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Sample records for interpreting neurodynamics concepts

  1. Neurodynamics of Cognition and Consciousness

    CERN Document Server

    Perlovsky, Leonid I

    2007-01-01

    This book addresses dynamical aspects of brain functions and cognition. Experimental evidence in humans and other mammalians indicates that complex neurodynamics is crucial for the emergence of higher-level cognition and consciousness. Dynamical neural systems with encoding in limit cycle and non-convergent attractors have gained increasing popularity in the past decade. The role of synchronization, desynchronization, and intermittent synchronization on cognition has been studied extensively by various authors, in particular by authors contributing to the present volume. This volume gives an overview of recent advances in this interdisciplinary field of cognitive and computer science related to dynamics of cognition, including experimental studies, dynamical modelling and interpretation of cognitive experiments, and theoretical approaches. The following topics are covered in this book: spatio-temporal dynamics of neural correlates of higher-level cognition; dynamical neural memories, including continuous and ...

  2. Interpretive Research Design. Concepts and Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz-Shea, P.; Yanow, D.

    2012-01-01

    Research design is fundamental to all scientific endeavors, at all levels and in all institutional settings. In many social science disciplines, however, scholars working in an interpretive-qualitative tradition get little guidance on this aspect of research from the positivist-centered training

  3. Healthcare Teams Neurodynamically Reorganize When Resolving Uncertainty

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    Ronald Stevens

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Research on the microscale neural dynamics of social interactions has yet to be translated into improvements in the assembly, training and evaluation of teams. This is partially due to the scale of neural involvements in team activities, spanning the millisecond oscillations in individual brains to the minutes/hours performance behaviors of the team. We have used intermediate neurodynamic representations to show that healthcare teams enter persistent (50–100 s neurodynamic states when they encounter and resolve uncertainty while managing simulated patients. Each of the second symbols was developed situating the electroencephalogram (EEG power of each team member in the contexts of those of other team members and the task. These representations were acquired from EEG headsets with 19 recording electrodes for each of the 1–40 Hz frequencies. Estimates of the information in each symbol stream were calculated from a 60 s moving window of Shannon entropy that was updated each second, providing a quantitative neurodynamic history of the team’s performance. Neurodynamic organizations fluctuated with the task demands with increased organization (i.e., lower entropy occurring when the team needed to resolve uncertainty. These results show that intermediate neurodynamic representations can provide a quantitative bridge between the micro and macro scales of teamwork.

  4. Ether and interpretation of some physical phenomena and concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rzayev, S.G.

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of the concept of existence of an ether representation about time, space, matters and physical field are profound and also the essence of such phenomena, as corpuscular - wave dualism, change of time, scale and mass at movement body's is opened. The opportunity of transition from probability-statistical interpretation of the quantum phenomena to Laplace's determinism is shown

  5. Sexual Orientation as Interpretation? Sexual Desires, Concepts, and Choice

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    Díaz-León E.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Are sexual orientations freely chosen? The idea that someone’s sexual orientation is not a choice is very influential in the mainstream LGBT political movement. But do we have good reasons to believe it is not a choice? Going against the orthodoxy, William Wilkerson has recently argued that sexual orientation is partly constituted by our interpretations of our own sexual desires, and we choose these interpretations, so sexual orientation is partly constituted by choice. In this paper I aim to examine the question of whether our interpretations of our own sexual desires are constitutive of our sexual orientations. I will argue that whereas Wilkerson’s argument for the claim that sexual orientations are in part constituted by our chosen interpretations of our sexual desires is not sound, there are good reasons for endorsing a weaker claim, namely, that there are different but equally apt descriptions of the same sexual desires, depending on which concepts we have.

  6. [Historical pain concepts : Cultural influences on pain perception and interpretation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, D

    2017-02-01

    In the age of globalization and cultural diversification differing concepts of pain in patient care are of increasing importance. Historical models of the origin and interpretation of pain, which in this article are presented in a cursory and exemplary way, help to understand the panoply of modern concepts outside of medicine. Basically, pain was viewed not only in religion and philosophy but also by premodern physicians as a psychophysical phenomenon crucially depending on the determination by a "soul" therefore creating therapeutic options even before the discovery of an effective analgesia. Furthermore, the historical interpretations of pain in and outside of medicine can still be of profound importance to patients even today.

  7. Interpretation of basic concepts in theories of human motor abilities

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    Petrović Adam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic aim of this research is to point to the possible language, logical and knowledge problems in interpretation and understanding of basic concepts in theories of motor abilities (TMA. Such manner of review is not directed only to 'mere understanding', it can lead to a new growth of scientific knowledge. Accordingly, the research question is set, i.e. the research issue: Is there a language, logical and knowledge agreement between basic concepts in the theories of human motor abilities? The answer to the set question direct that a more complete agreement between the basic concepts in the theories of human motor abilities should be searched in a scientific dialog between researchers of various beliefs.

  8. The Use of Neurodynamic Techniques in the Conservative Treatment of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome - a Critical Appraisal of the Literature.

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    Wolny, Tomasz

    2017-10-31

    Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common peripheral neuropathy, characterized by the presence of many sensory and motor abnormalities. In the physiotherapy of patients with CTS, neurodynamic tech-niques are very common, while the scientific literature does not show clear evidence of beneficial effects obtained by using these techniques. Therefore, the aim of this work was to critically evaluate the use of neurodynamic techniques in the conservative treatment of CTS. Three electronic databases (MEDLINE, SCOPUS and POL-index) and Google Scholar were queried to find articles. The search terms were combinations of words (in Polish, English and German) contain-ing abbreviated and full versions of the following expressions: carpal tunnel syndrome, CTS, neuromobilization, neurodynamic techniques and manual therapy. Sixteen research papers met the conditions for inclusion in this review. Most of them used different methodologies of therapeutic intervention, making it difficult to interpret the results of individual works. Fourteen studies were randomized trials, one a case-control retrospective study and one was a clinical study without a control group. The most common evaluation variables were pain, nerve conduction, subjective symptoms and function, grip strength, sensation and range of motion. The therapy used neurodynamic techniques carried out by the patient or passive mobilization by the physiotherapist. 1. A review of existing studies evaluating the effec-tiveness of neurodynamic techniques in the treat-ment of CTS shows that most of them produced beneficial therapeutic effects. 2. Due to a considerable heteroge-n-ei--ty of the parti-cipants, study design and metho-do-logy of thera-peutic interventions, it is difficult to for-mulate a general conclusion. 3. Hence the need arises for further research to assess the effectiveness of neu-ro-dynamic techniques in conservative therapy of CTS based on a similar therapeutic methodology.

  9. A categorical approach to neurodynamical modelling of musical tonality

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hadrava, Michal; Hlinka, Jaroslav

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 16, suppl. 1 (2015), P101 ISSN 1471-2202 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-23940S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : neurodynamics * music * tonality * category theory Subject RIV: FH - Neurology

  10. Are Neurodynamic Organizations A Fundamental Property of Teamwork?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Ronald H.; Galloway, Trysha L.

    2017-01-01

    When performing a task it is important for teams to optimize their strategies and actions to maximize value and avoid the cost of surprise. The decisions teams make sometimes have unintended consequences and they must then reorganize their thinking, roles and/or configuration into corrective structures more appropriate for the situation. In this study we ask: What are the neurodynamic properties of these reorganizations and how do they relate to the moment-by-moment, and longer, performance-outcomes of teams?. We describe an information-organization approach for detecting and quantitating the fluctuating neurodynamic organizations in teams. Neurodynamic organization is the propensity of team members to enter into prolonged (minutes) metastable neurodynamic relationships as they encounter and resolve disturbances to their normal rhythms. Team neurodynamic organizations were detected and modeled by transforming the physical units of each team member's EEG power levels into Shannon entropy-derived information units about the team's organization and synchronization. Entropy is a measure of the variability or uncertainty of information in a data stream. This physical unit to information unit transformation bridges micro level social coordination events with macro level expert observations of team behavior allowing multimodal comparisons across the neural, cognitive and behavioral time scales of teamwork. The measures included the entropy of each team member's data stream, the overall team entropy and the mutual information between dyad pairs of the team. Mutual information can be thought of as periods related to team member synchrony. Comparisons between individual entropy and mutual information levels for the dyad combinations of three-person teams provided quantitative estimates of the proportion of a person's neurodynamic organizations that represented periods of synchrony with other team members, which in aggregate provided measures of the overall degree of

  11. Are Neurodynamic Organizations A Fundamental Property of Teamwork?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald H. Stevens

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available When performing a task it is important for teams to optimize their strategies and actions to maximize value and avoid the cost of surprise. The decisions teams make sometimes have unintended consequences and they must then reorganize their thinking, roles and/or configuration into corrective structures more appropriate for the situation. In this study we ask: What are the neurodynamic properties of these reorganizations and how do they relate to the moment-by-moment, and longer, performance-outcomes of teams?. We describe an information-organization approach for detecting and quantitating the fluctuating neurodynamic organizations in teams. Neurodynamic organization is the propensity of team members to enter into prolonged (minutes metastable neurodynamic relationships as they encounter and resolve disturbances to their normal rhythms. Team neurodynamic organizations were detected and modeled by transforming the physical units of each team member's EEG power levels into Shannon entropy-derived information units about the team's organization and synchronization. Entropy is a measure of the variability or uncertainty of information in a data stream. This physical unit to information unit transformation bridges micro level social coordination events with macro level expert observations of team behavior allowing multimodal comparisons across the neural, cognitive and behavioral time scales of teamwork. The measures included the entropy of each team member's data stream, the overall team entropy and the mutual information between dyad pairs of the team. Mutual information can be thought of as periods related to team member synchrony. Comparisons between individual entropy and mutual information levels for the dyad combinations of three-person teams provided quantitative estimates of the proportion of a person's neurodynamic organizations that represented periods of synchrony with other team members, which in aggregate provided measures of the overall

  12. Interpreting force concept inventory scores: Normalized gain and SAT scores

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    Jeffrey J. Steinert

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G on the force concept inventory (FCI were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335 and one university (N=292 , and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations ( r=0.57 and r=0.46 , respectively. These correlations are likely due to the importance of cognitive skills and abstract reasoning in learning physics. The larger correlation coefficient for the high school population may be a result of the much shorter time interval between taking the SAT and studying mechanics, because the SAT may provide a more current measure of abilities when high school students begin the study of mechanics than it does for college students, who begin mechanics years after the test is taken. In prior research a strong correlation between FCI G and scores on Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning for students from the same two schools was observed. Our results suggest that, when interpreting class average normalized FCI gains and comparing different classes, it is important to take into account the variation of students’ cognitive skills, as measured either by the SAT or by Lawson’s test. While Lawson’s test is not commonly given to students in most introductory mechanics courses, SAT scores provide a readily available alternative means of taking account of students’ reasoning abilities. Knowing the students’ cognitive level before instruction also allows one to alter instruction or to use an intervention designed to improve students’ cognitive level.

  13. A Collaborative Neurodynamic Approach to Multiple-Objective Distributed Optimization.

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    Yang, Shaofu; Liu, Qingshan; Wang, Jun

    2018-04-01

    This paper is concerned with multiple-objective distributed optimization. Based on objective weighting and decision space decomposition, a collaborative neurodynamic approach to multiobjective distributed optimization is presented. In the approach, a system of collaborative neural networks is developed to search for Pareto optimal solutions, where each neural network is associated with one objective function and given constraints. Sufficient conditions are derived for ascertaining the convergence to a Pareto optimal solution of the collaborative neurodynamic system. In addition, it is proved that each connected subsystem can generate a Pareto optimal solution when the communication topology is disconnected. Then, a switching-topology-based method is proposed to compute multiple Pareto optimal solutions for discretized approximation of Pareto front. Finally, simulation results are discussed to substantiate the performance of the collaborative neurodynamic approach. A portfolio selection application is also given.

  14. How Spanish Primary School Students Interpret the Concepts of Population and Species

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    Jiménez-Tejada, María-Pilar; Sánchez-Monsalve, Cristina; González-García, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    This article presents research concerning the way in which primary school pupils in southern Spain interpret the concepts of population and species. The results show that, for the concept of population, there was an intense anthropocentrism in pupils' responses, while for the concept of species, only animals were considered as living creatures.…

  15. A Collective Neurodynamic Approach to Constrained Global Optimization.

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    Yan, Zheng; Fan, Jianchao; Wang, Jun

    2017-05-01

    Global optimization is a long-lasting research topic in the field of optimization, posting many challenging theoretic and computational issues. This paper presents a novel collective neurodynamic method for solving constrained global optimization problems. At first, a one-layer recurrent neural network (RNN) is presented for searching the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker points of the optimization problem under study. Next, a collective neuroydnamic optimization approach is developed by emulating the paradigm of brainstorming. Multiple RNNs are exploited cooperatively to search for the global optimal solutions in a framework of particle swarm optimization. Each RNN carries out a precise local search and converges to a candidate solution according to its own neurodynamics. The neuronal state of each neural network is repetitively reset by exchanging historical information of each individual network and the entire group. Wavelet mutation is performed to avoid prematurity, add diversity, and promote global convergence. It is proved in the framework of stochastic optimization that the proposed collective neurodynamic approach is capable of computing the global optimal solutions with probability one provided that a sufficiently large number of neural networks are utilized. The essence of the collective neurodynamic optimization approach lies in its potential to solve constrained global optimization problems in real time. The effectiveness and characteristics of the proposed approach are illustrated by using benchmark optimization problems.

  16. A Neurodynamic Approach to Distributed Optimization With Globally Coupled Constraints.

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    Le, Xinyi; Chen, Sijie; Yan, Zheng; Xi, Juntong

    2017-10-18

    In this paper, a distributed neurodynamic approach is proposed for constrained convex optimization. The objective function is a sum of local convex subproblems, whereas the constraints of these subproblems are coupled. Each local objective function is minimized individually with the proposed neurodynamic optimization approach. Through information exchange between connected neighbors only, all nodes can reach consensus on the Lagrange multipliers of all global equality and inequality constraints, and the decision variables converge to the global optimum in a distributed manner. Simulation results of two power system cases are discussed to substantiate the effectiveness and characteristics of the proposed approach.In this paper, a distributed neurodynamic approach is proposed for constrained convex optimization. The objective function is a sum of local convex subproblems, whereas the constraints of these subproblems are coupled. Each local objective function is minimized individually with the proposed neurodynamic optimization approach. Through information exchange between connected neighbors only, all nodes can reach consensus on the Lagrange multipliers of all global equality and inequality constraints, and the decision variables converge to the global optimum in a distributed manner. Simulation results of two power system cases are discussed to substantiate the effectiveness and characteristics of the proposed approach.

  17. Tropical cyclone fullness: A new concept for interpreting storm intensity

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    Guo, Xi; Tan, Zhe-Min

    2017-05-01

    Intensity and size are two crucial factors in determining the destructiveness of a tropical cyclone (TC), but little is known about the relationship between them because of a lack of observations. TC fullness, a new concept, is proposed to quantitatively measure the storm wind structure, which is defined as the ratio of the extent of the outer-core wind skirt to the outer-core size of the TC. TC intensity is more strongly correlated with fullness than with other measures comprising just a single size parameter. A scale is introduced to classify TCs into four categories based on TC fullness (FS1 to FS4). Regardless of the specific inner-core and outer-core size, the FS4 fullness structure is necessary for an intense TC's development, while category FS1 and FS2 TCs are generally weak. Most major TCs achieve FS4 fullness structure earlier and more frequently than nonmajor TCs. Rapidly increasing fullness favors the intensification of TC.Plain Language SummaryTropical cyclone (TC) disasters caused tremendous property loss and casualties all over the world every year, while the knowledge on what essentially determines TC intensity is far beyond enough. Should a large TC ought to be intense and disastrous? And is a small TC doomed to be weak? It confused us when some dapper small TCs struck us with their fierce wind and torrential rain, while other large TCs that finally turned out to be a false alarm tricked us with their puffiness body. The underlying factor that truly controls TC intensity has been grasped here. We unveil the mysteries between TC intensity and size by raising a new concept: TC fullness. Either small or large TC can be intense; it depends on the fullness. TCs should possess FS4 fullness structure (high fullness) as long as they are intense; on the other hand, TCs with low fullness are weak in majority. In addition, rapidly increasing fullness is beneficial for the intensification of TC. The concept of TC fullness may provide a new path in the

  18. Modeling the Neurodynamics of Submarine Piloting and Navigation Teams

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-07

    34health" of a team . A second implication from those findings - and fractal theory , in general - is that it should be possible to measure at one level of...discussions for entrepreneurial / corporate teams . The team composition varied from two to six persons and all teams had teamwork experience with the...Stevens, R. H. & Galloway, T., (2014). Toward a Quantitative Description of the Neurodynamics Organizations of Teams . Social Neuroscience Vol. 9:2,160

  19. Purposes of double taxation treaties and interpretation of beneficial owner concept in Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlo Selezen

    2017-01-01

    The term ‟beneficial owner” has been interpreted by Ukrainian courts concerning the application of double taxation treaties’ provisions since the adoption of the Tax Code of Ukraine in 2010. Changing nature of the beneficial owner concept, its importance as an instrument for treaty shopping counteraction and the necessity of its proper interpretation in the Ukrainian reality are the main factors that have a strong impact on the development of court practice concerning beneficial ownership....

  20. Hans-Georg Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics: Concepts of reading, understanding and interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Regan

    2012-01-01

    Hans-Georg Gadamer’s philosophical hermeneutics is a popular qualitative research interpretive method aiming to explore the meaning of individual experiences in relation to understanding human interpretation. Gadamer identifies that authentic engagement with reading requires awareness of the inter-subjective nature of understanding in order to promote a reflective engagement with the text. The main concepts of Gadamer’s view of reading and understanding are explored in this paper in relation ...

  1. IN REGARDS TO CONSTANT AND INTERPRETATIVE CRITERIA OF CONCEPT IN A LANGUAGE

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    Maria N. Fedulova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research about the criteria for defining the "concept" in the modern linguistics. The existence of a number of concepts and terms doesn't allow the scientists to agree on its clear definition. The author points out that the base of concept emergence is founded on the processes of conceptualization, these processes are supported by the basic types of metaphorical judgment. In this article, the analysis of different approaches in order to define the structure of the concept indicates that the concept structure consists of a number of components, and for the most part they are permanent and the rest are interpretative. Until recently the linguistic development of "concept" was mainly limited by the framework of subject-thematic criteria. Along with this the scientists focused on and are still focusing on non-contradictory construction of concept logic in a language discourse. The author of the article states that the forming of the notions and perceptions about space, time, life is based on the conceptualization processes and reflected in the language and concepts. The understanding of concept is being achieved through the number of notions revealed during the speaking process, i.e. discursively, as well as through images, symbols, expression of feelings, and different emotional states. The evaluation of different occurrences, emerged within a certain situation is considered the beginning of the concept emergence. Thus, the author is inclining, that the concept is transsituational; its status is cognitive because the thinking process plays an important role in the cognition of the concept. It is particularly interesting to note the author's conclusion that it is incorrect to mix this important philosophical and linguistic notion with the notion/definition of "word". 'Word' is an objective side of conceptualization and it can not be considered a 'concept'. With all that the processes of conceptualization in the language

  2. In Regards To Constant And Interpretative Criteria Of Concept In A Language

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    Maria N. Fedulova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the research about the criteria for defining the "concept" in the modern linguistics. The existence of a number of concepts and terms doesn't allow the scientists to agree on its clear definition. The author points out that the base of concept emergence is founded on the processes of conceptualization, these processes are supported by the basic types of metaphorical judgment. In this article, the analysis of different approaches in order to define the structure of the concept indicates that the concept structure consists of a number of components, and for the most part they are permanent and the rest are interpretative. Until recently the linguistic development of "concept" was mainly limited by the framework of subject-thematic criteria. Along with this the scientists focused on and are still focusing on non-contradictory construction of concept logic in a language discourse. The author of the article states that the forming of the notions and perceptions about space, time, life is based on the conceptualization processes and reflected in the language and concepts. The understanding of concept is being achieved through the number of notions revealed during the speaking process, i.e. discursively, as well as through images, symbols, expression of feelings, and different emotional states. The evaluation of different occurrences, emerged within a certain situation is considered the beginning of the concept emergence. Thus, the author is inclining, that the concept is transsituational; its status is cognitive because the thinking process plays an important role in the cognition of the concept. It is particularly interesting to note the author's conclusion that it is incorrect to mix this important philosophical and linguistic notion with the notion/definition of "word". 'Word' is an objective side of conceptualization and it can not be considered a 'concept'. With all that the processes of conceptualization in the language

  3. Purposes of double taxation treaties and interpretation of beneficial owner concept in Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlo Selezen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The term ‟beneficial owner” has been interpreted by Ukrainian courts concerning the application of double taxation treaties’ provisions since the adoption of the Tax Code of Ukraine in 2010. Changing nature of the beneficial owner concept, its importance as an instrument for treaty shopping counteraction and the necessity of its proper interpretation in the Ukrainian reality are the main factors that have a strong impact on the development of court practice concerning beneficial ownership. The article focuses on the prevention of tax avoidance as one of the purposes of double taxation treaties and its role in the interpretation of the term ‟beneficial owner”. The analysis is based on the practice of the Supreme Administrative Court of Ukraine on interpretation of the relevant provisions of the Convention between the Government of Ukraine and the Government of Switzerland on Avoidance of Double Taxation with respect to Taxes on Income and Capital as of 30 October 2000.

  4. [The concept of space in epidemiology: a historical and epistemological interpretation].

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    Czeresnia, D; Ribeiro, A M

    2000-01-01

    This study provides an interpretation of the concept of space in epidemiology. The authors highlight that the epistemological orientation of the space concept in epidemiology is the theory of disease, emphasizing the importance of the concept of specific etiologic agents and their transmission as the central structure for grasping the relationship between space and the body. Characterization of the space for circulation of etiologic agents was the epistemological base shaping the use of various theoretical developments in geography, allowing for the construction of different explanatory watersheds in the concept of space. The article specifically analyzes the Latin American watershed, reviewing the main authors orienting these studies, like Pavlovsky, Max Sorre, and Samuel Pessoa. The authors highlight Milton Santos' thinking as a fundamental reference in recent research on the social organization of space and disease emergence or prevalence. The authors also approach contemporary changes in the understanding of space as they are reflected in epidemiological studies.

  5. Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellac, Michel Le

    2014-11-01

    Although nobody can question the practical efficiency of quantum mechanics, there remains the serious question of its interpretation. As Valerio Scarani puts it, "We do not feel at ease with the indistinguishability principle (that is, the superposition principle) and some of its consequences." Indeed, this principle which pervades the quantum world is in stark contradiction with our everyday experience. From the very beginning of quantum mechanics, a number of physicists--but not the majority of them!--have asked the question of its "interpretation". One may simply deny that there is a problem: according to proponents of the minimalist interpretation, quantum mechanics is self-sufficient and needs no interpretation. The point of view held by a majority of physicists, that of the Copenhagen interpretation, will be examined in Section 10.1. The crux of the problem lies in the status of the state vector introduced in the preceding chapter to describe a quantum system, which is no more than a symbolic representation for the Copenhagen school of thought. Conversely, one may try to attribute some "external reality" to this state vector, that is, a correspondence between the mathematical description and the physical reality. In this latter case, it is the measurement problem which is brought to the fore. In 1932, von Neumann was first to propose a global approach, in an attempt to build a purely quantum theory of measurement examined in Section 10.2. This theory still underlies modern approaches, among them those grounded on decoherence theory, or on the macroscopic character of the measuring apparatus: see Section 10.3. Finally, there are non-standard interpretations such as Everett's many worlds theory or the hidden variables theory of de Broglie and Bohm (Section 10.4). Note, however, that this variety of interpretations has no bearing whatsoever on the practical use of quantum mechanics. There is no controversy on the way we should use quantum mechanics!

  6. Changes in Hamstring Range of Motion After Neurodynamic Sciatic Sliders: A Critically Appraised Topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonser, Robert J; Hancock, Christy L; Hansberger, Bethany L; Loutsch, Rick A; Stanford, Eric K; Zeigel, Alli K; Baker, Russell T; May, James; Nasypany, Alan; Cheatham, Scott

    2017-07-01

    Clinical Scenario: Hamstring tightness is a common condition leading to dysfunctional or restricted movement that is often treated with stretching. Neurodynamics has been proposed as an alternative to stretching by targeting the neural system rather than muscle tissue. Focused Clinical Question: In an active population, what is the effect of using neurodynamic sliders compared with stretching on traditional measures of range of motion (ROM)? Summary of Key Findings: The authors of a well-designed study found that neurodynamic sliders were more effective than static stretching, while the authors of 2 less-well-designed studies reported no difference with static stretching or that proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching was more effective than neurodynamic sliders. Clinical Bottom Line: Evidence exists to support the use of neurodynamic sliders to increase measures of hamstring ROM in patients who present with limited hamstring flexibility; however, the effectiveness of neurodynamic sliders compared with traditional stretching is inconclusive. Strength of Recommendation: Grade B evidence exists that neurodynamic sliders perform as well as traditional stretching techniques at increasing measures of hamstring ROM in patients with limited hamstring flexibility.

  7. Structuring Ethical Interpretations of the Sustainable Development Goals—Concepts, Implications and Progress

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    Martina Keitsch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, like the sustainable development (SD concept itself, are open to multifaceted interpretations, and the same is true for their ethical implications. While SDG values are widely accepted as universal, the ethical structure of the SDGs is complex, with differing interpretations and ideas, e.g., on how to regard and value nature. This article is a conceptual attempt to clarify and structure ethical interpretations based on an environmental ethics framework consisting of two branches: anthropocentrism and biocentrism. The aim is to provide an overview of SDG positions and locate them in the wider field of environmental ethics, addressing the human–nature relationship as a recurring topic in the SDGs. Section 1 of this article presents environmental ethics and briefly discusses anthropocentrism and biocentrism. Section 2 outlines ethical similarities of SD and the SDGs and locates representative SDG interpretations within the environmental ethics framework. Section 3 summarizes findings and suggests a possibility of integrating biocentrism and anthropocentrism with regard to the further interpretation and discussion of SDG ethics. Insights from this article will aid researchers in adopting a better overview on ethical positions in the SDG debate.

  8. NEURODYNAMIC AND PREDICTABILITY OF ALPHA-STIMULATING BIOFEEDBACK COURSE IN SPORTSMEN AND PERSONS OCCUPYING PHYSICAL CULTURE

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    L. P. Cherapkina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The 15-days neurofeedback course was conducted with the purpose of neurodynamic and predictability assessment of mastering of arbitrary regulation skill of electroencephalographic (EEG spectral power in alpha-band in sportsmen (n=260 and persons (n=69 occupying physical culture. The electroencephalographic parameters being predictors of neurofeedback course were defined in result of research. It was showed that different neurodynamical changes in examined groups supported training successfulness.

  9. [Conception of the history of science in the interpretation of Bogdan Suchodolski].

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    Lietz, Natalia

    2011-01-01

    In the article is presented the conception of the history of science in the interpretation of Bogdan Suchodolski. Having described the conception of the history of science created by George Sarton (1884-1956), whose thought was influenced by positivistic philosophy of August Comte, the idea of the history of science of Johan Nordstr6m (1891-1967), who was inspired by the system of Wilhelm Dilthey, and the materialistic conception of the history of science, which was represented, among others, by John Desmond Bernal (1901-1971), the author is making an attempt at revealing to what extent Bogdan Suchodolski was inspired by the above-mentioned visions of the history of science. Having defined the history of science as the history of scientific activity of people and their consciousness formed by the activity, Bogdan Suchodolski applied in the field of his own conception of the history of science the ideas that were put forward by German thinkers and philosophers, and were connected with a way of understanding culture as the constant development of national awareness, which can be exemplified with different dimensions of culture. Undoubtedly, identifying the history of Polish science with constitutive element of the history of national culture and paying attention to the conceptions tending not only to explaining, but also understanding phenomena, B. Suchodolski was influenced by Alfred Vierkandt's and Wilhelm Dilthey's thought. The present article includes several reflections on the conception of the history of science, which was created by B. Suchodolski. Among others, we can find here detailed information on how B. Suchodolski understood: the history of science, its subject, aim and methodology; its status in modern social consciousness and as the history of truth; relations between history of science and theory of science and scientific policy, history of science and the problem of unity and diversity of scientific thinking, history of science and ideas, history of

  10. Concept Communication and Interpretation of Illness: A Holistic Model of Understanding in Nursing Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordby, Halvor

    To ensure patient communication in nursing, certain conditions must be met that enable successful exchange of beliefs, thoughts, and other mental states. The conditions that have received most attention in the nursing literature are derived from general communication theories, psychology, and ethical frameworks of interpretation. This article focuses on a condition more directly related to an influential coherence model of concept possession from recent philosophy of mind and language. The basic ideas in this model are (i) that the primary source of understanding of illness experiences is communicative acts that express concepts of illness, and (ii) that the key to understanding patients' concepts of illness is to understand how they depend on patients' lifeworlds. The article argues that (i) and (ii) are especially relevant in caring practice since it has been extensively documented that patients' perspectives on disease and illness are shaped by their subjective horizons. According to coherentism, nurses need to focus holistically on patients' horizons in order to understand the meaning of patients' expressions of meaning. Furthermore, the coherence model implies that fundamental aims of understanding can be achieved only if nurses recognize the interdependence of patients' beliefs and experiences of ill health. The article uses case studies to elucidate how the holistic implications of coherentism can be used as conceptual tools in nursing.

  11. Towards a scientific interpretation of the terroir concept: plasticity of the grape berry metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anesi, Andrea; Stocchero, Matteo; Dal Santo, Silvia; Commisso, Mauro; Zenoni, Sara; Ceoldo, Stefania; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Siebert, Tracey E; Herderich, Markus; Pezzotti, Mario; Guzzo, Flavia

    2015-08-07

    The definition of the terroir concept is one of the most debated issues in oenology and viticulture. The dynamic interaction among diverse factors including the environment, the grapevine plant and the imposed viticultural techniques means that the wine produced in a given terroir is unique. However, there is an increasing interest to define and quantify the contribution of individual factors to a specific terroir objectively. Here, we characterized the metabolome and transcriptome of berries from a single clone of the Corvina variety cultivated in seven different vineyards, located in three macrozones, over a 3-year trial period. To overcome the anticipated strong vintage effect, we developed statistical tools that allowed us to identify distinct terroir signatures in the metabolic composition of berries from each macrozone, and from different vineyards within each macrozone. We also identified non-volatile and volatile components of the metabolome which are more plastic and therefore respond differently to terroir diversity. We observed some relationships between the plasticity of the metabolome and transcriptome, allowing a multifaceted scientific interpretation of the terroir concept. Our experiments with a single Corvina clone in different vineyards have revealed the existence of a clear terroir-specific effect on the transcriptome and metabolome which persists over several vintages and allows each vineyard to be characterized by the unique profile of specific metabolites.

  12. Neurodynamic treatment for patients with nerve-related leg pain: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Giovanni E; Stieven, Fábio F; Araújo, Francisco X; Wiebusch, Matheus; Rosa, Carolina G; Plentz, Rodrigo Della Méa; Silva, Marcelo F

    2016-10-01

    To investigate if neurodynamic treatment is more effective than advice to remain active in patients with nerve-related leg pain. Parallel-group randomized controlled trial blinded to the outcome assessor conducted in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Sixty patients recruited from the community and private practices. Patients will be randomly assigned to receive four sessions of neurodynamic treatment over two weeks comprising passive lumbar foramen opening and neurodynamic sliders plus home exercises or advice to remain active. Leg pain intensity, disability, low back pain intensity, functional ability, symptoms distribution and global impression of recovery will be assessed at two and four weeks after randomization. A linear mixed model will be employed for each outcome following intention to treat principles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A neurodynamical model of brightness induction in v1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Penacchio

    Full Text Available Brightness induction is the modulation of the perceived intensity of an area by the luminance of surrounding areas. Recent neurophysiological evidence suggests that brightness information might be explicitly represented in V1, in contrast to the more common assumption that the striate cortex is an area mostly responsive to sensory information. Here we investigate possible neural mechanisms that offer a plausible explanation for such phenomenon. To this end, a neurodynamical model which is based on neurophysiological evidence and focuses on the part of V1 responsible for contextual influences is presented. The proposed computational model successfully accounts for well known psychophysical effects for static contexts and also for brightness induction in dynamic contexts defined by modulating the luminance of surrounding areas. This work suggests that intra-cortical interactions in V1 could, at least partially, explain brightness induction effects and reveals how a common general architecture may account for several different fundamental processes, such as visual saliency and brightness induction, which emerge early in the visual processing pathway.

  14. The geometric mean concept for interpreting the permeability of heterogeneous geomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvadurai, Patrick; Selvadurai, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Naturally occurring geomaterials are heterogeneous and the estimation of the effective permeability characteristics of such geomaterials presents a challenge not only in terms of the experimental procedures that should be used to ensure flow through the porous medium but also in the correct use of the theoretical concepts needed to accurately interpret the data. The general consensus is that the flow path in a test needs to be drastically reduced if steady state tests are considered as a suitable experimental technique. The disadvantage of flow path reduction is that the tested volume may not be altogether representative of the rock, particularly if it displays heterogeneity in the scale of the sample being tested. Also, if the sample is not correctly restrained, the differential pressures needed to initiate steady flow can introduce damage in the sample leading to erroneous estimates of permeability. The alternative approach is to use large enough samples that can capture the spatial heterogeneity but develop testing procedures that can test examine the steady state flow process as a problem in three-dimensional fluid flow that can capture the spatial distribution of permeability. The paper discusses theoretical and computational approaches that have been developed for the estimation of the spatial distribution of permeability in a cuboidal Indiana Limestone sample measuring 450 mm. The "Patch Permeability Test" developed in connection with the research allows the measurements of the surface permeability of the block and through kriging techniques estimate the permeability within the block sample. The research promotes the use of the "Geometric Mean" concept for the description of the effective permeability of the heterogeneous porous medium where the spatial distribution conforms to a lognormal pattern. The effectiveness of the approach is that the techniques can be applied to examine the effective permeability of heterogeneous low permeability materials such as

  15. Interpretations of the Concept of Sustainability Amongst the UK’s Leading Food and Drink Wholesalers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Jones

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The aim of this paper is to provide an exploratory review of the interpretations of the concept of sustainability amongst the UK’s leading food and drinks wholesalers, as revealed by the sustainability agendas and achievements reported on their corporate websites. Design/Methodology/Approach – The paper begins with short introductions to sustainability, corporate sustainability and sustainability reporting, and food and drinks wholesaling within the UK. The empirical material for the paper is drawn from reports and information posted on the leading food and drinks wholesalers’ corporate websites. Findings and implications – There are marked variations in the extent to which the UK’s leading food and drinks wholesalers reported and provided information on their sustainability agendas and achievements. These agendas and achievements embraced a wide range of environmental, social and economic issues, but the reporting process had a number of weaknesses that undermined its transparency and credibility. The authors also argue that the leading food and drinks wholesalers’ definitions of, and commitments to, sustainability are principally driven by business imperatives as by any fundamental concern to maintain the viability and integrity of natural and social capital. Limitations – The paper is a preliminary review of the sustainability agendas and achievements publicly reported by the UK’s leading food and drinks wholesalers. Originality – Within the food and drinks supply chain, wholesalers have a pivotal role at the interface between producers, manufacturers, retail and service providers, and as such they can play in promoting sustainability. However, the role of the UK’s wholesale sector in addressing sustainability has received scant attention in the academic literature, so this paper will interest academics and students in business management and marketing.

  16. EFFECTIVENESS OF NEURODYNAMICS IN COMPARISON TO MANUAL TRACTION IN THE MANAGEMENT OF CERVICAL RADICULOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoona Anwar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cervical radiculopathy is a condition of pain and sensorimotor deficits due to cervical nerve root compression. The symptoms may include weakness, tingling, numbness and pain. C6, C7 nerve roots are most involved in cervical radiculopathy. Various modalities and therapeutic interventions are used and recommended for management of cervical radiculopathy including cervical collars, immobilization, manipulation, cervical traction TENS and therapeutic exercises.The aimof this study is to evaluate the efficacy of neurodynamics in comparison to manual traction in the management of cervical radiculopathy. Methods: An Interventional research was performed in the Department of Physiotherapy, Mayo hospital Lahore, Pakistan. 40 subjects aged between 18-60 years participated in the study. They were divided into two groups namely Group A and Group B with 20 subjects in each group. The duration of the study was 4 weeks with 4 sessions per week. GroupA received neurodynamics along with strengthening exercises while Group B received manual traction along with strengthening exercises. Neck Disability Index (NDI scale was used as an outcome measure andpaired sample t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results: A significant improvement was found in both neurodynamics group and manual traction group for pain and functional status with p value< 0.05. Conclusion: This study concluded that the treatment techniques, neurodynamics and manual traction were effective in alleviating the symptoms associated with cervical radiculopathy in terms of decreasing pain intensity, increasing ranges of motion and improving functional capacity.

  17. Deutungslernen in der Erwachsenenbildung: Grundlinien und Illustrationen zu einem konstruktivistischen Lernbegriff (The Concept of the Learning of Interpretation in Adult Education--Outlines of and Examples for a Constructivist Concept of Learning).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Rolf

    1996-01-01

    Develops the concept of the learning of interpretation in contrast to prevailing didactic models of representation. Sketches the didactic and professional-theoretical implications of the concept of learning of interpretive methods. Illustrates these considerations concerning the learning of interpretive methods with empirical examples. (DSK)

  18. Analysis and Critical Evaluation of Xu Fuguan’s Interpretation of the Concept qiyun shengdong 气韵生动

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Téa SERNELJ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article deals with Xu Fuguan’s analysis and interpretation of qiyun shengdong, which is regarded as one of the most significant and fundamental, as well as complex, concepts in Chinese aesthetics. It was developed in the Wei Jin period (220–420 AD, which is considered the turning point in Chinese aesthetics and art. Its complexity is expressed in literary works, painting, calligraphy and music, as well as in literary and painting theory. In Xu’s interpretation, the concept of qi refers to the outward characteristics of the art work. The concept yun reflects the inner characteristics that are an integral part of the human spirit, while shengdong is merely a spontaneous and natural effect of the interaction between qi and yun. First, the author presents Xu Fuguan’s interpretation and places it in the context of contemporary debates on Chinese aesthetics. The author then concentrates on Xu Fuguan’s philological and historical analysis of the semantic and philosophical development of the concept, and at the end gives a critical evaluation of his study in the context of the re-evaluation of the basics of classical Chinese aesthetics.

  19. The Enhancement of Consistency of Interpretation Skills on the Newton’s Laws Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Kurniawan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Conceptual understanding is the most important thing that students should have rather than they had reaches achievement. The interpretation skill is one of conceptual understanding aspects. The aim of this paper is to know the consistency of students’ interpreting skills and all at once to get the levels of increasing of students’ interpretations skill. These variables learned by Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILD common sense. The method of this research is pre-experimental research with one group pretest-posttest design. The sample has taken by cluster random sampling. The result had shown that 16 % of all student that are have perfect consistency of interpretation skill and there are increasing of interpretation skill on 84 % from unknown to be understand (this skill. This finding could be used by the future researcher to study in the other areas of conceptual understanding aspects

  20. The dynamical integrity concept for interpreting/ predicting experimental behaviour: from macro- to nano-mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenci, Stefano; Rega, Giuseppe; Ruzziconi, Laura

    2013-06-28

    The dynamical integrity, a new concept proposed by J.M.T. Thompson, and developed by the authors, is used to interpret experimental results. After reviewing the main issues involved in this analysis, including the proposal of a new integrity measure able to capture in an easy way the safe part of basins, attention is dedicated to two experiments, a rotating pendulum and a micro-electro-mechanical system, where the theoretical predictions are not fulfilled. These mechanical systems, the former at the macro-scale and the latter at the micro-scale, permit a comparative analysis of different mechanical and dynamical behaviours. The fact that in both cases the dynamical integrity permits one to justify the difference between experimental and theoretical results, which is the main achievement of this paper, shows the effectiveness of this new approach and suggests its use in practical situations. The men of experiment are like the ant, they only collect and use; the reasoners resemble spiders, who make cobwebs out of their own substance. But the bee takes the middle course: it gathers its material from the flowers of the garden and field, but transforms and digests it by a power of its own. Not unlike this is the true business of philosophy (science); for it neither relies solely or chiefly on the powers of the mind, nor does it take the matter which it gathers from natural history and mechanical experiments and lay up in the memory whole, as it finds it, but lays it up in the understanding altered and digested. Therefore, from a closer and purer league between these two faculties, the experimental and the rational (such as has never been made), much may be hoped. (Francis Bacon 1561-1626) But are we sure of our observational facts? Scientific men are rather fond of saying pontifically that one ought to be quite sure of one's observational facts before embarking on theory. Fortunately those who give this advice do not practice what they preach. Observation and theory get

  1. Immediate Effects of Neurodynamic Sliding versus Muscle Stretching on Hamstring Flexibility in Subjects with Short Hamstring Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellote-Caballero, Yolanda; Valenza, Maríe C.; Puentedura, Emilio J.; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Background. Hamstring injuries continue to affect active individuals and although inadequate muscle extensibility remains a commonly accepted factor, little is known about the most effective method to improve flexibility. Purpose. To determine if an isolated neurodynamic sciatic sliding technique would improve hamstring flexibility to a greater degree than stretching or a placebo intervention in asymptomatic subjects with short hamstring syndrome (SHS). Study Design. Randomized double-blinded controlled trial. Methods. One hundred and twenty subjects with SHS were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: neurodynamic sliding, hamstring stretching, and placebo control. Each subject's dominant leg was measured for straight leg raise (SLR) range of motion (ROM) before and after interventions. Data were analyzed with a 3 × 2 mixed model ANOVA followed by simple main effects analyses. Results. At the end of the study, more ROM was observed in the Neurodynamic and Stretching groups compared to the Control group and more ROM in the Neurodynamic group compared to Stretching group. Conclusion. Findings suggest that a neurodynamic sliding technique will increase hamstring flexibility to a greater degree than static hamstring stretching in healthy subjects with SHS. Clinical Relevance. The use of neurodynamic sliding techniques to improve hamstring flexibility in sports may lead to a decreased incidence in injuries; however, this needs to be formally tested. PMID:26464889

  2. Immediate Effects of Neurodynamic Sliding versus Muscle Stretching on Hamstring Flexibility in Subjects with Short Hamstring Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Castellote-Caballero

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hamstring injuries continue to affect active individuals and although inadequate muscle extensibility remains a commonly accepted factor, little is known about the most effective method to improve flexibility. Purpose. To determine if an isolated neurodynamic sciatic sliding technique would improve hamstring flexibility to a greater degree than stretching or a placebo intervention in asymptomatic subjects with short hamstring syndrome (SHS. Study Design. Randomized double-blinded controlled trial. Methods. One hundred and twenty subjects with SHS were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: neurodynamic sliding, hamstring stretching, and placebo control. Each subject’s dominant leg was measured for straight leg raise (SLR range of motion (ROM before and after interventions. Data were analyzed with a 3×2 mixed model ANOVA followed by simple main effects analyses. Results. At the end of the study, more ROM was observed in the Neurodynamic and Stretching groups compared to the Control group and more ROM in the Neurodynamic group compared to Stretching group. Conclusion. Findings suggest that a neurodynamic sliding technique will increase hamstring flexibility to a greater degree than static hamstring stretching in healthy subjects with SHS. Clinical Relevance. The use of neurodynamic sliding techniques to improve hamstring flexibility in sports may lead to a decreased incidence in injuries; however, this needs to be formally tested.

  3. Technical Note. The Concept of a Computer System for Interpretation of Tight Rocks Using X-Ray Computed Tomography Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habrat Magdalena

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the concept of a computer system for interpreting unconventional oil and gas deposits with the use of X-ray computed tomography results. The functional principles of the solution proposed are presented in the article. The main goal is to design a product which is a complex and useful tool in a form of a specialist computer software for qualitative and quantitative interpretation of images obtained from X-ray computed tomography. It is devoted to the issues of prospecting and identification of unconventional hydrocarbon deposits. The article focuses on the idea of X-ray computed tomography use as a basis for the analysis of tight rocks, considering especially functional principles of the system, which will be developed by the authors. The functional principles include the issues of graphical visualization of rock structure, qualitative and quantitative interpretation of model for visualizing rock samples, interpretation and a description of the parameters within realizing the module of quantitative interpretation.

  4. Constrained Quadratic Programming and Neurodynamics-Based Solver for Energy Optimization of Biped Walking Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyang Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of biped robots is always trapped by their high energy consumption. This paper makes a contribution by optimizing the joint torques to decrease the energy consumption without changing the biped gaits. In this work, a constrained quadratic programming (QP problem for energy optimization is formulated. A neurodynamics-based solver is presented to solve the QP problem. Differing from the existing literatures, the proposed neurodynamics-based energy optimization (NEO strategy minimizes the energy consumption and guarantees the following three important constraints simultaneously: (i the force-moment equilibrium equation of biped robots, (ii frictions applied by each leg on the ground to hold the biped robot without slippage and tipping over, and (iii physical limits of the motors. Simulations demonstrate that the proposed strategy is effective for energy-efficient biped walking.

  5. Optimal Control of a Fed-batch Fermentation Process by Neuro-Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Ilkova

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the method for optimal control of a fermentation process is presented, that is based on an approach for optimal control - Neuro-Dynamic programming. For this aim the approximation neural network is developed and the decision of the optimization problem is improved by an iteration mode founded on the Bellman equation. With this approach computing time and procedure are decreased and quality of the biomass at the end of the process is increased.

