into background and clustering components and each earthquake triggers other earthquakes independently according to certain rules. This paper gives the probability distributions associated with the largest event in a cluster and their properties for all three cases when the process is subcritical, critical, and supercritical. One of the direct uses of these probability distributions is to evaluate the probability of an earthquake to be a foreshock, and magnitude distributions of foreshocks and nonforeshock earthquakes. To verify these theoretical results, the Japan Meteorological Agency earthquake catalog is analyzed. The proportion of events that have 1 or more larger descendants in total events is found to be as high as about 15%. When the differences between background events and triggered event in the behavior of triggering children are considered, a background event has a probability about 8% to be a foreshock. This probability decreases when the magnitude of the background event increases. These results, obtained from a complicated clustering model, where the characteristics of background events and triggered events are different, are consistent with the results obtained in [Ogata et al., Geophys. J. Int. 127, 17 (1996)] by using the conventional single-linked cluster declustering method

  2. Properties of the probability distribution associated with the largest event in an earthquake cluster and their implications to foreshocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jiancang; Ogata, Yosihiko

    2006-04-01

    The space-time epidemic-type aftershock sequence model is a stochastic branching process in which earthquake activity is classified into background and clustering components and each earthquake triggers other earthquakes independently according to certain rules. This paper gives the probability distributions associated with the largest event in a cluster and their properties for all three cases when the process is subcritical, critical, and supercritical. One of the direct uses of these probability distributions is to evaluate the probability of an earthquake to be a foreshock, and magnitude distributions of foreshocks and nonforeshock earthquakes. To verify these theoretical results, the Japan Meteorological Agency earthquake catalog is analyzed. The proportion of events that have 1 or more larger descendants in total events is found to be as high as about 15%. When the differences between background events and triggered event in the behavior of triggering children are considered, a background event has a probability about 8% to be a foreshock. This probability decreases when the magnitude of the background event increases. These results, obtained from a complicated clustering model, where the characteristics of background events and triggered events are different, are consistent with the results obtained in [Ogata, Geophys. J. Int. 127, 17 (1996)] by using the conventional single-linked cluster declustering method.

  3. Foot and mouth disease in Zambia: Spatial and temporal distributions of outbreaks, assessment of clusters and implications for control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yona Sinkala

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Zambia has been experiencing low livestock productivity as well as trade restrictions owing to the occurrence of foot and mouth disease (FMD, but little is known about the epidemiology of the disease in these endemic settings. The fundamental questions relate to the spatio-temporal distribution of FMD cases and what determines their occurrence. A retrospective review of FMD cases in Zambia from 1981 to 2012 was conducted using geographical information systems and the SaTScan software package. Information was collected from peer-reviewed journal articles, conference proceedings, laboratory reports, unpublished scientific reports and grey literature. A space–time permutation probability model using a varying time window of one year was used to scan for areas with high infection rates. The spatial scan statistic detected a significant purely spatial cluster around the Mbala–Isoka area between 2009 and 2012, with secondary clusters in Sesheke–Kazungula in 2007 and 2008, the Kafue flats in 2004 and 2005 and Livingstone in 2012. This study provides evidence of the existence of statistically significant FMD clusters and an increase in occurrence in Zambia between 2004 and 2012. The identified clusters agree with areas known to be at high risk of FMD. The FMD virus transmission dynamics and the heterogeneous variability in risk within these locations may need further investigation.

  4. The age distributions of clusters and field stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud — implications for star formation histories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijssen, J.M.D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/325799911; Lamers, H.J.G.L.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072834870

    2008-01-01

    Differences between the inferred star formation histories (SFHs) of star clusters and field stars seem to suggest distinct star formation processes for the two. The Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) is an example of a galaxy where such a discrepancy is observed. We model the observed age distributions of

  5. Clustering of near clusters versus cluster compactness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Gao; Yipeng Jing

    1989-01-01

    The clustering properties of near Zwicky clusters are studied by using the two-point angular correlation function. The angular correlation functions for compact and medium compact clusters, for open clusters, and for all near Zwicky clusters are estimated. The results show much stronger clustering for compact and medium compact clusters than for open clusters, and that open clusters have nearly the same clustering strength as galaxies. A detailed study of the compactness-dependence of correlation function strength is worth investigating. (author)

  6. Expression of Nestin, Vimentin, and NCAM by Renal Interstitial Cells after Ischemic Tubular Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vansthertem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work explores the distribution of various markers expressed by interstitial cells in rat kidneys after ischemic injury (35 minutes during regeneration of S3 tubules of outer stripe of outer medulla (OSOM. Groups of experimental animals (n=4 were sacrificed every two hours during the first 24 hours post-ischemia as well as 2, 3, 7, 14 days post-ischemia. The occurrence of lineage markers was analyzed on kidney sections by immunohistochemistry and morphometry during the process of tubular regeneration. In postischemic kidneys, interstitial cell proliferation, assessed by 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA labeling, was prominent in outer medulla and reach a maximum between 24 and 72 hours after reperfusion. This population was characterized by the coexpression of vimentin and nestin. The density of -Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (NCAM positive interstitial cells increased transiently (18–72 hours in the vicinity of altered tubules. We have also localized a small population of α-Smooth Muscle Actin (SMA-positive cells confined to chronically altered areas and characterized by a small proliferative index. In conclusion, we observed in the postischemic kidney a marked proliferation of interstitial cells that underwent transient phenotypical modifications. These interstitial cells could be implicated in processes leading to renal fibrosis.

  7. ULTRAVIOLET-BRIGHT STELLAR POPULATIONS AND THEIR EVOLUTIONARY IMPLICATIONS IN THE COLLAPSED-CORE CLUSTER M15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haurberg, Nathalie C.; Lubell, Gabriel M. G.; Cohn, Haldan N.; Lugger, Phyllis M.; Anderson, Jay; Cool, Adrienne M.; Serenelli, Aldo M.

    2010-01-01

    We performed deep photometry of the central region of the Galactic globular cluster M15 from archival Hubble Space Telescope data taken on the High Resolution Channel and Solar Blind Channel of the Advanced Camera for Surveys. Our data set consists of images in far-UV (FUV 140 ; F140LP), near-UV (NUV 220 ; F220W), and blue (B 435 ; F435W) filters. The addition of an optical filter complements previous UV work on M15 by providing an additional constraint on the UV-bright stellar populations. Using color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), we identified several populations that arise from non-canonical evolution including candidate blue stragglers, extreme horizontal branch (HB) stars, blue hook (BHk) stars, cataclysmic variables (CVs), and helium-core white dwarfs (He WDs). Due to preliminary identification of several He WD and BHk candidates, we add M15 as a cluster containing an He WD sequence and suggest it be included among clusters with a BHk population. We also investigated a subset of CV candidates that appear in the gap between the main sequence (MS) and WDs in FUV 140 -NUV 220 but lie securely on the MS in NUV 220 -B 435 . These stars may represent a magnetic CV or detached WD-MS binary population. Additionally, we analyze our candidate He WDs using model cooling sequences to estimate their masses and ages and investigate the plausibility of thin versus thick hydrogen envelopes. Finally, we identify a class of UV-bright stars that lie between the HB and WD cooling sequences, a location not usually populated on cluster CMDs. We conclude these stars may be young, low-mass He WDs.

  8. Restraint stress intensifies interstitial K+ accumulation during severe hypoxia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eSchnell

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic stress affects neuronal networks by inducing dendritic retraction, modifying neuronal excitability and plasticity, and modulating glial cells. To elucidate the functional consequences of chronic stress for the hippocampal network, we submitted adult rats to daily restraint stress for three weeks (6 h/day. In acute hippocampal tissue slices of stressed rats, basal synaptic function and short-term plasticity at Schaffer collateral/CA1 neuron synapses were unchanged while long-term potentiation was markedly impaired. The spatiotemporal propagation pattern of hypoxia-induced spreading depression episodes was indistinguishable among control and stress slices. However, the duration of the extracellular direct current (DC potential shift was shortened after stress. Moreover, K+ fluxes early during hypoxia were more intense, and the postsynaptic recoveries of interstitial K+ levels and synaptic function were slower. Morphometric analysis of immunohistochemically stained sections suggested hippocampal shrinkage in stressed rats, and the number of cells that are immunoreactive for GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein was increased in the CA1 subfield indicating activation of astrocytes. Western blots showed a marked downregulation of the inwardly rectifying K+ channel Kir4.1 in stressed rats. Yet, resting membrane potentials, input resistance and K+-induced inward currents in CA1 astrocytes were indistinguishable from controls. These data indicate an intensified interstitial K+ accumulation during hypoxia in the hippocampus of chronically stressed rats which seems to arise from a reduced interstitial volume fraction rather than impaired glial K+ buffering. One may speculate that chronic stress aggravates hypoxia-induced pathophysiological processes in the hippocampal network and that this has implications for the ischemic brain.

  9. [Modern Views on Children's Interstitial Lung Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boĭtsova, E V; Beliashova, M A; Ovsiannikov, D Iu

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILD, diffuse lung diseases) are a heterogeneous group of diseases in which a pathological process primarily involved alveoli and perialveolar interstitium, resulting in impaired gas exchange, restrictive changes of lung ventilation function and diffuse interstitial changes detectable by X-ray. Children's interstitial lung diseases is an topical problem ofpediatricpulmonoogy. The article presents current information about classification, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostics, treatment and prognosis of these rare diseases. The article describes the differences in the structure, pathogenesis, detection of various histological changes in children's ILD compared with adult patients with ILD. Authors cite an instance of registers pediatric patients with ILD. The clinical semiotics of ILD, the possible results of objective research, the frequency of symptoms, the features of medical history, the changes detected on chest X-rays, CT semiotics described in detail. Particular attention was paid to interstitial lung diseases, occurring mainly in newborns and children during the first two years of life, such as congenital deficiencies of surfactant proteins, neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy, pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis. The diagnostic program for children's ILD, therapy options are presented in this article.

  10. Annealing and cluster formation of defects in a cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynenko, Yu.V.

    1975-01-01

    The behaviour of radiative defects after a dynamic cascade of atomic collisions caused by irradiation by neutrons or accelerated heavy ions if theoretically investigated. In investig.ation, apart from processes of vacancy recombination, cluster formation and interstitial atoms the diffusive ''spreading'' of point defects from the initial region is taken into account. Since interstitial atoms are more mobile, all the processes are divided into two stages: at the first stage only interstitial atoms diffuse, and vacancies are stationary; at the second stage vacancies are mobile, and interstitial atoms are either ''spread'' over the whole volume, or are united into stable clusters. The number of defects and clusters is calculated depending on energy of cascade, atomic number of the material and temperature

  11. Defect clustering in concentrated alloys during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, T.; Shigenaka, N.; Fuse, M.

    1992-01-01

    A rate theory based model is presented to investigate the kinetics of interstitial clustering processes in a face-centered cubic (fcc) binary alloy containing A- and B-atoms. Three types of interstitial dumbbells, AA-, BB- and AB-type dumbbells, are considered. Conversions between these interstitial dumbbells are explicitly introduced into the formulation, based on the consideration of dumbbell configurations and movements. A di- interstitial is assumed to be the nucleus of a dislocation loop. Reactions of point defect production by irradiation, mutual recombination of an interstitial and a vacancy, dislocation loop nucleation and their growth are included in the model. Parameter values are chosen based on the atom size of the alloy elements, and dislocation loop formation kinetics are investigated while varying alloy compositions. Two different types of kinetics are obtained in accordance with the dominant loop nucleus types. Conversions between interstitial dumbbells are important in the determination of the interstitial dumbbell concentration ratios, of the dominant nucleus types, and consequently, the loop formation kinetics. Dislocation loop concentration decreases with increasing undersized atom content, but dose rate and temperature dependence of loop concentration are insensitive to alloy compositions. (author)

  12. Assessment and management of refractory breathlessness in interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speakman, Lucy; Walthall, Helen

    2017-09-02

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) refers to a cluster of fibroinflammatory conditions. There are limited treatment options and most patients have severe dyspnoea. The prognosis is poor. This study aims to evaluate current literature on the assessment and management of refractory breathlessness in ILD. Few tools are available to assess dyspnoea in advanced respiratory disease. Holistic assessment requires a combination of tools but there are few disease specific tools. The role of opioids is well established in the reduction of breathlessness, but there is insufficient evidence that benzodiazepines are beneficial. Non-pharmcolological breathlessness intervention services can give patients mastery of their disease, reduced distress due to breathlessness and were more cost effective. More research on holistic interventions for use in advanced disease needs to be done. Patient-reported outcome measures could elicit valuable evidence to describe the benefit of breathlessness management services in advanced respiratory disease.

  13. Kinetics of interstitial defects in α-Fe: The effect from uniaxial stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Changwoo [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Wang, Qingyu [College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Shao, Lin, E-mail: lshao@tamu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Understanding defect kinetics in a stress field is important for multiscale modeling of materials degradation of nuclear materials. By means of molecular dynamics and molecular statics simulations, we calculate formation and migration energies of self-interstitial atoms (SIA) and SIA clusters (up to size of 5 interstitials) in alpha Fe and identify their stable configurations under uniaxial tensile strains. By applying uniaxial stress along [111], <111> oriented single SIA defects become more stable than <110> oriented SIA, which is opposite to stress-free condition. Diffusion of single SIA defects under [111] tensile stress is facilitated along [111] direction and the diffusion becomes one dimensional (1D). For SIA clusters, their diffusion under zero stress has gradual transition from three dimensional (3D) for small clusters to one dimensional (1D) for large clusters. Under the tensile stress along [111], the 3D to 1D transition is accelerated. For large SIA clusters, the stress effect is quickly saturated with less diffusivity enhancement in comparison with small SIA clusters.

  14. Magnetic quadrupole resonance of electron irradiated aluminium. Electric field gradients surrounding the vacancies and interstitials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreani, R.; Minier, M.; Minier, C.

    Some aluminium samples were irradiated at 20K with 3MeV electrons. The quadrupole absorption spectra have been obtained after irradiation and annealing, at 50K, 150K and 300K. Coupled conductivity measurements allowed the evolution in defect concentration to be studied. This new method makes it possible to characterize the presence of vacancies independently of the simultaneous existence of bivacancies, interstitials and clusters [fr

  15. Di-interstitial defect in silicon revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Londos, C. A.; Antonaras, G.; Chroneos, A.

    2013-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy was used to study the defect spectrum of Cz-Si samples following fast neutron irradiation. We mainly focus on the band at 533 cm −1 , which disappears from the spectra at ∼170 °C, exhibiting similar thermal stability with the Si-P6 electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum previously correlated with the di-interstitial defect. The suggested structural model of this defect comprises of two self-interstitial atoms located symmetrically around a lattice site Si atom. The band anneals out following a first-order kinetics with an activation energy of 0.88 ± 0.3 eV. This value does not deviate considerably from previously quoted experimental and theoretical values for the di-interstitial defect. The present results indicate that the 533 cm −1 IR band originates from the same structure as that of the Si-P6 EPR spectrum

  16. An overview of interstitial brachytherapy and hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, B.B.; Harney, J.

    1989-01-01

    Interstitial thermoradiotherapy, an experimental cancer treatment that combines interstitial radiation implants (brachytherapy) and interstitial hyperthermia, is in the early stages of investigation. In accordance with the procedure used in a current national trial protocol, a 60-minute hyperthermia treatment is administered after catheters are placed into the tumor area while the patient is under general anesthesia. This is immediately followed by loading of radioactive Iridium-192 seeds into the catheters for a defined period of time. Once the prescribed radiation dose is delivered, the radioactive sources are removed and a second, 60-minute hyperthermia treatment is administered. Clinical trials with hyperthermia in combination with radiation have increased in recent years. Nurses caring for these patients need to become more knowledgeable about this investigational therapy. This paper provides an overview of the biologic rationale for this therapy, as well as a description of the delivery method and clinical application. Specific related nursing interventions are defined in a nursing protocol.23 references

  17. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Young Cheol; Suh, Gee Young; Han, Joung Ho; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2002-01-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are at present classified as one of four types: usual, nonspecific, acute, or desquamative. The acute form has the worst prognosis, followed by the usual and the nonspecific form; it is in desquamative cases that prognosis is best. At high-resolution CT, usual interstitial pneumonia, the most frequent type, manifests as patchy subpleural areas of ground-glass attenuation, irregular linear opacity, and honeycombing, which the nonspecific type, the second most frequent, appears as subpleural patchy areas of ground-glass attenuation with associated areas of irregular linear opacity. Acute interstitial pneumonia demonstrates extensive bilateral airspace consolidation and patchy or diffuse bilateral areas of ground-glass attenuation in middle and lower lung zones

  18. The Role of Interstitial Fluid Pressurization in Articular Cartilage Lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateshian, Gerard A.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last two decades, considerable progress has been reported in the field of cartilage mechanics that impacts our understanding of the role of interstitial fluid pressurization on cartilage lubrication. Theoretical and experimental studies have demonstrated that the interstitial fluid of cartilage pressurizes considerably under loading, potentially supporting most of the applied load under various transient or steady-state conditions. The fraction of the total load supported by fluid pressurization has been called the fluid load support. Experimental studies have demonstrated that the friction coefficient of cartilage correlates negatively with this variable, achieving remarkably low values when the fluid load support is greatest. A theoretical framework that embodies this relationship has been validated against experiments, predicting and explaining various outcomes, and demonstrating that a low friction coefficient can be maintained for prolonged loading durations under normal physiological function. This paper reviews salient aspects of this topic, as well as its implications for improving our understanding of boundary lubrication by molecular species in synovial fluid and the cartilage superficial zone. Effects of cartilage degeneration on its frictional response are also reviewed. PMID:19464689

  19. Observation of interstitial molecular hydrogen in clathrate hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, R Gary; Barnes, Brian C; Lafond, Patrick G; Kockelmann, Winfred A; Keen, David A; Soper, Alan K; Hiratsuka, Masaki; Yasuoka, Kenji; Koh, Carolyn A; Sum, Amadeu K

    2014-09-26

    The current knowledge and description of guest molecules within clathrate hydrates only accounts for occupancy within regular polyhedral water cages. Experimental measurements and simulations, examining the tert-butylamine + H2 + H2O hydrate system, now suggest that H2 can also be incorporated within hydrate crystal structures by occupying interstitial sites, that is, locations other than the interior of regular polyhedral water cages. Specifically, H2 is found within the shared heptagonal faces of the large (4(3)5(9)6(2)7(3)) cage and in cavities formed from the disruption of smaller (4(4)5(4)) water cages. The ability of H2 to occupy these interstitial sites and fluctuate position in the crystal lattice demonstrates the dynamic behavior of H2 in solids and reveals new insight into guest-guest and guest-host interactions in clathrate hydrates, with potential implications in increasing overall energy storage properties. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Correlation of gene expression with bladder capacity in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaco, Marc; Koslov, David S; Keys, Tristan; Evans, Robert J; Badlani, Gopal H; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Walker, Stephen J

    2014-10-01

    Interstitial cystitis and bladder pain syndrome are terms used to describe a heterogeneous chronic pelvic and bladder pain disorder. Despite its significant prevalence, our understanding of disease etiology is poor. We molecularly characterized interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and determined whether there are clinical factors that correlate with gene expression. Bladder biopsies from female subjects with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and female controls without signs of the disease were collected and divided into those with normal and low anesthetized bladder capacity, respectively. Samples then underwent RNA extraction and microarray assay. Data generated by these assays were analyzed using Omics Explorer (Qlucore, Lund, Sweden), GeneSifter® Analysis Edition 4.0 and Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis to determine similarity among samples within and between groups, and measure differentially expressed transcripts unique to each phenotype. A total of 16 subjects were included in study. Principal component analysis and unsupervised hierarchical clustering showed clear separation between gene expression in tissues from subjects with low compared to normal bladder capacity. Gene expression in tissue from patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome who had normal bladder capacity did not significantly differ from that in controls without interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. Pairwise analysis revealed that pathways related to inflammatory and immune response were most involved. Microarray analysis provides insight into the potential pathological condition underlying interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. This pilot study shows that patients with this disorder who have low compared to normal bladder capacity have significantly different molecular characteristics, which may reflect a difference in disease pathophysiology. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc

  1. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: imaging-pathology correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, Stephen M.; Hansell, David M.

    2002-01-01

    The terminology related to idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) remains confusing and in some cases wholly inaccurate. In addition, a greater understanding of the correlation between high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) appearances and the corresponding histopathological changes found in the interstitial pneumonias has resulted in a crucial role for HRCT in the investigation of IIPs. The role of the radiologist is becoming increasingly important with a strong emphasis on establishing a diagnosis without resorting to lung biopsy. We aim to clarify the current classification of the IIPs highlighting their clinical, pathological and imaging characteristics in order to assist the radiologist in performing their increasingly important diagnostic role. (orig.)

  2. Quantum diffusion of light interstitials in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMullen, T.; Bergersen, B.

    1978-01-01

    A quantum theory of diffusion of self-trapped light interstitials in metals is presented. The theory encompasses both coherent and incoherent tunneling, but the approximation used neglects the dependence of the interstitial transfer matrix element on the vibrational state of the crystal. The coherent tunneling contribution is estimated by fitting the incoherent diffusion rate to experimental data for hydrogen and muon diffusion. It is predicted that coherent diffusion should be dominant below approximately 80 K for H in Nb and below approximately 190 K for μ + in Cu. Experimental verifications of these predictions would require high purity strain free samples and low concentrations of the diffusing species. (author)

  3. Ancient expansion of the hox cluster in lepidoptera generated four homeobox genes implicated in extra-embryonic tissue formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ferguson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Gene duplications within the conserved Hox cluster are rare in animal evolution, but in Lepidoptera an array of divergent Hox-related genes (Shx genes has been reported between pb and zen. Here, we use genome sequencing of five lepidopteran species (Polygonia c-album, Pararge aegeria, Callimorpha dominula, Cameraria ohridella, Hepialus sylvina plus a caddisfly outgroup (Glyphotaelius pellucidus to trace the evolution of the lepidopteran Shx genes. We demonstrate that Shx genes originated by tandem duplication of zen early in the evolution of large clade Ditrysia; Shx are not found in a caddisfly and a member of the basally diverging Hepialidae (swift moths. Four distinct Shx genes were generated early in ditrysian evolution, and were stably retained in all descendent Lepidoptera except the silkmoth which has additional duplications. Despite extensive sequence divergence, molecular modelling indicates that all four Shx genes have the potential to encode stable homeodomains. The four Shx genes have distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns in early development of the Speckled Wood butterfly (Pararge aegeria, with ShxC demarcating the future sites of extraembryonic tissue formation via strikingly localised maternal RNA in the oocyte. All four genes are also expressed in presumptive serosal cells, prior to the onset of zen expression. Lepidopteran Shx genes represent an unusual example of Hox cluster expansion and integration of novel genes into ancient developmental regulatory networks.

  4. Radionuclide study for the interstitial lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Kenji; Mori, Yutaka; Ujita, Masuo

    1991-01-01

    The contribution of pulmonary nuclear medicine was evaluated in 105 patients with interstitial pulmonary diseases (IPD). Ventilation study (V) with 81m Kr, distribution of compliance in thoraco-pulmonary system (C) by 81m Kr gas bolus inhalation method, perfusion study (Q) with 99m Tc-MAA, 67 Ga scintigraphy and an assessment of pulmonary epithelial permeability with 99m Tc-DTPA aerosol were performed as nuclear medicine procedures. Pulmonary function test (%DLco, vital capacity and functional residual capacity) and blood gas analysis were also examined. Abnormalities in V were larger than that in Q which was high V/Q mismatch finding, in the interstitial pneumonia. Correlation between V/Q mismatch and PaO 2 was, therefore, not significant. %DLco was decreased in cases with larger V/Q mismatches. 67 Ga accumulated in the early stage of interstitial pneumonia when CT or chest X-ray did not show any finding. %DLco was decreased in cases with strong accumulation of 67 Ga. 67 Ga might be useful to evaluate activity of the diseases. Pulmonary epithelial permeability was assessed by 99m Tc-DTPA inhalation study. This permeability accelerated in idiopathic interstitial fibrosis and sarcoidosis. Pulmonary epithelial permeability may be useful as an indicator for epithelial cell injury. (author)

  5. Interstitial laser thermotherapy in neurosurgery: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menovsky, T.; Beek, J. F.; van Gemert, M. J.; Roux, F. X.; Bown, S. G.

    1996-01-01

    One of the most recent laser treatment modalities in neurosurgery is interstitial laser thermotherapy (ILTT). In this review, experimental and clinical studies concerning intracranial ILTT are discussed. Two methods for intra-operative control of the laser induced lesions are described; i.e.,

  6. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovrenski Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia is one of the rarest idiopathic interstitial pneumonias and the rarest form of smoking-related interstitial lung diseases. It was first described by Liebow in 1965. Histologically, it is characterized by the presence of eosinophilic macrophages uniformly filling airspaces which often contain a finely granular light-brown pigment that does not stain for hemosiderin. The alveolar walls are usually mildly thickened by fibrous tissue and infiltrated by a moderate number of lymphocytes. Case Outline. Our patient was a 56-year-old male, heavy smoker, with bilateral lung infiltrations of unknown etiology and several months of discomfort in the form of dry cough and shortness of breath. Lung function tests showed a moderate restrictive ventilation disorder and a severe reduction of diffusing capacity. Since bronchoscopic specimens did not reveal lung lesion etiology, an open lung biopsy of the lower left pulmonary lobe was performed, and based on the obtained surgical material the pathohistologically diagnosis of desquamative interstitial pneumonia was established. The patient was started on corticosteroid and immunosuppressive therapy, and he ceased smoking. At the last control examination, two years after the onset of symptoms, the patient was feeling well, and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT scan of the thorax showed regression of pathological changes. Conclusion. Although, as in our case, the majority of DIP patients improve on treatment, some patients still develop progressive irreversible fibrosis despite therapy.

  7. Radionuclide study for the interstitial lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Kenji; Mori, Yutaka; Ujita, Masuo (Jikei Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-07-01

    The contribution of pulmonary nuclear medicine was evaluated in 105 patients with interstitial pulmonary diseases (IPD). Ventilation study (V) with {sup 81m}Kr, distribution of compliance in thoraco-pulmonary system (C) by {sup 81m}Kr gas bolus inhalation method, perfusion study (Q) with {sup 99m}Tc-MAA, {sup 67}Ga scintigraphy and an assessment of pulmonary epithelial permeability with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA aerosol were performed as nuclear medicine procedures. Pulmonary function test (%DLco, vital capacity and functional residual capacity) and blood gas analysis were also examined. Abnormalities in V were larger than that in Q which was high V/Q mismatch finding, in the interstitial pneumonia. Correlation between V/Q mismatch and PaO{sub 2} was, therefore, not significant. %DLco was decreased in cases with larger V/Q mismatches. {sup 67}Ga accumulated in the early stage of interstitial pneumonia when CT or chest X-ray did not show any finding. %DLco was decreased in cases with strong accumulation of {sup 67}Ga. {sup 67}Ga might be useful to evaluate activity of the diseases. Pulmonary epithelial permeability was assessed by {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA inhalation study. This permeability accelerated in idiopathic interstitial fibrosis and sarcoidosis. Pulmonary epithelial permeability may be useful as an indicator for epithelial cell injury. (author).

  8. Change of Energy of the Cubic Subnanocluster of Iron Under Influence of Interstitial and Substitutional Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedolya, Anatoliy V; Bondarenko, Natalya V

    2016-12-01

    Energy change of an iron face-centred cubic subnanocluster was evaluated using molecular mechanics method depending on the position of a carbon interstitial atom and substitutional atoms of nickel. Calculations of all possible positions of impurity atoms show that the energy change of the system are discrete and at certain positions of the atoms are close to continuous.In terms of energy, when all impurity atoms are on the same edge of an atomic cluster, their positions are more advantageous. The presence of nickel atoms on the edge of a cubic cluster resulted in decrease of potential barrier for a carbon atom and decrease in energy in the whole cluster. A similar drift of a carbon atom from central octahedral interstitial site to the surface in the direction occurred under the influence of surface factors.Such configuration corresponds to decreasing symmetry and increasing the number of possible energy states of a subnanocluster, and it corresponds to the condition of spontaneous crystallization process in an isolated system.Taking into account accidental positions of the nickel atom in the iron cluster, such behaviour of the carbon atom can explain the mechanism of growth of a new phase and formation of new clusters in the presence of other kind of atoms because of surface influence.

  9. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: histopathological and imaging perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, S.R.; Ryan, S.M.; Colby, T.V.

    2003-01-01

    The present review focuses on the interstitial lung diseases related to smoking. Thus, the pathology and radiology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis and respiratory bronchiolitis-associated-interstitial lung disease are considered. The more tenuous association between pulmonary fibrosis and smoking is also discussed

  10. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: histopathological and imaging perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, S.R.; Ryan, S.M.; Colby, T.V

    2003-04-01

    The present review focuses on the interstitial lung diseases related to smoking. Thus, the pathology and radiology of Langerhans cell histiocytosis, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis and respiratory bronchiolitis-associated-interstitial lung disease are considered. The more tenuous association between pulmonary fibrosis and smoking is also discussed.

  11. Kinetics of self-interstitial migration in bcc and fcc transition metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukkuru, S.; Bhardwaj, U.; Srinivasa Rao, K.; Rao, A. D. P.; Warrier, M.; Valsakumar, M. C.

    2018-03-01

    Radiation damage is a multi-scale phenomenon. A thorough understanding of diffusivities and the migration energies of defects is a pre-requisite to quantify the after-effects of irradiation. We investigate the thermally activated mobility of self-interstitial atom (SIA) in bcc transition metals Fe, Mo, Nb and fcc transition metals Ag, Cu, Ni, Pt using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The self-interstitial diffusion involves various mechanisms such as interstitialcy, dumbbell or crowdion mechanisms. Max-Space Clustering (MSC) method has been employed to identify the interstitial and its configuration over a wide range of temperature. The self-interstitial diffusion is Arrhenius like, however, there is a slight deviation at high temperatures. The migration energies, pre-exponential factors of diffusion and jump-correlation factors, obtained from these simulations can be used as inputs to Monte Carlo simulations of defect transport. The jump-correlation factor shows the degree of preference of rectilinear or rotational jumps. We obtain the average jump-correlation factor of 1.4 for bcc metals and 0.44 for fcc metals. It indicates that rectilinear jumps are preferred in bcc metals and rotational jumps are preferred in fcc metals.

  12. Strain Fields And Crystallographic Characteristics Of Interstitial Dislocation Loops of Various Geometry In BCC Iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivak, Alexander B.; Chernov, Viatcheslav M.; Romanov, Vladimir A.

    2008-01-01

    The formation energy, the relaxation volume, the dipole-force tensor, the self strain tensor and strain fields of interstitial dislocation loops in bcc iron (clusters of self interstitial atoms) have been calculated by molecular statics. Hexagonal and square dislocation loops of different types with different Burgers vectors, directions of dislocation segments and habit planes containing up to ∼2500 self-interstitials have been considered. Analytical expressions describing size dependence of the formation energy, the relaxation volume and the self strain tensor for the loops stated have been obtained. The most energetically favorable loops are hexagonal loops with Burgers vector a/2 and habit plane {11x}, where x takes values in the range from 0 to 1 depending on the loop size. The formation energy of a loops with and dislocation segments is ∼14% and 23% greater than that of hexagonal a/2 loops at N>500, respectively. The analysis of the formation energies of a/2 and a loops demonstrated that the nucleation of an a loop by joining of two a/2 loops is possible when the total number of constituent self-interstitials in these loops is larger than 13

  13. Anelastic relaxation of interstitial foreign atoms and their complexes with intrinsic defects in B.C.C. metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, M.

    1985-01-01

    In body-centred cubic metals, heavy interstitial foreign atoms (IFA) O, N and C give rise to relaxations of Snoek type. For dilute alloys, relaxation parameters are summarized. In concentrated alloys (group Va metals containing O or N) Snoek relaxations are influenced by the interaction of IFA. The recent controversy is discussed as to whether this interaction is based on clustering or anticlustering. In irradiated metals complexes of IFA with intrinsic atomic defects (vacancies or self interstitial atoms) also give rise to relaxations

  14. Superconducting electron tunneling as detection method for low frequency resonant vibration modes of interstitials in fcc lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adrian, H.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of crystal defects on the phonon spectra was studied for fcc lead using superconducting tunneling spectroscopy. The theory predicts low frequency modes for the vibrational states of interstitials in (100) dumbbell configuration. Low temperature irradiation of superconducting point contacts with fast ions (point contact thickness small compared to the average ion range) showed radiation-induced structures in the low-energy part of the Eliashberg function for lead. These resonant modes are reduced by annealing at 18.5 K; they are attributed to small interstitial clusters. The radiation-induced structures are completely removed by room temperature annealing. (orig.)

  15. Self-interstitials and Frenkel pairs in electron-irradiated germanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, A.; Jones, R.; Goss, J.; Janke, C.; Coutinho, J.; Oberg, S.; Briddon, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    First principles calculations were used to study the structures and electrical levels of the self-interstitial in Ge. We considered the possibility of structural changes consequent with change in charge state and show these have important implications in the mobility and electrical activity of the defect. The theoretical model is compared to the results of low temperature electron irradiation in germanium reported in the literature

  16. Cerebrospinal and Interstitial Fluid Transport via the Glymphatic Pathway Modeled by Optimal Mass Transport

    OpenAIRE

    Ratner, Vadim; Gao, Yi; Lee, Hedok; Elkin, Rena; Nedergaard, Maiken; Benveniste, Helene; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2017-01-01

    The glymphatic pathway is a system which facilitates continuous cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid (ISF) exchange and plays a key role in removing waste products from the rodent brain. Dysfunction of the glymphatic pathway may be implicated in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease. Intriguingly, the glymphatic system is most active during deep wave sleep general anesthesia. By using paramagnetic tracers administered into CSF of rodents, we previously showed the utility of M...

  17. Differential gene expression in the murine gastric fundus lacking interstitial cells of Cajal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Sean M

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The muscle layers of murine gastric fundus have no interstitial cells of Cajal at the level of the myenteric plexus and only possess intramuscular interstitial cells and this tissue does not generate electric slow waves. The absence of intramuscular interstitial cells in W/WV mutants provides a unique opportunity to study the molecular changes that are associated with the loss of these intercalating cells. Method The gene expression profile of the gastric fundus of wild type and W/WV mice was assayed by murine microarray analysis displaying a total of 8734 elements. Queried genes from the microarray analysis were confirmed by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results Twenty-one genes were differentially expressed in wild type and W/WV mice. Eleven transcripts had 2.0–2.5 fold higher mRNA expression in W/WV gastric fundus when compared to wild type tissues. Ten transcripts had 2.1–3.9 fold lower expression in W/WV mutants in comparison with wild type animals. None of these genes have ever been implicated in any bowel motility function. Conclusions These data provides evidence that several important genes have significantly changed in the murine fundus of W/WV mutants that lack intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal and have reduced enteric motor neurotransmission.

  18. Pancreas tumor interstitial pressure catheter measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieskoski, Michael D.; Gunn, Jason; Marra, Kayla; Trembly, B. Stuart; Pogue, Brian W.

    2016-03-01

    This paper highlights the methodology in measuring interstitial pressure in pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumors. A Millar Mikrotip pressure catheter (SPR-671) was used in this study and a system was built to amplify and filter the output signal for data collection. The Millar pressure catheter was calibrated prior to each experiment in a water column at 37°C, range of 0 to 60 inH2O (112 mmHg), resulting in a calibration factor of 33 mV / 1 inH2O. The interstitial pressures measured in two orthotopically grown pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumor were 57 mmHg and 48 mmHg, respectively. Verteporfin uptake into the pancreatic adenocarcinoma tumor was measured using a probe-based experimental dosimeter.

  19. Fatal interstitial lung disease associated with icotinib

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jiexia; Zhan, Yangqing; Ouyang, Ming; Qin, Yinyin; Zhou, Chengzhi; Chen, Rongchang

    2014-01-01

    The most serious, and maybe fatal, yet rare, adverse reaction of gefitinib and erlotinib is drug-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD), which has been often described. However, it has been less well described for icotinib, a similar orally small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). The case of a 25-year-old female patient with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma who developed fatal ILD is reported here. She denied chemotherapy, and received palliative treatment with icotinib (125 mg po, th...

  20. A case of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia

    OpenAIRE

    豊見山, 寛; 兼島, 洋; 下地, 克佳; 金城, 勇徳; 中富, 昌夫; 小張, 一峰; 松井, 克明; Tomiyama, Hiroshi; Kaneshima, Hiroshi; Shimoji, Katsuyoshi; Kinjo, Yutoku; Nakatomi, Masao; Kobari, Kazumine; Matsui, Katsuaki; 琉球大学医学部第一内科

    1982-01-01

    A case of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia was reported. A 53-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with his complaint of shortness of breath. On physical examination clubbing of the fingers was noticed and velcro rales was heard on the bilateral lower back. On laboratory data no remarkable finding was revealed. Chest roentgenogram showed diffuse reticulonodular shadow and small ring shadow of the bilateral lower lung fields. On pulmonary function test decline of VC and DLco was revealed...

  1. Self-interstitial atoms in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, W.

    1978-01-01

    The present state of knowledge and understanding of the properties of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) in metals is reviewed. Special emphasis is given to a discussion of the structure of SIAs and those properties which relate to structure such as relaxation volumes, elastic polarizabilities, defect vibrations, geometry of jump processes, and elastic interactions. The present experimental status with respect to these properties is summarized, and the basic theoretical concepts for their understanding are presented as simply as possible. (Auth.)

  2. Chronic interstitial lung disease in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Griese

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Children's interstitial lung diseases (chILD are increasingly recognised and contain many lung developmental and genetic disorders not yet identified in adult pneumology. Worldwide, several registers have been established. The Australasian Registry Network for Orphan Lung Disease (ARNOLD has identified problems in estimating rare disease prevalence; focusing on chILD in immunocompetent patients, a period prevalence of 1.5 cases per million children and a mortality rate of 7% were determined. The chILD-EU register highlighted the workload to be covered per patient included and provided protocols for diagnosis and initial treatment, similar to the United States chILD network. Whereas case reports may be useful for young physicians to practise writing articles, cohorts of patients can catapult progress, as demonstrated by recent studies on persistent tachypnoea of infancy, hypersensitivity pneumonitis in children and interstitial lung disease related to interferonopathies from mutations in transmembrane protein 173. Translational research has linked heterozygous mutations in the ABCA3 transporter to an increased risk of interstitial lung diseases, not only in neonates, but also in older children and adults. For surfactant dysfunction disorders in infancy and early childhood, lung transplantation was reported to be as successful as in adult patients. Mutual potentiation of paediatric and adult pneumologists is mandatory in this rapidly extending field for successful future development. This brief review highlights publications in the field of paediatric interstitial lung disease as reviewed during the Clinical Year in Review session presented at the 2017 European Respiratory Society (ERS Annual Congress in Milan, Italy. It was commissioned by the ERS and critically presents progress made as well as drawbacks.

  3. In situ observation of thermal relaxation of interstitial-vacancy pair defects in a graphite gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urita, Koki; Suenaga, Kazu; Iijima, Sumio; Sugai, Toshiki; Shinohara, Hisanori

    2005-01-01

    Direct observation of individual defects during formation and annihilation in the interlayer gap of double-wall carbon nanotubes (DWNT) is demonstrated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The interlayer defects that bridge two adjacent graphen layers in DWNT are stable for a macroscopic time at the temperature below 450 K. These defects are assigned to a cluster of one or two interstitial-vacancy pairs (I-V pairs) and often disappear just after their formation at higher temperatures due to an instantaneous recombination of the interstitial atom with vacancy. Systematic observations performed at the elevated temperatures find a threshold for the defect annihilation at 450-500 K, which, indeed, corresponds to the known temperature for the Wigner energy release

  4. In situ observation of thermal relaxation of interstitial-vacancy pair defects in a graphite gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urita, Koki; Suenaga, Kazu; Sugai, Toshiki; Shinohara, Hisanori; Iijima, Sumio

    2005-04-22

    Direct observation of individual defects during formation and annihilation in the interlayer gap of double-wall carbon nanotubes (DWNT) is demonstrated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The interlayer defects that bridge two adjacent graphen layers in DWNT are stable for a macroscopic time at the temperature below 450 K. These defects are assigned to a cluster of one or two interstitial-vacancy pairs (I-V pairs) and often disappear just after their formation at higher temperatures due to an instantaneous recombination of the interstitial atom with vacancy. Systematic observations performed at the elevated temperatures find a threshold for the defect annihilation at 450-500 K, which, indeed, corresponds to the known temperature for the Wigner energy release.

  5. Temperature control in interstitial laser cancer immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Pradip K.; Holmes, Kyland; Burnett, Corinthius; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2003-07-01

    Positive results of Laser-Assisted Cancer Immunotherapy (LACI) have been reported previously in the irradiation of superficial tumors. This paper reports the effect of LACI using laser interstitial therapy approach. We hypothesize that the maximum immuno response depends on laser induced tumor temperature. The measurement of tumor temperature is crucial to ensure necrosis by thermal damage and immuno response. Wister Furth female rats in this study were inoculated with 13762 MAT B III rat mammary adinocarcinoma. LACI started seven to ten days following inoculation. Contrary to surface irradation, we applied laser interstitial irradiation of tumor volume to maximize the energy deposition. A diode laser with a wavelength of 805 nm was used for tumor irradiation. The laser energy was delivered inside the tumor through a quartz fiber. Tumor temperature was measured with a micro thermocouple (interstitial), while the tumor surface temperature was controlled with an IR detector. The temperature feedback demonstrates that it is possible to maintain the average tumor temperature at the same level with reasonable accuracy in the desired range from 65°C-85°C. In some experiments we used microwave thermometry to control average temperature in deep tissue for considerable period of time, to cause maximum thermal damage to the tumor. The experimental set-up and the different temperature measurement techniques are reported in detail, including the advantages and disadvantages for each method.

  6. Role of interstitial implantation in gynecological cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nori, D.; Hilaris, B.S.

    1987-01-01

    Recurrent cancer at any site carries a gloomy prognosis. Cancer of the cervix that recurs after radical surgery or curative radiation therapy is a perplexing problem confronting both gynecological and radiation oncologists. In the authors' series, 45% of the patients survived disease-free at 1 year and 10% survived without disease at 5 years or longer following interstitial implantation for recurrent cervical cancer. The optimal utilization of this procedure seems to depend on the site of recurrence, the extent of the disease in the pelvis, and the status of para-aortic node involvement. This retrospective analysis enabled the authors to identify the prognostic factors. The most favorable group benefited by this technique were those who presented with either central recurrence or unilateral, localized pelvic side wall recurrent disease. The least morbidity was noticed in those patients with minimal surgical manipulations at the time of the interstitial implantation. The authors recommended that only a limited and essential surgical procedure should accompany interstitial implantation, since the associated morbidity and mortality is high and survival brief

  7. Interstitial lung involvement in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vladimirovich Bestaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease of unknown etiology, characterized by chronic erosive arthritis and extraarticular manifestations. Pulmonary involvement is one of the common extraarticular manifestations of RA and may show itself as bronchial tree lesions, rheumatoid nodules, Caplan's syndrome, and lesions in the pleura or pulmonary interstitium (interstitial lung involvement (ILI. High-resolution computed tomography allows the diagnosis of ILI in RA in nearly 70% of cases although the incidence of ILI may be lower (4 to 30% depending on diagnostic methods and patient selection criteria. There are several histopathological types of ILI, the differential diagnosis of which can be troublesome. Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia are major types of RA-associated ILI. UIP-pattern ILI has a more severe course than ILI with other histological patterns. The clinical presentation of ILI may be complicated by the likely toxic effect of a number of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs used to treat RA, such as methotrexate and leflunomide, and biological agents (BAs, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α inhibitors. The pathogenesis of pulmonary involvement in RA and the role of synthetic DMARDs and BAs in the development of ILI call for further investigations.An extraarticular manifestation, such as ILI, affects the choice of treatment policy in patients with RA.The relevance of a study of ILI is beyond question. The paper discusses the state-of-the-art of investigations in this area.

  8. Interstitial prostate brachytherapy. LDR-PDR-HDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Gyoergy; Hoskin, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The first comprehensive overview of interstitial brachytherapy for the management of local or locally advanced prostate cancer. Written by an interdisciplinary team who have been responsible for the successful GEC-ESTRO/EAU Teaching Course. Discusses in detail patient selection, the results of different methods, the role of imaging, and medical physics issues. Prostate brachytherapy has been the subject of heated debate among surgeons and the proponents of the various brachytherapy methods. This very first interdisciplinary book on the subject provides a comprehensive overview of innovations in low dose rate (LDR), high dose rate (HDR), and pulsed dose rate (PDR) interstitial brachytherapy for the management of local or locally advanced prostate cancer. In addition to detailed chapters on patient selection and the use of imaging in diagnostics, treatment guidance, and implantation control, background chapters are included on related medical physics issues such as treatment planning and quality assurance. The results obtained with the different treatment options and the difficult task of salvage treatment are fully discussed. All chapters have been written by internationally recognized experts in their fields who for more than a decade have formed the teaching staff responsible for the successful GEC-ESTRO/EAU Prostate Brachytherapy Teaching Course. This book will be invaluable in informing residents and others of the scientific background and potential of modern prostate brachytherapy. It will also prove a useful source of up-to-date information for those who specialize in prostate brachytherapy or intend to start an interstitial brachytherapy service.

