WorldWideScience

Sample records for interstate compacts

  1. Creating interstate compacts for low level waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    The implementation of the 1980 Low-level Radioactive Waste Policy Act (LLRWPA) depends on the creation of interstate compacts. Compact formation is a public goods problem. Formation may be impeded by opposition from elements in the federal government, the inability of state governments to resolve problems of conflicting political interests, and the possiblity of extensive and unfruitful negotiations. These obstacles my be overcome if fortuitous circumstances exist and entrepreneurial behavior is applied. Guidelines that entrepreneurs may use to facilitate compact formation are relying on the exclusive character of incentives, forming compacts with a small number of members, taking advantage of inequality of interests among prospective members, using solidary incentives to promote cooperation, relying on existing regional organizations to build support, employing a game metaphor to understand the stakes of the participants, and making each party subject to an agreement feel as if it were a winner. (author)

  2. Update on the activities of the central interstate low-level radioactive waste compact commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peery, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    Since its formation in 1983, the Central Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact Commission has moved at a deliberate pace to meet the responsibilities placed on the states by federal law. In addition to the normal activities associated with an agency empowered to regulate a specific industry, the Commission has conducted a number of studies designed to help it meet its responsibilities. The Phase I Site Exclusionary Study identified those areas in each of the member states that failed to meet criteria set out in 10 CFR 61. The key elements of a Management Study are: an evaluation of the region's waste stream, development of the procedures the Commission will use to select a developer for the region's waste facility, an assessment of disposal alternatives, and the development of a plan to review the results of the management plan. The Commission is conducting a Phase II Site Exclusionary Study in which a closer analysis of each area will allow the Commission to determine if there are areas in each state that are capable of being sited. The Commission is also considering the draft Request for Proposals to Develop a Low-Level Radioactive Waste Facility within the Region

  3. Central interstate low-level radioactive waste compact region site exclusionary screening study. Phase I. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-06-01

    The Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980 assigns to the states the responsibility for disposal of the low-level radioactive waste generated within their boundaries. It also provides for regional compacts among states to address their needs on a broader basis and permits restriction of the use of regional disposal facilities after January 1, 1986, to generators of low-level waste within the region. Each state, either individually or as a member of a compact, must therefore consider the establishment of a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility within its borders. The states of Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Nebraska, and Oklahoma adopted the Central Interstate Low-Level Waste Compact (CILLWC) and legislation was submitted to Congress for consent in June of 1983 legislation is being reintroduced in the 99th Congress. In August of 1984, the CILLWC selected and contracted Dames and Moore to conduct a Phase I-Site Suitability Screening Study for a low-level radioactive waste disposal facility in the five-state region. This report presents the results of the Phase I Screening Study. Dames and Moore reported to the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC) of the CILLWC which provided guidance and comment on work progress and direction

  4. Update on low-level waste compacts and state agencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenan, M.; Rabbe, D.; Thompson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This article updates information on the following agencies involved in low-level radioactive wastes: Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission; Central Interstate Low-Level radioactive Waste Commission; Central Midwest Interstate Low-Level radioactive Waste Compact; Massachusetts Low-Level radioactive Waste Management Board; Michigan Low-Level Radioactive Waste Authority; Midwest Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission; New York State Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Commission; Northeast Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact; Northwest Interstate Compact on Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management; Rocky Mountain Low-Level Radioactive Waste Board; Southeast Compact Commission for Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management;Southwest Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission; Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority

  5. Interstate Electrification Improvement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puckette, Margaret [Shorepower Technologies, Hillsboro, OR (United States); Kim, Jeff [Shorepower Technologies, Hillsboro, OR (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The Interstate Electrification Improvement Project, publicly known as the Shorepower Truck Electrification Project (STEP), started in May 2011 and ended in March 2015. The project grant was awarded by the Department of Energy’s Vehicles Technology Office in the amount of $22.2 million. It had three overarching missions: 1. Reduce the idling of Class 8 tractors when parked at truck stops, to reduce diesel fuel consumption and thus U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum; 2. Stimulate job creation and economic activity as part of the American Reinvestment and Recovery Act of 2009; 3. Reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from diesel combustion and the carbon footprint of the truck transportation industry. The project design was straightforward. First, build fifty Truck Stop Electrification (TSE) facilities in truck stop parking lots across the country so trucks could plug-in to 110V, 220V, or 480VAC, and shut down the engine instead of idling. These facilities were strategically located at fifty truck stops along major U.S. Interstates with heavy truck traffic. Approximately 1,350 connection points were installed, including 150 high-voltage electric standby Transport Refrigeration Unit (eTRU) plugs--eTRUs are capable of plugging in to shore power1 to cool the refrigerated trailer for loads such as produce, meats and ice cream. Second, the project provided financial incentives on idle reduction equipment to 5,000 trucks in the form of rebates, to install equipment compatible with shore power. This equipment enables drivers to shut down the main engine when parked, to heat or cool their cab, charge batteries, or use other household appliances without idling—a common practice that uses approximately 1 gallon of diesel per hour. The rebate recipients were intended to be the first fleets to plug into Shorepower to save diesel fuel and ensure there is significant population of shore power capable trucks. This two part project was designed to complement each other by

  6. 40 CFR 52.2354 - Interstate transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interstate transport. 52.2354 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Utah § 52.2354 Interstate transport. CAA..., Interstate Transport, of the Utah SIP submitted by the Utah Governor on March 22, 2007, satisfies the...

  7. 40 CFR 52.352 - Interstate transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interstate transport. 52.352 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Colorado § 52.352 Interstate transport. Addition to the Colorado State Implementation Plan of the Colorado Interstate Transport SIP regarding the 1997 8-Hour Ozone...

  8. 16 CFR 240.6 - Interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...(d) and 2(e) of the Act. (The commerce standard for sections 2 (d) and (e) is at least as inclusive... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate commerce. 240.6 Section 240.6... ALLOWANCES AND OTHER MERCHANDISING PAYMENTS AND SERVICES § 240.6 Interstate commerce. The term interstate...

  9. 40 CFR 52.1181 - Interstate pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interstate pollution. 52.1181 Section...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS (CONTINUED) Michigan § 52.1181 Interstate pollution. (a... significantly to levels of air pollution in excess of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in that state...

  10. 40 CFR 52.740 - Interstate pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interstate pollution. 52.740 Section 52...) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Illinois> § 52.740 Interstate pollution. (a) The... levels of air pollution in excess of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards in that state. [46 FR...

  11. 47 CFR 90.417 - Interstation communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interstation communication. 90.417 Section 90.417 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Operating Requirements § 90.417 Interstation communication. (a) Any...

  12. Preventing Interstate Armed Conflict : whose responsibility?

    OpenAIRE

    Otunba, Ganiyu

    2010-01-01

    This is a study of interstate armed conflict prevention. The concept of conflict, armed conflict and conflict prevention is defined and explained in order to be able to investigate if there is any single institution saddled with the responsibility of preventing interstate armed conflict and also to verify if adequate efforts are been put in this area which is of importance to mankind. The relationship between conflict prevention, conflict management and conflict resolution is also discussed s...

  13. H.R. 1046: a Bill to grant the consent of the Congress to the Central Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact. Introduced in the House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session, February 7, 1985, October 22, 1985 and December 5, 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    Congressional consent in H.R. 1046 to establish a low-level radioactive waste compact among the central states encourages a cooperative approach to improving the efficiency and reducing the risks of waste management. The states covered by the Act are Arkansas, Iowa, Kansas, Louisiana, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, and Oklahoma. The enabling legislation outlines the rights and obligations of the compact member states as well as the procedures for developing and operating regional facilities. The term of the compact is 10 years, after which Congress may modify or repeal the Act

  14. 9 CFR 73.1 - Interstate movement prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.1 Interstate movement prohibited. (a) Cattle affected with scabies. No cattle affected with scabies shall be shipped, trailed, driven, or otherwise moved interstate for any purpose except as...

  15. 29 CFR 782.7 - Interstate commerce requirements of exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... interstate commerce). (Walling v. Craig, 53 F. Supp. 479 (D. Minn). See also Engbretson v. E. J. Albrecht Co... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interstate commerce requirements of exemption. 782.7... HOURS PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN EMPLOYEES OF MOTOR CARRIERS § 782.7 Interstate commerce requirements of...

  16. Compact vortices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Losano, L.; Marques, M.A.; Zafalan, I. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Menezes, R. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Ciencias Exatas, Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil)

    2017-02-15

    We study a family of Maxwell-Higgs models, described by the inclusion of a function of the scalar field that represent generalized magnetic permeability. We search for vortex configurations which obey first-order differential equations that solve the equations of motion. We first deal with the asymptotic behavior of the field configurations, and then implement a numerical study of the solutions, the energy density and the magnetic field. We work with the generalized permeability having distinct profiles, giving rise to new models, and we investigate how the vortices behave, compared with the solutions of the corresponding standard models. In particular, we show how to build compact vortices, that is, vortex solutions with the energy density and magnetic field vanishing outside a compact region of the plane. (orig.)

  17. State Economic Implications of Elderly Interstate Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown, William H.

    1988-01-01

    Estimated total interstate redistribution of income due to elderly migration over 1975-80 at about $15.2 billion using published 1980 census data on the characteristics of older migrants, in combination with expenditure data from the 1980-81 Consumer Expenditure Survey. Found Florida gained one billion dollars in exchange with New York alone.…

  18. TOURISM AS A POLITICAL INTERSTATE DIALOGUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sergeevna Matveevskaya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available International tourism in the 21st century is an important factor in the world politics’ development. The growth of tourist flows and the worldwide scale of travels define tourism as part of the overall internationalization process of socio-economic relations. The tourism industry is developing quite stably and efficiently in many countries. National policies should be focused on obtaining the maximum benefit from international cooperation. The importance of international tourism in political discourse emphasizes the creation of international legal acts regulating the tourism industry, as well as different levels of tourist organizations. International tourism in world politics has a special advantage in resolving disagreements between states. The role of tourism in shaping the image and prestige of the country is noted. Russia’s participation in international tourism projects is a source of cultural, social and economic development. Interstate tours contribute to the development of cultural tourism into the sustainable development policies of countries and regions. A positive trend is the consent of the foreign partners on the inclusion of Russian tourist destinations in the perspective of cultural routes. Purpose. Determination of the political role of tourism in interstate relations. Methodology in article theoretical analysis and descriptive method were used. Results: international tourism in the XXI century is one of the most important factor in world politics. Practical implications. The results of the research can serve as a basis for the further development and improvement of interstate relations by means of tourism.

  19. The Migration-Interstate Conflict Nexus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabastiano Rwengabo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available When and how does forced migration strain security relations between neighbouring States? Drawing from secondary research on two interstate conflicts in Africa’s Great Lakes Region during the 1970s and 1990s, I examine the socio-political conditions in both the migrants’ home and recipient States that interweave migrants into both States’ security calculations. I argue that refugees strain neighbouring States’ security relations under conditions of domestic socio-political violence, geographical proximity, and opportunities for refugees’ forced-return mobilisation. Evidence from the 1978-79 Uganda-Tanzania war, and the post-1994 DRC-Rwanda conflict, indicates that given these conditions forced migration strains interstate security relations by arousing suspicion and fear of migrants living in neighbouring States among leaders of refugees’ home country; and provoking migrants’ desire to forcefully return home expressed through politico-military mobilisation and declaration of war. Sending States pressure host States to ‘contain’ refugees’ mobilisation for forceful return. When recipient States are unable or unwilling to satisfy sending States’ demands, refugees become infused in both countries’ security calculations. These convergent processes generate interstate conflicts and may result in armed confrontation. The findings are useful for grasping the transformation of civil wars into transnational and regional conflicts, such as prevailed in the Region since the 1990s.

  20. The Court of Justice as an inter-state court

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Graham

    2017-01-01

    law obligations, whereas Article 273 TFEU concerns asking the Court to be an adjudicator for inter-state disputes stemming from a bilateral or multilateral arrangement that relates to the subject matters of the treaties. Use of both instruments for inter-state litigation has historically been limited......, demonstrating the strong self-contained regime of law that the Union has built and developed. This article delves into the two inter-state dispute resolution instruments that are within the primary law framework of the European Union, and analyses to what extent inter-state disputes between EU Member States can...

  1. Pharmaceutical powder compaction technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Çelik, Metin

    2011-01-01

    ... through the compaction formulation process and application. Compaction of powder constituents both active ingredient and excipients is examined to ensure consistent and reproducible disintegration and dispersion profiles...

  2. 20 CFR 655.150 - Interstate clearance of job order.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interstate clearance of job order. 655.150... job order. (a) SWA posts in interstate clearance system. The SWA must promptly place the job order in... transmit a copy of its active job order to all States listed in the job order as anticipated worksites...

  3. 23 CFR 710.405 - Air rights on the Interstate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air rights on the Interstate. 710.405 Section 710.405 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT RIGHT-OF-WAY AND REAL ESTATE Real Property Management § 710.405 Air rights on the Interstate. (a) The FHWA...

  4. 45 CFR 1321.43 - Interstate planning and service area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interstate planning and service area. 1321.43 Section 1321.43 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN... PROGRAMS GRANTS TO STATE AND COMMUNITY PROGRAMS ON AGING State Agency Responsibilities § 1321.43 Interstate...

  5. 21 CFR 1240.62 - Turtles intrastate and interstate requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Turtles intrastate and interstate requirements....62 Turtles intrastate and interstate requirements. (a) Definition. As used in this section the term “turtles” includes all animals commonly known as turtles, tortoises, terrapins, and all other animals of...

  6. Model Compaction Equation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Petrophysical, Decompaction and Linear Regression techniques were used to investigate overpressure, degree of compaction and to derive a model compaction equation for. -1. -1 hydrostatic sandstones. Compaction coefficients obtained range from 0.0003 - 0.0005 m (averaging 0.0004 m ) and percentage compaction ...

  7. INTERSTATE EDUCATIONAL SPACE OF EU AND CIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Г А Краснова

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to interstate educational space EU, CIS: describe the mechanisms for their establishment and highlighted their main characteristics. Russia has become a party at different times of all of that interstate educational spaces. Given the fact that the humanitarian cooperation in the field of education has economic consequences, measured in concrete terms, the article analyzed the capacity of pro-labor market of highly qualified personnel (labor mobility and the educational market (academic mobility countries participating in intergovernmental alliances. The authors concluded that the trend of the growth of regionalization of education, as evidenced, in particular, the growing regional academic and labor mobility. Moreover, if the foundations for the EU-governmental regional centers of education were Germany and France, for the CIS - Russia.For Russia, for the first time facing the challenge of working on the reduction-settlement, participation in international educational alliances can bring additional dividends if the solution to this problem will go the way of increasing labor migration and training of the participating countries of the CIS. In this case, Existing-exists the need for correction of the state policy in the field of attracting highly qualified you are, foreign experts and training issues for foreign countries.

  8. 5 CFR 5001.103 - Impartiality determinations for members of the Interstate Commerce Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of the Interstate Commerce Commission. 5001.103 Section 5001.103 Administrative Personnel INTERSTATE COMMERCE COMMISSION SUPPLEMENTAL STANDARDS OF ETHICAL CONDUCT FOR EMPLOYEES OF THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE COMMISSION § 5001.103 Impartiality determinations for members of the Interstate Commerce Commission. A member...

  9. 29 CFR 776.29 - Instrumentalities and channels of interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Instrumentalities and channels of interstate commerce. 776... Instrumentalities and channels of interstate commerce. (a) Typical examples. Instrumentalities and channels which serve as the media for the movement of goods and persons in interstate commerce or for interstate...

  10. Crowdsourcing the Measurement of Interstate Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Orazio, Vito; Kenwick, Michael; Lane, Matthew; Palmer, Glenn; Reitter, David

    2016-01-01

    Much of the data used to measure conflict is extracted from news reports. This is typically accomplished using either expert coders to quantify the relevant information or machine coders to automatically extract data from documents. Although expert coding is costly, it produces quality data. Machine coding is fast and inexpensive, but the data are noisy. To diminish the severity of this tradeoff, we introduce a method for analyzing news documents that uses crowdsourcing, supplemented with computational approaches. The new method is tested on documents about Militarized Interstate Disputes, and its accuracy ranges between about 68 and 76 percent. This is shown to be a considerable improvement over automated coding, and to cost less and be much faster than expert coding.

  11. 76 FR 3695 - Environmental Impact Statement: Interstate 64 Corridor, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Interstate 64 Corridor, Virginia AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Simkins, Senior Environmental Specialist, Federal Highway Administration...

  12. 76 FR 21790 - Environmental Impact Statement: Interstate 66 Corridor, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Environmental Impact Statement: Interstate 66 Corridor, Virginia AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent... and Environmental Team Leader, Federal Highway Administration, Post Office Box 10249, Richmond...

  13. Rural interstate corridor communications study : report to Congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-08-28

    "The United States Department of Transportation, working with the U.S. Department of Commerce and with State and local agencies, investigated the prospects for deploying high-speed telecommunications (HST) in three largely rural interstate highway co...

  14. Gas supplies of interstate natural gas pipeline companies 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This publication provides information on the interstate pipeline companies' supply of natural gas in the United States during calendar year 1990, for use by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission for regulatory purposes. It also provides information to other Government agencies, the natural gas industry, as well as policy makers, analysts, and consumers interested in current levels of interstate supplies of natural gas and trends over recent years

  15. Fuzzy Inverse Compactness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halis Aygün

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce definitions of fuzzy inverse compactness, fuzzy inverse countable compactness, and fuzzy inverse Lindelöfness on arbitrary -fuzzy sets in -fuzzy topological spaces. We prove that the proposed definitions are good extensions of the corresponding concepts in ordinary topology and obtain different characterizations of fuzzy inverse compactness.

  16. Compaction behaviour of soils

    OpenAIRE

    Kurucuk, Nurses

    2017-01-01

    Soil compaction is widely applied in geotechnical engineering practice. It is used to maximise the dry density of soils to reduce subsequent settlement under working loads or to reduce the permeability of soils. The durability and stability of structures are highly related to the appropriate compaction achievement. The structural failure of roads and airfields, and the damage caused by foundation settlement can often be traced back to the failure in achieving adequate compaction. For that rea...

  17. Self-Compacting Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Okamura, Hajime; Ouchi, Masahiro

    2003-01-01

    Self-compacting concrete was first developed in 1988 to achieve durable concrete structures. Since then, various investigations have been carried out and this type of concrete has been used in practical structures in Japan, mainly by large construction companies. Investigations for establishing a rational mix-design method and self-compactability testing methods have been carried out from the viewpoint of making self-compacting concrete a standard concrete.

  18. 7 CFR 301.38 - Notice of quarantine; restrictions on interstate movement of regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Black Stem Rust § 301.38 Notice of quarantine; restrictions on interstate movement of... prevent the spread of black stem rust. No person shall move interstate any regulated article except in...

  19. Pharmaceutical powder compaction technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Çelik, Metin

    2011-01-01

    "Revised to reflect modern pharmaceutical compacting techniques, this Second Edition guides pharmaceutical engineers, formulation scientists, and product development and quality assurance personnel...

  20. Compact Polarimetry Potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong-Loi, My-Linh; Dubois-Fernandez, Pascale; Pottier, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this study is to show the potential of a compact-pol SAR system for vegetation applications. Compact-pol concept has been suggested to minimize the system design while maximize the information and is declined as the ?/4, ?/2 and hybrid modes. In this paper, the applications such as biomass and vegetation height estimates are first presented, then, the equivalence between compact-pol data simulated from full-pol data and compact-pol data processed from raw data as such is shown. Finally, a calibration procedure using external targets is proposed.

  1. Interstate Economic Integration - Essential Characteristic of the Contemporary World Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Mariana CALINICA

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available After the Second World War, the world economy became more and more characterized by an intensification of economic relations between different countries. The complex and diverse problems that faced the states, have imposed necessity for the identification of appropriate solutions to economic cooperation and economic interstate integration was considered an effective way to development and an answer to all these problems. The purpose of this article is to analyze the integration process of interstate economic integration in all its essential aspects. The study begins with the definition of the concept and continues with the analysis of the forms of interstate economic integration and the main organizations of this kind that existing in the world economy nowadays.

  2. 75 FR 29706 - Interstate Movement of Garbage from Hawaii; Availability of an Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-27

    ... Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2006-0172] Interstate Movement of Garbage from Hawaii; Availability of... Service relative to a request to allow the interstate movement of garbage from Hawaii to a landfill in the.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The importation and interstate movement of garbage is regulated by the...

  3. 78 FR 40966 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Interstate Transport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter..., 2009, to address interstate transport for the 2006 PM 2.5 NAAQS. Based on EPA's evaluation of the State... 2.5 and Interstate Transport regarding noninterference with other states' programs for PSD for the...

  4. 78 FR 15664 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Interstate Transport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; New Mexico; Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter... Order Reviews I. Background A. 2006 PM 2.5 NAAQS and Interstate Transport Section 110(a)(2)(D)(i) of the CAA identifies four distinct elements related to the evaluation of impacts of interstate transport of...

  5. 17 CFR 250.8 - Exemption of subsidiaries subject to jurisdiction of Interstate Commerce Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... subject to jurisdiction of Interstate Commerce Commission. 250.8 Section 250.8 Commodity and Securities... to jurisdiction of Interstate Commerce Commission. Any subsidiary company of a registered holding company, which subsidiary is subject to the jurisdiction of the Interstate Commerce Commission but is not...

  6. 76 FR 19292 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Oregon; Interstate Transport of Pollution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ....5 NAAQS (2010 interstate transport SIP).\\19\\ ODEQ's June 23, 2010, submittal includes public process... case-specific evaluation of interstate transport, and also ensures the legal mechanism for ODEQ to take... case-specific evaluation of interstate transport, and also ensures the legal mechanism for ODEQ to take...

  7. 76 FR 29290 - Environmental Impact Statement: Interstate 64 Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel Corridor, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ...: Interstate 64 Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel Corridor, Virginia AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA... Interstate 64 Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel (HRBT) corridor in Virginia. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT... Interstate 64 Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel (HRBT) corridor in Virginia. The approximate limits of the study...

  8. 40 CFR 81.35 - Louisville Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.35 Louisville Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Louisville Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Kentucky-Indiana) consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Louisville Interstate Air Quality...

  9. 40 CFR 81.51 - Portland Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.51 Portland Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Portland Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Oregon-Washington) has been revised to consist of the territorial area... Portland Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Oregon-Washington) will be referred to by Washington...

  10. 40 CFR 81.121 - Four Corners Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.121 Four Corners Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Four Corners Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Colorado-New Mexico-Utah) has been revised to consist of the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Four Corners Interstate Air Quality...

  11. 40 CFR 81.42 - Chattanooga Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.42 Chattanooga Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Chattanooga Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Georgia-Tennessee) has been revised to consist of the territorial area... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chattanooga Interstate Air Quality...

  12. 40 CFR 81.102 - Metropolitan Quad Cities Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Metropolitan Quad Cities Interstate... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.102 Metropolitan Quad Cities Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Quad Cities Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Iowa) consists of...

  13. 18 CFR 284.13 - Reporting requirements for interstate pipelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... (5) The requirements for the electronic index can be obtained from the Federal Energy Regulatory... with the pipeline. (c) Index of customers. (1) On the first business day of each calendar quarter, an interstate pipeline must file with the Commission an index of all its firm transportation and storage...

  14. 33 CFR 329.6 - Interstate or foreign commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interstate or foreign commerce... commerce. (a) Nature of commerce: type, means, and extent of use. The types of commercial use of a waterway... transportation of commerce which is the determinative factor, and not the time, extent or manner of that use. As...

  15. 78 FR 67956 - Rates for Interstate Inmate Calling Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-13

    ... inmate in New Mexico may be able to place a 15 minute interstate collect call at an effective rate as low... families to subsidize everything from inmate welfare to salaries and benefits, states' general revenue funds, and personnel training. 4. We applaud states such as New Mexico and New York that have already...

  16. 78 FR 56129 - Interstate Movement of Sharwil Avocados From Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-12

    ... Sharwil avocados could stop in California first before making its way to Connecticut. APHIS agrees that... Agriculture reported that there were a total of 8,245 avocado farms in the United States, with about 76.... APHIS-2012-0008] RIN 0579-AD70 Interstate Movement of Sharwil Avocados From Hawaii AGENCY: Animal and...

  17. Statistics of interstate natural gas pipeline companies, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report, presents financial and operating information of all major interstate natural gas pipeline companies that operated in the United States during 1991. This report is used by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), State utility commissions, other government agencies, and the general public. The information is taken from FERC Form 2, ''Annual Report of Major Natural Gas Companies,'' as filed with FERC

  18. Inter-state Variation in the Burden of Fragility Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demographic differences may produce inter-state variation in the burden of osteoporosis. The objective of this study was to estimate the burden of fragility fractures by race/ethnicity, age, sex, and service site across 5 diverse and populous states. State inpatient databases for 2000 were used to ...

  19. 78 FR 4369 - Rates for Interstate Inmate Calling Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... and collect call-only restrictions at privately- administered prisons and require such facilities to permit multiple long distance carriers to interconnect with prison telephone systems. * * *'' In the... currently regulate interstate ICS rates. ICS rates in federal prisons are set by the Federal Bureau of...

  20. 78 FR 44915 - Turtles Intrastate and Interstate Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    .... FDA-2013-N-0639] Turtles Intrastate and Interstate Requirements AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... turtle eggs and live turtles with a carapace length of less than 4 inches to remove procedures for... viable turtle eggs and turtles with a carapace length of less than 4 inches to stop the spread of turtle...

  1. 78 FR 63872 - Turtles Intrastate and Interstate Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 1240 [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0639] Turtles Intrastate and Interstate Requirements Correction In rule document 2013-17751 appearing on pages 44878-44881 in the issue of July 25, 2013, make the following correction: On page 44879...

  2. 78 FR 44878 - Turtles Intrastate and Interstate Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    .... FDA-2013-N-0639] Turtles Intrastate and Interstate Requirements AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... turtle eggs and live turtles with a carapace length of less than 4 inches to remove procedures for... 21 CFR 1240.62 on May 23, 1975 (40 FR 22543), that ban the sale and distribution of viable turtle...

  3. Deliverability on the interstate natural gas pipeline system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Deliverability on the Interstate Natural Gas Pipeline System examines the capability of the national pipeline grid to transport natural gas to various US markets. The report quantifies the capacity levels and utilization rates of major interstate pipeline companies in 1996 and the changes since 1990, as well as changes in markets and end-use consumption patterns. It also discusses the effects of proposed capacity expansions on capacity levels. The report consists of five chapters, several appendices, and a glossary. Chapter 1 discusses some of the operational and regulatory features of the US interstate pipeline system and how they affect overall system design, system utilization, and capacity expansions. Chapter 2 looks at how the exploration, development, and production of natural gas within North America is linked to the national pipeline grid. Chapter 3 examines the capability of the interstate natural gas pipeline network to link production areas to market areas, on the basis of capacity and usage levels along 10 corridors. The chapter also examines capacity expansions that have occurred since 1990 along each corridor and the potential impact of proposed new capacity. Chapter 4 discusses the last step in the transportation chain, that is, deliverability to the ultimate end user. Flow patterns into and out of each market region are discussed, as well as the movement of natural gas between States in each region. Chapter 5 examines how shippers reserve interstate pipeline capacity in the current transportation marketplace and how pipeline companies are handling the secondary market for short-term unused capacity. Four appendices provide supporting data and additional detail on the methodology used to estimate capacity. 32 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. Compaction of FGD-gypsum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoop, B.T.J.; Larbi, J.A.; Heijnen, W.M.M.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that it is possible to produce compacted gypsum with a low porosity and a high strength on a laboratory scale by uniaxial compaction of flue gas desulphurization (FGD-) gypsum powder. Compacted FGD-gypsum cylinders were produced at a compaction pres-sure between 50 and 500 MPa yielding

  5. Site development in the Central Midwest Compact Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lash, T.R.

    1986-01-01

    Illinois and Kentucky, the two members of the Central Midwest Interstate Low-Level Radioactive Waste Compact, are well along in fulfilling their responsibility to provide new low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal capacity, which has been delegated to states and regions by federal law. The host state for facilities under the compact will be Illinois, and thus the focus of this paper is on Illinois' siting process. Illinois has both the statutory authority for LLW management and a cabinet-level agency, the Illinois Department of Nuclear Safety (IDNS), which has the responsibility for implementing the state management act. Based on activities to date, the Central Midwest Region expects to meet the milestones established by the federal Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985. Illinois, however, cannot take further progress toward managing and disposing of our LLW for granted. IDNS and the Central Midwest Compact Commission (CMCC) must continue vigorously to press ahead to assure timely development of new disposal capacity. This paper provides background information on (1) the laws under which new facilities will be established in the Central Midwest Region, (2) the activities of IDNS and CMCC, and (3) planned activities by both IDNS and the CMCC

  6. Inhomogeneous compact extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronnikov, K.A. [Center of Gravity and Fundamental Metrology, VNIIMS, 46 Ozyornaya st., Moscow 119361 (Russian Federation); Budaev, R.I.; Grobov, A.V.; Dmitriev, A.E.; Rubin, Sergey G., E-mail: kb20@yandex.ru, E-mail: buday48@mail.ru, E-mail: alexey.grobov@gmail.com, E-mail: alexdintras@mail.ru, E-mail: sergeirubin@list.ru [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-10-01

    We show that an inhomogeneous compact extra space possesses two necessary features— their existence does not contradict the observable value of the cosmological constant Λ{sub 4} in pure f ( R ) theory, and the extra dimensions are stable relative to the 'radion mode' of perturbations, the only mode considered. For a two-dimensional extra space, both analytical and numerical solutions for the metric are found, able to provide a zero or arbitrarily small Λ{sub 4}. A no-go theorem has also been proved, that maximally symmetric compact extra spaces are inconsistent with 4D Minkowski space in the framework of pure f ( R ) gravity.

  7. An Exploratory Note on Interstate Living-Cost Differentials

    OpenAIRE

    Cebula, Richard

    1985-01-01

    This exploratory study seeks to identify factors that systematically influence interstate living-cost differentials. Living costs refer to the average cost of living for a four-person family in each of the 50 states. For the year 1977, the living cost level is found to be an increasing function of population density, average income, and the degree of urbanization, while being a decreasing function of the presence of right-to-work laws.

  8. Trends and fluctuations in the severity of interstate wars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauset, Aaron

    2018-01-01

    Since 1945, there have been relatively few large interstate wars, especially compared to the preceding 30 years, which included both World Wars. This pattern, sometimes called the long peace, is highly controversial. Does it represent an enduring trend caused by a genuine change in the underlying conflict-generating processes? Or is it consistent with a highly variable but otherwise stable system of conflict? Using the empirical distributions of interstate war sizes and onset times from 1823 to 2003, we parameterize stationary models of conflict generation that can distinguish trends from statistical fluctuations in the statistics of war. These models indicate that both the long peace and the period of great violence that preceded it are not statistically uncommon patterns in realistic but stationary conflict time series. This fact does not detract from the importance of the long peace or the proposed mechanisms that explain it. However, the models indicate that the postwar pattern of peace would need to endure at least another 100 to 140 years to become a statistically significant trend. This fact places an implicit upper bound on the magnitude of any change in the true likelihood of a large war after the end of the Second World War. The historical patterns of war thus seem to imply that the long peace may be substantially more fragile than proponents believe, despite recent efforts to identify mechanisms that reduce the likelihood of interstate wars. PMID:29507877

  9. Real Compact Surfaces

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The classification of real compact surfaces is a main result which is at the same time easy to understand and non- trivial, simple in formulation and rich in consequences. The aim of this article is to explain the theorem by means of many drawings. It is an invitation to a visual approach of mathematics. First Definitions and ...

  10. Hadrons in compact stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 817–825. Hadrons in compact stars. DEBADES BANDYOPADHYAY. Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata 700 064, India ... There is a growing interplay between the physics of dense matter in relativistic .... Kaplan and Nelson [7] first showed in a chiral SU(3)L × SU(3)R model that.

  11. Soft b-compact spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkan Özkan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new class of generalized soft open sets in soft generalized topological spaces as a generalization of compact spaces, called soft b-compact spaces, is introduced and studied. A soft generalized topological space is soft b-compact if every soft b-open soft cover of (F,E contains a finite soft subcover. We characterize soft b-compact space and study some of their basic properties.

  12. Weakly compact operators and interpolation

    OpenAIRE

    Maligranda, Lech

    1992-01-01

    The class of weakly compact operators is, as well as the class of compact operators, a fundamental operator ideal. They were investigated strongly in the last twenty years. In this survey, we have collected and ordered some of this (partly very new) knowledge. We have also included some comments, remarks and examples. The class of weakly compact operators is, as well as the class of compact operators, a fundamental operator ideal. They were investigated strongly in the last twenty years. I...

  13. 76 FR 44648 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement; US 41 Interstate Conversion Plan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... and further, as a future part of the Interstate System. U.S. Highway 41 may be added to the Interstate... effort will also inform the public living in the study area. Public information meetings will be held...

  14. Analysis of laboratory compaction methods of roller compacted concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trtík, Tomáš; Chylík, Roman; Bílý, Petr; Fládr, Josef

    2017-09-01

    Roller-Compacted Concrete (RCC) is an ordinary concrete poured and compacted with machines typically used for laying of asphalt road layers. One of the problems connected with this technology is preparation of representative samples in the laboratory. The aim of this work was to analyse two methods of preparation of RCC laboratory samples with bulk density as the comparative parameter. The first method used dynamic compaction by pneumatic hammer. The second method of compaction had a static character. The specimens were loaded by precisely defined force in laboratory loading machine to create the same conditions as during static rolling (in the Czech Republic, only static rolling is commonly used). Bulk densities obtained by the two compaction methods were compared with core drills extracted from real RCC structure. The results have shown that the samples produced by pneumatic hammer tend to overestimate the bulk density of the material. For both compaction methods, immediate bearing index test was performed to verify the quality of compaction. A fundamental difference between static and dynamic compaction was identified. In static compaction, initial resistance to penetration of the mandrel was higher, after exceeding certain limit the resistance was constant. This means that the samples were well compacted just on the surface. Specimens made by pneumatic hammer actively resisted throughout the test, the whole volume was uniformly compacted.

  15. Compact Spreader Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placidi, M.; Jung, J. -Y.; Ratti, A.; Sun, C.

    2014-07-25

    This paper describes beam distribution schemes adopting a novel implementation based on low amplitude vertical deflections combined with horizontal ones generated by Lambertson-type septum magnets. This scheme offers substantial compactness in the longitudinal layouts of the beam lines and increased flexibility for beam delivery of multiple beam lines on a shot-to-shot basis. Fast kickers (FK) or transverse electric field RF Deflectors (RFD) provide the low amplitude deflections. Initially proposed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) as tools for beam diagnostics and more recently adopted for multiline beam pattern schemes, RFDs offer repetition capabilities and a likely better amplitude reproducibility when compared to FKs, which, in turn, offer more modest financial involvements both in construction and operation. Both solutions represent an ideal approach for the design of compact beam distribution systems resulting in space and cost savings while preserving flexibility and beam quality.

  16. Compact spreader schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placidi, M.; Jung, J.-Y.; Ratti, A.; Sun, C., E-mail: csun@lbl.gov

    2014-12-21

    This paper describes beam distribution schemes adopting a novel implementation based on low amplitude vertical deflections combined with horizontal ones generated by Lambertson-type septum magnets. This scheme offers substantial compactness in the longitudinal layouts of the beam lines and increased flexibility for beam delivery of multiple beam lines on a shot-to-shot basis. Fast kickers (FK) or transverse electric field RF Deflectors (RFD) provide the low amplitude deflections. Initially proposed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) as tools for beam diagnostics and more recently adopted for multiline beam pattern schemes, RFDs offer repetition capabilities and a likely better amplitude reproducibility when compared to FKs, which, in turn, offer more modest financial involvements both in construction and operation. Both solutions represent an ideal approach for the design of compact beam distribution systems resulting in space and cost savings while preserving flexibility and beam quality.

  17. Compact stellarators as reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyon, J.F.; Valanju, P.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Hirshman, S.; Spong, D.A.; Strickler, D.; Williamson, D.E.; Ware, A.

    2001-01-01

    Two types of compact stellarators are examined as reactors: two- and three-field-period (M=2 and 3) quasi-axisymmetric devices with volume-average =4-5% and M=2 and 3 quasi-poloidal devices with =10-15%. These low-aspect-ratio stellarator-tokamak hybrids differ from conventional stellarators in their use of the plasma-generated bootstrap current to supplement the poloidal field from external coils. Using the ARIES-AT model with B max =12T on the coils gives Compact Stellarator reactors with R=7.3-8.2m, a factor of 2-3 smaller R than other stellarator reactors for the same assumptions, and neutron wall loadings up to 3.7MWm -2 . (author)

  18. Compact fusion reactors

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Fusion research is currently to a large extent focused on tokamak (ITER) and inertial confinement (NIF) research. In addition to these large international or national efforts there are private companies performing fusion research using much smaller devices than ITER or NIF. The attempt to achieve fusion energy production through relatively small and compact devices compared to tokamaks decreases the costs and building time of the reactors and this has allowed some private companies to enter the field, like EMC2, General Fusion, Helion Energy, Lawrenceville Plasma Physics and Lockheed Martin. Some of these companies are trying to demonstrate net energy production within the next few years. If they are successful their next step is to attempt to commercialize their technology. In this presentation an overview of compact fusion reactor concepts is given.

  19. Compact SAW aerosol generator

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, A.; Harazim, S.; Collins, D.J.; Br?nig, R.; Schmidt, H.; Menzel, S.B.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we discuss and demonstrate the principle features of surface acoustic wave (SAW) aerosol generation, based on the properties of the fluid supply, the acoustic wave field and the acoustowetting phenomena. Furthermore, we demonstrate a compact SAW-based aerosol generator amenable to mass production fabricated using simple techniques including photolithography, computerized numerical control (CNC) milling and printed circuit board (PCB) manufacturing. Using this device, we present ...

  20. 7 CFR 301.50 - Restrictions on interstate movement of regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on interstate movement of regulated articles. 301.50 Section 301.50 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Pine Shoot Beetle § 301.50 Restrictions on interstate...

  1. 75 FR 61121 - Interstate Movement of Garbage From Hawaii; Withdrawal of Finding of No Significant Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2006-0172] Interstate Movement of Garbage From Hawaii; Withdrawal of Finding of No Significant Impact AGENCY: Animal and... INFORMATION: Background The importation and interstate movement of garbage is regulated by the Animal and...

  2. 9 CFR 73.5 - Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle from quarantined area; when permitted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.5 Interstate shipment of undiseased cattle... diseased with scabies, may be shipped, transported, or otherwise moved interstate for any purpose upon... have been inspected for scabies by an APHIS or State inspector, that all the infected or exposed herds...

  3. 9 CFR 81.2 - Identification of deer, elk, and moose in interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Identification of deer, elk, and moose in interstate commerce. 81.2 Section 81.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... moose in interstate commerce. Each animal required to be identified by this subpart must have at least...

  4. 18 CFR 382.203 - Annual charges under the Interstate Commerce Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Annual charges under the Interstate Commerce Act. 382.203 Section 382.203 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL... § 382.203 Annual charges under the Interstate Commerce Act. (a) The adjusted costs of administration of...

  5. 75 FR 22125 - Trans-Union Interstate Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Trans-Union Interstate Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Filing April 20, 2010. Take notice that on April 9, 2010 Trans-Union Interstate Pipeline, L.P. submitted a request for waiver of the...

  6. 76 FR 28221 - Trans-Union Interstate Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Trans-Union Interstate Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Filing Take notice that on April 7, 2011 Trans-Union Interstate Pipeline, L.P. submitted a request for a waiver of the reporting...

  7. 29 CFR 17.11 - What are the Secretary's obligations in interstate situations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What are the Secretary's obligations in interstate... OF LABOR PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 17.11 What are the Secretary's obligations in interstate... have adopted a process and which select the Department's program or activity. (3) Making efforts to...