  6. Connectivity and thought: the influence of semantic network structure in a neurodynamical model of thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marupaka, Nagendra; Iyer, Laxmi R; Minai, Ali A

    2012-08-01

    Understanding cognition has been a central focus for psychologists, neuroscientists and philosophers for thousands of years, but many of its most fundamental processes remain very poorly understood. Chief among these is the process of thought itself: the spontaneous emergence of specific ideas within the stream of consciousness. It is widely accepted that ideas, both familiar and novel, arise from the combination of existing concepts. From this perspective, thought is an emergent attribute of memory, arising from the intrinsic dynamics of the neural substrate in which information is embedded. An important issue in any understanding of this process is the relationship between the emergence of conceptual combinations and the dynamics of the underlying neural networks. Virtually all theories of ideation hypothesize that ideas arise during the thought process through association, each one triggering the next through some type of linkage, e.g., structural analogy, semantic similarity, polysemy, etc. In particular, it has been suggested that the creativity of ideation in individuals reflects the qualitative structure of conceptual associations in their minds. Interestingly, psycholinguistic studies have shown that semantic networks across many languages have a particular type of structure with small-world, scale free connectivity. So far, however, these related insights have not been brought together, in part because there has been no explicitly neural model for the dynamics of spontaneous thought. Recently, we have developed such a model. Though simplistic and abstract, this model attempts to capture the most basic aspects of the process hypothesized by theoretical models within a neurodynamical framework. It represents semantic memory as a recurrent semantic neural network with itinerant dynamics. Conceptual combinations arise through this dynamics as co-active groups of neural units, and either dissolve quickly or persist for a time as emergent metastable attractors

  7. APLIKASI METODE NEURO-DYNAMIC PADA PROSES PENGENDALIAN PERSEDIAAN DI SEBUAH PERUSAHAAN RETAIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngarap Im Manik

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Improper inventory system in terms of cost and customer satisfaction is always the most common problem in every part of industries, and of course, also for retailers. The inappropriateness in setting of orders makes the warehouse overloaded for some kind of goods and lack for the others. To overcome this problem, we proposed to apply the Neuro-Dynamic method for optimizing the composition of goods. This method can be easily implemented using computer program and the result indicates that the overdemand and oversupply problems in that company are solved. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia: Masalah yang sering dihadapi perusahaan retail saat ini antara lain adalah sistem pengendalian persediaan yang kurang tepat, terutama ditinjau dari segi biaya dan kepuasan pelanggan. Hal ini disebabkan karena kuantitas pemesanan yang ditetapkan perusahaan terlalu besar maupun terlalu kecil, sehingga mengakibatkan barang yang disimpan tidak optimal. Untuk menyelesaikan masalah di atas diusulkan dengan menggunakan metode Neuro-Dynamic, yang dapat mengoptimalkan stok barang yang tersedia pada toko, agar biaya yang dikeluarkan minimal dengan menghasilkan keuntungan yang sebesar-besarnya. Untuk memudahkan proses perhitungannya dilakukan dengan program komputer. Hasil pembahasan menunjukkan bahwa perusahaan retail tersebut telah terbantu dalam menjalankan aktivitas perdagangannya, karena tersedianya informasi yang dibutuhkan secara cepat dan cukup akurat dan dapat mengoptimalkan jumlah stok barang yang ada, sehingga mengoptimalkan overdemand dan oversupply. Kata kunci: pengendalian persediaan, Neuro-Dynamic, optimasi.

  8. Interpretation of the concepts of ALARA and bat for radioactive effluent releases from nuclear installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiaoqiu

    2009-01-01

    Based on the understanding of the important concepts of both ALARA and BAT associated with the characteristics of effluent releases from the existing nuclear installations and the abatement techniques for effluents, this paper elaborates the principle of controlling radioactive effluent concentration from nuclear installation, that is based on the BAT focusing on the abatement techniques for effluents, introduces the good practice in the projects, and optimize the effluent releases with account taken of external factors such as the site condition. (authors)

  9. Enhancing CIDOC-CRM and compatible models with the concept of multiple interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ruymbeke, M.; Hallot, P.; Billen, R.

    2017-08-01

    Modelling cultural heritage and archaeological objects is used as much for management as for research purposes. To ensure the sustainable benefit of digital data, models benefit from taking the data specificities of historical and archaeological domains into account. Starting from a conceptual model tailored to storing these specificities, we present, in this paper, an extended mapping to CIDOC-CRM and its compatible models. Offering an ideal framework to structure and highlight the best modelling practices, these ontologies are essentially dedicated to storing semantic data which provides information about cultural heritage objects. Based on this standard, our proposal focuses on multiple interpretation and sequential reality.

  10. Short Term Effects of Neurodynamic Stretching and Static Stretching Techniques on Hamstring Muscle Flexibility in Healthy Male Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Rashad Ahmed

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Flexibility is a key component of rehabilitation and inadequate muscle extensibility remains a commonly accepted factor for musculoskeletal disorders. Studies on the most optimal technique for improving muscle flexibility are a widely debated. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of neurodynamic and static stretching techniques on hamstring flexibility in healthy male subjects. This study was a randomized experimental trial; forty healthy male subjects with hamstring tightness were randomly divided into two equal groups: The neurodynamic group and the static stretching group. Treatment was given for 5 consecutive days and the outcomes were measured using Active knee Extension Test and Straight Leg Raising. There was a significant improvement in hamstring flexibility following application of both neurodynamic and static stretching but the improvement in the neurodynamic group (p<0.001 was better than that of the static group (p<0.02. Results suggest that a neurodynamic stretching could increase hamstring flexibility to a greater extent than static stretching in healthy male subjects with a tight hamstring.

  11. Reflections on the Interpretation of the Locus of Control Concept in Social Research

    OpenAIRE

    De Grande, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a revision of the locus of control concept as a useful tool within the field of research into perception of control and its effects on actions. Locus of control measures have been widely used within and outside psychology to link beliefs with individual actions, and they have proved useful in areas as diverse as education, health, labor mobility and cultural consumption. However, its success at the empirical level has led in some cases —according to its creator, Julian R...

  12. Standardizing terms, definitions and concepts for describing and interpreting unwanted immunogenicity of biopharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rup, B; Pallardy, M; Sikkema, D

    2015-01-01

    Biopharmaceuticals (BPs) represent a rapidly growing class of approved and investigational drug therapies that is contributing significantly to advancing treatment in multiple disease areas, including inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, genetic deficiencies and cancer. Unfortunately, unwanted...... is made difficult due to lack of agreement on concepts, practices and standardized terms and definitions related to immunogenicity. The Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI; www.imi-europe.org), ABIRISK consortium [Anti-Biopharmaceutical (BP) Immunization Prediction and Clinical Relevance to Reduce...... the Risk; www.abirisk.eu] was formed by leading clinicians, academic scientists and EFPIA (European Federation of Pharmaceutical Industries and Associations) members to elucidate underlying causes, improve methods for immunogenicity prediction and mitigation and establish common definitions around terms...

  13. The Geomorphically Effective Hydrograph: An Emerging Concept For Interpreting Channel Morphology And Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, G.; Hempel, L. A.; Marwan, H.; Eaton, B. C.; Lewis, S.

    2017-12-01

    Predicting how alluvial channels adjust to changes in their flow and sediment regimes is one of the Holy Grails of geomorphology. Consider Lane's balance - one of the most widely recognized conceptual models in geomorphology - which graphically shows how a change in any one of the driving variables of slope, grain size, sediment transport rate, or discharge can be accommodated by changes in the other variables. Much of the history of process geomorphology addresses how channels respond to these controlling factors. Yet the emphasis has been disproportionately focused on the effects and consequences of changing sediment transport rates or grain size. Much less attention has been paid to how changing discharge itself, particularly over short, event-based timescales influences the channel. Discharge has typically been treated as a single value - often the bankfull discharge - with little attention paid to how the unsteady nature of flow during floods may influence the morphology of the channel. More attention has been paid recently to the effect of hydrograph shape on channel characteristics, notably the texture of the channel bed. There is little theory and scant data, however, that highlights how the hydrograph affects the channel. We have begun to address this problem through models and targeted experiments. Our goal is to explore the idea of the geomorphically effective hydrograph: the concept that hydrographs with different forms, durations, and sequences play a major, controlling role in shaping the form and organization of alluvial channels. We report on results from both field studies and flume experiments that lend support to this hypothesis. We compare channel forms in channels with radically different flow regimes. The distinctive rectangular shape, constant slope, and absence of alluvial bars in spring-fed channels are in sharp contrast to the more asymmetric channels with regular pool/riffle patterns observed in systems where discharge varies over orders

  14. The Explication and Clarification of the Interpretation of the Concepts “Audit” and “Financial Audit”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazarenko Inna M.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the scientific article is explication, clarification of the interpretation of the concepts “audit” and “financial audit” taking into account their functional significance. Based on analyzing fundamental scientific achievements, legislative and normative documents, it is justified that the identification of the concepts “audit” and “financial audit” is inexpedient, since the latter by means of a transformation expands the functional hypostasis of the audit. It is proved that one of the topical issues of the scientific controversy on the problem is the practical application of financial audit as an active instrument of financial management, which will provide the management component of the business environment with the necessary information support that would correspond to the basic and strengthening criteria for qualitative characteristics of the information usefulness. It is substantiated that the financial audit is characterized by interdisciplinarity, which is advisable to be considered as interaction of the planes of audit and economic diagnostics. It is stated that the interdisciplinarity forms a set of features of financial audit.

  15. Manual therapy and neurodynamic mobilization in a patient with peroneal nerve paralysis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Pillastrini, Paolo; Borboni, Alberto

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe a therapeutic intervention for peroneal nerve paralysis involving the sciatic nerve. A 24-year-old man presented with peroneal nerve paralysis with decreased sensation, severe pain in the popliteal fossa, and steppage gait, which occurred 3 days prior to the consultation. Magnetic resonance imaging and electromyography confirmed lumbar disk herniation with sciatic common peroneal nerve entrapment in the popliteal fossa. A combined treatment protocol of spinal and fibular head manipulation and neurodynamic mobilization including soft tissue work of the psoas and hamstring muscles was performed. Outcome measures were assessed at pretreatment, 1 week posttreatment, and 3-month follow-up and included numeric pain rating scale, range of motion, pressure pain threshold, and manual muscle testing. Treatment interventions were applied for 3 sessions over a period of 1 week. Results showed reduction of the patient's subjective pain and considerable improvement in range of motion, strength, and sensation in his left foot, which was restored to full function. A combined program of spinal and fibular head manipulation and neurodynamic mobilization reduced pain, increased range of motion and strength, and restored full function to the left leg in this patient who had severe functional impairment related to a compressed left common peroneal nerve.

  16. An Attempt to Interpret the Concept of «Mystery» in Relation to the Divine Liturgy and Church Temple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Aleksiejuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is an attempt to look at the most important events in the history of salvation from a liturgical perspective. This reflection begins with an etymological and theological interpretation of the concept of «anamnesis» (ανάμνησις and «mystery» (μυστήρὶα, which have fundamental significance in the liturgical practice of the Orthodox Church. This reflection also serves as an occasion to emphasise the necessity of a continual search for answers to questions which have always had crucial importance for the life and experience of the Church as a human-divine community of the faithful: for Christians, what is the liturgical commemoration of the life and death of the Saviour Jesus Christ, from His Incarnation to Ascension into Heaven to be seated at the Right Hand of the Father? Although the liturgical gift of commemoration is a mystery, it takes place in the Temple Church. This is therefore a visible sign of the invisible, deifying and saving grace of the Triune God, which loves mankind and the world which He created and longs to be “all in all”.

  17. ‘Continuity of care’: a critical interpretive synthesis of how the concept was elaborated by a national research programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Janet; Corden, Anne; Parker, Gillian

    2012-01-01

    Introduction A Continuity of Care Research Programme was undertaken in England in 2000–9. The Programme was informed by a conceptual framework proposed by Freeman and colleagues in an earlier scoping study. At the end of the Programme, a conceptual synthesis was carried out in order to confirm or refine the ‘Freeman model’ of continuity of care. Methods A conceptual synthesis of the outputs of the Programme, using Critical Interpretive Synthesis. Results The conceptual framework underpinning the Freeman model of continuity of care, which prioritises the perspectives of service users and carers, was variously utilised in the Programme. Analysis revealed indications of an emerging shift from the patient and carer ‘perspectivist’ paradigm of the Freeman model towards a new ‘partnership’ paradigm where continuity is recognised to be co-constructed by patients, families and professionals, all of whom have an active part to play in its accomplishment. Conclusions The projects in the Programme have advanced understanding of patients’ perspectives on continuity of care and on the complex nature of this concept. At the same time, they have raised issues and reported findings which may be indicative of an emergent paradigm shift in this area of research, towards a more dynamic partnership model. PMID:22977421

  18. ‘Continuity of care’: a critical interpretive synthesis of how the concept was elaborated by a national research programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet Heaton

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A Continuity of Care Research Programme was undertaken in England in 2000-9. The Programme was informed by a conceptual framework proposed by Freeman and colleagues in an earlier scoping study. At the end of the Programme, a conceptual synthesis was carried out in order to confirm or refine the 'Freeman model' of continuity of care.Methods: A conceptual synthesis of the outputs of the Programme, using Critical Interpretive Synthesis.Results: The conceptual framework underpinning the Freeman model of continuity of care, which prioritises the perspectives of service users and carers, was variously utilised in the Programme. Analysis revealed indications of an emerging shift from the patient and carer 'perspectivist' paradigm of the Freeman model towards a new 'partnership' paradigm where continuity is recognised to be co-constructed by patients, families and professionals, all of whom have an active part to play in its accomplishment.Conclusions: The projects in the Programme have advanced understanding of patients' perspectives on continuity of care and on the complex nature of this concept. At the same time, they have raised issues and reported findings which may be indicative of an emergent paradigm shift in this area of research, towards a more dynamic partnership model.

  19. The concept of “Like Products” under Article 2.1 of the TBT Agreement: a View from the Interpretation Criteria of the WTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Felipe Esteban Tovar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to evaluate the interpretation carried out by the Dispute Settlement Body (DSB of the wto about the concept of “like products” under article 2.1 of the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT in recent cases (United States-Clove cigarettes, United StatesTuna II and United States-COOL, with the end of suggesting certain interpretative elements in accordance with the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties which could have influenced a different interpretation of “like products”by the DSB.

  20. Towards oscillations-based simulation of social systems: a neurodynamic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plikynas, Darius; Basinskas, Gytis; Laukaitis, Algirdas

    2015-04-01

    This multidisciplinary work presents synopsis of theories in the search for common field-like fundamental principles of self-organisation and communication existing on quantum, cellular, and even social levels. Based on these fundamental principles, we formulate conceptually novel social neuroscience paradigm (OSIMAS), which envisages social systems emerging from the coherent neurodynamical processes taking place in the individual mind-fields. In this way, societies are understood as global processes emerging from the superposition of the conscious and subconscious mind-fields of individual members of society. For the experimental validation of the biologically inspired OSIMAS paradigm, we have designed a framework of EEG-based experiments. Initial baseline individual tests of spectral cross-correlations of EEG-recorded brainwave patterns for some mental states have been provided in this paper. Preliminary experimental results do not refute the main OSIMAS postulates. This paper also provides some insights for the construction of OSIMAS-based simulation models.

  1. Addressing neurodynamic irritability in a patient with adhesive capsulitis: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Kevin; Lampe, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients with adhesive capsulitis are commonly seen by physical therapists. Pain and limited shoulder motion from adhesive capsulitis have at times been linked to neural irritation. The purpose of this case is to describe the examination and intervention of a patient with adhesive capsulitis who appeared to have a coexisting, underlying neural irritation. This paper emphasizes how the neurological component must initially be identified and addressed for a successful outcome. Case description A 47-year-old female presented with reduced shoulder motion and function, upper extremity neural irritation, diffuse weakness, altered sensation in the involved extremity, and symptoms reproduced with upper limb neurodynamic testing. Her reduced shoulder range of motion was accompanied by limited glenohumeral glides and a report of local neck stiffness. Symptoms began several months earlier after an apparent electrical shock injury to the arm that caused symptoms and guarding of the shoulder. Intervention initially addressed the underlying neural component with spinal mobilizations while avoiding further irritation. Interventions were progressed to include mobilization and exercise to address shoulder mobility. Outcomes The patient’s neurodynamic irritability, distal symptoms, and neck stiffness were normalized within the first weeks of care. Subsequently, interventions were directed at the shoulder. Outcomes over an 12-week time frame included reduced pain from 10/10 to 2/10. Passive range of motion increases included flexion from 121 to 160°, abduction from 71 to 121°, and external rotation from 18 to 60°. Disability scores on Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) dropped from initially 68·3 to 18·3% at discharge. She ultimately regained full upper extremity function. Discussion Therapists should be cognizant of possible neural irritation in shoulder disorders, which may contribute to conditions such as adhesive capsulitis. Identifying neural

  2. Top-down and bottom-up neurodynamic evidence in patients with tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sung Kwang; Park, Sejik; Ahn, Min-Hee; Min, Byoung-Kyong

    2016-12-01

    Although a peripheral auditory (bottom-up) deficit is an essential prerequisite for the generation of tinnitus, central cognitive (top-down) impairment has also been shown to be an inherent neuropathological mechanism. Using an auditory oddball paradigm (for top-down analyses) and a passive listening paradigm (for bottom-up analyses) while recording electroencephalograms (EEGs), we investigated whether top-down or bottom-up components were more critical in the neuropathology of tinnitus, independent of peripheral hearing loss. We observed significantly reduced P300 amplitudes (reflecting fundamental cognitive processes such as attention) and evoked theta power (reflecting top-down regulation in memory systems) for target stimuli at the tinnitus frequency of patients with tinnitus but without hearing loss. The contingent negative variation (reflecting top-down expectation of a subsequent event prior to stimulation) and N100 (reflecting auditory bottom-up selective attention) were different between the healthy and patient groups. Interestingly, when tinnitus patients were divided into two subgroups based on their P300 amplitudes, their P170 and N200 components, and annoyance and distress indices to their tinnitus sound were different. EEG theta-band power and its Granger causal neurodynamic results consistently support a double dissociation of these two groups in both top-down and bottom-up tasks. Directed cortical connectivity corroborates that the tinnitus network involves the anterior cingulate and the parahippocampal areas, where higher-order top-down control is generated. Together, our observations provide neurophysiological and neurodynamic evidence revealing a differential engagement of top-down impairment along with deficits in bottom-up processing in patients with tinnitus but without hearing loss. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Addressing neurodynamic irritability in a patient with adhesive capsulitis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Kevin; Lampe, Katherine

    2017-02-01

    Patients with adhesive capsulitis are commonly seen by physical therapists. Pain and limited shoulder motion from adhesive capsulitis have at times been linked to neural irritation. The purpose of this case is to describe the examination and intervention of a patient with adhesive capsulitis who appeared to have a coexisting, underlying neural irritation. This paper emphasizes how the neurological component must initially be identified and addressed for a successful outcome. A 47-year-old female presented with reduced shoulder motion and function, upper extremity neural irritation, diffuse weakness, altered sensation in the involved extremity, and symptoms reproduced with upper limb neurodynamic testing. Her reduced shoulder range of motion was accompanied by limited glenohumeral glides and a report of local neck stiffness. Symptoms began several months earlier after an apparent electrical shock injury to the arm that caused symptoms and guarding of the shoulder. Intervention initially addressed the underlying neural component with spinal mobilizations while avoiding further irritation. Interventions were progressed to include mobilization and exercise to address shoulder mobility. The patient's neurodynamic irritability, distal symptoms, and neck stiffness were normalized within the first weeks of care. Subsequently, interventions were directed at the shoulder. Outcomes over an 12-week time frame included reduced pain from 10/10 to 2/10. Passive range of motion increases included flexion from 121 to 160°, abduction from 71 to 121°, and external rotation from 18 to 60°. Disability scores on Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) dropped from initially 68·3 to 18·3% at discharge. She ultimately regained full upper extremity function. Therapists should be cognizant of possible neural irritation in shoulder disorders, which may contribute to conditions such as adhesive capsulitis. Identifying neural irritation is critical when determining which

  4. Concepts and Plural Predication : The Effects of Conceptual Knowledge on the Interpretation of Reciprocal and Conjunctive Plural Constructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poortman, E.B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/337396396

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation studies the interpretation of plural sentences and its connection to conceptual information in the human mind. The main claim is that conceptual information on content words can affect the logical interpretation of complex plural sentences, unlike what traditional formal semantic

  5. Short Term Effects of Neurodynamic Stretching and Static Stretching Techniques on Hamstring Muscle Flexibility in Healthy Male Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Adel Rashad Ahmed; Ahmed Fathy Samhan

    2016-01-01

    Flexibility is a key component of rehabilitation and inadequate muscle extensibility remains a commonly accepted factor for musculoskeletal disorders. Studies on the most optimal technique for improving muscle flexibility are a widely debated. The aim of the study was to compare the effectiveness of neurodynamic and static stretching techniques on hamstring flexibility in healthy male subjects. This study was a randomized experimental trial; forty healthy male subjects with hamstr...

  6. Neurodynamic oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Ismael; Gonzalez, Hortensia; Quiza, Jorge; Gonazalez, J. Jesus; Arroyo, Ruben; Lara, Ritaluz

    1995-01-01

    Oscillation of electrical activity has been found in many nervous systems, from invertebrates to vertebrates including man. There exists experimental evidence of very simple circuits with the capability of oscillation. Neurons with intrinsic oscillation have been found and also neural circuits where oscillation is a property of the network. These two types of oscillations coexist in many instances. It is nowadays hypothesized that behind synchronization and oscillation there is a system of coupled oscillators responsible for activities that range from locomotion and feature binding in vision to control of sleep and circadian rhythms. The huge knowledge that has been acquired on oscillators from the times of Lord Rayleigh has made the simulation of neural oscillators a very active endeavor. This has been enhanced with more recent physiological findings about small neural circuits by means of intracellular and extracellular recordings as well as imaging methods. The future of this interdisciplinary field looks very promising; some researchers are going into quantum mechanics with the idea of trying to provide a quantum description of the brain. In this work we describe some simulations using neuron models by means of which we form simple neural networks that have the capability of oscillation. We analyze the oscillatory activity with root locus method, cross-correlation histograms, and phase planes. In the more complicated neural network models there is the possibility of chaotic oscillatory activity and we study that by means of Lyapunov exponents. The companion paper shows an example of that kind.

  7. Interpreting Physics

    CERN Document Server

    MacKinnon, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This book is the first to offer a systematic account of the role of language in the development and interpretation of physics. An historical-conceptual analysis of the co-evolution of mathematical and physical concepts leads to the classical/quatum interface. Bohrian orthodoxy stresses the indispensability of classical concepts and the functional role of mathematics. This book analyses ways of extending, and then going beyond this orthodoxy orthodoxy. Finally, the book analyzes how a revised interpretation of physics impacts on basic philosophical issues: conceptual revolutions, realism, and r

  8. Adaptive optimal control of highly dissipative nonlinear spatially distributed processes with neuro-dynamic programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Biao; Wu, Huai-Ning; Li, Han-Xiong

    2015-04-01

    Highly dissipative nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) are widely employed to describe the system dynamics of industrial spatially distributed processes (SDPs). In this paper, we consider the optimal control problem of the general highly dissipative SDPs, and propose an adaptive optimal control approach based on neuro-dynamic programming (NDP). Initially, Karhunen-Loève decomposition is employed to compute empirical eigenfunctions (EEFs) of the SDP based on the method of snapshots. These EEFs together with singular perturbation technique are then used to obtain a finite-dimensional slow subsystem of ordinary differential equations that accurately describes the dominant dynamics of the PDE system. Subsequently, the optimal control problem is reformulated on the basis of the slow subsystem, which is further converted to solve a Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation. HJB equation is a nonlinear PDE that has proven to be impossible to solve analytically. Thus, an adaptive optimal control method is developed via NDP that solves the HJB equation online using neural network (NN) for approximating the value function; and an online NN weight tuning law is proposed without requiring an initial stabilizing control policy. Moreover, by involving the NN estimation error, we prove that the original closed-loop PDE system with the adaptive optimal control policy is semiglobally uniformly ultimately bounded. Finally, the developed method is tested on a nonlinear diffusion-convection-reaction process and applied to a temperature cooling fin of high-speed aerospace vehicle, and the achieved results show its effectiveness.

  9. Collective neurodynamic optimization for economic emission dispatch problem considering valve point effect in microgrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiancai; He, Xing; Huang, Tingwen; Li, Chuandong; Zhang, Wei

    2017-09-01

    The economic emission dispatch (EED) problem aims to control generation cost and reduce the impact of waste gas on the environment. It has multiple constraints and nonconvex objectives. To solve it, the collective neurodynamic optimization (CNO) method, which combines heuristic approach and projection neural network (PNN), is attempted to optimize scheduling of an electrical microgrid with ten thermal generators and minimize the plus of generation and emission cost. As the objective function has non-derivative points considering valve point effect (VPE), differential inclusion approach is employed in the PNN model introduced to deal with them. Under certain conditions, the local optimality and convergence of the dynamic model for the optimization problem is analyzed. The capability of the algorithm is verified in a complicated situation, where transmission loss and prohibited operating zones are considered. In addition, the dynamic variation of load power at demand side is considered and the optimal scheduling of generators within 24 h is described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Tool-Body Assimilation Model Based on Body Babbling and Neurodynamical System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuniyuki Takahashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose the new method of tool use with a tool-body assimilation model based on body babbling and a neurodynamical system for robots to use tools. Almost all existing studies for robots to use tools require predetermined motions and tool features; the motion patterns are limited and the robots cannot use novel tools. Other studies fully search for all available parameters for novel tools, but this leads to massive amounts of calculations. To solve these problems, we took the following approach: we used a humanoid robot model to generate random motions based on human body babbling. These rich motion experiences were used to train recurrent and deep neural networks for modeling a body image. Tool features were self-organized in parametric bias, modulating the body image according to the tool in use. Finally, we designed a neural network for the robot to generate motion only from the target image. Experiments were conducted with multiple tools for manipulating a cylindrical target object. The results show that the tool-body assimilation model is capable of motion generation.

  11. Output Feedback-Based Boundary Control of Uncertain Coupled Semilinear Parabolic PDE Using Neurodynamic Programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaei, Behzad; Jagannathan, Sarangapani; Singler, John

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, neurodynamic programming-based output feedback boundary control of distributed parameter systems governed by uncertain coupled semilinear parabolic partial differential equations (PDEs) under Neumann or Dirichlet boundary control conditions is introduced. First, Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman (HJB) equation is formulated in the original PDE domain and the optimal control policy is derived using the value functional as the solution of the HJB equation. Subsequently, a novel observer is developed to estimate the system states given the uncertain nonlinearity in PDE dynamics and measured outputs. Consequently, the suboptimal boundary control policy is obtained by forward-in-time estimation of the value functional using a neural network (NN)-based online approximator and estimated state vector obtained from the NN observer. Novel adaptive tuning laws in continuous time are proposed for learning the value functional online to satisfy the HJB equation along system trajectories while ensuring the closed-loop stability. Local uniformly ultimate boundedness of the closed-loop system is verified by using Lyapunov theory. The performance of the proposed controller is verified via simulation on an unstable coupled diffusion reaction process.

  12. An Online Energy Management Control for Hybrid Electric Vehicles Based on Neuro-Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiyan Qin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid electric vehicles are a compromise between traditional vehicles and pure electric vehicles and can be part of the solution to the energy shortage problem. Energy management strategies (EMSs are highly related to energy utilization in HEVs’ fuel economy. In this research, we have employed a neuro-dynamic programming (NDP method to simultaneously optimize fuel economy and battery state of charge (SOC. In this NDP method, the critic network is a multi-resolution wavelet neural network based on the Meyer wavelet function, and the action network is a conventional wavelet neural network based on the Morlet function. The weights and parameters of both networks are obtained by an algorithm of backpropagation type. The NDP-based EMS has been applied to a parallel HEV and compared with a previously reported NDP EMS and a stochastic dynamic programing-based method. Simulation results under ADVISOR2002 have shown that the proposed NDP approach achieves better performance than both the methods. These indicate that the proposed NDP EMS, and the CWNN and MRWNN, are effective in approximating a nonlinear system.

  13. Intercultural Interpretations about Concepts of Nutrition: Body Formation among the Tikuna Indians of the Colombian Amazon Trapeze

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María León Taborda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper approaches the indigenous perceptions about the formation of an infant body by the Tikuna Indians of San Martin de Amacayacu, who live in the south of the Colombian Amazon Trapeze. Indigenous concepts about nutrition are not comparable with the concepts of nutrition and malnutrition from the perspective of biological quantification. For the natives, body formation initiates with their myths of origin, everyday subsistence activities, relationships with natural beings and the bestowal of care of infant babies and small children. For health professionals, in contrast, the conception of the human body is based upon a biological, nutritional and anthropometric logic. The article shows the differences between these two visions, calling for an intercultural rethinking to make them compatible in order to avoid infant deaths associated with nutritional deficiencies.  

  14. How to Build New Interpretation Concept using Dynamic Data: A case Study in Carbonate of Upper Cibulakan, North West Java Basin, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramudito, Dimas; Meidiana, Tania; Alfianto, A. D.; Rizki Nurhadi, Dhea

    2017-04-01

    Bravo Structure is one of the Pertamina EP gas producing field in North West Java Basin region. This structure located at Subang about 10 km southeast from City Subang. The objective of this structure is a vertical compartment of carbonate due to diagenetic effect and transgression. This evident cause shale deposited and divide multi-layer carbonate reservoir. The carbonate lies at Cibulakan Formation and has three reservoirs: Z-14, Z-15, and Z-16 limestone. Since each reservoir has different pressure data and CO2 contain, so it becomes challenges to make new interpretation and to know those compartments between reservoirs. To look up geometry distribution detailed, this structure is reinterpreted using 3D seismic (2014) and new concept depositional environment based on wells correlation and core analysis. Generating seismic interpretation using seismic inversion and attribute. Amplitude envelope and instantaneous frequency are calculated to obtain sweetness. Both of them are built by 3D volume seismic. High magnitude from amplitude envelope is used to characterize geometry distribution of carbonate while instantaneous frequency determines low frequency because of gas distribution. The result of this study suggests vertical and lateral carbonate distribution characteristics Meanwhile sweetness attribute can determine gas contain in each layer Z-14 and Z-15. Vertical distribution of Z-14 layer about 140 m (porosity 7-11%) and Z-15 about 70 m (porosity 8-13%). Finally, interpreting carbonate both Z-14 and Z-15 as shelf margin that new concept gives a chances to develop this structure and optimize reservoir management.

  15. Determination of difficult concepts in the interpretation of musculoskeletal radiographs using a web-based learning/teaching tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunn, Heidi, E-mail: heidi@imageinterpretation.co.uk [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Colney Lane, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7UY (United Kingdom); Nunn, David L. [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Colney Lane, Norwich, Norfolk NR4 7UY (United Kingdom)

    2011-11-15

    Aim: To identify which aspects of musculoskeletal radiograph image interpretation users of a web-based learning resource found to be most difficult. Method: The resource provides modular online training, based on twelve musculoskeletal anatomical and pathological areas. At the end of each module is a multiple choice self-test, which users can utilize to consolidate their learning. There are 217 questions within the tests. The results for all questions answered on or before 1st February 2011 were analyzed, and the lowest scoring 25% of questions subsequently reviewed. A low-scoring question implies that the subject was difficult. Results: Users provided a total of 117,097 answers. The range of scores provided by the test questions varied significantly (P < 0.0001), from 15.8% to 93.8%. Topics appearing in the lowest quartile were analyzed in detail. They included interpretation of paediatric radiographs, the Salter-Harris classification, soft-tissue signs and the identification of multiple injuries. The lowest scoring modules were the shoulder and ankle. Conclusion: The results of this study will help to guide educators both within radiography and other health professions in providing more targeted teaching in musculoskeletal image interpretation.

  16. Determination of difficult concepts in the interpretation of musculoskeletal radiographs using a web-based learning/teaching tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunn, Heidi; Nunn, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To identify which aspects of musculoskeletal radiograph image interpretation users of a web-based learning resource found to be most difficult. Method: The resource provides modular online training, based on twelve musculoskeletal anatomical and pathological areas. At the end of each module is a multiple choice self-test, which users can utilize to consolidate their learning. There are 217 questions within the tests. The results for all questions answered on or before 1st February 2011 were analyzed, and the lowest scoring 25% of questions subsequently reviewed. A low-scoring question implies that the subject was difficult. Results: Users provided a total of 117,097 answers. The range of scores provided by the test questions varied significantly (P < 0.0001), from 15.8% to 93.8%. Topics appearing in the lowest quartile were analyzed in detail. They included interpretation of paediatric radiographs, the Salter-Harris classification, soft-tissue signs and the identification of multiple injuries. The lowest scoring modules were the shoulder and ankle. Conclusion: The results of this study will help to guide educators both within radiography and other health professions in providing more targeted teaching in musculoskeletal image interpretation.

  17. Semiotic aspects of the countertransference: some observations on the concepts of the 'immediate object' and the 'interpretant' in the work of Charles S. Peirce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetzmann, Lutz; Schwegler, Kyrill

    2004-12-01

    The field of semiotics, established by Charles S. Peirce, is characterised by its recognition of non-linguistic signs and embedment in a communicative interaction; for this reason, it is especially well suited for a semiotic investigation of intersubjective processes. In this paper, the authors show how these intersubjective processes can be understood in semiotic terms within the transference-countertransference setting. Based on a case vignette, the relationship between the 'real object' (e.g. an unconscious fantasy) and the sign (e.g. a particular facial expression) is first demonstrated. In this mediation between sign and referent, an important role is played by the 'immediate object', by which Peirce understood the mental concept of a sign. However, a further component of the Peircian sign is responsible for the emergence of the countertransference, namely, the 'interpretant'. The core of Peircian semiotics, namely the concept of an (infinite) process of signification, sheds light in semiotic terms on the dialectical movement between transference-signs and countertransference-signs, the interpretation and encounter between two subjects. The paper concludes with a discussion of both the interdisciplinary applicability of Peircian semiotics, for example in the context of the neurosciences, and the differences between the Peircian epistemological position and psychoanalytical conceptions of the objective cognition of mental processes.

  18. Embodiment of the Interpretant in a Sign: Reconsider the Concept of a Sign as a Factor of Social Construction in the Frame of Embodied and Disembodied Mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovchak Volodymyr

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Social reality is semiotically constructed through a sign and sign relations as the mechanism of mediation and creation of “being together”. Social reality is in a constant creative process of dynamic change. It is provided by an intellectual interpretation of the mechanism itself, the real world, the being of other, signs and sign relations, through which a person finds the meaning of his/her being and is included in the overall construction of social reality. Therefore, the dynamic movement of thought to knowledge, to sense, to the joy of everyday life is made through an interpretation as a communicative and semiotic process of searching and involving the general community to another being. Historically, the most important models of signs and sign mediation is the sign model by F. de Saussure and Ch.S. Peirce. These models have long been criticized, but remained fundamental in the socio-semiotic mechanism of mediation between subject and object of knowledge and the construction of social reality. Following the publication of Ch. Taylor’s book “Sources of the self”, the concept of F. de Saussure and Ch.S. Peirce clearly gained social significance, in light of which many hidden mechanisms of semiotic construction of social reality become clear. Open-mindedness, which is the core process of semiosis, has a great importance for the construction of social reality. Basically, thinking is directed at the construction of a new body, the interpretant is directed at constructing a new interpreter. Of course, the construction of the body and physicality is not core one, but a peripheral process. However, it is not devoid of social value and also has potential in the construction of social community “being together”. Intelligent processes are rooted in the daily functioning of the body as their carrier, and the interpretant therefore provides an essential concrete interpreter. If the interpretant aimed against the interpreter as its carrier

  19. [Resuscitational aspects of evolution of history of death teaching and interpretation of concept of death as bioethical category].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhaladze, V M

    2007-04-01

    The aim of the research was to determine the role of resuscitation science and practice in development of new trends in thanatology; and to determine the significance of integrated interdisciplinary approach to notion "death" as "biological, medical, and bioethical" categories. The author discusses nine distinct concepts of death and concludes that only complex scientific approach can enrich the knowledge about the notion of death. The list of different aspects of interdisciplinary bioethical definition of notion "death" was developed.

  20. A High-Enrollment Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience Improves Student Conceptions of Scientific Thinking and Ability to Interpret Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Sara E.; Hekmat-Scafe, Daria S.; Singla, Veena; Chandler Seawell, Patricia; Conklin Imam, Jamie F.; Eddy, Sarah L.; Stearns, Tim; Cyert, Martha S.

    2015-01-01

    We present an innovative course-based undergraduate research experience curriculum focused on the characterization of single point mutations in p53, a tumor suppressor gene that is mutated in more than 50% of human cancers. This course is required of all introductory biology students, so all biology majors engage in a research project as part of their training. Using a set of open-ended written prompts, we found that the course shifts student conceptions of what it means to think like a scientist from novice to more expert-like. Students at the end of the course identified experimental repetition, data analysis, and collaboration as important elements of thinking like a scientist. Course exams revealed that students showed gains in their ability to analyze and interpret data. These data indicate that this course-embedded research experience has a positive impact on the development of students’ conceptions and practice of scientific thinking. PMID:26033869

  1. Interpretive Media Study and Interpretive Social Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carragee, Kevin M.

    1990-01-01

    Defines the major theoretical influences on interpretive approaches in mass communication, examines the central concepts of these perspectives, and provides a critique of these approaches. States that the adoption of interpretive approaches in mass communication has ignored varied critiques of interpretive social science. Suggests that critical…

  2. BioCore Guide: A Tool for Interpreting the Core Concepts of Vision and Change for Biology Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Scott; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Crowe, Alison J.

    2014-01-01

    Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education outlined five core concepts intended to guide undergraduate biology education: 1) evolution; 2) structure and function; 3) information flow, exchange, and storage; 4) pathways and transformations of energy and matter; and 5) systems. We have taken these general recommendations and created a Vision and Change BioCore Guide—a set of general principles and specific statements that expand upon the core concepts, creating a framework that biology departments can use to align with the goals of Vision and Change. We used a grassroots approach to generate the BioCore Guide, beginning with faculty ideas as the basis for an iterative process that incorporated feedback from more than 240 biologists and biology educators at a diverse range of academic institutions throughout the United States. The final validation step in this process demonstrated strong national consensus, with more than 90% of respondents agreeing with the importance and scientific accuracy of the statements. It is our hope that the BioCore Guide will serve as an agent of change for biology departments as we move toward transforming undergraduate biology education. PMID:26086653

  3. BioCore Guide: A Tool for Interpreting the Core Concepts of Vision and Change for Biology Majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Sara E; Freeman, Scott; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Crowe, Alison J

    2014-01-01

    Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education outlined five core concepts intended to guide undergraduate biology education: 1) evolution; 2) structure and function; 3) information flow, exchange, and storage; 4) pathways and transformations of energy and matter; and 5) systems. We have taken these general recommendations and created a Vision and Change BioCore Guide-a set of general principles and specific statements that expand upon the core concepts, creating a framework that biology departments can use to align with the goals of Vision and Change. We used a grassroots approach to generate the BioCore Guide, beginning with faculty ideas as the basis for an iterative process that incorporated feedback from more than 240 biologists and biology educators at a diverse range of academic institutions throughout the United States. The final validation step in this process demonstrated strong national consensus, with more than 90% of respondents agreeing with the importance and scientific accuracy of the statements. It is our hope that the BioCore Guide will serve as an agent of change for biology departments as we move toward transforming undergraduate biology education. © 2014 S. E. Brownell et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  4. Crustal structure and evolution of the Pyrenean-Cantabrian belt: A review and new interpretations from recent concepts and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixell, A.; Labaume, P.; Ayarza, P.; Espurt, N.; de Saint Blanquat, M.; Lagabrielle, Y.

    2018-01-01

    This paper provides a synthesis of current data and interpretations on the crustal structure of the Pyrenean-Cantabrian orogenic belt, and presents new tectonic models for representative transects. The Pyrenean orogeny lasted from Santonian ( 84 Ma) to early Miocene times ( 20 Ma), and consisted of a spatial and temporal succession of oceanic crust/exhumed mantle subduction, rift inversion and continental collision processes at the Iberia-Eurasia plate boundary. A good coverage by active-source (vertical-incidence and wide-angle reflection) and passive-source (receiver functions) seismic studies, coupled with surface data have led to a reasonable knowledge of the present-day crustal architecture of the Pyrenean-Cantabrian belt, although questions remain. Seismic imaging reveals a persistent structure, from the central Pyrenees to the central Cantabrian Mountains, consisting of a wedge of Eurasian lithosphere indented into the thicker Iberian plate, whose lower crust is detached and plunges northwards into the mantle. For the Pyrenees, a new scheme of relationships between the southern upper crustal thrust sheets and the Axial Zone is here proposed. For the Cantabrian belt, the depth reached by the N-dipping Iberian crust and the structure of the margin are also revised. The common occurrence of lherzolite bodies in the northern Pyrenees and the seismic velocity and potential field record of the Bay of Biscay indicate that the precursor of the Pyrenees was a hyperextended and strongly segmented rift system, where narrow domains of exhumed mantle separated the thinned Iberian and Eurasian continental margins since the Albian-Cenomanian. The exhumed mantle in the Pyrenean rift was largely covered by a Mesozoic sedimentary lid that had locally glided along detachments in Triassic evaporites. Continental margin collision in the Pyrenees was preceded by subduction of the exhumed mantle, accompanied by the pop-up thrust expulsion of the off-scraped sedimentary lid above

  5. Neurodynamic mobilization in the conservative treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome: long-term follow-up of 7 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskay, Deran; Meriç, Aydin; Kirdi, Nuray; Firat, Tüzün; Ayhan, Ciğdem; Leblebicioğlu, Gürsel

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this case series is to describe the effect of nerve mobilization techniques in the standard conservative management of cubital tunnel syndrome (CTS). Seven patients with CTS participated in this study. Inclusion criteria were having grade 1 and grade 2 entrapment neuropathy according to the McGowan grading system and no other neuropathies. In the evaluation, gripping with grip dynamometer; palmar gripping with a pinchmeter; pain level and Tinel sign with visual analog scale; sensibility with Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments; and functional status of the patients with the Turkish version of the Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand Index were performed before starting a rehabilitation program, at the end of the 8-week rehabilitation program, and at 12-month follow-up. The physiotherapy program consisted of cold application, pulsed ultrasound, nerve mobilization techniques, strengthening exercises, postural adaptations, patient education, and ergonomic modifications. Pain; Tinel sign; and Disability of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand Index scores were decreased, whereas grip and pinch strength increased in the observation period for these 7 patients. This case series demonstrated that conservative treatment of CTS may be beneficial for selected patients with mild to moderate symptoms. The treatment included neurodynamic mobilizations, including sliding techniques and tensioning techniques, which are thought to enhance ulnar nerve gliding and restore neural tissue mobility. Conservative treatment using neurodynamic mobilization with patient education and activity modification demonstrated some long-term positive results. (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Concepts of the body and personhood in the Mesolithic-Neolithic Danube Gorges: interpreting animal remains from human burials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Živaljević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, humanities have brought forward the idea of non-human agency; either in the form of meanings bestowed upon objects, animals and natural phenomena, or through deconstruction of ontological differences between ‘people’ and ‘things’. In case of the former, it has been argued that non-human agents have the power to act as ‘participants’ in social action (e.g. the agentive power of material properties of things, or of animal behaviour. In this paper, I discuss the practice of placing animal body parts alongside human bodies in the Mesolithic-Neolithic Danube Gorges, by using the concept of perspectivism as a theoretical framework. The choice of species and their body parts varied, but was by no means accidental. Rather, it reflected certain culturally specific taxonomies, which were based on animal properties: how they look, move, feel or what they do. Common examples include red deer antlers, which have the power to ‘regenerate’ each year, or dog mandibles (physical remains of ‘mouths’ which have the power to ‘communicate’ (i.e. bark. The aim of the paper is to explore how various aspects of animal corporeality, associated with certain ways of seeing and experiencing the world, could be ‘borrowed’ by humans utilizing animal body parts.

  7. Linguistics in Text Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Ole

    2011-01-01

    A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'.......A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'....