  9. Identifying self-interstitials of bcc and fcc crystals in molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukkuru, S.; Bhardwaj, U.; Warrier, M.; Rao, A.D.P.; Valsakumar, M.C.

    2017-01-01

    Identification of self-interstitials in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations is of critical importance. There exist several criteria for identifying the self-interstitial. Most of the existing methods use an assumed cut-off value for the displacement of an atom from its lattice position to identify the self-interstitial. The results obtained are affected by the chosen cut-off value. Moreover, these chosen cut-off values are independent of temperature. We have developed a novel unsupervised learning algorithm called Max-Space Clustering (MSC) to identify an appropriate cut-off value and its dependence on temperature. This method is compared with some widely used methods such as effective sphere (ES) method and nearest neighbor sphere (NNS) method. The cut-off radius obtained using our method shows a linear variation with temperature. The value of cut-off radius and its temperature dependence is derived for five bcc (Cr, Fe, Mo, Nb, W) and six fcc (Ag, Au, Cu, Ni, Pd, Pt) crystals. It is seen that the ratio of the cut-off values “r” to the lattice constant “a” lies between 0.23 and 0.3 at 300 K and this ratio is on an average smaller for the fcc crystals. Collision cascade simulations are carried out for Primary knock-on Atom (PKA) energies of 5 keV in Fe (at 300 K and 1000 K) and W (at 300 K and 2500 K) and the results are compared using the various methods. - Highlights: • Max-Space Clustering (MSC) method is developed to identify interstitials in crystals. • MSC provides a structured way to identify the temperature dependent cut-off radius. • It is compared with widely used sphere methods and found to be better. • MSC coupled with graph tree optimization can be used to obtain diffusion trajectory. • Cascade simulations of Fe, W are carried out and results are compared with various methods.

  10. Identifying self-interstitials of bcc and fcc crystals in molecular dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bukkuru, S., E-mail: srinivasaraobukkuru@gmail.com [Dept. of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530003 (India); Bhardwaj, U., E-mail: haptork@gmail.com [Computational Analysis Division, BARC, Visakhapatnam 530012, Andhra Pradesh (India); Warrier, M., E-mail: manoj.warrier@gmail.com [Computational Analysis Division, BARC, Visakhapatnam 530012, Andhra Pradesh (India); Rao, A.D.P., E-mail: adp_rao_99@yahoo.com [Dept. of Nuclear Physics, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530003 (India); Valsakumar, M.C., E-mail: mc.valsakumar@gmail.com [IIT Palakkad, Kozhippara P.O., Palakkad 678557, Kerala (India)

    2017-02-15

    Identification of self-interstitials in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations is of critical importance. There exist several criteria for identifying the self-interstitial. Most of the existing methods use an assumed cut-off value for the displacement of an atom from its lattice position to identify the self-interstitial. The results obtained are affected by the chosen cut-off value. Moreover, these chosen cut-off values are independent of temperature. We have developed a novel unsupervised learning algorithm called Max-Space Clustering (MSC) to identify an appropriate cut-off value and its dependence on temperature. This method is compared with some widely used methods such as effective sphere (ES) method and nearest neighbor sphere (NNS) method. The cut-off radius obtained using our method shows a linear variation with temperature. The value of cut-off radius and its temperature dependence is derived for five bcc (Cr, Fe, Mo, Nb, W) and six fcc (Ag, Au, Cu, Ni, Pd, Pt) crystals. It is seen that the ratio of the cut-off values “r” to the lattice constant “a” lies between 0.23 and 0.3 at 300 K and this ratio is on an average smaller for the fcc crystals. Collision cascade simulations are carried out for Primary knock-on Atom (PKA) energies of 5 keV in Fe (at 300 K and 1000 K) and W (at 300 K and 2500 K) and the results are compared using the various methods. - Highlights: • Max-Space Clustering (MSC) method is developed to identify interstitials in crystals. • MSC provides a structured way to identify the temperature dependent cut-off radius. • It is compared with widely used sphere methods and found to be better. • MSC coupled with graph tree optimization can be used to obtain diffusion trajectory. • Cascade simulations of Fe, W are carried out and results are compared with various methods.

  11. Experimental depletion of different renal interstitial cell populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohman, S.O.; Sundelin, B.; Forsum, U.; Tribukait, B.

    1988-01-01

    To define different populations of renal interstitial cells and investigate some aspects of their function, we studied the kidneys of normal rats and rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus (DI, Brattleboro) after experimental manipulations expected to alter the number of interstitial cells. DI rats showed an almost complete loss of interstitial cells in their renal papillae after treatment with a high dose of vasopressin. In spite of the lack of interstitial cells, the animals concentrated their urine to the same extent as vasopressin-treated normal rats, indicating that the renomedullary interstitial cells do not have an important function in concentrating the urine. The interstitial cells returned nearly to normal within 1 week off vasopressin treatment, suggesting a rapid turnover rate of these cells. To further distinguish different populations of interstitial cells, we studied the distribution of class II MHC antigen expression in the kidneys of normal and bone-marrow depleted Wistar rats. Normal rats had abundant class II antigen-positive interstitial cells in the renal cortex and outer medulla, but not in the inner medulla (papilla). Six days after 1000 rad whole body irradiation, the stainable cells were almost completely lost, but electron microscopic morphometry showed a virtually unchanged volume density of interstitial cells in the cortex and outer medulla, as well as the inner medulla. Thus, irradiation abolished the expression of the class II antigen but caused no significant depletion of interstitial cells

  12. Anisotropy: an estimable alloy in the study of point defect clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, C.; Quere, Y.

    1986-09-01

    Crystal anisotropy forces vacancies and interstitials, in irradiated uranium, to cluster into two distinct families of dislocation loops. A consequence of this fortunate circumstance, the irradiation ''growth'', is easily observed by length measurements performed under neutron irradiation at ≅ 30-40 K. These experiments are analysed in a way which allows to detect two distinct modes of clustering for interstitials and vacancies. The same analysis is applied to previous experiments performed at ≅ 4K [1-2

  13. The effect of interstitial pressure on tumor growth: coupling with the blood and lymphatic vascular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Min; Frieboes, Hermann B.; McDougall, Steven R.; Chaplain, Mark A.J.; Cristini, Vittorio; Lowengrub, John

    2013-01-01

    distribution of oxygen, solid tumor pressure and a broad-based collapse of the tumor lymphatics. We also find that the rate that IFF is fluxed into the lymphatics and host tissue is largely controlled by an elevated vascular hydraulic conductivity in the tumor. We discuss the implications of these results on microenvironmental transport barriers, and the tumor invasive and metastatic potential. Our results suggest the possibility of developing strategies of targeting tumor cells based on the cues in the interstitial fluid. PMID:23220211

  14. Evolution of anisotropy in bcc Fe distorted by interstitial boron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gölden, Dominik; Zhang, Hongbin; Radulov, Iliya; Dirba, Imants; Komissinskiy, Philipp; Hildebrandt, Erwin; Alff, Lambert

    2018-01-01

    The evolution of magnetic anisotropy in bcc Fe as a function of interstitial boron atoms was investigated in thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The thermodynamic nonequilibrium conditions during film growth allowed one to stabilize an interstitial boron content of about 14 at .% accompanied by lattice tetragonalization. The c /a ratio scaled linearly with the boron content up to a maximum value of 1.05 at 300 °C substrate growth temperature, with a room-temperature magnetization of. In contrast to nitrogen interstitials, the magnetic easy axis remained in-plane with an anisotropy of approximately -5.1 ×106erg /cm3 . Density functional theory calculations using the measured lattice parameters confirm this value and show that boron local ordering indeed favors in-plane magnetization. Given the increased temperature stability of boron interstitials as compared to nitrogen interstitials, this study will help to find possible ways to manipulate boron interstitials into a more favorable local order.

  15. Low dose rate Ir-192 interstitial brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oki, Yosuke; Dokiya, Takushi; Yorozu, Atsunori; Suzuki, Takayuki; Saito, Shiro; Monma, Tetsuo; Ohki, Takahiro [National Tokyo Medical Center (Japan); Murai, Masaru; Kubo, Atsushi

    2000-04-01

    From December 1997 through January 1999, fifteen prostatic cancer patients were treated with low dose rate Ir-192 interstitial brachytherapy using TRUS and perineal template guidance without external radiotherapy. Up to now, as no apparent side effects were found, the safety of this treatment is suggested. In the future, in order to treat prostatic cancer patients with interstitial brachytherapy using I-125 or Pd-103, more investigation for this low dose rate Ir-192 interstitial brachytherapy is needed. (author)

  16. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases; Interstitielle Lungenerkrankungen bei Rauchern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marten, K. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Klinikum rechts der Isar, Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik

    2007-03-15

    The most important smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are respiratory bronchiolitis, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. Although traditionally considered to be discrete entities, smoking-related ILDs often coexist, thus accounting for the sometimes complex patterns encountered on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Further studies are needed to elucidate the causative role of smoking in the development of pulmonary fibrosis.

  17. Renal extramedullary hematopoiesis: interstitial and glomerular pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Mariam P; Nasr, Samih H; Kurtin, Paul J; Casey, Edward T; Hernandez, Loren P Herrera; Fidler, Mary E; Sethi, Sanjeev; Cornell, Lynn D

    2015-12-01

    Renal extramedullary hematopoiesis is rarely recognized in the antemortem setting. We identified 14 patients with renal extramedullary hematopoiesis on antemortem specimens from 1994 to 2015. The mean age was 68 years (range 47-87 years); males predominated (M:F=9:5). All presented with renal insufficiency, including five (36%) with acute kidney injury. The mean serum creatinine at biopsy was 2.9 mg/dl (range 1.2-7.3 mg/dl). All had proteinuria (mean 7.9 g/24 h; range 0.5-28; n=13), including 9 with ≥3 g/24 h. Renal extramedullary hematopoiesis appeared histologically as an interstitial infiltrate (n=12) and/or a perirenal infiltrate (n=3) or mass-like lesion (n=1). Five were misdiagnosed as interstitial nephritis. Concurrent glomerular disease was prevalent and included fibrillary-like glomerulonephritis (n=3), chronic thrombotic microangiopathy (n=5), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (n=6), and diabetic glomerulosclerosis (n=2). All patients had an underlying hematologic malignancy: primary myelofibrosis in 9, myeloproliferative neoplasm not otherwise specified in 1, essential thrombocythemia in 1, polycythemia vera in 1, and plasma cell myeloma in 2. Clinical follow-up was available in 12 patients, mean of 29 months (range 4-120 months). In 10 patients for whom treatment history could be obtained, 9 were treated with chemotherapy, and 1 was treated with steroids. The mean creatinine at last follow-up was 2 mg/dl (range 1.2-3.9 mg/dl) (n=9). Ten patients died in the follow-up period from their underlying hematological disease and had persistent renal disease. The two remaining patients had persistent chronic kidney disease. Renal extramedullary hematopoiesis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of interstitial infiltrates, particularly in the presence of a glomerulopathy and a hematologic malignancy.

  18. Sapphire capillary interstitial irradiators for laser medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shikunova, I. A.; Dolganova, I. N.; Dubyanskaya, E. N.; Mukhina, E. E.; Zaytsev, K. I.; Kurlov, V. N.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate instruments for laser radiation delivery based on sapphire capillary needles. Such sapphire irradiators (introducers) can be used for various medical applications, such as photodynamic therapy, laser hyperthermia, laser interstitial thermal therapy, and ablation of tumors of various organs. Unique properties of sapphire allow for effective redistribution of the heat, generated in biological tissues during their exposure to laser radiation. This leads to homogeneous distribution of the laser irradiation around the needle, and lower possibility of formation of the overheating focuses, as well as the following non-transparent thrombi.

  19. Surfactant gene polymorphisms and interstitial lung diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelidis Panagiotis

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pulmonary surfactant is a complex mixture of phospholipids and proteins, which is present in the alveolar lining fluid and is essential for normal lung function. Alterations in surfactant composition have been reported in several interstitial lung diseases (ILDs. Furthermore, a mutation in the surfactant protein C gene that results in complete absence of the protein has been shown to be associated with familial ILD. The role of surfactant in lung disease is therefore drawing increasing attention following the elucidation of the genetic basis underlying its surface expression and the proof of surfactant abnormalities in ILD.

  20. Evidence of interstitial microsegregation in iron obtained by ion microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, C.W.

    1984-01-01

    Segregation of impurity atoms to the strain fields of dislocations and the effective locking of the dislocations by the impurity atmospheres have been suggested earlier by others. The formation of interstitial atmospheres and their effect in iron was first treated mathematically by Cottrell and Bilby (Proc. Phys. Soc.; A62: 49(1949). Hirth and Lothe (Theory of Discolations, McGraw-Hill, New York (1968) reviewed more recent evidence of interstitial effects and theoretical treatments of interstitial dislocation interactions. This paper describes additional evidence of microsegregation of several interstitial elements in iron that were detected using secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). 10 references, 2 figures

  1. Lung volumes and emphysema in smokers with interstitial lung abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washko, George R; Hunninghake, Gary M; Fernandez, Isis E; Nishino, Mizuki; Okajima, Yuka; Yamashiro, Tsuneo; Ross, James C; Estépar, Raúl San José; Lynch, David A; Brehm, John M; Andriole, Katherine P; Diaz, Alejandro A; Khorasani, Ramin; D'Aco, Katherine; Sciurba, Frank C; Silverman, Edwin K; Hatabu, Hiroto; Rosas, Ivan O

    2011-03-10

    Cigarette smoking is associated with emphysema and radiographic interstitial lung abnormalities. The degree to which interstitial lung abnormalities are associated with reduced total lung capacity and the extent of emphysema is not known. We looked for interstitial lung abnormalities in 2416 (96%) of 2508 high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) scans of the lung obtained from a cohort of smokers. We used linear and logistic regression to evaluate the associations between interstitial lung abnormalities and HRCT measurements of total lung capacity and emphysema. Interstitial lung abnormalities were present in 194 (8%) of the 2416 HRCT scans evaluated. In statistical models adjusting for relevant covariates, interstitial lung abnormalities were associated with reduced total lung capacity (-0.444 liters; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.596 to -0.292; Ppulmonary disease (COPD) (odds ratio, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.37 to 0.76; P<0.001). The effect of interstitial lung abnormalities on total lung capacity and emphysema was dependent on COPD status (P<0.02 for the interactions). Interstitial lung abnormalities were positively associated with both greater exposure to tobacco smoke and current smoking. In smokers, interstitial lung abnormalities--which were present on about 1 of every 12 HRCT scans--were associated with reduced total lung capacity and a lesser amount of emphysema. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Parker B. Francis Foundation; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00608764.).

  2. Interstitial hydraulic conductivity and interstitial fluid pressure for avascular or poorly vascularized tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L J; Schlesinger, M

    2015-09-07

    A correct description of the hydraulic conductivity is essential for determining the actual tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) distribution. Traditionally, it has been assumed that the hydraulic conductivities both in a tumor and normal tissue are constant, and that a tumor has a much larger interstitial hydraulic conductivity than normal tissue. The abrupt transition of the hydraulic conductivity at the tumor surface leads to non-physical results (the hydraulic conductivity and the slope of the TIFP are not continuous at tumor surface). For the sake of simplicity and the need to represent reality, we focus our analysis on avascular or poorly vascularized tumors, which have a necrosis that is mostly in the center and vascularization that is mostly on the periphery. We suggest that there is an intermediary region between the tumor surface and normal tissue. Through this region, the interstitium (including the structure and composition of solid components and interstitial fluid) transitions from tumor to normal tissue. This process also causes the hydraulic conductivity to do the same. We introduce a continuous variation of the hydraulic conductivity, and show that the interstitial hydraulic conductivity in the intermediary region should be monotonically increasing up to the value of hydraulic conductivity in the normal tissue in order for the model to correspond to the actual TIFP distribution. The value of the hydraulic conductivity at the tumor surface should be the lowest in value. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Formation and annealing of metastable (interstitial oxygen)-(interstitial carbon) complexes in n- and p-type silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Makarenko, L F; Lastovskii, S B; Murin, L I; Moll, M; Pintilie, I

    2014-01-01

    It is shown experimentally that, in contrast to the stable configuration of (interstitial carbon)-(interstitial oxygen) complexes (CiOi), the corresponding metastable configuration (CiOi{*}) cannot be found in n-Si based structures by the method of capacitance spectroscopy. The rates of transformation CiOi{*} -> CiOi are practically the same for both n- and p-Si with a concentration of charge carriers of no higher than 10(13) cm(-3). It is established that the probabilities of the simultaneous formation of stable and metastable configurations of the complex under study in the case of the addition of an atom of interstitial carbon to an atom of interstitial oxygen is close to 50\\%. This is caused by the orientation dependence of the interaction potential of an atom of interstitial oxygen with an interstitial carbon atom, which diffuses to this oxygen atom.

  4. Synthesized interstitial lung texture for use in anthropomorphic computational phantoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becchetti, Marc F.; Solomon, Justin B.; Segars, W. Paul; Samei, Ehsan

    2016-04-01

    A realistic model of the anatomical texture from the pulmonary interstitium was developed with the goal of extending the capability of anthropomorphic computational phantoms (e.g., XCAT, Duke University), allowing for more accurate image quality assessment. Contrast-enhanced, high dose, thorax images for a healthy patient from a clinical CT system (Discovery CT750HD, GE healthcare) with thin (0.625 mm) slices and filtered back- projection (FBP) were used to inform the model. The interstitium which gives rise to the texture was defined using 24 volumes of interest (VOIs). These VOIs were selected manually to avoid vasculature, bronchi, and bronchioles. A small scale Hessian-based line filter was applied to minimize the amount of partial-volumed supernumerary vessels and bronchioles within the VOIs. The texture in the VOIs was characterized using 8 Haralick and 13 gray-level run length features. A clustered lumpy background (CLB) model with added noise and blurring to match CT system was optimized to resemble the texture in the VOIs using a genetic algorithm with the Mahalanobis distance as a similarity metric between the texture features. The most similar CLB model was then used to generate the interstitial texture to fill the lung. The optimization improved the similarity by 45%. This will substantially enhance the capabilities of anthropomorphic computational phantoms, allowing for more realistic CT simulations.

  5. Atomistic studies of nucleation of He clusters and bubbles in bcc iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, L.; Deng, H.Q.; Gao, F.; Heinisch, H.L.; Kurtz, R.J.; Hu, S.Y.; Li, Y.L.; Zu, X.T.

    2013-01-01

    Atomistic simulations of the nucleation of He clusters and bubbles in bcc iron at 800 K have been carried out using the newly developed Fe–Fe interatomic potential, along with Ackland potential for the Fe–Fe interactions. Microstructure changes were analyzed in detail. We found that a He cluster with four He atoms is able to push out an iron interstitial from the cluster, creating a Frenkel pair. Small He clusters and self-interstitial atom (SIA) can migrate in the matrix, but He-vacancy (He-V) clusters are immobile. Most SIAs form clusters, and only the dislocation loops with a Burgers vector of b = 1/2 appear in the simulations. SIA clusters (or loops) are attached to He-V clusters for He implantation up to 1372 appm, while the He-V cluster–loop complexes with more than one He-V cluster are formed at the He concentration of 2057 appm and larger

  6. Nucleation of voids in materials supersaturated with mobile interstitials, vacancies and divacancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfer, W.G.; Si-Ahmed, A.

    1982-01-01

    In previous void nucleation theories, the void size has been allowed to change only by one atomic volume through vacancy or interstitial absorption or through vacancy emission. To include the absorption of divacancies, the classical nucleation theory is here extended to include double-step transitions between clusters. The new nucleation theory is applied to study the effect of divacancies on void formation. It is found that the steady-state void nucleation rate is enhanced by several orders of magnitude as compared to results with previous void nucleation theories. However, to obtain void nucleation rates comparable to measured ones, the effect of impurities, segregation and insoluble gases must still be invoked. (author)

  7. Calculation of the electronic structure and contact hyperfine parameters of interstitial hydrogen in alkaline - earth fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.E.M.C. de.

    1976-01-01

    The electronic structure of the interstitial hydrogen atom in alkaline-earth fluorides has been studied using the self-consistent-field multiple-scattering Xα method. In the calculations a cluster constituted by the hydrogen atom and its first anion and cation neighbors has been used. The contact parameters with the proton and the fluorine nuclei have been evaluated. The agreement obtained with the experimental results is in general good and indicates that this method is also appropriate to study defects in ionic crystals. (author) [pt

  8. Identifying self-interstitials of bcc and fcc crystals in molecular dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukkuru, S.; Bhardwaj, U.; Warrier, M.; Rao, A. D. P.; Valsakumar, M. C.

    2017-02-01

    Identification of self-interstitials in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations is of critical importance. There exist several criteria for identifying the self-interstitial. Most of the existing methods use an assumed cut-off value for the displacement of an atom from its lattice position to identify the self-interstitial. The results obtained are affected by the chosen cut-off value. Moreover, these chosen cut-off values are independent of temperature. We have developed a novel unsupervised learning algorithm called Max-Space Clustering (MSC) to identify an appropriate cut-off value and its dependence on temperature. This method is compared with some widely used methods such as effective sphere (ES) method and nearest neighbor sphere (NNS) method. The cut-off radius obtained using our method shows a linear variation with temperature. The value of cut-off radius and its temperature dependence is derived for five bcc (Cr, Fe, Mo, Nb, W) and six fcc (Ag, Au, Cu, Ni, Pd, Pt) crystals. It is seen that the ratio of the cut-off values "r" to the lattice constant "a" lies between 0.23 and 0.3 at 300 K and this ratio is on an average smaller for the fcc crystals. Collision cascade simulations are carried out for Primary knock-on Atom (PKA) energies of 5 keV in Fe (at 300 K and 1000 K) and W (at 300 K and 2500 K) and the results are compared using the various methods.

  9. The Interstitial Language and Transnational Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bartoloni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I argue that the idea of inhabiting, and of human individuality as the house of being, are fruitful ideas if located in a space defined by movement, porosity, interstitiality, and in an urban and architectural paradigm which is based on openness and inclusiveness. Transnational experiences and localities can be, to this end, extremely instructive. It is essential to articulate the notion of dwelling within an urban context in which building is the result of complex cultural and social interactions, which are characterised not only by the negotiation of space and materials but also, and more importantly, by a range of symbolic values. The symbolism that I refer to here is the product of mnemonic and emotional experiences marked by time and space, which in the case of the migratory and transnational experiences is arrived at through a delicate negotiation of the past and the present, and the ‘here’ (the current locality and the ‘there’ (the native locality. The dwelling that I speak of is, therefore, a double dwelling divided between the present at-hand and the remembered past, and as such it inhabits a space, which is both interstitial and liminal, simultaneously in and out-of-place. I have chosen the Italian Forum in Sydney as a working sample of the place-out-of-place

  10. Interstitial Fe in MgO

    CERN Document Server

    Mølholt, T E; Gunnlaugsson, H P; Svane, A; Masenda, H; Naidoo, D; Bharuth-Ram, K; Fanciulli, M; Gislason, H P; Johnston, K; Langouche, G; Ólafsson, S; Sielemann, R; Weyer, G

    2014-01-01

    Isolated Fe-57 atoms were studied in MgO single-crystals by emission Mossbauer spectroscopy following implantation of Mn-57 decaying to Fe-57. Four Mossbauer spectral components were found corresponding to different Fe lattice positions and/or charge states. Two components represent Fe atoms substituting Mg as Fe2+ and Fe3+, respectively; a third component is due to Fe in a strongly implantation-induced disturbed region. The fourth component, which is the focus of this paper, can be assigned to Fe at an interstitial site. Comparison of its measured isomer shift with ab initio calculations suggests that the interstitial Fe is located on, or close to, the face of the rock-salt MgO structure. To harmonize such an assignment with the measured near-zero quadrupole interaction a local motion process (cage motion) of the Fe has to be stipulated. The relation of such a local motion as a starting point for long range diffusion is discussed.

  11. Cluster headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Histamine headache; Headache - histamine; Migrainous neuralgia; Headache - cluster; Horton's headache; Vascular headache - cluster ... Doctors do not know exactly what causes cluster headaches. They ... (chemical in the body released during an allergic response) or ...

  12. THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE UV LEGACY SURVEY OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. VII. IMPLICATIONS FROM THE NEARLY UNIVERSAL NATURE OF HORIZONTAL BRANCH DISCONTINUITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T. M.; Bellini, A.; Anderson, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Cassisi, S.; Pietrinferni, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo, Via Mentore Maggini s.n.c., I-64100 Teramo (Italy); D’Antona, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy); Salaris, M. [Astrophysics Research Institute,Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool Science Park, IC2 Building, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Milone, A. P. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT, 2611 (Australia); Dalessandro, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Piotto, G.; Ortolani, S.; Nardiello, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei,”Università di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Renzini, A.; Bedin, L. R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Sweigart, A. V. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sarajedini, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Aparicio, A., E-mail: tbrown@stsci.edu, E-mail: jayander@stsci, E-mail: bellini@stsci.edu, E-mail: cassisi@oa-teramo.inaf.it, E-mail: pietrinferni@oa-teramo.inaf.it, E-mail: dantona@oa-roma.inaf.it, E-mail: M.Salaris@ljmu.ac.uk, E-mail: milone@mso.anu.edu.au [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Calle Vía Láctea s/n. E38200 — La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2016-05-01

    The UV-initiative Hubble Space Telescope Treasury survey of Galactic globular clusters provides a new window into the phenomena that shape the morphological features of the horizontal branch (HB). Using this large and homogeneous catalog of UV and blue photometry, we demonstrate that the HB exhibits discontinuities that are remarkably consistent in color (effective temperature). This consistency is apparent even among some of the most massive clusters hosting multiple distinct sub-populations (such as NGC 2808, ω Cen, and NGC 6715), demonstrating that these phenomena are primarily driven by atmospheric physics that is independent of the underlying population properties. However, inconsistencies arise in the metal-rich clusters NGC 6388 and NGC 6441, where the discontinuity within the blue HB (BHB) distribution shifts ∼1000–2000 K hotter. We demonstrate that this shift is likely due to a large helium enhancement in the BHB stars of these clusters, which in turn affects the surface convection and evolution of such stars. Our survey also increases the number of Galactic globular clusters known to host blue-hook stars (also known as late hot flashers) from 6 to 23 clusters. These clusters are biased toward the bright end of the globular cluster luminosity function, confirming that blue-hook stars tend to form in the most massive clusters with significant self-enrichment.

  13. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis in a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Benedikte; Hesse, Ulrik; Hansen, Alastair B

    2010-01-01

    To characterize and evaluate a Danish patient population with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC), using a working definition for BPS/IC incorporating six variables, and a set of criteria defined by the European Society for the Study of Interstitial Cystitis (ESSIC); to describe...... the clinical course and treatment intensity in relation to these variables....

  14. Theory of the change of elastic constants by interstitials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, N.; Dederichs, P.H.; Lehmann, C.; Leibfried, G.; Scholz, A.

    1975-01-01

    The theory of the change of elastic constants by point-defects, in particular by interstitials, is briefly summarized. The typical effects of spring changes in a defect lattice on the elastic data are discussed qualitatively. Numerical results for the change of elastic constants by self-interstitials and vacancies are given and compared with experimental data for Cu and Al

  15. Advanced sickle cell associated interstitial lung disease presenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous studies have reported abnormal pulmonary function and pulmonary hypertension among Nigerians with sickle cell disease, but there is no report of interstitial lung disease among them. We report a Nigerian sickle cell patient who presented with computed tomography proven interstitial lung disease complicated by ...

  16. Dissolution kinetics of B clusters in crystalline Si

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Salvador, D.; Napolitani, E.; Bisognin, G.; Carnera, A.; Bruno, E.; Mirabella, S.; Impellizzeri, G.; Priolo, F.

    2005-01-01

    Boron (B) clustering in crystalline Si induced by interaction with Si self-interstitials is a widely studied phenomenon of fundamental importance for Si micro- and nano-electronic technology. The requested B activation increase brings the B concentration to a very high level and a detailed understanding of B clustering at high concentration is demanded. In the present work we present some recent results regarding the B clustering process starting from B concentration both below and above the B solubility limit. We show that B clusters, produced by self-interstitial interaction with substitutional B in crystalline Si, dissolve under annealing according to two distinct paths with very different characteristic times. The two regimes generally coexist, but while the faster dissolution path is predominant for clusters formed at low B concentration (1 x 10 19 B/cm 3 ), the slower one is characteristic of clusters formed above the solubility limit and dominates the dissolution process at high B concentration (2 x 10 2 B/cm 3 ). The activation energies of both processes are characterized and discussed. It is shown that the faster path can be connected to a direct emission of mobile B from small clusters, while the slower path is demonstrated not to be self-interstitial limited and it is probably related to a more complex cluster dissolution process

  17. Very Broad [O III] λλ4959, 5007 Emission from the NGC 4472 Globular Cluster RZ 2109 and Implications for the Mass of Its Black Hole X-Ray Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepf, Stephen E.; Stern, Daniel; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Kundu, Arunav; Kamionkowski, Marc; Rhode, Katherine L.; Salzer, John J.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl

    2008-08-01

    We present Keck LRIS spectroscopy of the black hole-hosting globular cluster RZ 2109 in the Virgo elliptical galaxy NGC 4472. We find that this object has extraordinarily broad [O III] λ5007 and [O III] λ4959 emission lines, with velocity widths of approximately 2000 km s-1. This result has significant implications for the nature of this accreting black hole system and the mass of the globular cluster black hole. We show that the broad [O III] λ5007 emission must arise from material driven at high velocity from the black hole system. This is because the volume available near the black hole is too small by many orders of magnitude to have enough [O III]-emitting atoms to account for the observed L([O III] λ5007) at high velocities, even if this volume is filled with oxygen at the critical density for [O III] λ5007. The Balmer emission is also weak, indicating the observed [O III] is not due to shocks. We therefore conclude that the [O III] λλ4959, 5007 is produced by photoionization of material driven across the cluster. The only known way to drive significant material at high velocity is for a system accreting mass near or above its Eddington limit, which indicates a stellar-mass black hole. Since it is dynamically implausible to form an accreting stellar-mass black hole system in a globular cluster with an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH), it appears this massive globular cluster does not have an IMBH. We discuss further tests of this conclusion, and its implications for the MBH - Mstellar and MBH - σ relations. Based on observations made at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  18. Formation of a homocitrate-free iron-molybdenum cluster on NifEN: implications for the role of homocitrate in nitrogenase assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Aaron Wolfe; Blank, Michael Aaron; Yoshizawa, Janice Mariko; Lee, Chi Chung; Wiig, Jared Andrew; Hu, Yilin; Hodgson, Keith Owen; Hedman, Britt; Ribbe, Markus Walter

    2010-03-28

    Molybdenum (Mo)-dependent nitrogenase is a complex metalloprotein that catalyzes the biological reduction of dinitrogen (N(2)) to ammonia (NH(3)) at the molybdenum-iron cofactor (FeMoco) site of its molybdenum-iron (MoFe) protein component. Here we report the formation of a homocitrate-free, iron-molybdenum ("FeMo") cluster on the biosynthetic scaffold of FeMoco, NifEN. Such a NifEN-associated "FeMo" cluster exhibits EPR features similar to those of the NifEN-associated, fully-complemented "FeMoco", which originate from the presence of Mo in both cluster species; however, "FeMo" cluster and "FeMoco" display different temperature-dependent changes in the line shape and the signal intensity of their respective EPR features, which reflect the impact of homocitrate on the redox properties of these clusters. XAS/EXAFS analysis reveals that the Mo centers in both "FeMo" cluster and "FeMoco" are present in a similar coordination environment, although Mo in "FeMo" cluster is more loosely coordinated as compared to that in "FeMoco" with respect to the Mo-O distances in the cluster, likely due to the absence of homocitrate that normally serves as an additional ligand for the Mo in the cluster. Subsequent biochemical investigation of the "FeMo" cluster not only facilitates the determination of the sequence of events in the mobilization of Mo and homocitrate during FeMoco maturation, but also permits the examination of the role of homocitrate in the transfer of FeMoco between NifEN and MoFe protein. Combined outcome of these studies establishes a platform for future structural analysis of the interactions between NifEN and MoFe protein, which will provide useful insights into the mechanism of cluster transfer between the two proteins.

  19. Selective Uterine Artery Embolization for Management of Interstitial Ectopic Pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seung Boo; Lee, Sang Jin; Joe, Hwan Sung; Goo, Dong Erk; Chang, Yun Woo; Kim, Dong Hun

    2007-01-01

    Interstitial pregnancy is defined as any gestation that develops in the uterine portion of the fallopian tubes lateral to the round ligament. Interstitial pregnancies account for 2-4% of all ectopic pregnancies and have been reported to have an associated 2% to 2.5% maternal mortality rate. The traditional treatment for interstitial pregnancy using surgical cornual resection may cause infertility or uterine rupture in subsequent pregnancies. Recently, the early identification of intact interstitial pregnancy has been made possible in many cases with high resolution transvaginal ultrasound as well as more sensitive assays for betahuman chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). The treatment includes: hysteroscopic transcervical currettage, local and systemic methotrexate (MTX) therapy and prostaglandin or potassium chloride injection of the ectopic mass under sonographic guidance. We describe a case of successful treatment of interstitial pregnancy using uterine artery embolization, after failure of methotrexate treatment

  20. Selective Uterine Artery Embolization for Management of Interstitial Ectopic Pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seung Boo; Lee, Sang Jin; Joe, Hwan Sung; Goo, Dong Erk; Chang, Yun Woo [Soonchunhyang University Gumi Hospital, Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Hun [Chosun University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Interstitial pregnancy is defined as any gestation that develops in the uterine portion of the fallopian tubes lateral to the round ligament. Interstitial pregnancies account for 2-4% of all ectopic pregnancies and have been reported to have an associated 2% to 2.5% maternal mortality rate. The traditional treatment for interstitial pregnancy using surgical cornual resection may cause infertility or uterine rupture in subsequent pregnancies. Recently, the early identification of intact interstitial pregnancy has been made possible in many cases with high resolution transvaginal ultrasound as well as more sensitive assays for betahuman chorionic gonadotropin ({beta}-hCG). The treatment includes: hysteroscopic transcervical currettage, local and systemic methotrexate (MTX) therapy and prostaglandin or potassium chloride injection of the ectopic mass under sonographic guidance. We describe a case of successful treatment of interstitial pregnancy using uterine artery embolization, after failure of methotrexate treatment.

  1. Seizure clusters: characteristics and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haut, Sheryl R

    2015-04-01

    Many patients with epilepsy experience 'clusters' or flurries of seizures, also termed acute repetitive seizures (ARS). Seizure clustering has a significant impact on health and quality of life. This review summarizes recent advances in the definition and neurophysiologic understanding of clustering, the epidemiology and risk factors for clustering and both inpatient and outpatient clinical implications. New treatments for seizure clustering/ARS are perhaps the area of greatest recent progress. Efforts have focused on creating a uniform definition of a seizure cluster. In neurophysiologic studies of refractory epilepsy, seizures within a cluster appear to be self-triggering. Clinical progress has been achieved towards a more precise prevalence of clustering, and consensus guidelines for epilepsy monitoring unit safety. The greatest recent advances are in the study of nonintravenous route of benzodiazepines as rescue medications for seizure clusters/ARS. Rectal benzodiazepines have been very effective but barriers to use exist. New data on buccal, intramuscular and intranasal preparations are anticipated to lead to a greater number of approved treatments. Progesterone may be effective for women who experience catamenial clusters. Seizure clustering is common, particularly in the setting of medically refractory epilepsy. Clustering worsens health and quality of life, and the field requires greater focus on clarifying of definition and clinical implications. Progress towards the development of nonintravenous routes of benzodiazepines has the potential to improve care in this area.

  2. Balance point characterization of interstitial fluid volume regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongaonkar, R M; Laine, G A; Stewart, R H; Quick, C M

    2009-07-01

    The individual processes involved in interstitial fluid volume and protein regulation (microvascular filtration, lymphatic return, and interstitial storage) are relatively simple, yet their interaction is exceedingly complex. There is a notable lack of a first-order, algebraic formula that relates interstitial fluid pressure and protein to critical parameters commonly used to characterize the movement of interstitial fluid and protein. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to develop a simple, transparent, and general algebraic approach that predicts interstitial fluid pressure (P(i)) and protein concentrations (C(i)) that takes into consideration all three processes. Eight standard equations characterizing fluid and protein flux were solved simultaneously to yield algebraic equations for P(i) and C(i) as functions of parameters characterizing microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function. Equilibrium values of P(i) and C(i) arise as balance points from the graphical intersection of transmicrovascular and lymph flows (analogous to Guyton's classical cardiac output-venous return curves). This approach goes beyond describing interstitial fluid balance in terms of conservation of mass by introducing the concept of inflow and outflow resistances. Algebraic solutions demonstrate that P(i) and C(i) result from a ratio of the microvascular filtration coefficient (1/inflow resistance) and effective lymphatic resistance (outflow resistance), and P(i) is unaffected by interstitial compliance. These simple algebraic solutions predict P(i) and C(i) that are consistent with reported measurements. The present work therefore presents a simple, transparent, and general balance point characterization of interstitial fluid balance resulting from the interaction of microvascular, interstitial, and lymphatic function.

  3. Systems medicine advances in interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiffo, Flavia R; Eickelberg, Oliver; Fernandez, Isis E

    2017-09-30

    Fibrotic lung diseases involve subject-environment interactions, together with dysregulated homeostatic processes, impaired DNA repair and distorted immune functions. Systems medicine-based approaches are used to analyse diseases in a holistic manner, by integrating systems biology platforms along with clinical parameters, for the purpose of understanding disease origin, progression, exacerbation and remission.Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) refer to a heterogeneous group of complex fibrotic diseases. The increase of systems medicine-based approaches in the understanding of ILDs provides exceptional advantages by improving diagnostics, unravelling phenotypical differences, and stratifying patient populations by predictable outcomes and personalised treatments. This review discusses the state-of-the-art contributions of systems medicine-based approaches in ILDs over the past 5 years. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  4. Interstitial radiophosphorus diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoj, S.M.; Gabuniya, R.I.; Godin, V.P.; Letyagin, V.P.

    1992-01-01

    Method of invasive β-radiometry in breast cancer was developed. Analysis of observations of 148 patients with breast cancer was presented. Qualitative increase of count efficiency is the important advantage for interstitial β-radiometry in intratumoral situation of β-detector. Radionuclide activity of 37-74 kBq/kg permits to receive values of relative accumulation of 32 P in a tumor (RAPTu1) by invasive method. Tendency is evident to some decrease of mean values of RAPTu1 in investigations conducted in 70 hrs and more after 32 P introduction. Study on relative accumulation of radionuclide in tumor after conservative treatment can serve as a criterion for evaluation of efficiency of antitumor treatment

  5. Interstitial-impurity interactions in copper-silver and aluminum-magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, H.P.

    1982-01-01

    The configurations and dynamical properties of complexes formed between interstitials and oversized impurities in electron-irradiated aluminum and copper were determined. Measurements were taken of the ultrasonic attention and resonant frequency in single crystal samples of Cu-Ag and Al-Mg. A variety of peaks appeared in both materials in plots of the logarithmic decrement versus temperature. The simultaneous presence of multiple defects was established by the different annealing behavior shown by each peak. It was found that interstitial trapping in our oversized systems was generally weaker than in previously studied undersized systems. The principal features in Cu-Ag that must be accounted for by a model include the following: (1) Three low-temperature peaks were seen having trigonal symmetry. The main peak annealed away at 110 K uncorrelated with any resistivity recovery and it grew at 60 K, correlated with a resistivity decrease. For Al-MG, the principal features associated with the main peak include: seen at high temperature (>135 K) having trigonal symmetry; annealed away at 127 K and seemed to correlate with a resistivity decrease; remaining peaks grew while the main peak annealed away. The implications of an existing model were developed. No evidence was found for the deeply-trapped -orthorhombic defect predicted by the existing model. Therefore, two alternative models were developed. Model A uses a canted dumb-bell at the next-nearest neighbor position to explain the results. Model B uses a point interstitial at an octahedral position. A distinction between the two which is subject to experimental check is that model A predicts that interstitial migration between different impurity atoms occurs near 127 K in Cu-Ag while model B predicts a migration temperature near 60 K

  6. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    We investigate a natural generalization of the classical clustering problem, considering clustering tasks in which different instances may have different weights.We conduct the first extensive theoretical analysis on the influence of weighted data on standard clustering algorithms in both...... the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  7. Interstitial brachytherapy for eyelid carcinoma. Outcome analysis in 60 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krengli, M.; Deantonio, L. [University Hospital ' ' Maggiore della Carita' ' , Division of Radiotherapy, Novara (Italy); University of ' ' Piemonte Orientale' ' , Department of Translational Medicine, Novara (Italy); Masini, L.; Filomeno, A.; Gambaro, G. [University Hospital ' ' Maggiore della Carita' ' , Division of Radiotherapy, Novara (Italy); Comoli, A.M. [University Hospital Maggiore della Carita, Ophthalmology, Novara (Italy); Negri, E. [University Hospital Maggiore della Carita, Medical Physics, Novara (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    Eyelid cancer is a therapeutic challenge due to the cosmetic and functional implications of this anatomical region and the objectives of therapy are tumor control, functional and cosmetic outcome. The present study was performed to analyze local control, toxicity, functional and cosmetic results in patients with eyelid carcinoma treated by interstitial brachytherapy. In this study 60 patients with eyelid carcinoma were treated by interstitial brachytherapy using iridium ({sup 192}Ir) wires with a linear activity of 1.2-1.7 mCi/cm. The prescription dose was 51-70 Gy (mean 65 Gy, median 66 Gy). Of the 60 patients 51 (85.0 %) had received no prior treatment, 4 (6.7 %) had received previous surgery with positive or close margins and 5 (8.3 %) had suffered local recurrence after surgery. Of the tumors 52 (86.7 %) were basal cell carcinoma, 7 (11.7 %) squamous cell carcinoma and 1 (1.7 %) Merkel cell carcinoma. Clinical stage of the 51 previously untreated tumors was 38 T1N0, 12 T2N0 and 1 T3N0. Mean follow-up was 92 months (range 6-253 months). Local control was maintained in 96.7 % of patients. Late effects higher than grade 2 were observed in 3.0 % of cases. Functional and cosmetic outcomes were optimal in 68.4 % of patients. Interstitial brachytherapy for carcinoma of the eyelid can achieve local control, cosmetic and functional results comparable to those of surgery. (orig.) [German] Das Karzinom des Augenlids stellt aufgrund der funktionellen und kosmetischen Beeintraechtigungen dieser anatomischen Region eine therapeutische Herausforderung dar. Ziele der Therapie sind sowohl die Tumorkontrolle als auch ein gutes funktionelles und kosmetisches Ergebnis. Lokale Kontrolle, Toxizitaet sowie funktionelle und kosmetische Ergebnisse bei Patienten mit Karzinom des Augenlids, die mit interstitieller Brachytherapie behandelt wurden, sollten analysiert werden. Sechzig Patienten mit Karzinom des Augenlids wurden mit interstitieller Brachytherapie mit Iridium-192-Draehten

  8. Identification of Clinical Phenotypes in Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia with Pulmonary Emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Suguru; Tanino, Yoshinori; Misa, Kenichi; Fukuhara, Naoko; Nikaido, Takefumi; Uematsu, Manabu; Fukuhara, Atsuro; Wang, Xintao; Ishida, Takashi; Munakata, Mitsuru

    2016-01-01

    Objective Since the term "combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema" (CPFE) was first proposed, the co-existence of pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary emphysema (PE) has drawn considerable attention. However, conflicting results on the clinical characteristics of patients with both pulmonary fibrosis and PE have been published because of the lack of an exact definition of CPFE. The goal of this study was thus to clarify the clinical characteristics and phenotypes of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) with PE. Methods We retrospectively analyzed IIP patients who had been admitted to our hospital. Their chest high-resolution computed tomography images were classified into two groups according to the presence of PE. We then performed a cluster analysis to identify the phenotypes of IIP patients with PE. Results Forty-four (53.7%) out of 82 patients had at least mild emphysema in their bilateral lungs. The cluster analysis separated the IIP patients with PE into three clusters. The overall survival rate of one cluster that consisted of mainly idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients was significantly worse than those of the other clusters. Conclusion Three different phenotypes can be identified in IIP patients with PE, and IPF with PE is a distinct clinical phenotype with a poor prognosis.

  9. Regulation of tumor invasion by interstitial fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shieh, Adrian C; Swartz, Melody A

    2011-01-01

    The importance of the tumor microenvironment in cancer progression is undisputed, yet the significance of biophysical forces in the microenvironment remains poorly understood. Interstitial fluid flow is a nearly ubiquitous and physiologically relevant biophysical force that is elevated in tumors because of tumor-associated angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, as well as changes in the tumor stroma. Not only does it apply physical forces to cells directly, but interstitial flow also creates gradients of soluble signals in the tumor microenvironment, thus influencing cell behavior and modulating cell–cell interactions. In this paper, we highlight our current understanding of interstitial fluid flow in the context of the tumor, focusing on the physical changes that lead to elevated interstitial flow, how cells sense flow and how they respond to changes in interstitial flow. In particular, we emphasize that interstitial flow can directly promote tumor cell invasion through a mechanism known as autologous chemotaxis, and indirectly support tumor invasion via both biophysical and biochemical cues generated by stromal cells. Thus, interstitial fluid flow demonstrates how important biophysical factors are in cancer, both by modulating cell behavior and coupling biophysical and biochemical signals

  10. Interstitial lung diseases with fibrosis - the pattern at high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarzemska, A.; Lasek, W.; Nawrocka, E.; Meder, G.; Zapala, M.

