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Sample records for interpreted barium swallows

  1. An evaluation of radiographer performed and interpreted barium swallows and meals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judson, E.E.; Nightingale, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether radiographers are able to perform and interpret barium swallows and meals (BSM) to an acceptable standard. Materials and methods: A retrospective audit was performed of all radiographer-managed BSMs over a 4-year period in an acute hospital. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse patient demographics, radiation doses, referral sources, and imaging findings. Radiographer reports were compared with radiologist reports assumed to be the reference standard, and correlated with patient outcomes via electronic record searches and case note scrutiny. Reporting accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated. Results: Three radiographers performed a total of 962 BSMs in the 4-year audit period, including a varied and complex case-mix. Only 13 (0.01%) cases were abandoned due to technical reasons, with all other examinations of diagnostic quality. Although radiation dose levels were initially variable, following the installation of modern fluoroscopy equipment they remained comfortably within the national and regional diagnostic reference levels. Consultant radiologists verified the majority of the radiographer reports, with the most experienced radiographer independently reporting 230 cases (24%). Follow-up of patient outcome was possible in 935 cases. The overall radiographer accuracy based on the 935 cases was 98.9%, sensitivity 98%, and specificity 98.9%. Conclusions: Appropriately trained radiographers are able to perform and interpret BSM examinations to a very high standard.

  2. Effects of Barium Concentration on Oropharyngeal Swallow Timing Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Stokely, Shauna L.; Molfenter, Sonja M.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2013-01-01

    Videofluoroscopy is commonly used for evaluating oropharyngeal swallowing but requires radiopaque contrast (typically barium). Prior studies suggest that some aspects of swallowing, including timing measures of oral and pharyngeal bolus transit, vary depending on barium concentration. The aim of our study was to identify timing differences in healthy swallowing between “thin” (40 % w/v concentration) and “ultrathin” (22 % w/v concentration) barium solutions. Twenty healthy adults (Ten women; ...

  3. Effects of barium concentration on oropharyngeal swallow timing measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokely, Shauna L; Molfenter, Sonja M; Steele, Catriona M

    2014-02-01

    Videofluoroscopy is commonly used for evaluating oropharyngeal swallowing but requires radiopaque contrast (typically barium). Prior studies suggest that some aspects of swallowing, including timing measures of oral and pharyngeal bolus transit, vary depending on barium concentration. The aim of our study was to identify timing differences in healthy swallowing between "thin" (40 % w/v concentration) and "ultrathin" (22 % w/v concentration) barium solutions. Twenty healthy adults (Ten women; mean age = 31 years) each performed a series of three noncued 5-ml swallows each of ultrathin and thin liquid barium solutions in videofluoroscopy. Timing measures were compared between barium concentrations using a mixed-model ANOVA. The measures of interest were stage transition duration, pharyngeal transit time, and duration of upper esophageal sphincter opening. Significant differences were observed in the timing measures of swallowing with respect to barium concentration. In all cases, longer durations were seen with the higher barium concentration. Barium concentration influences timing parameters in healthy swallowing, even between ultrathin and thin concentrations. Clinicians need to understand and control for the impact of different barium stimuli on swallowing physiology.

  4. Does Barium Influence Tongue Behaviors during Swallowing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M.; van Lieshout, Pascal H. H. M.

    2005-01-01

    The validity of videofluoroscopic swallowing assessments rests on the understanding that thin, nectar-, honey-, and spoon-thick radiopaque liquids resemble nonopaque liquids, both in their consistency and in the variations in swallowing that they elicit. Tongue movements during sequential swallows of opaque and nonopaque liquids were studied in 8…

  5. Comparison of endoscopy and barium swallow with marshmallow in dysphagia.

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    Somers, S; Stevenson, G W; Thompson, G

    1986-06-01

    Forty-four patients with dysphagia were examined both by endoscopy and by barium swallow with a marshmallow bolus. In these patients 36 stenoses were found: 34 by radiology and 30 by endoscopy. The radiologic criteria for stenosis included arrest of the marshmallow in a manner to support a column of barium and reproduction of the patient's symptoms at the time this occurred. Radiologic false negative findings were partly due to an inability by patients to swallow an adequate marshmallow bolus; endoscopic failures were associated with small endoscopes and mild stenoses.

  6. Identification of Swallowing Tasks from a Modified Barium Swallow Study That Optimize the Detection of Physiological Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazelwood, R. Jordan; Armeson, Kent E.; Hill, Elizabeth G.; Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Martin-Harris, Bonnie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify which swallowing task(s) yielded the worst performance during a standardized modified barium swallow study (MBSS) in order to optimize the detection of swallowing impairment. Method: This secondary data analysis of adult MBSSs estimated the probability of each swallowing task yielding the derived…

  7. Radiation doses to children during modified barium swallow studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, Kelly A.; McMahon, Sandra M.; Long, Gillian; Bunch, Judith A.; Pandeya, Nirmala; Coakley, Kerry S.; Chang, Anne B.

    2007-01-01

    There are minimal data on radiation doses to infants and children undergoing a modified barium swallow (MBS) study. To document screening times, dose area product (DAP) and effective doses to children undergoing MBS and to determine factors associated with increased screening times and effective dose. Fluoroscopic data (screening time, DAP, kVp) for 90 consecutive MBS studies using pulse fluoroscopy were prospectively recorded; effective dose was calculated and data were analyzed for effects of behavior, number of swallow presentations, swallowing dysfunction and medical problems. Mean effective dose for the entire group was 0.0826 ± 0.0544 mSv, screening time 2.48 ± 0.81 min, and DAP 28.79 ± 41.72 cGy cm 2 . Significant differences were found across three age groups (≤1.0, >1.0-3.0 and >3.0 years) for effective dose (mean 0.1188, 0.0651 and 0.0529 mSv, respectively; P < 0.001), but not for screening time or DAP. Effective dose was correlated with screening time (P 0.007), DAP (P < 0.001), number of swallow presentations (P = 0.007), lower age (P = 0.017), female gender (P = 0.004), and height (P < 0.001). Screening time was correlated with total number of swallow presentations (P < 0.001) and DAP (P < 0.001). Screening times, DAP, effective dose, and child and procedural factors associated with higher effective doses are presented for children undergoing MBS studies. (orig.)

