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Sample records for interstitial clusters implications

  1. A General Treatment of One- to Three-Dimensional Diffusion Reaction Kinetics of Interstitial Clusters: Implications for the Evolution of Voids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinkaus, H.; Singh, Bachu Narain; Golubov, S.I.

    In recent years, it has been shown that a number of striking features in the microstructural evolution occurring in metals under cascade damage generating irradiation (e.g. enhanced swelling near grain boundaries, decoration of dislocations with SIA loops, saturation of void growth and void lattice...... clusters is generally disturbed by changes between equivalent 1D diffusion paths and by transversal diffusion by self-climb, resulting in diffusion reaction kinetics between the 1D and 3D limiting cases. In this paper, a general treatment of such kinetics operating in systems containing random...... and are then combined. The significance of the present treatment for damage accumulation under cascade damage conditions is illustrated by applying it to the discussion of void growth characteristics, particularly of the conditions for saturation of void growth....

  2. Effect of impurities on the growth of {113} interstitial clusters in silicon under electron irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Nakai, K.; Hamada, K.; Satoh, Y.; Yoshiie, T.

    2011-01-01

    The growth and shrinkage of interstitial clusters on {113} planes were investigated in electron irradiated Czochralski grown silicon (Cz-Si), floating-zone silicon (Fz-Si), and impurity-doped Fz-Si (HT-Fz-Si) using a high voltage electron microscope. In Fz-Si, {113} interstitial clusters were formed only near the beam incident surface after a long incubation period, and shrank on subsequent irradiation from the backside of the specimen. In Cz-Si and HT-Fz-Si, {113} interstitial clusters nucle...

  3. Effect of impurities on the growth of {113} interstitial clusters in silicon under electron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakai, K.; Hamada, K.; Satoh, Y.; Yoshiie, T.

    2011-01-01

    The growth and shrinkage of interstitial clusters on {113} planes were investigated in electron irradiated Czochralski grown silicon (Cz-Si), floating-zone silicon (Fz-Si), and impurity-doped Fz-Si (HT-Fz-Si) using a high voltage electron microscope. In Fz-Si, {113} interstitial clusters were formed only near the beam incident surface after a long incubation period, and shrank on subsequent irradiation from the backside of the specimen. In Cz-Si and HT-Fz-Si, {113} interstitial clusters nucleated uniformly throughout the specimen without incubation, and began to shrink under prolonged irradiation at higher electron beam intensity. At lower beam intensity, however, the {113} interstitial cluster grew stably. These results demonstrate that the {113} interstitial cluster cannot grow without a continuous supply of impurities during electron irradiation. Detailed kinetics of {113} interstitial cluster growth and shrinkage in silicon, including the effects of impurities, are proposed. Then, experimental results are analyzed using rate equations based on these kinetics.

  4. Effects of applied strain on nanoscale self-interstitial cluster formation in BCC iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Ning; Setyawan, Wahyu; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wang, Zhiguang

    2017-09-01

    The effect of applied strains on the configurational evolution of self-interstitial clusters in BCC iron (Fe) is explored with atomistic simulations. A novel cluster configuration is discovered at low temperatures (<600 K), which consists of <110> dumbbells and <111> crowdions in a specific configuration, resulting in an immobile defect. The stability and diffusion of this cluster at higher temperatures is explored. In addition, an anisotropy distribution factor of a particular [hkl] interstitial loop within the family of loops is calculated as a function of strain. The results show that loop anisotropy is governed by the angle between the stress direction and the orientation of the <111> crowdions in the loop, and directly linked to the stress induced preferred nucleation of self-interstitial atoms.

  5. Effects of applied strain on nanoscale self-interstitial cluster formation in BCC iron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ning; Setyawan, Wahyu; Kurtz, Richard J.; Wang, Zhiguang

    2017-09-01

    The effect of applied strains on the configurational evolution of self-interstitial clusters in BCC iron (Fe) is explored with atomistic simulations. A novel cluster configuration is discovered at low temperatures (dumbbells and 〈 111 〉 crowdions in a specific configuration, resulting in an immobile defect. The stability and diffusion of this cluster at higher temperatures is explored. In addition, an anisotropy distribution factor of a particular [ hkl ] interstitial loop within the family of 〈 hkl 〉 loops is calculated as a function of strain. The results show that loop anisotropy is governed by the angle between the stress direction and the orientation of the 〈 111 〉 crowdions in the loop, and directly linked to the stress induced preferred nucleation of self-interstitial atoms.

  6. Diffusion of He interstitial and di-He cluster at grain boundaries in α-Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, F.; Heinisch, H.L.; Kurtz, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    A systematic molecular dynamics study of the diffusion mechanisms of He interstitial and di-He cluster at two representative interfaces has been carried out in α-Fe. The diffusion coefficient of a He interstitial and the effective migration energies were determined. The He atom diffuses along the Σ11 grain boundary one-dimensionally along specific directions, while it migrates two-dimensionally at low temperatures, and three-dimensionally at higher temperatures, in the Σ3 grain boundary. The di-He interstitial cluster can migrate rapidly along the Σ3 interface at low temperatures, but not at the Σ11 interface. It has been observed that a di-He interstitial cluster can kick out a self interstitial atom (SIA) at high temperatures, forming a He 2 V complex. The SIA migrates rapidly near interfaces, whereas the He 2 V complex is immobile at the temperatures considered. This small cluster may serve as the smallest nucleation for the formation of helium bubbles at interfaces

  7. Stability and mobility of self-interstitials and small interstitial clusters in α-iron: ab initio and empirical potential calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willaime, F.; Fu, C.C.; Marinica, M.C.; Dalla Torre, J.

    2005-01-01

    The stability and mobility of self-interstitials and small interstitial clusters, I n , in α-Fe is investigated by means of calculations performed in the framework of the density functional theory using the SIESTA code. The mono-, di- and tri-interstitials are shown to be made of (parallel) dumbbells and to migrate by nearest-neighbor translation-rotation jumps, according to Johnson's mechanism. The orientation of the dumbbells becomes energetically more favourable for I 5 and larger clusters. The performance of a semi-empirical potential recently developed for Fe, including ab initio self-interstitial data in the fitted properties, is evaluated over the present results. The superiority over previous semi-empirical potentials is confirmed. Finally the impact of the present results on the formation mechanism of loops, observed experimentally in α-Fe is discussed

  8. Interstitial-mediated diffusion and clustering for transmutation elements Re and Os precipitation in W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong-Bo; Li, Yu-Hao; Lu, Guang-Hong

    Under high energy (14 eV) neutrons irradiation in nuclear fusion devoices, tungsten (W) will undergo transmutation to its near-neighbors in the periodic table, such as rhenium (Re), osmium (Os), etc. The transmutation elements Re and Os will precipitate and form new Re/Os-rich phase, and further significantly degrade the mechanical properties of W. Here, we have investigated the mechanism for the irradiation-induced Re/Os clustering in W using the first-principles method and thermodynamic models. It is found that there is strong attraction between Re/Os and self-interstitial atom (SIA) in W. The SIA can be easily trapped by Re/Os once overcoming a low energy barrier, and form W-Re/Os complex dumbbell. The diffusion energy barrier of W-Re/Os is much lower than that of Re/Os diffusing via mono-vacancy or even vacancy clusters. Further, the W-Re/Os can be easily trapped by the substitutional Re/Os atoms, and form high stable Re-Re/Os-Os dumbbell structure. Most importantly, the Re-Re/Os-Os dumbbell can serve as trapping centre for subsequent interstitial-Re/Os, leading to the growth of Re/Os-rich clusters in W. Our finding suggests an interstitial-mediated mechanism for the irradiation-induced Re/Os clustering in W. This research is supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Program with Grant No. 2013GB109002, and the National Natural Science Foundation of China with Grant No. 11675011.

  9. The behavior of interstitials in irradiated graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedraza, D.F.

    1991-01-01

    A computer model is developed to simulate the behavior of self-interstitials with particular attention to clustering. Owing to the layer structure of graphite, atomistic simulations can be performed using a large parallelepipedic supercell containing a few layers. In particular, interstitial clustering is studied here using a supercell that contains two basal planes only. Frenkel pairs are randomly produced. Interstitials are placed at sites between the crystal planes while vacancies are distributed in the two crystal planes. The size of the computational cell is 20000 atoms and periodic boundary conditions are used in two dimensions. Vacancies are assumed immobile whereas interstitials are given a certain mobility. Two point defect sinks are considered, direct recombination of Frenkel pairs and interstitial clusters. The clusters are assumed to be mobile up to a certain size where they are presumed to become loop nuclei. Clusters can shrink by emission of singly bonded interstitials or by recombination of a peripheral interstitial with a neighboring vacancy. The conditions under which interstitial clustering occurs are reported. It is shown that when clustering occurs the cluster size population gradually shifts towards the largest size cluster. The implications of the present results for irradiation growth and irradiation-induced amorphization are discussed

  10. Cluster dynamics modeling and experimental investigation of the effect of injected interstitials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaut, B.; Jourdan, T.; Malaplate, J.; Renault-Laborne, A.; Sefta, F.; Décamps, B.

    2017-12-01

    The effect of injected interstitials on loop and cavity microstructures is investigated experimentally and numerically for 304L austenitic stainless steel irradiated at 450 °C with 10 MeV Fe5+ ions up to about 100 dpa. A cluster dynamics model is parametrized on experimental results obtained by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in a region where injected interstitials can be safely neglected. It is then used to model the damage profile and study the impact of self-ion injection. Results are compared to TEM observations on cross-sections of specimens. It is shown that injected interstitials have a significant effect on cavity density and mean size, even in the sink-dominated regime. To quantitatively match the experimental data in the self-ions injected area, a variation of some parameters is necessary. We propose that the fraction of freely migrating species may vary as a function of depth. Finally, we show that simple rate theory considerations do not seem to be valid for these experimental conditions.

  11. Effect of subsurface Ti-interstitials on the bonding of small gold clusters on rutile TiO2(110)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Georg; Hammer, Bjørk

    2009-01-01

    The density functional theory is used to examine the electronic structure of small Au clusters, supported on rutile TiO2(110) surfaces having subsurface Ti-interstitials. The interstitials reduce the surface and we find that negatively charged gold clusters are stabilized with respect to the stoi...

  12. The effects of self-interstitial clusters on cascade defect evolution beyond the primary damage state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinisch, H.L.

    1997-01-01

    The intracascade evolution of the defect distributions of cascades in copper is investigated using stochastic annealing simulations applied to cascades generated with molecular dynamics (MD). The temperature and energy dependencies of annihilation, clustering and free defect production are determined for individual cascades. The annealing simulation results illustrate the strong influence on intracascade evolution of the defect configuration existing in the primary damage state. Another factor significantly affecting the evolution of the defect distribution is the rapid one-dimensional diffusion of small, glissile interstitial loops produced directly in cascades. This phenomenon introduces a cascade energy dependence of defect evolution that is apparent only beyond the primary damage state, amplifying the need for further study of the annealing phase of cascade evolution and for performing many more MD cascade simulations at higher energies

  13. Cluster-Bethe-lattice treatment of the interstitial boron centre in irradiated gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleinert, P. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Berlin. Zentralinstitut fuer Elektronenphysik)

    1984-08-01

    The radiation-induced interstitial defect B(1) in GaAs is theoretically analysed by a cluster-Bethe lattice treatment. Theoretical results obtained for a B-Ga dumbbell in gallium arsenide agree quite well with experimental data. The dumbbell coupling is about three times stiffer than the bonds between host-lattice atoms. The separation of the dumbbell atoms amounts to one lattice constant. Due to the isotopy of gallium atoms all B(1) bands should exhibit a double-peak structure with a small frequency split of about 1, 0.1, and 0.4 cm/sup -1/ for the A/sub 1/, B/sub 1/, and B/sub 2/ modes, respectively. A resolution of these splittings would supply additional evidence for the B(1) defect model discussed here.

  14. The effects of one-dimensional glide on the reaction kinetics of interstitial clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinisch, H.L.; Singh, B.N.; Golubov, S.I.

    2000-01-01

    is therefore 'mixed 1D/3D migration' along a 3D path consisting of 1D segments, The defect reaction kinetics under mixed 1D/3D diffusion are different from pure 1D diffusion and pure 3D diffusion, both of which can be formulated within analytical rate theory models of microstructure evolution under irradiation....... Atomic-scale kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) defect migration simulations are used to investigate the effects of mixed 1D/3D migration on defect reaction kinetics as a guide for implementing mixed 1D/3D migration into the analytical rate theory. The functional dependence of the sink strength on the size......Collision cascades in metals produce small interstitial clusters and perfect dislocation loops that glide in thermally activated one-dimensional (1D) random walks. These gliding defects can change their Burgers vectors by thermal activation or by interactions with other defects. Their migration...

  15. Ethical implications of excessive cluster sizes in cluster randomised trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming, Karla; Taljaard, Monica; Forbes, Gordon; Eldridge, Sandra M; Weijer, Charles

    2018-02-20

    The cluster randomised trial (CRT) is commonly used in healthcare research. It is the gold-standard study design for evaluating healthcare policy interventions. A key characteristic of this design is that as more participants are included, in a fixed number of clusters, the increase in achievable power will level off. CRTs with cluster sizes that exceed the point of levelling-off will have excessive numbers of participants, even if they do not achieve nominal levels of power. Excessively large cluster sizes may have ethical implications due to exposing trial participants unnecessarily to the burdens of both participating in the trial and the potential risks of harm associated with the intervention. We explore these issues through the use of two case studies. Where data are routinely collected, available at minimum cost and the intervention poses low risk, the ethical implications of excessively large cluster sizes are likely to be low (case study 1). However, to maximise the social benefit of the study, identification of excessive cluster sizes can allow for prespecified and fully powered secondary analyses. In the second case study, while there is no burden through trial participation (because the outcome data are routinely collected and non-identifiable), the intervention might be considered to pose some indirect risk to patients and risks to the healthcare workers. In this case study it is therefore important that the inclusion of excessively large cluster sizes is justifiable on other grounds (perhaps to show sustainability). In any randomised controlled trial, including evaluations of health policy interventions, it is important to minimise the burdens and risks to participants. Funders, researchers and research ethics committees should be aware of the ethical issues of excessively large cluster sizes in cluster trials. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  16. Structures, Interconversions, and Spectroscopy of Iron Carbonyl Clusters with an Interstitial Carbide: Localized Metal Center Reduction by Overall Cluster Oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppuswamy, Subramaniam; Wofford, Joshua D; Joseph, Chris; Xie, Zhu-Lin; Ali, Azim K; Lynch, Vincent M; Lindahl, Paul A; Rose, Michael J

    2017-05-15

    The syntheses, interconversions, and spectroscopic properties of a set of iron carbonyl clusters containing an interstitial carbide are reported. This includes the low temperature X-ray structures of the six-iron clusters (Y) 2 [Fe 6 (μ 6 -C)(μ 2 -CO) 4 (CO) 12 ] (1a-c; where Y = NMe 4 , NEt 4 , PPh 4 ); the five-iron cluster [Fe 5 (μ 5 -C)(CO) 15 ] (3); and the novel formulation of the five-iron cluster (NMe 4 ) 2 [Fe 5 (μ 5 -C)(μ 2 -CO)(CO) 13 ] (4). Also included in this set is the novel charge-neutral cluster, [Fe 6 (μ 6 -C)(CO) 18 ] (2), for which we were unable to obtain a crystallographic structure. As synthetic proof for the identity of 2, we performed a closed loop of interconversions within a family of crystallographically defined species (1, 3, and 4): [Fe 6 ] 2- → [Fe 6 ] 0 → [Fe 5 ] 0 → [Fe 5 ] 2- → [Fe 6 ] 2- . The structural, spectroscopic, and electronic properties of this "missing link" cluster 2 were investigated by IR, Raman, XPS, and Mössbauer spectroscopies-as well as by DFT calculations. A single ν CO feature (1965 cm -1 ) in the IR spectrum of 2, as well as a prominent Raman feature (ν symm = 1550 cm -1 ), are consistent with the presence of terminal carbonyls and a {(μ 6 -C)Fe 6 } arrangement of iron centers around the central carbide. The XPS of 2 exhibits a higher energy Fe 2p 3/2 feature (707.4 eV) as compared to that of 1 (705.5 eV), consistent with the two-electron oxidation induced by treatment of 1 with two equivalents of [Fc](PF 6 ) under CO atmosphere (for the two added CO ligands). DFT calculations indicate two axial and four equatorial Fe sites in 1, all of which have the same or similar oxidation states, for example, two Fe(0) and four Fe(+0.5). These assignments are supported by Mössbauer spectra for 1, which exhibit two closely spaced quadrupole doublets with δ = 0.076 and 0.064 mm s -1 . The high-field Mössbauer spectrum of 2 (4.2 K) exhibits three prominent quadrupole doublets with δ = -0.18, -0.11, and

  17. Empirical potential and elasticity theory modelling of interstitial dislocation loops in UO2 for cluster dynamics application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le-Prioux, Arno

    2017-01-01

    During irradiation in reactor, the microstructure of UO 2 changes and deteriorates, causing modifications of its physical and mechanical properties. The kinetic models used to describe these changes such as cluster dynamics (CRESCENDO calculation code) consider the main microstructural elements that are cavities and interstitial dislocation loops, and provide a rather rough description of the loop thermodynamics. In order to tackle this issue, this work has led to the development of a thermodynamic model of interstitial dislocation loops based on empirical potential calculations. The model considers two types of interstitial dislocation loops on two different size domains: Type 1: Dislocation loops similar to Frank partials in F.C.C. materials which are stable in the smaller size domain. Type 2: Perfect dislocation loops of Burgers vector (a/2)(110) stable in the larger size domain. The analytical formula used to compute the interstitial dislocation loop formation energies is the one for circular loops which has been modified in order to take into account the effects of the dislocation core, which are significant at smaller sizes. The parameters have been determined by empirical potential calculations of the formation energies of prismatic pure edge dislocation loops. The effect of the habit plane reorientation on the formation energies of perfect dislocation loops has been taken into account by a simple interpolation method. All the different types of loops seen during TEM observations are thus accounted for by the model. (author) [fr

  18. The Effects of One-Dimensional Glide on the Reaction Kinetics of Interstitial Clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinisch, Howard L.; Singh, B N.; Golubov, S I.

    2000-01-01

    Collision cascades in metals produce small interstitial clusters and perfect dislocation loops that glide in thermally activated one-dimensional (1D) random walks. These gliding defects can change their Burgers vectors by thermal activation or by interactions with other defects. Their migration is therefore''mixed 1D/3D migration'' along a 3D path consisting of 1D segments. The defect reaction kinetics under mixed 1D/3D diffusion are different from pure 1D diffusion and pure 3D diffusion, both of which can be formulated within analytical rate theory models of microstructure evolution under irradiation. Atomic-scale kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) defect migration simulations are used to investigate the effects of mixed 1D/3D migration on defect reaction kinetics as a guide for implementing mixed 1D/3D migration into the analytical rate theory. The functional dependence of the sink strength on the sixe and concentration of sinks under mixed 1D/3D migration is shown to lie between that for pure 1D and pure 3D migration and varies with L, the average distance between direction changes of the gliding defects. It is shown that the sink strength in simulations for spherical sinks of radius R under mixed 1D/3D migration for values of L greater than R can be approximated by an expression that varies directly as R2. For small L, the form of the transition from mixed 1D/3D to pure 3D diffusion as L decreases is demonstrated in the simulations, the results of which can be used in the future development of an analytical expression describing this transition region

  19. Water in hydroxyapatite nanopores: Possible implications for interstitial bone fluid flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, T; Pham, T T; Capiez-Lernout, E; de Leeuw, N H; Naili, S

    2015-09-18

    The role of bone water in the activity of this organ is essential in structuring apatite crystals, providing pathways for nutrients and waste involved in the metabolism of bone cells and participating in bone remodelling mechanotransduction. It is commonly accepted that bone presents three levels of porosity, namely the vasculature, the lacuno-canalicular system and the voids of the collagen-apatite matrix. Due to the observation of bound state of water at the latter level, the interstitial nanoscopic flow that may exist within these pores is classically neglected. The aim of this paper is to investigate the possibility to obtain a fluid flow at the nanoscale. That is why a molecular dynamics based analysis of a water-hydroxyapatite system is proposed to analyze the effect of water confinement on transport properties. The main result here is that free water can be observed inside hydroxyapatite pores of a few nanometers. This result would have strong implications in the multiscale treatment of the poromechanical behaviour of bone tissue. In particular, the mechanical properties of the bone matrix may be highly controlled by nanoscopic water diffusion and the classical idea that osteocytic activity is only regulated by bone fluid flow within the lacuno-canalicular system may be discussed again. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Implications of defect clusters formed in cascades on free defect generation and microstructural development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedersich, H.

    1992-12-01

    A large fraction of the defects produced by irradiation with energetic neutrons or heavy ions originates in cascades. Not only increased recombination of vacancy and interstitial defects but also significant clustering of like defects occur. Both processes reduce the number of point defects available for long range migration. Consequences of defect clustering in cascades will be discussed in a semi-quantitative form with the aid of calculations using a very simplified model: Quasi-steady-state distributions of immobile vacancy and/or interstitial clusters develop which, in turn, can become significant sinks for mobile defects, and, therefore reduce their lifetime. Although cluster sinks will cause segregation and, potentially, precipitation of second phases due to local changes of composition, the finite lifetime of clusters will not lead to lasting, local compositional changes. A transition from highly dense interstitial and vacancy cluster distributions to the void swelling regime occurs when the thermal evaporation of vacancies from small vacancy clusters becomes significant at higher temperatures. Unequal clustering of vacancies and interstitials leads to an imbalance of their fluxes of in the matrix and, hence, to unequal contributions to atom transport by interstitials and by vacancies even in the quasi-steady state approximation

  1. Clustered impacts - Experiments and implications. [cratering mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, P. H.; Gault, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    The characteristics of impact by clusters of projectiles are experimentally studied by launching grouped projectiles of aluminum shot, steel shot, iron filings, and sand. Cratering efficiency is considered as a function of a dimensionless parameter related to projectile size and impact velocity. The effects of different target and projectile densities on cratering efficiency are examined. Crater morphology is addressed by considering a typical example, reviewing the systematics between cluster dispersion and crater morphology for vertical impacts, and examining oblique angle impacts which have relevance for planetary secondary cratering processes. These results are compared with impacts by single bodies with different strengths. The evolution of the ejecta plume for clustered impacts is compared to that for single-body impacts for vertical and oblique impacts from 1.3 to 1.8 km/s. The experimental results are discussed in the context of planetary surface processes, emphasizing processes in an atmosphere-free environment and secondary impact cratering.

  2. Implications of using thermocouple thermometry in 27 MHz capacitively coupled interstitial hyperthermia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crezee, J.; van der Koijk, J. F.; Kaatee, R. S.; Lagendijk, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    The 27 MHz Multi Electrode Current Source (MECS) interstitial hyperthermia system uses segmented electrodes, 10-20 mm long, to steer the 3D power deposition. This power control at a scale of 1-2 cm requires detailed and accurate temperature feedback data. To this end seven-point thermocouples are

  3. Molecular dynamics simulations of the interaction between 60 deg. dislocation and self-interstitial cluster in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Yuhang; Meng Qingyuan; Zhao Wei

    2009-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to investigate the interaction between 60 deg. shuffle dislocation and tetrainterstitial (I 4 ) cluster in silicon, using Stillinger-Weber (SW) potential to calculate the interatomic forces. Based on Parrinello-Rahman method, shear stress is exerted on the model to move the dislocation. Simulation results show that the I 4 cluster can bend the dislocation line and delay the dislocation movement. During the course of intersection the dislocation line sections relatively far away from the I 4 cluster accelerate first, and then decelerate. The critical shear stress unpinning the 60 deg. dislocation from the I 4 cluster decreases as the temperature increases in the models.

  4. Interstitial Cystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bathroom at scheduled times and using relaxation techniques. Physical therapy. People who have interstitial cystitis may have painful spasms of pelvic floor muscles. If you have muscle spasms, you can ...

  5. Interstitial nephritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Allergic reaction to a drug (acute interstitial allergic nephritis). Autoimmune disorders, such as antitubular basement membrane disease, Kawasaki disease, Sjögren syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, or Wegener granulomatosis. Infections. Long-term use ...

  6. Clustering the objective interestingness measures based on tendency of variation in statistical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nghia Quoc Phan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the research cluster of objective interestingness measures has rapidly developed in order to assist users to choose the appropriate measure for their application. Researchers in this field mainly focus on three main directions: clustering based on the properties of the measures, clustering based on the behavior of measures and clustering tendency of variation in statistical implications. In this paper we propose a new approach to cluster the objective interestingness measures based on tendency of variation in statistical implications. In this proposal, we built the statistical implication data of 31 objective interestingness measures based on the examination of the partial derivatives on four parameters. From this data, two distance matrices of interestingness measures are established based on Euclidean and Manhattan distance. The similarity trees are built based on distance matrix that gave results of 31 measures clustering with two different clustering thresholds.

  7. Effect of thermal friction on the generation and transport of interstitial defects in irradiated metals

    CERN Document Server

    Dudarev, S L

    2002-01-01

    Generation of interstitial and vacancy defects under 14.1 MeV neutron irradiation is expected to drive the evolution of microstructure of materials in a future fusion power station. We investigate effects of thermal friction associated with the interaction between mobile clusters of interstitial atoms produced in collision cascades and phonon excitations. Phonons give rise to the random Brownian motion of clusters in the crystal lattice. Phonon excitations are also responsible for the dissipation of energy of rapidly moving clusters formed at the periphery of collision cascades. We investigate how the coefficient of thermal friction depends on the structure of clusters. We also discuss implications of our findings for understanding the origin of higher resistance of bcc metals to irradiation and the connection between this phenomenon and the long-range effect observed in experiments on ion implantation.

  8. Reactions of formic acid with protonated water clusters: Implications of cluster growth in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goken, E. G.; Castleman, A. W.

    2010-08-01

    Obtaining direct and detailed chemical information about the initial stages of nucleation continues to be a challenging task, but it is necessary for improved understanding of the growth process of particles in the atmosphere. To elucidate the role of organic molecules, specifically formic acid, in nucleation and particle growth, the present work uses a flow tube reactor to study formic acid-water interactions using water cluster distributions of 2-30 water molecules. The reactions studied herein are compared to methanol-water interactions to provide evidence of a change to the stable clathrate-like structure of the H+(H2O)21 "magic" cluster. Intensity ratios of the form R = I[H+(H2O)n]/I[H+(H2O)n+1] are used to identify prominent clusters in spectra containing pure water, methanol-water mixed clusters, and formic acid-water mixed clusters. Relative concentration flow rates of 12.5, 25, 50, and 125.5 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm) of formic acid were added to a pure water distribution, and the resultant spectra were compared to those from methanol relative concentrations of 25, 50, and 100 sccm. The formic acid-water mixed cluster distributions observed in these reactions do not contain a prominent peak in the intensity ratio graphs, indicating a disruption in the clathrate structure of the 21-molecule cluster while a prominent peak for 21-molecule cluster is observed in the methanol system. Also observed was an increase in intensity with increased cluster size, which indicates that formic acid-water mixed clusters could serve as a prenucleation embryo for the nucleation of water molecules and a possible particle growth pathway.

  9. Interstitial Granulomatous Dermatitis (IGD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiberiu Tebeica

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 42 years old male patient suffering from skin changes , which appeared in the last 7-8 years.  Two biopsies were performed during the evolution of the lesion. Both showed similar findings that consisted in a busy dermis with interstitial, superficial and deep infiltrates of lymphocytes and histiocytes dispersed among collagen bundles, with variable numbers of neutrophils scattered throughout. Some histiocytes were clustered in poorly formed granuloma that included rare giant cells, with discrete Palisades and piecemeal collagen degeneration, but without mucin deposition or frank necrobiosis of collagen. The clinical and histologic findings were supportive for interstitial granulomatous dermatitis. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis (IGD is a poorly understood entity that was regarded by many as belonging to the same spectrum of disease or even synonym with palisaded and neutrophilic granulomatous dermatitis (PNGD. Although IGD and PNGD were usually related to connective tissue disease, mostly rheumatoid arthritis, some patients with typical histologic findings of IGD never develop autoimmune disorders, but they have different underlying conditions, such as metabolic diseases, lymphoproliferative disorders or other malignant tumours. These observations indicate that IGD and PNGD are different disorders with similar manifestations.

  10. Telomere length in interstitial lung diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snetselaar, Reinier; Van Moorsel, Coline H M; Kazemier, Karin M.; Van Der Vis, Joanne J.; Zanen, Pieter; Van Oosterhout, Matthijs F M; Grutters, Jan C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a heterogeneous group of rare diseases that primarily affect the pulmonary interstitium. Studies have implicated a role for telomere length (TL) maintenance in ILD, particularly in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP). Here, we measure TL in a wide

  11. Interstitial Cystitis Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... frequency? You may have IC. Get The Facts Interstitial Cystitis Association The Interstitial Cystitis Association (ICA) is the ... news and events. Please leave this field empty Interstitial Cystitis Association 7918 Jones Branch Drive, Suite 300 McLean, ...

  12. Industrial clusters in the Finnish economy. Strategies and policy implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luukkainen, S.

    2001-04-01

    Technology is currently the most important determinant of the long-term economic growth as it explains for at least half of the growth of the industrialised nations. Economists have demonstrated that R and D performed by the innovating company generates widespread value in the economy through technology diffusion. The objective of the private financing is, however, to increase the value of the innovating company and the spillovers to other companies are there not so important. The market failure created by the R and D spillovers is thus one of the main justifications for government policies. The advancement of spillovers by government's actions can be called cluster policy. The objective of this study is to produce knowledge to support decision making in the realisation of an efficient cluster-oriented technology policy. The Finnish industrial clusters are identified by a quantitative value chain analysis, and their economic profiles are analysed. Also, a solid framework is presented that describes how to evaluate the economic impacts of a R and D project from the cluster policy point of view. The clusters should be seen as a technology policy tools, by which the domestic industrial structures can be analysed and developed. In this kind of decision making it is important to understand the mechanisms of technology diffusion. Concrete technology policy occurs in the selection of the publicly financed R and D projects. In the selection of the supported-projects it is crucial to evaluate the economic impacts of project proposals in advance. That is why economic indicators like measures of spillovers are needed The governments should fund R and D projects that have the highest social rate of return and would otherwise be underfunded or delayed. (orig.)

  13. [Interstitial lung diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, K; Brasch, F

    2008-11-01

    Interstitial lung diseases comprise a heterogeneous group of about 200 entities. In the classification of these diseases, diffuse parenchymal lung diseases with known cause, granulomatous diseases, and other specific interstitial lung diseases are separated from the important group of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, which are classified according to the 2002 ATS/ERS consensus classification. Concerning the histological pattern, this classification differentiates between "usual interstitial pneumonia" (UIP), "nonspecific interstitial pneumonia" (NSIP), "organising pneumonia" (COP), "diffuse alveolar damage" (DAD), "respiratory bronchiolitis" (RB), "desquamative interstitial pneumonia" (DIP), "lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia" (LIP) and "unclassifiable interstitial pneumonias". A key message of this classification is that the pathologist will give the diagnosis of a histological pattern, whereas the final clinicopathologic diagnosis can be made only by the clinical pulmonologist after careful correlation with the clinical and radiologic features, which is essential in the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases.

  14. Imaging focal and interstitial fibrosis with cardiovascular magnetic resonance in athletes with left ventricular hypertrophy: implications for sporting participation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Waterhouse, Deirdre F

    2012-11-01

    Long-term high-intensity physical activity is associated with morphological changes, termed as the \\'athlete\\'s heart\\'. The differentiation of physiological cardiac adaptive changes in response to high-level exercise from pathological changes consistent with an inherited cardiomyopathy is imperative. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging allows definition of abnormal processes occurring at the tissue level, including, importantly, myocardial fibrosis. It is therefore vital in accurately making this differentiation. In this review, we will review the role of CMR imaging of fibrosis, and detail CMR characterisation of myocardial fibrosis in various cardiomyopathies, and the implications of fibrosis. Additionally, we will outline advances in imaging fibrosis, in particular T1 mapping. Finally we will address the role of CMR in pre-participation screening.

  15. Interstitial Lung Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interstitial lung disease is the name for a large group of diseases that inflame or scar the lungs. The inflammation and ... is responsible for some types of interstitial lung diseases. Specific types include Black lung disease among coal ...

  16. Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Clusters in Latin America Natural Resource – Implication and Future Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomás Bas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural resources play a very important role in the economy of the Latin America countries, but follow the classical models of resource exploitation and scale do not add much more value to the products or services like other knowledge-based industries (biotechnology or IT. The cluster approach assembled around the pattern of innovation and entrepreneurship characteristics can help to improve these kinds of industries. Nevertheless, the “Natural Resource Clusters” have a particular task and they are based primary in environmental characteristics. However, this type of clusters is very different from “Technology Clusters” with a high innovation and entrepreneurship structure that needs explicitly more intellectual capacities and non-specific environmental characteristics. The authors suggest that in Latin America, clusters, innovation and entrepreneurship based in the natural resources has a supplementary significance, but they need add much value based in the knowledge. This article discuss the challenge of Latin American economies and the implication to transform the natural resources based industries in others with more innovation and knowledge based assets and shows a framework based on Chile’s particular experiences on salmon; wine and mining industries. Economics implications and future research are discussed.

  17. Oxidative atom-transfer to a trimanganese complex to form Mn6(μ6-E) (E = O, N) clusters featuring interstitial oxide and nitride functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fout, Alison R; Zhao, Qinliang; Xiao, Dianne J; Betley, Theodore A

    2011-10-26

    Utilizing a hexadentate ligand platform, a trinuclear manganese complex of the type ((H)L)Mn(3)(thf)(3) was synthesized and characterized ([(H)L](6-) = [MeC(CH(2)N(C(6)H(4)-o-NH))(3)](6-)). The pale-orange, formally divalent trimanganese complex rapidly reacts with O-atom transfer reagents to afford the μ(6)-oxo complex ((H)L)(2)Mn(6)(μ(6)-O)(NCMe)(4), where two trinuclear subunits bind the central O-atom and the ((H)L) ligands cooperatively bind both trinuclear subunits. The trimanganese complex ((H)L)Mn(3)(thf)(3) rapidly consumes inorganic azide ([N(3)]NBu(4)) to afford a dianionic hexanuclear nitride complex [((H)L)(2)Mn(6)(μ(6)-N)](NBu(4))(2), which subsequently can be oxidized with elemental iodine to ((H)L)(2)Mn(6)(μ(6)-N)(NCMe)(4). EPR and alkylation of the interstitial light atom substituent were used to distinguish the nitride from the oxo complex. The oxo and oxidized nitride complexes give rise to well-defined Mn(II) and Mn(III) sites, determined by bond valence summation, while the dianionic nitride shows a more symmetric complex, giving rise to indistinguishable ion oxidation states based on crystal structure bond metrics.

  18. Annihilating vacancies via dynamic reflection and emission of interstitials in nano-crystal tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangyan; Duan, Guohua; Xu, Yichun; Zhang, Yange; Liu, Wei; Liu, C. S.; Liang, Yunfeng; Chen, Jun-Ling; Luo, G.-N.

    2017-11-01

    Radiation damage not only seriously degrades the mechanical properties of tungsten (W) but also enhances hydrogen retention in the material. Introducing a large amount of defect sinks, e.g. grain boundaries (GBs) is an effective method for improving radiation-resistance of W. However, the mechanism by which the vacancies are dynamically annihilated at long timescale in nano-crystal W is still not clear. The dynamic picture for eliminating vacancies with single interstitials and small interstitial-clusters has been investigated by combining molecular dynamics, molecular statics and object Kinetic Monte Carlo methods. On one hand, the annihilation of bulk vacancies was enhanced due to the reflection of an interstitial-cluster of parallel ≤ftright> crowdions by the GB. The interstitial-cluster was observed to be reflected back into the grain interior when approaching a locally dense GB region. Near this region, the energy landscape for the interstitial was featured by a shoulder, different to the decreasing energy landscape of the interstitial near a locally loose region as indicative of the sink role of the GB. The bulk vacancy on the reflection path was annihilated. On the other hand, the dynamic interstitial emission efficiently anneals bulk vacancies. The single interstitial trapped at the GB firstly moved along the GB quickly and clustered to be the di-interstitial therein, reducing its mobility to a value comparable to that that for bulk vacancy diffusion. Then, the bulk vacancy was recombined via the coupled motion of the di-interstitial along the GB, the diffusion of the vacancy towards the GB and the accompanying interstitial emission. These results suggest that GBs play an efficient role in improving radiation-tolerance of nano-crystal W via reflecting highly-mobile interstitials and interstitial-clusters into the bulk and annihilating bulk vacancies, and via complex coupling of in-boundary interstitial diffusion, clustering of the interstitial and vacancy

  19. clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-09-27

    Sep 27, 2017 ... while CuCoNO, Co3NO, Cu3CoNO, Cu2Co3NO, Cu3Co3NO and Cu6CoNO clusters display stronger chemical stability. Magnetic and electronic properties are also discussed. The magnetic moment is affected by charge transfer and the spd hybridization. Keywords. CumConNO (m + n = 2–7) clusters; ...

  20. Interstitial guidance of cancer invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsenko, Pavlo G; Ilina, Olga; Friedl, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Cancer cell invasion into healthy tissues develops preferentially along pre-existing tracks of least resistance, followed by secondary tissue remodelling and destruction. The tissue scaffolds supporting or preventing guidance of invasion vary in structure and molecular composition between organs. In the brain, the guidance is provided by myelinated axons, astrocyte processes, and blood vessels which are used as invasion routes by glioma cells. In the human breast, containing interstitial collagen-rich connective tissue, disseminating breast cancer cells preferentially invade along bundled collagen fibrils and the surface of adipocytes. In both invasion types, physical guidance prompted by interfaces and space is complemented by molecular guidance. Generic mechanisms shared by most, if not all, tissues include (i) guidance by integrins towards fibrillar interstitial collagen and/or laminins and type IV collagen in basement membranes decorating vessels and adipocytes, and, likely, CD44 engaging with hyaluronan; (ii) haptotactic guidance by chemokines and growth factors; and likely (iii) physical pushing mechanisms. Tissue-specific, resticted guidance cues include ECM proteins with restricted expression (tenascins, lecticans), cell-cell interfaces, and newly secreted matrix molecules decorating ECM fibres (laminin-332, thrombospondin-1, osteopontin, periostin). We here review physical and molecular guidance mechanisms in interstitial tissue and brain parenchyma and explore shared principles and organ-specific differences, and their implications for experimental model design and therapeutic targeting of tumour cell invasion. Copyright © 2011 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. cluster

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    has been investigated electrochemically in positive and negative microenvironments, both in solution and in film. Charge nature around the active centre ... in plants, bacteria and also in mammals. This cluster is also an important constituent of a ..... selection of non-cysteine amino acid in the active centre of Rieske proteins.

  2. Velo-cardio-facial and partial DiGeorge phenotype in a child with interstitial deletion at 10p13 - implications for cytogenetics and molecular biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipson, A.; Sholler, G.; Issacs, D. [Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Sydney (Australia)] [and others

    1996-11-11

    We report on a female with a interstitial deletion of 10p13 and a phenotype similar to that seen with the 22q deletion syndromes (DiGeorge/velo-cardio-facial). She had a posterior cleft palate, perimembranous ventricular septal defect, dyscoordinate swallowing, T-cell subset abnormalities, small ears, maxillary and mandibular hypoplasia, broad nasal bridge, deficient alae nasi, contractures of fingers and developmental delay. This could indicate homology of some developmental genes at 22q and 10p so that patients with the velocardiofacial phenotype who do not prove to be deleted on 22q are candidates for a 10p deletion. 58 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Acute interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuervo M, Francisco; Carrillo Bayona, Jorge; Ojeda, Paulina

    2004-01-01

    The paper refers to a 71 year-old patient, to who is diagnosed acute interstitial pneumonia; with square of 20 days of evolution of cough dry emetizant, fever, general uneasiness, migraine, progressive dyspnoea and lost of weight

  4. Interstitial Lung Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... grouped together under the label of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, the most common and deadly of which is idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Risk factors Factors that may make you more susceptible to ...

  5. Ab initio analysis of a vacancy and a self-interstitial near single crystal silicon surfaces: Implications for intrinsic point defect incorporation during crystal growth from a melt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiyama, Eiji; Sueoka, Koji [Department of Communication Engineering, Okayama Prefectural University, 111 Kuboki, Soja, Okayama 719-1197 (Japan); Vanhellemont, Jan [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S1, Gent 9000 (Belgium)

    2012-10-15

    The microscopic model of the Si (001) crystal surface was investigated by first principles calculations to clarify the behavior of intrinsic point defects near crystal surfaces. A c(4 x 2) structure model was used to describe the crystal surface in contact with vacuum. The calculations show lower formation energy near the surface and the existence of formation energy differences between the surface and the bulk for both types of intrinsic point defects. The tetrahedral (T)-site and the dumbbell (DB)-site, in which a Si atom is captured from the surface and forms a self-interstitial, are found as stable sites near the third atomic layer. The T-site has a barrier of 0.48 eV, whereas the DB-site has no barrier for the interstitial to penetrate into the crystal from the vacuum. Si atoms in a melt can migrate and reach at the third layer during crystal growth when bulk diffusion coefficient is used. Therefore, the melt/solid interface is always a source of intrinsic point defects. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. MicroRNAs located in the Hox gene clusters are implicated in huntington's disease pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew G Hoss

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Transcriptional dysregulation has long been recognized as central to the pathogenesis of Huntington's disease (HD. MicroRNAs (miRNAs represent a major system of post-transcriptional regulation, by either preventing translational initiation or by targeting transcripts for storage or for degradation. Using next-generation miRNA sequencing in prefrontal cortex (Brodmann Area 9 of twelve HD and nine controls, we identified five miRNAs (miR-10b-5p, miR-196a-5p, miR-196b-5p, miR-615-3p and miR-1247-5p up-regulated in HD at genome-wide significance (FDR q-value<0.05. Three of these, miR-196a-5p, miR-196b-5p and miR-615-3p, were expressed at near zero levels in control brains. Expression was verified for all five miRNAs using reverse transcription quantitative PCR and all but miR-1247-5p were replicated in an independent sample (8HD/8C. Ectopic miR-10b-5p expression in PC12 HTT-Q73 cells increased survival by MTT assay and cell viability staining suggesting increased expression may be a protective response. All of the miRNAs but miR-1247-5p are located in intergenic regions of Hox clusters. Total mRNA sequencing in the same samples identified fifteen of 55 genes within the Hox cluster gene regions as differentially expressed in HD, and the Hox genes immediately adjacent to the four Hox cluster miRNAs as up-regulated. Pathway analysis of mRNA targets of these miRNAs implicated functions for neuronal differentiation, neurite outgrowth, cell death and survival. In regression models among the HD brains, huntingtin CAG repeat size, onset age and age at death were independently found to be inversely related to miR-10b-5p levels. CAG repeat size and onset age were independently inversely related to miR-196a-5p, onset age was inversely related to miR-196b-5p and age at death was inversely related to miR-615-3p expression. These results suggest these Hox-related miRNAs may be involved in neuroprotective response in HD. Recently, miRNAs have shown promise as

  7. The Malaysian Intermodal Terminal System: The Implication on the Malaysian Maritime Cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Rosni Othman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The maritime sector in Malaysia is best known globally due to the Straits of Malacca and being a nation surrounded by sea. Malaysia also has a substantial maritime industry consisting of numerous shipyards, ports and terminal faculties, ship services and a plethora of other companies and institutions with maritime oriented activities and become essential components of the Malaysia's maritime clusters. Issues such as underutilised intermodal terminals, uneven proportions in the freight transport infrastructure and road and seaport congestions prevent Malaysian seaports from achieving their full potential in serving their respective hinterlands. The key factors to improve Malaysian dry port or intermodal terminals are transport network; container planning; competition; location and, externalities. The paper does not only present the critical challenges faced by Malaysian intermodal terminals especially dry ports and the implications for seaport competency but it also provides strategies to utilise the Malaysian freight multimodal system to amplify seaports
tm performance in serving their hinterlands. As such, this may warrant policy makers to devise a comprehensive national master plan for the maritime sector in order for Malaysia to further develop her maritime industry and economies.

  8. Model-based clustering with certainty estimation: implication for clade assignment of influenza viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shunpu; Li, Zhong; Beland, Kevin; Lu, Guoqing

    2016-07-21

    Clustering is a common technique used by molecular biologists to group homologous sequences and study evolution. There remain issues such as how to cluster molecular sequences accurately and in particular how to evaluate the certainty of clustering results. We presented a model-based clustering method to analyze molecular sequences, described a subset bootstrap scheme to evaluate a certainty of the clusters, and showed an intuitive way using 3D visualization to examine clusters. We applied the above approach to analyze influenza viral hemagglutinin (HA) sequences. Nine clusters were estimated for high pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza, which agree with previous findings. The certainty for a given sequence that can be correctly assigned to a cluster was all 1.0 whereas the certainty for a given cluster was also very high (0.92-1.0), with an overall clustering certainty of 0.95. For influenza A H7 viruses, ten HA clusters were estimated and the vast majority of sequences could be assigned to a cluster with a certainty of more than 0.99. The certainties for clusters, however, varied from 0.40 to 0.98; such certainty variation is likely attributed to the heterogeneity of sequence data in different clusters. In both cases, the certainty values estimated using the subset bootstrap method are all higher than those calculated based upon the standard bootstrap method, suggesting our bootstrap scheme is applicable for the estimation of clustering certainty. We formulated a clustering analysis approach with the estimation of certainties and 3D visualization of sequence data. We analysed 2 sets of influenza A HA sequences and the results indicate our approach was applicable for clustering analysis of influenza viral sequences.

  9. Interstitial Cystitis / Painful Bladder Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vesicoureteral Reflux The Urinary Tract & How It Works Interstitial Cystitis (Painful Bladder Syndrome) View or Print All Sections Definition & Facts Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a chronic, or long-lasting, condition ...

  10. Tumor interstitial fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina; Olsen, Charlotta J.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) is a proximal fluid that, in addition to the set of blood soluble phase-borne proteins, holds a subset of aberrantly externalized components, mainly proteins, released by tumor cells and tumor microenvironment through various mechanisms, which include classical secr...

  11. Interstitial granulomatous dermatitis (IGD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tebeica, Tiberiu; Voicu, Cristiana; Patterson, James W.; Mangarov, Hristo; Lotti, T.; Wollina, Uwe; Lotti, Jacopo; França, Katlein; Batashki, Atanas; Tchernev, Georgi

    2017-01-01

    We report the case of a 42 years old male patient suffering from skin changes, which appeared in the last 7-8 years. Two biopsies were performed during the evolution of the lesion. Both showed similar findings that consisted in a busy dermis with interstitial, superficial and deep infiltrates of

  12. Collateral Damage: the Implications of Utrecht Star Cluster Astrophysics for Galaxy Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruijssen, J. M. D.

    2013-01-01

    Until the early 2000s, the research portfolio of the Astronomical Institute in Utrecht (SIU) did not include galaxy evolution. Somewhat serendipitously, this changed with the advent of the star cluster group. In only a few years, a simple framework was developed to describe and quantify the properties of dynamically evolving star cluster populations. Since then, the ‘Utrecht cluster disruption model’ has shown that the galactic environment plays an important role in setting the evolution of stellar clusters. From this simple result, it follows that cluster populations bear some imprint of the characteristics and histories of their host galaxies, and that star clusters can be used to trace galaxy evolution—an aim for which the Utrecht star cluster models were never designed, but which they are well-capable of fulfilling. I review some of the work in this direction, with a strong emphasis on the contributions from the SIU.

  13. Photoionization Models of NGC 2363 and Their Implications for the Ionizing Star Cluster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luridiana, Valentina; Peimbert, Manuel; Leitherer, Claus

    1999-12-01

    Using the photoionization code CLOUDY, we compute photoionization models for the giant extragalactic H II region NGC 2363 and compare them with optical observational data. We mainly focus on F(Hβ), Ne, EW(Hβ), and the ratios of I(λ5007), I(λ4363), I(λ3727), I(λ6300), I(λ6720), and I(λ4686) to I(Hβ). We discuss the variations of the emission spectra obtained with different input parameters. With low-metallicity models (Z=0.10 Zsolar) we were not able to reproduce the observed features of the spectrum. We review the implications of the λ4686 feature on the stellar population of NGC 2363, showing that it might indicate the presence of Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars, a fact that would conflict with the metallicity of the region. We suggest several possible solutions to this contradiction, such as inadequate stellar evolutionary tracks, a nonstandard star formation process, and a revised metallicity. Focusing on the last possibility, we further show that the disagreement can be satisfactorily overcome by allowing for spatial temperature fluctuations in the nebula. The presence of temperature fluctuations allows a self-consistent scenario, which naturally accounts for the origin of the fluctuations themselves as a result of injection of mechanical energy by W-R winds and supernova explosions. Accordingly, we show that the metallicity of NGC 2363 has most probably been underestimated and that a value of Z~=0.25 Zsolar is in better agreement with the observational data than the usually adopted value Z~=0.10 Zsolar. We further find that a star formation episode extended over a time interval of ~1.6 Myr gives a better fit than a strictly instantaneous burst. We also derive values for the slope and the high-mass end of the initial mass function, the age of the stellar cluster, and the total gaseous mass of the H II region.

  14. Serial changes and prognostic implications of CT findings in combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema: comparison with fibrotic idiopathic interstitial pneumonias alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Geewon; Kim, Ki Uk; Lee, Ji Won; Suh, Young Ju; Jeong, Yeon Joo

    2017-05-01

    Background Although fibrotic idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) alone and those combined with pulmonary emphysema are naturally progressive diseases, the process of deterioration and outcomes are variable. Purpose To evaluate and compare serial changes of computed tomography (CT) abnormalities and prognostic predictive factors in fibrotic IIPs alone and those combined with pulmonary emphysema. Material and Methods A total of 148 patients with fibrotic IIPs alone (82 patients) and those combined with pulmonary emphysema (66 patients) were enrolled. Semi-quantitative CT analysis was used to assess the extents of CT characteristics which were evaluated on initial and follow-up CT images. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess the effects of clinical and CT variables on survival. Results Significant differences were noted between fibrotic scores, as determined using initial CT scans, in the fibrotic IIPs alone (21.22 ± 9.83) and those combined with pulmonary emphysema groups (14.70 ± 7.28) ( P lung cancer was more prevalent ( P = 0.001) in the fibrotic IIPs combined with pulmonary emphysema group. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards analysis showed changes in the extent of GGO (hazard ratio, 1.056) and the presence of lung cancer (hazard ratio, 4.631) were predictive factors of poor survivals. Conclusion Although patients with fibrotic IIPs alone and those combined with pulmonary emphysema have similar mortalities, lung cancer was more prevalent in patients with fibrotic IIPs combined with pulmonary emphysema. Furthermore, changes in the extent of GGO and the presence of lung cancer were independent prognostic factors of poor survivals.

  15. Modeling of interstitial diffusion of ion-implanted boron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichko, O.I.; Knyazheva, N.V.

    2009-01-01

    A model of the interstitial diffusion of ion-implanted boron during rapid thermal annealing of silicon layers previously amorphized by implantation of germanium has been proposed. It is supposed that the boron interstitials are created continuously during annealing due to generation, dissolution, or rearrangement of the clusters of impurity atoms which are formed in the ion-implanted layers with impurity concentration above the solubility limit. The local elastic stresses arising due to the difference of boron atomic radius and atomic radius of silicon also contribute to the generation of boron interstitials. A simulation of boron redistribution during thermal annealing for 60 s at a temperature of 850 C has been carried out. The calculated profile agrees well with the experimental data. A number of the parameters of interstitial diffusion have been derived. In particular, the average migration length of nonequilibrium boron interstitials is equal to 12 nm. It was also obtained that approximately 1.94% of boron atoms were converted to the interstitial sites, participated in the fast interstitial migration, and then became immobile again transferring into a substitutional position or forming the electrically inactive complexes with crystal lattice defects. (authors)

  16. Interstitial lung diseases in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Lev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with interstitial lung diseases in children. It gives an update and the results of the authors’ observations of different forms of interstitial lung diseases. Particular emphasis is placed on hypersensitive pneumonitis as the most common nosological entity among childhood interstitial lung diseases. The authors followed up 186 children with hypersensitive pneumonitis. They present the most important clinical, functional, radiological, and immunological diagnostic signs of this disease and consider its prognosis. In addition, there is evidence for other rare forms of interstitial lung diseases (idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis, etc. in children. 

  17. IDCS J1426.5+3508: COSMOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS OF A MASSIVE, STRONG LENSING CLUSTER AT z = 1.75

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Fedeli, Cosimo; Mancone, Conor [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611-2055 (United States); Stanford, S. Adam; Zeimann, Greg [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Brodwin, Mark [Department of Physics, University of Missouri, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO 64110 (United States); Dey, Arjun [NOAO, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2012-07-10

    The galaxy cluster IDCS J1426.5+3508 at z = 1.75 is the most massive galaxy cluster yet discovered at z > 1.4 and the first cluster at this epoch for which the Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich effect has been observed. In this paper, we report on the discovery with Hubble Space Telescope imaging of a giant arc associated with this cluster. The curvature of the arc suggests that the lensing mass is nearly coincident with the brightest cluster galaxy, and the color is consistent with the arc being a star-forming galaxy. We compare the constraint on M{sub 200} based upon strong lensing with Sunyaev-Zel'Dovich results, finding that the two are consistent if the redshift of the arc is z {approx}> 3. Finally, we explore the cosmological implications of this system, considering the likelihood of the existence of a strongly lensing galaxy cluster at this epoch in a {Lambda}CDM universe. While the existence of the cluster itself can potentially be accommodated if one considers the entire volume covered at this redshift by all current high-redshift cluster surveys, the existence of this strongly lensed galaxy greatly exacerbates the long-standing giant arc problem. For standard {Lambda}CDM structure formation and observed background field galaxy counts this lens system should not exist. Specifically, there should be no giant arcs in the entire sky as bright in F814W as the observed arc for clusters at z {>=} 1.75, and only {approx}0.3 as bright in F160W as the observed arc. If we relax the redshift constraint to consider all clusters at z {>=} 1.5, the expected number of giant arcs rises to {approx}15 in F160W, but the number of giant arcs of this brightness in F814W remains zero. These arc statistic results are independent of the mass of IDCS J1426.5+3508. We consider possible explanations for this discrepancy.

  18. Interventional MR: interstitial therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogl, T.J.; Mack, M.G.; Straub, R.; Engelmann, K.; Eichler, K. [Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johann Wolfgang Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Mueller, P.K. [Department of Radiology, Virchow, Humboldt Univ. of Berlin (Germany)

    1999-10-01

    The rationale and results for interstitial therapies via interventional MRI in the treatment of tumors in various regions are presented. Different interstitial treatment techniques are presented based on varying technologies both for tumor ablation and treatment monitoring. Data are presented based on 335 patients, 29-84 years of age (mean age 59 years, 196 men and 139 women) with a total of 932 liver tumors, 16 head and neck tumors and 14 abdominal recurrent pelvic and lymphatic tumors. All lesions had been treated with MR-guided laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT) via 2516 laser applications and 1856 cannulations. Data in the literature are extremely varying depending on author experience, treatment technique, and the included patient material. In our patient material we were able to achieve a local tumor control of 96.7 % depending on the size of the tumorous lesion, the topographical relationship, and the applied laser parameters. The overall cumulative survival rate of patients with liver metastases was 45.74 months (median 40.97 months, 95 % confidence interval 31.42-50.52). The cumulative survival rate of the patient group with hepatic metastases of colorectal carcinoma was 42.71 months (median 39.33 months, 95 % confidence interval 33.26-45.37). In patients with head and neck tumors a relevant reduction in clinically relevant symptoms such as pain, swallowing disorders, or nervous compression was achieved in 11 of 15 patients treated with LITT. In 14 soft tissue tumors, such as pelvic tumor recurrence and lymph node metastases, a local tumor control was obtained in 68 % of lesions. Interstitial therapies under interventional MRI guidance, such as LITT, results in a high local tumor control with an improved survival rate. (orig.) With 7 figs., 28 refs.

  19. Interstitial line: sonographic finding in interstitial (cornual) ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, T E; Levi, C S; Dashefsky, S M; Holt, S C; Lindsay, D J

    1993-10-01

    To evaluate the relationship of the endometrial canal and decidua vera to the interstitial gestational sac and to determine if this relationship can be used to increase the predictive value of ultrasound (US) in the diagnosis of interstitial ectopic pregnancy. The US findings in 12 patients with interstitial ectopic pregnancy were reviewed. Radiologists also reviewed the cases of 40 patients with various diagnoses to assess the accuracy of the interstitial line sign. US showed a definite gestational sac in four of the 12 patients (33%); the rest had a heterogeneous mass in the cornual region. Thinning of the myometrial mantle was seen in these four patients. The gestational sac appeared eccentric in three of these but in only three of 12 (25%) overall. The endometrial canal or interstitial portion of the tube was identified in 11 of 12 patients (92%). The interstitial line had better sensitivity (80%) and specificity (98%) than eccentric gestational sac location (sensitivity, 40%; specificity, 88%) and myometrial thinning (sensitivity, 40%; specificity, 93%) for the diagnosis of interstitial ectopic pregnancy. The interstitial line sign is a useful diagnostic sign of interstitial ectopic pregnancy.

  20. TESTING STRICT HYDROSTATIC EQUILIBRIUM IN SIMULATED CLUSTERS OF GALAXIES: IMPLICATIONS FOR A1689

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, S. M.; Umetsu, K.; Chiu, I.-N.; Chen, P.; Hearn, N.; Broadhurst, T.; Bryan, G.; Shang, C.

    2010-01-01

    Accurate mass determination of clusters of galaxies is crucial if they are to be used as cosmological probes. However, there are some discrepancies between cluster masses determined based on gravitational lensing and X-ray observations assuming strict hydrostatic equilibrium (i.e., the equilibrium gas pressure is provided entirely by thermal pressure). Cosmological simulations suggest that turbulent gas motions remaining from hierarchical structure formation may provide a significant contribution to the equilibrium pressure in clusters. We analyze a sample of massive clusters of galaxies drawn from high-resolution cosmological simulations and find a significant contribution (20%-45%) from non-thermal pressure near the center of relaxed clusters, and, in accord with previous studies, a minimum contribution at about 0.1 R vir , growing to about 30%-45% at the virial radius, R vir . Our results strongly suggest that relaxed clusters should have significant non-thermal support in their core region. As an example, we test the validity of strict hydrostatic equilibrium in the well-studied massive galaxy cluster A1689 using the latest high-resolution gravitational lensing and X-ray observations. We find a contribution of about 40% from non-thermal pressure within the core region of A1689, suggesting an alternate explanation for the mass discrepancy: the strict hydrostatic equilibrium is not valid in this region.

  1. Observation of small cluster formation in concentrated monoclonal antibody solutions and its implications to solution viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yearley, Eric J; Godfrin, Paul D; Perevozchikova, Tatiana; Zhang, Hailiang; Falus, Peter; Porcar, Lionel; Nagao, Michihiro; Curtis, Joseph E; Gawande, Pradad; Taing, Rosalynn; Zarraga, Isidro E; Wagner, Norman J; Liu, Yun

    2014-04-15

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are a major class of biopharmaceuticals. It is hypothesized that some concentrated mAb solutions exhibit formation of a solution phase consisting of reversibly self-associated aggregates (or reversible clusters), which is speculated to be responsible for their distinct solution properties. Here, we report direct observation of reversible clusters in concentrated solutions of mAbs using neutron spin echo. Specifically, a stable mAb solution is studied across a transition from dispersed monomers in dilute solution to clustered states at more concentrated conditions, where clusters of a preferred size are observed. Once mAb clusters have formed, their size, in contrast to that observed in typical globular protein solutions, is observed to remain nearly constant over a wide range of concentrations. Our results not only conclusively establish a clear relationship between the undesirable high viscosity of some mAb solutions and the formation of reversible clusters with extended open structures, but also directly observe self-assembled mAb protein clusters of preferred small finite size similar to that in micelle formation that dominate the properties of concentrated mAb solutions. Copyright © 2014 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Temperament clusters in a normal population: implications for health and disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaana Wessman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The object of this study was to identify temperament patterns in the Finnish population, and to determine the relationship between these profiles and life habits, socioeconomic status, and health. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cluster analysis of the Temperament and Character Inventory subscales was performed on 3,761 individuals from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 and replicated on 2,097 individuals from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns study. Clusters were formed using the k-means method and their relationship with 115 variables from the areas of life habits, socioeconomic status and health was examined. RESULTS: Four clusters were identified for both genders. Individuals from Cluster I are characterized by high persistence, low extravagance and disorderliness. They have healthy life habits, and lowest scores in most of the measures for psychiatric disorders. Cluster II individuals are characterized by low harm avoidance and high novelty seeking. They report the best physical capacity and highest level of income, but also high rate of divorce, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Individuals from Cluster III are not characterized by any extreme characteristic. Individuals from Cluster IV are characterized by high levels of harm avoidance, low levels of exploratory excitability and attachment, and score the lowest in most measures of health and well-being. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that the temperament subscales do not distribute randomly but have an endogenous structure, and that these patterns have strong associations to health, life events, and well-being.