  8. A high-enrollment course-based undergraduate research experience improves student conceptions of scientific thinking and ability to interpret data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Sara E; Hekmat-Scafe, Daria S; Singla, Veena; Chandler Seawell, Patricia; Conklin Imam, Jamie F; Eddy, Sarah L; Stearns, Tim; Cyert, Martha S

    2015-01-01

    We present an innovative course-based undergraduate research experience curriculum focused on the characterization of single point mutations in p53, a tumor suppressor gene that is mutated in more than 50% of human cancers. This course is required of all introductory biology students, so all biology majors engage in a research project as part of their training. Using a set of open-ended written prompts, we found that the course shifts student conceptions of what it means to think like a scientist from novice to more expert-like. Students at the end of the course identified experimental repetition, data analysis, and collaboration as important elements of thinking like a scientist. Course exams revealed that students showed gains in their ability to analyze and interpret data. These data indicate that this course-embedded research experience has a positive impact on the development of students' conceptions and practice of scientific thinking. © 2015 S. E. Brownell et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2015 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  9. An interpretation of the ƒoF2 and hmF2 long-term trends in the framework of the geomagnetic control concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Mikhailov

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Earlier revealed morphological features of the foF2 and hmF2 long-term trends are interpreted in the scope of the geomagnetic control concept based on the contemporary F2-layer storm mechanisms. The F2-layer parameter trends strongly depend on the long-term varying geomagnetic activity whose effects cannot be removed from the trends using conventional indices of geomagnetic activity. Therefore, any interpretation of the foF2 and hmF2 trends should consider the geomagnetic effects as an inalienable part of the trend analysis. Periods with negative and positive foF2 and hmF2 trends correspond to the periods of increasing or decreasing geomagnetic activity with the turning points around 1955, and the end of 1960s and 1980s, where foF2 and hmF2 trends change their signs. Such variations can be explained by neutral composition, as well as temperature and thermospheric wind changes related to geomagnetic activity variations. In particular, for the period of increasing geomagnetic activity (1965–1991 positive at lower latitudes, but negative at middle and high latitudes, foF2 trends may be explained by neutral composition and temperature changes, while soft electron precipitation determines nighttime trends at sub-auroral and auroral latitudes. A pronounced dependence of the foF2 trends on geomagnetic (invariant latitude and the absence of any latitudinal dependence for the hmF2 trends are due to different dependencies of NmF2 and hmF2 on main aeronomic parameters. All of the revealed latitudinal and diurnal foF2 and hmF2 trend variations may be explained in the frame-work of contemporary F2-region storm mechanisms. The newly proposed geomagnetic storm concept used to explain F2-layer parameter long-term trends proceeds from a natural origin of the trends rather than an artificial one, related to the thermosphere cooling due to the greenhouse effect. Within this concept, instead of cooling, one should expect the thermosphere heating for the period of

  10. Brain resting-state networks in adolescents with high-functioning autism: Analysis of spatial connectivity and temporal neurodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernas, Antoine; Barendse, Evelien M; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Backes, Walter H; Hofman, Paul A M; Hendriks, Marc P H; Kessels, Roy P C; Willems, Frans M J; de With, Peter H N; Zinger, Svitlana; Jansen, Jacobus F A

    2018-02-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is mainly characterized by functional and communication impairments as well as restrictive and repetitive behavior. The leading hypothesis for the neural basis of autism postulates globally abnormal brain connectivity, which can be assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Even in the absence of a task, the brain exhibits a high degree of functional connectivity, known as intrinsic, or resting-state, connectivity. Global default connectivity in individuals with autism versus controls is not well characterized, especially for a high-functioning young population. The aim of this study is to test whether high-functioning adolescents with ASD (HFA) have an abnormal resting-state functional connectivity. We performed spatial and temporal analyses on resting-state networks (RSNs) in 13 HFA adolescents and 13 IQ- and age-matched controls. For the spatial analysis, we used probabilistic independent component analysis (ICA) and a permutation statistical method to reveal the RSN differences between the groups. For the temporal analysis, we applied Granger causality to find differences in temporal neurodynamics. Controls and HFA display very similar patterns and strengths of resting-state connectivity. We do not find any significant differences between HFA adolescents and controls in the spatial resting-state connectivity. However, in the temporal dynamics of this connectivity, we did find differences in the causal effect properties of RSNs originating in temporal and prefrontal cortices. The results show a difference between HFA and controls in the temporal neurodynamics from the ventral attention network to the salience-executive network: a pathway involving cognitive, executive, and emotion-related cortices. We hypothesized that this weaker dynamic pathway is due to a subtle trigger challenging the cognitive state prior to the resting state.

  11. The effect of sustained natural apophyseal glide (SNAG) combined with neurodynamics in the management of a patient with cervical radiculopathy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandkumar, Sudarshan

    2015-02-01

    This case report describes a 47-year-old female who presented with complaints of pain in the right elbow radiating down to the thumb. Physical examination revealed symptom reproduction with Spurling A test, upper limb neurodynamic testing-1 and right cervical rotation along with reduced symptoms with neck distraction. Clinical diagnosis of cervical radiculopathy (CR) was made based on a clinical prediction rule. This case report speculates a potentially first-time description of successful conservative management of CR in a patient utilizing simultaneous combination of sustained natural apophyseal glide and neurodynamic mobilization. Immediate improvements were seen in pain, cervical range of motion and functional abilities. The patient was discharged from physical therapy by the second week after four treatment sessions with complete pain resolution maintained at a four-month follow-up period.

  12. Altruism or obligation? The motivations and experience of women who donate oocytes to known recipients in assisted conception treatment: an interpretative phenomenological analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Santanu; Bryant, Louise; Twiddy, Maureen

    2017-03-01

    This qualitative study was conducted to explore the motivations and experience of oocyte donors donating to women known to them. Three women who donated oocytes to a close relative were interviewed and data were analysed using an Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis approach. The two key elements noted were "motivations for donation" and "coping with the consequences of oocyte donation". The motivation for donation was influenced by the familial bond that was strengthened by the donation process in some cases. The concept of altruistic oocyte donation stemmed from the narratives of giving the gift of motherhood and gaining a positive self-image and respect from others. Coping with the consequences of oocyte donation tests the donor identity, their wishes for a positive outcome, concerns regarding disclosure of biological motherhood and detachment from the egg and potential child. Motivation is influenced by a combination of factors including the rewards of altruistic behaviour, the existence and potential strengthening of the relationship between donor and recipient, but possibly also, a sense of obligation and societal expectations. Oocyte donation can be variously viewed by donors as a unique way of reproductive empowerment or an example of acceding to subtle coercion and thus disempowerment. The study also highlights the clinical as well as ethical importance of providing support services for oocyte donors and recipients.

  13. To redeem what could be redeemed. A vitalistic interpretation of Hannah Arendt’s doctoral thesis ‚On the concept of love in Augustine’.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafał Zawisza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a presentation of Hannah Arendt’s doctoral thesis publishedin 1929 and devoted to the notion of love in Augustine (Der Liebesbegriff beiAugustin. Its aim is to demonstrate the originality of Arendt’s work towards hermajor influence and object of criticism – the philosophy of Martin Heidegger. Herconcept of natality, derived from Augustinian thought, opposes to being-towards--death. This movement makes a different conception of subjectivity possible: Heideggerianegocentrism can be substituted by a plurality. Vitalism (as proposed by AgataBielik-Robson is noticeable in the interpretational efforts of Arendt and defendsa particular subjectivity against dissolution of any kind into Wholeness. Simultaneously,a vision of a community is formed – the community of equals constructedthanks to the recognition of contingency in conditio humana. In other words, herargument overcomes claims to absolute freedom. Reflections from the “pretheologicalsphere” (Arendt take the form of philosophical anthropology, crucial to subsequentArendtian thought. Speculations concerning a notion of God are linkedwith the dissimilar approaches to a neighbor’s love. This is reflected in the problemof the constitution of dependent subjectivity, the main feature of which is a dialecticallyunderstood gratitude: the recognition of one’s dependence is a first step toovercoming it. It corresponds with a complicated attitude towards modernity farfrom simple resolutions: a sense of historicity builds a strategic position as a conditionof successful emancipation.

  14. An Alternative Interpretation of the Relationship between Self-Concept and Mathematics Achievement: Comparison of Chinese and US Students as a Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Lin, Emily

    2008-01-01

    The paradoxical findings about students' mathematics self-concept and academic achievement shown in international and comparative studies prompt this exploration of the function and development of mathematics self-concept. That is, when examining data within individual countries, a positive relationship exists between students' self-concept and…

  15. ViSA: a neurodynamic model for visuo-spatial working memory, attentional blink, and conscious access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simione, Luca; Raffone, Antonino; Wolters, Gezinus; Salmas, Paola; Nakatani, Chie; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; van Leeuwen, Cees

    2012-10-01

    Two separate lines of study have clarified the role of selectivity in conscious access to visual information. Both involve presenting multiple targets and distracters: one simultaneously in a spatially distributed fashion, the other sequentially at a single location. To understand their findings in a unified framework, we propose a neurodynamic model for Visual Selection and Awareness (ViSA). ViSA supports the view that neural representations for conscious access and visuo-spatial working memory are globally distributed and are based on recurrent interactions between perceptual and access control processors. Its flexible global workspace mechanisms enable a unitary account of a broad range of effects: It accounts for the limited storage capacity of visuo-spatial working memory, attentional cueing, and efficient selection with multi-object displays, as well as for the attentional blink and associated sparing and masking effects. In particular, the speed of consolidation for storage in visuo-spatial working memory in ViSA is not fixed but depends adaptively on the input and recurrent signaling. Slowing down of consolidation due to weak bottom-up and recurrent input as a result of brief presentation and masking leads to the attentional blink. Thus, ViSA goes beyond earlier 2-stage and neuronal global workspace accounts of conscious processing limitations. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Connection of supreme nervous functioning’s neuro-dynamic characteristics with success of junior sportsmen in sports dances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.V. Korobeynikov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to find peculiar features of neuro-dynamic characteristics of 14-15 years’ age sportsmen in sport dances and their influence on successfulness. Material: we tested 32 qualified dancers of 15-16 years’ age. Results: it was found that high workability and reduced anxiety level of dancers with higher successfulness is accompanied by sympathetic adrenalin system’s activation, resulted from mobilization of organism’s adaptation resources. The presence of nervous processes’ high mobility and increase of quickness of information perception and processing are the keys to success in sport dances. It was proved that success in sport dances is connected with nervous processes’ balance and facilitates higher organization of psycho-motor skills. It is also conditioned by concentration on fulfillment of motor skills, accompanied by reduction of nervous processes’ lability. Conclusions: we found connection between individual-typological characteristics of junior dancers’ high nervous functioning. We also determined that high workability and reduced anxiety of sportsmen with high successfulness is accompanied by sympathetic adrenalin system’s activation, resulted from mobilization of organism’s adaptation resources. It follows form mobilization of organism’s adaptation resources. Increase of accuracy and stability of motor skills’ realization reduces the level of junior dancers’ psycho-motor productivity.

  17. On the cognitive neurodynamics of listening effort: a phase clustering analysis of large-scale neural correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Daniel J; Corona-Strauss, Farah I; Bernarding, Corinna; Reith, Wolfgang; Latzel, Matthias; Froehlich, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    An increased listening effort represents a major problem in humans with hearing impairment. Neurodiagnostic methods for an objective listening effort estimation could revolutionize auditory rehabilitation. However the cognitive neurodynamics of listening effort is not understood and research related its neural correlates is still in its infancy. In this paper we present a phase clustering analysis of large-scale listening effort correlates in auditory late responses (ALRs). For this we apply the complex wavelet transform as well as tight Gabor Frame (TGF) operators. We show (a) that phase clustering on the unit circle can separate ALR data from auditory paradigms which require a graduated effort for their solution; (b) the application of TGFs for an inverse artificial phase stabilization at the alpha/theta-border enlarges the endogenously driven listening effort correlates in the reconstructed time- domain waveforms. It is concluded that listening effort correlates can be extracted from ALR sequences using an instantaneous phase clustering analysis, at least by means of the applied experimental pure tone paradigm.

  18. EDITORIAL: Special issue on applied neurodynamics: from neural dynamics to neural engineering Special issue on applied neurodynamics: from neural dynamics to neural engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiel, Hillel J.; Thomas, Peter J.

    2011-12-01

    Tracing technologies back in time to their scientific and mathematical origins reveals surprising connections between the pure pursuit of knowledge and the opportunities afforded by that pursuit for new and unexpected applications. For example, Einstein's desire to eliminate the disparity between electricity and magnetism in Maxwell's equations impelled him to develop the special theory of relativity (Einstein 1922)Einstein 1922 p 41 'The advance in method arises from the fact that the electric and magnetic fields lose their separate existences through the relativity of motion. A field which appears to be purely an electric field, judged from one system, has also magnetic field components when judged from another inertial system.'. His conviction that there should be no privileged inertial frame of reference Einstein 1922 p 58 'The possibility of explaining the numerical equality of inertia and gravitation by the unity of their nature gives to the general theory of relativity, according to my conviction, such a superiority over the conceptions of classical mechanics, that all the difficulties encountered must be considered as small in comparison with this progress.' further impelled him to utilize the non-Euclidean geometry originally developed by Riemann and others as a purely hypothetical alternative to classical geometry as the foundation for the general theory of relativity. Nowadays, anyone who depends on a global positioning system—which now includes many people who own smart phones—uses a system that would not work effectively without incorporating corrections from both special and general relativity (Ashby 2003). As another example, G H Hardy famously proclaimed his conviction that his work on number theory, which he pursued for the sheer love of exploring the beauty of mathematical structures, was unlikely to find any practical applications (Hardy 1940)Hardy 1940 pp 135-6 'The general conclusion, surely, stands out plainly enough. If useful knowledge

  19. Neurodynamic treatment did not improve pain and disability at two weeks in patients with chronic nerve-related leg pain: a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Ferreira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Question: In people with nerve-related leg pain, does adding neurodynamic treatment to advice to remain active improve leg pain, disability, low back pain, function, global perceived effect and location of symptoms? Design: Randomised trial with concealed allocation and intention-to-treat analysis. Participants: Sixty participants with nerve-related leg pain recruited from the community. Interventions: The experimental group received four sessions of neurodynamic treatment. Both groups received advice to remain active. Outcome measures: Leg pain and low back pain (0, none, to 10, worst, Oswestry Disability Index (0, none, to 100, worst, Patient-Specific Functional Scale (0, unable to perform, to 30, able to perform, global perceived effect (–5 to 5 and location of symptoms were measured at 2 and 4 weeks after randomisation. Continuous outcomes were analysed by linear mixed models. Location of symptoms was assessed by relative risk (95% CI. Results: At 2 weeks, the experimental group did not have significantly greater improvement than the control group in leg pain (MD –1.1, 95% CI –2.3 to 0.1 or disability (MD –3.3, 95% CI –9.6 to 2.9. At 4 weeks, the experimental group experienced a significantly greater reduction in leg pain (MD –2.4, 95% CI –3.6 to –1.2 and low back pain (MD –1.5, 95% CI –2.8 to –0.2. The experimental group also improved significantly more in function at 2 weeks (MD 5.2, 95% CI 2.2 to 8.2 and 4 weeks (MD 4.7, 95% CI 1.7 to 7.8, as well as global perceived effect at 2 weeks (MD 2.5, 95% CI 1.6 to 3.5 and 4 weeks (MD 2.9, 95% CI 1.9 to 3.9. No significant between-group differences occurred in disability at 4 weeks and location of symptoms. Conclusion: Adding neurodynamic treatment to advice to remain active did not improve leg pain and disability at 2 weeks. Trial registration: NCT01954199. [Ferreira G, Stieven F, Araujo F, Wiebusch M, Rosa C, Plentz R, et al. (2016 Neurodynamic treatment did not improve

  20. Genre and Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auken, Sune

    2015-01-01

    Despite the immensity of genre studies as well as studies in interpretation, our understanding of the relationship between genre and interpretation is sketchy at best. The article attempts to unravel some of intricacies of that relationship through an analysis of the generic interpretation carried...... out by us all in everyday life, and the role of generic interpretation in scholarly work. The article argues that the role played by genre in interpretation has as much to do with the individual characteristics of an utterance as with its relationship to other utterances. An interest in the generic...... traits of an utterance will lead to a characterization of its individual, as well as its general characteristics. The article proceeds to describe three central concepts within genre studies that are applicable to generic interpretation: “horizon of expectation,” “world,” and the triad “theme...

  1. Conference Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leal Lobato, Ana Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Conference Interpreters: How to serve the cause of minorized communities in the new postmonolingual / ‘postmonodiscoursive’ order,......Conference Interpreters: How to serve the cause of minorized communities in the new postmonolingual / ‘postmonodiscoursive’ order,...

  2. Designing an American Sign Language Avatar for Learning Computer Science Concepts for Deaf or Hard-of-Hearing Students and Deaf Interpreters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrei, Stefan; Osborne, Lawrence; Smith, Zanthia

    2013-01-01

    The current learning process of Deaf or Hard of Hearing (D/HH) students taking Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) courses needs, in general, a sign interpreter for the translation of English text into American Sign Language (ASL) signs. This method is at best impractical due to the lack of availability of a specialized sign…

  3. Interpretive Journalism

    OpenAIRE

    Salgado, Susana; Strömbäck, Jesper; Aalberg, Toril; Esser, Frank

    2017-01-01

    In summary one-third of the political coverage analyzed in the 16 countries was found to contain interpretive journalism, with some countries - including France and the United States - making use of it much more than the rest. Indeed, the story genres and the interpretive journalism used in the various countries differ substantially, indicating distinct motives and news cultures. A multivariate analysis conducted to identify the most powerful predictors of interpretive journ...

  4. Academic nurse leaders’ interpretation of concepts and priorities related to the examination of scientific short papers, dissertations and theses – Part 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Brink

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish whether there is agreement among academic nurse leaders in their interpretation of aspects and criteria related to the examination of scientific short papers, dissertations and theses. The Delphi technique was selected as the most appropriate method of data-collection for this type of study. The target population identified for this study consisted of the Heads of Nursing Departments or their delegates from the 18 universities of the four provinces of the RSA, self-governing and independent states of Southern Africa and Namibia, which offer nursing degrees.

  5. The SPICE concept - An approach to providing geometric and other ancillary information needed for interpretation of data returned from space science instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acton, Charles H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The Navigation Ancillary Information Facility (NAIF), acting under the direction of NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications, and with substantial participation of the planetary science community, is designing and implementing an ancillary data system - called SPICE - to assist scientists in planning and interpreting scientific observations taken from spaceborne instruments. The principal objective of the implemented SPICE system is that it will hold the essential geometric and related ancillary information needed to recover the full value of science instrument data, and that it will facilitate correlations of individual instrument datasets with data obtained from other instruments on the same or other spacecraft.

  6. A randomized sham-controlled trial of a neurodynamic technique in the treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialosky, Joel E; Bishop, Mark D; Price, Don D; Robinson, Michael E; Vincent, Kevin R; George, Steven Z

    2009-10-01

    Randomized, controlled trial. To assess the believability of a novel sham intervention for a neurodynamic technique (NDT) in participants with signs and symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). Additionally, we wished to assess a potential mechanism of NDT (hypoalgesia) and to compare outcomes related to clinical pain and upper extremity disability between NDT and a sham intervention. Preliminary evidence suggests that NDT is effective in the treatment of CTS. A sham-controlled study is lacking from the literature and could provide insight to the efficacy of NDT, as well as the corresponding mechanisms. Participants with signs and symptoms consistent with CTS provided baseline measures of expectation, clinical pain intensity, upper extremity disability, and experimental pain sensitivity. Participants were then randomly assigned to receive either a NDT known to anatomically stress the median nerve or a sham technique intended to minimize stress to the median nerve. Following brief exposure to the assigned technique, expectation was reassessed to observe for group-dependent changes. Participants received the assigned intervention over 3 weeks. Additionally, all participants received a prefabricated wrist splint for their involved hands, with instructions to sleep in the splint and to wear it during painful activities when awake. Following 3 weeks of the assigned intervention and splint wear, baseline measures were reassessed and participants were asked which intervention they believed they had received. Forty females agreed to participate. Expectations for pain relief and perceived group assignment were similar between the groups. Within-session decreases in clinical pain intensity and pressure pain sensitivity were observed independent of group assignment. Reduction of temporal summation was observed only in participants receiving NDT. Significant improvements in clinical pain intensity and upper extremity disability were observed at 3 weeks, independent of group

  7. Changing interpretations of Plotinus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catana, Leo

    2013-01-01

    ’ writings relatively late, in the 18th and 19th centuries, and that it was primarily made possible by Brucker’s methodology for history of philosophy, dating from the 1740s, in which the concept system of philosophy was essential. It is observed that the concept was absent in Ficino’s commentary from the 15......th century, and that it remained absent in interpretative works produced between the 15th and 18th century. It is also argued that it is erroneous to assume that Plotinus presented a system of philosophy, or intended to do so — we do not find this concept in Plotinus’ writings, and his own statements...

  8. Interpretations of Greek Mythology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Jan

    1987-01-01

    This collection of original studies offers new interpretations of some of the best known characters and themes of Greek mythology, reflecting the complexity and fascination of the Greek imagination. Following analyses of the concept of myth and the influence of the Orient on Greek mythology, the

  9. Food sustainability: diverging interpretations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiking, H.; de Boer, J.

    2004-01-01

    The concept of sustainability in general and food sustainability, in particular, entails many aspects and many interpretations. During a conference on food sustainability a broad, multidisciplinary picture was painted and many key issues were dealt with, from ecology, economy and society. In

  10. Confidence estimation as a stochastic process in a neurodynamical system of decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ziqiang

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of confidence about one's knowledge is key to the brain's ability to monitor cognition. To investigate the neural mechanism of confidence assessment, we examined a biologically realistic spiking network model and found that it reproduced salient behavioral observations and single-neuron activity data from a monkey experiment designed to study confidence about a decision under uncertainty. Interestingly, the model predicts that changes of mind can occur in a mnemonic delay when confidence is low; the probability of changes of mind increases (decreases) with task difficulty in correct (error) trials. Furthermore, a so-called “hard-easy effect” observed in humans naturally emerges, i.e., behavior shows underconfidence (underestimation of correct rate) for easy or moderately difficult tasks and overconfidence (overestimation of correct rate) for very difficult tasks. Importantly, in the model, confidence is computed using a simple neural signal in individual trials, without explicit representation of probability functions. Therefore, even a concept of metacognition can be explained by sampling a stochastic neural activity pattern. PMID:25948870

  11. Mechanosensitivity during lower extremity neurodynamic testing is diminished in individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and peripheral neuropathy: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boyd Benjamin S

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM and diabetic symmetrical polyneuropathy (DSP impact multiple modalities of sensation including light touch, temperature, position sense and vibration perception. No study to date has examined the mechanosensitivity of peripheral nerves during limb movement in this population. The objective was to determine the unique effects T2DM and DSP have on nerve mechanosensitivity in the lower extremity. Methods This cross-sectional study included 43 people with T2DM. Straight leg raise neurodynamic tests were performed with ankle plantar flexion (PF/SLR and dorsiflexion (DF/SLR. Hip flexion range of motion (ROM, lower extremity muscle activity and symptom profile, intensity and location were measured at rest, first onset of symptoms (P1 and maximally tolerated symptoms (P2. Results The addition of ankle dorsiflexion during SLR testing reduced the hip flexion ROM by 4.3° ± 6.5° at P1 and by 5.4° ± 4.9° at P2. Individuals in the T2DM group with signs of severe DSP (n = 9 had no difference in hip flexion ROM between PF/SLR and DF/SLR at P1 (1.4° ± 4.2°; paired t-test p = 0.34 or P2 (0.9° ± 2.5°; paired t-test p = 0.31. Movement induced muscle activity was absent during SLR with the exception of the tibialis anterior during DF/SLR testing. Increases in symptom intensity during SLR testing were similar for both PF/SLR and DF/SLR. The addition of ankle dorsiflexion induced more frequent posterior leg symptoms when taken to P2. Conclusions Consistent with previous recommendations in the literature, P1 is an appropriate test end point for SLR neurodynamic testing in people with T2DM. However, our findings suggest that people with T2DM and severe DSP have limited responses to SLR neurodynamic testing, and thus may be at risk for harm from nerve overstretch and the information gathered will be of limited clinical value.

  12. Interpretation miniatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Hrvoje

    Most physicists do not have patience for reading long and obscure interpretation arguments and disputes. Hence, to attract attention of a wider physics community, in this paper various old and new aspects of quantum interpretations are explained in a concise and simple (almost trivial) form. About the “Copenhagen” interpretation, we note that there are several different versions of it and explain how to make sense of “local nonreality” interpretation. About the many-world interpretation (MWI), we explain that it is neither local nor nonlocal, that it cannot explain the Born rule, that it suffers from the preferred basis problem, and that quantum suicide cannot be used to test it. About the Bohmian interpretation, we explain that it is analogous to dark matter, use it to explain that there is no big difference between nonlocal correlation and nonlocal causation, and use some condensed-matter ideas to outline how nonrelativistic Bohmian theory could be a theory of everything. We also explain how different interpretations can be used to demystify the delayed choice experiment, to resolve the problem of time in quantum gravity, and to provide alternatives to quantum nonlocality. Finally, we explain why is life compatible with the second law.

  13. A dynamic concept of middle cerebral artery occlusion and cerebral infarction in the acute state based on interpreting severe hyperemia as a sign of embolic migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, T S; Lassen, N A

    1984-01-01

    angiography, serial CT-scans and serial TC99 -scans were performed in a consecutive group of 73 patients with completed stroke all admitted to hospital within 3 days after stroke onset. When possible the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was studied with the intracarotid Xe 133 injection method. Twenty......The present study investigates the pathogenesis of focal cerebral hyperemia, its effect on brain tissue and discusses its pathophysiological and therapeutic importance in the light of interpreting severe hyperemia as a sign of arterial reopening probably due to embolic migration. Cerebral......-nine patients had evidence of middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion; rCBF was investigated in 24. Fourteen patients had either occlusion or severe internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis; rCBF was not measured in these patients. Thirty patients had no angiographical evidence of MCA occlusion, ICA occlusion...

  14. Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidka Rodak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and should be rather linked with conforming interpretation. And what this actually implies is that it is not the virtue of certainty and predictability – which are usually associated with objectivity- but coherence that makes the foundation of applicability of objectivity in law.What could be observed from the analyses, is that both the phenomenon of conforming interpretation and objective interpretation play the role of arguments in the interpretive discourse, arguments that provide justification that interpretation is not arbitrary or subjective. With regards to the important part of the ideology of legal application which is the conviction that decisions should be taken on the basis of law in order to exclude arbitrariness, objective interpretation could be read as a question “what kind of authority “supports” certain interpretation”? that is almost never free of judicial creativity and judicial activism.One can say that, objective and conforming interpretation are just another arguments used in legal discourse.

  15. Application of the concepts of thermoactivation analysis to interpretation of the effect of irradiation on creep and long-term strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geminov, V.N.; Votinov, S.N.

    1989-01-01

    Thermoactivation parameters occupy a prominent position among the characteristics of the mechanisms of deformation and damage in a metal. These include the true activation energy U 0 (the height of the activation barrier overcome by atoms during their irreversible movement) and the activation volume γ (a structure-sensitive factor). Knowledge of these parameters and of their patterns of change should assist in identifying the mechanisms and kinetics of creep strain for different conditions, since distinctive thermoactivation parameters correspond to each mechanism. The authors investigate these parameters. The paper concludes that: the use of the concept of thermoactivation parameters in conjunction with mechanism maps opens up new possibilities for analysis and identification of the mechanisms of action of irradiation or bombardment on a material; the use of this concept makes it possible to increase sharply the information yield of experimental data arrays, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, to reduce significantly the number of experiments required, through the construction of a single diagram. This is especially promising in particular for reducing the number of in-reactor tests

  16. Interpretive Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

  17. Reliability and diagnostic validity of the slump knee bend neurodynamic test for upper/mid lumbar nerve root compression: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trainor, Kate; Pinnington, Mark A

    2011-03-01

    It has been proposed that neurodynamic examination can assist differential diagnosis of upper/mid lumbar nerve root compression; however, the diagnostic validity of many of these tests has yet to be established. This pilot study aimed to establish the diagnostic validity of the slump knee bend neurodynamic test for upper/mid lumbar nerve root compression in subjects with suspected lumbosacral radicular pain. Two independent examiners performed the slump knee bend test on subjects with radicular leg pain. Inter-tester reliability was calculated using the kappa coefficient. Slump knee bend test results were compared with magnetic resonance imaging findings, and diagnostic accuracy measures were calculated including sensitivity, specificity, predictive values and likelihood ratios. Orthopaedic spinal clinic, secondary care. Sixteen patients with radicular leg pain. All four subjects with mid lumbar nerve root compression on magnetic resonance imaging were correctly identified with the slump knee bend test; however, it was falsely positive in two individuals without the condition. Inter-tester reliability for the slump knee bend test using the kappa coefficient was 0.71 (95% confidence interval 0.33 to 1.0). Diagnostic validity calculations for the slump knee bend test (95% confidence intervals) were: sensitivity, 100% (40 to 100%); specificity, 83% (52 to 98%); positive predictive value, 67% (22 to 96%); negative predictive value, 100% (69 to 100%); positive likelihood ratio, 6.0 (1.58 to 19.4); and negative likelihood ratio, 0 (0 to 0.6). Results indicate good inter-tester reliability and suggest that the slump knee bend test has potential to be a useful clinical test for identifying patients with mid lumbar nerve root compression. Further investigation is needed on larger numbers of patients to confirm these findings. Copyright © 2010 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Interpretation of panoramic radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perschbacher, Susanne

    2012-03-01

    Panoramic radiography has become a commonly used imaging modality in dental practice and can be a valuable diagnostic tool in the dentist's armamentarium. However, the panoramic image is a complex projection of the jaws with multiple superimpositions and distortions which may be exacerbated by technical errors in image acquisition. Furthermore, the panoramic radiograph depicts numerous anatomic structures outside of the jaws which may create additional interpretation challenges. Successful interpretation of panoramic radiographs begins with an understanding of the normal anatomy of the head and neck and how it is depicted in this image type. This article will describe how osseous structures, soft tissues, air spaces and ghost shadows contribute to the final panoramic image. A systematic and repeated approach to examining panoramic radiographs, which is recommended to ensure that critical findings are not overlooked, is also outlined. Examples of challenging interpretations, including variations of anatomy, artefacts and disease, are presented to illustrate these concepts. © 2012 Australian Dental Association.

  19. Interpretive Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the

  20. Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Lidka Rodak

    2011-01-01

    The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and ...

  1. O conceito de espaço em epidemiologia: uma interpretação histórica e epistemológica The concept of space in epidemiology: a historical and epistemological interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Czeresnia

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta uma interpretação a respeito da utilização do conceito de espaço em epidemiologia. Destaca que o que orienta epistemologicamente a concepção do espaço em epidemiologia é a teoria da doença, assinalando a importância do conceito de transmissão de agentes específicos como estrutura nuclear da apreensão da relação entre espaço e corpo. A caracterização do espaço de circulação de agentes etiológicos das doenças foi a base epistemológica que configurou a utilização de sucessivos desenvolvimentos teóricos da geografia, possibilitando a construção das diferentes vertentes explicativas do conceito de espaço. O artigo analisa especificamente a produção da vertente latino-americana, revisando os principais autores que orientam esses estudos, como Pavlovsky, Max Sorre e Samuel Pessoa. Ressalta o pensamento de Milton Santos como referência fundamental das pesquisas mais recentes acerca da organização social do espaço e emergência ou prevalência de doenças. Aborda, ainda, transformações contemporâneas na apreensão do espaço e seus reflexos nos estudos epidemiológicos.This study provides an interpretation of the concept of space in epidemiology. The authors highlight that the epistemological orientation of the space concept in epidemiology is the theory of disease, emphasizing the importance of the concept of specific etiologic agents and their transmission as the central structure for grasping the relationship between space and the body. Characterization of the space for circulation of etiologic agents was the epistemological base shaping the use of various theoretical developments in geography, allowing for the construction of different explanatory watersheds in the concept of space. The article specifically analyzes the Latin American watershed, reviewing the main authors orienting these studies, like Pavlovsky, Max Sorre, and Samuel Pessoa. The authors highlight Milton Santos' thinking

  2. Mammographic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabor, L.

    1987-01-01

    For mammography to be an effective diagnostic method, it must be performed to a very high standard of quality. Otherwise many lesions, in particular cancer in its early stages, will simply not be detectable on the films, regardless of the skill of the mammographer. Mammographic interpretation consists of two basic steps: perception and analysis. The process of mammographic interpretation begins with perception of the lesion on the mammogram. Perception is influenced by several factors. One of the most important is the parenchymal pattern of the breast tissue, detection of pathologic lesions being easier with fatty involution. The mammographer should use a method for the systematic viewing of the mammograms that will ensure that all parts of each mammogram are carefully searched for the presence of lesions. The method of analysis proceeds according to the type of lesion. The contour analysis of primary importance in the evaluation of circumscribed tumors. After having analyzed the contour and density of a lesion and considered its size, the mammographer should be fairly certain whether the circumscribed tumor is benign or malignant. Fine-needle puncture and/or US may assist the mammographer in making this decision. Painstaking analysis is required because many circumscribed tumors do not need to be biopsied. The perception of circumscribed tumors seldom causes problems, but their analysis needs careful attention. On the other hand, the major challenge with star-shaped lesions is perception. They may be difficult to discover when small. Although the final diagnosis of a stellate lesion can be made only with the help of histologic examination, the preoperative mammorgraphic differential diagnosis can be highly accurate. The differential diagnostic problem is between malignant tumors (scirrhous carcinoma), on the one hand, and traumatic fat necrosis as well as radial scars on the other hand

  3. Concept - or no concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsson, Uffe

    1999-01-01

    Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown......Discussion about concept in industrial companies. A method for mapping of managerial concept in specific area is shown...

  4. An Interpreter's Interpretation: Sign Language Interpreters' View of Musculoskeletal Disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, William L

    2003-01-01

    Sign language interpreters are at increased risk for musculoskeletal disorders. This study used content analysis to obtain detailed information about these disorders from the interpreters' point of view...

  5. The Concept of Speed Applied to Rigid Bodies in Rotation: Same alternative conceptions, varied interpretations O Conceito de Velocidade Aplicado em Corpos Rígidos em Rotação: mesmas concepções alternativas, variadas interpretações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Alves Barros

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an investigation where some alternative conceptions are the origin and the processing of varied interpretations. As for that, it was proposed to high school students the resolution of certain problems that involved rigid bodies in constant rotation. These problems should be analysed within the perspective of the speed concept, which was previously known by the students, but abandoned by the explanations generated by the alternative conceptions.Este trabalho apresenta uma investigação em que algumas concepções alternativas são a origem e o desencadeamento de variadas interpretações. Para isso, foram propostos a alunos do ensino médio a resolução de determinados problemas que envolviam corpos rígidos em rotação constante. Estes problemas deveriam ser analisados dentro da perspectiva do conceito de velocidade, previamente conhecido dos alunos, mas abandonado pelas explicações geradas pelas concepções alternativas.

  6. Interpreting Sustainability for Urban Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Ordóñez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Incisive interpretations of urban-forest sustainability are important in furthering our understanding of how to sustain the myriad values associated with urban forests. Our analysis of earlier interpretations reveals conceptual gaps. These interpretations are attached to restrictive definitions of a sustainable urban forest and limited to a rather mechanical view of maintaining the biophysical structure of trees. The probing of three conceptual domains (urban forest concepts, sustainable development, and sustainable forest management leads to a broader interpretation of urban-forest sustainability as the process of sustaining urban forest values through time and across space. We propose that values—and not services, benefits, functions or goods—is a superior concept to refer to what is to be sustained in and by an urban forest.

  7. Interpretation as doing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard Krarup, Jonna

    2008-01-01

    The intent of the paper is to address and discuss relationships between the aesthetic perception and interpretation of contemporary landscape architecture. I will try to do this by setting up a cross-disciplinary perspective that looks into themes from the contemporary art scene and aesthetic...... theories, and relate them to observations in contemporary landscape architecture. It is my premise that investigating the relationship between modes of aesthetic perception and examples in contemporary art, and landscape architecture, will enable us to better understand characteristics of a contemporary...... concept of landscape and design in landscape architecture, and hereby address the question of how interpretation might be processed. It is also my premise that a key point in this is the interplay between different sensory experiences of both material and non-material aspects...

  8. Interpretation of Internet technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland

    2001-01-01

    Research scope: The topic of the research project is to investigate how new internet technologies such as e-trade and customer relation marketing and management are implemented in Danish food processing companies. The aim is to use Weick's (1995) sensemaking concept to analyse the strategic...... processes leading to the use of internet marketing technologies and to investigate how these new technologies are interpreted into the organisation. Investigating the organisational socio-cognitive processes underlying the decision making processes will give further insight into the socio......-cognitive competencies of organisations (Rindova & Fombrunn, 1999). The aim is to contribute to the existing technological implementation theory complex by studying the relationships between the elements of the socio-cognitive processes and the resulting interpretations and actions when new technologies are implemented...

  9. Interpretation of macroscopic quantum phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, K.

    1986-01-01

    It is argued that a quantum theory without observer is required for the interpretation of macroscopic quantum tunnelling. Such a theory is obtained by augmenting QED by the actual electric field in the rest system of the universe. An equation of the motion of this field is formulated form which the correct macroscopic behavior of the universe and the validity of the Born interpretation is derived. Care is taken to use mathematically sound concepts only. (Author)

  10. Resistance to change: Four interpretations

    OpenAIRE

    Bringselius, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Although the phenomenon of resistance to change has gained considerable attention in organization theory over the years, the meaning of the concept is rarely discussed. In this paper, a conceptual framework is suggested that distinguishes between four interpretations of resistance and builds upon the two variables of changeability and emotionality. Each interpretation is based on various assumptions and theoretical influences, as well as connected to different change management strategies. Th...

  11. Interpreting Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Nicholson

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author deconstructs dominant understandings of two concepts central to feminist analysis itself: gender and woman. Much of post-1960s feminist scholarship has relied on the distinction between “sex” and gender. Although this distinction has served many useful purposes (particularly that of allowing feminists to challenge biological determinism, it has also enabled feminists to preserve a type of dualistic thinking about women's identity. It has allowed feminists to think of differences among women as separable from that which women share. The author argues that this polar framework has enabled feminists to stress the deep differences between women's and men's culture-generated experiences. But, because the polar framework of contemporary society is neither completely stable or hegemonic nor links perfectly male and female experiences with male and female identified bodies, employing it as an unquestioned element of one's analysis also leads to problems. This framework falls to capture the gender deviance of many of us, reinforces cultural stereotypes of the meaning of female and male experience, and acts politically to suppress modes of being that challenge gender dualisms.

  12. Interpretation training influences memory for prior interpretations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salemink, E.; Hertel, P.; Mackintosh, B.

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety is associated with memory biases when the initial interpretation of the event is taken into account. This experiment examined whether modification of interpretive bias retroactively affects memory for prior events and their initial interpretation. Before training, participants imagined

  13. meaning, interpretation and literary theory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thetic concepts and interpretations within particular historical, political and cultural frameworks. The impact of cultural studies, postcolonial stu- dies, New Historicism and feminism on all textual practices is very strong. These approaches ask differing sets of questions, questions such as: How does a particular text fit into a ...

  14. Interpretative challenges in face analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Oliveira, Sandi Michele; Hernández-Flores, Nieves

    2015-01-01

    In current research on face analysis questions of who and what should be interpreted, as well as how, are of central interest. In English language research, this question has led to a debate on the concepts of P1 (laypersons, representing the “emic” perspective) and P2 (researchers, representing ...

  15. Neurodynamic mobilization and foam rolling improved delayed-onset muscle soreness in a healthy adult population: a randomized controlled clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Romero-Moraleda

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Compare the immediate effects of a Neurodynamic Mobilization (NM treatment or foam roller (FR treatment after DOMS. Design Double blind randomised clinical trial. Setting The participants performed 100 drop jumps (5 sets of 20 repetitions, separated by 2 min rests from a 0.5-m high box in a University biomechanics laboratory to induce muscle soreness. The participants were randomly assigned in a counter-balanced fashion to either a FR or NM treatment group. Participants Thirty-two healthy subjects (21 males and 11 females, mean age 22.6 ± 2.2 years were randomly assigned into the NM group (n = 16 or the FR group (n = 16. Main Outcome Measures The numeric pain rating scale (NPRS; 0–10, isometric leg strength with dynamometry, surface electromyography at maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC and muscle peak activation (MPA upon landing after a test jump were measured at baseline, 48 h after baseline before treatment, and immediately after treatment. Results Both groups showed significant reduction in NPRS scores after treatment (NM: 59%, p  .05. The percentage change improvement in the MVIC for the rectus femoris was the only significant difference between the groups (p < 0.05 at post-treatment. After treatment, only the FR group had a statistically significant improvement (p < 0.01 in strength compared to pre-treatment. Conclusion Our results illustrate that both treatments are effective in reducing pain perception after DOMS whereas only FR application showed differences for the MVIC in the rectus femoris and strength.

  16. Neurodynamic mobilization and foam rolling improved delayed-onset muscle soreness in a healthy adult population: a randomized controlled clinical trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Compare the immediate effects of a Neurodynamic Mobilization (NM) treatment or foam roller (FR) treatment after DOMS. Design Double blind randomised clinical trial. Setting The participants performed 100 drop jumps (5 sets of 20 repetitions, separated by 2 min rests) from a 0.5-m high box in a University biomechanics laboratory to induce muscle soreness. The participants were randomly assigned in a counter-balanced fashion to either a FR or NM treatment group. Participants Thirty-two healthy subjects (21 males and 11 females, mean age 22.6 ± 2.2 years) were randomly assigned into the NM group (n = 16) or the FR group (n = 16). Main Outcome Measures The numeric pain rating scale (NPRS; 0–10), isometric leg strength with dynamometry, surface electromyography at maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) and muscle peak activation (MPA) upon landing after a test jump were measured at baseline, 48 h after baseline before treatment, and immediately after treatment. Results Both groups showed significant reduction in NPRS scores after treatment (NM: 59%, p  .05). The percentage change improvement in the MVIC for the rectus femoris was the only significant difference between the groups (p < 0.05) at post-treatment. After treatment, only the FR group had a statistically significant improvement (p < 0.01) in strength compared to pre-treatment. Conclusion Our results illustrate that both treatments are effective in reducing pain perception after DOMS whereas only FR application showed differences for the MVIC in the rectus femoris and strength. PMID:29043110

  17. Neurodynamic mobilization and foam rolling improved delayed-onset muscle soreness in a healthy adult population: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Moraleda, Blanca; La Touche, Roy; Lerma-Lara, Sergio; Ferrer-Peña, Raúl; Paredes, Víctor; Peinado, Ana Belén; Muñoz-García, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Compare the immediate effects of a Neurodynamic Mobilization (NM) treatment or foam roller (FR) treatment after DOMS. Double blind randomised clinical trial. The participants performed 100 drop jumps (5 sets of 20 repetitions, separated by 2 min rests) from a 0.5-m high box in a University biomechanics laboratory to induce muscle soreness. The participants were randomly assigned in a counter-balanced fashion to either a FR or NM treatment group. Thirty-two healthy subjects (21 males and 11 females, mean age 22.6 ± 2.2 years) were randomly assigned into the NM group ( n  = 16) or the FR group ( n  = 16). The numeric pain rating scale (NPRS; 0-10), isometric leg strength with dynamometry, surface electromyography at maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) and muscle peak activation (MPA) upon landing after a test jump were measured at baseline, 48 h after baseline before treatment, and immediately after treatment. Both groups showed significant reduction in NPRS scores after treatment (NM: 59%, p   .05). The percentage change improvement in the MVIC for the rectus femoris was the only significant difference between the groups ( p  < 0.05) at post-treatment. After treatment, only the FR group had a statistically significant improvement ( p  < 0.01) in strength compared to pre-treatment. Our results illustrate that both treatments are effective in reducing pain perception after DOMS whereas only FR application showed differences for the MVIC in the rectus femoris and strength.

  18. Changing interpretations of Plotinus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catana, Leo

    2013-01-01

    th century, and that it remained absent in interpretative works produced between the 15th and 18th century. It is also argued that it is erroneous to assume that Plotinus presented a system of philosophy, or intended to do so — we do not find this concept in Plotinus’ writings, and his own statements......’ writings relatively late, in the 18th and 19th centuries, and that it was primarily made possible by Brucker’s methodology for history of philosophy, dating from the 1740s, in which the concept system of philosophy was essential. It is observed that the concept was absent in Ficino’s commentary from the 15...... about method point in other directions. Eduard Zeller (active in the second half of the 19th century) is typically regarded as the first who gave a satisfying account of Plotinus’ philosophy as a whole. In this article, on the other hand, Zeller is seen as the one who finalised a tradition initiated...

  19. Educational principles and techniques for interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. David Boulanger; John P. Smith

    1973-01-01

    Interpretation is in large part education, since it attempts to convey information, concepts, and principles while creating attitude changes and such emotional states as wonder, delight, and appreciation. Although interpreters might profit greatly by formal training in the principles and techniques of teaching, many have not had such training. Some means of making the...

  20. Threshold concepts in prosthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sophie

    2017-12-01

    Curriculum documents identify key concepts within learning prosthetics. Threshold concepts provide an alternative way of viewing the curriculum, focussing on the ways of thinking and practicing within prosthetics. Threshold concepts can be described as an opening to a different way of viewing a concept. This article forms part of a larger study exploring what students and staff experience as difficult in learning about prosthetics. To explore possible threshold concepts within prosthetics. Qualitative, interpretative phenomenological analysis. Data from 18 students and 8 staff at two universities with undergraduate prosthetics and orthotics programmes were generated through interviews and questionnaires. The data were analysed using an interpretative phenomenological analysis approach. Three possible threshold concepts arose from the data: 'how we walk', 'learning to talk' and 'considering the person'. Three potential threshold concepts in prosthetics are suggested with possible implications for prosthetics education. These possible threshold concepts involve changes in both conceptual and ontological knowledge, integrating into the persona of the individual. This integration occurs through the development of memories associated with procedural concepts that combine with disciplinary concepts. Considering the prosthetics curriculum through the lens of threshold concepts enables a focus on how students learn to become prosthetists. Clinical relevance This study provides new insights into how prosthetists learn. This has implications for curriculum design in prosthetics education.

  1. An Interpreter's Interpretation: Sign Language Interpreters' View of Musculoskeletal Disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, William L

    2003-01-01

    ...; interpreting style, such as poor body posture, tensing muscles, signing too forcefully; job control, including the emotional and physical stress of the job, being overworked, and disliking the job...