    2003-01-01

    Surgical lung biopsy, either open thoracotomy or video-assisted thoracoscopy is recommended in the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases (ILD). In some cases, however, the repetitive pattern of radiological features in high-resolution computed tomography is often sufficient to confirm the diagnosis in a non-invasive manner. The purpose of the study was to determine whether patients with ILD can be selected on the basis of the HRCT pattern. Thin-section CT scans were performed in 40 patients with histologically proven idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (26 patients with usual interstitial pneumonia UIP, 2 patients with desquamative interstitial pneumonia DIP, 2 patients with bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia BOOP, 2 patients with non-specific interstitial pneumonia NSIP, 11 patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and 3 patients with pulmonary histiocytosis X). The location and the intensity of lesions were taken into consideration. Clinical and histopathological findings were compared. HRCT features of interstitial lung diseases such as nodules and cystic spaces in hypersensitivity pneumonitis and pulmonary histiocytosis, and ground-glass opacities in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP) were statistically significant for differential diagnosis in ILD cases. Combination of honeycombing and ground-glass opacities found in UIP and nodules found in DIP were also statistically significant features in IIP subtypes diagnosis. In some cases, HRCT patterns of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, pulmonary histiocytosis X and IPF combined with clinical findings allowed for the accurate diagnosis without resorting to lung biopsy. Within a group of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia only in usual interstitial pneumonia characteristic pattern in thin-section CT can be defined. In other subgroups some typical features can imply a diagnosis. (author)

  11. Gallium interstitial contributions to diffusion in gallium arsenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Joseph T.; Morgan, Caroline G.

    2011-09-01

    A new diffusion path is identified for gallium interstitials, which involves lower barriers than the barriers for previously identified diffusion paths [K. Levasseur-Smith and N. Mousseau, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 113502 (2008), P. A. Schultz and O. A. von Lilienfeld, Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering 17, 084007 (2009)] for the charge states which dominate diffusion over most of the available range of Fermi energies. This path passes through the ⟨110⟩ gallium-gallium split interstitial configuration, and has a particularly low diffusion barrier of 0.35 eV for diffusion in the neutral charge state. As a part of this work, the character of the charge states for the gallium interstitials which are most important for diffusion is investigated, and it is shown that the last electron bound to the neutral interstitial occupies a shallow hydrogenic bound state composed of conduction band states for the hexagonal interstitial and both tetrahedral interstitials. How to properly account for the contributions of such interstitials is discussed for density-functional calculations with a k-point mesh not including the conduction band edge point. Diffusion barriers for gallium interstitials are calculated in all the charge states which can be important for a Fermi level anywhere in the gap, q = 0, +1, +2, and +3, for diffusion via the ⟨110⟩ gallium-gallium split interstitial configuration and via the hexagonal interstitial configuration. The lowest activation enthalpies over most of the available range of Fermi energies are found to correspond to diffusion in the neutral or singly positive state via the ⟨110⟩ gallium-gallium split interstitial configuration. It is shown that several different charge states and diffusion paths contribute significantly for Fermi levels within 0.2 eV above the valence band edge, which may help to explain some of the difficulties [H. Bracht and S. Brotzmann, Phys. Rev. B 71, 115216 (2005)] which have been

  12. High-resolution CT of lymphoid interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilgrain, V.; Frija, J.; Yana, C.; Couderc, L.J.; David, M.; Clauvel, J.P.; Laval-Jeantet, M.

    1989-01-01

    Three patients with lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (two HIV 1+ patients with chronic lymphadenopathic syndromes and one with a not-characterized autoimmune disease) have been studied with high-resolution computed tomography (HR-CT). This technique reveals septal lines, small reticulonodular opacities, polyhedral micronodular opacities, 'ground-glass' opacities and a dense, subpleural, curved broken line in one patient. The lesions dominate in the bases of the lungs. They are not characteristic for lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. If a patient presents with a chronic lymphadenopathic syndrome, the diagnosis of an opportunistic infection should not be automatically made, since the syndrome can be caused by lymphoid interstitial pneumonia [fr

  13. Perivascular Interstitial Cells of Cajal in Human ColonSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-An Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC closely associate with nerves and smooth muscles to modulate gut motility. In the ICC microenvironment, although the circulating hormones/factors have been shown to influence ICC activities, the association between ICC and microvessels in the gut wall has not been described. We applied three-dimensional (3D vascular histology with c-kit staining to identify the perivascular ICC and characterize their morphologic and population features in the human colon wall. Methods: Full-thickness colons were obtained from colectomies performed for colorectal cancer. We targeted the colon wall away from the tumor site. Confocal microscopy with optical clearing (use of immersion solution to reduce scattering in optical imaging was performed to simultaneously reveal the ICC and vascular networks in space. 3D image rendering and projection were digitally conducted to illustrate the ICC–vessel contact patterns. Results: Perivascular ICC were identified in the submucosal border, myenteric plexus, and circular and longitudinal muscles via high-definition 3D microscopy. Through in-depth image projection, we specified two contact patterns—the intimate cell body-to-vessel contact (type I, 18% of ICC in circular muscle and the long-distance process-to-vessel contact (type II, 16%—to classify perivascular ICC. Particularly, type I perivascular ICC were detected with elevated c-kit staining levels and were routinely found in clusters, making them readily distinguishable from other ICC in the network. Conclusions: We propose a new subclass of ICC that closely associates with microvessels in the human colon. Our finding suggests a functional relationship between these mural ICC and microvessels based on the morphologic proximity. Keywords: 3D Histology, c-kit, ICC, Mural Cells

  14. Cluster management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, R

    1992-11-01

    Cluster management is a management model that fosters decentralization of management, develops leadership potential of staff, and creates ownership of unit-based goals. Unlike shared governance models, there is no formal structure created by committees and it is less threatening for managers. There are two parts to the cluster management model. One is the formation of cluster groups, consisting of all staff and facilitated by a cluster leader. The cluster groups function for communication and problem-solving. The second part of the cluster management model is the creation of task forces. These task forces are designed to work on short-term goals, usually in response to solving one of the unit's goals. Sometimes the task forces are used for quality improvement or system problems. Clusters are groups of not more than five or six staff members, facilitated by a cluster leader. A cluster is made up of individuals who work the same shift. For example, people with job titles who work days would be in a cluster. There would be registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, nursing assistants, and unit clerks in the cluster. The cluster leader is chosen by the manager based on certain criteria and is trained for this specialized role. The concept of cluster management, criteria for choosing leaders, training for leaders, using cluster groups to solve quality improvement issues, and the learning process necessary for manager support are described.

  15. Interstitial brachytherapy in carcinoma of the penis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhary, A.J.; Ghosh, S.; Bhalavat, R.L. [Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Kulkarni, J.N. [Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Surgery; Sequeira, B.V.E. [Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Medical Physics

    1999-01-01

    Aim: Keeping in line with the increasing emphasis on organ preservation, we at the Tata Memorial Hospital have evaluated the role of Ir-192 interstitial implant as regards local control, functional and cosmetic outcome in early as well as locally recurrent carcinoma of the distal penis. Patients and Methods: From October 1988 to December 1996, 23 patients with histopathologically proven cancer of the penis were treated with radical radiation therapy using Ir-192 temporary interstitial implant. Our patients were in the age group of 20 to 60 years. The primary lesions were T1 and 7, T2 in 7 and recurrent in 9 patients. Only 7 patients had palpable groin nodes at presentation, all of which were pathologically negative. The median dose of implant was 50 Gy (range 40 to 60 Gy), using the LDR afterloading system and the Paris system of implant rules for dosimetry. Follow-up ranged from 4 to 117 months (median 24 months). Results: At last follow-up 18 of the 23 patients remained locally controlled with implant alone. Three patients failed only locally, 2 locoregionally and 1 only at the groin. Of the 5 patients who failed locally, 4 were successfully salvaged with partial penectomy and remained controlled when last seen. Local control with implant alone at 8 years was 70% by life table analysis. The patients had excellent functional and cosmetic outcome. We did not record any case of skin or softtissue necrosis. Only 2 patients developed meatal stenosis, both of which were treated endoscopically. Conclusion: Our results lead us to interpret that interstitial brachytherapy with Ir-192 offers excellent local control rates with preservation of organ and function. Penectomy can be reserved as a means for effective salvage. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Das Prinzip des Organerhalts gewinnt in der Onkologie zunehmend an Bedeutung. Ziel dieser Untersuchung war es, die Rolle der interstitiellen Brachytherapie mit Ir-192 zur Behandlung des fruehen und rezidivierten Peniskarzinoms zu

  16. Interstitial shadow on chest CT is associated with the onset of interstitial lung disease caused by chemotherapeutic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niho, Seiji; Goto, Koichi; Yoh, Kiyotaka; Kim, Y.H.; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kubota, Kaoru; Saijo, Nagahiro; Nishiwaki, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Pretreatment computerized tomography (CT) films of the chest was studied to clarify the influence of interstitial shadow on developing interstitial lung disease (ILD). Eligible patients were those lung cancer patients who started to receive first-line chemotherapy between October 2001 and March 2004. Patients who received thoracic radiotherapy to the primary lesion, mediastinum, spinal or rib metastases were excluded. We reviewed pretreatment conventional CT and plain X-ray films of the chest. Ground-glass opacity, consolidation or reticular shadow without segmental distribution was defined as interstitial shadow, with this event being graded as mild, moderate or severe. If interstitial shadow was detected on CT films of the chest, but not via plain chest X-ray, it was graded as mild. Patients developing ILD were identified from medial records. A total of 502 patients were eligible. Mild, moderate and severe interstitial shadow was identified in 7, 8 and 5% of patients, respectively. A total of 188 patients (37%) received tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment, namely gefitinib or erlotinib. Twenty-six patients (5.2%) developed ILD either during or after chemotherapy. Multivariate analyses revealed that interstitial shadow on CT films of the chest and treatment history with TKI were associated with the onset of ILD. It is recommended that patients with interstitial shadow on chest CT are excluded from future clinical trials until this issue is further clarified, as it is anticipated that use of chemotherapeutic agents frequently mediate onset of ILD in this context. (author)

  17. Interstitial rotating shield brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Quentin E.; Xu, Jinghzu; Breitbach, Elizabeth K.; Li, Xing; Rockey, William R.; Kim, Yusung; Wu, Xiaodong; Flynn, Ryan T.; Enger, Shirin A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To present a novel needle, catheter, and radiation source system for interstitial rotating shield brachytherapy (I-RSBT) of the prostate. I-RSBT is a promising technique for reducing urethra, rectum, and bladder dose relative to conventional interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT). Methods: A wire-mounted 62 GBq 153 Gd source is proposed with an encapsulated diameter of 0.59 mm, active diameter of 0.44 mm, and active length of 10 mm. A concept model I-RSBT needle/catheter pair was constructed using concentric 50 and 75 μm thick nickel-titanium alloy (nitinol) tubes. The needle is 16-gauge (1.651 mm) in outer diameter and the catheter contains a 535 μm thick platinum shield. I-RSBT and conventional HDR-BT treatment plans for a prostate cancer patient were generated based on Monte Carlo dose calculations. In order to minimize urethral dose, urethral dose gradient volumes within 0–5 mm of the urethra surface were allowed to receive doses less than the prescribed dose of 100%. Results: The platinum shield reduced the dose rate on the shielded side of the source at 1 cm off-axis to 6.4% of the dose rate on the unshielded side. For the case considered, for the same minimum dose to the hottest 98% of the clinical target volume (D 98% ), I-RSBT reduced urethral D 0.1cc below that of conventional HDR-BT by 29%, 33%, 38%, and 44% for urethral dose gradient volumes within 0, 1, 3, and 5 mm of the urethra surface, respectively. Percentages are expressed relative to the prescription dose of 100%. For the case considered, for the same urethral dose gradient volumes, rectum D 1cc was reduced by 7%, 6%, 6%, and 6%, respectively, and bladder D 1cc was reduced by 4%, 5%, 5%, and 6%, respectively. Treatment time to deliver 20 Gy with I-RSBT was 154 min with ten 62 GBq 153 Gd sources. Conclusions: For the case considered, the proposed 153 Gd-based I-RSBT system has the potential to lower the urethral dose relative to HDR-BT by 29%–44% if the clinician allows

  18. Directional interstitial brachytherapy from simulation to application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Liyong

    Organs at risk (OAR) are sometimes adjacent to or embedded in or overlap with the clinical target volume (CTV) to be treated. The purpose of this PhD study is to develop directionally low energy gamma-emitting interstitial brachytherapy sources. These sources can be applied between OAR to selectively reduce hot spots in the OARs and normal tissues. The reduction of dose over undesired regions can expand patient eligibility or reduce toxicities for the treatment by conventional interstitial brachytherapy. This study covers the development of a directional source from design optimization to construction of the first prototype source. The Monte Carlo code MCNP was used to simulate the radiation transport for the designs of directional sources. We have made a special construction kit to assemble radioactive and gold-shield components precisely into D-shaped titanium containers of the first directional source. Directional sources have a similar dose distribution as conventional sources on the treated side but greatly reduced dose on the shielded side, with a sharp dose gradient between them. A three-dimensional dose deposition kernel for the 125I directional source has been calculated. Treatment plans can use both directional and conventional 125I sources at the same source strength for low-dose-rate (LDR) implants to optimize the dose distributions. For prostate tumors, directional 125I LDR brachytherapy can potentially reduce genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities and improve potency preservation for low risk patients. The combination of better dose distribution of directional implants and better therapeutic ratio between tumor response and late reactions enables a novel temporary LDR treatment, as opposed to permanent or high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy for the intermediate risk T2b and high risk T2c tumors. Supplemental external-beam treatments can be shortened with a better brachytherapy boost for T3 tumors. In conclusion, we have successfully finished the

  19. The impact of mobile point defect clusters in a kinetic model of pressure vessel embrittlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoller, R.E.

    1998-05-01

    The results of recent molecular dynamics simulations of displacement cascades in iron indicate that small interstitial clusters may have a very low activation energy for migration, and that their migration is 1-dimensional, rather than 3-dimensional. The mobility of these clusters can have a significant impact on the predictions of radiation damage models, particularly at the relatively low temperatures typical of commercial, light water reactor pressure vessels (RPV) and other out-of-core components. A previously-developed kinetic model used to investigate RPV embrittlement has been modified to permit an evaluation of the mobile interstitial clusters. Sink strengths appropriate to both 1- and 3-dimensional motion of the clusters were evaluated. High cluster mobility leads to a reduction in the amount of predicted embrittlement due to interstitial clusters since they are lost to sinks rather than building up in the microstructure. The sensitivity of the predictions to displacement rate also increases. The magnitude of this effect is somewhat reduced if the migration is 1-dimensional since the corresponding sink strengths are lower than those for 3-dimensional diffusion. The cluster mobility can also affect the evolution of copper-rich precipitates in the model since the radiation-enhanced diffusion coefficient increases due to the lower interstitial cluster sink strength. The overall impact of the modifications to the model is discussed in terms of the major irradiation variables and material parameter uncertainties

  20. Fatal interstitial lung disease associated with icotinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiexia; Zhan, Yangqing; Ouyang, Ming; Qin, Yinyin; Zhou, Chengzhi; Chen, Rongchang

    2014-12-01

    The most serious, and maybe fatal, yet rare, adverse reaction of gefitinib and erlotinib is drug-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD), which has been often described. However, it has been less well described for icotinib, a similar orally small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI). The case of a 25-year-old female patient with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma who developed fatal ILD is reported here. She denied chemotherapy, and received palliative treatment with icotinib (125 mg po, three times daily) on March 1, 2013. One month after treatment initiation, the patient complained of continuous dry cough and rapid progressive dyspnea. Forty one days after icotinib treatment, icotinib associated ILD was suspected when the patient became increasingly dyspnoeic despite of treatment of pericardial effusion, left pleural effusion and lower respiratory tract infection, and X-ray computed tomography (CT) of chest revealed multiple effusion shadows and ground-glass opacities in bilateral lungs. Then, icotinib was discontinued and intravenous corticosteroid was started (methylprednisolone 40 mg once daily, about 1 mg per kilogram) respectively. Forty three days after icotinib treatment, the patient died of hypoxic respiratory failure. ILD should be considered as a rare, but often fatal side effect associated with icotinib treatment.

  1. Magnetic effects of interstitial hydrogen in nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    León, Andrea [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Valparaíso (Chile); Velásquez, E.A. [Facultad de Física y Centro de Investigación en Nanotecnología y Materiales Avanzados CIEN-UC, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnología CEDENNA, Santiago (Chile); Grupo de Investigación en Modelamiento y Simulación Computacional, Universidad de San Buenaventura Sec. Medellín, Medellín (Colombia); Mazo-Zuluaga, J. [Grupo de Instrumentación Científica y Microelectrónica, Grupo de Estado Sólido, IF-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Mejía-López, J. [Facultad de Física y Centro de Investigación en Nanotecnología y Materiales Avanzados CIEN-UC, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnología CEDENNA, Santiago (Chile); Florez, J.M. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Valparaíso (Chile); and others

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen storage in materials is among the most relevant fields when thinking about energy conversion and storage. In this work we present a study that responds to a couple of questions concerning induced electronic changes that H produces in ferromagnetic nickel (Ni) host. We calculate and explain the change of magnetic properties of Ni with different concentrations of H. Density functional theory calculations (DFT) were performed for super-cells of fcc Ni with interstitial H in octahedral sites at different concentrations. In order to physically explain the effect of magnetization diminishing as the hydrogen concentration increases, we propose a simple Stoner type of model to describe the influence of the H impurity on the magnetic properties of Ni. The exchange splitting reduction, as shown in first principles calculations, is clearly explained within this physical model. Using a paramagnetic Ni fcc band with variable number of electrons and a Stoner model allow us to obtain the correct trend for the magnetic moment of the system as a function of the H concentration. - Highlights: • We calculate and explain the change of magnetic properties of Ni with different concentrations of H. • We propose a simple Stoner type of model to describe the influence of the H impurity on the magnetic properties of Ni. • The band exchange splitting reduction as the H concentration increases, is a consequence of the competition between the band energy term (kinetic energy) and the ferromagnetic energy term (Weiss field).

  2. Interstitial cells of Cajal in chagasic megaesophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Marcus Aurelho; Cabrine-Santos, Marlene; Tavares, Marcelo Garcia; Gerolin, Gustavo Pacheco; Lages-Silva, Eliane; Ramirez, Luis Eduardo

    2008-08-01

    Chagasic visceromegalies are the most important digestive manifestations of Chagas disease and are characterized by motor disorders and dilation of organs such as esophagus and colon. One of the theories raised to explain the physiopathogenesis of chagasic megas is the plexus theory. Recent studies have shown a reduction of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in the colon of chagasic patients. These cells are present throughout the gastrointestinal tract and are considered to be pacemaker cells, that is, they are responsible for coordinating peristalsis and for mediating nerve impulses. In view of the lack of studies on these cells in megaesophagus and the previous observation of a reduction of ICCs in chagasic megacolons, we compared the distribution of ICCs in the esophagus of chagasic and nonchagasic patients to contribute to a better understanding of the physiopathogenesis of this esophageal disease. Esophageal biopsy samples from 10 chagasic and 5 nonchagasic patients were used. Cells were identified with the anti-CD117 antibody. The number of ICCs was quantified in longitudinal and circular muscle layers and myenteric plexus. The results were analyzed statistically by comparison of means. An intense reduction in the number of ICCs was observed in muscle layers and in the myenteric plexus of patients with megaesophagus. We conclude that there is an intense reduction of ICCs in the esophagus of chagasic patients when compared to nonchagasic patients, a finding supporting the important role of these cells in gastrointestinal tract motility. A deficiency in these cells might be implied in the genesis of megaesophagus.

  3. Classical patterns of interstitial lung diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Mang, C.

    2014-01-01

    High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is the most important non-invasive tool in the diagnostics and follow-up of patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). A systematic review of the HRCT patterns of ILD was carried out and the most relevant differential diagnoses are discussed in order to provide a road map for the general radiologist to successfully navigate the complex field of ILD. Using HRCT four basic patterns of ILD can be identified: linear and reticular patterns, the nodular pattern, the high attenuation and low attenuation patterns. These patterns can be further differentiated according to their localization within the secondary pulmonary lobule (SPL), e.g. centrilobular or perilymphatic and their distribution within the lungs (e.g. upper or lower lobe predominance). Relevant clinical data, such as smoking history and course of the disease provide useful additional information in the diagnosis of ILD. On the basis of the pattern and anatomical distribution on HRCT, an accurate diagnosis can be achieved in some cases of ILD; however, due to morphological and clinical overlap the final diagnosis of many ILDs requires close cooperation between clinicians, radiologists and pathologists. (orig.) [de

  4. Emergent pattern formation in an interstitial biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachreson, Cameron; Wolff, Christian; Whitchurch, Cynthia B.; Toth, Milos

    2017-01-01

    Collective behavior of bacterial colonies plays critical roles in adaptability, survivability, biofilm expansion and infection. We employ an individual-based model of an interstitial biofilm to study emergent pattern formation based on the assumptions that rod-shaped bacteria furrow through a viscous environment and excrete extracellular polymeric substances which bias their rate of motion. Because the bacteria furrow through their environment, the substratum stiffness is a key control parameter behind the formation of distinct morphological patterns. By systematically varying this property (which we quantify with a stiffness coefficient γ ), we show that subtle changes in the substratum stiffness can give rise to a stable state characterized by a high degree of local order and long-range pattern formation. The ordered state exhibits characteristics typically associated with bacterial fitness advantages, even though it is induced by changes in environmental conditions rather than changes in biological parameters. Our findings are applicable to a broad range of biofilms and provide insights into the relationship between bacterial movement and their environment, and basic mechanisms behind self-organization of biophysical systems.

  5. Interstitial adenosine concentration is increased by dipyridamole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, M.W.; Wangler, R.D.; DeWitt, D.F.; Wang, C.Y.; Bassingthwaighte, J.B.; Sparks, H.V.

    1986-01-01

    The authors used the multiple indicator dilution technique to observe the capillary transport of adenosine (ADO) in isolated guinea pig hearts. Radiolabelled albumin, sucrose and ADO were injected on the arterial side and measured in venous samples collected during the following 20 seconds. Transport parameters calculated from these data include permeability-surface area products (PS) for transendothelial diffusion, endothelial cell (EC) uptake at the lumenal and ablumenal membranes, and EC metabolism. With simultaneous measurements of arterial and venous ADO concentrations and flow, the authors calculated the steady-state interstitial fluid (ISF) ADO concentration. Under control conditions the venous ADO concentration was 7.1 +/- 2.8 nM. The calculated ISF concentration depends on whether they assume the venous ADO comes from the ISF, or directly from ECs. These ISF concentrations are 25 +/- 12 nM and 9.8 +/- 4.0 nM, respectively. During dipyridamole infusion (10 uM) the EC transport parameters became nearly zero. Venous and ISF ADO concentrations increased to 33 +/- 8.9 nM and 169 +/- 42 nM, respectively. The authors conclude that the ISF ADO concentration is 1.5-4 fold higher than the venous concentration at rest, and the ISF concentration increases greatly with dipyridamole

  6. Dose optimisation in single plane interstitial brachytherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Kari; Hellebust, Taran Paulsen; Honoré, Henriette Benedicte

    2006-01-01

    patients,       treated for recurrent rectal and cervical cancer, flexible catheters were       sutured intra-operatively to the tumour bed in areas with compromised       surgical margin. Both non-optimised, geometrically and graphically       optimised CT -based dose plans were made. The overdose index...... on the       regularity of the implant, such that the benefit of optimisation was       larger for irregular implants. OI and HI correlated strongly with target       volume limiting the usability of these parameters for comparison of dose       plans between patients. CONCLUSIONS: Dwell time optimisation significantly......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brachytherapy dose distributions can be optimised       by modulation of source dwell times. In this study dose optimisation in       single planar interstitial implants was evaluated in order to quantify the       potential benefit in patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 14...

  7. Californium-252 radiotherapy sources for interstitial afterloading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permar, P.H.; Walker, V.W.

    1976-01-01

    Californium-252 neutron sources for interstitial afterloading were developed to investigate the value of this radionuclide in cancer therapy. Californium-252 seed assemblies contain essentially point sources of 252 Cf permanently sealed on 1-cm centers within a flexible plastic tube. The seed assemblies are fabricated with remotely operated, specially designed machines. The fabrication process involves the production of a Pt-10 percent Ir-clad wire with a 252 Cf 2 O 3 -Pd cermet core. The wire is swaged and drawn to size, cut to length, and welded in a Pt-10 percent Ir capsule 0.8 mm in diameter and 6 mm long. Each seed capsule contains approximately 0.5 microgram of 252 Cf. Because the effective half-life of 252 Cf is 2.6 years, the seed assemblies are not disposable and must be reused until their activities have decreased to unsuitable levels. The flexible plastic components must therefore have sufficient resistance to radiation damage to survive the neutron-plus-gamma radiation from 252 Cf. On the basis of accelerated irradiation tests with a large 252 Cf source, a recently developed fluoropolymer, ''Tefzel'' (trademark of E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company) has adequate radiation resistance for this application. Californium-252 seed assembly systems are loaned by the United States Energy Research and Development Administration for clinical investigations under a protocol of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, U.S. National Cancer Institute

  8. A new interstitial flatworm (Turbellaria: Promesostomidae) from the Indian Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clerck, De G.G.

    1994-01-01

    Paraproboscifer alacerregis, representing a new genus and a new species of the interstitial typloplanoid flatworms is described from the Seychelles and Kenya. It is placed in the turbellarian family Promesostomidae, The type locality is on Mahé Island, Seychelles.

  9. Leflunomide-Induced Interstitial Lung Disease: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aygül Güzel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Leflunomide (LEF induced interstitial pneumonitis is a very rare condition but potentially fatal. We report a case of LEF induced interstitial pneumonitis. A 63-year-old woman followed-up for 37 years with the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis treated with LEF (20 mg/day since 5 months were admitted to our hospital with cough, dyspnea, fever, and dark sputum.Chest radiography represented bilateral alveolar consolidation. High-resolution computed tomography demonstrated diffuse ground-glass appearance and interlobular septal thickening. Since the patient’s clinics and radiologic findings improved dramatically after the cessation of LEF and recieving oral steriod therapy, she was diagnosed as drug-induced interstitial lung disease. In conclusion, when nonspecific clinical signs such as respiratory distress, cough and fever seen during the use of LEF, drug-induced interstitial lung disease should be kept in mind for the differantial diagnosis.

  10. Isotopic clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraedts, J.M.P.

    1983-01-01

    Spectra of isotopically mixed clusters (dimers of SF 6 ) are calculated as well as transition frequencies. The result leads to speculations about the suitability of the laser-cluster fragmentation process for isotope separation. (Auth.)

  11. Cluster Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a role. Unlike migraine and tension headache, cluster headache generally isn't associated with triggers, such as foods, hormonal changes or stress. Once a cluster period begins, however, drinking alcohol ...

  12. Calculation of the electronic structure optical transitions and contact hyperfine parameters of interstitial hydrogen in alkaline halogen crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciel, A.K.A.

    1977-03-01

    The electronic structure of the interstitial hydrogen atom in KF, NaCl, KCl, and RbCl cristals has been studied using the self-consistent-field multiple-scattering Xα method. In the present calculation a cluster constituted by the hydrogen atom surrounded by its first anion and cation neighbors in a cubic shell has been used. The optical transition energies and hyperfine contact parameters with the interstitial proton and the first shell nuclei have been evaluated. The agreement obtained with the experimental data and the relative independence of the method under variations of its intrinsic parameters, indicate that this method can be adequate to the study of defects in ionic cristals. (author) [pt

  13. Cluster Headache

    OpenAIRE

    Pearce, Iris

    1985-01-01

    Cluster headache is the most severe primary headache with recurrent pain attacks described as worse than giving birth. The aim of this paper was to make an overview of current knowledge on cluster headache with a focus on pathophysiology and treatment. This paper presents hypotheses of cluster headache pathophysiology, current treatment options and possible future therapy approaches. For years, the hypothalamus was regarded as the key structure in cluster headache, but is now thought to be pa...

  14. Categorias Cluster

    OpenAIRE

    Queiroz, Dayane Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Neste trabalho apresentamos as categorias cluster, que foram introduzidas por Aslak Bakke Buan, Robert Marsh, Markus Reineke, Idun Reiten e Gordana Todorov, com o objetivo de categoriíicar as algebras cluster criadas em 2002 por Sergey Fomin e Andrei Zelevinsky. Os autores acima, em [4], mostraram que existe uma estreita relação entre algebras cluster e categorias cluster para quivers cujo grafo subjacente é um diagrama de Dynkin. Para isto desenvolveram uma teoria tilting na estrutura triang...

  15. A CURIOUS CASE OF FEVER AND INTERSTITIAL LUNG DISEASE

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Shahid Mahdi; Dr. Darpanarayan Hazra; Dr. Zainab Mahdi

    2017-01-01

    Antisynthetase syndrome is a rare chronic autoimmune inflammatory myopathy with fever, interstitial lung disease, Raynaud’s phenomenon and polyarthritis. The exact underlying cause of antisynthetase syndrome is not yet known. Diagnosis is made with presence of Jo-1 (Histydyl t RNA synthase) antigen in a patient with underlying interstitial lung disease, myositis, arthritis, Raynaud’s phenomenon and mechanic’s hand. Some of the other antisynthetase anti bodies are PL-7 (antigen – threonyl-tRNA...

  16. The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: understanding key radiological features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, S. [Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Old Road, Oxford OX3 7LJ (United Kingdom); Benamore, R., E-mail: Rachel.Benamore@orh.nhs.u [Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Old Road, Oxford OX3 7LJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Many radiologists find it challenging to distinguish between the different interstitial idiopathic pneumonias (IIPs). The British Thoracic Society guidelines on interstitial lung disease (2008) recommend the formation of multidisciplinary meetings, with diagnoses made by combined radiological, pathological, and clinical findings. This review focuses on understanding typical and atypical radiological features on high-resolution computed tomography between the different IIPs, to help the radiologist determine when a confident diagnosis can be made and how to deal with uncertainty.

  17. The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: understanding key radiological features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, S.; Benamore, R.

    2010-01-01

    Many radiologists find it challenging to distinguish between the different interstitial idiopathic pneumonias (IIPs). The British Thoracic Society guidelines on interstitial lung disease (2008) recommend the formation of multidisciplinary meetings, with diagnoses made by combined radiological, pathological, and clinical findings. This review focuses on understanding typical and atypical radiological features on high-resolution computed tomography between the different IIPs, to help the radiologist determine when a confident diagnosis can be made and how to deal with uncertainty.

  18. Rheumatoid arthritis associated interstitial lung disease: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Assayag

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is a common inflammatory disease affecting about 1% of the population. Interstitial lung disease is a serious and frequent complication of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD is characterized by several histopathologic subtypes. This article reviews the proposed pathogenesis and risk factors for RA-ILD. We also outline the important steps involved in the work-up of RA-ILD and review the evidence for treatment and prognosis.

  19. Meaningful Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Calapristi, Augustin J.; Crow, Vernon L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2004-05-26

    We present an approach to the disambiguation of cluster labels that capitalizes on the notion of semantic similarity to assign WordNet senses to cluster labels. The approach provides interesting insights on how document clustering can provide the basis for developing a novel approach to word sense disambiguation.

  20. Horticultural cluster

    OpenAIRE

    SHERSTIUK S.V.; POSYLAYEVA K.I.

    2013-01-01

    In the article there are the theoretical and methodological approaches to the nature and existence of the cluster. The cluster differences from other kinds of cooperative and integration associations. Was develop by scientific-practical recommendations for forming a competitive horticultur cluster.

  1. Modeling of long-range migration of boron interstitials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichko, O.I.; Burunova, O.N.

    2009-01-01

    A model of the interstitial migration of ion-implanted dopant in silicon during low-temperature thermal treatment has been formulated. It is supposed that the boron interstitials are created during ion implantation or at the initial stage of annealing. During thermal treatment a migration of these impurity interstitials to the surface and in the bulk of a semiconductor occurs. On this basis, a simulation of boron redistribution during thermal annealing for 35 minutes at a temperature of 800 0 C has been carried out. The calculated boron profile agrees well with the experimental data. A number of the parameters describing the interstitial diffusion have been derived. In particular, the average migration length of nonequilibrium boron interstitials is equal to 0.092 μm at a temperature of 800 0 C. To carry out modeling of ion-implanted boron redistribution, the analytical solutions of nonstationary diffusion equation for impurity interstitials have been obtained. The case of Dirichlet boundary conditions and the case of reflecting boundary on the surface of a semiconductor have been considered. (authors)

  2. Microstructures and phase transformations in interstitial alloys of tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahmen, U.

    1979-01-01

    The analysis of microstructures, phases, and possible ordering of interstitial solute atoms is fundamental to an understanding of the properties of metal-interstitial alloys in general. As evidenced by the controversies on phase transformations in the particular system tantalum--carbon, our understanding of this class of alloys is inferior to our knowledge of substitutional metal alloys. An experimental clarification of these controversies in tantalum was made. Using advanced techniques of electron microscopy and ultrahigh vacuum techology, an understanding of the microstructures and phase transformations in dilute interstitial tantalum--carbon alloys is developed. Through a number of control experiments, the role and sources of interstitial contamination in the alloy preparation (and under operating conditions) are revealed. It is demonstrated that all previously published work on the dilute interstitially ordered phase Ta 64 C can be explained consistently in terms of ordering of the interstitial contaminants oxygen and hydrogen, leading to the formation of the phases Ta 12 O and Ta 2 H

  3. An approach to interstitial lung disease in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J N Pande

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial lung diseases are common and have varied etiology, clinical presentation, clinical course and outcome. They pose a diagnostic challenge to physicians and pulmonologists. Patients present with dry cough, exertional dyspnoea, interstitial lesions on X-ray of the chest and restrictive ventilatory defect on spirometry. A sharp decline in oxygen saturation with exercise is characteristic. Careful evaluation of the history of the patient and physical examination help in narrowing down diagnostic probabilities. HRCT of the chest has emerged as an important tool in the evaluation of these disorders. Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias (IIP are a group of conditions which are classified into several types based on pathological features. Bronchoscopic procedures are helpful in diagnosis of certain disorders but are of limited value in classification of IIP which requires surgical biopsy. Usual Interstitial Pneumonia (UIP, also referred to as Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis, has a progressive course and an unfavourable outcome. Certain new drugs have recently become available for treatment of UIP. Our approach towards diagnosis and management of interstitial lung diseases based on personal experience over the past three decades is reported here. Key words: Usual interstitial pneumonia – sarcoidosis – pneumoconiosis – bronchoscopy – lung biopsy 

  4. New insights into canted spiro carbon interstitial in graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    EL-Barbary, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The self-interstitial carbon is the key to radiation damage in graphite moderator nuclear reactor, so an understanding of its behavior is essential for plant safety and maximized reactor lifetime. The density functional theory is applied on four different graphite unit cells, starting from of 64 carbon atoms up to 256 carbon atoms, using AIMPRO code to obtain the energetic, athermal and mechanical properties of carbon interstitial in graphite. This study presents first principles calculations of the energy of formation that prove its high barrier to athermal diffusion (1.1 eV) and the consequent large critical shear stress (39 eV-50 eV) necessary to shear graphite planes in its presence. Also, for the first time, the gamma surface of graphite in two dimensions is calculated and found to yield the critical shear stress for perfect graphite. Finally, in contrast to the extensive literature describing the interstitial of carbon in graphite as spiro interstitial, in this work the ground state of interstitial carbon is found to be canted spiro interstitial.

  5. Cluster Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulati, Mukesh; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Suresh, Sangeetha

    2018-01-01

    sell their products successfully in international markets, but there is also an increasingly large consumer base within India. Indeed, Indian industrial clusters have contributed to a substantial part of this growth process, and there are several hundred registered clusters within the country...... of this handbook, which focuses on the role of CSR in MSMEs. Hence we contribute to the literature on CSR in industrial clusters and specifically CSR in Indian industrial clusters by investigating the drivers of CSR in India’s industrial clusters....

  6. Perioperative interstitial brachytherapy for recurrent keloid scars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rio, E.; Bardet, E.; Peuvrel, P.; Martinet, L.; Perrot, P.; Baraer, F.; Loirat, Y.; Sartre, J.Y.; Malard, O.; Ferron, C.; Dreno, B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Evaluation of the results of perioperative interstitial brachytherapy with low dose-rate (L.D.R.) Ir-192 in the treatment of keloid scars. Patients and methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of 73 histologically confirmed keloids (from 58 patients) resistant to medico surgical treated by surgical excision plus early perioperative brachytherapy. All lesions were initially symptomatic. Local control was evaluated by clinical evaluation. Functional and cosmetic results were assessed in terms of patient responses to a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Median age was 28 years (range 13-71 years). Scars were located as follows: 37% on the face, 32% on the trunk or abdomen, 16% on the neck, and 15% on the arms or legs. The mean delay before loading was four hours (range, 1-6 h). The median dose was 20 Gy (range, 15-40 Gy). Sixty-four scars (from 53 patients) were evaluated. Local control was 86% (follow-up, 44.5 months; range, 14-150 months). All relapses occurred early within 2 years posttreatment. At 20 months, survival without recurrence was significantly lower when treated lengths were more than 6 cm long. The rate was 100% for treated scars below 4.5 cm in length, 95% (95% CI: 55-96) for those 4.5-6 cm long, and 75% (95% CI: 56-88) beyond 6 cm (p = 0.038). Of the 35 scars (28 patients) whose results were reassessed, six remained symptomatic and the esthetic results were considered to be good in 51% (18/35) and average in 37% (13/35) (median follow-up, 70 months; range, 16-181 months). Conclusion: Early perioperative L.D.R. brachytherapy delivering 20 Gy at 5 mm reduced the rate of recurrent keloids resistant to other treatments and gave good functional results. (authors)

  7. Co-morbidities of Interstitial Cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela eChelimsky

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to estimate the proportion of patients with Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome (IC/BPS with systemic dysfunction associated co-morbidities such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and fibromyalgia (FM. Material and Methods: Two groups of subjects with IC/BPS were included: 1 Physician diagnosed patients with IC/BPS and 2 Subjects meeting NIDDK IC/PBS criteria based on a questionnaire (ODYSA. These groups were compared to healthy controls matched for age and socio-economic status. NIDDK criteria required: pain with bladder filling that improves with emptying, urinary urgency due to discomfort or pain, polyuria > 11 times/24 hrs, and nocturia > 2 times/night. The ODYSA instrument evaluates symptoms pertaining to a range of disorders including chronic fatigue, orthostatic intolerance, syncope, IBS, dyspepsia, cyclic vomiting syndrome, headaches and migraines, sleep, Raynaud’s syndrome and chronic aches and pains. Results: IC/BPS was diagnosed in 26 subjects (mean age 47 +/- 16 yrs, 92% females, 58 had symptoms of IC/BPS by NIDDK criteria, (mean age 40 +/- 17 yrs, 79% females and 48 were healthy controls (mean age 31+/- 14 yrs, mean age 77%. Co-morbid complaints in the IC/BPS groups included gastrointestinal symptoms suggestive of IBS and dyspepsia, sleep abnormalities with delayed onset of sleep, feeling poorly refreshed in the morning, waking up before needed, snoring, severe chronic fatigue and chronic generalized pain, migraines and syncope. Discussion: Patients with IC/BPS had co-morbid central and autonomic nervous system disorders. Our findings mirror those of others in regard to IBS, symptoms suggestive of FM, chronic pain and migraine. High rates of syncope and functional dyspepsia found in the IC/BPS groups merit further study to determine if IC/BPS is part of a diffuse disorder of central, autonomic and sensory processing affecting multiple organs outside the bladder.

  8. Interstitial Lung disease in Systemic Sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooi, G.C.; Mok, M.Y.; Tsang, K.W.T.; Khong, P.L.; Fung, P.C.W.; Chan, S.; Tse, H.F.; Wong, R.W.S.; Lam, W.K.; Lau, C.S.; Wong, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate high-resolution CT (HRCT) parameters of inflammation and fibrosis in systemic sclerosis (SSc), for correlation with lung function, skin scores and exercise tolerance. Material and Methods: : 45 SSc patients (40 women, 48.5±13.4 years), underwent thoracic HRCT, lung function assessment, and modified Rodnan skin scores. Exercise tolerance was also graded. HRCT were scored for extent of 4 HRCT patterns of interstitial lung disease (ILD): ground glass opacification (GGO), reticular, mixed and honeycomb pattern in each lobe. Total HRCT score, inflammation index (GGO and mixed score) and fibrosis index (reticular and honeycomb scores) were correlated with lung function and clinical parameters. Results: ILD was present in 39/45 (86.7%) patients. Abnormal (<80% predicted) forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity (TLC) and carbon monoxide diffusion factor (DLco) were detected in 30%, 22% and 46% of patients. Total HRCT score correlated with FVC (r=0.43, p=0.008), FEV1 (forced expiratory volume) (r=-0.37, p=0.03), TLC (r=-0.47, p=0.003), and DLCO (r=-0.43, p=0.008); inflammatory index with DLCO (r=-0.43, p=0.008) and exercise tolerance (r=-0.39, p < 0.05); and fibrosis index with FVC (r=-0.31, p=0.05) and TLC (r=-0.38, p=0.02). Higher total HRCT score, and inflammation and fibrosis indices were found in patients with abnormal lung function. Conclusion: Qualitative HRCT is able to evaluate inflammation and fibrosis, showing important relationships with diffusion capacity and lung volume, respectively

  9. Production bias and cluster annihilation: Why necessary?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, B.N.; Trinkaus, H.; Woo, C.H.

    1994-01-01

    the primary cluster density is high. Therefore, a sustained high swelling rate driven by production bias must involve the annihilation of primary clusters at sinks. A number of experimental observations which are unexplainable in terms of the conventional dislocation bias for monointerstitials is considered......-field approach. The production bias approach, on the other hand, is based on the physical features of the cascade damage and is therefore considered to be more appropriate for describing the damage accumulation under cascade damage conditions. However, production bias can not produce high a swelling rate when....... It is found that the production bias and cluster annihilation are necessary to explain these observations, with, in many cases, the explicit consideration of the annihilation of the primary interstitial clusters....

  10. Clusters of community exposure to coastal flooding hazards based on storm and sea level rise scenarios—implications for adaptation networks in the San Francisco Bay region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Michelle; Wood, Nathan J.; Schweikert, Amy; Stacey, Mark T.; Jones, Jeanne; Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.

    2018-01-01

    Sea level is projected to rise over the coming decades, further increasing the extent of flooding hazards in coastal communities. Efforts to address potential impacts from climate-driven coastal hazards have called for collaboration among communities to strengthen the application of best practices. However, communities currently lack practical tools for identifying potential partner communities based on similar hazard exposure characteristics. This study uses statistical cluster analysis to identify similarities in community exposure to flooding hazards for a suite of sea level rise and storm scenarios. We demonstrate this approach using 63 jurisdictions in the San Francisco Bay region of California (USA) and compare 21 distinct exposure variables related to residents, employees, and structures for six hazard scenario combinations of sea level rise and storms. Results indicate that cluster analysis can provide an effective mechanism for identifying community groupings. Cluster compositions changed based on the selected societal variables and sea level rise scenarios, suggesting that a community could participate in multiple networks to target specific issues or policy interventions. The proposed clustering approach can serve as a data-driven foundation to help communities identify other communities with similar adaptation challenges and to enhance regional efforts that aim to facilitate adaptation planning and investment prioritization.

  11. Direct identification of interstitial Mn in heavily p-type doped GaAs and evidence of its high thermal stability

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, LMC; Correia, JG; Decoster, S; da Silva, MR; Araújo, JP; Vantomme, A

    2011-01-01

    We report on the lattice location of Mn in heavily p-type doped GaAs by means of $\\beta^{-}$-emission channeling from the decay of $^{56}$Mn. The majority of the Mn atoms substitute for Ga and up to 31% occupy the tetrahedral interstitial site with As nearest neighbors. Contrary to the general belief, we find that interstitial Mn is immobile up to 400$^{\\circ}$C, with an activation energy for diffusion of 1.7–2.3 eV. Such high thermal stability of interstitial Mn has significant implications on the strategies and prospects for achieving room temperature ferromagnetism in Ga$_{1−x}$Mn$_{x}$As.