  3. Evolution of defect cluster distributions during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedersich, H.

    1991-05-01

    Defects produced by irradiation are often strongly spatially correlated. Energetic primary recoil atoms produce cascades with vacant lattice sites predominantly in the central regions, and interstitial atoms at the periphery. A fraction of the defects produced form clusters during cascade events. Because of their spatial distribution more mobile interstitial atoms than vacancies are released into the matrix following the cascade events. Populations of vacancy and interstitial clusters evolve towards quasi-steady-state distributions. As long as vacancy clusters are thermally moderately stable, i.e., at temperatures below rapid self diffusion, an excess interstitial flux persists in the matrix; as a consequence, vacancy clusters formed in cascades shrink, and interstitial clusters grow. We examine the evolution of these cluster distributions, and their effects on sink strength and radiation-enhanced diffusion, as function of dose for irradiations at moderate temperatures. At temperatures at which thermal evaporation from vacancy clusters, can be neglected, the evolution of the cluster densities is characteristic of the primary recoil spectrum, but is independent of temperature or dose rate. The sink strength, radiation-enhanced diffusion, as well as other consequences of the evolving distributions such as the imbalance of the interstitial and vacancy fluxes in the matrix, approach slowly-changing quasi-steady-state values in a fraction of one displacement per atom, although certain details of the cluster distributions, e.g., the development of large interstitial loops, require several dpa's to approach steady state values. 22 refs., 6 figs

  4. Binary Black Hole Mergers from Globular Clusters: Implications for Advanced LIGO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Carl L; Morscher, Meagan; Pattabiraman, Bharath; Chatterjee, Sourav; Haster, Carl-Johan; Rasio, Frederic A

    2015-07-31

    The predicted rate of binary black hole mergers from galactic fields can vary over several orders of magnitude and is extremely sensitive to the assumptions of stellar evolution. But in dense stellar environments such as globular clusters, binary black holes form by well-understood gravitational interactions. In this Letter, we study the formation of black hole binaries in an extensive collection of realistic globular cluster models. By comparing these models to observed Milky Way and extragalactic globular clusters, we find that the mergers of dynamically formed binaries could be detected at a rate of ∼100 per year, potentially dominating the binary black hole merger rate. We also find that a majority of cluster-formed binaries are more massive than their field-formed counterparts, suggesting that Advanced LIGO could identify certain binaries as originating from dense stellar environments.

  5. Interstitial pregnancy: role of MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filhastre, M.; Lesnik, A.; Dechaud, H.; Taourel, P.

    2005-01-01

    We report the MRI features of two cases of interstitial pregnancy. In both cases, MRI was able to localize the ectopic pregnancy by showing a gestational structure surrounded by a thick wall in the upper part of the uterine wall separated from the endometrium by an uninterrupted junctional zone. Because US may confuse angular and interstitial pregnancies and because interstitial pregnancy has a particular evolutive course, MR imaging may play a key role in the diagnosis and management of women with interstitial pregnancy. (orig.)

  6. Ecosystem health pattern analysis of urban clusters based on emergy synthesis: Results and implication for management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Meirong; Fath, Brian D.; Yang, Zhifeng; Chen, Bin; Liu, Gengyuan

    2013-01-01

    The evaluation of ecosystem health in urban clusters will help establish effective management that promotes sustainable regional development. To standardize the application of emergy synthesis and set pair analysis (EM–SPA) in ecosystem health assessment, a procedure for using EM–SPA models was established in this paper by combining the ability of emergy synthesis to reflect health status from a biophysical perspective with the ability of set pair analysis to describe extensive relationships among different variables. Based on the EM–SPA model, the relative health levels of selected urban clusters and their related ecosystem health patterns were characterized. The health states of three typical Chinese urban clusters – Jing-Jin-Tang, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta – were investigated using the model. The results showed that the health status of the Pearl River Delta was relatively good; the health for the Yangtze River Delta was poor. As for the specific health characteristics, the Pearl River Delta and Yangtze River Delta urban clusters were relatively strong in Vigor, Resilience, and Urban ecosystem service function maintenance, while the Jing-Jin-Tang was relatively strong in organizational structure and environmental impact. Guidelines for managing these different urban clusters were put forward based on the analysis of the results of this study. - Highlights: • The use of integrated emergy synthesis and set pair analysis model was standardized. • The integrated model was applied on the scale of an urban cluster. • Health patterns of different urban clusters were compared. • Policy suggestions were provided based on the health pattern analysis

  7. Implications of Clustered Star-formation on the Thickness of Galactic Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroupa, Pavel

    When a star-cluster forms it looses a substantial part of it's stars as a result of residual gas-ejection which can be rapid in the presence of O stars. The unbound population expands as a stellar association with a velocity dispersion characterised by the configuration of the embedded cluster (Kroupa, Aarseth & Hurley 2001). Using this notion, the stellar distribution function is evaluated for an ensemble of co-eval star-clusters with masses distributed according to an initial cluster mass function (ICMF). Applying this scenario to the observed age-velocity dispersion of Galactic field stars, which rises more steeply with age than theoretical work accounts for (Fuchs et al. 2001), the variation of the ICMF with star-formation epoch is obtained. The strongest kinematical abnormality in the age-velocity-dispersion relation, the ancient thick disk, may indicate an epoch of vigorous star formation with an ICMF extending to moderately massive star clusters (105-106 Msolar), and may not be the result of kinematical heating through ``impacts'' of satellite galaxies into the early Milky Way disk. Perturbations of an early thin and gas-rich disk by passing satellites may be sufficient to induce a star-formation rate with the required level for the formation of such star-clusters. Fuchs B., Dettbarn C., Jahreiss H., Wielen R., 2001, in STAR2000: Dynamics of Star Clusters and the Milky Way, eds S. Deiters, B. Fuchs et al., ASP Conf. Series, in press (astro-ph/0009059) Kroupa P., Aarseth S.J., Hurley J.R., 2001, MNRAS, 321, 699

  8. Environmental injury to the kidney: Interstitial nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Chan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The First Emperor of China (Qin Shi Huang: 259–210 BCE would have been interested in interstitial nephritis. He might conceivably be fascinated to know that consumption of mercury elixir, instead of giving him immortality, might have shortened his life by giving him interstitial nephritis. In the Balkan region of Eastern Europe, clustering of a peculiar interstitial nephritis is prevalent. One environmental risk contributing to Balkan endemic nephritis is aristolochic acid contamination of cooking flour, drinking water, and herbal medicine. In addition, the popular use of nonprescription Chinese weight reduction herbs and public unawareness of the consequential aristolochic acid nephropathy has become a worldwide problem. Finally, the mighty Romans of antiquity lost their empire, arguably due to lead in their wine containers, lead water pipes, and lead cooking utensils. In modern times, lead paint has become universally banned, which has resulted in a reduction of lead-induced interstitial nephritis. In recent decades, bisphenol A (BPA has been identified as a new environmental risk. BPA is in the plastic coating of food and beverage containers to prevent corrosion. BPA is so ubiquitous that urinary BPA and proteinuria are present in a high percentage of the population. BPA-induced kidney injury and other health concerns have led certain countries to ban BPA. Now, BPA-free containers are being introduced with great fanfare by manufacturers, but safety issues on all plastic products remain. It begs the question whether “plastics” of today take the place of “lead” in ancient Rome. This is a challenging question without an answer at this point.

  9. Deformation band clusters on Mars and implications for subsurface fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okubo, C.H.; Schultz, R.A.; Chan, M.A.; Komatsu, G.

    2009-01-01

    High-resolution imagery reveals unprecedented lines of evidence for the presence of deformation band clusters in layered sedimentary deposits in the equatorial region of Mars. Deformation bands are a class of geologic structural discontinuity that is a precursor to faults in clastic rocks and soils. Clusters of deformation bands, consisting of many hundreds of individual subparallel bands, can act as important structural controls on subsurface fluid flow in terrestrial reservoirs, and evidence of diagenetic processes is often preserved along them. Deformation band clusters are identified on Mars based on characteristic meter-scale architectures and geologic context as observed in data from the High-Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera. The identification of deformation band clusters on Mars is a key to investigating the migration of fluids between surface and subsurface reservoirs in the planet's vast sedimentary deposits. Similar to terrestrial examples, evidence of diagenesis in the form of light- and dark-toned discoloration and wall-rock induration is recorded along many of the deformation band clusters on Mars. Therefore, these structures are important sites for future exploration and investigations into the geologic history of water and water-related processes on Mars. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  10. Electron Tomography of Nanoparticle Clusters: Implications for Atmospheric Lifetimes and Radiative Forcing of Soot

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanPoppel, Laura H.; Friedrich, Heiner; Spinsby, Jacob; Chung, Serena H.; Seinfeld, John H.; Buseck, Peter R.

    2005-01-01

    Nanoparticles are ubiquitous in nature. Their large surface areas and consequent chemical reactivity typically result in their aggregation into clusters. Their chemical and physical properties depend on cluster shapes, which are commonly complex and unknown. This is the first application of electron tomography with a transmission electron microscope to quantitatively determine the three-dimensional (3D) shapes, volumes, and surface areas of nanoparticle clusters. We use soot (black carbon, BC) nanoparticles as an example because it is a major contributor to environmental degradation and global climate change. To the extent that our samples are representative, we find that quantitative measurements of soot surface areas and volumes derived from electron tomograms differ from geometrically derived values by, respectively, almost one and two orders of magnitude. Global sensitivity studies suggest that the global burden and direct radiative forcing of fractal BC are only about 60% of the value if it is assumed that BC has a spherical shape.

  11. ENTROPY AT THE OUTSKIRTS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS AS IMPLICATIONS FOR COSMOLOGICAL COSMIC-RAY ACCELERATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Yutaka; Ohira, Yutaka; Yamazaki, Ryo

    2013-01-01

    Recently, gas entropy at the outskirts of galaxy clusters has attracted much attention. We propose that the entropy profiles could be used to study cosmic-ray (CR) acceleration around the clusters. If the CRs are effectively accelerated at the formation of clusters, the kinetic energy of infalling gas is consumed by the acceleration and the gas entropy should decrease. As a result, the entropy profiles become flat at the outskirts. If the acceleration is not efficient, the entropy should continue to increase outward. By comparing model predictions with X-ray observations with Suzaku, which show flat entropy profiles, we find that the CRs have carried ∼< 7% of the kinetic energy of the gas away from the clusters. Moreover, the CR pressure at the outskirts can be ∼< 40% of the total pressure. On the other hand, if the entropy profiles are not flat at the outskirts, as indicated by combined Plank and ROSAT observations, the carried energy and the CR pressure should be much smaller than the above estimations.

  12. Three Ancient Halo Subgiants: Precise Parallaxes, Compositions, Ages, and Implications for Globular Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    VandenBerg, Don A.; Bond, Howard E.; Nelan, Edmund P.

    2014-01-01

    very soon after the Big Bang. (Stellar models that neglect diffusive processes seem to be ruled out as they would predict that HD 140283 is ~1.5 Gyr older than the universe.) The field halo subgiants appear to be older than globular clusters of similar metallicities: if distances close to those implied...

  13. Infalling young clusters in the Galactic Centre: implications for IMBHs and young stellar populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petts, J. A.; Gualandris, A.

    2017-06-01

    The central parsec of the Milky Way hosts two puzzlingly young stellar populations, a tight isotropic distribution of B stars around SgrA* (the S-stars) and a disc of OB stars extending to ˜0.5 pc. Using a modified version of Sverre Aarseth's direct summation code nbody6, we explore the scenario in which a young star cluster migrates to the Galactic Centre within the lifetime of the OB disc population via dynamical friction. We find that star clusters massive and dense enough to reach the central parsec form a very massive star via physical collisions on a mass segregation time-scale. We follow the evolution of the merger product using the most up to date, yet conservative, mass-loss recipes for very massive stars. Over a large range of initial conditions, we find that the very massive star expels most of its mass via a strong stellar wind, eventually collapsing to form a black hole of mass ˜ 20-400 M⊙, incapable of bringing massive stars to the Galactic Centre. No massive intermediate mass black hole can form in this scenario. The presence of a star cluster in the central ˜10 pc within the last 15 Myr would also leave an ˜2 pc ring of massive stars, which is not currently observed. Thus, we conclude that the star cluster migration model is highly unlikely to be the origin of either young population, and in situ formation models or binary disruptions are favoured.

  14. Seismotectonic Implications Of Clustered Regional GPS Velocities In The San Francisco Bay Region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graymer, R. W.; Simpson, R.

    2012-12-01

    We have used a hierarchical agglomerative clustering algorithm with Euclidean distance and centroid linkage, applied to continuous GPS observations for the Bay region available from the U.S. Geological Survey website. This analysis reveals 4 robust, spatially coherent clusters that coincide with 4 first-order structural blocks separated by 3 major fault systems: San Andreas (SA), Southern/Central Calaveras-Hayward-Rodgers Creek-Maacama (HAY), and Northern Calaveras-Concord-Green Valley-Berryessa-Bartlett Springs (NCAL). Because observations seaward of the San Gregorio (SG) fault are few in number, the cluster to the west of SA may actually contain 2 major structural blocks not adequately resolved: the Pacific plate to the west of the northern SA and a Peninsula block between the Peninsula SA and the SG fault. The average inter-block velocities are 11, 10, and 9 mm/yr across SA, HAY, and NCAL respectively. There appears to be a significant component of fault-normal compression across NCAL, whereas SA and HAY faults appear to be, on regional average, purely strike-slip. The velocities for the Sierra Nevada - Great Valley (SNGV) block to the west of NCAL are impressive in their similarity. The cluster of these velocities in a velocity plot forms a tighter grouping compared with the groupings for the other cluster blocks, suggesting a more rigid behavior for this block than the others. We note that for 4 clusters, none of the 3 cluster boundaries illuminate geologic structures other than north-northwest trending dominantly strike-slip faults, so plate motion is not accommodated by large-scale fault-parallel compression or extension in the region or by significant plastic deformation , at least over the time span of the GPS observations. Complexities of interseismic deformation of the upper crust do not allow simple application of inter-block velocities as long-term slip rates on bounding faults. However, 2D dislocation models using inter-block velocities and typical

  15. Interstitial cystitis intravesical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Tanya; Xu, Jie Hua

    2017-07-01

    Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a progressive bladder disorder that presents with symptoms of bladder urgency, frequency and pain. The aetiology of the disease remains uncertain, but it is postulated that there is an initial infective insult which damages the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) layer of the bladder urothelium. This defect allows an influx of ions, particularly potassium, which initiates an inflammatory reaction in the bladder wall, which incites the symptoms described above. Treatment initially involves behavioural and oral medication, with second line being intravesical instillation therapy. Treatment strategies focus on restoring lower urinary tract epithelial function, inhibiting neural activation, controlling allergies and relieving symptoms. In this review, current intravesical therapy will be discussed, as well as what lies on the horizon for intravesical therapy in IC.

  16. Evaluation of prostaglandin E2 and E-series prostaglandin receptor in patients with interstitial cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Naoki; Ameda, Kaname; Furuno, Tsuyoshi; Okada, Hiroki; Date, Ichiro; Kakizaki, Hidehiro

    2015-06-01

    We evaluated PGE2 and EP receptor in patients with interstitial cystitis. Enrolled in the study were 20 female patients with interstitial cystitis (11 with and 9 without Hunner lesions), 9 female controls with another urological disease who needed a cystoscopic procedure and 10 normal volunteers. In all participants we determined O'Leary-Sant symptom and problem scores, and obtained voluntary urine specimens for PGE2 analysis. Using anesthesia the bladder was distended by saline in stepwise fashion from 100 ml to maximum capacity in patients with interstitial cystitis. Each time the infused saline was retrieved for PGE2 analysis. We also measured PGE2 and the expression of EP receptor mRNA in bladder biopsy tissue in patients with interstitial cystitis. Symptom and problem indexes in patients with interstitial cystitis and Hunner lesions were significantly higher than in patients with interstitial cystitis without Hunner lesions. Urinary PGE2 in patients with interstitial cystitis and Hunner lesions was significantly higher than in patients with interstitial cystitis without lesions, controls and normal volunteers. PGE2 in retrieved saline in patients with interstitial cystitis and Hunner lesions increased depending on infusion volume but not in patients with interstitial cystitis without lesions. PGE2 content in bladder biopsy tissue was significantly higher in patients with interstitial cystitis and Hunner lesions than in controls. In patients with interstitial cystitis and Hunner lesions the expression of EP1 and EP2 mRNA was significantly higher than in controls. Our study showed increased PGE2 production and mRNA expression of EP1 and EP2 receptors in the bladder in patients with interstitial cystitis and Hunner lesions. Further studies are warranted to explore the pathophysiological and therapeutic implications. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Concurrent formation of supermassive stars and globular clusters: implications for early self-enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieles, Mark; Charbonnel, Corinne; Krause, Martin G. H.; Hénault-Brunet, Vincent; Agertz, Oscar; Lamers, Henny J. G. L. M.; Bastian, Nathan; Gualandris, Alessia; Zocchi, Alice; Petts, James A.

    2018-04-01

    We present a model for the concurrent formation of globular clusters (GCs) and supermassive stars (SMSs, ≳ 103 M⊙) to address the origin of the HeCNONaMgAl abundance anomalies in GCs. GCs form in converging gas flows and accumulate low-angular momentum gas, which accretes onto protostars. This leads to an adiabatic contraction of the cluster and an increase of the stellar collision rate. A SMS can form via runaway collisions if the cluster reaches sufficiently high density before two-body relaxation halts the contraction. This condition is met if the number of stars ≳ 106 and the gas accretion rate ≳ 105 M⊙/Myr, reminiscent of GC formation in high gas-density environments, such as - but not restricted to - the early Universe. The strong SMS wind mixes with the inflowing pristine gas, such that the protostars accrete diluted hot-hydrogen burning yields of the SMS. Because of continuous rejuvenation, the amount of processed material liberated by the SMS can be an order of magnitude higher than its maximum mass. This `conveyor-belt' production of hot-hydrogen burning products provides a solution to the mass budget problem that plagues other scenarios. Additionally, the liberated material is mildly enriched in helium and relatively rich in other hot-hydrogen burning products, in agreement with abundances of GCs today. Finally, we find a super-linear scaling between the amount of processed material and cluster mass, providing an explanation for the observed increase of the fraction of processed material with GC mass. We discuss open questions of this new GC enrichment scenario and propose observational tests.

  18. Mere surgery will not cure cluster headache--implications for neurostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidding, Ute; May, Arne

    2011-01-01

    This case study concerns a patient with primary chronic cluster headache, who was unresponsive to all treatments and consecutively underwent hypothalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS). DBS had no effect on the cluster attacks, but cured an existing polydipsia as well as restlessness. However, hypothalamic DBS produced a constant, dull headache without concomitant symptoms and a high-frequent tremor. All of these effects were repeated when the stimulation was stopped and than started again. DBS had no effect on a pathological weight gain from 70 kg to 150 kg due to bulimia at night, usually during headache attacks. This case illustrates that cluster headache is, in some patients, only one symptom of a complex hypothalamic syndrome. This case also underlines that the stimulation parameters and anatomical target area for hypothalamic DBS may be too unspecific to do justice to the clinical variety of patients and concomitant symptoms. Hypothalamic DBS is an exquisite and potentially life-saving treatment method in otherwise intractable patients, but needs to be better characterised and should only be considered when other stimulation methods, such as stimulation of the greater occipital nerve, are unsuccessful.

  19. CLUSTERING OF SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY III PHOTOMETRIC LUMINOUS GALAXIES: THE MEASUREMENT, SYSTEMATICS, AND COSMOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Shirley; White, Martin; Schlegel, David J.; Seljak, Uros; Reid, Beth; Cuesta, Antonio; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Seo, Hee-Jong; De Putter, Roland; Ross, Ashley J.; Percival, Will J.; Saito, Shun; Schlafly, Eddie; Hernández-Monteagudo, Carlos; Sánchez, Ariel G.; Blanton, Michael; Skibba, Ramin; Schneider, Don; Mena, Olga; Viel, Matteo

    2012-01-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) surveyed 14,555 deg 2 , and delivered over a trillion pixels of imaging data. We present a study of galaxy clustering using 900,000 luminous galaxies with photometric redshifts, spanning between z = 0.45 and z = 0.65, constructed from the SDSS using methods described in Ross et al. This data set spans 11,000 deg 2 and probes a volume of 3 h –3 Gpc 3 , making it the largest volume ever used for galaxy clustering measurements. We describe in detail the construction of the survey window function and various systematics affecting our measurement. With such a large volume, high-precision cosmological constraints can be obtained given careful control and understanding of the observational systematics. We present a novel treatment of the observational systematics and its applications to the clustering signals from the data set. In this paper, we measure the angular clustering using an optimal quadratic estimator at four redshift slices with an accuracy of ∼15%, with a bin size of δ l = 10 on scales of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs; at l ∼ 40-400). We also apply corrections to the power spectra due to systematics and derive cosmological constraints using the full shape of the power spectra. For a flat ΛCDM model, when combined with cosmic microwave background Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7 (WMAP7) and H 0 constraints from using 600 Cepheids observed by Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3; HST), we find Ω Λ = 0.73 ± 0.019 and H 0 to be 70.5 ± 1.6 s –1 Mpc –1 km. For an open ΛCDM model, when combined with WMAP7 + HST, we find Ω K = 0.0035 ± 0.0054, improved over WMAP7+HST alone by 40%. For a wCDM model, when combined with WMAP7+HST+SN, we find w = –1.071 ± 0.078, and H 0 to be 71.3 ± 1.7 s –1 Mpc –1 km, which is competitive with the latest large-scale structure constraints from large spectroscopic surveys such as the SDSS Data Release 7 (DR7) and WiggleZ. We also find that systematic-corrected power

  20. CLUSTERING OF SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY III PHOTOMETRIC LUMINOUS GALAXIES: THE MEASUREMENT, SYSTEMATICS, AND COSMOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, Shirley; White, Martin; Schlegel, David J.; Seljak, Uros; Reid, Beth [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Rd, MS 50R-5045, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Cuesta, Antonio; Padmanabhan, Nikhil [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Seo, Hee-Jong [Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, LBL and Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); De Putter, Roland [ICC, University of Barcelona (IEEC-UB), Marti i Franques 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Ross, Ashley J.; Percival, Will J. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, Dennis Sciama Building, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Saito, Shun [Department of Astronomy, University of California Berkeley, CA (United States); Schlafly, Eddie [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, 60 Garden St. MS 20, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hernandez-Monteagudo, Carlos [Centro de Estudios de Fisica del Cosmos de Aragon (CEFCA), Plaza de San Juan 1, planta 2, E-44001 Teruel (Spain); Sanchez, Ariel G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Blanton, Michael [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Skibba, Ramin [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Schneider, Don [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Mena, Olga [Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Universidad de Valencia-CSIC (Spain); Viel, Matteo, E-mail: cwho@lbl.gov [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34131 Trieste (Italy); and others

    2012-12-10

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) surveyed 14,555 deg{sup 2}, and delivered over a trillion pixels of imaging data. We present a study of galaxy clustering using 900,000 luminous galaxies with photometric redshifts, spanning between z = 0.45 and z = 0.65, constructed from the SDSS using methods described in Ross et al. This data set spans 11,000 deg{sup 2} and probes a volume of 3 h {sup -3} Gpc{sup 3}, making it the largest volume ever used for galaxy clustering measurements. We describe in detail the construction of the survey window function and various systematics affecting our measurement. With such a large volume, high-precision cosmological constraints can be obtained given careful control and understanding of the observational systematics. We present a novel treatment of the observational systematics and its applications to the clustering signals from the data set. In this paper, we measure the angular clustering using an optimal quadratic estimator at four redshift slices with an accuracy of {approx}15%, with a bin size of {delta}{sub l} = 10 on scales of the baryon acoustic oscillations (BAOs; at l {approx} 40-400). We also apply corrections to the power spectra due to systematics and derive cosmological constraints using the full shape of the power spectra. For a flat {Lambda}CDM model, when combined with cosmic microwave background Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 7 (WMAP7) and H{sub 0} constraints from using 600 Cepheids observed by Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3; HST), we find {Omega}{sub {Lambda}} = 0.73 {+-} 0.019 and H{sub 0} to be 70.5 {+-} 1.6 s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1} km. For an open {Lambda}CDM model, when combined with WMAP7 + HST, we find {Omega}{sub K} = 0.0035 {+-} 0.0054, improved over WMAP7+HST alone by 40%. For a wCDM model, when combined with WMAP7+HST+SN, we find w = -1.071 {+-} 0.078, and H{sub 0} to be 71.3 {+-} 1.7 s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -1} km, which is competitive with the latest large-scale structure constraints from large spectroscopic

  1. Interstitial cystitis: painful bladder syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    R F Sholan; G Sh Garaev; G M Nasrullaeva

    2018-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis, or painful bladder syndrome, is a chronic inflammatory disease of a bladder of unknown etiology. It negatively affects the quality of life, causes depressive disorders, anxiety, and sexual dysfunction. Despite numerous studies, the etiology of interstitial cystitis is still unclear and it’s considered as painful bladder syndrome with multifactorial origin. According to the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 470/100 000 people (60/100 000 men, 850/100 0...

  2. What is new in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanno, P.; Nordling, J.; Ophoven, A. van

    2008-01-01

    Purpose of review Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is an important and poorly understood disorder. This review highlights current research findings that may be of benefit to the clinician who is responsible for the diagnosis and treatment of patients who suffer from this condition....... Recent findings The perspective from which we view bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is evolving, as is apparent in the literature this year. It is best perceived as one of many chronic pain syndromes, some of which may be related. International efforts aimed at consistent definition...... the world. In this review we hope to bring practicing healthcare providers up to date with the literature on bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis, and the implications for their patients Udgivelsesdato: 2008/7...

  3. Clusters of orthologous genes for 41 archaeal genomes and implications for evolutionary genomics of archaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Yuri I

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An evolutionary classification of genes from sequenced genomes that distinguishes between orthologs and paralogs is indispensable for genome annotation and evolutionary reconstruction. Shortly after multiple genome sequences of bacteria, archaea, and unicellular eukaryotes became available, an attempt on such a classification was implemented in Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COGs. Rapid accumulation of genome sequences creates opportunities for refining COGs but also represents a challenge because of error amplification. One of the practical strategies involves construction of refined COGs for phylogenetically compact subsets of genomes. Results New Archaeal Clusters of Orthologous Genes (arCOGs were constructed for 41 archaeal genomes (13 Crenarchaeota, 27 Euryarchaeota and one Nanoarchaeon using an improved procedure that employs a similarity tree between smaller, group-specific clusters, semi-automatically partitions orthology domains in multidomain proteins, and uses profile searches for identification of remote orthologs. The annotation of arCOGs is a consensus between three assignments based on the COGs, the CDD database, and the annotations of homologs in the NR database. The 7538 arCOGs, on average, cover ~88% of the genes in a genome compared to a ~76% coverage in COGs. The finer granularity of ortholog identification in the arCOGs is apparent from the fact that 4538 arCOGs correspond to 2362 COGs; ~40% of the arCOGs are new. The archaeal gene core (protein-coding genes found in all 41 genome consists of 166 arCOGs. The arCOGs were used to reconstruct gene loss and gene gain events during archaeal evolution and gene sets of ancestral forms. The Last Archaeal Common Ancestor (LACA is conservatively estimated to possess 996 genes compared to 1245 and 1335 genes for the last common ancestors of Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota, respectively. It is inferred that LACA was a chemoautotrophic hyperthermophile

  4. Properties and Atmospheric Implication of Methylamine-Sulfuric Acid-Water Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Sha-Sha; Miao, Shou-Kui; Ma, Yan; Zhang, Miao-Miao; Wen, Yang; Wang, Chun-Yu; Zhu, Yu-Peng; Huang, Wei

    2015-08-13

    The presence of amines can increase aerosol formation rates. Most studies have been devoted to dimethylamine as the representative of amine; however, there have been a few works devoted to methylamine. In this study, theoretical calculations are performed on CH3NH2(H2SO4)m(H2O)n (m = 0-3, n = 0-3) clusters. In addition to the structures and energetics, we focused on determining the following characteristics: (1) the growth mechanism, (2) the hydrate distributions and the influences of humidity and temperature, (3) Rayleigh scattering properties. We explored the cluster growth mechanism from a thermodynamics aspect by calculating the Gibbs free energy of adding a water or sulfuric acid molecule step by step at three atmospherically relevant temperatures. The relative ease of the reaction at each step is discussed. From the analysis of hydrate distributions, we find that CH3NH2(H2SO4)(H2O)2, CH3NH2(H2SO4)2, and CH3NH2(H2SO4)3 are most likely to exist in the atmosphere. The general trend of hydration in all cases is more extensive with the growing relative humidity (RH), whereas the distributions do not significantly change with the temperature. Analysis of the Rayleigh scattering properties showed that both H2SO4 and H2O molecules could increase the Rayleigh scattering intensities and isotropic mean polarizabilities, with greater influence by the sulfuric acid molecules. This work sheds light on the mechanism for further research on new particle formation (NPF) containing methylamine in the atmosphere.

  5. Recent Developments of the Local Effect Model (LEM) - Implications of clustered damage on cell transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsässer, Thilo

    Exposure to radiation of high-energy and highly charged ions (HZE) causes a major risk to human beings, since in long term space explorations about 10 protons per month and about one HZE particle per month hit each cell nucleus (1). Despite the larger number of light ions, the high ionisation power of HZE particles and its corresponding more complex damage represents a major hazard for astronauts. Therefore, in order to get a reasonable risk estimate, it is necessary to take into account the entire mixed radiation field. Frequently, neoplastic cell transformation serves as an indicator for the oncogenic potential of radiation exposure. It can be measured for a small number of ion and energy combinations. However, due to the complexity of the radiation field it is necessary to know the contribution to the radiation damage of each ion species for the entire range of energies. Therefore, a model is required which transfers the few experimental data to other particles with different LETs. We use the Local Effect Model (LEM) (2) with its cluster extension (3) to calculate the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neoplastic transformation. It was originally developed in the framework of hadrontherapy and is applicable for a large range of ions and energies. The input parameters for the model include the linear-quadratic parameters for the induction of lethal events as well as for the induction of transformation events per surviving cell. Both processes of cell inactivation and neoplastic transformation per viable cell are combined to eventually yield the RBE for cell transformation. We show that the Local Effect Model is capable of predicting the RBE of neoplastic cell transformation for a broad range of ions and energies. The comparison of experimental data (4) with model calculations shows a reasonable agreement. We find that the cluster extension results in a better representation of the measured RBE values. With this model it should be possible to better

  6. Photo-induced transformation process at gold clusters-semiconductor interface: Implications for the complexity of gold clusters-based photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Siqi; Xu, Yi-Jun

    2016-01-01

    The recent thrust in utilizing atomically precise organic ligands protected gold clusters (Au clusters) as photosensitizer coupled with semiconductors for nano-catalysts has led to the claims of improved efficiency in photocatalysis. Nonetheless, the influence of photo-stability of organic ligands protected-Au clusters at the Au/semiconductor interface on the photocatalytic properties remains rather elusive. Taking Au clusters–TiO2 composites as a prototype, we for the first time demonstrate the photo-induced transformation of small molecular-like Au clusters to larger metallic Au nanoparticles under different illumination conditions, which leads to the diverse photocatalytic reaction mechanism. This transformation process undergoes a diffusion/aggregation mechanism accompanied with the onslaught of Au clusters by active oxygen species and holes resulting from photo-excited TiO2 and Au clusters. However, such Au clusters aggregation can be efficiently inhibited by tuning reaction conditions. This work would trigger rational structural design and fine condition control of organic ligands protected-metal clusters-semiconductor composites for diverse photocatalytic applications with long-term photo-stability. PMID:26947754

  7. Sympathetic nervous system dysfunction in fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, and interstitial cystitis: a review of case-control studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martínez, Laura-Aline; Mora, Tania; Vargas, Angélica; Fuentes-Iniestra, Mario; Martínez-Lavín, Manuel

    2014-04-01

    Fibromyalgia often coexists and overlaps with other syndromes such as chronic fatigue, irritable bowel syndrome, and interstitial cystitis. Chronic stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of these illnesses. The sympathetic nervous system is a key element of the stress response system. Sympathetic dysfunction has been reported in these syndromes, raising the possibility that such dysautonomia could be their common clustering underlying pathogenesis. The objective of this study was to carry out a review of all published comparative case-control studies investigating sympathetic nervous system performance in fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, and interstitial cystitis. Online databases PubMed and EMBASE were accessed using the following key words: autonomic (OR) sympathetic (AND) fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, and interstitial cystitis. All entries up to December 10th 2012 were reviewed by 2 independent investigators searching for case-control studies in humans. The Method for Evaluating Research and Guidelines Evidence adapted to the Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network was used to rank the level of evidence contained in the selected articles. A total of 196 articles are included in this review. The most often used methods to assess sympathetic functionality were heart rate variability analysis, sympathetic skin response, tilt table testing, and genetic studies. The majority of studies (65%) described sympathetic nervous system predominance in these overlapping syndromes. In contrast, 7% of the studies found parasympathetic predominance. This review demonstrates that sympathetic nervous system predominance is common in fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, and interstitial cystitis. This concordance raises the possibility that sympathetic dysfunction could be their common underlying pathogenesis that brings on overlapping clinical features. The recognition of

  8. Interstitial cystitis: painful bladder syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R F Sholan

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial cystitis, or painful bladder syndrome, is a chronic inflammatory disease of a bladder of unknown etiology. It negatively affects the quality of life, causes depressive disorders, anxiety, and sexual dysfunction. Despite numerous studies, the etiology of interstitial cystitis is still unclear and it’s considered as painful bladder syndrome with multifactorial origin. According to the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 470/100 000 people (60/100 000 men, 850/100 000 women are diagnosed with interstitial cystitis. Diagnosis of the disease is difficult and is substantially based on clinical symptoms. Pelvic pain, urinary urgency, frequency and nocturia are the basic complaints in this pathology. The diagnosis requires exclusion of diseases with similar manifestations. So interstitial cystitis is frequently misdiagnosed as urinary tract infection, overactive bladder, urethral obstruction or diverticulosis, chronic prostatitis, bladder cancer, vulvodynia, endometriosis, and chronic pelvic pain. Etiopathogenesis of the disease is uncertain, which makes etiologic treatment impossible. Currently scientific discussions on the causes of disease continue as well as different treatment regimens are offered, but are often ineffective, palliative and temporary. The treatment for intersticial cystitis should focus on restoring normal bladder function, prevention of relapse of symptoms and improvement of patients’ quality of life. The literature review presents current view on the terminology, epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis.

  9. Three ancient halo subgiants: precise parallaxes, compositions, ages, and implications for globular clusters , ,

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VandenBerg, Don A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 1700 STN CSC, Victoria, B.C., V8W 2Y2 (Canada); Bond, Howard E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Nelan, Edmund P. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Nissen, P. E. [Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Schaefer, Gail H. [The CHARA Array of Georgia State University, Mount Wilson Observatory, Mount Wilson, CA 91023 (United States); Harmer, Dianne, E-mail: vandenbe@uvic.ca, E-mail: heb11@psu.edu, E-mail: nelan@stsci.edu, E-mail: pen@phys.au.dk, E-mail: schaefer@chara-array.org, E-mail: diharmer@noao.edu [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States)

    2014-09-10

    The most accurate ages for the oldest stars are those obtained for nearby halo subgiants because they depend almost entirely on just the measured parallaxes and absolute oxygen abundances. In this study, we have used the Fine Guidance Sensors on the Hubble Space Telescope to determine trigonometric parallaxes, with precisions of 2.1% or better, for the Population II subgiants HD 84937, HD 132475, and HD 140283. High quality spectra have been used to derive their surface abundances of O, Fe, Mg, Si, and Ca, which are assumed to be 0.1-0.15 dex less than their initial abundances due to the effects of diffusion. Comparisons of isochrones with the three subgiants on the (log T {sub eff}, M{sub V} ) diagram yielded ages of 12.08 ± 0.14, 12.56 ± 0.46, and 14.27 ± 0.38 Gyr for HD 84937, HD 132475, and HD 140283, in turn, where each error bar includes only the parallax uncertainty. The total uncertainty is estimated to be ∼ ± 0.8 Gyr (larger in the case of the near-turnoff star HD 84937). Although the age of HD 140283 is greater than the age of the universe as inferred from the cosmic microwave background by ∼0.4-0.5 Gyr, this discrepancy is at a level of <1σ. Nevertheless, the first Population II stars apparently formed very soon after the Big Bang. (Stellar models that neglect diffusive processes seem to be ruled out as they would predict that HD 140283 is ∼1.5 Gyr older than the universe.) The field halo subgiants appear to be older than globular clusters of similar metallicities: if distances close to those implied by the RR Lyrae standard candle are assumed, M 92 and M 5 are younger than HD 140283 and HD 132475 by ∼1.5 and ∼1.0 Gyr, respectively.

  10. Origin of unbalanced reaction of vacancies and interstitials during irradiation with cascades and influence on microstructural evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiritani, M.; Yoshiie, T.; Kojima, S.; Satoh, Y.

    1993-01-01

    Based upon the underlying premise that all the microstructure evolution during irradiation results from the asymetrical reaction between vacancies and interstitials, the origin of the asymetry is sought and categorized, and the mechanism of defect structure evolution for each source of asymetry is investigated. The role of neutral sinks and the influence of dislocations are examined for the cases of irradiation with and without cascade damage. Vacancy cluster formation directly from cascades is found to favor the generation of freely migrating interstitials. Stochastic fluctuations of the point defect reactions under the balanced condition of vacancy and interstitial is experimentally detected, and the important role of the fluctuations is found in the determination of the fate of small interstitial cluster embryos produced by cascade damage. The influence of the unbalanced point defect reaction starting from difference in spacial distribution between vacancies and interstitials formed by cascade collisions is discussed as one of the important origins of vacancy dominant reactions. (orig.)

  11. [Network clusters of symptoms as elementary syndromes of psychopathology: implications for clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goekoop, R; Goekoop, J G

    2016-01-01

    In a recent publication we reported the existence of around 11 (to 15) 'elementary syndromes' that may combine in various ways, rather like 'building blocks', to explain the wide range of psychiatric symptoms. 'Bridge symptoms' seem to be responsible both for combining large sets of symptoms into elementary syndromes and for combining the various elementary syndromes to form one globally connected network structure. To discuss the implication of these findings for clinical practice. We performed a network analysis of symptom scores. Elementary syndromes provide a massive simplification of the description of psychiatric disease. Instead of the more than 300 categories in DSM-5, we now need to consider only a handful of elementary syndromes and personality domains. This modular representation of psychiatric illnesses allows us to make a complete, systematic and efficient assessment of patients and a systematic review of treatment options. Clinicians, patients, managerial staff and insurance companies can verify whether symptom reduction is taking place in the most important domains of psychopathology. Unlike classic multidimensional methods of disease description, network models of psychopathology can be used to explain comorbidity patterns, predict the clinical course of psychopathology and to designate primary targets for therapeutic interventions. A network view on psychopathology could significantly improve everyday clinical practice.

  12. Ultrasound in Rheumatologic Interstitial Lung Disease: A Case Report of Nonspecific Interstitial Pneumonia in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Laria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the American Thoracic Society (ATS/European Respiratory Society consensus classification, idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs include several clinic-radiologic-pathologic entities: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF, usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP, cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, acute interstitial pneumonia, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated ILD, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. Ultrasound Lung Comets (ULCs are an echographic chest-sonography hallmark of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. We describe the ultrasound (US findings in the follow-up of a NSIP’s case in rheumatoid arthritis (RA.

  13. Epidemiologic issues in interstitial cystitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parsons, J. Kellogg; Kurth, Karlheinz; Sant, Grannum R.

    2007-01-01

    As a result of variations in disease definition and diagnostic criteria for interstitial cystitis (IC), the performance of epidemiologic studies has been challenging. Initial prevalence studies used physician-confirmed diagnoses of IC; more recent studies, which have incorporated the use of patient

  14. Thermotransport in interstitial solid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogel'son, R.L.

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of literature data the problem of thermotransport of impurities (H, N, O, C) in interstitial solid solutions is considered. It is shown that from experimental data on the thermotransport an important parameter of dissolved atoms can be found which characterizes atom state in these solutions-enthalpy of transport

  15. Epimorphin expression in interstitial pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suga Moritaka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Epimorphin modulates epithelial morphogenesis in embryonic mouse organs. We previously suggested that epimorphin contributes to repair of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis in mice via epithelium-mesenchyme interactions. To clarify the role of epimorphin in human lungs, we evaluated epimorphin expression and localization in normal lungs, lungs with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP, and lungs with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP; we also studied the effect of recombinant epimorphin on cultured human alveolar epithelial cells in vitro. Northern and Western blotting analyses revealed that epimorphin expression in NSIP samples were significantly higher than those in control lungs and lungs with UIP. Immunohistochemistry showed strong epimorphin expression in mesenchymal cells of early fibrotic lesions and localization of epimorphin protein on mesenchymal cells and extracellular matrix of early fibrotic lesions in the nonspecific interstitial pneumonia group. Double-labeled fluorescent images revealed expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 in re-epithelialized cells overlying epimorphin-positive early fibrotic lesions. Immunohistochemistry and metalloproteinase activity assay demonstrated augmented expression of metalloproteinase induced by recombinant epimorphin in human alveolar epithelial cells. These findings suggest that epimorphin contributes to repair of pulmonary fibrosis in nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, perhaps partly by inducing expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2, which is an important proteolytic factor in lung remodeling.

  16. Abnormalities in Expression of Structural, Barrier and Differentiation Related Proteins, and Chondroitin Sulfate in Feline and Human Interstitial Cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Paul J; VanGordon, Samuel B; Seavey, Jonathan; Sofinowski, Troy M; Ramadan, Mohammad; Abdullah, Shivon; Buffington, C A Tony; Hurst, Robert E

    2015-08-01

    We analyzed the urothelium of cats diagnosed with feline interstitial cystitis to determine whether abnormalities in protein expression patterns could be detected and whether the expression pattern was similar to that in patients with human interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. The proteins analyzed are involved in cell adhesion and barrier function, comprise the glycosaminoglycan layer or are differentiation markers. Formalin fixed biopsies from 8 cats with feline interstitial cystitis and from 7 healthy control cats were labeled by immunohistochemistry and scored with a modified version of a system previously used for human samples. Cluster analysis was performed to investigate relationships between markers and samples. Of the feline interstitial cystitis bladders 89% showed abnormal protein expression and chondroitin sulfate patterns while only 27% of normal tissues showed slight abnormalities. Abnormalities were found in most feline interstitial cystitis samples, including biglycan in 87.5%, chondroitin sulfate, decorin, E-cadherin and keratin-20 in 100%, uroplakin in 50% and ZO-1 in 87.5%. In feline interstitial cystitis bladders about 75% of chondroitin sulfate, biglycan and decorin samples demonstrated absent luminal staining or no staining. Cluster analysis revealed that feline interstitial cystitis and normal samples could be clearly separated into 2 groups, showing that the urothelium of cats with feline interstitial cystitis is altered from normal urothelium. Feline interstitial cystitis produces changes in luminal glycosaminoglycan and several proteins similar to that in patients, suggesting some commonality in mechanism. Results support the use of feline interstitial cystitis as a model of human interstitial cystitis. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Transient receptor potential A1 receptor-mediated neural cross-talk and afferent sensitization induced by oxidative stress: implication for the pathogenesis of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Akira; Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Hayashi, Norihiro; Egawa, Shin; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2012-05-01

    Although the pathogenesis of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome remains unknown, there is a significant correlation of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome with other chronic pain disorders, such as irritable bowel syndrome, endometriosis and fibromyalgia syndrome. In this review, we highlight evidence supporting neural cross-talk in the dorsal root ganglia, spinal cord and brain levels, which might play a role in the development of chronic pain disorders through central sensitization. In addition, we focus on transient receptor potential V1 and transient receptor potential A1 as the receptor targets for chronic pain conditions, because transient receptor potential V1 and transient receptor potential A1 act as a nocisensor to mediate not only an afferent signal to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, but also an efferent signal in the periphery through secretion of inflammatory agents, such as substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide in nociceptive sensory neurons. Furthermore, peripheral inflammation produces multiple inflammatory mediators that act on their cognate receptors to activate intracellular signal transduction pathways and thereby modify the expression and function of transient receptor potential V1 and transient receptor potential A1 (peripheral sensitization). During tissue damage and inflammation, oxidative stress, such as reactive oxygen species or reactive carbonyl species is also generated endogenously. The highly diffusible nature might account for the actions of free radical formation far from the site of injury, thereby producing systemic pain conditions without central sensitization through neural cross-talk. Because oxidative stress is considered to induce activation of transient receptor potential A1, we also discuss exogenous and endogenous oxidative stress to elucidate its role in the pathogenesis of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and other chronic pain conditions. © 2012 The Japanese Urological

  18. Stellar Kinematics and Structural Properties of Virgo Cluster Dwarf Early-type Galaxies from the SMAKCED Project. I. Kinematically Decoupled Cores and Implications for Infallen Groups in Clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toloba, E.; Guhathakurta, P.; van de Ven, G.; Boissier, S.; Boselli, A.; den Brok, M.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Hensler, G.; Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Lisker, T.; Paudel, S.; Peletier, R. F.; Ryś, A.; Salo, H.

    We present evidence for kinematically decoupled cores (KDCs) in two dwarf early-type (dE) galaxies in the Virgo cluster, VCC 1183 and VCC 1453, studied as part of the SMAKCED stellar absorption-line spectroscopy and imaging survey. These KDCs have radii of 1.''8 (0.14 kpc) and 4.''2 (0.33 kpc),

  19. Resistivity studies of interstitial helium mobility in niobium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.G.; Birnbaum, H.K.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The mobility of interstitial helium in Nb and Nb-O alloys was studied in the temperature range of 10-383 K using resistivity measurements. The helium was introduced by radioactive decay of solute tritium (approximately 1 at%). At T < 100 K the resistivity increased due to conversion of tritium trapped at oxygen interstititals to helium. The formation of helium caused a very significant resistance increase at room temperature and above. The results suggest that helium is mobile at temperatures above 295 K and that the precipitation of large helium bubbles occurs along grain boundaries. The mobile helium species may either be single interstitials or small helium clusters. The activation enthalpy for the diffusion of the mobile helium species was estimated to be about 55 kJ/mol (0.66 eV). (Auth.)

  20. Clinical Implications of Cluster Analysis-Based Classification of Acute Decompensated Heart Failure and Correlation with Bedside Hemodynamic Profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Ahmad

    Full Text Available Classification of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF is based on subjective criteria that crudely capture disease heterogeneity. Improved phenotyping of the syndrome may help improve therapeutic strategies.To derive cluster analysis-based groupings for patients hospitalized with ADHF, and compare their prognostic performance to hemodynamic classifications derived at the bedside.We performed a cluster analysis on baseline clinical variables and PAC measurements of 172 ADHF patients from the ESCAPE trial. Employing regression techniques, we examined associations between clusters and clinically determined hemodynamic profiles (warm/cold/wet/dry. We assessed association with clinical outcomes using Cox proportional hazards models. Likelihood ratio tests were used to compare the prognostic value of cluster data to that of hemodynamic data.We identified four advanced HF clusters: 1 male Caucasians with ischemic cardiomyopathy, multiple comorbidities, lowest B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP levels; 2 females with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, few comorbidities, most favorable hemodynamics; 3 young African American males with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, most adverse hemodynamics, advanced disease; and 4 older Caucasians with ischemic cardiomyopathy, concomitant renal insufficiency, highest BNP levels. There was no association between clusters and bedside-derived hemodynamic profiles (p = 0.70. For all adverse clinical outcomes, Cluster 4 had the highest risk, and Cluster 2, the lowest. Compared to Cluster 4, Clusters 1-3 had 45-70% lower risk of all-cause mortality. Clusters were significantly associated with clinical outcomes, whereas hemodynamic profiles were not.By clustering patients with similar objective variables, we identified four clinically relevant phenotypes of ADHF patients, with no discernable relationship to hemodynamic profiles, but distinct associations with adverse outcomes. Our analysis suggests that ADHF classification using

  1. Implications of Pearl, Gold, Silver (PGS) craft industrial cluster towards settlements region in Karang Pule Village, Sekarbela District Of Mataram City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sushanti, I. R.; Fitri, I. S.

    2017-06-01

    The existence of industry clusters in Mataram City gave effect to the surrounding residential areas [1]. In accordance Spatial Plan of Mataram City in 2011-2031 PGS industry cluster in the village of Karang Pule, Sekarbela district established as shopping tourism area. Distribution of industrial locations were in four of seven environments in Karang Pule. Distribution of PGS industry is divided into three (3) groups: craftsmen, craftsmen who is also a seller, and the seller (merchant). The location of the craftsmen, craftsmen who are also businessmen and entrepreneurs are also used as a dwelling house or workshop and store. So most of the people living in settlements around clusters of industry that there is a link between industry cluster and settlements. This study aims to determine the implications or the impact of the presence of PGS industry clusters the surrounding residential areas. The method used in this research is descriptive qualitative with the collection of primary data through direct observation and questionnaires. Based on direct observation on the shopping tourism area there are inequality between the conditions of industry clusters and settlements area by the presence of slums. The results showed that the PGS industry cluster impact on social, economic and environment near settlements area. Impacts that occur are: 1) the social aspect, there is a significant change in the level of education, social welfare and social disparities but less significant to the formation of institutions, particularly in community participation, 2) the economic aspect of the change status of community work, and increased revenue and 3) the environmental aspects of the change to the condition of the building, the quality of public housing, the presence of slums, changes in infrastructure and the environmental pollution.

  2. Production bias and cluster annihilation: Why necessary?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, B.N.; Trinkaus, H.; Woo, C.H.

    1994-01-01

    the primary cluster density is high. Therefore, a sustained high swelling rate driven by production bias must involve the annihilation of primary clusters at sinks. A number of experimental observations which are unexplainable in terms of the conventional dislocation bias for monointerstitials is considered....... It is found that the production bias and cluster annihilation are necessary to explain these observations, with, in many cases, the explicit consideration of the annihilation of the primary interstitial clusters....

  3. Interstitial microwave hyperthermia treatment investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siauve, N; Lormel, C

    2012-01-01

    Microwave ablation also called interstitial hyperthermia is a medical procedure used in the treatment of many cancers, cardiac arrhythmias and other medical conditions. With this medical therapy, an electromagnetic source (antenna) is directly positioned in the target tissue and a sufficient power is injected to necrosis the tissue. The aim of this study is to propose a design procedure and develop the associated tools, for determining the optimal shape, dimensions, type and operating frequency of antenna according to the target volume. In this context, a 3D numerical predictive model of temperature elevation induced by the electric fields and two benches for thermal and electrical tissues properties characterization have been developed. To validate the procedure and the different tools, an experimental bench test which includes interstitial antenna, external microwave generator, phantom that represents the target tissue and measurement system of temperature and electric field has been elaborated.

  4. Acute interstitial nephritis due to proton pump inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Sampathkumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Proton pump inhibitors (PPI are commonly prescribed for dyspepsia and acid peptic disease. Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN is an uncommon though important side-effect of these classes of drugs. We describe four cases: three females and one male. PPIs implicated were pantoprazole in two, omeprazole and esomeprazole in one each. AIN developed after an average period of 4 weeks of drug therapy. The symptoms were vomiting, loin pain, and oliguria. Minimal proteinuria with pyuria were seen and the mean serum creatinine was 4.95 ± 4 mg/dl. Two patients required hemodialysis. Renal biopsy showed interstitial mononuclear, plasma cell and eosinophilic infiltrates in all cases. PPI was stopped and steroids were started in all. Renal recovery was total in two and partial in two. A high index of suspicion is required to diagnose PPI induced AIN. Renal biopsy for confirmation followed up by prompt steroid therapy results in renal functional improvement.

  5. From solid solution to cluster formation of Fe and Cr in α-Zr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, P.A.; Wenman, M.R.; Gault, B.; Moody, M.P.; Ivermark, M.; Rushton, M.J.D.; Preuss, M.; Edwards, L.; Grimes, R.W.

    2015-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms by which the re-solution of Fe and Cr additions increase the corrosion rate of irradiated Zr alloys, the solubility and clustering of Fe and Cr in model binary Zr alloys was investigated using a combination of experimental and modelling techniques — atom probe tomography (APT), x-ray diffraction (XRD), thermoelectric power (TEP) and density functional theory (DFT). Cr occupies both interstitial and substitutional sites in the α-Zr lattice; Fe favours interstitial sites, and a low-symmetry site that was not previously modelled is found to be the most favourable for Fe. Lattice expansion as a function of Fe and Cr content in the α-Zr matrix deviates from Vegard's law and is strongly anisotropic for Fe additions, expanding the c-axis while contracting the a-axis. Matrix content of solutes cannot be reliably estimated from lattice parameter measurements, instead a combination of TEP and APT was employed. Defect clusters form at higher solution concentrations, which induce a smaller lattice strain compared to the dilute defects. In the presence of a Zr vacancy, all two-atom clusters are more soluble than individual point defects and as many as four Fe or three Cr atoms could be accommodated in a single Zr vacancy. The Zr vacancy is critical for the increased apparent solubility of defect clusters; the implications for irradiation induced microstructure changes in Zr alloys are discussed.

  6. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marten, K.

    2007-01-01

    The most important smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are respiratory bronchiolitis, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. Although traditionally considered to be discrete entities, smoking-related ILDs often coexist, thus accounting for the sometimes complex patterns encountered on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Further studies are needed to elucidate the causative role of smoking in the development of pulmonary fibrosis

  7. Sexual Dysfunction in Interstitial Cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonyali, Senol; Yilmaz, Mehmet

    2017-11-01

    Interstitial cystitis (IC)/bladder pain syndrome (BPS) is a debilitating disease characterized with urgency, frequency, and pelvic pain affecting especially women. Sexual dysfunction in female patients with IC/BPS consists of dyspareunia, altered sexual desire and orgasm frequency and insufficient lubrication is reported to negatively affect the patient's quality of life. In the present study, we aimed to determine the association between IC/BPS and sexual dysfunction and improvement in sexual dysfunction related to given treatments. A PubMed/Medline and EMBASE search was conducted using keywords: "interstitial cystitis", "sexual dysfunction", and "bladder pain syndrome". Several studies have been conducted to determine the relation between IC/BPS and sexual dysfunction. And also limited studies focusing on IC/BPS specific treatments reported significant improvements in sexual function after either oral or intravesical treatment. However, given the used different questionnaires, study protocols, patient characteristics, previous treatments and follow-up period, it is not possible to make a head-to-head comparison of the treatment effects on sexual function. Further, randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm these results and make a comparison between effects of various treatment modalities on sexual functioning in IC/BPS.

  8. Implications of inflorescence clustering for the visitation rate by hummingbirds and fruit production by Heliconia bihai (L. L. (Heliconiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caio César Corrêa Missagia

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant spatial distribution can influence the activity of floral visitors. Flower clustering in patches may be more attractive to visitors and it supposedly influences the fruit production. This study aimed to test the hypothesis that in Heliconia bihai (L. L. (Heliconiaceae the inflorescence clustering size positively influences the visitation rate and fruit production by the species. The study was conducted at a stretch of Atlantic Forest, in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil. Five hummingbird species were registered as floral visitors. The average visitation rate (± standard deviation of hummingbirds was 2 (± 0.56 visits per hour per clustering. The amount of inflorescences per clustering positively influenced the visitation rate of hummingbirds, but it negatively influenced the amount of fruits produced per inflorescence. According to the results obtained, we suggest that the density of inflorescences in a clustering may negatively influence the number of flowers visited per inflorescence, due to an increased amount of inflorescences included in the foraging routes.

  9. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) associated interstitial lung disease (ILD).

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Dwyer, David N

    2013-10-01

    Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is the most common Connective Tissue Disease (CTD) and represents an increasing burden on global health resources. Interstitial lung disease (ILD) has been recognised as a complication of RA but its potential for mortality and morbidity has arguably been under appreciated for decades. New studies have underscored a significant lifetime risk of ILD development in RA. Contemporary work has identified an increased risk of mortality associated with the Usual Interstitial Pneumonia (UIP) pattern which shares similarity with the most devastating of the interstitial pulmonary diseases, namely Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF). In this paper, we discuss recent studies highlighting the associated increase in mortality in RA-UIP. We explore associations between radiological and histopathological features of RA-ILD and the prognostic implications of same. We emphasise the need for translational research in this area given the growing burden of RA-ILD. We highlight the importance of the respiratory physician as a key stakeholder in the multidisciplinary management of this disorder. RA-ILD focused research offers the opportunity to identify early asymptomatic disease and define the natural history of this extra articular manifestation. This may provide a unique opportunity to define key regulatory fibrotic events driving progressive disease. We also discuss some of the more challenging and novel aspects of therapy for RA-ILD.

  10. Interstitial ectopic pregnancy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagbe, Olayemi Atinuke; Adeniyi, Tinuola Omolade; Abayomi, Olawale Ayobami; Onifade, Emmanuel Olugbenga

    2017-01-01

    Interstitial ectopic pregnancy is a rare type of tubal pregnancy that poses diagnostic challenge. It is associated with the highest risk of massive, uncontrollable bleeding and can result in uterine rupture in the second trimester. This is a rare case of unruptured interstitial ectopic diagnosed in the first trimester by ultrasonography and managed medically with systemic methrotrexate and serial ultrasound monitoring.`.

  11. Pitfalls in diagnosis of interstitial pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Louis Yik-Si; Fok, Wing Yee; Yuen, Pong Mo

    2003-09-01

    To determine the incidence and reasons for misdiagnosis in interstitial ectopic pregnancy. We conducted a retrospective study from 1990 to 2001. Women with interstitial pregnancy were identified and their case records retrieved and reviewed. Reasons for delay in diagnosis and associated morbidity were recorded. Thirty-six women were diagnosed as having interstitial pregnancy during the study period. Initial diagnosis was incorrect in 15 cases (41.7%). In 14 cases, the interstitial pregnancies were mistaken as intrauterine pregnancy. These misdiagnoses resulted in six inappropriate surgical procedures (evacuation of uterus) being performed and led to rupture of interstitial pregnancy in eight women. In two women, the interstitial pregnancy was mistaken as normal intrauterine pregnancy while the uterus itself was thought to be a cervical fibroid. In both cases, the interstitial pregnancies ruptured at 18-20 weeks of gestation. Despite advances in sonographic skills and equipment and the availability of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) monitoring, misdiagnosis of interstitial pregnancy still occurs frequently. Clinicians should be aware of the limitations of various investigations and maintain a high index of suspicion.

  12. The interstitial pneumonitis induced by cytostatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubrava, M.; Markova, I.; Mistina, L.