  8. 45 CFR 660.11 - What are the Director's obligations in interstate situations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the Director's obligations in interstate... § 660.11 What are the Director's obligations in interstate situations? (a) The Director is responsible... a process and which select the Foundation's program or activity. (3) Making efforts to identify and...

  9. 16 CFR 1061.9 - Information about the effect on interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., interstate retailing, or interstate distribution. (d) The probability of other States or local governments... subject of the application. (3) Information as to technological product or process modifications necessary... effects on the production and distribution of the regulated products. Evidence of economic feasibility...

  10. 47 CFR 54.901 - Calculation of Interstate Common Line Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... excess of basic analog service pursuant to § 69.130 of this chapter; and (5) Any Long Term Support for... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of Interstate Common Line Support... SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Interstate Common Line Support Mechanism for Rate-of-Return Carriers...

  11. 40 CFR 81.59 - Cumberland-Keyser Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.59 Section 81.59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.59 Cumberland-Keyser Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Cumberland-Keyser Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Maryland-West Virginia) has been revised to consist...

  12. 40 CFR 81.43 - Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.43 Section 81.43 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.43 Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Toledo Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Michigan) consists of the territorial area...

  13. 40 CFR 81.48 - Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.48 Section 81.48 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.48 Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Champlain Valley Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Vermont-New York) has been revised to consist of the...

  14. 40 CFR 81.75 - Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.75 Section 81.75 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.75 Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Charlotte Interstate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina-South Carolina) has been revised...

  15. 40 CFR 81.31 - Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.31 Section 81.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.31 Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Providence Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Rhode Island-Massachusetts) consists of the...

  16. 40 CFR 81.101 - Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.101 Section 81.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.101 Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Dubuque Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Iowa-Wisconsin) consists of the...

  17. 40 CFR 81.20 - Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.20 Section 81.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.20 Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Cincinnati Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Ohio-Kentucky-Indiana) is revised to consist of...

  18. 40 CFR 81.98 - Burlington-Keokuk Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.98 Section 81.98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.98 Burlington-Keokuk Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Burlington-Keokuk Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Iowa) is revised to consist of the...

  19. 40 CFR 81.14 - Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.14 Section 81.14 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.14 Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Chicago Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Illinois-Indiana) is revised to consist of the...

  20. 40 CFR 81.44 - Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.44 Section 81.44 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.44 Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Memphis Interstate Air Quality Control Region (Arkansas-Mississippi-Tennessee) consists of the...

  1. Exploration of Interstate College and Post-Graduation Migration in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishitani, Terry T.

    2011-01-01

    Using national data, the present study first investigated interstate college migration. Unlike existing studies of interstate college migration, this study also tracked students to college graduation to explore their post-graduation migration, such as leaving to other states after graduating from in-state institutions and returning to home states…

  2. 9 CFR 78.3 - Handling in transit of cattle and bison moved interstate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS General Provisions § 78.3 Handling in transit of cattle and bison moved interstate. Cattle and bison moving interstate, except cattle and bison moved directly to a recognized slaughtering... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Handling in transit of cattle and...

  3. 7 CFR 201.31 - Germination standards for vegetable seeds in interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Germination standards for vegetable seeds in interstate commerce. 201.31 Section 201.31 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Germination standards for vegetable seeds in interstate commerce. The following germination standards for...

  4. 9 CFR 71.19 - Identification of swine in interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... as yarding receipts, sale tickets, invoices, and waybills upon which is recorded: (i) All serial... offered for sale or transportation, in interstate commerce, unless each swine is identified at whichever... transportation, offers for sale or transportation, or otherwise handles swine in interstate commerce, is...

  5. 77 FR 26154 - Interstate Land Sales Registration Program, Special Rules of Practice; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-03

    ... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1012 RIN 3170-AA06 Interstate Land Sales Registration Program, Special Rules of... (76 FR 79486), republishing implementing regulations under the Interstate Land Sales Full Disclosure... Subjects in 12 CFR Part 1012 Advertising disclaimers, Adjudicatory proceedings, Certification of...

  6. 7 CFR 201.65 - Noxious weed seeds in interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noxious weed seeds in interstate commerce. 201.65... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Tolerances § 201.65 Noxious weed seeds in interstate commerce. Tolerances for rates of occurrence of noxious-weed seeds shall be recognized and shall be applied to the...

  7. 76 FR 81360 - Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry Products; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    .... FSIS-2008-0039] RIN 0583-AD37 Cooperative Inspection Programs: Interstate Shipment of Meat and Poultry... to ship meat and poultry products in interstate commerce. The final rule was published in the Federal... and Poultry Products'' (76 FR 24714). The final rule amended the Federal meat and poultry products...

  8. 77 FR 17105 - Identification of Interstate Motor Vehicles: City of Chicago, IL Registration Emblem Requirement...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ...-0086] Identification of Interstate Motor Vehicles: City of Chicago, IL Registration Emblem Requirement... Transportation Tax's (the Tax) registration emblem display requirement, which applies to interstate passenger... the Tax must display an emblem on the windshield as evidence of registration and payment. Chicago Mun...

  9. A method for manufacturing compacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baschwitz, Robert; Raymond, Jean.

    1974-01-01

    Description is given of a method for preparing compacts with high matrix density. The method is characterized by the steps of forming the mixture by simultaneously pouring the components directly into a compacting matrix comprising coated particles and a graphite binder mixture in the granular form, then compressing the compact after having brought the material to be compacted to a temperature at which the binder is in the fluid state. The method can be applied to the manufacture of compacts for high temperature nuclear reactors [fr

  10. 9 CFR 78.2 - Handling of certificates, permits, and “S” brand permits for interstate movement of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... âSâ brand permits for interstate movement of animals. 78.2 Section 78.2 Animals and Animal Products... certificates, permits, and “S” brand permits for interstate movement of animals. (a) Any certificate, permit, or “S” brand permit required by this part for the interstate movement of animals shall be delivered...

  11. 75 FR 52304 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for Interstate Movement of Guavas From Hawaii Into...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-25

    ...] Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for Interstate Movement of Guavas From Hawaii Into the... associated with the interstate movement into the continental United States of fresh guava fruit from Hawaii... via the interstate movement of guavas from Hawaii. We are making the pest risk analysis available to...

  12. 49 CFR 350.337 - How may State laws and regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate commerce differ from the FMCSRs and still be considered... regulations governing motor carriers, CMV drivers, and CMVs in interstate commerce differ from the FMCSRs and... through E and H of part 107, and §§ 171.15 and 171.16, as applicable to either interstate or intrastate...

  13. Diffusion through statically compacted clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, C.L.; Shebl, M.A.A.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents experimental work on the effect of compaction on contaminant flow through clay liners. The experimental program included evaluation of soil properties, compaction, permeability and solute diffusion. A permeameter was built of non reactive materials to test samples compacted at different water contents and compactive efforts. The flow of a permeating solute, LiCl, was monitored. Effluent samples were collected for solute concentration measurements. The concentrations were measured by performing atomic adsorption tests. The analyzed results showed different diffusion characteristics when compaction conditions changed. At each compactive effort, permeability decreased as molding water content increased. Consequently, transit time (measured at relative concentration 50%) increased and diffusivity decreased. As compactive effort increased for soils compacted dry of optimum, permeability and diffusion decreased. On the other hand, as compactive effort increased for soils compacted wet of optimum, permeability and diffusivity increased. Tortuosity factor was indirectly measured from the diffusion and retardation rate. Tortuosity factor also decreased as placement water content was increased from dry of optimum to wet of optimum. Then decreases were more pronounced for low compactive effort tests. 27 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  14. Compact synchrotron radiation source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, N.; Wang, T.; Tian, J.; Lin, Y.; Chen, S.; He, W.; Hu, Y.; Li, Q.

    1985-01-01

    A compact 800 MeV synchrotron radiation source is discussed. The storage ring has a circumference of 30.3 m, two 90 degree and four 45 degree bending magnet sections, two long straight sections and four short straight sections. The radius of the bending magnet is 2.224m. The critical wave length is 24A. The injector is a 15 Mev Microtron Electrons are accelerated from 15 Mev to 800 Mev by ramping the field of the ring. The expected stored current will be around 100 ma

  15. Compact neutron flux monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhavi, V.; Phatak, P.R.; Bahadur, C.; Bayala, A.K.; Jakati, R.K.; Sathian, V.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A compact size neutron flux monitor has been developed incorporating standard boards developed for smart radiation monitors. The sensitivity of the monitors is 0.4cps/nV. It has been tested up to 2075 nV flux with standard neutron sources. It shows convincing results even in high flux areas like 6m away from the accelerator in RMC (Parel) for 106/107 nV. These monitors have a focal and remote display, alarm function with potential free contacts for centralized control and additional provision of connectivity via RS485/Ethernet. This paper describes the construction, working and results of the above flux monitor

  16. Compact Q-balls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D., E-mail: bazeia@fisica.ufpb.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Losano, L.; Marques, M.A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-970 João Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Menezes, R. [Departamento de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58297-000 Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, 58109-970 Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Rocha, R. da [Centro de Matemática, Computação e Cognição, Universidade Federal do ABC, 09210-580 Santo André (Brazil)

    2016-07-10

    In this work we deal with non-topological solutions of the Q-ball type in two space–time dimensions, in models described by a single complex scalar field that engenders global symmetry. The main novelty is the presence of stable Q-balls solutions that live in a compact interval of the real line and appear from a family of models controlled by two distinct parameters. We find analytical solutions and study their charge and energy, and show how to control the parameters to make the Q-balls classically and quantum mechanically stable.

  17. Compact synchrotron light sources

    CERN Document Server

    Weihreter, Ernst

    1996-01-01

    This book covers a new niche in circular accelerator design, motivated by the promising industrial prospects of recent micromanufacturing methods - X-ray lithography, synchrotron radiation-based micromachining and microanalysis techniques. It describes the basic concepts and the essential challenges for the development of compact synchrotron radiation sources from an accelerator designer's point of view and gives an outline of the actual state of the art. The volume is intended as an introduction and as a reference for physicists, engineers and managers involved in this rapidly developing fiel

  18. Scalable Nonlinear Compact Schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Debojyoti [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Constantinescu, Emil M. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States); Brown, Jed [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2014-04-01

    In this work, we focus on compact schemes resulting in tridiagonal systems of equations, specifically the fifth-order CRWENO scheme. We propose a scalable implementation of the nonlinear compact schemes by implementing a parallel tridiagonal solver based on the partitioning/substructuring approach. We use an iterative solver for the reduced system of equations; however, we solve this system to machine zero accuracy to ensure that no parallelization errors are introduced. It is possible to achieve machine-zero convergence with few iterations because of the diagonal dominance of the system. The number of iterations is specified a priori instead of a norm-based exit criterion, and collective communications are avoided. The overall algorithm thus involves only point-to-point communication between neighboring processors. Our implementation of the tridiagonal solver differs from and avoids the drawbacks of past efforts in the following ways: it introduces no parallelization-related approximations (multiprocessor solutions are exactly identical to uniprocessor ones), it involves minimal communication, the mathematical complexity is similar to that of the Thomas algorithm on a single processor, and it does not require any communication and computation scheduling.

  19. Advances in compact torus research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-05-01

    A compact torus is a low aspect ratio, axisymmetric, closed magnetic field line configuration with no vessel wall or magnetic field coils linking the hole in the plasma toroid. This concept offers reactor advantages such as simplicity, high β, and the possibility of translation. Several methods have been used to generate compact toroids, including plasma guns, high energy particle rings, and field-reversed theta pinches. This document summarizes the results of recent work on compact toroids, presented at the first IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Compact Torus Research held in Sydney, Australia from 4 to 7 March 1985

  20. High Impact Technology Compact Combustion (HITCC) Compact Core Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    were combusted in a vitiated stream. The molecular weight and hydrogen -to-carbon ratios of these fuels were measured by Princeton University [17...AFRL-RQ-WP-TR-2016-0010 HIGH IMPACT TECHNOLOGY COMPACT COMBUSTION (HITCC) COMPACT CORE TECHNOLOGIES Andrew W. Caswell Combustion ...ANDREW W. CASWELL CHARLES J. CROSS, Branch Chief Program Engineer Combustion Branch Combustion Branch Turbine Engine Division Turbine

  1. Isometric coactions of compact quantum groups on compact ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We propose a notion of isometric coaction of a compact quantum group on a compact quantum metric space in the framework of Rieffel, where the metric structure is given by a Lipnorm. Within this setting we study the problem of the existence of a quantum isometry group.

  2. The Compact Ignition Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.

    1987-01-01

    The author discusses his lab's plan for completing the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) conceptual design during calendar year 1987. Around July 1 they froze the subsystem envelopes on the device to continue with the conceptual design. They did this by formalizing a general requirements document. They have been developing the management plan and submitted a version to the DOE July 10. He describes a group of management activities. They released the vacuum vessel Request For Proposals (RFP) on August 5. An RFP to do a major part of the system engineering on the device is being developed. They intend to assemble the device outside of the test cell, then move it into the the test cell, install it there, and bring to the test cell many of the auxiliary facilities from TFTR, for example, power supplies

  3. Compacting spent fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachter, W.J.

    1988-01-01

    A method and apparatus for compacting spent fuel rods comprises transferring the rods from a nuclear fuel rod assembly into a different nuclear fuel rod container having a smaller cross section than the assembly. The individual rods are moved from a fuel assembly and through a transition funnel by movable grippers at opposite ends of the funnel. One movable gripper reciprocates between gripping and release positions in a gap between the fuel assembly and the transition funnel. All of the fuel rods are withdrawn concurrently and are merged towards one another into a tighter array within the transition funnel and emerge as a bundle. A movable and a stationary bundle gripper are provided between the funnel and the storage container to advance the bundle of fuel rods into the container. (author)

  4. Compact cryocooler heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, J.; Frederking, T.H.K.

    1991-01-01

    Compact heat exchangers are subject to different constraints as a room temperature gas is cooled down by a cold stream returning from a JT valve (or a similar cryoprocess component). In particular, the optimization of exchangers for liquid helium systems has to cover a wide range in temperature and density of the fluid. In the present work we address the following thermodynamic questions: 1. The optimization of intermediate temperatures which optimize stage operation (a stage is assumed to have a constant cross section); 2. The optimum temperature difference available for best overall economic performance values. The results are viewed in the context of porous media concepts applied to rather low speeds of fluid flow in narrow passages. In this paper examples of fluid/solid constraints imposed in this non-classical low temperature area are presented

  5. Compact particle accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M.

    2017-08-29

    A compact particle accelerator having an input portion configured to receive power to produce particles for acceleration, where the input portion includes a switch, is provided. In a general embodiment, a vacuum tube receives particles produced from the input portion at a first end, and a plurality of wafer stacks are positioned serially along the vacuum tube. Each of the plurality of wafer stacks include a dielectric and metal-oxide pair, wherein each of the plurality of wafer stacks further accelerate the particles in the vacuum tube. A beam shaper coupled to a second end of the vacuum tube shapes the particles accelerated by the plurality of wafer stacks into a beam and an output portion outputs the beam.

  6. Compact vacuum insulation embodiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-04-28

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point' or line' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included. 26 figs.

  7. Compact vacuum insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1993-01-05

    An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point'' or line'' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line'' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point'' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

  8. Compact semiconductor lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Siyuan; Lourtioz, Jean-Michel

    2014-01-01

    This book brings together in a single volume a unique contribution by the top experts around the world in the field of compact semiconductor lasers to provide a comprehensive description and analysis of the current status as well as future directions in the field of micro- and nano-scale semiconductor lasers. It is organized according to the various forms of micro- or nano-laser cavity configurations with each chapter discussing key technical issues, including semiconductor carrier recombination processes and optical gain dynamics, photonic confinement behavior and output coupling mechanisms, carrier transport considerations relevant to the injection process, and emission mode control. Required reading for those working in and researching the area of semiconductors lasers and micro-electronics.

  9. Interstate dispensing: a case for uniform, intuitive legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernaitis, Nijole L; King, Michelle A; Hope, Denise L

    2014-09-01

    Australian health practitioner registration is national, whereas legislation regarding the handling of medicines is governed by individual States and Territories. To align with the July 2010 national registration scheme some legislative modifications were made concerning scheduled drugs and poisons, but many differences between jurisdictions remain. In Queensland, the Health (Drugs and Poisons) Regulation 1996 (Qld) allows for dispensing of controlled drugs written by interstate prescribers but not lower scheduled specified restricted and regulated restricted drugs. The aim of this study was to assess awareness of seemingly counterintuitive legislation by pharmacists practising in South-East Queensland. Of 125 Gold Coast pharmacies contacted, 54 (43.2%) agreed to participate. The majority of pharmacists (88.9%) had good knowledge regarding controlled drugs. In contrast, they demonstrated confusion regarding specified restricted and regulated restricted drugs (51.9% correct awareness). Uniform legislation between jurisdictions or more intuitive legislation would ease practitioner confusion.

  10. COMPACTION CHARACTERISTICS OF IGUMALE SHALE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    *

    In 1933 Proctor first conducted tests on compaction for application to construction of earth fill dams in California. Results published by. Proctor (1933) showed that with a given amount of compaction, there exists for each soil a moisture content, termed the optimum moisture content (OMC) at which a maximum dry density.

  11. Roller-compacted concrete pavements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    Roller-compacted concrete (RCC) gets its name from the heavy vibratory steel drum and rubber-tired rollers used to help compact it into its final form. RCC has similar strength properties and consists of the same basic ingredients as conventional con...

  12. 7 CFR 301.75-6 - Interstate movement of regulated nursery stock from a quarantined area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... section. (b) Kumquat (Fortunella spp.) plants, with or without fruit attached, may be moved interstate... States” must be displayed on a plastic or metal tag attached to each plant, or on the box or container if...

  13. Water use, waste generation, and traffic counts at interstate rest areas in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-06-30

    Surprisingly, little current information for design purposes exists regarding water use and waste generation at interstate rest areas. The Waterways Experiment Station of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers carried out the last major study in 1974. This...

  14. 78 FR 12621 - Control of Communicable Diseases: Interstate; Scope and Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... Control of Communicable Diseases: Interstate; Scope and Definitions AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control... effective date of Direct Final Rule. SUMMARY: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) within... Disease [[Page 12622

  15. 7 CFR 301.32 - Restrictions on interstate movement of regulated articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruit Flies... other requirements for the interstate movement of any of the fruit flies regulated under this subpart...

  16. Compact Dexterous Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovchik, Christopher Scott (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A compact robotic hand includes a palm housing, a wrist section, and a forearm section. The palm housing supports a plurality of fingers and one or more movable palm members that cooperate with the fingers to grasp and/or release an object. Each flexible finger comprises a plurality of hingedly connected segments, including a proximal segment pivotally connected to the palm housing. The proximal finger segment includes at least one groove defining first and second cam surfaces for engagement with a cable. A plurality of lead screw assemblies each carried by the palm housing are supplied with power from a flexible shaft rotated by an actuator and output linear motion to a cable move a finger. The cable is secured within a respective groove and enables each finger to move between an opened and closed position. A decoupling assembly pivotally connected to a proximal finger segment enables a cable connected thereto to control movement of an intermediate and distal finger segment independent of movement of the proximal finger segment. The dexterous robotic hand closely resembles the function of a human hand yet is light weight and capable of grasping both heavy and light objects with a high degree of precision.

  17. Compact stellarator coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomphrey, N.; Berry, L.A.; Boozer, A.H.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental devices to study the physics of high-beta (β>∼4%), low aspect ratio (A<∼4.5) stellarator plasmas require coils that will produce plasmas satisfying a set of physics goals, provide experimental flexibility, and be practical to construct. In the course of designing a flexible coil set for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment, we have made several innovations that may be useful in future stellarator design efforts. These include: the use of Singular Value Decomposition methods for obtaining families of smooth current potentials on distant coil winding surfaces from which low current density solutions may be identified; the use of a Control Matrix Method for identifying which few of the many detailed elements of the stellarator boundary must be targeted if a coil set is to provide fields to control the essential physics of the plasma; the use of Genetic Algorithms for choosing an optimal set of discrete coils from a continuum of potential contours; the evaluation of alternate coil topologies for balancing the tradeoff between physics objective and engineering constraints; the development of a new coil optimization code for designing modular coils, and the identification of a 'natural' basis for describing current sheet distributions. (author)

  18. Compact neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui

    2005-03-22

    A compact neutron generator has at its outer circumference a toroidal shaped plasma chamber in which a tritium (or other) plasma is generated. A RF antenna is wrapped around the plasma chamber. A plurality of tritium ion beamlets are extracted through spaced extraction apertures of a plasma electrode on the inner surface of the toroidal plasma chamber and directed inwardly toward the center of neutron generator. The beamlets pass through spaced acceleration and focusing electrodes to a neutron generating target at the center of neutron generator. The target is typically made of titanium tubing. Water is flowed through the tubing for cooling. The beam can be pulsed rapidly to achieve ultrashort neutron bursts. The target may be moved rapidly up and down so that the average power deposited on the surface of the target may be kept at a reasonable level. The neutron generator can produce fast neutrons from a T-T reaction which can be used for luggage and cargo interrogation applications. A luggage or cargo inspection system has a pulsed T-T neutron generator or source at the center, surrounded by associated gamma detectors and other components for identifying explosives or other contraband.

  19. Compact vacuum insulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

    1992-10-27

    Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases there between are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and various laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels. 35 figs.

  20. Good environmental performance from Compact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, L.

    1996-01-01

    For Rovaniemi and the designers of the town's new Suosiola power plant, it was clear from the start that it would be based on atmospheric-pressurized fluidized bed technology. In a bid to keep environmental emissions to a minimum, the decision fell to Foster Wheeler's new Compact CFB boiler. Work on developing the Compact boiler has been carried out since 1989. Flow models and cold air and hot air tests were completed in 1990. The first Compact boiler, an 18 MW unit, was commissioned at Kuhmo in 1993; this was followed by one at Kokkola in 1994

  1. The United Nations Global Compact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasche, Andreas; Waddock, Sandra; McIntosh, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews the interdisciplinary literature on the UN Global Compact. The review identifies three research perspectives, which scholars have used to study the UN Global Compact so far: a historical perspective discussing the Global Compact in the context of UN-business relations......, an operational perspective discussing the composition and impact of its participants, as well as a governance perspective discussing the constraints and opportunities of the initiative as an institutionalized arena for addressing global governance gaps. The authors contrast these three perspectives and identify...

  2. COMPACTNESS IN INTUITIONISTIC FUZZY MULTISET TOPOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Kunnambath, Shinoj Thekke; John, Sunil Jacob

    2017-01-01

    – In this paper, we discussVarious properties of Compact and Homeomorphic Intuitionistic Fuzzy Multiset Topological spacesarious properties of Compact and Homeomorphic Intuitionistic Fuzzy Multiset Topological spaces

  3. Compact instantaneous water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azevedo, Jorge G.W.; Machado, Antonio R.; Ferraz, Andre D.; Rocha, Ivan C.C. da; Konishi, Ricardo [Companhia de Gas de Santa Catarina (SCGAS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Lehmkuhl, Willian A.; Francisco Jr, Roberto W.; Hatanaka, Ricardo L.; Pereira, Fernando M.; Oliveira, Amir A.M. [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of combustion in an inert porous medium in a liquid heating device application. This project aims to increase efficiency in the application of natural gas in residential and commercial sectors with the use of advanced combustion and heat transfer. The goal is to facilitate the development of a high performance compact water heater allowing hot water supply for up to two simultaneous showers. The experiment consists in a cylindrical porous burner with an integrated annular water heat exchanger. The reactants were injected radially into the burner and the flame stabilizes within the porous matrix. The water circulates in a coiled pipe positioned at the center of the burner. This configuration allows for heat transfer by conduction and radiation from the solid matrix to the heat exchanger. This article presented preliminary experimental results of a new water heater based on an annular porous burner. The range of equivalence ratios tested varied from 0.65 to 0.8. The power range was varied from 3 to 5 kW. Increasing the equivalence ratio or decreasing the total power input of the burner resulted in increased thermal efficiencies of the water heater. Thermal efficiencies varying from 60 to 92% were obtained. The condition for the goal of a comfortable bath was 20 deg C for 8-12 L/min. This preliminary prototype has achieved water temperature of 11deg C for 5 L/min. Further optimizations will be necessary in order to achieve intense heating with high thermal efficiency. (author)

  4. What Is Business's Social Compact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avishai, Bernard

    1994-01-01

    Under the "new" social compact, businesses must focus on continuous learning and thus have both an obligation to support teaching and an opportunity to profit from it. Learning organizations must also be teaching organizations. (SK)

  5. Compact, Ultrasensitive Formaldehyde Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Small Business Innovative Research Phase II proposal seeks to develop a compact UV laser ?based sensor for Earth science and planetary atmosphere exploration....

  6. Compaction with Automatic Jog Introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    conserve area. For these reasons, compaction algorithms have gained widespread attention in the VLSI literature S ,[4, 5, 9, 111, and have been incorporated...graph is (V,E), then Dijkstra’s algorithm runs in time 6 (IEl - IVI log IV!) using Fibonacci heaps [3]. In contrast, the longest- path algorithm of...however, so that hierarchical compaction can alleviate much of the resource -. 33 pa. .1 N’, problem. It also may be suited to use in channel routing

  7. Compact Intracloud Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, David A. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1998-11-01

    In November of 1993, mysterious signals recorded by a satellite-borne broadband VHF radio science experiment called Blackboard led to a completely unexpected discovery. Prior to launch of the ALEXIS satellite, it was thought that its secondary payload, Blackboard, would most often detect the radio emissions from lightning when its receiver was not overwhelmed by noise from narrowband communication carriers. Instead, the vast majority of events that triggered the instrument were isolated pairs of pulses that were one hundred times more energetic than normal thunderstorm electrical emissions. The events, which came to be known as TIPPs (for transionospheric pulse pairs), presented a true mystery to the geophysics community. At the time, it was not even known whether the events had natural or anthropogenic origins. After two and one half years of research into the unique signals, two ground-based receiver arrays in New Mexico first began to detect and record thunderstorm radio emissions that were consistent with the Blackboard observations. On two occasions, the ground-based systems and Blackboard even recorded emissions that were produced by the same exact events. From the ground based observations, it has been determined that TIPP events areproduced by brief, singular, isolated, intracloud electrical discharges that occur in intense regions of thunderstorms. These discharges have been dubbed CIDS, an acronym for compact intracloud discharges. During the summer of 1996, ground-based receiver arrays were used to record the electric field change signals and broadband HF emissions from hundreds of CIDS. Event timing that was accurate to within a few microseconds made possible the determination of source locations using methods of differential time of arrival. Ionospheric reflections of signals were recorded in addition to groundwave/line-of-sight signals and were used to determine accurate altitudes for the discharges. Twenty-four CIDS were recorded from three

  8. Compact magnetic confinement fusion: Spherical torus and compact torus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Gao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The spherical torus (ST and compact torus (CT are two kinds of alternative magnetic confinement fusion concepts with compact geometry. The ST is actually a sub-category of tokamak with a low aspect ratio; while the CT is a toroidal magnetic configuration with a simply-connected geometry including spheromak and field reversed pinch. The ST and CT have potential advantages for ultimate fusion reactor; while at present they can also provide unique fusion science and technology contributions for mainstream fusion research. However, some critical scientific and technology issues should be extensively investigated.

  9. Co-compact Gabor Systems on Locally Compact Abelian Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Mads Sielemann; Lemvig, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    In this work we extend classical structure and duality results in Gabor analysis on the euclidean space to the setting of second countable locally compact abelian (LCA) groups. We formulate the concept of rationally oversampling of Gabor systems in an LCA group and prove corresponding characteriz......In this work we extend classical structure and duality results in Gabor analysis on the euclidean space to the setting of second countable locally compact abelian (LCA) groups. We formulate the concept of rationally oversampling of Gabor systems in an LCA group and prove corresponding...

  10. R2 & NE: NAVTEQ 2011 Q3 Interstate Highway Network for the United States, including Puerto Rico and the US Virgin Islands in SDC Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The INTERSTATES layer contains the Interstate Highway network, using NAVTEQ Functional Class=1 for United States and Canada. This 5 layer SDC dataset represents a...

  11. Effects of limiting handgun purchases on interstate transfer of firearms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, D S; Knox, R C

    1996-06-12

    To determine the effect of limiting handgun purchases to 1 per month on the illegal movement of firearms across state lines. Data from the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Firearms firearms trace database were obtained for traces requested for firearms recovered in connection with criminal investigations. The analysis incorporates data on date and location of purchase for 14606 firearms purchased prior to (September 1989 through June 1993) and after (July 1993 through March 1995) enactment of a Virginia law limiting handgun purchases to 1 per month. Odds of tracing a firearm acquired prior to implementation of the law to Virginia vs another state in the Southeast compared with the odds for firearms acquired after the law took effect. For firearms recovered anywhere in the United States, 3201 (27%) of 11 876 acquired prior to the implementation of the law and 519 (19%) of 2730 purchased after the law was enacted were traced to Virginia (odds ratio [OR], 0.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58-0.71). For traces initiated in the northeast corridor (New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, Rhode Island, and Massachusetts), 1103 (34.8%) of 3169 of the firearms acquired before the 1-gun-a-month law took effect and 142 (15.5%) of 919 firearms purchased after implementation were traced to Virginia (OR, 0.34; CI, 0.28-0.41). Gun control policies involving licensing, registration, and restricting the number of purchases represent efforts to limit the supply of guns available in the illegal market. This study provides evidence that restricting handgun purchases to 1 per month is an effective means of disrupting the illegal interstate transfer of firearms.

  12. 23 CFR 661.49 - Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., and Toll Road IRR bridges? 661.49 Section 661.49 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS INDIAN RESERVATION ROAD BRIDGE PROGRAM § 661.49 Can IRRBP funds be spent on Interstate, State Highway, and Toll Road IRR bridges? Yes. Interstate...

  13. 76 FR 3075 - Notice of Decision to Allow Interstate Movement of Guavas From Hawaii Into the Continental United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-19

    ... Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2010-0061] Notice of Decision to Allow Interstate Movement of Guavas... movement into the continental United States of fresh guava fruit from Hawaii. Based on the findings of a... interstate movement of guavas from Hawaii. DATES: Effective Date: January 19, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  14. 9 CFR 82.5 - Interstate movement of live birds and live poultry from a quarantined area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the control and ownership of the owner for at least 90 days. Pet birds that have been under the... (END) § 82.5 Interstate movement of live birds and live poultry from a quarantined area. (a) Pet birds. An individual may move his or her pet birds interstate from a quarantined area only if the birds are...

  15. 9 CFR 80.4 - Segregation of animals positive to an official Johne's disease test during interstate movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... official Johne's disease test during interstate movement. 80.4 Section 80.4 Animals and Animal Products... animals positive to an official Johne's disease test during interstate movement. Animals that are positive... from the animals positive to an official Johne's disease test to the healthy animals in the vehicle. ...

  16. 77 FR 3840 - Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd.-Lease Exemption-Line of Cedar Rapids and Iowa City Railway Company

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-25

    ... Surface Transportation Board Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd.--Lease Exemption--Line of Cedar Rapids and Iowa City Railway Company AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of Exemption. SUMMARY.... 10902 for Iowa Interstate Railroad, Ltd. (IAIS), a Class II rail carrier, to lease and operate 8.4 miles...

  17. Compact Chern–Simons vortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bazeia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We introduce and investigate new models of the Chern–Simons type in the three-dimensional spacetime, focusing on the existence of compact vortices. The models are controlled by potentials driven by a single real parameter that can be used to change the profile of the vortex solutions as they approach their boundary values. One of the models unveils an interesting new behavior, the tendency to make the vortex compact, as the parameter increases to larger and larger values. We also investigate the behavior of the energy density and calculate the total energy numerically.

  18. Professional Windows Embedded Compact 7

    CERN Document Server

    Phung, Samuel; Joubert, Thierry; Hall, Mike

    2011-01-01

    Learn to program an array of customized devices and solutions As a compact, highly efficient, scalable operating system, Windows Embedded Compact 7 (WEC7) is one of the best options for developing a new generation of network-enabled, media-rich, and service-oriented devices. This in-depth resource takes you through the benefits and capabilities of WEC7 so that you can start using this performance development platform today. Divided into several major sections, the book begins with an introduction and then moves on to coverage of OS design, application development, advanced application developm

  19. Modeling of compact loop antennas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baity, F.W.

    1987-01-01

    A general compact loop antenna model which treats all elements of the antenna as lossy transmission lines has been developed. In addition to capacitively-tuned resonant double loop (RDL) antennas the model treats stub-tuned resonant double loop antennas. Calculations using the model have been compared with measurements on full-scale mockups of resonant double loop antennas for ATF and TFTR in order to refine the transmission line parameters. Results from the model are presented for RDL antenna designs for ATF, TFTR, Tore Supra, and for the Compact Ignition Tokamak

  20. Isometric coactions of compact quantum groups on compact ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a compact quantum metric space in the framework of Rieffel, where the metric structure is given by a ... For finite classical metric spaces, this problem was studied by Banica [2]. He has given a definition for a quantum symmetry of a classical finite metric space. With this ..... The graph theory we need concerns flow networks.

  1. Compaction dynamics of crunchy granular material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillard François

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Compaction of brittle porous material leads to a wide variety of densification patterns. Static compaction bands occurs naturally in rocks or bones, and have important consequences in industry for the manufacturing of powder tablets or metallic foams for example. Recently, oscillatory compaction bands have been observed in brittle porous media like snow or cereals. We will discuss the great variety of densification patterns arising during the compaction of puffed rice, including erratic compaction at low velocity, one or several travelling compaction bands at medium velocity and homogeneous compaction at larger velocity. The conditions of existence of each pattern are studied thanks to a numerical spring lattice model undergoing breakage and is mapped to the phase diagram of the patterns based on dimensionless characteristic quantities. This also allows to rationalise the evolution of the compaction behaviour during a single test. Finally, the localisation of compaction bands is linked to the strain rate sensitivity of the material.

  2. Compaction dynamics of crunchy granular material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillard, François; Golshan, Pouya; Shen, Luming; Valdès, Julio R.; Einav, Itai

    2017-06-01

    Compaction of brittle porous material leads to a wide variety of densification patterns. Static compaction bands occurs naturally in rocks or bones, and have important consequences in industry for the manufacturing of powder tablets or metallic foams for example. Recently, oscillatory compaction bands have been observed in brittle porous media like snow or cereals. We will discuss the great variety of densification patterns arising during the compaction of puffed rice, including erratic compaction at low velocity, one or several travelling compaction bands at medium velocity and homogeneous compaction at larger velocity. The conditions of existence of each pattern are studied thanks to a numerical spring lattice model undergoing breakage and is mapped to the phase diagram of the patterns based on dimensionless characteristic quantities. This also allows to rationalise the evolution of the compaction behaviour during a single test. Finally, the localisation of compaction bands is linked to the strain rate sensitivity of the material.

  3. The classification of 2-compact groups

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Kasper K. S.; Grodal, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    We prove that any connected 2-compact group is classified by its 2-adic root datum, and in particular the exotic 2-compact group DI(4), constructed by Dwyer-Wilkerson, is the only simple 2-compact group not arising as the 2-completion of a compact connected Lie group. Combined with our earlier work with Moeller and Viruel for p odd, this establishes the full classification of p-compact groups, stating that, up to isomorphism, there is a one-to-one correspondence between connected p-compact gr...

  4. Compactness in fuzzy function spaces

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In [3] we defined a notion of compactness in FCS, the category of fuzzy convergence spaces as defined by Lowen/Lowen/Wuyts [8]. In their paper the latter also introduced a fuzzy convergence structure c-lim for fuzzy function spaces thus proving that FCS is a topological quasitopos. In this paper we start the investigation of ...

  5. Permeation characteristics of compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banno, Katsunori; Nishi, Kenji; Yoshida, Hiroshi

    1991-01-01

    Bentonite has properties such as impermeability, hygroscopic swelling, which seem to make it a promising water cut-off material. In this research, performance tests were conducted with various types of compacted bentonite toward the application of bentonite to cut-off technology. (author)

  6. Learning from the Jordan Compact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Lenner

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the implementation of the Jordan Compact offers three key lessons: governmental approval is important but not sufficient, the incorporation of critical voices is crucial, and meeting numeric targets is not the same as achieving underlying goals.

  7. Mesoscale Simulations of Power Compaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomov, I; Fujino, D; Antoun, T; Liu, B

    2009-08-06

    Mesoscale 3D simulations of metal and ceramic powder compaction in shock waves have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating shock compaction of porous well-characterized ductile metal using Steinberg material model. Results of the simulations with handbook values for parameters of solid 2024 aluminum have good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not so well studied as metals, so material model for ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been fitted to shock compression experiments of non-porous samples and further calibrated to match experimental compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powder have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. Numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as measured with VISAR. Numerical results show reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line also observed in experiments. They found that to receive good quantitative agreement with experiment it is essential to perform 3D simulations.

  8. Engineering aspects of compact stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, B.E.; Benson, R.D.; Brooks, A.

    2003-01-01

    Compact stellarators could combine the good confinement and high beta of a tokamak with the inherently steady state, disruption-free characteristics of a stellarator. Two U.S. compact stellarator facilities are now in the conceptual design phase: the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) and the Quasi- Poloidal Stellarator (QPS). NCSX has a major radius of 1.4 m and a toroidal field up to 2 T. The primary feature of both NCSX and QPS is the set of modular coils that provide the basic magnetic configuration. These coils represent a major engineering challenge due to the complex shape, precise geometric accuracy, and high current density of the windings. The winding geometry is too complex for conventional hollow copper conductor construction. Instead, the modular coils will be wound with flexible, multi strand cable conductor that has been compacted to a 75% copper packing fraction. Inside the NCSX coil set and surrounding the plasma is a highly contoured vacuum vessel. The vessel consists of three identical, 120 deg. segments that are bolted together at double sealed joints. The QPS device has a major radius of 0.9 m, a toroidal field of 1 T, and an aspect ratio of only 2.7. Instead of an internal vacuum vessel, the QPS modular coils will operate in an external vacuum tank. (author)

  9. Compactness of eventually different families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrittesser, David

    2018-01-01

    We show that there is an effectively closed maximal eventually different family in spaces of the form ∏ An with each An countable and discrete (for example, Baire space) and give an exact criterion for when there exists an effectively compact such family. The proof generalizes and simplifies...

  10. DNA compaction by nonbinding macromolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de R.J.

    2012-01-01

    Compaction of DNA by nonbinding macromolecules such as uncharged flexible polymer chains and negatively charged globular proteins is thought to have various applications in biophysics, for example in the formation of a nucleoid structure in bacteria. A simple experimental model that has been very

  11. Compact He-Ne lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskin, N. I.; Ischenko, P. I.; Kozel, Stanislav M.; Kaplitsky, V. E.; Kononenko, V. I.

    1999-01-01

    The presented laser is a brand new elaboration of the compact gas laser with longitudinal excitation. This development has no analogues and is protected by the patent of Russia. Its main features are: monoblock construction of the had, internal mirrors, optical contact, small size and weight, long term of work and storage.

  12. Dynamic compaction of ceramic powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cline, C.F.

    1982-06-10

    Dynamic consolidation is a technique for densifying powder ensembles to near theoretical with or without external application of heat. The technique itself is simple: the confined powder, initially at a green density of approx. 50% encounters a high pressure shock wave which exceeds the yield strength and densifies as the wave proceeds through the compact. The time scales and pressure range from 1-10's of microseconds and 10-100's of kilobars (10 Kb = 1 GPa). The short time scale of the pressure pulse during the compaction stage inhibits kinetic processes which have longer time constants. The pressure pulse can be delivered to the green compact by a number of techniques, i.e. high explosive, projectile. The methods differ in the degree that one can control the amplitude, duration, and nature of the pressure pulse. The lecture compares powders compacted by explosive and light gas guns and when possible characterize their resulting structures and properties, using AlN as example. 14 figures.