  8. Aspiration of barium contrast medium in an elderly man with disordered swallowing

    OpenAIRE

    Bağcı Ceyhan, B.; Çelikel, T.; Koç, M.; Ahıskalı, R.; Biren, T.; Ataizi Çelikel, Ç.

    1995-01-01

    The aspiration of contrast medium during the investigation of gastrointestinal diseases is a well recognized hazard, particularly in patients with swallowing disorders. A case is reported in which accidental aspiration of contrast barium occurred owing to disordered swallowing in an elderly man. The infiltration on chest x-ray persisted 2 years after barium contrast aspiration. Inflammatory reaction and retractile, granular material observed in lung biopsy specimens suggested barium-induced p...

  9. Role of Barium Swallow in Diagnosing Clinically Significant Anastomotic Leak following Esophagectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Roh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Barium swallow is performed following esophagectomy to evaluate the anastomosis for detection of leaks and to assess the emptying of the gastric conduit. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the barium swallow study in diagnosing anastomotic leaks following esophagectomy. Methods: Patients who underwent esophagectomy from January 2000 to December 2013 at our institution were investigated. Barium swallow was routinely done between days 5–7 to detect a leak. These results were compared to clinically determined leaks (defined by neck wound infection requiring jejunal feeds and or parenteral nutrition during the postoperative period. The sensitivity and specificity of barium swallow in diagnosing clinically significant anastomotic leaks was determined. Results: A total of 395 esophagectomies were performed (mean age, 62.2 years. The indications for the esophagectomy were as follows: malignancy (n=320, high-grade dysplasia (n=14, perforation (n=27, benign stricture (n=7, achalasia (n=16, and other (n=11. A variety of techniques were used including transhiatal (n=351, McKeown (n=35, and Ivor Lewis (n=9 esophagectomies. Operative mortality was 2.8% (n=11. Three hundred and sixty-eight patients (93% underwent barium swallow study after esophagectomy. Clinically significant anastomotic leak was identified in 36 patients (9.8%. Barium swallow was able to detect only 13/36 clinically significant leaks. The sensitivity of the swallow in diagnosing a leak was 36% and specificity was 97%. The positive and negative predictive values of barium swallow study in detecting leaks were 59% and 93%, respectively. Conclusion: Barium swallow is an insensitive but specific test for detecting leaks at the cervical anastomotic site after esophagectomy.

  10. Effects of chemesthetic stimuli mixtures with barium on swallowing apnea duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, J Tee; Butler, Susan G; Plonk, Drew P; Grace-Martin, Karen; Pelletier, Cathy A

    2012-10-01

    This study tested the hypotheses that swallowing apnea duration (SAD) will increase given barium versus water, chemesthetic stimuli (i.e., water barium, age (older > younger), and genetic taste differences (supertasters > nontasters). Prospective group design. University Medical Center. Eighty healthy women were identified as nontasters and supertasters, equally comprising two age groups: 18 to 35 years and 60+ years. The KayPentax Swallowing Signals Lab was used to acquire SAD via nasal cannula during individually randomized swallows of 5 mL barium, 2.7% w/v citric acid with barium, carbonation with barium, and 50:50 diluted ethanol with barium. Data were analyzed using path analysis, with the mediator of chemesthetic perception, adjusted for repeated measures. Significant main effects of age (P = .012) and chemesthetic stimuli (P = .014) were found, as well as a significant interaction between chemesthetic stimuli and age (P = .028). Older women had a significantly longer SAD than younger women. Post hoc analyses revealed that barium mixed with ethanol elicited a significantly longer SAD than other bolus conditions, regardless of age group. There were no significant differences in SAD between barium and water conditions, and no significant effect of chemesthetic perception (P > .05). Ethanol added to barium elicited longer SAD compared to plain barium, but not the other chemesthetic conditions. Older women had a longer SAD than younger women in all conditions. These findings may influence design of future studies examining effects of various stimuli on SAD. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  11. Barium swallow study in routine clinical practice: a prospective study in patients with chronic cough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Shuler Nin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the routine use of barium swallow study in patients with chronic cough.METHODS: Between October of 2011 and March of 2012, 95 consecutive patients submitted to chest X-ray due to chronic cough (duration > 8 weeks were included in the study. For study purposes, additional images were obtained immediately after the oral administration of 5 mL of a 5% barium sulfate suspension. Two radiologists systematically evaluated all of the images in order to identify any pathological changes. Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test for categorical data were used in the comparisons.RESULTS: The images taken immediately after barium swallow revealed significant pathological conditions that were potentially related to chronic cough in 12 (12.6% of the 95 patients. These conditions, which included diaphragmatic hiatal hernia, esophageal neoplasm, achalasia, esophageal diverticulum, and abnormal esophageal dilatation, were not detected on the images taken without contrast. After appropriate treatment, the symptoms disappeared in 11 (91.6% of the patients, whereas the treatment was ineffective in 1 (8.4%. We observed no complications related to barium swallow, such as contrast aspiration.CONCLUSIONS: Barium swallow improved the detection of significant radiographic findings related to chronic cough in 11.5% of patients. These initial findings suggest that the routine use of barium swallow can significantly increase the sensitivity of chest X-rays in the detection of chronic cough-related etiologies.