    1998-01-01

    The author presents a cause of 9-year old boy with ALL-F2B in the stage of the prevention treatment where in the its course the induced interstitial pneumonitis by cytostatics was developed. The bacterial, virus, mycological and parasitic causes of the interstitial pneumonitis on the basis of the bronchoscopy, BAL, CT, scintigraphy, laboratory and by cultivation were excluded. (authors)

  13. Spatial clustering of fatal, and non-fatal, suicide in new South Wales, Australia: implications for evidence-based prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torok, Michelle; Konings, Paul; Batterham, Philip J; Christensen, Helen

    2017-10-06

    Rates of suicide appear to be increasing, indicating a critical need for more effective prevention initiatives. To increase the efficacy of future prevention initiatives, we examined the spatial distribution of suicide deaths and suicide attempts in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, to identify where high incidence 'suicide clusters' were occurring. Such clusters represent candidate regions where intervention is critically needed, and likely to have the greatest impact, thus providing an evidence-base for the targeted prioritisation of resources. Analysis is based on official suicide mortality statistics for NSW, provided by the Australian Bureau of Statistics, and hospital separations for non-fatal intentional self-harm, provided through the NSW Health Admitted Patient Data Collection at a Statistical Area 2 (SA2) geography. Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques were applied to detect suicide clusters occurring between 2005 and 2013 (aggregated), for persons aged over 5 years. The final dataset contained 5466 mortality and 86,017 non-fatal intentional self-harm cases. In total, 25 Local Government Areas were identified as primary or secondary likely candidate regions for intervention. Together, these regions contained approximately 200 SA2 level suicide clusters, which represented 46% (n = 39,869) of hospital separations and 43% (n = 2330) of suicide deaths between 2005 and 2013. These clusters primarily converged on the Eastern coastal fringe of NSW. Crude rates of suicide deaths and intentional self-harm differed at the Local Government Areas (LGA) level in NSW. There was a tendency for primary suicide clusters to occur within metropolitan and coastal regions, rather than rural areas. The findings demonstrate the importance of taking geographical variation of suicidal behaviour into account, prior to development and implementation of prevention initiatives, so that such initiatives can target key problem areas where they are likely to have

  14. Respiratory and lower limb muscle function in interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagiotou, Marios; Polychronopoulos, Vlasis; Strange, Charlie

    2016-05-01

    Growing evidence suggests that respiratory and limb muscle function may be impaired in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). Importantly, muscle dysfunction could promote dyspnoea, fatigue and functional limitation all of which are cardinal features of ILD. This article examines the risk factors for skeletal muscle dysfunction in ILD, reviews the current evidence on overall respiratory and limb muscle function and focuses on the occurrence and implications of skeletal muscle dysfunction in ILD. Research limitations and pathways to address the current knowledge gaps are highlighted. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Foot and mouth disease in Zambia: Spatial and temporal distributions of outbreaks, assessment of clusters and implications for control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yona Sinkala

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Zambia has been experiencing low livestock productivity as well as trade restrictions owing to the occurrence of foot and mouth disease (FMD, but little is known about the epidemiology of the disease in these endemic settings. The fundamental questions relate to the spatio-temporal distribution of FMD cases and what determines their occurrence. A retrospective review of FMD cases in Zambia from 1981 to 2012 was conducted using geographical information systems and the SaTScan software package. Information was collected from peer-reviewed journal articles, conference proceedings, laboratory reports, unpublished scientific reports and grey literature. A space–time permutation probability model using a varying time window of one year was used to scan for areas with high infection rates. The spatial scan statistic detected a significant purely spatial cluster around the Mbala–Isoka area between 2009 and 2012, with secondary clusters in Sesheke–Kazungula in 2007 and 2008, the Kafue flats in 2004 and 2005 and Livingstone in 2012. This study provides evidence of the existence of statistically significant FMD clusters and an increase in occurrence in Zambia between 2004 and 2012. The identified clusters agree with areas known to be at high risk of FMD. The FMD virus transmission dynamics and the heterogeneous variability in risk within these locations may need further investigation.

  16. Foot and mouth disease in Zambia: spatial and temporal distributions of outbreaks, assessment of clusters and implications for control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkala, Yona; Simuunza, Martin; Muma, John B; Pfeiffer, Dirk U; Kasanga, Christopher J; Mweene, Aaron

    2014-04-23

    Zambia has been experiencing low livestock productivity as well as trade restrictions owing to the occurrence of foot and mouth disease (FMD), but little is known about the epidemiology of the disease in these endemic settings. The fundamental questions relate to the spatio-temporal distribution of FMD cases and what determines their occurrence. A retrospective review of FMD cases in Zambia from 1981 to 2012 was conducted using geographical information systems and the SaTScan software package. Information was collected from peer-reviewed journal articles, conference proceedings, laboratory reports, unpublished scientific reports and grey literature. A space-time permutation probability model using a varying time window of one year was used to scan for areas with high infection rates. The spatial scan statistic detected a significant purely spatial cluster around the Mbala-Isoka area between 2009 and 2012, with secondary clusters in Sesheke-Kazungula in 2007 and 2008, the Kafue flats in 2004 and 2005 and Livingstone in 2012. This study provides evidence of the existence of statistically significant FMD clusters and an increase in occurrence in Zambia between 2004 and 2012. The identified clusters agree with areas known to be at high risk of FMD. The FMD virus transmission dynamics and the heterogeneous variability in risk within these locations may need further investigation.

  17. An EPR study on clustering of iron and of oxygen in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, S.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis the author has studied the behavior of high concentrations of interstitial oxygen and of interstitial iron in silicon using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). Both impurities tend to cluster at the temperatures at which they become mobile. The behavior of interstitial iron in silicon was studied by annealing and by electron irradiation and subsequent annealing of iron-doped samples. From this study it is concluded that isolated interstitial iron does not become substitutional during annealing. Instead in high resistivity dislocation free silicon, it forms pairs and eventually larger clusters. (Auth.)

  18. Interstitial lung disease: Diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushik Saha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial lung disease (ILD is a final common pathway of a broad heterogeneous group of parenchymal lung disorders. It is characterized by progressive fibrosis of the lung leading to restriction and diminished oxygen transfer. Clinically, the presenting symptoms of ILD are non-specific (cough and progressive dyspnea on exertion and are often attributed to other diseases, thus delaying diagnosis and timely therapy. Clues from the medical history along with the clinical context and radiologic findings provide the initial basis for prioritizing diagnostic possibilities for a patient with ILD. An accurate prognosis and optimal treatment strategy for patients with ILDs can only be after an accurate diagnosis. This review will assist pulmonary physicians and medicine specialist in recognition of ILD. Extensive literature search has been made through PubMed and also Book References has been used for writing this review.

  19. Navigation system for interstitial brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strassmann, G.; Kolotas, C.; Heyd, R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the stud was to develop a computed tomography (CT) based electromagnetic navigation system for interstitial brachytherapy. This is especially designed for situations when needles have to be positioned adjacent to or within critical anatomical structures. In such instances interactive 3D visualisation of the needle positions is essential. The material consisted of a Polhemus electromagnetic 3D digitizer, a Pentium 200 MHz laptop and a voice recognition for continuous speech. In addition, we developed an external reference system constructed of Perspex which could be positioned above the tumour region and attached to the patient using a non-invasive fixation method. A specially designed needle holder and patient bed were also developed. Measurements were made on a series of phantoms in order to study the efficacy and accuracy of the navigation system. The mean navigation accuracy of positioning the 20.0 cm length metallic needles within the phantoms was in the range 2.0-4.1 mm with a maximum of 5.4 mm. This is an improvement on the accuracy of a CT-guided technique which was in the range 6.1-11.3 mm with a maximum of 19.4 mm. The mean reconstruction accuracy of the implant geometry was 3.2 mm within a non-ferromagnetic environment. We found that although the needles were metallic this did not have a significant influence. We also found for our experimental setups that the CT table and operation table non-ferromagnetic parts had no significant influence on the navigation accuracy. This navigation system will be a very useful clinical tool for interstitial brachytherapy applications, particularly when critical structures have to be avoided. It also should provide a significant improvement on our existing technique

  20. Chylothorax in dermatomyositis complicated with interstitial pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoda, Kentaro; Kiboshi, Takao; Shoda, Takeshi

    2017-04-01

    Chylothorax is a disease in which chyle leaks and accumulates in the thoracic cavity. Interstitial pneumonia and pneumomediastinum are common thoracic manifestations of dermatomyositis, but chylothorax complicated with dermatomyositis is not reported. We report a case of dermatomyositis with interstitial pneumonia complicated by chylothorax. A 77-year-old woman was diagnosed as dermatomyositis with Gottron's papules, skin ulcers, anti-MDA5 antibody and rapid progressive interstitial pneumonia. Treatment with betamethasone, tacrolimus and intravenous high-dose cyclophosphamide was initiated, and her skin symptoms and interstitial pneumonia improved once. However, right-sided chylothorax began to accumulate and gradually increase, and at the same time, her interstitial pneumonia began to exacerbate, and skin ulcers began to reappear on her fingers and auricles. Although her chylothorax improved by fasting and parenteral nutrition, she died due to further exacerbations of dermatomyositis and interstitial pneumonia in spite of steroid pulse therapy, increase in the betamethasone dosage, additional intravenous high-dose cyclophosphamide and plasma pheresis. An autopsy showed no lesions such as malignant tumors in the thoracic cavity. This is the first report of chylothorax complicated by dermatomyositis with interstitial pneumonia.

  1. Interstitial ectopic pregnancy: conservative surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warda, Hussein; Mamik, Mamta M; Ashraf, Mohammad; Abuzeid, Mostafa I

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial pregnancy is a rare and life-threatening condition. Diagnosis and appropriate management are critical in preventing morbidity and death. Four cases of interstitial pregnancy are presented. Diagnostic laparoscopy followed by laparotomy and cornuostomy with removal of products of conception was performed in 1 case. Laparoscopic cornuostomy and removal of products of conception were performed in the subsequent 3 cases with some modifications of the technique. Subsequent successful reproductive outcomes are also presented. Progressively conservative surgical measures are being used to treat interstitial pregnancy successfully, with no negative impact on subsequent pregnancies.

  2. Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis: a rare interstitial lung disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, John C; Mayo, John R; Levy, Robert; Yee, John; Leslie, Kevin O

    2015-01-01

    Pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (PPFE) is a newly described form of interstitial lung disease that originates in the upper lung zones and typically progresses to involve the entire lung. The disease may be idiopathic but is often associated with other pre- or coexisting conditions. Pneumothorax is a common complication and can occur at presentation or at other times during the course of the disease. Pathologically, interstitial fibrosis takes the form of a dense consolidation with some preservation of alveolar septal outlines and demonstrates a distinctly abrupt interface with residual normal lung. Unrecognized cases of PPFE may be incorrectly diagnosed as sarcoidosis, atypical idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, or other unclassifiable interstitial pneumonias. PMID:26090119

  3. HRCT of diffuse interstitial pneumonia during treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masashi; Sano, Akira; Imanaka, Kazufumi

    1989-01-01

    HRCT was carried out in twenty patients with diffuse interstitial pneumonia: 13 cases of IIP, 3 of BOOP, 2 of drug-induced pneumonia, 1 of rheumatoid lung and acute interstitial pneumonia of unknown origin. With special attention to inflammatory activity, the patients underwent HRCT periodically during the treatment. Correlative investigation between HRCT image and grade of accumulation in 67 Ga scintigraphy was also performed. Response to steroid therapy was clearly reflected on HRCT image, that was shown as decreasing pulmonary density or thinning of honeycomb wall. HRCT is considered to be useful in assessing the activity of diffuse interstitial pneumonia. (author)

  4. Defect clustering in concentrated alloys during irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, T.; Shigenaka, N.; Fuse, M.

    1992-01-01

    A rate theory based model is presented to investigate the kinetics of interstitial clustering processes in a face-centered cubic (fcc) binary alloy containing A- and B-atoms. Three types of interstitial dumbbells, AA-, BB- and AB-type dumbbells, are considered. Conversions between these interstitial dumbbells are explicitly introduced into the formulation, based on the consideration of dumbbell configurations and movements. A di- interstitial is assumed to be the nucleus of a dislocation loop. Reactions of point defect production by irradiation, mutual recombination of an interstitial and a vacancy, dislocation loop nucleation and their growth are included in the model. Parameter values are chosen based on the atom size of the alloy elements, and dislocation loop formation kinetics are investigated while varying alloy compositions. Two different types of kinetics are obtained in accordance with the dominant loop nucleus types. Conversions between interstitial dumbbells are important in the determination of the interstitial dumbbell concentration ratios, of the dominant nucleus types, and consequently, the loop formation kinetics. Dislocation loop concentration decreases with increasing undersized atom content, but dose rate and temperature dependence of loop concentration are insensitive to alloy compositions. (author)

  5. Flock worker's lung: chronic interstitial lung disease in the nylon flocking industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, D G; Crausman, R S; Durand, K T; Nayer, A; Kuhn, C

    1998-08-15

    Two young men working at a nylon flocking plant in Rhode Island developed interstitial lung disease of unknown cause. Similar clusters at the same company's Canadian plant were reported previously. To define the extent, clinicopathologic features, and potential causes of the apparent disease outbreak. Case-finding survey and retrospective cohort study. Academic occupational medicine program. All workers employed at the Rhode Island plant on or after 15 June 1990. Symptomatic employees had chest radiography, pulmonary function tests, high-resolution computed tomography, and serologic testing. Those with unexplained radiographic or pulmonary function abnormalities underwent bronchoalveolar lavage, lung biopsy, or both. The case definition of "flock worker's lung" required histologic evidence of interstitial lung disease (or lavage evidence of lung inflammation) not explained by another condition. Eight cases of flock worker's lung were identified at the Rhode Island plant. Three cases were characterized by a high proportion of eosinophils (25% to 40%) in lavage fluid. Six of the seven patients who had biopsy had histologic findings of nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, and the seventh had bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia. All seven of these patients had peribronchovascular interstitial lymphoid nodules, usually with germinal centers, and most had lymphocytic bronchiolitis and interstitial fibrosis. All improved after leaving work. Review of the Canadian tissue specimens showed many similar histologic findings. Among the 165-member study cohort, a 48-fold or greater increase was seen in the sex-adjusted incidence rate of all interstitial lung disease. Work in the nylon flocking industry poses substantial risk for a previously unrecognized occupational interstitial lung disease. Nylon fiber is the suspected cause of this condition.

  6. The diffuse interstitial lung disease - with emphasis in the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bustillo P, Jose G; Pacheco, Pedro M; Matiz, Carlos; Ojeda, Paulina; Carrillo B, Jorge A.

    2003-01-01

    The term diffuse interstitial lung disease, it refers to those diseases that commit the interstice basically, the space between the membrane basal epithelial and endothelial, although the damage can also commit the outlying air spaces and the vessels; the supplement is centered in the diffuse interstitial lung illness of unknown cause; well-known as idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, making emphasis in the more frequents, the pulmonary fibrosis idiopathic or cryptogenic fibrosant alveolitis

  7. Interstitial Metabolic Monitoring During Hemorrhagic Shock

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pamnani, Motilal

    2003-01-01

    .... We hypothesize that decompensation results from potassium-mediated vasodilation and/or loss of cardiac contractility, and thus a method of measuring interstitial potassium should be a crucial part...

  8. Interstitial Metabolic Monitoring During Hemorrhagic Shock

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pamnani, Motilal

    2004-01-01

    .... We hypothesize that decompensation results from potassium-mediated vasodilation and/or loss of cardiac contractility, and thus a method of measuring interstitial potassium should be a crucial part...

  9. INTERSTITIAL ECTOPIC PREGNANCY-A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Fateme parooei1, Mahmood Anbari2, Morteza Salarzaei

    2017-01-01

    Introduction:. Interstitial ectopic pregnancy, in which rupture occurs much later than other forms of pregnancy, is a rare phenomenon that occurs in 2% of ectopic pregnancies; delayed rupture is due to the expandability of myometrium. Methods: In this review article, the databases Medline, Cochrane, Science Direct, and Google Scholar were thoroughly searched to identify the Interstitial ectopic pregnancy. In this review, the papers published until early January 2017 that were conducted ...

  10. Treatment Approaches for Interstitial Cystitis: Multimodality Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert J

    2002-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis is an increasingly common disease characterized by urgency, frequency, and pelvic pain. Its etiology is poorly understood but is likely to be multifactorial. A proposed pathophysiology describing a cascade of events, including epithelial dysfunction, mast cell activation, and neurogenic inflammation, is presented. Using this model, multimodality therapy regimens have been developed that treat all components of this cascade. Multimodality therapy appears more effective than single agents in the treatment of interstitial cystitis. PMID:16986029

  11. Interstitial Cystitis: Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Atuğ

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial cystitis, is a chronic inflammatory disease of the bladder of unknown etiology characterized by urinary frequency, urgency, nocturia and suprapubic pain. The syndrome presents differently in many patients, with the unifying factor being chronic pelvic pain and disruption of daily life activities.Although there are abundance of theories, the etiology of the condition remains unclear. This review focuses on recently published literature on the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis.

  12. Interstitial Metabolic Monitoring During Hemorrhagic Shock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-01

    Mass Spectometry (ICP- MS) ATACCC St. Pete Beach, FL 15 Apr 03 Microdialysis (µD) Measurement Of Interstitial Markers of Hemorrhagic Shock...Jackson Foundation Rockville, MD 20852-1428 REPORT DATE : November 2005 TYPE OF REPORT: Final PREPARED FOR... DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 01-11-2005 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 MAR 2004 - 14 OCT 2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Interstitial Metabolic

  13. [Diffuse idiopathic interstitial pneumonias. International multidisciplinary consensus classification by the American Thoracic Society and the European Respiratory Society, principal clinico-pathological entities, and diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottin, V; Capron, F; Grenier, P; Cordier, J-F

    2004-04-01

    The classification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias includes seven clinico-pathologic entities. The diagnosis is based on a multidisciplinary approach, integrating the clinical evaluation, the high-resolution computerised tomography, and the pathological pattern. A definitive diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis relies on the association of a suggestive clinico-radiological profile and a pathological pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia is a recently described clinico-pathologic entity, with a better prognosis than that of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Cryptogenic organising pneumonia has been included in the group of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias because of its idiopathic and multifocal characteristics, although it does not predominate in the lung interstitium. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia and respiratory bronchiolitis with interstitial lung disease are rare entities with predominance in young smoking adults. Lymphoid interstitial pneumonia, usually encountered in the context of Sjögren's syndrome, is very rare in its idiopathic form. Acute interstitial pneumonia is responsible for idiopathic acute respiratory distress syndrome. The current classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias better defines the diagnostic criterias of each clinico-pathologic entity, and is expected to facilitate clinical research. This classification has clinical implications, with prognostic and therapeutic significance.

  14. Ancient Expansion of the Hox Cluster in Lepidoptera Generated Four Homeobox Genes Implicated in Extra-Embryonic Tissue Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, William R.; Gibbs, Melanie; Breuker, Casper J.; Holland, Peter W. H.

    2014-01-01

    Gene duplications within the conserved Hox cluster are rare in animal evolution, but in Lepidoptera an array of divergent Hox-related genes (Shx genes) has been reported between pb and zen. Here, we use genome sequencing of five lepidopteran species (Polygonia c-album, Pararge aegeria, Callimorpha dominula, Cameraria ohridella, Hepialus sylvina) plus a caddisfly outgroup (Glyphotaelius pellucidus) to trace the evolution of the lepidopteran Shx genes. We demonstrate that Shx genes originated by tandem duplication of zen early in the evolution of large clade Ditrysia; Shx are not found in a caddisfly and a member of the basally diverging Hepialidae (swift moths). Four distinct Shx genes were generated early in ditrysian evolution, and were stably retained in all descendent Lepidoptera except the silkmoth which has additional duplications. Despite extensive sequence divergence, molecular modelling indicates that all four Shx genes have the potential to encode stable homeodomains. The four Shx genes have distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns in early development of the Speckled Wood butterfly (Pararge aegeria), with ShxC demarcating the future sites of extraembryonic tissue formation via strikingly localised maternal RNA in the oocyte. All four genes are also expressed in presumptive serosal cells, prior to the onset of zen expression. Lepidopteran Shx genes represent an unusual example of Hox cluster expansion and integration of novel genes into ancient developmental regulatory networks. PMID:25340822

  15. Interstitial lung diseases in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clement Annick

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Interstitial lung disease (ILD in infants and children comprises a large spectrum of rare respiratory disorders that are mostly chronic and associated with high morbidity and mortality. These disorders are characterized by inflammatory and fibrotic changes that affect alveolar walls. Typical features of ILD include dyspnea, diffuse infiltrates on chest radiographs, and abnormal pulmonary function tests with restrictive ventilatory defect and/or impaired gas exchange. Many pathological situations can impair gas exchange and, therefore, may contribute to progressive lung damage and ILD. Consequently, diagnosis approach needs to be structured with a clinical evaluation requiring a careful history paying attention to exposures and systemic diseases. Several classifications for ILD have been proposed but none is entirely satisfactory especially in children. The present article reviews current concepts of pathophysiological mechanisms, etiology and diagnostic approaches, as well as therapeutic strategies. The following diagnostic grouping is used to discuss the various causes of pediatric ILD: 1 exposure-related ILD; 2 systemic disease-associated ILD; 3 alveolar structure disorder-associated ILD; and 4 ILD specific to infancy. Therapeutic options include mainly anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, and/or anti-fibrotic drugs. The outcome is highly variable with a mortality rate around 15%. An overall favorable response to corticosteroid therapy is observed in around 50% of cases, often associated with sequelae such as limited exercise tolerance or the need for long-term oxygen therapy.

  16. An analytical model to predict interstitial lubrication of cartilage in migrating contact areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, A C; Burris, D L

    2014-01-03

    For nearly a century, articular cartilage has been known for its exceptional tribological properties. For nearly as long, there have been research efforts to elucidate the responsible mechanisms for application toward biomimetic bearing applications. It is now widely accepted that interstitial fluid pressurization is the primary mechanism responsible for the unusual lubrication and load bearing properties of cartilage. Although the biomechanics community has developed elegant mathematical theories describing the coupling of solid and fluid (biphasic) mechanics and its role in interstitial lubrication, quantitative gaps in our understanding of cartilage tribology have inhibited our ability to predict how tribological conditions and material properties impact tissue function. This paper presents an analytical model of the interstitial lubrication of biphasic materials under migrating contact conditions. Although finite element and other numerical models of cartilage mechanics exist, they typically neglect the important role of the collagen network and are limited to a specific set of input conditions, which limits general applicability. The simplified approach taken in this work aims to capture the broader underlying physics as a starting point for further model development. In agreement with existing literature, the model indicates that a large Peclet number, Pe, is necessary for effective interstitial lubrication. It also predicts that the tensile modulus must be large relative to the compressive modulus. This explains why hydrogels and other biphasic materials do not provide significant interstitial pressure under high Pe conditions. The model quantitatively agrees with in-situ measurements of interstitial load support and the results have interesting implications for tissue engineering and osteoarthritis problems. This paper suggests that a low tensile modulus (from chondromalacia or local collagen rupture after impact, for example) may disrupt interstitial

  17. Expression of Nestin, Vimentin, and NCAM by Renal Interstitial Cells after Ischemic Tubular Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vansthertem

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work explores the distribution of various markers expressed by interstitial cells in rat kidneys after ischemic injury (35 minutes during regeneration of S3 tubules of outer stripe of outer medulla (OSOM. Groups of experimental animals (n=4 were sacrificed every two hours during the first 24 hours post-ischemia as well as 2, 3, 7, 14 days post-ischemia. The occurrence of lineage markers was analyzed on kidney sections by immunohistochemistry and morphometry during the process of tubular regeneration. In postischemic kidneys, interstitial cell proliferation, assessed by 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA labeling, was prominent in outer medulla and reach a maximum between 24 and 72 hours after reperfusion. This population was characterized by the coexpression of vimentin and nestin. The density of -Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (NCAM positive interstitial cells increased transiently (18–72 hours in the vicinity of altered tubules. We have also localized a small population of α-Smooth Muscle Actin (SMA-positive cells confined to chronically altered areas and characterized by a small proliferative index. In conclusion, we observed in the postischemic kidney a marked proliferation of interstitial cells that underwent transient phenotypical modifications. These interstitial cells could be implicated in processes leading to renal fibrosis.

  18. How does interstitial cystitis begin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, C Lowell

    2015-12-01

    Interstitial cystitis (IC) does not start as an endstage disease, it has a beginning when symptoms are milder, intermittent and the disease is misdiagnosed. To determine how IC develops patients were interviewed on when their symptoms began, what they were and are now as well as the various diagnoses that they received before they were determined to have IC. One hundred female IC patients were screened. They filled out a questionnaire asking about the age their disease presented, their initial and current symptoms, what their original diagnoses were, effect of the menstrual cycle and sexual activity on their symptoms and about any relatives with bladder symptoms or a current diagnosis of IC. By age 30, 81% of patients had bladder symptoms, 21% before age 10. The first symptom was frequency in 81%, pain present in 59% and the symptoms were intermittent in 64%. Most common early misdiagnosis was UTI in 74% with 93% reporting negative urine cultures. Sex was painful and causes symptom flares in 82%, symptoms flared the week before the menses in 75%. Most common gynecologic diagnosis was yeast vaginitis, 42%. Urge incontinence was present in 33%. There were 51% that reported bladder symptoms in a first degree female relative. IC begins primarily with frequency and is intermittent in most patients with symptom flares associated with sexual activity. Pain and urgency incontinence tend to be a later symptoms. When IC flares the most common misdiagnosis is UTI. Symptoms begin before age 30 in most but an IC diagnosis is often not made until age 40. Genetics appear to play a significant role. It is important to consider these facts when evaluating women with "early IC" because correct diagnosis will result in proper therapy and reduced health care costs.

  19. Correlation of gene expression with bladder capacity in interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaco, Marc; Koslov, David S; Keys, Tristan; Evans, Robert J; Badlani, Gopal H; Andersson, Karl-Erik; Walker, Stephen J

    2014-10-01

    Interstitial cystitis and bladder pain syndrome are terms used to describe a heterogeneous chronic pelvic and bladder pain disorder. Despite its significant prevalence, our understanding of disease etiology is poor. We molecularly characterized interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and determined whether there are clinical factors that correlate with gene expression. Bladder biopsies from female subjects with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and female controls without signs of the disease were collected and divided into those with normal and low anesthetized bladder capacity, respectively. Samples then underwent RNA extraction and microarray assay. Data generated by these assays were analyzed using Omics Explorer (Qlucore, Lund, Sweden), GeneSifter® Analysis Edition 4.0 and Ingenuity® Pathway Analysis to determine similarity among samples within and between groups, and measure differentially expressed transcripts unique to each phenotype. A total of 16 subjects were included in study. Principal component analysis and unsupervised hierarchical clustering showed clear separation between gene expression in tissues from subjects with low compared to normal bladder capacity. Gene expression in tissue from patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome who had normal bladder capacity did not significantly differ from that in controls without interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. Pairwise analysis revealed that pathways related to inflammatory and immune response were most involved. Microarray analysis provides insight into the potential pathological condition underlying interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. This pilot study shows that patients with this disorder who have low compared to normal bladder capacity have significantly different molecular characteristics, which may reflect a difference in disease pathophysiology. Copyright © 2014 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc

  20. [Modern Views on Children's Interstitial Lung Disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boĭtsova, E V; Beliashova, M A; Ovsiannikov, D Iu

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial lung diseases (ILD, diffuse lung diseases) are a heterogeneous group of diseases in which a pathological process primarily involved alveoli and perialveolar interstitium, resulting in impaired gas exchange, restrictive changes of lung ventilation function and diffuse interstitial changes detectable by X-ray. Children's interstitial lung diseases is an topical problem ofpediatricpulmonoogy. The article presents current information about classification, epidemiology, clinical presentation, diagnostics, treatment and prognosis of these rare diseases. The article describes the differences in the structure, pathogenesis, detection of various histological changes in children's ILD compared with adult patients with ILD. Authors cite an instance of registers pediatric patients with ILD. The clinical semiotics of ILD, the possible results of objective research, the frequency of symptoms, the features of medical history, the changes detected on chest X-rays, CT semiotics described in detail. Particular attention was paid to interstitial lung diseases, occurring mainly in newborns and children during the first two years of life, such as congenital deficiencies of surfactant proteins, neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy, pulmonary interstitial glycogenosis. The diagnostic program for children's ILD, therapy options are presented in this article.

  1. The Role of Interstitial Fluid Pressurization in Articular Cartilage Lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ateshian, Gerard A.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last two decades, considerable progress has been reported in the field of cartilage mechanics that impacts our understanding of the role of interstitial fluid pressurization on cartilage lubrication. Theoretical and experimental studies have demonstrated that the interstitial fluid of cartilage pressurizes considerably under loading, potentially supporting most of the applied load under various transient or steady-state conditions. The fraction of the total load supported by fluid pressurization has been called the fluid load support. Experimental studies have demonstrated that the friction coefficient of cartilage correlates negatively with this variable, achieving remarkably low values when the fluid load support is greatest. A theoretical framework that embodies this relationship has been validated against experiments, predicting and explaining various outcomes, and demonstrating that a low friction coefficient can be maintained for prolonged loading durations under normal physiological function. This paper reviews salient aspects of this topic, as well as its implications for improving our understanding of boundary lubrication by molecular species in synovial fluid and the cartilage superficial zone. Effects of cartilage degeneration on its frictional response are also reviewed. PMID:19464689

  2. The clustering of Lyman α emitters at z ≈ 7: implications for reionization and host halo masses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobacchi, Emanuele; Mesinger, Andrei

    2015-10-01

    The Lyman α (Lyα) line of high-redshift galaxies has emerged as a powerful probe of both early galaxy evolution and the epoch of reionization (EoR). Motivated by the upcoming wide-field survey with the Subaru Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC), we study the angular correlation function (ACF) of narrow-band selected, z ≈ 7 Lyα emitting galaxies (LAEs). The clustering of LAEs is determined by both (i) their typical host halo masses, bar{M}_h, and (ii) the absorption due to a patchy EoR, characterized by an average neutral fraction of the intergalactic medium, bar{x}_{H I}. We bracket the allowed LAE ACFs by exploring extreme scenarios for both the intrinsic Lyα emission and the large-scale pattern (i.e. morphology) of cosmic ionized patches in physical EoR models. Independent of the EoR morphology, current z ≈ 7 ACF measurements constrain bar{x}_{H I}≲ 0.5 (1σ). We also find that the low values of the currently observed ACF imply that LAEs are hosted by relatively small dark matter haloes: bar{M}_h ≲ 10^{10} M_{⊙}, with corresponding duty cycles of ≲few per cent. These values are over an order of magnitude lower than the analogous ones for colour-selected, Lyman break galaxies, suggesting that z ≈ 7 narrow-band LAEs searches are preferentially selecting young, starburst galaxies, residing in less massive haloes. The upcoming Ultra Deep campaign with the HSC will significantly improve constraints on both the EoR and LAE host haloes.

  3. Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Young Cheol; Suh, Gee Young; Han, Joung Ho; Lee, Kyung Soo

    2002-01-01

    Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias are at present classified as one of four types: usual, nonspecific, acute, or desquamative. The acute form has the worst prognosis, followed by the usual and the nonspecific form; it is in desquamative cases that prognosis is best. At high-resolution CT, usual interstitial pneumonia, the most frequent type, manifests as patchy subpleural areas of ground-glass attenuation, irregular linear opacity, and honeycombing, which the nonspecific type, the second most frequent, appears as subpleural patchy areas of ground-glass attenuation with associated areas of irregular linear opacity. Acute interstitial pneumonia demonstrates extensive bilateral airspace consolidation and patchy or diffuse bilateral areas of ground-glass attenuation in middle and lower lung zones

  4. [Diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, D; Gregorin, J; Schmid, H-P

    2011-02-16

    Interstitial Cystitis, first described in 1887 as an inflammatory disease of the bladder wall, is now regarded as a very common disease with an estimated number of unreported cases. Reasons for underdiagnosis is the widespread use of strict exclusion criteria. The disease can already be suspected by a careful medical history and physical examination in an early stage and then be treated with promising multimodal therapeutic approaches. In addition to a symptomatic oral therapy, local instillations with constituents of the protective glycosaminoglycan-layer are the most common therapeutic approach, because its defective integrity plays a key role in the pathogenesis of interstitial cystitis.

  5. Radionuclide diagnosis of interstitial lung edema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodzhibekov, M.Kh.

    1991-01-01

    Perfusion scintigraphy of the lungs has shown that a reverse direction of postural reactions of the pulmonary blood flow is observed in patients with mitral valvular disease. It is accounted for by the action of gravitation on capillary hydrostatic pressure resulting in the localization of interstitial edema in pulmonary venous hypertension mainly in the lower lung, its microcirculatory bed being compressed and the blood flow redistributed to the opposite upper lung. Therefore successive perfusion scintigraphy of the lungs in the vertical position and in the lateral position with a RP administered twice, can serve as a sensitive test for diagnosis of interstitial lung edema

  6. Change of Energy of the Cubic Subnanocluster of Iron Under Influence of Interstitial and Substitutional Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedolya, Anatoliy V; Bondarenko, Natalya V

    2016-12-01

    Energy change of an iron face-centred cubic subnanocluster was evaluated using molecular mechanics method depending on the position of a carbon interstitial atom and substitutional atoms of nickel. Calculations of all possible positions of impurity atoms show that the energy change of the system are discrete and at certain positions of the atoms are close to continuous.In terms of energy, when all impurity atoms are on the same edge of an atomic cluster, their positions are more advantageous. The presence of nickel atoms on the edge of a cubic cluster resulted in decrease of potential barrier for a carbon atom and decrease in energy in the whole cluster. A similar drift of a carbon atom from central octahedral interstitial site to the surface in the direction occurred under the influence of surface factors.Such configuration corresponds to decreasing symmetry and increasing the number of possible energy states of a subnanocluster, and it corresponds to the condition of spontaneous crystallization process in an isolated system.Taking into account accidental positions of the nickel atom in the iron cluster, such behaviour of the carbon atom can explain the mechanism of growth of a new phase and formation of new clusters in the presence of other kind of atoms because of surface influence.

  7. Anelastic relaxation of interstitial foreign atoms and their complexes with intrinsic defects in B.C.C. metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weller, M.

    1985-01-01

    In body-centred cubic metals, heavy interstitial foreign atoms (IFA) O, N and C give rise to relaxations of Snoek type. For dilute alloys, relaxation parameters are summarized. In concentrated alloys (group Va metals containing O or N) Snoek relaxations are influenced by the interaction of IFA. The recent controversy is discussed as to whether this interaction is based on clustering or anticlustering. In irradiated metals complexes of IFA with intrinsic atomic defects (vacancies or self interstitial atoms) also give rise to relaxations

  8. Mortality following unilateral twin interstitial ectopic pregnancy. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, G M; Rubin, S M; Sondheimer, S J

    1992-10-01

    Twin ectopic pregnancy is an uncommon event, usually occurring as simultaneous intrauterine and tubal gestations. Interstitial implantation of an ectopic pregnancy is also a rare event, associated with a high mortality rate. Twin interstitial pregnancy has been previously reported only three times in the English literature. We report a recent case of unilateral twin interstitial ectopic pregnancy that resulted in maternal death and review the literature with regard to both ectopic pregnancy and factors associated with mortality from interstitial implantation.

  9. Anisotropy: an estimable alloy in the study of point defect clustering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, C.; Quere, Y.

    1986-09-01

    Crystal anisotropy forces vacancies and interstitials, in irradiated uranium, to cluster into two distinct families of dislocation loops. A consequence of this fortunate circumstance, the irradiation ''growth'', is easily observed by length measurements performed under neutron irradiation at ≅ 30-40 K. These experiments are analysed in a way which allows to detect two distinct modes of clustering for interstitials and vacancies. The same analysis is applied to previous experiments performed at ≅ 4K [1-2

  10. Interstitial Ectopic Pregnancy Report of Four Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bülent Kars

    2009-12-01

    Interstitial pregnancy is a rare form of ectopic pregnancy which carries a higher risk of morbidity and mortality due to catastrophic hemorrhage. Early diagnosis is mandatory for management of this potentially fatal condition and a high index of suspicion is essential for early diagnosis.

  11. Rituximab-induced interstitial lung disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naqibullah, Matiuallah; Shaker, Saher B; Bach, Karen S

    2015-01-01

    , rheumatoid arthritis, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Recently, RTX has also been suggested for the treatment of certain connective tissue disease-related interstitial lung diseases (ILD) and hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Rare but serious pulmonary adverse reactions are reported. To raise awareness about...

  12. Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Linda M; Bhambore, Neelam

    2011-05-15

    Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome affects more than 1 million persons in the United States, but the cause remains unknown. Most patients with interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome are women with symptoms of suprapubic pelvic and/or genital area pain, dyspareunia, urinary urgency and frequency, and nocturia. It is important to exclude other conditions such as infections. Tests and tools commonly used to diagnose interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome include specific questionnaires developed to assess the condition, the potassium sensitivity test, the anesthetic bladder challenge, and cystoscopy with hydrodistension. Treatment options include oral medications, intravesical instillations, and dietary changes and supplements. Oral medications include pentosan polysulfate sodium, antihistamines, tricyclic antidepressants, and immune modulators. Intravesical medications include dimethyl sulfoxide, pentosan polysulfate sodium, and heparin. Pentosan polysulfate sodium is the only oral therapy and dimethyl sulfoxide is the only intravesical therapy with U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval for the treatment of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome. To date, clinical trials of individual therapies have been limited in size, quality, and duration of follow-up. Studies of combination or multimodal therapies are lacking.

  13. Interstitial laser thermotherapy in neurosurgery: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menovsky, T.; Beek, J. F.; van Gemert, M. J.; Roux, F. X.; Bown, S. G.

    1996-01-01

    One of the most recent laser treatment modalities in neurosurgery is interstitial laser thermotherapy (ILTT). In this review, experimental and clinical studies concerning intracranial ILTT are discussed. Two methods for intra-operative control of the laser induced lesions are described; i.e.,

  14. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovrenski Aleksandra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Desquamative interstitial pneumonia is one of the rarest idiopathic interstitial pneumonias and the rarest form of smoking-related interstitial lung diseases. It was first described by Liebow in 1965. Histologically, it is characterized by the presence of eosinophilic macrophages uniformly filling airspaces which often contain a finely granular light-brown pigment that does not stain for hemosiderin. The alveolar walls are usually mildly thickened by fibrous tissue and infiltrated by a moderate number of lymphocytes. Case Outline. Our patient was a 56-year-old male, heavy smoker, with bilateral lung infiltrations of unknown etiology and several months of discomfort in the form of dry cough and shortness of breath. Lung function tests showed a moderate restrictive ventilation disorder and a severe reduction of diffusing capacity. Since bronchoscopic specimens did not reveal lung lesion etiology, an open lung biopsy of the lower left pulmonary lobe was performed, and based on the obtained surgical material the pathohistologically diagnosis of desquamative interstitial pneumonia was established. The patient was started on corticosteroid and immunosuppressive therapy, and he ceased smoking. At the last control examination, two years after the onset of symptoms, the patient was feeling well, and high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT scan of the thorax showed regression of pathological changes. Conclusion. Although, as in our case, the majority of DIP patients improve on treatment, some patients still develop progressive irreversible fibrosis despite therapy.

  15. [Interstitial pregnancy: experience at Rouen's hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douysset, X; Verspyck, E; Diguet, A; Marpeau, L; Chanavaz-Lacheray, I; Rondeau, S; Resch, B; Sergent, F

    2014-04-01

    Presenting our experience concerning interstitial pregnancies (IP) surgical management and to evaluate our patients' subsequent long-term fertility. Twenty patients underwent surgical treatment of IP in our department over 15 years. In this retrospective study, we present symptoms that led to diagnosis, treatments, fertility and obstetrical outcome. Mean gestational age at diagnosis was 8SA, with a median BHCG rate of 7411 IU/L, and a patient mean age of 30 years. Ninety percent of patients had at least one risk factor for ectopic pregnancy. Pain or bleeding were the most common symptoms at admission, 4 patients were admitted in an hypovolemic shock status. Location of the interstitial ectopic pregnancy was discovered during surgery in 45 % of cases. Six patients had a large hemoperitoneum bigger than 1L, 5 patients had an IP of uterine stump after salpingectomy for a previous ectopic pregnancy. The most used surgical technique was in 60 % of cases the excision by Endo GIA stapling(®) with salpingectomy. Regarding fertility, 12 patients wished pregnancy in the aftermath of the intervention, 10 had at least one pregnancy, among them there is an ectopic contralateral ampullary pregnancy, and a contralateral recurrence of interstitial pregnancy. Four patients were delivered by cesarean section and 4 patients were delivered vaginally, some several times. No uterine rupture occured. Interstitial pregnancy is a rare ectopic pregnancy. Its diagnosis is difficult and may involve maternal life-threatening and fertility. In subsequent pregnancies, the clinician has to be careful concerning the risks of interstitial pregnancy recurrence and uterine rupture. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  16. Differential gene expression in the murine gastric fundus lacking interstitial cells of Cajal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ward Sean M

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The muscle layers of murine gastric fundus have no interstitial cells of Cajal at the level of the myenteric plexus and only possess intramuscular interstitial cells and this tissue does not generate electric slow waves. The absence of intramuscular interstitial cells in W/WV mutants provides a unique opportunity to study the molecular changes that are associated with the loss of these intercalating cells. Method The gene expression profile of the gastric fundus of wild type and W/WV mice was assayed by murine microarray analysis displaying a total of 8734 elements. Queried genes from the microarray analysis were confirmed by semi-quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Results Twenty-one genes were differentially expressed in wild type and W/WV mice. Eleven transcripts had 2.0–2.5 fold higher mRNA expression in W/WV gastric fundus when compared to wild type tissues. Ten transcripts had 2.1–3.9 fold lower expression in W/WV mutants in comparison with wild type animals. None of these genes have ever been implicated in any bowel motility function. Conclusions These data provides evidence that several important genes have significantly changed in the murine fundus of W/WV mutants that lack intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal and have reduced enteric motor neurotransmission.

  17. In situ observation of thermal relaxation of interstitial-vacancy pair defects in a graphite gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urita, Koki; Suenaga, Kazu; Sugai, Toshiki; Shinohara, Hisanori; Iijima, Sumio

    2005-04-22

    Direct observation of individual defects during formation and annihilation in the interlayer gap of double-wall carbon nanotubes (DWNT) is demonstrated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The interlayer defects that bridge two adjacent graphen layers in DWNT are stable for a macroscopic time at the temperature below 450 K. These defects are assigned to a cluster of one or two interstitial-vacancy pairs (I-V pairs) and often disappear just after their formation at higher temperatures due to an instantaneous recombination of the interstitial atom with vacancy. Systematic observations performed at the elevated temperatures find a threshold for the defect annihilation at 450-500 K, which, indeed, corresponds to the known temperature for the Wigner energy release.

  18. Atomistic studies of nucleation of He clusters and bubbles in bcc iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, L.; Deng, H.Q.; Gao, F.; Heinisch, H.L.; Kurtz, R.J.; Hu, S.Y.; Li, Y.L.; Zu, X.T.

    2013-01-01

    Atomistic simulations of the nucleation of He clusters and bubbles in bcc iron at 800 K have been carried out using the newly developed Fe–Fe interatomic potential, along with Ackland potential for the Fe–Fe interactions. Microstructure changes were analyzed in detail. We found that a He cluster with four He atoms is able to push out an iron interstitial from the cluster, creating a Frenkel pair. Small He clusters and self-interstitial atom (SIA) can migrate in the matrix, but He-vacancy (He-V) clusters are immobile. Most SIAs form clusters, and only the dislocation loops with a Burgers vector of b = 1/2 appear in the simulations. SIA clusters (or loops) are attached to He-V clusters for He implantation up to 1372 appm, while the He-V cluster–loop complexes with more than one He-V cluster are formed at the He concentration of 2057 appm and larger

  19. Cluster headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Histamine headache; Headache - histamine; Migrainous neuralgia; Headache - cluster; Horton's headache; Vascular headache - cluster ... Doctors do not know exactly what causes cluster headaches. They ... (chemical in the body released during an allergic response) or ...

  20. Chronic interstitial lung disease in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griese, Matthias

    2018-03-31

    Children's interstitial lung diseases (chILD) are increasingly recognised and contain many lung developmental and genetic disorders not yet identified in adult pneumology. Worldwide, several registers have been established. The Australasian Registry Network for Orphan Lung Disease (ARNOLD) has identified problems in estimating rare disease prevalence; focusing on chILD in immunocompetent patients, a period prevalence of 1.5 cases per million children and a mortality rate of 7% were determined. The chILD-EU register highlighted the workload to be covered per patient included and provided protocols for diagnosis and initial treatment, similar to the United States chILD network. Whereas case reports may be useful for young physicians to practise writing articles, cohorts of patients can catapult progress, as demonstrated by recent studies on persistent tachypnoea of infancy, hypersensitivity pneumonitis in children and interstitial lung disease related to interferonopathies from mutations in transmembrane protein 173. Translational research has linked heterozygous mutations in the ABCA3 transporter to an increased risk of interstitial lung diseases, not only in neonates, but also in older children and adults. For surfactant dysfunction disorders in infancy and early childhood, lung transplantation was reported to be as successful as in adult patients. Mutual potentiation of paediatric and adult pneumologists is mandatory in this rapidly extending field for successful future development.This brief review highlights publications in the field of paediatric interstitial lung disease as reviewed during the Clinical Year in Review session presented at the 2017 European Respiratory Society (ERS) Annual Congress in Milan, Italy. It was commissioned by the ERS and critically presents progress made as well as drawbacks. Copyright ©ERS 2018.

  1. Self-interstitial atoms in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schilling, W.

    1978-01-01

    The present state of knowledge and understanding of the properties of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) in metals is reviewed. Special emphasis is given to a discussion of the structure of SIAs and those properties which relate to structure such as relaxation volumes, elastic polarizabilities, defect vibrations, geometry of jump processes, and elastic interactions. The present experimental status with respect to these properties is summarized, and the basic theoretical concepts for their understanding are presented as simply as possible. (Auth.)

  2. Chronic interstitial lung disease in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Griese

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Children's interstitial lung diseases (chILD are increasingly recognised and contain many lung developmental and genetic disorders not yet identified in adult pneumology. Worldwide, several registers have been established. The Australasian Registry Network for Orphan Lung Disease (ARNOLD has identified problems in estimating rare disease prevalence; focusing on chILD in immunocompetent patients, a period prevalence of 1.5 cases per million children and a mortality rate of 7% were determined. The chILD-EU register highlighted the workload to be covered per patient included and provided protocols for diagnosis and initial treatment, similar to the United States chILD network. Whereas case reports may be useful for young physicians to practise writing articles, cohorts of patients can catapult progress, as demonstrated by recent studies on persistent tachypnoea of infancy, hypersensitivity pneumonitis in children and interstitial lung disease related to interferonopathies from mutations in transmembrane protein 173. Translational research has linked heterozygous mutations in the ABCA3 transporter to an increased risk of interstitial lung diseases, not only in neonates, but also in older children and adults. For surfactant dysfunction disorders in infancy and early childhood, lung transplantation was reported to be as successful as in adult patients. Mutual potentiation of paediatric and adult pneumologists is mandatory in this rapidly extending field for successful future development. This brief review highlights publications in the field of paediatric interstitial lung disease as reviewed during the Clinical Year in Review session presented at the 2017 European Respiratory Society (ERS Annual Congress in Milan, Italy. It was commissioned by the ERS and critically presents progress made as well as drawbacks.

  3. Temperature control in interstitial laser cancer immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Pradip K.; Holmes, Kyland; Burnett, Corinthius; Zharov, Vladimir P.

    2003-07-01

    Positive results of Laser-Assisted Cancer Immunotherapy (LACI) have been reported previously in the irradiation of superficial tumors. This paper reports the effect of LACI using laser interstitial therapy approach. We hypothesize that the maximum immuno response depends on laser induced tumor temperature. The measurement of tumor temperature is crucial to ensure necrosis by thermal damage and immuno response. Wister Furth female rats in this study were inoculated with 13762 MAT B III rat mammary adinocarcinoma. LACI started seven to ten days following inoculation. Contrary to surface irradation, we applied laser interstitial irradiation of tumor volume to maximize the energy deposition. A diode laser with a wavelength of 805 nm was used for tumor irradiation. The laser energy was delivered inside the tumor through a quartz fiber. Tumor temperature was measured with a micro thermocouple (interstitial), while the tumor surface temperature was controlled with an IR detector. The temperature feedback demonstrates that it is possible to maintain the average tumor temperature at the same level with reasonable accuracy in the desired range from 65°C-85°C. In some experiments we used microwave thermometry to control average temperature in deep tissue for considerable period of time, to cause maximum thermal damage to the tumor. The experimental set-up and the different temperature measurement techniques are reported in detail, including the advantages and disadvantages for each method.

  4. Respiratory muscle function in interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walterspacher, Stephan; Schlager, Daniel; Walker, David J; Müller-Quernheim, Joachim; Windisch, Wolfram; Kabitz, Hans-Joachim

    2013-07-01

    Interstitial lung diseases limit daily activities, impair quality of life and result in (exertional) dyspnoea. This has mainly been attributed to a decline in lung function and impaired gas exchange. However, the contribution of respiratory muscle dysfunction to these limitations remains to be conclusively investigated. Interstitial lung disease patients and matched controls performed body plethysmography, a standardised 6-min walk test, volitional tests (respiratory drive (P0.1), global maximal inspiratory mouth occlusion pressure (PImax), sniff nasal pressure (SnPna) and inspiratory muscle load) and nonvolitional tests on respiratory muscle function and strength (twitch mouth and transdiaphragmatic pressure during bilateral magnetic phrenic nerve stimulation (TwPmo and TwPdi)). 25 patients and 24 controls were included in the study. PImax and SnPna remained unaltered (both p>0.05), whereas P0.1 and the load on the inspiratory muscles were higher (both prespiratory muscle strength remains preserved. Central respiratory drive and the load imposed on the inspiratory muscles are increased. Whether impaired respiratory muscle function impacts morbidity and mortality in interstitial lung disease patients needs to be investigated in future studies.

  5. Role of interstitial implantation in gynecological cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nori, D.; Hilaris, B.S.

    1987-01-01

    Recurrent cancer at any site carries a gloomy prognosis. Cancer of the cervix that recurs after radical surgery or curative radiation therapy is a perplexing problem confronting both gynecological and radiation oncologists. In the authors' series, 45% of the patients survived disease-free at 1 year and 10% survived without disease at 5 years or longer following interstitial implantation for recurrent cervical cancer. The optimal utilization of this procedure seems to depend on the site of recurrence, the extent of the disease in the pelvis, and the status of para-aortic node involvement. This retrospective analysis enabled the authors to identify the prognostic factors. The most favorable group benefited by this technique were those who presented with either central recurrence or unilateral, localized pelvic side wall recurrent disease. The least morbidity was noticed in those patients with minimal surgical manipulations at the time of the interstitial implantation. The authors recommended that only a limited and essential surgical procedure should accompany interstitial implantation, since the associated morbidity and mortality is high and survival brief

  6. Interstitial lung involvement in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Vladimirovich Bestaev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is a systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease of unknown etiology, characterized by chronic erosive arthritis and extraarticular manifestations. Pulmonary involvement is one of the common extraarticular manifestations of RA and may show itself as bronchial tree lesions, rheumatoid nodules, Caplan's syndrome, and lesions in the pleura or pulmonary interstitium (interstitial lung involvement (ILI. High-resolution computed tomography allows the diagnosis of ILI in RA in nearly 70% of cases although the incidence of ILI may be lower (4 to 30% depending on diagnostic methods and patient selection criteria. There are several histopathological types of ILI, the differential diagnosis of which can be troublesome. Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia are major types of RA-associated ILI. UIP-pattern ILI has a more severe course than ILI with other histological patterns. The clinical presentation of ILI may be complicated by the likely toxic effect of a number of disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs used to treat RA, such as methotrexate and leflunomide, and biological agents (BAs, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α inhibitors. The pathogenesis of pulmonary involvement in RA and the role of synthetic DMARDs and BAs in the development of ILI call for further investigations.An extraarticular manifestation, such as ILI, affects the choice of treatment policy in patients with RA.The relevance of a study of ILI is beyond question. The paper discusses the state-of-the-art of investigations in this area.

  7. Interstitial prostate brachytherapy. LDR-PDR-HDR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacs, Gyoergy; Hoskin, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The first comprehensive overview of interstitial brachytherapy for the management of local or locally advanced prostate cancer. Written by an interdisciplinary team who have been responsible for the successful GEC-ESTRO/EAU Teaching Course. Discusses in detail patient selection, the results of different methods, the role of imaging, and medical physics issues. Prostate brachytherapy has been the subject of heated debate among surgeons and the proponents of the various brachytherapy methods. This very first interdisciplinary book on the subject provides a comprehensive overview of innovations in low dose rate (LDR), high dose rate (HDR), and pulsed dose rate (PDR) interstitial brachytherapy for the management of local or locally advanced prostate cancer. In addition to detailed chapters on patient selection and the use of imaging in diagnostics, treatment guidance, and implantation control, background chapters are included on related medical physics issues such as treatment planning and quality assurance. The results obtained with the different treatment options and the difficult task of salvage treatment are fully discussed. All chapters have been written by internationally recognized experts in their fields who for more than a decade have formed the teaching staff responsible for the successful GEC-ESTRO/EAU Prostate Brachytherapy Teaching Course. This book will be invaluable in informing residents and others of the scientific background and potential of modern prostate brachytherapy. It will also prove a useful source of up-to-date information for those who specialize in prostate brachytherapy or intend to start an interstitial brachytherapy service.

  8. THE HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE UV LEGACY SURVEY OF GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. VII. IMPLICATIONS FROM THE NEARLY UNIVERSAL NATURE OF HORIZONTAL BRANCH DISCONTINUITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, T. M.; Bellini, A.; Anderson, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Cassisi, S.; Pietrinferni, A. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Teramo, Via Mentore Maggini s.n.c., I-64100 Teramo (Italy); D’Antona, F. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone, Roma (Italy); Salaris, M. [Astrophysics Research Institute,Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool Science Park, IC2 Building, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Milone, A. P. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston, ACT, 2611 (Australia); Dalessandro, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Viale Berti Pichat 6/2, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Piotto, G.; Ortolani, S.; Nardiello, D. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei,”Università di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 3, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Renzini, A.; Bedin, L. R. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Sweigart, A. V. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sarajedini, A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Aparicio, A., E-mail: tbrown@stsci.edu, E-mail: jayander@stsci, E-mail: bellini@stsci.edu, E-mail: cassisi@oa-teramo.inaf.it, E-mail: pietrinferni@oa-teramo.inaf.it, E-mail: dantona@oa-roma.inaf.it, E-mail: M.Salaris@ljmu.ac.uk, E-mail: milone@mso.anu.edu.au [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias. Calle Vía Láctea s/n. E38200 — La Laguna, Tenerife, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2016-05-01

    The UV-initiative Hubble Space Telescope Treasury survey of Galactic globular clusters provides a new window into the phenomena that shape the morphological features of the horizontal branch (HB). Using this large and homogeneous catalog of UV and blue photometry, we demonstrate that the HB exhibits discontinuities that are remarkably consistent in color (effective temperature). This consistency is apparent even among some of the most massive clusters hosting multiple distinct sub-populations (such as NGC 2808, ω Cen, and NGC 6715), demonstrating that these phenomena are primarily driven by atmospheric physics that is independent of the underlying population properties. However, inconsistencies arise in the metal-rich clusters NGC 6388 and NGC 6441, where the discontinuity within the blue HB (BHB) distribution shifts ∼1000–2000 K hotter. We demonstrate that this shift is likely due to a large helium enhancement in the BHB stars of these clusters, which in turn affects the surface convection and evolution of such stars. Our survey also increases the number of Galactic globular clusters known to host blue-hook stars (also known as late hot flashers) from 6 to 23 clusters. These clusters are biased toward the bright end of the globular cluster luminosity function, confirming that blue-hook stars tend to form in the most massive clusters with significant self-enrichment.

  9. Experimental depletion of different renal interstitial cell populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohman, S.O.; Sundelin, B.; Forsum, U.; Tribukait, B.

    1988-01-01

    To define different populations of renal interstitial cells and investigate some aspects of their function, we studied the kidneys of normal rats and rats with hereditary diabetes insipidus (DI, Brattleboro) after experimental manipulations expected to alter the number of interstitial cells. DI rats showed an almost complete loss of interstitial cells in their renal papillae after treatment with a high dose of vasopressin. In spite of the lack of interstitial cells, the animals concentrated their urine to the same extent as vasopressin-treated normal rats, indicating that the renomedullary interstitial cells do not have an important function in concentrating the urine. The interstitial cells returned nearly to normal within 1 week off vasopressin treatment, suggesting a rapid turnover rate of these cells. To further distinguish different populations of interstitial cells, we studied the distribution of class II MHC antigen expression in the kidneys of normal and bone-marrow depleted Wistar rats. Normal rats had abundant class II antigen-positive interstitial cells in the renal cortex and outer medulla, but not in the inner medulla (papilla). Six days after 1000 rad whole body irradiation, the stainable cells were almost completely lost, but electron microscopic morphometry showed a virtually unchanged volume density of interstitial cells in the cortex and outer medulla, as well as the inner medulla. Thus, irradiation abolished the expression of the class II antigen but caused no significant depletion of interstitial cells

  10. Early Identification of Interstitial Cystitis May Avoid Unnecessary Hysterectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarnagin, Barry

    2009-01-01

    Background: Interstitial cystitis is a clinical syndrome characterized by symptoms of pelvic pain, urinary urgency and frequency, and nocturia. It can be difficult to accurately identify interstitial cystitis because the symptoms overlap many other common gynecologic and urologic conditions. Patients with undiagnosed interstitial cystitis may undergo unnecessary procedures, including hysterectomy. Methods: A PubMed literature search for articles dating back to 1990 was conducted on the topics of interstitial cystitis and hysterectomy. Further references were identified by cross-referencing the bibliographies in articles of interest. Results: The literature review found that hysterectomy is performed more often in patients with undiagnosed interstitial cystitis than in patients with a confirmed diagnosis. Interstitial cystitis often coexists with conditions like endometriosis, for which hysterectomy is indicated. Many patients subsequently diagnosed with interstitial cystitis continue to experience persistent pelvic pain despite having had a hysterectomy for chronic pelvic pain. Careful history and physical examination can identify the majority of interstitial cystitis cases. Conclusion: Interstitial cystitis should be considered prior to hysterectomy in women who present with pelvic pain or who experience pelvic pain after a hysterectomy. If interstitial cystitis is diagnosed, appropriate therapy may eliminate the need for hysterectomy. PMID:19793476

  11. Very Broad [O III] λλ4959, 5007 Emission from the NGC 4472 Globular Cluster RZ 2109 and Implications for the Mass of Its Black Hole X-Ray Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepf, Stephen E.; Stern, Daniel; Maccarone, Thomas J.; Kundu, Arunav; Kamionkowski, Marc; Rhode, Katherine L.; Salzer, John J.; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl

    2008-08-01

    We present Keck LRIS spectroscopy of the black hole-hosting globular cluster RZ 2109 in the Virgo elliptical galaxy NGC 4472. We find that this object has extraordinarily broad [O III] λ5007 and [O III] λ4959 emission lines, with velocity widths of approximately 2000 km s-1. This result has significant implications for the nature of this accreting black hole system and the mass of the globular cluster black hole. We show that the broad [O III] λ5007 emission must arise from material driven at high velocity from the black hole system. This is because the volume available near the black hole is too small by many orders of magnitude to have enough [O III]-emitting atoms to account for the observed L([O III] λ5007) at high velocities, even if this volume is filled with oxygen at the critical density for [O III] λ5007. The Balmer emission is also weak, indicating the observed [O III] is not due to shocks. We therefore conclude that the [O III] λλ4959, 5007 is produced by photoionization of material driven across the cluster. The only known way to drive significant material at high velocity is for a system accreting mass near or above its Eddington limit, which indicates a stellar-mass black hole. Since it is dynamically implausible to form an accreting stellar-mass black hole system in a globular cluster with an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH), it appears this massive globular cluster does not have an IMBH. We discuss further tests of this conclusion, and its implications for the MBH - Mstellar and MBH - σ relations. Based on observations made at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  12. Formation of a homocitrate-free iron-molybdenum cluster on NifEN: implications for the role of homocitrate in nitrogenase assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fay, Aaron Wolfe; Blank, Michael Aaron; Yoshizawa, Janice Mariko; Lee, Chi Chung; Wiig, Jared Andrew; Hu, Yilin; Hodgson, Keith Owen; Hedman, Britt; Ribbe, Markus Walter

    2010-03-28

    Molybdenum (Mo)-dependent nitrogenase is a complex metalloprotein that catalyzes the biological reduction of dinitrogen (N(2)) to ammonia (NH(3)) at the molybdenum-iron cofactor (FeMoco) site of its molybdenum-iron (MoFe) protein component. Here we report the formation of a homocitrate-free, iron-molybdenum ("FeMo") cluster on the biosynthetic scaffold of FeMoco, NifEN. Such a NifEN-associated "FeMo" cluster exhibits EPR features similar to those of the NifEN-associated, fully-complemented "FeMoco", which originate from the presence of Mo in both cluster species; however, "FeMo" cluster and "FeMoco" display different temperature-dependent changes in the line shape and the signal intensity of their respective EPR features, which reflect the impact of homocitrate on the redox properties of these clusters. XAS/EXAFS analysis reveals that the Mo centers in both "FeMo" cluster and "FeMoco" are present in a similar coordination environment, although Mo in "FeMo" cluster is more loosely coordinated as compared to that in "FeMoco" with respect to the Mo-O distances in the cluster, likely due to the absence of homocitrate that normally serves as an additional ligand for the Mo in the cluster. Subsequent biochemical investigation of the "FeMo" cluster not only facilitates the determination of the sequence of events in the mobilization of Mo and homocitrate during FeMoco maturation, but also permits the examination of the role of homocitrate in the transfer of FeMoco between NifEN and MoFe protein. Combined outcome of these studies establishes a platform for future structural analysis of the interactions between NifEN and MoFe protein, which will provide useful insights into the mechanism of cluster transfer between the two proteins.