  13. Compaction and relaxation of biofilms

    KAUST Repository

    Valladares Linares, R.

    2015-06-18

    Operation of membrane systems for water treatment can be seriously hampered by biofouling. A better characterization of biofilms in membrane systems and their impact on membrane performance may help to develop effective biofouling control strategies. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence, extent and timescale of biofilm compaction and relaxation (decompaction), caused by permeate flux variations. The impact of permeate flux changes on biofilm thickness, structure and stiffness was investigated in situ and non-destructively with optical coherence tomography using membrane fouling monitors operated at a constant crossflow velocity of 0.1 m s−1 with permeate production. The permeate flux was varied sequentially from 20 to 60 and back to 20 L m−2 h−1. The study showed that the average biofilm thickness on the membrane decreased after elevating the permeate flux from 20 to 60 L m−2 h−1 while the biofilm thickness increased again after restoring the original flux of 20 L m−2 h−1, indicating the occurrence of biofilm compaction and relaxation. Within a few seconds after the flux change, the biofilm thickness was changed and stabilized, biofilm compaction occurred faster than the relaxation after restoring the original permeate flux. The initial biofilm parameters were not fully reinstated: the biofilm thickness was reduced by 21%, biofilm stiffness had increased and the hydraulic biofilm resistance was elevated by 16%. Biofilm thickness was related to the hydraulic biofilm resistance. Membrane performance losses are related to the biofilm thickness, density and morphology, which are influenced by (variations in) hydraulic conditions. A (temporarily) permeate flux increase caused biofilm compaction, together with membrane performance losses. The impact of biofilms on membrane performance can be influenced (increased and reduced) by operational parameters. The article shows that a (temporary) pressure increase leads to more

  14. Rate type isotach compaction of consolidated sandstone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waal, J.A. de; Thienen-Visser, K. van; Pruiksma, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Laboratory experiments on samples from a consolidated sandstone reservoir are presented that demonstrate rate type compaction behaviour similar to that observed on unconsolidated sands and soils. Such rate type behaviour can have large consequences for reservoir compaction, surface subsidence and

  15. Sequential normal compactness versur topological normal compactness in variational analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fabian, Marián; Mordukhovich, B. S.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 6 (2003), s. 1057-1067 ISSN 0362-546X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/01/1198 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905; CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : variational analysis * sequential and topological normal compactness * Banach spaces Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.354, year: 2003

  16. UV written compact broadband optical couplers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivero, Massimo; Svalgaard, Mikael

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the first demonstration of compact asymmetric directional couplers made by UV writing is presented. The combined performance in terms bandwidth, loss and compactness exceeds that reported using other, more elaborate fabrication techniques.......In this paper the first demonstration of compact asymmetric directional couplers made by UV writing is presented. The combined performance in terms bandwidth, loss and compactness exceeds that reported using other, more elaborate fabrication techniques....

  17. 9 CFR 73.2 - Interstate shipment for immediate slaughter from quarantined or nonquarantined areas; conditions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE § 73.2..., were affected with scabies but have been dipped once in a permitted dip (other than a toxaphene dip... herd not visibly affected. Cattle of the free area not visibly diseased with scabies, but which may be...

  18. 45 CFR 303.7 - Provision of services in interstate IV-D cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...; financial assessment; establishment of the amount of child support; collection; monitoring; enforcement and... section. (e) Imposition and reporting of annual $25 fee in interstate cases. The title IV-D agency in the..., effective Jan. 3, 2011. For the convenience of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows: § 303.7...

  19. 7 CFR 322.2 - General requirements for interstate movement and importation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE BEES, BEEKEEPING BYPRODUCTS, AND BEEKEEPING EQUIPMENT General Provisions § 322.2 General requirements for interstate movement and importation..., honeybee germ plasm, and beekeeping byproducts into the United States only in accordance with this part. (2...

  20. 7 CFR 301.81-4 - Interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Imported Fire Ant Quarantine and Regulations § 301.81-4 Interstate movement of regulated articles from... inaccessible to the imported fire ant, or in locations that have been treated in accordance with the methods... regulated article is a soil sample being moved to a laboratory approved by the Administrator 3 to process...

  1. 77 FR 75936 - Control of Communicable Diseases: Interstate; Scope and Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... Control of Communicable Diseases: Interstate; Scope and Definitions AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control... quarantinable communicable diseases. Section 70.1 (b) contains the definitions used in this NPRM. The NPRM.... B. Definitions Added to Part 70.1 CDC. We proposed to define ``CDC'' to mean the Centers for Disease...

  2. 77 FR 75880 - Control of Communicable Diseases: Interstate; Scope and Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ... Control of Communicable Diseases: Interstate; Scope and Definitions AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control... quarantinable communicable diseases. Section 70.1(b) contains the definitions used in this DFR. The DFR proposes... site. The definition for ``quarantinable communicable disease'' is being added to Part 70 through this...

  3. 78 FR 12702 - Control of Communicable Diseases: Interstate; Scope and Definitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-25

    ... Control of Communicable Diseases: Interstate; Scope and Definitions AGENCY: Centers for Disease Control... rulemaking; withdrawal. SUMMARY: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) within the Department... Rulemaking (NPRM) that solicited public comment on updates to the Scope and Definitions for its regulations...

  4. 49 CFR 17.11 - What are the Secretary's obligations in interstate situations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the Secretary's obligations in interstate... REVIEW OF DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 17.11 What are the Secretary's... appropriate officials and entities in states which have adopted a process and which select the Department's...

  5. 45 CFR 1152.11 - What are the Chairman's obligations in interstate situations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What are the Chairman's obligations in interstate... OF NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 1152.11 What are the Chairman's... entities in states which have adopted a process and which select the Endowment's program or activity; (3...

  6. 13 CFR 101.406 - What are the Administrator's responsibilities in interstate situations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What are the Administrator's responsibilities in interstate situations? 101.406 Section 101.406 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ADMINISTRATION Intergovernmental Partnership § 101.406 What are the Administrator's...

  7. 34 CFR 79.11 - What are the Secretary's obligations in interstate situations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the Secretary's obligations in interstate... REVIEW OF DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 79.11 What are the Secretary's obligations in... which have adopted a process and which select the Department's program or activity. (3) Making efforts...

  8. 33 CFR 384.11 - What are the Corps of Engineers obligations in interstate situations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Corps of Engineers has been delegated. (b) The responsible Corps official uses the procedures in § 384... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the Corps of Engineers obligations in interstate situations? 384.11 Section 384.11 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS...

  9. 76 FR 21835 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Interstate Transport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    ...) held a public hearing in December 2009 for the Interstate Transport SIP revision: ``State of Colorado... evaluated in the Transport Rule Proposal may be evaluated using a weight-of-evidence approach that takes... States Design Values Memo takes the same approach as the Transport Rule Proposal (5 year weighted average...

  10. 77 FR 36932 - Transportation of Household Goods in Interstate Commerce; Consumer Protection Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-20

    ... storage, the motor carrier's liability ends and the individual shipper is subject to the rules... 36932-36935] [FR Doc No: 2012-14999] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety... Interstate Commerce; Consumer Protection Regulations AGENCY: Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration...

  11. 76 FR 58741 - Storage Reporting Requirements of Interstate and Intrastate Natural Gas Companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    .... Information Collection Statement 29 B. Environmental Analysis 34 C. Regulatory Flexibility Act [Analysis Or 35... No. 735 to bring the transactional reporting requirements for section 311 pipelines and Hinshaw... Commission held in Order No. 637, the transactional information included in the interstate pipelines' daily...

  12. 78 FR 79659 - Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program and Interstate Movement of Farmed or Captive...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-31

    ... to be susceptible to CWD via natural routes of transmission include Rocky Mountain elk, mule deer...] Chronic Wasting Disease Herd Certification Program and Interstate Movement of Farmed or Captive Deer, Elk... effectively administered. Owners of deer, elk, and moose herds who choose to participate in the approved State...

  13. 75 FR 16032 - Approval and Promulgation of State Implementation Plans; State of Colorado; Interstate Transport...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-31

    ... Colorado. Table of Contents I. General Information What Should I Consider as I Prepare My Comments for EPA... Workgroup: ``3.3 Climatology of Ozone Synoptic Scale Transport in the Eastern US,'' Figures 1(a) and 5(a..., Wyoming. \\14\\ See Table 4, pages 7 and 8, of the Colorado Interstate Transport SIP. The historical trend...

  14. Inter-station Intensity Standardization for Whole-Body MR Data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dzyubachyk, Oleh; Staring, M.; Reijnierse, Monique; Lelieveldt, B.P.F.; van der Geest, Rob J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To develop and validate a method for performing inter-station intensity standardization in multispectral whole-body MR data. Methods Different approaches for mapping the intensity of each acquired image stack into the reference intensity space were developed and validated. The registration

  15. 47 CFR 61.26 - Tariffing of competitive interstate switched exchange access services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... switched exchange access services that prices those services above the higher of: (1) The rate charged for... equivalent of the ILEC interstate exchange access services typically associated with following rate elements... switched exchange access services shall mean the composite, per-minute rate for these services, including...

  16. 75 FR 53613 - Notice of Data Availability Supporting Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Parts 51, 52, 72, 78, and 97 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2009-0491; FRL-9194-9] RIN 2060-AP50 Notice of Data Availability Supporting Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce... rulemaking may be found in a previously published notice: Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate...

  17. 75 FR 55711 - Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-14

    ... Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone; Correction AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... Transport Rule under Executive Order 12866. In addition, EPA previously prepared the Regulatory Impacts...) EPA previously certified that the proposed Transport Rule will not have a significant economic impact...

  18. 75 FR 66055 - Notice of Data Availability Supporting Federal Implementation Plans To Reduce Interstate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ... receives as part of the transport rulemaking effort. Changes in the emissions data could impact the final... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Plans To Reduce Interstate Transport of Fine Particulate Matter and Ozone: Revisions to Emission...

  19. 12 CFR 211.22 - Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interstate banking operations of foreign banking organizations. 211.22 Section 211.22 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM INTERNATIONAL BANKING OPERATIONS (REGULATION K) Foreign Banking...

  20. 9 CFR 77.40 - Procedures for and interstate movement to necropsy and slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... the supervision of a veterinarian who is employed by USDA or employed by the State in which the... representative of APHIS, a State representative, or an accredited veterinarian. The captive cervid must remain on... State or Federal animal health official or an accredited veterinarian before the interstate movement...

  1. 76 FR 81838 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Oklahoma; Interstate Transport of Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R06-OAR-2007-0314; FRL-9613-2] Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Oklahoma; Interstate Transport of Pollution AGENCY: Environmental...)(2).) List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 52 Air pollution control, Environmental protection...

  2. 75 FR 55494 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Idaho; Interstate Transport of Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-13

    ... Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Idaho; Interstate Transport of Pollution AGENCY: Environmental Protection... purpose of the SIP is to provide the air pollution regulations, control strategies, and other means or... effect' resulting from an inversion that has a stagnant air pollution mass surrounded by the Oquirrh...

  3. 9 CFR 79.2 - Identification of sheep and goats in interstate commerce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... handling of the sheep or goats, such as yarding receipts, sale tickets, invoices, and waybills. (1) If..., transported, received for transportation, or offered for sale or transportation in interstate commerce unless..., receives for transportation, offers for sale or transportation, or otherwise handles sheep or goats in...

  4. 78 FR 66841 - Turtles Intrastate and Interstate Requirements; Confirmation of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 1240 [Docket No. FDA-2013-N-0639] Turtles Intrastate and Interstate Requirements; Confirmation of Effective Date AGENCY... turtle eggs and live turtles with a carapace length of less than 4 inches to remove procedures for...

  5. 75 FR 73026 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Clean Air Interstate Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-29

    ... Engineer, Attainment Planning and Maintenance Section, Air Programs Branch (AR- 18J), Environmental... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 [EPA-R05-OAR-2009-0515; FRL-9232-4] Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Clean Air Interstate Rule AGENCY: Environmental...

  6. Equationally Compact Acts : Coproducts / Peeter Normak

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Normak, Peeter

    1998-01-01

    In this article equational compactness of acts and its generalizations are discussed. As equational compactness does not carry over to coproducts a slight generalization of c-equational campactness is introduced. It is proved that a coproduct of acts is c-equationally compact if and only if all components are c-equationally campact

  7. Invariant subsets under compact quantum group actions

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Huichi

    2012-01-01

    We investigate compact quantum group actions on unital $C^*$-algebras by analyzing invariant subsets and invariant states. In particular, we come up with the concept of compact quantum group orbits and use it to show that countable compact metrizable spaces with infinitely many points are not quantum homogeneous spaces.

  8. Compact analyzer: an interactive simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipakchi, A.; Khadem, M.; Colley, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    Compact Analyzer is a computer system that combines dynamic simulation models with interactive and color graphics user interface functions to provide a cost-effective simulator for dynamic analysis and evaluation of power plant operation, with engineering and training applications. Most dynamic simulation packages such as RETRAN and TRAC are designed for a batch-mode operation. With advancements in computer technology and man/machine interface capabilities, it is possible to integrate such codes with interactive and graphic functions into advanced simulators. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has sponsored development of plant analyzers with such characteristics. The Compact Analyzer is an Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)-sponsored project, which currently utilizes the EPRI modular modeling system (MMS) for process simulation, and uses an adaptable color graphic package for dynamic display of the simulation results

  9. Probability on compact Lie groups

    CERN Document Server

    Applebaum, David

    2014-01-01

    Probability theory on compact Lie groups deals with the interaction between “chance” and “symmetry,” a beautiful area of mathematics of great interest in its own sake but which is now also finding increasing applications in statistics and engineering (particularly with respect to signal processing). The author gives a comprehensive introduction to some of the principle areas of study, with an emphasis on applicability. The most important topics presented are: the study of measures via the non-commutative Fourier transform, existence and regularity of densities, properties of random walks and convolution semigroups of measures, and the statistical problem of deconvolution. The emphasis on compact (rather than general) Lie groups helps readers to get acquainted with what is widely seen as a difficult field but which is also justified by the wealth of interesting results at this level and the importance of these groups for applications. The book is primarily aimed at researchers working in probability, s...

  10. Compact sources for eyesafe illumination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranova, Nadia; Pu, Rui; Stebbins, Kenneth; Bystryak, Ilya; Rayno, Michael; Ezzo, Kevin; DePriest, Christopher

    2018-02-01

    Q-peak has demonstrated a compact, pulsed eyesafe laser architecture operating with >10 mJ pulse energies at repetition rates as high as 160 Hz. The design leverages an end-pumped solid-state laser geometry to produce adequate eyesafe beam quality (M2˜4), while also providing a path toward higher-density laser architectures for pulsed eyesafe applications. The baseline discussed in this paper has shown a unique capability for high-pulse repetition rates in a compact package, and offers additional potential for power scaling based on birefringence compensation. The laser consists of an actively Q-switched oscillator cavity producing pulse widths designed to fit within a volume of 3760 cm3. We will discuss details of the optical system design, modeled thermal effects and stress-induced birefringence, as well as experimental advantages of the end-pumped laser geometry, along with proposed paths to higher eyesafe pulse energies.

  11. FAMECE Compaction Study - Phase I

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    apparatus chosen for the compaction study is model CN-992, manufactured by Soiltest. In(c., of’ Evanston, Illinois. This model is part of the Army Soill...Figure 17) is model CL-700, nmanufactured by Soiltest, Inc.. of Evanston, Illinois. It has a foot adapter (CL-701) for low-shear-strength soils. It will be...moderate plasticity. 12. Soil Characteristics. Samples of’ thc three soil types were analyzed -with stand- ardl soils testinig eq(uipmlent. Sieve, or

  12. Strange matter in compact stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klähn, Thomas; Blaschke, David B.

    2018-02-01

    We discuss possible scenarios for the existence of strange matter in compact stars. The appearance of hyperons leads to a hyperon puzzle in ab-initio approaches based on effective baryon-baryon potentials but is not a severe problem in relativistic mean field models. In general, the puzzle can be resolved in a natural way if hadronic matter gets stiffened at supersaturation densities, an effect based on the quark Pauli quenching between hadrons. We explain the conflict between the necessity to implement dynamical chiral symmetry breaking into a model description and the conditions for the appearance of absolutely stable strange quark matter that require both, approximately masslessness of quarks and a mechanism of confinement. The role of strangeness in compact stars (hadronic or quark matter realizations) remains unsettled. It is not excluded that strangeness plays no role in compact stars at all. To answer the question whether the case of absolutely stable strange quark matter can be excluded on theoretical grounds requires an understanding of dense matter that we have not yet reached.

  13. Durability of Self Compacting Concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benmarce, A.; Boudjehem, H.; Bendjhaiche, R.

    2011-01-01

    Self compacting concrete (SCC) seem to be a very promising materials for construction thanks to their properties in a fresh state. Studying of the influence of the parameters of specific designed mixes to their mechanical, physical and chemical characteristics in a state hardened is an important stage so that it can be useful for new-to-the-field researchers and designers (worldwide) beginning studies and work involving self compacting concrete. The objective of this research is to study the durability of self compacting concrete. The durability of concrete depends very much on the porosity; the latter determines the intensity of interactions with aggressive agents. The pores inside of concrete facilitate the process of damage, which began generally on the surface. We are interested to measure the porosity of concrete on five SCC with different compositions (w/c, additives) and vibrated concrete to highlight the influence of the latter on the porosity, thereafter on the compressive strength and the transfer properties (oxygen permeability, chloride ion diffusion, capillary absorption). (author)

  14. Advanced radioactive waste compaction techniques: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volodzko, M.; McGrath, R.N.; Kinsman, J.F.; Palo, W.J.

    1988-08-01

    The purpose of this test program is to provide definitive information on the volume reduction capabilities of conventional compactors used in the nuclear industry for the treatment of dry active waste and the effects of preshredding on compaction. The test program presents comprehensive data on compacted densities of dry active waste collected at five facilities generating this waste and using conventional compactors. Waste materials presently classified as ''non-compactable'' which would lend themselves to preshredding and compaction are identified. An ALARA evaluation of shredding operations and an economic evaluation of preshredding prior to compaction are also presented. 32 figs., 72 tabs

  15. On Intuitionistic Fuzzy β-Almost Compactness and β-Nearly Compactness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renuka, R; Seenivasan, V

    2015-01-01

    The concept of intuitionistic fuzzy β-almost compactness and intuitionistic fuzzy β-nearly compactness in intuitionistic fuzzy topological spaces is introduced and studied. Besides giving characterizations of these spaces, we study some of their properties. Also, we investigate the behavior of intuitionistic fuzzy β-compactness, intuitionistic fuzzy β-almost compactness, and intuitionistic fuzzy β-nearly compactness under several types of intuitionistic fuzzy continuous mappings.

  16. Numerical simulation of intelligent compaction technology for construction quality control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Intelligent compaction (IC) technique is a fast-developing technology for compaction quality control and acceptance. Proof rolling using the intelligent compaction rollers after completing compaction can eectively identify : the weak spots and sig...

  17. Response Of Lowland Rice To Soil Compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idawati; Haryanto

    2000-01-01

    Soil compaction, as a new tillage practice for paddy soil, is to substitute pudding in order to reduce land preparation cost. To study response of lowland rice to soil compaction, a pot experiment has been conducted which took place in the greenhouse of P3TIR-BATAN. Soil for experiment was taken from pusakanegara. Two factors (degree of soil compaction and rice variety) were combined. Degree of compaction was split into 3 levels (DI = normal; D215% more compact than normal; 30 % more compact than normal), and rice variety into 2 levels (IR64 and Atomita IV). KH 2 32 PO 4 solution was injected into the soil surrounding rice clump to test the root activity at blooming stage of rice plant. Data resulted from this experiment is presented together with additional data from some other experiments of fertilization in the research s erie to study soil compaction. Some information's from experiment results are as following. Both rice varieties tested gave the same response to soil compaction. Root activity, according to data of 32 P absorbed by plant, was not harmed by soil compaction at the degree tested in the experiment. This prediction is supported by the growth by rice observed at generative growth stage, in pot experiment as well as in field experiment, which showed that soil compaction tested did not decrease rice yield but in opposite in tended to increase the yield. In practising soil compaction in land preparation, fertilizers should be applied by deep placement to have higher increasing is rice yield

  18. 9 CFR 82.10 - Interstate movement of vehicles, cages, coops, containers, troughs, and other equipment from a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... other containers or equipment used by or to move pet birds moved interstate in accordance with § 82.5(a... accordance with the following conditions: (1) They are made of hard plastic or metal, and the other...

  19. Portable compact multifunction IR calibrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyatt, C.L.; Jacobsen, L.; Steed, A.

    1988-01-01

    A compact portable multifunction calibrator designed for future sensor systems is described which enables a linearity calibration for all detectors simultaneously using a near small-area source, a high-resolution mapping of the focal plane with 10 microrad setability and with a blur of less than 100 microrad, system spectral response calibration (radiometer) using a Michelson interferometer source, relative spectral response (spectrometer) using high-temperature external commercial blackbody simulators, and an absolute calibration using an internal low-temperature extended-area source. 5 references

  20. Simplified compact containment BWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heki, H.; Nakamaru, M.; Tsutagawa, M.; Hiraiwa, K.; Arai, K.; Hida, T.

    2004-01-01

    The reactor concept considered in this paper has a small power output, a compact containment and a simplified BWR configuration with comprehensive safety features. The Compact Containment Boiling Water Reactor (CCR), which is being developed with matured BWR technologies together with innovative systems/components, is expected to prove attractive in the world energy markets due to its flexibility in regard to both energy demands and site conditions, its high potential for reducing investment risk and its safety features facilitating public acceptance. The flexibility is achieved by CCR's small power output of 300 MWe class and capability of long operating cycle (refueling intervals). CCR is expected to be attractive from view point of investment due to its simplification/innovation in design such as natural circulation core cooling with the bottom located short core, internal upper entry control rod drives (CRDs) with ring-type dryers and simplified ECCS system with high pressure containment concept. The natural circulation core eliminates recirculation pumps and the maintenance of such pumps. The internal upper entry CRDs reduce the height of the reactor vessel (RPV) and consequently reduce the height of the primary containment vessel (PCV). The safety features mainly consist of large water inventory above the core without large penetration below the top of the core, passive cooling system by isolation condenser (IC), passive auto catalytic recombiner and in-vessel retention (IVR) capability. The large inventory increases the system response time in the case of design-base accidents, including loss of coolant accidents. The IC suppresses PCV pressure by steam condensation without any AC power. The recombiner decreases hydrogen concentration in the PCV in the case of a severe accident. Cooling the molten core inside the RPV if the core should be damaged by loss of core coolability could attain the IVR. The feasibility of CCR safety system has been confirmed by LOCA

  1. Compact objects in Horndeski gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Hector O.; Maselli, Andrea; Minamitsuji, Masato; Berti, Emanuele

    2016-04-01

    Horndeski gravity holds a special position as the most general extension of Einstein’s theory of general relativity (GR) with a single scalar degree of freedom and second-order field equations. Because of these features, Horndeski gravity is an attractive phenomenological playground to investigate the consequences of modifications of GR in cosmology and astrophysics. We present a review of the progress made so far in the study of compact objects (black holes (BHs) and neutron stars (NSs)) within Horndeski gravity. In particular, we review our recent work on slowly rotating BHs and present some new results on slowly rotating NSs.

  2. Matter in compact binary mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Jocelyn; LIGO Scientific Collaboration, Virgo Scientific Collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Mergers of binary neutron stars or neutron-star/black-hole systems are promising targets for gravitational-wave detection. The dynamics of merging compact objects, and thus their gravitational-wave signatures, are primarily determined by the mass and spin of the components. However, the presence of matter can make an imprint on the final orbits and merger of a binary system. I will outline efforts to understand the impact of neutron-star matter on gravitational waves, using both theoretical and computational input, so that gravitational-wave observations can be used to measure the properties of source systems with neutron-star components.

  3. Self-compacting concrete (SCC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    In many aspects Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC, “Self-Consolidating Concrete” in North America) can be considered the concrete of the future. SCC is a family of tailored concretes with special engineered properties in the fresh state. SCC flows into the formwork and around even complicated...... reinforcement arrangements under its own weight. Thus, SCC is not vibrated like conventional concrete. This drastically improves the working environment during construction, the productivity, and potentially improves the homogeneity and quality of the concrete. In addition SCC provides larger architectural...

  4. Compact Radiometers Expand Climate Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of Earth's water, energy, and carbon cycles, NASA plans to embark on the Soil Moisture Active and Passive mission in 2015. To prepare, Goddard Space Flight Center provided Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) funding to ProSensing Inc., of Amherst, Massachusetts, to develop a compact ultrastable radiometer for sea surface salinity and soil moisture mapping. ProSensing incorporated small, low-cost, high-performance elements into just a few circuit boards and now offers two lightweight radiometers commercially. Government research agencies, university research groups, and large corporations around the world are using the devices for mapping soil moisture, ocean salinity, and wind speed.

  5. High Prevalence of Tobacco Use and Associated Oral Mucosal Lesion Among Interstate Male Migrant Workers in Urban Kerala, India

    OpenAIRE

    Aslesh, Ottapura Prabhakaran; Paul, Sam; Paul, Lipsy; Jayasree, Anandabhavan Kumaran

    2015-01-01

    Background: Kerala is a highly urbanized state in India and interstate migrant laborers working there forms a marginalized community. It was generally perceived that use of tobacco and alcohol was high among the workers, but there are no epidemiological studies assessing the actual burden. Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of use of tobacco and also the prevalence of oral mucosal lesions associated with such use consumption among the adult male interstate migrant workers in North Kerala....

  6. Compact Visualisation of Video Summaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janko Ćalić

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a system for compact and intuitive video summarisation aimed at both high-end professional production environments and small-screen portable devices. To represent large amounts of information in the form of a video key-frame summary, this paper studies the narrative grammar of comics, and using its universal and intuitive rules, lays out visual summaries in an efficient and user-centered way. In addition, the system exploits visual attention modelling and rapid serial visual presentation to generate highly compact summaries on mobile devices. A robust real-time algorithm for key-frame extraction is presented. The system ranks importance of key-frame sizes in the final layout by balancing the dominant visual representability and discovery of unanticipated content utilising a specific cost function and an unsupervised robust spectral clustering technique. A final layout is created using an optimisation algorithm based on dynamic programming. Algorithm efficiency and robustness are demonstrated by comparing the results with a manually labelled ground truth and with optimal panelling solutions.

  7. Geotechnical Aspects of Explosive Compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Shakeran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Explosive Compaction (EC is the ground modification technique whereby the energy released from setting off explosives in subsoil inducing artificial earthquake effects, which compact the soil layers. The efficiency of EC predominantly depends on the soil profile, grain size distribution, initial status, and the intensity of energy applied to the soil. In this paper, in order to investigate the geotechnical aspects, which play an important role in performance of EC, a database has been compiled from thirteen-field tests or construction sites around the world, where EC has been successfully applied for modifying soil. This research focuses on evaluation of grain size distribution and initial stability status of deposits besides changes of soil penetration resistance due to EC. Results indicated suitable EC performance for unstable and liquefiable deposits having particle sizes ranging from gravel to silty sand with less than 40% silt content and less than 10% clay content. However, EC is most effective in fine-to-medium sands with a fine content less than 5% and hydraulically deposited with initial relative density ranging from 30% to 60%. Moreover, it has been observed that EC can be an effective method to improve the density, stability, and resistance of the target soils.

  8. Spectrometers for compact neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, J.; Böhm, S.; Dabruck, J. P.; Rücker, U.; Gutberlet, T.; Brückel, T.

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the potential for neutron spectrometers at novel accelerator driven compact neutron sources. Such a High Brilliance Source (HBS) relies on low energy nuclear reactions, which enable cryogenic moderators in very close proximity to the target and neutron optics at comparably short distances from the moderator compared to existing sources. While the first effect aims at increasing the phase space density of a moderator, the second allows the extraction of a large phase space volume, which is typically requested for spectrometer applications. We find that competitive spectrometers can be realized if (a) the neutron production rate can be synchronized with the experiment repetition rate and (b) the emission characteristics of the moderator can be matched to the phase space requirements of the experiment. MCNP simulations for protons or deuterons on a Beryllium target with a suitable target/moderator design yield a source brightness, from which we calculate the sample fluxes by phase space considerations for different types of spectrometers. These match closely the figures of todays spectrometers at medium flux sources. Hence we conclude that compact neutron sources might be a viable option for next generation neutron sources.

  9. High flux compact neutron generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reijonen, J.; Lou, T.-P.; Tolmachoff, B.; Leung, K.-N.; Verbeke, J.; Vujic, J.

    2001-01-01

    Compact high flux neutron generators are developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. The neutron production is based on D-D or D-T reaction. The deuterium or tritium ions are produced from plasma using either a 2 MHz or 13.56 MHz radio frequency (RF) discharge. RF-discharge yields high fraction of atomic species in the beam which enables higher neutron output. In the first tube design, the ion beam is formed using a multiple hole accelerator column. The beam is accelerated to energy of 80 keV by means of a three-electrode extraction system. The ion beam then impinges on a titanium target where either the 2.4 MeV D-D or 14 MeV D-T neutrons are generated. The MCNP computation code has predicted a neutron flux of ∼10 11 n/s for the D-D reaction at beam intensity of 1.5 A at 150 kV. The neutron flux measurements of this tube design will be presented. Recently new compact high flux tubes are being developed which can be used for various applications. These tubes also utilize RF-discharge for plasma generation. The design of these tubes and the first measurements will be discussed in this presentation

  10. Quark matter in compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, H., E-mail: harg@cefet-rj.b [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Maracana 249, 20271-110, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Duarte, S.B., E-mail: sbd@cbpf.b [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Oliveira, J.C.T., E-mail: jcto@cbpf.b [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Roraima, Campus do Paricarana s/n, 69310-270, Boa Vista, RR (Brazil)

    2010-02-15

    Recently reported massive compact stars (Mapprox2M{sub o}) have provided strong constraints on the properties of the ultradense matter beyond the saturation nuclear density. Therefore, realistic quark or hybrid star models must be compatible with these observational data. Some used equations of state (EoS) describing quark matter are in general too soft and hence are not suitable to explain the stability of high compact star masses. In this work, we present the calculations of static spherically symmetric quark star structure by using an equation of state which takes into account the superconducting colour-flavour locked phase of the strange quark matter. In addition, some fundamental aspects of QCD (asymptotic freedom and confinement) are considered by means of a phenomenological description of the deconfined quark phase, the density-dependent quark mass model. We discuss the influence of the obtained quark matter equation of state on the mass-radius relationship of quark stars. Massive quark stars are found due to the stiffness of the equation of state, when reasonable values of the superconducting gap, taken as a free parameter, are used.

  11. River meander modeling of the Wabash River near the Interstate 64 Bridge near Grayville, Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lant, Jeremiah G.; Boldt, Justin A.

    2018-01-16

    Natural river channels continually evolve and change shape over time. As a result, channel evolution or migration can cause problems for bridge structures that are fixed in the flood plain. A once-stable bridge structure that was uninfluenced by a river’s shape could be encroached upon by a migrating river channel. The potential effect of the actively meandering Wabash River on the Interstate 64 Bridge at the border with Indiana near Grayville, Illinois, was studied using a river migration model called RVR Meander. RVR Meander is a toolbox that can be used to model river channel meander migration with physically based bank erosion methods. This study assesses the Wabash River meandering processes through predictive modeling of natural meandering over the next 100 years, climate change effects through increased river flows, and bank protection measures near the Interstate 64 Bridge.

  12. Method for preparing porous metal hydride compacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ron, M.; Gruen, D.M.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Sheft, I.

    1980-01-21

    A method for preparing porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts which can be repeatedly hydrided and dehydrided without disintegration. A mixture of a finely divided metal hydride and a finely divided matrix metal is contacted with a poison which prevents the metal hydride from dehydriding at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The mixture of matrix metal and poisoned metal hydride is then compacted under pressure at room temperature to form porous metallic-matrix hydride compacts.

  13. Soil compaction and growth of woody plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowski, T.T.

    1999-01-01

    Although soil compaction in the field may benefit or inhibit the growth of plants, the harmful effects are much more common. This paper emphasizes the deleterious effects of predominantly high levels of soil compaction on plant growth and yield. High levels of soil compaction are common in heavily used recreation areas, construction sites, urban areas, timber harvesting sites, fruit orchards, agroforestry systems and tree nurseries. Compaction can occur naturally by settling or slumping of soil or may be induced by tillage tools, heavy machinery, pedestrian traffic, trampling by animals and fire. Compaction typically alters soil structure and hydrology by increasing soil bulk density; breaking down soil aggregates; decreasing soil porosity, aeration and infiltration capacity; and by increasing soil strength, water runoff and soil erosion. Appreciable compaction of soil leads to physiological dysfunctions in plants. Often, but not always, reduced water absorption and leaf water deficits develop. Soil compaction also induces changes in the amounts and balances of growth hormones in plants, especially increases in abscisic acid and ethylene. Absorption of the major mineral nutrients is reduced by compaction of both surface soils and subsoils. The rate of photosynthesis of plants growing in very compacted soil is decreased by both stomatal and non-stomatal inhibition. Total photosynthesis is reduced as a result of smaller leaf areas. As soils become increasingly compacted respiration of roots shifts toward an anaerobic state. Severe soil compaction adversely influences regeneration of forest stands by inhibiting seed germination and growth of seedlings, and by inducing seedling mortality. Growth of woody plants beyond the seedling stage and yields of harvestable plant products also are greatly decreased by soil compaction because of the combined effects of high soil strength, decreased infiltration of water and poor soil aeration, all of which lead to a decreased

  14. Soil compaction and growth of woody plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, T.T. [Univ. of California, Berkeley (United States). Dept. of Environmental Science, Policy and Management

    1999-07-01

    Although soil compaction in the field may benefit or inhibit the growth of plants, the harmful effects are much more common. This paper emphasizes the deleterious effects of predominantly high levels of soil compaction on plant growth and yield. High levels of soil compaction are common in heavily used recreation areas, construction sites, urban areas, timber harvesting sites, fruit orchards, agroforestry systems and tree nurseries. Compaction can occur naturally by settling or slumping of soil or may be induced by tillage tools, heavy machinery, pedestrian traffic, trampling by animals and fire. Compaction typically alters soil structure and hydrology by increasing soil bulk density; breaking down soil aggregates; decreasing soil porosity, aeration and infiltration capacity; and by increasing soil strength, water runoff and soil erosion. Appreciable compaction of soil leads to physiological dysfunctions in plants. Often, but not always, reduced water absorption and leaf water deficits develop. Soil compaction also induces changes in the amounts and balances of growth hormones in plants, especially increases in abscisic acid and ethylene. Absorption of the major mineral nutrients is reduced by compaction of both surface soils and subsoils. The rate of photosynthesis of plants growing in very compacted soil is decreased by both stomatal and non-stomatal inhibition. Total photosynthesis is reduced as a result of smaller leaf areas. As soils become increasingly compacted respiration of roots shifts toward an anaerobic state. Severe soil compaction adversely influences regeneration of forest stands by inhibiting seed germination and growth of seedlings, and by inducing seedling mortality. Growth of woody plants beyond the seedling stage and yields of harvestable plant products also are greatly decreased by soil compaction because of the combined effects of high soil strength, decreased infiltration of water and poor soil aeration, all of which lead to a decreased

  15. Longitudinal review of state-level accident statistics for carriers of interstate freight

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saricks, C.; Kvitek, T.

    1994-03-01

    State-level accident rates by mode of freight transport have been developed and refined for application to the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) environmental mitigation program, which may involve large-quantity shipments of hazardous and mixed wastes from DOE facilities. These rates reflect multi-year data for interstate-registered highway earners, American Association of Railroads member carriers, and coastal and internal waterway barge traffic. Adjustments have been made to account for the share of highway combination-truck traffic actually attributable to interstate-registered carriers and for duplicate or otherwise inaccurate entries in the public-use accident data files used. State-to-state variation in rates is discussed, as is the stability of rates over time. Computed highway rates have been verified with actual carriers of high- and low-level nuclear materials, and the most recent truck accident data have been used, to ensure that the results are of the correct order of magnitude. Study conclusions suggest that DOE use the computed rates for the three modes until (1) improved estimation techniques for highway combination-truck miles by state become available; (2) continued evolution of the railroad industry significantly increases the consolidation of interstate rail traffic onto fewer high-capacity trunk lines; or (3) a large-scale off-site waste shipment campaign is imminent

  16. (U) Influence of Compaction Model Form on Planar and Cylindrical Compaction Geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenburg, David A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carney, Theodore Clayton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fichtl, Christopher Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ramsey, Scott D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-05

    The dynamic compaction response of CeO2 is examined within the frameworks of the Ramp and P-a compaction models. Hydrocode calculations simulating the dynamic response of CeO2 at several distinct pressures within the compaction region are investigated in both planar and cylindrically convergent geometries. Findings suggest additional validation of the compaction models is warranted under complex loading configurations.

  17. Compact Microwave Fourier Spectrum Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2009-01-01

    A compact photonic microwave Fourier spectrum analyzer [a Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer, (FTMWS)] with no moving parts has been proposed for use in remote sensing of weak, natural microwave emissions from the surfaces and atmospheres of planets to enable remote analysis and determination of chemical composition and abundances of critical molecular constituents in space. The instrument is based on a Bessel beam (light modes with non-zero angular momenta) fiber-optic elements. It features low power consumption, low mass, and high resolution, without a need for any cryogenics, beyond what is achievable by the current state-of-the-art in space instruments. The instrument can also be used in a wide-band scatterometer mode in active radar systems.

  18. A Compact UWB Diversity Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A compact printed ultrawideband (UWB diversity antenna with a size of 30 mm × 36 mm operating at a frequency range of 3.1–10.6 GHz is proposed. The antenna is composed of two semielliptical monopoles fed by two microstrip lines. Two semicircular slots, two rectangular slots, and one stub are introduced in the ground plane to adjust the impedance bandwidth of the antenna and improve the isolation between two feeding ports. The simulated and measured results show that impedance bandwidth of the proposed antenna can cover the whole UWB band with a good isolation of < −15 dB. The radiation patterns, peak antenna gain, and envelope correlation coefficient are also measured and discussed. The measured results show that the proposed antenna can be a good candidate for some portable MIMO/diversity UWB applications.

  19. Spiral Inflector For Compact Cyclotron

    CERN Document Server

    Karamysheva, G A

    2004-01-01

    Compact cyclotron for explosives detection by nuclear resonance absorption of γ-rays in nitrogen is under development [1] Cyclotron will be equipped with the external ion source. The injection system consists of a double-drift beam bunching system, a spiral inflector, beam diagnostics, focusing and adjustment elements [2]. The spiral inflector for ion bending from axial to median plane is used. Computer model of spiral inflector for the Customs cyclotron is developed. 3D electrostatic field calculations of the designed inflector are performed. Calculated electric field map and magnetic field map of the cyclotron [3] are used for beam dynamic simulations. Numeric simulations are carried out for 500 particles using code for calculation of particle dynamics by integration of differential equations in Cartesian coordinate system written in MATLAB. Direct Coulomb particle-to-particle method is used to take into account space-charge effects.