  12. Barium swallow study in routine clinical practice: a prospective study in patients with chronic cough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nin, Carlos Shuler; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Paludo, Artur de Oliveira; Alves, Giordano Rafael Tronco; Hochhegger, Daniela Reis; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    To assess the routine use of barium swallow study in patients with chronic cough. Between October of 2011 and March of 2012, 95 consecutive patients submitted to chest X-ray due to chronic cough (duration > 8 weeks) were included in the study. For study purposes, additional images were obtained immediately after the oral administration of 5 mL of a 5% barium sulfate suspension. Two radiologists systematically evaluated all of the images in order to identify any pathological changes. Fisher's exact test and the chi-square test for categorical data were used in the comparisons. The images taken immediately after barium swallow revealed significant pathological conditions that were potentially related to chronic cough in 12 (12.6%) of the 95 patients. These conditions, which included diaphragmatic hiatal hernia, esophageal neoplasm, achalasia, esophageal diverticulum, and abnormal esophageal dilatation, were not detected on the images taken without contrast. After appropriate treatment, the symptoms disappeared in 11 (91.6%) of the patients, whereas the treatment was ineffective in 1 (8.4%). We observed no complications related to barium swallow, such as contrast aspiration. Barium swallow improved the detection of significant radiographic findings related to chronic cough in 11.5% of patients. These initial findings suggest that the routine use of barium swallow can significantly increase the sensitivity of chest X-rays in the detection of chronic cough-related etiologies.

  13. Comparison of barium swallow and ultrasound in diagnosis of gastro-oesophageal reflux in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, D R; Bolia, A; Moore, D J

    1985-01-01

    Fifty one infants and older children with suspected gastro-oesophageal reflux entered a study comparing the diagnostic accuracy of a standard barium swallow examination with that of ultrasound scanning. All children were examined by both techniques. In 40 cases there was unequivocal agreement between the examinations. Of the remaining patients, four had definite reflux by ultrasonic criteria but showed no evidence of reflux on barium swallow examination, four had positive findings on ultrasound but showed only minimal reflux on barium swallow, and one showed minimal reflux on ultrasound but had a negative barium meal result. In two children the ultrasound study was inconclusive. Ultrasound has an important role in the diagnosis and follow up of patients under the age of 5 years with gastro-oesophageal reflux. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 PMID:3924317

  14. Barium swallow study in routine clinical practice: a prospective study in patients with chronic cough

    OpenAIRE

    Nin, Carlos Shuler; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Paludo, Artur de Oliveira; Alves, Giordano Rafael Tronco; Hochhegger, Daniela Reis; Hochhegger, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the routine use of barium swallow study in patients with chronic cough.METHODS: Between October of 2011 and March of 2012, 95 consecutive patients submitted to chest X-ray due to chronic cough (duration > 8 weeks) were included in the study. For study purposes, additional images were obtained immediately after the oral administration of 5 mL of a 5% barium sulfate suspension. Two radiologists systematically evaluated all of the images in order to identify any pathological...

  15. Barium versus Nonbarium Stimuli: Differences in Taste Intensity, Chemesthesis, and Swallowing Behavior in Healthy Adult Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Ahmed; Steele, Catriona M.; Pelletier, Cathy A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined the impact of barium on the perceived taste intensity of 7 different liquid tastant stimuli and the modulatory effect that these differences in perceived taste intensity have on swallowing behaviors. Method: Participants were 80 healthy women, stratified by age group (60) and genetic taste status…

  16. Effects of powdered versus liquid barium on the viscosity of fluids used in modified swallow studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, J.; Alexander, T.

    2003-01-01

    To determine if the viscosity of thickened juice mixtures used in modified barium swallow studies significantly changes with the addition of powdered barium. We also describe a test formulation created using liquid barium, which has a negligible effect on juice viscosity. The viscosities of water and standardized honey- and nectar-consistency juices mixed with different amounts of powdered barium were measured by timing the laminar flow of a given initial hydrostatic head of fluid under gravity though an orifice of fixed diameter. Standardized juices were then mixed with a liquid formulation of barium and with measured quantities of water to produce viscosities that more closely equated with those of the standardized juices. With the addition of powdered barium, viscosity increased in all fluids, most markedly with the nectar-consistency juice. Liquid barium formulations maintained the viscosities of the original thickened juices. Rendering juices radio-opaque with barium powder results in dramatic increases in the viscosity of the resulting mixture and compromises diagnostic accuracy. Liquid barium preparations have the advantage that they can be rapidly and accurately dispensed by syringe, and their use does not significantly increase the viscosity of the preparation. (author)

  17. Effects of powdered versus liquid barium on the viscosity of fluids used in modified swallow studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baron, J.; Alexander, T. [Univ. of Alberta, Dept. of Radiology, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

    2003-06-01

    To determine if the viscosity of thickened juice mixtures used in modified barium swallow studies significantly changes with the addition of powdered barium. We also describe a test formulation created using liquid barium, which has a negligible effect on juice viscosity. The viscosities of water and standardized honey- and nectar-consistency juices mixed with different amounts of powdered barium were measured by timing the laminar flow of a given initial hydrostatic head of fluid under gravity though an orifice of fixed diameter. Standardized juices were then mixed with a liquid formulation of barium and with measured quantities of water to produce viscosities that more closely equated with those of the standardized juices. With the addition of powdered barium, viscosity increased in all fluids, most markedly with the nectar-consistency juice. Liquid barium formulations maintained the viscosities of the original thickened juices. Rendering juices radio-opaque with barium powder results in dramatic increases in the viscosity of the resulting mixture and compromises diagnostic accuracy. Liquid barium preparations have the advantage that they can be rapidly and accurately dispensed by syringe, and their use does not significantly increase the viscosity of the preparation. (author)