  12. Dependence of boron cluster dissolution on the annealing ambient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radic, Ljubo; Lilak, Aaron D.; Law, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    Boron is introduced into silicon via implantation to form p-type layers. This process creates damage in the crystal that upon annealing causes enhanced diffusion and clustering of the boron layer. Reactivation of the boron is not a well-understood process. In this letter we experimentally investigate the effect of the annealing ambient on boron reactivation kinetics. An oxidizing ambient which injects silicon interstitials is compared to an inert ambient. Contrary to published theory, an excess of interstitials does not accelerate the reactivation process

  13. Cell clusters overlying focally disrupted mammary myoepithelial cell layers and adjacent cells within the same duct display different immunohistochemical and genetic features: implications for tumor progression and invasion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man, Yan-gao; Vinh, Tuyethoa N; Strauss, Brian L; Tai, Lisa; Barner, Ross; Vang, Russell; Saenger, Jeffrey S; Shekitka, Kris M; Bratthauer, Gary L; Wheeler, Darren T; Liang, Chang Y

    2003-01-01

    Our previous studies detected focal disruptions in myoepithelial cell layers of several ducts with carcinoma in situ. The cell cluster overlying each of the myoepithelial disruptions showed a marked reduction in or a total loss of immunoreactivity for the estrogen receptor (ER). This is in contrast to the adjacent cells within the same duct, which were strongly immunoreactive for the ER. The current study attempts to confirm and expand previous observations on a larger scale. Paraffin sections from 220 patients with ER-positive intraductal breast tumors were double immunostained with the same protocol previously used. Cross-sections of ducts lined by ≥ 40 epithelial cells were examined for myoepithelial cell layer disruptions and for ER expression. In five selected cases, ER-negative cells overlying the disrupted myoepithelial cell layer and adjacent ER-positive cells within the same duct were separately microdissected and assessed for loss of heterozygosity and microsatellite instability. Of the 220 cases with 5698 duct cross-sections examined, 94 showed disrupted myoepithelial cell layers with 405 focal disruptions. Of the 94 cases, 79 (84%) contained only ER-negative cell clusters, nine (9.6%) contained both ER-negative and ER-positive cell clusters, and six (6.4%) contained only ER-positive cell clusters overlying disrupted myoepithelial cell layers. Of the 405 disruptions, 350 (86.4%) were overlain by ER-negative cell clusters and 55 (13.6%) were overlain by ER-positive cell clusters (P < 0.01). Microdissected ER-negative and ER-positive cells within the same duct from all five selected cases displayed a different frequency or pattern of loss of heterozygosity and/or microsatellite instability at 10 of the 15 DNA markers. Cells overlying focally disrupted myoepithelial layers and their adjacent counterparts within the same duct displayed different immunohistochemical and molecular features. These features potentially represent an early sign of the formation

  14. Cytokine profiling of tumor interstitial fluid of the breast and its relationship with lymphocyte infiltration and clinicopathological characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinoza, Jaime A.; Jabeen, Shakila; Batra, Richa

    2016-01-01

    uncharacterized. Moreover, the data obtained regarding the origin of cytokine secretions, the levels of secretion associated with tumor development, and the possible clinical relevance of cytokines remain controversial. Therefore, we profiled 27 cytokines in 78 breast tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) samples, 43...... normal interstitial fluid (NIF) samples, and 25 matched serum samples obtained from BC patients with Luminex xMAP multiplex technology. Eleven cytokines exhibited significantly higher levels in the TIF samples compared with the NIF samples: interleukin (IL)-7, IL-10, fibroblast growth factor-2, IL-13......, IL-7, IL-10, and PDGFβ also exhibited a correlation between the TIF samples and matched sera. In a survival analysis, high levels of IL-5, a hallmark TH2 cytokine, in the TIF samples were associated with a worse prognosis. These findings have important implications for BC immunotherapy research....

  15. Dynamic properties of interstitial carbon and carbon-carbon pair defects in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leary, P.; Jones, R.; Oeberg, S.; Torres, V.J.

    1997-01-01

    Interstitial carbon, C i , defects in Si exhibit a number of unexplained features. The C i defect in the neutral charge state gives rise to two almost degenerate vibrational modes at 920 and 931 cm -1 whose 2:1 absorption intensity ratio naturally suggests a trigonal defect in conflict with uniaxial stress measurements. The dicarbon, C s -C i , defect is bistable, and the energy difference between its A and B forms is surprisingly small even though the bonding is very different. In the B form appropriate to the neutral charge state, a silicon interstitial is believed to be located near a bond-centered site between two C s atoms. This must give rise to vibrational modes which involve the motion of both C atoms in apparent conflict with the results of photoluminescence experiments. We use an ab initio local density functional cluster method, AIMPRO, to calculate the structure and vibrational modes of these defects and find that the ratio of the absorption intensities of the local modes of C i is in reasonable agreement with experiment even though the structure of the defect is not trigonal. We also show that modes in the vicinity of those detected by photoluminescence for the B form of the dicarbon center involve independent movements of the two C atoms. Finally, the trends in the relative energies of the A and B forms in three charge states are investigated. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  16. Rare variants in RTEL1 are associated with familial interstitial pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogan, Joy D; Kropski, Jonathan A; Zhao, Min; Mitchell, Daphne B; Rives, Lynette; Markin, Cheryl; Garnett, Errine T; Montgomery, Keri H; Mason, Wendi R; McKean, David F; Powers, Julia; Murphy, Elissa; Olson, Lana M; Choi, Leena; Cheng, Dong-Sheng; Blue, Elizabeth Marchani; Young, Lisa R; Lancaster, Lisa H; Steele, Mark P; Brown, Kevin K; Schwarz, Marvin I; Fingerlin, Tasha E; Schwartz, David A; Lawson, William E; Loyd, James E; Zhao, Zhongming; Phillips, John A; Blackwell, Timothy S

    2015-03-15

    Up to 20% of cases of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia cluster in families, comprising the syndrome of familial interstitial pneumonia (FIP); however, the genetic basis of FIP remains uncertain in most families. To determine if new disease-causing rare genetic variants could be identified using whole-exome sequencing of affected members from FIP families, providing additional insights into disease pathogenesis. Affected subjects from 25 kindreds were selected from an ongoing FIP registry for whole-exome sequencing from genomic DNA. Candidate rare variants were confirmed by Sanger sequencing, and cosegregation analysis was performed in families, followed by additional sequencing of affected individuals from another 163 kindreds. We identified a potentially damaging rare variant in the gene encoding for regulator of telomere elongation helicase 1 (RTEL1) that segregated with disease and was associated with very short telomeres in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in 1 of 25 families in our original whole-exome sequencing cohort. Evaluation of affected individuals in 163 additional kindreds revealed another eight families (4.7%) with heterozygous rare variants in RTEL1 that segregated with clinical FIP. Probands and unaffected carriers of these rare variants had short telomeres (RTEL1 function. Rare loss-of-function variants in RTEL1 represent a newly defined genetic predisposition for FIP, supporting the importance of telomere-related pathways in pulmonary fibrosis.

  17. Data Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2012-03-01

    On obtaining a new data set, the researcher is immediately faced with the challenge of obtaining a high-level understanding from the observations. What does a typical item look like? What are the dominant trends? How many distinct groups are included in the data set, and how is each one characterized? Which observable values are common, and which rarely occur? Which items stand out as anomalies or outliers from the rest of the data? This challenge is exacerbated by the steady growth in data set size [11] as new instruments push into new frontiers of parameter space, via improvements in temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution, or by the desire to "fuse" observations from different modalities and instruments into a larger-picture understanding of the same underlying phenomenon. Data clustering algorithms provide a variety of solutions for this task. They can generate summaries, locate outliers, compress data, identify dense or sparse regions of feature space, and build data models. It is useful to note up front that "clusters" in this context refer to groups of items within some descriptive feature space, not (necessarily) to "galaxy clusters" which are dense regions in physical space. The goal of this chapter is to survey a variety of data clustering methods, with an eye toward their applicability to astronomical data analysis. In addition to improving the individual researcher’s understanding of a given data set, clustering has led directly to scientific advances, such as the discovery of new subclasses of stars [14] and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) [38]. All clustering algorithms seek to identify groups within a data set that reflect some observed, quantifiable structure. Clustering is traditionally an unsupervised approach to data analysis, in the sense that it operates without any direct guidance about which items should be assigned to which clusters. There has been a recent trend in the clustering literature toward supporting semisupervised or constrained

  18. Geographic and sociodemographic factors in the etiology of juvenile neoplasms: implications for leukaemia clusters of several factors including density, background radiation, infections and immunisations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneale, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of data from the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers (OSCC) by the recently invented method of Fears and Brown, as modified (for correct variances of relative risk estimates) by Breslow and Zhao. The analysis has shown that, for OSCC cases, negative associations with population density, stillbirths and infant deaths were sufficiently strong for these alone to account for all but one of the leukaemia clusters so far reported in Britain as 'black hole' effects (the single exception being the Sellafield cluster). Finally, strong positive associations with regional levels of background radiation were found which have reinforced an earlier impression that these inevitable exposures are important causes of childhood cancer. (orig./MG)

  19. Up-to-Date Information on Rheumatoid Arthritis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takafumi Suda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary involvement is common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA and affects all the components of the lung. Interstitial lung disease (ILD is the most predominant pulmonary manifestation and has been identified as the main cause of morbidity and mortality in RA. Clinically significant RA-ILD occurs in approximately 10% of RA patients. Several risk factors, such as old age, male gender, and smoking, have been reported to date. Histologically, the proportion of the usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP pattern is higher in RA-ILD than in ILD associated with other connective tissue diseases, and RA-ILD also shows nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and organizing pneumonia patterns. High-resolution computed tomography scans are highly predictive of the histological UIP pattern with a specificity of 96%-100%. Acute exacerbation, which is the acute deterioration of the respiratory status characterized by newly developed bilateral infiltrates with unknown etiologies, has been reported in RA-ILD. Although acute exacerbation of RA-ILD has high mortality, similar to that of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, its incidence is lower in RA-ILD than in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. A consensus treatment has not yet been established. Current therapeutic regimens typically include corticosteroids with or without cytotoxic agents. Recent large longitudinal studies reported that the prognosis of RA-ILD was poor with a median survival of 2.6-3.0 years. Furthermore, histological and/or radiological patterns, such as UIP or non-UIP, have significant prognostic implications. RA-ILD patients with histological or radiological UIP patterns have poorer prognoses than those with non-UIP patterns. This review assessed the characteristics of RA-ILD by overviewing recent studies in the field and focused on the clinical significance of histological and/or radiological patterns in RA-ILD.

  20. Interstitial impurity interactions and dislocation microdynamics in Mo crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, D.N.

    1975-05-01

    The effects of interstitial impurities on the mechanical properties of molybdenum are explored by comparing results obtained for crystals of various interstitial contents controlled by ultra-high vacuum outgassing. Results show a modulus reduction for as-grown samples and for outgassed specimens at low applied stresses. As a function of plastic microstrain, the values of modulus defect for both as-grown and outgassed specimens saturate at the same value. Interstitial impurities act as pinning agents to dislocation bowing, but when all the easy dislocation loops have broken away from local interstitial pins, the modulus defect reaches a constant saturation value. Etch pitting techniques were used to correlate microstrain observations with dislocation generation and motion. It has been found that edge dislocation generation and movement are active in the microstrain region while screw dislocations are relatively inactive until the macrostrain region is reached. Dislocation velocities range from 10 -6 to 10 -3 cm/s and the average distance between interstitial impurity pinning points is found to be approximately 8 x 10 -4 cm. (U.S.)

  1. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, Alberto; Franquet, Tomas; Gimenez, Ana; Pineda, Rosa; Madrid, Marta; Bordes, Ramon

    2006-01-01

    Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) are a heterogeneous group of entities of unknown cause. These diseases include desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), respiratory-bronchiolitis-related interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). High-resolution CT is highly sensitive in the detection of abnormalities in the lung parenchyma and airways. Ground-glass attenuation can occur in DIP and RB-ILD. Whereas DIP is histologically characterized by intra-alveolar pigmented macrophages, RB-ILD shows alveolar macrophages in a patchy peribronchiolar distribution. LCH shows nodular infiltrates on histopathological examination containing varying amounts of characteristic Langerhans' histiocytes. The HRCT findings are characteristically bilateral, symmetrical and diffuse, involving the upper lobe zones with sparing of the costophrenic angles. The most prominent CT features are nodules (sometimes cavitary) measuring 1 to 10 mm in diameter, cysts and areas of ground-glass attenuation. Pathologically, IPF is characterized by its heterogeneity with areas of normal clung, alveolitis and end-stage fibrosis shown in the same biopsy specimen. High-resolution CT findings consist of honeycombing, traction bronchiectasis and intralobular interstitial thickening with subpleural and lower lung predominance. Since coexisting lesions in the same cases have been observed, a better understanding of the different smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) allows a more confident and specific diagnosis. (orig.)

  2. Effects of solute interstitial elements on swelling of stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stiegler, J.O.; Leitnaker, J.M.; Bloom, E.E.

    1975-01-01

    High-purity stainless steel (HPS), equivalent to type 316 stainless steel in major alloy elements but with greatly reduced interstitial elements and manganese contents, was irradiated in the temperature range 725 to 875 K to fluences ranging from 1.0 to 3.5 x 10 26 neutrons/m 2 (>0.1 MeV). The HPS swelled 20 to 50 times more than commercial grade 316 stainless steel (316 SS), and about the same as commercial-purity nickel, which has about the same interstitial content as HPS. A fine-grained 316 SS in which interstitial elements but not manganese were precipitated by thermomechanical treatments also showed exaggerated swelling, approaching that of HPS, which suggests that swelling in commercial stainless steels is retarded by small amounts of interstitial elements normally present in them and not by the major alloying elements. Interstitials tend to precipitate from solution during irradiation, and bulk extractions of precipitate particles were made to evaluate the extent of the precipitation reactions. At both 643 and 853 K precipitation was clearly enhanced by irradiation significantly enough to alter the matrix composition, which suggests that swelling may be increased at high fluences over that predicted by extrapolation of lower fluence data. These observations are discussed in terms of potential behaviour of fuel cladding materials and of the validity and interpretation of accelerated schemes for simulating neutron damage. (author)

  3. Acute Abdomen in Interstitial Ectopic Pregnancy, An Emergency Laparoscopic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Picardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present case report demonstrates a laparoscopic approach to treat interstitial cornual pregnancy in emergency. Interstitial ectopic pregnancy develops in the uterine portion of the fallopian tube which accounts for 2–4% of all ectopic pregnancies and has the potential to cause life-threatening hemorrhage at rupture. The mortality rate for a woman diagnosed with such a pregnancy is 2–2.5%. Diagnosis of interstitial pregnancy is made by ultrasound. In this case a 32 year-old woman, Gravida 0 Parity 0 Living 0 Ectopic 1, presented to the emergency obstetrical room complaining acute abdominal pain. There was a history of 10 weeks of pregnancy but no pelvic ultrasound scan was performed before the access. A transvaginal ultrasound scan immediately performed demonstrated a gestational sac with viable fetus in the right interstitial region. Moreover there was an ultrasound evidence of hemoperitoneum. She was transferred to the operating room and an emergency laparoscopy surgery was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged two days after the surgery. Interstitial pregnancies present a difficult management problem with no absolute standard of care in literature. Laparoscopic technique is under study with favorable results. For our personal point of view a treatment via laparoscopy could be performed both in elective and in emergency cases.

  4. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, Alberto [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Thoracic Radiology, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Franquet, Tomas; Gimenez, Ana; Pineda, Rosa; Madrid, Marta [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Bordes, Ramon [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Pathology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-11-15

    Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) are a heterogeneous group of entities of unknown cause. These diseases include desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), respiratory-bronchiolitis-related interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). High-resolution CT is highly sensitive in the detection of abnormalities in the lung parenchyma and airways. Ground-glass attenuation can occur in DIP and RB-ILD. Whereas DIP is histologically characterized by intra-alveolar pigmented macrophages, RB-ILD shows alveolar macrophages in a patchy peribronchiolar distribution. LCH shows nodular infiltrates on histopathological examination containing varying amounts of characteristic Langerhans' histiocytes. The HRCT findings are characteristically bilateral, symmetrical and diffuse, involving the upper lobe zones with sparing of the costophrenic angles. The most prominent CT features are nodules (sometimes cavitary) measuring 1 to 10 mm in diameter, cysts and areas of ground-glass attenuation. Pathologically, IPF is characterized by its heterogeneity with areas of normal clung, alveolitis and end-stage fibrosis shown in the same biopsy specimen. High-resolution CT findings consist of honeycombing, traction bronchiectasis and intralobular interstitial thickening with subpleural and lower lung predominance. Since coexisting lesions in the same cases have been observed, a better understanding of the different smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) allows a more confident and specific diagnosis. (orig.)

  5. Californium-252 interstitial implants in carcinoma of the tongue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vtyurin, B.M.; Ivanov, V.N.; Medvedev, V.S.; Galantseva, G.F.; Abdulkadyrov, S.A.; Ivanova, L.F.; Petrovskaya, G.A.; Plichko, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    A clinical study using 252 Cf sources in brachytherapy of tumors began in the Research Institute of Medical Radiology of the Academy of Medical Sciences of the USSR in 1973. 252 Cf afterloading cells were utilized by the method of simple afterloading. Dosimetry and radiation protection of medical personnel were developed. To substantiate optimal therapeutic doses of 252 Cf neutrons, a correlation of dose, time, and treatment volume factors with clinical results of 252 Cf interstitial implants in carcinoma of the tongue for 47 patients with a minimum follow-up period of 1 year was studied. Forty-nine interstitial implants have been performed. Seventeen patients received 252 Cf implants alone (Group I), 17 other patients received 252 Cf implants in combination with external radiation (Group II), and 15 patients were treated with interstitial implants for recurrent or residual tumors (Groups III). Complete regression of carcinoma of the tongue was obtained in 48 patients (98%). Thirteen patients (27%) developed radiation necrosis. The therapeutic dose of neutron radiation from 252 Cf sources in interstitial radiotherapy of primary tongue carcinomas (Group I) was found to be 7 to 9 Gy. Optimal therapeutic neutron dose in combined interstitial and external radiotherapy of primary tumors (Group II) was 5 to 6 Gy with an external radiation dose of 40 Gy. For recurrent and residual tumors (Group III), favorable results were obtained with tumor doses of 6.5 to 7 Gy

  6. Cluster evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaeffer, R.

    1987-01-01

    The galaxy and cluster luminosity functions are constructed from a model of the mass distribution based on hierarchical clustering at an epoch where the matter distribution is non-linear. These luminosity functions are seen to reproduce the present distribution of objects as can be inferred from the observations. They can be used to deduce the redshift dependence of the cluster distribution and to extrapolate the observations towards the past. The predicted evolution of the cluster distribution is quite strong, although somewhat less rapid than predicted by the linear theory

  7. Disease progression in usual interstitial pneumonia compared with desquamative interstitial pneumonia. Assessment with serial CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, T.E.; Primack, S.L.; Kang, E.Y.

    1997-01-01

    Objective. To determine the outcome of areas of ground-glass attenuation and assess disease progression on serial high-resolution CT (HRCT) scans of patients with biopsy specimen-proved usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP). Materials and methods. Twelve patients with biopsy specimen-proved UIP and 11 patients with biopsy specimen-proved DIP who had initial and follow-up HRCT scans (median interval, 10 months) were reviewed. Eleven patients with UIP and 11 with DIP received treatment between the initial and follow-up CT scans. The scans were evaluated for the presence and extent of ground-glass attenuation, irregular linear opacities and honeycombing, and overall extent of parenchymal involvement. Results. On initial CT scans, all 12 patients with UIP had areas of ground-glass attenuation (mean±SD extent, 30±16%) and irregular lines (mean±SD extent, 17±7%) and 10 patients had honeycombing (mean±SD extent, 10±6%). All 11 patients with DIP had areas of ground-glass attenuation on initial HRCT scans (mean±SD extent, 51±26%), 5 patients had irregular linear opacities (mean±SD extent, 5±5%), and 1 patient had honeycombing. Nine of the 12 patients with UIP showed increase in the extent of ground-glass attenuation (n=6) or progression to irregular lines (n=2) or honeycombing (n=4) on follow-up as compared with only 2 patients with DIP who showed progression to irregular lines (n=1) or honeycombing (n=1) (p 2 test). Conclusion. In patients with UIP, areas of ground-glass attenuation usually increase in extent or progress to fibrosis despite treatment. Areas of ground-glass attenuation in most patients with DIP remain stable or improve with treatment. (authors)

  8. Crohn's disease of the colon: ultrastructural changes in submuscular interstitial cells of Cajal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri Johs.; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie; Horn, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    of the submuscular plexus were often empty and dilated. Fibroblast-like cells selectively encased macrophages and mast cells. The cytological changes in ICC-SMP in CD are thus similar to changes seen in ulcerative colitis and may be of pathophysiological significance with regard to the motility and sensory......Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) at the submuscular border of the human colon (ICC-SMP) are the proposed pacemaker cells of the musculature. In patients with Crohn's disease (CD) of the colon, ICC-SMP showed characteristic cytological changes from controls. The changes comprised secondary...... lysosomes in connection with lipid droplets and cytoplasmic vacuoles or multiple empty, confluent and often outbulging vacuoles merging with cisterns of granular endoplasmic reticulum and clusters of glycogen granules. These changes were most pronounced in patients with macroscopical mucosal inflammation...

  9. 67Gallium citrate lung scans in interstitial lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.; Khurana, M.M.L.

    1976-01-01

    Patients with diffuse interstitial lung disease often require a lung biopsy to determine the diagnosis and proper therapy. However, once the diagnosis is established, clinical evaluation of symptoms, chest roentgenogram and pulmonary function testing are the only noninvasive means currently available to assess activity of the disease process and response to the therapy. Although these measures appear adequate in the presence of acute active disease in which response to therapy results in readily demonstrable changes in the above parameters, they may be insensitive to subtle changes that can occur in minimally active disease with slowly progressive interstitial pulmonary fibrosis over a period of years. A more sensitive noninvasive technique for identifying these cases with a smoldering diffuse interstitial inflammatory process might greatly improve our ability to effectively manage such patients. With this in mind, the value of gallium lung scan was investigated to assess its ability to predict inflammatory activity in such a clinical setting

  10. /sup 67/Gallium citrate lung scans in interstitial lung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.; Khurana, M.M.L.

    1976-02-01

    Patients with diffuse interstitial lung disease often require a lung biopsy to determine the diagnosis and proper therapy. However, once the diagnosis is established, clinical evaluation of symptoms, chest roentgenogram and pulmonary function testing are the only noninvasive means currently available to assess activity of the disease process and response to the therapy. Although these measures appear adequate in the presence of acute active disease in which response to therapy results in readily demonstrable changes in the above parameters, they may be insensitive to subtle changes that can occur in minimally active disease with slowly progressive interstitial pulmonary fibrosis over a period of years. A more sensitive noninvasive technique for identifying these cases with a smoldering diffuse interstitial inflammatory process might greatly improve our ability to effectively manage such patients. With this in mind, the value of gallium lung scan was investigated to assess its ability to predict inflammatory activity in such a clinical setting.

  11. Interstitial integrals in the multiple-scattering model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, J.R.; Dill, D.

    1982-01-01

    We present an efficient method for the evaluation of integrals involving multiple-scattering wave functions over the interstitial region. Transformation of the multicenter interstitial wave functions to a single center representation followed by a geometric projection reduces the integrals to products of analytic angular integrals and numerical radial integrals. The projection function, which has the value 1 in the interstitial region and 0 elsewhere, has a closed-form partial-wave expansion. The method is tested by comparing its results with exact normalization and dipole integrals; the differences are 2% at worst and typically less than 1%. By providing an efficient means of calculating Coulomb integrals, the method allows treatment of electron correlations using a multiple scattering basis set

  12. Acute ciprofloxacin-induced crystal nephropathy with granulomatous interstitial nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Goli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Crystal-induced acute kidney injury (AKI is caused by the intratubular precipitation of crystals, which results in obstruction and kidney injury. Ciprofloxacin, a commonly used antibiotic, causes AKI secondary to immune-mediated interstitial injury. Rare mechanisms of ciprofloxacin-induced renal injury include crystalluria, rhabdomyolysis, and granulomatous interstitial nephritis. Clinical and experimental studies have suggested that crystalluria and crystal nephropathy due to ciprofloxacin occur in alkaline urine. Preexisting kidney function impairment, high dose of the medication, and advanced age predispose to this complication. We report a case of ciprofloxacin-induced crystal nephropathy and granulomatous interstitial nephritis in a young patient with no other predisposing factors. The patient responded to conservative treatment without the need for glucocorticoids.

  13. Lung lobar volume in patients with chronic interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Hisao; Koba, Hiroyuki; Saitoh, Tsukasa; Abe, Shosaku.

    1997-01-01

    We measured lung lobar volume by using helical computed tomography (HCT) in 23 patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP), 7 patients with chronic interstitial pneumonia associated with collagen vascular disease (CVD-IP), and 5 healthy volunteers HCT scanning was done at the maximal inspiratory level and the resting end-expiratory level. To measure lung lobar volume, we traced the lobar margin on HCT images with a digitizer and calculated the lobar volume with a personal computer. The lower lobar volume and several factors influencing it in chronic interstitial pneumonia were studied. At the maximal inspiratory level, the lower lobar volume as a percent of the whole lung volume was 46.8±4.13% (mean ± SD) in the volunteers, 39.5±6.19% in the patients with IIP, and 27.7±7. 86% in the patients with CVD-IP. The lower lobar volumes in the patients were significantly lower than in the volunteers. Patients with IIP in whom autoantibody tests were positive had lower lobar volumes that were very low and were similar to those of patients with CVD-IP. These data suggest that collagen vascular disease may develop in patients with interstitial pneumonia. The patients with IIP who had emphysematous changes on the CT scans had smaller decreases in total lung capacity and lower ratios of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity than did those who had no emphysematous changes, those two groups did not differ in the ratio of lower lobar volume to whole lung volume. This suggests that emphysematous change is not factor influencing lower lobar volume in patients with chronic interstitial pneumonia. We conclude that chronic interstitial pneumonia together with very low values for lower lobar volume may be a pulmonary manifestation of collagen vascular disease. (author)

  14. Lessons and implications from a mass immunization campaign in squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan: an experience from a cluster-randomized double-blinded vaccine trial [NCT00125047

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu-Elyazeed Remon

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine the safety and logistic feasibility of a mass immunization strategy outside the local immunization program in the pediatric population of urban squatter settlements in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A cluster-randomized double blind preventive trial was launched in August 2003 in 60 geographic clusters covering 21,059 children ages 2 to 16 years. After consent was obtained from parents or guardians, eligible children were immunized parenterally at vaccination posts in each cluster with Vi polysaccharide or hepatitis A vaccine. Safety, logistics, and standards were monitored and documented. Results The vaccine coverage of the population was 74% and was higher in those under age 10 years. No life-threatening serious adverse events were reported. Adverse events occurred in less than 1% of all vaccine recipients and the main reactions reported were fever and local pain. The proportion of adverse events in Vi polysaccharide and hepatitis A recipients will not be known until the end of the trial when the code is broken. Throughout the vaccination campaign safe injection practices were maintained and the cold chain was not interrupted. Mass vaccination in slums had good acceptance. Because populations in such areas are highly mobile, settlement conditions could affect coverage. Systemic reactions were uncommon and local reactions were mild and transient. Close community involvement was pivotal for information dissemination and immunization coverage. Conclusion This vaccine strategy described together with other information that will soon be available in the area (cost/effectiveness, vaccine delivery costs, etc will make typhoid fever control become a reality in the near future.

  15. A Patient with Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia during Ibrutinib Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungmann, Sven; Ludwig, Wolf-Dieter; Schönfeld, Nicolas; Blum, Torsten-Gerriet; Großwendt, Claudia; Boch, Christian; Rehbock, Beate; Griff, Sergej; Schmittel, Alexander; Bauer, Torsten T

    2017-01-01

    We present a 74-year-old male with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) during treatment with ibrutinib for mantle cell lymphoma. Previously, the patient had received six cycles of bendamustine and rituximab and six cycles of R-CHOP, followed by rituximab maintenance therapy. Respiratory tract complications of ibrutinib other than infectious pneumonia have not been mentioned in larger trials, but individual case reports hinted to a possible association with the development of pneumonitis. In our patient, the onset of alveolitis that progressed towards NSIP together with the onset of ibrutinib treatment suggests causality. One week after ibrutinib was discontinued, nasal symptoms resolved first. A follow-up CT showed a reduction in the reticular hyperdensities and ground-glass opacities, suggestive of restitution of the lung disease. To our knowledge, this is the first case showing a strong link between ibrutinib and interstitial lung disease, strengthening a previous report on subacute pneumonitis. Our findings have clinical implications because pulmonary side effects were reversible at this early stage. We, therefore, suggest close monitoring for respiratory side effects in patients receiving ibrutinib.

  16. A Patient with Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia during Ibrutinib Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Jungmann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 74-year-old male with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP during treatment with ibrutinib for mantle cell lymphoma. Previously, the patient had received six cycles of bendamustine and rituximab and six cycles of R-CHOP, followed by rituximab maintenance therapy. Respiratory tract complications of ibrutinib other than infectious pneumonia have not been mentioned in larger trials, but individual case reports hinted to a possible association with the development of pneumonitis. In our patient, the onset of alveolitis that progressed towards NSIP together with the onset of ibrutinib treatment suggests causality. One week after ibrutinib was discontinued, nasal symptoms resolved first. A follow-up CT showed a reduction in the reticular hyperdensities and ground-glass opacities, suggestive of restitution of the lung disease. To our knowledge, this is the first case showing a strong link between ibrutinib and interstitial lung disease, strengthening a previous report on subacute pneumonitis. Our findings have clinical implications because pulmonary side effects were reversible at this early stage. We, therefore, suggest close monitoring for respiratory side effects in patients receiving ibrutinib.

  17. HST/WFC3 OBSERVATIONS OF LOW-MASS GLOBULAR CLUSTERS AM 4 AND PALOMAR 13: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR MASS LOSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamren, Katherine M.; Smith, Graeme H.; Guhathakurta, Puragra [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Rajan, Abhijith [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, 781 East Terrace Road, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Grillmair, Carl J., E-mail: khamren@ucolick.org [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Mail Stop 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the loss of low-mass stars in two of the faintest globular clusters known, AM 4 and Palomar 13 (Pal 13), using HST/WFC3 F606W and F814W photometry. To determine the physical properties of each cluster—age, mass, metallicity, extinction, and present day mass function (MF)—we use the maximum likelihood color-magnitude diagram (CMD) fitting program MATCH and the Dartmouth, Padova, and BaSTI stellar evolution models. For AM 4, the Dartmouth models provide the best match to the CMD and yield an age of >13 Gyr, metallicity log Z/Z {sub ☉} = –1.68 ± 0.08, a distance modulus (m – M) {sub V} = 17.47 ± 0.03, and reddening A{sub V} = 0.19 ± 0.02. For Pal 13 the Dartmouth models give an age of 13.4 ± 0.5 Gyr, log Z/Z {sub ☉} = –1.55 ± 0.06, (m – M) {sub V} = 17.17 ± 0.02, and A{sub V} = 0.43 ± 0.01. We find that the systematic uncertainties due to choice in assumed stellar model greatly exceed the random uncertainties, highlighting the importance of using multiple stellar models when analyzing stellar populations. Assuming a single-sloped power-law MF, we find that AM 4 and Pal 13 have spectral indices α = +0.68 ± 0.34 and α = –1.67 ± 0.25 (where a Salpeter MF has α = +1.35), respectively. Comparing our derived slopes with literature measurements of cluster integrated magnitude (M{sub V} ) and MF slope indicates that AM 4 is an outlier. Its MF slope is substantially steeper than clusters of comparable luminosity, while Pal 13 has an MF in line with the general trend. We discuss both primordial and dynamical origins for the unusual MF slope of AM 4 and tentatively favor the dynamical scenario. However, MF slopes of more low luminosity clusters are needed to verify this hypothesis.

  18. HST/WFC3 OBSERVATIONS OF LOW-MASS GLOBULAR CLUSTERS AM 4 AND PALOMAR 13: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR MASS LOSS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamren, Katherine M.; Smith, Graeme H.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Rajan, Abhijith; Grillmair, Carl J.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the loss of low-mass stars in two of the faintest globular clusters known, AM 4 and Palomar 13 (Pal 13), using HST/WFC3 F606W and F814W photometry. To determine the physical properties of each cluster—age, mass, metallicity, extinction, and present day mass function (MF)—we use the maximum likelihood color-magnitude diagram (CMD) fitting program MATCH and the Dartmouth, Padova, and BaSTI stellar evolution models. For AM 4, the Dartmouth models provide the best match to the CMD and yield an age of >13 Gyr, metallicity log Z/Z ☉ = –1.68 ± 0.08, a distance modulus (m – M) V = 17.47 ± 0.03, and reddening A V = 0.19 ± 0.02. For Pal 13 the Dartmouth models give an age of 13.4 ± 0.5 Gyr, log Z/Z ☉ = –1.55 ± 0.06, (m – M) V = 17.17 ± 0.02, and A V = 0.43 ± 0.01. We find that the systematic uncertainties due to choice in assumed stellar model greatly exceed the random uncertainties, highlighting the importance of using multiple stellar models when analyzing stellar populations. Assuming a single-sloped power-law MF, we find that AM 4 and Pal 13 have spectral indices α = +0.68 ± 0.34 and α = –1.67 ± 0.25 (where a Salpeter MF has α = +1.35), respectively. Comparing our derived slopes with literature measurements of cluster integrated magnitude (M V ) and MF slope indicates that AM 4 is an outlier. Its MF slope is substantially steeper than clusters of comparable luminosity, while Pal 13 has an MF in line with the general trend. We discuss both primordial and dynamical origins for the unusual MF slope of AM 4 and tentatively favor the dynamical scenario. However, MF slopes of more low luminosity clusters are needed to verify this hypothesis

  19. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema in neonates -reporting of 11 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, Beatriz Regina; Santos Mezzacappa, Maria Aparecida dos; Marba, Sergio Tadeu Martins

    1997-01-01

    The present paper relates the radiologic and clinical aspects of pulmonary interstitial emphysema in 11 infants submitted to assisted ventilation. The radiologic diagnosis was made using the classification of Boothroyd and Barson (levels I to III). A prevalence of pulmonary interstitial emphysema of levels II and III was observed in masculine premature infants with hyaline membrane disease and intrauterine pneumonia. Mortality was high and occurred in the infants with advanced levels of the disease. The authors emphasize the importance of early radiologic diagnosis of this condition during the treatment of premature infants submitted to assisted ventilation. (author)

  20. Interstitial diffusion in crystal and the Moessbauer effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dzyublik, A.Ya.

    1976-01-01

    The role of different vibrational states of a crystal is taken into account in the model of interstitial uncorrelated jumps. The relation of the diffusion coefficient for an interstitial with probabilities of jumps is found. The cross section for resonant absorption of γ-quanta by a nucleus of a diffusing atom in a crystal is calculated. The existence of vibrational levels is shown to lead to less broadening and intensity of the Moessbauer line than those predicted by the simple model of jumps. The absorption line shape for atom jumping through octahedral sites in bcc lattice is investigated [ru

  1. Dose and volume specification for reporting interstitial therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The ICRU has previously published reports dealing with Dose Specification for Reporting External Beam Therapy with Photons and Electrons (ICRU Report 29, ICRU, 1978), Dose Specification for Reporting External Beam Therapy (ICRU Report 50, ICRU, 1993) and Dose and Volume Specification for Reporting Intracavitary Therapy in Gynecology (ICRU Report 38, ICRU, 1985). The present report addresses the problem of absorbed dose specification for report interstitial therapy. Although specific to interstitial therapy, many of the concepts developed in this report are also applicable to certain other kinds of brachytherapy applications. In particular, special cases of intraluminal brachytherapy and plesio-brachytherapy via surface molds employing x or gamma emitters are addressed in this report

  2. Global concepts of bladder pain syndrome (interstitial cystitis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordling, Jørgen; Fall, Magnus; Hanno, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome (BPS), commonly referred to as "interstitial cystitis", is no longer considered a rare disorder. It may affect up to 2.7% of the adult female population (Ueda et al. in Int J Urol 10:1-70, 2003) with up to 20% of cases occurring in men.......Bladder pain syndrome (BPS), commonly referred to as "interstitial cystitis", is no longer considered a rare disorder. It may affect up to 2.7% of the adult female population (Ueda et al. in Int J Urol 10:1-70, 2003) with up to 20% of cases occurring in men....

  3. Painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis: Aetiology, evaluation and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Rourke

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial cystitis or bladder pain syndrome (BPS is often a chronic debilitating condition characterised by predominantly storage symptoms and associated frequently with pelvic pain that varies with bladder filling. The aetiology is uncertain as the condition occurs in the absence of a urinary tract infection or other obvious pathology. Resulting discomfort may vary and ranges from abdominal tenderness to intense bladder spasms. Diagnosis and management of this syndrome may be difficult and is often made by its typical cystoscopic features. This review discusses the diagnosis and management of interstitial cystitis according to the current available best evidence and advises a multimodal approach in its management.

  4. On the atomic displacement fields of small interstitial dislocation loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Z.; Dudarev, S.L.; Jenkins, M.L.; Sutton, A.P.; Kirk, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The atomic displacement fields of dislocation loops of size 1-5 nm formed by self-interstitial atoms in α-Fe have been calculated using isotropic elasticity theory and anisotropic elasticity theory, and compared with atomic simulations for loops formed by 43-275 self-interstitial atoms. The atomic displacements predicted by anisotropic elasticity theory were in good agreement with those given by the atomistic simulations at distances greater than 3 nm from the loop plane, but the displacements predicted by isotropic elasticity theory showed significant discrepancies at distances up to 15 nm

  5. Interstitial lung abnormalities are associated with increased mortality in smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoyer, Nils; Wille, Mathilde M W; Thomsen, Laura H

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether smokers with incidental findings of interstitial lung abnormalities have an increased mortality during long-term follow-up, and review the contributing causes of death. METHODS: Baseline CT scans of 1990 participants from the Danish Lung...... in this lung cancer screening population of relatively healthy smokers and were associated with mortality regardless of the interstitial morphological phenotype. The increased mortality was partly due to an association with lung cancer and non-pulmonary malignancies....

  6. Interstitial cells of Cajal in human gut and gastrointestinal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderwinden, J M; Rumessen, J J

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract, based on ultrastructural and immunohistochemical evidence. The distribution and morphology of ICC at each level of the normal GI tracts is addressed from the perspective of their fun......This paper reviews the distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract, based on ultrastructural and immunohistochemical evidence. The distribution and morphology of ICC at each level of the normal GI tracts is addressed from the perspective...

  7. A Density Functional Theory Evaluation of Hydrophobic Solvation: Ne, Ar and Kr in a 50-Water Cluster. Implications for the Hydrophobic Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobko, Nadya; Marianski, Mateusz; Asensio, Amparo; Wieczorek, Robert; Dannenberg, J J

    2012-06-15

    The physical explanation for the hydrophobic effect has been the subject of disagreement. Physical organic chemists tend to use a explanation related to pressure, while many biochemists prefer an explanation that involves decreased entropy of the aqueous solvent. We present DFT calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) and X3LYP/6-31G(d,p) levels on the solvation of three noble gases (Ne, Ar, and Kr) in clusters of 50 waters. Vibrational analyses show no substantial decreases in the vibrational entropies of the waters in any of the three clusters. The observed positive free energies of transfer from the gas phase or from nonpolar solvents to water appear to be due to the work needed to make a suitable hole in the aqueous solvent. We distinguish between hydrophobic solvations (explicitly studied here) and the hydrophobic effect that occurs when a solute (or transition state) can decrease its volume through conformational change (which is not possible for the noble gases).

  8. Effects of in-cascade defect clustering on near-term defect evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinisch, H.L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The effects of in-cascade defect clustering on the nature of the subsequent defect population are being studied using stochastic annealing simulations applied to cascades generated in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The results of the simulations illustrates the strong influence of the defect configuration existing in the primary damage state on subsequent defect evolution. The large differences in mobility and stability of vacancy and interstitial defects and the rapid one-dimensional diffusion of small, glissile interstitial loops produced directly in cascades have been shown to be significant factors affecting the evolution of the defect distribution. In recent work, the effects of initial cluster sizes appear to be extremely important.

  9. Clustering Dycom

    KAUST Repository

    Minku, Leandro L.

    2017-10-06

    Background: Software Effort Estimation (SEE) can be formulated as an online learning problem, where new projects are completed over time and may become available for training. In this scenario, a Cross-Company (CC) SEE approach called Dycom can drastically reduce the number of Within-Company (WC) projects needed for training, saving the high cost of collecting such training projects. However, Dycom relies on splitting CC projects into different subsets in order to create its CC models. Such splitting can have a significant impact on Dycom\\'s predictive performance. Aims: This paper investigates whether clustering methods can be used to help finding good CC splits for Dycom. Method: Dycom is extended to use clustering methods for creating the CC subsets. Three different clustering methods are investigated, namely Hierarchical Clustering, K-Means, and Expectation-Maximisation. Clustering Dycom is compared against the original Dycom with CC subsets of different sizes, based on four SEE databases. A baseline WC model is also included in the analysis. Results: Clustering Dycom with K-Means can potentially help to split the CC projects, managing to achieve similar or better predictive performance than Dycom. However, K-Means still requires the number of CC subsets to be pre-defined, and a poor choice can negatively affect predictive performance. EM enables Dycom to automatically set the number of CC subsets while still maintaining or improving predictive performance with respect to the baseline WC model. Clustering Dycom with Hierarchical Clustering did not offer significant advantage in terms of predictive performance. Conclusion: Clustering methods can be an effective way to automatically generate Dycom\\'s CC subsets.

  10. Cosmology with clusters in the CMB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, Subhabrata

    2008-01-01

    Ever since the seminal work by Sunyaev and Zel'dovich describing the distortion of the CMB spectrum, due to photons passing through the hot inter cluster gas on its way to us from the surface of last scattering (the so called Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE)), small scale distortions of the CMB by clusters has been used to detect clusters as well as to do cosmology with clusters. Cosmology with clusters in the CMB can be divided into three distinct regimes: a) when the clusters are completely unresolved and contribute to the secondary CMB distortions power spectrum at small angular scales; b) when we can just about resolve the clusters so as to detect the clusters through its total SZE flux such that the clusters can be tagged and counted for doing cosmology and c) when we can completely resolve the clusters so as to measure their sizes and other cluster structural properties and their evolution with redshift. In this article, we take a look at these three aspects of SZE cluster studies and their implication for using clusters as cosmological probes. We show that clusters can be used as effective probes of cosmology, when in all of these three cases, one explores the synergy between cluster physics and cosmology as well take clues about cluster physics from the latest high precision cluster observations (for example, from Chandra and XMM - Newton). As a specific case, we show how an observationally motivated cluster SZ template can explain the CBI-excess without the need for a high σ 8 . We also briefly discuss 'self-calibration' in cluster surveys and the prospect of using clusters as an ensemble of cosmic rulers to break degeneracies arising in cluster cosmology.

  11. Clustering analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romli

    1997-01-01

    Cluster analysis is the name of group of multivariate techniques whose principal purpose is to distinguish similar entities from the characteristics they process.To study this analysis, there are several algorithms that can be used. Therefore, this topic focuses to discuss the algorithms, such as, similarity measures, and hierarchical clustering which includes single linkage, complete linkage and average linkage method. also, non-hierarchical clustering method, which is popular name K -mean method ' will be discussed. Finally, this paper will be described the advantages and disadvantages of every methods

  12. Cluster analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Everitt, Brian S; Leese, Morven; Stahl, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Cluster analysis comprises a range of methods for classifying multivariate data into subgroups. By organizing multivariate data into such subgroups, clustering can help reveal the characteristics of any structure or patterns present. These techniques have proven useful in a wide range of areas such as medicine, psychology, market research and bioinformatics.This fifth edition of the highly successful Cluster Analysis includes coverage of the latest developments in the field and a new chapter dealing with finite mixture models for structured data.Real life examples are used throughout to demons

  13. Cluster editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böcker, S.; Baumbach, Jan

    2013-01-01

    . The problem has been the inspiration for numerous algorithms in bioinformatics, aiming at clustering entities such as genes, proteins, phenotypes, or patients. In this paper, we review exact and heuristic methods that have been proposed for the Cluster Editing problem, and also applications......The Cluster Editing problem asks to transform a graph into a disjoint union of cliques using a minimum number of edge modifications. Although the problem has been proven NP-complete several times, it has nevertheless attracted much research both from the theoretical and the applied side...

  14. First-principles study of helium clustering at initial stage in ThO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Kuan; Han Han; Zhang Wei; Wang Chang-Ying; Guo Yong-Liang; Ren Cui-Lan; Huai Ping

    2017-01-01

    The clustering behavior of helium atoms in thorium dioxide has been investigated by first-principles calculations. The results show that He atoms tend to form a cluster around an octahedral interstitial site (OIS). As the concentration of He atoms in ThO 2 increases, the strain induced by the He atoms increases and the octahedral interstitial site is not large enough to accommodate a large cluster, such as a He hexamer. We considered three different Schottky defect (SD) configurations (SD 1 , SD 2 , and SD 3 . When He atoms are located in the SD sites, the strain induced by the He atoms is released and the incorporation and binding energies decrease. The He trimer is the most stable cluster in SD 1 . Large He clusters, such as a He hexamer, are also stable in the SDs. (paper)

  15. Interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary hypertension associated with suspected ehrlichiosis in a dog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toom, Marjolein Lisette den; Dobak, Tetyda Paulina; Broens, Els Marion; Valtolina, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In dogs with canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME), respiratory signs are uncommon and clinical and radiographic signs of interstitial pneumonia are poorly described. However, in human monocytic ehrlichiosis, respiratory signs are common and signs of interstitial pneumonia are well known.