  2. Conflicting Interpretations of Scientific Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galamba, Arthur

    2016-05-01

    Not surprisingly historical studies have suggested that there is a distance between concepts of teaching methods, their interpretations and their actual use in the classroom. This issue, however, is not always pitched to the personal level in historical studies, which may provide an alternative insight on how teachers conceptualise and engage with concepts of teaching methods. This article provides a case study on this level of conceptualisation by telling the story of Rómulo de Carvalho, an educator from mid-twentieth century Portugal, who for over 40 years engaged with the heuristic and Socratic methods. The overall argument is that concepts of teaching methods are open to different interpretations and are conceptualised within the melting pot of external social pressures and personal teaching preferences. The practice and thoughts of Carvalho about teaching methods are scrutinised to unveil his conflicting stances: Carvalho was a man able to question the tenets of heurism, but who publicly praised the heurism-like "discovery learning" method years later. The first part of the article contextualises the arrival of heurism in Portugal and how Carvalho attacked its philosophical tenets. In the second part, it dwells on his conflicting positions in relation to pupil-centred approaches. The article concludes with an appreciation of the embedded conflicting nature of the appropriation of concepts of teaching methods, and of Carvalho's contribution to the development of the philosophy of practical work in school science.

  3. Interpreting Impoliteness: Interpreters’ Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Radanović Felberg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Interpreters in the public sector in Norway interpret in a variety of institutional encounters, and the interpreters evaluate the majority of these encounters as polite. However, some encounters are evaluated as impolite, and they pose challenges when it comes to interpreting impoliteness. This issue raises the question of whether interpreters should take a stance on their own evaluation of impoliteness and whether they should interfere in communication. In order to find out more about how interpreters cope with this challenge, in 2014 a survey was sent to all interpreters registered in the Norwegian Register of Interpreters. The survey data were analyzed within the theoretical framework of impoliteness theory using the notion of moral order as an explanatory tool in a close reading of interpreters’ answers. The analysis shows that interpreters reported using a variety of strategies for interpreting impoliteness, including omissions and downtoning. However, the interpreters also gave examples of individual strategies for coping with impoliteness, such as interrupting and postponing interpreting. These strategies border behavioral strategies and conflict with the Norwegian ethical guidelines for interpreting. In light of the ethical guidelines and actual practice, mapping and discussing different strategies used by interpreters might heighten interpreters’ and interpreter-users’ awareness of the role impoliteness can play in institutional interpreter– mediated encounters. 

  4. A Materialistic Concept of Planning and Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Petersen, Verner C.

    1981-01-01

    Planning and participation are concepts which can be interpreted in different ways. Traditional planning theory offers mostly subjective-idealistic interpretations. These interpretations are not very helpfull in answering why ideas, methods, and practices of planning appear as they do. A prerequi......Planning and participation are concepts which can be interpreted in different ways. Traditional planning theory offers mostly subjective-idealistic interpretations. These interpretations are not very helpfull in answering why ideas, methods, and practices of planning appear as they do......, however, lead to functionalist explanations, and imply mechanical determinism. A more dialectical conception is necessary, emphasizing both the objective and the subjective aspects of planning and development....

  5. Interpreting. PEPNet Tipsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroch, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    An interpreter's role is to facilitate communication and convey all auditory and signed information so that both hearing and deaf individuals may fully interact. The common types of services provided by interpreters are: (1) American Sign Language (ASL) Interpretation--a visual-gestural language with its own linguistic features; (2) Sign Language…

  6. Engineering Definitional Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Ramsay, Norman; Larsen, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    A definitional interpreter should be clear and easy to write, but it may run 4--10 times slower than a well-crafted bytecode interpreter. In a case study focused on implementation choices, we explore ways of making definitional interpreters faster without expending much programming effort. We...

  7. Journalists as Interpretive Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelizer, Barbie

    1993-01-01

    Proposes viewing journalists as members of an interpretive community (not a profession) united by its shared discourse and collective interpretations of key public events. Applies the frame of the interpretive community to journalistic discourse about two events central for American journalists--Watergate and McCarthyism. (SR)

  8. Egzystencjalna interpretacja Tomasza z Akwinu koncepcji bytu w ujęciu Étienne Gilsona [Étienne Gilson’s Existential Interpretation of Thomas Aquinas’ Concept of Being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Kunat

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article attempts to present Étienne Gilson’s approach to Thomas Aquinas’ existential interpretation of being. The French thinker’s apprehension of Aquinas’ system is characterized by accentuating existential perspective within the framework of the analysis of the structure of being. Gilson supported existential Thomism and, consequently, strongly emphasized the role of existence (esse for being real. The French philosopher was of opinion that the existence of being should be depicted by means of existential judgments that affirm real and specific existence of beings. According to Gilson, the existential judgment of the affirmation-oriented being is the starting point for metaphysics.

  9. Influence of interpretation on conservation intentions of whale tourists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, M.H.; Harms, M.

    2014-01-01

    The concept of interpretation denotes on-site education while people engage in a guided nature-based activity. The literature suggests that interpretation influences conservation intentions but does not reveal whether the effect is constituted by interpretation or by other aspects of the guided

  10. Visual perception and radiographic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papageorges, M.

    1998-01-01

    Although interpretation errors are common in radiology, their causes are still debated. Perceptual mechanisms appear to be responsible for a large proportion of mistakes made by both neophytes and trained radiologists. Erroneous perception of familiar contours can be triggered by unrelated opacities. Conversely, visual information cannot induce a specific perception if the observer is not familiar with the concept represented or its radiographicappearance. Additionally, the area of acute vision is smaller than is commonly recognized. Other factors, such as the attitude, beliefs,.: preconceptions, and expectations of the viewer, can affect what he or she ''sees'' whenviewing any object, including a radiograph. Familiarity with perceptual mechanisms and the limitations of the visual system as well as multiple readings may be necessary to reduce interpretation errors

  11. Inuit interpretations of sleep paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Samuel; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2005-03-01

    Traditional and contemporary Inuit concepts of sleep paralysis were investigated through interviews with elders and young people in Iqaluit, Baffin Island. Sleep paralysis was readily recognized by most respondents and termed uqumangirniq (in the Baffin region) or aqtuqsinniq (Kivalliq region). Traditional interpretations of uqumangirniq referred to a shamanistic cosmology in which the individual's soul was vulnerable during sleep and dreaming. Sleep paralysis could result from attack by shamans or malevolent spirits. Understanding the experience as a manifestation of supernatural power, beyond one's control, served to reinforce the experiential reality and presence of the spirit world. For contemporary youth, sleep paralysis was interpreted in terms of multiple frameworks that incorporated personal, medical, mystical, traditional/shamanistic, and Christian views, reflecting the dynamic social changes taking place in this region.

  12. Design of interpretable fuzzy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cpałka, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    This book shows that the term “interpretability” goes far beyond the concept of readability of a fuzzy set and fuzzy rules. It focuses on novel and precise operators of aggregation, inference, and defuzzification leading to flexible Mamdani-type and logical-type systems that can achieve the required accuracy using a less complex rule base. The individual chapters describe various aspects of interpretability, including appropriate selection of the structure of a fuzzy system, focusing on improving the interpretability of fuzzy systems designed using both gradient-learning and evolutionary algorithms. It also demonstrates how to eliminate various system components, such as inputs, rules and fuzzy sets, whose reduction does not adversely affect system accuracy. It illustrates the performance of the developed algorithms and methods with commonly used benchmarks. The book provides valuable tools for possible applications in many fields including expert systems, automatic control and robotics.

  13. An open room for interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tofte-Hansen, Inge

    2015-01-01

    not only be seen as a learning task where initiative and product is defined by the teacher. In contrast, I suggest that creative activities and aesthetic processes must be seen as an interaction between children's immediate physicality and curiosity and the teacher's musical skills and abilities to follow......Based on a concept that I have developed, which is called: "An open room for interpretation", the following article states that creative work and aesthetic expression in a pedagogical context with 2-6 years old children must give space for the children's own expressions. To teach music should...

  14. Orientalismi: nuove prospettive interpretative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Proglio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at reconsidering the concept of Orientalism in a new and multiple perspective, and at proposing a different interpretation of the relationship between culture and power, starting from Edward Said’s theoretical frame of reference. If Said’s representational model is repositioned out of structuralist and foucaultian frameworks and separated from the gramscian idea of hegemony-subordination, indeed, it may be possible to re-discuss the traditional profile identifying the Other in the European cultures. My basic assumption here is that Orientalism should not be understood as a consensus mechanism, which is able to produce diversified images of the Orient and the Oriental on demand. Although, of course, in most cases Orientalism is connected to the issue of power, its meanings could also be explained —as it will be soon shown— otherwise. Let’s take The Invisible Cities by Italo Calvino as an example. Here the narratives are not just multiple repetitions of Venice —in Said’s case, the same would hold for Europeanism—, but they could be strategically re-appropriated by those “others” and “alterities” whose bodies and identities are imposed by the Eurocentric discourse. In this sense, a double link may be identified with queer theories and postcolonial studies, and the notion of subordination will be rethought. Finally, from the above mentioned borders, a new idea of image emerges, which appears as linear, uniform and flattened only to the European gaze, whereas in actual fact it is made of imaginaries and forms of knowledge, which combine representation with the conceptualization of power relationships.

  15. Improvement of POC-CCA Interpretation by Using Lyophilization of Urine from Patients with Schistosoma mansoni Low Worm Burden: Towards an Elimination of Doubts about the Concept of Trace.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Marcos Zech Coelho

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate diagnostic techniques for schistosomiasis are essential for prevalence determination and identification of positive patients. A point-of-care test for detecting schistosome circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA has been evaluated for its accuracy in different endemic regions. This reagent strip/dipstick based assay has showed high sensitivity for individuals with high or moderate worm burden, but the interpretation of light infections is less clear, especially for trace readings.We introduced a urine lyophilization step to the POC-CCA assay to improve its sensitivity and clarify the interpretation of traces. We evaluated POC-CCA sensitivity and specificity within individuals with low parasite burdens in a Brazilian endemic area where a high number of traces were detected. Patients that were positive for other helminths were also evaluated for cross reactions. In all cases, a combined parasitological diagnosis using Kato-Katz (24 slides and Saline Gradient (1 g of feces were used as reference. At baseline, diagnosis by POC-CCA (1-2 cassettes showed 6% sensitivity, inaccurately predicting a low prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infections (2 POC-CCA positives/32 egg positives. After urine lyophilization, the sensitivity was increased significantly (p < 0.05. Prevalence rates changed from 2% to 32% (27 POC-CCA positives/32 egg positives, equivalent to parasitological techniques. Most of the trace readings changed to positive after lyophilization while some negatives turned into traces. Cross reaction analysis confirmed the specificity of POC-CCA.Trace readings cannot be primarily defined as positive or negative cases. It is critical to verify case-by-case by concentrating urine 10 fold by lyophilization for the diagnosis. Following lyophilization, persistent trace readings should be read as negatives. No trained technician is needed and cost is restricted to the cost of a lyophilizer and the electricity to run it.

  16. Interpreting the CMMI a process improvement approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kulpa, Margaret K

    2008-01-01

    Written by experienced process improvement professionals who have developed and implemented computer based systems in organizations around the world, Interpreting the CMMI®: A Process Improvement Approach, Second Edition provides you with specific techniques for performing process improvement. Employing everyday language and supported by real world examples, the authors describe the fundamental concepts of the CMMI model, covering goals, practices, architecture, and definitions, and provide a structured approach for implementing the concepts of the CMMI into any organization. They discuss gett

  17. On court interpreters' visibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil

    in by the participants almost immediately after the interrogations and supplemented by interviews. The main objective of the project is to explore the interpreters' own perception of the quality of the service they render as well as the professional users´ and the other language users' perception of the quality...... of the service they receive. Ultimately, the findings will be used for training purposes. Future - and, for that matter, already practising - interpreters as well as the professional users of interpreters ought to take the reality of the interpreters' work in practice into account when assessing the quality......, such as the interpreter's engagement in explicit co-construction of meaning. In addition, we shall include social factors which must be assumed to have a bearing on the interpreter's behaviour. Here we can, at least to some extent, draw upon the questionnaires and interviews mentioned above. Finally, we shall discuss...

  18. Interpreting land records

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Donald A

    2014-01-01

    Base retracement on solid research and historically accurate interpretation Interpreting Land Records is the industry's most complete guide to researching and understanding the historical records germane to land surveying. Coverage includes boundary retracement and the primary considerations during new boundary establishment, as well as an introduction to historical records and guidance on effective research and interpretation. This new edition includes a new chapter titled "Researching Land Records," and advice on overcoming common research problems and insight into alternative resources wh

  19. Acquiring specific interpreting competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Zidar Forte

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In postgraduate interpreter training, the main objective of the course is to help trainees develop various competences, from linguistic, textual and cultural competence, to professional and specific interpreting competence. For simultaneous interpreting (SI, the main focus is on mastering the SI technique and strategies as well as on developing and strengthening communicative skills, which is discussed and illustrated with examples in the present paper. First, a brief overview is given of all the necessary competences of a professional interpreter with greater emphasis on specific interpreting competence for SI. In the second part of the paper, various approaches are described in terms of acquiring specific skills and strategies, specifically through a range of exercises. Besides interpreting entire speeches, practical courses should also consist of targeted exercises, which help trainees develop suitable coping strategies and mechanisms (later on almost automatisms, while at the same time "force" them to reflect on their individual learning process and interpreting performance. This provides a solid base on which trained interpreters can progress and develop their skills also after joining the professional sphere.

  20. Life Cycle Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonou, Alexandra; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2017-01-01

    an interpretation. The process of interpretation starts with identification of potentially significant issues in the previous stages of goal and scope definition, inventory analysis and impact assessment, and examples of potential significant issues are given for each phase. The significance is then determined...

  1. Art and Interpretation: Luigi Pareyson’s onthological originating perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Íris Fátima Da Silva Uribe

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The scope of this paper is to explain the interpretive core of the artwork and its ontological precept. It starts from the principle that it is the ontological character of interpretation that allows the dialogue between the artist and the conjuncture involving the making, the interpreter, and the artwork. Thus this is, however because the artifice of the work of art in itself, suggests something new, legitimate. That particular feature explains the continuous interpretation process, this, in turn, secures both the interpretive character and the ontological code of art. Nevertheless, following Pareyson argument, the interpretive character is present in every human relationship. This relationship is essentially originating; the idea is state that this originality explains the ontological character of all interpretation, whatever it may be, and at the same time, it is understood that the original bond of interpretation unifies person and truth, and this according to Pareyson means the core of the interpretation concept

  2. Buddyjskie pojęcie pradźńapti i jego wykładnia w filozofii Nagardźuny [The Buddhist concept of prajñapti and its interpretation in Nāgārjuna’s philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Szymański

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Buddhism the word prajñapti traditionally refers to unreal objects, which are referents of names without any real referents. The word was important because Buddhists thought the realisation of the status of some unreal objects (primarily one’s own substantial self as a basis for personal identity is a condition for attaining nirvāṇa. The tendency to consider objects called prajñapti to be products of intentional acts of consciousness is not unexpected. However, the objects created by acts of consciousness were not clearly distinguished from acts of consciousness themselves, names and their meanings, or real compositions of dharmas. Sarvastivadins gave some class of prajñapti objects a special mode of being, which is equivalent to that of Ingarden’s purely intentional objects. The Theravadin thinker Anuruddha II distinguished between attha-paññattis and names and understood the first as objects created by acts of consciousness. Attha-paññattis should not be identified with purely intentional objects because they were not clearly contrasted with cognitive acts creating them. According to Nāgārjuna every object is prajñapti because it is unavoidably a product of an act of consciousness. It is an effect of imposition of some concept on cognitive data. Acts of consciousness, conceptualization and language create false impression of reality unless we clearly know they are essentially defective and the way they are defective. The view of Nāgārjuna seems to be a result of his processual beliefs about reality.

  3. Semantic Representatives of the Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena N. Tsay

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article concept as one of the principle notions of cognitive linguistics is investigated. Considering concept as culture phenomenon, having language realization and ethnocultural peculiarities, the description of the concept “happiness” is presented. Lexical and semantic paradigm of the concept of happiness correlates with a great number of lexical and semantic variants. In the work semantic representatives of the concept of happiness, covering supreme spiritual values are revealed and semantic interpretation of their functioning in the Biblical discourse is given.

  4. Cytological artifacts masquerading interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushboo Sahay

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: In order to justify a cytosmear interpretation, a cytologist must be well acquainted with delayed fixation-induced cellular changes and microscopic appearances of common contaminants so as to implicate better prognosis and therapy.

  5. Interpretability in PRA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bílková, Marta; De Jongh, D.; Joosten, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 2 (2009), s. 128-138 ISSN 0168-0072 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA900090703 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA401/06/0387 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interpretability * arithmetic * primitive recursive arithmetic * interpretability logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2009

  6. Interpreter-mediated dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Susan; Drew, Paul; Zayts, Olga; McGrath, Colman; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Wong, H M; Au, T K F

    2015-05-01

    The global movements of healthcare professionals and patient populations have increased the complexities of medical interactions at the point of service. This study examines interpreter mediated talk in cross-cultural general dentistry in Hong Kong where assisting para-professionals, in this case bilingual or multilingual Dental Surgery Assistants (DSAs), perform the dual capabilities of clinical assistant and interpreter. An initial language use survey was conducted with Polyclinic DSAs (n = 41) using a logbook approach to provide self-report data on language use in clinics. Frequencies of mean scores using a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) indicated that the majority of DSAs spoke mainly Cantonese in clinics and interpreted for postgraduates and professors. Conversation Analysis (CA) examined recipient design across a corpus (n = 23) of video-recorded review consultations between non-Cantonese speaking expatriate dentists and their Cantonese L1 patients. Three patterns of mediated interpreting indicated were: dentist designated expansions; dentist initiated interpretations; and assistant initiated interpretations to both the dentist and patient. The third, rather than being perceived as negative, was found to be framed either in response to patient difficulties or within the specific task routines of general dentistry. The findings illustrate trends in dentistry towards personalized care and patient empowerment as a reaction to product delivery approaches to patient management. Implications are indicated for both treatment adherence and the education of dental professionals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comment on: "Recent revisions of phosphate rock reserves and resources: a critique" by Edixhoven et al. (2014) - clarifying comments and thoughts on key conceptions, conclusions and interpretation to allow for sustainable action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholz, R. W.; Wellmer, F.-W.

    2016-02-01

    , innovation for exploiting low-grade deposits, etc.) is acknowledged, but the right conclusions are not drawn, including the mixing of finiteness and staticness, and the way in which the critique of the USGS upgrading of the Moroccan reserves has been linked to Peak P. In particular, we clarify that reserves are primarily company data that serve mining companies for their strategic planning and may, by no means, be used as proxy data for providing global Peak P estimates. Likewise, we elaborate that drilling plans for assessing reserves have to be adjusted to site characteristics, in particular, in the case of four plateaus in Morocco and the Western Sahara comprising an area greater than 10 000 km2. We reconstruct the IFDC and USGS estimates and conclude that there is no evidence for considering the somewhat surprising increase to 50 Gt phosphate concentrate to be an unreasonable estimate for Moroccan reserves. However, the partial mixing of different units (e.g., phosphate ore and phosphate concentrate or marketable product) in the USGS data may be avoided by improving the database and using proper conversion factors. When applying these factors and assessing all reserves of marketable Gt of phosphate rock (PR-M), which is a common scale for measuring annual consumption, the magnitude of the 2014 USGS estimates of 67 Gt PR reserves does not change essentially but decreases from 64 (IFDC assessment) to 57.5 Gt PR-M (a worst-case calculation). We agree that a better harmonization of the (national) classification systems is meaningful. The discussion includes several ideas and thoughts that go beyond the paper by Edixhoven et al. (2014). We suggest that the discrepancies in the resource estimates are often caused by missing system understandings, different conceptions of sciences, and diverging world views. Finally, we suggest the establishment of a solidly funded, international standing committee that regularly analyzes global geopotential for assuring long-term supply

  8. Concepts of formal concept analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žáček, Martin; Homola, Dan; Miarka, Rostislav

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this article is apply of Formal Concept Analysis on concept of world. Formal concept analysis (FCA) as a methodology of data analysis, information management and knowledge representation has potential to be applied to a verity of linguistic problems. FCA is mathematical theory for concepts and concept hierarchies that reflects an understanding of concept. Formal concept analysis explicitly formalizes extension and intension of a concept, their mutual relationships. A distinguishing feature of FCA is an inherent integration of three components of conceptual processing of data and knowledge, namely, the discovery and reasoning with concepts in data, discovery and reasoning with dependencies in data, and visualization of data, concepts, and dependencies with folding/unfolding capabilities.

  9. The psychotherapist and the sign language interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Ed; Brugmans, Petra

    2006-01-01

    Specialized psychotherapy for deaf people in the Dutch and Western European mental health systems is still a rather young specialism. A key policy principle in Dutch mental health care for the deaf is that they should receive treatment in the language most accessible to them, which is usually Dutch Sign Language (Nederlandse Gebarentaal or NGT). Although psychotherapists for the deaf are trained to use sign language, situations will always arise in which a sign language interpreter is needed. Most psychotherapists have the opinion that working with a sign language interpreter in therapy sessions can be a valuable alternative option but also see it as a second-best solution because of its impact on the therapeutic process. This paper describes our years of collaborationship as a therapist and a sign language interpreter. If this collaborationship is optimal, it can generate a certain "therapeutic power" in the therapy sessions. Achieving this depends largely on the interplay between the therapist and the interpreter, which in our case is the result of literature research and our experiences during the last 17 years. We analyze this special collaborative relationship, which has several dimensions and recurrent themes like, the role conception of the interpreter, situational interpreting, organizing the interpretation setting, or managing therapeutic phenomena during therapy sessions.

  10. An overview of interpretive phenomenology as a research methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuohy, Dympna; Cooney, Adeline; Dowling, Maura; Murphy, Kathy; Sixsmith, Jane

    2013-07-01

    To provide an overview of interpretive phenomenology. Phenomenology is a philosophy and a research approach. As a research approach, it is used extensively in nursing and 'interpretive' phenomenology is becoming increasingly popular. Online and manual searches of relevant books and electronic databases were undertaken. Literature review on papers on phenomenology, research and nursing (written in English) was undertaken. A brief outline of the origins of the concept, and the influence of 'descriptive' phenomenology on the development of interpretive phenomenology is provided. Its aim, origins and philosophical basis, including the core concepts of dasein, fore-structure/pre-understanding, world view existential themes and the hermeneutic circle, are described and the influence of these concepts in phenomenological nursing research is illustrated. This paper will assist readers when deciding whether interpretive phenomenology is appropriate for their research projects. This paper adds to the discussion on interpretive phenomenology and helps inform readers of its use as a research methodology.

  11. Localized Smart-Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh Gulbrandsen, Mats; Mejer Hansen, Thomas; Bach, Torben; Pallesen, Tom

    2014-05-01

    The complex task of setting up a geological model consists not only of combining available geological information into a conceptual plausible model, but also requires consistency with availably data, e.g. geophysical data. However, in many cases the direct geological information, e.g borehole samples, are very sparse, so in order to create a geological model, the geologist needs to rely on the geophysical data. The problem is however, that the amount of geophysical data in many cases are so vast that it is practically impossible to integrate all of them in the manual interpretation process. This means that a lot of the information available from the geophysical surveys are unexploited, which is a problem, due to the fact that the resulting geological model does not fulfill its full potential and hence are less trustworthy. We suggest an approach to geological modeling that 1. allow all geophysical data to be considered when building the geological model 2. is fast 3. allow quantification of geological modeling. The method is constructed to build a statistical model, f(d,m), describing the relation between what the geologists interpret, d, and what the geologist knows, m. The para- meter m reflects any available information that can be quantified, such as geophysical data, the result of a geophysical inversion, elevation maps, etc... The parameter d reflects an actual interpretation, such as for example the depth to the base of a ground water reservoir. First we infer a statistical model f(d,m), by examining sets of actual interpretations made by a geological expert, [d1, d2, ...], and the information used to perform the interpretation; [m1, m2, ...]. This makes it possible to quantify how the geological expert performs interpolation through f(d,m). As the geological expert proceeds interpreting, the number of interpreted datapoints from which the statistical model is inferred increases, and therefore the accuracy of the statistical model increases. When a model f

  12. The Interpretive Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    Approximately a decade ago, it was suggested that a new function should be added to the lexicographical function theory: the interpretive function(1). However, hardly any research has been conducted into this function, and though it was only suggested that this new function was relevant to incorp......Approximately a decade ago, it was suggested that a new function should be added to the lexicographical function theory: the interpretive function(1). However, hardly any research has been conducted into this function, and though it was only suggested that this new function was relevant...... to incorporate into lexicographical theory, some scholars have since then assumed that this function exists(2), including the author of this contribution. In Agerbo (2016), I present arguments supporting the incorporation of the interpretive function into the function theory and suggest how non-linguistic signs...... can be treated in specific dictionary articles. However, in the current article, due to the results of recent research, I argue that the interpretive function should not be considered an individual main function. The interpretive function, contrary to some of its definitions, is not connected...

  13. The Interpretive Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    to acting and therefore the only difference between reception and interpretation is that they work with different types of sign. However, the type of sign is not relevant for a function, or rather, it should not be a criterion for distinguishing between functions. The lemma selection for the communicative......Approximately a decade ago, it was suggested that a new function should be added to the lexicographical function theory: the interpretive function(1). However, hardly any research has been conducted into this function, and though it was only suggested that this new function was relevant...... to incorporate into lexicographical theory, some scholars have since then assumed that this function exists(2), including the author of this contribution. In Agerbo (2016), I present arguments supporting the incorporation of the interpretive function into the function theory and suggest how non-linguistic signs...

  14. Reflections and Interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reflections and Interpretations is an anthology on The Freedom Writers’ methodology. It is an anthology for all those with a professional need for texts explaining, not only how The Freedom Writers’ tools are being used, but also why they work so convincingly well. It is not an anthology of guide......Reflections and Interpretations is an anthology on The Freedom Writers’ methodology. It is an anthology for all those with a professional need for texts explaining, not only how The Freedom Writers’ tools are being used, but also why they work so convincingly well. It is not an anthology...

  15. Conjunctive interpretations of disjunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert van Rooij

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this extended commentary I discuss the problem of how to account for "conjunctive" readings of some sentences with embedded disjunctions for globalist analyses of conversational implicatures. Following Franke (2010, 2009, I suggest that earlier proposals failed, because they did not take into account the interactive reasoning of what else the speaker could have said, and how else the hearer could have interpreted the (alternative sentence(s. I show how Franke's idea relates to more traditional pragmatic interpretation strategies. doi:10.3765/sp.3.11 BibTeX info

  16. Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickl Peter

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The problems of modern physics are man made. The Copenhagen version of quantum mechanics is formulated in a vague prosaic way, inconsistencies and paradoxes are the price. New interpretations try to solve the problem, however a reformulation rather than an interpretation is needed. In this manuscript I will point out, where the Copenhagen formulation of quantum mechanics is flawed and how one can make sense out of it. Then I will show, that it is possible to give a precise formulation of quantum mechanics without losing its compelling ability in describing experiments.

  17. Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickl, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The problems of modern physics are man made. The Copenhagen version of quantum mechanics is formulated in a vague prosaic way, inconsistencies and paradoxes are the price. New interpretations try to solve the problem, however a reformulation rather than an interpretation is needed. In this manuscript I will point out, where the Copenhagen formulation of quantum mechanics is flawed and how one can make sense out of it. Then I will show, that it is possible to give a precise formulation of quantum mechanics without losing its compelling ability in describing experiments.

  18. Translation, Interpreting and Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Helle Vrønning; Tarp, Sven

    2018-01-01

    Translation, interpreting and lexicography represent three separate areas of human activity, each of them with its own theories, models and methods and, hence, with its own disciplinary underpinnings. At the same time, all three disciplines are characterized by a marked interdisciplinary dimension...... in the sense that their practice fields are typically ‘about something else’. Translators may, for example, be called upon to translate medical texts, and interpreters may be assigned to work on medical speeches. Similarly, practical lexicography may produce medical dictionaries. In this perspective, the three...

  19. Interpreting the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, William J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

  20. Listening and Message Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Renee

    2011-01-01

    Message interpretation, the notion that individuals assign meaning to stimuli, is related to listening presage, listening process, and listening product. As a central notion of communication, meaning includes (a) denotation and connotation, and (b) content and relational meanings, which can vary in ambiguity and vagueness. Past research on message…

  1. Interpretation as conflict resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Henriëtte de; Zwart, J.

    Semantic interpretation is not a simple process. When we want to know what a given sentence means, more is needed than just a simple ‘adding up’ of the meanings of the component words. Not only can the words in a sentence interact and conflict with each other, but also with the linguistic and

  2. Interpretability in PRA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bílková, M.; de Jongh, D.; Joosten, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study IL(PRA), the interpretability logic of PRA. As PRA is neither an essentially reflexive theory nor finitely axiomatizable, the two known arithmetical completeness results do not apply to PRA: IL(PRA) is not ILM or ILP. IL(PRA) does, of course, contain all the principles known

  3. Cling - The LLVM-based C++ Interpreter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Cling (http://cern.ch/cling) is a C++ interpreter, built on top of clang (http://clang.llvm.org) and LLVM (http://llvm.org). Like its predecessor CINT, cling offers an interactive, terminal-like prompt. It enables exploratory programming with rapid edit / run cycles. The ROOT team has more than 15 years of experience with C++ interpreters, and this has been fully exploited in the design of cling. However, matching the concepts of an interpreter to a compiler library is a non-trivial task; we will explain how this is done for cling, and how we managed to implement cling as a small (10,000 lines of code) extension to the clang and llvm libraries. The resulting features clearly show the advantages of basing an interpreter on a compiler. Cling uses clang's praised concise and easy to understand diagnostics. Building an interpreter on top of a compiler library makes the transition between interpreted and compiled code much easier and smoother. We will present the design, e.g. how cling treats the C++ extensions ...

  4. ON CONCEPTS OF GOVERNANCE: A SURVEY AND INTERPRETATION

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Bariletti; Mariangela Zoli

    2006-01-01

    From the late 1970s onwards there has been a growing interest in the notion of governance both as an object of theoretical inquiry and as a practical solution to co-ordination problems in a wide range of systems. From a theoretical point of view, the spread of governance studies in many disciplines is generally seen as a consequence of the growing complexity of the economic and social-political environment. According to an increasing amount of economic and political theory, due to globalisati...

  5. A Materialistic Concept of Planning and Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Petersen, Verner C.

    1981-01-01

    Planning and participation are concepts which can be interpreted in different ways. Traditional planning theory offers mostly subjective-idealistic interpretations. These interpretations are not very helpfull in answering why ideas, methods, and practices of planning appear as they do. A prerequi......Planning and participation are concepts which can be interpreted in different ways. Traditional planning theory offers mostly subjective-idealistic interpretations. These interpretations are not very helpfull in answering why ideas, methods, and practices of planning appear as they do....... A prerequisite for answering such questions is a theoretical understanding of the relationship of planning to social totality, i.e. to basic political, social, economic and ideological conditions. Capital-logic and 'structure-logic' theories of social structure and development offer framework for analysis. Both......, however, lead to functionalist explanations, and imply mechanical determinism. A more dialectical conception is necessary, emphasizing both the objective and the subjective aspects of planning and development....

  6. Methods and manners of interpretation of criminal norms | Assefa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The criminal justice system is constituted of criminal norms, institutions and methods, among others. Interpretation of the criminal law is a process that transforms the text of the law into reality. The process is influenced by various factors, such as, the courts' conception of the criminal law, the concept and practice of ...

  7. Heisenberg and the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilleri, Kristian

    2011-09-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; Part I. The Emergence of Quantum Mechanics: 2. Quantum mechanics and the principle of observability; 3. The problem of interpretation; Part II. The Heisenberg-Bohr Dialogue: 4. The wave-particle duality; 5. Indeterminacy and the limits of classical concepts: the turning point in Heisenberg's thought; 6. Heisenberg and Bohr: divergent viewpoints of complementarity; Part III. Heisenberg's Epistemology and Ontology of Quantum Mechanics: 7. The transformation of Kantian philosophy; 8. The linguistic turn in Heisenberg's thought; Conclusion; References; Index.

  8. Quasi-equilibrium interpretation of aging dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, S.; Virasoro, M.A.

    2000-04-01

    We develop an interpretation of the off-equilibrium dynamical solution of mean-field glassy models in terms of quasi-equilibrium concepts. We show that the relaxation of the 'thermoremanent magnetization' follows a generalized version of the Onsager regression postulate of induced fluctuations. We then find the rationale for the equality between the fluctuation-dissipation ratio and the rate of growth of the configurational entropy close to the asymptotic state, found empirically in mean-field solutions. (author)

  9. Financial Stability: the Problem of Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romaniak Mykola M.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article is concerned with studying the problem of interpretation of the concept of «financial stability», allocating the major groups of approaches to its interpretation and clarifying the reasons for absence of a single uniform definition. On the basis of an analysis, approaches to interpretation of the category of «financial stability» have been divided into three main groups. In the definitions by central banks (the first group emphasis is more often placed upon the matter that a system (not necessarily financial is considered stable if it is able to perform all their functions even under conditions of minor adverse shocks and upheavals. The second way to interpretation – by contradiction – must be taken into consideration in the process of studying the financial stability. According to the third group of views, a system can be considered financially stable until the process of transforming savings into investments remains unbroken. The main reasons for the absence of a single clear formulation of the concept of «financial stability» have been identified, namely: different approaches used by scientists to understanding the content of financial system; refocusing from studying the financial stability towards financial crises; accounting the indicator of financial stability in place of the indicator of financial disturbances. A prospective direction for further research is assessment of financial stability through practical consideration of quantitative characteristics that influence on such stability

  10. Personal literary interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Januszkiewicz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article titled “Personal literary interpretation” deals with problems which have usually been marginalized in literary studies, but which seem to be very important in the context of the humanities, as broadly defined. The author of this article intends to rethink the problem of literary studies not in objective, but in personal terms. This is why the author wants to talk about what he calls personal literary interpretation, which has nothing to do with subjective or irrational thinking, but which is rather grounded in the hermeneutical rule that says that one must believe in order tounderstand a text or the other (where ‘believe’ also means: ‘to love’, ‘engage’, and ‘be open’. The article presents different determinants of this attitude, ranging from Dilthey to Heidegger and Gadamer. Finally, the author subscribes to the theory of personal interpretation, which is always dialogical.

  11. Interpretation and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, C.B.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter discusses the factors to be kept in mind during routine interpretation of MR images. This includes the factors that determine contrast on standard spin-echo images and some distinguishing features between true lesions and artifactually simulated lesions. This chapter also indicates the standard protocols for MRI of various portions of the body. Finally, the current indications for MRI of various portions of the body are suggested; however, it is recognized that the indications for MRI are rapidly increasing and consequently, at the time of publication of this chapter, it is likely that many more applications will have become evident. Interpretation of magnetic resonance (MR) images requires consideration of anatomy and tissue characteristics and extraction of artifacts resulting from motion and other factors

  12. Interpretations of interpretivism

    OpenAIRE

    Gerring, John

    2003-01-01

    What is interpretivism? As is common with broad methodological debates, much hinges on matters of definition. Interpretivism might be defined residually — as non-positivism. However, this scarcely clarifies the matter, as noted by Robert Adcock and David Dessler in their contributions to this symposium. We might start with David Laitin’s suggestion that interpretivism refers to interpretation or clarification— rendering the ambiguous into a clearer form. This is true enough, so far as it ...

  13. A Narrative Interpretive Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Adorisio, Anna Linda Musacchio

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I will discuss the possibility offered by the “linguistic turn” for narrative research in the realm of financial communication. I will propose three categories by which a narrative interpretive approach can be applied to financial communication: narrative-as-artifacts, narrative-as-practice and narrative-as-method. Such a constitutive communication approach challenges a mechanistic and functionalist view of communication as a tool to represent social realities in ...

  14. Interpretative phenomenological analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Eatough, Virginia; Smith, Jonathan A.

    2017-01-01

    The Second Edition of The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research in Psychology provides comprehensive coverage of the qualitative methods, strategies, and research issues in psychology.\\ud \\ud Qualitative research in psychology has been transformed since the first edition's publication. Responding to this evolving field, existing chapters have been updated while three new chapters have been added on Thematic Analysis, Interpretation, and Netnography. With a focus on methodological progress thr...

  15. The Age of Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Vattimo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gianni Vattimo, who is both a Catholic and a frequent critic of the Church, explores the surprising congruence between Christianity and hermeneutics in light of the dissolution of metaphysical truth. As in hermeneutics, Vatimo claims, interpretation is central to Christianity. Influenced by hermeneutics and borrowing largely from the Nietzschean and Heideggerian heritage, the Italian philosopher, who has been instrumental in promoting a nihilistic approach to Christianity, draws here on Nietzsche’s writings on nihilism, which is not to be understood in a purely negative sense. Vattimo suggests that nihilism not only expands the Christian message of charity, but also transforms it into its endless human potential. In “The Age of Interpretation,” the author shows that hermeneutical radicalism “reduces all reality to message,” so that the opposition between facts and norms turns out to be misguided, for both are governed by the interpretative paradigms through which someone (always a concrete, historically situated someone makes sense of them. Vattimo rejects some of the deplorable political consequences of hermeneutics and claims that traditional hermeneutics is in collusion with various political-ideological neutralizations.

  16. Video interpretations in Danish hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjerg, Lene Mosegaard; Noesgaard, Susanne; Henriksen, Jan Erik

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a study of an RCT comparing video interpretation with in-person interpretation at the Endocrinology Ward at Odense University Hospital.......This article presents a study of an RCT comparing video interpretation with in-person interpretation at the Endocrinology Ward at Odense University Hospital....

  17. Can bootstrapping explain concept learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    Susan Carey's account of Quinean bootstrapping has been heavily criticized. While it purports to explain how important new concepts are learned, many commentators complain that it is unclear just what bootstrapping is supposed to be or how it is supposed to work. Others allege that bootstrapping falls prey to the circularity challenge: it cannot explain how new concepts are learned without presupposing that learners already have those very concepts. Drawing on discussions of concept learning from the philosophical literature, this article develops a detailed interpretation of bootstrapping that can answer the circularity challenge. The key to this interpretation is the recognition of computational constraints, both internal and external to the mind, which can endow empty symbols with new conceptual roles and thus new contents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Management concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, Rhonda

    2006-01-01

    Management concepts evolve through time. Health care managers can learn new concepts by evaluating classical management strategies, as well as modern-day strategies. Focusing on quality improvement and team building can help managers align the goals of their departments with the goals of the organization, consequently improving patient care.

  19. Lateral Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Christopher; Bruun Jensen, casper

    2016-01-01

    This essay discusses the complex relation between the knowledges and practices of the researcher and his/her informants in terms of lateral concepts. The starting point is that it is not the prerogative of the (STS) scholar to conceptualize the world; all our “informants” do it too. This creates...... the possibility of enriching our own conceptual repertoires by letting them be inflected by the concepts of those we study. In a broad sense, the lateral means that there is a many-to-many relation between domains of knowledge and practice. However, each specific case of the lateral is necessarily immanent...... to a particular empirical setting and form of inquiry. In this sense lateral concepts are radically empirical since it locates concepts within the field. To clarify the meaning and stakes of lateral concepts, we first make a contrast between lateral anthropology and Latour’s notion of infra-reflexivity. We end...

  20. Concept theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjørland, Birger

    2009-01-01

      Concept theory is an extremely broad, interdisciplinary and complex field of research related to many deep fields with very long historical traditions without much consensus. However, information science and knowledge organization cannot avoid relating to theories of concepts. Knowledge...... organizing systems (e.g. classification systems, thesauri and ontologies) should be understood as systems basically organizing concepts and their semantic relations. The same is the case with information retrieval systems. Different theories of concepts have different implications for how to construe......, evaluate and use such systems. Based on "a post-Kuhnian view" of paradigms this paper put forward arguments that the best understanding and classification of theories of concepts is to view and classify them in accordance with epistemological theories (empiricism, rationalism, historicism and pragmatism...

  1. TMN: Introduction and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pras, Aiko

    An overview of Telecommunications Management Network (TMN) status is presented. Its relation with Open System Interconnection (OSI) systems management is given and the commonalities and distinctions are identified. Those aspects that distinguish TMN from OSI management are introduced; TMN's functional and physical architectures and TMN's logical layered architecture are discussed. An analysis of the concepts used by these architectures (reference point, interface, function block, and building block) is given. The use of these concepts to express geographical distribution and functional layering is investigated. This aspect is interesting to understand how OSI management protocols can be used in a TMN environment. A statement regarding applicability of TMN as a model that helps the designers of (management) networks is given.

  2. An Introduction to Statistical Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    This comprehensive, flexible text is used in both one- and two-semester courses to review introductory through intermediate statistics. Instructors select the topics that are most appropriate for their course. Its conceptual approach helps students more easily understand the concepts and interpret SPSS and research results. Key concepts are simply stated and occasionally reintroduced and related to one another for reinforcement. Numerous examples demonstrate their relevance. This edition features more explanation to increase understanding of the concepts. Only crucial equations are included. I

  3. Travelling Concepts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Karen-Margrethe

    2013-01-01

    Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012......Review of "Travelling Concepts, Metaphors, and Narratives: Literary and Cultural Studies in an Age of Interdisciplinary Research" ed. by Sibylle Baumgarten, Beatrice Michaelis and Ansagar Nünning, Trier; Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2012...

  4. Corporate Social Responsibility, an Interpretative Practice. Rediscovering CRS through the Hermeneutic Philosophy of Gianni Vattimo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, J.G. de

    2016-01-01

    The thesis connects CSR to hermeneutic philosophy. The concept of responsibility is an intrinsically interpretative concept, which makes the connection between CSR and hermeneutics (the art of interpretation) an evident connection. Nevertheless, the debate on CSR lacks such a connection and this

  5. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy - image interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maca, F.

    1998-01-01

    The basic ideas of image interpretation in Scanning Tunneling Microscopy are presented using simple quantum-mechanical models and supplied with examples of successful application. The importance is stressed of a correct interpretation of this brilliant experimental surface technique

  6. What Language Do Interpreters Speak?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Gerald B.

    1982-01-01

    States that both the register and variety of an interpreter's speech are quite limited and analyzes the linguistic characteristics of "International English," the English used by interpreters at international conferences. (CFM)

  7. The debbuggable interpreter design pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Vrany, Jan; Bergel, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    peer-reviewed The use of Interpreter and Visitor design patterns has been widely adopted to implement programming language interpreters due to their expressive and simple design. However, no general approach to conceive a debugger is commonly adopted. This paper presents the debuggable interpreter design pattern as a general approach to extend a language interpreter with debugging facilities such as step-over and step-into. Moreover, it enables multiple debuggers coexisting and extends ...

  8. Intercultural pragmatics and court interpreting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    2008-01-01

    . The court interpreters are all state-authorized court interpreters and thus fully competent professionals.   The centrality of pragmatics in triadic speech events has been demonstrated by a number of studies (e.g. Berk-Seligson 2002, Hale 2004, Jacobsen 2002). Thus, conversational implicatures, which....../Philadelphia: John Benjamins.   Jacobsen, B. (2002). Pragmatic meaning in court interpreting: An empirical study of additions in consecutively-interpreted question-answer dialogues. PhD thesis, The Aarhus School of Business....

  9. The interpretation of administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-Silviu SĂRARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the principles of interpretation for administrative contracts, in French law and in Romanian law. In the article are highlighted derogations from the rules of contract interpretation in common law. Are examined the exceptions to the principle of good faith, the principle of common intention (willingness of the parties, the principle of good administration, the principle of extensive interpretation of the administrative contract. The article highlights the importance and role of the interpretation in administrative contracts.

  10. Lexical Knowledge and Interpreter Attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaaden, Hanne

    1999-01-01

    Examines the performance of six student interpreters attending a training course at the University of Oslo. Data are drawn from video recordings in which the students interpret dialogs in two test situations. Students use consecutive interpreting with short speaker intervals and perform in Norwegian/Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian. Compares students'…

  11. Student Interpretations of Political Cartoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedient, Douglas; Moore, David M.

    1985-01-01

    This study investigated the accuracy and types of interpretations that fifth, eighth, and eleventh graders gave to 24 editorial cartoons in four issue areas and the effect of intelligence on political cartoon interpretation. Numerous misinterpretations and no interpretations indicates assumptions that cartoons are an effective teaching medium…

  12. Interpretation of computed tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stickle, R.L.; Hathcock, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses the production of optimal CT images in small animal patients as well as principles of radiographic interpretation. Technical factors affecting image quality and aiding image interpretation are included. Specific considerations for scanning various anatomic areas are given, including indications and potential pitfalls. Principles of radiographic interpretation are discussed. Selected patient images are illustrated

  13. Improving electrocardiogram interpretation skills for medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel K

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kunj Patel,1 Omar El Tokhy,1 Shlok Patel,2 Hanna Maroof31Department of Investigative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Imperial College London, 2Department of Medical Research, Faculty of Medicine, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, 3GKT School of Medical Education, Faculty of Life Sciences and Medicine, King’s College of London, London, UKWe read with great interest the article by Zeng at al1 who propose a new electrocardiogram (ECG teaching method called the “graphics-sequence memory method”. An ECG is one of the most important diagnostic tests and is currently used as a gold standard for the diagnosis of a number of cardiac diseases. We appreciate that it can be a challenging concept to teach, often bringing frustration to the educators trained in ECG interpretation. Zeng et al1 highlight a deficiency in learning through the traditional Chinese disease-based teaching method, resulting in a relative inability to interpret ECGs where the diagnosis is not quite so straightforward. Accumulation of evidence2 has suggested that a significant proportion of undergraduate medical students do not feel competent in their interpretation of an ECG. Therefore, the authors are right to suggest a novel approach with the dual benefit of aiding teaching and improving learning and confidence when interpreting an ECG.View original paper by Zeng and colleagues.