  18. Diagnosis of Swallowing Disorders: How We Interpret Pharyngeal Manometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cock, Charles; Omari, Taher

    2017-03-01

    We provide an overview of the clinical application of novel pharyngeal high-resolution impedance manometry (HRIM) with pressure flow analysis (PFA) in our hands with example cases. In our Centre, we base our interpretation of HRIM recordings upon a qualitative assessment of pressure-impedance waveforms during individual swallows, as well as a quantitative assessment of averaged PFA swallow function variables. We provide a description of two global swallowing efficacy measures, the swallow risk index (SRI), reflecting global swallowing dysfunction (higher SRI = greater aspiration risk) and the post-swallow impedance ratio (PSIR) detecting significant post-swallow bolus residue. We describe a further eight swallow function variables specific to the hypopharynx and upper esophageal sphincter (UES), assessing hypo-pharyngeal distension pressure, contractility, bolus presence and flow timing, and UES basal tone, relaxation, opening and contractility. Pharyngeal HRIM has now come of age, being applicable for routine clinical practice to assess the biomechanics of oropharyngeal swallowing dysfunction. In the future, it may guide treatment strategies and allow more objective longitudinal follow-up on clinical outcomes.

  19. Gluten content of barium sulfate suspensions used for barium swallows in patients with celiac disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jennifer G; Shin, Yoona; Patel, Priti N; Mangione, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    To determine the availability and accuracy of information provided by hospitals, imaging centers, and manufacturers regarding gluten in barium sulfate suspensions. A total of 105 facilities were contacted via telephone to determine the gluten content of the contrast media used in those facilities. Manufacturers were contacted and their Web sites reviewed to determine the gluten content of their barium products. Thirty-nine percent of the hospitals and 52% of the imaging centers were not aware of the gluten content of the contrast media they used. Twenty-nine-and-a-half percent of the respondents provided the correct gluten content. The manufacturers noted that 5 products were tested and confirmed gluten free, 1 product was not tested but described as gluten free, 1 product's gluten content depended upon its flavor, and 1 product was reported to contain gluten. Clinicians caring for patients with celiac disease or patients who choose to restrict their gluten consumption must ensure that the barium sulfate suspension ingested is gluten free. It can be difficult to determine the gluten content of barium sulfate, as a majority of radiology departments and imaging centers did not know whether the product they use is gluten free. Educating staff members and improving product labeling would benefit the quality of care provided to patients with celiac disease.

  20. Barium swallow for hiatal hernia detection is unnecessary prior to primary sleeve gastrectomy.

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    Goitein, David; Sakran, Nasser; Rayman, Shlomi; Szold, Amir; Goitein, Orly; Raziel, Asnat

    2017-02-01

    Hiatal hernia (HH) is common in the bariatric population. Its presence imposes various degrees of difficulty in performing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Preoperative upper gastrointestinal evaluation consists of fluoroscopic and or endoscopic studies OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of routine, preoperative barium swallow in identifying HH in patients undergoing LSG, and determine if such foreknowledge changes operative and immediate postoperative course regarding operative time, intraoperative adverse events, and length of hospital stay (LOS). In addition, to quantify HH prevalence in these patients and correlate preoperative patient characteristics with its presence. High-volume bariatric practice in a private hospital in Israel METHODS: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data between October 2010 and March 2015: anthropometrics, co-morbidities, previous barium swallow, preoperative HH workup (type and result), operative and immediate postoperative course. Primary LSG was performed in 2417 patients. The overall prevalence of HH was 7.3%. Preoperative diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease and female gender were independent risk factors for HH presence. Operative times were significantly longer when HH was concomitantly repaired but "foreknowledge" thereof did not assist in shortening this time. Looking for an HH that was suggested in preoperative upper gastrointestinal evaluation slightly prolonged surgery. LOS was not changed in a significant fashion by HH presence and repair, whether suspected or incidentally found. Routine, pre-LSG barium swallow does not seem to offer an advantage over selective intraoperative hiatal exploration, in the discovery and management of HH. Conversely, when preoperative workup yields a false-positive result, surgery is slightly prolonged. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. History and Evolution of the Barium Swallow for Evaluation of the Pharynx and Esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Marc S; Rubesin, Stephen E

    2017-02-01

    This article reviews the history of the barium swallow from its early role in radiology to its current status as an important diagnostic test in modern radiology practice. Though a variety of diagnostic procedures can be performed to evaluate patients with dysphagia or other pharyngeal or esophageal symptoms, the barium study has evolved into a readily available, non-invasive, and cost-effective technique that can facilitate the selection of additional diagnostic tests and guide decisions about medical, endoscopic, or surgical management. This article focuses on the evolution of fluoroscopic equipment, radiography, and contrast media for evaluating the pharynx and esophagus, the importance of understanding pharyngoesophageal relationships, and major advances that have occurred in the radiologic diagnosis of select esophageal diseases, including gastroesophageal reflux disease, infectious esophagitis, eosinophilic esophagitis, esophageal carcinoma, and esophageal motility disorders.

  2. Barium and meat. A comparison between pharyngeal swallow of fluid and solid boluses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekberg, O.; Liedberg, B.; Oewall, B.