  16. Interstitial and adsorbed phosphates in shelf sediments off Visakhapatnam, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma; Raju, G.R.K.

    Spatial distribution of interstitial and adsorbed phosphates in the shelf sediments shows an increasing trend with distance from coastal to inshore region. Maximum concentration ranges of interstitial and adsorbed phosphates are 16-19 and 40-50 mu g...

  17. [New toxicity of fotemustine: diffuse interstitial lung disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, M; Wémeau-Stervinou, L; Gauthier, S; Auffret, M; Mortier, L

    2012-04-01

    Fotemustine is an alkylating cytostatic drug belonging to the nitrosourea family and is used in particular in the treatment of disseminated malignant melanoma. Herein, we report a case of interstitial lung disease associated with fotemustine. An 81-year-old man treated with fotemustine for metastatic melanoma presented acute interstitial lung disease 20 days after a fourth course of fotemustine monotherapy. The condition regressed spontaneously, with the patient returning to the clinical, radiological and blood gas status that had preceded fotemustine treatment. After other potential aetiologies had been ruled out, acute fotemustine-induced lung toxicity was considered and this treatment was definitively withdrawn. Other cytostatic agents belonging to the nitrosourea family can cause similar pictures, with a number of cases of interstitial lung disease thus being ascribed to fotemustine and dacarbazine. To our knowledge, this is the first case of interstitial lung disease induced by fotemustine monotherapy. This diagnosis should be considered where respiratory signs appear in melanoma patients undergoing fotemustine treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Atomic displacements due to interstitial hydrogen in Cu and Pd

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Total energy calculations and molecular dynamics simulations employing DFT are reliable tools ... as well as predicting equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties. Self-consistent ..... produced by interstitial hydrogen in Cu and Pd. The quantity of central interest .... These numbers are in reasonable qualitative agreement.

  19. Fine sand in motion: the influence of interstitial air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan, T.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Sand is a granular material, and therefore it consists of individual grains arranged in a packing. The pores in-between the grains are usually filled with a fluid, in this case air. Now, is this interstitial air able to influence the behavior of the sand bed as a whole? When a ball impacts on fine,

  20. Pulmonary scan in evaluating alveolar-interstitial syndrome in ER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Volpicelli

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse comet-tail artifacts at lung ultrasound are due to thickened interlobular septa and extravascular lung water. This condition is typical of the alveolar-interstitial syndrome due to pulmonary edema, diffuse parenchymal lung disease or ARDS. Aim of our study is to assess the potential of bedside lung ultrasound to diagnose the alveolar-interstitial syndrome in patients admitted to our emergency medicine unit. The ultrasonic feature of multiple and diffuse comet-tail artifacts was investigated during 5 months, in 121 consecutive patients admitted to our unit. Each patient was studied bedside in a supine position, by 8 antero-lateral pulmonary intercostal scans. Ultrasonic results were compared with chest radiograph and clinical outcome. Lung ultrasound showed a sensitivity of 84% and a specificity of 98% in diagnosing the radiologic alveolar-interstitial syndrome. Corresponding figures in the identification of a disease involving lung interstitium were 83% and 96%. These preliminary data show that the study of comet-tail artifacts at lung ultrasound is a method reasonably accurate for diagnosing the alveolar-interstitial syndrome at bedside. This conclusion opens the hypothesis of the usefullness of bedside lung ultrasound in the evaluation of dyspnoeic patients in the emergency setting.

  1. Pulmonary function vascular index predicts prognosis in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corte, Tamera J.; Wort, Stephen J.; MacDonald, Peter S.; Edey, Anthony; Hansell, David M.; Renzoni, Elisabetta; Maher, Toby M.; Nicholson, Andrew G.; Bandula, Steven; Bresser, Paul; Wells, Athol U.

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with increased mortality in fibrotic idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP). We hypothesize that baseline KCO (diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide/alveolar volume) and 6-month decline in KCO reflect PH, thus predicting mortality

  2. Intravesical NGF Antisense Therapy Using Lipid Nanoparticle for Interstitial Cystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    4):572–577. 68. Okragly AJ, Niles AL, Saban R, et al. Elevated tryptase, nerve growth factor, neurotrophin -3 and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic... neurotrophin -3 and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor levels in the urine of318 interstitial cystitis and bladder cancer patients. The

  3. Investigations of lymphatic drainage from the interstitial space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayathungage Don, Tharanga; Richard Clarke Collaboration; John Cater Collaboration; Vinod Suresh Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    The lymphatic system is a highly complex biological system that facilitates the drainage of excess fluid in body tissues. In addition, it is an integral part of the immunological control system. Understanding the mechanisms of fluid absorption from the interstitial space and flow through the initial lymphatics is important to treat several pathological conditions. The main focus of this study is to computationally model the lymphatic drainage from the interstitial space. The model has been developed to consider a 3D lymphatic network and uses biological data to inform the creation of realistic geometries for the lymphatic capillary networks. We approximate the interstitial space as a porous region and the lymphatic vessel walls as permeable surfaces. The dynamics of the flow is approximated by Darcy's law in the interstitium and the Navier-Stokes equations in the lymphatic capillary lumen. The proposed model examines lymph drainage as a function of pressure gradient. In addition, we have examined the effects of interstitial and lymphatic wall permeabilities on the lymph drainage and the solute transportation in the model. The computational results are in accordance with the available experimental measurements.

  4. [Lung transplantation in pulmonary fibrosis and other interstitial lung diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berastegui, Cristina; Monforte, Victor; Bravo, Carlos; Sole, Joan; Gavalda, Joan; Tenório, Luis; Villar, Ana; Rochera, M Isabel; Canela, Mercè; Morell, Ferran; Roman, Antonio

    2014-09-15

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the second indication for lung transplantation (LT) after emphysema. The aim of this study is to review the results of LT for ILD in Hospital Vall d'Hebron (Barcelona, Spain). We retrospectively studied 150 patients, 87 (58%) men, mean age 48 (r: 20-67) years between August 1990 and January 2010. One hundred and four (69%) were single lung transplants (SLT) and 46 (31%) bilateral-lung transplants (BLT). The postoperative diagnoses were: 94 (63%) usual interstitial pneumonia, 23 (15%) nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, 11 (7%) unclassifiable interstitial pneumonia and 15% miscellaneous. We describe the functional results, complications and survival. The actuarial survival was 87, 70 and 53% at one, 3 and 5 years respectively. The most frequent causes of death included early graft dysfunction and development of chronic rejection in the form of bronchiolitis obliterans (BOS). The mean postoperative increase in forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) was similar in SLT and BLT. The best FEV1 was reached after 10 (r: 1-36) months. Sixteen percent of patients returned to work. At some point during the evolution, proven acute rejection was diagnosed histologically in 53 (35%) patients. The prevalence of BOS among survivors was 20% per year, 45% at 3 years and 63% at 5 years. LT is the best treatment option currently available for ILD, in which medical treatment has failed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Tumor interstitial fluid - a treasure trove of cancer biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina; Olsen, Charlotta J; Timmermans-Wielenga, Vera; Talman, Mai-Lis; Serizawa, Reza R; Moreira, José M A

    2013-11-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) is a proximal fluid that, in addition to the set of blood soluble phase-borne proteins, holds a subset of aberrantly externalized components, mainly proteins, released by tumor cells and tumor microenvironment through various mechanisms, which include classical secretion, non-classical secretion, secretion via exosomes and membrane protein shedding. Consequently, the interstitial aqueous phase of solid tumors is a highly promising resource for the discovery of molecules associated with pathological changes in tissues. Firstly, it allows one to delve deeper into the regulatory mechanisms and functions of secretion-related processes in tumor development. Secondly, the anomalous secretion of molecules that is innate to tumors and the tumor microenvironment, being associated with cancer progression, offers a valuable source for biomarker discovery and possible targets for therapeutic intervention. Here we provide an overview of the features of tumor-associated interstitial fluids, based on recent and updated information obtained mainly from our studies of breast cancer. Data from the study of interstitial fluids recovered from several other types of cancer are also discussed. This article is a part of a Special Issue entitled: The Updated Secretome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. In situ sampling of interstitial water from lake sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, Albertus G.; van Raaphorst, Wim; Lijklema, Lambertus

    1982-01-01

    A sampler with a relatively high resolution has been developed, which allows interstitial water to be obtained from lake sediments at well defined depths, without serious disturbance of sediment structure. Oxidation effects are excluded. Sampling time is in the order of a day. Installation requires

  7. Morphology of the Interstitial Tissue of Active and Resting Testis of the Guinea Fowl

    OpenAIRE

    Dharani, Palanisamy; Kumary, S. Usha; Sundaram, Venkatesan; Joseph, Cecilia; Ramesh, Geetha

    2017-01-01

    SUMMARY: The morphology of the interstitial tissue of sexually active and resting testis of the guinea fowl were studied. Six adult health birds of active and resting phases of reproductive cycle were used for this study. The interstitial tissue consisted of loose connective tissue, interstitial cells (Leydig cells), few connective cells, blood vessels and adrenergic nerve fibres in the present study in both active and resting testes. The interstitial tissue was compact in sexually active tes...

  8. Occupational Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottawattamie County School System, Council Bluffs, IA.

    The 15 occupational clusters (transportation, fine arts and humanities, communications and media, personal service occupations, construction, hospitality and recreation, health occupations, marine science occupations, consumer and homemaking-related occupations, agribusiness and natural resources, environment, public service, business and office…

  9. Fuzzy Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berks, G.; Keyserlingk, Diedrich Graf von; Jantzen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    A symptom is a condition indicating the presence of a disease, especially, when regarded as an aid in diagnosis.Symptoms are the smallest units indicating the existence of a disease. A syndrome on the other hand is an aggregate, set or cluster of concurrent symptoms which together indicate...... and clustering are the basic concerns in medicine. Classification depends on definitions of the classes and their required degree of participant of the elements in the cases' symptoms. In medicine imprecise conditions are the rule and therefore fuzzy methods are much more suitable than crisp ones. Fuzzy c......-mean clustering is an easy and well improved tool, which has been applied in many medical fields. We used c-mean fuzzy clustering after feature extraction from an aphasia database. Factor analysis was applied on a correlation matrix of 26 symptoms of language disorders and led to five factors. The factors...

  10. Interstitial cells of Cajal in human small intestine. Ultrastructural identification and organization between the main smooth muscle layers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri Johannes; Thuneberg, Lars

    1991-01-01

    Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, small intestine, gut motility, pacemaker cells, smooth muscle......Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, small intestine, gut motility, pacemaker cells, smooth muscle...

  11. Cluster generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchev, Todor I [Urbana, IL; Petrov, Ivan G [Champaign, IL

    2011-05-31

    Described herein is an apparatus and a method for producing atom clusters based on a gas discharge within a hollow cathode. The hollow cathode includes one or more walls. The one or more walls define a sputtering chamber within the hollow cathode and include a material to be sputtered. A hollow anode is positioned at an end of the sputtering chamber, and atom clusters are formed when a gas discharge is generated between the hollow anode and the hollow cathode.

  12. Cluster Bulleticity

    OpenAIRE

    Massey, Richard; Kitching, Thomas; Nagai, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    The unique properties of dark matter are revealed during collisions between clusters of galaxies, such as the bullet cluster (1E 0657−56) and baby bullet (MACS J0025−12). These systems provide evidence for an additional, invisible mass in the separation between the distributions of their total mass, measured via gravitational lensing, and their ordinary ‘baryonic’ matter, measured via its X-ray emission. Unfortunately, the information available from these systems is limited by their rarity. C...

  13. Cluster headache

    OpenAIRE

    Leroux, Elizabeth; Ducros, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Cluster headache (CH) is a primary headache disease characterized by recurrent short-lasting attacks (15 to 180 minutes) of excruciating unilateral periorbital pain accompanied by ipsilateral autonomic signs (lacrimation, nasal congestion, ptosis, miosis, lid edema, redness of the eye). It affects young adults, predominantly males. Prevalence is estimated at 0.5–1.0/1,000. CH has a circannual and circadian periodicity, attacks being clustered (hence the name) in bouts that can occur ...

  14. Microdefects and self-interstitial diffusion in crystalline silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowlton, W.B.

    1998-05-01

    In this thesis, a study is presented of D-defects and self-interstitial diffusion in silicon using Li ion (Li{sup +}) drifting in an electric field and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Obstruction of Li{sup +} drifting has been found in wafers from certain but not all FZ p-type Si. Incomplete Li{sup +} drifting always occurs in the central region of the wafers. This work established that interstitial oxygen is not responsible for hindering Li{sup +} drifting. TEM was performed on a samples from the partially Li{sup +} drifted area and compared to regions without D-defects. Precipitates were found only in the region containing D-defects that had partially Li{sup +} drifted. This result indicates D-defects are responsible for the precipitation that halts the Li{sup +} drift process. Nitrogen (N) doping has been shown to eliminate D-defects as measured by conventional techniques. Li{sup +} drifting and D-defects provide a useful means to study Si self-interstitial diffusion. The process modeling program SUPREM-IV was used to simulate the results of Si self-interstitial diffusion obtained from Li{sup +} drifting experiments. Anomalous results from the Si self-interstitial diffusion experiments forced a re-examination of the possibility of thermal dissociation of D-defects. Thermal annealing experiments that were performed support this possibility. A review of the current literature illustrates the need for more research on the effects of thermal processing on FZ Si to understand the dissolution kinetics of D-defects.

  15. VUV Pump and Probe of Phase Separation and Oxygen Interstitials in La2NiO4+y Using Spectromicroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bianconi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available While it is known that strongly correlated transition metal oxides described by a multi-band Hubbard model show microscopic multiscale phase separation, little is known about the possibility to manipulate them with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, 27 eV lighting. We have investigated the photo-induced effects of VUV light illumination of a super-oxygenated La2NiO4+y single crystal by means of scanning photoelectron microscopy. VUV light exposure induces the increase of the density of states (DOS in the binding energy range around Eb = 1.4 eV below EF. The photo-induced states in this energy region have been predicted due to clustering of oxygen interstitials by band structure calculations for large supercell of La2CuO4.125. We finally show that it is possible to generate and manipulate oxygen rich domains by VUV illumination as it was reported for X-ray illumination of La2CuO4+y. This phenomenology is assigned to oxygen-interstitials ordering and clustering by photo-illumination forming segregated domains in the La2NiO4+y surface.

  16. Formation of a unique cluster of G-quadruplex structures in the HIV-1 Nef coding region: implications for antiviral activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalba Perrone

    Full Text Available G-quadruplexes are tetraplex structures of nucleic acids that can form in G-rich sequences. Their presence and functional role have been established in telomeres, oncogene promoters and coding regions of the human chromosome. In particular, they have been proposed to be directly involved in gene regulation at the level of transcription. Because the HIV-1 Nef protein is a fundamental factor for efficient viral replication, infectivity and pathogenesis in vitro and in vivo, we investigated G-quadruplex formation in the HIV-1 nef gene to assess the potential for viral inhibition through G-quadruplex stabilization. A comprehensive computational analysis of the nef coding region of available strains showed the presence of three conserved sequences that were uniquely clustered. Biophysical testing proved that G-quadruplex conformations were efficiently stabilized or induced by G-quadruplex ligands in all three sequences. Upon incubation with a G-quadruplex ligand, Nef expression was reduced in a reporter gene assay and Nef-dependent enhancement of HIV-1 infectivity was significantly repressed in an antiviral assay. These data constitute the first evidence of the possibility to regulate HIV-1 gene expression and infectivity through G-quadruplex targeting and therefore open a new avenue for viral treatment.

  17. Ratios of colony mass to thermal conductance of tree and man-made nest enclosures of Apis mellifera: implications for survival, clustering, humidity regulation and Varroa destructor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Derek

    2016-05-01

    In the absence of human intervention, the honeybee ( Apis mellifera L.) usually constructs its nest in a tree within a tall, narrow, thick-walled cavity high above the ground (the enclosure); however, most research and apiculture is conducted in the thin-walled, squat wooden enclosures we know as hives. This experimental research, using various hives and thermal models of trees, has found that the heat transfer rate is approximately four to seven times greater in the hives in common use, compared to a typical tree enclosure in winter configuration. This gives a ratio of colony mass to lumped enclosure thermal conductance (MCR) of less than 0.8 kgW-1 K for wooden hives and greater than 5 kgW-1 K for tree enclosures. This result for tree enclosures implies higher levels of humidity in the nest, increased survival of smaller colonies and lower Varroa destructor breeding success. Many honeybee behaviours previously thought to be intrinsic may only be a coping mechanism for human intervention; for example, at an MCR of above 2 kgW-1 K, clustering in a tree enclosure may be an optional, rare, heat conservation behaviour for established colonies, rather than the compulsory, frequent, life-saving behaviour that is in the hives in common use. The implied improved survival in hives with thermal properties of tree nests may help to solve some of the problems honeybees are currently facing in apiculture.

  18. CSR in Industrial Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Pillay, Renginee G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The paper seeks to review the literature on CSR in industrial clusters in developing countries, identifying the main strengths, weaknesses, and gaps in this literature, pointing to future research directions and policy implications in the area of CSR and industrial cluster development....... Design/methodology/approach – A literature review is conducted of both academic and policy-oriented writings that contain the keywords “industrial clusters” and “developing countries” in combination with one or more of the following terms: corporate social responsibility, environmental management, labor...... standards, child labor, climate change, social upgrading, and environmental upgrading. The authors examine the key themes in this literature, identify the main gaps, and point to areas where future work in this area could usefully be undertaken. Feedback has been sought from some of the leading authors...

  19. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans mediate interstitial flow mechanotransduction regulating MMP-13 expression and cell motility via FAK-ERK in 3D collagen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Dong Shi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial flow directly affects cells that reside in tissues and regulates tissue physiology and pathology by modulating important cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and migration. However, the structures that cells utilize to sense interstitial flow in a 3-dimensional (3D environment have not yet been elucidated. Previously, we have shown that interstitial flow upregulates matrix metalloproteinase (MMP expression in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs and fibroblasts/myofibroblasts via activation of an ERK1/2-c-Jun pathway, which in turn promotes cell migration in collagen. Herein, we focused on uncovering the flow-induced mechanotransduction mechanism in 3D.Cleavage of rat vascular SMC surface glycocalyx heparan sulfate (HS chains from proteoglycan (PG core proteins by heparinase or disruption of HS biosynthesis by silencing N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase 1 (NDST1 suppressed interstitial flow-induced ERK1/2 activation, interstitial collagenase (MMP-13 expression, and SMC motility in 3D collagen. Inhibition or knockdown of focal adhesion kinase (FAK also attenuated or blocked flow-induced ERK1/2 activation, MMP-13 expression, and cell motility. Interstitial flow induced FAK phosphorylation at Tyr925, and this activation was blocked when heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs were disrupted. These data suggest that HSPGs mediate interstitial flow-induced mechanotransduction through FAK-ERK. In addition, we show that integrins are crucial for mechanotransduction through HSPGs as they mediate cell spreading and maintain cytoskeletal rigidity.We propose a conceptual mechanotransduction model wherein cell surface glycocalyx HSPGs, in the presence of integrin-mediated cell-matrix adhesions and cytoskeleton organization, sense interstitial flow and activate the FAK-ERK signaling axis, leading to upregulation of MMP expression and cell motility in 3D. This is the first study to describe a flow-induced mechanotransduction

  20. The effects of one-dimensional glide on the reaction kinetics of interstitial clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinisch, H.L.; Singh, B.N.; Golubov, S.I.

    2000-01-01

    is therefore 'mixed 1D/3D migration' along a 3D path consisting of 1D segments, The defect reaction kinetics under mixed 1D/3D diffusion are different from pure 1D diffusion and pure 3D diffusion, both of which can be formulated within analytical rate theory models of microstructure evolution under irradiation....... Atomic-scale kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) defect migration simulations are used to investigate the effects of mixed 1D/3D migration on defect reaction kinetics as a guide for implementing mixed 1D/3D migration into the analytical rate theory. The functional dependence of the sink strength on the size...

  1. Concentration dependence of solute atoms on vacancy cluster formation in neutron irradiated Ni alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, K.; Itoh, D.; Yoshiie, T.; Xu, Q.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: One dimensional (1-D) motion of interstitial clusters is important for the microstructural evolution in metals. The movement of interstitial clusters was often observed in neutron irradiated metals by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Alloying elements are expected to affect the motion of interstitial clusters. Yoshiie et al. have studied the effect of alloying elements in Ni. For example, in neutron irradiated pure Ni, well-developed dislocation networks and voids were observed at 573 K at a dose of 0.026 dpa by TEM. After the addition of 2at.%Si (-5.81% volume size factor to Ni) and Sn (74.08% volume size factor), no voids were detected by TEM observation and positron lifetime measurement. Alloying elements of Si and Sn were expected to prevent the 1-D motion of the interstitial clusters. In this study, the concentration dependence of alloying elements on the 1-D motion of the interstitial clusters was investigated by positron annihilation lifetime measurements, and the microstructural evolution was discussed. Specimens irradiated were 99.99 pure Ni (Johnson Matthey) and Ni based binary alloys, which contain Si, Cu, Ge and Sn as solute atoms. The concentration of solute atoms was 0.05at.%o, 0.3at.% and 2at.%. Neutron irradiation was performed with the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) and Japan materials testing reactor (JMTR) at Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Neutron dose was 6x10 -5 -1x10 -2 dpa at KUR, and 8x10 -3 -0.3 dpa at JMTR. Irradiation temperature was 573 K at KUR and 563 K at JMTR. After the neutron irradiation, positron annihilation lifetime measurements were performed at room temperature. Microvoids were detected in pure Ni, Ni-0.05%Si, Ni-0.05%Sn, Ni-Cu and Ni-Ge alloys. In Ni-Si and Ni-Sn alloys, the size of microvoids decreased as the concentration of solute atoms increased. This is because the frequency of 1-D motion of the interstitial clusters depends on the alloy concentration. High concentration of alloying

  2. Concentration dependence of solute atoms on vacancy cluster formation in neutron irradiated Ni alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, K.; Itoh, D.; Yoshiie, T.; Xu, Q. [Kyoto Univ., Research Reactor Institute, Osaka (Japan)

    2007-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: One dimensional (1-D) motion of interstitial clusters is important for the microstructural evolution in metals. The movement of interstitial clusters was often observed in neutron irradiated metals by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Alloying elements are expected to affect the motion of interstitial clusters. Yoshiie et al. have studied the effect of alloying elements in Ni. For example, in neutron irradiated pure Ni, well-developed dislocation networks and voids were observed at 573 K at a dose of 0.026 dpa by TEM. After the addition of 2at.%Si (-5.81% volume size factor to Ni) and Sn (74.08% volume size factor), no voids were detected by TEM observation and positron lifetime measurement. Alloying elements of Si and Sn were expected to prevent the 1-D motion of the interstitial clusters. In this study, the concentration dependence of alloying elements on the 1-D motion of the interstitial clusters was investigated by positron annihilation lifetime measurements, and the microstructural evolution was discussed. Specimens irradiated were 99.99 pure Ni (Johnson Matthey) and Ni based binary alloys, which contain Si, Cu, Ge and Sn as solute atoms. The concentration of solute atoms was 0.05at.%o, 0.3at.% and 2at.%. Neutron irradiation was performed with the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) and Japan materials testing reactor (JMTR) at Japan Atomic Energy Agency. Neutron dose was 6x10{sup -5}-1x10{sup -2} dpa at KUR, and 8x10{sup -3} -0.3 dpa at JMTR. Irradiation temperature was 573 K at KUR and 563 K at JMTR. After the neutron irradiation, positron annihilation lifetime measurements were performed at room temperature. Microvoids were detected in pure Ni, Ni-0.05%Si, Ni-0.05%Sn, Ni-Cu and Ni-Ge alloys. In Ni-Si and Ni-Sn alloys, the size of microvoids decreased as the concentration of solute atoms increased. This is because the frequency of 1-D motion of the interstitial clusters depends on the alloy concentration. High

  3. Effects of γ irradiation of hydra: elimination of interstitial cells from viable hydra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fradkin, M.; Kakis, H.; Campbell, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Hydra attenuata and H. magnipapillata were γ-irradiated from a cesium source. All doses which had any observable effect (3000 rad and above) resulted in a reduction in the number of interstitial cells and of their differentiated product cells, or in the complete elimination of these cells. Interstitial cells were essentially completely eliminated within 5 days after irradiation doses above 5500 rad, and these hydra died. Irradiation doses of 4200 to 5500 rad resulted in a mixture of effects: some hydra recovered completely, some lost all interstitial cells and died, and some lost interstitial cells but could be propagated, as asexually reproducing clones, by hand feeding them. Hydra of some of these hand-fed clones entirely lacked interstitial cells and did not recover interstitial cells during subsequent culturing. Yet when these hydra were repopulated by interstitial cells from a normal hydra, they were restored to normal. Nerve cells became depleted more slowly than interstitial cells following irradiation, so animals can be obtained which possess nerve but no stem (interstitial) cells. The nerve cells and other derivatives of interstitial cells eventually disappear upon prolonged culture of the hydra. Thus γ irradiation can be used to eliminate interstitial cells from hydra, leaving viable polyps composed only of epithelial cells

  4. Determination of the population of octahedral and tetrahedral interstitials in zirconium hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, V.M.; Gogava, V.V.; Shilo, S.I.; Biryukova, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    Results of neutron investigations of ZrHsub(1.66), ZrHsub(1.75) and ZrHsub(1.98) zirconium hydrides are presented. Investigations were conducted using plane polycrystal samples by multidetector system of scattered neutron detection. Neutron diffraction method was used to determine the number of interstitial hydrogen atoms in interstitials of the lattice cell in the case of statistic atom distribution. The numbers of interstitial atoms in octahedral interstitials for zirconium hydrides were determined experimentally; the difference of potential energies of hydrogen atoms in octa- and tetrahedral interstitials was determined as well. It is shown that experimentally determined difference of potential energies of hydrogen atoms, occupying octa- and tetrahedral positions in investigated zirconium hydrides results at room temperature in the pretailing occupation of tetrahedral interstitials by hydrogen atoms (85-90%); the occupation number grows with temperature decrease and the ordering of interstitial vacancies with formation of hydrogen superstructure takes place at low temperatures

  5. Interstitial irradiation of rectal carcinoma with rectal template

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Hiroshi; Nishiyama, Kinji; Tanaka, Ken; Nakanishi, Makoto; Inoue, Takehiro

    1984-01-01

    Using Iridium-192 wires through a rectal template after Syed, interstitial brachytherapy was conducted in a patient with inoperable adenocarcinoma of the rectum. 67-year-old man with constipation and change in the stool caliber underwent external radiotherapy (4,000cGy/4W) to the whole pelvis including the perineum, followed by interstitial implant using a template, at the Department of Radiology, Osaka University Hospital. Marked tumor regression, marked circumferential fibrosis and a remarkable decline of CEA titers (pre-RT: 35.8ng/ml, post-RT: 6.2ng/ml) were observed until 7 months post-RT. The domestic production of Iridium-192 wires has made possible the intergrated use of brachytherapy in the perineal region in Japan. (author)

  6. Remote inspection manipulators for AGR II: Babcock Power's interstitial manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyley, S.R.

    1985-01-01

    The interstitial manipulator has been designed and built by Babcock Power for the remote visual inspection of AGR II reactors at Heysham and Torness. Its five drives are operated from a console local to the manipulator on the pile cap, or from a similar console located remotely. The need to operate from an interstitial ISI standpipe has restricted the size of the components entering the reactor, and this has consequently provided the major design constraint. A detailed structural assessment of the manipulator was carried out to demonstrate the ability to operate with payloads in excess of the largest camera weight of 13.6 kg. The manipulator finite element model was also used to determine static deflections, and, as a consequence, has provided data from which the control system is able to predict accurately the camera's position. Other computer aided design techniques have enabled the step by step sequences of manipulator deployment, in the restricted space available, to be successfully demonstrated. (author)

  7. Clinical Management of Acute Interstitial Pneumonia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 51-year-old woman who was admitted to hospital because of cough and expectoration accompanied with general fatigue and progressive dyspnea. Chest HRCT scan showed areas of ground glass attenuation, consolidation, and traction bronchiectasis in bilateral bases of lungs. BAL fluid test and transbronchial lung biopsy failed to offer insightful evidence for diagnosis. She was clinically diagnosed with acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP. Treatment with mechanical ventilation and intravenous application of methylprednisolone (80 mg/day showed poor clinical response and thus was followed by steroid pulse therapy (500 mg/day, 3 days. However, she died of respiratory dysfunction eventually. Autopsy showed diffuse alveolar damage associated with hyaline membrane formation, pulmonary interstitial, immature collagen edema, and focal type II pneumocyte hyperplasia.

  8. Interstitially implanted I125 for prostate cancer using transrectal ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenburg, S.; Petersen, J.; Hansen-Peters, I.; Baylinson, W.

    1990-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of death from cancer among men in the United States. Traditional treatments for prostate cancer are prostatectomy, external beam irradiation, and interstitial implantation of Iodine125 (I125) via laparotomy. These treatments are associated with significant morbidity and limitations. Based on experience with I125 interstitial implantation by transrectal ultrasound guidance for early-stage prostate cancer, it seems that this newer method of treatment has greater accuracy of placement and distribution of the isotope and has had few reported complications. The need for a surgical incision has been eliminated. Hospitalization time also has been decreased, creating the need for ambulatory and inpatient nurses to understand the importance of their respective roles in providing coordinated quality care for these patients. Nurses in these departments must have knowledge of the procedure, radiation safety, and common side effects related to the implant

  9. Explicit studies of the quantum theory of light interstitial diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emin, D.; Baskes, M.I.; Wilson, W.D.

    1978-01-01

    The formalism associated with small-polaron diffusion in the high temperature semiclassical regime is generalized so as to transcend simplifications employed in developing the nonadiabatic theory. The diffusion constant is then calculated for simple models in which the metal atoms interact with each other and with the interstitial atom with two-body forces. Studies of these models not only confirm the necessity of generalizing the formalism but also yield diffusion constants whose magnitudes and temperature dependenes ar consistent with the general features of the existing data for the diffusion of hydrogen and its isotopes in bcc metals. The motion of a positive muon between interstitial positions of a metal is also investigated

  10. Photoacoustic imaging driven by an interstitial irradiation source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Mitcham

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Photoacoustic (PA imaging has shown tremendous promise in providing valuable diagnostic and therapy-monitoring information in select clinical procedures. Many of these pursued applications, however, have been relatively superficial due to difficulties with delivering light deep into tissue. To address this limitation, this work investigates generating a PA image using an interstitial irradiation source with a clinical ultrasound (US system, which was shown to yield improved PA signal quality at distances beyond 13 mm and to provide improved spectral fidelity. Additionally, interstitially driven multi-wavelength PA imaging was able to provide accurate spectra of gold nanoshells and deoxyhemoglobin in excised prostate and liver tissue, respectively, and allowed for clear visualization of a wire at 7 cm in excised liver. This work demonstrates the potential of using a local irradiation source to extend the depth capabilities of future PA imaging techniques for minimally invasive interventional radiology procedures.

  11. MRI contrast agent concentration and tumor interstitial fluid pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L J; Schlesinger, M

    2016-10-07

    The present work describes the relationship between tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) and the concentration of contrast agent for dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). We predict the spatial distribution of TIFP based on that of contrast agent concentration. We also discuss the cases for estimating tumor interstitial volume fraction (void fraction or porosity of porous medium), ve, and contrast volume transfer constant, K(trans), by measuring the ratio of contrast agent concentration in tissue to that in plasma. A linear fluid velocity distribution may reflect a quadratic function of TIFP distribution and lead to a practical method for TIFP estimation. To calculate TIFP, the parameters or variables should preferably be measured along the direction of the linear fluid velocity (this is in the same direction as the gray value distribution of the image, which is also linear). This method may simplify the calculation for estimating TIFP. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. CD34-positive interstitial cells of the human detrusor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helle; Hansen, Alastair; Smedts, Frank

    2007-01-01

    using a panel of antibodies directed against CD117/c-kit, CD34, CD31, S100, tryptase, neurofilament, NSE, Factor-VIII and GFAP. A striking finding was an interstitial type of cell which is CD34 immunoreactive (CD34-ir) but CD117/c-kit negative. The cells have a tentacular morphology, enveloping...... flattened processes, ramifying primarily in a bipolar fashion. Using immunoelectron microscopy (I-TEM) it was possible to view CD34 gold labelling of cells corresponding to interstitial cells. Although similar CD34-positive cells have been demonstrated in the bowel wall, they have never been described...... in the detrusor. The ontogeny and function of CD34-ir, a kit-negative cell, is unknown, but it may be involved in smooth muscle contraction....

  13. Dose, time and volume effects in interstitial radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgers, J.M.V.

    1982-01-01

    This study presents the main features and uncertainties of interstitial therapy and was undertaken to examine whether differences could be found in different clinical situations treated by interstitial implants with removable sources, that were not simply related to dose. In chapter 2, dating from 1978, continuous low dose rate irradiation is discussed from the radiobiological point of view together with some points related to variation in dose rate. A benefit of continuous low dose rate irradiation could be surmised in a few situations with special cell-kinetic properties. The problem of dose specification, the sharp dose gradient and other volume characteristics are discussed in chapter 3. Possible adjustments to variations in dose rate are discussed in chapter 4. The clinical material is reviewed in chapter 5, including aspects of dose specification, dose fall-off and variation in dose rate. The general discussion and conclusions are given in chapter 6. (Auth.)

  14. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. From classification to diagnostic work-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Mang, C.; Bankier, A.; Stiebellehner, L.; Schmid, K.

    2007-01-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP) comprise seven entities with distinct histologic patterns. In their idiopathic form IIP are rare diseases. They are, nevertheless, considered prototypes of the much more common secondary interstitial pneumonias. The advent of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) has had a profound impact on the imaging of IIP, because the detailed delineation of the lung anatomy allows a close correlation between the histologic patterns of IIP and the CT features. On the basis of CT morphology and in the correct clinical context, the radiologist can achieve an accurate diagnosis in many cases. However, due to overlap between the various entities, complementary lung biopsy is recommended in virtually all cases. This article reviews the CT pattern of IIP and offers relevant clinical and histological information for the purpose of enabling the radiologist to understand and participate in the multidisciplinary concept of IIP. (orig.) [de

  15. Clustering Dycom

    KAUST Repository

    Minku, Leandro L.; Hou, Siqing

    2017-01-01

    baseline WC model is also included in the analysis. Results: Clustering Dycom with K-Means can potentially help to split the CC projects, managing to achieve similar or better predictive performance than Dycom. However, K-Means still requires the number

  16. Hypothalamic digoxin, hemispheric chemical dominance, and interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurup, Ravi Kumar; Kurup, Parameswara Achutha

    2003-10-01

    The isoprenoid pathway produces three key metabolites--endogenous digoxin, dolichol, and ubiquinone. This was assessed in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and in individuals of differing hemispheric dominance to find out the role of hemispheric dominance in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. All 15 cases of interstitial lung disease were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. The isoprenoidal metabolites--digoxin, dolichol, and ubiquinone, RBC membrane Na(+)-K+ ATPase activity, serum magnesium, tyrosine/tryptophan catabolic patterns, free radical metabolism, glycoconjugate metabolism, and RBC membrane composition--were assessed in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis as well as in individuals with differing hemispheric dominance. In patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis there was elevated digoxin synthesis, increased dolichol and glycoconjugate levels, and low ubiquinone and elevated free radical levels. There was also an increase in tryptophan catabolites and a reduction in tyrosine catabolites. There was an increase in cholesterol phospholipid ratio and a reduction in glycoconjugate level of RBC membrane in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Isoprenoid pathway dysfunction con tributes to the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. The biochemical patterns obtained in interstitial lung disease are similar to those obtained in left-handed/right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals by the dichotic listening test. However, all the patients with interstitial lung disease were right-handed/left hemispheric dominant by the dichotic listening test. Hemispheric chemical dominance has no correlation with handedness or the dichotic listening test. Interstitial lung disease occurs in right hemispheric chemically dominant individuals and is a reflection of altered brain function.

  17. The pharmacokinetics of the interstitial space in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Levitt, David G

    2003-01-01

    Background The pharmacokinetics of extracellular solutes is determined by the blood-tissue exchange kinetics and the volume of distribution in the interstitial space in the different organs. This information can be used to develop a general physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model applicable to most extracellular solutes. Methods The human pharmacokinetic literature was surveyed to tabulate the steady state and equilibrium volume of distribution of the solutes mannitol, EDTA, morphi...

  18. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Children with Interstitial Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziekiewicz, M A; Karolewska-Bochenek, K; Dembiński, Ł; Gawronska, A; Krenke, K; Lange, J; Banasiuk, M; Kuchar, E; Kulus, M; Albrecht, P; Banaszkiewicz, A

    2016-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease is common in adult patients with interstitial lung disease. However, no data currently exist regarding the prevalence and characteristics of the disease in pediatric patients with interstitial lung disease. The aim of the present study was to prospectively assess the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease and characterize its features in children with interstitial lung disease. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was established based on 24 h pH-impedance monitoring (MII-pH). Gastroesophageal reflux episodes (GERs) were classified according to widely recognized criteria as acid, weakly acid, weakly alkaline, or proximal. Eighteen consecutive patients (15 boys, aged 0.2-11.6 years) were enrolled in the study. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed in a half (9/18) of children. A thousand GERs were detected by MII-pH (median 53.5; IQR 39.0-75.5). Of these, 585 (58.5 %) episodes were acidic, 407 (40.7 %) were weakly acidic, and eight (0.8 %) were weakly alkaline. There were 637 (63.7 %) proximal GERs. The patients in whom gastroesophageal reflux disease was diagnosed had a significantly higher number of proximal and total GERs. We conclude that the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children with interstitial lung disease is high; thus, the disease should be considered regardless of presenting clinical symptoms. A high frequency of non-acid and proximal GERs makes the MII-pH method a preferable choice for the detection of reflux episodes in this patient population.

  19. Sharp interstitial Nefritis, Value Diagnoses of the Ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, Luis Fernando; Rivera, Humberto; Andrade, Rafael E; Garcia, Diego

    1994-01-01

    Two cases of young patients are revised and they present a clinical picture of acute renal insufficiency of unknown aetiology. This fact was no suspected initially but thanks to the help of ultrasound and the clinical history it was possible to diagnose as an acute interstitial nephritis due to hypersensitivity to drugs. The classification of this illness is revised as well as its etiopathogenic clinical picture and ultrasound diagnosis

  20. First principles calculations of interstitial and lamellar rhenium nitrides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, G., E-mail: gerardo@cnyn.unam.mx [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada Baja California (Mexico); Tiznado, H.; Reyes, A.; Cruz, W. de la [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Km 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada Baja California (Mexico)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The possible structures of rhenium nitride as a function of composition are analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The alloying energy is favorable for rhenium nitride in lamellar arrangements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structures produced by magnetron sputtering are metastable variations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The structures produced by high-pressure high-temperature are stable configurations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lamellar structures are a new category of interstitial dissolutions. - Abstract: We report here a systematic first principles study of two classes of variable-composition rhenium nitride: i, interstitial rhenium nitride as a solid solution and ii, rhenium nitride in lamellar structures. The compounds in class i are cubic and hexagonal close-packed rhenium phases, with nitrogen in the octahedral and tetrahedral interstices of the metal, and they are formed without changes to the structure, except for slight distortions of the unit cells. In the compounds in class ii, by contrast, the nitrogen inclusion provokes stacking faults in the parent metal structure. These faults create trigonal-prismatic sites where the nitrogen residence is energetically favored. This second class of compounds produces lamellar structures, where the nitrogen lamellas are inserted among multiple rhenium layers. The Re{sub 3}N and Re{sub 2}N phases produced recently by high-temperature and high-pressure synthesis belong to this class. The ratio of the nitrogen layers to the rhenium layers is given by the composition. While the first principle calculations point to higher stability for the lamellar structures as opposed to the interstitial phases, the experimental evidence presented here demonstrates that the interstitial classes are synthesizable by plasma methods. We conclude that rhenium nitrides possess polymorphism and that the two-dimensional lamellar structures might represent an emerging class of materials

  1. First principles calculations of interstitial and lamellar rhenium nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, G.; Tiznado, H.; Reyes, A.; Cruz, W. de la

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The possible structures of rhenium nitride as a function of composition are analyzed. ► The alloying energy is favorable for rhenium nitride in lamellar arrangements. ► The structures produced by magnetron sputtering are metastable variations. ► The structures produced by high-pressure high-temperature are stable configurations. ► The lamellar structures are a new category of interstitial dissolutions. - Abstract: We report here a systematic first principles study of two classes of variable-composition rhenium nitride: i, interstitial rhenium nitride as a solid solution and ii, rhenium nitride in lamellar structures. The compounds in class i are cubic and hexagonal close-packed rhenium phases, with nitrogen in the octahedral and tetrahedral interstices of the metal, and they are formed without changes to the structure, except for slight distortions of the unit cells. In the compounds in class ii, by contrast, the nitrogen inclusion provokes stacking faults in the parent metal structure. These faults create trigonal-prismatic sites where the nitrogen residence is energetically favored. This second class of compounds produces lamellar structures, where the nitrogen lamellas are inserted among multiple rhenium layers. The Re 3 N and Re 2 N phases produced recently by high-temperature and high-pressure synthesis belong to this class. The ratio of the nitrogen layers to the rhenium layers is given by the composition. While the first principle calculations point to higher stability for the lamellar structures as opposed to the interstitial phases, the experimental evidence presented here demonstrates that the interstitial classes are synthesizable by plasma methods. We conclude that rhenium nitrides possess polymorphism and that the two-dimensional lamellar structures might represent an emerging class of materials within binary nitride chemistry.

  2. Levetiracetam-induced interstitial nephritis in a patient with glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahta, Ali; Kim, Ryan Y; Kesari, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    A 45-year-old man with a new diagnosis of low grade glioma was started on an escalating dose of levetiracetam (Lev) for seizure management. He gradually developed intractable nausea/vomiting and a high creatinine concentration due to acute renal failure which was attributed to Lev-induced interstitial nephritis. The medication was changed and his renal function rapidly improved to his baseline. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Chronic interstitial pneumonia with honeycombing in coal workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brichet, A.; Tonnel, A.B.; Brambilla, E.; Devouassoux, G.; Remy-Jardin, M.; Copin, M.C.; Wallaert, B. [A. Calmette Hospital, Lille (France)

    2002-10-01

    Coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) results from coal mine dust inhalation. The paper reports the presence of a chronic interstitial pneumonia (CIP) with honeycombing in 38 cases of coal miners, with or without CWP. The 38 patients were selected on the basis of clinical criteria which are unusual in CWP, i.e. fine inspiratory crackles and severe dyspnea. There were 37 men and one woman; mean age was 67.5 {+-} 9.1 years. Thirty-two were smokers. Duration of exposure was 26.7 {+-} 9.9 years. All the patients had clinical examination, chest radiography, computed tomography (CT), lung function, laboratory investigations, wedged fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). In eight cases, lung specimens were obtained. Seventeen out of 38 had finger clubbing. 17 had radiological signs of CWP limited to the upper lobes or diffusely distributed. CT showed honeycombing (36 cases), and/or ground glass opacities (30 cases) with traction bronchiectasis (8 cases) predominant in the lower lobes. BAL analysis demonstrated an increased percentage of neutrophils (9.4% {+-} 6). Lung function showed a restrictive pattern associated with a decreased DLCO and hypoxemia. Lung specimens demonstrated in 2 cases a homogenous interstitial fibrosis of intra-alveolar septum with an accumulation of immune and inflammatory cells without temporal variation and with obvious honeycombing. The 6 other cases showed features of usual interstitial pneumonia. These cases, should alert other clinicians to a possible association between CIP with honeycombing and coal dust exposure, with or without associated CWP.

  4. Condensation of helium in interstitial sites of carbon nanotubes bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcone, B.; Orlandini, E.; Toigo, F.; Ancilotto, F.

    2006-01-01

    Helium atoms are believed to be strongly bound within the interstitial channels in bundles of carbon nanotubes. In a recent paper [F. Ancilotto et al., Phys. Rev. B 70, 165422 (2004)] inhomogeneity in the size distribution of nanotube radii was shown to make a system of 4 He atoms in such an environment effectively a four-dimensional Bose gas, thus permitting a Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of the adsorbed atoms into the minimum energy state. This surprising result was obtained for a model of noninteracting atoms in a continuum distribution of (virtually) infinite interstitial channels. Here we investigate how the singular thermal properties of the ideal system and the occurrence of BEC are affected by a more realistic modeling of a bundle of nanotubes where (i) the number of nanotubes is finite and where (ii) 4 He atoms adsorbed within the same interstitial channel interact among themselves. Also in this case we observe an anomalous heat capacity close to the ideal condensation temperature, suggesting the persistence of the condensation transition for interacting 4 He atoms, which might be experimentally observed

  5. Drug-induced interstitial lung diseases. Often forgotten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poschenrieder, F.; Stroszczynski, C.; Hamer, O.W.