  13. Modeling the Clustering of Distribution Centers around Amsterdam Airport Schiphol: location endowments, economies of agglomeration, locked-in logistics and policy implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M.J. Warffemius (Pim)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis deals with the explanation of why European Distribution Centers (EDCs) cluster around Amsterdam Airport Schiphol. We present and test a new model of the clustering of EDCs around the airport. The Netherlands is an attractive location for EDCs. Approximately one-half of all

  14. Modeling Clustered Data with Very Few Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeish, Daniel; Stapleton, Laura M

    2016-01-01

    Small-sample inference with clustered data has received increased attention recently in the methodological literature, with several simulation studies being presented on the small-sample behavior of many methods. However, nearly all previous studies focus on a single class of methods (e.g., only multilevel models, only corrections to sandwich estimators), and the differential performance of various methods that can be implemented to accommodate clustered data with very few clusters is largely unknown, potentially due to the rigid disciplinary preferences. Furthermore, a majority of these studies focus on scenarios with 15 or more clusters and feature unrealistically simple data-generation models with very few predictors. This article, motivated by an applied educational psychology cluster randomized trial, presents a simulation study that simultaneously addresses the extreme small sample and differential performance (estimation bias, Type I error rates, and relative power) of 12 methods to account for clustered data with a model that features a more realistic number of predictors. The motivating data are then modeled with each method, and results are compared. Results show that generalized estimating equations perform poorly; the choice of Bayesian prior distributions affects performance; and fixed effect models perform quite well. Limitations and implications for applications are also discussed.

  15. Early Identification of Interstitial Cystitis May Avoid Unnecessary Hysterectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Maurice K.; Jarnagin, Barry

    2009-01-01

    Background: Interstitial cystitis is a clinical syndrome characterized by symptoms of pelvic pain, urinary urgency and frequency, and nocturia. It can be difficult to accurately identify interstitial cystitis because the symptoms overlap many other common gynecologic and urologic conditions. Patients with undiagnosed interstitial cystitis may undergo unnecessary procedures, including hysterectomy. Methods: A PubMed literature search for articles dating back to 1990 was conducted on the topics...

  16. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases; Interstitielle Lungenerkrankungen bei Rauchern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marten, K. [Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Klinikum rechts der Isar, Inst. fuer Roentgendiagnostik

    2007-03-15

    The most important smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (ILD) are respiratory bronchiolitis, respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, and Langerhans' cell histiocytosis. Although traditionally considered to be discrete entities, smoking-related ILDs often coexist, thus accounting for the sometimes complex patterns encountered on high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT). Further studies are needed to elucidate the causative role of smoking in the development of pulmonary fibrosis.

  17. Calculation of the electronic structure and contact hyperfine parameters of interstitial hydrogen in alkaline - earth fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, L.E.M.C. de.

    1976-01-01

    The electronic structure of the interstitial hydrogen atom in alkaline-earth fluorides has been studied using the self-consistent-field multiple-scattering Xα method. In the calculations a cluster constituted by the hydrogen atom and its first anion and cation neighbors has been used. The contact parameters with the proton and the fluorine nuclei have been evaluated. The agreement obtained with the experimental results is in general good and indicates that this method is also appropriate to study defects in ionic crystals. (author) [pt

  18. Case report: laparoscopic treatment of a ruptured interstitial pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimbizis, Grigoris F; Tsalikis, Tryfon; Mikos, Themistoklis; Zepiridis, Leonidas; Athanasiadis, Apostolos; Tarlatzis, Basil C; Bontis, John N

    2004-10-01

    Interstitial pregnancy is a rare but life-threatening condition. A case of a 28-year-old woman with a partially ruptured interstitial pregnancy treated with operative laparoscopy is presented. A laparoscopic cornual resection and a left salpingectomy were performed uneventfully. Serum beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin concentrations were measured serially at weekly intervals until resolved on day 20 postoperatively. It seems, therefore, that laparoscopic treatment is still an effective option for management even in ruptured interstitial pregnancy, preserving the anatomical integrity of the uterus and future fertility, and that rupture of interstitial ectopic pregnancy is not a contra-indication for laparoscopy.

  19. [Central lung embolism in chronic interstitial pneumopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordasini, C; Hess, B; Zimmermann, A

    1998-04-15

    An 80 year old patient with known interstitial pneumopathy of unknown etiology was hospitalized because of acute onset and rapid deterioration of dyspnea at rest within days. A foregoing neurologic investigation including CT and EEG because of prior syncopes and cramp attacks had not revealed pathologic findings. Thorax X-ray at admission showed homogenous loss of transparency on the left side, calcified basal plaques on both sides and prominent central pulmonary vessels with jumping caliber. A punctate of the leftsided pleural effusion revealed lymphocytic exsudate, normal pH, low glucose and an elevated LDH. The patient died shortly after a collapse at a bowel visit and pulmonary embolism was suspected in accordance to results from arterial blood gas analysis, ECG and chest X-ray. Neurologic symptoms could be explained by recurrent pulmonary embolism. Pleural plaques together with the punctate suggested a malignant etiology. A mesothelioma was taken into consideration, although there were no anamnestic reports on an exposition to asbestos. Autopsy revealed almost complete central embolism of the left pulmonary artery with acute cor pulmonale thus confirming the clinical suspicion. The embolus showed components of different ages of origin. Besides bronchitic and emphysematous alteration histology of the pulmonary tissue revealed interstitial and septal fibrosis with focal tissue consolidation. In one giant cell a typical asbestos body was found (in 1 out of 10 sections). In spite of missing information on an exposition to asbestos an abnormally high exposition must be taken into consideration because of the finding of an asbestos particle in relation to the amount of tissue studied. Apart from interstitial fibrosis asbestos may also cause consolidation of pulmonary tissue. Histology of plaquelike lesions revealed mesothelioma of fibrous type. This finding supports the suspicion that a major part of the pulmonary lesions was due to exposition to asbestos.

  20. Interstitial brachytherapy in carcinoma of the penis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhary, A.J.; Ghosh, S.; Bhalavat, R.L.; Kulkarni, J.N.; Sequeira, B.V.E.

    1999-01-01

    Aim: Keeping in line with the increasing emphasis on organ preservation, we at the Tata Memorial Hospital have evaluated the role of Ir-192 interstitial implant as regards local control, functional and cosmetic outcome in early as well as locally recurrent carcinoma of the distal penis. Patients and Methods: From October 1988 to December 1996, 23 patients with histopathologically proven cancer of the penis were treated with radical radiation therapy using Ir-192 temporary interstitial implant. Our patients were in the age group of 20 to 60 years. The primary lesions were T1 and 7, T2 in 7 and recurrent in 9 patients. Only 7 patients had palpable groin nodes at presentation, all of which were pathologically negative. The median dose of implant was 50 Gy (range 40 to 60 Gy), using the LDR afterloading system and the Paris system of implant rules for dosimetry. Follow-up ranged from 4 to 117 months (median 24 months). Results: At last follow-up 18 of the 23 patients remained locally controlled with implant alone. Three patients failed only locally, 2 locoregionally and 1 only at the groin. Of the 5 patients who failed locally, 4 were successfully salvaged with partial penectomy and remained controlled when last seen. Local control with implant alone at 8 years was 70% by life table analysis. The patients had excellent functional and cosmetic outcome. We did not record any case of skin or softtissue necrosis. Only 2 patients developed meatal stenosis, both of which were treated endoscopically. Conclusion: Our results lead us to interpret that interstitial brachytherapy with Ir-192 offers excellent local control rates with preservation of organ and function. Penectomy can be reserved as a means for effective salvage. (orig.) [de

  1. Renal extramedullary hematopoiesis: interstitial and glomerular pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Mariam P; Nasr, Samih H; Kurtin, Paul J; Casey, Edward T; Hernandez, Loren P Herrera; Fidler, Mary E; Sethi, Sanjeev; Cornell, Lynn D

    2015-12-01

    Renal extramedullary hematopoiesis is rarely recognized in the antemortem setting. We identified 14 patients with renal extramedullary hematopoiesis on antemortem specimens from 1994 to 2015. The mean age was 68 years (range 47-87 years); males predominated (M:F=9:5). All presented with renal insufficiency, including five (36%) with acute kidney injury. The mean serum creatinine at biopsy was 2.9 mg/dl (range 1.2-7.3 mg/dl). All had proteinuria (mean 7.9 g/24 h; range 0.5-28; n=13), including 9 with ≥3 g/24 h. Renal extramedullary hematopoiesis appeared histologically as an interstitial infiltrate (n=12) and/or a perirenal infiltrate (n=3) or mass-like lesion (n=1). Five were misdiagnosed as interstitial nephritis. Concurrent glomerular disease was prevalent and included fibrillary-like glomerulonephritis (n=3), chronic thrombotic microangiopathy (n=5), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (n=6), and diabetic glomerulosclerosis (n=2). All patients had an underlying hematologic malignancy: primary myelofibrosis in 9, myeloproliferative neoplasm not otherwise specified in 1, essential thrombocythemia in 1, polycythemia vera in 1, and plasma cell myeloma in 2. Clinical follow-up was available in 12 patients, mean of 29 months (range 4-120 months). In 10 patients for whom treatment history could be obtained, 9 were treated with chemotherapy, and 1 was treated with steroids. The mean creatinine at last follow-up was 2 mg/dl (range 1.2-3.9 mg/dl) (n=9). Ten patients died in the follow-up period from their underlying hematological disease and had persistent renal disease. The two remaining patients had persistent chronic kidney disease. Renal extramedullary hematopoiesis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of interstitial infiltrates, particularly in the presence of a glomerulopathy and a hematologic malignancy.

  2. Interstitial hydraulic conductivity and interstitial fluid pressure for avascular or poorly vascularized tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L J; Schlesinger, M

    2015-09-07

    A correct description of the hydraulic conductivity is essential for determining the actual tumor interstitial fluid pressure (TIFP) distribution. Traditionally, it has been assumed that the hydraulic conductivities both in a tumor and normal tissue are constant, and that a tumor has a much larger interstitial hydraulic conductivity than normal tissue. The abrupt transition of the hydraulic conductivity at the tumor surface leads to non-physical results (the hydraulic conductivity and the slope of the TIFP are not continuous at tumor surface). For the sake of simplicity and the need to represent reality, we focus our analysis on avascular or poorly vascularized tumors, which have a necrosis that is mostly in the center and vascularization that is mostly on the periphery. We suggest that there is an intermediary region between the tumor surface and normal tissue. Through this region, the interstitium (including the structure and composition of solid components and interstitial fluid) transitions from tumor to normal tissue. This process also causes the hydraulic conductivity to do the same. We introduce a continuous variation of the hydraulic conductivity, and show that the interstitial hydraulic conductivity in the intermediary region should be monotonically increasing up to the value of hydraulic conductivity in the normal tissue in order for the model to correspond to the actual TIFP distribution. The value of the hydraulic conductivity at the tumor surface should be the lowest in value. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Photothermal damage prediction of laser interstitial thermotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaoxia; Fan, Shifu; Zhao, Youquan

    2006-11-01

    An improved scattering optical model was developed under cylindrical coordinate to simulate the thermal effect of diffusing applicator in laser interstitial thermotherapy (LITT). The thermal damage was calculated by finite element method (FEM) using Pennes bio-heat transfer equation and Arrhenius injury integral formula. The numerical results showed that the scattering can considerably influence the evaluation of the lesion area, and the relationship between application powers or time and resulting tissue thermal damage was nonlinear. Although usually applying relatively low power can avoid tissue charring, rather higher power is recommended because it is indispensable to achieve necessary damage threshold and the therapy time can be shortened.

  4. Interstitial pneumonitis in canine visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. S. Duarte

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Forty-one naturally infected dogs with visceral leishmaniasis from an urban area of Corumbá (Mato Grosso do Sul-BRAZIL were studied and three types of lung involvement due to visceral leishmaniasis were characterized; a cellular, a cellular-fibrotic and a fibrotic type. These types seem to represent a sequential evolutive proce'as. Visceral leishmaniasis frequently causes an interstitial pneu monitis in naturally infected dogs (80.5% as well as in man and experimentally infected hamsters.

  5. On the optimization of interstitial hyperthermia systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handl-Zeller, L.; Kaercher, K.H.; Schreier, K.; Handl, O.

    1987-07-01

    After having studied the fundamental possibilities of proceedings allowing an intracorporal transfer of energy, two systems were investigated in detail in order to achieve a wide range of application: 1. Resistance heating of tissue by modified standard needles and individual regulation of each needle (system KHS-9). 2. Water heating of standard needles as used in interstitial radiotherapy and overall regulation of the total system. These new systems are supposed to be applied in clinical practice and have been developed by GSP-Wien at the suggestion of the University Hospital. Patent is applied for both of them.

  6. Interstitial cystitis: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLennan, Mary T

    2014-09-01

    Interstitial cystitis, or painful bladder syndrome, can present with lower abdominal pain/discomfort and dyspareunia, and pain in any distribution of lower spinal nerves. Patients with this condition experience some additional symptoms referable to the bladder, such as frequency, urgency, or nocturia. It can occur across all age groups, although the specific additional symptoms can vary in prevalence depending on patient age. It should be considered in patients who have other chronic pain conditions such as fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue, irritable bowel, and vulvodynia. The cause is still largely not understood, although there are several postulated mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Diagnosis and management of interstitial cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Susan

    2014-09-01

    Interstitial cystitis is a diagnosis of exclusion. The definition has expanded over the years to encompass painful bladder syndrome. It is disease state that is often delayed in its diagnosis and difficult to manage. Treatment options include oral and intravesical therapies as well as both minor and major surgical options. Also, a patient can improve symptoms by following self-management recommendations that focus on both diet and stress management. Treatment options should be periodically evaluated with validated questionnaires to insure they are improving the patient's symptoms, and a multidisciplinary approach is best to manage the patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. On the optimization of interstitial hyperthermia systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handl-Zeller, L.; Kaercher, K.H.; Schreier, K.; Handl, O.

    1987-01-01

    After having studied the fundamental possibilities of proceedings allowing an intracorporal transfer of energy, two systems were investigated in detail in order to achieve a wide range of application: 1. Resistance heating of tissue by modified standard needles and individual regulation of each needle (system KHS-9). 2. Water heating of standard needles as used in interstitial radiotherapy and overall regulation of the total system. These new systems are supposed to be applied in clinical practice and have been developed by GSP-Wien at the suggestion of the University Hospital. Patent is applied for both of them. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Surfactant gene polymorphisms and interstitial lung diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantelidis Panagiotis

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Pulmonary surfactant is a complex mixture of phospholipids and proteins, which is present in the alveolar lining fluid and is essential for normal lung function. Alterations in surfactant composition have been reported in several interstitial lung diseases (ILDs. Furthermore, a mutation in the surfactant protein C gene that results in complete absence of the protein has been shown to be associated with familial ILD. The role of surfactant in lung disease is therefore drawing increasing attention following the elucidation of the genetic basis underlying its surface expression and the proof of surfactant abnormalities in ILD.

  10. Atypical presentation of a large interstitial pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rheinboldt, Matthew; Ibrahim, Sherif

    2013-06-01

    We report the case of a 20-year-old female who presented to the ER with a 1-week history of worsening abdominal pain and intermittent vaginal bleeding for the previous 5 days. Physical exam was notable for bilateral adnexal tenderness and a closed cervix without motion tenderness or discharge. Laboratory data demonstrated a beta HCG level of 7,787 IU/L, and pelvic ultrasound with transvaginal imaging was subsequently performed. Neither an adnexal mass nor a normal intrauterine pregnancy was demonstrable; however, a focal right fundal 7-cm area of heterogeneous echogenicity was observed. Initial findings were felt indeterminate with considerations including potential degenerating leiomyoma coexistent with a nonvisualized intrauterine pregnancy, ectopic pregnancy, or recent spontaneous abortion versus atypical interstitial ectopic pregnancy. The patient, initially declining further clinical intervention, returned within 24 h with continued pain. A repeat ultrasound demonstrated a relatively static and unchanged appearance with only a minimal concurrent interval increase in beta HCG levels. MRI was performed for further elucidation and demonstrated a heterogeneously hypervascular right fundal interstitial 6-cm mass, which, in the clinical context, was most suspicious for an ectopic pregnancy. Confirmatory laparoscopic cornual wedge resection and salpingectomy was subsequently performed.

  11. Intravesical liposome therapy for interstitial cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Pradeep; Kashyap, Mahendra; Majima, Tsuyoshi; Kawamorita, Naoki; Yoshizawa, Tsuyoshi; Yoshimura, Naoki

    2017-04-01

    Over the past two decades, there has been lot of interest in the use of liposomes as lipid-based biocompatible carriers for drugs administered by the intravesical route. The lipidic bilayer structure of liposomes facilitates their adherence to the apical membrane surface of luminal cells in the bladder, and their vesicular shape allows them to co-opt the endocytosis machinery for bladder uptake after instillation. Liposomes have been shown to enhance the penetration of both water-soluble and insoluble drugs, toxins, and oligonucleotides across the bladder epithelium. Empty liposomes composed entirely of the endogenous phospholipid, sphingomyelin, could counter mucosal inflammation and promote wound healing in patients suffering from interstitial cystitis. Recent clinical studies have tested multilamellar liposomes composed entirely of sphingomyelin as a novel intravesical therapy for interstitial cystitis. In addition, liposomes have been used as a delivery platform for the instillation of botulinum toxin in overactive bladder patients. The present review discusses the properties of liposomes that are important for their intrinsic therapeutic effect, summarizes the recently completed clinical studies with intravesical liposomes and covers the latest developments in this field. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  12. The Interstitial Language and Transnational Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Bartoloni

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I argue that the idea of inhabiting, and of human individuality as the house of being, are fruitful ideas if located in a space defined by movement, porosity, interstitiality, and in an urban and architectural paradigm which is based on openness and inclusiveness. Transnational experiences and localities can be, to this end, extremely instructive. It is essential to articulate the notion of dwelling within an urban context in which building is the result of complex cultural and social interactions, which are characterised not only by the negotiation of space and materials but also, and more importantly, by a range of symbolic values. The symbolism that I refer to here is the product of mnemonic and emotional experiences marked by time and space, which in the case of the migratory and transnational experiences is arrived at through a delicate negotiation of the past and the present, and the ‘here’ (the current locality and the ‘there’ (the native locality. The dwelling that I speak of is, therefore, a double dwelling divided between the present at-hand and the remembered past, and as such it inhabits a space, which is both interstitial and liminal, simultaneously in and out-of-place. I have chosen the Italian Forum in Sydney as a working sample of the place-out-of-place

  13. Cluster Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... re at risk of cluster headache. A family history. Having a parent or sibling who has had cluster headache might ... of Nondiscrimination Advertising Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization ...

  14. High homogeneity of MAGE, BAGE, GAGE, tyrosinase and Melan-A/MART-1 gene expression in clusters of multiple simultaneous metastases of human melanoma: implications for protocol design of therapeutic antigen-specific vaccination strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalerba, P; Ricci, A; Russo, V; Rigatti, D; Nicotra, M R; Mottolese, M; Bordignon, C; Natali, P G; Traversari, C

    1998-07-17

    Human melanoma cells express several antigens which are recognized by autologous and specific CTL clones in association with HLA-class-I molecules. Many of these antigens represent suitable targets for tumor immunotherapy, since their expression in human melanoma cells is common and highly specific. In order to achieve real clinical success with therapeutic vaccination strategies, one important requirement is the expression of the target antigen by all the tumor lesions of a patient. We have studied this issue by assessing, through an RT-PCR approach, the expression of MAGE-1, MAGE-2, MAGE-3, BAGE, GAGE-1/2, Tyrosinase and Melan-A/MART-1 genes in 17 clusters of simultaneous in-transit or regional lymph-node metastases collected from 15 stage-III and 1 stage-IV (AJCC/UICC pTNM system) melanoma patients. In 14 out of 17 clusters of simultaneous metastatic lesions (82%), the homogeneity in the pattern of gene expression within the cluster was complete. Heterogeneity within the same cluster was observed in only 3 out of 17 clusters (18%) and represented only minor features. Our data reveal that, in AJCC-stage-III melanoma patients, different but simultaneous metastatic lesions express the same pattern of antigen-coding genes. These observations have 2 main clinical implications: (i) the antigenic characterization of one single and easily accessible lesion allows identification of optimal targets for an active antigen-specific immunotherapy treatment; (ii) almost all the metastatic lesions are expected to be hit by the immune response eventually induced against the tumor antigen. Moreover, these data suggest that active specific immunotherapy directed against MAGE-1, MAGE-3, BAGE, GAGE-1/2, Melan-A/MART-1 and Tyrosinase antigens could be exploited as an adjuvant treatment to surgery in high-risk AJCC-stage-III-melanoma patients.

  15. Theory of the change of elastic constants by interstitials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breuer, N.; Dederichs, P.H.; Lehmann, C.; Leibfried, G.; Scholz, A.

    1975-01-01

    The theory of the change of elastic constants by point-defects, in particular by interstitials, is briefly summarized. The typical effects of spring changes in a defect lattice on the elastic data are discussed qualitatively. Numerical results for the change of elastic constants by self-interstitials and vacancies are given and compared with experimental data for Cu and Al

  16. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis in a Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Benedikte; Hesse, Ulrik; Hansen, Alastair B

    2010-01-01

    To characterize and evaluate a Danish patient population with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC), using a working definition for BPS/IC incorporating six variables, and a set of criteria defined by the European Society for the Study of Interstitial Cystitis (ESSIC); to describe...

  17. Evaluation of Patients with Painful Bladder Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Jacques Wyndaele

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This review looks into the evaluation of patients with interstitial cystitis (IC. Interstitial cystitis is not easy to define. There is a lot of activity in this domain and a great international effort is made to get to a generally accepted definition and standardised protocols for diagnosis and treatment. We have not reached this point so far.

  18. Atomic displacements due to interstitial hydrogen in Cu and Pd

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The density functional theory (DFT) is used to study the atomic interac- tions in transition metal-based interstitial alloys. The strain field is calculated in the discrete lattice model using Kanzaki method. The total energy and hence atomic forces between interstitial hydrogen and transition metal hosts are calculated ...

  19. Interstitial ectopic pregnancy: a case report | Alagbe | Pan African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interstitial ectopic pregnancy is a rare type of tubal pregnancy that poses diagnostic challenge. It is associated with the highest risk of massive, uncontrollable bleeding and can result in uterine rupture in the second trimester. This is a rare case of unruptured interstitial ectopic diagnosed in the first trimester by ...

  20. Advanced sickle cell associated interstitial lung disease presenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Previous studies have reported abnormal pulmonary function and pulmonary hypertension among Nigerians with sickle cell disease, but there is no report of interstitial lung disease among them. We report a Nigerian sickle cell patient who presented with computed tomography proven interstitial lung disease complicated by ...

  1. Meaningful Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Calapristi, Augustin J.; Crow, Vernon L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2004-05-26

    We present an approach to the disambiguation of cluster labels that capitalizes on the notion of semantic similarity to assign WordNet senses to cluster labels. The approach provides interesting insights on how document clustering can provide the basis for developing a novel approach to word sense disambiguation.

  2. Selective Uterine Artery Embolization for Management of Interstitial Ectopic Pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Seung Boo; Lee, Sang Jin; Joe, Hwan Sung; Goo, Dong Erk; Chang, Yun Woo [Soonchunhyang University Gumi Hospital, Gumi (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Hun [Chosun University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-04-15

    Interstitial pregnancy is defined as any gestation that develops in the uterine portion of the fallopian tubes lateral to the round ligament. Interstitial pregnancies account for 2-4% of all ectopic pregnancies and have been reported to have an associated 2% to 2.5% maternal mortality rate. The traditional treatment for interstitial pregnancy using surgical cornual resection may cause infertility or uterine rupture in subsequent pregnancies. Recently, the early identification of intact interstitial pregnancy has been made possible in many cases with high resolution transvaginal ultrasound as well as more sensitive assays for betahuman chorionic gonadotropin ({beta}-hCG). The treatment includes: hysteroscopic transcervical currettage, local and systemic methotrexate (MTX) therapy and prostaglandin or potassium chloride injection of the ectopic mass under sonographic guidance. We describe a case of successful treatment of interstitial pregnancy using uterine artery embolization, after failure of methotrexate treatment.

  3. Selective Uterine Artery Embolization for Management of Interstitial Ectopic Pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seung Boo; Lee, Sang Jin; Joe, Hwan Sung; Goo, Dong Erk; Chang, Yun Woo; Kim, Dong Hun

    2007-01-01

    Interstitial pregnancy is defined as any gestation that develops in the uterine portion of the fallopian tubes lateral to the round ligament. Interstitial pregnancies account for 2-4% of all ectopic pregnancies and have been reported to have an associated 2% to 2.5% maternal mortality rate. The traditional treatment for interstitial pregnancy using surgical cornual resection may cause infertility or uterine rupture in subsequent pregnancies. Recently, the early identification of intact interstitial pregnancy has been made possible in many cases with high resolution transvaginal ultrasound as well as more sensitive assays for betahuman chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). The treatment includes: hysteroscopic transcervical currettage, local and systemic methotrexate (MTX) therapy and prostaglandin or potassium chloride injection of the ectopic mass under sonographic guidance. We describe a case of successful treatment of interstitial pregnancy using uterine artery embolization, after failure of methotrexate treatment

  4. Pemphigus vulgaris-associated interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yi-Xiu; Chu, Jin-Gang; Xiao, Ting; Chen, Hong-Duo

    2016-07-01

    Autoimmune bullous diseases (AIBDs)-associated interstitial lung disease (ILD) is extremely rare. Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is an intraepidermal autoimmune blistering disease caused by circulating autoantibodies against desmoglein. To date, PV-associated ILD has rarely been reported in English literature. We report a rare association of PV and ILD. A 53-year-old Chinese female with PV for 8 months developed ILD after a relapse of PV for 2 months due to discontinuation of oral prednisone by herself. She was successfully treated by systemic methylprednisolone. Taken previously reported bullous pemphigoid-associated ILD and linear IgA/IgG bullous dermatosis-associated ILD together, in general, AIBDs-associated ILD occurs when AIBDs relapse or are not controlled, responds well to systemic corticosteroids, and has a relatively better prognosis when compared with rheumatoid arthritis- or dermatomyositis-associated ILD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Systems medicine advances in interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiffo, Flavia R; Eickelberg, Oliver; Fernandez, Isis E

    2017-09-30

    Fibrotic lung diseases involve subject-environment interactions, together with dysregulated homeostatic processes, impaired DNA repair and distorted immune functions. Systems medicine-based approaches are used to analyse diseases in a holistic manner, by integrating systems biology platforms along with clinical parameters, for the purpose of understanding disease origin, progression, exacerbation and remission.Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) refer to a heterogeneous group of complex fibrotic diseases. The increase of systems medicine-based approaches in the understanding of ILDs provides exceptional advantages by improving diagnostics, unravelling phenotypical differences, and stratifying patient populations by predictable outcomes and personalised treatments. This review discusses the state-of-the-art contributions of systems medicine-based approaches in ILDs over the past 5 years. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  6. Interstitial radiophosphorus diagnosis of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portnoj, S.M.; Gabuniya, R.I.; Godin, V.P.; Letyagin, V.P.

    1992-01-01

    Method of invasive β-radiometry in breast cancer was developed. Analysis of observations of 148 patients with breast cancer was presented. Qualitative increase of count efficiency is the important advantage for interstitial β-radiometry in intratumoral situation of β-detector. Radionuclide activity of 37-74 kBq/kg permits to receive values of relative accumulation of 32 P in a tumor (RAPTu1) by invasive method. Tendency is evident to some decrease of mean values of RAPTu1 in investigations conducted in 70 hrs and more after 32 P introduction. Study on relative accumulation of radionuclide in tumor after conservative treatment can serve as a criterion for evaluation of efficiency of antitumor treatment

  7. Treatment of interstitial cystitis in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hung Hsieh

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial cystitis (IC has been described as a chronic debilitating sterile inflammatory multifactorial bladder syndrome of unknown etiology. IC is characterized by bladder pain (or suprapubic pain associated with urgency, urinary frequency, and nocturia. Because the pathogenesis of IC remains unclear, it is still an enigma and represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The diagnosis of IC remains unclear and is based on exclusion of other diseases. Consequently, IC has usually been underdiagnosed, and the consensus on best available treatment for the disease is lacking. The current goal for the treatment of IC is usually symptomatic relief, and treatment protocols are based on empiricism. Multiple forms of therapy are available, and most patients can be managed conservatively. Nevertheless, the efficacy of most treatments is short term. This review article gives an overview of the available treatments for IC.

  8. Clusters of community exposure to coastal flooding hazards based on storm and sea level rise scenarios—implications for adaptation networks in the San Francisco Bay region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummel, Michelle; Wood, Nathan J.; Schweikert, Amy; Stacey, Mark T.; Jones, Jeanne; Barnard, Patrick L.; Erikson, Li H.

    2018-01-01

    Sea level is projected to rise over the coming decades, further increasing the extent of flooding hazards in coastal communities. Efforts to address potential impacts from climate-driven coastal hazards have called for collaboration among communities to strengthen the application of best practices. However, communities currently lack practical tools for identifying potential partner communities based on similar hazard exposure characteristics. This study uses statistical cluster analysis to identify similarities in community exposure to flooding hazards for a suite of sea level rise and storm scenarios. We demonstrate this approach using 63 jurisdictions in the San Francisco Bay region of California (USA) and compare 21 distinct exposure variables related to residents, employees, and structures for six hazard scenario combinations of sea level rise and storms. Results indicate that cluster analysis can provide an effective mechanism for identifying community groupings. Cluster compositions changed based on the selected societal variables and sea level rise scenarios, suggesting that a community could participate in multiple networks to target specific issues or policy interventions. The proposed clustering approach can serve as a data-driven foundation to help communities identify other communities with similar adaptation challenges and to enhance regional efforts that aim to facilitate adaptation planning and investment prioritization.

  9. The multiple faces of leukocyte interstitial migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lämmermann, Tim; Germain, Ronald N.

    2014-01-01

    Spatiotemporal control of leukocyte dynamics within tissues is critical for successful innate and adaptive immune responses. Homeostatic trafficking and coordinated infiltration into and within sites of inflammation and infection rely on signaling in response to extracellular cues that in turn controls a variety of intracellular protein networks regulating leukocyte motility, migration, chemotaxis, positioning, and cell–cell interaction. In contrast to mesenchymal cells, leukocytes migrate in an amoeboid fashion by rapid cycles of actin polymerization and actomyosin contraction, and their migration in tissues is generally referred to as low adhesive and nonproteolytic. The interplay of actin network expansion, contraction, and adhesion shapes the exact mode of amoeboid migration, and in this review, we explore how leukocyte subsets potentially harness the same basic biomechanical mechanisms in a cell-type-specific manner. Most of our detailed understanding of these processes derives from in vitro migration studies in three-dimensional gels and confined spaces that mimic geometrical aspects of physiological tissues. We summarize these in vitro results and then critically compare them to data from intravital imaging of leukocyte interstitial migration in mouse tissues. We outline the technical challenges of obtaining conclusive mechanistic results from intravital studies, discuss leukocyte migration strategies in vivo, and present examples of mode switching during physiological interstitial migration. These findings are also placed in the context of leukocyte migration defects in primary immunodeficiencies. This overview of both in vitro and in vivo studies highlights recent progress in understanding the molecular and biophysical mechanisms that shape robust leukocyte migration responses in physiologically complex and heterogeneous environments. PMID:24573488

  10. Interstitial photonic radiosurgery for brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Osami; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Iseki, Hiroshi; Hori, Tomokatsu; Takakura, Kintomo [Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan). Neurological Inst.

    1999-12-01

    The photon radiosurgery system (PRS) is a developed of the Photo-electron Corp. of Walham, Mass. The heart of this system is a thin needle, 3 mm in diameter and 100 mm long, from whose tip low-energy X-ray photon are isotropically emitted. This apparatus is a compact radiosurgery system that irradiates soft X ray from the tip of its small probe (weight of the machine=1.9 Kg). The PRS can be used either with a stereotactic frame or during a craniotomy as interstitial radiotherapy. The PRS is able to irradiate 15 Gy at the portion of 1.5 cm from the center for about 20 minutes and avoid severe damage to surrounding normal brain because of steep dose distribution curve. Because this system emits low-energy photons, almost the x-rays are attenuated in the patient. For a treatment of this system, dose rates outside the patient are close to background radiation levels. No special shielding of the patient or health care personnel is required. Basic examination of this system was done. C 6 cell line of Glioma was irradiated by PRS in vitro. A majority of tumor cells were died after 24 hrs. This time we estimated the effect of the PRS for brain tumors. We underwent the PRS to 72 patients from June 1995 to May 1999. Sixty-eight patients underwent intraoperative irradiation after removal and 4 patients had interstitial irradiation after stereotactic biopsy. All 16 cases of primary anaplastic astrocytomas survived and demonstrated good Karnofski performance scale. Median survival tomes of 17 primary cases of glioblastoma is 14 month. Two cases of malignant lymphoma showed complete remission in CT scan 24 hours after intraoperative radiosurgery using PRS and 2 cases of germ cell tumor demonstrated dramatic decrease of tumor size in a short period. There was no definite newly neurological deficit. The intraoperative radiosurgery using PRS is useful adjuvant therapy for brain tumors. (author)

  11. Interstitial brachytherapy for eyelid carcinoma. Outcome analysis in 60 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krengli, M.; Deantonio, L. [University Hospital ' ' Maggiore della Carita' ' , Division of Radiotherapy, Novara (Italy); University of ' ' Piemonte Orientale' ' , Department of Translational Medicine, Novara (Italy); Masini, L.; Filomeno, A.; Gambaro, G. [University Hospital ' ' Maggiore della Carita' ' , Division of Radiotherapy, Novara (Italy); Comoli, A.M. [University Hospital Maggiore della Carita, Ophthalmology, Novara (Italy); Negri, E. [University Hospital Maggiore della Carita, Medical Physics, Novara (Italy)

    2014-03-15

    Eyelid cancer is a therapeutic challenge due to the cosmetic and functional implications of this anatomical region and the objectives of therapy are tumor control, functional and cosmetic outcome. The present study was performed to analyze local control, toxicity, functional and cosmetic results in patients with eyelid carcinoma treated by interstitial brachytherapy. In this study 60 patients with eyelid carcinoma were treated by interstitial brachytherapy using iridium ({sup 192}Ir) wires with a linear activity of 1.2-1.7 mCi/cm. The prescription dose was 51-70 Gy (mean 65 Gy, median 66 Gy). Of the 60 patients 51 (85.0 %) had received no prior treatment, 4 (6.7 %) had received previous surgery with positive or close margins and 5 (8.3 %) had suffered local recurrence after surgery. Of the tumors 52 (86.7 %) were basal cell carcinoma, 7 (11.7 %) squamous cell carcinoma and 1 (1.7 %) Merkel cell carcinoma. Clinical stage of the 51 previously untreated tumors was 38 T1N0, 12 T2N0 and 1 T3N0. Mean follow-up was 92 months (range 6-253 months). Local control was maintained in 96.7 % of patients. Late effects higher than grade 2 were observed in 3.0 % of cases. Functional and cosmetic outcomes were optimal in 68.4 % of patients. Interstitial brachytherapy for carcinoma of the eyelid can achieve local control, cosmetic and functional results comparable to those of surgery. (orig.) [German] Das Karzinom des Augenlids stellt aufgrund der funktionellen und kosmetischen Beeintraechtigungen dieser anatomischen Region eine therapeutische Herausforderung dar. Ziele der Therapie sind sowohl die Tumorkontrolle als auch ein gutes funktionelles und kosmetisches Ergebnis. Lokale Kontrolle, Toxizitaet sowie funktionelle und kosmetische Ergebnisse bei Patienten mit Karzinom des Augenlids, die mit interstitieller Brachytherapie behandelt wurden, sollten analysiert werden. Sechzig Patienten mit Karzinom des Augenlids wurden mit interstitieller Brachytherapie mit Iridium-192-Draehten

  12. Regulation of tumor invasion by interstitial fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Adrian C.; Swartz, Melody A.

    2011-02-01

    The importance of the tumor microenvironment in cancer progression is undisputed, yet the significance of biophysical forces in the microenvironment remains poorly understood. Interstitial fluid flow is a nearly ubiquitous and physiologically relevant biophysical force that is elevated in tumors because of tumor-associated angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, as well as changes in the tumor stroma. Not only does it apply physical forces to cells directly, but interstitial flow also creates gradients of soluble signals in the tumor microenvironment, thus influencing cell behavior and modulating cell-cell interactions. In this paper, we highlight our current understanding of interstitial fluid flow in the context of the tumor, focusing on the physical changes that lead to elevated interstitial flow, how cells sense flow and how they respond to changes in interstitial flow. In particular, we emphasize that interstitial flow can directly promote tumor cell invasion through a mechanism known as autologous chemotaxis, and indirectly support tumor invasion via both biophysical and biochemical cues generated by stromal cells. Thus, interstitial fluid flow demonstrates how important biophysical factors are in cancer, both by modulating cell behavior and coupling biophysical and biochemical signals.

  13. Regulation of tumor invasion by interstitial fluid flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shieh, Adrian C; Swartz, Melody A

    2011-01-01

    The importance of the tumor microenvironment in cancer progression is undisputed, yet the significance of biophysical forces in the microenvironment remains poorly understood. Interstitial fluid flow is a nearly ubiquitous and physiologically relevant biophysical force that is elevated in tumors because of tumor-associated angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis, as well as changes in the tumor stroma. Not only does it apply physical forces to cells directly, but interstitial flow also creates gradients of soluble signals in the tumor microenvironment, thus influencing cell behavior and modulating cell–cell interactions. In this paper, we highlight our current understanding of interstitial fluid flow in the context of the tumor, focusing on the physical changes that lead to elevated interstitial flow, how cells sense flow and how they respond to changes in interstitial flow. In particular, we emphasize that interstitial flow can directly promote tumor cell invasion through a mechanism known as autologous chemotaxis, and indirectly support tumor invasion via both biophysical and biochemical cues generated by stromal cells. Thus, interstitial fluid flow demonstrates how important biophysical factors are in cancer, both by modulating cell behavior and coupling biophysical and biochemical signals

  14. Dependence of boron cluster dissolution on the annealing ambient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radic, Ljubo; Lilak, Aaron D.; Law, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    Boron is introduced into silicon via implantation to form p-type layers. This process creates damage in the crystal that upon annealing causes enhanced diffusion and clustering of the boron layer. Reactivation of the boron is not a well-understood process. In this letter we experimentally investigate the effect of the annealing ambient on boron reactivation kinetics. An oxidizing ambient which injects silicon interstitials is compared to an inert ambient. Contrary to published theory, an excess of interstitials does not accelerate the reactivation process

  15. Data Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2012-03-01

    On obtaining a new data set, the researcher is immediately faced with the challenge of obtaining a high-level understanding from the observations. What does a typical item look like? What are the dominant trends? How many distinct groups are included in the data set, and how is each one characterized? Which observable values are common, and which rarely occur? Which items stand out as anomalies or outliers from the rest of the data? This challenge is exacerbated by the steady growth in data set size [11] as new instruments push into new frontiers of parameter space, via improvements in temporal, spatial, and spectral resolution, or by the desire to "fuse" observations from different modalities and instruments into a larger-picture understanding of the same underlying phenomenon. Data clustering algorithms provide a variety of solutions for this task. They can generate summaries, locate outliers, compress data, identify dense or sparse regions of feature space, and build data models. It is useful to note up front that "clusters" in this context refer to groups of items within some descriptive feature space, not (necessarily) to "galaxy clusters" which are dense regions in physical space. The goal of this chapter is to survey a variety of data clustering methods, with an eye toward their applicability to astronomical data analysis. In addition to improving the individual researcher’s understanding of a given data set, clustering has led directly to scientific advances, such as the discovery of new subclasses of stars [14] and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) [38]. All clustering algorithms seek to identify groups within a data set that reflect some observed, quantifiable structure. Clustering is traditionally an unsupervised approach to data analysis, in the sense that it operates without any direct guidance about which items should be assigned to which clusters. There has been a recent trend in the clustering literature toward supporting semisupervised or constrained

  16. Interstitial lung diseases with fibrosis - the pattern at high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarzemska, A.; Lasek, W.; Nawrocka, E.; Meder, G.; Zapala, M.

    2003-01-01

    Surgical lung biopsy, either open thoracotomy or video-assisted thoracoscopy is recommended in the diagnosis of interstitial lung diseases (ILD). In some cases, however, the repetitive pattern of radiological features in high-resolution computed tomography is often sufficient to confirm the diagnosis in a non-invasive manner. The purpose of the study was to determine whether patients with ILD can be selected on the basis of the HRCT pattern. Thin-section CT scans were performed in 40 patients with histologically proven idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (26 patients with usual interstitial pneumonia UIP, 2 patients with desquamative interstitial pneumonia DIP, 2 patients with bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia BOOP, 2 patients with non-specific interstitial pneumonia NSIP, 11 patients with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and 3 patients with pulmonary histiocytosis X). The location and the intensity of lesions were taken into consideration. Clinical and histopathological findings were compared. HRCT features of interstitial lung diseases such as nodules and cystic spaces in hypersensitivity pneumonitis and pulmonary histiocytosis, and ground-glass opacities in idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP) were statistically significant for differential diagnosis in ILD cases. Combination of honeycombing and ground-glass opacities found in UIP and nodules found in DIP were also statistically significant features in IIP subtypes diagnosis. In some cases, HRCT patterns of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, pulmonary histiocytosis X and IPF combined with clinical findings allowed for the accurate diagnosis without resorting to lung biopsy. Within a group of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia only in usual interstitial pneumonia characteristic pattern in thin-section CT can be defined. In other subgroups some typical features can imply a diagnosis. (author)

  17. Perivascular Interstitial Cells of Cajal in Human ColonSummary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-An Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims: Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC closely associate with nerves and smooth muscles to modulate gut motility. In the ICC microenvironment, although the circulating hormones/factors have been shown to influence ICC activities, the association between ICC and microvessels in the gut wall has not been described. We applied three-dimensional (3D vascular histology with c-kit staining to identify the perivascular ICC and characterize their morphologic and population features in the human colon wall. Methods: Full-thickness colons were obtained from colectomies performed for colorectal cancer. We targeted the colon wall away from the tumor site. Confocal microscopy with optical clearing (use of immersion solution to reduce scattering in optical imaging was performed to simultaneously reveal the ICC and vascular networks in space. 3D image rendering and projection were digitally conducted to illustrate the ICC–vessel contact patterns. Results: Perivascular ICC were identified in the submucosal border, myenteric plexus, and circular and longitudinal muscles via high-definition 3D microscopy. Through in-depth image projection, we specified two contact patterns—the intimate cell body-to-vessel contact (type I, 18% of ICC in circular muscle and the long-distance process-to-vessel contact (type II, 16%—to classify perivascular ICC. Particularly, type I perivascular ICC were detected with elevated c-kit staining levels and were routinely found in clusters, making them readily distinguishable from other ICC in the network. Conclusions: We propose a new subclass of ICC that closely associates with microvessels in the human colon. Our finding suggests a functional relationship between these mural ICC and microvessels based on the morphologic proximity. Keywords: 3D Histology, c-kit, ICC, Mural Cells

  18. Selective uterine artery embolization for management of interstitial ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Seung Boo; Lee, Sang Jin; Joe, Hwan Sung; Goo, Dong Erk; Chang, Yun Woo; Kim, Dong Hun

    2007-01-01

    Interstitial ectopic pregnancy is a rare condition of pregnancy and may be very dangerous if not identified and treated urgently. We report a case of successful treatment of an interstitial pregnancy using selective uterine artery embolization. A 27-year-old woman with interstitial pregnancy was treated by uterine artery embolization after failure of systemic methotrexate treatment. Her serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) was undetectable one month after the therapeutic embolization and transvaginal sonography 31 days after embolization showed normal endometrium and cornu. The patient achieved a normal pregnancy eight months after embolization.

  19. A conservative and fertility preserving treatment for interstitial ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Sarah D; Busbridge, Romy C; Gard, Gregory B

    2013-04-01

    This is a case series of women presenting to a tertiary care centre with a diagnosis of interstitial pregnancy. Dilatation and evacuation was performed under ultrasound control with systemic methotrexate post-operatively. All women had successful termination of their interstitial pregnancy. Although described in the international literature, this is the first time that this technique has been documented in Australia, and it may ultimately prove to be a relatively safe and simple fertility preserving method of treating women with unruptured interstitial pregnancies. © 2013 The Authors ANZJOG © 2013 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  20. High-resolution CT of lymphoid interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilgrain, V.; Frija, J.; Yana, C.; Couderc, L.J.; David, M.; Clauvel, J.P.; Laval-Jeantet, M.

    1989-01-01

    Three patients with lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (two HIV 1+ patients with chronic lymphadenopathic syndromes and one with a not-characterized autoimmune disease) have been studied with high-resolution computed tomography (HR-CT). This technique reveals septal lines, small reticulonodular opacities, polyhedral micronodular opacities, 'ground-glass' opacities and a dense, subpleural, curved broken line in one patient. The lesions dominate in the bases of the lungs. They are not characteristic for lymphoid interstitial pneumonia. If a patient presents with a chronic lymphadenopathic syndrome, the diagnosis of an opportunistic infection should not be automatically made, since the syndrome can be caused by lymphoid interstitial pneumonia [fr

  1. Bladder afferent hyperexcitability in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Naoki; Oguchi, Tomohiko; Yokoyama, Hitoshi; Funahashi, Yasuhito; Yoshikawa, Satoru; Sugino, Yoshio; Kawamorita, Naoki; Kashyap, Mahendra P; Chancellor, Michael B; Tyagi, Pradeep; Ogawa, Teruyuki

    2014-04-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is a disease with lower urinary tract symptoms, such as bladder pain and urinary frequency, which results in seriously impaired quality of life of patients. The extreme pain and urinary frequency are often difficult to treat. Although the etiology of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is still not known, there is increasing evidence showing that afferent hyperexcitability as a result of neurogenic bladder inflammation and urothelial dysfunction is important to the pathophysiological basis of symptom development. Further investigation of the pathophysiology will lead to the effective treatment of patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  2. Gallium interstitial contributions to diffusion in gallium arsenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, Joseph T.; Morgan, Caroline G.

    2011-09-01

    A new diffusion path is identified for gallium interstitials, which involves lower barriers than the barriers for previously identified diffusion paths [K. Levasseur-Smith and N. Mousseau, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 113502 (2008), P. A. Schultz and O. A. von Lilienfeld, Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering 17, 084007 (2009)] for the charge states which dominate diffusion over most of the available range of Fermi energies. This path passes through the ⟨110⟩ gallium-gallium split interstitial configuration, and has a particularly low diffusion barrier of 0.35 eV for diffusion in the neutral charge state. As a part of this work, the character of the charge states for the gallium interstitials which are most important for diffusion is investigated, and it is shown that the last electron bound to the neutral interstitial occupies a shallow hydrogenic bound state composed of conduction band states for the hexagonal interstitial and both tetrahedral interstitials. How to properly account for the contributions of such interstitials is discussed for density-functional calculations with a k-point mesh not including the conduction band edge point. Diffusion barriers for gallium interstitials are calculated in all the charge states which can be important for a Fermi level anywhere in the gap, q = 0, +1, +2, and +3, for diffusion via the ⟨110⟩ gallium-gallium split interstitial configuration and via the hexagonal interstitial configuration. The lowest activation enthalpies over most of the available range of Fermi energies are found to correspond to diffusion in the neutral or singly positive state via the ⟨110⟩ gallium-gallium split interstitial configuration. It is shown that several different charge states and diffusion paths contribute significantly for Fermi levels within 0.2 eV above the valence band edge, which may help to explain some of the difficulties [H. Bracht and S. Brotzmann, Phys. Rev. B 71, 115216 (2005)] which have been

  3. Gallium interstitial contributions to diffusion in gallium arsenide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph T. Schick

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A new diffusion path is identified for gallium interstitials, which involves lower barriers than the barriers for previously identified diffusion paths [K. Levasseur-Smith and N. Mousseau, J. Appl. Phys. 103, 113502 (2008, P. A. Schultz and O. A. von Lilienfeld, Modelling and Simulation in Materials Science and Engineering 17, 084007 (2009] for the charge states which dominate diffusion over most of the available range of Fermi energies. This path passes through the ⟨110⟩ gallium-gallium split interstitial configuration, and has a particularly low diffusion barrier of 0.35 eV for diffusion in the neutral charge state. As a part of this work, the character of the charge states for the gallium interstitials which are most important for diffusion is investigated, and it is shown that the last electron bound to the neutral interstitial occupies a shallow hydrogenic bound state composed of conduction band states for the hexagonal interstitial and both tetrahedral interstitials. How to properly account for the contributions of such interstitials is discussed for density-functional calculations with a k-point mesh not including the conduction band edge point. Diffusion barriers for gallium interstitials are calculated in all the charge states which can be important for a Fermi level anywhere in the gap, q = 0, +1, +2, and +3, for diffusion via the ⟨110⟩ gallium-gallium split interstitial configuration and via the hexagonal interstitial configuration. The lowest activation enthalpies over most of the available range of Fermi energies are found to correspond to diffusion in the neutral or singly positive state via the ⟨110⟩ gallium-gallium split interstitial configuration. It is shown that several different charge states and diffusion paths contribute significantly for Fermi levels within 0.2 eV above the valence band edge, which may help to explain some of the difficulties [H. Bracht and S. Brotzmann, Phys. Rev. B 71, 115216 (2005] which

  4. Geographic and sociodemographic factors in the etiology of juvenile neoplasms: implications for leukaemia clusters of several factors including density, background radiation, infections and immunisations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneale, G.W.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of data from the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers (OSCC) by the recently invented method of Fears and Brown, as modified (for correct variances of relative risk estimates) by Breslow and Zhao. The analysis has shown that, for OSCC cases, negative associations with population density, stillbirths and infant deaths were sufficiently strong for these alone to account for all but one of the leukaemia clusters so far reported in Britain as 'black hole' effects (the single exception being the Sellafield cluster). Finally, strong positive associations with regional levels of background radiation were found which have reinforced an earlier impression that these inevitable exposures are important causes of childhood cancer. (orig./MG)

  5. Calculation of the electronic structure optical transitions and contact hyperfine parameters of interstitial hydrogen in alkaline halogen crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maciel, A.K.A.

    1977-03-01

    The electronic structure of the interstitial hydrogen atom in KF, NaCl, KCl, and RbCl cristals has been studied using the self-consistent-field multiple-scattering Xα method. In the present calculation a cluster constituted by the hydrogen atom surrounded by its first anion and cation neighbors in a cubic shell has been used. The optical transition energies and hyperfine contact parameters with the interstitial proton and the first shell nuclei have been evaluated. The agreement obtained with the experimental data and the relative independence of the method under variations of its intrinsic parameters, indicate that this method can be adequate to the study of defects in ionic cristals. (author) [pt

  6. Interstitial shadow on chest CT is associated with the onset of interstitial lung disease caused by chemotherapeutic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niho, Seiji; Goto, Koichi; Yoh, Kiyotaka; Kim, Y.H.; Ohmatsu, Hironobu; Kubota, Kaoru; Saijo, Nagahiro; Nishiwaki, Yutaka

    2006-01-01

    Pretreatment computerized tomography (CT) films of the chest was studied to clarify the influence of interstitial shadow on developing interstitial lung disease (ILD). Eligible patients were those lung cancer patients who started to receive first-line chemotherapy between October 2001 and March 2004. Patients who received thoracic radiotherapy to the primary lesion, mediastinum, spinal or rib metastases were excluded. We reviewed pretreatment conventional CT and plain X-ray films of the chest. Ground-glass opacity, consolidation or reticular shadow without segmental distribution was defined as interstitial shadow, with this event being graded as mild, moderate or severe. If interstitial shadow was detected on CT films of the chest, but not via plain chest X-ray, it was graded as mild. Patients developing ILD were identified from medial records. A total of 502 patients were eligible. Mild, moderate and severe interstitial shadow was identified in 7, 8 and 5% of patients, respectively. A total of 188 patients (37%) received tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment, namely gefitinib or erlotinib. Twenty-six patients (5.2%) developed ILD either during or after chemotherapy. Multivariate analyses revealed that interstitial shadow on CT films of the chest and treatment history with TKI were associated with the onset of ILD. It is recommended that patients with interstitial shadow on chest CT are excluded from future clinical trials until this issue is further clarified, as it is anticipated that use of chemotherapeutic agents frequently mediate onset of ILD in this context. (author)

  7. Lessons learnt from the Bristol Girls Dance Project cluster RCT:Implications for designing and implementing after-school physical activity interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Mark J; May, Thomas; Kesten, Joanna; Banfield, Kate J; Bird, Emma L; Powell, Jane E; Sebire, Simon J; Jago, Russell

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To consider implementation issues associated with the delivery of Bristol Girls Dance Project (BGDP) and identify improvements that may aid the design of after-school physical activity interventions.Design: Two-armed cluster randomised control trial. The BGDP was a 20 week school-based intervention, consisting of two 75 minute after-school dance sessions per week, which aimed to support Year 7 girls to be more physically active.Setting: 18 secondary schools (nine intervention, nine...

  8. Interstitial brachytherapy in carcinoma of the penis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaudhary, A.J.; Ghosh, S.; Bhalavat, R.L. [Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Kulkarni, J.N. [Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Surgery; Sequeira, B.V.E. [Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai (India). Dept. of Medical Physics

    1999-01-01

    Aim: Keeping in line with the increasing emphasis on organ preservation, we at the Tata Memorial Hospital have evaluated the role of Ir-192 interstitial implant as regards local control, functional and cosmetic outcome in early as well as locally recurrent carcinoma of the distal penis. Patients and Methods: From October 1988 to December 1996, 23 patients with histopathologically proven cancer of the penis were treated with radical radiation therapy using Ir-192 temporary interstitial implant. Our patients were in the age group of 20 to 60 years. The primary lesions were T1 and 7, T2 in 7 and recurrent in 9 patients. Only 7 patients had palpable groin nodes at presentation, all of which were pathologically negative. The median dose of implant was 50 Gy (range 40 to 60 Gy), using the LDR afterloading system and the Paris system of implant rules for dosimetry. Follow-up ranged from 4 to 117 months (median 24 months). Results: At last follow-up 18 of the 23 patients remained locally controlled with implant alone. Three patients failed only locally, 2 locoregionally and 1 only at the groin. Of the 5 patients who failed locally, 4 were successfully salvaged with partial penectomy and remained controlled when last seen. Local control with implant alone at 8 years was 70% by life table analysis. The patients had excellent functional and cosmetic outcome. We did not record any case of skin or softtissue necrosis. Only 2 patients developed meatal stenosis, both of which were treated endoscopically. Conclusion: Our results lead us to interpret that interstitial brachytherapy with Ir-192 offers excellent local control rates with preservation of organ and function. Penectomy can be reserved as a means for effective salvage. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Das Prinzip des Organerhalts gewinnt in der Onkologie zunehmend an Bedeutung. Ziel dieser Untersuchung war es, die Rolle der interstitiellen Brachytherapie mit Ir-192 zur Behandlung des fruehen und rezidivierten Peniskarzinoms zu

  9. Interstitial rotating shield brachytherapy for prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, Quentin E.; Xu, Jinghzu; Breitbach, Elizabeth K.; Li, Xing; Rockey, William R.; Kim, Yusung; Wu, Xiaodong; Flynn, Ryan T.; Enger, Shirin A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To present a novel needle, catheter, and radiation source system for interstitial rotating shield brachytherapy (I-RSBT) of the prostate. I-RSBT is a promising technique for reducing urethra, rectum, and bladder dose relative to conventional interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDR-BT). Methods: A wire-mounted 62 GBq 153 Gd source is proposed with an encapsulated diameter of 0.59 mm, active diameter of 0.44 mm, and active length of 10 mm. A concept model I-RSBT needle/catheter pair was constructed using concentric 50 and 75 μm thick nickel-titanium alloy (nitinol) tubes. The needle is 16-gauge (1.651 mm) in outer diameter and the catheter contains a 535 μm thick platinum shield. I-RSBT and conventional HDR-BT treatment plans for a prostate cancer patient were generated based on Monte Carlo dose calculations. In order to minimize urethral dose, urethral dose gradient volumes within 0–5 mm of the urethra surface were allowed to receive doses less than the prescribed dose of 100%. Results: The platinum shield reduced the dose rate on the shielded side of the source at 1 cm off-axis to 6.4% of the dose rate on the unshielded side. For the case considered, for the same minimum dose to the hottest 98% of the clinical target volume (D 98% ), I-RSBT reduced urethral D 0.1cc below that of conventional HDR-BT by 29%, 33%, 38%, and 44% for urethral dose gradient volumes within 0, 1, 3, and 5 mm of the urethra surface, respectively. Percentages are expressed relative to the prescription dose of 100%. For the case considered, for the same urethral dose gradient volumes, rectum D 1cc was reduced by 7%, 6%, 6%, and 6%, respectively, and bladder D 1cc was reduced by 4%, 5%, 5%, and 6%, respectively. Treatment time to deliver 20 Gy with I-RSBT was 154 min with ten 62 GBq 153 Gd sources. Conclusions: For the case considered, the proposed 153 Gd-based I-RSBT system has the potential to lower the urethral dose relative to HDR-BT by 29%–44% if the clinician allows

  10. Weighted Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ackerman, Margareta; Ben-David, Shai; Branzei, Simina

    2012-01-01

    the partitional and hierarchical settings, characterizing the conditions under which algorithms react to weights. Extending a recent framework for clustering algorithm selection, we propose intuitive properties that would allow users to choose between clustering algorithms in the weighted setting and classify...

  11. Cluster editing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böcker, S.; Baumbach, Jan

    2013-01-01

    . The problem has been the inspiration for numerous algorithms in bioinformatics, aiming at clustering entities such as genes, proteins, phenotypes, or patients. In this paper, we review exact and heuristic methods that have been proposed for the Cluster Editing problem, and also applications...

  12. Successful Laparoscopic Removal of an Interstitial Ectopic Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosi

    1994-08-01

    This presentation describes the successful laparoscopic removal of an interstitial ectopic pregnancy. Interstitial pregnancy is rare (2%-4% of tubal pregnancies). Due to its location, rupture usually results in hemorrhagic shock. Current treatments include cornual resection, hysterectomy, local injection of potassium chloride or methotrexate, and systemic methotrexate. The laparoscopic treatment of interstitial pregnancy has not been reported with the exception of Reich et al (1988). A 38 year-old gravida 4 para 3 underwent cornual resection, while preserving the tube, for a right interstitial 9-week pregnancy using the single umbilical puncture approach. The operating time was 45 minutes and blood loss 50 ml. The patient was discharged at 24 hours and had an uneventful postoperative course.

  13. CD34-positive interstitial cells of the human detrusor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helle; Hansen, Alastair; Smedts, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are well described in the bowel wall. They are c-kit positive and play a role as pacemaker cells. Similar c-kit-positive cells have recently been described in the human bladder. The aim of this study was to characterize interstitial cells of the bladder detrusor...... using a panel of antibodies directed against CD117/c-kit, CD34, CD31, S100, tryptase, neurofilament, NSE, Factor-VIII and GFAP. A striking finding was an interstitial type of cell which is CD34 immunoreactive (CD34-ir) but CD117/c-kit negative. The cells have a tentacular morphology, enveloping...... and intermingling with individual muscle fasicles. Morphologically and immunohistochemically, they show no neurogenic, endothelial or mast cell differentiation. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed the presence of interstitial cells with a round-to-oval nucleus, sparse perinuclear cytoplasm and long...