  20. Experimental studies of compact toroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Berkeley Compact Toroid Experiment (BCTX) device is a plasma device with a Marshall-gun generated, low aspect ratio toroidal plasma. The device is capable of producing spheromak-type discharges and may, with some modification, produce low-aspect ratio tokamak configurations. A unique aspect of this experimenal devie is its large lower hybrid (LH) heating system, which consists of two 450MHz klystron tubes generating 20 megawatts each into a brambilla-type launching structure. Successful operation with one klystron at virtually full power (18 MW) has been accomplished with 110 μs pulse length. A second klystron is currently installed in its socket and magnet but has not been added to the RF drive system. This report describes current activities and accomplishments and describes the anticipated results of next year's activity

  1. Compact Digital High Voltage Charger

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Ge

    2005-01-01

    The operation of classical resonant circuit developed for the pulse energizing is investigated. The HV pulse or generator is very compact by a soft switching circuit made up of IGBT working at over 30 kHZ. The frequencies of macro pulses andμpulses can be arbitrarily tuned below resonant frequency to digitalize the HV pulse power. Theμpulses can also be connected by filter circuit to get the HVDC power. The circuit topology is given and its novel control logic is analyzed by flowchart. The circuit is part of a system consisting of a AC or DC LV power supply, a pulse transformer, the pulse generator implemented by LV capacitor and leakage inductance of the transformer, a HV DC or pulse power supply and the charged HV capacitor of the modulators.

  2. Quasistatic evolution of compact toroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sgro, A.G.; Spencer, R.L.; Lilliequist, C.

    1981-01-01

    Some results are presented of simulations of the post formation evolution of compact toroids. The simulations were performed with a 1-1/2 D transport code. Such a code makes explicit use of the fact that the shapes of the flux surfaces in the plasma change much more slowly than do the profiles of the physical variables across the flux surfaces. Consequently, assuming that the thermodynamic variables are always equilibrated on a flux surface, one may calculate the time evolution of these profiles as a function of a single variable that labels the flux surfaces. Occasionally, during the calculation these profiles are used to invert the equilibrium equation to update the shapes of the flux surfaces. In turn, these shapes imply certain geometric cofficients, such as A = 2 >, which contain the geometric information required by the 1-D equations

  3. Magnetohydodynamics stability of compact stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, G.Y.; Ku, L.P.; Cooper, W.A.; Hirshman, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    Recent stability results of external kink modes and vertical modes in compact stellarators are presented. The vertical mode is found to be stabilized by externally generated poloidal flux. A simple stability criterion is derived in the limit of large aspect ratio and constant current density. For a wall at infinite distance from the plasma, the amount of external flux needed for stabilization is given by Fi = (k2 minus k)=(k2 + 1), where k is the axisymmetric elongation and Fi is the fraction of the external rotational transform. A systematic parameter study shows that the external kink mode in QAS can be stabilized at high beta (approximately 5%) without a conducting wall by magnetic shear via 3D shaping. It is found that external kinks are driven by both parallel current and pressure gradient. The pressure contributes significantly to the overall drive through the curvature term and the Pfirsch-Schluter current

  4. Optimal shapes of compact strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maritan, A.; Micheletti, C.; Trovato, A.; Banavar, J.R.

    2000-07-01

    Optimal geometrical arrangements, such as the stacking of atoms, are of relevance in diverse disciplines. A classic problem is the determination of the optimal arrangement of spheres in three dimensions in order to achieve the highest packing fraction; only recently has it been proved that the answer for infinite systems is a face-centred-cubic lattice. This simply stated problem has had a profound impact in many areas, ranging from the crystallization and melting of atomic systems, to optimal packing of objects and subdivision of space. Here we study an analogous problem-that of determining the optimal shapes of closely packed compact strings. This problem is a mathematical idealization of situations commonly encountered in biology, chemistry and physics, involving the optimal structure of folded polymeric chains. We find that, in cases where boundary effects are not dominant, helices with a particular pitch-radius ratio are selected. Interestingly, the same geometry is observed in helices in naturally-occurring proteins. (author)

  5. General Relativity&Compact Stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glendenning, Norman K.

    2005-08-16

    Compact stars--broadly grouped as neutron stars and white dwarfs--are the ashes of luminous stars. One or the other is the fate that awaits the cores of most stars after a lifetime of tens to thousands of millions of years. Whichever of these objects is formed at the end of the life of a particular luminous star, the compact object will live in many respects unchanged from the state in which it was formed. Neutron stars themselves can take several forms--hyperon, hybrid, or strange quark star. Likewise white dwarfs take different forms though only in the dominant nuclear species. A black hole is probably the fate of the most massive stars, an inaccessible region of spacetime into which the entire star, ashes and all, falls at the end of the luminous phase. Neutron stars are the smallest, densest stars known. Like all stars, neutron stars rotate--some as many as a few hundred times a second. A star rotating at such a rate will experience an enormous centrifugal force that must be balanced by gravity or else it will be ripped apart. The balance of the two forces informs us of the lower limit on the stellar density. Neutron stars are 10{sup 14} times denser than Earth. Some neutron stars are in binary orbit with a companion. Application of orbital mechanics allows an assessment of masses in some cases. The mass of a neutron star is typically 1.5 solar masses. They can therefore infer their radii: about ten kilometers. Into such a small object, the entire mass of our sun and more, is compressed.

  6. Compact autonomous navigation system (CANS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Y. C.; Ying, L.; Xiong, K.; Cheng, H. Y.; Qiao, G. D.

    2017-11-01

    Autonomous navigation of Satellite and constellation has series of benefits, such as to reduce operation cost and ground station workload, to avoid the event of crises of war and natural disaster, to increase spacecraft autonomy, and so on. Autonomous navigation satellite is independent of ground station support. Many systems are developed for autonomous navigation of satellite in the past 20 years. Along them American MANS (Microcosm Autonomous Navigation System) [1] of Microcosm Inc. and ERADS [2] [3] (Earth Reference Attitude Determination System) of Honeywell Inc. are well known. The systems anticipate a series of good features of autonomous navigation and aim low cost, integrated structure, low power consumption and compact layout. The ERADS is an integrated small 3-axis attitude sensor system with low cost and small volume. It has the Earth center measurement accuracy higher than the common IR sensor because the detected ultraviolet radiation zone of the atmosphere has a brightness gradient larger than that of the IR zone. But the ERADS is still a complex system because it has to eliminate many problems such as making of the sapphire sphere lens, birefringence effect of sapphire, high precision image transfer optical fiber flattener, ultraviolet intensifier noise, and so on. The marginal sphere FOV of the sphere lens of the ERADS is used to star imaging that may be bring some disadvantages., i.e. , the image energy and attitude measurements accuracy may be reduced due to the tilt image acceptance end of the fiber flattener in the FOV. Besides Japan, Germany and Russia developed visible earth sensor for GEO [4] [5]. Do we have a way to develop a cheaper/easier and more accurate autonomous navigation system that can be used to all LEO spacecraft, especially, to LEO small and micro satellites? To return this problem we provide a new type of the system—CANS (Compact Autonomous Navigation System) [6].

  7. General Relativity and Compact Stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glendenning, Norman K.

    2005-01-01

    Compact stars--broadly grouped as neutron stars and white dwarfs--are the ashes of luminous stars. One or the other is the fate that awaits the cores of most stars after a lifetime of tens to thousands of millions of years. Whichever of these objects is formed at the end of the life of a particular luminous star, the compact object will live in many respects unchanged from the state in which it was formed. Neutron stars themselves can take several forms--hyperon, hybrid, or strange quark star. Likewise white dwarfs take different forms though only in the dominant nuclear species. A black hole is probably the fate of the most massive stars, an inaccessible region of spacetime into which the entire star, ashes and all, falls at the end of the luminous phase. Neutron stars are the smallest, densest stars known. Like all stars, neutron stars rotate--some as many as a few hundred times a second. A star rotating at such a rate will experience an enormous centrifugal force that must be balanced by gravity or else it will be ripped apart. The balance of the two forces informs us of the lower limit on the stellar density. Neutron stars are 10 14 times denser than Earth. Some neutron stars are in binary orbit with a companion. Application of orbital mechanics allows an assessment of masses in some cases. The mass of a neutron star is typically 1.5 solar masses. They can therefore infer their radii: about ten kilometers. Into such a small object, the entire mass of our sun and more, is compressed

  8. Physics of Compact Advanced Stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarnstorff, M.C.; Berry, L.A.; Brooks, A.; Fredrickson, E.; Fu, G.-Y.; Hirshman, S.; Hudson, S.; Ku, L.-P.; Lazarus, E.; Mikkelsen, D.; Monticello, D.; Neilson, G.H.; Pomphrey, N.; Reiman, A.; Spong, D.; Strickler, D.; Boozer, A.; Cooper, W.A.; Goldston, R.; Hatcher, R.; Isaev, M.; Kessel, C.; Lewandowski, J.; Lyon, J.; Merkel, P.; Mynick, H.; Nelson, B.E.; Nuehrenberg, C.; Redi, M.; Reiersen, W.; Rutherford, P.; Sanchez, R.; Schmidt, J.; White, R.B.

    2001-01-01

    Compact optimized stellarators offer novel solutions for confining high-beta plasmas and developing magnetic confinement fusion. The 3-D plasma shape can be designed to enhance the MHD stability without feedback or nearby conducting structures and provide drift-orbit confinement similar to tokamaks. These configurations offer the possibility of combining the steady-state low-recirculating power, external control, and disruption resilience of previous stellarators with the low-aspect ratio, high beta-limit, and good confinement of advanced tokamaks. Quasi-axisymmetric equilibria have been developed for the proposed National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) with average aspect ratio 4-4.4 and average elongation of approximately 1.8. Even with bootstrap-current consistent profiles, they are passively stable to the ballooning, kink, vertical, Mercier, and neoclassical-tearing modes for beta > 4%, without the need for external feedback or conducting walls. The bootstrap current generates only 1/4 of the magnetic rotational transform at beta = 4% (the rest is from the coils), thus the equilibrium is much less nonlinear and is more controllable than similar advanced tokamaks. The enhanced stability is a result of ''reversed'' global shear, the spatial distribution of local shear, and the large fraction of externally generated transform. Transport simulations show adequate fast-ion confinement and thermal neoclassical transport similar to equivalent tokamaks. Modular coils have been designed which reproduce the physics properties, provide good flux surfaces, and allow flexible variation of the plasma shape to control the predicted MHD stability and transport properties

  9. Influence of compaction on chloride ingress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlopasa, J.

    2012-01-01

    Experiences from practice show the need for more of an understanding and optimization of the compaction process in order to design a more durable concrete structure. Local variations in compaction are very often the reason for initiation of local damage and initiation of chloride induced corrosion.

  10. Ultrasonic compaction of granular geological materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Andrew; Sikaneta, Sakalima; Harkness, Patrick; Lucas, Margaret

    2017-04-01

    It has been shown that the compaction of granular materials for applications such as pharmaceutical tableting and plastic moulding can be enhanced by ultrasonic vibration of the compaction die. Ultrasonic vibrations can reduce the compaction pressure and increase particle fusion, leading to higher strength products. In this paper, the potential benefits of ultrasonics in the compaction of geological granular materials in downhole applications are explored, to gain insight into the effects of ultrasonic vibrations on compaction of different materials commonly encountered in sub-sea drilling. Ultrasonic vibrations are applied, using a resonant 20kHz compactor, to the compaction of loose sand and drill waste cuttings derived from oolitic limestone, clean quartz sandstone, and slate-phyllite. For each material, a higher strain for a given compaction pressure was achieved, with higher sample density compared to that in the case of an absence of ultrasonics. The relationships between the operational parameters of ultrasonic vibration amplitude and true strain rate are explored and shown to be dependent on the physical characteristics of the compacting materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantification of the compactibility of pharmaceutical powders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnergaard, Jørn

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate and to quantify the compactibility of pharmaceutical powders by a simple linear relationship between the diametral compressive strength of tablets and the applied compaction pressure. The mechanical strength of the tablets is characterized as the crushing...

  12. The double explosive layer cylindrical compaction method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuivinga, M.E.C.; Verbeek, H.J.; Carton, E.P.

    1999-01-01

    The standard cylindrical configuration for shock compaction is useful for the compaction of composite materials which have some plastic behavior. It can also be used to densify hard ceramics up to about 85% of the theoretical density (TMD), when low detonation velocity explosives (2-4 km s-1) are

  13. Compact Process Development at Babcock & Wilcox

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric Shaber; Jeffrey Phillips

    2012-03-01

    Multiple process approaches have been used historically to manufacture cylindrical nuclear fuel compacts. Scale-up of fuel compacting was required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project to achieve an economically viable automated production process capable of providing a minimum of 10 compacts/minute with high production yields. In addition, the scale-up effort was required to achieve matrix density equivalent to baseline historical production processes, and allow compacting at fuel packing fractions up to 46% by volume. The scale-up approach of jet milling, fluid-bed overcoating, and hot-press compacting adopted in the U.S. Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development Program involves significant paradigm shifts to capitalize on distinct advantages in simplicity, yield, and elimination of mixed waste. A series of compaction trials have been completed to optimize compaction conditions of time, temperature, and forming pressure using natural uranium oxycarbide (NUCO) fuel at packing fractions exceeding 46% by volume. Results from these trials are included. The scale-up effort is nearing completion with the process installed and operable using nuclear fuel materials. Final process testing is in progress to certify the process for manufacture of qualification test fuel compacts in 2012.

  14. Computing Decoupled Residuals for Compact Disc Players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve Compact Disc Players playability regarding playing Compact Discs with surface faults, like scratches and fingerprints etc, the attention has been put on fault tolerant control schemes. Almost every of those methods are based on fault detection. The standard approach is to use...

  15. On compact galaxies in the UGC catalogue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogoshvili, N.G.

    1980-01-01

    A problem of separation of compact galaxies in the UGC Catalogue is considered. Value of surface brightness equal to or less than 21sup(m) was used as compactness criterion from a square second of arc. 96 galaxies, which are brighter than 14sup(m)5 satisfy this criterion. Among compact galaxies discovered in the UGC Catalogue 7% are the Zwicky galaxies, 15% belong to the Markarian galaxies and 27% of galaxies are part of a galaxy list with high surface brightness. Considerable divergence in estimates of total share of compact galaxies in the B.A. Worontsov-Veljaminov Morphological Catalogue of Galaxies (MCG) and the UGC Catalogue is noted. This divergence results from systematical underestimation of visible sizes of compact galaxies in the MCG Catalogue as compared with the UGC Catalogue [ru

  16. A compact tritium AMS system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, M.L.; Hamm, R.W.; Dingley, K.H.; Chiarappa-Zucca, M.L.; Love, A.H.

    2000-01-01

    Tritium ( 3 H) is a radioisotope that is extensively utilized in biological and environmental research. For biological research, 3 H is generally quantified by liquid scintillation counting requiring gram-sized samples and counting times of several hours. For environmental research, 3 H is usually quantified by 3 He in-growth which requires gram-sized samples and in-growth times of several months. In contrast, provisional studies at LLNL's Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry have demonstrated that accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) can be used to quantify 3 H in milligram-sized biological samples with a 100 to 1000-fold improvement in detection limits when compared to scintillation counting. This increased sensitivity is expected to have great impact on the biological and environmental research community. However, in order to make the 3 H AMS technique more broadly accessible, smaller, simpler, and less expensive AMS instrumentation must be developed. To meet this need, a compact, relatively low cost prototype 3 H AMS system has been designed and built based on an LLNL ion source/sample changer and an AccSys Technology radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac. With the prototype system, 3 H/ 1 H ratios ranging from 1x10 -10 to 1x10 -13 have be measured from milligram-sized samples. With improvements in system operation and sample preparation methodology, the sensitivity limit of the system is expected to increase to approximately 1x10 -15

  17. Compact, Pneumatically Actuated Filter Shuttle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leighy, Bradley D.

    2003-01-01

    A compact, pneumatically actuated filter shuttle has been invented to enable alternating imaging of a wind-tunnel model in two different spectral bands characteristic of the pressure and temperature responses of a pressure and temperature-sensitive paint. This filter shuttle could also be used in other settings in which there are requirements for alternating imaging in two spectral bands. Pneumatic actuation was chosen because of a need to exert control remotely (that is, from outside the wind tunnel) and because the power leads that would be needed for electrical actuation would pose an unacceptable hazard in the wind tunnel. The entire shuttle mechanism and its housing can be built relatively inexpensively [camera used for viewing the wind-tunnel model. The mechanism includes a pneumatic actuator connected to a linkage. The linkage converts the actuator stroke to a scissor-like motion that places one filter in front of the camera and the other filter out of the way. Optoelectronic sensors detect tabs on the sliding panels for verification of the proper positioning of the filters.

  18. Compact dynamic microfluidic iris array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmle, Christina; Doering, Christoph; Steuer, Anna; Fouckhardt, Henning

    2011-09-01

    A dynamic microfluidic iris is realized. Light attenuation is achieved by absorption of an opaque liquid (e.g. black ink). The adjustment of the iris diameter is achieved by fluid displacement via a transparent elastomer (silicone) half-sphere. This silicone calotte is hydraulically pressed against a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) substrate as the bottom window, such that the opaque liquid is squeezed away, this way opening the iris. With this approach a dynamic range of more than 60 dB can be achieved with response times in the ms to s regime. The design allows the realization of a single iris as well as an iris array. So far the master for the molded silicone structure was fabricated by precision mechanics. The aperture diameter was changed continuously from 0 to 8 mm for a single iris and 0 to 4 mm in case of a 3 x 3 iris array. Moreover, an iris array was combined with a PMMA lens array into a compact module, the distance of both arrays equaling the focal length of the lenses. This way e.g. spatial frequency filter arrays can be realized. The possibility to extend the iris array concept to an array with many elements is demonstrated. Such arrays could be applied e.g. in light-field cameras.

  19. Cooling of hypernuclear compact stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raduta, Adriana R.; Sedrakian, Armen; Weber, Fridolin

    2018-04-01

    We study the thermal evolution of hypernuclear compact stars constructed from covariant density functional theory of hypernuclear matter and parametrizations which produce sequences of stars containing two-solar-mass objects. For the input in the simulations, we solve the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer gap equations in the hyperonic sector and obtain the gaps in the spectra of Λ, Ξ0, and Ξ- hyperons. For the models with masses M/M⊙ ≥ 1.5 the neutrino cooling is dominated by hyperonic direct Urca processes in general. In the low-mass stars the (Λp) plus leptons channel is the dominant direct Urca process, whereas for more massive stars the purely hyperonic channels (Σ-Λ) and (Ξ-Λ) are dominant. Hyperonic pairing strongly suppresses the processes on Ξ-s and to a lesser degree on Λs. We find that intermediate-mass 1.5 ≤ M/M⊙ ≤ 1.8 models have surface temperatures which lie within the range inferred from thermally emitting neutron stars, if the hyperonic pairing is taken into account. Most massive models with M/M⊙ ≃ 2 may cool very fast via the direct Urca process through the (Λp) channel because they develop inner cores where the S-wave pairing of Λs and proton is absent.

  20. Laboratory evaluation of friction loss and compactability of asphalt mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to develop prediction models for friction loss and laboratory compaction of asphalt : mixtures. In addition, the study evaluated the effect of compaction level and compaction method of skid : resistance and the internal structure of ...

  1. A case study of intelligent compaction used in road upgrades

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Leyland, R

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available is that of intelligent compaction (IC) systems. As a whole such systems are said to provide numerous advantages including increased productivity, proactive compaction process adjustment, reduced spatial variations in compaction and greater data coverage compared...

  2. Implementation of intelligent compaction technologies for road constructions in Wyoming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Conventional test methods for roadway compaction cover less than 1% of roadway; whereas, intelligent : compaction (IC) offers a method to measure 100% of a roadway. IC offers the ability to increase : compaction uniformity of soils and asphalt paveme...

  3. Nuclear Activity of Compact Group Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubee, Sohn; Hwang, H.; Lee, M.; Lee, G.; Lee, J.

    2013-01-01

    We present results of a study on nuclear activities of compact group galaxies in the local universe. The triggering mechanism of AGN is an intriguing proble, and one of the suggested AGN triggering mechanism is galaxy interaction. In this regard, compact groups are a great laboratory to study the connection between galaxy interaction and nuclear activities. To study the environmental effects on nuclear activity, we estimate the fraction of AGN-host galaxies for a spectroscopic sample of 238 member galaxies in 59 compact groups from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey using the emission-line ratio diagnostic diagrams in comparison with field and cluster regions. We derive the 17-42% of AGN fraction of the compact groups depending on the AGN classification methods. The AGN fraction of compact groups is not the highest among the galaxy environments for both early and late type galaxies. We also examine the environmental dependence of nuclear activity using the surface galaxy number density. For early type galaxies, the AGN fraction decreases with increasing galaxy number density, while the AGN fraction of late-type galaxies barely changes. Moreover, we do not find any mid-infrared detected AGN-host compact group galaxies in our sample using WISE photometry. These results imply that the compact group galaxies is not stronngly active because of lack of gas supply, in contrast to the expectation that they may experience frequent galaxy-galaxy interactions.

  4. Does soil compaction increase floods? A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaoui, Abdallah; Rogger, Magdalena; Peth, Stephan; Blöschl, Günter

    2018-02-01

    Europe has experienced a series of major floods in the past years which suggests that flood magnitudes may have increased. Land degradation due to soil compaction from crop farming or grazing intensification is one of the potential drivers of this increase. A literature review suggests that most of the experimental evidence was generated at plot and hillslope scales. At larger scales, most studies are based on models. There are three ways in which soil compaction affects floods at the catchment scale: (i) through an increase in the area affected by soil compaction; (ii) by exacerbating the effects of changes in rainfall, especially for highly degraded soils; and (iii) when soil compaction coincides with soils characterized by a fine texture and a low infiltration capacity. We suggest that future research should focus on better synthesising past research on soil compaction and runoff, tailored field experiments to obtain a mechanistic understanding of the coupled mechanical and hydraulic processes, new mapping methods of soil compaction that combine mechanical and remote sensing approaches, and an effort to bridge all disciplines relevant to soil compaction effects on floods.

  5. Strategy Guideline. Compact Air Distribution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, Arlan [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-06-01

    This guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  6. Generalised model for anisotropic compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurya, S.K. [University of Nizwa, Department of Mathematical and Physical Sciences College of Arts and Science, Nizwa (Oman); Gupta, Y.K. [Raj Kumar Goel Institute of Technology, Department of Mathematics, Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh (India); Ray, Saibal [Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Department of Physics, Kolkata, West Bengal (India); Deb, Debabrata [Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, Department of Physics, Howrah, West Bengal (India)

    2016-12-15

    In the present investigation an exact generalised model for anisotropic compact stars of embedding class 1 is sought with a general relativistic background. The generic solutions are verified by exploring different physical aspects, viz. energy conditions, mass-radius relation, stability of the models, in connection to their validity. It is observed that the model presented here for compact stars is compatible with all these physical tests and thus physically acceptable as far as the compact star candidates RXJ 1856-37, SAX J 1808.4-3658 (SS1) and SAX J 1808.4-3658 (SS2) are concerned. (orig.)

  7. Compact vs. Exponential-Size LP Relaxations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, R.D.; Lancia, G.

    2000-09-01

    In this paper we introduce by means of examples a new technique for formulating compact (i.e. polynomial-size) LP relaxations in place of exponential-size models requiring separation algorithms. In the same vein as a celebrated theorem by Groetschel, Lovasz and Schrijver, we state the equivalence of compact separation and compact optimization. Among the examples used to illustrate our technique, we introduce a new formulation for the Traveling Salesman Problem, whose relaxation we show equivalent to the subtour elimination relaxation.

  8. Colorado's Prospects for Interstate Commerce in Renewable Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurlbut, D. J.

    2009-12-01

    Colorado has more renewable energy potential than it is ever likely to need for its own in-state electricity consumption. Such abundance may suggest an opportunity for the state to sell renewable power elsewhere, but Colorado faces considerable competition from other western states that may have better resources and easier access to key markets on the West Coast. This report examines factors that will be important to the development of interstate commerce for electricity generated from renewable resources. It examines market fundamentals in a regional context, and then looks at the implications for Colorado.

  9. Compact Ceramic Microchannel Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewinsohn, Charles [Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-10-31

    The objective of the proposed work was to demonstrate the feasibility of a step change in power plant efficiency at a commercially viable cost, by obtaining performance data for prototype, compact, ceramic microchannel heat exchangers. By performing the tasks described in the initial proposal, all of the milestones were met. The work performed will advance the technology from Technology Readiness Level 3 (TRL 3) to Technology Readiness Level 4 (TRL 4) and validate the potential of using these heat exchangers for enabling high efficiency solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) or high-temperature turbine-based power plants. The attached report will describe how this objective was met. In collaboration with The Colorado School of Mines (CSM), specifications were developed for a high temperature heat exchanger for three commercial microturbines. Microturbines were selected because they are a more mature commercial technology than SOFC, they are a low-volume and high-value target for market entry of high-temperature heat exchangers, and they are essentially scaled-down versions of turbines used in utility-scale power plants. Using these specifications, microchannel dimensions were selected to meet the performance requirements. Ceramic plates were fabricated with microchannels of these dimensions. The plates were tested at room temperature and elevated temperature. Plates were joined together to make modular, heat exchanger stacks that were tested at a variety of temperatures and flow rates. Although gas flow rates equivalent to those in microturbines could not be achieved in the laboratory environment, the results showed expected efficiencies, robust operation under significant temperature gradients at high temperature, and the ability to cycle the stacks. Details of the methods and results are presented in this final report.

  10. Ion diffusion in compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehikoinen, J.

    1999-03-01

    In the study, a two-dimensional molecular-level diffusion model, based on a modified form of the Gouy-Chapman (GC) theory of the electrical double layers, for hydrated ionic species in compacted bentonite was developed. The modifications to the GC theory, which forms the very kernel of the diffusion model, stem from various non-conventional features: ionic hydration, dielectric saturation, finite ion-sizes and specific adsorption. The principal objectives of the study were met. With the aid of the consistent diffusion model, it is a relatively simple matter to explain the experimentally observed macroscopic exclusion for anions as well as the postulated, but greatly controversial, surface diffusion for cations. From purely theoretical grounds, it was possible to show that the apparent diffusivities of cations, anions and neutral molecules (i) do not exhibit order-or-magnitude differences, and (ii) are practically independent of the solution ionic strength used and, consequently, of the distribution coefficient, K d , unless they experience specific binding onto the substrate surface. It was also of interest to investigate the equilibrium anionic concentration distribution in the pore geometry of the GMM model as a function of the solution ionic strength, and to briefly speculate its consequences to diffusion. An explicit account of the filter-plate effect was taken by developing a computerised macroscopic diffusion model, which is based upon the very robust and efficient Laplace Transform Finite-Difference technique. Finally, the inherent limitations as well as the potential fields of applications of the models were addressed. (orig.)

  11. Diagnostics for the National Compact Stellarator Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratton, B.C.; Johnson, D.; Feder, R.; Fredrickson, E.; Neilson, H.; Takahashi, H.; Zarnstorf, M.; Cole, M.; Goranson, P.; Lazarus, E.; Nelson, B.

    2003-01-01

    The status of planning of the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) diagnostics is presented, with the emphasis on resolution of diagnostics access issues and on diagnostics required for the early phases of operation

  12. New geometrical compactness measures for zones design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Alfredo Rincón-García

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of compact zones has been studied because of its influence in the creation of zones with regular forms, which are easier to analyze, to investigate or to administer. This paper propose a new method to measure compactness,by means of the transformation of the original geographical spaces, into figures formed with square cells, which are used to measure the similarity between the original zone and an ideal zone with straight forms. The proposed method was applied to design electoral zones, which must satisfy constraints of compactness, contiguity and population balance, in a topographical configuration that favors the creation of twisted and diffuse shapes. The results show that the new method favors the creation of zones with straight forms, without an important effect to the population balance, which are considered zones of high quality. Keywords: Redistricting, compactness, simulated annealing, GIS. Mathematics Subject Classification: 90C59, 90C29, 68T20.

  13. Compact 2 Micron Seed Laser, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of new compact, high power and extremely reliable 2 micron seed laser using newly developed Tm3+ doped germanate glass fibers,...

  14. Compact 2 Micron Seed Laser, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is for the development of innovative compact, high power and extremely reliable 2 micron seed laser using newly developed Tm3+ doped germanate glass...

  15. Gamma-Rays from Galactic Compact Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaret, Philip

    2007-04-01

    Recent discoveries have revealed many sources of TeV photons in our Mikly Way galaxy powered by compact objects, either neutron stars or black holes. These objects must be powerful particle accelerators, some with peak energies of at least 100 TeV, and may be neutrino, as well as photon, sources. Future TeV observations will enable us to address key questions concerning particle acceleration by compact objects including the fraction of energy which accreting black holes channel into relativstic jet production, whether the compact object jets are leptonic or hadronic, and the mechanism by which pulsar winds accelerate relativistic particles. We report on work done related to compact Galactic objects in preparation of a White Paper on the status and future of ground-based gamma-ray astronomy requested by the Division of Astrophysics of the American Physical Society.

  16. Compact Positron Tomograph for Prostate Imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huber, Jennifer S

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this project is to construct a functioning compact positron tomograph, whose geometry is optimized for detecting prostate tumors with molecular tracers such as 11Ccholine (carbon-11 choline...

  17. Compact Positron Tomograph for Prostate Imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Huber, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this project is to construct a functioning compact positron tomograph, whose geometry is optimized for detecting prostate tumors with molecular tracers such as 11Ccholine (carbon-11 choline...

  18. Compact Positron Tomograph for Prostate Imaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Derenzo, Stephen

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this project is to construct a functioning compact positron tomography, whose geometry is optimized for detecting prostate tumors with molecular tracers such as 11Ccholine (carbon-11 choline...

  19. Compact Microtube Igniter for Methane Rockets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project seeks to facilitate the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) LOX/Methane Propulsion Architecture by developing a reliable, compact, low power methane igniter....

  20. Compact Energy Conversion Module, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR project delivers a compact vibration-based Energy Conversion Module (ECM) that powers sensors for purposes such as structural health monitoring (SHM). NASA...

  1. Compact energy conversion module, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This STTR project delivers a compact vibration-based Energy Conversion Module (ECM) that powers sensors for purposes like structural health monitoring (SHM). NASA...

  2. Compact, Airborne Multispecies Sensor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Small Business Innovative Research Phase I proposal seeks to develop a compact mid-infrared laser spectrometer to benefit Earth science research activities. To...

  3. Effect of Subsoil Compaction on Hydraulic Parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Berisso, Feto Esimo; Schjønning, Per

    effects of subsoil compaction on soil ecological services and functions) put forward the hypothesis that due to a decrease in the hydraulic conductivity in the soil matrix, compaction increases the frequency of preferential flow events in macropores and therefore increases the leaching of otherwise....... In the field the near-saturated hydraulic conductivity was measured with a tension infiltrometer in the same treatments at a depth of 30 cm. In the laboratory saturated and near-saturated hydraulic conductivity and the bulk density were measured as well. Also, macropores in the large soil cores were made...... that for the upper soil depth, a significant increase in bulk density was measured for the compacted treatment. For the lower depth differences were less pronounced. For the saturated hydraulic conductivity, the results indicated a decrease of the hydraulic conductivity for the compacted treatment for the upper...

  4. Compact variable rate laser for space application

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We will focus on the development and test of high reliable, radiation tolerant, compact laser for planetary mission.  The laser will be able to operate at variable...

  5. The Compact Pulsed Hadron Source Construction Status

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Jie; Cai, Jinchi; Chen, Huaibi; Cheng, Cheng; Du, Qiang; Du, Taibin; Feng, Qixi; Feng, Zhe; Gong, Hui; Guan, Xialing; Han, Xiaoxue; Huang, Tuchen; Huang, Zhifeng; Li, Renkai; Li, Wenqian; Loong, Chun-Keung; Tang, Chuanxiang; Tian, Yang; Wang, Xuewu; Xie, Xiaofeng; Xing, Qingzi; Xiong, Zhengfeng; Xu, Dong; Yang, Yigang; Zeng, Zhi; Zhang, Huayi; Zhang, Xiaozhang; Zheng, Shu-xin; Zheng, Zhihong; Zhong, Bin; Billen, James; Young, Lloyd; Fu, Shinian; Tao, Juzhou; Zhao, Yaliang; Guan, Weiqiang; He, Yu; Li, Guohua; Li, Jian; Zhang, Dong-sheng; Li, Jinghai; Liang, Tianjiao; Liu, Zhanwen; Sun, Liangting; Zhao, Hongwei; Shao, Beibei; Stovall, James

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the design and construction status, technical challenges, and future perspectives of the proton-linac based Compact Pulsed Hadron Source (CPHS) at the Tsinghua University, Beijing, China

  6. Mappings with closed range and compactness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyahen, S.O.; Umweni, I.

    1985-12-01

    The motivation for this note is the result of E.O. Thorp that a normed linear space E is finite dimensional if and only if every continuous linear map for E into any normed linear space has a closed range. Here, a class of Hausdorff topological groups is introduced; called r-compactifiable topological groups, they include compact groups, locally compact Abelian groups and locally convex linear topological spaces. It is proved that a group in this class which is separable, complete metrizable or locally compact, is necessarily compact if its image by a continuous group homomorphism is necessarily closed. It is deduced then that a Hausdorff locally convex is zero if its image by a continuous additive map is necessarily closed. (author)

  7. Deep Compaction Control of Sandy Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bałachowski Lech

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Vibroflotation, vibratory compaction, micro-blasting or heavy tamping are typical improvement methods for the cohesionless deposits of high thickness. The complex mechanism of deep soil compaction is related to void ratio decrease with grain rearrangements, lateral stress increase, prestressing effect of certain number of load cycles, water pressure dissipation, aging and other effects. Calibration chamber based interpretation of CPTU/DMT can be used to take into account vertical and horizontal stress and void ratio effects. Some examples of interpretation of soundings in pre-treated and compacted sands are given. Some acceptance criteria for compaction control are discussed. The improvement factors are analysed including the normalised approach based on the soil behaviour type index.

  8. Controlled Compact High Voltage Power Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Postolati V.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays modern overhead transmission lines (OHL constructions having several significant differences from conventional ones are being used in power grids more and more widely. Implementation of compact overhead lines equipped with FACTS devices, including phase angle regulator settings (compact controlled OHL, appears to be one of the most effective ways of power grid development. Compact controlled AC HV OHL represent a new generation of power transmission lines embodying recent advanced achievements in design solutions, including towers and insulation, together with interconnection schemes and control systems. Results of comprehensive research and development in relation to 110–500kV compact controlled power transmission lines together with theoretical basis, substantiation, and methodological approaches to their practical application are presented in the present paper.

  9. Compact Fiber Lasers for Coherent LIDAR Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a proposal to investigate the feasibility of developing a low cost, compact, lightweight, high power (>500m W) and narrow linewidth 1.5 and 1.06 micron...

  10. Impact Compaction of a Granular Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Gregg; Asay, Blaine; Todd, Steve; Grady, Dennis

    2017-06-01

    The dynamic behavior of granular materials has importance to a variety of engineering applications. Although, the mechanical behavior of granular materials have been studied extensively for several decades, the dynamic behavior of these materials remains poorly understood. High-quality experimental data are needed to improve our general understanding of granular material compaction physics. This paper describes how an instrumented plunger impact system can be used to measure the compaction process for granular materials at high and controlled strain rates and subsequently used for computational modelling. The experimental technique relies on a gas-gun driven plunger system to generate a compaction wave through a volume of granular material. This volume of material has been redundantly instrumented along the bed length to track the progression of the compaction wave, and the piston displacement is measured with Photon Doppler Velocimetry (PDV). Using the gathered experimental data along with the initial material tap density, a granular material equation of state can be determined.

  11. Steady state compact toroidal plasma production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, William C.

    1986-01-01

    Apparatus and method for maintaining steady state compact toroidal plasmas. A compact toroidal plasma is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun and held in close proximity to the gun electrodes by applied magnetic fields or magnetic fields produced by image currents in conducting walls. Voltage supply means maintains a constant potential across the electrodes producing an increasing magnetic helicity which drives the plasma away from a minimum energy state. The plasma globally relaxes to a new minimum energy state, conserving helicity according to Taylor's relaxation hypothesis, and injecting net helicity into the core of the compact toroidal plasma. Controlling the voltage so as to inject net helicity at a predetermined rate based on dissipative processes maintains or increases the compact toroidal plasma in a time averaged steady state mode.

  12. Compaction of spent nuclear fuel cans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, H.

    1985-01-01

    Hydraulic press apparatus for compacting waste material eg. spent nuclear fuel cans comprises a fixed frame, a movable cross head, a press crown and three groups of piston/cylinder devices; having their pistons connected to the cross head and their cylinders secured to the press crown. A control means connects the first group of devices to hydraulic fluid in a reservoir which is pressurised initially by gas from gas accumulators to move the cross head and a quill secured thereto towards the frame base to compact the waste at a first high rate under a first high loading. Compaction then proceeds at a lower second rate at a lower second loading as the hydraulic fluid in the reservoir is pressurised by a pump. At two subsequent stages of compaction of the waste at which resistance increases causing a pressure rise in cylinders the control means causes hydraulic fluid to be passed to the second group of devices and thence to the third group of devices, the compaction rate reducing at each stage but the compaction force increasing. (author)

  13. Technology Selections for Cylindrical Compact Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey A. Phillips

    2010-10-01

    A variety of process approaches are available and have been used historically for manufacture of cylindrical fuel compacts. The jet milling, fluid bed overcoating, and hot press compacting approach being adopted in the U.S. AGR Fuel Development Program for scale-up of the compacting process involves significant paradigm shifts from historical approaches. New methods are being pursued because of distinct advantages in simplicity, yield, and elimination of process mixed waste. Recent advances in jet milling technology allow simplified dry matrix powder preparation. The matrix preparation method is well matched with patented fluid bed powder overcoating technology recently developed for the pharmaceutical industry and directly usable for high density fuel particle matrix overcoating. High density overcoating places fuel particles as close as possible to their final position in the compact and is matched with hot press compacting which fully fluidizes matrix resin to achieve die fill at low compacting pressures and without matrix end caps. Overall the revised methodology provides a simpler process that should provide very high yields, improve homogeneity, further reduce defect fractions, eliminate intermediate grading and QC steps, and allow further increases in fuel packing fractions.

  14. Compaction and flow rule of oxide nanopowders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltachev, G. Sh.; Lukyashin, K. E.; Maximenko, A. L.; Maksimov, R. N.; Shitov, V. A.; Shtern, M. B.

    2017-09-01

    Transparent Al2O3 ceramics have attracted considerable interest for use in a wide range of optical, electronic and structural applications. The fabrication of these ceramics using powder metallurgy processes requires the development of theoretical approaches to the compaction of nanopowders. In this work, we investigate the compaction processes of two model granular systems imitating Al2O3 nanosized powders. System I is a loosely aggregated powder, and system II is a powder strongly inclined to agglomeration (for instance, calcined powder). The processes of isostatical (uniform), biaxial, and uniaxial compaction as well as uniaxial compaction with simultaneous shear deformation are studied. The energy parameters of compaction such as the energy change of elastic interparticle interactions and dispersion interactions, dissipative energy losses related to the processes of interparticle friction, and the total work of compaction are calculated for all the processes. The nonapplicability of the associated flow rule to the description of deformation processes of oxide nanopowders is shown and an alternative plastic flow rule is suggested. A complete system of determining the relationship of the flow including analytical approximations of yield surfaces is obtained.

  15. The impact of soil compaction on runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogger, Magdalena; Blöschl, Günter

    2017-04-01

    Soil compaction caused by intensive agricultural practices is known to influence runoff processes at the local scale and is often speculated to have an impact on flood events at much larger scales. Due to the complex and diverse mechanisms related to soil compaction, the key processes influencing runoff at different scales are still poorly understood. In this study we are analyzing data from a subsoil compaction database [Trautner et al., 2003] that includes the results of a large number of field and laboratory experiments across Europe. We are focusing on changes in parameters relevant for hydrology such as saturated hydraulic conductivity and bulk density. We will compare the observed impacts in relation to climatic and soil conditions. The specific type of agricultural practice causing the soil compaction is also taken into account. In a further step the results of this study shall be used to derive a toy model for scenario analysis in order to identify the potential impacts of soil compaction on runoff processes at larger scales then the plot scale. Reference : Trautner, A., Van den Akker, J.J.H., Fleige, H, Arvidsson, J. and Horn, R., 2003. A subsoil compaction database: its development, structure and content. Soil & Till. Res. 73: 9-13.