    2014-01-01

    Drug-induced interstitial lung diseases (DILD) are probably more common than diagnosed. Due to their potential reversibility, increased vigilance towards DILD is appropriate also from the radiologist's point of view, particularly as these diseases regularly exhibit radiological correlates in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the lungs. Based on personal experience typical relatively common manifestations of DILD are diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), eosinophilic pneumonia (EP), hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP), organizing pneumonia (OP), non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) and usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). These patterns are presented based on case studies, whereby emphasis is placed on the clinical context. This is to highlight the relevance of interdisciplinary communication and discussion in the diagnostic field of DILD as it is a diagnosis of exclusion or of probability in most cases. Helpful differential diagnostic indications for the presence of DILD, such as an accompanying eosinophilia or increased attenuation of pulmonary consolidations in amiodarone-induced pneumopathy are mentioned and the freely available online database http://www.pneumotox.com is presented. (orig.) [de

  6. Diffuse neutron scattering study of metallic interstitial solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barberis, P.

    1991-10-01

    We studied two interstitial solid solutions (Ni-C(1at%) and Nb-O(2at%) and two stabilized zirconia (ZrO2-CaO(13.6mol%) and ZrO2-Y2O3(9.6mol%) by elastic diffuse neutron scattering. We used polarized neutron scattering in the case of the ferromagnetic Ni-based sample, in order to determine the magnetic perturbation induced by the C atoms. Measurements were made on single crystals in the Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (CEA-CNRS, Saclay, France). An original algorithm to deconvolve time-of-flight spectra improved the separation between elastically and inelastically scattered intensities. In the case of metallic solutions, we used a simple non-linear model, assuming that interstitials are isolated and located in octahedral sites. Results are: - in both compounds, nearest neighbours are widely displaced away from the interstitial, while next nearest neighbours come slightly closer. - the large magnetic perturbation induced by carbon in Nickel decreases with increasing distance on the three first neighbour shells and is in good agreement with the total magnetization variation. - no chemical order between solute atoms could be evidenced. Stabilized zirconia exhibit a strong correlation between chemical order and the large displacements around vacancies and dopants. (Author). 132 refs., 38 figs., 13 tabs

  7. Airway-centered interstitial fibrosis: etiology, clinical findings and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranishi, Lilian Tiemi; Leslie, Kevin O; Ferreira, Rimarcs Gomes; Coletta, Ester Aparecida Ney; Storrer, Karin Mueller; Soares, Maria Raquel; de Castro Pereira, Carlos Alberto

    2015-05-09

    Airway-centered Interstitial Fibrosis (ACIF) is a common pathologic pattern observed in our practice. The objectives of this study are to describe the causes associated with ACIF in a large sample of patients and its effect on survival. A retrospective study in three centers of interstitial lung disease in São Paulo, between January of 1995 and December of 2012. The surgical lung biopsy specimens were reviewed by three pathologists. The clinical, functional and tomographic findings were analyzed by a standardized protocol. There were 68 cases of ACIF, most of them women. The mean age was 57 ± 12 yr. Dyspnea, cough, restrictive pattern at spirometry and oxygen desaturation at exercise were common. A reticular pattern with peribronchovascular infiltrates was found in 79% of the cases. The etiologies of ACIF were hypersensitivity pneumonitis in 29 (42.6%), gastroesophageal reflux disease in 17 (25.0%), collagen vascular disease in 4 (5.9%), a combination of them in 15 cases and idiopathic in 3 (4.4%). The median survival was 116 months (95% CI = 58.5 - 173.5). Lower values of oxygen saturation at rest, presence of cough and some histological findings--organizing tissue in the airways, fibroblastic foci and microscopic honeycombing--were predictors of worse survival. ACIF is an interstitial lung disease with a better survival when compared with IPF. The main etiologies are HP and GERD. The oxygen saturation at rest, the presence of cough and some histological findings are predictors of survival.

  8. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis in a Danish population: a study using the 2008 criteria of the European Society for the Study of Interstitial Cystitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, B.; Hesse, U.; Hansen, Alastair Bierre

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize and evaluate a Danish patient population with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC), using a working definition for BPS/IC incorporating six variables, and a set of criteria defined by the European Society for the Study of Interstitial Cystitis (ESSIC...

  9. A comparison in cosmetic outcome between per-operative interstitial breast implants and delayed interstitial breast implants after external beam radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Bradley R.; Hart, Augustinus A. M.; Russell, Nicola S.; Jansen, Edwin P. M.; Peterse, Johannes L.; Borger, Jacques; Rutgers, Emiel J. Th

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: Interstitial implants for brachytherapy boost in the breast conserving therapy of breast cancer can be performed in two ways; implants during the tumor excision (per-operative implants) or after the external beam therapy (delayed interstitial implants). Differences in

  10. Cytokine expression in patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis ESSIC type 3C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logadottir, Yr; Delbro, Dick; Fall, Magnus; Gjertsson, Inger; Jirholt, Pernilla; Lindholm, Catharina; Peeker, Ralph

    2014-11-01

    Bladder wall nitric oxide production in patients with bladder pain syndrome type 3C is increased compared to undetectable nitric oxide in patients with nonHunner bladder pain syndrome and healthy controls. However, the underlying mechanism/s of the increased nitric oxide production is largely unknown. We compared mRNA expression of a select group of cytokines in patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis type 3C and in pain-free controls. Cold cup biopsies from 7 patients with bladder pain syndrome type 3C and 6 healthy subjects were analyzed. mRNA expression of IL-4, 6, 10 and 17A, iNOS, TNF-α, TGF-β and IFN-γ was estimated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. IL-17 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Mast cells were labeled with tryptase to evaluate cell appearance and count. IL-6, 10 and 17A, and iNOS mRNA levels as well as the number of mast cells infiltrating the bladder mucosa were significantly increased in patients with bladder pain syndrome type 3C compared to healthy controls. TNF-α, TGF-β and IFN-γ mRNA levels were similar in patients and controls. IL-17A expression at the protein level was up-regulated and localized to inflammatory cells and urothelium in patients with bladder pain syndrome type 3C. Patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis had increased mRNA levels of IL-17A, 10 and 6, and iNOS. IL-17A might be important in the inflammatory process. To our knowledge the increase in IL-17A is a novel finding that may have new treatment implications. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The annealing of interstitial carbon atoms in high-resistivity n-type silicon after proton irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhnke, M; Lindström, G

    2002-01-01

    The annealing of interstitial carbon C sub i after 7-10 MeV and 23 GeV proton irradiations at room temperature in high-resistivity n-type silicon is investigated. Deep level transient spectroscopy is used to determine the defect parameters. The annealing characteristics of the impurity defects C sub i , C sub i C sub s , C sub i O sub i and VO sub i suggest that the mobile C sub i atoms are also captured at divacancy VV sites at the cluster peripheries and not only at C sub s and O sub i sites in the silicon bulk. The deviation of the electrical filling characteristic of C sub i from the characteristic of a homogeneously distributed defect can be explained by an aggregation of C sub i atoms in the environment of the clusters. The capture rate of electrons into defects located in the cluster environment is reduced due to a positive space charge region surrounding the negatively charged cluster core. The optical filling characteristic of C sub i suggests that the change of the triangle-shaped electric field dis...

  12. Analysis of Dissolved Organic Nutrients in the Interstitial Water of Natural Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Yuki; Eda, Shima; Kiriyama, Chiho; Asada, Tomoya; Morisaki, Hisao

    2016-07-01

    In biofilms, the matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) retains water in the interstitial region of the EPS. This interstitial water is the ambient environment for microorganisms in the biofilms. The nutrient condition in the interstitial water may affect microbial activity in the biofilms. In the present study, we measured the concentrations of dissolved organic nutrients, i.e., saccharides and proteins, contained in the interstitial water of biofilms formed on the stones. We also analyzed the molecular weight distribution, chemical species, and availability to bacteria of some saccharides in the interstitial water. Colorimetric assays showed that the concentrations of saccharides and proteins in the biofilm interstitial water were significantly higher (ca. 750 times) than those in the surrounding lake waters (p Chromatographic analyses demonstrated that the saccharides in the interstitial waters were mainly of low molecular-weight saccharides such as glucose and maltose, while proteins in the interstitial water were high molecular-weight proteins (over 7000 Da). Bacterial growth and production of EPS occurred simultaneously with the decrease in the low molecular-weight saccharide concentrations when a small portion of biofilm suspension was inoculated to the collected interstitial water, suggesting that the dissolved saccharides in the interstitial water support bacterial growth and formation of biofilms.

  13. Interstitial Fluid Flow: The Mechanical Environment of Cells and Foundation of Meridians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using information from the deep dissection, microobservation, and measurement of acupoints in the upper and lower limbs of the human body, we developed a three-dimensional porous medium model to simulate the flow field using FLUENT software and to study the shear stress on the surface of interstitial cells (mast cells caused by interstitial fluid flow. The numerical simulation results show the following: (i the parallel nature of capillaries will lead to directional interstitial fluid flow, which may explain the long interstitial tissue channels or meridians observed in some experiments; (ii when the distribution of capillaries is staggered, increases in the velocity alternate, and the velocity tends to be uniform, which is beneficial for substance exchange; (iii interstitial fluid flow induces a shear stress, with magnitude of several Pa, on interstitial cell membranes, which will activate cells and lead to a biological response; (iv capillary and interstitial parameters, such as capillary density, blood pressure, capillary permeability, interstitial pressure, and interstitial porosity, affect the shear stress on cell surfaces. The numerical simulation results suggest that in vivo interstitial fluid flow constitutes the mechanical environment of cells and plays a key role in guiding cell activities, which may explain the meridian phenomena and the acupuncture effects observed in experiments.

  14. The correlation functions for the clustering of galaxies and Abell clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.J.T.; Jones, J.E.; Copenhagen Univ.

    1985-01-01

    The difference in amplitudes between the galaxy-galaxy correlation function and the correlation function between Abell clusters is a consequence of two facts. Firstly, most Abell clusters with z<0.08 lie in a relatively small volume of the sampled space, and secondly, the fraction of galaxies lying in Abell clusters differs considerably inside and outside of this volume. (The Abell clusters are confined to a smaller volume of space than are the galaxies.) We discuss the implications of this interpretation of the clustering correlation functions and present a simple model showing how such a situation may arise quite naturally in standard theories for galaxy formation. (orig.)

  15. Cluster forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    The cluster theory attributed to Michael Porter has significantly influenced industrial policies in countries across Europe and North America since the beginning of the 1990s. Institutions such as the EU, OECD and the World Bank and governments in countries such as the UK, France, The Netherlands...... or management. Both the Accelerate Wales and the Accelerate Cluster programmes target this issue by trying to establish networks between companies that can be used to supply knowledge from research institutions to manufacturing companies. The paper concludes that public sector interventions can make...... businesses. The universities were not considered by the participating companies to be important parts of the local business environment and inputs from universities did not appear to be an important source to access knowledge about new product development or new techniques in production, distribution...

  16. Regional Innovation Clusters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — The Regional Innovation Clusters serve a diverse group of sectors and geographies. Three of the initial pilot clusters, termed Advanced Defense Technology clusters,...

  17. Cluster analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mucha, Hans-Joachim; Sofyan, Hizir

    2000-01-01

    As an explorative technique, duster analysis provides a description or a reduction in the dimension of the data. It classifies a set of observations into two or more mutually exclusive unknown groups based on combinations of many variables. Its aim is to construct groups in such a way that the profiles of objects in the same groups are relatively homogenous whereas the profiles of objects in different groups are relatively heterogeneous. Clustering is distinct from classification techniques, ...

  18. Stick–slip behavior identified in helium cluster growth in the subsurface of tungsten: effects of cluster depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jinlong; Niu, Liang-Liang; Shu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    We have performed a molecular dynamics study on the growth of helium (He) clusters in the subsurface of tungsten (W) (1 0 0) at 300 K, focusing on the role of cluster depth. Irregular ‘stick–slip’ behavior exhibited during the evolution of the He cluster growth is identified, which is due to the combined effects of the continuous cluster growth and the loop punching induced pressure relief. We demonstrate that the He cluster grows via trap-mutation and loop punching mechanisms. Initially, the self-interstitial atom SIA clusters are almost always attached to the He cluster; while they are instantly emitted to the surface once a critical cluster pressure is reached. The repetition of this process results in the He cluster approaching the surface via a ‘stop-and-go’ manner and the formation of surface adatom islands (surface roughening), ultimately leading to cluster bursting and He escape. We reveal that, for the Nth loop punching event, the critical size of the He cluster to trigger loop punching and the size of the emitted SIA clusters are correspondingly increased with the increasing initial cluster depth. We tentatively attribute the observed depth effects to the lower formation energies of Frenkel pairs and the greatly reduced barriers for loop punching in the stress field of the W subsurface. In addition, some intriguing features emerge, such as the morphological transformation of the He cluster from ‘platelet-like’ to spherical, to ellipsoidal with a ‘bullet-like’ tip, and finally to a ‘bottle-like’ shape after cluster rupture. (paper)

  19. Rheumatoid Arthritis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease and Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis: Shared Mechanistic and Phenotypic Traits Suggest Overlapping Disease Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulin, Francisco; Doyle, Tracy J; Fletcher, Elaine A; Ascherman, Dana P; Rosas, Ivan O

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of clinically evident interstitial lung disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis is approximately 10%. An additional 33% of undiagnosed patients have interstitial lung abnormalities that can be detected with high-resolution computed tomography. Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease patients have three times the risk of death compared to those with rheumatoid arthritis occurring in the absence of interstitial lung disease, and the mortality related to interstitial lung disease is rising. Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease is most commonly classified as the usual interstitial pneumonia pattern, overlapping mechanistically and phenotypically with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but can occur in a non-usual interstitial pneumonia pattern, mainly nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. Based on this, we propose two possible pathways to explain the coexistence of rheumatoid arthritis and interstitial lung disease: (i) Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease with a non-usual interstitial pneumonia pattern may come about when an immune response against citrullinated peptides taking place in another site (e.g. the joints) subsequently affects the lungs; (ii) Rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease with a usual interstitial pneumonia pattern may represent a disease process in which idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis-like pathology triggers an immune response against citrullinated proteins that promotes articular disease indicative of rheumatoid arthritis. More studies focused on elucidating the basic mechanisms leading to different sub-phenotypes of rheumatoid arthritis-interstitial lung disease and the overlap with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis are necessary to improve our understanding of the disease process and to define new therapeutic targets.

  20. MicroRNA expression profile in head and neck cancer: HOX-cluster embedded microRNA-196a and microRNA-10b dysregulation implicated in cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severino, Patricia; Mathor, Monica Beatriz; Nunes, Fabio Daumas; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Tajara, Eloiza Helena; Brüggemann, Holger; Andreghetto, Flavia Maziero; Camps, Carme; Klingbeil, Maria de Fatima Garrido; Pereira, Welbert Oliveira de; Soares, Renata Machado; Moyses, Raquel; Wünsch-Filho, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Current evidence implicates aberrant microRNA expression patterns in human malignancies; measurement of microRNA expression may have diagnostic and prognostic applications. Roles for microRNAs in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are largely unknown. HNSCC, a smoking-related cancer, is one of the most common malignancies worldwide but reliable diagnostic and prognostic markers have not been discovered so far. Some studies have evaluated the potential use of microRNA as biomarkers with clinical application in HNSCC. MicroRNA expression profile of oral squamous cell carcinoma samples was determined by means of DNA microarrays. We also performed gain-of-function assays for two differentially expressed microRNA using two squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and normal oral keratinocytes. The effect of the over-expression of these molecules was evaluated by means of global gene expression profiling and cell proliferation assessment. Altered microRNA expression was detected for a total of 72 microRNAs. Among these we found well studied molecules, such as the miR-17-92 cluster, comprising potent oncogenic microRNA, and miR-34, recently found to interact with p53. HOX-cluster embedded miR-196a/b and miR-10b were up- and down-regulated, respectively, in tumor samples. Since validated HOX gene targets for these microRNAs are not consistently deregulated in HNSCC, we performed gain-of-function experiments, in an attempt to outline their possible role. Our results suggest that both molecules interfere in cell proliferation through distinct processes, possibly targeting a small set of genes involved in cell cycle progression. Functional data on miRNAs in HNSCC is still scarce. Our data corroborate current literature and brings new insights into the role of microRNAs in HNSCC. We also show that miR-196a and miR-10b, not previously associated with HNSCC, may play an oncogenic role in this disease through the deregulation of cell proliferation. The study of micro

  1. Smoking-related interstitial fibrosis combined with pulmonary emphysema: computed tomography-pathologic correlative study using lobectomy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Hideji; Tanaka, Tomonori; Murata, Kiyoshi; Fukuoka, Junya; Nitta, Norihisa; Nagatani, Yukihiro; Sonoda, Akinaga; Takahashi, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence and pathologic correlation of thin-section computed tomography (TSCT) findings in smoking-related interstitial fibrosis (SRIF) with pulmonary emphysema. Our study included 172 consecutive patients who underwent TSCT and subsequent lobectomy. TSCT findings including clustered cysts with visible walls (CCVW) and ground-glass attenuation with/without reticulation (GGAR) were evaluated and compared in nonsmokers and smokers and among lung locations. TSCT findings, especially CCVW, were also compared with histological findings using lobectomy specimens. The incidence of CCVW and GGAR was significantly higher in smokers than in nonsmokers (34.1% and 40.7%, respectively, vs 2.0% and 12.2%). CCVW and GGAR were frequently found in the lower and peripheral zones. Histologically, CCVW corresponded more often with SRIF with emphysema than usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP, 63.3% vs 30%). CCVW of irregular size and shape were seen in 19 of 20 SRIF with emphysema and in seven of nine UIP-manifested areas with similar round cysts. A less-involved subpleural parenchyma was observed more frequently in SRIF with emphysema. SRIF with emphysema is a more frequent pathological finding than UIP in patients with CCVW on TSCT. The irregular size and shape of CCVW and a less-involved subpleural parenchyma may be a clue suggesting the presence of SRIF with emphysema.

  2. Postoperative interstitial hernia as a cause of obscure incisional wound site pain

    OpenAIRE

    Modrzejewski, Andrzej; Śmietański, Maciej

    2011-01-01

    An interstitial hernia is one in which the hernia sac is located between the layers of the abdominal wall. The analysis of contemporary literature shows that interstitial hernias are most often seen in children as a type of inguinal hernia and often accompany undescended testis. The hernia sac is usually located between the external-oblique and internal-oblique muscles in a lateral-cephalic direction. The authors present 3 cases of interstitial hernia found during laparoscopic exploration of ...

  3. Role of Self-Interstitial Atoms on the High Temperature Properties of Metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordlund, K.; Averback, R.S.

    1998-01-01

    Equilibrium concentrations of self-interstitial atoms and divacancies have been determined in Cu by molecular dynamics computer simulations using embedded atom potentials. Near the melting temperature these concentrations are both ∼10 -6 . Owing to the higher mobility of the interstitial atoms, however, they contribute more to diffusion. In perfect, or pulse-heated crystals, spontaneous Frenkel pair production results in even higher interstitial concentrations. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  4. Dose rate constant and energy spectrum of interstitial brachytherapy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zhe; Nath, Ravinder

    2001-01-01

    In the past two years, several new manufacturers have begun to market low-energy interstitial brachytherapy seeds containing 125 I and 103 Pd. Parallel to this development, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has implemented a modification to the air-kerma strength (S K ) standard for 125 I seeds and has also established an S K standard for 103 Pd seeds. These events have generated a considerable number of investigations on the determination of the dose rate constants (Λ) of interstitial brachytherapy seeds. The aim of this work is to study the general properties underlying the determination of Λ and to develop a simple method for a quick and accurate estimation of Λ. As the dose rate constant of clinical seeds is defined at a fixed reference point, we postulated that Λ may be calculated by treating the seed as an effective point source when the seed's source strength is specified in S K and its source characteristics are specified by the photon energy spectrum measured in air at the reference point. Using a semi-analytic approach, an analytic expression for Λ was derived for point sources with known photon energy spectra. This approach enabled a systematic study of Λ as a function of energy. Using the measured energy spectra, the calculated Λ for 125 I model 6711 and 6702 seeds and for 192 Ir seed agreed with the AAPM recommended values within ±1%. For the 103 Pd model 200 seed, the agreement was 5% with a recently measured value (within the ±7% experimental uncertainty) and was within 1% with the Monte Carlo simulations. The analytic expression for Λ proposed here can be evaluated using a programmable calculator or a simple spreadsheet and it provides an efficient method for checking the measured dose rate constant for any interstitial brachytherapy seed once the energy spectrum of the seed is known

  5. Cicatricial organising pneumonia mimicking a fibrosing interstitial pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churg, Andrew; Wright, Joanne L; Bilawich, AnaMaria

    2018-04-01

    Organising pneumonia (OP) is composed of loose granulation tissue plugs in distal airspaces; these disappear with steroid treatment. Recently a variant labelled 'cicatricial' OP has been described in which the granulation tissue organised to much denser fibrous tissue but still retained the usual pattern of OP. Here we report 10 patients thought to have an interstitial lung disease, and who on biopsy had a variant of cicatricial OP characterised by linear bands or small nodular masses of dense fibrous tissue that does not resemble ordinary OP. The bands/nodules were usually distributed randomly but occasionally resembled fibrotic non-specific interstitial pneumonia in local areas. Small foci of loose granulation tissue at the edge of the fibrotic bands sometimes mimicked fibroblast foci. Recognisable conventional OP was always present, but often in very small amounts. Four cases, including one patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, showed formation of bone in the fibrotic bands and nodules. On computerised tomography (CT) scan of the chest some cases looked like typical OP, but some demonstrated only irregularly distributed linear opacities, sometimes with associated calcification. Follow-up imaging on six cases showed that the process either markedly improved or remained stable over time; no case had progressive disease. Cicatricial OP with this pathological pattern represents an uncommon form of OP that appears to be a generally benign process which may have persisting linear opacities on CT scan but that does not progress; however, it can be confused on biopsy and CT with a fibrosing interstitial pneumonia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. What is new in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanno, P.; Nordling, J.; Ophoven, A. van

    2008-01-01

    and nomenclature are ongoing. Some new treatments have been reported that may be of benefit. Summary In the age of the internet, it is incumbent upon the clinician to keep up with current ideas, epidemiology, and treatment findings to be able to discuss these with well informed patients who come to clinics around......Purpose of review Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is an important and poorly understood disorder. This review highlights current research findings that may be of benefit to the clinician who is responsible for the diagnosis and treatment of patients who suffer from this condition...

  7. Predicting Plasma Glucose From Interstitial Glucose Observations Using Bayesian Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Alexander Hildenbrand; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Juhl, Rune

    2014-01-01

    One way of constructing a control algorithm for an artificial pancreas is to identify a model capable of predicting plasma glucose (PG) from interstitial glucose (IG) observations. Stochastic differential equations (SDEs) make it possible to account both for the unknown influence of the continuous...... glucose monitor (CGM) and for unknown physiological influences. Combined with prior knowledge about the measurement devices, this approach can be used to obtain a robust predictive model. A stochastic-differential-equation-based gray box (SDE-GB) model is formulated on the basis of an identifiable...

  8. Registration of interstitial anions in irradiated MgO crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surzhikov, A.P.; Pogrebnyak, A.D.

    1985-01-01

    Possibility of application of positron annihilation for detection in oxides of rare earth metals with interstitial component of Frenkel anion defects is revealed. Magnesium oxide monocrystals with Ca, Si, Fe, Al impurity contents of 0.1 wt.% were investigated. These crystals were irradiated by X-rays (45 kV, 20 μA) and protons (10 MeV). It is shown that heating of magnesium oxide crystals irradiated by protons up to 700 K completely anneals F + -centers. In this case the component disappears inth the pulse distributon at xi=5.0; the subsequent crystal irradiation with X-ray does not lead to its reduction

  9. Dyskeratosis Congenita Associated Non-Specific Interstitial Pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unnati D. Desai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyskeratosis Congenita (DC is a rare inherited disorder of ectodermal dysplasia. It consists of a classical mucocutaneous triad of abnormal skin pigmentation, nail dystrophy and leukoplakia. Pulmonary disease is seen in 10-15%. It is characterized by Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF, or Idiopathic Familial Pulmonary Fibrosis (IFPF. Non-specific Interstitial Pneumonia (NSIP has been reported rarely in children with DC and in an isolated adult patient. Our patient had classical clinical presentation of DC with pancytopenia and portal hypertension and clinic-radiological features of NSIP which is a rare association.

  10. Usual interstitial pneumonia in adult-onset still's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodelo, Joaquin; Gonzalez, Luis Alonso; Velasquez, Monica Patricia; Vasquez, Gloria; Uribe, Oscar; Perez, Maria del Pilar; Ramirez, Luis Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Adult-onset still's disease (AOSD) is a multi-system inflammatory disorder of unknown origin, characterized by high spiking fevers, evanescent salmon colored rash, arthralgias or arthritis, hepatospleno-megaly, Iymphadenopathy and sore throat. It is not uncommon for AOSD to involve other organs, such as the liver, the kidney; the bone marrow and less often the lungs. Pulmonary involvement ranges from 30 to 40 % (0 to 53 %), the pulmonary manifestations of AOSD include pleurisy, acute pneumonitis and even the acute respiratory distress syndrome. We present a case of a patient with AOSD who developed an interstitial lung disease and reviewed the literature on it

  11. Childhood acromegaly successfully treated with interstitial irradiation using Yttrium-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenstock, J.; Doyle, F.H.; Mashiter, K.; Joplin, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    A child with a growth hormone producing tumour presented at the age of 4 1/2 years. The onset of the disease was at 18 months of age. Treatment was given with three doses of interstitial irradiation using yttrium-90 implants. There were no local complications from the procedures. Now, 11 years after diagnosis, she is asymptomatic, of normal appearance, and her height and the size of the pituitary fossa are normal. Growth hormone levels are almost normal, thyroid function is intact, and she is maintained on prednisone and sex hormones. (Authors)

  12. Childhood acromegaly successfully treated with interstitial irradiation using Yttrium-90

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenstock, J.; Doyle, F.H.; Mashiter, K.; Joplin, G.F. (Royal Postgraduate Medical School, Hammersmith Hospital, London (UK). Dept. of Medicine and Radiology); Hall, R. (Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle upon Tyne (UK))

    1982-01-01

    A child with a growth hormone producing tumour presented at the age of 4 1/2 years. The onset of the disease was at 18 months of age. Treatment was given with three doses of interstitial irradiation using Yttrium-90 implants. There were no local complications from the procedures. Now, 11 years after diagnosis, she is asymptomatic, of normal appearance, and her height and the size of the pituitary fossa are normal. Growth hormone levels are almost normal, thyroid function is intact, and she is maintained on prednisone and sex hormones.

  13. HRCT appearances of pulmonary interstitial diseases. The pathologic basis and clinical diagnostic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Daqing; Li Tieyi; Guan Yansheng; He Wen; Nie Yongkang

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the CT appearances, the pathologic basis and diagnostic significance of pulmonary interstitial diseases. methods: 14 isolated lungs with interstitial diseases were obtained at autopsy and surgery. The lungs were inflated and fixed. HRCT and 1 cm thin slice soft X-ray radiograph were performed and then histologic examination was done. HRCT images of 72 cases with interstitial diseases were analysed. The HRCT appearances of 10 cases were followed up for 1.5-7.0 years. Results: According to HRCT-pathologic correlation, pulmonary interstitial diseases had the following HRCT findings: (1) Intralobular interstitial thickening (33 cases, 46%), including fine linear, reticular and radiating appearances and the interface sign. (2) Interlobular septal thickening (24 cases, 33%). (3) Thickening of bronchovesicular bundles (35 cases, 49%), with coarse, blurred or smooth bundle, and nodular shape. (4) Subpleural lines (31 cases, 43%). (5) Ground-glass opacity (22 cases, 31%) with peripheral, diffuse or locular distribution. (6) Honeycombing (27 cases, 38%), having sizes: 5 mm. Of the 10 cases with follow-up, 2 cases became normal on CT and 8 cases progressing to honeycombed lung. Conclusions: The HRCT findings of pulmonary interstitial diseases represent abnormalities of axial, peripheral and septal interstitium. Interstitial fibrosis of the lung can be differentiated from that without fibrosis by HRCT. Ground-glass opacity, intralobular interstitial thickening and subpleural lines are preliminary findings of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis

  14. Pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis in the setting of lung growth abnormality: radiographic and pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castillo, Monette; Vade, Aruna; Lim-Dunham, Jennifer Eden [Loyola University Health System, Department of Radiology, Maywood, IL (United States); Masuda, Emi [Henry Ford Hospital, Department of Radiology, Detroit, MI (United States); Massarani-Wafai, Rasan [Loyola University Health System, Department of Pathology, Maywood, IL (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis (PIG) is a rare pediatric interstitial lung disease. We report a case of a term boy presenting with tachypnea at birth requiring supplemental oxygen. Chest radiographs followed by high-resolution CT (HRCT) demonstrated hyperinflation and diffuse interstitial markings interspersed with multiple cystic spaces. An open lung biopsy demonstrated a minor component of PIG superimposed upon poor alveolarization. PIG in the setting of lung growth abnormality might be more common than previously described. Additionally, radiographic findings associated with most pediatric interstitial lung diseases are nonspecific, and histopathologic correlation is essential for diagnosis. (orig.)

  15. Basal interstitial water pressure in laboratory debris flows over a rigid bed in an open channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hotta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the interstitial water pressure of debris flows under various conditions gives essential information on the flow stress structure. This study measured the basal interstitial water pressure during debris flow routing experiments in a laboratory flume. Because a sensitive pressure gauge is required to measure the interstitial water pressure in shallow laboratory debris flows, a differential gas pressure gauge with an attached diaphragm was used. Although this system required calibration before and after each experiment, it showed a linear behavior and a sufficiently high temporal resolution for measuring the interstitial water pressure of debris flows. The values of the interstitial water pressure were low. However, an excess of pressure beyond the hydrostatic pressure was observed with increasing sediment particle size. The measured excess pressure corresponded to the theoretical excess interstitial water pressure, derived as a Reynolds stress in the interstitial water of boulder debris flows. Turbulence was thought to induce a strong shear in the interstitial space of sediment particles. The interstitial water pressure in boulder debris flows should be affected by the fine sediment concentration and the phase transition from laminar to turbulent debris flow; this should be the subject of future studies.

  16. Segregation of cascade induced interstitial loops at dislocations: possible effect on initiation of plastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinkaus, H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Festkoerperforschung; Singh, B.N. [Materials Research Department, Risoe National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Foreman, A.J.E. [Materials Performance Department, Harwell Laboratory, Oxfordshire OX11 0RA (United Kingdom)

    1997-11-01

    In metals and alloys subjected to cascade damage dislocations are frequently found to be decorated with a high density of small clusters of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) in the form of dislocation loops. In the present paper it is shown that this effect may be attributed to the glide and trapping of SIA loops, produced directly in cascades (rather than to the enhanced agglomeration of single SIAs), in the strain field of the dislocations. The conditions for the accumulation of glissile SIA loops near dislocations as well as the dose and temperature dependencies of this phenomenon are discussed. It is suggested that the decoration of dislocations with loops may play a key role in radiation hardening subjected to cascade damage. It is shown, for example, that the increase in the upper yield stress followed by a yield drop and plastic instability in metals andalloys subjected to cascade damage cannot be rationalized in terms of conventional dispersed barrier hardening (DBH) but may be understood in terms of cascade induced source hardening (CISH) in which the dislocations are considered to be locked by the loops decorating them. Estimates for the stress necessary to pull a dislocation away from its loop `cloud` are used to discuss the dose and temperature dependence of plastic flow initiation. (orig.). 55 refs.

  17. Segregation of cascade induced interstitial loops at dislocations: possible effect on initiation of plastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinkaus, H.; Foreman, A.J.E.

    1997-01-01

    In metals and alloys subjected to cascade damage dislocations are frequently found to be decorated with a high density of small clusters of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) in the form of dislocation loops. In the present paper it is shown that this effect may be attributed to the glide and trapping of SIA loops, produced directly in cascades (rather than to the enhanced agglomeration of single SIAs), in the strain field of the dislocations. The conditions for the accumulation of glissile SIA loops near dislocations as well as the dose and temperature dependencies of this phenomenon are discussed. It is suggested that the decoration of dislocations with loops may play a key role in radiation hardening subjected to cascade damage. It is shown, for example, that the increase in the upper yield stress followed by a yield drop and plastic instability in metals andalloys subjected to cascade damage cannot be rationalized in terms of conventional dispersed barrier hardening (DBH) but may be understood in terms of cascade induced source hardening (CISH) in which the dislocations are considered to be locked by the loops decorating them. Estimates for the stress necessary to pull a dislocation away from its loop 'cloud' are used to discuss the dose and temperature dependence of plastic flow initiation. (orig.)

  18. The role of point defect clusters in reactor pressure vessel embrittlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoller, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation-induced point defect clusters (PDC) are a plausible source of matrix hardening in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels in addition to copper-rich precipitates. These PDCs can be of either interstitial or vacancy type, and could exist in either 2 or 3-D shapes, e.g. small loops, voids, or stacking fault tetrahedra. Formation and evolution of PDCs are primarily determined by displacement damage rate and irradiation temperature. There is experimental evidence that size distributions of these clusters are also influenced by impurities such as copper. A theoretical model has been developed to investigate potential role of PDCs in RPV embrittlement. The model includes a detailed description of interstitial cluster population; vacancy clusters are treated in a more approximate fashion. The model has been used to examine a broad range of irradiation and material parameters. Results indicate that magnitude of hardening increment due to these clusters can be comparable to that attributed to copper precipitates. Both interstitial and vacancy type defects contribute to this hardening, with their relative importance determined by the specific irradiation conditions

  19. Nuclear clustering - a cluster core model study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul Selvi, G.; Nandhini, N.; Balasubramaniam, M.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear clustering, similar to other clustering phenomenon in nature is a much warranted study, since it would help us in understanding the nature of binding of the nucleons inside the nucleus, closed shell behaviour when the system is highly deformed, dynamics and structure at extremes. Several models account for the clustering phenomenon of nuclei. We present in this work, a cluster core model study of nuclear clustering in light mass nuclei

  20. Allergic Interstitial Nephritis Manifesting as a Striated Nephrogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Moinuddin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergic interstitial nephritis (AIN is an underdiagnosed cause of acute kidney injury (AKI. Guidelines suggest that AIN should be suspected in a patient who presents with an elevated serum creatinine and a urinalysis that shows white cells, white cell casts, or eosinophiluria. Drug-induced AIN is suspected if AKI is temporally related to the initiation of a new drug. However, patients with bland sediment and normal urinalysis can also have AIN. Currently, a definitive diagnosis of AIN is made by renal biopsy which is invasive and fraught with risks such as bleeding, infection, and hematoma. Additionally, it is frequently unclear when a kidney biopsy should be undertaken. We describe a biopsy proven case of allergic interstitial nephritis which manifested on contrast enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI as a striated nephrogram. Newer and more stable macrocyclic gadolinium contrast agents have a well-demonstrated safety profile. Additionally, in the presentation of AKI, gadolinium contrast agents are safe to administer in patients who demonstrate good urine output and a downtrending creatinine. We propose that the differential for a striated nephrogram may include AIN. In cases in which the suspicion for AIN is high, this diagnostic consideration may be further characterized by contrast enhanced MRI.

  1. Development of an interstitial cystitis risk score for bladder permeability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Lamb

    Full Text Available Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC is a multifactorial syndrome of severe pelvic and genitalia pain and compromised urinary function; a subset of IC patients present with Hunner's lesions or ulcers on their bladder walls (UIC. UIC is diagnosed by cystoscopy, which may be quite painful. The objective of this study was to determine if a calculated Bladder Permeability Defect Risk Score (BP-RS based on non-invasive urinary cytokines could discriminate UIC patients from controls and IC patients without Hunner's ulcers.A national crowdsourcing effort targeted IC patients and age-matched controls to provide urine samples. Urinary cytokine levels for GRO, IL-6, and IL-8 were determined using a Luminex assay.We collected 448 urine samples from 46 states consisting of 153 IC patients (147 female, 6 male, of which 54 UIC patients (50 females, 4 male, 159 female controls, and 136 male controls. A defined BP-RS was calculated to classify UIC, or a bladder permeability defect etiology, with 89% validity.The BP-RS Score quantifies UIC risk, indicative of a bladder permeability defect etiology in a subset of IC patients. The Bladder Permeability Defect Risk Score is the first validated urine biomarker assay for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

  2. Interstitial lung disease associated with human papillomavirus vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasushi Yamamoto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vaccinations against the human papillomavirus (HPV have been recommended for the prevention of cervical cancer. HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccines (Cervarix are said to have favourable safety profiles. Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs can occur following exposure to a drug or a biological agent. We report a case of ILD associated with a Cervarix vaccination. A woman in her 40's, with a history of conisation, received three inoculations of Cervarix. Three months later, she presented with a cough and shortness of breath. Findings from a computed tomography of the chest and a transbronchial lung biopsy were consistent with non-specific interstitial pneumonia. Workup eliminated all other causes of the ILD, except for the vaccination. Over the 11 months of the follow-up period, her symptoms resolved without steroid therapy. The onset and spontaneous resolution of the ILD showed a chronological association with the HPV vaccination. The semi-quantitative algorithm revealed that the likelihood of an adverse drug reaction to Cervarix was “Probable”. The outcome was relatively good, but more attention should be paid to a potential risk for HPV vaccinations to cause ILDs. Wherever possible, chest radiographic examinations should be performed in order not to overlook any ILDs.

  3. MRI of interstitial lung diseases. What is possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biederer, J.; Wielpuetz, M.O.; Jobst, B.J.; Dinkel, J.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the lungs is becoming increasingly appreciated as a third diagnostic imaging modality besides chest x-ray and computed tomography (CT). Its value is well acknowledged for pediatric patients or for scientific use particularly when radiation exposure should be strictly avoided. However, the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease is the biggest challenge of all indications. The objective of this article is a summary of the current state of the art for diagnostic MRI of interstitial lung diseases. This article reflects the results of a current search of the literature and discusses them against the background of the authors own experience with lung MRI. Due to its lower spatial resolution and a higher susceptibility to artefacts MRI does not achieve the sensitivity of CT for the detection of small details for pattern recognition (e.g. fine reticulation and micronodules) but larger details (e.g. coarse fibrosis and honeycombing) can be clearly visualized. Moreover, it could be shown that MRI has the capability to add clinically valuable information on regional lung function (e.g. ventilation, perfusion and mechanical properties) and inflammation with native signal and contrast dynamics. In its present state MRI can be used for comprehensive cardiopulmonary imaging in patients with sarcoidosis or for follow-up of lung fibrosis after initial correlation with CT. Far more indications are expected when the capabilities of MRI for the assessment of regional lung function and activity of inflammation can be transferred into robust protocols for clinical use. (orig.) [de

  4. Auscultation of Velcro Crackles is Associated With Usual Interstitial Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellarés, Jacobo; Hernández-González, Fernanda; Lucena, Carmen M; Paradela, Marina; Brito-Zerón, Pilar; Prieto-González, Sergio; Benegas, Mariana; Cuerpo, Sandra; Espinosa, Gerard; Ramírez, José; Sánchez, Marcelo; Xaubet, Antoni

    2016-02-01

    Auscultation of Velcro crackles has been proposed as a key finding in physical lung examination in patients with interstitial lung diseases (ILDs), especially in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). However, no studies have been carried out to assess the association of Velcro crackles with other clinical variables.We evaluated a cohort of 132 patients, prospectively and consecutively included in our ILD diagnostic program at a tertiary referral center. All patients were auscultated during the physical examination. The patients were divided into 2 groups: "presence" or "nonpresence" of bilateral Velcro crackles.Of all patients assessed, 83 (63%) presented Velcro crackles in the respiratory auscultation. Patients with Velcro crackles usually had more frequently cough and dyspnea at the moment of diagnosis. Forced vital capacity (P = 0.002) and lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (P = 0.04) was lower in these patients. The ILD-GAP index was higher in the group with Velcro crackles (P = 0.01). All patients with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) in high-resolution computed tomography and all patients with final IPF diagnosis presented Velcro crackles. In multivariate analysis, the presence of Velcro crackles was independently associated with an UIP pattern.In patients suspected of having ILD, the auscultation of Velcro crackles was associated with UIP, a possibility which must be taken into consideration in early ILD detection in primary care.

  5. Peritumoral interstitial fluid flow velocity predicts survival in cervical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hompland, Tord; Lund, Kjersti V.; Ellingsen, Christine; Kristensen, Gunnar B.; Rofstad, Einar K.

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: High tumor interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) is associated with poor outcome in locally advanced carcinoma of the uterine cervix. We have recently developed a noninvasive assay of the IFP of tumors, and in this assay, the outward interstitial fluid flow velocity at the tumor surface (v 0 ) is measured by Gd-DTPA-based DCE-MRI and used as a parameter for IFP. Here, we investigated the independent prognostic significance of v 0 in cervical cancer patients given cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy with curative intent. Patients: The study involved 62 evaluable patients from a cohort of 74 consecutive patients (Stage IB through IIIB) with a median follow-up of 5.5 years. Results: The actuarial disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) at 5 years were 67% and 76%, respectively. Significant associations were found between v 0 dichotomized about the median value and DFS and OS, both in the total patient cohort and a subcohort of 40 Stage IIB patients. Multivariate analysis involving stage, tumor volume, lymph node status, and v 0 revealed that only v 0 provided independent prognostic information about DFS and OS. Conclusion: This investigation demonstrates a strong, independent prognostic impact of the pretreatment peritumoral fluid flow velocity in cervical cancer

  6. Bone tissue engineering: the role of interstitial fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillsley, M. V.; Frangos, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    It is well established that vascularization is required for effective bone healing. This implies that blood flow and interstitial fluid (ISF) flow are required for healing and maintenance of bone. The fact that changes in bone blood flow and ISF flow are associated with changes in bone remodeling and formation support this theory. ISF flow in bone results from transcortical pressure gradients produced by vascular and hydrostatic pressure, and mechanical loading. Conditions observed to alter flow rates include increases in venous pressure in hypertension, fluid shifts occurring in bedrest and microgravity, increases in vascularization during the injury-healing response, and mechanical compression and bending of bone during exercise. These conditions also induce changes in bone remodeling. Previously, we hypothesized that interstitial fluid flow in bone, and in particular fluid shear stress, serves to mediate signal transduction in mechanical loading- and injury-induced remodeling. In addition, we proposed that a lack or decrease of ISF flow results in the bone loss observed in disuse and microgravity. The purpose of this article is to review ISF flow in bone and its role in osteogenesis.

  7. Factors affecting radiation injury after interstitial brachytherapy for brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibel, S.A.; Gutin, P.H.; Davis, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of brachytherapy on normal brain tissue are not easily delineated in the clinical setting because of the presence of concurrent radiation-induced changes in the coexistent brain tumor. Sequential morphologic studies performed after the implantation of radioactive sources into the brains of experimental animals have provided a better understanding of the character and magnitude of the structural changes produced by interstitial irradiation on normal brain tissue. Furthermore, the clinical experience accumulated thus far provides not only relevant information, but also some guidelines for future treatment policies. In this paper, the authors summarize the experimental findings and review the pathologic and clinical features of brain injury caused by interstitial brachytherapy. A number of studies in the older literature examined the effects of radioisotopes such as radium-226 (38--43), radon-22 (44--46), gold-198 (29,47--50), tantalum-182 (29,51,52) yttrium-9- (50,53,54), and cobalt-60 (29,50,55). This review is restricted to low- and high-activity encapsulated iodine-125 ( 125 I) and iridium-192 ( 192 Ir), the isotopes that are most commonly used in current clinical practice

  8. Legionnaire's pneumonia: Is there really an interstitial disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godet, C.; Frat, J.P.; Le Moal, G.; Roblot, F.; Michalakis, G.; Cabon, E.; Tasu, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Legionella pneumonia is usually classified as 'atypical pneumonia', which suggests a predominance of interstitial patterns in chest X-rays. Based on a selection of recent clinical cases and a brief review of the literature, the aim of the study is to clarify, how far the actual radiological findings would be consistent with these expectations. Patients and methods: A retrospective analysis of 18 epidemic personal cases and a review of the literature data were performed to describe the chest X-ray findings of Legionella pneumophila (LP) community acquired pneumonia. X-ray review was performed simultaneously and in consensus by two radiologists (J.P.T., E.C.) and a physician (C.G.). Results: From our series, 17 patients had an abnormal chest X-ray on admission. Among these pathological X-ray cases, infiltrates were more often confluent (n = 16), or patchy (n = 7), rather than interstitial (n = 1). Fifteen patients had infiltrates involving the lower lung fields. Bilateral distribution of abnormalities and pleural effusion were each observed in three cases. Radiological findings deteriorated between the second and seventh days following admission, particularly in the form of patchy infiltrates with pleural effusion. The review of the literature is consistent with these findings, by reporting prevalent confluent or patchy infiltrates. Conclusions: These findings are consistent with the physiopathological particularity of this affection and incite us to avoid the classification 'atypical pneumonia' in radiologic terminology. This term is more appropriate for clinical and microbiological use

  9. Hydrogen solution in tetrahedral or octahedral interstitial sites in Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, C.A.; Hu, J.P.; Ouyang, C.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The physical nature of the site preference for H solution in BCC Al is revealed. → The site preference is result of competition between Al-H bonding interaction and local lattice distortion. → The Al-H bonding interaction lowers the solution energy while the local lattice distortion increases the solution energy. - Abstract: It is reported that H atoms prefer to stay at interstitial (defect) sites with larger space in most metals. However, H atom prefers to occupy tetrahedral interstitial sites (T-site) that provide smaller space than octahedral sites (O-site) in Al. This paper studied the H-Al interactions from first principles calculations. Through analysis of the H-induced electronic states and the local atomic relaxations, we show that H-Al bonding interaction is stronger for T-site H, which is in favor of the solution energy. On the other hand, larger local atomic distortion is observed around the T-site H, which increases the total energy.