  14. CT in the diagnosis of interstitial lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergin, C.J.; Mueller, N.L.

    1985-01-01

    The computed tomographic (CT) appearance of interstitial lung disease was assessed in 23 patients with known interstitial disease. These included seven patients with fibrosing alveolitis, six with silicosis, two with hypersensitivity pneumonitis, three with lymphangitic spread of tumor, two with sarcoidosis, one with rheumatoid lung disease, and two with neurofibromatosis. The CT appearance of the interstitial changes in the different disease entities was assessed. Nodules were a prominent CT feature in silicosis, sarcoidosis, and lymphangitic spread of malignancy. Distribution of nodules and associated interlobular septal thickening provided further distinguishing features in these diseases. Reticular densities were the predominant CT change in fibrosing alveolitis, rheumatoid lung disease, and extrinsic allergic alveolitis. CT can be useful in the investigation of selected instances of interstitial pulmonary disease

  15. A new interstitial flatworm (Turbellaria: Promesostomidae) from the Indian Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clerck, De G.G.

    1994-01-01

    Paraproboscifer alacerregis, representing a new genus and a new species of the interstitial typloplanoid flatworms is described from the Seychelles and Kenya. It is placed in the turbellarian family Promesostomidae, The type locality is on Mahé Island, Seychelles.

  16. On the use of robust estimators for standard errors in the presence of clustering when clustering membership is misspecified

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Manisha; Bryson, Susan W.; Robinson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of using robust estimators (REs) of standard errors in the presence of clustering when cluster membership is unclear as may commonly occur in clustered randomized trials. For example, in such trials, cluster membership may not be recorded for one or more treatment arms and/or cluster membership may be dynamic. When clusters are well defined, REs have properties that are robust to misspecification of the correlation structure. To examine whether results wer...

  17. Laparoscopic management of interstitial pregnancy with automatic stapler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahsan Akhtar, Muhammad; Izzat, Feras; Keay, Stephen D

    2012-10-22

    A 36-year-old woman was referred by general practitioner to the early pregnancy unit with pelvic pain in her seventh week of pregnancy. She had a transvaginal ultrasound. Unruptured live twin tubal ectopic pregnancy was diagnosed on. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed an unruptured left interstitial ectopic pregnancy. The interstitial tubal pregnancy was removed by laparoscopic automatic stapler with minimal blood loss. The patient had an uneventful recovery to health.

  18. Laparoscopic management of interstitial pregnancy with automatic stapler

    OpenAIRE

    Ahsan Akhtar, Muhammad; Izzat, Feras; Keay, Stephen D

    2012-01-01

    A 36-year-old woman was referred by general practitioner to the early pregnancy unit with pelvic pain in her seventh week of pregnancy. She had a transvaginal ultrasound. Unruptured live twin tubal ectopic pregnancy was diagnosed on. Diagnostic laparoscopy revealed an unruptured left interstitial ectopic pregnancy. The interstitial tubal pregnancy was removed by laparoscopic automatic stapler with minimal blood loss. The patient had an uneventful recovery to health.

  19. Interstitial ectopic pregnancy: A rare and difficult clinicosonographic diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    R Rastogi; G L Meena; N Rastogi; V Rastogi

    2008-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy in the interstitial part of the fallopian tube is a rare event. This condition presents a challenge for clinical as well as radiological diagnosis. Although routine two-dimensional ultrasound can be suggestive, three-dimensional ultrasound is highly accurate in diagnosis. Hence, the authors report a rare case of interstitial ectopic pregnancy diagnosed preoperatively by three-dimensional ultrasound and managed laparoscopically.

  20. Single dose methotrexate therapy: application to interstitial ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgatta, L; Burnhill, M; Stubblefield, P

    1998-03-01

    A woman with a small (6-mm gestational sac) interstitial pregnancy had complete resolution after medical therapy alone. A single cycle of methotrexate 50 mg/m2 was used as outpatient treatment without any operative procedure either for diagnosis or intervention. The guidelines that have evolved for selection of women for single dose methotrexate treatment for both intrauterine and tubal ectopic pregnancies may be applicable to interstitial ectopic pregnancy as well. A suggested framework for treatment decisions is presented.

  1. Interstitial ectopic pregnancy: A rare and difficult clinicosonographic diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Rastogi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic pregnancy in the interstitial part of the fallopian tube is a rare event. This condition presents a challenge for clinical as well as radiological diagnosis. Although routine two-dimensional ultrasound can be suggestive, three-dimensional ultrasound is highly accurate in diagnosis. Hence, the authors report a rare case of interstitial ectopic pregnancy diagnosed preoperatively by three-dimensional ultrasound and managed laparoscopically.

  2. Interstitial ectopic pregnancy: A rare and difficult clinicosonographic diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastogi, R; Gl, Meena; Rastogi, N; Rastogi, V

    2008-07-01

    Ectopic pregnancy in the interstitial part of the fallopian tube is a rare event. This condition presents a challenge for clinical as well as radiological diagnosis. Although routine two-dimensional ultrasound can be suggestive, three-dimensional ultrasound is highly accurate in diagnosis. Hence, the authors report a rare case of interstitial ectopic pregnancy diagnosed preoperatively by three-dimensional ultrasound and managed laparoscopically.

  3. The idiopathic interstitial pneumonias: understanding key radiological features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, S. [Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Old Road, Oxford OX3 7LJ (United Kingdom); Benamore, R., E-mail: Rachel.Benamore@orh.nhs.u [Department of Radiology, Churchill Hospital, Old Road, Oxford OX3 7LJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-10-15

    Many radiologists find it challenging to distinguish between the different interstitial idiopathic pneumonias (IIPs). The British Thoracic Society guidelines on interstitial lung disease (2008) recommend the formation of multidisciplinary meetings, with diagnoses made by combined radiological, pathological, and clinical findings. This review focuses on understanding typical and atypical radiological features on high-resolution computed tomography between the different IIPs, to help the radiologist determine when a confident diagnosis can be made and how to deal with uncertainty.

  4. Seasonal Variation in Interstitial Fluid Quality of the Andoni Flats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physicochemical characteristics of the interstitial fluid of the sediment of the intertidal and subtidal zones of the Andoni flats were studied. The results for the interstitial fluid showed low dissolved oxygen levels (0.1 – 1.3mg/l), high temperature values (26.2 -32.4°C), wide salinity range (8 – 21ppt) and near neutral pH (6.26 ...

  5. New spacing material for interstitial implantation of radioactive seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, J.; Hawliczek, R.; Kaercher, K.H.R.; Riccabona, M.

    1989-01-01

    Poly-p-dioxanon sutures (PDS) have been common in surgery as an absorbable material for years. After hardening by a particular procedure we use PDS pins as spacer material in interstitial I-125 implantations. The advantages of PDS are the mechanical qualities in contrast to catgut which causes hazards because of its soft consistency. PDS supports the efforts in optimization of seed distribution and dose application in interstitial radiotherapy.

  6. Rheumatoid arthritis associated interstitial lung disease: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Assayag

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatoid arthritis is a common inflammatory disease affecting about 1% of the population. Interstitial lung disease is a serious and frequent complication of rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD is characterized by several histopathologic subtypes. This article reviews the proposed pathogenesis and risk factors for RA-ILD. We also outline the important steps involved in the work-up of RA-ILD and review the evidence for treatment and prognosis.

  7. Differential neutron cross section for free interstitial production in copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstone, J.A.; Parkin, D.M.; Simpson, H.M.

    1979-01-01

    Free interstitials produced by monoenergetic neutrons were monitored by changes in Young's modulus of a vibrating foil specimen. These changes can be related to the number of pinners on dislocations which depends on the number of defects produced. The pinning rate is compared with displacement cross section calculations and agrees with the Norgett--Robinson--Torrens (NRT) model. Electron irradiations on the same sample yield estimates of the free interstitial production cross section to be approx. 1% of the NRT cross section

  8. Clinical Phenotyping Does Not Differentiate Hunner Lesion Subtype of Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome: A Relook at the Role of Cystoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doiron, R Christopher; Tolls, Victoria; Irvine-Bird, Karen; Kelly, Kerri-Lynn; Nickel, J Curtis

    2016-10-01

    Identifying Hunner lesions in patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome presents an opportunity for objective classification into Hunner lesion interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (classic interstitial cystitis) and nonHunner lesion bladder pain syndrome. While currently the former diagnosis requires cystoscopy, limited data suggest that these subtypes can be distinguished without endoscopy based on the degree of bladder focused centricity and the infrequent association with generalized pain conditions. Patients in a prospective, single center database of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome who had documented cystoscopic findings were categorized with Hunner lesion interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome or nonHunner lesion bladder pain syndrome. Demographics, pain and symptom scores, voiding symptoms, irritable bowel syndrome and clinical UPOINT (urinary, psychosocial, organ specific, infection, neurological and tenderness) scoring were comparatively analyzed. We reviewed the records of 469 patients, including 359 with documented local anesthetic cystoscopic findings, 44 (12.3%) with Hunner lesion interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and 315 (87.7%) with nonHunner bladder pain syndrome. Patients with Hunner lesions were older (p = 0.004) and had greater urinary frequency (p = 0.013), more nocturia (p = 0.0004) and higher ICSI (Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index) scores (p = 0.017). Hunner lesion prevalence was significantly lower in those younger than 50 years vs those 50 years old or older (7.8% vs 14.9%, p = 0.0095). There was no difference in the number of UPOINT phenotype domains reported, overall UPOINT scores or the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome between the groups. A subtype of interstitial cystitis with Hunner lesions has worse bladder centric symptoms but did not show a distinct bladder centric phenotype. Given the management implications of distinguishing classic interstitial cystitis from non

  9. Lessons and implications from a mass immunization campaign in squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan: an experience from a cluster-randomized double-blinded vaccine trial [NCT00125047

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu-Elyazeed Remon

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine the safety and logistic feasibility of a mass immunization strategy outside the local immunization program in the pediatric population of urban squatter settlements in Karachi, Pakistan. Methods A cluster-randomized double blind preventive trial was launched in August 2003 in 60 geographic clusters covering 21,059 children ages 2 to 16 years. After consent was obtained from parents or guardians, eligible children were immunized parenterally at vaccination posts in each cluster with Vi polysaccharide or hepatitis A vaccine. Safety, logistics, and standards were monitored and documented. Results The vaccine coverage of the population was 74% and was higher in those under age 10 years. No life-threatening serious adverse events were reported. Adverse events occurred in less than 1% of all vaccine recipients and the main reactions reported were fever and local pain. The proportion of adverse events in Vi polysaccharide and hepatitis A recipients will not be known until the end of the trial when the code is broken. Throughout the vaccination campaign safe injection practices were maintained and the cold chain was not interrupted. Mass vaccination in slums had good acceptance. Because populations in such areas are highly mobile, settlement conditions could affect coverage. Systemic reactions were uncommon and local reactions were mild and transient. Close community involvement was pivotal for information dissemination and immunization coverage. Conclusion This vaccine strategy described together with other information that will soon be available in the area (cost/effectiveness, vaccine delivery costs, etc will make typhoid fever control become a reality in the near future.

  10. Direct identification of interstitial Mn in heavily p-type doped GaAs and evidence of its high thermal stability

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, LMC; Correia, JG; Decoster, S; da Silva, MR; Araújo, JP; Vantomme, A

    2011-01-01

    We report on the lattice location of Mn in heavily p-type doped GaAs by means of $\\beta^{-}$-emission channeling from the decay of $^{56}$Mn. The majority of the Mn atoms substitute for Ga and up to 31% occupy the tetrahedral interstitial site with As nearest neighbors. Contrary to the general belief, we find that interstitial Mn is immobile up to 400$^{\\circ}$C, with an activation energy for diffusion of 1.7–2.3 eV. Such high thermal stability of interstitial Mn has significant implications on the strategies and prospects for achieving room temperature ferromagnetism in Ga$_{1−x}$Mn$_{x}$As.

  11. New insights into canted spiro carbon interstitial in graphite

    Science.gov (United States)

    EL-Barbary, A. A.

    2017-12-01

    The self-interstitial carbon is the key to radiation damage in graphite moderator nuclear reactor, so an understanding of its behavior is essential for plant safety and maximized reactor lifetime. The density functional theory is applied on four different graphite unit cells, starting from of 64 carbon atoms up to 256 carbon atoms, using AIMPRO code to obtain the energetic, athermal and mechanical properties of carbon interstitial in graphite. This study presents first principles calculations of the energy of formation that prove its high barrier to athermal diffusion (1.1 eV) and the consequent large critical shear stress (39 eV-50 eV) necessary to shear graphite planes in its presence. Also, for the first time, the gamma surface of graphite in two dimensions is calculated and found to yield the critical shear stress for perfect graphite. Finally, in contrast to the extensive literature describing the interstitial of carbon in graphite as spiro interstitial, in this work the ground state of interstitial carbon is found to be canted spiro interstitial.

  12. [Interstitial cystitis in urology clinic: current status and problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanri, Masaharu; Nanri, Masayuki; Nanri, Kazushige

    2014-10-01

    We examined the complications in the diagnosis and treatment of interstitial cystitis in daily clinical practice. The study included 82 patients who were suspected of having interstitial cystitis at our hospital from March 2002 to April 2013. All hydrodistention procedures were performed with the aid of an anesthesiologist, as recommended by the Ministry of Health, Labour, and Welfare since April 2010. Of the 82, 20 patients were male and 62 were female, (mean age at diagnosis 53 years.) Six of the suspected cases did not have interstitial cystitis. Of the 67 patients diagnosed with interstitial cystitis during hydrodistention, 29 (43%) did not experience pain. The time taken to diagnose these asymptomatic patients was longer than that taken for those who experienced pain. Twenty-eight patients (42%) discontinued treatment because it was ineffective. Interstitial cystitis has been widely recognized, but general physicians are unable to provide a diagnosis and suggest aggressive treatment because of difficulty associated in the treatment and diagnosis. To resolve these issues, physicians should be keep in mind that interstitial cystitis involves a hypersensitive bladder, and that some patients may not experience pain. Further, knowledge about Hunner's ulcer is essential. We believe that the most important points are improving health insurance about facility criteria of hydrodistention, and evaluating behavioral modification and dietary manipulation.

  13. Microstructures and phase transformations in interstitial alloys of tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahmen, U.

    1979-01-01

    The analysis of microstructures, phases, and possible ordering of interstitial solute atoms is fundamental to an understanding of the properties of metal-interstitial alloys in general. As evidenced by the controversies on phase transformations in the particular system tantalum--carbon, our understanding of this class of alloys is inferior to our knowledge of substitutional metal alloys. An experimental clarification of these controversies in tantalum was made. Using advanced techniques of electron microscopy and ultrahigh vacuum techology, an understanding of the microstructures and phase transformations in dilute interstitial tantalum--carbon alloys is developed. Through a number of control experiments, the role and sources of interstitial contamination in the alloy preparation (and under operating conditions) are revealed. It is demonstrated that all previously published work on the dilute interstitially ordered phase Ta 64 C can be explained consistently in terms of ordering of the interstitial contaminants oxygen and hydrogen, leading to the formation of the phases Ta 12 O and Ta 2 H

  14. Modeling of long-range migration of boron interstitials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velichko, O.I.; Burunova, O.N.

    2009-01-01

    A model of the interstitial migration of ion-implanted dopant in silicon during low-temperature thermal treatment has been formulated. It is supposed that the boron interstitials are created during ion implantation or at the initial stage of annealing. During thermal treatment a migration of these impurity interstitials to the surface and in the bulk of a semiconductor occurs. On this basis, a simulation of boron redistribution during thermal annealing for 35 minutes at a temperature of 800 0 C has been carried out. The calculated boron profile agrees well with the experimental data. A number of the parameters describing the interstitial diffusion have been derived. In particular, the average migration length of nonequilibrium boron interstitials is equal to 0.092 μm at a temperature of 800 0 C. To carry out modeling of ion-implanted boron redistribution, the analytical solutions of nonstationary diffusion equation for impurity interstitials have been obtained. The case of Dirichlet boundary conditions and the case of reflecting boundary on the surface of a semiconductor have been considered. (authors)

  15. Dose optimisation in single plane interstitial brachytherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanderup, Kari; Hellebust, Taran Paulsen; Honoré, Henriette Benedicte; Nielsen, Søren Kynde; Olsen, Dag Rune; Grau, Cai; Lindegaard, Jacob Christian

    2006-10-01

    Brachytherapy dose distributions can be optimised by modulation of source dwell times. In this study dose optimisation in single planar interstitial implants was evaluated in order to quantify the potential benefit in patients. In 14 patients, treated for recurrent rectal and cervical cancer, flexible catheters were sutured intra-operatively to the tumour bed in areas with compromised surgical margin. Both non-optimised, geometrically and graphically optimised CT -based dose plans were made. The overdose index (OI), homogeneity index (HI), conformal index (COIN), minimum target dose, and high dose volumes were evaluated. The dependence of OI, HI, and COIN on target volume and implant regularity was evaluated. In addition, 12 theoretical implant configurations were analyzed. Geometrical and graphical optimisation improved the dose plans significantly with graphical optimisation being superior. Graphically optimised dose plans showed a significant decrease of 18%+/-9% in high dose volume (pusability of these parameters for comparison of dose plans between patients. Dwell time optimisation significantly improved the dose distribution regarding homogeneity, conformity, minimum target dose, and size of high dose volumes. Graphical optimisation is fast, reproducible and superior to geometric optimisation.

  16. Dose optimisation in single plane interstitial brachytherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanderup, Kari; Hellebust, Taran Paulsen; Honoré, Henriette Benedicte

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Brachytherapy dose distributions can be optimised       by modulation of source dwell times. In this study dose optimisation in       single planar interstitial implants was evaluated in order to quantify the       potential benefit in patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 14...... patients,       treated for recurrent rectal and cervical cancer, flexible catheters were       sutured intra-operatively to the tumour bed in areas with compromised       surgical margin. Both non-optimised, geometrically and graphically       optimised CT -based dose plans were made. The overdose index...... (OI),       homogeneity index (HI), conformal index (COIN), minimum target dose, and       high dose volumes were evaluated. The dependence of OI, HI, and COIN on       target volume and implant regularity was evaluated. In addition, 12       theoretical implant configurations were analyzed. RESULTS...

  17. Granular Material Flows with Interstitial Fluid Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Melany L.; Brennen, Christopher E.

    2004-01-01

    The research focused on experimental measurements of the rheological properties of liquid-solid and granular flows. In these flows, the viscous effects of the interstitial fluid, the inertia of the fluid and particles, and the collisional interactions of the particles may all contribute to the flow mechanics. These multiphase flows include industrial problems such as coal slurry pipelines, hydraulic fracturing processes, fluidized beds, mining and milling operation, abrasive water jet machining, and polishing and surface erosion technologies. In addition, there are a wide range of geophysical flows such as debris flows, landslides and sediment transport. In extraterrestrial applications, the study of transport of particulate materials is fundamental to the mining and processing of lunar and Martian soils and the transport of atmospheric dust (National Research Council 2000). The recent images from Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft dramatically depict the complex sand and dust flows on Mars, including dune formation and dust avalanches on the slip-face of dune surfaces. These Aeolian features involve a complex interaction of the prevailing winds and deposition or erosion of the sediment layer; these features make a good test bed for the verification of global circulation models of the Martian atmosphere.

  18. Classical patterns of interstitial lung diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller-Mang, C.

    2014-01-01

    High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is the most important non-invasive tool in the diagnostics and follow-up of patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). A systematic review of the HRCT patterns of ILD was carried out and the most relevant differential diagnoses are discussed in order to provide a road map for the general radiologist to successfully navigate the complex field of ILD. Using HRCT four basic patterns of ILD can be identified: linear and reticular patterns, the nodular pattern, the high attenuation and low attenuation patterns. These patterns can be further differentiated according to their localization within the secondary pulmonary lobule (SPL), e.g. centrilobular or perilymphatic and their distribution within the lungs (e.g. upper or lower lobe predominance). Relevant clinical data, such as smoking history and course of the disease provide useful additional information in the diagnosis of ILD. On the basis of the pattern and anatomical distribution on HRCT, an accurate diagnosis can be achieved in some cases of ILD; however, due to morphological and clinical overlap the final diagnosis of many ILDs requires close cooperation between clinicians, radiologists and pathologists. (orig.) [de

  19. Magnetic effects of interstitial hydrogen in nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    León, Andrea [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Valparaíso (Chile); Velásquez, E.A. [Facultad de Física y Centro de Investigación en Nanotecnología y Materiales Avanzados CIEN-UC, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnología CEDENNA, Santiago (Chile); Grupo de Investigación en Modelamiento y Simulación Computacional, Universidad de San Buenaventura Sec. Medellín, Medellín (Colombia); Mazo-Zuluaga, J. [Grupo de Instrumentación Científica y Microelectrónica, Grupo de Estado Sólido, IF-FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia UdeA, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia); Mejía-López, J. [Facultad de Física y Centro de Investigación en Nanotecnología y Materiales Avanzados CIEN-UC, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Centro para el Desarrollo de la Nanociencia y la Nanotecnología CEDENNA, Santiago (Chile); Florez, J.M. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Valparaíso (Chile); and others

    2017-01-01

    Hydrogen storage in materials is among the most relevant fields when thinking about energy conversion and storage. In this work we present a study that responds to a couple of questions concerning induced electronic changes that H produces in ferromagnetic nickel (Ni) host. We calculate and explain the change of magnetic properties of Ni with different concentrations of H. Density functional theory calculations (DFT) were performed for super-cells of fcc Ni with interstitial H in octahedral sites at different concentrations. In order to physically explain the effect of magnetization diminishing as the hydrogen concentration increases, we propose a simple Stoner type of model to describe the influence of the H impurity on the magnetic properties of Ni. The exchange splitting reduction, as shown in first principles calculations, is clearly explained within this physical model. Using a paramagnetic Ni fcc band with variable number of electrons and a Stoner model allow us to obtain the correct trend for the magnetic moment of the system as a function of the H concentration. - Highlights: • We calculate and explain the change of magnetic properties of Ni with different concentrations of H. • We propose a simple Stoner type of model to describe the influence of the H impurity on the magnetic properties of Ni. • The band exchange splitting reduction as the H concentration increases, is a consequence of the competition between the band energy term (kinetic energy) and the ferromagnetic energy term (Weiss field).

  20. Renaissance of laser interstitial thermal ablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missios, Symeon; Bekelis, Kimon; Barnett, Gene H

    2015-03-01

    Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is a minimally invasive technique for treating intracranial tumors, originally introduced in 1983. Its use in neurosurgical procedures was historically limited by early technical difficulties related to the monitoring and control of the extent of thermal damage. The development of magnetic resonance thermography and its application to LITT have allowed for real-time thermal imaging and feedback control during laser energy delivery, allowing for precise and accurate provision of tissue hyperthermia. Improvements in laser probe design, surgical stereotactic targeting hardware, and computer monitoring software have accelerated acceptance and clinical utilization of LITT as a neurosurgical treatment alternative. Current commercially available LITT systems have been used for the treatment of neurosurgical soft-tissue lesions, including difficult to access brain tumors, malignant gliomas, and radiosurgery-resistant metastases, as well as for the ablation of such lesions as epileptogenic foci and radiation necrosis. In this review, the authors aim to critically analyze the literature to describe the advent of LITT as a neurosurgical, laser excision tool, including its development, use, indications, and efficacy as it relates to neurosurgical applications.

  1. Acute interstitial nephritis induced by Dioscorea quinqueloba

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of herbal medicine may be a risk factor for the development of kidney injury, as it has been reported to cause various renal syndromes. Dioscorea quinqueloba is a medicinal herb that is used as an alternative therapy for cardiovascular disease and various medical conditions. Case presentation A 52-year-old man was admitted with complaints of skin rash and burning sensation. He had ingested a raw extract of D. quinqueloba as a traditional remedy. Laboratory tests revealed the following values: absolute eosinophil count, 900/mm3; serum creatinine level, 2.7 mg/dL; and blood urea nitrogen, 33.0 mg/dL. The immunoglobulin E level was markedly increased at 1320.0 IU/mL. Urinalysis revealed a fractional excretion of sodium of 3.77%, protein 1+, and blood 3+. Histological examination of the renal biopsy specimen showed a diffusely edematous interstitium with infiltrates composed of eosinophils, lymphocytes, and neutrophils. Conclusion Here, we present the first reported case of biopsy-proven acute interstitial nephritis following ingestion of D. quinqueloba associated with skin rash, eosinophilia, and increased plasma immunoglobulin E level. PMID:25186588

  2. Palliative care and interstitial lung disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajwah, Sabrina; Yorke, Janelle

    2017-09-01

    The palliative care needs of people with interstitial lung disease (ILD) have recently been highlighted by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. All people with progressive ILD should receive best supportive care to improve symptom control and quality of life and where possible this should be evidence based. Deaths from ILD are increasing and deaths in hospital are more common compared to home. People with ILD experience a wide range of symptoms including breathlessness and cough. People living with ILD often suffer unmet physical and psychological needs throughout the disease journey. Few appropriately validated outcome measures exist for ILD which has hampered research on the longitudinal experience of symptoms and quality of life and the evaluation of interventions. Recent recommendations from the National Institute of Clinical Excellence promote the use of a new palliative care needs assessment tool. Use of a tool in busy respiratory clinics may help to highlight those requiring specialist input. Further research into the role of opioids, oxygen and neuromodulatory agents in symptom management are needed. In addition, exploration of breathlessness and case conference interventions in transitioning patients from the hospital to community settings is a priority. Further work is needed to identify a core set of validated ILD-specific patient-reported outcome measures for the robust evaluation of interventions.

  3. HST/WFC3 OBSERVATIONS OF LOW-MASS GLOBULAR CLUSTERS AM 4 AND PALOMAR 13: PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND IMPLICATIONS FOR MASS LOSS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamren, Katherine M.; Smith, Graeme H.; Guhathakurta, Puragra [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew E. [Raytheon, 1151 East Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85756 (United States); Weisz, Daniel R. [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Rajan, Abhijith [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, 781 East Terrace Road, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Grillmair, Carl J., E-mail: khamren@ucolick.org [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, Mail Stop 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the loss of low-mass stars in two of the faintest globular clusters known, AM 4 and Palomar 13 (Pal 13), using HST/WFC3 F606W and F814W photometry. To determine the physical properties of each cluster—age, mass, metallicity, extinction, and present day mass function (MF)—we use the maximum likelihood color-magnitude diagram (CMD) fitting program MATCH and the Dartmouth, Padova, and BaSTI stellar evolution models. For AM 4, the Dartmouth models provide the best match to the CMD and yield an age of >13 Gyr, metallicity log Z/Z {sub ☉} = –1.68 ± 0.08, a distance modulus (m – M) {sub V} = 17.47 ± 0.03, and reddening A{sub V} = 0.19 ± 0.02. For Pal 13 the Dartmouth models give an age of 13.4 ± 0.5 Gyr, log Z/Z {sub ☉} = –1.55 ± 0.06, (m – M) {sub V} = 17.17 ± 0.02, and A{sub V} = 0.43 ± 0.01. We find that the systematic uncertainties due to choice in assumed stellar model greatly exceed the random uncertainties, highlighting the importance of using multiple stellar models when analyzing stellar populations. Assuming a single-sloped power-law MF, we find that AM 4 and Pal 13 have spectral indices α = +0.68 ± 0.34 and α = –1.67 ± 0.25 (where a Salpeter MF has α = +1.35), respectively. Comparing our derived slopes with literature measurements of cluster integrated magnitude (M{sub V} ) and MF slope indicates that AM 4 is an outlier. Its MF slope is substantially steeper than clusters of comparable luminosity, while Pal 13 has an MF in line with the general trend. We discuss both primordial and dynamical origins for the unusual MF slope of AM 4 and tentatively favor the dynamical scenario. However, MF slopes of more low luminosity clusters are needed to verify this hypothesis.

  4. Cosmology and cluster formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peebles, P.J.E.

    1990-01-01

    I discuss some issues that arise in the attempt to understand what rich clusters of galaxies might teach us about cosmology. First, the mean mass per galaxy in a cluster, if applied to all bright galaxies, yields a mean mass density ∼ 30 percent of the critical Einstein-de Sitter value. Is this because the mass per galaxy is biased low in clusters, or is there in a low density universe? Second, what is the sequence of creation? There are theories in which protoclusters form before galaxies, or after, or the two are more or less coeval. Third, can clusters have formed by gravitational instability out of Gaussian primeval density fluctuations? Or do the observations point to the non-Gaussian perturbations to be expected from cosmic strings, or explosions, or even some variants of inflation? These issues depend on a fourth: do we know the gross physical properties of clusters well enough to use them as constraints on cosmology? I argue that some are too well established to ignore. Their implications for the other issues are not so clear, but progress can be seen. (author)

  5. Clustering Dycom

    KAUST Repository

    Minku, Leandro L.

    2017-10-06

    Background: Software Effort Estimation (SEE) can be formulated as an online learning problem, where new projects are completed over time and may become available for training. In this scenario, a Cross-Company (CC) SEE approach called Dycom can drastically reduce the number of Within-Company (WC) projects needed for training, saving the high cost of collecting such training projects. However, Dycom relies on splitting CC projects into different subsets in order to create its CC models. Such splitting can have a significant impact on Dycom\\'s predictive performance. Aims: This paper investigates whether clustering methods can be used to help finding good CC splits for Dycom. Method: Dycom is extended to use clustering methods for creating the CC subsets. Three different clustering methods are investigated, namely Hierarchical Clustering, K-Means, and Expectation-Maximisation. Clustering Dycom is compared against the original Dycom with CC subsets of different sizes, based on four SEE databases. A baseline WC model is also included in the analysis. Results: Clustering Dycom with K-Means can potentially help to split the CC projects, managing to achieve similar or better predictive performance than Dycom. However, K-Means still requires the number of CC subsets to be pre-defined, and a poor choice can negatively affect predictive performance. EM enables Dycom to automatically set the number of CC subsets while still maintaining or improving predictive performance with respect to the baseline WC model. Clustering Dycom with Hierarchical Clustering did not offer significant advantage in terms of predictive performance. Conclusion: Clustering methods can be an effective way to automatically generate Dycom\\'s CC subsets.

  6. Clustering analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romli

    1997-01-01

    Cluster analysis is the name of group of multivariate techniques whose principal purpose is to distinguish similar entities from the characteristics they process.To study this analysis, there are several algorithms that can be used. Therefore, this topic focuses to discuss the algorithms, such as, similarity measures, and hierarchical clustering which includes single linkage, complete linkage and average linkage method. also, non-hierarchical clustering method, which is popular name K -mean method ' will be discussed. Finally, this paper will be described the advantages and disadvantages of every methods

  7. Cluster analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Everitt, Brian S; Leese, Morven; Stahl, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Cluster analysis comprises a range of methods for classifying multivariate data into subgroups. By organizing multivariate data into such subgroups, clustering can help reveal the characteristics of any structure or patterns present. These techniques have proven useful in a wide range of areas such as medicine, psychology, market research and bioinformatics.This fifth edition of the highly successful Cluster Analysis includes coverage of the latest developments in the field and a new chapter dealing with finite mixture models for structured data.Real life examples are used throughout to demons

  8. Defect characteristics by boron cluster ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takaaki; Matsuo, Jiro; Takaoka, Gikan; Toyoda, Noriaki; Yamada, Isao

    2003-01-01

    Cluster ion implantation using decaborane (B 10 H 14 ) has been proposed as a shallow implantation technique for LSI devices with gate lengths of several-tens nanometers. Experiments and computer simulations of low-energy boron monomers and decaborane clusters implantation were performed. Molecular dynamics simulations of B 10 cluster implantation have shown similar implant depth but different damage density and damage structure compared to monomer (B 1 ) ion implantation with the same energy-per-atom. For monomer implantation, point-defects such as vacancy-interstitial pairs are mainly formed. On the other hand, B 10 generates large numbers of defects within a highly-amorphised region at the impact location. This difference in damage structure produced during implantation is expected to cause different annihilation processes

  9. Etiology, pathophysiology and biomarkers of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, Sourav Sanchit; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni; Butticè, Salvatore; Noventa, Marco; Gizzo, Salvatore; Valenti, Gaetano; Rapisarda, Agnese Maria Chiara; La Rosa, Valentina Lucia; Magno, Carlo; Triolo, Onofrio; Dandolu, Vani

    2017-06-01

    Interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) is a chronic pain syndrome and a chronic inflammatory condition prevalent in women that leads to urgency, sleep disruption, nocturia and pain in the pelvic area, to the detriment of the sufferer's quality of life. The aim of this review is to highlight the newest diagnostic strategies and potential therapeutic techniques. A comprehensive literature review was performed on MEDLINE, PubMed, and Cochrane databases gathering all literature about "Interstitial cystitis" and "Painful Bladder Syndrome". Visual analogue scales, epidemiological strategies, pain questionnaires and similar techniques were not included in this literature survey. The etiology, exact diagnosis and epidemiology of IC/PBS are still not clearly understood. To date, its prevalence is estimated to be in the range of 45 per 100,000 women and 8 per 100,000 men, whereas joint prevalence in both sexes is 10.6 cases per 100,000. There are no "gold standards" in the diagnosis or detection of IC/PBS, therefore, several etiological theories were investigated, such as permeability, glycosaminoglycans, mast cell, infection and neuroendocrine theory to find new diagnostic strategies and potential biomarkers. Due to the fact that this disease is of an intricate nature, and that many of its symptoms overlap with other concomitant diseases, it could be suggested to classify the patients with emphasis on the phenotype, as well as their symptom clusters, to tailor the diagnostic and management choices according to the observed biomarkers.

  10. Active matter clusters at interfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eCopenhagen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Collective and directed motility or swarming is an emergent phenomenon displayed by many self-organized assemblies of active biological matter such as clusters of embryonic cells during tissue development, cancerous cells during tumor formation and metastasis, colonies of bacteria in a biofilm, or even flocks of birds and schools of fish at the macro-scale. Such clusters typically encounter very heterogeneous environments. What happens when a cluster encounters an interface between two different environments has implications for its function and fate. Here we study this problem by using a mathematical model of a cluster that treats it as a single cohesive unit that moves in two dimensions by exerting a force/torque per unit area whose magnitude depends on the nature of the local environment. We find that low speed (overdamped clusters encountering an interface with a moderate difference in properties can lead to refraction or even total internal reflection of the cluster. For large speeds (underdamped, where inertia dominates, the clusters show more complex behaviors crossing the interface multiple times and deviating from the predictable refraction and reflection for the low velocity clusters. We then present an extreme limit of the model in the absence of rotational damping where clusters can become stuck spiraling along the interface or move in large circular trajectories after leaving the interface. Our results show a wide range of behaviors that occur when collectively moving active biological matter moves across interfaces and these insights can be used to control motion by patterning environments.

  11. Occupational Clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottawattamie County School System, Council Bluffs, IA.

    The 15 occupational clusters (transportation, fine arts and humanities, communications and media, personal service occupations, construction, hospitality and recreation, health occupations, marine science occupations, consumer and homemaking-related occupations, agribusiness and natural resources, environment, public service, business and office…

  12. Cancer Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peer Review and Funding Outcomes Step 4: Award Negotiation & Issuance Manage Your Award Grants Management Contacts Monitoring ... potentially hazardous working conditions, including suspected cancer clusters. Employees, authorized employee representatives, and employers can request these ...

  13. Cluster generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donchev, Todor I [Urbana, IL; Petrov, Ivan G [Champaign, IL

    2011-05-31

    Described herein is an apparatus and a method for producing atom clusters based on a gas discharge within a hollow cathode. The hollow cathode includes one or more walls. The one or more walls define a sputtering chamber within the hollow cathode and include a material to be sputtered. A hollow anode is positioned at an end of the sputtering chamber, and atom clusters are formed when a gas discharge is generated between the hollow anode and the hollow cathode.

  14. STELLAR BORON ABUNDANCES NEAR THE MAIN-SEQUENCE TURNOFF OF THE OPEN CLUSTER NGC 3293 AND IMPLICATIONS FOR THE EFFICIENCY OF ROTATIONALLY DRIVEN MIXING IN STELLAR ENVELOPES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proffitt, Charles R.; Lennon, Daniel J.; Langer, Norbert; Brott, Ines

    2016-01-01

    Spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Origins Spectrograph and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph covering the B iii resonance line have been obtained for 10 early-B stars near the turnoff of the young Galactic open cluster NGC 3293. This is the first sample of boron abundance determinations in a single, clearly defined population of early-B stars that also covers a substantial range of projected rotational velocities. In most of these stars we detect partial depletion of boron at a level consistent with that expected for rotational mixing in single stars, but inconsistent with expectations for depletion from close binary evolution. However, our results do suggest that the efficiency of rotational mixing is at or slightly below the low end of the range predicted by the available theoretical calculations. The two most luminous targets observed have a very large boron depletion and may be the products of either binary interactions or post-main-sequence evolution.

  15. Interstitial Lung disease in Systemic Sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooi, G.C.; Mok, M.Y.; Tsang, K.W.T.; Khong, P.L.; Fung, P.C.W.; Chan, S.; Tse, H.F.; Wong, R.W.S.; Lam, W.K.; Lau, C.S.; Wong, Y.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate high-resolution CT (HRCT) parameters of inflammation and fibrosis in systemic sclerosis (SSc), for correlation with lung function, skin scores and exercise tolerance. Material and Methods: : 45 SSc patients (40 women, 48.5±13.4 years), underwent thoracic HRCT, lung function assessment, and modified Rodnan skin scores. Exercise tolerance was also graded. HRCT were scored for extent of 4 HRCT patterns of interstitial lung disease (ILD): ground glass opacification (GGO), reticular, mixed and honeycomb pattern in each lobe. Total HRCT score, inflammation index (GGO and mixed score) and fibrosis index (reticular and honeycomb scores) were correlated with lung function and clinical parameters. Results: ILD was present in 39/45 (86.7%) patients. Abnormal (<80% predicted) forced vital capacity (FVC), total lung capacity (TLC) and carbon monoxide diffusion factor (DLco) were detected in 30%, 22% and 46% of patients. Total HRCT score correlated with FVC (r=0.43, p=0.008), FEV1 (forced expiratory volume) (r=-0.37, p=0.03), TLC (r=-0.47, p=0.003), and DLCO (r=-0.43, p=0.008); inflammatory index with DLCO (r=-0.43, p=0.008) and exercise tolerance (r=-0.39, p < 0.05); and fibrosis index with FVC (r=-0.31, p=0.05) and TLC (r=-0.38, p=0.02). Higher total HRCT score, and inflammation and fibrosis indices were found in patients with abnormal lung function. Conclusion: Qualitative HRCT is able to evaluate inflammation and fibrosis, showing important relationships with diffusion capacity and lung volume, respectively

  16. Co-morbidities of Interstitial Cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela eChelimsky

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This study aimed to estimate the proportion of patients with Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome (IC/BPS with systemic dysfunction associated co-morbidities such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS and fibromyalgia (FM. Material and Methods: Two groups of subjects with IC/BPS were included: 1 Physician diagnosed patients with IC/BPS and 2 Subjects meeting NIDDK IC/PBS criteria based on a questionnaire (ODYSA. These groups were compared to healthy controls matched for age and socio-economic status. NIDDK criteria required: pain with bladder filling that improves with emptying, urinary urgency due to discomfort or pain, polyuria > 11 times/24 hrs, and nocturia > 2 times/night. The ODYSA instrument evaluates symptoms pertaining to a range of disorders including chronic fatigue, orthostatic intolerance, syncope, IBS, dyspepsia, cyclic vomiting syndrome, headaches and migraines, sleep, Raynaud’s syndrome and chronic aches and pains. Results: IC/BPS was diagnosed in 26 subjects (mean age 47 +/- 16 yrs, 92% females, 58 had symptoms of IC/BPS by NIDDK criteria, (mean age 40 +/- 17 yrs, 79% females and 48 were healthy controls (mean age 31+/- 14 yrs, mean age 77%. Co-morbid complaints in the IC/BPS groups included gastrointestinal symptoms suggestive of IBS and dyspepsia, sleep abnormalities with delayed onset of sleep, feeling poorly refreshed in the morning, waking up before needed, snoring, severe chronic fatigue and chronic generalized pain, migraines and syncope. Discussion: Patients with IC/BPS had co-morbid central and autonomic nervous system disorders. Our findings mirror those of others in regard to IBS, symptoms suggestive of FM, chronic pain and migraine. High rates of syncope and functional dyspepsia found in the IC/BPS groups merit further study to determine if IC/BPS is part of a diffuse disorder of central, autonomic and sensory processing affecting multiple organs outside the bladder.

  17. Conservative medical and surgical management of interstitial ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, S; Tulandi, T

    1999-08-01

    To review the definition and diagnosis of interstitial and heterotopic interstitial pregnancy and to evaluate the conservative management of these conditions. A MEDLINE computer search was used to identify relevant studies. The mean values for the duration of amenorrhea, serum beta-hCG level, size of the ectopic mass, and success rates of the various treatment modalities were calculated from the raw data in the original publications. A review of 41 patients with interstitial pregnancy who were treated with methotrexate systemically, locally, or in combination revealed an overall success rate of 83%. The mean duration of amenorrhea, mean serum beta-hCG level, and mean size of the ectopic mass were 54 days, 15,127 mIU/mL, and 23 mm, respectively. Among 22 patients with interstitial pregnancy who were treated with conservative laparoscopic techniques, the overall success rate was 100%. In this group, the mean duration of amenorrhea, mean serum beta-hCG level, and mean size of the ectopic mass were 54 days, 7,572 mIU/mL, and 31 mm, respectively. There were nine cases of heterotopic interstitial pregnancy. Seven patients were managed with potassium chloride injected into the ectopic pregnancy, and two patients were treated by laparoscopy. Overall, 67% of the coexisting intrauterine pregnancies resulted in successful deliveries and the remainder ended in spontaneous abortions. Cornual resection or hysterectomy with a laparotomy should no longer be the first line of treatment for a hemodynamically stable patient with an interstitial pregnancy. In selected cases, methotrexate and laparoscopy can be used successfully in treating early interstitial pregnancy.

  18. Up-to-Date Information on Rheumatoid Arthritis-Associated Interstitial Lung Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takafumi Suda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary involvement is common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA and affects all the components of the lung. Interstitial lung disease (ILD is the most predominant pulmonary manifestation and has been identified as the main cause of morbidity and mortality in RA. Clinically significant RA-ILD occurs in approximately 10% of RA patients. Several risk factors, such as old age, male gender, and smoking, have been reported to date. Histologically, the proportion of the usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP pattern is higher in RA-ILD than in ILD associated with other connective tissue diseases, and RA-ILD also shows nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and organizing pneumonia patterns. High-resolution computed tomography scans are highly predictive of the histological UIP pattern with a specificity of 96%-100%. Acute exacerbation, which is the acute deterioration of the respiratory status characterized by newly developed bilateral infiltrates with unknown etiologies, has been reported in RA-ILD. Although acute exacerbation of RA-ILD has high mortality, similar to that of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, its incidence is lower in RA-ILD than in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. A consensus treatment has not yet been established. Current therapeutic regimens typically include corticosteroids with or without cytotoxic agents. Recent large longitudinal studies reported that the prognosis of RA-ILD was poor with a median survival of 2.6-3.0 years. Furthermore, histological and/or radiological patterns, such as UIP or non-UIP, have significant prognostic implications. RA-ILD patients with histological or radiological UIP patterns have poorer prognoses than those with non-UIP patterns. This review assessed the characteristics of RA-ILD by overviewing recent studies in the field and focused on the clinical significance of histological and/or radiological patterns in RA-ILD.

  19. Interstitial pneumonitis after acetylene welding: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brvar, Miran

    2014-01-01

    Acetylene is a colorless gas commonly used for welding. It acts mainly as a simple asphyxiant. In this paper, however, we present a patient who developed a severe interstitial pneumonitis after acetylene exposure during aluminum welding. A 44-year old man was welding with acetylene, argon and aluminum electrode sticks in a non-ventilated aluminum tank for 2 h. Four hours after welding dyspnea appeared and 22 h later he was admitted at the Emergency Department due to severe respiratory insufficiency with pO2 = 6.7 kPa. Chest X-ray showed diffuse interstitial infiltration. Pulmonary function and gas diffusion tests revealed a severe restriction (55% of predictive volume) and impaired diffusion capacity (47% of predicted capacity). Toxic interstitial pneumonitis was diagnosed and high-dose systemic corticosteroid methylprednisolone and inhalatory corticosteroid fluticasone therapy was started. Computed Tomography (CT) of the lungs showed a diffuse patchy ground-glass opacity with no signs of small airway disease associated with interstitial pneumonitis. Corticosteroid therapy was continued for the next 8 weeks gradually reducing the doses. The patient's follow-up did not show any deterioration of respiratory function. In conclusion, acetylene welding might result in severe toxic interstitial pneumonitis that improves after an early systemic and inhalatory corticosteroid therapy.

  20. Interstitial impurity interactions and dislocation microdynamics in Mo crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwok, D.N.

    1975-05-01

    The effects of interstitial impurities on the mechanical properties of molybdenum are explored by comparing results obtained for crystals of various interstitial contents controlled by ultra-high vacuum outgassing. Results show a modulus reduction for as-grown samples and for outgassed specimens at low applied stresses. As a function of plastic microstrain, the values of modulus defect for both as-grown and outgassed specimens saturate at the same value. Interstitial impurities act as pinning agents to dislocation bowing, but when all the easy dislocation loops have broken away from local interstitial pins, the modulus defect reaches a constant saturation value. Etch pitting techniques were used to correlate microstrain observations with dislocation generation and motion. It has been found that edge dislocation generation and movement are active in the microstrain region while screw dislocations are relatively inactive until the macrostrain region is reached. Dislocation velocities range from 10 -6 to 10 -3 cm/s and the average distance between interstitial impurity pinning points is found to be approximately 8 x 10 -4 cm. (U.S.)

  1. Acute Abdomen in Interstitial Ectopic Pregnancy, An Emergency Laparoscopic Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Picardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present case report demonstrates a laparoscopic approach to treat interstitial cornual pregnancy in emergency. Interstitial ectopic pregnancy develops in the uterine portion of the fallopian tube which accounts for 2–4% of all ectopic pregnancies and has the potential to cause life-threatening hemorrhage at rupture. The mortality rate for a woman diagnosed with such a pregnancy is 2–2.5%. Diagnosis of interstitial pregnancy is made by ultrasound. In this case a 32 year-old woman, Gravida 0 Parity 0 Living 0 Ectopic 1, presented to the emergency obstetrical room complaining acute abdominal pain. There was a history of 10 weeks of pregnancy but no pelvic ultrasound scan was performed before the access. A transvaginal ultrasound scan immediately performed demonstrated a gestational sac with viable fetus in the right interstitial region. Moreover there was an ultrasound evidence of hemoperitoneum. She was transferred to the operating room and an emergency laparoscopy surgery was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged two days after the surgery. Interstitial pregnancies present a difficult management problem with no absolute standard of care in literature. Laparoscopic technique is under study with favorable results. For our personal point of view a treatment via laparoscopy could be performed both in elective and in emergency cases.

  2. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, Alberto; Franquet, Tomas; Gimenez, Ana; Pineda, Rosa; Madrid, Marta; Bordes, Ramon

    2006-01-01

    Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) are a heterogeneous group of entities of unknown cause. These diseases include desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), respiratory-bronchiolitis-related interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). High-resolution CT is highly sensitive in the detection of abnormalities in the lung parenchyma and airways. Ground-glass attenuation can occur in DIP and RB-ILD. Whereas DIP is histologically characterized by intra-alveolar pigmented macrophages, RB-ILD shows alveolar macrophages in a patchy peribronchiolar distribution. LCH shows nodular infiltrates on histopathological examination containing varying amounts of characteristic Langerhans' histiocytes. The HRCT findings are characteristically bilateral, symmetrical and diffuse, involving the upper lobe zones with sparing of the costophrenic angles. The most prominent CT features are nodules (sometimes cavitary) measuring 1 to 10 mm in diameter, cysts and areas of ground-glass attenuation. Pathologically, IPF is characterized by its heterogeneity with areas of normal clung, alveolitis and end-stage fibrosis shown in the same biopsy specimen. High-resolution CT findings consist of honeycombing, traction bronchiectasis and intralobular interstitial thickening with subpleural and lower lung predominance. Since coexisting lesions in the same cases have been observed, a better understanding of the different smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) allows a more confident and specific diagnosis. (orig.)

  3. Interstitial pneumonitis after acetylene welding: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miran Brvar

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Acetylene is a colorless gas commonly used for welding. It acts mainly as a simple asphyxiant. In this paper, however, we present a patient who developed a severe interstitial pneumonitis after acetylene exposure during aluminum welding. A 44-year old man was welding with acetylene, argon and aluminum electrode sticks in a non-ventilated aluminum tank for 2 h. Four hours after welding dyspnea appeared and 22 h later he was admitted at the Emergency Department due to severe respiratory insufficiency with pO2 = 6.7 kPa. Chest X-ray showed diffuse interstitial infiltration. Pulmonary function and gas diffusion tests revealed a severe restriction (55% of predictive volume and impaired diffusion capacity (47% of predicted capacity. Toxic interstitial pneumonitis was diagnosed and high-dose systemic corticosteroid methylprednisolone and inhalatory corticosteroid fluticasone therapy was started. Computed Tomography (CT of the lungs showed a diffuse patchy ground-glass opacity with no signs of small airway disease associated with interstitial pneumonitis. Corticosteroid therapy was continued for the next 8 weeks gradually reducing the doses. The patient's follow-up did not show any deterioration of respiratory function. In conclusion, acetylene welding might result in severe toxic interstitial pneumonitis that improves after an early systemic and inhalatory corticosteroid therapy.

  4. Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases: radiologic-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, Alberto [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Thoracic Radiology, Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Franquet, Tomas; Gimenez, Ana; Pineda, Rosa; Madrid, Marta [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Radiology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain); Bordes, Ramon [Universidad Autonoma de Barcelona, Department of Pathology, Hospital de Sant Pau, Barcelona (Spain)

    2006-11-15

    Smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) are a heterogeneous group of entities of unknown cause. These diseases include desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP), respiratory-bronchiolitis-related interstitial lung disease (RB-ILD), pulmonary Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (LCH) and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). High-resolution CT is highly sensitive in the detection of abnormalities in the lung parenchyma and airways. Ground-glass attenuation can occur in DIP and RB-ILD. Whereas DIP is histologically characterized by intra-alveolar pigmented macrophages, RB-ILD shows alveolar macrophages in a patchy peribronchiolar distribution. LCH shows nodular infiltrates on histopathological examination containing varying amounts of characteristic Langerhans' histiocytes. The HRCT findings are characteristically bilateral, symmetrical and diffuse, involving the upper lobe zones with sparing of the costophrenic angles. The most prominent CT features are nodules (sometimes cavitary) measuring 1 to 10 mm in diameter, cysts and areas of ground-glass attenuation. Pathologically, IPF is characterized by its heterogeneity with areas of normal clung, alveolitis and end-stage fibrosis shown in the same biopsy specimen. High-resolution CT findings consist of honeycombing, traction bronchiectasis and intralobular interstitial thickening with subpleural and lower lung predominance. Since coexisting lesions in the same cases have been observed, a better understanding of the different smoking-related interstitial lung diseases (SRILD) allows a more confident and specific diagnosis. (orig.)

  5. Bussines Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmiza Pencea

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Clusters are complex economic structures in which similar companies, their up-stream and down-stream business partners, universities, research institutes, educational units, various service providers, diverse private and public institutions concentrate geografically, striving to get economies of agglomeration and scale, to capitalize on the resulting spill over effects, to cut costs, to better harness resources, to exchange information and experience, to improve quality, innovation, skills and productivity. By somehow unexpectedly combining competition and cooperation, they form a new, sophisticated stage in the evolution of production structures in quest of higher efficiency. This paper forays into the world of clusters and clusterization, which seem to increasingly capture the interest of businesses, scholars and policy makers. It looks at what clusters are, how they arise, what are their specific features, what benefits and challenges they can generate for companies and for the regions in which they locate and if and how they should be fostered by industrial policy interventions. The conclusion is that clusters can be very important development triggers and therefore they should be encouraged and nurtured by adequate policy measures. They should not only be used as a regular policy tool, but be placed at the very center of the development strategies of emerging economies.

  6. Suzaku observations of the galaxy cluster 1RXS J0603.3+4214: Implications of particle acceleration processes in the "Toothbrush" radio relic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itahana, Madoka; Takizawa, Motokazu; Akamatsu, Hiroki; Ohashi, Takaya; Ishisaki, Yoshitaka; Kawahara, Hajime; van Weeren, Reinout J.

    2015-12-01

    We present the results of Suzaku observations of the galaxy cluster 1RXS J0603.3+4214 with the "Toothbrush" radio relic. Although a shock with Mach number M ≃ 4 is expected at the outer edge of the relic from the radio observation, our temperature measurements of the intracluster medium indicate a weaker temperature difference than expected. The Mach number estimated from the temperature difference at the outer edge of the relic is M ≃ 1.5, which is significantly lower than the value estimated from the radio data even considering both statistical and systematic errors. This suggests that a diffusive shock acceleration theory in the linear test particle regime, which is commonly used to link the radio spectral index to the Mach number, is invalid for this relic. We also measured the temperature difference across the western part of the relic, where a shock with M ≃ 1.6 is suggested from the X-ray surface brightness analysis of the XMM-Newton data, and obtained consistent results in an independent way. We searched for the non-thermal inverse Compton component in the relic region and the resultant upper limit on the flux is 2.4 × 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1 in the 0.3-10 keV band. The lower limit of the magnetic field strength becomes 1.6 μG, which means that magnetic energy density could be more than a few percent of the thermal energy.

  7. Ratios of colony mass to thermal conductance of tree and man-made nest enclosures of Apis mellifera: implications for survival, clustering, humidity regulation and Varroa destructor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Derek

    2016-05-01

    In the absence of human intervention, the honeybee ( Apis mellifera L.) usually constructs its nest in a tree within a tall, narrow, thick-walled cavity high above the ground (the enclosure); however, most research and apiculture is conducted in the thin-walled, squat wooden enclosures we know as hives. This experimental research, using various hives and thermal models of trees, has found that the heat transfer rate is approximately four to seven times greater in the hives in common use, compared to a typical tree enclosure in winter configuration. This gives a ratio of colony mass to lumped enclosure thermal conductance (MCR) of less than 0.8 kgW-1 K for wooden hives and greater than 5 kgW-1 K for tree enclosures. This result for tree enclosures implies higher levels of humidity in the nest, increased survival of smaller colonies and lower Varroa destructor breeding success. Many honeybee behaviours previously thought to be intrinsic may only be a coping mechanism for human intervention; for example, at an MCR of above 2 kgW-1 K, clustering in a tree enclosure may be an optional, rare, heat conservation behaviour for established colonies, rather than the compulsory, frequent, life-saving behaviour that is in the hives in common use. The implied improved survival in hives with thermal properties of tree nests may help to solve some of the problems honeybees are currently facing in apiculture.

  8. Formation of a unique cluster of G-quadruplex structures in the HIV-1 Nef coding region: implications for antiviral activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalba Perrone

    Full Text Available G-quadruplexes are tetraplex structures of nucleic acids that can form in G-rich sequences. Their presence and functional role have been established in telomeres, oncogene promoters and coding regions of the human chromosome. In particular, they have been proposed to be directly involved in gene regulation at the level of transcription. Because the HIV-1 Nef protein is a fundamental factor for efficient viral replication, infectivity and pathogenesis in vitro and in vivo, we investigated G-quadruplex formation in the HIV-1 nef gene to assess the potential for viral inhibition through G-quadruplex stabilization. A comprehensive computational analysis of the nef coding region of available strains showed the presence of three conserved sequences that were uniquely clustered. Biophysical testing proved that G-quadruplex conformations were efficiently stabilized or induced by G-quadruplex ligands in all three sequences. Upon incubation with a G-quadruplex ligand, Nef expression was reduced in a reporter gene assay and Nef-dependent enhancement of HIV-1 infectivity was significantly repressed in an antiviral assay. These data constitute the first evidence of the possibility to regulate HIV-1 gene expression and infectivity through G-quadruplex targeting and therefore open a new avenue for viral treatment.

  9. An integrated approach in the diagnosis of smoking-related interstitial lung diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Harari

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke consists of several chemical compounds with a variety of effects in many organs. In the lung, apart being the main cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, carcinoma and idiopathic spontaneous pneumothorax, tobacco smoke is associated with interstitial lung diseases (ILDs, including respiratory bronchiolitis-associated ILD (RB-ILD, desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP, pulmonary Langerhans’ cell histiocytosis (PLCH, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, ILD in rheumatoid arthritis and pulmonary haemorrhage in Goodpasture syndrome. This review will focus on the diseases with a stronger epidemiological association with tobacco smoke, namely RB-ILD, DIP and PLCH. Although the exact pathogenetic evidence linking smoking with these disorders is still not completely understood, there is growing evidence that tobacco smoke targets the terminal or respiratory bronchioles in these diseases, and the differences are reflective of the degree of severity of small airway and parenchymal reaction to the smoke exposure. Despite considerable clinical, radiological and histological overlap between RB-ILD, DIP and PLCH, it is useful to retain the separate classifications for prognostic and therapeutic implications.

  10. Comparison of an interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome clinical cohort with symptomatic community women from the RAND Interstitial Cystitis Epidemiology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkle, Katy S; Berry, Sandra H; Elliott, Marc N; Hilton, Lara; Suttorp, Marika J; Clauw, Daniel J; Clemens, J Quentin

    2012-02-01

    The RAND Interstitial Cystitis Epidemiology survey estimated that 2.7% to 6.5% of United States women have urinary symptoms consistent with a diagnosis of interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. We describe the demographic and clinical characteristics of the symptomatic community based RAND Interstitial Cystitis Epidemiology cohort, and compare them with those of a clinically based interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome cohort. Subjects included 3,397 community women who met the criteria for the RAND Interstitial Cystitis Epidemiology high sensitivity case definition, and 277 women with an interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome diagnosis recruited from specialist practices across the United States (clinical cohort). Questions focused on demographic information, symptom severity, quality of life indicators, concomitant diagnoses and treatment. Average symptom duration for both groups was approximately 14 years. Women in the clinical cohort reported worse baseline pain and maximum pain, although the absolute differences were small. Mean Interstitial Cystitis Symptom Index scores were approximately 11 for both groups, but mean Interstitial Cystitis Problem Index scores were 9.9 and 13.2 for the clinical cohort and the RAND Interstitial Cystitis Epidemiology cohort, respectively (p Interstitial Cystitis Epidemiology subjects were more likely to be uninsured. The RAND Interstitial Cystitis Epidemiology community cohort was remarkably similar to an interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome clinical cohort with respect to demographics, symptoms and quality of life measures. In contrast to other chronic pain conditions for which clinical cohorts typically report worse symptoms and functional status than population based samples, our data suggest that many measures of symptom severity and functional impact are similar, and sometimes worse, in the RAND Interstitial Cystitis Epidemiology cohort. These findings suggest that interstitial cystitis/bladder pain

  11. Smoking-related interstitial fibrosis combined with pulmonary emphysema: computed tomography-pathologic correlative study using lobectomy specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otani H

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Hideji Otani,1 Tomonori Tanaka,2 Kiyoshi Murata,1 Junya Fukuoka,2 Norihisa Nitta,1 Yukihiro Nagatani,1 Akinaga Sonoda,1 Masashi Takahashi3 1Department of Radiology, Shiga University of Medical Science, Setatsukinowa-cho, Otsu, Shiga, 2Department of Pathology, Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Sakamoto, Nagasaki, 3Department of Radiology, Yujin-Yamazaki Hospital, Takegahana-cho, Hikone, Shiga, Japan Purpose: To evaluate the incidence and pathologic correlation of thin-section computed tomography (TSCT findings in smoking-related interstitial fibrosis (SRIF with pulmonary emphysema. Patients and methods: Our study included 172 consecutive patients who underwent TSCT and subsequent lobectomy. TSCT findings including clustered cysts with visible walls (CCVW and ground-glass attenuation with/without reticulation (GGAR were evaluated and compared in nonsmokers and smokers and among lung locations. TSCT findings, especially CCVW, were also compared with histological findings using lobectomy specimens. Results: The incidence of CCVW and GGAR was significantly higher in smokers than in nonsmokers (34.1% and 40.7%, respectively, vs 2.0% and 12.2%. CCVW and GGAR were frequently found in the lower and peripheral zones. Histologically, CCVW corresponded more often with SRIF with emphysema than usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP, 63.3% vs 30%. CCVW of irregular size and shape were seen in 19 of 20 SRIF with emphysema and in seven of nine UIP-manifested areas with similar round cysts. A less-involved subpleural parenchyma was observed more frequently in SRIF with emphysema. Conclusion: SRIF with emphysema is a more frequent pathological finding than UIP in patients with CCVW on TSCT. The irregular size and shape of CCVW and a less-involved subpleural parenchyma may be a clue suggesting the presence of SRIF with emphysema. Keywords: pulmonary emphysema, smoking, usual interstitial pneumonia, honeycombing, smoking-related interstitial

  12. Concurrent interstitial ectopic pregnancy and appendicitis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, R Lee; Magann, Everett F; O'Boyle, John D

    2008-05-01

    Concurrent ectopic pregnancy and acute appendicitis is rarely encountered. Since 1960, only 22 cases have been reported. No case of concurrent interstitial ectopic pregnancy and appendicitis has ever been reported. A 24-year-old, African American woman, gravida 4, para 3, had a right interstitial ectopic pregnancy. She was managed as an inpatient with parenteral methotrexate and her beta-human chorionic gonadotropin level decreased appropriately. She was discharged 3 days after treatment but subsequently returned with right lower quadrant pain, nausea, vomiting and fever. The patient underwent laparoscopy with removal of a suppurative appendix. A stable interstitial ectopic pregnancy was visualized and left in situ. The discipline to consider concomitant abdominal pathology is paramount. The perceived rarity of an ectopic pregnancy and appendicitis should not obscure a thorough clinical evaluation.