    The influence of bolus consistency on pharyngeal swallow was radiologically studied in 24 individuals by comparing liquid barium and solid meat after chewing. Pharyngeal function was apparently performed synchronously and symmetrically on both boluses. No definite conclusion about the influence on epiglottic mobility, closure of the laryngeal vestibule and relaxation of the circopharyngeal muscle could be drawn from this study. There was no difference in the elevation of the pharynx and larynx. The transit time for a solid bolus was shorter compared with that of a fluid bous. The transit time for the apex of the bolus was shorter than for the tail. A more marked elevation of the pharynx and larynx was followed by a shorter transit time. The width of the pharyngo-esophageal segment was larger in the transverse than in the sagittal diameter during the passage of the bolus and larger on solid compared with fluid swallow. Our results reflect the ability of pharyngeal swallow to be executed with precision and with few alterations due to variable bolus consistency.

  3. Inter-rater Agreement of Clinicians' Treatment Recommendations Based on Modified Barium Swallow Study Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovarp, Laurie; Danielson, Jennifer; Liss, Julie

    2018-06-07

    The modified barium swallow study (MBSS) is a commonly used radiographic procedure for diagnosis and treatment of swallowing disorders. Despite attempts by dysphagia specialists to standardize the MBSS, most institutions have not adopted such standardized procedures. High variability of assessment patterns arguably contribute to variability of treatment recommendations made from diagnostic information derived from the MBSS report. An online survey was distributed to speech-language pathologists (SLPs) participating in American Speech Language Hearing Association (ASHA) listservs. Sixty-three SLPs who treat swallowing disorders participated. Participating SLPs reviewed two MBSS reports and chose physiologic treatment targets (e.g., tongue base retraction) based on each report. One report primarily contained symptomatology (e.g., aspiration, pharyngeal residue) with minimal information on impaired physiology (e.g., laryngeal incompetence, reduced hyolaryngeal elevation/excursion). In contrast, the second report contained a clear description of impaired physiology to explain the dysphagia symptoms. Fleiss kappa coefficients were used to analyze inter-rater agreement across the high and low physiology report types. Results revealed significantly higher inter-rater agreement across clinicians when reviewing reports with clear explanation(s) of physiologic impairment relative to reports that primarily focused on symptomatology. Clinicians also reported significantly greater satisfaction and treatment confidence following review of reports with clear description(s) of impaired physiology.

  4. Simultaneous videoradiography and solid state intraluminal pharyngeal manometry during barium swallow; videomanometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Rolf

    1995-08-01

    The technique was used in nondysphagic volunteers and in dysphagic patients. Our normal values in nondysphagic volunteers are in accordance with normal values in the literature. Regarding catheter movement we found the a previously not described sensor movement where the sensor in the upper esophageal sphincter followed the laryngeal elevation with no response to soft palate elevation. We found a longitudinal asymmetry in the pharynx with higher contraction pressures at lower levels. In the experimental model we found that intrabolus pressure was dependent on bolus volume, lumen narrowing, sensor position, flow rate, and bolus viscosity. In patients with a cricopharyngeal indentation we found weak pharyngeal constrictors with outpouching of the lumen above and below. Finally, in dysphagic patients with a normal radiologic investigation, videomanometry displayed abnormalities in 74% of the patients. We conclude that barium swallow and manometry are complementary and we suggest the addition of pharyngeal solid state manometry, preferably with simultaneous videoradiography, in dysphagic patients. 128 refs, 4 figs.

  5. Simultaneous videoradiography and solid state intraluminal pharyngeal manometry during barium swallow; videomanometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Rolf.

    1995-08-01

    The technique was used in nondysphagic volunteers and in dysphagic patients. Our normal values in nondysphagic volunteers are in accordance with normal values in the literature. Regarding catheter movement we found the a previously not described sensor movement where the sensor in the upper esophageal sphincter followed the laryngeal elevation with no response to soft palate elevation. We found a longitudinal asymmetry in the pharynx with higher contraction pressures at lower levels. In the experimental model we found that intrabolus pressure was dependent on bolus volume, lumen narrowing, sensor position, flow rate, and bolus viscosity. In patients with a cricopharyngeal indentation we found weak pharyngeal constrictors with outpouching of the lumen above and below. Finally, in dysphagic patients with a normal radiologic investigation, videomanometry displayed abnormalities in 74% of the patients. We conclude that barium swallow and manometry are complementary and we suggest the addition of pharyngeal solid state manometry, preferably with simultaneous videoradiography, in dysphagic patients. 128 refs, 4 figs

  6. Easier to swallow: pictorial review of structural findings of the pharynx at barium pharyngography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ting Y; Menias, Christine O; Herman, Thomas E; McAlister, William H; Balfe, Dennis M

    2013-01-01

    Barium pharyngography remains an important diagnostic tool in the evaluation of patients with dysphagia. Pharyngography can not only help detect functional abnormalities but also help identify a wide spectrum of structural abnormalities in children and adults. These structural abnormalities may reflect malignant or nonmalignant oropharyngeal, hypopharyngeal, or laryngeal processes that deform or alter normal coated mucosal surfaces. Therefore, an understanding of the normal appearance of the pharynx at contrast material-enhanced imaging is necessary for accurate detection and interpretation of abnormal findings. Congenital malformations are more typically identified in the younger population; inflammatory and infiltrative diseases, trauma, foreign bodies, and laryngeal cysts can be seen in all age groups; and Zenker and Killian-Jamieson diverticula tend to occur in the older population. Squamous cell carcinoma is by far the most common malignant process, with contrast-enhanced imaging findings that depend on tumor location and morphology. Treatments of head and neck cancers include total laryngectomy and radiation therapy, both of which alter normal anatomy. Patients are usually evaluated immediately after laryngectomy to detect complications such as fistulas; later, pharyngography is useful for identifying and characterizing strictures. Deviation from the expected posttreatment appearance, such as irregular narrowing or mucosal nodularity, should prompt direct visualization to evaluate for recurrence. Contrast-enhanced imaging of the pharynx is commonly used in patients who present with dysphagia, and radiologists should be familiar with the barium pharyngographic appearance of the normal pharyngeal anatomy and of some of the processes that alter normal anatomy. © RSNA, 2013.