  16. Sobolev Spaces on Locally Compact Abelian Groups: Compact Embeddings and Local Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemysław Górka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We continue our research on Sobolev spaces on locally compact abelian (LCA groups motivated by our work on equations with infinitely many derivatives of interest for string theory and cosmology. In this paper, we focus on compact embedding results and we prove an analog for LCA groups of the classical Rellich lemma and of the Rellich-Kondrachov compactness theorem. Furthermore, we introduce Sobolev spaces on subsets of LCA groups and study its main properties, including the existence of compact embeddings into Lp-spaces.

  17. The effect of interstate travel on sleep patterns of elite Australian Rules footballers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, L; Dawson, B; Hillman, D R; Eastwood, P R

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of interstate air travel on the quality and quantity of sleep in elite Australian Rules football players. Ten elite male athletes, who were members of a Western Australian-based Australian Football League (AFL) team, participated in the study. Sleep pattern was assessed by measuring sleep duration (SLD), sleep efficiency (SE), number of wakings (NW) and total wake time after sleep onset (WT) using a wrist-worn actigraph. Subjective sleep quality (SQ) was assessed using a scale of sleep rating. Throughout the 2002 AFL season, measurements were obtained on the night before (N1), the night of (N2) and the night after (N3) home and away games. Baseline measurements were obtained from five consecutive non-game nights. Compared to baseline, SLD on N1 was increased when home and away (by 51 and 105 mins respectively, psleep pattern were unchanged. On N2, SLD was decreased to a similar degree whether home or away (by 68 and 64 mins respectively, psleep pattern were unchanged. By N3 all measures of sleep pattern had returned to baseline values. Relative to baseline, perception of SQ was worst on N2 of a home game. This study has shown that interstate travel by elite AFL players has no adverse effects on sleep pattern on the night before a game.

  18. Results of the radiological survey at Exit 4, Interstate 90, Albany, New York (AL212)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marley, J.L.; Carrier, R.F.

    1988-02-01

    A number of properties in the Albany/Colonie area have been identified as being potentially contaminated with uranium originating from the former National Lead Company's uranium forming plant in Colonie, New York. The property at Exit 4 between Yardboro Avenue and Interstate 90 in Albany, New York was the subject of a radiological investigation initiated April 27, 1987. The area of survey of the property of the State of New York was the north side of the right-of-way of Interstate 90 (I-90) at Exit 4 (the Slingerlands exit) from the fence along the south side of Yardboro Avenue to the berm of the west-bound lanes of I-90. The survey, starting at the I-90 bridge over Central Avenue continued west for approximately 570 m. The width of the area ranged from /approximately/10 m to 195 m. To perform the survey, a network of sectors forming a grid was established, beginning with a series of basing points measured at /approximately/23-m intervals at the fence along Yardboro Avenue. Sectors were set by projection of lines from the basing points, perpendicular to the fence, to the berm of I-90. Then parallel lines at 23-m intervals were set. 12 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Bridging legal and economic perspectives on interstate municipal solid waste disposal in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longo, Christine; Wagner, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Legal and economic opinions of free interstate trade of MSW in the US are reviewed. → Economic theory of landfill space as the article of commerce can align opinions. → Waste management policies implied by this economic theory are compared/contrasted. - Abstract: Managing municipal solid waste (MSW) within and across regions is a complex public policy problem. One challenge regards conceptualizing precisely what commodity is to be managed across space and time. The US Supreme Court view is that waste disposal is the article of commerce per se. Some justices, however, have argued that while waste disposal is the article of commerce, its interstate flow could be impeded by states on the grounds that they have the authority to regulate natural resource quality within their boundaries. The argument in this paper is that adopting the economic theory view of the article of commerce as landfill space brings the majority and dissenting US Supreme Court views-and the resulting sides of the public policy dispute-into closer alignment. We discuss waste management policy tools that emerge from this closer alignment that are more likely to both withstand judicial scrutiny and achieve economic efficiency.

  20. 75 FR 35786 - Resale Power Group of Iowa, WPPI Energy v. ITC Midwest LLC, Interstate Power and Light Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL10-68-000] Resale Power Group of Iowa, WPPI Energy v. ITC Midwest LLC, Interstate Power and Light Company; Notice of Filing June 16, 2010. Take notice that, on June 15, 2010, Resale Power Group of Iowa and WPPI Energy filed a...

  1. 75 FR 29531 - Resale Power Group of Iowa, WPPI Energy v. ITC Midwest LLC, Interstate Power and Light Company...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL10-68-000] Resale Power Group of Iowa, WPPI Energy v. ITC Midwest LLC, Interstate Power and Light Company; Notice of Complaint May 19, 2010. Take notice that on May 18, 2010, pursuant to Rule 206 of the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  2. 9 CFR 73.4 - Interstate shipment of exposed but not visibly diseased cattle from a quarantined or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCABIES IN CATTLE... nonquarantined area; conditions under which permitted. Cattle not visibly diseased with scabies, but which are... the means of conveyance shall be placarded and the billing shall be marked “Cattle Exposed to Scabies...

  3. 9 CFR 75.4 - Interstate movement of equine infectious anemia reactors and approval of laboratories, diagnostic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... infectious anemia reactors and approval of laboratories, diagnostic facilities, and research facilities. 75.4... IN HORSES, ASSES, PONIES, MULES, AND ZEBRAS Equine Infectious Anemia (swamp Fever) § 75.4 Interstate movement of equine infectious anemia reactors and approval of laboratories, diagnostic facilities, and...

  4. 40 CFR 81.68 - Mobile (Alabama)-Pensacola-Panama City (Florida)-Southern Mississippi Interstate Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mobile (Alabama)-Pensacola-Panama City... QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.68 Mobile (Alabama)-Pensacola-Panama City (Florida)-Southern Mississippi Interstate Air Quality Control Region. The Mobile (Alabama...

  5. 9 CFR 85.10 - Interstate movement of swine semen and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. 85.10 Section 85.10 Animals and Animal... and swine embryos for insemination of or implantation into swine. Swine semen and swine embryos moved interstate for insemination of swine or implantation into swine shall be accompanied by a document issued by...

  6. 78 FR 40545 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Action on Proposed Highway in Georgia the Interstate 75 (I-75...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-05

    ... on Proposed Highway in Georgia the Interstate 75 (I-75) Express, Clayton and Henry Counties, Georgia... announces actions taken by FHWA and other Federal agencies that are final within the meaning of 23 U.S.C...) interchange in Clayton counties, a distance of approximately 17.94 miles. Those actions grant licenses...

  7. 7 CFR 305.32 - Irradiation treatment of regulated fruit to be moved interstate from areas quarantined for fruit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Irradiation treatment of regulated fruit to be moved... PHYTOSANITARY TREATMENTS Irradiation Treatments § 305.32 Irradiation treatment of regulated fruit to be moved interstate from areas quarantined for fruit flies. Irradiation, carried out in accordance with the provisions...

  8. 40 CFR 81.64 - Huntington (West Virginia)-Ashland (Kentucky)-Portsmouth-Ironton (Ohio) Interstate Air Quality...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Huntington (West Virginia)-Ashland... AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.64 Huntington... Huntington (West Virginia)-Ashland (Kentucky)-Portsmouth-Ironton (Ohio) Interstate Air Quality Control Region...

  9. 7 CFR 301.32-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DOMESTIC QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruit Flies § 301.32-4 Conditions governing the interstate movement of... domestic plant quarantines and regulations must also be met. (a) With a certificate or limited permit... enclosed vehicle or is completely enclosed by a covering adequate to prevent access by fruit flies (such as...

  10. 7 CFR 301.51-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... beetle; and (C) The article has not been combined or commingled with other articles so as to lose its... regulated articles from quarantined areas. 301.51-4 Section 301.51-4 Agriculture Regulations of the... of regulated articles from quarantined areas. (a) Any regulated article may be moved interstate from...

  11. 7 CFR 301.53-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... infestation by emerald ash borer; and (iv) The article has not been combined or commingled with other articles... regulated articles from quarantined areas. 301.53-4 Section 301.53-4 Agriculture Regulations of the... regulated articles from quarantined areas. Regulated articles may be moved interstate from a quarantined...

  12. 7 CFR 301.86-4 - Conditions governing the interstate movement of regulated articles from quarantined areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or unloaded in the quarantined area; and (D) The article has not been combined or commingled with... regulated articles from quarantined areas. 301.86-4 Section 301.86-4 Agriculture Regulations of the... regulated articles from quarantined areas. (a) Any regulated article may be moved interstate from a...

  13. 76 FR 62339 - Notice of Decision To Allow Interstate Movement of Rambutan From Puerto Rico into the Continental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-07

    ... States of fresh rambutan fruit from Puerto Rico. Based on the findings of a pest risk analysis, which we... interstate movement of fruits and vegetables into the United States from Hawaii, Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin... weeds from being introduced into and spread within the continental United States. (The continental...

  14. 76 FR 35186 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for Interstate Movement of Rambutan From Puerto...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... pests and noxious weeds from being introduced into and spread within the continental United States. (The... interstate movement into the continental United States and, based on that pest list, have prepared a risk... continental United States in a subsequent notice. If the overall conclusions of the analysis and the...

  15. A Delphi Study on the Potential Benefits and Obstacles of Interstate Short Sea Shipping in Archipelagic Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Arof

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify the potential benefits and obstacles of the interstate Short Sea Shipping (SSS operation in the archipelagic Southeast Asia sub-region. Although literature has addressed a myriad of benefits and obstacles that were caused by the SSS operation as an alternative mode to unimodal land transport, it has been recognised that each SSS corridor may have its own peculiarities. Therefore, the identification of the potential benefits and obstacles through a Delphi survey among sub-regional expert respondents is expected to inform the countries of Southeast Asia on how to direct their limited resources to address the obstacles identified in order to enable a viable interstate SSS operation. The initial review of the benefits and obstacles of SSS operations will focus on case studies performed in Europe as the breadth of literature on SSS outside Europe is still limited. Hence, this study addresses the gap in the literature by focusing on SSS in archipelagic Southeast Asia particularly those involving interstate Ro-Ro operations and extending the usage of Delphi technique to the realm of interstate SSS.

  16. Vegetation composition and structure of woody plant communities along urban interstate corridors in Louisville, KY, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara L. E. Trammell; Margaret M. Carreiro

    2011-01-01

    Urban forests adjacent to interstate corridors are understudied ecosystems across cities. Despite their small area, these forests may be strategically located to provide large ecosystem services due to their ability to act as a barrier against air pollutants and noise as well as to provide flood control. The woody vegetation composition and structure of forests...

  17. DNA compaction by azobenzene-containing surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakrevskyy, Yuriy; Kopyshev, Alexey; Lomadze, Nino; Santer, Svetlana; Morozova, Elena; Lysyakova, Ludmila; Kasyanenko, Nina

    2011-01-01

    We report on the interaction of cationic azobenzene-containing surfactant with DNA investigated by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, and atomic force microscopy. The properties of the surfactant can be controlled with light by reversible switching of the azobenzene unit, incorporated into the surfactant tail, between a hydrophobic trans (visible irradiation) and a hydrophilic cis (UV irradiation) configuration. The influence of the trans-cis isomerization of the azobenzene on the compaction process of DNA molecules and the role of both isomers in the formation and colloidal stability of DNA-surfactant complexes is discussed. It is shown that the trans isomer plays a major role in the DNA compaction process. The influence of the cis isomer on the DNA coil configuration is rather small. The construction of a phase diagram of the DNA concentration versus surfactant/DNA charge ratio allows distancing between three major phases: colloidally stable and unstable compacted globules, and extended coil conformation. There is a critical concentration of DNA above which the compacted globules can be hindered from aggregation and precipitation by adding an appropriate amount of the surfactant in the trans configuration. This is because of the compensation of hydrophobicity of the globules with an increasing amount of the surfactant. Below the critical DNA concentration, the compacted globules are colloidally stable and can be reversibly transferred with light to an extended coil state.

  18. Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burdick, A.

    2013-06-01

    This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  19. Phased array compaction cell for measurement of the transversely isotropic elastic properties of compacting sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nihei, K.T.; Nakagawa, S.; Reverdy, F.; Meyer, L.R.; Duranti, L.; Ball, G.

    2010-12-15

    Sediments undergoing compaction typically exhibit transversely isotropic (TI) elastic properties. We present a new experimental apparatus, the phased array compaction cell, for measuring the TI elastic properties of clay-rich sediments during compaction. This apparatus uses matched sets of P- and S-wave ultrasonic transducers located along the sides of the sample and an ultrasonic P-wave phased array source, together with a miniature P-wave receiver on the top and bottom ends of the sample. The phased array measurements are used to form plane P-waves that provide estimates of the phase velocities over a range of angles. From these measurements, the five TI elastic constants can be recovered as the sediment is compacted, without the need for sample unloading, recoring, or reorienting. This paper provides descriptions of the apparatus, the data processing, and an application demonstrating recovery of the evolving TI properties of a compacting marine sediment sample.

  20. Compaction of Ti–6Al–4V powder using high velocity compaction technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Dil Faraz; Yin, Haiqing; Li, He; Qu, Xuanhui; Khan, Matiullah; Ali, Shujaat; Iqbal, M. Zubair

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We compacted Ti–6Al–4V powder by HVC technique. • As impact force rises up, the green density of the compacts increases gradually. • At impact force 1.857 kN relative sintered density of the compacts reaches 99.88%. • Spring back of the green compact’s decreases gradually with increasing impact force. • Mechanical properties of the samples increases with increasing impact force. - Abstract: High velocity compaction technique was applied to the compaction of pre-alloyed, hydride–dehydride Ti–6Al–4V powder. The powder was pressed in single stroke with a compaction speed of 7.10–8.70 ms −1 . When the speed was 8.70 ms −1 , the relative density of the compacts reaches up to 85.89% with a green density of 3.831 g cm −3 . The green samples were sintered at 1300 °C in Ar-gas atmosphere. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to examine the surface of the sintered samples. Density and mechanical properties such as Vickers micro hardness and bending strength of the powder samples were investigated. Experimental results indicated that with the increase in impact force, the density and mechanical properties of the compacts increased. The sintered compacts exhibited a maximum relative density of 99.88% with a sintered density of 4.415 g cm −3 , hardness of 364–483 HV and the bending strength in the range of 103–126.78 MPa. The springback of the compacts decreased with increasing impact force

  1. Toxoplasma gondii infection in interstate truck drivers: a case-control seroprevalence study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Pacheco-Vega, Sandy Janet; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Salcedo-Jáquez, Misael; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Berumen-Segovia, Luis Omar; Rábago-Sánchez, Elizabeth; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2015-02-05

    Infection with Toxoplasma gondii can be acquired via the ingestion of undercooked or raw meat containing tissue cysts, or via ingestion of water contaminated with oocysts. Professional long distance truck driving may have epidemiological importance for food-borne infections since drivers eat out of home and in places where hygiene and cooking practices are uncertain. We aimed to determine whether interstate truck drivers in Durango, Mexico have an increased risk of infection with T. gondii as indicated by seropositivity; and to determine the socio-demographic, work, clinical, and behavioral characteristics associated with T. gondii seropositivity in interstate truck drivers. Through a case-control study design, 192 truck drivers and 192 controls from the general population of the same region matched by gender and age were examined with enzyme-linked immunoassays for the presence of anti-Toxoplasma IgG and IgM antibodies. Socio-demographic, work, clinical and behavioral characteristics from the truck drivers were obtained. Anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies were found in 23 (12.0%) of 192 truck drivers and in 13 (6.8%) of 192 controls (OR = 21.0; 95% CI: 1.23-358.38; P = 0.002). Anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies were found in 7 (3.6%) cases and in 7 (3.6%) controls (P = 1.00). The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection was higher in drivers with reflex impairment than in those without this impairment (4/13, 30.8% vs 19/179, 10.6%, respectively; P = 0.05), and in drivers with hearing impairment than in those without this impairment (3/7, 42.9% vs 20/185, 10.8%, respectively; P = 0.03). Multivariate analysis of work and behavioral characteristics of truck drives showed positive associations of T. gondii exposure with trips to the south of Mexico (OR = 3.11; 95% CI: 1.02-9.44; P = 0.04) and consumption of horse meat (OR = 5.18; 95% CI: 1.62-16.55; P = 0.005). Results suggest that interstate truck drivers may have an increased risk for T

  2. Radiation shielding aspects of compact medical cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, B.; Ruth, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Hospital-based compact medical cyclotrons are commonly used to produce large activities of short-lived PET radioisotopes such as fluorine-18 (HL110 min) and oxygen-18 (HL= 20 min), by bombarding suitably enriched gas or liquid targets with 11-15 MeV protons. High energy prompt neutron/gamma radiation fields are generated as the nuclear reaction product. The compact medical cyclotrons are installed either inside or in the close proximity of the nuclear medicine clinic. Therefore the adequacy of the radiation shielding is vitally important for the radiological safety of the patients and members of the public. The present paper highlights the important radiation shielding aspects of some compact medical cyclotrons presently available in the international market. 2 tabs., 4 figs

  3. Compaction and sedimentary basin analysis on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabasova, Leila R.; Kite, Edwin S.

    2018-03-01

    Many of the sedimentary basins of Mars show patterns of faults and off-horizontal layers that, if correctly understood, could serve as a key to basin history. Sediment compaction is a possible cause of these patterns. We quantified the possible role of differential sediment compaction for two Martian sedimentary basins: the sediment fill of Gunjur crater (which shows concentric graben), and the sediment fill of Gale crater (which shows outward-dipping layers). We assume that basement topography for these craters is similar to the present-day topography of complex craters that lack sediment infill. For Gunjur, we find that differential compaction produces maximum strains consistent with the locations of observed graben. For Gale, we were able to approximately reproduce the observed layer orientations measured from orbiter image-based digital terrain models, but only with a >3 km-thick donut-shaped past overburden. It is not immediately obvious what geologic processes could produce this shape.

  4. Activation analysis of the compact ignition tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selcow, E.C.

    1986-01-01

    The US fusion program has completed the conceptual design of a compact tokamak device that achieves ignition. The high neutron wall loadings associated with this compact deuterium-tritium-burning device indicate that radiation-related issues may be significant considerations in the overall system design. Sufficient shielding will be requied for the radiation protection of both reactor components and occupational personnel. A close-in igloo shield has been designed around the periphery of the tokamak structure to permit personnel access into the test cell after shutdown and limit the total activation of the test cell components. This paper describes the conceptual design of the igloo shield system and discusses the major neutronic concerns related to the design of the Compact Ignition Tokamak

  5. JAPC Compact Simulator evolution to latest integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabeta, T.; Nakayama, Y.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the evolution of JAPC compact simulator from the first installation in 1988 until recent integration with SIMULATE-3 engineering code core model and extended simulation for Mid-loop operation and severe accidents. JAPC Compact Simulator has an advanced super compact rotating panel design. Three plants, Tokai 2 (GE BWR 5), Tsuruga 1 (GE BWR 2), Tsuruga 2 (MHI PWR 4-Loop) are simulated. The simulator has been used for training of operator and engineering personnel, and has continuously been upgraded to follow normal plant modifications as well as development in modeling and computer technology. The integration of SIMULATE-3 core model is, to our knowledge, the first integration of a real design code into a training simulator. SIMULATE-3 has been successfully integrated into the simulator and run in real time, without compromising the accuracy of SIMULATE-3. The code has been modified to also handle mid-loop operation and severe accidents. (author)

  6. Coherent states for quantum compact groups

    CERN Document Server

    Jurco, B

    1996-01-01

    Coherent states are introduced and their properties are discussed for all simple quantum compact groups. The multiplicative form of the canonical element for the quantum double is used to introduce the holomorphic coordinates on a general quantum dressing orbit and interpret the coherent state as a holomorphic function on this orbit with values in the carrier Hilbert space of an irreducible representation of the corresponding quantized enveloping algebra. Using Gauss decomposition, the commutation relations for the holomorphic coordinates on the dressing orbit are derived explicitly and given in a compact R--matrix formulation (generalizing this way the q--deformed Grassmann and flag manifolds). The antiholomorphic realization of the irreducible representations of a compact quantum group (the analogue of the Borel--Weil construction) are described using the concept of coherent state. The relation between representation theory and non--commutative differential geometry is suggested.}

  7. Challenges: a state and compact perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, H.

    1987-01-01

    The challenges facing states and compacts in their efforts to implement the Low-Level Waste Policy Amendments Act are described. Institutional challenges include: small-volume sites; compact maintenance; shifting agencies and changing personnel; and timing of progress. The technical challenge lies in the enormous number of plans, procedures, and regulations that have to be developed over the next four years. There are two main fiscal challenges: funding of day-to-day operations of compact commissions; and financing the siting and construction of new disposal sites. There are also two main regulatory challenges: host states must develop regulations for siting and selection of technology; and all states have to await federal regulations to be completed. The final challenge is political: whether a region can overcome public opposition and actually site a facility

  8. Observational properties of compact groups of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickson, P.

    1990-01-01

    Compact groups are small, relatively isolated, systems of galaxies with projected separations comparable to the diameters of the galaxies themselves. Two well-known examples are Stephan's Quintet (Stephan, 1877) and Seyfert's Sextet (Seyfert 1948a,b). In groups such as these, the apparent space density of galaxies approaches 10(exp 6) Mpc(sub -3), denser even than the cores of rich clusters. The apparent unlikeliness of the chance occurrence of such tight groupings lead Ambartsumyan (1958, 1975) to conclude that compact groups must be physically dense systems. This view is supported by clear signs of galaxy interactions that are seen in many groups. Spectroscopic observations reveal that typical relative velocities of galaxies in the groups are comparable to their internal stellar velocities. This should be conducive to strong gravitational interactions - more so than in rich clusters, where galaxy velocities are typically much higher. This suggests that compact groups could be excellent laboratories in which to study galaxy interactions and their effects. Compact groups often contain one or more galaxies whose redshift differs greatly from those of the other group members. If these galaxies are at the same distance as the other members, either entire galaxies are being ejected at high velocities from these groups, or some new physical phenomena must be occurring. If their redshifts are cosmological, we must explain why so many discordant galaxies are found in compact groups. In recent years much progress has been made in addressing these questions. Here, the author discusses the current observational data on compact groups and their implications

  9. Spherical conformal models for compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takisa, P.M.; Maharaj, S.D.; Manjonjo, A.M.; Moopanar, S. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Durban (South Africa)

    2017-10-15

    We consider spherical exact models for compact stars with anisotropic pressures and a conformal symmetry. The conformal symmetry condition generates an integral relationship between the gravitational potentials. We solve this condition to find a new anisotropic solution to the Einstein field equations. We demonstrate that the exact solution produces a relativistic model of a compact star. The model generates stellar radii and masses consistent with PSR J1614-2230, Vela X1, PSR J1903+327 and Cen X-3. A detailed physical examination shows that the model is regular, well behaved and stable. The mass-radius limit and the surface red shift are consistent with observational constraints. (orig.)

  10. Microstructure analysis of laboratory and in-situ compacted silts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Russo Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents and discusses some results of an experimental research aimed at analysing the influence of compaction variables (w and energy and method on the resulting microstructure of a compacted silty soil. In particular, the experimental data here discussed allow to compare the microstructure induced by different dynamic compaction techniques, comparing that characterising specimens obtained by two laboratory methods (Proctor standard and Harvard and that of samples compacted in-situ during the construction of an embankment built for river regimentation purposes. Both undisturbed and disturbed samples have been retrieved from the embankment, the latter one with the purpose of collecting the soil subsequently used for laboratory compaction. Microstructural analyses (SEM, MIP performed on laboratory and in-situ compacted samples evidenced a substantial similarity of the texture induced by the various compaction techniques, highlighting that laboratory compaction is suitable to provide soil samples representative of earth in-situ compacted soil.

  11. Measures Such As Interstate Cooperation Would Improve The Efficacy Of Programs To Track Controlled Drug Prescriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyo, Richard A.; Irvine, Jessica; Millet, Lisa; Beran, Todd; O'Kane, Nicole; Wright, Dagan; McCarty, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    In response to increasing abuse of prescription drugs, 44 states have implemented -- and five more states will soon adopt -- monitoring programs to track prescriptions of controlled medications. Although these programs are primarily designed to help law enforcement officials and regulatory agencies spot possible illegal activity, health care providers have begun to use data from them to help improve patient safety and quality of care. We reviewed government documents, expert white papers, articles from the peer reviewed medical literature, and reports of the experiences of local health officials. Although we found some evidence that prescription drug monitoring programs are a benefit to both law enforcement and health care delivery, the programs have strengths and weaknesses, and their overall impact on drug abuse and illegal activity remains unclear. We believe that improving the efficacy of prescription drug monitoring programs will require such changes as more standardization and interstate cooperation, better training of providers, more secure funding, and further evaluation. PMID:23406570

  12. Field Measurement and Calibration of HDM-4 Fuel Consumption Model on Interstate Highway in Florida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Jiao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fuel consumptions are measured by operating passenger car and tractor-trailer on two interstate roadway sites in Florida. Each site contains flexible pavement and rigid pavement with similar pavement, traffic and environmental condition. Field test reveals that the average fuel consumption differences between vehicle operating on flexible pavement and rigid pavement at given test condition are 4.04% for tractor-trailer and 2.50% for passenger car, with a fuel saving on rigid pavement. The fuel consumption differences are found statistically significant at 95% confidence level for both vehicle types. Test data are then used to calibrate the Highway Development and Management IV (HDM-4 fuel consumption model and model coefficients are obtained for three sets of observations. Field measurement and prediction by calibrated model shows generally good agreement. Nevertheless, verification and adjustment with more experiment or data sources would be expected in future studies.

  13. Social structure and U.S. inter-state fertility differentials in 1900.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, A M

    1981-11-01

    This paper investigates the importance of agricultural land shortages versus modernization of the society in influencing inter-state differentials in fertility in 1900, when the United States was in mid-transition. Urbanization and manufacturing characteristics of states were the strongest correlates of variations in the index of total fertility because urban-industrialism depressed both the probability of marriage and marital fertility. Other modern characteristics of American states were also important in understanding variations in marital fertility. Low labor force employment of children and farm mechanization, integrally related characteristics, seemed to depress levels of marital fertility in many parts of the United States, independent of the urban-industrial system. Agricultural land opportunity had little overall effect on marital fertility; however, it was quite important in understanding variations in patterns of marriage.

  14. Technology certification and technology acceptance: Promoting interstate cooperation and market development for innovative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brockbank, B.R.

    1995-03-01

    In the past two years, public and private efforts to promote development and deployment of innovative environmental technologies have shifted from the analysis of barriers to the implementation of a variety of initiatives aimed at surmounting those barriers. Particular attention has been directed at (1) streamlining fragmented technology acceptance processes within and among the states, and (2) alleviating disincentives, created by inadequate or unverified technology cost and performance data, for users and regulators to choose innovative technologies. Market fragmentation currently imposes significant cost burdens on technology developers and inhibits the investment of private capital in environmental technology companies. Among the responses to these problems are state and federal technology certification/validation programs, efforts to standardize cost/performance data reporting, and initiatives aimed at promoting interstate cooperation in technology testing and evaluation. This paper reviews the current status of these initiatives, identifies critical challenges to their success, and recommends strategies for addressing those challenges

  15. Determinants of Inter-State Variations in FDI Inflows in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhita CHATTERJEE

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper makes an attempt to identify the factors that contribute to the wide-scale variations in FDI inflows across Indian States. Using a panel dataset consisting of 16 groups of Indian states over the period from 2001-02 to 2005-06, it is found that infrastructure does not have significant impact on inter-state variations in FDI inflows, which is contradictory to the general proposition that availability of infrastructure facilities largely determines the locations of investment projects. Instead, level and variability in profitability of the existing firms are found to have significant influence in deciding investment locations at the state level. While higher profitability of the existing enterprises brings in more FDI into a state, greater variability in it reduces the same.

  16. Data processing and optimization system to study prospective interstate power interconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podkovalnikov, Sergei; Trofimov, Ivan; Trofimov, Leonid

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents Data processing and optimization system for studying and making rational decisions on the formation of interstate electric power interconnections, with aim to increasing effectiveness of their functioning and expansion. The technologies for building and integrating a Data processing and optimization system including an object-oriented database and a predictive mathematical model for optimizing the expansion of electric power systems ORIRES, are described. The technology of collection and pre-processing of non-structured data collected from various sources and its loading to the object-oriented database, as well as processing and presentation of information in the GIS system are described. One of the approaches of graphical visualization of the results of optimization model is considered on the example of calculating the option for expansion of the South Korean electric power grid.

  17. Compaction Scale Up and Optimization of Cylindrical Fuel Compacts for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey J. Einerson; Jeffrey A. Phillips; Eric L. Shaber; Scott E. Niedzialek; W. Clay Richardson; Scott G. Nagley

    2012-10-01

    Multiple process approaches have been used historically to manufacture cylindrical nuclear fuel compacts. Scale-up of fuel compacting was required for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project to achieve an economically viable automated production process capable of providing a minimum of 10 compacts/minute with high production yields. In addition, the scale-up effort was required to achieve matrix density equivalent to baseline historical production processes, and allow compacting at fuel packing fractions up to 46% by volume. The scale-up approach of jet milling, fluid-bed overcoating, and hot-press compacting adopted in the U.S. Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) Fuel Development Program involves significant paradigm shifts to capitalize on distinct advantages in simplicity, yield, and elimination of mixed waste. A series of designed experiments have been completed to optimize compaction conditions of time, temperature, and forming pressure using natural uranium oxycarbide (NUCO) fuel. Results from these experiments are included. The scale-up effort is nearing completion with the process installed and operational using nuclear fuel materials. The process is being certified for manufacture of qualification test fuel compacts for the AGR-5/6/7 experiment at the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  18. Evaluating the impacts of grades on vehicular speeds on interstate highways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqiang Chen

    Full Text Available Grade variation on interstate highways affects the roadway geometric design, vehicle performance and driver behavior, thus possibly exerting an unexpected effect on vehicular speed. Hence, determining the internal relationship between grade and speed is important and useful for drivers, traffic regulators and other traffic participants. However, the problem with performing this research is the lack of large-scale gradient and speed data. Google Earth (GE provides an application programming interface for extracting elevation data worldwide. The elevation dataset from GE can be easily converted to grade data. In addition, our team has collected and stored speed series data for different freeways over several years. Based on the above obtainable grade and speed datasets, we conducted research on the effect of grades on free flow speeds from two perspectives. First, the influence of grades on speed was analyzed from both quantitative and qualitative aspects. The analysis of the distributions of four typical types of speeds demonstrated a decreasing tendency as the speed increased. Steeper grades generated a more intense speed fluctuation in terms of the four types of speeds. Second, a model based on the Student's t-test was developed to evaluate the level of significant difference among speed series under neighboring grades. The Student's t-test demonstrated that adjacent grades do not significantly influence the speeds. In summary, speeds under different grades showed obviously different tendencies. The findings of this study can help transport authorities set more reasonable speed limits and improve the geometric design of interstates with grade variation constraints.

  19. Effects of interstate migration on the geographic distribution of stroke mortality in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanska, D J; Peterson, P M

    1995-04-01

    This study examines the effects of lifetime net interstate migration on the geographic distribution of stroke mortality in the United States. National Center for Health Statistics and Bureau of the Census data were used to map the geographic distribution of age-adjusted, race-, and race/sex-specific stroke mortality rates by interstate migration status for natives, outmigrants, nonmigrants, inmigrants, and residents in the United States for 1979 to 1981. High age-adjusted stroke mortality rates were significantly clustered in the southeastern United States for both whites and blacks; in addition, for whites, low-rate states were concentrated in some Mountain and northeastern states. Migrant status did not change this large-scale pattern, but individual states showed significant migration effects, which varied in magnitude and direction. Among whites, states that benefited from migration, with markedly lower stroke mortality rates among residents than natives, included Arizona, Colorado, District of Columbia, and Florida, whereas states that suffered from migration included California, Idaho, Montana, North Dakota, Nevada, and Oklahoma. Among blacks, only Colorado showed an apparent large benefit from migration, whereas 21 states suffered from migration. Although the overall large-scale spatial distribution of resident stroke mortality rates cannot be explained by migration effects, some individual states had rates that were strongly influenced by migration. Patterns of mortality among migrant groups in Sun Belt retirement destination states probably result from differential selection effects for retirement migration in older adults. Patterns of mortality for black migrants to the North are probably influenced by "carryover" effects from their origin states.

  20. EPRI compact analyzer: A compact, interactive and color-graphics based simulator for power plant analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ipakchi, A.; Khadem, M.; Chen, H.; Colley, R.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an EPRI sponsored project (RP2395-2) for design and development of an interactive, and color graphics based simulator for power plant analysis. The system is called Compact Analyzer and can be applied to engineering and training applications in the utility industry. The Compact Analyzer's software and system design are described. Results of two demonstration system for a nuclear plant, and a fossil plant are presented, and the applications of the Compact Analyzer to operating procedures evaluation are discussed

  1. Simulation of HMA compaction by using FEM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Huerne, H.L.; van Maarseveen, M.F.A.M.; Molenaar, A.A.A.; van de Ven, M.F.C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a simulation tool for the compaction process of Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) using a roller under varying external conditions. The focus is on the use of the Finite Element Model (FEM) with code DiekA, on its necessary requirements and on the presentation of simulation results. The

  2. Stochastic Beamforming via Compact Antenna Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alrabadi, Osama; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates the average beamforming (BF) gain of compact antenna arrays when statistical channel knowledge is available. The optimal excitation (precoding vector) and impedance termination that maximize the average BF gain are a compromise between the ones that maximize the array...

  3. The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yungelson, Lev R.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs, neutron stars (NSs, and black holes (BHs. Binary NSs and BHs are thought to be the primary astrophysical sources of gravitational waves (GWs within the frequency band of ground-based detectors, while compact binaries of WDs are important sources of GWs at lower frequencies to be covered by space interferometers (LISA. Major uncertainties in the current understanding of properties of NSs and BHs most relevant to the GW studies are discussed, including the treatment of the natal kicks which compact stellar remnants acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution. We discuss the coalescence rates of binary NSs and BHs and prospects for their detections, the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations. Special attention is given to AM CVn-stars -- compact binaries in which the Roche lobe is filled by another WD or a low-mass partially degenerate helium-star, as these stars are thought to be the best LISA verification binary GW sources.

  4. Resonant phenomena in compact and extended systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mullen, K.; Loss, D.; Stoof, H.T.C.

    1993-01-01

    We consider the dynamics of Josephson junctions in two formulations: one where the phase is defined on a compact interval [0,2π], and a second where it is defined on an extended interval (-∞,∞). We find that in general the two approaches are not equivalent: they have different sets of allowable

  5. Compaction of amorphous iron–boron powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, Peter Vang; Mørup, Steen; Koch, Christian

    1993-01-01

    report on attempts to compact amorphous iron–boron particles prepared by chemical reduction of Fe(II) ions in aqueous solution by NaBH4 (Ref. 2). The particles prepared in this way are pyrophoric, but can be passivated. The small particle size (10–100 nm), characteristic of this preparation technique...

  6. Understanding asphalt compaction: An action research strategy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miller, Seirgei Rosario; ter Huerne, Henderikus L.; Doree, Andries G.; Amaratunga, Dilanthi

    2007-01-01

    In Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) construction, rollers provide the compaction energy required to produce a specified density. However, little is known about the heuristics used by the roller operators. This study forms part of a larger action research project focussing on the improvement of the HMA paving

  7. Baking process of thin plate carbonaceous compact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yoshio; Shimada, Toyokazu

    1987-06-27

    As a production process of a thin plate carbonaceous compact for separator of phosphoric acid fuel cell, there is a process to knead carbonaceous powder and thermosetting resin solution, to form and harden the kneaded material and then to bake, carbonize and graphitize it. However in this baking and carbonization treatment, many thin plate compacts are set in a compiled manner within a heating furnace and receive a heat treatment from their circumference. Since the above compacts to be heated tend generally to be heated from their peripheries, their baked conditions are not homogeneous easily causing the formation of cracks, etc.. As a process to heat and bake homogeneously by removing the above problematical points, this invention offers a process to set in a heating furnace a laminate consisting of the lamination of thin plate carbonaceous compacts and the heat resistant soaking plates which hold the upper and lower ends of the above lamination, to fill the upper and under peripheries of the laminate above with high heat conductive packing material and its side periphery with low heat conductive packing material respectively and to heat and sinter it. In addition, the invention specifies the high and low heat conductive packing materials respectively. (1 fig, 2 tabs)

  8. The compact simulator for Tihange nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gueben, M.

    1982-01-01

    After an introduction about the simulators for nuclear plants, a description is given of the compact simulator for the Tihange nuclear power plant as well as the simulated circuits and equipments such as the primary and secondary coolant circuits. The extent of simulation, the functions used by the instructor, the use of the simulator, the formation programme and construction planning are described. (AF)

  9. The Blue Compact Dwarf Galaxy IZw18

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musella, I.; Marconi, M.; Fiorentino, G.; Clementini, G.; Aloisi, A.; Annibali, F.; Contreras, R.; Saha, A.; Tosi, M.; van der Marel, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results obtained for the Blue compact galaxy IZw18 on the basis of ACS HST data obtained from our group. In particular, we discuss the stellar population and the variable stars content of this galaxy to get information about its star formation history and distance.

  10. On Daniell Integrals and Compact Supports

    OpenAIRE

    Chersi, Franco

    1995-01-01

    Un integrale di Daniell definito su tutto $C\\left(X,\\mathbb{R}\\right)$ equivale ad una misura di Radon a supporto compatto. A Daniell integral defined on all of$C\\left(X,\\mathbb{R}\\right)$ is a Radon measure with compact support.

  11. Compact Structural Test Generation for Analog Macros

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaal, V.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.

    1997-01-01

    A structural, fault-model based methodology for the generation of compact high-quality test sets for analog macros is presented. Results are shown for an IV-converter macro design. Parameters of so-called test configurations are optimized for detection of faults in a fault-list and an optimal

  12. Analytic vortex solutions on compact hyperbolic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maldonado, Rafael; Manton, Nicholas S

    2015-01-01

    We construct, for the first time, abelian Higgs vortices on certain compact surfaces of constant negative curvature. Such surfaces are represented by a tessellation of the hyperbolic plane by regular polygons. The Higgs field is given implicitly in terms of Schwarz triangle functions and analytic solutions are available for certain highly symmetric configurations. (paper)

  13. Compaction Characteristics of Earth-Rock Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    special processing and handling equipment, more spacious facilities, specialized instrumentation, and lots of hard manual labor . Therefore, beginning...construction qual- ity assurance laboratories, and contractor quality control labo- ratories because they consider it too time consuming and labor intensive. It...pcint test performed on dry materia. 149 Table 16 Characteristics of Compaction Equipment (After Carga and Madureira, 1985) Nominal Mould Rammer mould

  14. Materials needs for compact fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    The economic prospects for magnetic fusion energy can be dramatically improved if for the same total power output the fusion neutron first-wall (FW) loading and the system power density can be increased by factors of 3 to 5 and 10 to 30, respectively. A number of compact fusion reactor embodiments have been proposed, all of which would operate with increased FW loadings, would use thin (0.5 to 0.6 m) blankets, and would confine quasi-steady-state plasma with resistive, water-cooled copper or aluminum coils. Increased system power density (5 to 15 MWt/m 3 versus 0.3 to 0.5 MW/m 3 ), considerably reduced physical size of the fusion power core (FPC), and appreciably reduced economic leverage exerted by the FPC and associated physics result. The unique materials requirements anticipated for these compact reactors are outlined against the well documented backdrop provided by similar needs for the mainline approaches. Surprisingly, no single materials need that is unique to the compact systems is identified; crucial uncertainties for the compact approaches must also be addressed by the mainline approaches, particularly for in-vacuum components (FWs, limiters, divertors, etc.)