  14. Psychoanalytic interpretations: word-music and translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priel, Beatriz

    2003-02-01

    A perspective on psychoanalytic interpretations as a special case of artistic translations (i.e. translations of both content and formal aspects of discourse) is proposed. Mutative interpretations are seen as creative endeavours that always presuppose a prior text, which is itself already a translation. Freud's main uses of the metaphor of translation as an intrapsychic as well as an intersubjective phenomena, their resonance among later psychoanalytic thinkers and their convergence with classic theories of translation are presented. A perspective on psychoanalytic interpretations as an evolving self-other dialect is developed within the framework of Borges's theory of translation and Bakhtin's concept of exotopy. This framework questions the possibility of an original source, proposes the translator's inevitable implication in translation and underscores intersubjectivity as a necessary way towards the translation of absent meanings. The work of translation also highlights the relevance of space and time contexts, as well as the necessary role of a different other for the interpretation of unconscious processes. Differences between theories of translation reiterate contemporary psychoanalytic controversies about the preeminence of the analysand's subjectivity and the intersubjective approach to treatment. Borges's 'The Aleph' and an excerpt of Dora's case offer paradigmatic demonstrations of the limits and possibilities of understanding through translation.

  15. Derrida's Quasi-Transcendental Interweaving of Invention and Interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Hurst, Andrea

    2005-01-01

    In both "Psyche: Inventions of the Other," which stresses the "paradoxical predicaments" in which the concept "invention" remains tied up, and "Ulysses Gramophone: Hear Say Yes in Joyce", which focuses on the related aporetics of interpretation, Derrida’s multiple deconstructive performances uncover the aporias that beset the traditional and seemingly obvious relationship of priority between invention and interpretation that governs, for example, Kant’s analysis of the relationship between ta...

  16. Conducting psychotherapy with an interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuay, Justin; Chopra, Prem; Kaplan, Ida; Szwarc, Josef

    2015-06-01

    This qualitative study assessed how clinicians prepared and used interpreters during psychotherapeutic sessions and investigated the strategies they used to manage the dynamics of this process. Ten therapists were interviewed at the Victorian Foundation for the Survivors of Torture (VFST). A semi-structured interview format was used. Thematic analysis was conducted on transcripts of recorded interviews to identify key themes. Factors affecting the provision of psychotherapy with interpreters agreed with general guidelines for working with interpreters but there were exceptions. The possible roles of the interpreter as a cultural consultant, community advocate and co-therapist were explored. Specific troubleshooting strategies were identified for improving empathy, redefining roles, and adjusting interactions with interpreters. Working with interpreters in psychotherapy is a complex process. These findings may benefit clinicians providing psychotherapy to patients using interpreters. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  17. Statistics and Data Interpretation for Social Work

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenthal, James

    2011-01-01

    "Without question, this text will be the most authoritative source of information on statistics in the human services. From my point of view, it is a definitive work that combines a rigorous pedagogy with a down to earth (commonsense) exploration of the complex and difficult issues in data analysis (statistics) and interpretation. I welcome its publication.". -Praise for the First Edition. Written by a social worker for social work students, this is a nuts and bolts guide to statistics that presents complex calculations and concepts in clear, easy-to-understand language. It includes

  18. Causal interpretation of stochastic differential equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokol, Alexander; Hansen, Niels Richard

    2014-01-01

    We give a causal interpretation of stochastic differential equations (SDEs) by defining the postintervention SDE resulting from an intervention in an SDE. We show that under Lipschitz conditions, the solution to the postintervention SDE is equal to a uniform limit in probability of postintervention...... structural equation models based on the Euler scheme of the original SDE, thus relating our definition to mainstream causal concepts. We prove that when the driving noise in the SDE is a Lévy process, the postintervention distribution is identifiable from the generator of the SDE....

  19. A Critique of Generalizability in Interpretive Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Metcalfe

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about generalizability in interpretive systems research. The authors are concerned that, in its search for appropriate inquiry methods, the discipline of Information Systems (IS does not slip into the errors of other social disciplines and become a dismal science. Many systems thinkers have repeatedly argued that the purpose of IS research needs to be to produce what Argyris calls actionable knowledge and Ulrich, critique heuristics. That is, rules of thumb which managers can use to solve design problems, not too vague and not too detailed. This is a different concept from generalizability, which aligns with the scientific notion of seeking universal objective laws. The paper uses the argumentative inquiry in its reflexive capacity to critique knowledge claims on a chapter by Baskerville and Lee that discusses generalizability to bring out the differences between this cornerstone of universal truths and the more systems thinking concepts of actionable knowledge or critical heuristics.

  20. Basic conceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khasanov, A.Kh.

    1988-01-01

    In this part of book author presents the basic conceptions of minerals studying. The course of minerals deposits is the most important branch of geology science and studying the geology, material constitution, formation conditions and regularity of distribution in earth crust different types of mineral raw materials

  1. Simple Concepts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Materna, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2013), s. 295-319 ISSN 0353-5150 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP401/10/0792 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : concept * constructions * set-theoretical paradigm Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion

  2. Heideggerov koncept myslenia v inom počiatku a výklad základných vzťahov v otvorenom poli (Heidegger’s Concept of Thinking in Different Beginning and Interpretation of Ground Relations in Open Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branislav Motýľ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study author on a basis of selected passages from Heidegger’s Contributions to Philosophy (Beiträge zur Philosophie interprets Heidegger’s key moments in change of thinking in other beginning. Through analysis of ground attunement (die Grundbestimmung he clarifies a structure of this thinking. He claims that this thinking opens a possibility of interpretation of ground relations in open field and through interpretation of various moments of Da-sein characterizes their meaning.

  3. Internationalization: Interpretations Among Dutch Practitioners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    dr. Haijing de Haan

    2014-01-01

    The concept of internationalization has been seen as a buzz word and container concept. The meaning of internationalization includes everything that relates to international, meanwhile internationalization is losing its meaning. This study takes a practical approach to searching for some

  4. Working memory and simultaneous interpreting

    OpenAIRE

    Timarova, Sarka

    2009-01-01

    Working memory is a cognitive construct underlying a number of abilities, and it has been hypothesised for many years that it is crucial for interpreting. A number of studies have been conducted with the aim to support this hypothesis, but research has not yielded convincing results. Most researchers focused on studying working memory differences between interpreters and non-interpreters with the rationale that differences in working memory between the two groups would provide evidence of wor...

  5. Astrophysical Concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Harwit, Martin

    2006-01-01

    This classic text, aimed at senior undergraduates and beginning graduate students in physics and astronomy, presents a wide range of astrophysical concepts in sufficient depth to give the reader a quantitative understanding of the subject. Emphasizing physical concepts, the book outlines cosmic events but does not portray them in detail: it provides a series of astrophysical sketches. For this fourth edition, nearly every part of the text has been reconsidered and rewritten, new sections have been added to cover recent developments, and others have been extensively revised and brought up to date. The book begins with an outline of the scope of modern astrophysics and enumerates some of the outstanding problems faced in the field today. The basic physics needed to tackle these questions are developed in the next few chapters using specific astronomical processes as examples. The second half of the book enlarges on these topics and shows how we can obtain quantitative insight into the structure and evolution of...

  6. Assessment of Interpretive Facilities and the Delivery of Interpretive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of interpretive facilities and the delivery of interpretive services in Chad Basin National Park (CBNP), Kainji Lake National Park (KLNP), Okomu National Park (OKNP), and Yankari National Park (YNP) were conducted. The parks were selected to represent the major ecological zones where National Parks are ...

  7. It Takes Time and Experience to Learn How to Interpret Gaze in Mentalistic Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavens, David A.

    2006-01-01

    What capabilities are required for an organism to evince an "explicit" understanding of gaze as a mentalistic phenomenon? One possibility is that mentalistic interpretations of gaze, like concepts of unseen, supernatural beings, are culturally-specific concepts, acquired through cultural learning. These abstract concepts may either require a…

  8. Internationalization: Interpretations among Dutch Practitioners

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haan, Haijing

    2014-01-01

    The concept of internationalization has been seen as a buzz word and container concept. The meaning of internationalization includes everything that relates to international, meanwhile internationalization is losing its meaning. This study takes a practical approach to searching for some clarification of this concept. During the period 2009-2011,…

  9. Charisma and attachment theory: a crossdisciplinary interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberbach, D

    1995-08-01

    The attachment theory of Bowlby and his followers has not previously been applied to the interpretation of charismatic phenomena in the bonding of large numbers of people with their leaders in crisis. This essay, which builds on the author's 'Surviving trauma: loss, literature and psychoanalysis', attempts to use attachment theory and sociological concepts such as homogamy, anomie, negative imprinting and de-individuation, as well as classical Freudian concepts such as transference and splitting of the ego, in interpreting the charismatic bond. It is argued that charismatic homogamy becomes viable at the point of intersection between the inner world of the charismatic leader and social and political reality. The bonding of the individual and the public may be based partly upon a symbolic link between public crisis and the charismatic's experience of trauma that has deeply scarred or even ended the affectional bonds in his family of orientation. This trauma, however, is a source of insight and power as well as of disability, for it has schooled him in crisis and given him the capacity to offer directional leadership. The charismatic and his society are bonded in crisis through a mutual attempt to break free of anomie and alienation, and a sense of powerlessness and despair.

  10. RETHINKING RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY INTERPRETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick J. Lawrence

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1950s academics and professionals have proposed a number of disciplinary and sector based interpretations of why, when and where households move or choose to stay in the same housing unit at different periods of the life cycle and especially the family cycle. This article challenges studies that only analyse one set of factors. The article stems from a synthesis of 20 years of research by the author who  has an interdisciplinary training in the broad field of people-environment relations. First, it reviews some key concepts related to human ecology, including housing, culture, identity and cultivation. Then it will consider how these concepts can be applied to interpret residential mobility using an interdisciplinary approach. An empirical case study of residential mobility in Geneva, Switzerland is presented in order to show how this approach can help improve our understanding of the motives people have regarding the wish to stay in their residence or to move elsewhere.

  11. Using interpretation services during clerkships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijbers, Laura; Gerritsen, Debby; Suurmond, Jeanine

    2017-01-01

    Although using professional interpreters is known to improve health outcomes for patients when language barriers are present, care providers often hesitate to use them. Training in how to use interpreters has been effective in increasing students' knowledge and self-efficacy, but little is known

  12. Basic Interpreting Strategies for Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    Some deaf interpreting strategies are offered to parents of children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Parents are urged to utilize space in their interpreting, use name signs, utilize sight lines to distinguish characters in stories, use exaggerated signs to translate nursery rhymes, place themselves carefully at a public performance, and learn…

  13. Pragmatics in Court Interpreting: Additions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    2003-01-01

    Danish court interpreters are expected to follow ethical guidelines, which instruct them to deliver exact verbatim versions of source texts. However, this requirement often clashes with the reality of the interpreting situation in the courtroom. This paper presents and discusses the findings...

  14. Interpreting Recoil for Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Tarek A.

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of recoil is usually explained to students in the context of Newton's third law. Typically, when a projectile is fired, the recoil of the launch mechanism is interpreted as a reaction to the ejection of the smaller projectile. The same phenomenon is also interpreted in the context of the conservation of linear momentum, which is…

  15. Statistical concepts a second course

    CERN Document Server

    Lomax, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    Statistical Concepts consists of the last 9 chapters of An Introduction to Statistical Concepts, 3rd ed. Designed for the second course in statistics, it is one of the few texts that focuses just on intermediate statistics. The book highlights how statistics work and what they mean to better prepare students to analyze their own data and interpret SPSS and research results. As such it offers more coverage of non-parametric procedures used when standard assumptions are violated since these methods are more frequently encountered when working with real data. Determining appropriate sample sizes

  16. Abstract Interpretation and Attribute Gramars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    The objective of this thesis is to explore the connections between abstract interpretation and attribute grammars as frameworks in program analysis. Abstract interpretation is a semantics-based program analysis method. A large class of data flow analysis problems can be expressed as non-standard ......The objective of this thesis is to explore the connections between abstract interpretation and attribute grammars as frameworks in program analysis. Abstract interpretation is a semantics-based program analysis method. A large class of data flow analysis problems can be expressed as non......-standard semantics where the ``meaning'' contains information about the runtime behaviour of programs. In an abstract interpretation the analysis is proved correct by relating it to the usual semantics for the language. Attribute grammars provide a method and notation to specify code generation and program analysis...

  17. A Complementary Approach to Freudian and Jungian Dream Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollub, Dan

    1986-01-01

    Presents the original theory that dreams are consecutive emotions of love, desire, nondesire, and hatred showing Freudian and Jungian concepts about dream interpretation to be partly compatible with this pattern. Wish fulfillment (love, desire), "anti-wishes" (nondesire), symbolism, compensation in dreams (hatred), and the individuation…

  18. How Childcare Providers Interpret "Reasonable Suspicion" of Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Benjamin H.; Crowell, Kathryn; Walsh, Kerryann; Dellasega, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childcare providers are often "first responders" for suspected child abuse, and how they understand the concept of "reasonable suspicion" will influence their decisions regarding which warning signs warrant reporting. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate how childcare providers interpret the…

  19. Applications of chaotic neurodynamics in pattern recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Bill; Freeman, Walter J.; Eeckman, Frank H.; Yao, Yong

    1991-08-01

    Network algorithms and architectures for pattern recognition derived from neural models of the olfactory system are reviewed. These span a range from highly abstract to physiologically detailed, and employ the kind of dynamical complexity observed in olfactory cortex, ranging from oscillation to chaos. A simple architecture and algorithm for analytically guaranteed associative memory storage of analog patterns, continuous sequences, and chaotic attractors in the same network is described. A matrix inversion determines network weights, given prototype patterns to be stored. There are N units of capacity in an N node network with 3N2 weights. It costs one unit per static attractor, two per Fourier component of each sequence, and three to four per chaotic attractor. There are no spurious attractors, and for sequences there is a Liapunov function in a special coordinate system which governs the approach of transient states to stored trajectories. Unsupervised or supervised incremental learning algorithms for pattern classification, such as competitive learning or bootstrap Widrow-Hoff can easily be implemented. The architecture can be ''folded'' into a recurrent network with higher order weights that can be used as a model of cortex that stores oscillatory and chaotic attractors by a Hebb rule. Network performance is demonstrated by application to the problem of real-time handwritten digit recognition. An effective system with on-line learning has been written by Eeckman and Baird for the Macintosh. It utilizes static, oscillatory, and/or chaotic attractors of two kinds--Lorenze attractors, or attractors resulting from chaotically interacting oscillatory modes. The successful application to an industrial pattern recognition problem of a network architecture of considerable physiological and dynamical complexity, developed by Freeman and Yao, is described. The data sets of the problem come in three classes of difficulty, and performance of the biological network is favorably compared with that of several other network and statistical pattern recognition methods.

  20. Students' conceptions about force

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soeguet, Oe.

    2005-01-01

    Students from a young age have developed in their own minds differing concepts of things such as all creatures having a soul. Also children see the environment and interpret what they see according to their own understanding and explanation. In particular, with regards to physics, things like light, heat, motion, structure of matter and energy are understood at the level of a child s comprehension. Most often the child s understanding varies quite differently from the actual true meaning. As a result the child is reluctant to accept any other explanation. In such situations the necessary difficulties must be tackled with care and caution pertinent to the individual. Studies at K.S.U University related to force and motion of various departments in the Faculty of Science and Letters have been investigated. After evaluations of all the findings a number of suggestions have been made to change student views and ideas

  1. Concepts in quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Mathur, Vishnu S

    2008-01-01

    NEED FOR QUANTUM MECHANICS AND ITS PHYSICAL BASIS Inadequacy of Classical Description for Small Systems Basis of Quantum Mechanics Representation of States Dual Vectors: Bra and Ket Vectors Linear Operators Adjoint of a Linear Operator Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors of a Linear Operator Physical Interpretation Observables and Completeness Criterion Commutativity and Compatibility of Observables Position and Momentum Commutation Relations Commutation Relation and the Uncertainty ProductAppendix: Basic Concepts in Classical MechanicsREPRESENTATION THEORY Meaning of Representation How to Set up a Representation Representatives of a Linear Operator Change of Representation Coordinate Representation Replacement of Momentum Observable p by -ih d/dqIntegral Representation of Dirac Bracket A2|F|A1> The Momentum Representation Dirac Delta FunctionRelation between the Coordinate and Momentum RepresentationsEQUATIONS OF MOTIONSchrödinger Equation of Motion Schrödinger Equation in the Coordinate Representation Equation o...

  2. Federal Aviation Administration Legal Interpretations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Legal Interpretations and the Chief Counsel's opinions are now available at this site. Your may choose to search by year or by text search. Please note that not all...

  3. COURT INTERPRETING AT DENPASAR COURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Made Puspani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a research on interpreting (oral translation on a criminal case ofdrug user in the court proceedings at Denpasar Court. The study of theinterpreting is concerned with two-ways rendition from Indonesian into Englishand vice-versa. The study is related to: (1 the description of modes of interpretingapplied by the interpreter, (2 the application of translation strategies: shift,addition and deletion of information, (3 factors that underlie the application ofthe strategies, and (4 the impact of the application of those strategies towards thequality of the interpreting.The methodology applied in this study is qualitative based on eclectictheories (translation, syntax, semantics and pragmatics. The utilization of thetheories is in accordance with the type of the data analyzed in regard to thetranslation phenomena as an applied study and its complexity.The interpreting at court applied the consecutive and simultaneous modes.The strategy of shift was applied when there were differences in structure betweenthe source and the target languages. Addition of information was used when theinterpreter emphasized the message of the source language in the target language.The deletion of information applied if the context in the target language has beencovered, and it was not necessary for the interpreter to interpret the same thingbecause the message of the source language was pragmatically implied in thetarget language.The factors which underlie the application of the interpreting strategies incourt interpreting were communication factor and the differences in the languagesystems between the source and the target languages. The impact of the use of thestrategies towards the quality of the interpreting happened when the interpretationof the source language message into the message of the target language and themessage in the source language was not completely render into the targetlanguage.The novelties of the research are: (1 relevance theory and its

  4. Court interpreting and pragmatic meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    In Denmark, court interpreters are required to deliver verbatim translations of speakers' originals and to refrain from transferring pragmatic meaning. Yet, as this paper demonstrates, pragmatic meaning is central to courtroom interaction.......In Denmark, court interpreters are required to deliver verbatim translations of speakers' originals and to refrain from transferring pragmatic meaning. Yet, as this paper demonstrates, pragmatic meaning is central to courtroom interaction....

  5. Economic interpretation of sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birk Mortensen, J.

    1994-01-01

    The economic discussion of sustainable development show that it is possible to define the concept sufficiently precise to introduce it in economic models and to get some policy results. The concept of sustainable development does have meaning and practical implications for economic policy. The relation between sustainability as non-decreasing welfare over time and a non-declining stock of total capital including natural capital is very useful for implementing the concept for actual planning. Even rudimentary empirical measures and test of sustainability can be developed and applied and used in planning and evaluation of performance based on this idea. Weak or strong versions of the concept have been suggested and an interesting and clarifying debate within economics is going on. The debate also demonstrates that when the concept is defined more precisely - differences in opinions, standpoints and policy prescriptions show up. (EG)

  6. Diet quality concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkerwi, Ala'a

    2014-06-01

    The term diet quality has recently gained considerable attention in nutritional research. Despite widespread use, it is often poorly defined and remains difficult to measure. Confusion surrounds the term, as there is no consensus on how to define quality of the diet or to pin down a framework for producing a standard indicator. The composite and cut-off selection of most diet quality indices depend on investigator choices in line with research objectives. In addition to the frequently used dietary compliance-based approach, innovative approaches have emerged to construct diet quality indices based on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory profiles of diet. Different viewpoints and overlapping interests may yield different interpretations. Most of the unresolved issues are related directly or indirectly to the multidimensional and open-textured nature of the concept. This review aims to elucidate several debated key points to understand the reasons behind this confusion and address the complexity of how to define and quantify this concept. A standardized and well-defined framework of diet quality is of great importance for both consumers and scientists from different disciplines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mathematical concepts

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    The main intention of this book is to describe and develop the conceptual, structural and abstract thinking of mathematics. Specific mathematical structures are used to illustrate the conceptual approach; providing a deeper insight into mutual relationships and abstract common features. These ideas are carefully motivated, explained and illustrated by examples so that many of the more technical proofs can be omitted. The book can therefore be used: ·         simply as an overview of the panorama of mathematical structures and the relations between them, to be supplemented by more detailed texts whenever you want to acquire a working knowledge of some structure ·         by itself as a first introduction to abstract mathematics ·         together with existing textbooks, to put their results into a more general perspective ·         to gain a new and hopefully deeper perspective after having studied such textbooks Mathematical Concepts has a broader scope and is less detaile...

  8. Reading YES: Interpretive repertoires and identity construction in Dutch teenage magazines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijmans, E.J.S.

    2004-01-01

    Analysis of interviews with Dutch teenage readers of the teenage girls’ magazine Yes demonstrates various ways in which girls use media content to construct gender identity. Theoretical concepts drawn from a symbolic interactionist perspective and reconstruction of interpretive repertoires

  9. Towards operational interpretations of generalized entropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topsoee, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    The driving force behind our study has been to overcome the difficulties you encounter when you try to extend the clear and convincing operational interpretations of classical Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy to other notions, especially to generalized entropies as proposed by Tsallis. Our approach is philosophical, based on speculations regarding the interplay between truth, belief and knowledge. The main result demonstrates that, accepting philosophically motivated assumptions, the only possible measures of entropy are those suggested by Tsallis - which, as we know, include classical entropy. This result constitutes, so it seems, a more transparent interpretation of entropy than previously available. However, further research to clarify the assumptions is still needed. Our study points to the thesis that one should never consider the notion of entropy in isolation - in order to enable a rich and technically smooth study, further concepts, such as divergence, score functions and descriptors or controls should be included in the discussion. This will clarify the distinction between Nature and Observer and facilitate a game theoretical discussion. The usefulness of this distinction and the subsequent exploitation of game theoretical results - such as those connected with the notion of Nash equilibrium - is demonstrated by a discussion of the Maximum Entropy Principle.

  10. Interpretation of correlations in clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Man; Bounsanga, Jerry; Voss, Maren Wright

    2017-11-01

    Critically analyzing research is a key skill in evidence-based practice and requires knowledge of research methods, results interpretation, and applications, all of which rely on a foundation based in statistics. Evidence-based practice makes high demands on trained medical professionals to interpret an ever-expanding array of research evidence. As clinical training emphasizes medical care rather than statistics, it is useful to review the basics of statistical methods and what they mean for interpreting clinical studies. We reviewed the basic concepts of correlational associations, violations of normality, unobserved variable bias, sample size, and alpha inflation. The foundations of causal inference were discussed and sound statistical analyses were examined. We discuss four ways in which correlational analysis is misused, including causal inference overreach, over-reliance on significance, alpha inflation, and sample size bias. Recent published studies in the medical field provide evidence of causal assertion overreach drawn from correlational findings. The findings present a primer on the assumptions and nature of correlational methods of analysis and urge clinicians to exercise appropriate caution as they critically analyze the evidence before them and evaluate evidence that supports practice. Critically analyzing new evidence requires statistical knowledge in addition to clinical knowledge. Studies can overstate relationships, expressing causal assertions when only correlational evidence is available. Failure to account for the effect of sample size in the analyses tends to overstate the importance of predictive variables. It is important not to overemphasize the statistical significance without consideration of effect size and whether differences could be considered clinically meaningful.

  11. The psychobiographer's authority: questions of interpretive scope and logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenwald, George C

    2012-04-01

    Two charges are often raised against psychobiographers' authority (as well as popularized analytic case formulations): reductionism and causal overreach. The first pertains to interpretations that rely exclusively on analytic concepts but ignore the essential contributions made by neighboring disciplines, such as history, to the elucidation of lives lived elsewhere or in the past. The second charge is sometimes stimulated by exaggerated interpretive claims, but often reflects the critic's misunderstanding of the logical structure of genetic explanations. Three case studies illustrate reductionism as well as safeguards against it. They also support a critical discussion of the alleged logical defect.

  12. The Interpretive Approach to Religious Education: Challenging Thompson's Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In a recent book chapter, Matthew Thompson makes some criticisms of my work, including the interpretive approach to religious education and the research and activity of Warwick Religions and Education Research Unit. Against the background of a discussion of religious education in the public sphere, my response challenges Thompson's account,…

  13. Default Sarcastic Interpretations: On the Priority of Nonsalient Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giora, Rachel; Drucker, Ari; Fein, Ofer; Mendelson, Itamar

    2015-01-01

    Findings from five experiments support the view that negation generates sarcastic utterance-interpretations by default. When presented in isolation, novel negative constructions ("Punctuality is not his forte," "Thoroughness is not her most distinctive feature"), free of semantic anomaly or internal incongruity, were…

  14. Interpretative reports and critical values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piva, Elisa; Plebani, Mario

    2009-06-01

    In the clinical laboratory to allow an effective testing process, post-analytical activity can have two goals in trying to improve patient safety: result interpretation and communication of critical values. Both are important issues, and their success requires a cooperative effort. Misinterpretation of laboratory test results or ineffectiveness in their notification can lead to diagnostic errors or errors in identifying patient critical conditions. With the awareness that the incorrect interpretation of tests and the breakdown in the communication of critical values are preventable errors, laboratorians should make every effort to prevent the types of errors that potentially harm patients. In order to improve the reliability of laboratories, we attempt to explain how interpretative reporting and automated notification of critical values can be used to reduce errors. Clinical laboratories can therefore work to improve clinical effectiveness, without forgetting that everything should be designed to provide the best outcomes for patients.

  15. 8 CFR 1240.44 - Interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpreter. 1240.44 Section 1240.44 Aliens....44 Interpreter. Any person acting as interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under this part shall be sworn to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the...

  16. 25 CFR 81.16 - Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interpreters. 81.16 Section 81.16 Indians BUREAU OF... STATUTE § 81.16 Interpreters. Interpreters, where needed, may be provided to explain the manner of voting... that the interpreter does not influence the voter in casting the ballot. The interpreter may accompany...

  17. Validity of interpretation: a user validity perspective beyond the test score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacIver, R.; Anderson, N.; Costa, A-C.; Evers, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of user validity and provides a new perspective on the validity of interpretations from tests. Test interpretation is based on outputs such as test scores, profiles, reports, spreadsheets of multiple candidates' scores, etc. The user validity perspective focuses on

  18. Undergraduate Student Construction and Interpretation of Graphs in Physics Lab Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Ryan S.; Godfrey, T. J.; Mayhew, Nicholas T.; Wiegert, Craig C.

    2016-01-01

    Lab activities are an important element of an undergraduate physics course. In these lab activities, students construct and interpret graphs in order to connect the procedures of the lab with an understanding of the related physics concepts. This study investigated undergraduate students' construction and interpretation of graphs with best-fit…

  19. Deconstruction as concept of architectural practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimović Milan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper inquires into the relationship between philosophical concept of deconstruction and its practical application in the interpretation of the concept of architectural creativity. Deconstruction is not only understood as a formal metaphor, but as a critical process that examines common approaches to architectural design and approach to the treatment of architectural space. Through a comparison with philosophy, this procedure highlights the architectural approach seen as a decomposition of normal and usual way of thinking about architecture and therefore associated treatment of the architectural concept in creative practice. By case study method, analyzed the formal concept of building 'Zepter Palace' in Belgrade, which is interpreted as a deconstruction of the concept of architectural practice. In this example, in comparison with the well-known interpretation of deconstruction on project of La Villette Park in Paris, derived a key contribution of the philosophical deconstruction to the concept of architectural practice - approach that establishes and promotes a method for creating and widening of architectural diversity, seen as a new space sensuality of aesthetic experience of space.

  20. Lineament interpretation. Short review and methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiren, Sven

    2010-11-01

    The ground comprises the solid and continuous surface of the Earth. The crystalline crust, i.e. bedrock, is exposed or covered with sediments and vegetation. The morphology of the ground surface is influenced by a combination of tectonometamorphic- magmatic processes (building up) and denudation/erosion processes (tearing down). Landforms are related to these processes and the character of the bedrock (lithologies and structures), and the distribution of soil or other unconsolidated, superficial material. By using remote-sensing techniques applied for structural analysis of the ground surface, it is possible to map features in the terrain that are related to bedrock structures provided that the topography of the bedrock surface is not totally concealed below a cover of soil or other loose material. Even though the sedimentary cover is relatively thick it may be distorted and the ground surface displaced by late faulting in the basement rock. Studies of the relation between structures in the bedrock and the topography started more than 150 years ago. Hobbs (1903, 1912) introduced the fundamental concept of 'lineaments' and described them as 'significant lines in the Earth's face' and later he concluded that they are 'lines in the landscape which reveal the hidden architecture of the basement'. When airborne geophysical measurements started approximately fifty years ago such data were used to compliment the topographical interpretation of basement structures. Source data for studies of lineaments consist of information on the topography (e.g. topographical maps, aerial photos, elevation data, multi-spectral sensing, laser, radar and thermography) and geophysical data (e.g. airborne geophysical data comprising magnetic, electromagnetic, radiation measurements, and gravimetric measurements). The outcome of a lineament study depends on the terrain in the investigated area, the source data, the approach and systematic performance in the interpretation, and the skill of

  1. Interpretive Reproduction in Children's Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, William A.

    2012-01-01

    The author looks at children's play from the perspective of interpretive reproduction, emphasizing the way children create their own unique peer cultures, which he defines as a set of routines, artifacts, values, and concerns that children engage in with their playmates. The article focuses on two types of routines in the peer culture of preschool…

  2. Interpreting Data: The Hybrid Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterkamp, Kimberly; Talanquer, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize major patterns of reasoning exhibited by college chemistry students when analyzing and interpreting chemical data. Using a case study approach, we investigated how a representative student used chemical models to explain patterns in the data based on structure-property relationships. Our results…

  3. Analyzing and Interpreting Historical Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kipping, Matthias; Wadhwani, Dan; Bucheli, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    on social scientific methods as well as the practice and reflections of historians, the chapter describes analytical and interpretive process based on three basic elements, illustrating them with exemplars from management research: source criticism to identify possible biases and judge the extent to which....... The chapter contributes to the creation of a language for describing the use of historical sources in management research....

  4. Abstract Interpretation of Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, René Rydhof; Jensen, J. G.; Nielson, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate that abstract interpretation is useful for analysing calculi of computation such as the ambient calculus (which is based on the p-calculus); more importantly, we show that the entire development can be expressed in a constraint-based formalism that is becoming exceedingly popular...

  5. Probabilistic interpretation of resonant states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail: hatano@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp. Abstract. We provide probabilistic interpretation of resonant states. We do this by showing that the integral of the modulus square of resonance wave functions (i.e., the conventional norm) over a properly expanding spatial domain is independent of time, and therefore leads to probability ...

  6. Intercultural Understanding: An Interpretive Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting-Toomey, Stella

    Noting that intercultural understanding is a prime construct in the study of intercultural communication, this paper examines two questions that confront all intercultural communication researchers: (1) What are the underlying characteristics of intercultural understanding? and (2) What constitutes an interpretative perspective to intercultural…

  7. Interpretation of Recurrent Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten With; Larsen, Jan

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses techniques for interpretation and characterization of trained recurrent nets for time series problems. In particular, we focus on assessment of effective memory and suggest an operational definition of memory. Further we discuss the evaluation of learning curves. Various...

  8. Probabilistic interpretation of resonant states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We provide probabilistic interpretation of resonant states. We do this by showing that the integral of the modulus square of resonance wave functions (i.e., the conventional norm) over a properly expanding spatial domain is independent of time, and therefore leads to probability conservation. This is in contrast with the ...

  9. Andries van Aarde's Matthew Interpretation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2011-01-14

    Jan 14, 2011 ... To conclude the article, some critical statements with regard to the historical understanding ... important texts. In what follows, this answer is described by emphasising the many facets of Van Aarde's Matthew interpretation. Van Aarde is an .... has created the necessary distance between text and reader, it.

  10. A Generator for Composition Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    Composition of program components must be expressed in some language, and late composition can be achieved by an interpreter for the composition language. A suitable notion of component is obtained by identifying it with the semantics of a generalised structured command. Experiences from programm...

  11. Interpretation and the Aesthetic Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Charles O.

    1976-01-01

    The author, utilizing a synthesis of philosophic comments on aesthetics, provides a discourse on the aesthetic dimension and offers examples of how interpreters can nurture the innate sense of beauty in man. Poetic forms, such as haiku, are used to relate the aesthetic relationship between man and the environment. (BT)

  12. Visual Interpretation of Children's Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, Bette P.

    1989-01-01

    Examines how visual literacy (the ability to interpret the visual images of advertisements, illustrations, television, and other visual media) can promote creative and analytic thinking. Provides several instructional strategies to teach visual literacy through book illustrations. Notes that visual literacy is essential in a world increasingly…

  13. The inextricable entanglement of argumentation and interpretation in law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Miloš

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At the basis of tireless efforts to explain the nature of law lies the question of how judges should decide cases. Therefrom arises a need for a theory that would clarify the role of the courts and, moreover, provide guidance to them on reaching judgments. The history of legal theory abounds with various attempts to offer a generally acceptable answer to the question raised. The fervor of debate and the perpetual dissatisfaction with offered solutions prompted the thought of untamable arbitrariness of judges. In the contemporary debate the significance of argumentation is particularly emphasized as a link of the court procedure which provides reasonableness and therewith justification and persuasiveness of the decision. Before going into the matter, I will indicate in broad strokes which areas of legal theory do argumentation and interpretation belong to. The purpose of setting a conceptual framework is to prevent losing sight of the whole as well as to limit the scope of discourse to a certain section of legal issues. The second part deals with the concept of argumentation in general and some specific features of the argumentation in law. The third part examines the role of legal interpretation and draws a clear distinction between the interpretation as a process and the interpretation as a result. At the end of the discussion I shall put forward a thesis that the interpretation as a process is argumentation, while the interpretation as a result is an argument in the justification of judgment.

  14. Using Concept Mapping to Build Concept the Competence of School Principals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustamin Mustamin

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available More and more the competence concept of school principals have an impact on two conditions, namely: (1 to develop the concept can complement and support each other; and (2 to develop the concept of possible contradict, giving rise to different interpretations. Therefore, this becomes the main issue researchers to identify the competence concept of school principals with adaptation of Jackson-Trochim method that is capable of illustrating the concept of competencies. Results of adaptation Jackson-Trochim method that school principals should have three types of competencies to lead the school effectively and efficiently. Kind of competencies are such as school leadership, instructional leadership, and operational leadership. Based on these results, the adaptationof Jackson-Trochim method to build the competence concept of school principals suggests this concept obtained may serve as a reference for school principals continue to build competencies in the future

  15. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards Interpretations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — NHTSA's Chief Counsel interprets the statutes that the agency administers and the regulations that it promulgates. The Chief Counsel's interpretations, issued in the...

  16. Directionality effects in simultaneous language interpreting: the case of sign language interpreters in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of The Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives was assessed by 5 certified sign language interpreters who did not participate in the study. Two measures were used to assess interpreting quality: the propositional accuracy of the interpreters' interpretations and a subjective quality measure. The results showed that the interpreted narratives in the SLN-to-Dutch interpreting direction were of lower quality (on both measures) than the interpreted narratives in the Dutch-to-SLN and Dutch-to-SSD directions. Furthermore, interpreters who had begun acquiring SLN when they entered the interpreter training program performed as well in all 3 interpreting directions as interpreters who had acquired SLN from birth.

  17. GENESIS INTERPRETATIONS OF THE DEFINITION OF ‘INVESTMENT’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Snetkova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the economic nature of the investment and summarizes the theoretical approaches to the interpretation of the essence of the concept of "investment" as an economic category. A comparative analysis of the existing definitions carries out on the basis of a critical study of foreign and domestic researchers theories, shows their inseparable relationship with the capital. The question of investments at the macro and micro levels to implement them. Formulated author detailed definition of the category "investment".

  18. Concept Generation Process for Patient Transferring Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dandavate, A. L.; Sarje, S. H.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop concepts for patient transferring tasks. The concept generation process of patient transferring device (PTD), which includes interviews of the customers, interpretation of the needs, organizing the needs into a hierarchy, establishing relative importance of the needs, establishing target specifications, and conceptualization has been discussed in this paper. The authors conducted the interviews of customers at Mobilink NGO, St. John's Hospital, Bangalore in order to know the needs and wants for the PTD. AHP technique was used for establishing and evaluating relative importance of needs, and based on the importance of the customer needs, concepts were developed through brainstorming.

  19. Social Accountable Medical Education: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdolmaleki, Mohammadreza; Yazdani, Shahram; Momeni, Sedigheh; Momtazmanesh, Nader

    2017-07-01

    Considering the pervasiveness of social accountable medical education concept around the world and the growing trend of literature in this regard as well as various interpretations made about this concept, we found it necessary to analyze the concept of social accountable medical education. In this study, the modified version of McKenna's approach to concept analysis was used to determine the concept, explain structures and substructures and determine the border concepts neighboring and against social accountability in medical education. By studying the selected sources,the components of the concept were obtained to identify it and express an analytic definition of social accountability in medical education system. Then, a model case with all attributes of the given concept and the contrary and related concepts were mentioned to determine the boundary between the main concept and auxiliary ones. According to the results of this study in the field of social accountability, the detailed and transparent analytical definition of social accountable medical education can be used in future studies as well as the function and evaluation of medical education system.

  20. The concept of equilibrium in organization theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazendam, H.W.M.

    1998-01-01

    Many organization theories consist of an interpretation frame and an idea about the ideal equilibrium state. This article explains how the equilibrium concept is used in four organization theories: the theories of Fayol, Mintzberg, Morgan, and Volberda. Equilibrium can be defined as balance, fit or

  1. The concept of equilibrium in organization theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gazendam, Henk W.M.

    1997-01-01

    Many organization theories consist of an interpretation frame and an idea about the ideal equilibrium state. This article explains how the equilibrium concept is used in four organization theories: the theories of Fayol, Mintzberg, Morgan, and Volberda. Equilibrium can be defined as balance, fit or

  2. Modeling and interpretation of images*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Michiel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging protoplanetary disks is a challenging but rewarding task. It is challenging because of the glare of the central star outshining the weak signal from the disk at shorter wavelengths and because of the limited spatial resolution at longer wavelengths. It is rewarding because it contains a wealth of information on the structure of the disks and can (directly probe things like gaps and spiral structure. Because it is so challenging, telescopes are often pushed to their limitations to get a signal. Proper interpretation of these images therefore requires intimate knowledge of the instrumentation, the detection method, and the image processing steps. In this chapter I will give some examples and stress some issues that are important when interpreting images from protoplanetary disks.

  3. Phonological Interpretation into Preordered Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Yusuke; Pollard, Carl

    We propose a novel architecture for categorial grammar that clarifies the relationship between semantically relevant combinatoric reasoning and semantically inert reasoning that only affects surface-oriented phonological form. To this end, we employ a level of structured phonology that mediates between syntax (abstract combinatorics) and phonology proper (strings). To notate structured phonologies, we employ a lambda calculus analogous to the φ-terms of [8]. However, unlike Oehrle's purely equational φ-calculus, our phonological calculus is inequational, in a way that is strongly analogous to the functional programming language LCF [10]. Like LCF, our phonological terms are interpreted into a Henkin frame of posets, with degree of definedness ('height' in the preorder that interprets the base type) corresponding to degree of pronounceability; only maximal elements are actual strings and therefore fully pronounceable. We illustrate with an analysis (also new) of some complex constituent-order phenomena in Japanese.

  4. Interpreting radiographs. 4. The carpus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burguez, P.N.

    1984-01-01

    The complexity of the carpus which has three major joints, seven or eight carpal bones and five adjacent bones, each of which articulates with one or more of the carpal elements, necessitates good quality radiographs for definitive radiographic interpretation may be extremely difficult because of the disparity between radiographic changes and obvious clinical signs and, therefore, must be discussed in the light of a thorough clinical assessment

  5. Abstract Interpretation Using Attribute Grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the correctness proofs of attribute grammars using methods from abstract interpretation. The technique will be described by defining a live-variable analysis for a small flow-chart language and proving it correct with respect to a continuation style semantics. The proof...... technique is based on fixpoint induction and introduces an extended class of attribute grammars as to express a standard semantics....

  6. Paris convention - Decisions, recommendations, interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This booklet is published in a single edition in English and French. It contains decisions, recommendations and interpretations concerning the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy adopted by the OECD Steering Committee and the OECD Council. All the instruments are set out according to the Article of the Convention to which they relate and explanatory notes are added where necessary [fr

  7. Achieving automated narrative text interpretation using phrases in the electronic medical record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, S. N.; Barnett, G. O.

    1996-01-01

    Stereotypic phrases are used by clinicians throughout the medical record, as seen in an analysis of our COSTAR medical record database. These phrases are often associated with an underling semantic concept; for example the phrase CLEAR LUNGS may be linked with the concept "normal lung exam" for a particular physician. Formalizing these associations with concepts from the UMLS using the MEDPhrase application allowed us to automate interpretation of narrative text within our electronic medical record. PMID:8947723

  8. Consistent interpretations of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omnes, R.

    1992-01-01

    Within the last decade, significant progress has been made towards a consistent and complete reformulation of the Copenhagen interpretation (an interpretation consisting in a formulation of the experimental aspects of physics in terms of the basic formalism; it is consistent if free from internal contradiction and complete if it provides precise predictions for all experiments). The main steps involved decoherence (the transition from linear superpositions of macroscopic states to a mixing), Griffiths histories describing the evolution of quantum properties, a convenient logical structure for dealing with histories, and also some progress in semiclassical physics, which was made possible by new methods. The main outcome is a theory of phenomena, viz., the classically meaningful properties of a macroscopic system. It shows in particular how and when determinism is valid. This theory can be used to give a deductive form to measurement theory, which now covers some cases that were initially devised as counterexamples against the Copenhagen interpretation. These theories are described, together with their applications to some key experiments and some of their consequences concerning epistemology

  9. On the Contradiction in Conception Test of the Categorical Imperative

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The author argues against Christine Korsgaard\\'s influential interpretation of. Kant\\'s contradiction in conception test of the categorical imperative. Korsgaard\\'s rejection of the 'teleological' interpretation is shown to be based on a misunderstanding of the role that teleology plays for Kant in ruling out immoral maxims, and her ...

  10. 32 CFR 1605.81 - Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpreters. 1605.81 Section 1605.81 National... ORGANIZATION Interpreters § 1605.81 Interpreters. (a) The local board, district appeal board and the National Selective Service Appeal Board are authorized to use interpreters when necessary. (b) The following oath...

  11. Interpreting Inexplicit Language during Courtroom Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieun

    2009-01-01

    Court interpreters are required to provide accurate renditions of witnesses' utterances during courtroom examinations, but the accuracy of interpreting may be compromised for a number of reasons, among which is the effect on interpretation of the limited contextual information available to court interpreters. Based on the analysis of the discourse…

  12. 8 CFR 1003.22 - Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpreters. 1003.22 Section 1003.22... EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.22 Interpreters. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing shall swear or affirm to interpret and translate accurately...

  13. What Does It Mean to Teach "Interpretively"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Jennifer; Holtzman, Richard; van Hulst, Merlijn; Yanow, Dvora

    2016-01-01

    The "interpretive turn" has gained traction as a research approach in recent decades in the empirical social sciences. While the contributions of interpretive research and interpretive research methods are clear, we wonder: Does an interpretive perspective lend itself to--or even demand--a particular style of teaching? This question was…

  14. Representations and Techniques for 3D Object Recognition and Scene Interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Hoiem, Derek

    2011-01-01

    One of the grand challenges of artificial intelligence is to enable computers to interpret 3D scenes and objects from imagery. This book organizes and introduces major concepts in 3D scene and object representation and inference from still images, with a focus on recent efforts to fuse models of geometry and perspective with statistical machine learning. The book is organized into three sections: (1) Interpretation of Physical Space; (2) Recognition of 3D Objects; and (3) Integrated 3D Scene Interpretation. The first discusses representations of spatial layout and techniques to interpret physi

  15. Interpretation as Freud's specific action, and Bion's container-contained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawson, Chris

    2017-12-01

    This is a paper showing how a concept central to the work of Wilfred Bion, and one of Klein's important recommendations concerning the practice of analysis with adults and small children, can both be seen in the light of Freud's earliest formulation of the origin of anxiety and the mother's first responses to her infant in distress. In the paper I suggest that these clinically influential concepts of Klein and Bion show an underlying consistency and affinity with Freud's early ideas about the management of anxiety in the mother-infant relationship, described in two of his pre-psychoanalytic writings, How Anxiety Originates (1894b), and The Project for a Scientific Psychology (1950 [1895]). The specific mode of operation of psychoanalytic interpretation is clarified by the comparisons made, with no attempt to suggest that Klein or Bion based their concepts upon these particular early formulations of Freud's. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  16. REQUIREMENTS FOR A GENERAL INTERPRETATION THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda Laura Lungu Petruescu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Time has proved that Economic Analysis is not enough as to ensure all the needs of the economic field. The present study wishes to propose a new approach method of the economic phenomena and processes based on the researches made outside the economic space- a new general interpretation theory- which is centered on the human being as the basic actor of economy. A general interpretation theory must assure the interpretation of the causalities among the economic phenomena and processes- causal interpretation; the interpretation of the correlations and dependencies among indicators- normative interpretation; the interpretation of social and communicational processes in economic organizations- social and communicational interpretation; the interpretation of the community status of companies- transsocial interpretation; the interpretation of the purposes of human activities and their coherency – teleological interpretation; the interpretation of equilibrium/ disequilibrium from inside the economic systems- optimality interpretation. In order to respond to such demands, rigor, pragmatism, praxiology and contextual connectors are required. In order to progress, the economic science must improve its language, both its syntax and its semantics. The clarity of exposure requires a language clarity and the scientific theory progress asks for the need of hypotheses in the building of the theories. The switch from the common language to the symbolic one means the switch from ambiguity to rigor and rationality, that is order in thinking. But order implies structure, which implies formalization. Our paper should be a plea for these requirements, requirements which should be fulfilled by a modern interpretation theory.