  10. Dynamics of star clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodman, J.; Hut, P.

    1985-01-01

    The enigma of core collapse receives much attention in this volume. In addition, several observational papers summarize recent techniques and results and discuss the stellar dynamical implications of the enormous progress in the quality of surface photometry, proper motion studies, radial velocity determinations, as well as space-based measurements in a variety of wavelengths. The value of these Proceedings as a standard reference work is enhanced by the inclusion of two appendices, featuring English translations of two seminal papers on stellar dynamics published in Russian and not previously available in a Western language. A third appendix contains an up-to-date catalogue of observationally determined parameters of galactic globular clusters, as well as theoretically inferred parameters. This catalogue will prove to be an essential reference for phenomenonological studies and an ideal testing ground for new theoretical developments. (orig.)

  11. Usual interstitial pneumonia and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia: Correlation between CT findings at the site of biopsy with pathological diagnoses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumikawa, Hiromitsu, E-mail: h-sumikawa@radiol.med.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0825 (Japan); Johkoh, Takeshi [Department of Radiology, Kinki Central Hospital of Mutual Aid Association of Public Health Teachers, 3-1 Kurumazuka, Itami, Hyougo 664-8533 (Japan); Fujimoto, Kiminori [Department of Radiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, 67 Asahi-machi, Kurume, 830-0011 (Japan); Ichikado, Kazuya [Division of Respiratory Medicine, Saiseikai Kumamoto Hospital, 5-3-1 Tikami, Kumamoto, 861-4193 (Japan); Colby, Thomas V. [Department of Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ (United States); Fukuoka, Junya [Laboratory of Pathology, Toyama University Hospital, Toyama (Japan); Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Kondoh, Yasuhiro; Kataoka, Kensuke [Department of Respiratory Medicine, Tosei General Hospital, 160 Nishioiwake-cho, Seto City, Aichi (Japan); Yanagawa, Masahiro; Koyama, Mitsuhiro; Honda, Osamu; Tomiyama, Noriyuki [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0825 (Japan)

    2012-10-15

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to correlate high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings at the site of biopsy with the whole lung CT and pathologic diagnoses in usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). Methods: The study included 35 patients (25 UIP and 10 NSIP) diagnosed both pathologically and clinically. 81 surgical biopsy specimens (54 UIP, and 27 NSIP) and extracted areas corresponding to biopsy sites on HRCT were analyzed. CT interpretations were compared with pathological diagnoses in both extracted images and the whole lung. Concordant and discordant cases in multiple extracted images were divided and analyzed. Then the whole cases were categorized by including or not at least one UIP diagnosis of extracted images and evaluated. Results: The diagnoses in extracted sites significantly correlated with pathological diagnoses (p = 0.047). There were significant differences in the concordances of extracted images compared with the diagnosis of whole lung and pathology (p = 0.008, 0.003, respectively). All 7 cases that were not concordant were diagnosed as radiological UIP with whole lung CT. The cases with at least one UIP diagnosis of extracted CT images were diagnosed as UIP in pathology more frequently (18 in 25) (p = 0.007). Conclusions: Radiological UIP in whole CT had more frequently discordant diagnoses from multiple extracted images than NSIP. And there were more cases in pathological UIP that included at least one UIP diagnosis of extracted images compared with pathological NSIP.

  12. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema: a case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoedo, Mauricio Kauark, E-mail: mauricioamoedo@gmail.com [Interventional Radiology, Hospital A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Souza, Luciana Volpon Soares; Souza, Antonio Soares [Instituto de Radiodiagnostico Rio Preto (Ultra-X), Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Souza Junior, Arthur Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (Famerp), SP (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is a rare condition that generally affects low-weight preterm infants submitted to mechanical ventilation. The prognosis is variable, depending on early diagnosis and treatment. The radiologist plays a key role in this scenario. The authors report a case of persistent pulmonary interstitial emphysema, describing the main characteristics of such entity. (author)

  13. Persistent pulmonary interstitial emphysema in a case of Langerhans cell histiocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbey, Pooja; Narula, Mahender K.; Anand, Rama; Chandra, Jagdish

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a 10-month-old boy with multisystem Langerhans cell histiocytosis showing thin-walled lung cysts along with computed tomography (CT) evidence of persistent pulmonary interstitial emphysema (PPIE), in the absence of pneumothorax or pneumomediastinum. Follow-up CT performed after 6 months demonstrated complete resolution of interstitial emphysema

  14. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Kauark Amoedo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is a rare condition that generally affects low-weight preterm infants submitted to mechanical ventilation. The prognosis is variable, depending on early diagnosis and treatment. The radiologist plays a key role in this scenario. The authors report a case of persistent pulmonary interstitial emphysema, describing the main characteristics of such entity.

  15. Measurements of the oxidation state and concentration of plutonium in interstitial waters of the Irish Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.M.; Lovett, M.B.

    1980-01-01

    The question of plutonium movement in interstitial waters resulting from diffusion along concentration gradients or from advective flow is addressed. The results of measurements of both the concentration and the oxidation state of plutonium in interstitial water collected from sediments near the Windscale discharge, in the solid phases of these sediments and in seawater and suspended solids collected at the coring locations are discussed

  16. Understanding pain and coping in women with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Laura; Tripp, Dean A; Carr, Lesley K; Mayer, Robert; Moldwin, Robert M; Nickel, J Curtis

    2017-08-01

    To examine a self-regulation and coping model for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) that may help us understand the pain experience of patients with chronic IC/BPS. The model tested illness perceptions, illness-focused coping, emotional regulation, mental health and disability in a stepwise method using factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Step 1, explored the underlying constructs. Step 2, confirmed the measurement models to determine the structure/composition of the main constructs. Step 3, evaluated the model fit and specified pathways in the proposed IC/BPS self-regulation model. In all, 217 female patients with urologist diagnosed IC/BPS were recruited and diagnosed across tertiary care centres in North America. The data were collected through self-report questionnaires. An IC/BPS self-regulation model was supported. Physical disability was worsened by patient's negative perception of their illness, attempts to cope using illness-focused coping and poorer emotional regulation. Mental health was supported by perceptions that individuals could do something about their illness, using wellness-focused behavioural strategies and adaptive emotion regulation. The results clarify the complex and unique process of self-regulation in women with IC/BPS, implicating cognitive and coping targets, and highlighting emotional regulation. This knowledge should help clinicians understand and manage these patients' distress and disability. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Bone Marrow Derivation of Interstitial Cells of Cajal in Small Intestine Following Intestinal Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dengqun Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs in gastrointestinal tract are specialized cells serving as pacemaker cells. The origin of ICCs is currently not fully characterized. In this work, we aimed to study whether bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs could contribute to the origin of ICCs in the muscular plexus of small intestine using GFP-C57BL/6 chimeric mice.Engraftment of BMDCs in the intestine was investigated for GFP expression. GFP positive bone marrow mononuclear cells reached a proportion of 95.65%±3.72% at different times in chimerism. Donor-derived cells distributed widely in all the layers of the gastrointestinal tract. There were GFP positive BMDCs in the myenteric plexus, which resembled characteristics of ICCs, including myenteric location, c-Kit positive staining, and ramified morphology. Donor-derived ICCs in the myenteric plexus contributed to a percentage ranging 9.25%±4.9% of all the ICCs in the myenteric plexus. In conclusion, here we described that donor-derived BMDCs might differentiate into gastrointestinal ICCs after radiation injury, which provided an alternative source for the origin of the ICCs in the muscular plexus of adult intestine. These results further identified the plasticity of BMDCs and indicated therapeutic implications of BMDCs for the gastrointestinal dysmotility caused by ICCs disorders.

  18. Cluster headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducros Anne

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cluster headache (CH is a primary headache disease characterized by recurrent short-lasting attacks (15 to 180 minutes of excruciating unilateral periorbital pain accompanied by ipsilateral autonomic signs (lacrimation, nasal congestion, ptosis, miosis, lid edema, redness of the eye. It affects young adults, predominantly males. Prevalence is estimated at 0.5–1.0/1,000. CH has a circannual and circadian periodicity, attacks being clustered (hence the name in bouts that can occur during specific months of the year. Alcohol is the only dietary trigger of CH, strong odors (mainly solvents and cigarette smoke and napping may also trigger CH attacks. During bouts, attacks may happen at precise hours, especially during the night. During the attacks, patients tend to be restless. CH may be episodic or chronic, depending on the presence of remission periods. CH is associated with trigeminovascular activation and neuroendocrine and vegetative disturbances, however, the precise cautive mechanisms remain unknown. Involvement of the hypothalamus (a structure regulating endocrine function and sleep-wake rhythms has been confirmed, explaining, at least in part, the cyclic aspects of CH. The disease is familial in about 10% of cases. Genetic factors play a role in CH susceptibility, and a causative role has been suggested for the hypocretin receptor gene. Diagnosis is clinical. Differential diagnoses include other primary headache diseases such as migraine, paroxysmal hemicrania and SUNCT syndrome. At present, there is no curative treatment. There are efficient treatments to shorten the painful attacks (acute treatments and to reduce the number of daily attacks (prophylactic treatments. Acute treatment is based on subcutaneous administration of sumatriptan and high-flow oxygen. Verapamil, lithium, methysergide, prednisone, greater occipital nerve blocks and topiramate may be used for prophylaxis. In refractory cases, deep-brain stimulation of the

  19. A first-principles investigation of interstitial defects in dilute tungsten alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gharaee, Leili; Erhart, Paul, E-mail: erhart@chalmers.se

    2015-12-15

    The thermodynamic properties of intrinsic and extrinsic (Ti, V, Zr, Nb, Hf, Ta, Re) defects in tungsten have been investigated using density functional theory calculations. The formation energies of substitutional defects are discussed with respect to their thermodynamic solubility limits. Several different interstitial configurations have been identified as local minima on the potential energy surface. In addition to dumbbell configurations with orientations along 〈111〉 and 〈110〉, a lower symmetry configuration is described, which is referred to as a bridge interstitial. This interstitial type is found to be the lowest energy configuration for mixed-interstitials containing Ti, V, and Re, and can be up to 0.2 eV lower in energy than the other configurations. According to the calculations Ti, V and Re also trap self-interstitial atoms, which can be produced in substantial numbers during ion irradiation, affecting the mobility of the latter.

  20. Effect of the chemical pressure by the addition of interstitials in CePd3:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieva, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of the 'chemical pressure' on the intermediate valence compound CePd 3 , is studied by means of specific heat measurements with and without magnetic field. The addition of interstitials in the cubic structure on the alloys CePd 3 A H (A = B, Be, Si) is analyzed. At low interstitial concentration the thermal and magnetic properties that characterize the evolution of the Ce valence show a universal behaviour with the volume displaced by the interstitial. For higher concentrations two different behaviours were found in the trivalent state: a) With the larger interstitials, Be and Si, the system evolves toward a long range antiferromagnetic order; b) With the smaller interstitial, B, the system evolves toward a concentrated Kondo state. (Author) [es

  1. Ultrastructure of the Interstitial Tissue in the Testis of the Egyptian Dromedary Camel (Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Abd-Elaziz, A. M. Kassem, D. M. Zaghloul*, A. E. Derbalah and M. H. Bolefa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructural examination of the testicular interstitial tissue of Egyptian dromedary camel was performed to observe the seasonal changes. The activity of the interstitial tissue increased largely in spring. This was indicated by the large number of mature Leydig cells and two to three layers of myofibroblasts around the basal laminae of the seminiferous tubules with large blood vessels in the interstitial tissue. The testicular activity was moderate in winter as indicated by the lower number of immature Leydig cells. The lowest activity was in summer when Leydig cells became inactive with pyknotic nuclei. The cells of interstitial tissue lost their junctions with each other, leaving large intercellular spaces and myofibroblasts transformed to fibrocytes. The testicular activity began again to increase in autumn. The testicular activity of camel, however, did not stop in any season of the year, because even in non-breeding seasons a part of the interstitial tissue of the testis was active.

  2. Interstitial cells of Cajal and Auerbach's plexus. A scanning electron microscopical study of guinea-pig small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Harry; Thuneberg, Lars

    1991-01-01

    Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, myenteric plexus, small intestine, guinea-pig, scanning electron microscopy......Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, myenteric plexus, small intestine, guinea-pig, scanning electron microscopy...

  3. Large scale cluster computing workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dane Skow; Alan Silverman

    2002-01-01

    Recent revolutions in computer hardware and software technologies have paved the way for the large-scale deployment of clusters of commodity computers to address problems heretofore the domain of tightly coupled SMP processors. Near term projects within High Energy Physics and other computing communities will deploy clusters of scale 1000s of processors and be used by 100s to 1000s of independent users. This will expand the reach in both dimensions by an order of magnitude from the current successful production facilities. The goals of this workshop were: (1) to determine what tools exist which can scale up to the cluster sizes foreseen for the next generation of HENP experiments (several thousand nodes) and by implication to identify areas where some investment of money or effort is likely to be needed. (2) To compare and record experimences gained with such tools. (3) To produce a practical guide to all stages of planning, installing, building and operating a large computing cluster in HENP. (4) To identify and connect groups with similar interest within HENP and the larger clustering community

  4. Depression and catastrophizing predict suicidal ideation in tertiary care patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tripp, Dean A; Nickel, J Curtis; Krsmanovic, Adrijana

    2016-01-01

    is the first to implicate multiple psychosocial risk factors over and above IC/BPS-specific symptoms and patient pain experience in SI in women with IC/BPS. Depression in particular is uniquely important in predicting suicidality. These results support a multidisciplinary, proactive approach to IC......Introduction: We sought to evaluate psychosocial factors as predictors of suicidal ideation (SI) in a tertiary care outpatient sample of women suffering from interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). Methods: The patients are women managed at tertiary care centres (n=190). Controls were...... of psychosocial variables on patient SI. Results: Compared to 6% in healthy controls, 23% of patients endorsed SI in the past two weeks. Correlations between SI, depression, and catastrophizing across controls and cases show that for controls, SI is associated with greater pain (0.31; pdepression only...

  5. Polyester Sulphonic Acid Interstitial Nanocomposite Platform for Peroxide Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel I. Iwuoha

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A novel enzyme immobilization platform was prepared on a platinum disk working electrode by polymerizing aniline inside the interstitial pores of polyester sulphonic acid sodium salt (PESA. Scanning electron microscopy study showed the formation of homogeneous sulphonated polyaniline (PANI nanotubes (~90 nm and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA confirmed that the nanotubes were stable up to 230 °C. The PANI:PESA nanocomposite showed a quasi-reversible redox behaviour in phosphate buffer saline. Horseradish peroxidase (HRP was immobilized on to this modified electrode for hydrogen peroxide detection. The biosensor gave a sensitivity of 1.33 μA (μM-1 and a detection limit of 0.185 μM for H2O2. Stability experiments showed that the biosensor retained more than 64% of its initial sensitivity over four days of storage at 4 °C.

  6. Postoperative interstitial radiotherapy of keloids. Curietherapie postoperatoire des cicatrices cheloides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clavere, P; Bonnafoux-Clavere, A; Roullet, B; Morzel, A; Rhein, B; Bonnetblanc, J M; Olivier, J P [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 87 - Limoges (France)

    1993-01-01

    During an 8-year period, 21 patients with keloids (27 keloids) were treated with keloidectomy and post-operative interstitial radiotherapy by an iridium 192 wire. Only one patient had been previously treated by corticoids, without results. A dose of 12 Gy (three patients) to 15 Gy (18 patients) was delivered at a point 2.5 mm from the axis of the wire. The follow-up time was from 2 - 104 months. The success rate, at 7 months, was close to 88%. Ao recurrence occurred in three patients without relation to the method used, the lesion-age or the localization of the lesions. There were no side-effects. This method represents an effective, non-constraining and safe treatment for keloids if the contra-indications are respected.

  7. CT and conventional radiographic techniques in interstitial pulmonary disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leipner, N.; Schueller, H.; Uexkuell-Gueldenband, V. v.; Schlolaut, K.H.; Overlack, A.; Bonn Univ.

    1988-01-01

    One hundred and sixty-four patients with pulmonary fibrosis were examined by CT and by conventional radiological methods. Sixty patients had asbestosis, thirty-nine silicosis, forty sarcoidosis and twenty-five had idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. CT is superior to conventional radiography in evaluating interstitial pulmonary changes, particularly of the pleura and the lung parenchyma. In sixty-nine patients there were some findings which could only be demonstrated by CT. In asbestosis, silicosis and sarcoidosis the CT classification of the lung parenchyma which we have suggested produces significantly better correlation with vital capacity than can be achieved from conventional chest films, according to the guidelines of the I.L.O. (orig./GDG) [de

  8. Interstitial lung disease associated with connective tissue diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medina, Yimy F; Restrepo, Jose Felix; Iglesias, Antonio; Ojeda, Paulina; Matiz, Carlos

    2007-01-01

    An interstitial lung disease (ILD) belongs to a group of diffuse parenchyma lung diseases it should be differentiated from other pathologies among those are idiopathic and ILD associated to connective tissue diseases (CTD) New concepts have been developed in the last years and they have been classified in seven defined subgroups. It has been described the association of each one of these subgroups with CTD. Natural history and other aspects of its treatment is not known completely .For complete diagnose it is required clinical, image and histopathologic approaches. The biopsy lung plays an essential role. It is important to promote and to stimulate the subclasification of each subgroup with the purpose of knowing their natural history directing the treatment and to improve their outcome

  9. Aortic calcified particles modulate valvular endothelial and interstitial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Engeland, Nicole C A; Bertazzo, Sergio; Sarathchandra, Padmini; McCormack, Ann; Bouten, Carlijn V C; Yacoub, Magdi H; Chester, Adrian H; Latif, Najma

    Normal and calcified human valve cusps, coronary arteries, and aortae harbor spherical calcium phosphate microparticles of identical composition and crystallinity, and their role remains unknown. The objective was to examine the direct effects of isolated calcified particles on human valvular cells. Calcified particles were isolated from healthy and diseased aortae, characterized, quantitated, and applied to valvular endothelial cells (VECs) and interstitial cells (VICs). Cell differentiation, viability, and proliferation were analyzed. Particles were heterogeneous, differing in size and shape, and were crystallized as calcium phosphate. Diseased donors had significantly more calcified particles compared to healthy donors (Pinnocent bystanders but induce a phenotypical and pathological change of VECs and VICs characteristic of activated and pathological cells. Therapy tailored to reduce these calcified particles should be investigated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis: a sense of urgency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanno, Philip M; Chapple, Chris R; Cardozo, Linda D

    2009-12-01

    A classic triad of symptoms (bladder pain, urinary frequency, and urgency) has served to define bladder pain syndrome/painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/PBS/IC) syndrome. BPS/PBS/IC is a distinct condition and it is likely that the urgency experienced by these patients differs from that experienced by those with overactive bladder syndrome. It is unclear how best to define urgency in the BPS/PBS/IC setting. Differences in the other primary symptoms associated with these conditions probably influence how urgency is perceived. Advances in research into the pathophysiology of urgency and underlying disease processes will help to optimize both the diagnosis and treatment of BPS/PBS/IC.

  11. Interstitial radiotherapy in the treatment of carcinoma of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuefermann, H.; Bruggmoser, G.; Wannenmacher, M.

    1981-01-01

    The practical and organisatory sides of interstitial radiation therapy of prostate carcinoma with iodine 125 capsules are reported on. Special stress is laid upon measures and measurements concerning radiation protection. First evaluations of these measurements show that this form of therapy is to be carried out in exact correspondence with the radiation protection law. The computer-supported isodose calculation and in-vivo-measurements in rectum, method and urinary bladder confirm the rapid drop in the dosage outside of the irradiated focus volume. Therefore, the inflammatory accompanying reactions are despite higher tumour dose, significantly milder then with the percutaneous radiation therapy. The indication criteria should be closely adhered to because the operation is a very extensive one. (orig.) [de

  12. Management of Myositis-Related Interstitial Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morisset, Julie; Johnson, Cheilonda; Rich, Eric; Collard, Harold R; Lee, Joyce S

    2016-11-01

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a frequent pulmonary manifestation and an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathy. Myositis-related ILD presents a therapeutic challenge for clinicians, as there are no available guidelines to help with management decisions. This review covers the existing evidence on the pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic management of myositis-related ILD, highlighting the lack of randomized controlled data to guide treatment. Given the absence of existing guidelines to inform treatment decisions, we provide a comprehensive summary, including dosing, side effects, and suggested monitoring of the commonly used immunosuppressive agents and a proposed treatment algorithm based on the existing literature. Copyright © 2016 American College of Chest Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Syndrome of proximal interstitial deletion 4p15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryns, J.P. [Univ. of Leuven (Belgium)

    1995-09-11

    In this journal, Chitayat et al. reported on 2 boys and a girl with interstitial deletion in the short arm of chromosome 4, including p15.2p15.33. All 3 patients had a characteristic face distinct from that of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome and multiple minor congenital anomalies. One patient had a congenitally enlarged penis. The authors noted that all had normal growth, and all had moderate psychomotor retardation (patient 1, developmental age of 4-6 years at age 9 years; patient 2, mental age 6 years at age 25 years; and patient 3, global delay with hypotonia, difficulties in both gross and fine motor development, and persistent delay in language skills). 5 refs., 1 fig.

  14. Intravesical treatments of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhaus, Jochen; Schwalenberg, Thilo

    2012-12-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is a disabling chronic condition that affects up to 7% of women in the USA. In men, BPS/IC seems to be less common, but might be underestimated because it can be confused with chronic prostatitis. The aetiology and pathophysiology of BPS/IC are not well understood. Consequently, diagnosis and treatment is challenging and most therapies used to date are off-label. These therapies include bladder instillation with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and BCG, as well as hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Overall, botulinum neurotoxin A injection, intravesical sodium hyaluronate instillation and DMSO instillation seem to be the best-performing treatments, with response rates of 79%, 76% and 75%, respectively, and can be used effectively as second-line or third-line therapies for BPS/IC. However, additional high-quality randomized controlled trials are necessary to improve the available data.

  15. The vacancy-interstitial model of DX centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, T.N.

    1989-01-01

    Recent DLTS (deep level transient spectroscopy) studies of 'DX' centers in dilute Al x Ga 1-x As alloys agree with a model of the deep neutral state in which the donor has moved into an adjacent interstitial site leaving behind a vacancy. The enthalpy and entropy of these states, which depend on the number (0 to 3) of Al atoms adjacent to the donors, have been obtained by fitting the data. This model, which also predicts the large potential barriers between the centered and relaxed states, thus accounting for PPC (persistent photoconductivity), is an extension to large displacement of the displaced donor model proposed earlier. It is equivalent to recent model of the EL2 metastable state based on displaced antisite double-donors. (author) 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  16. Interstitial lung disease during trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuzurio, Syota; Horita, Naokatsu; Shiota, Yutaro; Kanehiro, Arihiko; Tanimoto, Mitsune

    2010-01-01

    We studied clinical and radiographic features of interstitial lung disease (ILD) during trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) administration. Ten patients who had received prednisolone treatment for underlying diffuse pulmonary disease showed various ILDs after introduction of TMP/SMX. The radiographic features of the ILDs were not consistent with infectious disease or exacerbation of the underlying disease, and these diagnoses were excluded radiographically and on clinical grounds during the differential diagnosis of the ILDs. These ILDs emerged relatively early after introduction of TMP/SMX, which is consistent with the former case report of drug-induced ILD (DI-ILD) caused by TMP/SMX. Therefore DI-ILDs caused by TMP/SMX were suspected in these cases. In most of these cases, the ILDs were clinically mild and disappeared immediately although administration of TMP/SMX was continued. (author)

  17. Donor level of interstitial hydrogen in GaAs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobaczewski, L.; Bonde Nielsen, K.; Nylandsted Larsen, A.; Peaker, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    The first data evidencing the existence of the donor level of the interstitial hydrogen in GaAs are presented. The abundant formation of the (0/+) donor level after in situ low-temperature implantation of hydrogen into the depletion layer of GaAs Schottky diodes has been observed and the activation energy and annealing properties have been determined by Laplace DLTS. The activation energy for electron emission of this donor state is 0.14eV. Above 100K the hydrogen deep donor state is unstable, converting to a more stable form when there are electrons available for the capture process. A slightly perturbed form of the hydrogen donor in its neutral charge state can be recovered by illuminating the sample. This process releases twice as many electrons as the ionisation process of the hydrogen donor state itself. This fact, by analogy with the silicon case, evidences the negative-U behaviour of hydrogen in GaAs

  18. Muscle interstitial potassium kinetics during intense exhaustive exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai; Mohr, Magni; Pedersen, Lasse Dannemann

    2003-01-01

    Interstitial K+ ([K+]i) was measured in human skeletal muscle by microdialysis during exhaustive leg exercise, with (AL) and without (L) previous intense arm exercise. In addition, the reproducibility of the [K+]i determinations was examined. Possible microdialysis-induced rupture of the sarcolemma...... was assessed by measurement of carnosine in the dialysate, because carnosine is only expected to be found intracellularly. Changes in [K+]i could be reproduced, when exhaustive leg exercise was performed on two different days, with a between-day difference of approximately 0.5 mM at rest and 1.5 m......M at exhaustion. The time to exhaustion was shorter in AL than in L (2.7 +/- 0.3 vs. 4.0 +/- 0.3 min; P exercise period in AL compared with L (9.2 +/- 0.7 vs. 6.4 +/- 0.9 mM; P

  19. Measurement of 222Rn in soil concentrations in interstitial air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duenas, C.; Fernandez, M.C.; Carretero, J.; Liger, E.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of 222 Rn soil concentrations were made by inserting stainless-steel sampling tubes into the soil. The samples of the soil interstitial air were taken in to pre-evacuated 1 L glass flasks. The glass flasks are cylindrical and coated with a film of ZnS(Ag). 222 Rn was measured by counting the alpha particles emitted by 222 Rn and its daughter products, 218 Po and 214 Bi, when they reached radioactive equilibrium. Measurements of 222 Rn gas concentrations in the soil air interstices by the method at different depths were used to calculate the diffusion coefficient of the 222 Rn in the soil air. This study has been carried out for diverse soils. (Author)

  20. Lipoprotein(a Induces Human Aortic Valve Interstitial Cell Calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yu, PhD

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein(a, or Lp(a, significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity, release of phosphate, calcium deposition, hydroxyapatite, cell apoptosis, matrix vesicle formation, and phosphorylation of signal transduction proteins; increased expression of chondro-osteogenic mediators; and decreased SOX9 and matrix Gla protein (p < 0.001. Inhibition of MAPK38 and GSK3β significantly reduced Lp(a-induced calcification of human aortic valve interstitial cells (p < 0.001. There was abundant presence of Lp(a and E06 immunoreactivity in diseased human aortic valves. The present study demonstrates a causal effect for Lp(a in aortic valve calcification and suggests that interfering with the Lp(apathway could provide a novel therapeutic approach in the management of this debilitating disease.

  1. 192Ir high dose rate (HDR) interstitial brain implant: optimisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyagi, Anuj; Singh, Dinesh; Chitra, S.; Gupta, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The new modality of stepping source dosimetry system (SSDs) illustrates a remarkable improvement in attaining the uniform and homogeneous dose distribution within the target volume. The technique enables the physicist to correct for a certain amount of misplacement or curvature of implant geometry. The short course of brachytherapy provides good palliation in terms of functional improvements with low and acceptable toxicity in high-grade glioma. With continual refinements of the technique, brachytherapy performed by a skilled brachytherapy team offers an opportunity to improve patient survival and quality of life. Since 1997, micro selectron HDR 192 Ir treatments are done including gynecological, oesophageal, breast, surface mould, soft tissue sarcoma (STS) and brain in our hospital. In this paper, procedure of interstitial brain implant in glioma as implant technique, simulation and treatment planning will be discussed

  2. Thermoseeds for interstitial magnetic hyperthermia: from bioceramics to nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeza, A; Arcos, D; Vallet-Regí, M

    2013-01-01

    The development of magnetic materials for interstitial hyperthermia treatment of cancer is an ever evolving research field which provides new alternatives to antitumoral therapies. The development of biocompatible magnetic materials has resulted in new biomaterials with multifunctional properties, which are able to adapt to the complex scenario of tumoral processes. Once implanted or injected in the body, magnetic materials can behave as thermoseeds under the effect of AC magnetic fields. Magnetic bioceramics aimed to treat bone tumors and magnetic nanoparticles are among the most studied thermoseeds, and supply different solutions for the different scenarios in cancerous processes. This paper reviews some of the biomaterials used for bone cancer treatment and skeletal reinforcing, as well as the more complex topic of magnetic nanoparticles for intracellular targeting and hyperthermia. (topical review)

  3. High-dose rate fractionated interstitial radiotherapy for oropharyngeal carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nose, Takayuki; Inoue, Toshihiko; Inoue, Takehiro; Teshima, Teruki; Murayama, Shigeyuki [Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1995-03-01

    The limitations of treating oropharyngeal cancer patients with definitive external radiotherapy are the complications of salivary glands, taste buds, mandible and temporomandibular joints. To avoid these complications we started interstitial radiotherapy as boost after 46 Gy of external radiotherapy. Ten cases (retromolar trigone; 1, soft palate; 1, base of tongue; 3, lateral wall; 5) were treated with this method and seven cases were controlled locally. With short follow-up period, xerostomia and dysgeusia are less than definitive external radiotherapy as clinical impression and no in-field recurrences have been experienced. With markedly increased tumor dose, the local control rate can be improved. This treatment method will be an alternative to definitive external radiotherapy to gain better QOL and higher control rate. (author).

  4. Retrospective study of 87 interstitial brachytherapy for facial skin carcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berland, E.; Bolla, M.; Saillard, F.; Beani, J.C.; Lebeau, J.; Fillon, J.P.; Vrousos, C.

    1996-01-01

    From 1977 to 1983, 83 patients (pts) with 87 facial skin carcinomas (FSC) were treated with interstitial brachytherapy (BT) in our department. Median age was 70 years (43-97 y). There was 61 basal cell carcinomas and 26 squamous cell carcinomas. 28 of them corresponded to local relapse of FSC initially treated without BT. TNM stadification was as following: T1+rT1=72,4%; T2+rT2=23%; T3+rT3=2,3%; T4+rT4=2,3%. The median follow-up was 53 months (8 months to 15 years). Different techniques were used:hypodermic needles,plastic tubes, Raynal method. A dose of 60 Gy was prescribed on the reference isodose, according to the PARIS system. Specific overall survival was 98,8% at 5 and 10 y. Local control at 5 and 10 y was 100 and 90% for FSC treated in first intention, and 81,2% for recurrent FSC. This was highly significant (p=0,002 Logrank test) Functional sequelae were appreciated according to the RTOG/EORTC scale: 29 occurred in 21 pts.60% of them were depigmentation ((11(29))) and epilation ((6(29))). Among the 21 FSC of the eyelid, one lacrimal stenosis occurred (4,8%) Cosmetic results were judged 'good' or 'very good' for 83% of the pts (BONVALLOT criteria). Bad results occured more frequently for recurrent FSC According to the litterature, our study shows that interstitial BT is a good alternative to surgery for facial skin carcinoma for elderly patients

  5. Classification of interstitial lung disease patterns with topological texture features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Markus B.; Nagarajan, Mahesh; Leinsinger, Gerda; Ray, Lawrence A.; Wismüller, Axel

    2010-03-01

    Topological texture features were compared in their ability to classify morphological patterns known as 'honeycombing' that are considered indicative for the presence of fibrotic interstitial lung diseases in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) images. For 14 patients with known occurrence of honey-combing, a stack of 70 axial, lung kernel reconstructed images were acquired from HRCT chest exams. A set of 241 regions of interest of both healthy and pathological (89) lung tissue were identified by an experienced radiologist. Texture features were extracted using six properties calculated from gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM), Minkowski Dimensions (MDs), and three Minkowski Functionals (MFs, e.g. MF.euler). A k-nearest-neighbor (k-NN) classifier and a Multilayer Radial Basis Functions Network (RBFN) were optimized in a 10-fold cross-validation for each texture vector, and the classification accuracy was calculated on independent test sets as a quantitative measure of automated tissue characterization. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare two accuracy distributions and the significance thresholds were adjusted for multiple comparisons by the Bonferroni correction. The best classification results were obtained by the MF features, which performed significantly better than all the standard GLCM and MD features (p < 0.005) for both classifiers. The highest accuracy was found for MF.euler (97.5%, 96.6%; for the k-NN and RBFN classifier, respectively). The best standard texture features were the GLCM features 'homogeneity' (91.8%, 87.2%) and 'absolute value' (90.2%, 88.5%). The results indicate that advanced topological texture features can provide superior classification performance in computer-assisted diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases when compared to standard texture analysis methods.

  6. Inferring diameters of spheres and cylinders using interstitial water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Sheryl L; Mercredi, Morgan E; Buist, Richard; Martin, Melanie

    2018-06-04

    Most early methods to infer axon diameter distributions using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) used single diffusion encoding sequences such as pulsed gradient spin echo (SE) and are thus sensitive to axons of diameters > 5 μm. We previously simulated oscillating gradient (OG) SE sequences for diffusion spectroscopy to study smaller axons including the majority constituting cortical connections. That study suggested the model of constant extra-axonal diffusion breaks down at OG accessible frequencies. In this study we present data from phantoms to test a time-varying interstitial apparent diffusion coefficient. Diffusion spectra were measured in four samples from water packed around beads of diameters 3, 6 and 10 μm; and 151 μm diameter tubes. Surface-to-volume ratios, and diameters were inferred. The bead pore radii estimates were 0.60±0.08 μm, 0.54±0.06 μm and 1.0±0.1 μm corresponding to bead diameters ranging from 2.9±0.4 μm to 5.3±0.7 μm, 2.6±0.3 μm to 4.8±0.6 μm, and 4.9±0.7 μm to 9±1 μm. The tube surface-to-volume ratio estimate was 0.06±0.02 μm -1 corresponding to a tube diameter of 180±70 μm. Interstitial models with OG inferred 3-10 μm bead diameters from 0.54±0.06 μm to 1.0±0.1 μm pore radii and 151 μm tube diameters from 0.06±0.02 μm -1 surface-to-volume ratios.

  7. Brightest Cluster Galaxies in REXCESS Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarsma, Deborah B.; Leisman, L.; Bruch, S.; Donahue, M.

    2009-01-01

    Most galaxy clusters contain a Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) which is larger than the other cluster ellipticals and has a more extended profile. In the hierarchical model, the BCG forms through many galaxy mergers in the crowded center of the cluster, and thus its properties give insight into the assembly of the cluster as a whole. In this project, we are working with the Representative XMM-Newton Cluster Structure Survey (REXCESS) team (Boehringer et al 2007) to study BCGs in 33 X-ray luminous galaxy clusters, 0.055 < z < 0.183. We are imaging the BCGs in R band at the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research (SOAR) in Chile. In this poster, we discuss our methods and give preliminary measurements of the BCG magnitudes, morphology, and stellar mass. We compare these BCG properties with the properties of their host clusters, particularly of the X-ray emitting gas.

  8. Partitional clustering algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book summarizes the state-of-the-art in partitional clustering. Clustering, the unsupervised classification of patterns into groups, is one of the most important tasks in exploratory data analysis. Primary goals of clustering include gaining insight into, classifying, and compressing data. Clustering has a long and rich history that spans a variety of scientific disciplines including anthropology, biology, medicine, psychology, statistics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science. As a result, numerous clustering algorithms have been proposed since the early 1950s. Among these algorithms, partitional (nonhierarchical) ones have found many applications, especially in engineering and computer science. This book provides coverage of consensus clustering, constrained clustering, large scale and/or high dimensional clustering, cluster validity, cluster visualization, and applications of clustering. Examines clustering as it applies to large and/or high-dimensional data sets commonly encountered in reali...

  9. Triggered cluster formation in the RMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin Zeng; Smith, Michael D.

    An investigation based on data from the spatially complete 2MASS Survey reveals that a remarkable burst of clustered star formation is taking place throughout the south-east quadrant of the Rosette Molecular Cloud. Compact clusters are forming in a multi-seeded mode, in parallel and at various places. In addition, sparse aggregates of embedded young stars are extensively distributed. Here we present the primary results and implications for high-mass and clustered star formation in this giant molecular cloud. In particular, we incorporate for the first time the birth of medium to low-mass stars into the scenario of sequential formation of OB clusters. Following the emergence of the young OB cluster NGC 2244, a variety of manifestations of forming clusters of medium to high mass appear in the vicinity of the swept-up layer of the H II region as well as further into the molecular cloud. The embedded clusters appear to form in a structured manner, which suggests they follow tracks laid out by the decay of macroturbulence. We address the possible origins of the turbulence. This leads us to propose a tree model to interpret the neat spatial distribution of clusters within a large section of the Rosette complex. Prominent new generation OB clusters are identified at the root of the tree pattern.

  10. Comparison of clinicoradiologic manifestation of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and usual interstitial pneumonia/idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: A report from NRITLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tafti Saeid

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ever since Katzenstein and Fiorelli introduced the term nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP to denote those cases of interstitial pneumonia that cannot be categorized as any of the other types of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP, there has been continuing debate on whether it is a real clinical entity or not. The American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Symposium task group tried to identify idiopathic NSIP as a separate disease and exclude it from the category of IIP. However, it appears that the clinical presentation of NSIP and usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP are the same. Objective : To show that the radiologic features of NSIP and UIP should be relied upon, instead of clinical presentation and pathologic findings, to differentiate between the two. Materials and Methods: Consecutive patients who had received a diagnosis of either NSIP or UIP on the basis of open lung biopsy between January 2001 and December 2007 were identified for inclusion in this retrospective review. The study included 61 subjects: 32 men and 29 women with a mean age of 59.39 ± 14.5 years. Chest computed tomography images of all the cases were collected for a review. High resolution computed tomography (HRCT and all pathologic specimens were also evaluated. A weighted kappa coefficient was used to evaluate whether radiology can be used instead of biopsy for the diagnosis of NSIP and UIP. Comparison of the mean ages and the time intervals (i.e., interval between symptom onset and the time of diagnosis in the UIP and NSIP groups was done using the Mann-Whitney U test. Association between gender and biopsy result was evaluated by the Fisher exact test. Data were evaluated using SPSS, v.13. Results : Sixty-one patients were included in this study, 32 were male and 29 were female. On the basis of biopsy findings, 50 (82% patients had UIP and 11 (18% had NSIP. Thirty (60% of the 50 patients who had UIP were male and 20 (40% were female; 2 (18

  11. Transperineal high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy in the management of gynecologic malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itami, Jun; Hara, Ryuseke; Kozuka, Takuyou; Yamashita, Hideomi; Nakajima, Kaori; Shibata, Kouji; Abe, Yoshihisa; Fuse, Masashi; Ito, Masashi [International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiation Therapy and Oncology

    2003-11-01

    Background: High-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy is a newly introduced modality, and its role in the management of gynecologic malignancies remains to be studied. Clinical experience in high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy was retrospectively investigated. Patients and Methods: Eight patients with primary and nine with recurrent gynecologic malignancies underwent high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy with/without external-beam irradiation. Fractional dose of the high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy ranged between 4 and 6 Gy with total doses of 15-54 Gy. Interstitial irradiation was performed twice daily with an interval of > 6 h. Results: 2-year local control rate was 75% for primary treatment and 47% for treatment of recurrence (p = 0.46). Maximum tumor size had a statistically significant impact on local control (p < 0.002). Grade 2 and 4 late complications were seen in five patients, and the incidence was significantly higher in patients with a larger volume enclosed by the prescribed fractional dose of high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy. The incidence of grade 2 and 4 complications at 18 months was 78% and 0% with a volume > 100 cm{sup 3} and {<=} 100 cm{sup 3}, respectively (p < 0.04). Conclusion: Although high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy is a promising modality, it must be applied cautiously to patients with bulky tumors because of the high incidence of serious complications. (orig.)

  12. Radiographic and high resolution CT findings of non-specific interstitial pneumonia/fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondoh, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki; Nishiyama, Satoshi [Tosei General Hospital, Seto, Aichi (Japan); Yokoi, Toyoharu; Suzuki, Ryujiro; Noda, Yasunobu; Kato, Toshiyuki; Kaneko, Michie

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the radiographic and high resolution CT findings in fifteen patients with biopsy proven nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. The most common radiographic findings in NSIP were bilateral infiltrates involving alveolar pattern, interstitial pattern, and mixed alveolar-interstitial pattern, which distributed mainly in the middle and lower lung zones. Loss of lung volumes were common. The predominant findings of linear and reticular opacities on HRCT were peribronchovascular interstitial thickening, parenchymal bands, intralobular interstitial thickening, and traction bronchiectasis. Honeycombing was not noted in any patient on initial CT scans. The predominant findings of increased lung opacity were mixed pattern of ground glass opacity and consolidation. Because these findings mimic those of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/usual interstitial pneumonia, distinction between NSIP and IPF/UIP seems to be difficult by radiographic and HRCT findings. The response to corticosteroid therapy was good. At follow up HRCT, the pulmonary abnormalities observed on initial scans had disappeared or were diminished in most cases. Intralobular interstitial thickening and traction bronchiectasis, that have been considered to be an indicator of irreversible fibrosis, occasionally disappeared after corticosteroid therapy. (author)

  13. Interstitial hyperthermia using 8 MHz radiofrequency and stereotaxic brachytherapy for brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Satoshi

    1990-01-01

    As a preliminary study of the interstitial hyperthermia combined with interstitial irradiation (brachytherapy) for the treatment of malignant brain tumors, we performed an experiment of interstitial hyperthermia of brain tissue of dogs. Nine afterloading tubes, four for needle electrodes and five for thermisters, were inserted in the brain tissue of dogs. Rise and stability of temperature were ascertained, and clinical safety was confirmed. Thereafter this combined therapy was applied on seven cases, in which three were malignant gliomas and four were metastatic tumors. Through the guide tubes, 192 Ir thin wires were implanted stereotaxically, and interstitial irradiation was carried out. After removal of 192 Ir wires, needle electrodes were inserted through the same tubes, and also a thermister was guided at the center of electrodes. And interstitial hyperthermia using 8 MHz radiofrequency was carried out. The results of the treatment were evaluated with CT scan based on criteria of the Japan Neurological Society. In cases of malignant gliomas, 2 PRs (partial remission), and 1 NC (no change) were obtained. In cases of metastatic tumors, 1 CR (complete remission), 2 PRs, 1 NC were obtaind. In cases of NCs, progression of tumors have been suppressed for 10 and 17 months, and still alive. As complication, transient worsening of neurological symptoms were observed in four cases (increased paresis: two cases, nausea and vomiting: two cases). The author have had an impression that interstitial hyperthermia combined with interstitial irradiation might become an effective means of treatment of brain tumors. (author)

  14. Diversity among galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struble, M.F.; Rood, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The classification of galaxy clusters is discussed. Consideration is given to the classification scheme of Abell (1950's), Zwicky (1950's), Morgan, Matthews, and Schmidt (1964), and Morgan-Bautz (1970). Galaxies can be classified based on morphology, chemical composition, spatial distribution, and motion. The correlation between a galaxy's environment and morphology is examined. The classification scheme of Rood-Sastry (1971), which is based on clusters's morphology and galaxy population, is described. The six types of clusters they define include: (1) a cD-cluster dominated by a single large galaxy, (2) a cluster dominated by a binary, (3) a core-halo cluster, (4) a cluster dominated by several bright galaxies, (5) a cluster appearing flattened, and (6) an irregularly shaped cluster. Attention is also given to the evolution of cluster structures, which is related to initial density and cluster motion

  15. Interstitial Features at Chest CT Enhance the Deleterious Effects of Emphysema in the COPDGene Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Samuel Y; Harmouche, Rola; Ross, James C; Diaz, Alejandro A; Rahaghi, Farbod N; Sanchez-Ferrero, Gonzalo Vegas; Putman, Rachel K; Hunninghake, Gary M; Onieva, Jorge Onieva; Martinez, Fernando J; Choi, Augustine M; Bowler, Russell P; Lynch, David A; Hatabu, Hiroto; Bhatt, Surya P; Dransfield, Mark T; Wells, J Michael; Rosas, Ivan O; San Jose Estepar, Raul; Washko, George R

    2018-06-05

    Purpose To determine if interstitial features at chest CT enhance the effect of emphysema on clinical disease severity in smokers without clinical pulmonary fibrosis. Materials and Methods In this retrospective cohort study, an objective CT analysis tool was used to measure interstitial features (reticular changes, honeycombing, centrilobular nodules, linear scar, nodular changes, subpleural lines, and ground-glass opacities) and emphysema in 8266 participants in a study of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) called COPDGene (recruited between October 2006 and January 2011). Additive differences in patients with emphysema with interstitial features and in those without interstitial features were analyzed by using t tests, multivariable linear regression, and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Multivariable linear and Cox regression were used to determine if interstitial features modified the effect of continuously measured emphysema on clinical measures of disease severity and mortality. Results Compared with individuals with emphysema alone, those with emphysema and interstitial features had a higher percentage predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (absolute difference, 6.4%; P < .001), a lower percentage predicted diffusing capacity of lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) (absolute difference, 7.4%; P = .034), a 0.019 higher right ventricular-to-left ventricular (RVLV) volume ratio (P = .029), a 43.2-m shorter 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) (P < .001), a 5.9-point higher St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) score (P < .001), and 82% higher mortality (P < .001). In addition, interstitial features modified the effect of emphysema on percentage predicted DLCO, RVLV volume ratio, 6WMD, SGRQ score, and mortality (P for interaction < .05 for all). Conclusion In smokers, the combined presence of interstitial features and emphysema was associated with worse clinical disease severity and higher mortality than was emphysema alone. In addition, interstitial features

  16. Holes in the distribution of rich clusters of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.O.

    1988-01-01

    The properties of voids in the distribution of Abell clusters of galaxies are described. Cluster voids, such as that in Bootes, serve as markers of large candidate voids of galaxies. The advantages and disadvantages of using rich clusters as tracers of large-scale structures are reviewed. One new 40/h Mpc diameter void of galaxies and clusters in Pisces-Cetus is described in detail. It is found that numerical simulations of models with Gaussian initial conditions do not reproduce the void or filament structures observed within the Abell cluster catalog. The implications of this discrepancy for future observations and models are discussed. 26 references

  17. Muscle interstitial ATP and norepinephrine concentrations in the human leg during exercise and ATP infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan P.; Gonzalez-Alonso, Jose; Nielsen, Jens Jung

    2009-01-01

    ATP and NE concentrations to gain insight into the interstitial and intravascular mechanisms by which ATP causes muscle vasodilation and sympatholysis. Leg hemodynamics and muscle interstitial nucleotide and norepinephrine (NE) concentrations were measured during: 1) femoral arterial ATP infusion (0......, respectively (Pcontracting muscle (Pmuscle, whereas interstitial NE concentrations increased similarly in both active...... and inactive muscles. These results suggest that the vasodilatory and sympatholytic effects of intraluminal ATP are mainly mediated via endothelial prinergic receptors. Intraluminal ATP and muscle contractions appear to modulate sympathetic nerve activity by inhibiting the effect of NE rather than blunting its...