  7. A comparison between gastroesophagheal ultrasonography vs. barium swallow in determining the pattern of gastroesophageal reflux in a pediatric population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Alireza; Allameh, Mohammad Mahdi; Shahnazi, Makhtoom; Kiumarsi, Azadeh; Tajik, Ali

    2015-03-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is one of the most common gastrointestinal pathology in infants and young children. Ultrasonography (US) has been considered to be a reliable diagnostic tool for GERD but the severity of GERD and the clinical implications based on imaging findings has not been evaluated. To compare the diagnostic value of lower esophageal US with that of barium swallow in demonstrating the severity of GERD. Fifty one pediatric patients, age between 1 month to 12 years, 34 male and 17 female with clinical suspicion of GERD were included. The patients were initially submitted to barium swallow (BS) and subsequently to transabdominal US. During BS, the number of gastroesophageal reflux episodes was documented in a 5-minute period. Transabdominal US documented the number and duration of reflux episodes during a 5-minute period, the angle of His, mucosal thickness, and intraabdominal esophageal length (IAEL). Duration and number of reflux episodes in US were significantly higher in patients that had severe gastroesophageal refluxes at BS. At US the cutoff point of 9.5 seconds (sensitivity 80%, specificity 60%) for reflux duration and more than 2 episodes in 5 minute ultrasound study (sensitivity 75%, specificity 58%) were defined to correlate with severe gastroesophageal reflux at BS.The angle of His, the esophageal wall mucosal thickness, and the IAEL did not correlate with the severity of GERD detected in BS. US can predict the severity of GERD. Therefore, except in the case of specific patients in whom mechanical causes are suspected to be responsible for GERD, BS can be replaced by US.

  8. Incidence of clinically silent malrotation detected on barium swallow examination in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkin, Karen L.; Chowdhury, Moti M.; Bartlett, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Duodenojejunal flexure (DJF) orientation is often examined routinely during contrast swallow studies, including those performed for purely oesophageal queries. We examine the radiation burden and the incidence of malrotation in patients undergoing contrast swallow, without clinical suspicion for malrotation. Two hundred eighteen consecutive contrast swallow studies were reviewed. Patients whose history may potentially suggest malrotation were identified (n = 90), and remaining children were grouped based on whether DJF was examined (Group 1; n = 88) or not (Group 2; n = 40). Data extracted include demographics, radiographic parameters (dosage, screening time, number of images obtained) and examination findings. Outcome measures comprised: (i) prevalence of clinically incidental malrotation; and (ii) influence of additional evaluation of DJF on patient dosage (mean ± SEM). Malrotation was identified in 2 of 90 patients (2.2%) examined with clinical indications for possible malrotation, but none in Group 1 (13% already had normal DJF confirmed on previous examinations). Groups 1 and 2 were comparable with respect to age and gender (P = ns). Additional evaluation of DJF (Group 1) meant that 54% more images were acquired (48.5 ± 2.9 vs. 31.4 ± 3.4 images in group 2; P = 0.0002) and 24.9% increased screening time (130.8 ± 9.3 vs. 104.7 ± 13.0 seconds in group 2; P = 0.089), resulting in 32.6% increased patient dosage (1.36 ± 0.21 vs. 1.02 ± 0.16 microGym 2 /kg in group 2; P = 0.19). This study highlights the increased radiation exposures involved with routine screening for DJF position in those patients without clinical suspicion of malrotation, and raises questions about the validity of this practice; however, further research is needed.

  9. Effective dose per unit kerma-area product conversion factors in adults undergoing modified barium swallow studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw Bonilha, Heather; Wilmskoetter, Janina; Tipnis, Sameer V.; Martin-Harris, Bonnie; Huda, Walter

    2017-01-01

    This study presents an investigation of adult effective dose (E) per unit Kerma-Area Product (KAP) in Modified Barium Swallow Study (MBSS) examinations. PC program for X-ray Monte Carlo (version 2.0.1) was used to calculate patient organ doses during MBSS examinations, which used combined to generate effective dose. Normalized patient doses were obtained by dividing the effective dose (mSv) by the incident KAP (Gy.cm 2 ). Five standard projections were studied and the importance of X-ray beam size and in patient size (body mass index) were investigated. Lateral projections had an average E/ KAP conversion factor of 0.19 ± 0.04 mSv/Gy.cm 2 . The average E/KAP was highest for upper gastrointestinal (GI) anterior- posterior projections (0.27 ± 0.04 mSv/Gy.cm 2 ) and lowest for upper GI posterior-anterior projections (0.09 ± 0.03 mSv/ Gy.cm 2 ). E/KAP always increased with increasing filtration and/or X-ray tube voltage. Reducing the X-ray beam cross-sectional area increased the E/KAP conversion factors. Small patients have the E/KAP conversion factors that are twice those of a standard adult. Conversion factors for effective dose of adult patients undergoing MBSS examinations must account for X-ray beam projection, beam quality (kV and filtration), image size and patient size. (authors)

  10. Development of biomonitoring equivalents for barium in urine and plasma for interpreting human biomonitoring data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poddalgoda, Devika; Macey, Kristin; Assad, Henry; Krishnan, Kannan