  17. Conceptions of Parents, Conceptions of Self, and Conceptions of God.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.; Mueller, Rebecca A.

    Different theorists have suggested that an individual's view of God may be related to one's view of one's father, one's mother, or one's self. A study was conducted to examine the relationship of college students' conceptions of the wrathfulness-kindliness of God to their conceptions of their father's and mother's permissiveness, authoritarianism,…

  18. The role of scientists in statutory interpretation of the U.S. Endangered Species Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhere, George F

    2017-04-01

    Like many federal statutes, the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA) contains vague or ambiguous language. The meaning imparted to the ESA's unclear language can profoundly impact the fates of endangered and threatened species. Hence, conservation scientists should contribute to the interpretation of the ESA when vague or ambiguous language contains scientific words or refers to scientific concepts. Scientists need to know at least these 2 facts about statutory interpretation: statutory interpretation is subjective and the potential influence of normative values results in different expectations for the parties involved. With the possible exception of judges, all conventional participants in statutory interpretation are serving their own interests, advocating for their preferred policies, or biased. Hence, scientists can play a unique role by informing the interpretative process with objective, policy-neutral information. Conversely, scientists may act as advocates for their preferred interpretation of unclear statutory language. The different roles scientists might play in statutory interpretation raise the issues of advocacy and competency. Advocating for a preferred statutory interpretation is legitimate political behavior by scientists, but statutory interpretation can be strongly influenced by normative values. Therefore, scientists must be careful not to commit stealth policy advocacy. Most conservation scientists lack demonstrable competence in statutory interpretation and therefore should consult or collaborate with lawyers when interpreting statutes. Professional scientific societies are widely perceived by the public as unbiased sources of objective information. Therefore, professional scientific societies should remain policy neutral and present all interpretations of unclear statutory language; explain the semantics and science both supporting and contradicting each interpretation; and describe the potential consequences of implementing each interpretation

  19. Touch design and narrative interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Sumin; Unsworth, Len

    2016-01-01

    of technology, but also a resource for meaning making. We distinguish two basic types of interactivity—intra-text and extra-text—incorporated in the touch design, and explore the different functions they perform in a broad range of picture book apps. In particular, we look at the app version of The Heart...... and the Bottle in depth, and illustrate how interactive design elements help to create an interpretative possibility of the story. We suggest that a better understanding of interactive touch design would promote more effective adult-child interactions around mobile applications....

  20. Interpreting CNNs via Decision Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Quanshi; Yang, Yu; Wu, Ying Nian; Zhu, Song-Chun

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a method to learn a decision tree to quantitatively explain the logic of each prediction of a pre-trained convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Our method boosts the following two aspects of network interpretability. 1) In the CNN, each filter in a high conv-layer must represent a specific object part, instead of describing mixed patterns without clear meanings. 2) People can explain each specific prediction made by the CNN at the semantic level using a decision tree, i.e....

  1. Investigating patients' experiences: methodological usefulness of interpretive interactionism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tower, Marion; Rowe, Jennifer; Wallis, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    To demonstrate the methodological usefulness of interpretive interactionism by applying it to the example of a study investigating healthcare experiences of women affected by domestic violence. Understanding patients' experiences of health, illness and health care is important to nurses. For many years, biomedical discourse has prevailed in healthcare language and research, and has influenced healthcare responses. Contemporary nursing scholarship can be developed by engaging with new ways of understanding therapeutic interactions with patients. Research that uses qualitative methods of inquiry is an important paradigm for nurses who seek to explain and understand or describe experiences rather than predict outcomes. Interpretive interactionism is an interpretive form of inquiry for conducting studies of social or personal problems that have healthcare policy implications. It puts the patient at the centre of the research process and makes visible the experiences of patients as they interact with the healthcare and social systems that surround them. Interpretive interactionism draws on concepts of symbolic interactionism, phenomenology and hermeneutics. Interpretive interactionism is a patient-centred methodology that provides an alternative way of understanding patients' experiences. It can contribute to policy and practice development by drawing on the perspectives and experiences of patients, who are central to the research process. It also allows research findings to be situated in and linked to healthcare policy, professional ethics and organisational approaches to care. Interpretive interactionism has methodological utility because it can contribute to policy and practice development by drawing on the perspectives and experiences of patients who are central to the research process. Interpretive interactionism allows research findings to be situated in and linked to health policy, professional ethics and organisational approaches to caring.

  2. Concept mapping as learning tool in problem-oriented learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fürstenau, B.; Kneppers, L.; Sánchez, J.; Cañas, A.J.; Novak, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    In two studies we investigated whether concept mapping or summary writing is more effective in supporting students’ learning from authentic problems in the field of business. We interpret concept mapping and summary writing as elaboration tools aiming at helping students to understand new

  3. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of a School Self-Concept Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Hsin; Thompson, Marilyn S.

    2004-01-01

    One of the valued objectives of education is the enhancement of a positive self-concept, which itself is a mediating variable of other desired outcomes. To facilitate the assessment of this goal, reliable and valid scores on self-concept scales are required for the proper interpretation of related substantive issues. The main purpose of this study…

  4. Interpretation of ultrasonic images; Interpretation von Ultraschall-Abbildungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, W.; Schmitz, V.; Kroening, M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefverfahren, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    During the evaluation of ultrasonic images, e.g. SAFT-reconstructed B-scan images (SAFT=Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique) it is often difficult to decide, what is the origin of reconstructed image points: were they caused by defects, specimens geometry or mode-conversions. To facilitate this evaluation a tool based on the comparison of data was developed. Different kinds of data comparison are possible: identification of that RF-signals, which caused the reconstructed image point. This is the comparison of a reconstructed image with the corresponding RF-data. Comparison of two reconstructed images performing a superposition using logical operators. In this case e.g. the reconstruction of an unknown reflector is compared with that of a known one. Comparison of raw-RF-data by simultaneous scanning through two data sets. Here the echoes of an unknown reflector are compared with the echoes of a known one. The necessary datasets of known reflectors may be generated experimentally on reference reflectors or modelled. The aim is the identification of the reflector type, e.g. cracklike or not, the determination of position, size and orientation as well as the identification of accompanying satellite echoes. The interpretation of the SAFT-reconstructed B-scan image is carried out by a complete description of the reflector. In addition to the aim of interpretation the tool described is well suited to educate and train ultrasonic testers. (orig./MM) [Deutsch] Bei der Auswertung von Ultraschall-Abbildungen, z.B. SAFT-rekonstruierten B-Bildern (SAFT=Synthetische Apertur Fokus Technik), ist es oft schwierig zu entscheiden, wo rekonstruierte Bildpunkte herruehren: wurden sie durch Materialfehler, Bauteilgeometrie oder durch Wellenumwandlungen versursacht. Um diese Auswertung zu erleichtern, wurde ein Werkzeug entwickelt, welches auf dem Vergleich von Datensaetzen basiert. Es koennen verschiedene Arten des Datenvergleichs durchgefuehrt werden: Identifikation der HF

  5. On the Interpretation of Action as Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, John

    2015-03-01

    I present a governing hypothesize that self-information (in natural units) is equal to the integral of energy times time divided by the quantum of action. I solve for both the free particle case and for when the particle is in a potential and conclude that the principle of least action is a similitude of the 2nd law of thermodynamics. I show supporting examples including the two slit experiment, the minimum uncertainty Gaussian wave function, and the electron spin state and argue that a spin s particle is 2s +1 natural units of information. I share a history of these concepts and how thinking has evolved over the last 100 + years. Lastly I present how this hypothesis is able to reconcile the Bohemian and Copenhagen interpretations of quantum mechanics and shed light on the non-local debate. The inspiration for the hypothesis was found as an undergrad at Princeton and the initial development was done as a grad student at Stanford.

  6. Liberating burdensomeness of suicide survivorship loss: A Critical Interpretive Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talseth, Anne-Grethe; Gilje, Fredricka L

    2017-12-01

    What is an interpreted and synthesised understanding of responses of survivors to a suicide death of a close person? It is well known that survivors of suicide loss who are in a close relationship with the deceased are at high risk for suicidality and health conditions. Nurses in various settings need evidenced-informed approaches to encounter these vulnerable persons and support their healing journey from postvention to prevention. The design is reflexive and iterative. A Critical Interpretive Synthesis comprised of six phases: formulating the review question; searching literature; sampling; determining quality; extracting data; interpretive synthesis. Qualitative content analysis was also. Based on a sample of 15 published full-text qualitative and quantitative nursing research studies published between 1990 and 2016, an aggregated, interpreted and synthesised understanding of responses of survivors of suicide loss to the suicide death of a close person emerged. Four synthesised concepts were: dreading burden of suicide risk and stigma; facing burdensomeness in the aftermath of suicide death; enduring being burdened-unburdened, striving to invest in living; and liberating burdensomeness, journeying toward healing. Contextually, geo-cultural gaps exist in published nursing studies. Most studies were from North American and a few from Asia. The reported suicide deaths occurred over a wide range of time. Conceptually, four synthesised concepts can be viewed as a process of moving from burdensomeness to liberating burdensomeness. Methodologically, a small body of knowledge that met quality appraisal was interpreted and synthesised into an understanding of an evidenced-informed approach to guide nurses' encounters with survivors of suicide loss. The results contribute to an evidenced-informed approach for nurses in practice to support survivors of suicide loss journeying from burdensomeness to liberating burdensomeness. Results also serve as a foundation for further

  7. The LDC detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and an extremely granular calorimeter. The main design force behind the LDC is the particle flow concept. Keywords. International linear collider; large detector concept. PACS No. 13.66-a. 1. Introduction. The large detector concept (LDC) detector concept group [1] was formed early in. 2004. Its goal is to design a complete ...

  8. Concepts in Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusanen, Anna-Mari; Poyhonen, Samuli

    2013-01-01

    In this article we focus on the concept of concept in conceptual change. We argue that (1) theories of higher learning must often employ two different notions of concept that should not be conflated: psychological and scientific concepts. The usages for these two notions are partly distinct and thus straightforward identification between them is…

  9. [Effect of using an interpreter in psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Rikke Sander; Nørregaard, Trine Maria; Carlsson, Jessica

    2017-05-22

    An evaluation of the effect of using an interpreter in psychotherapy is quite complex. In the few existing studies on the use of interpreters in psychotherapy no significant difference was found in treatment outcome related to whether an interpreter was used or not. On the other hand, the inclusion of an interpreter affects the therapeutic alliance and the relationships between the parties. The role of the interpreter in psychotherapy is characterized by diversity, and the included studies indicate the need for training to improve the cooperation between the interpreter and the therapist.

  10. Directionality Effects in Simultaneous Language Interpreting: The Case of Sign Language Interpreters in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives…

  11. Direct interpretation of dreams: typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Daele, L

    1992-12-01

    The dream typology assorts dreams into three major categories: dreams whose origin is endogenous, exogenous, or relational. Dreams of the first type arise from somatic needs, feelings, and states that accompany organismic adjustments to system requirements. Dreams of the second type are initiated by kinetic and dispositional tendencies toward engagement and exploration of the outer world. And dreams of the third type derive from interpersonal dispositions to interaction and relationship with other people. Within each category, dreams may occur at different levels of complexity. The dream typology permits the integration of psychoanalytic observations about the dreams from a variety of perspectives within a common framework. Freud's view that a dream is a wish fulfillment finds its primary niche in endogenous need, wish fulfillment, and convenience dreams. Kohut's observations about self-state dreams and inner regulation (1971, 1977) are accommodated to the middle range of endogenous dreams, and Jung's individuation dreams (1930) occupy the advanced range. Similarly, Bonime's interpersonal approach to dream interpretation (1962) is encompassed by relational dreams of the middle level. In addition, types and modes of dreams that are only infrequently encountered in clinical psychoanalysis are accommodated. The dream typology suggests that different psychoanalytic theories are like the position papers that might have derived from the fabled committee of learned blind who were commissioned to determine the appearance of an elephant. Each individual got a hold on some part, but could not see the whole; so for each, the part became the whole. The psychoanalytic theorist is in exactly an analogous position because, in fact, he is blind to the extent of the unconscious and is constrained to what he can infer. What he can infer depends on cohort, client population, and how he calibrates his observations. The result has been procrustean interpretation, dissention, and a

  12. Interpretation of neonatal chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Plain radiographs for infants in the neonatal intensive care unit are obtained using the portable X-ray equipment in order to evaluate the neonatal lungs and also to check the position of the tubes and catheters used for monitoring critically-ill neonates. Neonatal respiratory distress is caused by a variety of medical or surgical disease conditions. Clinical information about the gestational week, respiratory symptoms, and any events during delivery is essential for interpretation of the neonatal chest radiographs. Awareness of common chest abnormality in the prematurely born or term babies is also very important for chest evaluation in the newborn. Furthermore, knowledge about complications such as air leaks and bronchopulmonary dysplasia following treatment are required to accurately inform the clinicians. The purpose of this article was to briefly review radiographic findings of chest diseases in newborns that are relatively common in daily practice.

  13. APL interpreter on MITRA-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davcev, Danco

    1975-01-01

    APL in its present forms is an ideal instrument for the establishment of logic systems since it requires no specific declaration of type or form of variables. An APL system for C II computer of the MITRA series is described, with the following minimum configuration: MITRA central unit, 16-bit 32 K word memory, disc with fixed or mobile heads, type 4013 TEKTRONIX visualisation system. The originality of our APL interpreter on MITRA 15 lies in the use of a virtual memory system with pages of 128 word size. The so-called beating process is used to set up APL operators: the selection expressions in the tables may be evaluated without any manipulation of the values. (author) [fr

  14. Interpretation of neonatal chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Plain radiographs for infants in the neonatal intensive care unit are obtained using the portable X-ray equipment in order to evaluate the neonatal lungs and also to check the position of the tubes and catheters used for monitoring critically-ill neonates. Neonatal respiratory distress is caused by a variety of medical or surgical disease conditions. Clinical information about the gestational week, respiratory symptoms, and any events during delivery is essential for interpretation of the neonatal chest radiographs. Awareness of common chest abnormality in the prematurely born or term babies is also very important for chest evaluation in the newborn. Furthermore, knowledge about complications such as air leaks and bronchopulmonary dysplasia following treatment are required to accurately inform the clinicians. The purpose of this article was to briefly review radiographic findings of chest diseases in newborns that are relatively common in daily practice

  15. Defunctionalized Interpreters for Programming Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    by Reynolds in ``Definitional Interpreters for Higher-Order Programming Languages'' for functional implementations of denotational semantics, natural semantics, and big-step abstract machines using closure conversion, CPS transformation, and defunctionalization. Over the last few years, the author and his......This document illustrates how functional implementations of formal semantics (structural operational semantics, reduction semantics, small-step and big-step abstract machines, natural semantics, and denotational semantics) can be transformed into each other. These transformations were foreshadowed...... students have further observed that functional implementations of small-step and of big-step abstract machines are related using fusion by fixed-point promotion and that functional implementations of reduction semantics and of small-step abstract machines are related using refocusing and transition...

  16. Interpretive Flexibility in Mobile Health:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger Nielsen, Jeppe; Mathiassen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    a growing body of evidence supports the use of mobile technologies, the diverse implications of mobile health have yet to be fully documented. Objective: Our objective was to examine a large-scale government-sponsored mobile health implementation program in the Danish home care sector and to understand how...... stakeholders in the Danish home care sector (government bodies, vendors, consultants, interest organizations, and managers) helped initiate and energize the change process, and government funding supported quick and widespread technology adoption. However, although supported by the same government...... of debate as technology use arrangements ran counter to existing norms and values in individual agencies. Conclusions: Government-sponsored programs can have both positive and negative results, and managers need to be aware of this and the interpretive flexibility of mobile technology. Mobile technology...

  17. Model-based biosignal interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, S

    1994-03-01

    Two relatively new approaches to model-based biosignal interpretation, qualitative simulation and modelling by causal probabilistic networks, are compared to modelling by differential equations. A major problem in applying a model to an individual patient is the estimation of the parameters. The available observations are unlikely to allow a proper estimation of the parameters, and even if they do, the task appears to have exponential computational complexity if the model is non-linear. Causal probabilistic networks have both differential equation models and qualitative simulation as special cases, and they can provide both Bayesian and maximum-likelihood parameter estimates, in most cases in much less than exponential time. In addition, they can calculate the probabilities required for a decision-theoretical approach to medical decision support. The practical applicability of causal probabilistic networks to real medical problems is illustrated by a model of glucose metabolism which is used to adjust insulin therapy in type I diabetic patients.

  18. Language production and interpretation linguistics meets cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Zeevat, Henk

    2014-01-01

    A model of production and interpretation of natural language utterances is developed which explains why communication is normally fast and successful. Interpretation is taken to be analogous with visual perception in finding the most probable hypothesis that explains the utterance.

  19. 8 CFR 1240.5 - Interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Removal Proceedings § 1240.5 Interpreter. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under this part shall be...

  20. Pure Quantum Interpretations Are not Viable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, I.

    2011-02-01

    Pure interpretations of quantum theory, which throw away the classical part of the Copenhagen interpretation without adding new structure to its quantum part, are not viable. This is a consequence of a non-uniqueness result for the canonical operators.

  1. Decoherence and Copenhagen Interpretation : A Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we give a reasonable explanation (not proof) to the Copenhagen interpretation of Quantum Mechanics from the view point of decoherence theory. Mathematical physicists with strong mission must prove {\\bf the Copenhagen interpretation} at all costs.

  2. THE EFFECTS OF CONTEXT ON UTTERANCE INTERPRETATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Some questions about context and interpretation. One of the most important problems in the study of language use is that of the interpretation of utterances. For our purposes this problem can be formulated in the form of the following question:.

  3. Empowerment in the Open Innovation Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Pachura

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is an attempt to interpret the concept of „empowerment” in the perspective of open innovation issues. The text consists of a brief introduction, four sections, and summary. The main background of the research is related to the importance of the social reality of the organisation to evolving paradigms of innovation. In the face of globalization challenges, the innovation management could be interpreted as a specific system based on interdisciplinary analysis of an organisation’s social potential.

  4. Semantic interpretation of search engine resultant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, M. K. M.

    2018-01-01

    In semantic, logical language can be interpreted in various forms, but the certainty of meaning is included in the uncertainty, which directly always influences the role of technology. One results of this uncertainty applies to search engines as user interfaces with information spaces such as the Web. Therefore, the behaviour of search engine results should be interpreted with certainty through semantic formulation as interpretation. Behaviour formulation shows there are various interpretations that can be done semantically either temporary, inclusion, or repeat.

  5. 'The body gets used to them': patients' interpretations of antibiotic resistance and the implications for containment strategies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brookes-Howell, L.; Elwyn, G.; Hood, K.; Wood, F.; Cooper, L.; Goossens, H.; Ieven, M.; Butler, C.C.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Interventions promoting evidence based antibiotic prescribing and use frequently build on the concept of antibiotic resistance but patients and clinicians may not share the same assumptions about its meaning. OBJECTIVE: To explore patients' interpretations of 'antibiotic resistance' and

  6. Comprehension and Error Monitoring in Simultaneous Interpreters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudes, Carolina; Macizo, Pedro; Morales, Luis; Bajo, M. Teresa

    2013-01-01

    In the current study we explored lexical, syntactic, and semantic processes during text comprehension in English monolinguals and Spanish/English (first language/second language) bilinguals with different experience in interpreting (nontrained bilinguals, interpreting students and professional interpreters). The participants performed an…

  7. Informal interpreting in Dutch general practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zendedel, R.

    2017-01-01

    When health care providers and migrant patients do not share a common language, informal interpreters - usually family members of the patients - come along to bridge the language gap. While patients usually feel comfortable with having an informal interpreter, this type of interpreter-mediated

  8. 29 CFR 18.604 - Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Interpreters. 18.604 Section 18.604 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE THE OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES Rules of Evidence Witnesses § 18.604 Interpreters. An interpreter is subject to the...

  9. Environmental interpretation in Uganda's national parks

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    interpretation work, and management skills expected of interpretation staff. Eight predetermined management skills were listed and respondents were asked to indicate ... Environmental interpretation in Uganda's National Parks. 21. Table 2. Job description of the rangers (N=32). Job description f. %. General work. 12. 37.5.

  10. Modular interpreters with implicit context propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Inostroza Valdera (Pablo); T. van der Storm (Tijs)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractModular interpreters are a crucial first step towards component-based language development: instead of writing language interpreters from scratch, they can be assembled from reusable, semantic building blocks. Unfortunately, traditional language interpreters can be hard to extend because

  11. Specialized Rules of Treaty Interpretation: International Organizations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brölmann, C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses treaty interpretation in the context of international organizations, with particular attention to interpreting the founding or constitutive treaties of organizations. That not all interpretive rules are the same for all treaties is a well-tried proposition (see e.g. Arnold

  12. Decoherence and the many worlds interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weigelt, Carsten Thomas [University Bonn (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    The theory of decoherence gives us a good account (at least for open systems) of how classical properties emerge from the quantum world. Recent experiments based on decoherence offers strong arguments against the quantum-classical division proposed by the early Copenhagen Interpretation. But even if decoherence may support the view that quantum mechanics can be considered as fundamental theory the question remains if this sheds new light to the question of how a realistic interpretation of quantum theory can be achieved? In the last years proponents of decoherence pointed out that the theory fits perfectly into the framework of many worlds interpretations. The question that I address is, in what sense these interpretations can be considered as realistic interpretations? To answer this question I argue that in the context of decoherence we have strong reasons to interpret quantum states in a realistic sense. A problem for many worlds interpretations arises when the meaning of Everett's relative states is considered since these interpretations strongly dependent on the interpretation of relative states. I show that einselection proposed by the decoherence theory will determine Everett's relative states in an objective sense but these states must be interpreted as epistemic states. I conclude that this ambiguity between realistic interpreted quantum states and epistemic relative states limits the strict realistic character of many worlds interpretation.

  13. Chain graph models and their causal interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, Steffen Lilholt; Richardson, Thomas S.

    2002-01-01

    , interpretations of chain graphs that are often invoked, implicitly or explicitly. These interpretations also lead to flawed methods for applying background knowledge to model selection. We present a valid interpretation by showing how the distribution corresponding to a chain graph may be generated from...... traditionally been used to model feed-back in econometrics....

  14. A robust interpretation of duration calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franzle, M.; Hansen, Michael Reichhardt

    2005-01-01

    Calculus (DC), our findings are that the robust interpretation of DC is equivalent to a multi-valued interpretation that uses the real numbers as semantic domain and assigns Lipschitz-continuous interpretations to all operators of DC. Furthermore, this continuity permits approximation between discrete...

  15. Advanced reactor concepts and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipsett, J.J.

    1988-06-01

    The need for some consistency in the terms used to describe the evolution of methods for ensuring the safety of nuclear reactors has been identified by the IAEA. This is timely since there appears to be a danger that the precision of many valuable words is being diluted and that a new jargon may appear that will confuse rather than aid the communication of important but possibly diverse philosophies and concepts. Among the difficulties faced by the nuclear industry is promoting and gaining a widespread understanding of the risks actually posed by nuclear reactors. In view of the importance of communication to both the public and to the technical community generally, the starting point for the definition of terms must be with dictionary meanings and common technical usage. The nuclear engineering community should use such words in conformance with the whole technical world. This paper addresses many of the issues suggested in the invitation to meet and also poses some additional issues for consideration. Some examples are the role of the operator in either enhancing or degrading safety and how the meaning or interpretation of the word 'safety' can be expected to change during the next few decades. It is advantageous to use criteria against which technologies and ongoing operating performance can be judged provided that the criteria are generic and not specific to particular reactor concepts. Some thoughts are offered on the need to frame the criteria carefully so that innovative solutions and concepts are fostered, not stifled

  16. The Extended Enterprise concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Bjørn; Vesterager, Johan; Gobbi, Chiara

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the work that has been done regarding the Extended Enterprise concept in the Common Concept team of Globeman 21 including references to results deliverables concerning the development of the Extended Enterprise concept. The first section presents the basic concept...... picture from Globeman21, which illustrates the Globeman21 way of realising the Extended Enterprise concept. The second section presents the Globeman21 EE concept in a life cycle perspective, which to a large extent is based on the thoughts and ideas behind GERAM (ISO/DIS 15704)....

  17. Species concept and speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amal Y. Aldhebiani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Defining and recognizing a species has been a controversial issue for a long time. To determine the variation and the limitation between species, many concepts have been proposed. When a taxonomist study a particular taxa, he/she must adopted a species concept and provide a species limitation to define this taxa. In this paper some of species concepts are discussed starting from the typological species concepts to the phylogenetic concept. Positive and negative aspects of these concepts are represented in addition to their application.

  18. ICYESS 2013: Understanding and Interpreting Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauser, F.; Niederdrenk, L.; Schemann, V.; Schmidt, A.; Suesser, D.; Sonntag, S.

    2013-12-01

    We will report the outcomes and highlights of the Interdisciplinary Conference of Young Earth System Scientists (ICYESS) on Understanding and Interpreting Uncertainty in September 2013, Hamburg, Germany. This conference is aimed at early career scientists (Masters to Postdocs) from a large variety of scientific disciplines and backgrounds (natural, social and political sciences) and will enable 3 days of discussions on a variety of uncertainty-related aspects: 1) How do we deal with implicit and explicit uncertainty in our daily scientific work? What is uncertain for us, and for which reasons? 2) How can we communicate these uncertainties to other disciplines? E.g., is uncertainty in cloud parameterization and respectively equilibrium climate sensitivity a concept that is understood equally well in natural and social sciences that deal with Earth System questions? Or vice versa, is, e.g., normative uncertainty as in choosing a discount rate relevant for natural scientists? How can those uncertainties be reconciled? 3) How can science communicate this uncertainty to the public? Is it useful at all? How are the different possible measures of uncertainty understood in different realms of public discourse? Basically, we want to learn from all disciplines that work together in the broad Earth System Science community how to understand and interpret uncertainty - and then transfer this understanding to the problem of how to communicate with the public, or its different layers / agents. ICYESS is structured in a way that participation is only possible via presentation, so every participant will give their own professional input into how the respective disciplines deal with uncertainty. Additionally, a large focus is put onto communication techniques; there are no 'standard presentations' in ICYESS. Keynote lectures by renowned scientists and discussions will lead to a deeper interdisciplinary understanding of what we do not really know, and how to deal with it. Many

  19. Integrating statistical rock physics and sedimentology for quantitative seismic interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avseth, Per; Mukerji, Tapan; Mavko, Gary; Gonzalez, Ezequiel

    This paper presents an integrated approach for seismic reservoir characterization that can be applied both in petroleum exploration and in hydrological subsurface analysis. We integrate fundamental concepts and models of rock physics, sedimentology, statistical pattern recognition, and information theory, with seismic inversions and geostatistics. Rock physics models enable us to link seismic amplitudes to geological facies and reservoir properties. Seismic imaging brings indirect, noninvasive, but nevertheless spatially exhaustive information about the reservoir properties that are not available from well data alone. Classification and estimation methods based on computational statistical techniques such as nonparametric Bayesian classification, Monte Carlo simulations and bootstrap, help to quantitatively measure the interpretation uncertainty and the mis-classification risk at each spatial location. Geostatistical stochastic simulations incorporate the spatial correlation and the small scale variability which is hard to capture with only seismic information because of the limits of resolution. Combining deterministic physical models with statistical techniques has provided us with a successful way of performing quantitative interpretation and estimation of reservoir properties from seismic data. These formulations identify not only the most likely interpretation but also the uncertainty of the interpretation, and serve as a guide for quantitative decision analysis. The methodology shown in this article is applied successfully to map petroleum reservoirs, and the examples are from relatively deeply buried oil fields. However, we suggest that this approach can also be carried out for improved characterization of shallow hydrologic aquifers using shallow seismic or GPR data.

  20. Principles of Empiricism and the Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroszkiewicz, George

    The interpretation of quantum mechanics (QM) is discussed in terms of the principles and logic of empiricism. First, we list a set of issues that should be settled before any consistent interpretation is attempted. This includes questions such as whether we can use an exophysical perspective or an endophysical perspective, and whether a completely reductionist approach makes sense or are we forced to incorporate emergent laws of physics. We then list the scientific pr nciples that should be strictly adhered to in any debate on QM. We follow this with a list of cautions and warnings about misleading concepts that should be avoided, such as ignoring contextuality and the meaning of scientific truth values. These principles and warning are then used to decide on the issues we first identified, giving us a basis for an interpretation of QM from the perspective of observers and quantum signal states of apparatus, rather than in terms of qu ntum states of systems under observation. Finally, we review a proposed mathematical formalism that encodes this interpretation in terms of quantum registers.

  1. Exploring Ricoeur's hermeneutic theory of interpretation as a method of analysing research texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geanellos, R

    2000-06-01

    Increasingly, researchers use hermeneutic philosophy to inform the conduct of interpretive research. Congruence between the philosophical foundations of a study, and the methodological processes through which study findings are actualised, obliges hermeneutic researchers to use (or develop) hermeneutic approaches to research interviewing and textual analysis. Paul Ricoeur's theory of interpretation provides one approach through which researchers using hermeneutics can achieve congruence between philosophy, methodology and method. Ricoeur's theory of interpretation acknowledges the interrelationship between epistemology (interpretation) and ontology (interpreter). Also, Ricoeur notes the way interpretation moves forward from naive understanding, where the interpreter has a superficial grasp of the whole of the text, to deeper understanding, where the interpreter understands the parts of the text in relation to the whole and the whole of the text in relation to its parts (the hermeneutic circle). In this way, Ricoeur's theory of interpretation provides researchers with a method of developing intersubjective knowledge. Through exposition of the concepts of Ricoeur's theory, which include distanciation, appropriation, explanation and understanding, guess, and validation, a hermeneutic approach to textual analysis is presented, discussed and critiqued. Examples from nursing research are also used to demonstrate points under discussion. It is suggested that, in conjunction with Gadamer's hermeneutic of understanding, Ricoeur's theory of interpretation warrants consideration as a method of textual analysis.

  2. Audiovisual interpretative skills: between textual culture and formalized literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estefanía Jiménez, Ph. D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a study on the process of acquiring interpretative skills to decode audiovisual texts among adolescents and youth. Based on the conception of such competence as the ability to understand the meanings connoted beneath the literal discourses of audiovisual texts, this study compared two variables: the acquisition of such skills from the personal and social experience in the consumption of audiovisual products (which is affected by age difference, and, on the second hand, the differences marked by the existence of formalized processes of media literacy. Based on focus groups of young students, the research assesses the existing academic debate about these processes of acquiring skills to interpret audiovisual materials.

  3. Massenmedien und Bildung: Eine padagogische Interpretation der Adorno-Benjamin-Kontroverse (Mass Media and Education: A Pedagogical Interpretation of the Controversy between Theodore Adorno and Walter Benjamin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Yasuo

    1997-01-01

    Gives a pedagogical interpretation of the controversy between Adorno (Theodore) and Benjamin (Walter). Sketches their different conceptions of what constitutes a pedagogical problem and discusses differences between their positions against the background of their shared concern, best described as "experiential poverty." (DSK)

  4. IMAGE INTERPRETATION OF COASTAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lazaridou

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Coasts were formed with the overall shape of earth's surface. Τhey represent a landform, as determined by the science of geomorphology. Being the boundary between land and sea, they present important features – particularities such as water currents, waves, winds, estuaries, drainage network, pollution etc. Coasts are examined at various levels: continents – oceans, states – large seas, as for example Mediterranean Sea. Greece, because of its horizontal and vertical partitioning, presents great extent and variety of coasts as mainland, peninsulas and islands. Depending on geomorphology, geology, soils, hydrology, land use of the inland and the coasts themselves, these are very diverse. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (defined by Statute II of ISPRS is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and of processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. This paper concerns critical considerations on the above. It also includes the case of Thessaloniki coasts in Greece, particularly river estuaries areas (river delta. The study of coastal areas of the wide surroundings of Thessaloniki city includes visual image interpretation – digital image processing techniques on satellite data of high spatial resolution.

  5. Monitoring and interpreting bioremediation effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragg, J.R.; Prince, R.C.; Harner, J.; Atlas, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, extensive research was conducted by the US Environments Protection Agency and Exxon to develop and implement bioremediation techniques for oil spill cleanup. A key challenge of this program was to develop effective methods for monitoring and interpreting bioremediation effectiveness on extremely heterogenous intertidal shorelines. Fertilizers were applied to shorelines at concentrations known to be safe, and effectiveness achieved in acceleration biodegradation of oil residues was measure using several techniques. This paper describes the most definitive method identified, which monitors biodegradation loss by measuring changes in ratios of hydrocarbons to hopane, a cycloalkane present in the oil that showed no measurable degradation. Rates of loss measured by the hopane ratio method have high levels of statistical confidence, and show that the fertilizer addition stimulated biodegradation rates as much a fivefold. Multiple regression analyses of data show that fertilizer addition of nitrogen in interstitial pore water per unit of oil load was the most important parameter affecting biodegradation rate, and results suggest that monitoring nitrogen concentrations in the subsurface pore water is preferred technique for determining fertilizer dosage and reapplication frequency

  6. Equivalent statistics and data interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gregory

    2017-08-01

    Recent reform efforts in psychological science have led to a plethora of choices for scientists to analyze their data. A scientist making an inference about their data must now decide whether to report a p value, summarize the data with a standardized effect size and its confidence interval, report a Bayes Factor, or use other model comparison methods. To make good choices among these options, it is necessary for researchers to understand the characteristics of the various statistics used by the different analysis frameworks. Toward that end, this paper makes two contributions. First, it shows that for the case of a two-sample t test with known sample sizes, many different summary statistics are mathematically equivalent in the sense that they are based on the very same information in the data set. When the sample sizes are known, the p value provides as much information about a data set as the confidence interval of Cohen's d or a JZS Bayes factor. Second, this equivalence means that different analysis methods differ only in their interpretation of the empirical data. At first glance, it might seem that mathematical equivalence of the statistics suggests that it does not matter much which statistic is reported, but the opposite is true because the appropriateness of a reported statistic is relative to the inference it promotes. Accordingly, scientists should choose an analysis method appropriate for their scientific investigation. A direct comparison of the different inferential frameworks provides some guidance for scientists to make good choices and improve scientific practice.

  7. Pliocene paleoenvironment evolution as interpreted from 3D-seismic data in the southern North Sea, Dutch offshore sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, G.; Wong, T.E.

    2008-01-01

    A high-resolution 3D-seismic survey from the Dutch offshore sector has been interpreted and subsequently correlated with existing regional seismo-stratigraphic concepts derived from conventional 2D-seismic data sets. The interpreted 13 seismic units have been related to a newly established

  8. On Schizophrenic Experiences of the Neutron or Why We Should Believe in the Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Vaidman, Lev

    1996-01-01

    This is a philosophical paper in favor of the Many-Worlds Interpretation (MWI) of quantum theory. The concept of the ``measure of existence of a world'' is introduced and some difficulties with the issue of probability in the framework of the MWI are resolved. Brief comparative analyses of the Bohm theory and the Many-Minds Interpretation are given.

  9. [N. Leonicenus interpretes of Galen on causa coniuncta].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugnai, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    The philosopher and physician Nicolò Leoniceno, one of the most important members of the Medical Humanism, in the N. Leoniceni in libros Galeni e Graeca in linguam Latinam a se translatos Praefatio communis (1508) discusses his emendation to Galens's Ars Medicinalis (28, 4 Boudon = I 381 Kühn, [see text]). In spite of the debatable conjecture, it is a significant effort to solve a serious contradiction in Galen's text. Leoniceno rejects the solutions proposed by the Arabic and Medieval Latin commentators and offers the right interpretation of causa coniuncta in Galen's concept of disease.

  10. Interpreting underwater acoustic images of the upper ocean boundary layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulloa, Marco J

    2007-01-01

    A challenging task in physical studies of the upper ocean using underwater sound is the interpretation of high-resolution acoustic images. This paper covers a number of basic concepts necessary for undergraduate and postgraduate students to identify the most distinctive features of the images, providing a link with the acoustic signatures of physical processes occurring simultaneously beneath the surface of the sea. Sonars are so sensitive that they detected a new acoustic signature at the breaking of surface gravity waves in deep water, which resembles oblique motion-like vortices

  11. Kelsen and the theory of interpretation humpty dumpty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Moreira Gouveia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to draw the consequences of the theoretical development of the concepts of kelsenian theory - focused on the relationship between "validity" and "interpretation "- to observe the motivation this kind of criticism leads to the necessary consideration about the existence of a plurality of legal actors. It takes the theoretical resizing done by Michel Troper as a paradigm of the theoretical development that has its starting point from the unsatisfactory reply given by the pyramidal hierarchy which kelseniana theory is based. Finally, collates the various theories face the impossibility of existence of an "autonomous language", as described by Wittgenstein’s Philosophical Investigations.

  12. NPP Krsko Living PSA Concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vrbanic, I.; Spiler, J.

    2000-01-01

    NPP Krsko developed PSA model of internal and external initiators within the frame of the Individual Plant Examination (IPE) project. Within this project PSA model was used to examine the existing plant design features. In order to continue with use of this PSA model upon the completion of IPE in various risk-informed applications in support of plant operation and evaluations of design changes, an appropriate living PSA concept needed to be defined. The Living PSA concept is in NPP Krsko considered as being a set of activities pursued in order to update existing PSA model in a manner that it appropriately represents the plant design, operation practice and history. Only a PSA model which is being updated in this manner can serve as a platform for plant-specific risk informed applications. The NPP Krsko living PSA concept is based on the following major ponts. First, the baseline PSA model is defined, which is to be maintained and updated and which is to be reference point for any risk-informed application. Second, issues having a potential for impact on baseline PSA model are identified and procedure and responsibilities for their permanent monitoring and evaluation are established. Third, manner is defined in which consequential changes to baseline PSA model are implemented and controlled, together with associated responsibilities. Finally, the process is defined by which the existing version of baseline PSA model is superseded by a new one. Each time a new version of baseline PSA model is released, it would be re-quantified and the results evaluated and interpreted. By documenting these re-quantifications and evaluations of results in a sequence, the track is being kept of changes in long-term averaged risk perspective, represented by long-term averaged frequencies of core damage and pre-defined release categories. These major topics of NPP Krsko living PSA concept are presented and discussed in the paper. (author)

  13. Elementary concepts of topology

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandroff, Paul

    1961-01-01

    Concise work presents topological concepts in clear, elementary fashion without sacrificing their profundity or exactness. Author proceeds from basics of set-theoretic topology, through topological theorems and questions based on concept of the algebraic complex, to the concept of Betti groups.

  14. The LDC detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2004. Its goal is to design a complete detector concept for the LDC, based on a gaseous central tracking detector, and on granular calorimetry. The concept is heavily based on the concept of particle flow for event reconstruction. LDC started from the TESLA detector, developed for the TESLA TDR [2] and published in 2001.

  15. Concepts: The Very Idea

    OpenAIRE

    Harnad, Stevan

    2009-01-01

    Machery (2009) suggests that the concept of “concept” is too heterogeneous to serve as a “natural kind” for scientific explanation, so cognitive science should do without concepts. I second the suggestion, and propose substituting, in place of concepts, inborn and acquired sensorimotor category-detectors and category-names combined into propositions that define and describe further categories.

  16. Interpreting Flux from Broadband Photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter J.; Breeveld, Alice; Roming, Peter W. A.; Siegel, Michael

    2016-10-01

    We discuss the transformation of observed photometry into flux for the creation of spectral energy distributions (SED) and the computation of bolometric luminosities. We do this in the context of supernova studies, particularly as observed with the Swift spacecraft, but the concepts and techniques should be applicable to many other types of sources and wavelength regimes. Traditional methods of converting observed magnitudes to flux densities are not very accurate when applied to UV photometry. Common methods for extinction and the integration of pseudo-bolometric fluxes can also lead to inaccurate results. The sources of inaccuracy, though, also apply to other wavelengths. Because of the complicated nature of translating broadband photometry into monochromatic flux densities, comparison between observed photometry and a spectroscopic model is best done by forward modeling the spectrum into the count rates or magnitudes of the observations. We recommend that integrated flux measurements be made using a spectrum or SED which is consistent with the multi-band photometry rather than converting individual photometric measurements to flux densities, linearly interpolating between the points, and integrating. We also highlight some specific areas where the UV flux can be mischaracterized.

  17. The emergent Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollowood, Timothy J.

    2014-05-01

    We introduce a new and conceptually simple interpretation of quantum mechanics based on reduced density matrices of sub-systems from which the standard Copenhagen interpretation emerges as an effective description of macroscopically large systems. This interpretation describes a world in which definite measurement results are obtained with probabilities that reproduce the Born rule. Wave function collapse is seen to be a useful but fundamentally unnecessary piece of prudent book keeping which is only valid for macro-systems. The new interpretation lies in a class of modal interpretations in that it applies to quantum systems that interact with a much larger environment. However, we show that it does not suffer from the problems that have plagued similar modal interpretations like macroscopic superpositions and rapid flipping between macroscopically distinct states. We describe how the interpretation fits neatly together with fully quantum formulations of statistical mechanics and that a measurement process can be viewed as a process of ergodicity breaking analogous to a phase transition. The key feature of the new interpretation is that joint probabilities for the ergodic subsets of states of disjoint macro-systems only arise as emergent quantities. Finally we give an account of the EPR-Bohm thought experiment and show that the interpretation implies the violation of the Bell inequality characteristic of quantum mechanics but in a way that is rather novel. The final conclusion is that the Copenhagen interpretation gives a completely satisfactory phenomenology of macro-systems interacting with micro-systems.

  18. Reflections on the value concept in accounting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Buys

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent meltdown in global finances and the reasons for it may make people doubtful about the stewardship function of accounting. In the global financial markets, there is a great fascination with the reality that accounting values intend to reflect. However, what many people considered valuable is now suddenly of no value. The question can therefore be asked what is meant by the value concept as a foundation to modern-day accountancy. “Value” is a concept that is open to different interpretations, based on the needs, perspectives and personal values of the interpreter. This article aims to reflect on the value concept from an accounting perspective in analysing the fundamental quali-tative perspectives and how these perspectives might affect the quantitative value measurements, as reported in the financial statements. From a quantitative perspective, accounttancy aims to measure and report the monetary values of items. However, there is a move towards a mixed valuation model with many financial statements, including both historical cost and value-based accounting information. The article concludes that this questionable development opens up many additional and subjective interpretations of accounting value measurement and reporting. Both valuation measurement methods have merit when considered in the overall purpose of accounting information. However, subjective value-based mea-surements may cast a shadow of doubt on the reliability and comparability requirements of accounting value information.

  19. Interpret teaching and teach interpreting: positions assumed in the interpretative act in mainstream contexts for deaf people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrei Gesser

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present some descriptions about the educational interpreter performance in the context of a mainstream school, more specifically in the 7th grade with four deaf students included, in which a bilingual project has being carried out. Relying on the assumption that inclusion forces interpreters to activate pedagogical practices during the interpretative act, this investigation payed attention to two phenomena: by one hand, the constructions of temporal spaces in the classroom that claim ties and partnerships between interpreters and teachers, beyond the technical interpretation itself. By the other hand, the configurations regarding interpretative decisions making emerged from pedagogical happenings. The data analysis indicates that there is a switch between the “interpreter-positon” and the “master-position”, being the last activated by the interpreter inner desire in creating ties and connections with deaf students in their learning process; and the former position, as an effect of the interpreter´s own challenges faced daily, in linguistic, cognitive, referential, and physical terms.

  20. Interpret teaching and teach interpreting: positions assumed in the interpretative act in mainstream contexts for deaf people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrei Gesser

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this article is to present some descriptions about the educational interpreter performance in the context of a mainstream school, more specifically in the 7th grade with four deaf students included, in which a bilingual project has being carried out. Relying on the assumption that inclusion forces interpreters to activate pedagogical practices during the interpretative act, this investigation payed attention to two phenomena: by one hand, the constructions of temporal spaces in the classroom that claim ties and partnerships between interpreters and teachers, beyond the technical interpretation itself. By the other hand, the configurations regarding interpretative decisions making emerged from pedagogical happenings. The data analysis indicates that there is a switch between the “interpreter-positon” and the “master-position”, being the last activated by the interpreter inner desire in creating ties and connections with deaf students in their learning process; and the former position, as an effect of the interpreter´s own challenges faced daily, in linguistic, cognitive, referential, and physical terms.

  1. Force Concept Inventory-Based Multiple-Choice Test for Investigating Students' Representational Consistency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Pasi; Savinainen, Antti; Viiri, Jouni

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates students' ability to interpret multiple representations consistently (i.e., representational consistency) in the context of the force concept. For this purpose we developed the Representational Variant of the Force Concept Inventory (R-FCI), which makes use of nine items from the 1995 version of the Force Concept Inventory…

  2. An Overview of Self-Concept Theory for Counselors. Highlights: An ERIC/CAPS Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkey, William W.