  13. Eccentrically located intrauterine pregnancy misdiagnosed as interstitial ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Adam; Ko, Patrick; Dewar, Christopher; Raio, Christopher

    2010-12-01

    This is a case report of an eccentrically located intrauterine pregnancy initially diagnosed as an interstitial ectopic pregnancy. Although interstitial ectopic pregnancy represents a well-known pitfall in first-trimester sonography, the common error is to misidentify the ectopic pregnancy as intrauterine, not the reverse. Such an error is potentially catastrophic because it may lead to the inadvertent termination of a viable pregnancy. Although the role of ultrasonography for evaluation of ectopic pregnancy is well established, its diagnostic accuracy for interstitial ectopic pregnancy remains uncertain. Because of this, sonographic findings should be considered suggestive, but not diagnostic, in this setting. Copyright © 2010 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The behaviour of stacking fault energy upon interstitial alloying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jee-Yong; Koo, Yang Mo; Lu, Song; Vitos, Levente; Kwon, Se Kyun

    2017-09-11

    Stacking fault energy is one of key parameters for understanding the mechanical properties of face-centered cubic materials. It is well known that the plastic deformation mechanism is closely related to the size of stacking fault energy. Although alloying is a conventional method to modify the physical parameter, the underlying microscopic mechanisms are not yet clearly established. Here, we propose a simple model for determining the effect of interstitial alloying on the stacking fault energy. We derive a volumetric behaviour of stacking fault energy from the harmonic approximation to the energy-lattice curve and relate it to the contents of interstitials. The stacking fault energy is found to change linearly with the interstitial content in the usual low concentration domain. This is in good agreement with previously reported experimental and theoretical data.

  15. Crohn's disease: ultrastructure of interstitial cells in colonic myenteric plexus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri Johs.; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie; Horn, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    -MP and other interstitial cells in the myenteric region of the colon are lacking for CD. In the present study, we characterized the ultrastructure of interstitial cells, nerves, and glial cells in the myenteric region in Crohn's colitis (CC). In comparison with controls, varicosities of the myenteric bundles...... were dilated and appeared to be empty. Lipid droplets and lipofuscin-bodies were prominent in glial cells and neurons. ICC-MP were scanty but, as in controls, had caveolae, prominent intermediate filaments, cytoplasmic dense bodies, and membrane-associated dense bands with a patchy basal lamina. ICC......The role of the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in chronic inflammatory bowel disease, i.e., ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), remains unclear. Ultrastructural alterations in ICC in the colonic myenteric plexus (ICC-MP) have been reported previously in UC, but descriptions of ICC...

  16. Role of inflammation in bladder function and interstitial cystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, Sonal; Srivastava, Abhishek; Lee, Richard; Tewari, Ashutosh K.; Te, Alexis E.

    2011-01-01

    Cystitis, or inflammation of the bladder, has a direct effect on bladder function. Interstitial cystitis is a syndrome characterized by urinary bladder pain and irritative symptoms of more than 6 months duration. It commonly occurs in young to middle-aged women with no known cause and in fact represents a diagnosis of exclusion. Many factors have been suggested, including chronic or subclinical infection, autoimmunity and genetic susceptibility, which could be responsible for initiating the inflammatory response. However, a central role of inflammation has been confirmed in the pathogenesis of interstitial cystitis. Patients with interstitial cystitis are usually managed with multimodal therapy to break the vicious cycle of chronic inflammation at every step. Patients who develop irreversible pathologies such as fibrosis are managed surgically, which is usually reserved for refractory cases. PMID:21789096

  17. Acute ciprofloxacin-induced crystal nephropathy with granulomatous interstitial nephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Goli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Crystal-induced acute kidney injury (AKI is caused by the intratubular precipitation of crystals, which results in obstruction and kidney injury. Ciprofloxacin, a commonly used antibiotic, causes AKI secondary to immune-mediated interstitial injury. Rare mechanisms of ciprofloxacin-induced renal injury include crystalluria, rhabdomyolysis, and granulomatous interstitial nephritis. Clinical and experimental studies have suggested that crystalluria and crystal nephropathy due to ciprofloxacin occur in alkaline urine. Preexisting kidney function impairment, high dose of the medication, and advanced age predispose to this complication. We report a case of ciprofloxacin-induced crystal nephropathy and granulomatous interstitial nephritis in a young patient with no other predisposing factors. The patient responded to conservative treatment without the need for glucocorticoids.

  18. Interstitial integrals in the multiple-scattering model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, J.R.; Dill, D.

    1982-01-01

    We present an efficient method for the evaluation of integrals involving multiple-scattering wave functions over the interstitial region. Transformation of the multicenter interstitial wave functions to a single center representation followed by a geometric projection reduces the integrals to products of analytic angular integrals and numerical radial integrals. The projection function, which has the value 1 in the interstitial region and 0 elsewhere, has a closed-form partial-wave expansion. The method is tested by comparing its results with exact normalization and dipole integrals; the differences are 2% at worst and typically less than 1%. By providing an efficient means of calculating Coulomb integrals, the method allows treatment of electron correlations using a multiple scattering basis set

  19. Influence of aqueous chemistry on the chemical composition of fog water and interstitial aerosol in Fresno

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwajin; Ge, Xinlei; Collier, Sonya; Xu, Jianzhong; Sun, Yele; Wang, Youliang; Herckes, Pierre; Zhang, Qi

    2015-04-01

    A measurement study was conducted in the Central Valley (Fresno) of California in January 2010, during which radiation fog events were frequently observed. Fog plays important roles in atmospheric chemistry by scavenging aerosol particles and trace gases and serving as a medium for various aqueous-phase reactions. Understanding the effects of fog on the microphysical and chemical processing of aerosol particles requires detailed information on their chemical composition. In this study, we characterized the chemical composition of fog water and interstitial aerosol particles to study the effects of fog processing on aerosol properties. Fog water samples were collected during the 2010 Fresno campaigns with a Caltech Active Strand Cloud water Collector (CASCC) while interstitial submicron aerosols were characterized in real time with an Aerodyne High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and a scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS). The fog water samples were later analyzed using the HR-ToF-AMS, ion chromatography, and a total carbon analyzer. The chemical composition and characteristics of interstitial particles during the fog events were compared to those of dissolved inorganic and organic matter in fog waters. Compared to interstitial aerosols, fog water is composed of a higher fraction of ammonium nitrate and oxygenated organics, due to aqueous formation of secondary aerosol species as well as enhanced gas-to-particle partitioning of water soluble species under water rich conditions. Sulfate is formed most efficiently in fog water although its contribution to total dissolved mass is relatively low. The HR-ToF-AMS mass spectra of organic matter in fog water (FOM) are very similar to that of oxygenated organic aerosols (OOA) derived from positive matrix factorization (PMF) of the HR-ToF-AMS spectra of ambient aerosol (r2 = 0.96), but FOM appears to contain a large fraction of acidic functional groups than OOA. FOM is also enriched of

  20. Gynecological disorders in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervigni, Mauro; Natale, Franca

    2014-04-01

    Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis, a chronic inflammatory condition of the bladder, is the source of pain in over 30% of female patients with chronic pelvic pain. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the most frequent associations between bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis and gynecological disorders. A literature review of the previous 10 years was carried out to evaluate the incidence of gynecological diseases in patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis. Hypertonic pelvic floor dysfunction with associated voiding dysfunction can be present in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis patients. It has been estimated that the prevalence ranges from 50% to 87%. Endometriosis affects 1-7% of the general population and up to 70% of women with endometriosis have some type of pain symptoms, a recent systematic review estimated the prevalence of bladder pain syndrome to be 61%, of endometriosis to be 70%, and coexisting bladder pain syndrome and endometriosis to be 48%. Vulvodynia is represented by pain, or an unpleasant altered sensation, in the vulva. Women with vestibulodynia are likely to have other additional pain conditions, such as fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome or chronic fatigue syndrome. Recent data reported that vestibulodynia affects 25% of women with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is a complex pathology often associated with vulvodynia, endometriosis and pelvic floor dysfunctions. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to obtain an accurate evaluation ruling out confusable disease, such as pudendal neuropathy. The optimal approach is a combined treatment oriented not only to treat the bladder, but also the other components responsible for the pain disorder. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  1. Lung lobar volume in patients with chronic interstitial pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Hisao; Koba, Hiroyuki; Saitoh, Tsukasa; Abe, Shosaku.

    1997-01-01

    We measured lung lobar volume by using helical computed tomography (HCT) in 23 patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP), 7 patients with chronic interstitial pneumonia associated with collagen vascular disease (CVD-IP), and 5 healthy volunteers HCT scanning was done at the maximal inspiratory level and the resting end-expiratory level. To measure lung lobar volume, we traced the lobar margin on HCT images with a digitizer and calculated the lobar volume with a personal computer. The lower lobar volume and several factors influencing it in chronic interstitial pneumonia were studied. At the maximal inspiratory level, the lower lobar volume as a percent of the whole lung volume was 46.8±4.13% (mean ± SD) in the volunteers, 39.5±6.19% in the patients with IIP, and 27.7±7. 86% in the patients with CVD-IP. The lower lobar volumes in the patients were significantly lower than in the volunteers. Patients with IIP in whom autoantibody tests were positive had lower lobar volumes that were very low and were similar to those of patients with CVD-IP. These data suggest that collagen vascular disease may develop in patients with interstitial pneumonia. The patients with IIP who had emphysematous changes on the CT scans had smaller decreases in total lung capacity and lower ratios of forced expiratory volume in one second to forced vital capacity than did those who had no emphysematous changes, those two groups did not differ in the ratio of lower lobar volume to whole lung volume. This suggests that emphysematous change is not factor influencing lower lobar volume in patients with chronic interstitial pneumonia. We conclude that chronic interstitial pneumonia together with very low values for lower lobar volume may be a pulmonary manifestation of collagen vascular disease. (author)

  2. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema in neonates -reporting of 11 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, Beatriz Regina; Santos Mezzacappa, Maria Aparecida dos; Marba, Sergio Tadeu Martins

    1997-01-01

    The present paper relates the radiologic and clinical aspects of pulmonary interstitial emphysema in 11 infants submitted to assisted ventilation. The radiologic diagnosis was made using the classification of Boothroyd and Barson (levels I to III). A prevalence of pulmonary interstitial emphysema of levels II and III was observed in masculine premature infants with hyaline membrane disease and intrauterine pneumonia. Mortality was high and occurred in the infants with advanced levels of the disease. The authors emphasize the importance of early radiologic diagnosis of this condition during the treatment of premature infants submitted to assisted ventilation. (author)

  3. Ultrasound diagnosis and laparoscopic excision of an interstitial ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, C; Hurley, V

    1992-11-01

    Interstitial tubal pregnancy occurs in about 5% of ectopic tubal pregnancies and is associated with an increased risk of severe haemorrhage (1). Diagnosis prior to rupture of the pregnancy into the peritoneal cavity is very important to avoid haemorrhage. Its presence has been considered to be a contraindication to laparoscopic surgery (2), although most ectopic pregnancies can be managed laparoscopically by an experienced endoscopist. We report the diagnosis of an interstitial pregnancy by ultrasound before rupture and treatment by laparoscopic excision of the pregnancy.

  4. Unilateral twin interstitial ectopic pregnancy. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starks, G C

    1980-08-01

    An unusual case of twin unilateral interstitial pregnancy with premature rupture of membranes and leiomyomata uteri is described. A review of the literature reveals only two previous cases of this type. On admission, the patient was diagnosed as having an intrauterine pregnancy of 27 weeks' gestation, with documented premature rupture of the membranes having occurred. An ultrasound was performed revealing a fibroid uterus, an anterior placenta and an gestation. Septicemia ensued, and antibiotics plus pitocin was begun; however, no uterine response occurred. A culdocentesis revealed free intraabdominal blood. Laparotomy followed, revealing a ruptured twin interstitial pregnancy with placenta accreta and leiomyomata of the uterus.

  5. Interstitial cells in the musculature of the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri J; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie

    2003-01-01

    "non-Cajal" (including the FLC and possibly also other cell types) cell types in the interstitium of the smooth musculature of the gastrointestinal tract, is proposed. Furthermore, evidence is accumulating to suggest that, as postulated by Santiago Ramon y Cajal, the concept of interstitial cells......Expression of the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT on cells referred to as interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) has been instrumental during the past decade in the tremendous interest in cells in the interstitium of the smooth muscle layers of the digestive tract. ICC generate the pacemaker component...

  6. [The interstitial pregnancy. Report of three observations (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubuisson, J B; Henrion, R

    1979-01-01

    The recent occurrence at the Port-Royal obstetrics and gynaecology center of three cases of interstitial pregnancy out of a total number of 208 ectopic pregnancies give us the opportunity to discuss the diagnosis and present management of the rarest form of tubal pregnancies. The diagnosis is always difficult. Nowadays, thanks to the use of echography and especially of laparoscopy, interstitial pregnancies can be detected earlier. Thus the precocity of the diagnosis should permit a conservative surgical treatment. Hysterectomy should not be considered but in very special cases.

  7. Global concepts of bladder pain syndrome (interstitial cystitis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordling, Jørgen; Fall, Magnus; Hanno, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Bladder pain syndrome (BPS), commonly referred to as "interstitial cystitis", is no longer considered a rare disorder. It may affect up to 2.7% of the adult female population (Ueda et al. in Int J Urol 10:1-70, 2003) with up to 20% of cases occurring in men.......Bladder pain syndrome (BPS), commonly referred to as "interstitial cystitis", is no longer considered a rare disorder. It may affect up to 2.7% of the adult female population (Ueda et al. in Int J Urol 10:1-70, 2003) with up to 20% of cases occurring in men....

  8. Urinary Microbiome and Cytokine Levels in Women With Interstitial Cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernethy, Melinda G; Rosenfeld, Amy; White, James R; Mueller, Margaret G; Lewicky-Gaupp, Christina; Kenton, Kimberly

    2017-03-01

    To investigate differences in the urinary microbiome and cytokine levels between women with and without interstitial cystitis and to correlate differences with scores on standardized symptom severity scales and depression and anxiety screening tools. Our cross-sectional study compared women presenting to a pelvic floor clinic and diagnosed with interstitial cystitis over a 6-month period with age-matched women in a control group from the same institution. Participants provided a catheterized urine sample and completed symptom severity, quality-of-life, depression, and anxiety screening questionnaires. Urinary microbiomes generated through bacterial ribosomal RNA sequencing and cytokine levels were analyzed using a standard immunoassay. Nonparametric analyses were used for all comparisons. Participants with interstitial cystitis reported more disability, bothersome urinary symptoms, genitourinary pain, and sexual dysfunction and scored higher on depression and anxiety screens compared with women in the control group. The urine of participants with interstitial cystitis contained fewer distinct operational taxonomic units (2 [median range 2-7, interquartile range 1] compared with 3.5 [median, range 2-22, interquartile range 5.25], P=.015) and was less likely to contain Lactobacillus acidophilus (1/14 [7%] compared with 7/18 [39%], P=.05) compared with women in the control group. L acidophilus was associated with less severe scores on the Interstitial Cystitis Symptoms Index (1 [median, range 0-17, interquartile range 5] compared with 10 [median, range 0-14, interquartile range 11], P=.005) and the Genitourinary Pain Index (0 [median, range 0-42, interquartile range 22] compared with 22.5 [median, range 0-40, interquartile range 28], P=.03). Participants with interstitial cystitis demonstrated higher levels of macrophage-derived chemokine (13.32 [median, range 8.93-17.05, interquartile range 15.86] compared with 0 [median, range 8.93-22.67, interquartile range 10

  9. Painful bladder syndrome/interstitial cystitis: Aetiology, evaluation and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Rourke

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial cystitis or bladder pain syndrome (BPS is often a chronic debilitating condition characterised by predominantly storage symptoms and associated frequently with pelvic pain that varies with bladder filling. The aetiology is uncertain as the condition occurs in the absence of a urinary tract infection or other obvious pathology. Resulting discomfort may vary and ranges from abdominal tenderness to intense bladder spasms. Diagnosis and management of this syndrome may be difficult and is often made by its typical cystoscopic features. This review discusses the diagnosis and management of interstitial cystitis according to the current available best evidence and advises a multimodal approach in its management.

  10. The SMART CLUSTER METHOD - adaptive earthquake cluster analysis and declustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Andreas; Daniell, James; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2016-04-01

    the dataset receives a unique cluster-ID which links it to its respective cluster. Utilising the knowledge of cluster classification, the method has been adjusted to provide an earthquake declustering algorithm, which is compared to common existing methods used for declustering in PSHA in detail. The SCM provides a significantly more reliable declustering method in comparison to existing approaches. Instead of simply removing events from the dataset, it first identifies clusters and analyses them to avoid artefacts and non-physical implications. Furthermore, the SCM is the foundation of a more detailed analysis of global earthquake cluster activity. Using the knowledge of identified clusters, a detailed analysis of cluster properties can be undertaken.

  11. Fuzzy Clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berks, G.; Keyserlingk, Diedrich Graf von; Jantzen, Jan

    2000-01-01

    and clustering are the basic concerns in medicine. Classification depends on definitions of the classes and their required degree of participant of the elements in the cases' symptoms. In medicine imprecise conditions are the rule and therefore fuzzy methods are much more suitable than crisp ones. Fuzzy c...

  12. Cluster Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gulati, Mukesh; Lund-Thomsen, Peter; Suresh, Sangeetha

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, we investigate corporate social responsibility (CSR) in industrial clusters in the Indian context. We use the definition of CSR as given in the Indian Ministry of Corporate Affairs’ National Voluntary Guidelines (NVGs) for Business Responsibility: ‘the commitment of an enterprise...

  13. Interstitial and adsorbed phosphates in shelf sediments off Visakhapatnam, east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.; Raju, G.R.K.

    Spatial distribution of interstitial and adsorbed phosphates in the shelf sediments shows an increasing trend with distance from coastal to inshore region. Maximum concentration ranges of interstitial and adsorbed phosphates are 16-19 and 40-50 mu g...

  14. Interstitial pneumonia and pulmonary hypertension associated with suspected ehrlichiosis in a dog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toom, Marjolein Lisette den; Dobak, Tetyda Paulina; Broens, Els Marion; Valtolina, Chiara

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In dogs with canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME), respiratory signs are uncommon and clinical and radiographic signs of interstitial pneumonia are poorly described. However, in human monocytic ehrlichiosis, respiratory signs are common and signs of interstitial pneumonia are well known.

  15. Lessons learnt from the Bristol Girls Dance Project cluster RCT: implications for designing and implementing after-school physical activity interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mark J; May, Thomas; Kesten, Joanna M; Banfield, Kate; Bird, Emma L; Powell, Jane E; Sebire, Simon J; Jago, Russell

    2016-01-08

    To consider implementation issues associated with the delivery of Bristol Girls Dance Project (BGDP) and to identify improvements that may aid the design of after-school physical activity (PA) interventions. Two-armed cluster randomised control trial. The BGDP was a 20-week school-based intervention, consisting of two 75 min after-school dance sessions per week, which aimed to support Year 7 girls to be more physically active. 18 secondary schools (nine intervention, nine control) in the Greater Bristol area (as an indication of deprivation, children eligible for the pupil premium in participant schools ranged from 6.9 to 53.3%). 571 Year 7 girls. This article reports on qualitative data collected from 59 girls in the intervention arm of the trial, 10 dance instructors and 9 school contacts involved in the delivering of the BGDP. Data were obtained from nine focus groups with girls (one per intervention school), and interviews with dance instructors and school contacts. Focus groups sought views of girls' motivation to participate, teaching styles and experiences of the intervention. Interviews explored views on implementation and dissemination. Framework analysis was used to analyse data. Qualitative data elicited three themes associated with the delivery of BGDP that affected implementation: project design, session content and project organisation. 'Project design' found issues associated with recruitment, timetabling and session quantity to influence the effectiveness of BGDP. 'Session content' found that dance instructors delivered a range of content and that girls enjoyed a variety of dance. Themes within 'project organisation' suggested an 'open enrolment' policy and greater parental involvement may facilitate better attendance. After-school PA interventions have potential for increasing PA levels among adolescent girls. There is a need to consider the context in which interventions are delivered and implement them in ways that are appropriate to the needs of

  16. From bladder to systemic syndrome: concept and treatment evolution of interstitial cystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis, Sara; de Oliveira, Joana Tavares; Pinto, Rui; Cruz, Francisco; Buffington, CA Tony; Dinis, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis, presently known as bladder pain syndrome, has been recognized for over a century but is still far from being understood. Its etiology is unknown and the syndrome probably harbors different diseases. Autoimmune dysfunction, urothelial leakage, infection, central and peripheral nervous system dysfunction, genetic disease, childhood trauma/abuse, and subsequent stress response system dysregulation might be implicated. Management is slowly evolving from a solo act by the end-organ specialist to a team approach based on new typing and phenotyping of the disease. However, oral and invasive treatments are still largely aimed at the bladder and are based on currently proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms. Future research will better define the disease, permitting individualization of treatment. PMID:26229509

  17. Influence of interstitial Mn on magnetism in room-temperature ferromagnet Mn(1+delta)Sb

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, A. E.; Berlijn, T.; Hahn, S. E.; May, A. F.; Williams, T. J.; Poudel, L.; Calder, S.; Fishman, R. S.; Stone, M. B.; Aczel, A. A.; Cao, H. B.; Lumsden, M. D.; Christianson, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    We report elastic and inelastic neutron scattering measurements of the high-TC ferromagnet Mn(1+delta)Sb. Measurements were performed on a large, TC=434 K, single crystal with interstitial Mn content of delta~0.13. The neutron diffraction results reveal that the interstitial Mn has a magnetic moment, and that it is aligned antiparallel to the main Mn moment. We perform density functional theory calculations including the interstitial Mn, and find the interstitial to be magnetic in agreement w...

  18. Application of the cluster variation method to ordering in an interstitital solid solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pekelharing, Marjon I.; Böttger, Amarante; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    1999-01-01

    The tetrahedron approximation of the cluster variation method (CVM) was applied to describe the ordering on the fcc interstitial sublattice of gamma-Fe[N] and gamma'-Fe4N1-x. A Lennard-Jones potential was used to describe the dominantly strain-induced interactions, caused by misfitting of the N a...

  19. A computational study of doped olivine structured Cd2GeO4: local defect trapping of interstitial oxide ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSloy, Adam J; Kelly, Paul F; Slater, Peter R; Panchmatia, Pooja M

    2016-09-21

    Computational modelling techniques have been employed to investigate defects and ionic conductivity in Cd 2 GeO 4 . We show due to highly unfavourable intrinsic defect formation energies the ionic conducting ability of pristine Cd 2 GeO 4 is extremely limited. The modelling results suggest trivalent doping on the Cd site as a viable means of promoting the formation of the oxygen interstitial defects. However, the defect cluster calculations for the first time explicitly suggest a strong association of the oxide defects to the dopant cations and tetrahedral units. Defect clustering is a complicated phenomenon and therefore not trivial to assess. In this study the trapping energies are explicitly quantified. The trends are further confirmed by molecular dynamic simulations. Despite this, the calculated diffusion coefficients do suggest an enhanced oxide ion mobility in the doped system compared to the pristine Cd 2 GeO 4 .

  20. FOXP3 polymorphisms in interstitial lung disease among Chinese Han population: A genetic association study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianyu; Zhang, Tianze; Zhang, Lili; Han, Kaiyu; Zhang, Linyou

    2018-03-01

    Both genetic and environmental factors are implicated in the pathogenesis of interstitial lung disease (ILD). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FOXP3 genes were implicated in the causation of some autoimmune diseases; however, association of these genes and ILD has not been reported. To investigate whether FOXP3 polymorphisms are associated with ILD in a representative Chinese population. One hundred and fifty-seven ILD patients and 170 healthy controls were recruited; SNPs were genotyped by the Sequenom MassARRAY platform and SHEsis was used to estimate the haplotype frequencies of SNPs. The CC and TC genotypes of FOXP3 rs2280883 were associated with a significantly higher risk of connective tissue disease-associated ILD (CTP-ILD) than the TT genotype (P = .006). Patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) showed a significantly higher frequency of rs3761547 (GG genotype) and rs3761549 (CC genotype) polymorphisms of FOXP3 as compared to that in controls (P = .038 and P = .026, respectively). The rs2294021 (TC genotype) was less frequently observed among IIP patients as compared to that in controls (P = 0.029). In addition, the FOXP3 CAATC haplotype was associated with a greater risk for CTD-ILD (P =.048) as compared to controls, and the FOXP3 TCCCC haplotype showed an increased IIP risk (P = .001); however, patients with the FOXP3 TACTT haplotype showed a significant protective effect against IIP (P = .036). FOXP3 polymorphisms may be important markers to determine susceptibility to IIP or CTP-ILD in Chinese population. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. VUV Pump and Probe of Phase Separation and Oxygen Interstitials in La2NiO4+y Using Spectromicroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Bianconi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available While it is known that strongly correlated transition metal oxides described by a multi-band Hubbard model show microscopic multiscale phase separation, little is known about the possibility to manipulate them with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV, 27 eV lighting. We have investigated the photo-induced effects of VUV light illumination of a super-oxygenated La2NiO4+y single crystal by means of scanning photoelectron microscopy. VUV light exposure induces the increase of the density of states (DOS in the binding energy range around Eb = 1.4 eV below EF. The photo-induced states in this energy region have been predicted due to clustering of oxygen interstitials by band structure calculations for large supercell of La2CuO4.125. We finally show that it is possible to generate and manipulate oxygen rich domains by VUV illumination as it was reported for X-ray illumination of La2CuO4+y. This phenomenology is assigned to oxygen-interstitials ordering and clustering by photo-illumination forming segregated domains in the La2NiO4+y surface.

  2. Strain field due to self-interstitial impurity in Ni

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    metals due to substitutional impurities using Kanzaki lattice static method based on discrete lattice theory. This method ... lattice under applied external forces is expanded in powers series of the displacements which in the .... Since the interstitial impurity interacts with short-range interactions, the external force is expected to ...

  3. Interstitial meiofauna of Namib sandy beaches | McGwynne | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interstitial meiofauna were sampled across the intertidal zone and into the sublittoral region on two exposed sandy beaches on the Namibian coast, Langstrand and Cape Cross. A transverse barrip beach configuration at Langstrand allowed a comparison between the distribution and abundance patterns at the horn and ...

  4. Nonequilibrium effects in fixed-bed interstitial fluid dispersion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kronberg, Alexandre E.; Westerterp, K.R.

    1999-01-01

    Continuum models for the role of the interstitial fluid with respect to mass and heat dispersion in a fixed bed are discussed. It is argued that the departures from local equilibrium and not the concentration and temperature gradients as such should be considered as the driving forces for mass and

  5. Atomic displacements due to interstitial hydrogen in Cu and Pd

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    c Indian Academy of Sciences. Vol. 69, No. 2. — journal of. August 2007 physics pp. 255–265. Atomic displacements due to interstitial hydrogen in Cu and Pd ..... Phys. 64, 1015 (1992). [7] Martin Fuchs and Matthias Scheffer, Comput. Phys. Commun. 119, 67 (1999). [8] Hitesh Sharma and S Prakash, Pramana – J. Phys.

  6. "C" arm guidance in interstitial brachytherapy of pelvic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P P; Bartone, F F; Jacobs, A J; Taylor, J E; Jones, E O

    1983-11-01

    Since 1979 more than 50 transperineal interstitial implants, both removable and permanent, have been performed at the University of Nebraska Medical Center. The "C" arm of the mobile image-intensifier television unit Siemens Mobile 2 was used to guide the placement of the needles and was found to be useful in achieving accurate implantation.

  7. [Lung transplantation in pulmonary fibrosis and other interstitial lung diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berastegui, Cristina; Monforte, Victor; Bravo, Carlos; Sole, Joan; Gavalda, Joan; Tenório, Luis; Villar, Ana; Rochera, M Isabel; Canela, Mercè; Morell, Ferran; Roman, Antonio

    2014-09-15

    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is the second indication for lung transplantation (LT) after emphysema. The aim of this study is to review the results of LT for ILD in Hospital Vall d'Hebron (Barcelona, Spain). We retrospectively studied 150 patients, 87 (58%) men, mean age 48 (r: 20-67) years between August 1990 and January 2010. One hundred and four (69%) were single lung transplants (SLT) and 46 (31%) bilateral-lung transplants (BLT). The postoperative diagnoses were: 94 (63%) usual interstitial pneumonia, 23 (15%) nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, 11 (7%) unclassifiable interstitial pneumonia and 15% miscellaneous. We describe the functional results, complications and survival. The actuarial survival was 87, 70 and 53% at one, 3 and 5 years respectively. The most frequent causes of death included early graft dysfunction and development of chronic rejection in the form of bronchiolitis obliterans (BOS). The mean postoperative increase in forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) was similar in SLT and BLT. The best FEV1 was reached after 10 (r: 1-36) months. Sixteen percent of patients returned to work. At some point during the evolution, proven acute rejection was diagnosed histologically in 53 (35%) patients. The prevalence of BOS among survivors was 20% per year, 45% at 3 years and 63% at 5 years. LT is the best treatment option currently available for ILD, in which medical treatment has failed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Interstitial cells in the musculature of the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri J; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie

    2003-01-01

    Expression of the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT on cells referred to as interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) has been instrumental during the past decade in the tremendous interest in cells in the interstitium of the smooth muscle layers of the digestive tract. ICC generate the pacemaker component (e...

  9. [Interstitial pregnancy: a rare type of ectopic pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, E; Roovers, J P W R; Ankum, W M; Hajenius, P J

    2008-04-05

    Three women, aged 21, 28 and 37 years, respectively, were diagnosed with interstitial pregnancies. The first patient presented with lateral abdominal pain, the second patient was asymptomatic and consulted the physician for a routine first trimester scan and the third patient had painless vaginal bleeding in the first trimester. Each was treated with systemic methotrexate in a multiple dose regimen, which was successful in the latter two patients. The first patient was discharged in good condition after her last methotrexate injection, but developed severe abdominal pain and collapsed at home after the interstitial pregnancy had ruptured. She underwent surgery and recovered. Today, the incidence of ectopic pregnancy in the Netherlands is around 8 per 1000 live births. Interstitial pregnancies, which nidate in the portion of the fallopian tube embedded in the uterine wall, account for 2-3% of all ectopic pregnancies. A urinary pregnancy test should be performed for any fertile woman with abdominal pain or abnormal vaginal bleeding. If the result is positive, the patient should be referred to a gynaecologist for transvaginal ultrasound to exclude ectopic pregnancy. In case of a pregnancy of unknown location, one should search for specific ultrasound markers of non-tubal ectopic pregnancy and assess serum human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG). Interstitial ectopic pregnancy should be considered if the serum HCG level is above 2000 U/l.

  10. Factors influencing the success of conservative treatment of interstitial pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassik, P; Ofili-Yebovi, D; Yazbek, J; Lee, C; Elson, J; Jurkovic, D

    2005-09-01

    To identify demographic, morphological and biochemical characteristics of interstitial pregnancies that are associated with a successful outcome of conservative treatment (expectant management or medical treatment with methotrexate). Over a period of 6 years all clinically stable women with a certain ultrasound diagnosis of interstitial ectopic pregnancy were managed either expectantly (no interventions) or medically (systemic or local methotrexate injection). The outcome of conservative treatment was compared to a number of diagnostic parameters, which were recorded at the initial visit. The treatment was classified as successful if serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) level declined below 20 IU/L without the need for any additional interventions, such as the administration of methotrexate or surgery. A total of 42 interstitial pregnancies were diagnosed during the study period. Out of 35 women included in the final analysis 7 (20%) were managed expectantly and 28 (80%) received either local (n = 23) or systemic methotrexate (n = 5). There were no significant differences in the success rates of expectant treatment and treatment with either systemic or local methotrexate. The initial median serum hCG was significantly lower in women with successful conservative management (3216 IU/L vs. 15 900 IU/L; P < 0.05) but there were no other significant differences between cases with successful and failed treatment. The measurement of serum hCG at the initial visit may be used to predict the likelihood of successful conservative treatment of interstitial pregnancy.

  11. Incidental Detection of Interstitial Pregnancy on CT Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Byung Seok; Park, Mi-hyun

    2009-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is a potentially life-threatening condition. Detection of ectopic pregnancy on CT images is rare. In this case, we describe the CT findings of interstitial pregnancy both before and after rupture. If CT images demonstrate the presence of a strong enhancing ring-like mass in the pelvis, ectopic pregnancy should be considered.

  12. Hysteroscopic removal of an interstitial ectopic gestation. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, W R; Mitchell, D E

    1989-11-01

    A 31-year-old woman with plauteauing quantitative serial beta-human chorionic gonadotropin levels, suspect pelvic sonography and the absence of products of conception on uterine curettage was suspected of having an interstitial ectopic pregnancy. Confirmation was by endoscopy. Cornual uterine wedge resection was avoided with laparoscopically guided hysteroscopic removal of the products of conception.

  13. Pulmonary function vascular index predicts prognosis in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corte, Tamera J.; Wort, Stephen J.; MacDonald, Peter S.; Edey, Anthony; Hansell, David M.; Renzoni, Elisabetta; Maher, Toby M.; Nicholson, Andrew G.; Bandula, Steven; Bresser, Paul; Wells, Athol U.

    2012-01-01

    Background and objective: Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with increased mortality in fibrotic idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP). We hypothesize that baseline KCO (diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide/alveolar volume) and 6-month decline in KCO reflect PH, thus predicting mortality

  14. Interstitial pressure and lung oedema in chronic hypoxia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rivolta, I.; Lucchini, G.; Rocchetti, M.; Kolář, František; Palazzo, F.; Zaza, A.; Miserocchi, G.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 4 (2011), s. 943-949 ISSN 0903-1936 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : capillary patency * lung morphometry * microvascular permeability * pulmonary hypertension * pulmonary interstitial pressure Subject RIV: FC - Pulmology Impact factor: 5.895, year: 2011

  15. Bronchoalveolar lavage in HIV infected patients with interstitial pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blic, J; Blanche, S; Danel, C; Le Bourgeois, M; Caniglia, M; Scheinmann, P

    1989-01-01

    The value of taking microbiological and cytological specimens by flexible bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage under local anaesthesia was assessed on 43 occasions in 35 HIV infected children, aged 3 months to 16 years, with interstitial pneumonitis. In acute interstitial pneumonitis (n = 22, 26 specimens from bronchoalveolar lavages) the microbiological yield was 73%, Pneumocystis carinii being the commonest infective agent (n = 14). P carinii pneumonia was found only in children with deficient antigen induced lymphocyte proliferative responses who had not been treated with long term prophylactic co-trimoxazole. In contrast, in 13 children with chronic interstitial pneumonitis that was consistent with a diagnosis of pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia who underwent bronchoalveolar lavage on 17 occasions, there were two isolates of cytomegalovirus and one of adenovirus, but P carinii was not found. Ten of the 13 children had normal antigen induced lymphocyte proliferative responses. Useful cytological data were also gleaned from bronchoalveolar lavage specimens. Lymphocytosis was significantly higher in pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia (36(SD 11)%) than in P carinii pneumonia (24(19)%) whereas the percentage of polymorphonuclear neutrophils was significantly lower (3(2)% compared with 12(13)%). Flexible bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage is safe even in young infants and should reduce the necessity for open lung biopsy in the management of HIV infected children with interstitial pneumonitis. PMID:2817943

  16. Muscle interstitial potassium kinetics during intense exhaustive exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai; Mohr, Magni; Pedersen, Lasse Dannemann

    2003-01-01

    Interstitial K+ ([K+]i) was measured in human skeletal muscle by microdialysis during exhaustive leg exercise, with (AL) and without (L) previous intense arm exercise. In addition, the reproducibility of the [K+]i determinations was examined. Possible microdialysis-induced rupture of the sarcolem...

  17. Self-interstitial configuration in molybdenum studied by modified ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The stability of various atomic configurations containing a self-interstitial atom (SIA) in a model representing Mo has been investigated using the modified analytical embedded atom method (MAEAM). The lattice relaxations are treated with the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation at absolute zero of temperature.

  18. Interstitial cystitis is bladder pain syndrome with Hunner's lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fall, Magnus; Logadottir, Yr; Peeker, Ralph

    2014-04-01

    The contents and understanding of the term, interstitial cystitis, have undergone major changes during the past 100 years, moving from a chronic, true inflammatory bladder disorder to an extensive syndrome with lower urinary tract pain. Comments on this development are presented. From examples in the literature, some important features of classic interstitial cystitis are outlined. The more inclusive attitude of later decades has drawn desirable attention to the entire spectrum of disorders resulting in bladder pain. The wish to include all of them into one handy entity has unfortunately resulted in much scientific and clinical confusion, though. It is noted that originally interstitial cystitis represented the Hunner type of disease. Today, there is agreement that the classic type of interstitial cystitis with Hunner's lesions, bladder pain syndrome type 3C according to current terminology, stands out as a well-defined phenotype; it has to evaluated separately in clinical studies and practice, as treatment requirements differ importantly between this and other phenotypes. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  19. The interstitial cystitis syndrome: Intravesical and oral treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kurth, K. H.; Parsons, C. L.

    2003-01-01

    The interstitial cystitis (IC) syndrome is a debilitating bladder disorder affecting greater than or equal to16/100,000 people in the Netherlands. A prevalence of 450/100,000 was found in Finland when IC symptom and problem index questionnaires were used. The origin of IC is not known. The syndrome

  20. Quantitative pulmonary gallium scanning in interstitial lung disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsay, S.C.; Yeates, M.G.; Burke, W.M.J.; Morgan, G.W.; Breit, S.N.; Bryant, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for gallium uptake in chronic, non-infective, diffuse lung disease are not completely understood. This study attempted to clarify some of them. A lung/liver gallium index was calculated in 113 subjects, some normal and some with various interstitial lung diseases, predominantly those associated with connective tissue disease. The mean gallium index was significantly higher in the groups with active interstitial lung disease (5.7) and non-infective bronchiolitis (4.1) compared with non-smoking normals (3.0; P<0.05). To investigate the mechanisms responsible for gallium uptake, the gallium index was correlated with bronchoalveolar lavage findings, respiratory function tests and clinical features. Significant correlations (P<0.05) were found with age in non-smoking normals; lavage macrophages in smoking normals; age but no other parameter in bronchiolitis; lavage lymphocytes, lavage albumin and improvement in diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide in those with active interstitial lung disease. It is concluded that in normal smokers gallium uptake may be due to a macrophage-mediated process. Gallium uptake in active interstitial lung disease associated with connective tissue disease appears to be an immunological process in which transport and retention of gallium is associated with that of albumin. (orig.)

  1. Erectile dysfunction is a common problem in interstitial lung diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløe, Andreas; Hilberg, Ole; Wijsenbeek, Marlies

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is related to chronic diseases, including COPD. The patho- genesis may involve chronic hypoxia, which is common in interstitial lung disease (ILD). We aimed to study the relationship between ILD and ED. Method: Male patients with ILD detected by high-resolu...

  2. Investigations of lymphatic drainage from the interstitial space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayathungage Don, Tharanga; Richard Clarke Collaboration; John Cater Collaboration; Vinod Suresh Collaboration

    2017-11-01

    The lymphatic system is a highly complex biological system that facilitates the drainage of excess fluid in body tissues. In addition, it is an integral part of the immunological control system. Understanding the mechanisms of fluid absorption from the interstitial space and flow through the initial lymphatics is important to treat several pathological conditions. The main focus of this study is to computationally model the lymphatic drainage from the interstitial space. The model has been developed to consider a 3D lymphatic network and uses biological data to inform the creation of realistic geometries for the lymphatic capillary networks. We approximate the interstitial space as a porous region and the lymphatic vessel walls as permeable surfaces. The dynamics of the flow is approximated by Darcy's law in the interstitium and the Navier-Stokes equations in the lymphatic capillary lumen. The proposed model examines lymph drainage as a function of pressure gradient. In addition, we have examined the effects of interstitial and lymphatic wall permeabilities on the lymph drainage and the solute transportation in the model. The computational results are in accordance with the available experimental measurements.

  3. Fine sand in motion: the influence of interstitial air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homan, T.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Sand is a granular material, and therefore it consists of individual grains arranged in a packing. The pores in-between the grains are usually filled with a fluid, in this case air. Now, is this interstitial air able to influence the behavior of the sand bed as a whole? When a ball impacts on fine,

  4. Incidental Detection of Interstitial Pregnancy on CT Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Byung Seok [Chungnam National University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Mi Hyun [Dankook University Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    Ectopic pregnancy is a potentially life-threatening condition. Detection of ectopic pregnancy on CT images is rare. In this case, we describe the CT findings of interstitial pregnancy both before and after rupture. If CT images demonstrate the presence of a strong enhancing ring-like mass in the pelvis, ectopic pregnancy should be considered

  5. Incidental Detection of Interstitial Pregnancy on CT Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Byung Seok; Park, Mi Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is a potentially life-threatening condition. Detection of ectopic pregnancy on CT images is rare. In this case, we describe the CT findings of interstitial pregnancy both before and after rupture. If CT images demonstrate the presence of a strong enhancing ring-like mass in the pelvis, ectopic pregnancy should be considered

  6. Tumor interstitial fluid - a treasure trove of cancer biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromov, Pavel; Gromova, Irina; Olsen, Charlotta J; Timmermans-Wielenga, Vera; Talman, Mai-Lis; Serizawa, Reza R; Moreira, José M A

    2013-11-01

    Tumor interstitial fluid (TIF) is a proximal fluid that, in addition to the set of blood soluble phase-borne proteins, holds a subset of aberrantly externalized components, mainly proteins, released by tumor cells and tumor microenvironment through various mechanisms, which include classical secretion, non-classical secretion, secretion via exosomes and membrane protein shedding. Consequently, the interstitial aqueous phase of solid tumors is a highly promising resource for the discovery of molecules associated with pathological changes in tissues. Firstly, it allows one to delve deeper into the regulatory mechanisms and functions of secretion-related processes in tumor development. Secondly, the anomalous secretion of molecules that is innate to tumors and the tumor microenvironment, being associated with cancer progression, offers a valuable source for biomarker discovery and possible targets for therapeutic intervention. Here we provide an overview of the features of tumor-associated interstitial fluids, based on recent and updated information obtained mainly from our studies of breast cancer. Data from the study of interstitial fluids recovered from several other types of cancer are also discussed. This article is a part of a Special Issue entitled: The Updated Secretome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Rheumatoid interstitial lung disease presenting as cor pulmonale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Sourya; Mahajan, S N; Shukla, Samarth; Diwan, S K; Banode, Pankaj; Kothari, Nirmesh

    2010-10-01

    Rheumatiod arthritis (RA) is a multisystem connective tissue disorder. The predominant presentation is polyarticular, symmetric peripheral arthritis with relative sparing of axial skeleton. Inflammatory synovitis is the pathologic hallmark. Extra-articular manifestations of RA can involve several other organ systems and amongst them pulmonary manifestations occur commonly. We report a case of rheumatoid interstitial lung disease presenting as cor pulmonale.

  8. Rheumatoid interstitial lung disease presenting as cor pulmonale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharya Sourya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Rheumatiod arthritis (RA is a multisystem connective tissue disorder. The predominant presentation is polyarticular, symmetric peripheral arthritis with relative sparing of axial skeleton. Inflammatory synovitis is the pathologic hallmark. Extra-articular manifestations of RA can involve several other organ systems and amongst them pulmonary manifestations occur commonly. We report a case of rheumatoid interstitial lung disease presenting as cor pulmonale.

  9. Interstitial cells of Cajal in human gut and gastrointestinal disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanderwinden, J M; Rumessen, J J

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews the distribution of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in the human gastrointestinal (GI) tract, based on ultrastructural and immunohistochemical evidence. The distribution and morphology of ICC at each level of the normal GI tracts is addressed from the perspective of their fun...

  10. Cluster forcing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Budde

    , Portugal and New Zealand have adopted the concept. Public sector interventions that aim to support cluster development in industries most often focus upon economic policy goals such as enhanced employment and improved productivity, but rarely emphasise broader societal policy goals relating to e.......g. sustainability or quality of life. The purpose of this paper is to explore how and to what extent public sector interventions that aim at forcing cluster development in industries can support sustainable development as defined in the Brundtland tradition and more recently elaborated in such concepts as eco...... in 2000 by the Welsh Automotive Task Force under the Welsh Assembly Government. The Accelerate programme takes basically different two directions: The first one, which was the first to be launched, is concerned with the upgrading of existing supply chains in the automotive industry in Wales. The programme...

  11. Regional Innovation Clusters

    Data.gov (United States)

    Small Business Administration — The Regional Innovation Clusters serve a diverse group of sectors and geographies. Three of the initial pilot clusters, termed Advanced Defense Technology clusters,...

  12. The correlation functions for the clustering of galaxies and Abell clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, B.J.T.; Jones, J.E.; Copenhagen Univ.

    1985-01-01

    The difference in amplitudes between the galaxy-galaxy correlation function and the correlation function between Abell clusters is a consequence of two facts. Firstly, most Abell clusters with z<0.08 lie in a relatively small volume of the sampled space, and secondly, the fraction of galaxies lying in Abell clusters differs considerably inside and outside of this volume. (The Abell clusters are confined to a smaller volume of space than are the galaxies.) We discuss the implications of this interpretation of the clustering correlation functions and present a simple model showing how such a situation may arise quite naturally in standard theories for galaxy formation. (orig.)

  13. How feasible is expectant management of interstitial ectopic pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, L C Y; Emmanuel, E; Ross, J A; Johns, J

    2014-03-01

    To review the success rate of expectant management in a series of interstitial pregnancies. We identified all women with an ultrasound diagnosis of interstitial pregnancy seen within a 9-year period (January 2004 to April 2013). The clinical history, ultrasound findings and biochemical results were reviewed. The outcome of all interstitial pregnancies managed conservatively was recorded. Treatment was considered as successful when the serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG) level declined below 20 IU/L without the need for further intervention. A total of 48 interstitial pregnancies were diagnosed during the study period. Surgery was the first-line treatment in nine (18.8%) cases. Thirty-eight (79.2%) women were offered non-surgical management: 19 (39.6%) had methotrexate (MTX) and 19 (39.6%) were managed expectantly. One (2.1%) woman returned to her local hospital following diagnosis and we were unable to obtain any follow-up information regarding her care. The median initial serum β-hCG level and ectopic size were not significantly different between any of the groups according to initial treatment. The overall success rate of expectant management was 89.5%. There were no cases of ectopic rupture in this group. Length of follow-up ranged from 7 to 141 days with a median duration of follow-up of 50.6 days. Our data show that expectant management is an option for selected women with non-viable interstitial pregnancies and declining serum β-hCG levels, irrespective of ectopic mass size and initial serum β-hCG levels. Copyright © 2013 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Microdefects and self-interstitial diffusion in crystalline silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowlton, W.B.

    1998-05-01

    In this thesis, a study is presented of D-defects and self-interstitial diffusion in silicon using Li ion (Li{sup +}) drifting in an electric field and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Obstruction of Li{sup +} drifting has been found in wafers from certain but not all FZ p-type Si. Incomplete Li{sup +} drifting always occurs in the central region of the wafers. This work established that interstitial oxygen is not responsible for hindering Li{sup +} drifting. TEM was performed on a samples from the partially Li{sup +} drifted area and compared to regions without D-defects. Precipitates were found only in the region containing D-defects that had partially Li{sup +} drifted. This result indicates D-defects are responsible for the precipitation that halts the Li{sup +} drift process. Nitrogen (N) doping has been shown to eliminate D-defects as measured by conventional techniques. Li{sup +} drifting and D-defects provide a useful means to study Si self-interstitial diffusion. The process modeling program SUPREM-IV was used to simulate the results of Si self-interstitial diffusion obtained from Li{sup +} drifting experiments. Anomalous results from the Si self-interstitial diffusion experiments forced a re-examination of the possibility of thermal dissociation of D-defects. Thermal annealing experiments that were performed support this possibility. A review of the current literature illustrates the need for more research on the effects of thermal processing on FZ Si to understand the dissolution kinetics of D-defects.

  15. MicroRNA expression profile in head and neck cancer: HOX-cluster embedded microRNA-196a and microRNA-10b dysregulation implicated in cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severino, Patricia; Mathor, Monica Beatriz; Nunes, Fabio Daumas; Ragoussis, Jiannis; Tajara, Eloiza Helena; Brüggemann, Holger; Andreghetto, Flavia Maziero; Camps, Carme; Klingbeil, Maria de Fatima Garrido; Pereira, Welbert Oliveira de; Soares, Renata Machado; Moyses, Raquel; Wünsch-Filho, Victor

    2013-01-01

    Current evidence implicates aberrant microRNA expression patterns in human malignancies; measurement of microRNA expression may have diagnostic and prognostic applications. Roles for microRNAs in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) are largely unknown. HNSCC, a smoking-related cancer, is one of the most common malignancies worldwide but reliable diagnostic and prognostic markers have not been discovered so far. Some studies have evaluated the potential use of microRNA as biomarkers with clinical application in HNSCC. MicroRNA expression profile of oral squamous cell carcinoma samples was determined by means of DNA microarrays. We also performed gain-of-function assays for two differentially expressed microRNA using two squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and normal oral keratinocytes. The effect of the over-expression of these molecules was evaluated by means of global gene expression profiling and cell proliferation assessment. Altered microRNA expression was detected for a total of 72 microRNAs. Among these we found well studied molecules, such as the miR-17-92 cluster, comprising potent oncogenic microRNA, and miR-34, recently found to interact with p53. HOX-cluster embedded miR-196a/b and miR-10b were up- and down-regulated, respectively, in tumor samples. Since validated HOX gene targets for these microRNAs are not consistently deregulated in HNSCC, we performed gain-of-function experiments, in an attempt to outline their possible role. Our results suggest that both molecules interfere in cell proliferation through distinct processes, possibly targeting a small set of genes involved in cell cycle progression. Functional data on miRNAs in HNSCC is still scarce. Our data corroborate current literature and brings new insights into the role of microRNAs in HNSCC. We also show that miR-196a and miR-10b, not previously associated with HNSCC, may play an oncogenic role in this disease through the deregulation of cell proliferation. The study of micro

  16. Determination of the population of octahedral and tetrahedral interstitials in zirconium hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, V.M.; Gogava, V.V.; Shilo, S.I.; Biryukova, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    Results of neutron investigations of ZrHsub(1.66), ZrHsub(1.75) and ZrHsub(1.98) zirconium hydrides are presented. Investigations were conducted using plane polycrystal samples by multidetector system of scattered neutron detection. Neutron diffraction method was used to determine the number of interstitial hydrogen atoms in interstitials of the lattice cell in the case of statistic atom distribution. The numbers of interstitial atoms in octahedral interstitials for zirconium hydrides were determined experimentally; the difference of potential energies of hydrogen atoms in octa- and tetrahedral interstitials was determined as well. It is shown that experimentally determined difference of potential energies of hydrogen atoms, occupying octa- and tetrahedral positions in investigated zirconium hydrides results at room temperature in the pretailing occupation of tetrahedral interstitials by hydrogen atoms (85-90%); the occupation number grows with temperature decrease and the ordering of interstitial vacancies with formation of hydrogen superstructure takes place at low temperatures

  17. Laparoscopic treatment for interstitial pregnancy, a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Asgharnia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Diagnose and treatment of interstitial pregnancy remains challenging because this rare entity can be life threatening due to rupture and intra abdominal hemorrhage. Early diagnosis and treatment is paramount to reduce maternal mortality and maintain fertility. In this study a 37 years woman with 6weeks of amenorrhea, who presented with spoting and lower abdominal pain was admitted. Transvaginal ultrasonography scan showed a heterogenous mass in right adenex with hypervascular ring, the uterus was empty. The initial beta hCG level was 200 MIU/ml. Serial beta hCG levels platued in the follow up period. Diagnosis was suspected for ectopic pregnancy, a laparoscopy followed revealed the presence of right corneal pregnancy that corneal resection was performed. Laparoscopy appears to be safe and an effective treatment for unruptured interstitial pregnancy.

  18. Dose, time and volume effects in interstitial radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgers, J.M.V.

    1982-01-01

    This study presents the main features and uncertainties of interstitial therapy and was undertaken to examine whether differences could be found in different clinical situations treated by interstitial implants with removable sources, that were not simply related to dose. In chapter 2, dating from 1978, continuous low dose rate irradiation is discussed from the radiobiological point of view together with some points related to variation in dose rate. A benefit of continuous low dose rate irradiation could be surmised in a few situations with special cell-kinetic properties. The problem of dose specification, the sharp dose gradient and other volume characteristics are discussed in chapter 3. Possible adjustments to variations in dose rate are discussed in chapter 4. The clinical material is reviewed in chapter 5, including aspects of dose specification, dose fall-off and variation in dose rate. The general discussion and conclusions are given in chapter 6. (Auth.)

  19. Interstitial ectopic pregnancy presenting after failed termination of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Daniel J; Li, May; Lewiss, Resa E

    2012-10-01

    Pregnant women frequently present to the ED for complaints related to the first trimester of pregnancy. The emergency physician must confirm the presence of an intrauterine pregnancy for many such complaints. Bedside ultrasound with well-delineated criteria has become standard practice for many emergency physicians for this purpose. In the following case report, an interstitial pregnancy was identified by the emergency physician using bedside sonography in a 29-year-old woman presenting 2 weeks after dilation and aspiration for termination of pregnancy. The ED physician identified an inappropriately thin endomyometrial mantle raising suspicion for the diagnosis of an interstitial pregnancy. The case illustrates the importance of this uterine wall measurement given the otherwise normal appearance of a pregnancy within the uterus. © 2012 The Authors. EMA © 2012 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  20. Acute Tubular Necrosis and Interstitial Nephritis during Pemetrexed Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Michels

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We report a patient with unknown primary undifferentiated carcinoma who developed acute renal failure associated with interstitial fibrosis following pemetrexed therapy. Despite drug withdrawal, renal function remained altered and the patient experienced chronic renal insufficiency. Pemetrexed disodium (Alimta™ is a multitargeted antifolate agent approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA for patients diagnosed with mesothelioma and non-small cell lung cancer. This drug is almost exclusively cleared by renal excretion [1]. The most common side effects are hematologic dose-limiting toxicities and nonhematologic toxicities including fatigue, diarrhea, nausea, mucositis and rash. Although few cases of renal failure have been published, no study has reported on the renal pathological findings in this setting. We present a case of acute tubular necrosis associated with interstitial fibrosis after pemetrexed therapy.

  1. Interstitial cells in the musculature of the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri J; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie

    2003-01-01

    , the ultrastructure and light microscopic morphology, as well as the functions and the development of ICC and of neighboring fibroblast-like cells (FLC), are critically reviewed. Directions for future research are considered and a unifying concept of mesenchymal cells, either KIT positive (the "ICC") or KIT negative......Expression of the receptor tyrosine kinase KIT on cells referred to as interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) has been instrumental during the past decade in the tremendous interest in cells in the interstitium of the smooth muscle layers of the digestive tract. ICC generate the pacemaker component...... "non-Cajal" (including the FLC and possibly also other cell types) cell types in the interstitium of the smooth musculature of the gastrointestinal tract, is proposed. Furthermore, evidence is accumulating to suggest that, as postulated by Santiago Ramon y Cajal, the concept of interstitial cells...

  2. Clinical Management of Acute Interstitial Pneumonia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 51-year-old woman who was admitted to hospital because of cough and expectoration accompanied with general fatigue and progressive dyspnea. Chest HRCT scan showed areas of ground glass attenuation, consolidation, and traction bronchiectasis in bilateral bases of lungs. BAL fluid test and transbronchial lung biopsy failed to offer insightful evidence for diagnosis. She was clinically diagnosed with acute interstitial pneumonia (AIP. Treatment with mechanical ventilation and intravenous application of methylprednisolone (80 mg/day showed poor clinical response and thus was followed by steroid pulse therapy (500 mg/day, 3 days. However, she died of respiratory dysfunction eventually. Autopsy showed diffuse alveolar damage associated with hyaline membrane formation, pulmonary interstitial, immature collagen edema, and focal type II pneumocyte hyperplasia.

  3. Interstitially implanted I125 for prostate cancer using transrectal ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenburg, S.; Petersen, J.; Hansen-Peters, I.; Baylinson, W.

    1990-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the third leading cause of death from cancer among men in the United States. Traditional treatments for prostate cancer are prostatectomy, external beam irradiation, and interstitial implantation of Iodine125 (I125) via laparotomy. These treatments are associated with significant morbidity and limitations. Based on experience with I125 interstitial implantation by transrectal ultrasound guidance for early-stage prostate cancer, it seems that this newer method of treatment has greater accuracy of placement and distribution of the isotope and has had few reported complications. The need for a surgical incision has been eliminated. Hospitalization time also has been decreased, creating the need for ambulatory and inpatient nurses to understand the importance of their respective roles in providing coordinated quality care for these patients. Nurses in these departments must have knowledge of the procedure, radiation safety, and common side effects related to the implant

  4. Increased bladder permeability in interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood-Van Meerveld, Beverley; Wisniewski, Amy B.; VanGordon, Samuel; Lin, HsuehKung; Kropp, Bradley P.; Towner, Rheal A.

    2015-01-01

    The definition of interstitial cystitis (IC) has evolved over the years from being a well-defined entity characterized by diagnostic lesion (Hunner’s ulcer) in the urothelium to a clinical diagnosis by exclusion [painful bladder syndrome (PBS)]. Although the etiology is unknown, a central theme has been an association with increased permeability of the bladder. This article reviews the evidence for increased permeability being important to the symptoms of interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS) and in treating the disorder. Recent work showing cross-communication among visceral organs is also reviewed to provide a basis for understanding IC/PBS as a systemic disorder of a complex, interconnected system consisting of the bladder, bowel and other organs, nerves, cytokine-responding cells and the nervous system. PMID:26751576

  5. Interstitial Cystitis: Characterization and Management of an Enigmatic Urologic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, J. Curtis

    2002-01-01

    The enigmatic urologic condition known as interstitial cystitis has an estimated prevalence of 0.01% to 0.50% of the female population. Its etiology is unknown but may involve microbiologic, immunologic, mucosal, neurogenic, and/or other, as yet undefined, agents. There is no gold standard for the diagnosis of interstitial cystitis; rather, it is a diagnosis of exclusion. It is impossible to provide a purely evidence-based treatment strategy, but review of available evidence suggests that conservative supportive therapy (including diet modification); oral treatment with pentosan polysulfate, amitriptyline, hydroxyzine, or cimetidine; and intravesical treatments with heparinoids, dimethyl sulfoxide, alkalized lidocaine, or bacille Calmette-Guérin may be effective in some patients. PMID:16985667

  6. Explicit studies of the quantum theory of light interstitial diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emin, D.; Baskes, M.I.; Wilson, W.D.