    2017-06-01

    The objectives of the present work were: (1) to assemble population-level biomonitoring data to identify the concentrations of urinary and plasma barium across the general population; and (2) to derive biomonitoring equivalents (BEs) for barium in urine and plasma in order to facilitate the interpretation of barium concentrations in the biological matrices. In population level biomonitoring studies, barium has been measured in urine in the U.S. (NHANES study), but no such data on plasma barium levels were identified. The BE values for plasma and urine were derived from U.S. EPA's reference dose (RfD) of 0.2 mg/kg bw/d, based on a lower confidence limit on the benchmark dose (BMDL 05 ) of 63 mg/kg bw/d. The plasma BE (9 μg Ba/L) was derived by regression analysis of the near-steady-state plasma concentrations associated with the administered doses in animals exposed to barium chloride dihydrate in drinking water for 2-years in a NTP study. Using a human urinary excretion fraction of 0.023, a BE for urinary barium (0.19 mg/L or 0.25 mg/g creatinine) was derived for US EPA's RfD. The median and the 95 th percentile barium urine concentrations of the general population in U.S. are below the BE determined in this study, indicating that the population exposure to inorganic barium is expected to be below the exposure guidance value of 0.2 mg/kg bw/d. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Tailored Barium Swallow Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Impulse Oscillimetry (IOS) Hypoxic and Hypercapnic Drive Response Lung Diffusion Capacity Testing (DLCO) Maximum Inspiratory/Expiratory Pressures Nitrogen Washout Performing Pressure Volume Study Performing Routine Pulmonary Test Performing Spirometry Test ...

  12. Esophagram (Barium Swallow Study)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Impulse Oscillimetry (IOS) Hypoxic and Hypercapnic Drive Response Lung Diffusion Capacity Testing (DLCO) Maximum Inspiratory/Expiratory Pressures Nitrogen Washout Performing Pressure Volume Study Performing Routine Pulmonary Test Performing Spirometry Test ...

  13. Impact of formal training on agreement of videofluoroscopic swallowing study interpretation across and within disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbergleit, Alice K; Cook, Diana; Kienzle, Scott; Boettcher, Erica; Myers, Daniel; Collins, Denise; Peterson, Edward; Silbergleit, Matthew A; Silbergleit, Richard

    2018-04-04

    Formal agreement studies on interpretation of the videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) procedure among speech-language pathologists, radiology house officers, and staff radiologists have not been pursued. Each of these professions participates in the procedure, interprets the examination, and writes separate reports on the findings. The aim of this study was to determine reliability of interpretation between and within the disciplines and to determine if structured training improved reliability. Thirteen speech-language pathologists (SLPs), ten diagnostic radiologists (RADs) and twenty-one diagnostic radiology house officers (HOs) participated in this study. Each group viewed 24 VFSS samples and rated the presence or absence of seven aberrant swallowing features as well as the presence of dysphagia and identification of oral dysphagia, pharyngeal dysphagia, or both. During part two, the groups were provided with a training session on normal and abnormal swallowing, using different VFSS samples from those in part one, followed by re-rating of the original 24 VFSS samples. A generalized estimating equations (GEE) approach with a binomial link function was used to examine each question separately. For each cluster of tests, as example, all pairwise comparisons between the three groups in the pretraining period, a Hochberg's correction for multiple testing was used to determine significance. A GEE approach with a binomial link function was used to compare the premeasure to postmeasure for each of the three groups of raters stratified by experience. The primary result revealed that the HO group scored significantly lower than the SLP and RAD group on identification of the presence of dysphagia (p = 0.008; p = 0.001, respectively), identification of oral phase dysphagia (p = 0.003; p = 0.001, respectively), and identification of both oral and pharyngeal phase dysphagia, (p = 0.014, p = 0.001, respectively) pretraining. Post training there was

  14. Barium granuloma of the rectum: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Jin; Kim, Se Hyung; Jeoung, Ah Young; Lee, Kyoung Ho; Choi, Byung Ihn; Han, Joon Koo

    2003-01-01

    Barium granulomas usually occur after barium enema within 8 cm of the anal verge probably due to minute laceration of rectal wall by enema tip and extravasation of barium during barium enema. We report a case of barium granuloma of rectum in a 47-year-old man, who did not have history of barium enema. In rare instance, barium granuloma can occur without a history of barium enema and careful interpretation of radiologic image is essential to make a correct diagnosis

  15. Barium aspiration and alveolarisation of barium in an infant: A case report and review of management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan F. Isles

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of bilateral inhalation and alveolarisation of barium in an infant following a barium swallow for investigation of dusky spells associated with feeds. A bronchoscopy subsequently revealed the presence of a mid-tracheal tracheo-oesophageal cleft. We review the literature on barium aspiration, its consequences and make recommendations for management.

  16. Parameters of Instrumental Swallowing Evaluations: Describing a Diagnostic Dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisegna, Jessica M; Langmore, Susan E

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare selected parameters of two swallow evaluations: fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) and the modified barium swallow (MBS) study. This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study. Fifty-five clinicians were asked to watch video recordings of swallow evaluations of 2 patients that were done using fluoroscopy and endoscopy simultaneously. In a randomized order, clinicians viewed 4 edited videos from simultaneous evaluations: the FEES and MBS videos of patient 1 and 2 each taking one swallow of 5 mL applesauce. Clinicians filled out a questionnaire that asked (1) which anatomical sites they could visualize on each video, (2) where they saw pharyngeal residue after a swallow, (3) their overall clinical impression of the pharyngeal residue, and (4) their opinions of the evaluation styles. Clinicians reported a significant difference in the visualization of anatomical sites, 11 of the 15 sites were reported as better-visualized on the FEES than on the MBS video (p < 0.05). Clinicians also rated residue to be present in more locations on the FEES than on the MBS. Clinicians' overall impressions of the severity of residue on the same exact swallow were significantly different depending on the evaluation type (FEES vs. MBS for patient 1 χ(2) = 20.05, p < 0.0001; patient 2 χ(2) = 7.52, p = 0.006), with FEES videos rated more severely. FEES advantages were: more visualization of pharyngeal and laryngeal swallowing anatomy and residue. However, as a result, clinicians provided more severe impressions of residue amount on FEES. On one hand, this suggests that FEES is a more sensitive tool than MBS studies, but on the other hand, clinicians might provide more severe interpretations on FEES.