    This overview of the self-concept theory describes how people organize and interpret their personal existence. It discusses the beginnings and recent history of the self-concept theory, and presents three major qualities of self-concept: that it is learned, organized, and dynamic. It asserts that individuals have relatively boundless potential for…

  3. Immagini e Concetti in Geometria=The Figural and the Conceptual Components of Geometrical Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Maria Alessandra

    1992-01-01

    Discusses geometrical reasoning in the framework of the theory of Figural Concepts to highlight the interaction between the figural and conceptual components of geometrical concepts. Examples of students' difficulties and errors in geometrical reasoning are interpreted according to the internal tension that appears in figural concepts resulting…

  4. KALIMER design concept report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Chang Kyu; Kim, Young Cheol; Kim, Young In; Kim, Young Gyun; Kim, Eui Kwang; Song, Hoon; Chung, Hyun Tai; Hwang, Woan; Nam, Cheol; Sim Yoon Sub; Kim, Yeon Sik; Wim Myung Whan; Min, Byung Tae; Yoo, Bong; Lee, Jae Han; Lee, Hyeong Yeon; Kim, Jong Bum; Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Ham, Chang Shik; Kwon, Kee Choon; Kim, Jung Taek; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Kim, Chang Hwoi; Sim, Bong Shick; Hahn, Do Hee; Choi, Jong Hyeun; Kwon, Sang Woon

    1997-07-01

    KAERI is working for the development of KALIMER and work is being done for methodology development, experimental facility set up and design concept development. The development target of KALIMER has been set as to make KALIMER safer, more economic, more resistant to nuclear proliferation, and yield less impact on the environment. To achieve the target, study has been made for setting up the design concept of KALIMER including the assessment of various possible design alternatives. This report is the results of the study for the KALIMER concept study and describes the design concept of KALIMER. The developed design concept study and describes the design concept of KALIMER. The developed design concept is to be used as the starting point of the next development phase of conceptual design and the concept will be refined and modified in the conceptual design phase. The scope of the work has been set as the NSSS and essential BOP systems. For systems, NSSS and functionally related major BOP are covered. Sizing and specifying conceptual structure are covered for major equipment. Equipment and piping are arranged for the parts where the arrangement is critical in fulfilling the foresaid intention of setting up the KALIMER design concept. This report consists of 10 chapters. Chapter 2 is for the top level design requirements of KALIMER and it serves as the basis of KALIMER design concept development. Chapter 3 summarizes the KALIMER concept and describes the general design features. The remaining chapters are for specific systems. (author). 29 tabs., 37 figs.

  5. KALIMER design concept report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Kyu; Kim, Young Cheol; Kim, Young In; Kim, Young Gyun; Kim, Eui Kwang; Song, Hoon; Chung, Hyun Tai; Hwang, Woan; Nam, Cheol; Sim Yoon Sub; Kim, Yeon Sik; Wim Myung Whan; Min, Byung Tae; Yoo, Bong; Lee, Jae Han; Lee, Hyeong Yeon; Kim, Jong Bum; Koo, Gyeong Hoi; Ham, Chang Shik; Kwon, Kee Choon; Kim, Jung Taek; Park, Jae Chang; Lee, Jung Woon; Lee, Yong Hee; Kim, Chang Hwoi; Sim, Bong Shick; Hahn, Do Hee; Choi, Jong Hyeun; Kwon, Sang Woon.

    1997-07-01

    KAERI is working for the development of KALIMER and work is being done for methodology development, experimental facility set up and design concept development. The development target of KALIMER has been set as to make KALIMER safer, more economic, more resistant to nuclear proliferation, and yield less impact on the environment. To achieve the target, study has been made for setting up the design concept of KALIMER including the assessment of various possible design alternatives. This report is the results of the study for the KALIMER concept study and describes the design concept of KALIMER. The developed design concept study and describes the design concept of KALIMER. The developed design concept is to be used as the starting point of the next development phase of conceptual design and the concept will be refined and modified in the conceptual design phase. The scope of the work has been set as the NSSS and essential BOP systems. For systems, NSSS and functionally related major BOP are covered. Sizing and specifying conceptual structure are covered for major equipment. Equipment and piping are arranged for the parts where the arrangement is critical in fulfilling the foresaid intention of setting up the KALIMER design concept. This report consists of 10 chapters. Chapter 2 is for the top level design requirements of KALIMER and it serves as the basis of KALIMER design concept development. Chapter 3 summarizes the KALIMER concept and describes the general design features. The remaining chapters are for specific systems. (author). 29 tabs., 37 figs

  6. Basic Concepts of Reading Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan ARI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Reading act is performed by connected physiological, psychological and cognitive processes. The operations taking place in these processes are expected to continue for life by being developed with certain strategies. A lot of information is gained with reading skill in education life. Therefore, basic concepts that constitute reading education in teaching and improving reading are important for teachers. The aim of this study is to submit information compiled from the literature about reading education process and which basic concepts are used in reading education. While teaching reading from part to whole, from whole to part and interactional approaches are used. From part to whole approach is at the forefront. Then with interactional approach strategies, both code solving and making sense is improved. Teachers should know the characteristics of bouncing, stopping, turning back, and scanning movements of the eye both in code solving and making sense. The teacher should configure the teaching for the students to gain fluid reading elements by making use of reading out and reading silently. After reading act is acquired; good reader characteristics should be gained by improving asking questions, guessing, summarizing, interpretation skills in integrated readings. Reading skill is improved by studies on the text. Therefore, the students should come across texts that are suitable to their levels, textuality and readability criteria. The vocabulary of children should be improved in a planned way with text-based word and meaning studies. Fluid reading, making sense and interpretation skills of children should be pursued with different evaluation types. In the long term, work should be done to make reading a habit for them.

  7. Informal interpreting in general practice: Comparing the perspectives of general practitioners, migrant patients and family interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendedel, Rena; Schouten, Barbara C; van Weert, Julia C M; van den Putte, Bas

    2016-06-01

    To explore differences in perspectives of general practitioners, Turkish-Dutch migrant patients and family interpreters on interpreters' role, power dynamics and trust in interpreted GP consultations. 54 semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with the three parties focusing on interpreter's role, power and trust in interpreters. In line with family interpreters' perspective, patients expected the interpreters to advocate on their behalf and felt empowered when they did so. GPs, on the contrary, felt annoyed and disempowered when the family interpreters performed the advocacy role. Family interpreters were trusted by patients for their fidelity, that is, patients assumed that family interpreters would act in their best interest. GPs, on the contrary, mistrusted family interpreters when they perceived dishonesty or a lack of competence. Opposing views were found between GPs on the one hand and family interpreters and patients on the other hand on interpreter's role, power dynamics and the different dimensions of trust. These opposing perspectives might lead to miscommunication and conflicts between the three interlocutors. GPs should be educated to become aware of the difficulties of family interpreting, such as conflicting role expectations, and be trained to be able to call on professional interpreters when needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An information gap in DNA evidence interpretation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark W Perlin

    Full Text Available Forensic DNA evidence often contains mixtures of multiple contributors, or is present in low template amounts. The resulting data signals may appear to be relatively uninformative when interpreted using qualitative inclusion-based methods. However, these same data can yield greater identification information when interpreted by computer using quantitative data-modeling methods. This study applies both qualitative and quantitative interpretation methods to a well-characterized DNA mixture and dilution data set, and compares the inferred match information. The results show that qualitative interpretation loses identification power at low culprit DNA quantities (below 100 pg, but that quantitative methods produce useful information down into the 10 pg range. Thus there is a ten-fold information gap that separates the qualitative and quantitative DNA mixture interpretation approaches. With low quantities of culprit DNA (10 pg to 100 pg, computer-based quantitative interpretation provides greater match sensitivity.

  9. Architectural design of an Algol interpreter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, C. K.

    1971-01-01

    The design of a syntax-directed interpreter for a subset of Algol is described. It is a conceptual design with sufficient details and completeness but as much independence of implementation as possible. The design includes a detailed description of a scanner, an analyzer described in the Floyd-Evans productions, a hash-coded symbol table, and an executor. Interpretation of sample programs is also provided to show how the interpreter functions.

  10. Working with interpreters: practical advice for use of an interpreter in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadziabdic, Emina; Hjelm, Katarina

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this descriptive commentary is to improve communication in healthcare when an interpreter is used by providing practical advice to healthcare staff when they consider using interpreters. This descriptive commentary considered the issues of preparation and implementation of interpretation sessions to reveal the complexities and dilemmas of an effective healthcare encounter with interpreters. Using the design of a discursive paper, this article seeks to explore and position of what is published in the literature on the topic studied and on the basis of previous studies to provide practical advice on the use of interpreters. The descriptive commentary showed that the interpreter should be used not only as a communication aid but also as a practical and informative guide in the healthcare system. In preparing the interpretation session, it is important to consider the type (trained professional interpreter, family member or bilingual healthcare staff as interpreters) and mode (face to face and telephone) of interpreting. Furthermore, it is important to consider the interpreter's ethnic origin, religious background, gender, language or dialect, social group, clothes, appearance and attitude. During the healthcare encounter, the interpreter should follow the recommendations given in guidelines for interpreters. Healthcare staff should choose an appropriate room and be aware of their own behaviour, appearance and attitude during the healthcare encounter. Good planning is needed, with carefully considered choices concerning the right kind of interpreter, mode of interpretation and individual preferences for the interpretation in order to deliver high-quality and cost-effective healthcare. Depending on the nature of the healthcare encounter, healthcare staff need to plan interpreting carefully and in accordance with the individuals' desires and choose the type of interpreter and mode of interpreting that best suits the need in the actual healthcare situation in

  11. Representing Interpreters' Knowledge: Why, What, and How?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thrane, Torben

    2005-01-01

    Simultaneous interpreting is a highly specialized communicative task which requires cooperation of a number of cognitive skills. Execution of these skills in a concrete act of interpreting requires immediate access to various kinds of knowledge, linguistic and non-linguistic. The command of such ......Simultaneous interpreting is a highly specialized communicative task which requires cooperation of a number of cognitive skills. Execution of these skills in a concrete act of interpreting requires immediate access to various kinds of knowledge, linguistic and non-linguistic. The command...

  12. A Physics of Semiconductors Concept Inventory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ene, Emanuela; Bruce J. Ackerson Collaboration; Alan Cheville Collaboration

    2011-03-01

    Following the trend in science and engineering education generated by the visible impact that the Force Concept Inventory (FCI) has created, a Physics of Semiconductors Concept Inventory (PSCI) has been developed. Whereas most classroom tests measure how many facts students can remember, or if they can manipulate equations, PSCI measures how well students interpret concepts and how well they can infer new knowledge from already learned knowledge. Operationalized in accordance with the revised Bloom's taxonomy, the multiple--choice items of the PSCI address the ``understand'', ``apply'', ``analyze'' and ``evaluate'' levels of cognition. Once standardized, PSCI may be used as a predictor for students' academic performance in the field of semiconductors and as an assessment instrument for instructional strategies.

  13. Mind, Matter, Information and Quantum Interpretations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Maleeh

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I give a new information-theoretic analysis of the formalisms and interpretations of quantum mechanics (QM in general, and of two mainstream interpretations of quantum mechanics in particular: The Copenhagen interpretation and David Bohm’s interpretation of quantum mechanics. Adopting Juan G. Roederer’s reading of the notion of pragmatic information, I argue that pragmatic information is not applicable to the Copenhagen interpretation since the interpretation is primarily concerned with epistemology rather than ontology. However it perfectly fits Bohm’s ontological interpretation of quantum mechanics in the realms of biotic and artificial systems. Viewing Bohm’s interpretation of QM in the context of pragmatic information imposes serious limitations to the qualitative aspect of such an interpretation, making his extension of the notion active information to every level of reality illegitimate. Such limitations lead to the idea that, contrary to Bohm’s claim, mind is not a more subtle aspect of reality via the quantum potential as active information, but the quantum potential as it affects particles in the double-slit experiment represents the non-algorithmic aspect of the mind as a genuine information processing system. This will provide an information-based ground, firstly, for refreshing our views on quantum interpretations and secondly, for a novel qualitative theory of the relationship of mind and matter in which mind-like properties are exclusive attributes of living systems. To this end, I will also take an information-theoretic approach to the notion of intentionality as interpreted by John Searle.

  14. PERFORMANCE - AN EVOLVING CONCEPT

    OpenAIRE

    Assist. Mirela-Oana Pintea Ph.D Student; Lect. Monica-Violeta Achim

    2010-01-01

    The concept of performance is a problematic concept and will remain so as long as the definition of company performance varies depending on the interests of users of information. On this consideration, no consensus was reached regarding the definition, methodology and performance models used. Defining this concept is realized in accordance with its objectives of users of information, while the methodology and models used are influenced by legal regulations and management policies. The approac...

  15. The Marketing Concept

    OpenAIRE

    G. Nazan Gunay

    2001-01-01

    Since the term "Market Orientation" is recognised as the critical factor in business success there has been an overwhelming increase in research issues linking market orientation with company performance. The term market orientation has been employed by scholars to indicate the implementation of the marketing concept. In order to understand market orientation, one believes that there is a need to recall what the marketing concept is. Therefore, this study reviews the "marketing concept" as a ...

  16. Empowerment: a Concept Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Febriana, Dara

    2011-01-01

    This paper conceptually analyzed the concept of empowerment using the strategies of Walker & Avant (2005) the objective is to clarify the meaning of the concept and to clearly identify empowerment characteristic that will provide consistent definition for practice and future research. Empowerment is defined and examined using relevant resources of literatures and selected empirical referents that described empowerment as a complex and multidimensional concept. Within nursing context empowerme...

  17. Transforming the radiological interpretation process: the SCAR TRIP initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriole, Katherine P.; Morin, Richard L.; Arenson, Ronald L.; Carrino, John A.; Erickson, Bradley J.; Horii, Steven C.; Piraino, David W.; Reiner, Bruce I.; Seibert, James A.; Siegel, Eliot L.

    2004-04-01

    The Society for Computer Applications in Radiology (SCAR) Transforming the Radiological Interpretation Process (TRIP) Initiative aims to spearhead research, education, and discovery of innovative solutions to address the problem of information and image data overload. The initiative will foster inter-disciplinary research on technological, environmental and human factors to better manage and exploit the massive amounts of data. TRIP will focus on the following basic objectives: improving the efficiency of interpretation of large data sets, improving the timeliness and effectiveness of communication, and decreasing medical errors. The ultimate goal of the initiative is to improve the quality and safety of patient care. Interdisciplinary research into several broad areas will be necessary to make progress in managing the ever-increasing volume of data. The six concepts involved include: human perception, image processing and computer-aided detection (CAD), visualization, navigation and usability, databases and integration, and evaluation and validation of methods and performance. The result of this transformation will affect several key processes in radiology, including image interpretation; communication of imaging results; workflow and efficiency within the health care enterprise; diagnostic accuracy and a reduction in medical errors; and, ultimately, the overall quality of care.

  18. New reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meskens, G.; Govaerts, P.; Baugnet, J.-M.; Delbrassine, A.

    1998-11-01

    The document gives a summary of new nuclear reactor concepts from a technological point of view. Belgium supports the development of the European Pressurized-Water Reactor, which is an evolutionary concept based on the European experience in Pressurized-Water Reactors. A reorientation of the Belgian choice for this evolutionary concept may be required in case that a decision is taken to burn plutonium, when the need for flexible nuclear power plants arises or when new reactor concepts can demonstrate proved benefits in terms of safety and cost

  19. Fundamental concepts of geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Meserve, Bruce E

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrates relationships between different types of geometry. Provides excellent overview of the foundations and historical evolution of geometrical concepts. Exercises (no solutions). Includes 98 illustrations.

  20. Gene set analysis for interpreting genetic studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pers, Tune H

    2016-01-01

    Interpretation of genome-wide association study (GWAS) results is lacking behind the discovery of new genetic associations. Consequently, there is an urgent need for data-driven methods for interpreting genetic association studies. Gene set analysis (GSA) can identify aetiologic pathways...

  1. Computerised Analysis, Interpretation, Storage and Retrieval of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of introducing a computerised electrocardiographic analysis and interpretive system as a service to a teaching and referral hospital. Available computer equipment and programmes are considered. The accuracy and quality of the analysis and interpretation of the ...

  2. Extending and embedding the Python interpreter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. van Rossum (Guido)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractPython is an interpreted, object-oriented programming language. This document describes how to write modules in C or C++ to extend the Python interpreter with new modules. Those modules can define new functions but also new object types and their methods. The document also describes

  3. Innovative Interpretive Qualitative Case Study Research Method ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lc2o

    SUMMARY. The aim of this paper is to review the methodology for interpretive qualitative case study research method using ... encourages a quantitative approach to research (Darling and. 40. AJPARS ... Interpretive Qualitative Case Study Aligned with Systems Theory for Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Research. Scott ...

  4. Factors influencing children's interpretation and acquisition of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lipenga

    Issues in idiom interpretation and acquisition. Idiom comprehension and interpretation is said to be affected by several factors such as familiarity of the idiom, linguistic context and transparency/semantic analysability of the idiom. Research has shown that the most familiar idioms are easier to understand than less familiar ...

  5. Against ``Against Many-Worlds Interpretations''

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaguchi, Toshifumi

    1997-01-01

    The paper entitled ``Against Many-Worlds Interpretations'' by A. Kent, which has recently been submitted to the e-Print archive (gr-qc/9703089) contained some misconceptions. The claims on Everett's many-worlds interpretation are quoted and answered.

  6. 10 CFR 60.5 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 60.5 Section 60.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES General Provisions § 60.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission, in writing, no...

  7. 10 CFR 61.5 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpretations. 61.5 Section 61.5 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE General Provisions § 61.5 Interpretations. Except as specifically authorized by the Commission in writing, no...

  8. A Graphical Interpretation of Probit Coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, William E.; Waldman, Donald M.

    1989-01-01

    Contends that, when discrete choice models are taught, particularly the probit model, it is the method rather than the interpretation of the results that is emphasized. This article provides a graphical technique for interpretation of an estimated probit coefficient that will be useful in statistics and econometrics courses. (GG)

  9. Designing for collaborative interpretation in telemonitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tariq Osman; Bjørn, Pernille; Kensing, Finn

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We investigate why clinicians experience problems interpreting implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) data when the patient is absent, and we explore how to reintroduce patients into the socio-technical setup of telemonitored interpretation practices. Method: An action research stu...

  10. 12 CFR 609.920 - Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Interpretations and Definitions § 609.920 Interpretations. (a) E-SIGN preempts most statutes and regulations, including the Act... E-commerce as long as the safeguards of E-SIGN are met and its exceptions recognized. Generally, an...

  11. Geometrical interpretation and architecture selection of MLP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Cheng; Ding, Shenqiang Q; Lee, Tong Heng

    2005-01-01

    A geometrical interpretation of the multilayer perceptron (MLP) is suggested in this paper. Some general guidelines for selecting the architecture of the MLP, i.e., the number of the hidden neurons and the hidden layers, are proposed based upon this interpretation and the controversial issue of whether four-layered MLP is superior to the three-layered MLP is also carefully examined.

  12. A functional interpretation for nonstandard arithmetic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, B.; Briseid, E.; Safarik, P.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce constructive and classical systems for nonstandard arithmetic and show how variants of the functional interpretations due to Gödel and Shoenfield can be used to rewrite proofs performed in these systems into standard ones. These functional interpretations show in particular that our

  13. Infusing Counseling Skills in Test Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, Melanie E.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Presents an instructional model based on Neurolinguistic Programming that links counseling student course work in measurement and test interpretation with counseling techniques and theory. A process incorporating Neurolinguistic Programming patterns is outlined for teaching graduate students the counseling skills helpful in test interpretation.…

  14. Is interpretation in international law a game?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venzke, I.; Bianchi, A.; Peat, D.; Windsor, M.

    2015-01-01

    The present chapter combines the ubiquitous metaphor of the language of international law with the analogy between interpretation and the playing of games. It argues that interpretation might not be well understood in analogy to games, not if the game is anything like the typical example of chess.

  15. Is interpretation in international law a game?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venzke, I.

    2014-01-01

    The present chapter combines the ubiquitous metaphor of the language of international law with the analogy between interpretation and the playing of games. It asks how to possibly make sense of international law as a language and of interpretation as a game. Above all, it elucidates the linguistic

  16. Integrating Emotions Into the Critical Interpretive Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFerran, Katrina Skewes; Hense, Cherry; Medcalf, Laura; Murphy, Melissa; Fairchild, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    Critical interpretive synthesis is a particular form of systematic review that critically examines the decisions made by authors while conducting and publishing about their research and practices. It differs from empirical syntheses of qualitative research by emphasizing the interpreted and constructed nature of this form of secondary analysis. In this article, we extend previous literature on critical interpretive syntheses by highlighting the integration of emotional responses when developing critical questions for interrogating the literature and interpreting results. Our extension of the critical interpretive synthesis is illustrated through examples from five studies examining literature in our own field of music therapy, as well as related fields of disability studies, mental health, music psychology, and child welfare. The methodology we have refined uses an iterative and recursive method that promotes increased critical awareness of the assumptions driving the production of research in health contexts. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. The transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, John G.

    2001-06-01

    The transactional interpretation of quantum mechanics [1] was originally published in 1986 and is now about 14 years old. It is an explicitly nonlocal and Lorentz invariant alternative to the Copenhagen interpretation. It interprets the formalism for a quantum interaction as describing a "handshake" between retarded waves (ψ) and advanced waves (ψ*) for each quantum event or "transaction" in which energy, momentum, angular momentum, and other conserved quantities are transferred. The transactional interpretation offers the advantages that (1) it is actually "visible" in the formalism of quantum mechanics, (2) it is economical, involving fewer independent assumptions than its rivals, (3) it is paradox-free, resolving all of the paradoxes of standard quantum theory including nonlocality and wave function collapse, (4) it does not give a privileged role to observers or measurements, and (5) it permits the visualization of quantum events. We will review the transactional interpretation and some of its applications to "quantum paradoxes."

  18. PSYCHOANALYTIC INTERPRETATION OF JUSTICE IN CONTEXT OF PROBLEMS OF TECHNO-GENESIS (Part II)

    OpenAIRE

    N. I. Mushinskij

    2009-01-01

    Carl Gustav Jung, Erich Fromm, Karen Horney, Jacques Lacan, Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari continue to develop a psychoanalytic theory of Freud under modern conditions. They investigate archetypes of unconscious which are linked with up-to-date conception of Justice. Ethics of psychoanalysis interprets the category of Justice from humanistic positions in the context of the techno-genesis processes.

  19. European Explorers' Engagements with Sexuality in Indigenous Cultures : The Forsters' Interpretations of Tahitian Sexual Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilburg, M.W.A.

    2013-01-01

    While current analyses of European interpretations of non-western cultures are guided by a modern concept of sexuality, this article argues for a more encompassing, historical awareness by drawing historical constructs of sexuality into the analysis. To illustrate the point, it will analyze the

  20. Fuzzy knot theory interpretation of Yang-Mills instantons and Witten's 5-Brane model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Naschie, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    A knot theory interpretation of 'tHooft's instanton based on hyperbolic volume, crossing numbers and exceptional Lie symmetry groups is given. Subsequently it is shown that although instantons and particle-like states of Heterotic super strings may appear to be different concepts, on a very deep fuzzy level they are not

  1. Pre-Service Science Teachers' Construction and Interpretation of Graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergül, N. Remziye

    2018-01-01

    Data and graphic analysis and interpretation are important parts of science process skills and science curriculum. So it refers to visual display of data using relevant graphical representations. One of the tools used in science courses is graphics for explain the relationship among each of the concepts and therefore it is important to know data…

  2. PSYCHOANALYTIC INTERPRETATION OF JUSTICE IN CONTEXT OF PROBLEMS OF TECHNO-GENESIS (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Mushinskij

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Carl Gustav Jung, Erich Fromm, Karen Horney, Jacques Lacan, Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari continue to develop a psychoanalytic theory of Freud under modern conditions. They investigate archetypes of unconscious which are linked with up-to-date conception of Justice. Ethics of psychoanalysis interprets the category of Justice from humanistic positions in the context of the techno-genesis processes.

  3. Supporting Fourth Graders' Ability to Interpret Graphs through Real-Time Graphing Technology: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniz, Hasan; Dulger, Mehmet F.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined to what extent inquiry-based instruction supported with real-time graphing technology improves fourth grader's ability to interpret graphs as representations of physical science concepts such as motion and temperature. This study also examined whether there is any difference between inquiry-based instruction supported with…

  4. The logical interpretation and the measurement problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuletic, Mark I.

    The measurement problem is one of the two key problems in the foundations of quantum mechanics, carrying with it the seeming implication that instead of the familiar definite states of affairs we think we experience, there typically should exist only phenomenologically ill-defined "superpositions" of such states of affairs. Dissatisfaction with this implication has led to the development of many wildly different interpretations of quantum mechanics, positing everything from pilot waves to splitting universes. A recent tradition of interpretation draws heavily upon decoherence and a "consistent histories" formalism to try to resolve the standard conceptual problems of quantum mechanics. Roland Omnes, one physicist in this tradition, argues that his own "logical interpretation" resolves every paradox and conceptual difficulty raised by quantum mechanics, except for what he calls the "objectification problem." Figuring out what relation the objectification problem has to the measurement problem, and, more generally, what the logical interpretation has to say about the measurement problem, turns out to be very difficult, even with the benefit of correspondence. In my dissertation, I have tried to narrow down the possibilities for what Omnes might have in mind with respect to the measurement problem, and considered whether any of these constitutes an advance over what came before. I conclude that there are two plausible possibilities: either (i) an overly aggressive pragmatic spirit has caused Omnes to fail to even realize that a critical part of the measurement problem exists, or (ii) the logical interpretation is best understood as offering a stochastic hidden factor interpretation, with complementarity operating at the level of the hidden factors, even though Omnes himself would resist describing the logical interpretation in this way. I also conclude that the logical interpretation, far from saving classical logic, actually undermines it. While this may not

  5. The role of the health care interpreter in a clinical setting--a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleptsova, Marina; Hofer, Gertrud; Morina, Naser; Langewitz, Wolf

    2014-01-01

    To examine published models of health care interpretation and associated roles, expectations, and outcomes. A literature search was conducted using the key words interpreter/translator, communication, and role and their combinations in PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and PSYNDEXPlus. References mentioned in articles identified with these search terms were then checked by hand in corresponding publications and books. We excluded articles if they were dealing with concepts of interpretation, role definitions, etc., without presenting any empirical evidence to support their recommendations. Thirty-four of 1,121 references that investigated the role of professional interpreters in health care were found to meet inclusion criteria. Out of 34 articles, only 2 recommend strict adherence to the conduit model in which interpreters are faithfully and exclusively transmitting information; the interpreter's role is in 32 studies defined in broader terms as the role of a cultural broker (n = 18), a manager or clarifier (n = 22), a patient advocate (n = 13), or a mediator (n = 6). There are no commonly accepted understandings of the interpreters' role; empirical data are lacking. The interpreter's function must be explicitly clarified before a health care encounter is conducted. There should be an agreement of some basic rules.

  6. Are temporal concepts embodied? A challenge for cognitive neuroscience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eKranjec

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Is time an embodied concept? People often talk and think about temporal concepts in terms of space. This observation, along with linguistic and experimental behavioral data documenting a close conceptual relation between space and time, is often interpreted as evidence that temporal concepts are embodied. However, there is little neural data supporting the idea that our temporal concepts are grounded in sensorimotor representations. This lack of evidence may be because it is still unclear how an embodied concept of time should be expressed in the brain. The present paper sets out to characterize the kinds of evidence that would support or challenge embodied accounts of time. Of main interest are theoretical issues concerning (1 whether space, as a mediating concept for time, is itself best understood as embodied and (2 whether embodied theories should attempt to bypass space by investigating temporal conceptual grounding in neural systems that instantiate time perception.

  7. Kierkegaard's concepts: Hypocrisy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fauth Hansen, Thomas Martin

    2014-01-01

    Kierkegaard’s Concepts is a comprehensive, multi-volume survey of the key concepts and categories that inform Kierkegaard’s writings. Each article is a substantial, original piece of scholarship, which discusses the etymology and lexical meaning of the relevant Danish term, traces the development...

  8. [Lilium Bosniacum_concept

    OpenAIRE

    Hasanović, Ibro

    2016-01-01

    Hasanovic_Lilium-Bosniacum-CONCEPT (2).jpg (jpeg file, 20,99x29,669 cm, 72 dpi) Schizzi e foto del progetto Hasanovic_Lilium-Bosniacum-CONCEPT (2).jpg (jpeg file, 20,99x29,669 cm, 72 dpi) Sketches and photos for the project

  9. Modeling concept drift

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchani, Hanen; Martinez, Ana Maria; Masegosa, Andrés R.

    2015-01-01

    An often used approach for detecting and adapting to concept drift when doing classification is to treat the data as i.i.d. and use changes in classification accuracy as an indication of concept drift. In this paper, we take a different perspective and propose a framework, based on probabilistic...

  10. Children's Conceptions of Jesus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylward, Karen; Freathy, Rob

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a recent study investigating young children's (aged 10-11) conceptions of Jesus in England. The overall picture revealed by the study is that whilst there was a general assent amongst pupils in our sample towards an ethical and humanistic conception of the historical Jesus, there was less of a consensus about…

  11. Tools and Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artis, Margaret, Ed.; And Others

    This guide provides enrichment for students to develop tools and concepts used in various areas of mathematics. The first part presents arithmetic progressions, geometric progressions, and harmonic progression. In the second section, the concept of mathematic induction is developed from intuitive induction, using concrete activities, to the…

  12. Chapter 14: Clarifying concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. North; P. Stine

    2012-01-01

    There are some topics that continue to be raised by managers that were not sufficiently addressed in the first and second edition of U.S. Forest Service General Technical Report GTR 220 "An Ecosystem Management Strategy for Sierran Mixed-Conifer Forests." All of them concern issues about where and when GTR 220 concepts apply and how these concepts relate to...

  13. Integral fast reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Sevy, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Key features of the IFR consist of a pool-type plant arrangement, a metal fuel-based core design, and an integral fuel cycle with colocated fuel cycle facility. Both the basic concept and the technology base have been demonstrated through actual integral cycle operation in EBR-II. This paper discusses the inherent safety characteristics of the IFR concept

  14. Integral Fast Reactor concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1986-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative LMR concept, being developed at Argonne National Laboratory, that fully exploits the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel to achieve breakthroughs in economics and inherent safety. This paper describes key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, technology development status, fuel cycle economics potential, and future development path.

  15. Integral Fast Reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1986-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is an innovative LMR concept, being developed at Argonne National Laboratory, that fully exploits the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling and metallic fuel to achieve breakthroughs in economics and inherent safety. This paper describes key features and potential advantages of the IFR concept, technology development status, fuel cycle economics potential, and future development path

  16. CONSIDERATIONS ON INFORMAL LEARNING: DIFFERENT CONCEPTS AND THEIR DIMENSIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Bagdonaite-Stelmokiene, Ramune; Zydziunaite, Vilma

    2016-01-01

    The definition of “informal learning” is ambiguous and thus distinguished by the diverse interpretations. The article aims to reveal identical learning dimensions (process, activity, context, interactions and outcomes), which set up different concepts of “informal learning”. The research question refers to the content of dimensions for distinct concepts of “informal learning”. The analysis has disclosed the “informal learning” to be continuum between “self-directed learning”, “self-regulated ...

  17. Principles of organization and representation concepts indocumentary languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmeire Cristina Pereira

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the principles and methods of documentary languages organization and representation concepts, considering the importance of Documentary Languages inside Documentary Analysis area. The main theories analized were: Colon Classification (Ranganathan; Terminology General Theory (Wüester and Concept´s Theory (Dahlberg. This article presents a synthesis of principles and methods for the Documentary Analysis. It concludes that the Documentary Analysis identifying two senses: interpretative method and theory whose knowledge is produced by the method.

  18. Developing concept of anticrisis management of domestic enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Ясінський, Володимир Валерійович

    2014-01-01

     In the article, going of author is considered near the individual concept of the system of antirecessionary management an enterprise. On the basis of the conducted analysis of essence and features inherent the system, on the whole, and, in particular, the author going is offered to the antirecessionary management near interpretation of concept « antirecessionary management» and  certainly it basic elements. The model of anticrisis operation of business and algorithm of its realization is dev...

  19. The Concept of Fractal Cosmos: I. Anaxagoras' Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grujic, P. V.

    The concept of a fractal cosmos occupies a prominent position in the modern cosmology. We trace the development of this concept from the presocratic Greece to the present state of affairs. In this first part we consider the original idea due to Anaxagoras and elucidate a number of points with regard to possible interpretation of his cosmological ideas. A comparison has been made with the cosmology of Abderian school and relevance to the modern cosmology discussed.

  20. The concept of fractal cosmos, I: Anaxagoras’ cosmology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grujić P.V.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a fractal cosmos occupies a prominent position in the modern cosmology. We trace the development of this concept from the presocratic Greece to the present state of affairs. In this first part we consider the original idea due to Anaxagoras and elucidate a number of points with regard to possible interpretation of his cosmological ideas. A comparison has been made with the cosmology of Abderian school and relevance to the modern cosmology discussed.

  1. The concept of fractal cosmos, I: Anaxagoras’ cosmology

    OpenAIRE

    Grujić P.V.

    2001-01-01

    The concept of a fractal cosmos occupies a prominent position in the modern cosmology. We trace the development of this concept from the presocratic Greece to the present state of affairs. In this first part we consider the original idea due to Anaxagoras and elucidate a number of points with regard to possible interpretation of his cosmological ideas. A comparison has been made with the cosmology of Abderian school and relevance to the modern cosmology discussed.

  2. From Practice to Theory–How the Basic Concepts Appears in a Perioperative Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Lillemor Lindwall; Iréne von Post

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to describe how the basic concepts, human being, health, suffering, caring and culture appear in perioperative practice in order to obtain an understanding of the concepts in practice.Methods: A hermeneutic text interpretation of results from ten previous studies and reports from perioperative research meetings with co-researchers was conducted in order to gain an understanding ofthe concepts in practice.Results: The basic concepts were understood as; The human b...

  3. Medical interpreters as tools: dangers and challenges in the utilitarian approach to interpreters' roles and functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Elaine; Kramer, Eric Mark

    2012-10-01

    This study explores the tensions, challenges, and dangers when a utilitarian view of interpreter is constructed, imposed, and/or reinforced in health care settings. We conducted in-depth interviews and focus groups with 26 medical interpreters from 17 different languages and cultures and 39 providers of five specialties. Grounded theory was used for data analysis. The utilitarian view to interpreters' roles and functions influences providers in the following areas: (a) hierarchical structure and unidirectional communication, (b) the interpreter seen as information gatekeeper, (c) the interpreter seen as provider proxy, and (d) interpreter's emotional support perceived as tools. When interpreters are viewed as passive instruments, a utilitarian approach may compromise the quality of care by silencing patients' and interpreters' voice, objectifying interpreters' emotional work, and exploiting patients' needs. Providers need to recognize that a utilitarian approach to the interpreter's role and functions may create interpersonal and ethical dilemmas that compromise the quality of care. By viewing interpreters as smart technology (rather than passive instruments), both providers and interpreters can learn from and co-evolve with each other, allowing them to maintain control over their expertise and to work as collaborators in providing quality care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The concept of cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lea Louise Holst; Møller, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    villages in order to secure their future. This paper will address the concept of cluster-villages as a possible approach to strengthen the conditions of contemporary Danish villages. Cluster-villages is a concept that gather a number of villages in a network-structure where the villages both work together...... important role to play in both the popular and the political debate and in relation to everyday living conditions. The debate about the future of rural Denmark is also very much a debate about the kind of welfare model we choose in self-governing, municipal Denmark. The centralised, specialised model based...... to forskellige positioner ser vi en ny mulighed for landsbyudvikling, som vi kalder Clustervillages. In order to investigate the potentials and possibilities of the cluster-village concept the paper will seek to unfold the concept strategically; looking into the benefits of such concept. Further, the paper seeks...

  5. Misreading and re-reading: interpretation in comparative religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Gothóni

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Religion should no longer only be equated with a doctrine or philosophy which, although important, is but one aspect or dimension of the phenomenon religion. Apart from presenting the intellectual or rational aspects of Buddhism, we should aim at a balanced view by also focusing on the mythical or narrative axioms of the Buddhist doctrines, as well as on the practical and ritual, the experiential and emotional, the ethical and legal, the social and institutional, and the material and artistic dimensions of the religious phenomenon known as Buddhism. This will help us to arrive at a balanced, unbiased and holistic conception of the subject matter. We must be careful not to impose the ethnocentric conceptions of our time, or to fall into the trap of reductionism, or to project our own idiosyncratic or personal beliefs onto the subject of our research. For example, according to Marco Polo, the Sinhalese Buddhists were 'idolaters', in other words worshippers of idols. This interpretation of the Sinhalese custom of placing offerings such as flowers, incense and lights before the Buddha image is quite understandable, because it is one of the most conspicuous feature of Sinhalese Buddhism even today. However, in conceiving of Buddhists as 'idolaters', Polo was uncritically using the concept of the then prevailing ethnocentric Christian discourse, by which the worshippers of other religions used idols, images or representations of God or the divine as objects of worship, a false God, as it were. Christians, on the other hand, worshipped the only true God.

  6. Quantum processes: A Whiteheadian interpretation of quantum field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Jonathan

    Quantum processes: A Whiteheadian interpretation of quantum field theory is an ambitious and thought-provoking exercise in physics and metaphysics, combining an erudite study of the very complex metaphysics of A.N. Whitehead with a well-informed discussion of contemporary issues in the philosophy of algebraic quantum field theory. Hättich's overall goal is to construct an interpretation of quantum field theory. He does this by translating key concepts in Whitehead's metaphysics into the language of algebraic quantum field theory. In brief, this Hättich-Whitehead (H-W, hereafter) interpretation takes "actual occasions" as the fundamental ontological entities of quantum field theory. An actual occasion is the result of two types of processes: a "transition process" in which a set of initial possibly-possessed properties for the occasion (in the form of "eternal objects") is localized to a space-time region; and a "concrescence process" in which a subset of these initial possibly-possessed properties is selected and actualized to produce the occasion. Essential to these processes is the "underlying activity", which conditions the way in which properties are initially selected and subsequently actualized. In short, under the H-W interpretation of quantum field theory, an initial set of possibly-possessed eternal objects is represented by a Boolean sublattice of the lattice of projection operators determined by a von Neumann algebra R (O) associated with a region O of Minkowski space-time, and the underlying activity is represented by a state on R (O) obtained by conditionalizing off of the vacuum state. The details associated with the H-W interpretation involve imposing constraints on these representations motivated by principles found in Whitehead's metaphysics. These details are spelled out in the three sections of the book. The first section is a summary and critique of Whitehead's metaphysics, the second section introduces the formalism of algebraic quantum field

  7. Democracy: concept, concepts and normative justification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Marquisio Aguirre

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This essay belongs to the normative theory of democracy, namely, the search for the moral grounds of democracy and the democratic institutions. Unlike the descriptive or explicative approaches, the normative theory of democracy does not point to the empirical knowing of the actual democracies, but to give an account of the moral value of democracy as an ideal and the justification of principles for designing or reforming political institutions. The aims of this article are: a To introduce some normative questions that the concept of democracy leaves open; b To present, in their basic thesis, the main contemporary conceptions; c To suggest the requirements that the proposal of an regulative ideal should meet to constitute a normative successful justification of democracy.

  8. Relevance and the interpretation of literary works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre Wilson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been some discussion about how far relevance theory can help in analysing the interpretation of literary works. Starting from the assumption that literary works are not entirely sui generis but exploit at least some of the abilities used in other varieties of verbal communication, I show how the same theoretical machinery used in analysing the interpretation of ordinary utterances can shed light on the interpretation of literary texts, and touch briefly on two more general issues: how can fictional works be relevant, and how can illocutionary and perlocutionary effects be disentangled in the case of literary works? [translated by Deirdre Wilson].

  9. Evidence based practice readiness: A concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Jessica D; Welton, John M

    2018-01-15

    To analyse and define the concept "evidence based practice readiness" in nurses. Evidence based practice readiness is a term commonly used in health literature, but without a clear understanding of what readiness means. Concept analysis is needed to define the meaning of evidence based practice readiness. A concept analysis was conducted using Walker and Avant's method to clarify the defining attributes of evidence based practice readiness as well as antecedents and consequences. A Boolean search of PubMed and Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature was conducted and limited to those published after the year 2000. Eleven articles met the inclusion criteria for this analysis. Evidence based practice readiness incorporates personal and organisational readiness. Antecedents include the ability to recognize the need for evidence based practice, ability to access and interpret evidence based practice, and a supportive environment. The concept analysis demonstrates the complexity of the concept and its implications for nursing practice. The four pillars of evidence based practice readiness: nursing, training, equipping and leadership support are necessary to achieve evidence based practice readiness. Nurse managers are in the position to address all elements of evidence based practice readiness. Creating an environment that fosters evidence based practice can improve patient outcomes, decreased health care cost, increase nurses' job satisfaction and decrease nursing turnover. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The use of dose constraints concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dina, Dumitru; Andrei, Veronica; Glodeanu, Florin; Goicea, Andrei

    2003-01-01

    The 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP Publication 60) explicitly introduced the concept of 'dose constraints' within the context of optimization of protection. The concept was not new and the meaning of its introduction was an attempt to consolidate and rationalize various concepts already existing in the ICRP guidance. In Romania the Order of National Commission for Control of Nuclear Activities - CNCAN no. 14/2000, for approval of the Fundamental Regulations for Radiological Safety, may impose the use of dose constraints for practices or for specific radiation sources inside the practices when required. Dose constraints would be used like upper bound in radioprotection optimization. The use of dose constraints is not an easy task because the understanding and interpretation of its meaning and application in the regulatory and operational practice is still under development. For operation of Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant - Unit 1 as well as in the implementation of the new Interim Spent Fuel Dry Storage Facility project the dose constraints concept was used in the licensing process. On this basis the authorized dose limit and legal dose limit concepts became clearer and would be used within the documents. (authors)

  11. Concepts Joy and Suffering in Russian Linguaculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana V. Korostova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Russian linguistic consciousness, the concepts of emotions joy and suffering are verbalized at the lexical and phraseological levels, forming the basis for metaphorical combinations. Concepts of emotions, suffering and joy are mutually reinforcing: in the presupposition of the idea of suffering, there is a knowledge that it is not infinite and is always replaced by joy. Russian naive-linguistic consciousness reflects the oldest ideas about the alternation of phenomena and events, desirable and undesirable for man. The concepts of suffering and joy are closely related to the universal category of time. As observations on linguistic projections of concepts show, suffering is realized as a longer process than joy. Emotives of different levels of language represent emotional states of joy and suffering in Russian linguistic culture. According to the National Corpus of the Russian language, lexical demonstrators of the concept of joy dominate. Cognitive interpretation of events in the mind of a person can be changed under the influence of the emotional regime carried out by the media.

  12. Conceptualizing emotion in healthcare interpreting: A normative approach to interpreters' emotion work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Elaine; Nicodemus, Brenda

    2015-06-22

    By juxtaposing literature in signed language interpreting with that of spoken language interpreting, we provide a narrative review to explore the complexity of emotion management in interpreter-mediated medical encounters. We conduct literature search through library databases and Google Scholar using varied combinations of search terms, including interpreter, emotion, culture, and health care. We first examine (a) interpreters' management and performance of others' emotions, (b) interpreters' management and performance of their own emotions, and (c) impacts of emotion work for healthcare interpreters. By problematizing the roles and functions of emotion and emotion work in interpreter-mediated medical encounters, we propose a normative model to guide future research and practices of interpreters' emotion management in cross-cultural care. Quality and equality of care should serve as the guiding principle for interpreters' decision-making about their emotions and emotion work. Rather than adopting a predetermined practice, interpreters should evaluate and prioritize the various clinical, interpersonal, and therapeutic objectives as they consider the best practice in managing their own and other speakers' emotions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Kinetics interpretation model of isothermal martensite reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, J.R.C.

    1976-01-01

    It was discussed details associated to the interpretation of kinetics of martencite heterogeneous nucleation in isothermal reactions. It was proposed a model which allows compute the variation of concentration of preferencial sites nucleation with a volumetric martencite fraction [pt

  14. [The professional interpreter disappears: quality is jeopardized].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langendijk-van den Berg, Irene; Verdonk, Petra; Abma, Tineke

    2014-01-01

    According to Dutch law, patients have the right to comprehensible communication. However, professional interpreters are not being used sufficiently: health care providers often do not recognize when language barriers interfere with comprehension. The use of professional interpreters declined even further when the Dutch government withdrew its funding for medical interpreters in January 2012. Additionally, the government's stance that non-native speakers have to master the language and organize translating help when needed seems to have given a signal to health care providers that this is not their responsibility. Nonetheless, health care providers are obliged by law to provide comprehensible information. Therefore, it is important to provide proper training so they can recognize language barriers and know when a professional interpreter is necessary. In addition, a financial aid system needs to be developed for those patients who cannot reasonably be expected to have mastered the language.

  15. Interpretive Listening: An Alternative to Empathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, John

    1983-01-01

    Outlines an alternative interpretive approach to listening which is grounded in the hermeneutic phenomenologies of Heidegger, Gadamer, and Ricoeur. Explains four features of this alternative: openness, linguisticality, play, and the fusion of horizons. Discusses conceptual and pedagogical implications. (PD)

  16. Pattern recognition approach to data interpretation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wolff, Diane D; Parsons, M. L

    1983-01-01

    An attempt is made in this book to give scientists a detailed working knowledge of the powerful mathematical tools available to aid in data interpretation, especially when confronted with large data...