  15. Form Filling with Self-Compacting Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes a newly started Ph.D. project with the aim of simulating the form filling ability of Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) taking into account the form geometry, reinforcement configuration, casting technique, and the rheological properties of the concrete. Comparative studies...

  16. Compactly supported frames for decomposition spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten; Rasmussen, Kenneth Niemann

    2012-01-01

    In this article we study a construction of compactly supported frame expansions for decomposition spaces of Triebel-Lizorkin type and for the associated modulation spaces. This is done by showing that finite linear combinations of shifts and dilates of a single function with sufficient decay in b...

  17. ROSAT: X ray survey of compact groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gorkom, Jacqueline

    1993-01-01

    This is the final technical report on grant NAG5-1954, which was awarded under the NASA ROSAT Guest Investigator Program to Columbia University. This grant was awarded for a number of projects on two rather different topics: (1) an x-ray survey of compact groups of galaxies; and (2) the fate of gas

  18. Compact stellar X-ray sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewin, W.H.G.; van der Klis, M.

    2006-01-01

    X-ray astronomy is the prime available window on astrophysical compact objects: black holes, neutron stars and white dwarfs. In the last ten years new observational opportunities have led to an explosion of knowledge in this field. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the astrophysics of

  19. A compact, coherent light source system architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Biedron, S.G.; Dattoli, G.; Dipalma, E.; Einstein, J.; Milton, S.V.; Petrillo, V.; Rau, J. V.; Sabia, E.; Spassovsky, I.P.; Van Der Slot, P. J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Our team has been examining several architectures for short-wavelength, coherent light sources. We are presently exploring the use and role of advanced, high-peak power lasers for both accelerating the electrons and generating a compact light source with the same laser. Our overall goal is to devise

  20. Self-compacting fibre-reinforced concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grunewald, S.; Walraven, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    The project 'self-compacting fibre-reinforced concrete (SCFRC)' is part of the Dutch STW/PPM program - 'cement-bonded materials' - DCT.4010. Subproject III to which the project ,SCFRC' belongs deals with the development of new high performance concretes. The project 'SCFRC' aims at investigating the

  1. CMOS Compatible Ultra-Compact Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babicheva, Viktoriia; Kinsey, Nathaniel; Naik, Gururaj V.

    2014-01-01

    A planar layout for an ultra-compact plasmonic modulator is proposed and numerically investigated. Our device utilizes potentially CMOS compatible materials and can achieve 3-dB modulation in just 65nm and insertion loss <1dB at telecommunication wavelengths....

  2. Sensitivity of cotton cultivars to soil compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itaynara Batista

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Cotton is one of the most sensitive crops to soil compaction, but there may be genetic variability for this trait. The objective of this study was to evaluate cotton cultivars sensitivity to soil compaction. Soil columns were built with three pvc rings with internal diameter of 10 cm and filled with an alfisol. The heights of the top and bottom rings were 15 cm, and the intermediate ring, in which the soil was compacted, was 3.5 cm high. The levels of compression used in the subsurface were characterized by penetration resistances of 0.41, 0.93, 1.41 and 1.92 MPa. The cultivars 701 FMT, FMT 705, FMT 707, FMX 951 LL and FMX 966 LL were grown up to 23 days after plant emergence, when the dry matter of shoots and roots, root length density and root diameter were determined. The cotton cultivars have variability in their sensitivity to resistance to penetration. The cultivar 707 FMT is more sensitive to soil compaction, while the FMT 701 is more tolerant. Penetration resistance of around 0.92 to 1.06 MPa reduce 50% cotton root growth, but resistance to penetration of 1.92 MPa did not totally prevent growth.

  3. Large compact dimensions and high energy experiments

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Models of spacetime with extra compact dimensions and having the Standard Model fields confined to a narrow slice of 4-dimensional spacetime can have strong gravitational effects at the TeV scale as well as electroweak-strength interactions at present-day colliders. Phenomenological consequences of such models are ...

  4. Investigation of HMA compactability using GPR technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plati, Christina; Georgiou, Panos; Loizos, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    In-situ field density is often regarded as one of the most important controls used to ensure that an asphalt pavement being placed is of high quality. The achieved density results from the effectiveness of the applied compaction mode on the Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) layer. It is worthwhile mentioning that the proper compaction of HMA increases pavement fatigue life, decreases the amount of permanent deformation or rutting, reduces the amount of oxidation or aging, decreases moisture damage or stripping, increases strength and internal stability, and may decrease slightly the amount of low-temperature cracking that may occur in the mix. Conventionally, the HMA density in the field is assessed by direct destructive methods, including through the cutting of samples or drilling cores. These methods are characterized by a high accuracy, although they are intrusive and time consuming. In addition, they provide local information, i.e. information only for the exact test location. To overcome these limitations, the use of non-intrusive techniques is often recommended. The Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) technique is an example of a non-intrusive technique that has been increasingly used for pavement investigations over the years. GPR technology is practical and application-oriented with the overall design concept, as well as the hardware, usually dependent on the target type and the material composing the target and its surroundings. As the sophistication of operating practices increases, the technology matures and GPR becomes an intelligent sensor system. The intelligent sensing deals with the expanded range of GPR applications in pavements such as determining layer thickness, detecting subsurface distresses, estimating moisture content, detecting voids and others. In addition, the practice of using GPR to predict in-situ field density of compacted asphalt mixture material is still under development and research; however the related research findings seem to be promising

  5. Hydrodynamic modeling and explosive compaction of ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoenig, C.; Holt, A.; Finger, M.; Kuhl, W.

    1977-09-01

    High-density ceramics with high-strength microstructure were achieved by explosive compaction. Well-characterized Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, AlN, and boron powders were explosively compacted in both cylindrical and flat plate geometries. In cylindrical geometries compacted densities between 91 and 98 percent of theoretical were achieved. Microhardness measurements indicated that the strength and integrity of the microstructure were comparable to conventionally fabricated ceramics, even though all samples with densities greater than 90 percent theoretical contained macrocracks. Fractured surfaces evaluated by SEM showed evidence of boundary melting. Equation of state data for porous Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ were used to calculate the irreversible work done on the sample as a function of pressure. This was expressed as a percentage of the total sample which could be melted. Calculations show that very little melting can be expected in samples shocked to less than 3 GPa. Significant melting and grain boundary fusion can be expected in samples shocked to pressures greater than 8 GPa. Hydrodynamic modeling of right cylinder compaction with detonation at one end was attempted by using a two-dimensional computer code. The complications of this analysis led to experiments using plane shock waves. Flat-plate compaction assemblies were designed and analyzed by 2-D hydrodynamic codes. The use of porous shock attenuators was evaluated. Experiments were performed on aluminum oxide powders in plane wave geometry. Microstructure evaluations were made as a function of location in the flat plate samples. 11 figures, 1 table.

  6. Roller compacted concrete : field evaluation and mixture optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC) as an economical, fast construction and sustainable materials has attracted increasing attention for pavement construction. The growth of roller-compacted concrete pavement used in different regions is impeded by conce...

  7. compaction delay versus properties of cement-bound lateritic soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Standard Proctor), the Unconfined Compressive. Strength (UCS), the California Bearing Ratio (CBR) test and Durability test. The results obtained indicated that compaction and strength characteristics decreased with increase in compaction delay ...

  8. Does Compact Development Increase or Reduce Traffic Congestion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    From years of research, we know that compact development that is dense, diverse, well-designed, etc. produces fewer vehicle miles traveled (VMT) than sprawling development. But compact development also concentrates origins and destinations. No one ha...

  9. Introduction to compact (matrix) quantum groups and Banica ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    , India from 5–24 January 2015. We give basic definitions, properties and examples of compact quantum groups and compact matrix quantum groups such as the existence of a Haar state, the representation theory and Woronowicz's quantum ...

  10. Application of Roller Compacted Concrete in Colorado's Roadways

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    Roller Compacted Concrete (RCC) is a no-slump concrete mixture that is transported, placed, and compacted with : the same construction equipment as asphalt pavement. RCCs were used to construct three sections of pavement in : Weld County Road 28 (WCR...

  11. Introduction to compact (matrix) quantum groups and Banica ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Moritz Weber

    2017-11-27

    . Chennai, India from 5–24 January 2015. We give basic definitions, properties and examples of compact quantum groups and compact matrix quantum groups such as the existence of a Haar state, the representation theory ...

  12. Improved compaction of dried tannery wastewater sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Zassa, M; Zerlottin, M; Refosco, D; Santomaso, A C; Canu, P

    2015-12-01

    We quantitatively studied the advantages of improving the compaction of a powder waste by several techniques, including its pelletization. The goal is increasing the mass storage capacity in a given storage volume, and reducing the permeability of air and moisture, that may trigger exothermic spontaneous reactions in organic waste, particularly as powders. The study is based on dried sludges from a wastewater treatment, mainly from tanneries, but the indications are valid and useful for any waste in the form of powder, suitable to pelletization. Measurements of bulk density have been carried out at the industrial and laboratory scale, using different packing procedures, amenable to industrial processes. Waste as powder, pellets and their mixtures have been considered. The bulk density of waste as powder increases from 0.64 t/m(3) (simply poured) to 0.74 t/m(3) (tapped) and finally to 0.82 t/m(3) by a suitable, yet simple, packing procedure that we called dispersion filling, with a net gain of 28% in the compaction by simply modifying the collection procedure. Pelletization increases compaction by definition, but the packing of pellets is relatively coarse. Some increase in bulk density of pellets can be achieved by tapping; vibration and dispersion filling are not efficient with pellets. Mixtures of powder and pellets is the optimal packing policy. The best compaction result was achieved by controlled vibration of a 30/70 wt% mixture of powders and pellets, leading to a final bulk density of 1t/m(3), i.e. an improvement of compaction by more than 54% with respect to simply poured powders, but also larger than 35% compared to just pellets. That means increasing the mass storage capacity by a factor of 1.56. Interestingly, vibration can be the most or the least effective procedure to improve compaction of mixtures, depending on characteristics of vibration. The optimal packing (30/70 wt% powders/pellets) proved to effectively mitigate the onset of smouldering

  13. Dissolution and compaction instabilities in geomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanou, I.; Sulem, J.; de Sauvage, J.

    2014-12-01

    Compaction bands play an important role in reservoir engineering and geological storage. Their presence in geological formations may also provide useful information on various geological processes. Several mechanisms can be involved at different scales and may be responsible for compaction band instabilities [1]. Compaction bands can be seen as a particular instability of the governing mathematical system leading to localization of deformation [2-4]. In a saturated porous rock, the progressive mechanical damage of the solid skeleton during compaction, results in the increase of the interface area of the reactants and consequently in the acceleration of the dissolution rate of the solid phase [2,5]. Thus, the solid skeleton is degraded more rapidly (mass removal because of dissolution), the overall mechanical properties of the system diminish (contraction of the elastic domain - chemical softening), deformations increase and the solid skeleton is further damaged (intergranular fractures, debonding, breakage of the porous network etc.). The stability of this positive feedback process is investigated analytically through linear stability analysis by considering the strong chemo-poro-mechanical coupling due to chemical dissolution. The post bifurcation behavior is then studied analytically and numerically revealing the compaction band thickness and periodicity. The effect of various parameters is studied as for instance the influence of the hydraulic diffusivity on the compaction band thickness. [1] P. Baud, S. Vinciguerra, C. David, A. Cavallo, E. Walker and T. Reuschlé (2009), Pure Appl. Geophys., 166(5-7), 869-898 [2] I. Stefanou and J. Sulem (2014), JGR: Solid Earth, 119(2), 880-899. doi:10.1002/2013JB010342I [3] J.W. Rudnicki and J.R. Rice (1975), Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids 23(6),: 371-394 [4] K.A. Issen and J.W. Rudnicki (2000), JGR, 105(B9), 21529. doi:10.1029/2000JB900185 [5] R. Nova, R. Castellanza and C. Tamagnini (2003), International

  14. The Lω-Compactness in Lω-Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shui-Li Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of αω-remote neighborhood family, γω-cover, and Lω-compactness are defined in Lω-spaces. The characterizations of Lω-compactness are systematically discussed. Some important properties of Lω-compactness such as ω-closed heredity, arbitrarily multiplicative property, and preserving invariance under ω-continuous mappings are obtained. Finally, the Alexander ω-subbase lemma and the Tychonoff product theorem with respect to Lω-compactness are given.

  15. Compacted cancellous bone has a spring-back effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kold, S; Bechtold, JE; Ding, Ming

    2003-01-01

    A new surgical technique, compaction, has been shown to improve implant fixation. It has been speculated that the enhanced implant fixation with compaction could be due to a spring-back effect of compacted bone. However, such an effect has yet to be shown. Therefore we investigated in a canine....... Thus we found a spring-back effect of compacted bone, which may be important for increasing implant fixation by reducing initial gaps between the implant and bone....

  16. Analyzing the Dynamics of Inter-state water peace: A study of the Huitzilapan-Xalapa Water Transfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Maganda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the political conflict surrounding the interstate transfer of water in the Huitzilapan-Xalapa Aqueduct, from which about 60% of the water resources for the city of Xalapa, state capital of Veracruz, come. This interstate water transfer has eventually lead to political and social conflict based on misinformation about perceived water shortages to Xalapa. The article examines a case in which water officials from Xalapa have apparently complied with guidelines related to procedural, distributive, and ecological justice. Therefore, the article proposes a focus on «justice as responsible (and informed dialogue» as a central element of procedural justice. The analysis is based on a review of official documents, such as Mexican water laws and the water concession under which this water transfer has occurred, press reviews published in regional newspapers, a field visit and interviews with key stakeholders and researchers mostly in Veracruz state.

  17. The Entropy of Co-Compact Open Covers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Bourquin

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Co-compact entropy is introduced as an invariant of topological conjugation for perfect mappings defined on any Hausdorff space (compactness and metrizability are not necessarily required. This is achieved through the consideration of co-compact covers of the space. The advantages of co-compact entropy include: (1 it does not require the space to be compact and, thus, generalizes Adler, Konheim and McAndrew’s topological entropy of continuous mappings on compact dynamical systems; and (2 it is an invariant of topological conjugation, compared to Bowen’s entropy, which is metric-dependent. Other properties of co-compact entropy are investigated, e.g., the co-compact entropy of a subsystem does not exceed that of the whole system. For the linear system, (R; f, defined by f(x = 2x, the co-compact entropy is zero, while Bowen’s entropy for this system is at least log 2. More generally, it is found that co-compact entropy is a lower bound of Bowen’s entropies, and the proof of this result also generates the Lebesgue Covering Theorem to co-compact open covers of non-compact metric spaces.

  18. Region and Gender Specific Labour Market Participation in India : A Study on Inter-State Variations and Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Arup; Okada, Aya

    2017-01-01

    The female participation rate is significantly lower than that among the males. The rural-urban differentials are more pronounced and the inter-state variations are sizable in the case of females, reflecting the influence of social, cultural and economic factors as well. Even in the large cities the female labour market participation is lower than that in the rural areas despite higher levels of education. The impact of infrastructure, education and health and urbanization on labour force par...

  19. A STUDY ON INTER-STATE DISPARITIES IN PUBLIC HEALTH EXPENDITURE AND ITS EFFECTIVENESS ON HEALTH STATUS IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.L.Ganesan; R. Senthamizh Veena

    2018-01-01

    Public health services play an important role in the health status of the people and Health Expenditure by the Government occupies crucial part in influencing the health outcome in the country. The healthcare finances are influenced by the respective State's budgetary allocation which leads to inter-state disparity in health services and health status in India. This has implications on providing Universal Health Coverage, which aims at ensuring equitable health services to people at all level...

  20. 77 FR 22805 - Meeting of the Compact Council for the National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... Compact Council (Council) created by the National Crime Prevention and Privacy Compact Act of 1998..., correct the hotel address line in ADDRESSES to read: 300 East Travis. Dated: April 10, 2012. Gary S...

  1. Production of permalloy components without compacting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozols, A; Pagnola, M.R; Thern, G; Marajofsky, A; Sirkin, M.H

    2004-01-01

    A processing route is analyzed for powder from Permalloy (Ni-18Fe-2Mo) that avoids the metallic die machining steps and the compacting of the powders. The molding of the pieces is based on the preparation of viscous clays prepared from mixtures of aqueous solutions of monomers, emulsifiers, catalyzers and metallic powders. The fluid obtained is poured into thermoplastic molds, where the polymer is cured at 80 o C. The unmolded pieces are slowly heated, until the water and polymer are eliminated, and sinterized to 1160 o C and 1300 o C in a dry hydrogen atmosphere. The resulting pieces undergo comparative studies with the same alloy processed by compacting (700 Mpa) and sinterizing in hydrogen. The electromagnetic loan is evaluated by determining the hysteresis cycles. The preliminary results show the viability of producing soft magnetic pieces (CW)

  2. Radiation shielding for medical compact cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futatsukawa, Syoji; Hatakeyama, Satoru; Saito, Yoshihiro; Sera, Kouichiro; Hatano, Kentaro; Sasaki, Toshiaki.

    1993-01-01

    We are using a medical compact cyclotron for PET (positron emission tomography) and PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission) analysis in Nishina Memorial Cyclotron Center. The cyclotron vault is covered by concrete wall of 1.5 m thickness. However, a big penetrating window of 1.8 m square was needed at the concrete wall between the cyclotron vault and the PIXE room for beam transport equipment. This window was closed by packing materials of iron shots, small grained polyethylenes mixed with boron and lead grains for shielding of neutrons and γ-rays. Several measurement data have showed that this method is useful for shielding of radiations from the compact cyclotron. (author)

  3. Rules of thumb for minimising subsoil compaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjønning, Per; Lamandé, Mathieu; Keller, T

    2012-01-01

    Subsoil compaction is persistent and can affect important soil functions including soil productivity. The aim of this study was to develop recommendations on how to avoid subsoil compaction for soils exposed to traffic by machinery at field capacity. We measured the vertical stress in the tyre......–soil contact area for two traction tyres at ca. 30- and 60-kN wheel loads on a loamy sand at field capacity. Data on resulting stress distributions were combined with those from the literature for five implement tyres tested at a range of inflation pressures and wheel loads. The vertical stress in the soil...... profile was then predicted using the Söhne model for all tests in the combined data set. The predicted stress at 20 cm depth correlated with the maximum stress in the contact area, tyre inflation pressure, tyre–soil contact area and mean ground pressure. At 100 cm depth, the predicted vertical stress...

  4. Ion diffusion through highly compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksen, T.; Jacobsson, A.; Pusch, R.

    1981-01-01

    Compacted Na- and Ca-bentonites were contacted with aqueous solutions of 134 Cs + , 85 Sr 2+ , 131 I - and 36 Cl - and the diffusivities calculated from tracer concentration-distance profiles in the bentonites 10 days after the onset of diffusion. In the case of 131 I - and 36 Cl - the diffusivities were also determined by measuring the steady state transport through a 5 mm thick bentonite disc. The experimental results indicate that the diffusion through compacted bentonite is governed by complex mechanisms and cannot be accomodated by a simple pore diffusion model. It seems reasonable to assume that non-sorbing ions migrate in the pore water, while cations also move through smectic crystal lattices, preferably through interlamellar spacings according to an ion-exchange-type model. The very low diffusion rate of the investigated anions, as compared with the corresponding rate in bulk water, verifies that the diffusive resistance is very strong for these ions. (Auth.)

  5. Visual soil evaluation and soil compaction research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    M.L. Guimarães, Rachel; Keller, Thomas; Munkholm, Lars Juhl

    2017-01-01

    to organize a joint workshop. The present special issue is an outcome from the workshop on “Soil structural quality of tropical soils: Visual evaluation methods and soil compaction prevention strategies” that was held 26–29 May 2014 in Maringá, Paraná, Brazil. There has been a long-lasting interest in Visual...... in 2005, 2009 and 2011 stimulated collaboration, resulting in the collaborative development of methods. The Visual Evaluation of Soil Structure (VESS; Ball et al., 2007) test was reimagined from the Peerlkamp method, based on discussions held at the meeting in Peronne, France, in 2005. The SubVESS method...... resources. VSE methods are ideal tools for evaluating management impacts on soil structural quality. Identification of soil compaction is a key aspect in VSE. These considerations formed the basis for the organization of a meeting jointly organized by the VSEE and the Subsoil working groups of ISTRO....

  6. Form Filling with Self-Compacting Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Lars Nyholm

    2007-01-01

    endvidere, at Teknologisk Institut vil kommercialisere projektets resultater. Abstract The overall subject of this project was Self-Compacting Concrete. More specifically it has been to establish a modelling approach for prediction of the form filling behaviour of SCC in a vertical formwork. Self...... of theoretical prediction tools is one of the main reasons for the haltering use of SCC in vertical applications. A lack of prediction tools may lead to selection of concrete mix compositions and casting techniques that are not suitable for a given application. This project proposes a modelling approach within...... to differences in density. In future constructions with Self-Compacting Concrete the proposed modelling approach may be applied to optimise the rheological parameters, particle configuration, and casting technique for a given application in order to obtain the structural quality required....

  7. Lattes-type mappings on compact manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astola, Laura; Kangaslampi, Riikka; Peltonen, Kirsi

    A uniformly quasiregular mapping acting on a compact Riemannian manifold distorts the metric by a bounded amount, independently of the number of iterates. Such maps are rational with respect to some measurable conformal structure and there is a Fatou-Julia type theory associated with the dynamical system obtained by iterating these mappings. We study a rich subclass of uniformly quasiregular mappings that can be produced using an analogy of classical Lattes' construction of chaotic rational functions acting on the extended plane bar{C} . We show that there is a plenitude of compact manifolds that support these mappings. Moreover, we find that in some cases there are alternative ways to construct this type of mapping with different Julia sets.

  8. A compact PE memory for vision chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Shi; Zhe, Chen; Jie, Yang; Nanjian, Wu; Zhihua, Wang

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a novel compact memory in the processing element (PE) for single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD) vision chips. The PE memory is constructed with 8 × 8 register cells, where one latch in the slave stage is shared by eight latches in the master stage. The memory supports simultaneous read and write on the same address in one clock cycle. Its compact area of 14.33 μm2/bit promises a higher integration level of the processor. A prototype chip with a 64 × 64 PE array is fabricated in a UMC 0.18 μm CMOS technology. Five types of the PE memory cell structure are designed and compared. The testing results demonstrate that the proposed PE memory architecture well satisfies the requirement of the vision chip in high-speed real-time vision applications, such as 1000 fps edge extraction.

  9. A compact PE memory for vision chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Cong; Chen Zhe; Yang Jie; Wu Nanjian; Wang Zhihua

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel compact memory in the processing element (PE) for single-instruction multiple-data (SIMD) vision chips. The PE memory is constructed with 8 × 8 register cells, where one latch in the slave stage is shared by eight latches in the master stage. The memory supports simultaneous read and write on the same address in one clock cycle. Its compact area of 14.33 μm 2 /bit promises a higher integration level of the processor. A prototype chip with a 64 × 64 PE array is fabricated in a UMC 0.18 μm CMOS technology. Five types of the PE memory cell structure are designed and compared. The testing results demonstrate that the proposed PE memory architecture well satisfies the requirement of the vision chip in high-speed real-time vision applications, such as 1000 fps edge extraction. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  10. Compact beamforming in medical ultrasound scanners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomov, Borislav Gueorguiev

    2003-01-01

    to fit a large number of channels on a single integrated circuit. The use of oversampled analog-to-digital (A/D) converters with the corresponding beamforming was identified as a particularly promising approach, since it provides both inexpensive and compact A/D conversion and allows for much more...... channels, and even more channels are necessary for 3-dimensional (3D) diagnostic imaging. On the other hand, there is a demand for inexpensive portable devices for use outside hospitals, in field conditions, where power consumption and compactness are important factors. The thesis starts...... quality is comparable to that of the very good scanners currently on the market. The performance results have been achieved with the use of a simple oversampled converter of second order. The use of a higher order oversampled converter will allow higher pulse frequency to be used while the high dynamic...

  11. Planning multifunctional green infrastructure for compact cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Rieke; Olafsson, Anton Stahl; van der Jagt, Alexander P.N.

    2018-01-01

    Urban green infrastructure planning aims to develop green space networks on limited space in compact cities. Multifunctionality is considered key to achieving this goal as it supports planning practice that considers the ability of green spaces to provide multiple benefits concurrently. However, ....... These recommendations can also be instructive for research on ecosystem service assessments in order to develop approaches that more strongly correspond to the demands of planning practice.......Urban green infrastructure planning aims to develop green space networks on limited space in compact cities. Multifunctionality is considered key to achieving this goal as it supports planning practice that considers the ability of green spaces to provide multiple benefits concurrently. However......, multifunctionality is an elusive concept and little information is available on how it is perceived and actioned by planners. Therefore, this paper will examine the application of the multifunctionality concept in urban planning based on a semi-quantitative study, including interviews with chief planners...

  12. Compact AMS System At Yamagata University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokanai, Fuyuki; Kato, Kazuhiro; Anshita, Minoru; Izumi, Akihiro; Sakurai, Hirohisa; Saito, Tsugio

    2011-06-01

    A new compact accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) system has been installed in the Kaminoyama research institute at Yamagata University. The AMS system is based on a 0.5 MV Pelletron accelerator developed by National Electrostatics Corp. The performance of the system was investigated using C series samples (C1-C8), standard samples (HOxII), and reagent graphite without any chemical treatment. The precision of 14C measurements for the standard samples is typically higher than 0.3%. The ratio of 14C to 12C is less than 6×10-16 for the reagent graphite. In this paper, we present the performance of the new compact AMS system, as well as of the fully automated 20-reactor graphite lines equipped at the research institute.

  13. Social Compacts in Regional and Global Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    2009-01-01

    the impact of global restructuring on labour and social conditions. Examples of the distributional consequences and resulting inequality, poverty, and unemployment are provided. This process has had an important impact on the emergence of reactive regional social compacts based on various forms of negotiated...... théoriser et de conceptualiser les notions de la mondialisation et de la gouvernance globale et régionale. La transformation de l'aide sociale en workfare (assistance sociale en échange du travail) et les impacts d'une restructuration globale sur le travail et les conditions sociales sont analysés, exemples......Abstract This article addresss four issues related to the emergence of new social compacts. It discusses various attempts to theorize and conceptualize the notions of globalization and global and regional governance. It then looks at the transformation from welfare to workfare and examines...

  14. Compact toroid development, activity plan for spheromaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-06-01

    This document contains the description, goals, status, plans, and approach for the investigation of the properties of a magnetic configuration for plasma confinement identified as the spheromak. This component of the magnetic fusion development program has been characterized by its potential for physical compactness and a flexible range of output power. The included material represents the second phase of spheromak program planning. The first was completed in February 1983 and was reported in DOE/ER-0160, Compact Toroid Development. This planning builds on that previous report and concentrates on the detailed plans for the next several years of the current DOE sponsored program. It has been deliberately restricted to the experimental and theoretical efforts possible within the present scale of effort. A third phase of this planning exercise will examine the subsequent effort and resources needed to achieve near-term (1987 to 1990) spheromak technical objectives

  15. Compact inductive energy storage pulse power system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K, Senthil; Mitra, S; Roy, Amitava; Sharma, Archana; Chakravarthy, D P

    2012-05-01

    An inductive energy storage pulse power system is being developed in BARC, India. Simple, compact, and robust opening switches, capable of generating hundreds of kV, are key elements in the development of inductive energy storage pulsed power sources. It employs an inductive energy storage and opening switch power conditioning techniques with high energy density capacitors as the primary energy store. The energy stored in the capacitor bank is transferred to an air cored storage inductor in 5.5 μs through wire fuses. By optimizing the exploding wire parameters, a compact, robust, high voltage pulse power system, capable of generating reproducibly 240 kV, is developed. This paper presents the full details of the system along with the experimental data.

  16. Borehole plugging by compaction process. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, R.; MacGowan, C.; Nolan, E.; Morey, R.; Palty, A.

    1976-08-01

    The requirements of an overall program to preserve the integrity of a repository formation are documented. The repository is intended to be in stable earth stratum used as a safe and permanent storage area for nuclear waste material. These wastes represent an environmental hazard for a period of up to 200,000 years. An engineering analysis, a reliability and quality-assurance program, and a development program for borehole plugging by compaction process, using natural earthen materials, are presented. Part 1 provides the engineering analysis of downhole compaction methods and related instrumentation along with a recommended development plan from concept through a pilot in-situ experiment. Part 2 provides a reliability and quality-assurance program from laboratory testing of materials through an in-situ experiment

  17. Is more better or worse? New empirics on nuclear proliferation and interstate conflict by Random Forests1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akisato Suzuki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the literature on nuclear proliferation, some argue that further proliferation decreases interstate conflict, some say that it increases interstate conflict, and others indicate a non-linear relationship between these two factors. However, there has been no systematic empirical investigation on the relationship between nuclear proliferation and a propensity for conflict at the interstate–systemic level. To fill this gap, the current paper uses the machine learning method Random Forests, which can investigate complex non-linear relationships between dependent and independent variables, and which can identify important regressors from a group of all potential regressors in explaining the relationship between nuclear proliferation and the propensity for conflict. The results indicate that, on average, a larger number of nuclear states decrease the systemic propensity for interstate conflict, while the emergence of new nuclear states does not have an important effect. This paper also notes, however, that scholars should investigate other risks of proliferation to assess whether nuclear proliferation is better or worse for international peace and security in general.

  18. Crossing boundaries: a comprehensive survey of medical licensing laws and guidelines regulating the interstate practice of pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiemenz, Matthew C; Leung, Stanley T; Park, Jason Y

    2014-03-01

    In the United States, recent judicial interpretation of interstate licensure laws has found pathologists guilty of malpractice and, more importantly, the criminal practice of medicine without a license. These judgments against pathologists highlight the need for a timely and comprehensive survey of licensure requirements and laws regulating the interstate practice of pathology. For all 50 states, each state medical practice act and state medical board website was reviewed. In addition, each medical board was directly contacted by electronic mail, telephone, or US registered mail for information regarding specific legislation or guidelines related to the interstate practice of pathology. On the basis of this information, states were grouped according to similarities in legislation and medical board regulations. This comprehensive survey has determined that states define the practice of pathology on the basis of the geographic location of the patient at the time of surgery or phlebotomy. The majority of states (n=32) and the District of Columbia allow for a physician with an out-of-state license to perform limited consultation to a physician with the specific state license. Several states (n=5) prohibit physicians from consultation without a license for the specific state. Overall, these results reveal the heterogeneity of licensure requirements between states. Pathologists who either practice in multiple states, send cases to out-of-state consultants, or serve as consultants themselves should familiarize themselves with the medical licensure laws of the states from which they receive or send cases.

  19. Iterative solution of high order compact systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spotz, W.F.; Carey, G.F. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We have recently developed a class of finite difference methods which provide higher accuracy and greater stability than standard central or upwind difference methods, but still reside on a compact patch of grid cells. In the present study we investigate the performance of several gradient-type iterative methods for solving the associated sparse systems. Both serial and parallel performance studies have been made. Representative examples are taken from elliptic PDE`s for diffusion, convection-diffusion, and viscous flow applications.

  20. On weak compactness in L_1 spaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fabian, Marián; Montesinos, V.; Zizler, Václav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 6 (2009), s. 1885-1893 ISSN 0035-7596 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100190610; GA AV ČR IAA100190502; GA AV ČR IAA1019103 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : weak compactness * subspace of L_1 * superreflexive space Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.260, year: 2009

  1. Compaction Characteristics of Igumale Shale | Iorliam | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maximum dry density (MDD) increased, while optimum moisture content (OMC) decreased with increase in compactive energy. The MDD of samples 1 and 2 increased from 1.53 Mg/m3 and 1.59 Mg/m3 to 1.90 Mg/m3 and 1.89 Mg/m3 while the OMC decreased from 19.1 % and 16.8 % to 14.3 % and 13.0 % respectively.

  2. A compact 133Xe gas dispenser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, T.; Harris, R.

    1977-01-01

    A dispenser for 133 Xe gas is described which is compact and simple to use, allowing the xenon to be dispensed from it shipping ampoule to suitable multi-dose injection vials in a controlled manner and with a high degree of operator safety. The apparatus has no joints and only a single rubber teat, minimizing the risks of adsorption and leakage. A scaled drawing of the dispenser is shown. (U.K.)

  3. Transient Modeling and Simulation of Compact Photobioreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Robert Luis Lara; Mariano, André Bellin; Souza, Jeferson Avila; Vargas, Jose Viriato Coelho

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model is developed to make possible the simulation of microalgae growth and its dependency on medium temperature and light intensity. The model is utilized to simulate a compact photobioreactor response in time with physicochemical parameters of the microalgae Phaeodactylum tricornutum. The model allows for the prediction of the transient and local evolution of the biomass concentration in the photobioreactor with low computational time. As a result, the model is...

  4. Compact x-ray source and panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampayon, Stephen E [Manteca, CA

    2008-02-12

    A compact, self-contained x-ray source, and a compact x-ray source panel having a plurality of such x-ray sources arranged in a preferably broad-area pixelized array. Each x-ray source includes an electron source for producing an electron beam, an x-ray conversion target, and a multilayer insulator separating the electron source and the x-ray conversion target from each other. The multi-layer insulator preferably has a cylindrical configuration with a plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers surrounding an acceleration channel leading from the electron source to the x-ray conversion target. A power source is connected to each x-ray source of the array to produce an accelerating gradient between the electron source and x-ray conversion target in any one or more of the x-ray sources independent of other x-ray sources in the array, so as to accelerate an electron beam towards the x-ray conversion target. The multilayer insulator enables relatively short separation distances between the electron source and the x-ray conversion target so that a thin panel is possible for compactness. This is due to the ability of the plurality of alternating insulator and conductor layers of the multilayer insulators to resist surface flashover when sufficiently high acceleration energies necessary for x-ray generation are supplied by the power source to the x-ray sources.

  5. Compact source origin of cosmic ray antiprotons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dermer, C.D.

    1989-02-01

    The flux of cosmic ray antiprotons with kinetic energies between /approximately/1 and 15 GeV is /approximately/5 times greater than the flux predicted on the basis of the leaky-box model. This excess is attributed to secondary antineutron production in compact sources. Because the antineutrons are not confined by the magnetic field of the compact source, they leave the interaction site, decay in interstellar space and account for the apparent excess cosmic ray antiproton flux. The escape and decay of neutrons produced in association with the antineutrons is a source of cosmic ray protons. Observations of the angular variation of the intensity and spectral shape of 100 MeV γ-rays produced by neutron-decay protons in the reaction p + p → π 0 → 2γ could reveal compact-source cosmic ray production sites. COS-B observations of spectral hardening near point sources, and future high-resolution observations of galactic point sources by Gamma-1 and the Egret telescope onboard the Gamma Ray Observatory may provide supporting evidence for this model. 12 refs., 2 figs

  6. The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postnov, Konstantin A; Yungelson, Lev R

    2014-01-01

    We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs), neutron stars (NSs), and black holes (BHs). Mergings of compact-star binaries are expected to be the most important sources for forthcoming gravitational-wave (GW) astronomy. In the first part of the review, we discuss observational manifestations of close binaries with NS and/or BH components and their merger rate, crucial points in the formation and evolution of compact stars in binary systems, including the treatment of the natal kicks, which NSs and BHs acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution, which are most relevant to the merging rates of NS-NS, NS-BH and BH-BH binaries. The second part of the review is devoted mainly to the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations, including their role as progenitors of cosmologically-important thermonuclear SN Ia. We also consider AM CVn-stars, which are thought to be the best verification binary GW sources for future low-frequency GW space interferometers.

  7. The Evolution of Compact Binary Star Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin A. Postnov

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We review the formation and evolution of compact binary stars consisting of white dwarfs (WDs, neutron stars (NSs, and black holes (BHs. Mergings of compact-star binaries are expected to be the most important sources for forthcoming gravitational-wave (GW astronomy. In the first part of the review, we discuss observational manifestations of close binaries with NS and/or BH components and their merger rate, crucial points in the formation and evolution of compact stars in binary systems, including the treatment of the natal kicks, which NSs and BHs acquire during the core collapse of massive stars and the common envelope phase of binary evolution, which are most relevant to the merging rates of NS-NS, NS-BH and BH-BH binaries. The second part of the review is devoted mainly to the formation and evolution of binary WDs and their observational manifestations, including their role as progenitors of cosmologically-important thermonuclear SN Ia. We also consider AM CVn-stars, which are thought to be the best verification binary GW sources for future low-frequency GW space interferometers.

  8. Overcoming soil compaction in surface mine reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweigard, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Rubber-tyred soil reconstruction equipment causes compaction of soil and means surface mine operators cannot satisfy crop yield standards defined by the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act. Soil compaction can be overcome by either modifying the reconstruction process or alleviating the problem, for example by deep tillage, once it occurs. The Dept. of Mining Engineering at the Institute of Mining and Minerals Research is conducting a laboratory investigation into a method of injecting low density porous organic material into a bin containing soil at the same time as the soil is ripped. This should prevent voids collapsing when subjected to forces from farm equipment and natural sources. Soil analyses are performed before and after the injection. Ripping and injection with ground pecan shells had a residual effect on nuclear bulk density compared to the initially compacted case and also showed an improvement in hydraulic conductivity. Work is in progress on modifying the system to handle other injection material and should lead on to field tests on a prototype involving both soil analysis and crop yield determination. 1 fig

  9. Enhancement of griseofulvin release from liquisolid compacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentzschel, C M; Alnaief, M; Smirnova, I; Sakmann, A; Leopold, C S

    2012-01-01

    The potential of hydrophilic aerogel formulations and liquisolid systems to improve the release of poorly soluble drugs was investigated using griseofulvin as model drug. The in vitro release rates of this drug formulated as directly compressed tablets containing crystalline griseofulvin were compared to aerogel tablets with the drug adsorbed onto hydrophilic silica aerogel and to liquisolid compacts containing the drug dissolved or suspended in PEG 300. Furthermore, the commonly used carrier and coating materials in liquisolid systems Avicel® and Aerosil® were replaced by Neusilin®, an amorphous magnesium aluminometasilicate with an extremely high specific surface area of 339 m²/g to improve the liquisolid approach. Both the liquisolid compacts containing the drug dissolved in PEG 300 and the aerogel tablets showed a considerably faster drug release than the directly compressed tablets. With liquisolid compacts containing the drug suspended in PEG 300, the release rate increased with rising fraction of dissolved drug in the liquid portion. It could be shown that Neusilin® with its sevenfold higher liquid adsorption capacity than the commonly used Avicel® and Aerosil® allows the production of liquisolid formulations with lower tablet weights. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Fusion potential for spherical and compact tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandzelius, Mikael

    2003-02-01

    The tokamak is the most successful fusion experiment today. Despite this, the conventional tokamak has a long way to go before being realized into an economically viable power plant. In this master thesis work, two alternative tokamak configurations to the conventional tokamak has been studied, both of which could be realized to a lower cost. The fusion potential of the spherical and the compact tokamak have been examined with a comparison of the conventional tokamak in mind. The difficulties arising in the two configurations have been treated from a physical point of view concerning the fusion plasma and from a technological standpoint evolving around design, materials and engineering. Both advantages and drawbacks of either configuration have been treated relative to the conventional tokamak. The spherical tokamak shows promising plasma characteristics, notably a high {beta}-value but have troubles with high heat loads and marginal tritium breeding. The compact tokamak operates at a high plasma density and a high magnetic field enabling it to be built considerably smaller than any other tokamak. The most notable down-side being high heat loads and neutron transport problems. With the help of theoretical reactor studies, extrapolating from where we stand today, it is conceivable that the spherical tokamak is closer of being realized of the two. But, as this study shows, the compact tokamak power plant concept offers the most appealing prospect.