  18. Treatment of intractable interstitial lung injury with alemtuzumab after lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohno, M; Perch, M; Andersen, E

    2011-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman underwent left single-lung transplantation for end-stage emphysema due to α1-antitrypsin deficiency in January 2010. Cyclosporine, azathioprine, and prednisolone were administered for immunosuppression and antithymocyte globulin for induction therapy at the time...... of transplantation. Routine examination of a lung biopsy, 4 months after transplantation, showed nonspecific, diffuse interstitial inflammation with alveolar septal fibrosis. The patient's clinical status and imaging studies, consistent with nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis, which was considered as signs......, posttransplant antirejection drug regimen. We have since successfully treated with alemtuzumab three additional patients who developed interstitial lung injury after lung transplantation, who are also summarized in this report....

  19. Identification of the interstitial Mn site in ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2093111; Wahl, Ulrich; Augustyns, Valerie; Silva, Daniel; Granadeiro Costa, Angelo Rafael; Houben, K; Edmonds, Kevin W; Gallagher, BL; Campion, RP; Van Bael, MJ; Castro Ribeiro Da Silva, Manuel; Martins Correia, Joao; Esteves De Araujo, Araujo Joao Pedro; Temst, Kristiaan; Vantomme, André; Da Costa Pereira, Lino Miguel

    2015-01-01

    We determined the lattice location of Mn in ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As using the electron emission channeling technique. We show that interstitial Mn occupies the tetrahedral site with As nearest neighbors (TAs) both before and after thermal annealing at 200 °C, whereas the occupancy of the tetrahedral site with Ga nearest neighbors (TGa) is negligible. TAs is therefore the energetically favorable site for interstitial Mn in isolated form as well as when forming complexes with substitutional Mn. These results shed new light on the long standing controversy regarding TAs versus TGa occupancy of interstitial Mn in (Ga,Mn)As.

  20. Detection of the free migration of the self-interstitials in magnesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauzier, J; Hillairet, J; Duclos, D; Vieux Champagne, A

    1986-05-01

    This paper describes the first experimental determination of the migration temperature of freely diffusing self-interstitials in magnesium. This observation was made possible by analysis of the elastic modulus and damping variations induced by the pinning of the dislocations by self-interstitials. A marked pinning stage is found between 9 K and 14 K, which is definite evidence for the long-range diffusion of the self-interstitial at these temperatures. Prior data are discussed and reinterpreted in the light of this finding.

  1. Interstitial-phase precipitation in iron-base alloys: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelton, A.R.

    1982-06-01

    Recent developments have elucidated the atomistic mechanisms of precipitation of interstitial elements in simple alloy systems. However, in the more technologically important iron base alloys, interstitial phase precipitation is generally not well understood. The present experimental study was therefore designed to test the applicability of these concepts to more complex ferrous alloys. Hence, a comparative study was made of interstitial phase precipitation in ferritic Fe-Si-C and in austenitic phosphorus-containing Fe-Cr-Ni steels. These systems were subjected to a variety of quench-age thermal treatments, and the microstructural development was subsequently characterized by transmission electron microscopy

  2. Occupational exposure of professionals during interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirraco, R.; Pereira, A.; Viterbo, T.; Cavaco, A.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Introduction: In this study we present dose measurements for professionals exposed during interstitial 125 I permanent prostate brachytherapy implants. Methods and Materials: The implant technique used was intra operative real time using strand and loose seeds. The professionals inside the operating room are an oncologist, a radiologist, a physicist, a nurse and an anesthesiologist. The oncologist and the physicist contact directly the loaded needle with radioactive seeds and two types of measurements were taken: total body and extremities (finger) dose. The rest of the team operates at long distances, but measurements were made. To measure total body equivalent dose we use a Berthold Umo LB 123 coupled with a LB 1236-H10 detector, and we recorded dose, time and distance from implant location. Finger dosemeters are thermo -luminescent dosimeter (TLD) rings that were controlled over one month. Results: 50 cases (average number of applications per year) were analysed for extremities measurements and 9 cases for total body measurements (in this case, the results were extrapolated for 50 cases), with an average of 26.1 mCi total activity per implant (in a range of 17.4 - 40.3 mCi). The finger dose was 1.8 mSv for the oncologist and 1.9 mSv for the physicist. The interpolation of total body equivalent dose for the oncologist was 24 mSv, for the radiologist 6 mSv and 9 mSv for the physicist. The rest of the team did not receive anything but background radiation. The annual national limit dose for workers is 20 mSv for total body irradiation, and 500 mSv for extremities. Conclusion: In conclusion we may say that during interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy implants, total doses received for all groups are not significant when compared to annual limits for Portuguese laws 1. Even so, our main goal is always to get the less possible dose (ALARA principle). References: 1. Decreto Lei n. 180/2002 de 8 de Agosto. (authors)

  3. CT stereotactic reconstruction of oral cavity interstitial plastic tube implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crispin, V.; Carrasco, P.; Guardino, C.; Lopez, J.; Chust, M.; Arribas, L.; Mengual, J.; Miragall, E.G.; Hernandez, A.; Carrascosa, M.; Cardenal, R.; Guinot, J.; Casana, M.; Prats, C.

    1996-01-01

    The continuous using of CT images in external RT have made us think of its applications for plastic tube interstitial implants in the oral cavity in order to calculate the dose delivered by an interstitial implant at any point of the image and its relationship with local control and complications. Moreover, the outcoming result of the whole treatment depends on whether the irradiated volume up to a prescribed dose includes the CTV or not. None of these objectives may be achieved through the classical film reconstruction. Although film reconstruction appeared as the only accurate method for these purposes in the early eighties, it does not allow us to calculate doses at critical points or volumes. Therefore possible complications over critical tissues surrounding the radioactive implant cannot be taken into account in a precise way. The use of a stereotactic coordinate system could make CT reconstruction as precise as film reconstruction. As our stereotactic frame can be placed over the patient in 'direct' or 'inverse' positions it is really interesting in the applications we are talking about. We also have used a non invasive standard plexiglass helmet commonly used in stereotactic fractionated irradiations in teletherapy. It fits perfectly the patient's head and avoids any movement of the patient during the CT exam. We do parallel slices, approximately perpendicular to the iridium wires (following the Paris System), covering the whole implant helping ourselves with both bone and implant references. The dose-volume histograms and DNR (dose nonuniformity ratio) index defined by Saw et Al are used for intercomparison between the ortogonal and the stereotactic reconstructions. The existence of a minimum in the DNR curve indicates that there is a reference dose rate for this implant which provides an optimal dose distribution. If we calculate which is the minimum of each method, we find they are very close. So, as both methods give very similar results, we can conclude

  4. Occupational exposure of professionals during interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirraco, R.; Pereira, A.; Viterbo, T.; Cavaco, A. [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil, Centro R egional de Oncologia do Porto, SA, Porto (Portugal)

    2006-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Introduction: In this study we present dose measurements for professionals exposed during interstitial 125 I permanent prostate brachytherapy implants. Methods and Materials: The implant technique used was intra operative real time using strand and loose seeds. The professionals inside the operating room are an oncologist, a radiologist, a physicist, a nurse and an anesthesiologist. The oncologist and the physicist contact directly the loaded needle with radioactive seeds and two types of measurements were taken: total body and extremities (finger) dose. The rest of the team operates at long distances, but measurements were made. To measure total body equivalent dose we use a Berthold Umo LB 123 coupled with a LB 1236-H10 detector, and we recorded dose, time and distance from implant location. Finger dosemeters are thermo -luminescent dosimeter (TLD) rings that were controlled over one month. Results: 50 cases (average number of applications per year) were analysed for extremities measurements and 9 cases for total body measurements (in this case, the results were extrapolated for 50 cases), with an average of 26.1 mCi total activity per implant (in a range of 17.4 - 40.3 mCi). The finger dose was 1.8 mSv for the oncologist and 1.9 mSv for the physicist. The interpolation of total body equivalent dose for the oncologist was 24 mSv, for the radiologist 6 mSv and 9 mSv for the physicist. The rest of the team did not receive anything but background radiation. The annual national limit dose for workers is 20 mSv for total body irradiation, and 500 mSv for extremities. Conclusion: In conclusion we may say that during interstitial permanent prostate brachytherapy implants, total doses received for all groups are not significant when compared to annual limits for Portuguese laws 1. Even so, our main goal is always to get the less possible dose (ALARA principle). References: 1. Decreto Lei n. 180/2002 de 8 de Agosto. (authors)

  5. What Makes Clusters Decline?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Park, Eun Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Most studies on regional clusters focus on identifying factors and processes that make clusters grow. However, sometimes technologies and market conditions suddenly shift, and clusters decline. This paper analyses the process of decline of the wireless communication cluster in Denmark. The longit...... but being quick to withdraw in times of crisis....

  6. Clustering of correlated networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dorogovtsev, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    We obtain the clustering coefficient, the degree-dependent local clustering, and the mean clustering of networks with arbitrary correlations between the degrees of the nearest-neighbor vertices. The resulting formulas allow one to determine the nature of the clustering of a network.

  7. Relevant Subspace Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Emmanuel; Assent, Ira; Günnemann, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    Subspace clustering aims at detecting clusters in any subspace projection of a high dimensional space. As the number of possible subspace projections is exponential in the number of dimensions, the result is often tremendously large. Recent approaches fail to reduce results to relevant subspace...... clusters. Their results are typically highly redundant, i.e. many clusters are detected multiple times in several projections. In this work, we propose a novel model for relevant subspace clustering (RESCU). We present a global optimization which detects the most interesting non-redundant subspace clusters...... achieves top clustering quality while competing approaches show greatly varying performance....

  8. Mutation Clusters from Cancer Exome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakushadze, Zura; Yu, Willie

    2017-08-15

    We apply our statistically deterministic machine learning/clustering algorithm *K-means (recently developed in https://ssrn.com/abstract=2908286) to 10,656 published exome samples for 32 cancer types. A majority of cancer types exhibit a mutation clustering structure. Our results are in-sample stable. They are also out-of-sample stable when applied to 1389 published genome samples across 14 cancer types. In contrast, we find in- and out-of-sample instabilities in cancer signatures extracted from exome samples via nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF), a computationally-costly and non-deterministic method. Extracting stable mutation structures from exome data could have important implications for speed and cost, which are critical for early-stage cancer diagnostics, such as novel blood-test methods currently in development.

  9. Cluster ion beam facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popok, V.N.; Prasalovich, S.V.; Odzhaev, V.B.; Campbell, E.E.B.

    2001-01-01

    A brief state-of-the-art review in the field of cluster-surface interactions is presented. Ionised cluster beams could become a powerful and versatile tool for the modification and processing of surfaces as an alternative to ion implantation and ion assisted deposition. The main effects of cluster-surface collisions and possible applications of cluster ion beams are discussed. The outlooks of the Cluster Implantation and Deposition Apparatus (CIDA) being developed in Guteborg University are shown

  10. Comparing Dark Energy Survey and HST –CLASH observations of the galaxy cluster RXC J2248.7-4431: implications for stellar mass versus dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmese, A.; Lahav, O.; Banerji, M.; Gruen, D.; Jouvel, S.; Melchior, P.; Aleksić, J.; Annis, J.; Diehl, H. T.; Hartley, W. G.; Jeltema, T.; Romer, A. K.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Seitz, S.; Suchyta, E.; Zhang, Y.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D' Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D.; Vikram, V.

    2016-08-20

    We derive the stellar mass fraction in the galaxy cluster RXC J2248.7-4431 observed with the Dark Energy Survey (DES) during the Science Verification period. We compare the stellar mass results from DES (five filters) with those from the Hubble Space Telescope Cluster Lensing And Supernova Survey (CLASH; 17 filters). When the cluster spectroscopic redshift is assumed, we show that stellar masses from DES can be estimated within 25 per cent of CLASH values. We compute the stellar mass contribution coming from red and blue galaxies, and study the relation between stellar mass and the underlying dark matter using weak lensing studies with DES and CLASH. An analysis of the radial profiles of the DES total and stellar mass yields a stellar-to-total fraction of f(star) = (6.8 +/- 1.7) x 10(-3) within a radius of r(200c) similar or equal to 2 Mpc. Our analysis also includes a comparison of photometric redshifts and star/galaxy separation efficiency for both data sets. We conclude that space-based small field imaging can be used to calibrate the galaxy properties in DES for the much wider field of view. The technique developed to derive the stellar mass fraction in galaxy clusters can be applied to the similar to 100 000 clusters that will be observed within this survey and yield important information about galaxy evolution.

  11. A study of defect cluster formation in vanadium by heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekimura, Naoto; Shirao, Yasuyuki; Morishita, Kazunori [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Formation of defect clusters in thin foils of vanadium was investigated by heavy ion irradiation. In the very thin region of the specimens less than 20 nm, vacancy clusters were formed under gold ion irradiation, while very few clusters were detected in the specimens irradiated with 200 and 400 keV self-ions up to 1 x 10{sup 16} ions/m{sup 2}. The density of vacancy clusters were found to be strongly dependent on ion energy. Only above the critical value of kinetic energy transfer density in vanadium, vacancy clusters are considered to be formed in the cascade damage from which interstitials can escape to the specimen surface in the very thin region. (author)

  12. Acute interstitial nephritis with acetaminophen and alcohol intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexopoulou Iakovina

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drug-induced acute interstitial nephritis (AIN represents a growing cause of renal failure in current medical practice. While antimicrobials and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are typically associated with drug-induced AIN, few reports have been made on the involvement of other analgesics. We report our experience in managing a 17-year-old female with AIN and subsequent renal injury following an acetaminophen overdose in conjunction with acute alcohol intoxication. It is well established that acetaminophen metabolism, particularly at high doses, produces reactive metabolites that may induce renal and hepatic toxicity. It is also plausible however, that such reactive species could instead alter renal peptide immunogenicity, thereby inducing AIN. In the following report, we review a possible mechanism for the acetaminophen-induced AIN observed in our patient and also discuss the potential involvement of acute alcohol ingestion in disease onset. The objective of our report is to increase awareness of healthcare professionals to the potential involvement of these commonly used agents in AIN pathogenesis.

  13. Computerized tomography of chest in emphysema and interstitial diseases diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souto Bayarri, M.; Malagari, K.; Ibarburen, C.; Arenas, G.; Correa Pombo, J.; Garcia Tahoces, P.; Tucker, D.; Barnes, G.T.; Luna, R.; Zerhouni, E.A.; Fraser, R.G.; Vidal Carrerira, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    To study the effect of increasing the spatial resolution on thin section (1.5 mm) computed tomography (CT) of the chest, we compared images reconstructed with the standard algorithm (SA) to three other images obtained with 1) a high spatial frequency algorithm, 2) retrospective targeting to a small field of view (FOV) reconstructed with the high spatial frequency algorithm, and 3) the same high spatial frequency algorithm with images acquired with the small (0.6 mm) rather the large (0.9 mm) focal spot. Examinations were performed on a phantom, on normal subjects, and on patients with emphysema and other diffuse lung diseases. Modulation transfer function (MTF) calculations revealed that higher resolution was achieved on the small focal spot and high spatial frequency algorithm than on the standard algorithm. Evaluation of the four images from 25 normal subjects, 16 patients with emphysema and 9 with interstitial disease was performed by means of an ROC study. Results from the areas under the ROC curves, sensitivity and specificity have shown that images reconstructed with the high spatial frequency algorithm were preferred. We conclude that the use of a high spatial frequency algorithm increases spatial resolution and improves visibility of lung parenchyma. Although more evaluation is needed, the potential of increasing spatial resolution further by using a smaller focal spot is currently limited by the mas Available per slice and the associated increased level of quantum noise. (Author)

  14. Safety of Laser Interstitial Thermal Therapy in Patients With Pacemakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Sanjeet S; Gorny, Krzysztof R; Favazza, Christopher P; Watson, Robert E; Kaufmann, Timothy J; Van Gompel, Jamie J

    2018-02-10

    Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LiTT) has increasingly been used as a treatment option for medically refractory epilepsy, tumors, and radiation necrosis. The use of LiTT requires intraoperative magnetic resonance (MR) thermography. This can become an issue in patients with other implanted therapeutic devices such as pacemakers and vagal nerve stimulators due to concerns regarding increases in the specific absorption rate (SAR). This is a technical case report demonstrating a successfully and safely performed LiTT in a 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a patient with a pacemaker for mesial temporal sclerosis. An 83-yr-old gentleman who had an implanted cardiac pacemaker presented with medically intractable epilepsy and was confirmed to have mesial temporal sclerosis on imaging. Video electroencephalography demonstrated concordant ipsilateral seizures and semiology. He underwent LiTT for ablation of the mesial temporal lobe. This was performed with the below described protocol with a cardiology nurse monitoring the patient's cardiac condition and a physicist monitoring SAR, and MR imaging quality without any adverse events. This study reports on a protocol of cardiac and MR SAR to safely perform MR-guided LiTT in the setting of traditional pacemakers in patients who are not pacemaker dependent. Copyright © 2018 by the Congress of Neurological Surgeons

  15. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offiah, I; McMahon, S B; O'Reilly, B A

    2013-08-01

    The bladder pain syndrome (BPS) is a spectrum of urological symptoms characterised by bladder pain with typical cystoscopic features. Diagnosis and management of this syndrome may be difficult. There is no evidence-based management approach for the diagnosis or treatment of BPS. The objective of this study was to critically review and summarise the evidence relating to the diagnosis and treatment of the bladder pain syndrome. A review of published data on the diagnosis and treatment of the BPS was performed. Our search was limited to English-language articles, on the "diagnosis", and "management" or "treatment" of "interstitial cystitis" and the "bladder pain syndrome" in "humans." Frequency, urgency and pain on bladder filling are the most common symptoms of BPS. All urodynamic volumes are reduced in patients with BPS. Associated conditions include psychological distress, depression, history of sexual assault, irritable bowel syndrome and fibromyalgia. Cystoscopy remains the test for definitive diagnosis, with visualisation of haemorrhage on cystoreduction. A multidisciplinary treatment approach is essential in the management of this condition. Orally administered amitriptyline is an efficacious medical treatment for BPS. Intravesical hyaluronic acid and local anaesthetic, with/without hydrodistension are among new treatment strategies. Sacral or pudendal neuromodulation is effective, minimally invasive and safe. Surgery is reserved for refractory cases. There remains a paucity of evidence for the diagnosis and treatment of BPS. We encountered significant heterogeneity in the assessment of symptoms, duration of treatment and follow up of patients in our literature review.

  16. MMPI-2-RF characteristics of individuals with interstitial cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Rachel L; Wunderlich, Ted; Wilson, Nicolas; Akeson, Steven

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to describe the psychological functioning of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome patients utilizing MMPI-2-RF scoring. The MMPI-2 was administered to 60 individuals who reported a diagnosis of IC. Responses were scored in the MMPI-2-RF format. Fifty-one protocols were deemed valid. Elevations were discovered on scales FBS-r (symptom validity), RC1 (somatic complaints), and MLS (malaise). Participants were split into two groups based on extreme elevations on RC1; the high RC1 group produced higher scores on 39 scales including clinically significant elevations on 17 scales. Over 25% of this sample had an emotional component to their physical concerns. This knowledge about the psychological characteristics of IC patients may have clinical utility for physicians and other treatment providers. The results argue strongly for psychological evaluation as a component of IC diagnosis and treatment. Those with significant emotional overlay to their somatic complaints may be best managed through psychological interventions and minimally invasive treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Position locating device and method for interstitial radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katz, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    A position locating device is described for interstitial radiotherapy of a body portion comprising a flexible sheet member for being received about and conformed with a body portion which is to receive radiotherapy. The sheet member has spaced position locating means and first and second opposite ends, and attachment means for releasably securing the sheet member about the body portion comprising joining means securing bands with the sheet member. The joining means provides first and second clamping units each detachably secured with the sheet member proximate to a respective one of its ends for being replaced and repositioned therewith. The bands comprise first and second sets having first ends pivotably secured with a respective one of the first and second clamping units for allowing their angular adjustment with the second ends of the first set of bands being detachably securable with the second ends of the second set of bands for releasably securing the sheet member about the body portion. Each of the clamping units comprises a flat bar having a slot for receiving therethrough an end of the sheet member and screw elements threadedly engaging a respective one of the bars for clamping and securing the sheet member therewith. The first ends of the bands have an opening for receiving a respective screw element therethrough for securing same with the bar unit and allowing pivotal movement thereabout

  18. Erectile dysfunction is a common problem in interstitial lung diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløe, Andreas; Hilberg, Ole; Wijsenbeek, Marlies

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is related to chronic diseases, including COPD. The patho- genesis may involve chronic hypoxia, which is common in interstitial lung disease (ILD). We aimed to study the relationship between ILD and ED. Method: Male patients with ILD detected by high...... degree of ED, thirty (56.6%) had moderate to severe ED, and 23 (43.4%) had severe ED. Low diffusion capacity and high body mass index showed a trend of increasing risk of moderate to severe ED. The risk increased with age (OR per 5-year increase=2.63 (1.25; 5.53)) and decreased with 6MWT distance (OR per...... 50 m increase=0.60 (0.41; 0.89). Only two patients (6.7%) received specific treatment with phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors. Conclusion: Severe ED is a common problem in men with ILD, and is associated with poor walking distance and high age. Treatment coverage is low, and physicians should ad- dress...

  19. Oxygen therapy for interstitial lung disease: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily C. Bell

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This review aims to establish the impact of oxygen therapy on dyspnoea, health-related quality of life (HRQoL, exercise capacity and mortality in interstitial lung disease (ILD. We included studies that compared oxygen therapy to no oxygen therapy in adults with ILD. No limitations were placed on study design or intervention type. Two reviewers independently evaluated studies for inclusion, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. The primary outcome was dyspnoea. Eight studies evaluated the acute effects of oxygen (n=1509. There was no effect of oxygen therapy on modified Borg dyspnoea score at end exercise (mean difference (MD −0.06 units, 95% CI −0.24–0.13; two studies, n=27. However, effects on exercise outcomes consistently favoured oxygen therapy. One study showed reduction in dyspnoea at rest with oxygen in patients who were acutely unwell (MD visual analogue scale 30 mm versus 48 mm, p<0.05; n=10. Four studies of long-term oxygen therapy (n=2670 had high risk of bias and no inferences could be drawn. This systematic review showed no effects of oxygen therapy on dyspnoea during exercise in ILD, although exercise capacity was increased. Future trials should evaluate whether acute improvements in exercise capacity with oxygen can be translated into improved physical activity and HRQoL.

  20. Sirolimus-associated interstitial pneumonitis in a liver transplant recipient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claire Berrouet, Marie; Aristizabal, Julian Miguel; Restrepo, Juan Carlos; Correa, Gonzalo

    2005-01-01

    Sirolimus is an immunosuppressive drug that has been used during the past few years. Sirolimus is indicated in rescue therapies and to reduce the secondary toxic effects of calcineurin inhibitors. This drug has been associated with infrequent but severe pulmonary toxicity. Cases of interstitial pneumonitis, bronchiolitis obliterans with organizing pneumonia, and alveolar proteinosis have been described. We describe a case of pulmonary toxicity associated with the use of sirolimus in a 59-yr-old liver transplant recipient. We also review all reported cases of sirolimus-associated lung toxicity among liver transplantation recipients, with the intention of understanding the risk factors, the clinical picture and the outcomes of this complication. Five cases have been reported since January 2000, including the present case. Clinical presentation is similar, with fever, dyspnoea, fatigue, cough, and hemoptysis. Discontinuation of the drug led to resolution of clinical and radiographic findings. Sirolimus-induced pulmonary toxicity is a serious condition and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of liver recipients presenting with respiratory findings. Discontinuation of the drug is associated with resolution of the pulmonary compromise

  1. Mechanisms of leading edge protrusion in interstitial migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kerry; Lewalle, Alexandre; Fritzsche, Marco; Thorogate, Richard; Duke, Tom; Charras, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    While the molecular and biophysical mechanisms underlying cell protrusion on two-dimensional substrates are well understood, our knowledge of the actin structures driving protrusion in three-dimensional environments is poor, despite relevance to inflammation, development and cancer. Here we report that, during chemotactic migration through microchannels with 5 μm × 5 μm cross-sections, HL60 neutrophil-like cells assemble an actin-rich slab filling the whole channel cross-section at their front. This leading edge comprises two distinct F-actin networks: an adherent network that polymerizes perpendicular to cell-wall interfaces and a ‘free’ network that grows from the free membrane at the cell front. Each network is polymerized by a distinct nucleator and, due to their geometrical arrangement, the networks interact mechanically. On the basis of our experimental data, we propose that, during interstitial migration, medial growth of the adherent network compresses the free network preventing its retrograde movement and enabling new polymerization to be converted into forward protrusion. PMID:24305616

  2. Fibrotic idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: HRCT findings that predict mortality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edey, Anthony J.; Hansell, David M. [The Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom); Devaraj, Anand A. [St. George' s NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Tooting (United Kingdom); Barker, Robert P. [Frimley Park Hosptal, Department of Radiology, Frimley, Surrey (United Kingdom); Nicholson, Andrew G. [The Royal Brompton Hospital, Department of Histopathology, London (United Kingdom); Wells, Athol U. [The Royal Brompton Hospital, Interstitial Lung Disease Unit, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-08-15

    The study aims were to identify CT features that predict outcome of fibrotic idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) when information from lung biopsy data is unavailable. HRCTs of 146 consecutive patients presenting with fibrotic IIP were studied. Visual estimates were made of the extent of abnormal lung and proportional contribution of fine and coarse reticulation, microcystic (cysts {<=}4 mm) and macrocystic honeycombing. A score for severity of traction bronchiectasis was also assigned. Using death as our primary outcome measure, variables were analysed using the Cox proportional hazards model. CT features predictive of a worse outcome were coarse reticulation, microcystic and macrocystic honeycombing, as well as overall extent of lung abnormality (p < 0.001). Importantly, increased severity of traction bronchiectasis, corrected for extent of parenchymal abnormality, was predictive of poor prognosis regardless of the background pattern of abnormal lung (HR = 1.04, CI = 1.03-1.06, p < 0.001). On bivariate Cox analysis microcystic honeycombing was a more powerful determinant of a poor prognosis than macrocystic honeycombing. In fibrotic IIPs we have shown that increasingly severe traction bronchiectasis is indicative of higher mortality irrespective of the HRCT pattern and extent of disease. Extent of microcystic honeycombing is a more powerful determinant of outcome than macrocystic honeycombing. (orig.)

  3. Interstitial pneumonitis is a frequent complication in liver transplant recipients treated with sirolimus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morcos, A

    2012-06-01

    Sirolimus is a powerful immunosuppressive drug which is being used increasingly after liver transplantation because of its renal sparing and anti-tumour effects. It has been associated with uncommon, but potentially fatal, interstitial pneumonitis.

  4. Measuring interstitial pH and pO2 in mouse tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Rakesh K; Munn, Lance L; Fukumura, Dai

    2013-07-01

    This protocol outlines methods to measure two extravascular parameters, interstitial pH and partial pressure of oxygen (pO2), in mouse tumors. The method for measuring interstitial pH uses fluorescence ratio imaging microscopy (FRIM) of the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5,6-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF). The method for measuring interstitial pO2 is based on the oxygen-dependent quenching of the phosphorescence of albumin-bound palladium meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin, and can be used to measure microvascular as well as interstitial pO2. In addition, the two methods can be used sequentially to measure both pH and pO2 in the same tissues.

  5. INTERSTITIAL LUNG-DISEASE AND MYOSITIS IN A PATIENT WITH SIMULTANEOUSLY OCCURRING SARCOIDOSIS AND SCLERODERMA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GROEN, H; POSTMA, DS; KALLENBERG, CGM

    1993-01-01

    A patient initially presented with sarcoidosis in combination with myositis of sarcoid origin and Raynaud's phenomenon. During the course of his disease, he additionally developed scleroderma. Bronchoalveolar lavage, performed because of increase of interstitial markings in the presence of enlarged

  6. Venous Thromboembolism and Risk of Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonia A Nationwide Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Birgitte Margareta; Dahl, Morten; Nielsen, Sune Fallgaard

    2010-01-01

    Rationale: Idiopathic interstitial pneumonia is characterized by pulmonary fibrosis and high mortality. Objectives: We examined the association between ever-diagnosed venous thromboembolism and risk of incident idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Venous thromboembolism was taken as a proxy...... Danish registries. Measurements and Main Results: Age-standardized incidence rates per 10,000 person-years for idiopathic interstitial pneumonia were higher among those ever diagnosed with venous thromboembolism (1.8; n = 158,676), pulmonary embolism (2.8; n = 70,586), and deep venous thrombosis only (1.......2; n = 88,090), than among control subjects (0.8; n = 7,260,278). Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for idiopathic interstitial pneumonia were 1.8 (95% confidence interval [Cl], 1.7-1.9) in those ever diagnosed with venous thromboembolism, 2.4 (95% CI, 2.3-2.6) in those ever diagnosed with pulmonary...

  7. Statin Use Is Associated with Reduced Mortality in Patients with Interstitial Lung Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel-Krogh, Signe; Nielsen, Sune F; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: We hypothesized that statin use begun before the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease is associated with reduced mortality. METHODS: We studied all patients diagnosed with interstitial lung disease in the entire Danish population from 1995 through 2009, comparing statin use versus...... no statin use in a nested 1:2 matched study. RESULTS: The cumulative survival as a function of follow-up time from the date of diagnosis of interstitial lung disease (n = 1,786 + 3,572) and idiopathic lung fibrosis (n = 261 + 522) was higher for statin users versus never users (log-rank: P = 7 · 10......(-9) and P = 0.05). The median survival time in patients with interstitial lung disease was 3.3 years in statin users and 2.1 years in never users. Corresponding values in patients with idiopathic lung fibrosis were 3.4 versus 2.4 years. After multivariable adjustment, the hazard ratio for all...

  8. Ultrastructure of interstitial cells of Cajal associated with deep muscular plexus of human small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Mikkelsen, H B; Thuneberg, L

    1992-01-01

    Evidence showing that interstitial cells of Cajal have important regulatory functions in the gut musculature is accumulating. In the current study, the ultrastructure of the deep muscular plexus and associated interstial cells of Cajal in human small intestine were studied to provide a reference...... a continuous basal lamina, caveolae, intermediate filaments, dense bodies, dense bands, and a well-developed subsurface smooth endoplasmic reticulum), but the arrangement of organelles was clearly different, and cisternae of granular endoplasmic reticulum were abundant. Interstitial cells of Cajal were......, and only few gap junctions with other interstitial cells of Cajal or with the musculature were observed. Compared with interstitial cells of Cajal from other mammals, those associated with the deep muscular plexus in the human small intestine more closely resemble smooth muscle cells...

  9. Interstitial pressure dependence of the thermal conductivity of some rare earth oxide powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradeep, P.

    1997-01-01

    Thermal transport properties of powdered materials depend upon interstitial gas pressure. The present study reports the experimental results for the effective thermal conductivity of three rare earth oxide powders viz. yttrium oxide, samarium oxide, and gadolinium oxide, at various interstitial pressures by using transient plane source (TPS) method. A theoretical model is also proposed for the interpretation of the variation of the effective thermal conductivity with interstitial gas pressure. Its validity is found to be good in low pressure range of 45 mm Hg to normal pressure when compared with the experimental results. Also an attempt has been made to calculate the variation of thermal conductivity with interstitial pressure in the high pressure range up to 2 kbar using the proposed model. (author)

  10. PREFACE: Nuclear Cluster Conference; Cluster'07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, Martin

    2008-05-01

    The Cluster Conference is a long-running conference series dating back to the 1960's, the first being initiated by Wildermuth in Bochum, Germany, in 1969. The most recent meeting was held in Nara, Japan, in 2003, and in 2007 the 9th Cluster Conference was held in Stratford-upon-Avon, UK. As the name suggests the town of Stratford lies upon the River Avon, and shortly before the conference, due to unprecedented rainfall in the area (approximately 10 cm within half a day), lay in the River Avon! Stratford is the birthplace of the `Bard of Avon' William Shakespeare, and this formed an intriguing conference backdrop. The meeting was attended by some 90 delegates and the programme contained 65 70 oral presentations, and was opened by a historical perspective presented by Professor Brink (Oxford) and closed by Professor Horiuchi (RCNP) with an overview of the conference and future perspectives. In between, the conference covered aspects of clustering in exotic nuclei (both neutron and proton-rich), molecular structures in which valence neutrons are exchanged between cluster cores, condensates in nuclei, neutron-clusters, superheavy nuclei, clusters in nuclear astrophysical processes and exotic cluster decays such as 2p and ternary cluster decay. The field of nuclear clustering has become strongly influenced by the physics of radioactive beam facilities (reflected in the programme), and by the excitement that clustering may have an important impact on the structure of nuclei at the neutron drip-line. It was clear that since Nara the field had progressed substantially and that new themes had emerged and others had crystallized. Two particular topics resonated strongly condensates and nuclear molecules. These topics are thus likely to be central in the next cluster conference which will be held in 2011 in the Hungarian city of Debrechen. Martin Freer Participants and Cluster'07

  11. Usual interstitial pneumonia and non-specific interstitial pneumonia: serial thin-section CT findings correlated with pulmonary function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yeon Joo; Lee, Kyung Soo; Chung, Man Pyo; Chung Myung Jin; Han, Joung Ho [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Mueller, Nestor L. [University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Colby, Thomas V. [Mayo Clinic Scottsdale, Scottsdale (United States); Kim, Seon Woo [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-09-15

    We wanted to demonstrate and compare the serial high-resolution CTs (HRCT) and the pulmonary function test (PFT) findings of the usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and the non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP). The serial HRCT scans and the PFT results were retrospectively analysed and compared for 35 patients having UIP without significant honeycombing (UIP-w/o hc, < 5% of honeycombing at CT), 35 patients having UIP with honeycombing (UIP-w/i hc, {>=} 5% of honeycombing), and 25 patients with NSIP. The mortality rates were also compared. Follow-up CT scans were available in 75 patients (29 UIP-w/o hc patients, 22 UIP-w/i hc patients and 24 NSIP patients) and the follow-up periods ranged from 150 to 2,370 days. The initial and follow-up PFT data were available for 71 patients. On the initial CT, significant differences were present between the UIP-w/i hc patients and both the UIP-w/o hc patients and the NSIP patients in the overall extent, ground-glass opacity (GGO) away from the reticulation, reticulation and honeycombing (all {rho} < 0.05). Improvement was noticed in five (17%) of 29 UIP-w/o hc patients, none of 22 UIP-w/i hc patients, and 9 (37%) of 24 NSIP patients; deterioration was noted in six (21%) UIP-w/o hc patients, two (9%) UIP-w/i hc patients and three (13%) NSIP patients ({rho} 0.044 between UIP-w/o and UIP-w/i hc; {rho} = 0.637 between UIP-w/o hc and NSIP; {rho} = 0.007 between UIP-w/i hc and NSIP). The serial changes of the pulmonary function in the NSIP patients were different from those noted for the UIP-w/i hc and UIP-w/o hc patients ({rho} = 0.440 between UIP-w/o and UIP-w/i hc; {rho} = 0.022 between UIP-w/o hc and NSIP; {rho} =0.003 between UIP-w/i hc and NSIP). Five (14%) of the 35 patients with UIP-w/o hc, 16 (46%) of the 35 patients with UIP-w/i hc and three (12%) of the 25 patients with NSIP died ({rho} = 0.002, comparison for the three groups). On CT, NSIP and UIP-w/o hc patients have similar patterns of parenchymal abnormalities and

  12. Reactive Granulomatous Dermatitis: A Review of Palisaded Neutrophilic and Granulomatous Dermatitis, Interstitial Granulomatous Dermatitis, Interstitial Granulomatous Drug Reaction, and a Proposed Reclassification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbach, Misha; English, Joseph C

    2015-07-01

    The terms "palisaded neutrophilic and granulomatous dermatitis," "interstitial granulomatous dermatitis," and the subset "interstitial granulomatous drug reaction" are a source of confusion. There exists substantial overlap among the entities with few strict distinguishing features. We review the literature and highlight areas of distinction and overlap, and propose a streamlined diagnostic workup for patients presenting with this cutaneous reaction pattern. Because the systemic disease associations and requisite workup are similar, and the etiopathogenesis is poorly understood but likely similar among these entities, we propose the simplified unifying term "reactive granulomatous dermatitis" to encompass these entities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A study on applying Ra needle interstitial brachytherapy for oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Shunichi; Komiya, Yoshiaki; Uchida, Ikuhiro; Tashiro, Kazuyoshi

    1999-01-01

    To investigate applicability of Ra needle interstitial brachytherapy, 93 cases of oral squamous carcinoma were examined. The patients underwent Ra needle interstitial brachytherapy as thorough therapy in our hospital. The criteria of applying Ra needle interstitial brachytherapy was diameter of within 5 cm and depth within 2 cm of tumor size. Ra needle interstitial brachytherapy was applied to 82 cases of tongue, 10 cases of oral floor and one case of lower lip carcinomas. The local control rate was 92.5%, and secondary neck metastasis was 32.3% in all cases applied Ra needle interstitial brachytherapy. The results were not bad compared with surgical treatment. However, the 5-year cumulative survival rate was 64.9%, which was not good enough at the result to obtain a good local control rate and secondary neck metastasis rate. The result was relative to low treatment result of local recurrence cases with Ra needle interstitial brachytherapy. To improve the result, it is important to distinguish local recurrence from radioinduced ulcer, and to start early secondary treatment. The cases in which cervical lymph node metastasis was found as the first examination underwent neck dessection after Ra needle interstitial brachytherapy. The 5-year cumulative survival rate was 83.3% in N1 cases and 40.6% in N2 cases, and the result of N2 cases was poorer than N1 cases with a significant difference. The results indicate that a needle having a diameter of within 5 cm, depth of within 2 cm and less than N1 can be applied during Ra needle interstitial brachytherapy for complete cure of cancer. (author)

  14. Do you really know precise radiologic–pathologic correlation of usual interstitial pneumonia?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johkoh, Takeshi, E-mail: johkoht@aol.com [Department of Radiology, Kinki Central Hospital of Mutual Aid Association of Public School Teachers, Itami (Japan); Sumikawa, Hiromotsu [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan); Fukuoka, Junya; Tanaka, Tomonori [Department of Pathology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Toyama (Japan); Fujimoto, Kiminori [Department of Radiology and Center for Diagnostic Imaging, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume (Japan); Takahashi, Masashi [Department of Radiology, Shiga Medical University, Otsu (Japan); Tomiyama, Noriyuki [Department of Radiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita (Japan); Kondo, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Hiroyuki [Department of Respiratory and Allergic Medicine, Tosei General Hospital, Seto (Japan)

    2014-01-15

    Although usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) is the most common chronic interstitial pneumonia, understanding of pathologic backgrounds of CT findings has still not been enough. Since honeycombing on either scanning microgram or CT is essential for diagnosis of UIP in 2010 ATS-ERS-JRS-ALAT guide line, the role of radiologists has become much more important. We will summarize common and uncommon CT findings with radiologic–pathological correlation.

  15. Interstitial Lung Disease in a 70-Year-Old Man with Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Hampton W; Frye, Jeanetta W

    2018-01-01

    Interstitial lung disease is a rare but increasingly recognized extraintestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease that can have devastating consequences if left untreated. We report a case of ulcerative colitis-associated interstitial lung disease presenting with acute hypoxic respiratory failure during an ulcerative colitis flare. Gastroenterologists and pulmonologists should be aware of the numerous bronchopulmonary signs and symptoms that can suggest systemic illness in inflammatory bowel disease.

  16. Recurrent nitrofurantoin-induced giant cell interstitial pneumonia: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boeun Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Giant cell interstitial pneumonia (GIP is a rare form of chronic interstitial pneumonia typically associated with hard metal exposure. Only two cases of GIP induced by nitrofurantoin have been reported in the medical literature. We are reporting a case of recurrent nitrofurantoin-induced GIP. Although extremely rare, GIP needs to be included in the differential diagnosis in patients with chronic nitrofurantoin use who present with respiratory illness.

  17. Interstitial Lung Disease due to Siderosis in a Lathe Machine Worker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gothi, D; Satija, B; Kumar, S; Kaur, Omkar

    2015-01-01

    Since its first description in 1936, siderosis of lung has been considered a benign pneumoconiosis due to absence of significant clinical symptoms or respiratory impairment. Subsequently, authors have questioned the non-fibrogenic property of iron. However, siderosis causing interstitial lung disease with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern has not been described in the past. We report a case of UIP on high resolution computed tomography, proven to be siderosis on transbronchial lung biopsy in a lathe machine worker.

  18. Application of interstitial radiotherapy for cancers of the tongue and oral caving mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamyatin, O.A.; Vakhramova, M.P.; Razorenova, E.V.

    1997-01-01

    The report deals with new procedures of interstitial, complex and combined treatment of cancer of the tongue and mucosa of fundus of the oral cavity with time space-differentiated doses of radiation. If indicated, cervical lymph nodes undergo surgery at the final stage of therapy. Interstitial radiotherapy has proved a highly-effective radical component of said treatment for cancers of the tongue and oral cavity

  19. [Effects of two submerged macrophytes on dissolved inorganic nitrogen in overlying water and interstitial water].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Bin; Li, Yang; Sun, Gong-Xian

    2014-06-01

    Ceratophyllum demersum (C. demersum) and Vallisneria spiralis L. (V. spiralis L.) were studied as model submerged macrophytes. The effects of the submerged macrophytes on the forms and concentration of the dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) in the overlying water and the interstitial water, as well as the diffusion flux of DIN in the water-sediment interface were investigated by batch simulation experiment. The results indicated that the removal effect of DIN in the overlying water was better than that in the interstitial water by submerged macrophytes. The removal efficiency of DIN in the overlying water and the interstitial water followed the order of NO2(-) -N > NH4(+) -N > NO3(-) -N. The removal rate of DIN by C. demersum was higher than that of V. spiralis L. in the overlying water, while the result was converse in the interstitial water. C. demersum and V. spiralis L. decreased the diffusion flux of NH4(+) -N and NO2(-) -N, and increased the diffusion flux of NO3(-) -N significantly. Consequently, NO3(-) -N replaced NH4(+) -N and became the main form of DIN, which diffused from the interstitial water to the overlying water. The impact of the diffusion flux of NO3(-) -N between C. demersum and V. spiralis L. showed no significant difference, and the result was the same for NH4(+) -N. C. demersum and V. spiralis L. increased the width of variation of the three nitrogen forms to total DIN in the overlying water and the interstitial water, the influence on the ratio of DIN by C. demersum was greater than that of V. spiralis L. in the overlying water, while the result was opposite in the interstitial water. In general, C. demersum had more influence in the overlying water, while V. spiralis L. had more influence in the interstitial water, and the influence of DIN diffusion flux was not significant.

  20. Fundamental Study of a Combined Hyperthermia System with RF Capacitive Heating and Interstitial Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Saitoh, Yoshiaki; Hori, Junichi; 斉藤, 義明; 堀, 潤一

    2001-01-01

    Interstitial RF heating with an inserted electrode allows the heating position selection in a subject, but the narrow heating region is problematic. This study elucidates development of new interstitial RF heating methods, combining with external RF heating using paired electrodes, heating the subject broadly in advance in order to selectively extend the heating region. Two kinds of heating system were developed by controlling a differential mode and a common mode of RF currents. Heating expe...