    1978-01-01

    The formalism associated with small-polaron diffusion in the high temperature semiclassical regime is generalized so as to transcend simplifications employed in developing the nonadiabatic theory. The diffusion constant is then calculated for simple models in which the metal atoms interact with each other and with the interstitial atom with two-body forces. Studies of these models not only confirm the necessity of generalizing the formalism but also yield diffusion constants whose magnitudes and temperature dependenes ar consistent with the general features of the existing data for the diffusion of hydrogen and its isotopes in bcc metals. The motion of a positive muon between interstitial positions of a metal is also investigated. (GHT)

  7. DFT STUDY REVISES INTERSTITIAL CONFIGURATIONS IN HCP Zr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samolyuk, German D [ORNL; Golubov, Stanislav I [ORNL; Osetskiy, Yury N [ORNL; Stoller, Roger E [ORNL

    2012-06-01

    Analysis of experimental result on microstructure evolution in irradiated Zr and alloys has demonstrated that available knowledge on self-interstitial defects in Zr is in contradiction. We therefore have initiated an extensive theoretical and modeling program to clarify this issue. In this report we present first ab initio calculations results of single SIA configurations in Zr. We demonstrate importance of simulations cell size, applied exchange-correlation functional and simulated c/a ratio. The results obtained demonstrate clearly that the most stable configurations are in basal plane and provide some evidences for enhanced interstitial transport along basal planes. The results obtained will be used in generation a new interatomic potential for Zr to be used in large-scale atomistic modeling of mechanisms relevant for radiation-induced microstructure evolution.

  8. The annealing of interstitial carbon atoms in high-resistivity n-type silicon after proton irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kuhnke, M; Lindström, G

    2002-01-01

    The annealing of interstitial carbon C sub i after 7-10 MeV and 23 GeV proton irradiations at room temperature in high-resistivity n-type silicon is investigated. Deep level transient spectroscopy is used to determine the defect parameters. The annealing characteristics of the impurity defects C sub i , C sub i C sub s , C sub i O sub i and VO sub i suggest that the mobile C sub i atoms are also captured at divacancy VV sites at the cluster peripheries and not only at C sub s and O sub i sites in the silicon bulk. The deviation of the electrical filling characteristic of C sub i from the characteristic of a homogeneously distributed defect can be explained by an aggregation of C sub i atoms in the environment of the clusters. The capture rate of electrons into defects located in the cluster environment is reduced due to a positive space charge region surrounding the negatively charged cluster core. The optical filling characteristic of C sub i suggests that the change of the triangle-shaped electric field dis...

  9. Unilateral twin interstitial ectopic pregnancy. Report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twiggs, L B; Stumpf, P G; Davajan, V

    1977-01-01

    An unusual case of twin unilateral interstitial pregnancy is described. On admission the patient was thought to have an intrauterine pregnancy of 14 weeks' gestation. Because of an irregularity in the right cornual region of the uterus, a culdocentesis was performed which returned unclotted blood. Because of this finding the patient underwent laparoscopy which revealed an unruptured right cornual pregnancy. An early diagnosis before rupture allowed for conservative surgical management and uterine conservation.

  10. Antiproliferative Factor Signaling and Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    A unique glycopeptide, antiproliferative factor (APF), has been suggested as a urinary biomarker and potential mediator of long-term bladder disorder Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome. There is no known cause for this disease. Several mechanistic approaches have been employed to address the underlying mechanism whereby APF regulates cellular responses in the bladder epithelium. A summary of recent literature is provided, and is focused on signal transduction pathways and networks that are responsive to APF. PMID:22259731

  11. Intravesical NGF Antisense Therapy Using Lipid Nanoparticle for Interstitial Cystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    1): (1) behavioral modification 160 with patient education, (2) physical therapies , oral agents and/or intravesical medications, (3) bladder...human monoclonal D2E7 light chain, dimer Rheumatoid arthritis , Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colites Phase III, not recruiting TNF alpha antagonist Calcium...Award Number: W81XWH-12-1-0565 TITLE: Intravesical NGF Antisense Therapy Using Lipid Nanoparticle For Interstitial Cystitis PRINCIPAL

  12. Laser interstitial thermal therapy of the spine: technical aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussazadeh, Nelson; Evans, Linton T; Grasu, Roxana; Rhines, Laurence D; Tatsui, Claudio E

    2018-04-01

    Spinal laser interstitial thermal therapy has been developed as a minimally invasive modality to treat epidural spinal tumors percutaneously. The safe and effective use of this technology requires meticulous preoperative trajectory planning and an intraoperative workflow incorporating navigation and MR thermography. Instrumented stabilization can be performed during the same operation if needed. Operative considerations and technical aspects are reviewed. The video can be found here: https://youtu.be/P--frsag6gU .

  13. Sharp interstitial Nefritis, Value Diagnoses of the Ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, Luis Fernando; Rivera, Humberto; Andrade, Rafael E; Garcia, Diego

    1994-01-01

    Two cases of young patients are revised and they present a clinical picture of acute renal insufficiency of unknown aetiology. This fact was no suspected initially but thanks to the help of ultrasound and the clinical history it was possible to diagnose as an acute interstitial nephritis due to hypersensitivity to drugs. The classification of this illness is revised as well as its etiopathogenic clinical picture and ultrasound diagnosis

  14. The role of point defect clusters in reactor pressure vessel embrittlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoller, R.E.

    1993-01-01

    Radiation-induced point defect clusters (PDC) are a plausible source of matrix hardening in reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels in addition to copper-rich precipitates. These PDCs can be of either interstitial or vacancy type, and could exist in either 2 or 3-D shapes, e.g. small loops, voids, or stacking fault tetrahedra. Formation and evolution of PDCs are primarily determined by displacement damage rate and irradiation temperature. There is experimental evidence that size distributions of these clusters are also influenced by impurities such as copper. A theoretical model has been developed to investigate potential role of PDCs in RPV embrittlement. The model includes a detailed description of interstitial cluster population; vacancy clusters are treated in a more approximate fashion. The model has been used to examine a broad range of irradiation and material parameters. Results indicate that magnitude of hardening increment due to these clusters can be comparable to that attributed to copper precipitates. Both interstitial and vacancy type defects contribute to this hardening, with their relative importance determined by the specific irradiation conditions

  15. Chronic interstitial pneumonia with honeycombing in coal workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brichet, A.; Tonnel, A.B.; Brambilla, E.; Devouassoux, G.; Remy-Jardin, M.; Copin, M.C.; Wallaert, B. [A. Calmette Hospital, Lille (France)

    2002-10-01

    Coal worker's pneumoconiosis (CWP) results from coal mine dust inhalation. The paper reports the presence of a chronic interstitial pneumonia (CIP) with honeycombing in 38 cases of coal miners, with or without CWP. The 38 patients were selected on the basis of clinical criteria which are unusual in CWP, i.e. fine inspiratory crackles and severe dyspnea. There were 37 men and one woman; mean age was 67.5 {+-} 9.1 years. Thirty-two were smokers. Duration of exposure was 26.7 {+-} 9.9 years. All the patients had clinical examination, chest radiography, computed tomography (CT), lung function, laboratory investigations, wedged fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). In eight cases, lung specimens were obtained. Seventeen out of 38 had finger clubbing. 17 had radiological signs of CWP limited to the upper lobes or diffusely distributed. CT showed honeycombing (36 cases), and/or ground glass opacities (30 cases) with traction bronchiectasis (8 cases) predominant in the lower lobes. BAL analysis demonstrated an increased percentage of neutrophils (9.4% {+-} 6). Lung function showed a restrictive pattern associated with a decreased DLCO and hypoxemia. Lung specimens demonstrated in 2 cases a homogenous interstitial fibrosis of intra-alveolar septum with an accumulation of immune and inflammatory cells without temporal variation and with obvious honeycombing. The 6 other cases showed features of usual interstitial pneumonia. These cases, should alert other clinicians to a possible association between CIP with honeycombing and coal dust exposure, with or without associated CWP.

  16. Airway-centered interstitial fibrosis: etiology, clinical findings and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuranishi, Lilian Tiemi; Leslie, Kevin O; Ferreira, Rimarcs Gomes; Coletta, Ester Aparecida Ney; Storrer, Karin Mueller; Soares, Maria Raquel; de Castro Pereira, Carlos Alberto

    2015-05-09

    Airway-centered Interstitial Fibrosis (ACIF) is a common pathologic pattern observed in our practice. The objectives of this study are to describe the causes associated with ACIF in a large sample of patients and its effect on survival. A retrospective study in three centers of interstitial lung disease in São Paulo, between January of 1995 and December of 2012. The surgical lung biopsy specimens were reviewed by three pathologists. The clinical, functional and tomographic findings were analyzed by a standardized protocol. There were 68 cases of ACIF, most of them women. The mean age was 57 ± 12 yr. Dyspnea, cough, restrictive pattern at spirometry and oxygen desaturation at exercise were common. A reticular pattern with peribronchovascular infiltrates was found in 79% of the cases. The etiologies of ACIF were hypersensitivity pneumonitis in 29 (42.6%), gastroesophageal reflux disease in 17 (25.0%), collagen vascular disease in 4 (5.9%), a combination of them in 15 cases and idiopathic in 3 (4.4%). The median survival was 116 months (95% CI = 58.5 - 173.5). Lower values of oxygen saturation at rest, presence of cough and some histological findings--organizing tissue in the airways, fibroblastic foci and microscopic honeycombing--were predictors of worse survival. ACIF is an interstitial lung disease with a better survival when compared with IPF. The main etiologies are HP and GERD. The oxygen saturation at rest, the presence of cough and some histological findings are predictors of survival.

  17. The Multifaceted Aspects of Interstitial Lung Disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Cavagna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial lung disease (ILD is a relevant extra-articular manifestation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA that may occur either in early stages or as a complication of long-standing disease. RA related ILD (RA-ILD significantly influences the quoad vitam prognosis of these patients. Several histopathological patterns of RA-ILD have been described: usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP is the most frequent one, followed by nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP; other patterns are less commonly observed. Several factors have been associated with an increased risk of developing RA-ILD. The genetic background plays a fundamental but not sufficient role; smoking is an independent predictor of ILD, and a correlation with the presence of rheumatoid factor and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies has also been reported. Moreover, both exnovo occurrence and progression of ILD have been related to drug therapies that are commonly prescribed in RA, such as methotrexate, leflunomide, anti-TNF alpha agents, and rituximab. A greater understanding of the disease process is necessary in order to improve the therapeutic approach to ILD and RA itself and to reduce the burden of this severe extra-articular manifestation.

  18. Multidisciplinary discussion (MDD in interstitial lung disease; some reflections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colby TV

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. Multidisciplinary discussion (MDD has been used in many disciplines in medicine, notably in thoracic oncology for some two decades (1. MDD at a multidisciplinary conference (MDC formalizes activities that have also gone under the label of case conferences, tumor boards, etc. and this practice is time- honored in medical practice. In the setting of interstitial lung disease (ILD, especially the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs and IPF MDD conducted by a “multidisciplinary team” (MDT and is now the “gold standard” for diagnosis in this clinical setting (2 and is recommended in the 2011 guidelines for IPF and the 2013 guidelines for IIPs (3, 4. Clinical-pathologic correlation, clinical-radiologic-pathologic correlation and clinical-radiologic correlation have been integral to the study of interstitial lung disease since early work of Heitzman (5, Carrington and Gaensler (6 and many others. This represents the conceptual framework on which the Fleischner Society: “…an international, multidisciplinary medical society for thoracic ...

  19. A comparison in cosmetic outcome between per-operative interstitial breast implants and delayed interstitial breast implants after external beam radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Bradley R.; Hart, Augustinus A. M.; Russell, Nicola S.; Jansen, Edwin P. M.; Peterse, Johannes L.; Borger, Jacques; Rutgers, Emiel J. Th

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: Interstitial implants for brachytherapy boost in the breast conserving therapy of breast cancer can be performed in two ways; implants during the tumor excision (per-operative implants) or after the external beam therapy (delayed interstitial implants). Differences in

  20. Interstitial Fluid Flow: The Mechanical Environment of Cells and Foundation of Meridians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using information from the deep dissection, microobservation, and measurement of acupoints in the upper and lower limbs of the human body, we developed a three-dimensional porous medium model to simulate the flow field using FLUENT software and to study the shear stress on the surface of interstitial cells (mast cells caused by interstitial fluid flow. The numerical simulation results show the following: (i the parallel nature of capillaries will lead to directional interstitial fluid flow, which may explain the long interstitial tissue channels or meridians observed in some experiments; (ii when the distribution of capillaries is staggered, increases in the velocity alternate, and the velocity tends to be uniform, which is beneficial for substance exchange; (iii interstitial fluid flow induces a shear stress, with magnitude of several Pa, on interstitial cell membranes, which will activate cells and lead to a biological response; (iv capillary and interstitial parameters, such as capillary density, blood pressure, capillary permeability, interstitial pressure, and interstitial porosity, affect the shear stress on cell surfaces. The numerical simulation results suggest that in vivo interstitial fluid flow constitutes the mechanical environment of cells and plays a key role in guiding cell activities, which may explain the meridian phenomena and the acupuncture effects observed in experiments.

  1. Heavy hitters via cluster-preserving clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Green; Nelson, Jelani; Nguyen, Huy L.

    2016-01-01

    , providing correctness whp. In fact, a simpler version of our algorithm for p = 1 in the strict turnstile model answers queries even faster than the "dyadic trick" by roughly a log n factor, dominating it in all regards. Our main innovation is an efficient reduction from the heavy hitters to a clustering...... problem in which each heavy hitter is encoded as some form of noisy spectral cluster in a much bigger graph, and the goal is to identify every cluster. Since every heavy hitter must be found, correctness requires that every cluster be found. We thus need a "cluster-preserving clustering" algorithm......, that partitions the graph into clusters with the promise of not destroying any original cluster. To do this we first apply standard spectral graph partitioning, and then we use some novel combinatorial techniques to modify the cuts obtained so as to make sure that the original clusters are sufficiently preserved...

  2. Stability and mobility of defect clusters and dislocation loops in metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osetsky, Y.N.; Bacon, D.J.; Serra, A.

    2000-01-01

    about the structure and properties of glissile clusters of self-interstitial atoms that are formed directly in the cascade volume. It has been found that such clusters consist of sets of crowdions and are highly mobile in the crowdion direction. Very recently, one-dimensional glide of similar character...... loops are reviewed, and the dynamics of glissile clusters assessed. The relevance and importance of these results in establishing a better understanding of the observed differences in the damage accumulation behaviour between bcc and fee metals irradiated under cascade damage conditions are pointed out...

  3. Laparoscopic temporary clipping of uterine and ovarian arteries for the treatment of interstitial ectopic pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, S; Guven, E S Guvendag

    2016-01-01

    To assess the effect of laparoscopic temporary clipping of uterine and ovarian arteries for the treatment of interstitial ectopic pregnancy. A 29-year-old woman with vaginal bleeding and pelvic pain was admitted to the current clinic. She had secondary amenorrhea for nine weeks. Transvaginal ultrasonography revealed normal empty uterus and right interstitial ectopic pregnancy with viable embryo. Laparoscopic temporary clipping of uterine and ovarian arteries, interstitial pregnancy resection, and primary myometrial suturing was performed. Following dissection Latzko pararectal space for the visualization of both uterine arteries, four vascular clips were placed (two to uterine arteries, two to infundibulopelvic ligaments). Excision of interstitial pregnancy and primary myometrial suturing was performed with minimal blood loss. The patient was discharged from the hospital after one day without any remarkable complications. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of interstitial pregnancy that was successfully treated by temporary laparoscopic clipping of uterine and ovarian vessels prior to interstitial ectopic pregnancy resection.

  4. Ruptured Interstitial Ectopic Pregnancy at 18 Weeks Gestation Diagnosed by MRI: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Hamouda, Ehab SM; Littooij, Annemieke S; Thia, Edwin WH; Ong, Chiou L

    2013-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy in the interstitial part of the fallopian tube is a rare event, associated with a high rate of complications due to delayed diagnosis. Rupture of such pregnancy often results in catastrophic hemorrhage. Several reports highlighted the role of magnetic resonance imaging in establishing the diagnosis of interstitial pregnancy, but magnetic resonance imaging findings of a ruptured advanced interstitial ectopic pregnancy have not been published before. The authors therefore pres...

  5. Patients With Chronic Pelvic Pain: Endometriosis or Interstitial Cystitis/Painful Bladder Syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Butrick, Charles W.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Endometriosis and interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome share similar symptoms. Interstitial cystitis was once considered rare, but it is now recognized as more common than previously thought. This review examines evidence that patients presenting with symptoms typically attributed to endometriosis or with unresolved pelvic pain after treatment for endometriosis may, in fact, have interstitial cystitis, and suggests approaches for appropriate diagnosis. Methods: A MedLine...

  6. Brightest Cluster Galaxies in REXCESS Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarsma, Deborah B.; Leisman, L.; Bruch, S.; Donahue, M.

    2009-01-01

    Most galaxy clusters contain a Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG) which is larger than the other cluster ellipticals and has a more extended profile. In the hierarchical model, the BCG forms through many galaxy mergers in the crowded center of the cluster, and thus its properties give insight into the assembly of the cluster as a whole. In this project, we are working with the Representative XMM-Newton Cluster Structure Survey (REXCESS) team (Boehringer et al 2007) to study BCGs in 33 X-ray luminous galaxy clusters, 0.055 < z < 0.183. We are imaging the BCGs in R band at the Southern Observatory for Astrophysical Research (SOAR) in Chile. In this poster, we discuss our methods and give preliminary measurements of the BCG magnitudes, morphology, and stellar mass. We compare these BCG properties with the properties of their host clusters, particularly of the X-ray emitting gas.

  7. Partitional clustering algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book summarizes the state-of-the-art in partitional clustering. Clustering, the unsupervised classification of patterns into groups, is one of the most important tasks in exploratory data analysis. Primary goals of clustering include gaining insight into, classifying, and compressing data. Clustering has a long and rich history that spans a variety of scientific disciplines including anthropology, biology, medicine, psychology, statistics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science. As a result, numerous clustering algorithms have been proposed since the early 1950s. Among these algorithms, partitional (nonhierarchical) ones have found many applications, especially in engineering and computer science. This book provides coverage of consensus clustering, constrained clustering, large scale and/or high dimensional clustering, cluster validity, cluster visualization, and applications of clustering. Examines clustering as it applies to large and/or high-dimensional data sets commonly encountered in reali...

  8. Abnormalities in Expression of Structural, Barrier, and Differentiation Related Proteins and Chondroitin Sulfate in the Urothelium of Cats with Feline Interstitial Cystitis Mimic Those Seen in Human Interstitial Cystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Paul J.; VanGordon, Samuel B.; Seavey, Jonathan; Sofinowski, Troy M.; Ramadan, Mohammad; Abdullah, Shivon; Buffington, C. A. Tony; Hurst, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The urothelium of cats diagnosed with feline interstitial cystitis (FIC) was analyzed to determine if abnormalities in protein expression patterns could be detected, and whether the pattern of expression was similar to that observed in human Interstitial Cystitis/Bladder Pain Syndrome (IC) patients. The proteins that were analyzed are involved in cell adhesion, barrier function, comprise the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) layer, or are markers of differentiation. Methods Formalin-fixed biopsies from 8 cats with FIC and 7 healthy controls were labeled using immunohistochemistry and scored using a modified version of a system previously used for human samples. Cluster analysis was performed to investigate relationships between the markers and samples. Results The results showed that 89% of the FIC bladders displayed abnormal protein expression and chondroitin sulfate (CS) patterns, whereas only 27% of the normal tissues exhibited slight abnormalities. Abnormalities were found in most of the FIC samples, biglycan (87.5%), CS (100%), decorin (100%), E-cadherin (100%), keratin-20 (K20, 100%), uroplakin (50%), ZO-1 (87.5%). In the FIC bladders, about 75% of the CS, biglycan, and decorin samples displayed absence of luminal staining or no staining. Results from the cluster analysis revealed that the FIC and normal samples fell into two clearly separate groups, demonstrating that the urothelium of cats with FIC is altered from normal. Conclusions FIC produces similar changes in luminal GAG and several proteins as is seen in human patients, suggesting some commonality in mechanism and supporting the use of FIC as a model for human IC. PMID:25636658

  9. Ruptured interstitial ectopic pregnancy at 18 weeks gestation diagnosed by MRI: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamouda, Ehab S M; Littooij, Annemieke S; Thia, Edwin W H; Ong, Chiou L

    2013-10-01

    Ectopic pregnancy in the interstitial part of the fallopian tube is a rare event, associated with a high rate of complications due to delayed diagnosis. Rupture of such pregnancy often results in catastrophic hemorrhage. Several reports highlighted the role of magnetic resonance imaging in establishing the diagnosis of interstitial pregnancy, but magnetic resonance imaging findings of a ruptured advanced interstitial ectopic pregnancy have not been published before. The authors therefore present characteristic findings on magnetic resonance imaging of a ruptured interstitial ectopic pregnancy which had reached 18 weeks, in a 25-year-old woman who presented with acute abdominal pain.

  10. Medical treatment of interstitial pregnancy. A report of three unsuccessful cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnhart, K; Spandorfer, S; Coutifaris, C

    1997-08-01

    Medical management of ectopic pregnancy is effective in selected cases and is recommended to treat interstitial pregnancy to avoid surgery that may limit future fertility. Although successful medical management of interstitial pregnancy has been reported, evidence does not support success rates equal to that in other ectopic locations. Four cases of interstitial ectopic pregnancy were identified. Only one of the four was successfully treated with medical therapy. Case 1 was a confirmed, 2.5-cm interstitial pregnancy that failed a multiple-dose methotrexate protocol. Case 2 was an unrecognized interstitial pregnancy that failed single-dose therapy. Case 3 was a rupture of a medically managed interstitial pregnancy despite complete resolution of serum human chorionic gonadotropin. A literature review demonstrated an overall combined failure rate of 35% (7/20). Compared with an isthmic or ampullary pregnancy, a disproportionate number of patients with interstitial pregnancy fail medical management and require emergency surgery. The presence of a documented interstitial pregnancy is not an absolute contraindication to medical management. Patients should be counseled that medical management of an interstitial pregnancy may not have the same rate of success as it does in other locations in the fallopian tube. Surgery in this case may be the preferred treatment option.

  11. Ultrastructure of interstitial cells of Cajal in myenteric plexus of human colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri Johs.; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie; Rasmussen, Helle

    2009-01-01

    The role of the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) associated with the myenteric plexus (ICC-MP) as regulators of the motility of the colonic external muscle remains unclear. Ultrastructural studies of myenteric interstitial cells are lacking in human colon. We therefore characterized the distinct......The role of the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) associated with the myenteric plexus (ICC-MP) as regulators of the motility of the colonic external muscle remains unclear. Ultrastructural studies of myenteric interstitial cells are lacking in human colon. We therefore characterized...

  12. Effect of Interstitial Media on Segregation in Vertically Vibrated Granular Mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xiao-Xian; Wen Ping-Ping; Shi Qing-Fan; Zheng Ning; Li Liang-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Vertically vibrated segregation behaviors of binary granular mixtures with different interstitial media are experimentally investigated. To study the role of interstitial media on the segregation, two types of interstitial fluids are adopted and the resulting phase diagrams are compared. The water-immersed granular mixture exhibits two kinds of complete segregation behaviors: Brazil nut effect and sandwich patterns, at least the latter is absent in the same air-immersed mixture. Additionally, the segregation extent is improved remarkably for the water-immersed mixture. The experimental observation further confirms that the effect of interstitial media on the relative motion of grains is one of the predominant mechanisms for granular segregation

  13. Basal interstitial water pressure in laboratory debris flows over a rigid bed in an open channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hotta

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the interstitial water pressure of debris flows under various conditions gives essential information on the flow stress structure. This study measured the basal interstitial water pressure during debris flow routing experiments in a laboratory flume. Because a sensitive pressure gauge is required to measure the interstitial water pressure in shallow laboratory debris flows, a differential gas pressure gauge with an attached diaphragm was used. Although this system required calibration before and after each experiment, it showed a linear behavior and a sufficiently high temporal resolution for measuring the interstitial water pressure of debris flows. The values of the interstitial water pressure were low. However, an excess of pressure beyond the hydrostatic pressure was observed with increasing sediment particle size. The measured excess pressure corresponded to the theoretical excess interstitial water pressure, derived as a Reynolds stress in the interstitial water of boulder debris flows. Turbulence was thought to induce a strong shear in the interstitial space of sediment particles. The interstitial water pressure in boulder debris flows should be affected by the fine sediment concentration and the phase transition from laminar to turbulent debris flow; this should be the subject of future studies.

  14. Validity of Ultrasound Lung Comets for Assessment of the Severity of Interstitial Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Mariko; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Sato, Kazuhiro; Okuda, Yuji; Sakamoto, Sho; Hasegawa, Yukiyasu; Sudo, Kazuhisa; Takeda, Masahide; Sano, Masaaki; Kibira, Satoshi; Ito, Hiroshi

    2017-11-30

    Ultrasound (US) lung comets are often observed in patients with interstitial lung disease or congestive heart failure, but few studies have explored the clinical importance of US lung comets in patients with the former condition. We explored whether the US lung comet number could be used to assess the severity of interstitial pneumonia. Forty stable patients with interstitial pneumonia were examined. Lung comets evident on transthoracic US imaging in 12 selected regions of the posterior chest wall were analyzed. We defined lung comets accompanied by thickened and irregular pleural lines as interstitial US lung comets; these predominated in patients with interstitial pneumonia. The total number of interstitial US lung comets was correlated with the data from chest high-resolution computed tomography, pulmonary function tests, serologic tests, and the 6-minute walk test. The 40 patients included 16 with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and 24 with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia. Thirty-four patients had interstitial US lung comets, which were more common in the lower than the upper lung area. Good correlations were evident between the lung comet number and the extent of the reticular pattern on chest high-resolution computed tomography (r = 0.710; P comet number had a strong negative correlation with the percutaneous oxygen saturation level after the 6-minute walk test (r = -0.751; P comets evident on transthoracic US imaging may be a valuable marker of disease severity in patients with interstitial pneumonia. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  15. HRCT appearances of pulmonary interstitial diseases. The pathologic basis and clinical diagnostic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Daqing; Li Tieyi; Guan Yansheng; He Wen; Nie Yongkang

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the CT appearances, the pathologic basis and diagnostic significance of pulmonary interstitial diseases. methods: 14 isolated lungs with interstitial diseases were obtained at autopsy and surgery. The lungs were inflated and fixed. HRCT and 1 cm thin slice soft X-ray radiograph were performed and then histologic examination was done. HRCT images of 72 cases with interstitial diseases were analysed. The HRCT appearances of 10 cases were followed up for 1.5-7.0 years. Results: According to HRCT-pathologic correlation, pulmonary interstitial diseases had the following HRCT findings: (1) Intralobular interstitial thickening (33 cases, 46%), including fine linear, reticular and radiating appearances and the interface sign. (2) Interlobular septal thickening (24 cases, 33%). (3) Thickening of bronchovesicular bundles (35 cases, 49%), with coarse, blurred or smooth bundle, and nodular shape. (4) Subpleural lines (31 cases, 43%). (5) Ground-glass opacity (22 cases, 31%) with peripheral, diffuse or locular distribution. (6) Honeycombing (27 cases, 38%), having sizes: 5 mm. Of the 10 cases with follow-up, 2 cases became normal on CT and 8 cases progressing to honeycombed lung. Conclusions: The HRCT findings of pulmonary interstitial diseases represent abnormalities of axial, peripheral and septal interstitium. Interstitial fibrosis of the lung can be differentiated from that without fibrosis by HRCT. Ground-glass opacity, intralobular interstitial thickening and subpleural lines are preliminary findings of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis

  16. Segregation of cascade induced interstitial loops at dislocations: possible effect on initiation of plastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinkaus, H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Festkoerperforschung; Singh, B.N. [Materials Research Department, Risoe National Laboratory, DK-4000 Roskilde (Denmark); Foreman, A.J.E. [Materials Performance Department, Harwell Laboratory, Oxfordshire OX11 0RA (United Kingdom)

    1997-11-01

    In metals and alloys subjected to cascade damage dislocations are frequently found to be decorated with a high density of small clusters of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) in the form of dislocation loops. In the present paper it is shown that this effect may be attributed to the glide and trapping of SIA loops, produced directly in cascades (rather than to the enhanced agglomeration of single SIAs), in the strain field of the dislocations. The conditions for the accumulation of glissile SIA loops near dislocations as well as the dose and temperature dependencies of this phenomenon are discussed. It is suggested that the decoration of dislocations with loops may play a key role in radiation hardening subjected to cascade damage. It is shown, for example, that the increase in the upper yield stress followed by a yield drop and plastic instability in metals andalloys subjected to cascade damage cannot be rationalized in terms of conventional dispersed barrier hardening (DBH) but may be understood in terms of cascade induced source hardening (CISH) in which the dislocations are considered to be locked by the loops decorating them. Estimates for the stress necessary to pull a dislocation away from its loop `cloud` are used to discuss the dose and temperature dependence of plastic flow initiation. (orig.). 55 refs.

  17. Segregation of cascade induced interstitial loops at dislocations: possible effect on initiation of plastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinkaus, H.; Foreman, A.J.E.

    1997-01-01

    In metals and alloys subjected to cascade damage dislocations are frequently found to be decorated with a high density of small clusters of self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) in the form of dislocation loops. In the present paper it is shown that this effect may be attributed to the glide and trapping of SIA loops, produced directly in cascades (rather than to the enhanced agglomeration of single SIAs), in the strain field of the dislocations. The conditions for the accumulation of glissile SIA loops near dislocations as well as the dose and temperature dependencies of this phenomenon are discussed. It is suggested that the decoration of dislocations with loops may play a key role in radiation hardening subjected to cascade damage. It is shown, for example, that the increase in the upper yield stress followed by a yield drop and plastic instability in metals andalloys subjected to cascade damage cannot be rationalized in terms of conventional dispersed barrier hardening (DBH) but may be understood in terms of cascade induced source hardening (CISH) in which the dislocations are considered to be locked by the loops decorating them. Estimates for the stress necessary to pull a dislocation away from its loop 'cloud' are used to discuss the dose and temperature dependence of plastic flow initiation. (orig.)

  18. Social Upgrading in Developing Country Industrial Clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyke, Frank; Lund-Thomsen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we examine the role of social upgrading in developing country industrial clusters. We argue that while economic growth and productivity enhancement matter, social conditions within clusters are influenced by state monetary, fiscal, and labour policies and regulations, as well...... as by dynamic processes of agency among cluster governance actors. We find that the state's policies and regulations might enable or constrain cluster actors to behave in ways that affect social upgrading or downgrading. These policies and regulations may also be used by the state to directly change social...... conditions in national contexts, including in cluster settings, in order to further the government's overall economic strategy. The conclusion outlines our main findings, and the research and policy implications of our analysis....

  19. Optimizing the shape of ultrasound transducers for interstitial thermal ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafon, Cyril; Melo de Lima, David; Theillere, Yves; Prat, Frederic; Chapelon, Jean-Yves; Cathignol, Dominique

    2002-01-01

    Heat deposition by interstitial routes, especially with ultrasound-based instruments, is becoming a valuable therapeutic option for the treatments of sites, which are difficult to access from outside of the body. The active part of most interstitial ultrasound applicators described in the literature is logically tubular to induce cylindrical volumes of coagulation necrosis. Because the pressure generated by such tubular transducers falls off rapidly with radial distance, we previously proposed using a rotating plane transducer. For a plane wave, the pressure fall-off is only due to attenuation, which makes deeper lesions and shorter treatment times possible. This work represents an advance in the development of ultrasound applicators designed for interstitial applications. This new applicator used a rotating slightly focused transducer. A brief theoretical analysis resulted in the choice of a long focal distance of 22 mm to obtain a nearly constant pressure all along the therapeutic depth. To experimentally validate this focal distance, pressure measurements were made in a tissue mimicking liquid phantom and the results were compared with those obtained with a plane transducer. In vitro experiments showed that necrosis could be induced at a depth of 15 mm. In the same conditions, the greatest depth attained with a plane transducer was only 10 mm. Because each individual lesion is narrower, more lesions and more time are required to necrose a cylindrical volume. The main advantage of this new type of applicator is that it can be used to induce necrosis at a greater depth without varying either the frequency, the intensity or the transducer cooling efficiency

  20. Interstitial cells of Cajal mediate mechanosensitive responses in the stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Kyung-Jong; Sanders, Kenton M.; Ward, Sean M.

    2005-10-01

    Changes in motor activity are a basic response to filling of smooth muscle organs. Responses to gastric filling, for example, are thought to be regulated by neural reflexes. Here, we demonstrate a previously uncharacterized aspect of stretch-dependent responses in visceral smooth muscles that is mediated by mechanosensitive interstitial cells of Cajal. Length ramps were applied to the murine antral muscles while recording intracellular electrical activity and isometric force. Stretching muscles by an average of 27 ± 1% of resting length resulted in 5 mN of force. Increasing length caused membrane depolarization and increased slow-wave frequency. The responses were dependent on the rate of stretch. Stretch-dependent responses were not inhibited by neuronal antagonists or nifedipine. Increases in slow-wave frequency, but not membrane depolarization, were inhibited by reducing external Ca2+ (100 μM) and by Ni2+ (250 μM). Responses to stretch were inhibited by indomethacin (1 μM) and were absent in cyclooxygenase II-deficient mice, suggesting that cyclooxygenase II-derived eicosanoids may mediate these responses. Dual microelectrode impalements of muscle cells within the corpus and antrum showed that stretch-induced changes in slow-wave frequency uncoupled proximal-to-distal propagation of slow waves. This uncoupling could interfere with gastric peristalsis and impede gastric emptying. Stretch of antral muscles of W/WV mice, which lack intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal, did not affect membrane depolarization or slow-wave frequency. These data demonstrate a previously uncharacterized nonneural stretch reflex in gastric muscles and provide physiological evidence demonstrating a mechanosensitive role for interstitial cells of Cajal in smooth muscle tissues. gastric compliance | pacemaker | stretch | slow waves | propagation

  1. Triggered cluster formation in the RMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin Zeng; Smith, Michael D.

    An investigation based on data from the spatially complete 2MASS Survey reveals that a remarkable burst of clustered star formation is taking place throughout the south-east quadrant of the Rosette Molecular Cloud. Compact clusters are forming in a multi-seeded mode, in parallel and at various places. In addition, sparse aggregates of embedded young stars are extensively distributed. Here we present the primary results and implications for high-mass and clustered star formation in this giant molecular cloud. In particular, we incorporate for the first time the birth of medium to low-mass stars into the scenario of sequential formation of OB clusters. Following the emergence of the young OB cluster NGC 2244, a variety of manifestations of forming clusters of medium to high mass appear in the vicinity of the swept-up layer of the H II region as well as further into the molecular cloud. The embedded clusters appear to form in a structured manner, which suggests they follow tracks laid out by the decay of macroturbulence. We address the possible origins of the turbulence. This leads us to propose a tree model to interpret the neat spatial distribution of clusters within a large section of the Rosette complex. Prominent new generation OB clusters are identified at the root of the tree pattern.

  2. Usual interstitial pneumonia in adult-onset still's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodelo, Joaquin; Gonzalez, Luis Alonso; Velasquez, Monica Patricia; Vasquez, Gloria; Uribe, Oscar; Perez, Maria del Pilar; Ramirez, Luis Alberto

    2005-01-01

    Adult-onset still's disease (AOSD) is a multi-system inflammatory disorder of unknown origin, characterized by high spiking fevers, evanescent salmon colored rash, arthralgias or arthritis, hepatospleno-megaly, Iymphadenopathy and sore throat. It is not uncommon for AOSD to involve other organs, such as the liver, the kidney; the bone marrow and less often the lungs. Pulmonary involvement ranges from 30 to 40 % (0 to 53 %), the pulmonary manifestations of AOSD include pleurisy, acute pneumonitis and even the acute respiratory distress syndrome. We present a case of a patient with AOSD who developed an interstitial lung disease and reviewed the literature on it

  3. Interstitial cells in the musculature of the gastrointestinal tract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, Jüri J; Vanderwinden, Jean-Marie

    2003-01-01

    , the ultrastructure and light microscopic morphology, as well as the functions and the development of ICC and of neighboring fibroblast-like cells (FLC), are critically reviewed. Directions for future research are considered and a unifying concept of mesenchymal cells, either KIT positive (the "ICC") or KIT negative...... "non-Cajal" (including the FLC and possibly also other cell types) cell types in the interstitium of the smooth musculature of the gastrointestinal tract, is proposed. Furthermore, evidence is accumulating to suggest that, as postulated by Santiago Ramon y Cajal, the concept of interstitial cells...

  4. What is new in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanno, P.; Nordling, J.; Ophoven, A. van

    2008-01-01

    and nomenclature are ongoing. Some new treatments have been reported that may be of benefit. Summary In the age of the internet, it is incumbent upon the clinician to keep up with current ideas, epidemiology, and treatment findings to be able to discuss these with well informed patients who come to clinics around......Purpose of review Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is an important and poorly understood disorder. This review highlights current research findings that may be of benefit to the clinician who is responsible for the diagnosis and treatment of patients who suffer from this condition...

  5. [Interstitial cystitis : Diagnosis and pharmacological and surgical therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsior, A; Neuhaus, J; Horn, L C; Bschleipfer, T; Stolzenburg, J-U

    2017-06-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a chronic debilitating condition which generally has a severely negative impact on quality of life. An autoimmune genetic predisposition correlates with the theory of pathogenesis. Diagnosis requires history, diaries, physical examination, exclusion of other diseases, cystoscopy with or without hydrodistension and/or bladder biopsy. Novel biological markers are upcoming but not established. Behavioural, pharmacological oral and intravesical, interventional and surgical therapies with a wide range of reported success are available. A multimodal approach is recommended, although most of the therapeutic options lack a high degree of evidence.

  6. Strongyloidiasis with gastric mucosal invasion presenting with acute interstitial nephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangs, Michael J; Sirait, Sontan; Purnomo; Maguire, Jason D

    2006-07-01

    We report an atypical occurrence of invasive Strongyloides stercoralis infection of the stomach mucosa in an elderly female patient from Bangka Island, northwestern Indonesia. The patient presented with severe epigastric pain, edema of the legs, proteinuria and severe hypoalbuminemia. Gastric and duodenal biopsies found eggs, larval and adult forms present in the superficial mucosa with mild inflammation. The Harada-Mori filter paper culture technique revealed S. stercoralis filariform larvae and free-living adult worms, corroborating the diagnosis. The infection was associated with acute interstitial nephritis. The patient showed rapid and dramatic improvement after treatment with mebendazole.

  7. A case of Amyopathic Dermatomyositis associated with Interstitial Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugan, Y; Sahin, M; Dogru, A; Bayram, D; Ceyhan, A M; Tunc, S E

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory myopathies are a heterogeneous group of diseases with unknown etiology characterized by inflammation of the skeletal muscles and proximal muscle weakness. Dermatomyositis (DM) is an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy with characteristic cutaneous findings such as heliotrope rash, Gottron's sign, Gottron's papules, shawl sign and machinist hand. Amyopathic dermatomyositis (ADM) is a rare but well-recognized clinical subtype of DM, constituting aproximately 10-20% of patients with this disease. It generally manifests only pathognomonic skin findings without clinical and laboratory evidence of muscle involvement. In this report, we present a rare case of ADM associated with interstitial pulmonary disease.

  8. Predicting Plasma Glucose From Interstitial Glucose Observations Using Bayesian Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Alexander Hildenbrand; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Juhl, Rune

    2014-01-01

    One way of constructing a control algorithm for an artificial pancreas is to identify a model capable of predicting plasma glucose (PG) from interstitial glucose (IG) observations. Stochastic differential equations (SDEs) make it possible to account both for the unknown influence of the continuous...... glucose monitor (CGM) and for unknown physiological influences. Combined with prior knowledge about the measurement devices, this approach can be used to obtain a robust predictive model. A stochastic-differential-equation-based gray box (SDE-GB) model is formulated on the basis of an identifiable...

  9. Childhood acromegaly successfully treated with interstitial irradiation using Yttrium-90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenstock, J.; Doyle, F.H.; Mashiter, K.; Joplin, G.F.

    1982-01-01

    A child with a growth hormone producing tumour presented at the age of 4 1/2 years. The onset of the disease was at 18 months of age. Treatment was given with three doses of interstitial irradiation using yttrium-90 implants. There were no local complications from the procedures. Now, 11 years after diagnosis, she is asymptomatic, of normal appearance, and her height and the size of the pituitary fossa are normal. Growth hormone levels are almost normal, thyroid function is intact, and she is maintained on prednisone and sex hormones. (Authors)

  10. Diversity among galaxy clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struble, M.F.; Rood, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    The classification of galaxy clusters is discussed. Consideration is given to the classification scheme of Abell (1950's), Zwicky (1950's), Morgan, Matthews, and Schmidt (1964), and Morgan-Bautz (1970). Galaxies can be classified based on morphology, chemical composition, spatial distribution, and motion. The correlation between a galaxy's environment and morphology is examined. The classification scheme of Rood-Sastry (1971), which is based on clusters's morphology and galaxy population, is described. The six types of clusters they define include: (1) a cD-cluster dominated by a single large galaxy, (2) a cluster dominated by a binary, (3) a core-halo cluster, (4) a cluster dominated by several bright galaxies, (5) a cluster appearing flattened, and (6) an irregularly shaped cluster. Attention is also given to the evolution of cluster structures, which is related to initial density and cluster motion

  11. Histopathological approach to patterns of interstitial pneumonia in patient with connective tissue disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Andrew G; Colby, Thomas V; Wells, Athol U

    2002-03-01

    It is well established that some patients with connective tissue disorders will suffer from pulmonary disease at some stage in their disease progression. This article concentrates on the interstitial pneumonias, seen in association with most types of connective tissue disorder, particularly in the ligh of non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) being recognised as a distinct histological pattern. Most published articles on this subject precede recognition of NSIP and, as such, the relative incidence of patterns of interstitial pneumonia, as defined by the International Consensus Classification Committee for Interstitial Lung Disease (ICCILD), as well as the clinical and prognostic significance of these patterns is undergoing further scrutiny. In this review, the recognised histological patterns, namely usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), non-specific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), organising pneumonia (OP), reactive pulmonary lymphoid hyperplasia, desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP) and respiratory bronchiolitis-associated interstitial lung disease (RBILD) are reviewed systematically in relation to the various subgroups of connective tissue disorders. As yet, there are few published studies, but current evidence suggests that many cases previously classified as fibrosing alveolitis are likely to show a pattern of NSIP rather than UIP, particularly in relation to systemic sclerosis. The histological pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia, the most frequently seen pattern in biopsies from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis/cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, appears to be comparatively rare. Furthermore, any biopsy showing a combination of histological patterns, a pattern of non-specific interstitial pneumonia or a pattern of lymphoid interstitial pneumonia/follicular bronchiolitis should be thoroughly investigated for a background connective tissue disorder, if previously unsuspected. Finally, the recently published

  12. Holes in the distribution of rich clusters of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, J.O.

    1988-01-01

    The properties of voids in the distribution of Abell clusters of galaxies are described. Cluster voids, such as that in Bootes, serve as markers of large candidate voids of galaxies. The advantages and disadvantages of using rich clusters as tracers of large-scale structures are reviewed. One new 40/h Mpc diameter void of galaxies and clusters in Pisces-Cetus is described in detail. It is found that numerical simulations of models with Gaussian initial conditions do not reproduce the void or filament structures observed within the Abell cluster catalog. The implications of this discrepancy for future observations and models are discussed. 26 references

  13. Neutron diffraction observations of interstitial protons in dense ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Malcolm; Boehler, Reinhard; Tulk, Christopher A; Molaison, Jamie J; dos Santos, António M; Li, Kuo; Hemley, Russell J

    2013-06-25

    The motif of distinct H2O molecules in H-bonded networks is believed to persist up to the densest molecular phase of ice. At even higher pressures, where the molecule dissociates, it is generally assumed that the proton remains localized within these same networks. We report neutron-diffraction measurements on D2O that reveal the location of the D atoms directly up to 52 GPa, a pressure regime not previously accessible to this technique. The data show the onset of a structural change at ∼13 GPa and cannot be described by the conventional network structure of ice VII above ∼26 GPa. Our measurements are consistent with substantial deuteron density in the octahedral, interstitial voids of the oxygen lattice. The observation of this "interstitial" ice VII form provides a framework for understanding the evolution of hydrogen bonding in ice that contrasts with the conventional picture. It may also be a precursor for the superionic phase reported at even higher pressure with important consequences for our understanding of dense matter and planetary interiors.

  14. Interstitial diffusion in systems with multiple sorts of traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, F. D.; Svoboda, J.; Kozeschnik, E.

    2013-03-01

    The role of several sorts of traps for one diffusing interstitial component is investigated. The site fraction of this component in each trap is calculated due to the local thermodynamic equilibrium condition with its site fraction in the lattice. Combining Fick's first law for diffusive fluxes of individual site fractions with the equilibrium condition and the mass balance allows deriving an extended nonlinear diffusion equation. If the molar volumes of the trap positions are constant with respect to time, then a generalized chemical diffusion coefficient can be derived, which allows performing the diffusion study in terms of the total concentration of the interstitial component. As an alternative way, the total diffusion flux can also be treated as the sum of diffusion fluxes of individual fractions combined with local redistribution of individual fractions based on the thermodynamic local equilibrium condition. Both concepts are presented in simulations for the diffusion of hydrogen in the system with traps as immobile dislocations, substitutional impurities and interfaces of incoherent carbide nanoprecipitates. Both concepts provide equivalent results and exhibit an asymmetric behaviour with respect to a charging/discharging process.

  15. The role of Borrelia burgdorferi in interstitial cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haarala, M; Kiiholma, P; Nurmi, M; Uksila, J; Alanen, A

    2000-04-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi spirochete has been found both in bladder biopsies and the urine of patients with Lyme disease (LD) as well as in experimental animals. The urological symptoms in borreliosis resemble those of interstitial cystitis (IC): frequency, urgency and nocturia. The aim of this studies is to find the role of B. burgdorferi in interstitial cystitis. We studied antibodies against B. burgdorferi from serum samples of 50 IC patients with two separate EIA tests. Patients with positive serology in both tests underwent cystoscopy and a bladder biopsy was taken. The presence of borrelia DNA was studied with borrelia-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and with universal bacterial PCR. IgM class antibodies to B. burgdorferi were not found, but IgG antibodies were found in four samples (8%). This was higher than in the control material (2%). One patient's sample was strongly positive, whereas three samples were weakly positive. Bladder biopsies taken from the 4 patients were negative for borrelia DNA in both PCR tests. None of the seropositive patients had any symptoms consistent with LD. These results indicate that persistent infection of B. burgdorferi has no role in the etiology of IC. On the other hand a connection with a past borrelia infection and IC is not excluded.

  16. Development of an interstitial cystitis risk score for bladder permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Laura E.; Janicki, Joseph J.; Bartolone, Sarah N.; Peters, Kenneth M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC) is a multifactorial syndrome of severe pelvic and genitalia pain and compromised urinary function; a subset of IC patients present with Hunner’s lesions or ulcers on their bladder walls (UIC). UIC is diagnosed by cystoscopy, which may be quite painful. The objective of this study was to determine if a calculated Bladder Permeability Defect Risk Score (BP-RS) based on non-invasive urinary cytokines could discriminate UIC patients from controls and IC patients without Hunner’s ulcers. Methods A national crowdsourcing effort targeted IC patients and age-matched controls to provide urine samples. Urinary cytokine levels for GRO, IL-6, and IL-8 were determined using a Luminex assay. Results We collected 448 urine samples from 46 states consisting of 153 IC patients (147 female, 6 male), of which 54 UIC patients (50 females, 4 male), 159 female controls, and 136 male controls. A defined BP-RS was calculated to classify UIC, or a bladder permeability defect etiology, with 89% validity. Conclusions The BP-RS Score quantifies UIC risk, indicative of a bladder permeability defect etiology in a subset of IC patients. The Bladder Permeability Defect Risk Score is the first validated urine biomarker assay for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. PMID:29088231

  17. Development of an interstitial cystitis risk score for bladder permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Laura E; Janicki, Joseph J; Bartolone, Sarah N; Peters, Kenneth M; Chancellor, Michael B

    2017-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC) is a multifactorial syndrome of severe pelvic and genitalia pain and compromised urinary function; a subset of IC patients present with Hunner's lesions or ulcers on their bladder walls (UIC). UIC is diagnosed by cystoscopy, which may be quite painful. The objective of this study was to determine if a calculated Bladder Permeability Defect Risk Score (BP-RS) based on non-invasive urinary cytokines could discriminate UIC patients from controls and IC patients without Hunner's ulcers. A national crowdsourcing effort targeted IC patients and age-matched controls to provide urine samples. Urinary cytokine levels for GRO, IL-6, and IL-8 were determined using a Luminex assay. We collected 448 urine samples from 46 states consisting of 153 IC patients (147 female, 6 male), of which 54 UIC patients (50 females, 4 male), 159 female controls, and 136 male controls. A defined BP-RS was calculated to classify UIC, or a bladder permeability defect etiology, with 89% validity. The BP-RS Score quantifies UIC risk, indicative of a bladder permeability defect etiology in a subset of IC patients. The Bladder Permeability Defect Risk Score is the first validated urine biomarker assay for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

  18. Hydrogen solution in tetrahedral or octahedral interstitial sites in Al

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, C.A.; Hu, J.P.; Ouyang, C.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The physical nature of the site preference for H solution in BCC Al is revealed. → The site preference is result of competition between Al-H bonding interaction and local lattice distortion. → The Al-H bonding interaction lowers the solution energy while the local lattice distortion increases the solution energy. - Abstract: It is reported that H atoms prefer to stay at interstitial (defect) sites with larger space in most metals. However, H atom prefers to occupy tetrahedral interstitial sites (T-site) that provide smaller space than octahedral sites (O-site) in Al. This paper studied the H-Al interactions from first principles calculations. Through analysis of the H-induced electronic states and the local atomic relaxations, we show that H-Al bonding interaction is stronger for T-site H, which is in favor of the solution energy. On the other hand, larger local atomic distortion is observed around the T-site H, which increases the total energy.

  19. Interstitial fluid contains higher in vitro IGF bioactivity than serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espelund, Ulrick; Søndergaard, Klaus; Bjerring, Peter

    2012-01-01

    CONTEXT: Circulating insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are bound in complexes which affect their tissue-accessibility. Interstitial fluid is in close proximity to target cells, but the IGF-system is not well-described herein. OBJECTIVE: To perform a thorough comparison of the IGF-system in sucti...... relate to an increased enzymatic IGFBP-degradation and an altered IGFBP-composition in SBF, making more IGF-I and -II accessible to the IGF-IR. The impact of food intake on the IGF system differs between serum and interstitial fluid....... blister fluid (SBF) vs. in serum, with emphasis on bioactive IGF levels. DESIGN: Eight hour study including samples collected in the fasting state (20h) and after a meal. SETTING: Clinical research facility. PARTICIPANTS: Six healthy males (age 37.0±8.8years, BMI 22.5±1.4kg/m(2)) (mean±SD). MAIN OUTCOME...... was observed, including 3-fold elevated amounts of IGFBP-3 fragments in SBF (Pfood intake differed between serum and SBF (all P≤0.03). CONCLUSION: Despite lower concentrations, the in vitro IGF bioactivity was higher in SBF than in serum. This may...

  20. Legionnaire's pneumonia: Is there really an interstitial disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godet, C.; Frat, J.P.; Le Moal, G.; Roblot, F.; Michalakis, G.; Cabon, E.; Tasu, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Legionella pneumonia is usually classified as 'atypical pneumonia', which suggests a predominance of interstitial patterns in chest X-rays. Based on a selection of recent clinical cases and a brief review of the literature, the aim of the study is to clarify, how far the actual radiological findings would be consistent with these expectations. Patients and methods: A retrospective analysis of 18 epidemic personal cases and a review of the literature data were performed to describe the chest X-ray findings of Legionella pneumophila (LP) community acquired pneumonia. X-ray review was performed simultaneously and in consensus by two radiologists (J.P.T., E.C.) and a physician (C.G.). Results: From our series, 17 patients had an abnormal chest X-ray on admission. Among these pathological X-ray cases, infiltrates were more often confluent (n = 16), or patchy (n = 7), rather than interstitial (n = 1). Fifteen patients had infiltrates involving the lower lung fields. Bilateral distribution of abnormalities and pleural effusion were each observed in three cases. Radiological findings deteriorated between the second and seventh days following admission, particularly in the form of patchy infiltrates with pleural effusion. The review of the literature is consistent with these findings, by reporting prevalent confluent or patchy infiltrates. Conclusions: These findings are consistent with the physiopathological particularity of this affection and incite us to avoid the classification 'atypical pneumonia' in radiologic terminology. This term is more appropriate for clinical and microbiological use

  1. Peritumoral interstitial fluid flow velocity predicts survival in cervical carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hompland, Tord; Lund, Kjersti V.; Ellingsen, Christine; Kristensen, Gunnar B.; Rofstad, Einar K.

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: High tumor interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) is associated with poor outcome in locally advanced carcinoma of the uterine cervix. We have recently developed a noninvasive assay of the IFP of tumors, and in this assay, the outward interstitial fluid flow velocity at the tumor surface (v 0 ) is measured by Gd-DTPA-based DCE-MRI and used as a parameter for IFP. Here, we investigated the independent prognostic significance of v 0 in cervical cancer patients given cisplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy with curative intent. Patients: The study involved 62 evaluable patients from a cohort of 74 consecutive patients (Stage IB through IIIB) with a median follow-up of 5.5 years. Results: The actuarial disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) at 5 years were 67% and 76%, respectively. Significant associations were found between v 0 dichotomized about the median value and DFS and OS, both in the total patient cohort and a subcohort of 40 Stage IIB patients. Multivariate analysis involving stage, tumor volume, lymph node status, and v 0 revealed that only v 0 provided independent prognostic information about DFS and OS. Conclusion: This investigation demonstrates a strong, independent prognostic impact of the pretreatment peritumoral fluid flow velocity in cervical cancer

  2. Microbiome in interstitial lung disease: from pathogenesis to treatment target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Margaret L; Han, MeiLan K; Dickson, Robert P; Molyneaux, Philip L

    2017-09-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge of the role of the lung microbiome in interstitial lung disease and poses considerations of the microbiome as a therapeutic target. Although historically considered sterile, bacterial communities have now been well documented in lungs in health and disease. Studies in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) suggest that increased bacterial burden and/or abundance of potentially pathogenic bacteria may drive disease progression, acute exacerbations, and mortality. More recent work has highlighted the interaction between the lung microbiome and the innate immune system in IPF, strengthening the argument for the role of both host and environment interaction in disease pathogenesis. In support of this, studies of interstitial lung diseases other than IPF suggest that it may be the host immune response, which shapes the microbiome in these diseases. Some clinical and mouse model data also suggest that the lung microbiome may represent a therapeutic target, via antibiotic administration, immunization against pathogenic organisms, or treatment directed at gastroesophageal reflux. Evidence suggests that the lung microbiome may serve as a prognostic biomarker, a therapeutic target, or provide an explanation for disease pathogenesis in IPF.

  3. Development of an interstitial cystitis risk score for bladder permeability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Lamb

    Full Text Available Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC is a multifactorial syndrome of severe pelvic and genitalia pain and compromised urinary function; a subset of IC patients present with Hunner's lesions or ulcers on their bladder walls (UIC. UIC is diagnosed by cystoscopy, which may be quite painful. The objective of this study was to determine if a calculated Bladder Permeability Defect Risk Score (BP-RS based on non-invasive urinary cytokines could discriminate UIC patients from controls and IC patients without Hunner's ulcers.A national crowdsourcing effort targeted IC patients and age-matched controls to provide urine samples. Urinary cytokine levels for GRO, IL-6, and IL-8 were determined using a Luminex assay.We collected 448 urine samples from 46 states consisting of 153 IC patients (147 female, 6 male, of which 54 UIC patients (50 females, 4 male, 159 female controls, and 136 male controls. A defined BP-RS was calculated to classify UIC, or a bladder permeability defect etiology, with 89% validity.The BP-RS Score quantifies UIC risk, indicative of a bladder permeability defect etiology in a subset of IC patients. The Bladder Permeability Defect Risk Score is the first validated urine biomarker assay for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

  4. Bone tissue engineering: the role of interstitial fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillsley, M. V.; Frangos, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    It is well established that vascularization is required for effective bone healing. This implies that blood flow and interstitial fluid (ISF) flow are required for healing and maintenance of bone. The fact that changes in bone blood flow and ISF flow are associated with changes in bone remodeling and formation support this theory. ISF flow in bone results from transcortical pressure gradients produced by vascular and hydrostatic pressure, and mechanical loading. Conditions observed to alter flow rates include increases in venous pressure in hypertension, fluid shifts occurring in bedrest and microgravity, increases in vascularization during the injury-healing response, and mechanical compression and bending of bone during exercise. These conditions also induce changes in bone remodeling. Previously, we hypothesized that interstitial fluid flow in bone, and in particular fluid shear stress, serves to mediate signal transduction in mechanical loading- and injury-induced remodeling. In addition, we proposed that a lack or decrease of ISF flow results in the bone loss observed in disuse and microgravity. The purpose of this article is to review ISF flow in bone and its role in osteogenesis.

  5. [Chronic interstitial lung disease in children: Diagnostic approach and management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuger, M; Clair, M-P; El Ayoun Ibrahim, N; L'Excellent, S; Nizery, L; O'Neill, C; Tabone, L; Truffinet, O; Yakovleff, C; de Blic, J

    2016-05-01

    Chronic interstitial lung disease (ILD) in children is a heterogeneous group of rare lung disorders characterized by an inflammatory process of the alveolar wall and the pulmonary interstitium that induces gas exchange disorders. The diagnostic approach to an ILD involves three essential steps: recognizing the ILD, appreciating the impact, and identifying the cause. The spectrum of clinical findings depends to a large extent on age. In the newborn, the beginning is often abrupt (neonatal respiratory distress), whereas there is a more gradual onset in infants (failure to thrive, tachypnea, indrawing of the respiratory muscles). In older children, the onset is insidious and the diagnosis can only be made at an advanced stage of the disease. The diagnosis is based on noninvasive methods (clinical history, respiratory function tests, chest X-ray, and high-resolution CT scan) and invasive techniques (bronchoalveolar lavage, transbronchial biopsy, video-assisted thoracoscopic biopsy, and open lung biopsy). The treatment of interstitial lung disease in children depends on the nature of the underlying pathology. The most common therapeutic approach involves the use of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive agents for their anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects. Children with ILD also need support therapy (oxygen therapy, nutritional support, treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension, vaccination). Lung transplantation is discussed in patients with severe respiratory failure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Clustering of correlated networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dorogovtsev, S. N.

    2003-01-01

    We obtain the clustering coefficient, the degree-dependent local clustering, and the mean clustering of networks with arbitrary correlations between the degrees of the nearest-neighbor vertices. The resulting formulas allow one to determine the nature of the clustering of a network.

  7. Cluster knockout reactions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-04-07

    Apr 7, 2014 ... Cluster knockout reactions are expected to reveal the amount of clustering (such as that of , d and even of heavier clusters such as 12C, 16O etc.) in the target nucleus. In simple terms, incident medium high-energy nuclear projectile interacts strongly with the cluster (present in the target nucleus) as if it ...

  8. What Makes Clusters Decline?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Christian Richter; Park, Eun Kyung

    2015-01-01

    Most studies on regional clusters focus on identifying factors and processes that make clusters grow. However, sometimes technologies and market conditions suddenly shift, and clusters decline. This paper analyses the process of decline of the wireless communication cluster in Denmark. The longit...