  11. Fusion potential for spherical and compact tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandzelius, Mikael

    2003-02-01

    The tokamak is the most successful fusion experiment today. Despite this, the conventional tokamak has a long way to go before being realized into an economically viable power plant. In this master thesis work, two alternative tokamak configurations to the conventional tokamak has been studied, both of which could be realized to a lower cost. The fusion potential of the spherical and the compact tokamak have been examined with a comparison of the conventional tokamak in mind. The difficulties arising in the two configurations have been treated from a physical point of view concerning the fusion plasma and from a technological standpoint evolving around design, materials and engineering. Both advantages and drawbacks of either configuration have been treated relative to the conventional tokamak. The spherical tokamak shows promising plasma characteristics, notably a high β-value but have troubles with high heat loads and marginal tritium breeding. The compact tokamak operates at a high plasma density and a high magnetic field enabling it to be built considerably smaller than any other tokamak. The most notable down-side being high heat loads and neutron transport problems. With the help of theoretical reactor studies, extrapolating from where we stand today, it is conceivable that the spherical tokamak is closer of being realized of the two. But, as this study shows, the compact tokamak power plant concept offers the most appealing prospect

  12. Compact Stars with Sequential QCD Phase Transitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alford, Mark; Sedrakian, Armen

    2017-10-20

    Compact stars may contain quark matter in their interiors at densities exceeding several times the nuclear saturation density. We explore models of such compact stars where there are two first-order phase transitions: the first from nuclear matter to a quark-matter phase, followed at a higher density by another first-order transition to a different quark-matter phase [e.g., from the two-flavor color-superconducting (2SC) to the color-flavor-locked (CFL) phase]. We show that this can give rise to two separate branches of hybrid stars, separated from each other and from the nuclear branch by instability regions, and, therefore, to a new family of compact stars, denser than the ordinary hybrid stars. In a range of parameters, one may obtain twin hybrid stars (hybrid stars with the same masses but different radii) and even triplets where three stars, with inner cores of nuclear matter, 2SC matter, and CFL matter, respectively, all have the same mass but different radii.

  13. State Firearm Laws and Interstate Transfer of Guns in the USA, 2006-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Tessa; Greenberg, Rachael; Siegel, Michael; Xuan, Ziming; Rothman, Emily F; Cronin, Shea W; Hemenway, David

    2018-04-18

    In a cross-sectional, panel study, we examined the relationship between state firearm laws and the extent of interstate transfer of guns, as measured by the percentage of crime guns recovered in a state and traced to an in-state source (as opposed to guns recovered in a state and traced to an out-of-state source). We used 2006-2016 data on state firearm laws obtained from a search of selected state statutes and 2006-2016 crime gun trace data from the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives. We examined the relationship between state firearm laws and interstate transfer of guns using annual data from all 50 states during the period 2006-2016 and employing a two-way fixed effects model. The primary outcome variable was the percentage of crime guns recovered in a state that could be traced to an original point of purchase within that state as opposed to another state. The main exposure variables were eight specific state firearm laws pertaining to dealer licensing, sales restrictions, background checks, registration, prohibitors for firearm purchase, and straw purchase of guns. Four laws were independently associated with a significantly lower percentage of in-state guns: a waiting period for handgun purchase, permits required for firearm purchase, prohibition of firearm possession by people convicted of a violent misdemeanor, and a requirement for relinquishment of firearms when a person becomes disqualified from owning them. States with a higher number of gun laws had a lower percentage of traced guns to in-state dealers, with each increase of one in the total number of laws associated with a decrease of 1.6 percentage points in the proportion of recovered guns that were traced to an in-state as opposed to an out-of-state source. Based on an examination of the movement patterns of guns across states, the overall observed pattern of gun flow was out of states with weak gun laws and into states with strong gun laws. These findings indicate that certain

  14. Spatial, road geometric, and biotic factors associated with Barn Owl mortality along an interstate highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Erin M.; Hanser, Steven E.; Regan, Tempe; Thompson, Jeremy; Lowe, Melinda; Kociolek, Angela; Belthoff, James R.

    2018-01-01

    Highway programs typically focus on reducing vehicle collisions with large mammals because of economic or safety reasons while overlooking the millions of birds that die annually from traffic. We studied wildlife‐vehicle collisions along an interstate highway in southern Idaho, USA, with among the highest reported rates of American Barn Owl Tyto furcata road mortality. Carcass data from systematic and ad hoc surveys conducted in 2004–2006 and 2013–2015 were used to explore the extent to which spatial, road geometric, and biotic factors explained Barn Owl‐vehicle collisions. Barn Owls outnumbered all other identified vertebrate species of roadkill and represented > 25% of individuals and 73.6% of road‐killed birds. At a 1‐km highway segment scale, the number of dead Barn Owls decreased with increasing numbers of human structures, cumulative length of secondary roads near the highway, and width of the highway median. Number of dead Barn Owls increased with higher commercial average annual daily traffic (CAADT), small mammal abundance index, and with grass rather than shrubs in the roadside verge. The small mammal abundance index was also greater in roadsides with grass versus mixed shrubs, suggesting that Barn Owls may be attracted to grassy portions of the highway with more abundant small mammals for hunting prey. When assessed at a 3‐km highway segment scale, the number of dead Barn Owls again increased with higher CAADT as well as with greater numbers of dairy farms. At a 5‐km scale, number of dead Barn Owls increased with greater percentage of cropland near the highway. While human conversion of the environment from natural shrub‐steppe to irrigated agriculture in this region of Idaho has likely enhanced habitat for Barns Owls, it simultaneously has increased risk for owl‐vehicle collisions where an interstate highway traverses the altered landscape. We review some approaches for highway mitigation and suggest that reducing wildlife

  15. Types and characteristics of ramp-related motor vehicle crashes on urban interstate roadways in Northern Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Northrup, Veronika Shabanova; Retting, Richard A

    2004-01-01

    Freeway entrance and exit ramp interchanges are the sites of far more crashes per mile driven than other segments of interstate highways, but the characteristics and circumstances of ramp crashes have been the subject of relatively little recent research. This study examined a sample of 1,150 crashes that occurred on heavily traveled urban interstate ramps in Northern Virginia. Based on a review of diagrams and narrative descriptions from police crash reports, the most common crash types were identified and examined for different roadway locations and ramp designs and by whether at-fault drivers were entering or exiting the freeway. About half of all crashes occurred when at-fault drivers were in the process of exiting interstates, 36% occurred when drivers were entering, and 16% occurred at the midpoints of access roads or on ramps connecting two interstate freeways. Three major crash types--run-off-road, rear-end, and sideswipe/cutoff--accounted for 95% of crashes in the study. The crash type most frequently associated with exiting was run-off-road, and the types most common with entering drivers were rear-end or sideswipe/cutoff. Crashes most common on ramps--run-off-road crashes--frequently occurred when vehicles were exiting interstates at night, in bad weather, or on curved portions of ramps. Speed was often a factor. Crashes occurring on ramp margins (where ramps or access roads enter or exit) were most commonly of the sideswipe/cutoff type. These often involved at-fault passenger vehicles merging from entrance ramps into the sides of large trucks already on the freeway. The predominant crash type on access roads was rear-end crashes; congestion was a factor in these crashes. Alcohol was a reported factor in a sizeable proportion of run-off-road crashes occurring on ramps (14%) and ramp margins (30%). Candidate countermeasures for run-off-road crashes include geometric design changes to increase ramp design speed such as increasing curve radii. Speed

  16. Discrete Modelling of Compaction of Non-spherical Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Yi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Compaction behaviour and mechanical response of a compact show strong dependence on particle shape. In this study, a numerical model based on the discrete element method (DEM was developed to study the compaction behaviour of spheroidal particles. In the model, particle shape was approximated by gluing multiple spheres together. A bonded particle model was adopted to describe interparticle bonding force. The DEM model was first validated by comparing the properties of packing of spheroids (packing density, coordination number with literature data and then applied to both die compaction and unconfined compression. In die compaction, the effect of aspect ratio on the densification was mainly due to the difference in the initial packing. In unconfined compression, the increase in compressive strength with increasing aspect ratio was attributed to the increase in the number of interparticle bonding. The findings facilitate a better understanding of the relation of particle shape to the compaction behaviour and compact strength.

  17. Mechanical Compaction of Porous Sandstone Compaction mécanique des grès poreux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong T. F.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available In many reservoir engineering and tectonic problems, the ability to predict both the occurrence and extent of inelastic deformation and failure hinges upon a fundamental understanding of the phenomenology and micromechanics of compaction in reservoir rock. This paper reviews recent research advances on mechanical compaction of porous sandstone, with focus on the synthesis of laboratory data, quantitative microstructural characterization of damage, and theoretical models based on elastic contact and fracture mechanics. The mechanical attributes of compaction in nominally dry and saturated samples have been studied under hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic loadings over a broad range of pressure conditions. Specific topics reviewed herein include: comparison of mechanical and acoustic emission data with continuum plasticity theory; microstructural control of onset and development of compaction; strain hardening and spatial evolution of damage during compaction; and the weakening effect of water on compactive yield and porosity change. Pour de nombreux problèmes de tectonique et d'ingénierie de réservoir, la capacité à prévoir à la fois la fréquence, l'ampleur de la déformation inélastique et les ruptures repose sur une compréhension fondamentale de la phénoménologie et de la micromécanique de compaction dans les roches-réservoirs. Cet article présente les résultats de recherches récentes sur la compaction mécanique des grès poreux. On insiste plus particulièrement sur la synthèse des données de laboratoire, la caractérisation microstructurale quantitative de l'endommagement, ainsi que sur les modèles théoriques basés sur un contact élastique et sur la mécanique de la rupture. Les attributs mécaniques de la compaction sur des échantillons initialement secs et saturés ont été étudiés sous des chargements hydrostatiques et non hydrostatiques dans une large gamme de pression. Les sujets spécifiques étudiés ici

  18. Advanced Construction of Compact Containment BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, M.; Maruyama, T.; Mori, H.; Hoshino, K.; Hijioka, Y.; Heki, H.; Nakamaru, M.; Hoshi, T.

    2006-01-01

    The reactor concept considered in this paper has a mid/small power output, a compact containment and a simplified BWR configuration with comprehensive safety features. Compact Containment BWR (CCR) is being developed with matured BWR technologies together with innovative systems/components, will provide attractiveness for the energy market in the world due to its flexibility in energy demands as well as in site conditions, its high potential in reducing investment risk and its safety feature facilitating public acceptance. The flexibility is achieved by CCR's mid/small power output of 400 MWe class and capability of long operating cycle (refueling intervals). The high investment potential is expected from CCR's simplification/innovation in design such as natural circulation core cooling with the bottom located short core, top mounted upper entry control rod drives (CRDs) with ring-type dryers and simplified safety system with high pressure resistible primary containment vessel (PCV) concept. The natural circulation core eliminates recirculation pumps as well as needs for maintenance of such pumps. The top mounted upper entry CRDs enable the bottom located short core in RPV. The safety feature mainly consists of large water inventory above the core without large penetration below the top of the core, passive cooling system by isolation condenser (IC), high pressure resistible PCV and in-vessel retention (IVR) capability. The large inventory increases the system response time in case of design base accidents including loss of coolant accidents. The IC suppresses PCV pressure by steam condensation without any AC power. Cooling the molten core inside the RPV if the core should be damaged by loss of core coolability could attain the IVR. CCR's specific self-standing steel high pressure resistible PCV is designed to contain minimum piping and valves inside with reactor pressure vessel (RPV), only 13 m in diameter and 24 m in height. This compact PCV makes it possible to

  19. Chemically induced compaction bands in geomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanou, Ioannis; Sulem, Jean

    2013-04-01

    Compaction bands play an important role in oil production and may provide useful information on various geological processes. Various mechanisms can be involved at different scales: the micro scale (e.g. the grain scale), the meso scale (e.g. the Representative Element Volume) and the macro scale (e.g. the structure). Moreover, hydro-chemo-mechanical couplings might play an important role in triggering instabilities in the form of compaction bands. Compaction bands can be seen as an instability of the underneath mathematical problem leading to localization of deformation [1,2,3]. Here we explore the conditions of compaction banding in quartz-based geomaterials by considering the effect of chemical dissolution and precipitation [4,5]. In due course of the loading process grain crushing affects the residual strength, the porosity and the permeability of the material. Moreover, at the micro-level, grain crushing results in an increase of the grain specific surface, which accelerates the dissolution [6]. Consequently, the silica is removed more rapidly from the grain skeleton and the overall mechanical properties are degraded due to chemical factors. The proposed model accounts for these phenomena. In particular, the diffusion of the diluted in the water silica is considered through the mass balance equation of the porous medium. The reduction of the mechanical strength of the material is described through a macroscopic failure criterion with chemical softening. The grain size reduction is related to the total energy input [7]. A grain size and porosity dependent permeability law is adopted. These degradation mechanisms are coupled with the dissolution/precipitation reaction kinetics. The obtained hydro-chemo-mechanical model is used to investigate the conditions, the material parameters and the chemical factors inducing compaction bands formation. References [1] J.W. Rudnicki, and J.R. Rice. "Conditions for the Localization of Deformation in Pressure

  20. An exceptionally bright, compact starburst nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margon, Bruce; Anderson, Scott F.; Mateo, Mario; Fich, Michel; Massey, Philip

    1988-01-01

    Observations are reported of a remarkably bright (V about 13) starburst nucleus, 0833 + 652, which has been detected at radio, infrared, optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray wavelengths. Despite an observed flux at each of these wavelengths which is comparable to that of NGC 7714, often considered the 'prototypical' example of the starburst phenomenon, 0833 + 652 appears to be a previously uncataloged object. Its ease of detectability throughout the electromagnetic spectrum should make it useful for a variety of problems in the study of compact emission-line galaxies.

  1. Compact MOSFET models for VLSI design

    CERN Document Server

    Bhattacharyya, A B

    2009-01-01

    Practicing designers, students, and educators in the semiconductor field face an ever expanding portfolio of MOSFET models. In Compact MOSFET Models for VLSI Design , A.B. Bhattacharyya presents a unified perspective on the topic, allowing the practitioner to view and interpret device phenomena concurrently using different modeling strategies. Readers will learn to link device physics with model parameters, helping to close the gap between device understanding and its use for optimal circuit performance. Bhattacharyya also lays bare the core physical concepts that will drive the future of VLSI.

  2. Raytheon's next generation compact inline cryocooler architecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, B. R.; Bellis, L.; Ellis, M. J.; Conrad, T.

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1970s, Raytheon has developed, built, tested and integrated high performance cryocoolers. Our versatile designs for single and multi-stage cryocoolers provide reliable operation for temperatures from 10 to 200 Kelvin with power levels ranging from 50 W to nearly 600 W. These advanced cryocoolers incorporate clearance seals, flexure suspensions, hermetic housings and dynamic balancing to provide long service life and reliable operation in all relevant environments. Today, sensors face a multitude of cryocooler integration challenges such as exported disturbance, efficiency, scalability, maturity, and cost. As a result, cryocooler selection is application dependent, oftentimes requiring extensive trade studies to determine the most suitable architecture. To optimally meet the needs of next generation passive IR sensors, the Compact Inline Raytheon Stirling 1-Stage (CI-RS1), Compact Inline Raytheon Single Stage Pulse Tube (CI-RP1) and Compact Inline Raytheon Hybrid Stirling/Pulse Tube 2-Stage (CI-RSP2) cryocoolers are being developed to satisfy this suite of requirements. This lightweight, compact, efficient, low vibration cryocooler combines proven 1-stage (RS1 or RP1) and 2-stage (RSP2) cold-head architectures with an inventive set of warm-end mechanisms into a single cooler module, allowing the moving mechanisms for the compressor and the Stirling displacer to be consolidated onto a common axis and in a common working volume. The CI cryocooler is a significant departure from the current Stirling cryocoolers in which the compressor mechanisms are remote from the Stirling displacer mechanism. Placing all of the mechanisms in a single volume and on a single axis provides benefits in terms of package size (30% reduction), mass (30% reduction), thermodynamic efficiency (>20% improvement) and exported vibration performance (≤25 mN peak in all three orthogonal axes at frequencies from 1 to 500 Hz). The main benefit of axial symmetry is that proven balancing

  3. Highly compact polarization-independent grating coupler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Shiqian; Wang, Yi

    2010-06-01

    We propose a compact polarization-independent output grating coupler, which consists of T-shaped grooves. For only 20 periods on a silicon-on-insulator wafer with a 260nm thick top silicon layer, the output coupling efficiencies for both the TE and the TM modes are larger than 50% in the wavelength range of 1480-1580nm and are approximately 58% around 1550nm. The polarization-dependent loss of the device is within 0.05dB in the range of 1510-1580nm.

  4. [Twin dystocia: about one case of compaction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desseauve, D; Voluménie, J-L

    2008-09-01

    We report a case of twin dystocia during the evacuation of full-term fetus both in cephalic presentation. A low-outlet forceps for second-phase arrest was performed for the first twin but the head remained stuck to maternal perineum, mimicking a shoulder dystocia. Digital examination found a twin compaction, that is the presence of the second twin's fetal head at the level of the first twin's chest. The discrepancy between fetal weights and the use of forceps could favor this rare complication. Various maneuvers were described previously attempted to solve the problem. Forcing back the second head may help to achieve delivery of the first twin.

  5. The Dugdale model for the compact specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, S.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Plastic zone size and crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) equations were developed. Boundary collocation analyses were used to analyze the compact specimen subjected to various loading conditions (pin loads, concentrated forces, and uniform pressure acting on the crack surface). Stress intensity factor and crack surface displacement equations for some of these loadings were developed and used to obtain the Dugdale model. The results from the equations for plastic zone size and CTOD agreed well with numerical values calculated by Terada for crack length to width ratios greater than 0.4.

  6. The Dugdale model for compact specimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mall, S.; Newman, J. C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Plastic zone size and crack tip opening displacement (CTOD) equations were developed. Boundary collocation analyses were used to analyze the compact specimen subjected to various loading conditions (pin loads, concentrated forces, and uniform pressure acting on the crack surface). Stress intensity factor and crack surface displacement equations for some of these loadings were developed and used to obtain the Dugdale model. The results from the equations for plastic zone size and CTOD agreed well with numerical values calculated by Terada for crack length to width ratios greater than 0.4.

  7. Development status of compact containment BWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heki, H.; Nakamaru, M.; Mori, H.; Sekiguchi, K.; Kuroki, M.; Arai, K.; Hida, T.

    2005-01-01

    In Japan, increase of nuclear plant unit capacity has been promoted to take advantage of economies of scale while further enhancing safety and reliability. As a result, more than 50 units of nuclear power plants are playing important role in electric power generation. However, the factors, such as stagnant growth in the recent electricity demand, limitation in electricity grid capacity and limited in initial investment avoiding risk, will not be in favor of large plant outputs. The reactor concept considered in this paper has a small power output, a compact containment and a simplified BWR configuration with comprehensive safety features. The Compact Containment Boiling Water Reactor (CCR), which is being developed with matured BWR technologies together with innovative systems/components, will provide attractiveness for the energy market in the world due to its flexibility in energy demands as well as in site conditions, its high potential in reducing investment risk and its safety feature facilitating public acceptance. The flexibility is achieved by CCR's mid/small power output of 400 MWe class and capability of long operating cycle (refueling intervals). The high investment potential is expected from CCR's simplification/innovation in design such as natural circulation core cooling with the bottom located short core, top mounted upper entry control rod drives (CRDs) with ring-type dryers and simplified ECCS system with high pressure resistible primary containment vessel (PCV) concept. The natural circulation core eliminates recirculation pumps as well as needs for maintenance of such pumps. The top mounted upper entry CRDs enable the bottom located short core in RPV. The safety feature mainly consists of large water inventory above the core without large penetration below the top of the core, passive cooling system by isolation condenser (IC), high pressure resistible PCV and in-vessel retention (IVR) capability. The large inventory increases the system response

  8. Constraints on the braneworld from compact stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felipe, R.G. [Instituto Politecnico de Lisboa, ISEL, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Superior Tecnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Departamento de Fisica, Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas, CFTP, Lisboa (Portugal); Paret, D.M. [Universidad de la Habana, Departamento de Fisica General, Facultad de Fisica, La Habana (Cuba); Martinez, A.P. [Instituto de Cibernetica, Matematica y Fisica (ICIMAF), La Habana (Cuba); Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Mexico, Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2016-06-15

    According to the braneworld idea, ordinary matter is confined on a three-dimensional space (brane) that is embedded in a higher-dimensional space-time where gravity propagates. In this work, after reviewing the limits coming from general relativity, finiteness of pressure and causality on the brane, we derive observational constraints on the braneworld parameters from the existence of stable compact stars. The analysis is carried out by solving numerically the brane-modified Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations, using different representative equations of state to describe matter in the star interior. The cases of normal dense matter, pure quark matter and hybrid matter are considered. (orig.)

  9. Compact experiments for α-particle heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppi, B.

    1978-01-01

    Recent experiments, and scalings deduced from them, have indicated that relatively high density plasmas can be produced and well confined in toroidal configurations capable of sustaining high current densities without inducing macroscopic instabilities. Here we propose to develop a line of compact devices sustaining sufficiently high plasma currents to confine the 3.5 MeV α-particles that are produced in D-T reactions. This line is proposed as a parallel program to the development of large volume Tokamaks which is being undertaken on a worldwide basis

  10. The Boundary Layer in compact binaries

    OpenAIRE

    Hertfelder, Marius; Kley, Wilhelm; Suleimanov, Valery; Werner, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Disk accretion onto stars leads to the formation of a Boundary Layer (BL) near the stellar surface where the disk makes contact with the star. Albeit a large fraction of the total luminosity of the system originates from this tiny layer connecting the accretion disk and the accreting object, its structure has not been fully understood yet. It is the aim of this work, to obtain more insight into the Boundary Layer around the white dwarf in compact binary systems. There are still many uncertain...

  11. Compact neutron generator with nanotube ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepurnov, A. S.; Ionidi, V. Y.; Ivashchuk, O. O.; Kirsanov, M. A.; Kitsyuk, E. P.; Klenin, A. A.; Kubankin, A. S.; Nazhmudinov, R. M.; Nikulin, I. S.; Oleinik, A. N.; Pavlov, A. A.; Shchagin, A. V.; Zhukova, P. N.

    2018-02-01

    In this letter, we report the observation of fast neutrons generated when a positive acceleration potential is applied to an array of orientated carbon nanotubes, which are used as an ion source. The neutrons with energy of 2.45 MeV are generated as a result of D-D fusion reaction. The dependencies of the neutron yield on the value of the applied potential and residual pressure of deuterium are measured. The proposed approach is planned to be used for the development of compact neutron generators.

  12. Sputtering target made by hot isostatic compaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, R.J.; Hecht, R.J.; Fenton, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    In a method of making a cooled sputtering target assembly, material to be sputtered is in powder form which is isostatically hot-pressed in a toroidal metallic container under conditions which promote compaction and bonding of the powder particles to form a dense material. Parts of the container are then removed from the target material except for a remnant around the outer surface of the target material. A cooling jacket is then fabricated and attached around the remnant of the container. The targets specified are made from MCrAlY type alloys where M is Fe, Co or Ni. (U.K.)

  13. A long-lasting compact group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Governato, Fabio; Bhatia, Rajiv; Chincarini, Guido

    1991-04-01

    The dynamical evolution of a compact group of four galaxies has been studied using Aarseth's NBODY2 code. An important departure from previous studies is the wider range of masses chosen for the individual galaxies, which are representative of those existing in Hickson's catalog. The first merging occurs after 4.3 billion yr, while the group lasts for as many as nine billion yr before merging into a single remnant. Two other simulations test the dependence of the results on the galaxy models adopted and the general set of initial conditions. Another run, with four identical galaxies and no special initial conditions, is used as a standard of reference.

  14. Development of a compact solar combisystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thür, Alexander; Furbo, Simon

    2006-01-01

    to get highest system efficiency for use with either a condensing natural gas boiler or a pellet boiler. Especially when using the potential of high peak power of modern condensing natural gas boilers, a new operation strategy of a natural gas boiler/solar combisystem can increase the energy savings......Within the frame of the project REBUS, “Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings”, which is financed by Nordic Energy Research, a new type of compact solar combisystem with high degree of prefabrication was developed. A hydraulic and control concept was designed with the goal...... of a small solar combisystem by about 80% compared to conventional operation strategies....

  15. Principles of control automation of soil compacting machine operating mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anatoly Fedorovich, Tikhonov; Drozdov, Anatoly

    2018-03-01

    The relevance of the qualitative compaction of soil bases in the erection of embankment and foundations in building and structure construction is given.The quality of the compactible gravel and sandy soils provides the bearing capability and, accordingly, the strength and durability of constructed buildings.It has been established that the compaction quality depends on many external actions, such as surface roughness and soil moisture; granulometry, chemical composition and degree of elasticity of originalfilled soil for compaction.The analysis of technological processes of soil bases compaction of foreign and domestic information sources showed that the solution of such important problem as a continuous monitoring of soil compaction actual degree in the process of machine operation carry out only with the use of modern means of automation. An effective vibrodynamic method of gravel and sand material sealing for the building structure foundations for various applications was justified and suggested.The method of continuous monitoring the soil compaction by measurement of the amplitudes and frequencies of harmonic oscillations on the compactible surface was determined, which allowed to determine the basic elements of facilities of soil compacting machine monitoring system of operating, etc. mechanisms: an accelerometer, a bandpass filter, a vibro-harmonics, an on-board microcontroller. Adjustable parameters have been established to improve the soil compaction degree and the soil compacting machine performance, and the adjustable parameter dependences on the overall indexhave been experimentally determined, which is the soil compaction degree.A structural scheme of automatic control of the soil compacting machine control mechanism and theoperation algorithm has been developed.

  16. Algebraic Bethe ansatz for U(1) invariant integrable models: Compact and non-compact applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, M.J.; Melo, C.S.

    2009-01-01

    We apply the algebraic Bethe ansatz developed in our previous paper [C.S. Melo, M.J. Martins, Nucl. Phys. B 806 (2009) 567] to three different families of U(1) integrable vertex models with arbitrary N bond states. These statistical mechanics systems are based on the higher spin representations of the quantum group U q [SU(2)] for both generic and non-generic values of q as well as on the non-compact discrete representation of the SL(2,R) algebra. We present for all these models the explicit expressions for both the on-shell and the off-shell properties associated to the respective transfer matrices eigenvalue problems. The amplitudes governing the vectors not parallel to the Bethe states are shown to factorize in terms of elementary building blocks functions. The results for the non-compact SL(2,R) model are argued to be derived from those obtained for the compact systems by taking suitable N→∞ limits. This permits us to study the properties of the non-compact SL(2,R) model starting from systems with finite degrees of freedom.

  17. Algebraic Bethe ansatz for U(1) invariant integrable models: Compact and non-compact applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, M. J.; Melo, C. S.

    2009-10-01

    We apply the algebraic Bethe ansatz developed in our previous paper [C.S. Melo, M.J. Martins, Nucl. Phys. B 806 (2009) 567] to three different families of U(1) integrable vertex models with arbitrary N bond states. These statistical mechanics systems are based on the higher spin representations of the quantum group U[SU(2)] for both generic and non-generic values of q as well as on the non-compact discrete representation of the SL(2,R) algebra. We present for all these models the explicit expressions for both the on-shell and the off-shell properties associated to the respective transfer matrices eigenvalue problems. The amplitudes governing the vectors not parallel to the Bethe states are shown to factorize in terms of elementary building blocks functions. The results for the non-compact SL(2,R) model are argued to be derived from those obtained for the compact systems by taking suitable N→∞ limits. This permits us to study the properties of the non-compact SL(2,R) model starting from systems with finite degrees of freedom.

  18. High temperature getter for compact HID lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maagt, B J de [Central Development Lighting, Philips Lighting B.V., PO Box 80020, 5600JM, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Corazza, A [SAES Getters S.p.A., Viale Italia 77, 20020 Lainate, Milan (Italy)

    2005-09-07

    In high intensity discharge (HID) lamps getters are generally used to remove gaseous impurities that otherwise may have negative effects on the lamp characteristics. Hydrogen, in particular, is a dangerous impurity because it can induce ignition problems and, in lamps with a quartz burner, it can diffuse from the outer bulb into the arc tube and cause early corrosion of the quartz. Recently a new getter, suitable to work in compact HID lamps operated at high temperatures, has been developed: this getter is an appropriate solution to sorb hydrogen at high working temperatures in lamps where the use of a conventional getter is inadequate because of its small capacity for gettering hydrogen, its relatively high hydrogen equilibrium pressure and problems associated with the evaporation of getter and container material. The newly developed getter, named high temperature getter (HTG), is based on a special alloy enclosed in a niobium container. The new alloy is very effective in sorbing hydrogen in the temperature region of 500-900 deg. C. It has been proved that by introducing the HTG the processing of high-wattage compact HID lamps can be simplified and a better lamp performance can be obtained.

  19. Compact solid source of hydrogen gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravitz, Stanley H.; Hecht, Andrew M.; Sylwester, Alan P.; Bell, Nelson S.

    2004-06-08

    A compact solid source of hydrogen gas, where the gas is generated by contacting water with micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in the presence of a catalyst, such as cobalt or ruthenium. The micro-disperse particles can have a substantially uniform diameter of 1-10 microns, and preferably about 3-5 microns. Ruthenium or cobalt catalytic nanoparticles can be incorporated in the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride, which allows a rapid and complete reaction to occur without the problems associated with caking and scaling of the surface by the reactant product sodium metaborate. A closed loop water management system can be used to recycle wastewater from a PEM fuel cell to supply water for reacting with the micro-disperse particles of sodium borohydride in a compact hydrogen gas generator. Capillary forces can wick water from a water reservoir into a packed bed of micro-disperse fuel particles, eliminating the need for using an active pump.

  20. Compact neutron generator development at LBNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reijonen, J.; English, G.; Firestone, R.; Giquel, F.; King, M.; Leung, K-N.; Sun, M.

    2003-01-01

    A wide variety of applications ranging from medical (BNCT, Boron Neutron Capture Therapy) and basic science (neutron imaging, material studies) to homeland security (explosive detection and nuclear material non-proliferation) are in need of compact, high flux neutron generators. The Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group in the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory is developing various neutron generators for these applications. These neutron generators employed either the D-D or the D-T fusion reaction for the neutron production. The deuterium or deuterium-tritium gas mixture is ionized in an RF-driven plasma source. The ions are then accelerated to ∼100 keV energy using high current, high voltage DC-power supply to a target where the 2.45 MeV (for D-D reaction) or 14 MeV (for the D-T reaction) neutrons are generated. The development of two different types of neutron tubes are being discussed in this presentation, namely compact, pulsed operation neutron generators and cw, high yield neutron generators. These generators are currently operating at D-D neutron yields of 108 n/s and 109 n/s respectively. A facility, incorporating the larger neutron generator, has been constructed for Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA) and Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) measurements

  1. Binding Energy and Equilibrium of Compact Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germano M.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical analysis of the existence of a limit mass for compact astronomic ob- jects requires the solution of the Einstein’s equations of g eneral relativity together with an appropriate equation of state. Analytical solutions exi st in some special cases like the spherically symmetric static object without energy sou rces that is here considered. Solutions, i.e. the spacetime metrics, can have a singular m athematical form (the so called Schwarzschild metric due to Hilbert or a nonsingula r form (original work of Schwarzschild. The former predicts a limit mass and, conse quently, the existence of black holes above this limit. Here it is shown that, the origi nal Schwarzschild met- ric permits compact objects, without mass limit, having rea sonable values for central density and pressure. The lack of a limit mass is also demonst rated analytically just imposing reasonable conditions on the energy-matter densi ty, of positivity and decreas- ing with radius. Finally the ratio between proper mass and to tal mass tends to 2 for high values of mass so that the binding energy reaches the lim it m (total mass seen by a distant observer. As it is known the negative binding energ y reduces the gravitational mass of the object; the limit of m for the binding energy provides a mechanism for stable equilibrium of any amount of mass to contrast the gravitatio nal collapse.

  2. Overview of the compact ignition tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flanagan, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    A national team has developed a baseline concept for a Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT). The CIT mission is to achieve ignition and provide experimental capability to study the behavior of burning plasma. The design uses large magnetic fields on axis (about 10 T) and large plasma currents (about 9-10 MA). The magnet structure derives high strength from the use of a copper-Inconel composite plate design in the nose of region of the toroidal field (TF) coil and in the ohmic heating solenoid. Inertial cooling is used;liquid nitrogen temperatures are established at the beginning of each pulse. Capability is provided to operate either with a divertor or limiter based plasma. The design is very compact (1.32-m major radius, 0.43-m plasma radius), has 16 TF coils, and has 16 major horizontal access ports, about 30 cm by 80 cm, located between TF coils. The schedule is for a construction project to be authorized for the period FY 1988-93

  3. On quantum symmetries of compact metric spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirvasitu, Alexandru

    2015-08-01

    An action of a compact quantum group on a compact metric space (X , d) is (D)-isometric if the distance function is preserved by a diagonal action on X × X. In this study, we show that an isometric action in this sense has the following additional property: the corresponding action on the algebra of continuous functions on X by the convolution semigroup of probability measures on the quantum group contracts Lipschitz constants. In other words, it is isometric in another sense due to Li, Quaegebeur, and Sabbe, which partially answers a question posed by Goswami. We also introduce other possible notions of isometric quantum actions in terms of the Wasserstein p-distances between probability measures on X for p ≥ 1, which are used extensively in optimal transportation. Indeed, all of these definitions of quantum isometry belong to a hierarchy of implications, where the two described above lie at the extreme ends of the hierarchy. We conjecture that they are all equivalent.

  4. Free Fermions and the Classical Compact Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunden, Fabio Deelan; Mezzadri, Francesco; O'Connell, Neil

    2018-04-01

    There is a close connection between the ground state of non-interacting fermions in a box with classical (absorbing, reflecting, and periodic) boundary conditions and the eigenvalue statistics of the classical compact groups. The associated determinantal point processes can be extended in two natural directions: (i) we consider the full family of admissible quantum boundary conditions (i.e., self-adjoint extensions) for the Laplacian on a bounded interval, and the corresponding projection correlation kernels; (ii) we construct the grand canonical extensions at finite temperature of the projection kernels, interpolating from Poisson to random matrix eigenvalue statistics. The scaling limits in the bulk and at the edges are studied in a unified framework, and the question of universality is addressed. Whether the finite temperature determinantal processes correspond to the eigenvalue statistics of some matrix models is, a priori, not obvious. We complete the picture by constructing a finite temperature extension of the Haar measure on the classical compact groups. The eigenvalue statistics of the resulting grand canonical matrix models (of random size) corresponds exactly to the grand canonical measure of free fermions with classical boundary conditions.

  5. Conduction cooled compact laser for chemcam instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faure, B.; Saccoccio, M.; Maurice, S.; Durand, E.; Derycke, C.

    2017-11-01

    A new conduction cooled compact laser for Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) on Mars is presented. The laser provides pulses with energy higher than 30mJ at 1μm of wavelength with a good spatial quality. Three development prototypes of this laser have been built and functional and environmental tests have been done. Then, the Qualification and Flight models have been developed and delivered. A spare model is now developed. This laser will be mounted on the ChemCam Instrument of the NASA mission MSL 2009. ChemCam Instrument is developed in collaboration between France (CESR and CNES) and USA (LANL). The goal of this Instrument is to study the chemical composition of Martian rocks. A laser source (subject of this presentation) emits a pulse which is focused by a telescope. It creates a luminous plasma on the rock; the light of this plasma is then analysed by three spectrometers to obtain information on the composition of the rock. The laser source is developed by the French company Thales Laser, with a technical support from CNES and CESR. This development is funded by CNES. The laser is compact, designed to work in burst mode. It doesn't require any active cooling.

  6. Compact conformations of human protein disulfide isomerase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang Yang

    Full Text Available Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI composed of four thioredoxin-like domains a, b, b', and a', is a key enzyme catalyzing oxidative protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. Large scale molecular dynamics simulations starting from the crystal structures of human PDI (hPDI in the oxidized and reduced states were performed. The results indicate that hPDI adopts more compact conformations in solution than in the crystal structures, which are stabilized primarily by inter-domain interactions, including the salt bridges between domains a and b' observed for the first time. A prominent feature of the compact conformations is that the two catalytic domains a and a' can locate close enough for intra-molecular electron transfer, which was confirmed by the characterization of an intermediate with a disulfide between the two domains. Mutations, which disrupt the inter-domain interactions, lead to decreased reductase activity of hPDI. Our molecular dynamics simulations and biochemical experiments reveal the intrinsic conformational dynamics of hPDI and its biological impact.

  7. The corrosion of copper in compacted clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, F.; Ryan, S.R.; Litke, C.D

    1997-12-01

    The uniform corrosion behaviour of copper has been investigated in the presence of compacted clay under simulated disposal vault conditions. The compacted clay is used to simulate the buffer material that would surround copper nuclear fuel waste containers in a Canadian disposal vault. The effect of the speciation of dissolved Cu has been investigated using three synthetic groundwaters of different salinity and various dissolved [O{sub 2}]. The formation of cuprous species is favoured by low [O{sub 2}] and high [C1{sup -}], with Cu(II) species formed at high [O{sub 2}] and low [C1{sup -}]. Because the Na-bentonite clay is a cation-exchange material, positively charged Cu(II) species are found to adsorb more strongly than negatively charged CuC1{sup -} complexes. The impact of the Cu speciation on four experimental parameters is reported: the corrosion rate, the interfacial [Cu] in the clay, the [Cu] profile through the clay layer, and the Cu(l):Cu(ll) ratio in the precipitated corrosion products. In agreement with previous studies, the overall rate-controlling process is believed to be the diffusion of dissolved Cu away from the corroding surface. Adsorption acts as a driving force for corrosion by immobilizing dissolved Cu. Under the conditions used in these experiments, the diffusion of dissolved O{sub 2} to the Cu surface was not rate controlling. (author)

  8. Compact reactor/ORC power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meier, K.L.; Kirchner, W.L.; Willcutt, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    A compact power source that combines an organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) electric generator with a nuclear reactor heat source is being designed and fabricated. Incorporating existing ORC technology with proven reactor technology, the compact reactor/ORC power source offers high reliability while minimizing the need for component development. Thermal power at 125 kWt is removed from the coated particle fueled, graphite moderated reactor by heat pipes operating at 500 0 C. Outside the reactor vessel and connected to the heat pipes are vaporizers in which the toluene ORC working fluid is heated to 370 0 C. In the turbine-alternator-pump (TAP) combined-rotating unit, the thermal energy of the toluene is converted to 25 kWe of electric power. Lumped parameter systems analyses combined with a finite element thermal analysis have aided in the power source design. The analyses have provided assurance of reliable multiyear normal operation as well as full power operation with upset conditions, such as failed heat pipes and inoperative ORC vaporizers. Because of inherent high reliability, long life, and insensitivity to upset conditions, this power source is especially suited for use in remote, inaccessible locations where fuel delivery and maintenance costs are high. 10 refs

  9. The classification of p-compact groups for p odd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, K.K.S.; Grodal, J.; Møller, J. M.

    2008-01-01

    A p-compact group, as defined by Dwyer and Wilkerson, is a purely homotopically defined p-local analog of a compact Lie group. It has long been the hope, and later the conjecture, that these objects should have a classification similar to the classification of compact Lie groups. In this paper we...... finish the proof of this conjecture, for p an odd prime, proving that there is a one-to-one correspondence between connected p-compact groups and finite reflection groups over the p-adic integers. We do this by providing the last, and rather intricate, piece, namely that the exceptional compact Lie...... groups are uniquely determined as p-compact groups by their Weyl groups seen as finite reflection groups over the p-adic integers. Our approach in fact gives a largely self-contained proof of the entire classification theorem for p odd....