  17. Applied photo interpretation for airbrush cartography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inge, J. L.; Bridges, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    New techniques of cartographic portrayal have been developed for the compilation of maps of lunar and planetary surfaces. Conventional photo interpretation methods utilizing size, shape, shadow, tone, pattern, and texture are applied to computer processed satellite television images. The variety of the image data allows the illustrator to interpret image details by inter-comparison and intra-comparison of photographs. Comparative judgements are affected by illumination, resolution, variations in surface coloration, and transmission or processing artifacts. The validity of the interpretation process is tested by making a representational drawing by an airbrush portrayal technique. Production controls insure the consistency of a map series. Photo interpretive cartographic portrayal skills are used to prepare two kinds of map series and are adaptable to map products of different kinds and purposes.

  18. Interpreters' notes. On the choice of language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Helle Vrønning

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on a small-scale empirical study on note-taking in consecutive interpreting. As data, the study draws on the notes produced by four subjects while interpreting one Spanish source text consecutively into Danish, on the one hand, and one Danish source text into Spanish...... to particular scrutiny here. However, somewhat surprisingly, the results of the analyses indicate that the choice of language in note-taking is governed mainly by the status of the language in the interpreters' language combination, i.e. whether it is an A- or a B-language, and much less by its status......, on the other. The aim of the study is to explore what governs conference interpreters' choice of language for their notes. The categories traditionally used to discuss, describe and explain this choice are those of 'source language' and 'target language', and these categories are therefore subject...

  19. Interpretation of aluminum-alloy weld radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, P. C.; Risch, E. R.

    1971-01-01

    Report proposes radiographic terminology standardization which allows scientific interpretation of radiographic films to replace dependence on individual judgement and experience. Report includes over 50 photographic pages where radiographs of aluminum welds with defects are compared with prepared weld sections photomacrographs.

  20. Statutory Interpretation: General Principles and Recent Trends

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Costello, George

    2006-01-01

    .... Because the Court has recently placed renewed emphasis on statutory text and somewhat reduced emphasis on legislative history and other interpretive sources extrinsic to the text, this report focuses...

  1. Abstract Interpretation as a Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    2013-01-01

    In David Schmidts PhD work he explored the use of denotational semantics as a programming language. It was part of an effort to not only treat formal semantics as specifications but also as interpreters and input to compiler generators. The semantics itself can be seen as a program and one may...... examine different programming styles and ways to represent states. Abstract interpretation is primarily a technique for derivation and specification of program analysis. As with denotational semantics we may also view abstract interpretations as programs and examine the implementation. The main focus...... in this paper is to show that results from higher-order strictness analysis may be used more generally as fixpoint operators for higher-order functions over lattices and thus provide a technique for immediate implementation of a large class of abstract interpretations. Furthermore, it may be seen...

  2. Interpretation on Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is considering an interpretation of its regulations that would generally allow for recycling of plastic separated from shredder residue under the conditions described in the Voluntary Procedures for Recycling Plastics from Shredder Residue.

  3. Abstract Interpretation as a Programming Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mads Rosendahl

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In David Schmidt's PhD work he explored the use of denotational semantics as a programming language. It was part of an effort to not only treat formal semantics as specifications but also as interpreters and input to compiler generators. The semantics itself can be seen as a program and one may examine different programming styles and ways to represent states. Abstract interpretation is primarily a technique for derivation and specification of program analysis. As with denotational semantics we may also view abstract interpretations as programs and examine the implementation. The main focus in this paper is to show that results from higher-order strictness analysis may be used more generally as fixpoint operators for higher-order functions over lattices and thus provide a technique for immediate implementation of a large class of abstract interpretations. Furthermore, it may be seen as a programming paradigm and be used to write programs in a circular style.

  4. Fundamental concepts of mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Goodstein, R L

    Fundamental Concepts of Mathematics, 2nd Edition provides an account of some basic concepts in modern mathematics. The book is primarily intended for mathematics teachers and lay people who wants to improve their skills in mathematics. Among the concepts and problems presented in the book include the determination of which integral polynomials have integral solutions; sentence logic and informal set theory; and why four colors is enough to color a map. Unlike in the first edition, the second edition provides detailed solutions to exercises contained in the text. Mathematics teachers and people

  5. Advanced concepts for acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.

    1986-07-01

    Selected examples of advanced accelerator concepts are reviewed. Such plasma accelerators as plasma beat wave accelerator, plasma wake field accelerator, and plasma grating accelerator are discussed particularly as examples of concepts for accelerating relativistic electrons or positrons. Also covered are the pulsed electron-beam, pulsed laser accelerator, inverse Cherenkov accelerator, inverse free-electron laser, switched radial-line accelerators, and two-beam accelerator. Advanced concepts for ion acceleration discussed include the electron ring accelerator, excitation of waves on intense electron beams, and two-wave combinations

  6. Revolutionizing volunteer interpreter services: an evaluation of an innovative medical interpreter education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbún Avalos, Oswaldo; Pennington, Kaylin; Osterberg, Lars

    2013-12-01

    In our ever-increasingly multicultural, multilingual society, medical interpreters serve an important role in the provision of care. Though it is known that using untrained interpreters leads to decreased quality of care for limited English proficiency patients, because of a short supply of professionals and a lack of formalized, feasible education programs for volunteers, community health centers and internal medicine practices continue to rely on untrained interpreters. To develop and formally evaluate a novel medical interpreter education program that encompasses major tenets of interpretation, tailored to the needs of volunteer medical interpreters. One-armed, quasi-experimental retro-pre-post study using survey ratings and feedback correlated by assessment scores to determine educational intervention effects. Thirty-eight students; 24 Spanish, nine Mandarin, and five Vietnamese. The majority had prior interpreting experience but no formal medical interpreter training. Students completed retrospective pre-test and post-test surveys measuring confidence in and perceived knowledge of key skills of interpretation. Primary outcome measures were a 10-point Likert scale for survey questions of knowledge, skills, and confidence, written and oral assessments of interpreter skills, and qualitative evidence of newfound knowledge in written reflections. Analyses showed a statistically significant (P  0.8). The second half of the program was also quantitatively and qualitatively shown to be a vital learning experience, resulting in 18 % more students passing the oral assessments; a 19 % increase in mean scores for written assessments; and a newfound understanding of interpreter roles and ways to navigate them. This innovative program was successful in increasing volunteer interpreters' skills and knowledge of interpretation, as well as confidence in own abilities. Additionally, the program effectively taught how to navigate the roles of the interpreter to maintain

  7. Electrocardiography: A Technologist's Guide to Interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tso, Colin; Currie, Geoffrey M; Gilmore, David; Kiat, Hosen

    2015-12-01

    The nuclear medicine technologist works with electrocardiography when performing cardiac stress testing and gated cardiac imaging and when monitoring critical patients. To enhance patient care, basic electrocardiogram interpretation skills and recognition of key arrhythmias are essential for the nuclear medicine technologist. This article provides insight into the anatomy of an electrocardiogram trace, covers basic electrocardiogram interpretation methods, and describes an example case typical in the nuclear medicine environment. © 2015 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  8. NODAL interpreter for CP/M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oide, Katsunobu.

    1982-11-01

    A NODAL interpreter which works under CP/M operating system is made for microcomputers. This interpreter language named NODAL-80 has a similar structure to the NODAL of SPS, but its commands, variables, and expressions are modified to increase the flexibility of programming. NODAL-80 also uses a simple intermediate code to make the execution speed fast without imposing any restriction on the dynamic feature of NODAL language. (author)

  9. Quality of Life Philosophy VI. The Concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soren Ventegodt

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The about a hundred central concepts related to research in the global quality of life can, in a holistic medical frame of interpretation, be organized under ten abstract key concepts: existence, creation of the world, state of being, daily living, talents, relations, sex, health, personal development, and therapy with subthemes as discussed in this paper. The paper shows that the concepts in each group can be seen as related to each other in a quite intuitive and logical way, to give a coherent quality of life philosophy that allows the physician to encourage, inspire, and support his patient. In every consultation, one new concept and idea of existence can be taught to the patient, helping him or her to realize the meaning of life, the source of joy, and the reason for the actual suffering. In this way, we help the patient to mobilize hidden and known resources and to improve quality of life, subjective health, and the ability to function. The concepts were harvested in 2003 at a Nordic seminar on quality of life research, held in Sweden. Life does not only cohere on the inside, but also on the outside. The same power that ties together all the cells in our body, seems to tie us together in relationships and new wholeness. This power evolves into new kinds of relations that unite on more and more complex levels, with the global ecosystem as the highest known level.Our intentions come from this coherent matrix of life. In the beginning of our life, the web of life itself gave birth to our fundamental purpose of life. The abstract purpose determines the frame of interpretation of reality: How we will perceive ourselves throughout life, our inner life, and the world around us. The frame of interpretation is pitched in language and concepts, in fact it creates our perceptions. Based on these perceptions and our purposes of life, our behavior arises. Our consciousness evolves through the witnessing of our behavior and through the response caused by

  10. General concepts of ventricular function, Myocardial perfusion, and exercise physiology relevant to nuclear cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, M.W.; Becker, L.C.

    1988-01-01

    Knowledge of ventricular mechanics, the physiology of the coronary circulation, and exercise physiology is necessary for the accurate interpretation of radionuclide ventriculographic and myocardial perfusion images. This chapter outlines these important basic concepts as applied to the whole heart

  11. Interpretation of Scientific or Mathematical Concepts: Cognitive Issues and Instructional Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    statements about several difficult cases, but forgot to consider the simplest case where a stationary particle remains at rest. This failure to examine...Institute Provo, UT 84057 Mr. William Hartung PEAM Product Manager Dr. Alice Isen . Army Research Institute Department of Psychology 5001 Eisenhower

  12. Sense of coherence and physical health. A "Copenhagen interpretation" of Antonovsky's SOC concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endler, P Christian; Haug, Thomas M; Spranger, Heinz

    2008-04-20

    According to Antonovsky's (Aaron Antonovsky, 1923-1994) sense of coherence (SOC) model, persons with a high SOC have the ability to benefit from their general defense mechanisms in order to overcome stressful situations. In a health-disease continuum, this leads to the development towards health. However, Antonovsky's global hypothesis that the strength of the SOC may influence the physical health status of a person could not be proven. Flensborg-Madsen et al. from Copenhagen were able to provide a new access regarding SOC and health. They investigated the mixture of emotional aspects and mental constructions as a possible cause for fairly low correlation between SOC and physical health. Thus, in an empirical way, they described "emotional coherence" in relation to physical health, while "mental coherence" was linked to psychological health. These authors introduced the idea of applying a shortened version of the original 29-item SOC questionnaire, but have not yet developed or tested the shortened questionnaire. Backed by their important findings, it appears to be promising to consider the use of the SOC questionnaire as standardized by Antonovsky, but cleared of the items regarding "predictability", i.e., Flensborg-Madsen et al. suggested that the items on "predictability" be excluded from the SOC scale when a correlation to physical health is to be investigated. Further investigations in this area of research will be of high impact, not only for health sciences, but also for medical practice.

  13. Purchasing pension advisory services in Sweden – An interpretive investigation into service conceptions and supplier selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolander, Pernilla; Werr, Andreas; van der Valk, Wendy

    2017-01-01

    Research on service purchasing commonly acknowledges that different types of services require different purchasing approaches. This has generated a plethora of service classifications that focus on different characteristics inherent to the service. Recently, the use to which a service is put in an

  14. The World Health Organization fetal growth charts: concept, findings, interpretation, and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiserud, Torvid; Benachi, Alexandra; Hecher, Kurt; Perez, Rogelio González; Carvalho, José; Piaggio, Gilda; Platt, Lawrence D

    2018-02-01

    Ultrasound biometry is an important clinical tool for the identification, monitoring, and management of fetal growth restriction and development of macrosomia. This is even truer in populations in which perinatal morbidity and mortality rates are high, which is a reason that much effort is put onto making the technique available everywhere, including low-income societies. Until recently, however, commonly used reference ranges were based on single populations largely from industrialized countries. Thus, the World Health Organization prioritized the establishment of fetal growth charts for international use. New fetal growth charts for common fetal measurements and estimated fetal weight were based on a longitudinal study of 1387 low-risk pregnant women from 10 countries (Argentina, Brazil, Democratic Republic of Congo, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, India, Norway, and Thailand) that provided 8203 sets of ultrasound measurements. The participants were characterized by median age 28 years, 58% nulliparous, normal body mass index, with no socioeconomic or nutritional constraints (median caloric intake, 1840 calories/day), and had the ability to attend the ultrasound sessions, thus essentially representing urban populations. Median gestational age at birth was 39 weeks, and birthweight was 3300 g, both with significant differences among countries. Quantile regression was used to establish the fetal growth charts, which also made it possible to demonstrate a number of features of fetal growth that previously were not well appreciated or unknown: (1) There was an asymmetric distribution of estimated fetal weight in the population. During early second trimester, the distribution was wider among fetuses 50th percentile. (2) Although fetal sex, maternal factors (height, weight, age, and parity), and country had significant influence on fetal weight (1-4.5% each), their effect was graded across the percentiles. For example, the positive effect of maternal height on fetal weight was strongest on the lowest percentiles and smallest on the highest percentiles for estimated fetal weight. (3) When adjustment was made for maternal covariates, there was still a significant effect of country as covariate that indicated that ethnic, cultural, and geographic variation play a role. (4) Variation between populations was not restricted to fetal size because there were also differences in growth trajectories. (5) The wide physiologic ranges, as illustrated by the 5th-95th percentile for estimated fetal weight being 2205-3538 g at 37 weeks gestation, signify that human fetal growth under optimized maternal conditions is not uniform. Rather, it has a remarkable variation that largely is unexplained by commonly known factors. We suggest this variation could be part of our common biologic strategy that makes human evolution extremely successful. The World Health Organization fetal growth charts are intended to be used internationally based on low-risk pregnancies from populations in Africa, Asia, Europe, and South America. We consider it prudent to test and monitor whether the growth charts' performance meets the local needs, because refinements are possible by a change in cut-offs or customization for fetal sex, maternal factors, and populations. In the same line, the study finding of variations emphasizes the need for carefully adjusted growth charts that reflect optimal local growth when public health issues are addressed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Da Costa on ontology: a naturalistic interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Mariano Nogueira Coelho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Da Costa's conception of being modifies that of Quine to incorporate relativization to non-classical logics. A naturalistic view of this conception is discussed. This view tries to extend to logic some ideas of Maddy's naturalism concerning mathematics.

  16. Chasing Butterflies without a Net: Interpreting Cosmopolitanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, David T.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I map current conceptions of cosmopolitanism and sketch distinctions between the concept and humanism and multiculturalism. The differences mirror what I take to be a central motif of cosmopolitanism: the capacity to fuse reflective openness to the new with reflective loyalty to the known. This motif invites a reconsideration of…

  17. The LDC detector concept

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ), the large detector concept (LDC) is being developed. The main points of the LDC are a large volume gaseous tracking system, combined with high precision vertex detector and an extremely granular calorimeter. The main design force ...

  18. The technological conception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parrochia, D.

    1998-01-01

    The 'technological conception' examines how a project can be concretized or how it is possible to 'conceive', i.e. to produce operative ideas that can be directly use. The first part of this book, called 'concepts and methods', analyzes the logics of conceiving and its philosophy in the construction of its objects and in the management of its programs or projects. The second part is devoted to some exemplary technologies: roads, tunnels, bridges, dams, nuclear power plants, aerospace constructions, and analyzes different concrete logics of technological conception. Finally, the author shows how todays conception faces the risks and complexity increase of systems and considers the possibility of an entirely automated manufacturing shop in the future. (J.S.)

  19. Designing concepts and strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiib, Hans

    2012-01-01

    , that new developments often employ very modest research on the subject and often very little has been done in order to challenge traditional concepts and to invent new sustainable concepts for redevelopment. In order to avoid mistakes in urban redevelopment we need to learn from research and evaluation...... the combination of research and design based development can provide us with a range of conceptual models for alternative development of different valuable parts of the city. This article is focusing on the design-based methods in concept development, which can be tested with the purpose of developing new design...... of the best planning practice. But what might be just as important is to learn from concept development practice, which can give us a comprehensive understanding of our complex cities and make us develop a way of experiencing the unique qualities of the architectural typologies at the site. Finally...

  20. Concepts of radiation protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This seventh chapter presents the concepts and principles of safety and radiation protection, emergency situations; NORM and TENORM; radiation protection care; radiation protection plan; activities of the radiation protection service; practical rules of radiation protection and the radiation symbol

  1. Concepts in Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusanen, Anna-Mari; Pöyhönen, Samuli

    2013-06-01

    In this article we focus on the concept of concept in conceptual change. We argue that (1) theories of higher learning must often employ two different notions of concept that should not be conflated: psychological and scientific concepts. The usages for these two notions are partly distinct and thus straightforward identification between them is unwarranted. Hence, the strong analogy between scientific theory change and individual learning should be approached with caution. In addition, we argue that (2) research in psychology and cognitive science provides a promising theoretical basis for developing explanatory mechanistic models of conceptual change. Moreover, we argue that (3) arguments against deeper integration between the fields of psychology and conceptual change are not convincing, and that recent theoretical developments in the cognitive sciences might prove indispensable in filling in the details in mechanisms of conceptual change.

  2. Concept medium programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The present essay is an attempt to determine the architectural project of the 21st century in relation to a modern conception of space as the medium of architecture, and of sociality as its program...

  3. The Concept of Alexithymia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miray Sasioglu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The concept of alexithymia, which means “no words for emotions”, emerged in order to explain the symptoms of psychosomatic patients and gained a quick recognition among psychiatrists. However, current studies indicate that alexithymia may be a personality trait seen both in different pathological groups and even in healthy population. At this point, many researches have been made in order to distinguish alexithymia from existing constructs and diagnosis, and to remove the questions on reliability and validity of the con-cept and its measurement. Ongoing discussions on alexithymia will be re-viewed in this study. The controversial concept of alexithymia will be exam-ined in terms of characteristics, theoretical background, relationship with the other disorders, measurement and the critique of the measurement and the concept.

  4. Common tester platform concept.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurst, Michael James

    2008-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a case study on the doctrine of a common tester platform, a concept of a standardized platform that can be applicable across the broad spectrum of testing requirements throughout the various stages of a weapons program, as well as across the various weapons programs. The common tester concept strives to define an affordable, next-generation design that will meet testing requirements with the flexibility to grow and expand; supporting the initial development stages of a weapons program through to the final production and surveillance stages. This report discusses a concept investing key leveraging technologies and operational concepts combined with prototype tester-development experiences and practical lessons learned gleaned from past weapons programs.

  5. Quantum mechanics and the physical reality concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    von Borzeszkowski, H.H.; Wahsner, R.

    1988-01-01

    The difference between the measurement bases of classical and quantum mechanics is often interpreted as a loss of reality arising in quantum mechanics. In this paper it is shown that this apparent loss occurs only if one believes that refined everyday experience determines the Euclidean space as the real space, instead of considering this space, both in classical and quantum mechanics, as a theoretical construction needed for measurement and representing one part of a dualistic space conception. From this point of view, Einstein's program of a unified field theory can be interpreted as the attempt to find a physical theory that is less dualistic. However, if one regards this dualism as resulting from the requirements of measurements, one can hope for a weakening of the dualism but not expect to remove it completely

  6. Innovative confinement concepts workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, R.C.

    1998-01-01

    The Innovative Confinement Concepts Workshop occurred in California during the week preceding the Second Symposium on Current Trends in International Fusion Research. An informal report was made to the Second Symposium. A summary of the Workshop concluded that some very promising ideas were presented, that innovative concept development is a central element of the restructured US DOE. Fusion Energy Sciences program, and that the Workshop should promote real scientific progress in fusion

  7. Concept medium programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The present essay is an attempt to determine the architectural project of the 21st century in relation to a modern conception of space as the medium of architecture, and of sociality as its program......The present essay is an attempt to determine the architectural project of the 21st century in relation to a modern conception of space as the medium of architecture, and of sociality as its program...

  8. Teaching's Concept of Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, Ane; Keiding, Tina

    This paper discusses and exemplifies how teaching’s concept of learning can be understood. The theoretical framework for the construction and discussion of teaching’s concept of learning is found insecond-order systems theory as described by the German sociologist Niklas Luhmann (Luhmann, 1995...... both produce and are products of the curricula, and for describing the taught curriculum as an emerging and contingent form in its own right (Keiding & Qvortrup, 2014)....

  9. Concepts of classical optics

    CERN Document Server

    Strong, John

    1958-01-01

    An intermediate course in optics, this volume explores both experimental and theoretical concepts, offering practical knowledge of geometrical optics that will enhance students' comprehension of any relevant applied science. Its exposition of the concepts of classical optics is presented with a minimum of mathematical detail but presumes some knowledge of calculus, vectors, and complex numbers.Subjects include light as wave motion; superposition of wave motions; electromagnetic waves; interaction of light and matter; velocities and scattering of light; polarized light and dielectric boundarie

  10. Resilience - A Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    Image designed by Diane Fleischer Resilience —A CONCEPT Col Dennis J. Rensel, USAF (Ret.) Resilience takes on many definitions and ideas depending...upon who is speaking. Taking this one step further, consider resiliency as a concept that provides a holistic view of a system or capability, just...the assessment of the health of a network or system. The hypothesis is: resiliency is meaningful in the context of holistic assessments of

  11. Concept caring in nursing

    OpenAIRE

    Lenka Drahošová; Darja Jarošová

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this literature review was to search for qualitative studies focusing on the concept of caring in nursing, to analyse them and to synthesize knowledge that concerns the definition of the concept of caring in nursing from the point of view of nurses and patients. Design: Review. Methods: Qualitative studies were searched for systematically in the electronic databases Academic Search Complete (EBSCO), CINAHL, Medline, Science Direct, and the Wiley Library Online, according to se...

  12. Nuclear arbitration: Interpreting non-proliferation agreements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeng, Peter

    2015-01-01

    At the core of the nuclear non-proliferation regime lie international agreements. These agreements include, inter alia, the Nuclear Non-proliferation Treaty, nuclear co-operation agreements and nuclear export control agreements.1 States, however, do not always comply with their obligations under these agreements. In response, commentators have proposed various enforcement mechanisms to promote compliance. The inconvenient truth, however, is that states are generally unwilling to consent to enforcement mechanisms concerning issues as critical to national security as nuclear non-proliferation.3 This article suggests an alternative solution to the non-compliance problem: interpretation mechanisms. Although an interpretation mechanism does not have the teeth of an enforcement mechanism, it can induce compliance by providing an authoritative interpretation of a legal obligation. Interpretation mechanisms would help solve the non-compliance problem because, as this article shows, in many cases of alleged non-compliance with a non-proliferation agreement, the fundamental problem has been the lack of an authoritative interpretation of the agreement, not the lack of an enforcement mechanism. Specifically, this article proposes arbitration as the proper interpretation mechanism for non-proliferation agreements. It advocates the establishment of a 'Nuclear Arbitration Centre' as an independent branch of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and recommends the gradual introduction of arbitration clauses into the texts of non-proliferation agreements. Section I begins with a discussion of international agreements in general and the importance of interpretation and enforcement mechanisms. Section II then discusses nuclear non-proliferation agreements and their lack of interpretation and enforcement mechanisms. Section III examines seven case studies of alleged non-compliance with non-proliferation agreements in order to show that the main problem in many cases

  13. Awareness of aging: Theoretical considerations on an emerging concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diehl, Manfred; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Barrett, Anne E.; Brothers, Allyson F.; Miche, Martina; Montepare, Joann M.; Westerhof, Gerben Johan; Wurm, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Humans are able to reflect on and interpret their own aging. Thus, as individuals grow older, calendar age may become increasingly a subjective variable. This theoretical paper proposes the concept of Awareness of Aging (AoA) as a superordinate construct that can serve an integrative function in

  14. Multiple-choice test of energy and momentum concepts

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Chandralekha; Rosengrant, David

    2016-01-01

    We investigate student understanding of energy and momentum concepts at the level of introductory physics by designing and administering a 25-item multiple choice test and conducting individual interviews. We find that most students have difficulty in qualitatively interpreting basic principles related to energy and momentum and in applying them in physical situations.

  15. Levels of Moralisation: A New Conception of Moral Sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovett, Benjamin J.; Jordan, Alexander H.

    2010-01-01

    Moral sensitivity has generally been interpreted in a normative sense, as the ability to notice moral features present in a situation. This paper outlines an alternative, descriptive conception of moral sensitivity: the levels of moralisation model. This model describes four qualitatively distinct levels at which a preference can be held: no…

  16. Diagnosing Alternative Conceptions of Fermi Energy among Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sapna; Ahluwalia, Pardeep Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Physics education researchers have scientifically established the fact that the understanding of new concepts and interpretation of incoming information are strongly influenced by the preexisting knowledge and beliefs of students, called epistemological beliefs. This can lead to a gap between what students actually learn and what the teacher…

  17. Concepts and methods of 2D infrared spectroscopy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hamm, Peter; Zanni, Martin T

    2011-01-01

    ... spectra and exercises to illustrate the concepts involved. Readers will learn how to accurately interpret 2D IR spectra, design their own spectrometer and invent their own pulse sequences. It is an excellent starting point for graduate students and researchers new to this exciting field. Computer codes and answers to the exercises can be downloaded fro...

  18. Primary School Teachers' Conceptions of Teaching Art Criticism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorely, Julie

    1996-01-01

    Utilizes a phenomenographic (study of the world as it is conceptualized) qualitative study to ascertain art teachers' attitudes towards teaching art criticism. Categorizes six conceptions of teaching art criticism and includes a description and interpretation of each. Discusses the limitations of these approaches and the implications for teacher…

  19. Fuzzy Logic: Toward Measuring Gottfredson's Concept of Occupational Social Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesketh, Beryl; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated the application of fuzzy graphic rating scale to measurement of preferences for occupational sex type, prestige, and interests using Gottfredson's concept of occupational social space. Reported reliability and validity data with illustrative examples of respondents' interpretations of their own fuzzy ratings. Outlined counseling and…

  20. Interpreter perspectives of in-person, telephonic, and videoconferencing medical interpretation in clinical encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Erika Leemann; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J.; Nickleach, Dana; López, Monica; Karliner, Leah S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine professional medical interpreters’ perspectives of in-person and remote interpreting modalities. Methods Survey of interpreters at three medical centers assessing satisfaction with aspects of communication using each modality, and adequacy of videoconferencing medical interpretation (VMI) and telephonic interpretation for 21 common clinical scenarios in the hospital and ambulatory care settings. Results 52 interpreters completed the survey (73% response). All modalities were equally satisfactory for conveying information. Respondents favored in-person to telephonic interpretation for establishing rapport (95% versus 71%, p = .002) and for facilitating clinician understanding of patients’ social and cultural backgrounds (92% versus 69%, p = .002). Scenarios with substantial educational or psychosocial dimensions had no more than 70% of respondents rating telephonic interpretation as adequate (25–70%); for all of these scenarios, VMI represented an improvement (52–87%). Conclusion From the interpreter perspective, telephonic interpretation is satisfactory for information exchange, but less so for interpersonal aspects of communication. In scenarios where telephonic interpretation does not suffice, particularly those with substantial educational or psychosocial components, VMI offers improved communication. Practice implications Differences in interpreters’ perspectives of modalities based on communication needs and clinical scenario suggest mixed use of multiple modalities may be the best language access strategy. PMID:21930360

  1. Assessment of fuel concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, W.J.; Barner, J.O.

    1978-01-01

    The relative merits of various LWR UO 2 fuel concepts with the potential for improved power-ramping capability were qualitatively assessed. In the evaluation, it was determined that of the various concepts being considered, those that presently possess an adequately developed experience base include annular pellets, cladding coated with graphite on the inner surface, and packed-particle fuel. Therefore, these were selected for initial evaluation as part of the Fuel Performance Improvement Program. For this program, graphite-coated cladding is being used in conjunction with annular pellet fuel as one of the concepts with the anticipation of gaining the advantage of the combined improvements. The report discusses the following: the criteria used to evaluate the candidate fuel concepts; a comparison of the concepts selected for irradiation with the criteria, including a general description of their experience bases; and a general discussion of other candidate concepts, including identifying those which may be considered for out-of-reactor evaluation as part of this program, those for which the results of other programs will be monitored, and those which have been deleted from further consideration at this time

  2. [Mindfulness: A Concept Analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tsai-Ling; Chou, Fan-Hao; Wang, Hsiu-Hung

    2016-04-01

    "Mindfulness" is an emerging concept in the field of healthcare. Ranging from stress relief to psychotherapy, mindfulness has been confirmed to be an effective tool to help individuals manage depression, anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and other health problems in clinical settings. Scholars currently use various definitions for mindfulness. While some of these definitions overlap, significant differences remain and a general scholarly consensus has yet to be reached. Several domestic and international studies have explored mindfulness-related interventions and their effectiveness. However, the majority of these studies have focused on the fields of clinical medicine, consultation, and education. Mindfulness has rarely been applied in clinical nursing practice and no related systematic concept analysis has been conducted. This paper conducts a concept analysis of mindfulness using the concept analysis method proposed by Walker and Avant (2011). We describe the defining characteristics of mindfulness, clarify the concept, and confirm the predisposing factors and effects of mindfulness using examples of typical cases, borderline cases, related cases, and contrary case. Findings may provide nursing staff with an understanding of the concept of mindfulness for use in clinical practice in order to help patients achieve a comfortable state of body and mind healing.

  3. Improving the effectiveness of interpreted consultations: Australian interpreter, general practitioner and patient perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturman, Nancy; Farley, Rebecca; Claudio, Fernanda; Avila, Patricia

    2018-03-01

    Healthcare consultations with patients lacking English proficiency are challenging for all parties, even in Australian primary care where the engagement of interpreters is encouraged and fully subsidised. Our objective was to understand these challenges from the perspectives of interpreters, patients and general practitioners in order to improve the effectiveness of interpreted consultations. Our investigator team approached the interpreted consultation as an interprofessional collaboration. A convenience sample of seven general practitioners, eight health interpreters and six representatives from culturally and linguistically diverse communities (representing the patient perspective) participated in three separate focus group discussions, lasting 60-90 min each, exploring participant experiences with healthcare consultations in which interpreters were present. Two semistructured interviews were undertaken subsequently with three additional community representatives purposively recruited to increase participant diversity. Data were collected in 2016 and analysed inductively using a method of constant comparison to identify, and reach consensus on, key emerging themes. All participant groups emphasised the importance of working with trained interpreters, rather than relying on family interpreters or a doctor's own second language skills. Although participants reported experiences of effective interpreted consultations, other reports suggested that some doctors are unaware of, or have difficulty following, accepted guidelines about speech, gaze and turn-taking. Challenges identified in relation to interpreted consultations fell into the five themes of contextual constraints, consultation complexity, communication difficulties, the interpreter role and collaboration. Some general practitioner participants appeared to be unsure and anxious about the etiquette of interpreted consultations, and there was some confusion between and within participant groups about

  4. Spectroscopy for amateur astronomers recording, processing, analysis and interpretation

    CERN Document Server

    Trypsteen , Marc F M

    2017-01-01

    This accessible guide presents the astrophysical concepts behind astronomical spectroscopy, covering both the theory and the practical elements of recording, processing, analysing and interpreting your spectra. It covers astronomical objects, such as stars, planets, nebulae, novae, supernovae, and events such as eclipses and comet passages. Suitable for anyone with only a little background knowledge and access to amateur-level equipment, the guide's many illustrations, sketches and figures will help you understand and practise this scientifically important and growing field of amateur astronomy, up to the level of Pro-Am collaborations. Accessible to non-academics, it benefits many groups from novices and learners in astronomy clubs, to advanced students and teachers of astrophysics. This volume is the perfect companion to the Spectral Atlas for Amateur Astronomers, which provides detailed commented spectral profiles of more than 100 astronomical objects.

  5. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of a Religious Conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Naved; Radulescu, Anca; Bains, Anjuman; Aleem, Sheema

    2017-08-03

    Religious conversion is an important phenomenon in contemporary religious climate, but existing psychology research work is mostly based on quantitative methods. In an attempt to contribute to this field, the present study proposes a qualitative exploration of religious conversion. The in-depth interview of a French woman is examined in order to investigate her experience of religious conversion, 40 years prior. The interview was analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis, with the purpose of revealing how the participant experienced the process of religious conversion, what was its impact on her life, identity and personality and how she coped with this impact. The four emerging themes were: conflicted relationship with Judaism, the pursuit of a spiritual quest, changes after conversion and life after conversion. These themes painted the image of a powerful spiritual transformation, a profound and dynamic lifelong process, integrating concepts and practices, life changes and developments. The findings are explained with the help of available literature.

  6. Are Alternative Conceptions Dependent on Researchers' Methodology and Definition?: A Review of Empirical Studies Related to Concepts of Heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chee Leong; Chu, Hye-Eun; Yap, Kueh Chin

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is no agreement among scientists and science educators on whether heat should be defined as a "process of energy transfer" or "form of energy." For example, students may conceive of heat as "molecular kinetic energy," but the interpretation of this alternative conception is dependent on educational…

  7. The tacit concept of competence in J.S. Mill's On Liberty | Nys | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mill is often the object of schizophrenic interpretation: he is either interpreted as a fierce proponent of negative freedom, i.e. a prototypical liberal who professes neutrality with regard to different conceptions of the good, or as a concealed moralist whose ultimate goal is to construct society on the basis of a particular and thick ...

  8. Health literacy: concept analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speros, Carolyn

    2005-06-01

    This paper reports an analysis of the concept of health literacy in order to clarify its meaning, reduce ambiguities associated with references to it, and promote consistency in using the concept in nursing dialogue and research. Health literacy is a relatively new concept in health promotion research. Only within the last decade have researchers identified the problems associated with health literacy, the role it plays in an individual's ability to comprehend health and self-care information, and its relationship to health outcomes. Clarifying the concept is essential so that nurses develop an awareness of the phenomenon and its relationship to the outcomes of their communication and health education efforts. The method used for this concept analysis was that of Walker and Avant (1995). Health literacy empowers people to act appropriately in new and changing health-related circumstances through the use of advanced cognitive and social skills. The defining attributes of health literacy are reading and numeracy skills, comprehension, the capacity to use information in health care decision-making, and successful functioning as a healthcare consumer. Antecedents of health literacy are literacy and a health-related experience. Consequences of health literacy include improved self-reported health status, lower health care costs, increased health knowledge, shorter hospitalizations, and less frequent use of health care services. Empirical referents of the concept are the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults and the health literacy component of the National Assessment of Adult Literacy. An analysis of the concept of health literacy enhances nurses' ability to assess more accurately their clients' levels of health literacy, thus identifying those at risk for misunderstanding health care instructions, shame associated with inadequate reading skills, and inability to adhere to health care recommendations.

  9. Concept of Operations for Data Fusion Visualization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T.R. McJunkin; R.L. Boring; M.A. McQueen; L.P. Shunn; J.L. Wright; D.I. Gertman; O. Linda; K. McCarty; M. Manic

    2011-09-01

    Situational awareness in the operations and supervision of a industrial system means that decision making entity, whether machine or human, have the important data presented in a timely manner. An optimal presentation of information such that the operator has the best opportunity accurately interpret and react to anomalies due to system degradation, failures or adversaries. Anticipated problems are a matter for system design; however, the paper will focus on concepts for situational awareness enhancement for a human operator when the unanticipated or unaddressed event types occur. Methodology for human machine interface development and refinement strategy is described for a synthetic fuels plant model. A novel concept for adaptively highlighting the most interesting information in the system and a plan for testing the methodology is described.

  10. The Interpretation In and Out of the Frame: the Hermeneutic Legal Thought of Kelsen and its Challenges in the Twenty-first Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Kremer Nogueira Corrêa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article has the scope to analyze the influences left by Hans Kelsen and his Teoria Pura do Direito for legal hermeneutic sand the uncertainties still present in his classic book on the interpretive process. Positivism kelseniano, recognized by the separation between law and morality, not omitted as to the reality of legal interpretation, and, without disregarding their theoretical bases, left guidelines for the consolidation of a theory of interpretation. Kelsen developed the concept of legal frame as a limit to the authentic interpreter of the rule whose subjectivity influence the interpretative process,but also saw interpretations outside this frame. This work intends to understand these possibilities of interpretation, analyzing Hans Kelsen and his teachings about legal interpretation.

  11. Formalism and Interpretation in Quantum Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilce, Alexander

    2010-04-01

    Quantum Mechanics can be viewed as a linear dynamical theory having a familiar mathematical framework but a mysterious probabilistic interpretation, or as a probabilistic theory having a familiar interpretation but a mysterious formal framework. These points of view are usually taken to be somewhat in tension with one another. The first has generated a vast literature aiming at a “realistic” and “collapse-free” interpretation of quantum mechanics that will account for its statistical predictions. The second has generated an at least equally large literature aiming to derive, or at any rate motivate, the formal structure of quantum theory in probabilistically intelligible terms. In this paper I explore, in a preliminary way, the possibility that these two programmes have something to offer one another. In particular, I show that a version of the measurement problem occurs in essentially any non-classical probabilistic theory, and ask to what extent various interpretations of quantum mechanics continue to make sense in such a general setting. I make a start on answering this question in the case of a rudimentary version of the Everett interpretation.

  12. DIFFICULTY OF AMENDMENT AND INTERPRETATIVE CHOICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Coan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The extreme difficulty of amending the U.S. Constitution plays a central but largely unexamined role in theoretical debates over interpretive choice. In particular, conventional wisdom assumes that the extreme difficulty of Article V amendment weakens the case for originalism. This view might ultimately be correct, but it is not the freestanding argument against originalism it is often presumed to be. Rather, it depends on contestable normative and empirical premises that require defense. If those premises are wrong, the stringency of Article V might actually strengthen the case for originalism. Or Article V might have no impact on that case one way or another. This “complexity thesis” highlights and clarifies the role that difficulty of amendment plays across a range of significant interpretive debates, including those surrounding writtenness, John Hart Ely’s representation-reinforcement theory, interpretive pluralism, and originalism as a theory of positive law. It also has important implications for the under-studied relations between statutory and constitutional interpretation and federal and state constitutional interpretation.

  13. ANALYSIS OF VISUAL INTERPRETATION OF SATELLITE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Svatonova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Millions of people of all ages and expertise are using satellite and aerial data as an important input for their work in many different fields. Satellite data are also gradually finding a new place in education, especially in the fields of geography and in environmental issues. The article presents the results of an extensive research in the area of visual interpretation of image data carried out in the years 2013 - 2015 in the Czech Republic. The research was aimed at comparing the success rate of the interpretation of satellite data in relation to a the substrates (to the selected colourfulness, the type of depicted landscape or special elements in the landscape and b to selected characteristics of users (expertise, gender, age. The results of the research showed that (1 false colour images have a slightly higher percentage of successful interpretation than natural colour images, (2 colourfulness of an element expected or rehearsed by the user (regardless of the real natural colour increases the success rate of identifying the element (3 experts are faster in interpreting visual data than non-experts, with the same degree of accuracy of solving the task, and (4 men and women are equally successful in the interpretation of visual image data.

  14. Analysis of Visual Interpretation of Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svatonova, H.

    2016-06-01

    Millions of people of all ages and expertise are using satellite and aerial data as an important input for their work in many different fields. Satellite data are also gradually finding a new place in education, especially in the fields of geography and in environmental issues. The article presents the results of an extensive research in the area of visual interpretation of image data carried out in the years 2013 - 2015 in the Czech Republic. The research was aimed at comparing the success rate of the interpretation of satellite data in relation to a) the substrates (to the selected colourfulness, the type of depicted landscape or special elements in the landscape) and b) to selected characteristics of users (expertise, gender, age). The results of the research showed that (1) false colour images have a slightly higher percentage of successful interpretation than natural colour images, (2) colourfulness of an element expected or rehearsed by the user (regardless of the real natural colour) increases the success rate of identifying the element (3) experts are faster in interpreting visual data than non-experts, with the same degree of accuracy of solving the task, and (4) men and women are equally successful in the interpretation of visual image data.

  15. Interpretive bias, repressive coping, and trait anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, James J; McNally, Maria A; Skariah, Ancy; Butt, Ayesha A; Eysenck, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    According to vigilance-avoidance theory, repressors have an avoidant interpretive bias, i.e., they interpret ambiguous self-relevant situations in a nonthreatening fashion. This study sought to demarcate the range of situations associated with avoidant interpretive bias in repressors. Four groups of participants, representing the four combinations of low- and high-trait anxiety and defensiveness, were identified. Those low in trait anxiety and high in defensiveness were categorized as repressors. Participants (N = 163) rated their likelihood of making both threatening and nonthreatening interpretations of 32 ambiguous scenarios over four domains: social, intellectual, physical, and health. Half the scenarios were self-relevant and half were other relevant. Brief measures of state anxiety were taken after each likelihood rating. Repressors displayed an avoidant interpretive bias for ambiguous threats in the social and intellectual domains but not the health or physical domains. This was due to repressors' low level of trait anxiety rather than their high defensiveness. Individuals high in trait anxiety are especially sensitive to situations involving social evaluation but not those characterized by danger to their health or physical well-being.

  16. From Copenhagen to Neo-Copenhagen Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Muynck, Willem M.

    2007-12-01

    Positive and negative features of the Copenhagen interpretation are discussed. As positive features can be mentioned its pragmatism and its awareness of the crucial role of measurement. However, the main part of the contribution is devoted to the negative features, to wit, its pragmatism (once again), its confounding of preparation and measurement, its classical account of measurement, its completeness claims, the ambiguity of its notion of correspondence, its confused notion of complementarity. It is demonstrated how confusions and paradoxes stemming from the negative features of the Copenhagen interpretation can be dealt with in an amended interpretation, to be referred to as `neo-Copenhagen interpretation', in which the role of the measuring instrument is taken seriously by recognizing the quantum mechanical character of its interaction with the microscopic object. The ensuing necessity of extending the notion of a quantum mechanical observable from the Hermitian operator of the standard formalism to the positive operator-valued measure of a generalized formalism yields a sound mathematical basis for a transition from the Copenhagen contextualistic-realist interpretation to the neo-Copenhagen empiricist one. Applications to the uncertainty relations and to the Bell inequalities are briefly discussed.

  17. The Viewpoints of Physics Teacher Candidates towards the Concepts in Special Theory of Relativity and Their Evaluation Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Umit; Gurbuz, Fatih; Salar, Riza; Toman, Ufuk

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the viewpoints of physics teacher candidates at undergraduate level towards the concepts in special theory of relativity and the interpretations they made about these concepts were investigated. The viewpoints of the teacher candidates towards the concepts in the subject of special theory of relativity were revealed with six open…

  18. New Cosmological Model and Its Implications on Observational Data Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlahovic Branislav

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The paradigm of ΛCDM cosmology works impressively well and with the concept of inflation it explains the universe after the time of decoupling. However there are still a few concerns; after much effort there is no detection of dark matter and there are significant problems in the theoretical description of dark energy. We will consider a variant of the cosmological spherical shell model, within FRW formalism and will compare it with the standard ΛCDM model. We will show that our new topological model satisfies cosmological principles and is consistent with all observable data, but that it may require new interpretation for some data. Considered will be constraints imposed on the model, as for instance the range for the size and allowed thickness of the shell, by the supernovae luminosity distance and CMB data. In this model propagation of the light is confined along the shell, which has as a consequence that observed CMB originated from one point or a limited space region. It allows to interpret the uniformity of the CMB without inflation scenario. In addition this removes any constraints on the uniformity of the universe at the early stage and opens a possibility that the universe was not uniform and that creation of galaxies and large structures is due to the inhomogeneities that originated in the Big Bang.

  19. Concept Analysis: Music Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Bekhet, Abir K

    2016-01-01

    Down through the ages, music has been universally valued for its therapeutic properties based on the psychological and physiological responses in humans. However, the underlying mechanisms of the psychological and physiological responses to music have been poorly identified and defined. Without clarification, a concept can be misused, thereby diminishing its importance for application to nursing research and practice. The purpose of this article was for the clarification of the concept of music therapy based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy. A review of recent nursing and health-related literature covering the years 2007-2014 was performed on the concepts of music, music therapy, preferred music, and individualized music. As a result of the search, the attributes, antecedents, and consequences of music therapy were identified, defined, and used to develop a conceptual model of music therapy. The conceptual model of music therapy provides direction for developing music interventions for nursing research and practice to be tested in various settings to improve various patient outcomes. Based on Walker and Avant's concept analysis strategy, model and contrary cases are included. Implications for future nursing research and practice to use the psychological and physiological responses to music therapy are discussed.

  20. Interpretation of growth hormone provocative tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A M; Orskov, H; Ranke, M B

    1995-01-01

    To compare interpretations of growth hormone (GH) provocative tests in laboratories using six different GH immunoassays (one enzymeimmunometric assay (EIMA, assay 1), one immunoradiometric assay (IRMA, assay 5), one time-resolved fluorimmunometric assay (TRFIA, assay 3) and three radioimmunoassays...... (RIAs, assays 2, 4 and 6)), aliquots of peak samples from GH provocative tests were distributed between the four participating laboratories, quantified in the respective immunoassays and interpreted according to the cut-off values for provocative tests defined for each assay method. There was a high...... measured in the various assay methods varied, there was good agreement between the interpretation of a given sample among the participating laboratories. This indicates that the differences in estimates of serum GH concentration by different immunoassay systems can be compensated for when cut-off values...