  9. The Key Roles of Negative Pressure Breathing and Exercise in the Development of Interstitial Pulmonary Edema in Professional Male SCUBA Divers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagna, Olivier; Regnard, Jacques; Gempp, Emmanuel; Louge, Pierre; Brocq, François Xavier; Schmid, Bruno; Desruelle, Anne-Virginie; Crunel, Valentin; Maurin, Adrien; Chopard, Romain; MacIver, David Hunter

    2018-01-03

    Immersion pulmonary edema is potentially a catastrophic condition; however, the pathophysiological mechanisms are ill-defined. This study assessed the individual and combined effects of exertion and negative pressure breathing on the cardiovascular system during the development of pulmonary edema in SCUBA divers. Sixteen male professional SCUBA divers performed four SCUBA dives in a freshwater pool at 1 m depth while breathing air at either a positive or negative pressure both at rest or with exercise. Echocardiography and lung ultrasound were used to assess the cardiovascular changes and lung comet score (a measure of interstitial pulmonary edema). The ultrasound lung comet score was 0 following both the dives at rest regardless of breathing pressure. Following exercise, the mean comet score rose to 4.2 with positive pressure breathing and increased to 15.1 with negative pressure breathing. The development of interstitial pulmonary edema was significantly related to inferior vena cava diameter, right atrial area, tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, right ventricular fractional area change, and pulmonary artery pressure. Exercise combined with negative pressure breathing induced the greatest changes in these cardiovascular indices and lung comet score. A diver using negative pressure breathing while exercising is at greatest risk of developing interstitial pulmonary edema. The development of immersion pulmonary edema is closely related to hemodynamic changes in the right but not the left ventricle. Our findings have important implications for divers and understanding the mechanisms of pulmonary edema in other clinical settings.

  10. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema: a case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Kauark Amoedo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is a rare condition that generally affects low-weight preterm infants submitted to mechanical ventilation. The prognosis is variable, depending on early diagnosis and treatment. The radiologist plays a key role in this scenario. The authors report a case of persistent pulmonary interstitial emphysema, describing the main characteristics of such entity.

  11. Investigations on the local structure and g factors for the interstitial ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The EPR g factors gi (i = x, y, z) for the interstitial Ti3+ in rutile are theoretically studied from the perturbation formulas of these parameters for a 3d1 ion in rhombically compressed octahedra. The ligand octahedron in the impurity center is found to be less compressed than that on the host interstitial site due to the ...

  12. Increased urinary levels of Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein suggest a systemic etiology of interstitial cystitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bade, J J; Marrink, J; Karrenbeld, A; van der Weele, L; Mensink, H J

    Purpose: We investigated the role of Tamm-Horsfall protein in interstitial cystitis. Materials and Methods: Urinary Tamm-Horsfall protein excretion was analyzed in interstitial cystitis patients and controls, and bladder biopsy specimens were stained immunohistochemically for Tamm-Horsfall protein.

  13. Non-bladder conditions in female Taiwanese patients with interstitial cystitis/hypersensitive bladder syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yu-Hua; Lin, Alex T L; Lu, Shing-Hwa; Chuang, Yao-Chi; Chen, Kuang-Kuo

    2014-08-01

    To detect non-bladder conditions in patients with interstitial cystitis/hypersensitive bladder syndrome. A total of 122 female interstitial cystitis/hypersensitive bladder syndrome patients and a control group of 122 age-matched female patients with stress urinary incontinence completed screening questionnaires for irritable bowel syndrome, temporomandibular disorder, multiple chemical sensitivities, tension and migraine headache, localized myofascial pain disorder, and fibromyalgia. Interstitial cystitis/hypersensitive bladder syndrome patients also completed questionnaires on interstitial cystitis/hypersensitive bladder syndrome symptom severity, including the O'Leary-Sant symptom index, and the visual analog scale for pain and urgency. Interstitial cystitis/hypersensitive bladder syndrome patients were more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for irritable bowel syndrome than controls (37.5% vs 11.5%), and tension/migraine headache (38.7% vs 15.7%; all P interstitial cystitis/hypersensitive bladder syndrome symptoms as measured by the visual analog scale of pain (P = 0.008) and O'Leary-Sant bother index (P = 0.035). Interstitial cystitis/hypersensitive bladder syndrome patients are more likely to have multiple non-bladder conditions. These conditions correlate with the severity of interstitial cystitis/hypersensitive bladder syndrome symptoms. © 2014 The Japanese Urological Association.

  14. Macrophage Chemotaxis in Anti-tubular Basement Membrane-Induced Interstitial Nephritis in Guinea Pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kennedy, Thomas L.; Merrow, Martha; Phillips, S. Michael; Norman, Michael; Neilson, Eric G.

    1985-01-01

    Interstitial renal lesions containing T cells and macrophages develop after 14 days in guinea pigs immunized to produce anti-tubular basement membrane-induced interstitial nephritis. We serially examined the renal venous and systemic arterial sera from such animals to determine if chemotactic

  15. Serum human chorionic gonadotropin clearance curves in patients with interstitial pregnancy treated with systemic methotrexate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hajenius, P. J.; Voigt, R. R.; Engelsbel, S.; Mol, B. W.; Hemrika, D. J.; van der Veen, F.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate short-term effectiveness of systemic methotrexate (MTX) in interstitial pregnancy. DESIGN: Case series. SETTING: Two Dutch teaching hospitals. PATIENT(S): Eight consecutive patients with an unruptured interstitial pregnancy. INTERVENTION(S): Four doses of 1.0 mg/kg IM MTX

  16. Pulmonary interstitial emphysema: a case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoedo, Mauricio Kauark, E-mail: mauricioamoedo@gmail.com [Interventional Radiology, Hospital A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Souza, Luciana Volpon Soares; Souza, Antonio Soares [Instituto de Radiodiagnostico Rio Preto (Ultra-X), Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil); Souza Junior, Arthur Soares [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (Famerp), SP (Brazil); Marchiori, Edson [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-09-15

    Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is a rare condition that generally affects low-weight preterm infants submitted to mechanical ventilation. The prognosis is variable, depending on early diagnosis and treatment. The radiologist plays a key role in this scenario. The authors report a case of persistent pulmonary interstitial emphysema, describing the main characteristics of such entity. (author)

  17. Advanced sickle cell associated interstitial lung disease presenting with cor pulmonale in a Nigerian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawibe, Ademola Emmanuel; Kolo, Philip Manman; Ogunmodede, James Ayodele; Desalu, Olufemi Olumuyiwa; Salami, Kazeem Alakija

    2012-04-01

    Previous studies have reported abnormal pulmonary function and pulmonary hypertension among Nigerians with sickle cell disease, but there is no report of interstitial lung disease among them. We report a Nigerian sickle cell patient who presented with computed tomography proven interstitial lung disease complicated by pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale.

  18. Distress in patients with interstitial cystitis: Do illness representations have a role to play?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyhoe, Jane; Lawton, Rebecca

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the illness perceptions of patients with interstitial cystitis (IC) and their experience of psychological distress using the Revised Illness Perceptions Questionnaire (IPQ-R). The extent to which this measure adequately captures the illness representations of this group was also evaluated through semi-structured interviews. Forty-four patients with IC attending an out-patient clinic at a large UK hospital completed a questionnaire booklet comprising of the IPQ-R and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28). Fifteen patients also took part in a follow-up interview. Pearson's correlation revealed that illness identity, consequences, illness coherence, emotional representations and psychological, risk factor and accident and injury attributions were associated with psychological distress. MANOVA analyses indicated that illness perceptions differed between severely and non-severely distressed patients, but not between patients with more or less severe symptoms. Moreover, the content analysis of patient interviews suggested that some aspects of the emotional experience of IC may not yet be adequately captured in the IPQ-R. Findings indicated that illness perceptions of patients' with IC are associated with psychological distress and the implications of this for further research and possible interventions are discussed.

  19. Understanding pain and coping in women with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Laura; Tripp, Dean A; Carr, Lesley K; Mayer, Robert; Moldwin, Robert M; Nickel, J Curtis

    2017-08-01

    To examine a self-regulation and coping model for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) that may help us understand the pain experience of patients with chronic IC/BPS. The model tested illness perceptions, illness-focused coping, emotional regulation, mental health and disability in a stepwise method using factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Step 1, explored the underlying constructs. Step 2, confirmed the measurement models to determine the structure/composition of the main constructs. Step 3, evaluated the model fit and specified pathways in the proposed IC/BPS self-regulation model. In all, 217 female patients with urologist diagnosed IC/BPS were recruited and diagnosed across tertiary care centres in North America. The data were collected through self-report questionnaires. An IC/BPS self-regulation model was supported. Physical disability was worsened by patient's negative perception of their illness, attempts to cope using illness-focused coping and poorer emotional regulation. Mental health was supported by perceptions that individuals could do something about their illness, using wellness-focused behavioural strategies and adaptive emotion regulation. The results clarify the complex and unique process of self-regulation in women with IC/BPS, implicating cognitive and coping targets, and highlighting emotional regulation. This knowledge should help clinicians understand and manage these patients' distress and disability. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. From bladder to systemic syndrome: concept and treatment evolution of interstitial cystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinis S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sara Dinis,1,2 Joana Tavares de Oliveira,3,4 Rui Pinto,1,5 Francisco Cruz,1,5 CA Tony Buffington,6 Paulo Dinis1,5 1Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital de São João, Porto, 3Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, ULHT, Lisbon, 4Institute of Molecular Pathology and Immunology (IPATIMUP, University of Porto, 5Department of Urology, Hospital de São João, Porto, Portugal; 6Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, OH, USA Abstract: Interstitial cystitis, presently known as bladder pain syndrome, has been recognized for over a century but is still far from being understood. Its etiology is unknown and the syndrome probably harbors different diseases. Autoimmune dysfunction, urothelial leakage, infection, central and peripheral nervous system dysfunction, genetic disease, childhood trauma/abuse, and subsequent stress response system dysregulation might be implicated. Management is slowly evolving from a solo act by the end-organ specialist to a team approach based on new typing and phenotyping of the disease. However, oral and invasive treatments are still largely aimed at the bladder and are based on currently proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms. Future research will better define the disease, permitting individualization of treatment. Keywords: bladder pain syndrome, concept, treatment

  1. Interstitial cells of Cajal and Auerbach's plexus. A scanning electron microscopical study of guinea-pig small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Harry; Thuneberg, Lars

    1991-01-01

    Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, myenteric plexus, small intestine, guinea-pig, scanning electron microscopy......Anatomy, interstitial cells of Cajal, myenteric plexus, small intestine, guinea-pig, scanning electron microscopy...

  2. Mutation Clusters from Cancer Exome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakushadze, Zura; Yu, Willie

    2017-08-15

    We apply our statistically deterministic machine learning/clustering algorithm *K-means (recently developed in https://ssrn.com/abstract=2908286) to 10,656 published exome samples for 32 cancer types. A majority of cancer types exhibit a mutation clustering structure. Our results are in-sample stable. They are also out-of-sample stable when applied to 1389 published genome samples across 14 cancer types. In contrast, we find in- and out-of-sample instabilities in cancer signatures extracted from exome samples via nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF), a computationally-costly and non-deterministic method. Extracting stable mutation structures from exome data could have important implications for speed and cost, which are critical for early-stage cancer diagnostics, such as novel blood-test methods currently in development.

  3. Clustering in analytical chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drab, Klaudia; Daszykowski, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Data clustering plays an important role in the exploratory analysis of analytical data, and the use of clustering methods has been acknowledged in different fields of science. In this paper, principles of data clustering are presented with a direct focus on clustering of analytical data. The role of the clustering process in the analytical workflow is underlined, and its potential impact on the analytical workflow is emphasized.

  4. Depression and catastrophizing predict suicidal ideation in tertiary care patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tripp, Dean A; Nickel, J Curtis; Krsmanovic, Adrijana

    2016-01-01

    is the first to implicate multiple psychosocial risk factors over and above IC/BPS-specific symptoms and patient pain experience in SI in women with IC/BPS. Depression in particular is uniquely important in predicting suicidality. These results support a multidisciplinary, proactive approach to IC......Introduction: We sought to evaluate psychosocial factors as predictors of suicidal ideation (SI) in a tertiary care outpatient sample of women suffering from interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS). Methods: The patients are women managed at tertiary care centres (n=190). Controls were...... of psychosocial variables on patient SI. Results: Compared to 6% in healthy controls, 23% of patients endorsed SI in the past two weeks. Correlations between SI, depression, and catastrophizing across controls and cases show that for controls, SI is associated with greater pain (0.31; pdepression only...

  5. Interstitial heterotopic pregnancy in a woman conceiving by in vitro fertilization after bilateral salpingectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumesic, D A; Damario, M A; Session, D R

    2001-01-01

    Heterotopic pregnancy, defined as the coexistence of an intrauterine pregnancy and an ectopic pregnancy, occurs in approximately 1 in 100 pregnancies conceived by in vitro fertilization (IVF), particularly when multiple embryos are transferred into the uterus. The ectopic gestation of the combined pregnancy usually occurs within the ampulla of the fallopian tube. If it implants within the interstitial portion of the fallopian tube, however, the resulting interstitial pregnancy eventually can rupture through the uterus, leading to sudden, severe hemorrhage and maternal death. This article describes the rupture of an interstitial heterotopic pregnancy in a 37-year-old woman conceiving by IVF after bilateral salpingectomy. The interstitial pregnancy was removed by laparotomy to protect the intrauterine pregnancy from damage. Physicians should consider interstitial ectopic pregnancy as a cause of abdominal pain, even when a viable pregnancy occurs by IVF after salpingectomy.

  6. Effect of the chemical pressure by the addition of interstitials in CePd3:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieva, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of the 'chemical pressure' on the intermediate valence compound CePd 3 , is studied by means of specific heat measurements with and without magnetic field. The addition of interstitials in the cubic structure on the alloys CePd 3 A H (A = B, Be, Si) is analyzed. At low interstitial concentration the thermal and magnetic properties that characterize the evolution of the Ce valence show a universal behaviour with the volume displaced by the interstitial. For higher concentrations two different behaviours were found in the trivalent state: a) With the larger interstitials, Be and Si, the system evolves toward a long range antiferromagnetic order; b) With the smaller interstitial, B, the system evolves toward a concentrated Kondo state. (Author) [es

  7. A study of defect cluster formation in vanadium by heavy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekimura, Naoto; Shirao, Yasuyuki; Morishita, Kazunori [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Formation of defect clusters in thin foils of vanadium was investigated by heavy ion irradiation. In the very thin region of the specimens less than 20 nm, vacancy clusters were formed under gold ion irradiation, while very few clusters were detected in the specimens irradiated with 200 and 400 keV self-ions up to 1 x 10{sup 16} ions/m{sup 2}. The density of vacancy clusters were found to be strongly dependent on ion energy. Only above the critical value of kinetic energy transfer density in vanadium, vacancy clusters are considered to be formed in the cascade damage from which interstitials can escape to the specimen surface in the very thin region. (author)

  8. Potential urine and serum biomarkers for patients with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hann-Chorng

    2014-04-01

    There is a lack of consensus on the pathophysiology of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis. The chronic pain symptoms of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis refractory to local treatment could be a result of central nervous system sensitization and persisting abnormalities in the bladder wall, which activate the afferent sensory system. Evidence also shows that bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis is a heterogeneous syndrome and that the two subtypes, the ulcerative (classic) and non-ulcerative types, represent different disease entities. There is a need for non-invasive markers for the differential diagnoses of the subtypes of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis, and between bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis and bladder sensory disorders, such as hypersensitive bladder syndrome or overactive bladder. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis, but not overactive bladder, involves an aberrant differentiation program in the bladder urothelium that leads to altered synthesis of several proteoglycans, cell adhesion and tight junction proteins, and bacterial defense molecules. These findings have led to the rationale for identifying urinary biomarkers to detect bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis in patients with frequency urgency syndrome. Recently, the markers that have been the focus of the most research are antiproliferative factor, epidermal growth factor, heparin-binding epidermal growth factor, glycosaminoglycans and bladder nitric oxide. In addition, inflammatory proteins in the urine and serum play important roles in the pathogenesis of bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis. The urinary proteome is an easily accessible source of biomarkers for differentiation between inflammatory bladder disorders. Analysis of multiple urinary proteins and serum cytokines could provide a diagnostic basis for bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis, and could be a tool for the differential diagnosis of bladder pain

  9. Comparing Dark Energy Survey and HST –CLASH observations of the galaxy cluster RXC J2248.7-4431: implications for stellar mass versus dark matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmese, A.; Lahav, O.; Banerji, M.; Gruen, D.; Jouvel, S.; Melchior, P.; Aleksić, J.; Annis, J.; Diehl, H. T.; Hartley, W. G.; Jeltema, T.; Romer, A. K.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Seitz, S.; Suchyta, E.; Zhang, Y.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Allam, S.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D' Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Li, T. S.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; Marshall, J. L.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Nord, B.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Tucker, D.; Vikram, V.

    2016-08-20

    We derive the stellar mass fraction in the galaxy cluster RXC J2248.7-4431 observed with the Dark Energy Survey (DES) during the Science Verification period. We compare the stellar mass results from DES (five filters) with those from the Hubble Space Telescope Cluster Lensing And Supernova Survey (CLASH; 17 filters). When the cluster spectroscopic redshift is assumed, we show that stellar masses from DES can be estimated within 25 per cent of CLASH values. We compute the stellar mass contribution coming from red and blue galaxies, and study the relation between stellar mass and the underlying dark matter using weak lensing studies with DES and CLASH. An analysis of the radial profiles of the DES total and stellar mass yields a stellar-to-total fraction of f(star) = (6.8 +/- 1.7) x 10(-3) within a radius of r(200c) similar or equal to 2 Mpc. Our analysis also includes a comparison of photometric redshifts and star/galaxy separation efficiency for both data sets. We conclude that space-based small field imaging can be used to calibrate the galaxy properties in DES for the much wider field of view. The technique developed to derive the stellar mass fraction in galaxy clusters can be applied to the similar to 100 000 clusters that will be observed within this survey and yield important information about galaxy evolution.

  10. Diode lasers for interstitial laser coagulation of the prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschter, Rolf; Perlmutter, Aaron P.; Anson, K.; Jahnen, P.; Vargas Stuve, Juan C.; Razvi, Hassan A.; Sroka, Ronald; Hofstetter, Alfons G.; Vaughan, Darracott E., Jr.

    1995-05-01

    The concept of interstitial laser coagulation (ILC) of the prostate is the generation of intraprostatic lesions of large volumes, which secondarily are resorbed. In previously published experimental and clinical studies Nd:YAG lasers in combination with specially designed light guides were used. The aim of this study was to examine the suitability of diode lasers to be used in ILC. Diode lasers of various wavelengths (805 nm, 830 nm, 950 nm and 980 nm) with different interstitial applicators (predominantly diffusor tips) were tested in vitro (potatoes, turkey muscle, porcine liver) and in vivo (canine prostate). In vitro experiments were done with various powers and radiation times in order to evaluate the maximum lesion size achievable without tissue carbonization. This depended on the length of the applicator and could measure more than 20 mm. To get large lesion volumes with short radiation times, but to avoid charring, in vivo graded powers were favorable. These were optimized for some systems. In the canine prostate, lesion diameters of up to 15 mm were achieved. For clinical use, interstitial applicators were inserted into the bulky BPH transurethrally through a cystoscope under direct vision, either directly or aided by an introducer system. The number of fiber placements depended on the size and configuration of the gland and varied between 3 and 16. With the 980 nm diode laser and an applicator with conical beam pattern, irradiation was performed for 3 minutes per fiber placement using stepwise reduced power (20 W for 30 s, 15 W for 30 s, 10 W for 30 s and 7 W for 90 s). With the 830 nm diode laser and diffusor tip, the initial power of 10 W was reduced to 5 W within 4 minutes total radiation time. From 1993, 19 patients were treated with diode lasers (830 and 980 nm). Three months follow-up in 15 patients treated with 830 nm showed an AUA-score change from 18.9 to 5.9 and a peak flow rate change from 7.8 to 15.2 ml/s.

  11. Management of cluster headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer C; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of cluster headache is 0.1% and cluster headache is often not diagnosed or misdiagnosed as migraine or sinusitis. In cluster headache there is often a considerable diagnostic delay - an average of 7 years in a population-based survey. Cluster headache is characterized by very severe...... or severe orbital or periorbital pain with a duration of 15-180 minutes. The cluster headache attacks are accompanied by characteristic associated unilateral symptoms such as tearing, nasal congestion and/or rhinorrhoea, eyelid oedema, miosis and/or ptosis. In addition, there is a sense of restlessness...... and agitation. Patients may have up to eight attacks per day. Episodic cluster headache (ECH) occurs in clusters of weeks to months duration, whereas chronic cluster headache (CCH) attacks occur for more than 1 year without remissions. Management of cluster headache is divided into acute attack treatment...

  12. Syndrome of proximal interstitial deletion 4p15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryns, J.P. [Univ. of Leuven (Belgium)

    1995-09-11

    In this journal, Chitayat et al. reported on 2 boys and a girl with interstitial deletion in the short arm of chromosome 4, including p15.2p15.33. All 3 patients had a characteristic face distinct from that of Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome and multiple minor congenital anomalies. One patient had a congenitally enlarged penis. The authors noted that all had normal growth, and all had moderate psychomotor retardation (patient 1, developmental age of 4-6 years at age 9 years; patient 2, mental age 6 years at age 25 years; and patient 3, global delay with hypotonia, difficulties in both gross and fine motor development, and persistent delay in language skills). 5 refs., 1 fig.

  13. Gallium-67 lung index computerization in interstitial pneumonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, H D; Brown, P H; Haines, J E; McNeill, M

    1987-12-01

    To improve ease of use, precision, and reduce interobserver variability of the 67Ga lung index, we developed and tested a computer method that yields similar numeric values and uses previous indexing principles, except that the computer matrix unit is the fractional area assessed. Patients were referred for suspected interstitial lung disease. Fifty-three image studies were available for both manual and computer indexing. Linear regression analysis gave a correlation of 0.884. Decision matrix analysis of 58 different nonimmunosuppressed patients resulted in 93% sensitivity and 76% specificity. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the ideal index cutoff was 50. Because there is tighter control over 67Ga uptake intensity and spatial distribution assessment, the computerized 67Ga index appears to perform better than the manual analysis.

  14. Thermoseeds for interstitial magnetic hyperthermia: from bioceramics to nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, A; Arcos, D; Vallet-Regí, M

    2013-12-04

    The development of magnetic materials for interstitial hyperthermia treatment of cancer is an ever evolving research field which provides new alternatives to antitumoral therapies. The development of biocompatible magnetic materials has resulted in new biomaterials with multifunctional properties, which are able to adapt to the complex scenario of tumoral processes. Once implanted or injected in the body, magnetic materials can behave as thermoseeds under the effect of AC magnetic fields. Magnetic bioceramics aimed to treat bone tumors and magnetic nanoparticles are among the most studied thermoseeds, and supply different solutions for the different scenarios in cancerous processes. This paper reviews some of the biomaterials used for bone cancer treatment and skeletal reinforcing, as well as the more complex topic of magnetic nanoparticles for intracellular targeting and hyperthermia.

  15. Building a reference multimedia database for interstitial lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depeursinge, Adrien; Vargas, Alejandro; Platon, Alexandra; Geissbuhler, Antoine; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Müller, Henning

    2012-04-01

    This paper describes the methodology used to create a multimedia collection of cases with interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) at the University Hospitals of Geneva. The dataset contains high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) image series with three-dimensional annotated regions of pathological lung tissue along with clinical parameters from patients with pathologically proven diagnoses of ILDs. The motivations for this work is to palliate the lack of publicly available collections of ILD cases to serve as a basis for the development and evaluation of image-based computerized diagnostic aid. After 38 months of data collection, the library contains 128 patients affected with one of the 13 histological diagnoses of ILDs, 108 image series with more than 41l of annotated lung tissue patterns as well as a comprehensive set of 99 clinical parameters related to ILDs. The database is available for research on request and after signature of a license agreement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Current guidelines in the management of interstitial cystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis (IC) is a heterogeneous chronic disease of unknown etiology that impacts a very large number of women. Symptoms are highly variable: patients may suffer from pelvic pain that is exacerbated by bladder filling, and can be associated with a variety of lower urinary tract symptoms including frequency and urgency. Given the varying presentations and severities of corresponding treatment must be tailored to each specific patient. Current American Urological Association (AUA) guidelines separate the IC treatment recommendations into six tiers of increasing invasive therapies. These treatment guidelines begin with education and lifestyle modifications and progress through levels of physical, pharmacological, and ultimately surgical therapies for those that fail the less invasive therapies. The purpose of this review is to outline the recommendations for the treatment of IC and the evidence from which these recommendations arise. Furthermore, we examine the most up to date literature so that we may recognize future directions in the treatment of IC. PMID:26816869

  17. Biomarkers for patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Tzu Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Interstitial cystitis or bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS is a disease of unknown etiology manifested with bladder pain and frequency urgency symptoms. Although several pathophysiologic mechanisms have been proposed, the underlying mechanism of IC/BPS is still unclear. Accumulated evidence supports that IC/BPS is actually a spectrum of clinical phenomena that involves several different genes and environmental factors. Heterogeneous syndromes are seen in patients with IC/PBS, which suggests that the disease should be classified into different subtypes. Abnormal expressions of several bladder epithelial markers, including mast cells, epithelial differentiation proteins, cell membrane proteins, neurotransmitters, and cytokines, are present in IC/BPS. This review discusses the possible biomarkers that may play crucial roles in IC/BPS, and especially focuses on those that have the potential to be used as biomarkers for prognosis and for the determination of the best treatment for patients.

  18. Metabolomics Insights Into Pathophysiological Mechanisms of Interstitial Cystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiehn, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Interstitial cystitis (IC), also known as painful bladder syndrome or bladder pain syndrome, is a chronic lower urinary tract syndrome characterized by pelvic pain, urinary urgency, and increased urinary frequency in the absence of bacterial infection or identifiable clinicopathology. IC can lead to long-term adverse effects on the patient's quality of life. Therefore, early diagnosis and better understanding of the mechanisms underlying IC are needed. Metabolomic studies of biofluids have become a powerful method for assessing disease mechanisms and biomarker discovery, which potentially address these important clinical needs. However, limited intensive metabolic profiles have been elucidated in IC. The article is a short review on metabolomic analyses that provide a unique fingerprint of IC with a focus on its use in determining a potential diagnostic biomarker associated with symptoms, a response predictor of therapy, and a prognostic marker. PMID:25279237

  19. [Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiner, David A; Perucchini, Daniele; Fink, Daniel; Betschart, Cornelia

    2015-08-19

    Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (BPS) is still an etiologically poorly understood chronic pain syndrome. BPS is a clinical diagnosis. The current treatment modalities are aimed at symptom relief because no cure is possible. Analgesics may be used at any point in treatment but preferably for short-term relief for flares or bladder pain. AUA has issued clinical practice guidelines with a stepwise approach. The first-line therapy begins with self-care and behavior modification. Physical therapy and oral medications such as amitriptyline, PPS, or antihistamines belong to the second-line therapy. Third-line therapy requires cystoscopy and hydrodistension, treatment of Hunner lesions, or intravesical use of e.g. DMSO. Neuromodulation is considered a fourth-line therapy in patients who have failed third-line treatments. Fifth-line therapies consist of intravesical injection of BoNT or oral cyclosporin A. Cystectomy is the sixth-line therapy and the treatment of last resort.

  20. The vacancy-interstitial model of DX centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, T.N.

    1989-01-01

    Recent DLTS (deep level transient spectroscopy) studies of 'DX' centers in dilute Al x Ga 1-x As alloys agree with a model of the deep neutral state in which the donor has moved into an adjacent interstitial site leaving behind a vacancy. The enthalpy and entropy of these states, which depend on the number (0 to 3) of Al atoms adjacent to the donors, have been obtained by fitting the data. This model, which also predicts the large potential barriers between the centered and relaxed states, thus accounting for PPC (persistent photoconductivity), is an extension to large displacement of the displaced donor model proposed earlier. It is equivalent to recent model of the EL2 metastable state based on displaced antisite double-donors. (author) 9 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  1. Lipoprotein(a Induces Human Aortic Valve Interstitial Cell Calcification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yu, PhD

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Lipoprotein(a, or Lp(a, significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity, release of phosphate, calcium deposition, hydroxyapatite, cell apoptosis, matrix vesicle formation, and phosphorylation of signal transduction proteins; increased expression of chondro-osteogenic mediators; and decreased SOX9 and matrix Gla protein (p < 0.001. Inhibition of MAPK38 and GSK3β significantly reduced Lp(a-induced calcification of human aortic valve interstitial cells (p < 0.001. There was abundant presence of Lp(a and E06 immunoreactivity in diseased human aortic valves. The present study demonstrates a causal effect for Lp(a in aortic valve calcification and suggests that interfering with the Lp(apathway could provide a novel therapeutic approach in the management of this debilitating disease.

  2. Interstitial lung disease during trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuzurio, Syota; Horita, Naokatsu; Shiota, Yutaro; Kanehiro, Arihiko; Tanimoto, Mitsune

    2010-01-01

    We studied clinical and radiographic features of interstitial lung disease (ILD) during trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) administration. Ten patients who had received prednisolone treatment for underlying diffuse pulmonary disease showed various ILDs after introduction of TMP/SMX. The radiographic features of the ILDs were not consistent with infectious disease or exacerbation of the underlying disease, and these diagnoses were excluded radiographically and on clinical grounds during the differential diagnosis of the ILDs. These ILDs emerged relatively early after introduction of TMP/SMX, which is consistent with the former case report of drug-induced ILD (DI-ILD) caused by TMP/SMX. Therefore DI-ILDs caused by TMP/SMX were suspected in these cases. In most of these cases, the ILDs were clinically mild and disappeared immediately although administration of TMP/SMX was continued. (author)

  3. Interstitial radiotherapy in the treatment of carcinoma of the prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuefermann, H.; Bruggmoser, G.; Wannenmacher, M.

    1981-01-01

    The practical and organisatory sides of interstitial radiation therapy of prostate carcinoma with iodine 125 capsules are reported on. Special stress is laid upon measures and measurements concerning radiation protection. First evaluations of these measurements show that this form of therapy is to be carried out in exact correspondence with the radiation protection law. The computer-supported isodose calculation and in-vivo-measurements in rectum, method and urinary bladder confirm the rapid drop in the dosage outside of the irradiated focus volume. Therefore, the inflammatory accompanying reactions are despite higher tumour dose, significantly milder then with the percutaneous radiation therapy. The indication criteria should be closely adhered to because the operation is a very extensive one. (orig.) [de

  4. Thermoseeds for interstitial magnetic hyperthermia: from bioceramics to nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeza, A; Arcos, D; Vallet-Regí, M

    2013-01-01

    The development of magnetic materials for interstitial hyperthermia treatment of cancer is an ever evolving research field which provides new alternatives to antitumoral therapies. The development of biocompatible magnetic materials has resulted in new biomaterials with multifunctional properties, which are able to adapt to the complex scenario of tumoral processes. Once implanted or injected in the body, magnetic materials can behave as thermoseeds under the effect of AC magnetic fields. Magnetic bioceramics aimed to treat bone tumors and magnetic nanoparticles are among the most studied thermoseeds, and supply different solutions for the different scenarios in cancerous processes. This paper reviews some of the biomaterials used for bone cancer treatment and skeletal reinforcing, as well as the more complex topic of magnetic nanoparticles for intracellular targeting and hyperthermia. (topical review)

  5. Interstitial brachytherapy for orbital soft tissue sarcoma: an innovative technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskar, Siddhartha; Pilar, Avinash; Khanna, Nehal; Ghadi, Yogesh

    2017-10-01

    To report an innovative technique of interstitial brachytherapy developed for treatment of orbital soft tissue tumors. A 4-month-old child diagnosed with rhabdomyosarcoma of orbit was treated with multiagent chemotherapy (CTh) and brachytherapy. Pre-planning computed tomography (CT) images were obtained and clinical target volume (CTV) was defined using the pre-treatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brachytherapy plan was generated for deciding optimal catheter placement. With the child under general anesthesia, catheter entry points were extrapolated and marked on the skin as determined from the pre-planning CT scan. Implantation of catheters was performed as per pre-determined catheter position and depths. Brachytherapy plan was generated and evaluated using dose volume histograms (DVH). A comparative external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) plan using RapidArc was also generated for the CTV with a 3 mm margin as the planning target volume (PTV). The mean CTV dose with brachytherapy was 158% compared to 101% with RapidArc. The CTV V 100 was 90% for brachytherapy vs. 95% for RapidArc. The mean dose to Lt Lens were 51% and 60%, respectively for brachytherapy and RapidArc, while the corresponding mean doses to the bony orbit were 39% and 68%, respectively. Follow-up MRI at 3 months showed complete response of the tumor. Interstitial brachytherapy for orbit using this innovative technique is a safe and effective modality of local treatment for appropriately selected orbital soft tissue tumors. Brachytherapy resulted in excellent disease control with significant reduction of dose to surrounding ocular structures compared to EBRT.

  6. [Interstitial lung disease as an initial manifestation of dermatomyositis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Min; Gong, Yulin; Zeng, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Fengchun; Tang, Fulin

    2014-11-25

    To explore the clinical features and prognosis of dermatomyositis patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD) as an initial manifestation. Medical records of 184 dermatomyositis inpatients complicated with ILD, admitted into Peking Union Medical College Hospital from January 1999 to January 2013, were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical features, biochemical parameters, positive rates of autoantibodies, radiology, pulmonary function tests, pathology, treatments and prognosis were compared between two subgroups of ILD-initial and non-ILD-initial dermatomyositis. The incidence of ILD of dermatomyositis inpatients was 17%. The average age was 48 ± 12 years and the gender ratio of male-to-female was 63: 121. Eighty eight (47.8%) dermatomyositis patients had ILD as an initial manifestation, including (n = 42, 22.8%) of ILD concomitant dermatomyositis (within 1 month) and (n = 46, 25.0%) of ILD before dermatomyositis with an average ahead time of (11 ± 3) months. Patients of ILD-initial dermatomyositis had a higher incidence of dyspnea on exertion, cough and lung crackles, but there were lower incidences of heliotrope rash, chest V area rash, shawl sign and joint involvement than non-ILD-initial dermatomyositis (P dermatomyositis group was 13.6%. The main performances of ILD-initial dermatomyositis on pulmonary function tests were diffusing and restrictive ventilation impairment. And there was a lower diffusing rate of carbon monoxide than non-ILD-initial dermatomyositis group (P dermatomyositis. The mortality rate of ILD-initial dermatomyositis patients was 19.3% and there was no significant difference from non-ILD-initial dermatomyositis (P > 0.05). The main course of ILD-initial dermatomyositis was respiratory failure due to progressive ILD (n = 13, 76.5%). ILD as an initial manifestation is a common complication and a major mortality cause of dermatomyositis inpatients. And the frequent clinical pathology types are organic and non-specific interstitial

  7. Comprehensive cluster analysis with Transitivity Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittkop, Tobias; Emig, Dorothea; Truss, Anke; Albrecht, Mario; Böcker, Sebastian; Baumbach, Jan

    2011-03-01

    Transitivity Clustering is a method for the partitioning of biological data into groups of similar objects, such as genes, for instance. It provides integrated access to various functions addressing each step of a typical cluster analysis. To facilitate this, Transitivity Clustering is accessible online and offers three user-friendly interfaces: a powerful stand-alone version, a web interface, and a collection of Cytoscape plug-ins. In this paper, we describe three major workflows: (i) protein (super)family detection with Cytoscape, (ii) protein homology detection with incomplete gold standards and (iii) clustering of gene expression data. This protocol guides the user through the most important features of Transitivity Clustering and takes ∼1 h to complete.

  8. Transperineal high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy in the management of gynecologic malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itami, Jun; Hara, Ryuseke; Kozuka, Takuyou; Yamashita, Hideomi; Nakajima, Kaori; Shibata, Kouji; Abe, Yoshihisa; Fuse, Masashi; Ito, Masashi [International Medical Center of Japan, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Radiation Therapy and Oncology

    2003-11-01

    Background: High-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy is a newly introduced modality, and its role in the management of gynecologic malignancies remains to be studied. Clinical experience in high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy was retrospectively investigated. Patients and Methods: Eight patients with primary and nine with recurrent gynecologic malignancies underwent high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy with/without external-beam irradiation. Fractional dose of the high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy ranged between 4 and 6 Gy with total doses of 15-54 Gy. Interstitial irradiation was performed twice daily with an interval of > 6 h. Results: 2-year local control rate was 75% for primary treatment and 47% for treatment of recurrence (p = 0.46). Maximum tumor size had a statistically significant impact on local control (p < 0.002). Grade 2 and 4 late complications were seen in five patients, and the incidence was significantly higher in patients with a larger volume enclosed by the prescribed fractional dose of high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy. The incidence of grade 2 and 4 complications at 18 months was 78% and 0% with a volume > 100 cm{sup 3} and {<=} 100 cm{sup 3}, respectively (p < 0.04). Conclusion: Although high-dose-rate interstitial radiation therapy is a promising modality, it must be applied cautiously to patients with bulky tumors because of the high incidence of serious complications. (orig.)

  9. Clinical guidelines for interstitial cystitis and hypersensitive bladder updated in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Yukio; Ueda, Tomohiro; Tomoe, Hikaru; Lin, Alex Tl; Kuo, Hann-Chorng; Lee, Ming-Huei; Oh, Seung-June; Kim, Joon Chul; Lee, Kyu-Sung

    2016-07-01

    Clinical guidelines for interstitial cystitis and hypersensitive bladder have been updated as of 2015. The guidelines define interstitial cystitis by the presence of hypersensitive bladder symptoms (discomfort, pressure or pain in the bladder usually associated with urinary frequency and nocturia) and bladder pathology, after excluding other diseases explaining symptoms. Interstitial cystitis is further classified by bladder pathology; either Hunner type interstitial cystitis with Hunner lesions or non-Hunner type interstitial cystitis with mucosal bleeding after distension in the absence of Hunner lesions. Hypersensitive bladder refers to a condition, where hypersensitive bladder symptoms are present, but bladder pathology or other explainable diseases are unproven. Interstitial cystitis and hypersensitive bladder severely affect patients' quality of life as a result of disabling symptoms and/or comorbidities. Reported prevalence suggestive of these disorders varies greatly from 0.01% to >6%. Pathophysiology would be an interaction of multiple factors including urothelial dysfunction, inflammation, neural hyperactivity, exogenous substances and extrabladder disorders. Definite diagnosis of interstitial cystitis and hypersensitive bladder requires cystoscopy with or without hydrodistension. Most of the therapeutic options lack a high level of evidence, leaving a few as recommended therapeutic options. © 2016 The Japanese Urological Association.

  10. Apoptotic effect as biomarker of disease, severity and follow-up in interstitial cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Capua-Sacoto, C; Sanchez-Llopis, A; Oconnor, J E; Martinez-Romero, A; Ruiz-Cerdá, J L

    2017-11-10

    To determine whether the apoptotic effect test could serve as a biomarker of severity in bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis. A prospective study was conducted between January 2010 and January 2015, which included 57 patients diagnosed with interstitial cystitis and 49 diagnosed with chronic pelvic pain of gynaecological origin. The urine was exposed to cell cultures, and the urine's capacity for inducing apoptosis in the cultures was analysed. A statistical analysis was then conducted to assess whether the apoptotic effect was associated with the symptoms. After performing an analysis of the association between the degree of apoptotic effect and the symptoms of patients with interstitial cystitis, we observed a significant increase in the mean percentages of apoptosis as the degree of symptom severity increased. After analysing the association between the apoptotic effect and symptoms, we obtained a positive correlation in the patients with interstitial cystitis and a lack of correlation in the patients with chronic pelvic pain of gynaecological origin. The rates of apoptosis increased progressively in the patients with interstitial cystitis as the symptoms increased, while the patients with chronic pelvic pain of gynaecological origin remained stable. The apoptotic effect of the urine of patients with interstitial cystitis could be a marker of disease, thus differentiating patients with interstitial cystitis from patients with chronic pelvic pain. The effect could also provide an objective measure of symptom severity. Copyright © 2017 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Are mast cells still good biomarkers for bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamper, Marianne; Regauer, Sigrid; Welter, JoEllen; Eberhard, Jakob; Viereck, Volker

    2015-06-01

    ESSIC identifies mast cell infiltrates of detrusor muscle as a diagnostic criterion for bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis. However, an increased mast cell count is also characteristic of overactive bladder syndrome. The lack of uniformity in mast cell detection methods hampers data comparison. Using state-of-the-art techniques we investigated whether mast cells differ among bladder conditions. We analyzed bladder biopsies from 56 patients, including 31 with bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis with (12) or without (19) Hunner lesions, 13 with overactive bladder syndrome and 12 without bladder symptoms to determine the quantity, location, distribution and activation of mast cells using immunohistochemistry with anti-mast cell tryptase. Patients were allocated to study groups by key bladder symptoms commonly used to define conditions (pain and major urgency). Subepithelial mast cell localization (p interstitial cystitis with Hunner lesions. The optimal cutoff of 32 detrusor mast cells per mm(2) achieved only 68% accuracy with 38% positive predictive value. No difference was observed between bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis without Hunner lesions and overactive bladder syndrome. Patient groups differed in lymphocyte infiltration (p = 0.001), nodular lymphocyte aggregates (p interstitial cystitis with Hunner lesions. Detrusor mastocytosis had poor predictive value for bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis. Mast cell assessment did not distinguish bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis without Hunner lesions from overactive bladder syndrome. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes in interstitial K+ and pH during exercise: implications for blood flow regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    that blood flow is affected by changes in K+ as low as 0.1 mmol/L. The vasodilatory effect of K+ can be inhibited with simultaneous barium infusion, indicating that inward rectifier potassium (Kir)channels are involved. Acidosis has a direct effect on blood flow and an indirect effect, mediated by changes...

  13. Inflammation characteristics in bladder pain syndrome ESSIC type 3C/classic interstitial cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logadottir, Yr; Delbro, Dick; Lindholm, Catharina; Fall, Magnus; Peeker, Ralph

    2014-04-01

    Interstitial cystitis is regarded as a heterogenous syndrome with two distinguishable forms: the non-ulcer and the classic form of interstitial cystitis, the latter with Hunner's lesions; or bladder pain syndrome type 3C and non-Hunner bladder pain syndrome, respectively. A cohort of 379 patients diagnosed with interstitial cystitis was studied. Nitric oxide release from the bladder was measured using a chemiluminescence nitric oxide analyzer. Bladder biopsies from the patients and healthy controls were analyzed by routine histopathological examination. Biopsies from a subset of patients and controls were also analyzed by immunohistochemistry and cytokine gene expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Patients with bladder pain syndrome type 3C/classic interstitial cystitis had considerably higher levels of nitric oxide as compared with non-Hunner bladder pain syndrome/non-ulcer interstitial cystitis patients and healthy individuals, and showed histologically a chronic inflammation in the bladder mucosa, with abundant mast cell infiltration in all layers of the bladder wall. No inflammation was noted in non-Hunner bladder pain syndrome/non-ulcer interstitial cystitis patients. The isoenzymes inducible nitric oxide synthase, the catalyst in the nitric oxide production, was strongly expressed in the inflammatory cells in the bladder mucosa of bladder pain syndrome type 3C/classic interstitial cystitis patients. In addition, the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and interleukin-17A messenger ribonucleic acid, and of anti-inflammatory interleukin-10 messenger ribonucleic acid showed significantly increased levels in bladder pain syndrome type 3C/classic interstitial cystitis compared with healthy controls. Bladder pain syndrome type 3C/classic interstitial cystitis is a distinct inflammatory disease and in many aspects shares features of inflammatory autoimmune diseases. These findings could open up novel research avenues with

  14. On the possibility of universal interstitial emission induced annihilation in metallic nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiangyan; Xu, Yichun; Duan, Guohua; Sun, Jingjing; Hao, Congyu; Zhang, Yange; Liu, Wei; Liu, C. S.; Fang, Q. F.

    2018-03-01

    Nano-structured metals have been explored as self-healing materials for radiation damage due to vacancy-interstitial recombination at interfaces, such as grain boundaries (GBs) in nanocrystals (NCs) and free surfaces in nanoporous metals (NPs). The annihilation in copper was recently proposed to be via the interstitial-emission (IE) from the GB. However, whether the IE is applied as a possibly universal mechanism in other NPs and NCs deserves further investigation. The interstitial is often considered to overcome a large binding energy with the GB/surface to migrate out of the GB/surface and induce annihilation. In this work, with emphasis on the IE in tungsten where the interstitial is exceptionally tightly bound to the tungsten GB/surface, we found that the interstitial only needed to migrate over a small distance from the GB/surface to recombine with the vacancy nearby at a small energy barrier. During the process, the annihilation region around a static interstitial at the GB/surface propagated or extended greatly to the adjacent bulk area. The annihilation was found to be via the IE from the GB/surface or coupled vacancy hop with the IE. The ratio of the interstitial-GB/surface binding energy to the trapping-radius of the GB/surface for the interstitial was proposed to be a better qualitative indicator for the difficulty in the IE than the binding energy. Given that the IE works in the investigated NPs and NCs tungsten, iron and copper where the interstitials of distinct configurations bind with the GBs/surfaces at diverse levels, the IE mechanism may work universally in various nano-structured metals.

  15. Cluster-based global firms' use of local capabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman; Bøllingtoft, Anne

    2011-01-01

    replicated studies and possibly triangulation with quantitative studies would further develop the understanding on how globalization impacts on the internal organization of CBFs. Practical implications – For policy makers, cluster policies should be reconsidered if the role of clusters differs from what has...... and developed countries. Originality/value – Several studies have examined the changing role of clusters in the evolving global division of labour. However, research is lacking that addresses the challenges of transformation from the level of the CBF and how these may be affected by cluster evolution. The paper......Purpose – Despite growing interest in clusters role for the global competitiveness of firms, there has been little research into how globalization affects cluster-based firms’ (CBFs) use of local knowledge resources and the combination of local and global knowledge used. Using the cluster...

  16. From collisions to clusters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loukonen, Ville; Bork, Nicolai; Vehkamaki, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    The clustering of sulphuric acid with base molecules is one of the main pathways of new-particle formation in the Earth's atmosphere. First step in the clustering process is likely the formation of a (sulphuric acid)1(base)1(water)n cluster. Here, we present results from direct first-principles m......The clustering of sulphuric acid with base molecules is one of the main pathways of new-particle formation in the Earth's atmosphere. First step in the clustering process is likely the formation of a (sulphuric acid)1(base)1(water)n cluster. Here, we present results from direct first...... bridge. In general, water is able to notably stabilise the formed clusters by allocating a fraction of the released clustering energy....

  17. Loose-cluster approximation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Loose-cluster approximation. Continuous curve Our Theory. Dashed curve Our Simulation. Loose cluster approx. not only. captures -the anomalous. qualitative features but is also,. quantitatively, quite accurate. Notes:

  18. Cluster beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottiglioni, F.; Coutant, J.; Fois, M.

    1977-11-01

    Areas of possible applications of cluster injection are discussed. The deposition inside the plasma of molecules, issued from the dissociation of the injected clusters, has been computed. Some empirical scaling laws for the penetration are given

  19. Cluster beam injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottiglioni, F.; Coutant, J.; Fois, M.

    1978-01-01

    Areas of possible applications of cluster injection are discussed. The deposition inside the plasma of molecules, issued from the dissociation of the injected clusters, has been computed. Some empirical scaling laws for the penetration are given

  20. Plexus muscularis profundus and associated interstitial cells. I. Light microscopical studies of mouse small intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Thuneberg, L

    1982-01-01

    interstitial cells (ICC-II) in the subserous layer. (2) Auerbach's plexus with an associated extensive plexus of interstitial cells (ICC-I) in close contact with tertiary fasciculi. (3) Nerve fasciculi of the outer division of the circular muscle layer. These formed a nerve plexus in a well-defined plane...... in the outermost cell layers (plexus muscularis superficialis), with few fasciculi located internal to this plexus. A few bipolar interstitial cells (ICC-IV) were associated with nerve fasciculi of this region. (4) A nerve plexus located in the region between the two subdivisions of the circular muscle, plexus...

  1. About the presence of interstitial cells of Cajal outside the musculature of the gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Jan D; Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria-Simonetta

    2005-01-01

    Santiago Ramon y Cajal observed a special cell type that appeared to function as endstructures of the intrinsic nervous system in several organs. These cells were structurally and functionally further characterized in the gut musculature and named interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). In recent years, interstitial cells have been identified in the vasculature, urinary tract, glands and other organs. Their morphologies and functions are just beginning to be clarified. It is likely that amongst them, subtypes will be discovered that warrant the classification of interstitial cells of Cajal. This "point of view" continues the discussion on the criteria that should be used to identify ICC outside the musculature of the gut.

  2. On the Recombination Rate of Irradiation-Induced Interstitials and Vacancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leffers, Torben; Singh, Bachu Narain

    1980-01-01

    The rate of recombination of interstitials and vacancies is described on the basis of theoretically derived recombination cross-sections. The numerical values of these cross-sections are substantially lower than the values normally quoted in the literature. The physical situations behind the simp......The rate of recombination of interstitials and vacancies is described on the basis of theoretically derived recombination cross-sections. The numerical values of these cross-sections are substantially lower than the values normally quoted in the literature. The physical situations behind...... arising when interstitials and vacancies have approximately the same mobility are also discussed....

  3. Treatment of intractable interstitial lung injury with alemtuzumab after lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohno, M; Perch, M; Andersen, E

    2011-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman underwent left single-lung transplantation for end-stage emphysema due to a1-antitrypsin deficiency in January 2010. Cyclosporine, azathioprine, and prednisolone were administered for immunosuppression and antithymocyte globulin for induction therapy at the time...... of transplantation. Routine examination of a lung biopsy, 4 months after transplantation, showed nonspecific, diffuse interstitial inflammation with alveolar septal fibrosis. The patient's clinical status and imaging studies, consistent with nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis, which was considered as signs......, posttransplant antirejection drug regimen. We have since successfully treated with alemtuzumab three additional patients who developed interstitial lung injury after lung transplantation, who are also summarized in this report....

  4. Treatment of intractable interstitial lung injury with alemtuzumab after lung transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohno, M; Perch, M; Andersen, E

    2011-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman underwent left single-lung transplantation for end-stage emphysema due to α1-antitrypsin deficiency in January 2010. Cyclosporine, azathioprine, and prednisolone were administered for immunosuppression and antithymocyte globulin for induction therapy at the time...... of transplantation. Routine examination of a lung biopsy, 4 months after transplantation, showed nonspecific, diffuse interstitial inflammation with alveolar septal fibrosis. The patient's clinical status and imaging studies, consistent with nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis, which was considered as signs......, posttransplant antirejection drug regimen. We have since successfully treated with alemtuzumab three additional patients who developed interstitial lung injury after lung transplantation, who are also summarized in this report....

  5. Sequential change of high-resolution CT findings of interstitial lung disease in polymyositis and dermatomyositis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukada, Hiroshi; Furuizumi, Naoya; Akita, Shinichi; Oda, Junichi; Sakai, Kunio; Suzuki, Eiichi; Emura, Iwao (Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-01-01

    Sequential changes of interstitial lung disease in fourteen patients of polymyositis/dermatomyositis (PM/DM) were followed up by high-resolution CT (HRCT). Most frequent CT findings were intense lung attenuation (ILA) with volume loss and slightly increased lung attenuation (SILA). Open lung biopsy was performed in a case with ILA shadow which revealed so-called usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). Most intense ILA and SILA shadows resolved after steroid therapy. Some of ILA, however, reappeared and accompanied more prominent volume loss findings than before treatment. We think HRCT findings of interstitial lung disease in PM/DM may indicate prognosis of these diagnoses to some degree. (author).

  6. Identification of the interstitial Mn site in ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2093111; Wahl, Ulrich; Augustyns, Valerie; Silva, Daniel; Granadeiro Costa, Angelo Rafael; Houben, K; Edmonds, Kevin W; Gallagher, BL; Campion, RP; Van Bael, MJ; Castro Ribeiro Da Silva, Manuel; Martins Correia, Joao; Esteves De Araujo, Araujo Joao Pedro; Temst, Kristiaan; Vantomme, André; Da Costa Pereira, Lino Miguel

    2015-01-01

    We determined the lattice location of Mn in ferromagnetic (Ga,Mn)As using the electron emission channeling technique. We show that interstitial Mn occupies the tetrahedral site with As nearest neighbors (TAs) both before and after thermal annealing at 200 °C, whereas the occupancy of the tetrahedral site with Ga nearest neighbors (TGa) is negligible. TAs is therefore the energetically favorable site for interstitial Mn in isolated form as well as when forming complexes with substitutional Mn. These results shed new light on the long standing controversy regarding TAs versus TGa occupancy of interstitial Mn in (Ga,Mn)As.

  7. Muscle interstitial ATP and norepinephrine concentrations in the human leg during exercise and ATP infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan P.; Gonzalez-Alonso, Jose; Nielsen, Jens Jung

    2009-01-01

    ATP and NE concentrations to gain insight into the interstitial and intravascular mechanisms by which ATP causes muscle vasodilation and sympatholysis. Leg hemodynamics and muscle interstitial nucleotide and norepinephrine (NE) concentrations were measured during: 1) femoral arterial ATP infusion (0......, respectively (Pcontracting muscle (Pmuscle, whereas interstitial NE concentrations increased similarly in both active...... and inactive muscles. These results suggest that the vasodilatory and sympatholytic effects of intraluminal ATP are mainly mediated via endothelial prinergic receptors. Intraluminal ATP and muscle contractions appear to modulate sympathetic nerve activity by inhibiting the effect of NE rather than blunting its...

  8. Cluster Physics with Merging Galaxy Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandor M. Molnar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Collisions between galaxy clusters provide a unique opportunity to study matter in a parameter space which cannot be explored in our laboratories on Earth. In the standard LCDM model, where the total density is dominated by the cosmological constant ($Lambda$ and the matter density by cold dark matter (CDM, structure formation is hierarchical, and clusters grow mostly by merging.Mergers of two massive clusters are the most energetic events in the universe after the Big Bang,hence they provide a unique laboratory to study cluster physics.The two main mass components in clusters behave differently during collisions:the dark matter is nearly collisionless, responding only to gravity, while the gas is subject to pressure forces and dissipation, and shocks and turbulenceare developed during collisions. In the present contribution we review the different methods used to derive the physical properties of merging clusters. Different physical processes leave their signatures on different wavelengths, thusour review is based on a multifrequency analysis. In principle, the best way to analyze multifrequency observations of merging clustersis to model them using N-body/HYDRO numerical simulations. We discuss the results of such detailed analyses.New high spatial and spectral resolution ground and space based telescopeswill come online in the near future. Motivated by these new opportunities,we briefly discuss methods which will be feasible in the near future in studying merging clusters.

  9. Minimalist's linux cluster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang-Yeong; Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Kim, Seyong

    2004-01-01

    Using barebone PC components and NIC's, we construct a linux cluster which has 2-dimensional mesh structure. This cluster has smaller footprint, is less expensive, and use less power compared to conventional linux cluster. Here, we report our experience in building such a machine and discuss our current lattice project on the machine

  10. Range-clustering queries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Mikkel; de Berg, Mark; Buchin, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    an optimal k-clustering for S P ∩ Q. We obtain the following results. • We present a general method to compute a (1 + ϵ)-approximation to a range-clustering query, where ϵ > 0 is a parameter that can be specified as part of the query. Our method applies to a large class of clustering problems, including k...

  11. Cosmology with cluster surveys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Surveys of clusters of galaxies provide us with a powerful probe of the density and nature of the dark energy. The red-shift distribution of detected clusters is highly sensitive to the dark energy equation of state parameter . Upcoming Sunyaev–Zel'dovich (SZ) surveys would provide us large yields of clusters to very high ...

  12. Cosmology with cluster surveys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cosmology with cluster surveys. SUBHABRATA MAJUMDAR. CITA, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H8, Canada. E-mail: subha@cita.utoronto.ca. Abstract. Surveys of clusters of galaxies provide us with a powerful probe of the den- sity and nature of the dark energy. The red-shift distribution of detected clusters is.

  13. Structures of Mn clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The geometries of several Mn clusters in the size range Mn13–Mn23 are studied via the generalized gradient approximation to density functional theory. For the 13- and 19-atom clusters, the icosahedral structures are found to be most stable, while for the 15-atom cluster, the bcc structure is more favoured.

  14. Marketing research cluster analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Nebojša

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available One area of applications of cluster analysis in marketing is identification of groups of cities and towns with similar demographic profiles. This paper considers main aspects of cluster analysis by an example of clustering 12 cities with the use of Minitab software.

  15. The Durban Auto Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Jochen; Robbins, Glen; Barnes, Justin

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes the formation of the Durban Auto Cluster in the context of trade liberalization. It argues that the improvement of operational competitiveness of firms in the cluster is prominently due to joint action. It tests this proposition by comparing the gains from cluster activities...

  16. Cosmology with cluster surveys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Surveys of clusters of galaxies provide us with a powerful probe of the den- sity and nature of the dark energy. The red-shift distribution of detected clusters is highly sensitive to the dark energy equation of state parameter w. Upcoming Sunyaev–. Zel'dovich (SZ) surveys would provide us large yields of clusters to ...

  17. The Psychology of Yoga Practitioners: A Cluster Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genovese, Jeremy E C; Fondran, Kristine M

    2017-11-01

    Yoga practitioners (N = 261) completed the revised Expression of Spirituality Inventory (ESI) and the Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire. Cluster analysis revealed three clusters: Cluster A scored high on all four spiritual constructs. They had high positive evaluations of their appearance, but a lower orientation towards their appearance. They tended to have a high evaluation of their fitness and health, and higher body satisfaction. Cluster B showed lower scores on the spiritual constructs. Like Cluster A, members of Cluster B tended to show high positive evaluations of appearance and fitness. They also had higher body satisfaction. Members of Cluster B had a higher fitness orientation and a higher appearance orientation than members of Cluster A. Members of Cluster C had low scores for all spiritual constructs. They had a low evaluation of, and unhappiness with, their appearance. They were unhappy with the size and appearance of their bodies. They tended to see themselves as overweight. There was a significant difference in years of practice between the three groups (Kruskall -Wallis, p = .0041). Members of Cluster A have the most years of yoga experience and members of Cluster B have more yoga experience than members of Cluster C. These results suggest the possible existence of a developmental trajectory for yoga practitioners. Such a developmental sequence may have important implications for yoga practice and instruction.

  18. Cluster analysis for applications

    CERN Document Server

    Anderberg, Michael R

    1973-01-01

    Cluster Analysis for Applications deals with methods and various applications of cluster analysis. Topics covered range from variables and scales to measures of association among variables and among data units. Conceptual problems in cluster analysis are discussed, along with hierarchical and non-hierarchical clustering methods. The necessary elements of data analysis, statistics, cluster analysis, and computer implementation are integrated vertically to cover the complete path from raw data to a finished analysis.Comprised of 10 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to the subject o

  19. Excitations in clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertsch, G.F.

    2001-01-01

    Statistical reaction theory is an important tool for understanding dynamic processes in clusters as well as for extracting information about theirs energetics. The author reviews the statistical reaction theory and establishes formulas concerning cluster evaporation rates, electron emission and radiative cooling. The author recalls a number of useful formulas for describing the electromagnetic properties of small particles, generalizes them and applies them in the case of alkali metal clusters and of silver clusters. The author ends discussing carbon structures, going from small clusters and molecules to fullerenes and nano-tubes. (A.C.)

  20. Role of Autoantibodies in the Diagnosis of Connective-Tissue Disease ILD (CTD-ILD and Interstitial Pneumonia with Autoimmune Features (IPAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelle S. Jee

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of interstitial lung disease (ILD requires meticulous evaluation for an underlying connective tissue disease (CTD, with major implications for prognosis and management. CTD associated ILD (CTD-ILD occurs most commonly in the context of an established CTD, but can be the first and/or only manifestation of an occult CTD or occur in patients who have features suggestive of an autoimmune process, but not meeting diagnostic criteria for a defined CTD—recently defined as “interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features” (IPAF. The detection of specific autoantibodies serves a critical role in the diagnosis of CTD-ILD, but there remains a lack of data to guide clinical practice including which autoantibodies should be tested on initial assessment and when or in whom serial testing should be performed. The implications of detecting autoantibodies in patients with IPAF on disease behaviour and management remain unknown. The evaluation of CTD-ILD is challenging due to the heterogeneity of presentations and types of CTD and ILD that may be encountered, and thus it is imperative that immunologic tests are interpreted in conjunction with a detailed rheumatologic history and examination and multidisciplinary collaboration between respiratory physicians, rheumatologists, immunologists, radiologists and pathologists.