  10. Inspection method of uranium content of the fuel compact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Yuuzi; Kikuchi, Teruo; Ikawa, Katsuichi; Iwamoto, Kazumi

    1977-11-01

    An experiment of the non-destructive measurement of uranium content in the fuel compact has been made by gamma-ray spectrometry. Uranium content was determined by comparing gamma-ray emissions at the 185 kev U-235 photopeak between a sample and a counting standard compact. A compact shown to have uniform uranium distribution by X-ray radiography and gamma-ray spectrometry was used as the standard. Uranium distribution in axial direction of the fuel compact was often not uniform, so gamma-rays were measured with a detector along the side of the fuel compact in order to minimize error of the counting. Uranium content of the fuel compact can be measured by gamma-ray spectrometry with accuracy of +-3% at 3σ level. (auth.)

  11. Bone compaction enhances implant fixation in a canine gap model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kold, Søren Vedding; Rahbek, Ole; Toft, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    A new bone preparation technique, compaction, has increased fixation of implants inserted with exact-fit or press-fit to bone. Furthermore, a demonstrated spring-back effect of compacted bone might be of potential value in reducing the initial gaps that often exist between clinical inserted...... implants and bone. However, it is unknown whether the compression and breakage of trabeculae during the compaction procedure results in impaired gap-healing of compacted bone. Therefore, we compared compaction with conventional drilling in a canine gap model. Grit-blasted titanium implants (diameter 6 mm......) were bilaterally inserted into cavities initially expanded to 8 mm diameters in the proximal humeri. Each dog served as its own control; thus, one humerus had the implant cavity prepared with compaction, the other with drilling. Eight dogs were euthanized after 2 weeks, and 7 dogs after 4 weeks. Humeri...

  12. Bone compaction enhances fixation of weightbearing titanium implants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kold, Søren Vedding; Rahbek, Ole; Vestermark, Marianne Toft

    2005-01-01

    Implant stability is crucial for implant survival. A new surgical technique, compaction, has increased in vitro implant stability and in vivo fixation of nonweightbearing implants. However, the in vivo effects of compaction on weightbearing implants are unknown. As implants inserted clinically...... are weightbearing, the effects of compaction on weightbearing implants were examined. The hypothesis was that compaction would increase implant fixation compared with conventional drilling. Porous-coated titanium implants were inserted bilaterally into the weightbearing portion of the femoral condyles of dogs....... In each dog, one knee had the implant cavity prepared with drilling, and the other knee was prepared with compaction. Eight dogs were euthanized after 2 weeks, and eight dogs were euthanized after 4 weeks. Femoral condyles from an additional eight dogs represented Time 0. Compacted specimens had higher...

  13. Statistical Mechanics of Vibration-Induced Compaction of Powders

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, S. F.; Grinev, D. V.

    1997-01-01

    We propose a theory which describes the density relaxation of loosely packed, cohesionless granular material under mechanical tapping. Using the compactivity concept we develope a formalism of statistical mechanics which allows us to calculate the density of a powder as a function of time and compactivity. A simple fluctuation-dissipation relation which relates compactivity to the amplitude and frequency of a tapping is proposed. Experimental data of E.R.Nowak et al. [{\\it Powder Technology} ...

  14. New forms of -compactness with respect to hereditary classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdo Mohammed Qahis

    2019-01-01

    Full Text Available A hereditary class on a set X is a nonempty collection of subsets closed under heredity. The aim of this paper is to introduce and study strong forms of u-compactness in generalized topological spaces with respect to a hereditary class, called  SuH-compactness and S- SuH-compactness. Also several of their properties are presented. Finally some eects of various kinds of functions on them are studied.

  15. The use of compaction in the manufacture of tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Tryhubchak

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the production of tablets direct compression method, wet and dry granulationare used. Dry granulation can be used if materials have sufficient cohesive properties to form granules. Scientific publications of recent years clearly demonstrate the prospects of roller compaction using in pharmaceutical industry. Aim. The aim of work is to generalize available data regarding to the use of compaction in the pharmaceutical industry. Materials and methods. We have studied and analyzed the available scientific sources in order to generalize the available literature on the use of compacting in the production of the tablets. During this study we used methods of observation and systematization analysis. Results. Materials for compaction characteristics of the process, its benefits and conditions of application have been collected and systematized, parameters of process have been selected, theories of compaction have been generalized, the characteristics and examples of compaction equipment have been adduced, and the key characteristics of the material used in the pharmaceutical industry have been demonstrated. Compacting is dry granulation technology in which powder containing active ingredients and excipients are compacted between two opposing spinning rollers by applying mechanical pressure. Compared with the original powder, granules after compression are characterized by much better fluidity and higher density by reducing the volume. The roller consolidation process substantially affects the particle size distribution, flowability, homogeneity, pressing, compaction substances and excipients, therefore, can affect dissolution, time of disintegration, resistance to crushing, abrasion of tablets. The main parameters of compacting are seal and method of its application, conditions and speed of the process. Conclusions. It has been established that the use of compacting decreases or increases particles size to form granules, which leads to improved

  16. Federal Highway Administration finding of no significant impact for the Council Bluffs Interstate system improvements project tier 2, segment 3 Pottawattamie County, Iowa IMN-029-2(55)49--13-78.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-23

    FHWA and the Iowa Department of Transportation (Iowa DOT) are proposing geometric : and capacity improvements to the Interstate 29 (I-29) and Interstate 80 (I-80) mainline in : Segment 3 and the I-80/I-29 East System interchange, the South Expressway...

  17. Synthesis of Natural Electric and Magnetic Time Series Using Impulse Responses of Inter-station Transfer Functions and a Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Cheng, J.

    2017-12-01

    A method to Synthesis natural electric and magnetic Time series is proposed whereby the time series of local site are derived using an Impulse Response and a reference (STIR). The method is based on the assumption that the external source of magnetic fields are uniform, and the electric and magnetic fields acquired at the surface satisfy a time-independent linear relation in frequency domain.According to the convolution theorem, we can synthesize natural electric and magnetic time series using the impulse responses of inter-station transfer functions with a reference. Applying this method, two impulse responses need to be estimated: the quasi-MT impulse response tensor and the horizontal magnetic impulse response tensor. These impulse response tensors relate the local horizontal electric and magnetic components with the horizontal magnetic components at a reference site, respectively. Some clean segments of times series are selected to estimate impulse responses by using least-square (LS) method. STIR is similar with STIN (Wang, 2017), but STIR does not need to estimate the inter-station transfer functions, and the synthesized data are more accurate in high frequency, where STIN fails when the inter-station transfer functions are contaminated severely. A test with good quality of MT data shows that synthetic time-series are similar to natural electric and magnetic time series. For contaminated AMT example, when this method is used to remove noise present at the local site, the scatter of MT sounding curves are clear reduced, and the data quality are improved. *This work is funded by National Key R&D Program of China(2017YFC0804105),National Natural Science Foundation of China (41604064, 51574250), State Key Laboratory of Coal Resources and Safe Mining ,China University of Mining & Technology,(SKLCRSM16DC09)

  18. Automorphisms of p-compact groups and their root data

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Kasper K. S.; Grodal, Jesper

    2005-01-01

    We construct a model for the space of automorphisms of a connected p-compact group in terms of the space of automorphisms of its maximal torus normalizer and its root datum. As a consequence we show that any homomorphism to the outer automorphism group of a p-compact group can be lifted to a group action, analogous to a classical theorem of de Siebenthal for compact Lie groups. The model of this paper is used in a crucial way in our paper ``The classification of 2-compact groups'', where we p...

  19. Characterizing chain-compact and chain-finite topological semilattices

    OpenAIRE

    Banakh, Taras; Bardyla, Serhii

    2017-01-01

    In the paper we present various characterizations of chain-compact and chain-finite topological semilattices. A topological semilattice $X$ is called chain-compact (resp. chain-finite) if each closed chain in $X$ is compact (finite). In particular, we prove that a (Hausdorff) $T_1$-topological semilattice $X$ is chain-finite (chain-compact) if and only if for any closed subsemilattice $Z\\subset X$ and any continuous homomorphism $h:X\\to Y$ to a (Hausdorff) $T_1$-topological semilattice $Y$ th...

  20. A Gimbal-Stabilized Compact Hyperspectral Imaging System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Gimbal-stabilized Compact Hyperspectral Imaging System (GCHIS) fully integrates multi-sensor spectral imaging, stereovision, GPS and inertial measurement,...

  1. Mechanical compaction of deeply buried sandstones of the North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Quentin J.; Casey, Martin; Clennell, M. Ben; Knipe, Robert J. [Leeds Univ., Dept. of Earth Sciences, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    1999-11-01

    Sandstones experience mechanical compaction when the overburden load exceeds the compressive strength. Petrographic evidence is rarely sufficient to determine the timing of mechanical compaction. It is often assumed from indirect evidence, such as regional porosity-depth trends, that mechanical compaction is a process that occurs exclusively during shallow or intermediate burial ( < 2.5 km). However, mechanical compaction, with or without extensive grain fracturing, may also affect more deeply buried sediments. Mechanical compaction without grain fracturing may occur at depth following pervasive framework grain dissolution and/or if anomalously high porosity has been preserved due to the presence of small amounts of cement. We describe examples from the Fulmar Sandstone Formation of the Central Graben, North Sea that experienced late stage mechanical compaction following sponge spicule dissolution and microcrystalline quartz cementation. Deep burial mechanical compaction involving grain crushing may occur if the rate of grain-contact quartz dissolution and/or quartz overgrowth development cannot compete with the rate of stress increase at grain contacts. Some Rotliegendes sandstones of the Southern North Sea that have been buried to > 4.5 km offer a good example where the suppression of chemical compaction, due to the presence of grain-coating clays, resulted in pervasive grain fracturing. Mineral veins are frequently associated with sandstones that have experienced pervasive mechanical compaction during deep burial. These may reflect the sudden development of overpressure resulting from the transfer of load to the fluid during collapse of the sandstone framework. (Author)

  2. Assessment of soil compaction properties based on surface wave techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jihan Syamimi Jafri, Nur; Rahim, Mohd Asri Ab; Zahid, Mohd Zulham Affandi Mohd; Faizah Bawadi, Nor; Munsif Ahmad, Muhammad; Faizal Mansor, Ahmad; Omar, Wan Mohd Sabki Wan

    2018-03-01

    Soil compaction plays an important role in every construction activities to reduce risks of any damage. Traditionally, methods of assessing compaction include field tests and invasive penetration tests for compacted areas have great limitations, which caused time-consuming in evaluating large areas. Thus, this study proposed the possibility of using non-invasive surface wave method like Multi-channel Analysis of Surface Wave (MASW) as a useful tool for assessing soil compaction. The aim of this study was to determine the shear wave velocity profiles and field density of compacted soils under varying compaction efforts by using MASW method. Pre and post compaction of MASW survey were conducted at Pauh Campus, UniMAP after applying rolling compaction with variation of passes (2, 6 and 10). Each seismic data was recorded by GEODE seismograph. Sand replacement test was conducted for each survey line to obtain the field density data. All seismic data were processed using SeisImager/SW software. The results show the shear wave velocity profiles increase with the number of passes from 0 to 6 passes, but decrease after 10 passes. This method could attract the interest of geotechnical community, as it can be an alternative tool to the standard test for assessing of soil compaction in the field operation.

  3. Application of nanotechnology in self-compacting concrete design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maghsoudi, A. A.; Arabpour Dahooei, F.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, first, different mix design of four types of Self-Compacting Concrete, 1. Self-Compacting Concrete consisted of only nano silica, 2. Self-Compacting Concrete included only micro silica, 3. Self-Compacting Concrete consisted of both micro silica and nano silica and 4. Self-Compacting Concrete without micro silica and nano silica called as control mix, were casted and tested to find out the values of the Slump Flow, L-Box and 7 and 28 days compressive strength. Then, based on the results obtained and as yet there is no universally accepted standard for characterizing of Self-Compacting Concrete, the most suitable four concrete mixes were selected for further investigation of fresh and hardened concrete. For selected mixes, the fresh concrete properties such as values of the Slump Flow, L-Box, V-Funnel, J-Ring and hardened engineering properties such as compressive and flexural strength, shrinkage and swelling values were investigated for three curing conditions at short and long term. The results showed that the engineering properties of Self-Compacting Concrete mixes could not be improved by adding only nano silica. However, a satisfactory behavior can be achieved using micro silica in the Self-Compacting Concrete mixes. However, by adding both micro silica and nano silica to the Self-Compacting Concrete mixtures, the best effect on the engineering properties was reported while comparing to the control mixes.

  4. Advanced, Compact, Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer for Planetary Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced, Compact, Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer for Planetary Systems will advance the capabilities of ultraviolet imaging spectrometers by improving the...

  5. Dynamic compaction with high energy of sandy hydraulic fills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khelalfa Houssam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A case study about the adoption of the dynamic compaction technique with high energy in a sandy hydraulic fill is presented. The feasibility of this technique to ensure the stability of the caisson workshop and to minimize the risk of liquefaction during manufacture. This Article is interested to establish diagnostic of dynamic compaction test, basing on the results of SPT tests and quality control as well as the details of work of compaction and the properties of filling materials. A theory of soil response to a high-energy impact during dynamic compaction is proposed.

  6. Compact Instrument for Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposed the development of a rugged, compact, and automated instrument for the high sensitivity measurement of tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO)....

  7. Self-Compacting Concrete in Precast Elements Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corneliu Bob

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors present information about the Self-Compacting Concrete and experimental results regarding the use of them into precast element industry. This type of concrete does not require vibration for placing and compaction; it is able to flow under its own weight, completely filling formwork and achieving full compaction, even in the presence of congested reinforcement. The experimental programme has take into account two prestressed beams which were prefabricated and tested on a special stands. The beams of Self-Compacting Concrete with the length of 24 m were prepared at „Beton-Star” Kft, Kecsekenet, Hungary, and used at the CASCO, Satu-Mare.

  8. A Gimbal-Stabilized Compact Hyperspectral Imaging System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Gimbal-stabilized Compact Hyperspectral Imaging System (GCHIS) fully integrates multi-sensor spectral imaging, stereovision, GPS and inertial measurement,...

  9. State Firearm Laws and Interstate Firearm Deaths From Homicide and Suicide in the United States: A Cross-sectional Analysis of Data by County.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Elinore J; Morrison, Christopher N; Branas, Charles C; Wiebe, Douglas J

    2018-03-05

    Firearm laws in one state may be associated with increased firearm death rates from homicide and suicide in neighboring states are uncertain. To determine whether counties located closer to states with lenient firearm policies have higher firearm death rates. This cross-sectional study of firearm death rates by county for January 2010 to December 2014 examined data from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for firearm suicide and homicide decedents for 3108 counties in the 48 contiguous states of the United States. Each county was assigned 2 scores, a state policy score (range, 0-12) based on the strength of its state firearm laws, and an interstate policy score (range, -1.33 to 8.31) based on the sum of population-weighted and distance-decayed policy scores for all other states. Counties were divided into those with low, medium, and high home state and interstate policy scores. County-level rates of firearm, nonfirearm, and total homicide and suicide. With multilevel Bayesian spatial Poisson models, we generated incidence rate ratios (IRR) comparing incidence rates between each group of counties and the reference group, counties with high home state and high interstate policy scores. Stronger firearm laws in a state were associated with lower firearm suicide rates and lower overall suicide rates regardless of the strength of the other states' laws. Counties with low state scores had the highest rates of firearm suicide. Rates were similar across levels of interstate policy score (low: IRR, 1.34; 95% credible interval [CI], 1.11-1.65; medium: IRR, 1.36, (95% CI, 1.15-1.65; and high: IRR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.20-1.73). Counties with low state and low or medium interstate policy scores had the highest rates of firearm homicide. Counties with low home state and interstate scores had higher firearm homicide rates (IRR, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.02-1.88) and overall homicide rates (IRR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.03-1.67). Counties in states with low firearm policy scores had lower

  10. TIDAL NOVAE IN COMPACT BINARY WHITE DWARFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, Jim; Lai Dong

    2012-01-01

    Compact binary white dwarfs (WDs) undergoing orbital decay due to gravitational radiation can experience significant tidal heating prior to merger. In these WDs, the dominant tidal effect involves the excitation of outgoing gravity waves in the inner stellar envelope and the dissipation of these waves in the outer envelope. As the binary orbit decays, the WDs are synchronized from outside in (with the envelope synchronized first, followed by the core). We examine the deposition of tidal heat in the envelope of a carbon-oxygen WD and study how such tidal heating affects the structure and evolution of the WD. We show that significant tidal heating can occur in the star's degenerate hydrogen layer. This layer heats up faster than it cools, triggering runaway nuclear fusion. Such 'tidal novae' may occur in all WD binaries containing a CO WD, at orbital periods between 5 minutes and 20 minutes, and precede the final merger by 10 5 -10 6 years.

  11. Tritium system for compact high field devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roccella, M.; Bonizzoni, G.; Chiesa, P.; Ghezzi, F.; Nassi, M.; Pavesi, U.; Amedeo, P.; Boschetti, G.; Giffanti, F.; Moriggio, A.

    1988-01-01

    Some theoretical results and the current status of the work on a prototype plant for the Tritium cycle of compact high-field tokamaks (such as, Ignitor, CIT, etc.), using the SAES Getter St 707 getter material, are described in this report. The schematics and present status of the main subplants of the cycle are reported together with some experimental results demostrating the possibility of utilizing the St 707 material to purify the inert atmosphere of the glove-boxes and the secondary containment of the double-containment metal canalization which is to eventually house the various parts of the plant. Finally, as an example, the FTU machine, under construction at ENEA Frascati, has been taken as a reference, and theoretical evaluations are given for the inventory, permeation and release of the Tritium from the first wall and the thermal shieldes of such a tokamak

  12. Swelling pressure of highly compacted bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusch, R.

    1980-08-01

    Highly compacted, dense Na bentonite is used to isolate metal canisters with highly radioactivity waste products from the surrounding rock. The main object was to investigate the relationship between the swelling pressure and bulk density of bentonite with special reference to the influence of ion exchange and temperature. A new type of oedometer for swelling pressure tests was developed. It was found that there seemed to be unique relationship between the bulk density and the sweeling pressure, and that a temperature increase to 70deg C reduced the pressure to approximately 50% of the value at 20degC. It was observed that the pore water chemistry was hardle a determinant of the swelling pressure in the bulk density above 2 ton per m 3 . (G.B.)

  13. Compact and highly efficient laser pump cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jim J.; Bass, Isaac L.; Zapata, Luis E.

    1999-01-01

    A new, compact, side-pumped laser pump cavity design which uses non-conventional optics for injection of laser-diode light into a laser pump chamber includes a plurality of elongated light concentration channels. In one embodiment, the light concentration channels are compound parabolic concentrators (CPC) which have very small exit apertures so that light will not escape from the pumping chamber and will be multiply reflected through the laser rod. This new design effectively traps the pump radiation inside the pump chamber that encloses the laser rod. It enables more uniform laser pumping and highly effective recycle of pump radiation, leading to significantly improved laser performance. This new design also effectively widens the acceptable radiation wavelength of the diodes, resulting in a more reliable laser performance with lower cost.

  14. Compact neutron generators for environmental recovery applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, K. N.; Firestone, R. B.; Lou, T. P.; Reijonen, J.; Vujic, J. Lj.

    2002-01-01

    New generations of compact neutron sources are being developed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The D-D or D-T neutron generators can be used to perform precise elemental analysis by Prompt Gamma-Ray Activation Analysis (PGAA) in place of a nuclear reactor. The neutron generators will be composed of an ion source, from which a 1.5 A deuterium beam will be extracted and accelerated to about 150 keV onto a target loaded with deuterium. Based on the D-D nuclear reaction, the neutron generator will yield approximately 10 12 n/s (10 14 n/s for D-T reaction). With this neutron output, thermal and cold neutron fluxes of 10 7 n/s cm 2 and 6 x 10 6 n/s cm 2 have been estimated using neutron moderators designed by the neutron transport simulation code MCNP. (author)

  15. Compact, self-regulating nuclear power source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, Otis G.; Kimpland, Robert H.

    2008-01-01

    An inherently safe nuclear power source has been designed, that is self-stabilizing and requires no moving mechanical components. Unlike conventional designs, the proposed reactor is self-regulating through the inherent properties of uranium hydride, which serves as a combination fuel and moderator. The temperature driven mobility of the hydrogen contained in the hydride will control the nuclear activity. If the core temperature increases over the set point, the hydrogen is driven out of the core, the moderation drops and the power production decreases. If the temperature drops, the hydrogen returns and the process is reversed. Thus the design is inherently fail-safe and requires only minimal human oversight. The compact nature and inherent safety opens the possibility for low-cost mass production and operation of the reactors. This design has the capability to dramatically alter the manner in which nuclear energy is harnessed for commercial use. (author)

  16. Toward a compact fibered squeezing parametric source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieussel, Alexandre; Ott, Konstantin; Joos, Maxime; Treps, Nicolas; Fabre, Claude

    2018-03-15

    In this work, we investigate three different compact fibered systems generating vacuum squeezing that involve optical cavities limited by the end surface of a fiber and by a curved mirror and containing a thin parametric crystal. These systems have the advantage to couple squeezed states directly to a fiber, allowing the user to benefit from the flexibility of fibers in the use of squeezing. Three types of fibers are investigated: standard single-mode fibers, photonic-crystal large-mode-area single-mode fibers, and short multimode fibers taped to a single-mode fiber. The observed squeezing is modest (-0.56  dB, -0.9  dB, -1  dB), but these experiments open the way for miniaturized squeezing devices that could be a very interesting advantage in scaling up quantum systems for quantum processing, opening new perspectives in the domain of integrated quantum optics.

  17. Compact Unequal Power Divider with Filtering Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Qiang Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel unequal power divider with bandpass responses. The proposed power divider consists of five resonators and a resistor. The power division ratio is controlled by altering the coupling strength among the resonators. The output ports have the characteristic impedance of 50 Ω and impedance transformers in classical Wilkinson power dividers are not required in this design. Use of resonators enables the filtering function of the power divider. Two transmission zeros are generated near the passband edges, resulting in quasielliptic bandpass responses. For validation, a 2 : 1 filtering power divider is implemented. The fabricated circuit size is 0.22 λg × 0.08 λg, featuring compact size for unequal filtering power dividers, which is suitable for the feeding networks of antenna arrays.

  18. Star formation suppression in compact group galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatalo, K.; Appleton, P. N.; Lisenfeld, U.

    2015-01-01

    We present CO(1-0) maps of 12 warm H-2-selected Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs), covering 14 individually imaged warm H2 bright galaxies, with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy. We found a variety of molecular gas distributions within the HCGs, including regularly rotating disks......, bars, rings, tidal tails, and possibly nuclear outflows, though the molecular gas morphologies are more consistent with spirals and earlytype galaxies than mergers and interacting systems. Our CO-imaged HCG galaxies, when plotted on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, shows star formation (SF) suppression......-to-dust ratios of these galaxies to determine if an incorrect LCO-M(H2) conversion caused the apparent suppression and find that HCGs have normal gas-to-dust ratios. It is likely that the cause of the apparent suppression in these objects is associated with shocks injecting turbulence into the molecular gas...

  19. Ignition probabilities for Compact Ignition Tokamak designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stotler, D.P.; Goldston, R.J.

    1989-09-01

    A global power balance code employing Monte Carlo techniques had been developed to study the ''probability of ignition'' and has been applied to several different configurations of the Compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT). Probability distributions for the critical physics parameters in the code were estimated using existing experimental data. This included a statistical evaluation of the uncertainty in extrapolating the energy confinement time. A substantial probability of ignition is predicted for CIT if peaked density profiles can be achieved or if one of the two higher plasma current configurations is employed. In other cases, values of the energy multiplication factor Q of order 10 are generally obtained. The Ignitor-U and ARIES designs are also examined briefly. Comparisons of our empirically based confinement assumptions with two theory-based transport models yield conflicting results. 41 refs., 11 figs

  20. Conceptual design of multipurpose compact research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, Hiroshi; Kusunoki, Tsuyoshi; Hori, Naohiko; Kaminaga, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    Conceptual design of the high-performance and low-cost multipurpose compact research reactor which will be expected to construct in the nuclear power plant introduction countries, started from 2010 in JAEA and nuclear-related companies in Japan. The aims of this conceptual design are to achieve highly safe reactor, economical design, high availability factor and advanced irradiation utilization. One of the basic reactor concept was determined as swimming pool type, thermal power of 10MW and water cooled and moderated reactor with plate type fuel element same as the JMTR. It is expected that the research reactors are used for human resource development, progress of the science and technology, expansion of industry use, lifetime extension of LWRs and so on. (author)

  1. Compact plasmonic memristor with high extinction efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ye; Jiang, Lianjun; Zhang, Xuejun; Zhang, Guangfu

    2017-10-01

    Here we present a plasmonic memristor operated at the telecommunication wavelength with compact size (0.61 μm), and high extinction efficiency (4.6 dB/μm). The plasmonic memristor consists of a triangle-shaped metal taper mounted on the top of a Si waveguide with rational doping in the area below the apex of the taper. This device can achieve vertical coupling of light energy from the Si waveguide to the plasmonic region and at the same time concentrates the plasmon to the apex of the metal taper. Moreover, the area with concentrated plasmon is overlap with that where the memristive behavior occurs due to the formation/removal of the metallic nanofilament. As a result, the highly distinct transmission induced by the switching of the plasmonic memristor can be achieved due to the maximized interaction between the plasmon and the filament.

  2. Compact containment boiling water reactor (CCR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    The compact containment boiling water reactor (CCR) is a modular boiling water reactor (BWR) designed by the Toshiba Corporation with the support of the Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC). The current CCR design falls into the category of innovative small and medium size reactors, featuring 300MW electrical output per module. In Japan, increases in nuclear plant unit capacity have been promoted to take advantage of the economies of scale while further enhancing safety and reliability. As a result, more than 50 nuclear units are playing an important role in the domestic electric power generation. The next generation reactor with a 1700 MW(e) capacity is currently under development [IX-1, IX-2]. However, the future of nuclear power generation looks uncertain because of increasing competition with other power sources [IX-3] in the deregulated market, in spite of the general recognition that nuclear power is attractive from the viewpoint of energy security and environmental protection. Furthermore, factors such as stagnant growth in recent electricity demand, limitations in grid capacity and limited initial investment to avoid risk, will not favour large plant outputs. Nuclear plants are required that can easily be adopted in any country to globalize nuclear power generation for the mitigation of greenhouse effects. In the 1980s, the Toshiba Corporation has carried out R and D for BWRs with natural circulation and passive safety features. These R and D included tests and analysis of passive containment cooling systems (PCCS), isolation condensers (IC) and gravity driven cooling systems (GDCS). The results obtained through these tests have been used in the design of a simplified boiling water reactor (SBWR). Based on these activities, the design of a simplified BWR with a long operating cycle (LSBWR) design has been under development since the mid 1990s. The concept of the LSBWR is to provide flexibility to meet site conditions and electricity demands, to mitigate

  3. Quantum chaos in compact lattice QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, B.A.; Markum, H.; Pullirsch, R.

    1999-01-01

    Complete eigenvalue spectra of the staggered Dirac operator in quenched 4D compact QED are studied on 8 3 x4 and 8 3 x6 lattices. We investigate the behavior of the nearest-neighbor spacing distribution P(s) as a measure of the fluctuation properties of the eigenvalues in the strong coupling and the Coulomb phase. In both phases we find agreement with the Wigner surmise of the unitary ensemble of random-matrix theory indicating quantum chaos. Combining this with previous results on QCD, we conjecture that quite generally the non-linear couplings of quantum field theories lead to a chaotic behavior of the eigenvalues of the Dirac operator. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  4. Compact Bandstop Filters with Extended Upper Passbands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majeed A. S. Alkanhal

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new compact bandstop filters (BSFs with extended upper passbands. In the basic proposed filter configuration, the conventional quarter-wavelength open-stub resonators are replaced with equivalent two-section stepped impedance resonators. Transmission line analysis is used to determine the dimensions of the equivalent stepped impedance sections. The filter structure is analyzed using a full wave electromagnetic (EM simulator and then realized at 2.3 GHz band. Experiments have also been done to validate the performance of the design concept. Compared with the conventional quarter-wavelength-based bandstop filter, significant extensions of the upper passband beyond 9 GHz and 40% size reduction are achieved. Two other variations of the proposed basic BSF with further size reduction (more than 60% are implemented and their measured performances are verified.

  5. Fission processes through compact and creviced shapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royer, G.; Remaud, B.

    1984-01-01

    Using a one-parameter family of compact and creviced shapes the deformation energy of the liquid-drop model including the nuclear proximity energy has been calculated. The introduction of the proximity forces on such a shape sequence leads to the identification of fission and scission barriers since the rupture of the neck between the fragments is assumed before the barrier is crossed. The fission barrier heights are well reproduced and are much lower than those given by the liquid-drop model (without proximity) for the medium systems. It is shown that these low barriers are compatible with a strong enhancement of the critical angular momentum for cold fission. The translational kinetic energy of the fragments agrees with experimental data. Double-humped barriers are predicted for actinides; the inner barrier has essentially a microscopic origin while the outer one (which plays the role of a scission barrier) is governed mostly by the balance between Coulomb and nuclear forces. (author)

  6. Durable fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corinaldesi, V.; Moriconi, G.

    2004-01-01

    In order to produce thin precast elements, a self-compacting concrete was prepared. When manufacturing these elements, homogenously dispersed steel fibers instead of ordinary steel-reinforcing mesh were added to the concrete mixture at a dosage of 10% by mass of cement. An adequate concrete strength class was achieved with a water to cement ratio of 0.40. Compression and flexure tests were carried out to assess the safety of these thin concrete elements. Moreover, serviceability aspects were taken into consideration. Firstly, drying shrinkage tests were carried out in order to evaluate the contribution of steel fibers in counteracting the high concrete strains due to a low aggregate-cement ratio. Secondly, the resistance to freezing and thawing cycles was investigated on concrete specimens in some cases superficially treated with a hydrophobic agent. Lastly, both carbonation and chloride penetration tests were carried out to assess durability behavior of this concrete mixture

  7. Compact 6-DOF Stage for Optical Adjustments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaat, Syed; Chang, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    The figure depicts selected aspects of a six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF) stage for mechanical adjustment of an optical component. The six degrees of freedom are translations along the Cartesian axes (x, y, and z) and rotations about these axes (theta x, theta y, and theta z, respectively). Relative to prior such stages, this stage offers advantages of compactness, stability, and robustness, plus other advantages as described below. The stage was designed specifically as part of a laser velocimeter and altimeter in which light reflected by a distant object is collected by a Cassegrainian telescope and focused into a single-mode, polarization-maintaining optical fiber. The stage is used to position and orient the input end of the optical fiber with respect to the focal point of the telescope. Stages like this one can also be adapted for use in positioning and orienting other optical components, including lenses, prisms, apertures, and photodetectors.

  8. Physics issues of compact drift optimized stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spong, D.A.; Hirshman, S.; Berry, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    Physics issues are discussed for compact stellarator configurations which achieve good confinement by the fact that the magnetic field modulus, vertical bar B vertical bar, in magnetic coordinates is dominated by poloidally symmetric components. Two distinct configuration types are considered: (1) those which achieve their drift optimization and rotational transform at low β and low bootstrap current by appropriate plasma shaping; and (2) those which have a greater reliance on plasma β and bootstrap currents for supplying the transform and obtaining quasi poloidal symmetry. Stability analysis of the latter group of devices against ballooning, kink and vertical displacement modes has indicated that stable 's on the order of 15% are possible. The first class of devices is being considered for a low β near-term experiment that could explore some of the confinement features of the high beta configurations. (author)

  9. A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbeck, N L; Schlossberg, D J; Dowd, A S; Fonck, R J; Winz, G R

    2012-10-01

    The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of T(e) VPH grating and measurements T(e) > 100 eV by a 2072 l∕mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated (~2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides ~45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction.

  10. A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scatteringa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenbeck, N. L.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Dowd, A. S.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2012-10-01

    The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of Te VPH grating and measurements Te > 100 eV by a 2072 l/mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated (˜2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides ˜45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction.

  11. A long-lasting compact group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Governato, F.; Chincarini, G.; Bhatia, R. (Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera (Italy) Milano, Universita, Milan (Italy) Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Milan (Italy) Padova, Osservatorio Astronomico, Padua (Italy))

    1991-04-01

    The dynamical evolution of a compact group of four galaxies has been studied using Aarseth's NBODY2 code. An important departure from previous studies is the wider range of masses chosen for the individual galaxies, which are representative of those existing in Hickson's catalog. The first merging occurs after 4.3 billion yr, while the group lasts for as many as nine billion yr before merging into a single remnant. Two other simulations test the dependence of the results on the galaxy models adopted and the general set of initial conditions. Another run, with four identical galaxies and no special initial conditions, is used as a standard of reference. 13 refs.

  12. Company Delistings from the UN Global Compact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jette Steen

    2011-01-01

    While a substantial amount of the literature describes corporate benefits of corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives, the literature is silent concerning why some companies announce CSR initiatives, yet fail to implement them. The article examines company delistings from the UN Global...... Compact. Delistings are surprising because the CSR agenda is seen as having won the battle of ideas. The analysis proceeds in two parts. I first analyze firm-level characteristics focusing on geography while controlling for sector and size; I find that geography is a significant factor while small firms...... are more likely to be delisted than large firms and some sector characteristics determine delistings. Next, I proceed to uncover country-level characteristics including the degree of international economic interdependence as well as the quality of governance institutions. Multivariate regression analysis...

  13. A compact multichannel spectrometer for Thomson scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenbeck, N. L.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Dowd, A. S.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The availability of high-efficiency volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and intensified CCD (ICCD) cameras have motivated a simplified, compact spectrometer for Thomson scattering detection. Measurements of T{sub e} < 100 eV are achieved by a 2971 l/mm VPH grating and measurements T{sub e} > 100 eV by a 2072 l/mm VPH grating. The spectrometer uses a fast-gated ({approx}2 ns) ICCD camera for detection. A Gen III image intensifier provides {approx}45% quantum efficiency in the visible region. The total read noise of the image is reduced by on-chip binning of the CCD to match the 8 spatial channels and the 10 spectral bins on the camera. Three spectrometers provide a minimum of 12 spatial channels and 12 channels for background subtraction.

  14. Development of a compact bushing for NBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Esch, H. P. L.; Simonin, A.; Grand, C.; Lepetit, B.; Lemoine, D.; Márquez-Mijares, M.; Minea, T.; Caillault, L.; Seznec, B.; Jager, T.; Odic, E.; Kirkpatrick, M. J.; Teste, Ph.; Dessante, Ph.; Almaksour, K.

    2017-08-01

    Research into a novel type of compact bushing is being conducted through the HVIV (High Voltage holding In Vacuum) partnership between CEA-Cadarache1, GeePs-Centralesupélec4, LPGP3 and LCAR2. The bushing aims to concentrate the high electric field inside its interior, rather than in the vacuum tank. Hence the field emission current is also concentrated inside the bushing and it can be attempted to suppress this so-called dark current by conditioning the internal surfaces and by adding gas. LCAR have performed theoretical quantum mechanical studies of electron field emission and the role of adsorbates in changing the work function. LPGP studied the ionization of gas due to field emission current and the behavior of micro particles exposed to emissive electron current in the vacuum gap under high electric fields. Experiments at Geeps have clarified the role of surface conditioning in reducing the dark current. Geeps also found that adding low pressure nitrogen gas to the vacuum is much more effective than helium in reducing the field emission. An interesting observation is the growth of carbon structures after exposure of an electrode to the electric field. Finally, IRFM have performed experiments on a single stage test bushing that features a 36 cm high porcelain insulator and two cylindrical electrode surfaces in vacuum or low-pressure gas. Using 0.1 Pa N2 gas, the voltage holding exceeded 185 kV over a 40 mm "vacuum" gap without dark current. Above this voltage, exterior breakdowns occurred over the insulator, which was in air. The project will finish with the fabrication of a 2-stage compact bushing, capable to withstand 400 kV.

  15. Thermal properties of compacted pharmaceutical excipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krok, Alexander; Vitorino, Nuno; Zhang, Jianyi; Frade, Jorge Ribeiro; Wu, Chuan-Yu

    2017-12-20

    Thermal properties of powders are critical material attributes that control temperature rise during tableting and roll compaction. In this study, various analytical methods were used to measure the thermal properties of widely used pharmaceutical excipients including microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) of three different grades (Avicel PH 101; Avicel PH 102 and Avicel DG), lactose and mannitol. The effect of relative density on the measured thermal properties was investigated by compressing the powders into specimen of different relative densities. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) was employed to explore endothermic or exothermic events in the temperature range endured during typical pharmaceutical manufacturing processes, such as tabletting and roll compaction. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was performed to analyse the water/solvent content, either in the form as solvates or as loosely bound molecules on the particle surface. Thermal conductivity analysis (TCA) was conducted to measure thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity. It is shown that, for the MCC powders, almost no changes in morphology or structural changes were observed during heating to temperatures up to 200°C. An increase in relative density or temperature leads to a high thermal conductivity and the volumetric heat capacity. Among all MCC powders considered, Avicel DG showed the highest increase in thermal conductivity and the volumetric heat capacity, but this heat capacity was not sensitive to the measurement temperature. For lactose and mannitol, some endothermic events occurred during heating. The thermal conductivity increased with the increase in temperature and relative density. A model was also developed to describe the variation of the thermal conductivity and the volumetric heat capacity with the relative density and the temperature. It was shown that the empirical model can well predict the dependency of the thermal conductivity and the volumetric heat capacity on the

  16. Activization of the state policy on euro-regional cooperation in the sphere of the interstate regional governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Pak

    2016-09-01

    Research objective is the justification of the need of activization of the state policy on Euro-regional cooperation in the sphere of the interstate regional governance. During the research it is recognized that the realization of the state policy on the basis of the considered principles, tools, functions, factors and methods has to execute a main objective of the interstate regional control which is exercised in the sphere of Euro-regional cooperation and to promote adjustment of close mutually beneficial relations of Ukraine and neighboring states, to increase competitiveness of the Ukrainian territories and the most effective use of capacity of the Ukrainian regions in the course of activity of Euro-regions. Finally, such state policy has to be focused on the maintenance of the sufficient standard of living of the population, on ensuring integrity and unity of the social and economic space of the country, on formation of the conditions of sustainable and industrial and innovative development of regions, which will provide its harmonious integration into the European environment.

  17. Static Test Compaction As A Minimum Covering Problem | Boateng ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Large numbers of test stimuli impact on the time and cost of test application. Hence there is the need to keep numbers of test stimuli low while maintaining as high fault coverage as possible. In this paper, static compaction of test stimuli is seen as a minimization problem. The task of static compaction of a set of test stimuli ...

  18. Roll compaction and granulation system for nuclear fuel material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldmann, L.H. Jr.; Holley, C.C.

    1981-01-01

    A roll compaction and roll granulation system has been designed and fabricated to replace conventional preslugging and crushing operations typically used in the fabrication of mixed oxide nuclear fuel pellets. This equipment will be of maintenance advantage with only the compaction and granulation rolls inside containment. The prototype is being tested and the results will be reported within a year

  19. Environmental conflicts in compact cities : complexity, decisionmaking, and policy approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Roo, G.

    In most parts of Europe compact city policies have become a popular means of planning for sustainability. Dense compact cities were seen as solutions to reduce continually increasing mobility. They were also seen as a way to avoid urbanization of the countryside. Lately planners have been expressing

  20. Coincidence and common fixed point theorems in compact Hausdorff spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeqing Liu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of coincidence and fixed points for continuous mappings in compact Hausdorff spaces is established. Some equivalent conditions of the existence of fixed and common fixed points for any continuous mapping and a pair of mappings in compact Hausdorff spaces are given, respectively. Our results extend, improve, and unify the corresponding results due to Jungck, Liu, and Singh and Rao.