  17. Dirt - swallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002840.htm Dirt - swallowing To use the sharing features on this ... article is about poisoning from swallowing or eating dirt. This article is for information only. DO NOT ...

  18. Barium enema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... series; Colorectal cancer - lower GI series; Colorectal cancer - barium enema; Crohn disease - lower GI series; Crohn disease - barium enema; Intestinal blockage - lower GI series; Intestinal blockage - ...

  19. Aspiration of Barium Contrast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Fuentes Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aspiration of barium contrast is a rare complication that may occur during studies of the digestive tract. Barium is an inert material that can cause anywhere from an asymptomatic mechanical obstruction to serious symptoms of respiratory distress that can result in patient death. We present the case of a 79-year-old male patient in whom we observed the presence of contrast medium residue in the lung parenchyma as an incidental finding during hospitalization. When the patient’s medical file was reviewed, images were found of a barium swallow study that the patient had undergone months earlier, and we were able to observe the exact moment of the aspiration of the contrast material. The patient had been asymptomatic since the test.

  20. Swallowing Trouble

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... throat discomfort in the throat or chest (when gastro esophageal reflux is present) a sensation of a foreign body ... to the particular cause of the swallowing disorder. Gastro esophageal reflux can often be treated by changing eating and ...

  1. SWALLOWING IN PATIENTS WITH LARYNGITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela MODA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Dysphagia is described as a complaint in 32% of patients with laryngitis. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this investigation was to evaluate oral and pharyngeal transit of patients with laryngitis, with the hypothesis that alteration in oral-pharyngeal bolus transit may be involved with dysphagia. METHODS: Videofluoroscopic evaluation of the swallowing of liquid, paste and solid boluses was performed in 21 patients with laryngitis, 10 of them with dysphagia, and 21 normal volunteers of the same age and sex. Two swallows of 5 mL liquid bolus, two swallows of 5 mL paste bolus and two swallows of a solid bolus were evaluated in a random sequence. The liquid bolus was 100% liquid barium sulfate and the paste bolus was prepared with 50 mL of liquid barium and 4 g of food thickener (starch and maltodextrin. The solid bolus was a soft 2.2 g cookie coated with liquid barium. Durations of oral preparation, oral transit, pharyngeal transit, pharyngeal clearance, upper esophageal sphincter opening, hyoid movement and oral-pharyngeal transit were measured. All patients performed 24-hour distal esophageal pH evaluation previous to videofluoroscopy. RESULTS: The evaluation of 24-hour distal esophageal pH showed abnormal gastroesophageal acid reflux in 10 patients. Patients showed longer oral preparation for paste bolus and a faster oral transit time for solid bolus than normal volunteers. Patients with laryngitis and dysphagia had longer preparation for paste and solid boluses, and a faster oral transit time with liquid, paste and solid boluses. CONCLUSION: A longer oral preparation for paste and solid boluses and a faster transit through the mouth are associated with dysphagia in patients with laryngitis.

  2. SWALLOWING IN PATIENTS WITH LARYNGITIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moda, Isabela; Ricz, Hilton Marcos Alves; Aguiar-Ricz, Lilian Neto; Dantas, Roberto Oliveira

    2018-01-01

    Dysphagia is described as a complaint in 32% of patients with laryngitis. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate oral and pharyngeal transit of patients with laryngitis, with the hypothesis that alteration in oral-pharyngeal bolus transit may be involved with dysphagia. Videofluoroscopic evaluation of the swallowing of liquid, paste and solid boluses was performed in 21 patients with laryngitis, 10 of them with dysphagia, and 21 normal volunteers of the same age and sex. Two swallows of 5 mL liquid bolus, two swallows of 5 mL paste bolus and two swallows of a solid bolus were evaluated in a random sequence. The liquid bolus was 100% liquid barium sulfate and the paste bolus was prepared with 50 mL of liquid barium and 4 g of food thickener (starch and maltodextrin). The solid bolus was a soft 2.2 g cookie coated with liquid barium. Durations of oral preparation, oral transit, pharyngeal transit, pharyngeal clearance, upper esophageal sphincter opening, hyoid movement and oral-pharyngeal transit were measured. All patients performed 24-hour distal esophageal pH evaluation previous to videofluoroscopy. The evaluation of 24-hour distal esophageal pH showed abnormal gastroesophageal acid reflux in 10 patients. Patients showed longer oral preparation for paste bolus and a faster oral transit time for solid bolus than normal volunteers. Patients with laryngitis and dysphagia had longer preparation for paste and solid boluses, and a faster oral transit time with liquid, paste and solid boluses. A longer oral preparation for paste and solid boluses and a faster transit through the mouth are associated with dysphagia in patients with laryngitis.

  3. Smartphone-Based Real-time Assessment of Swallowing Ability From the Swallowing Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Tomoyuki; Teramoto, Yohei; Nakai, Kei; Hidaka, Kikue; Ayuzawa, Satoshi; Eguchi, Kiyoshi; Matsumura, Akira; Suzuki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Dysphagia can cause serious challenges to both physical and mental health. Aspiration due to dysphagia is a major health risk that could cause pneumonia and even death. The videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS), which is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of dysphagia, is not widely available, expensive and causes exposure to radiation. The screening tests used for dysphagia need to be carried out by trained staff, and the evaluations are usually non-quantifiable. This paper investigates the development of the Swallowscope, a smartphone-based device and a feasible real-time swallowing sound-processing algorithm for the automatic screening, quantitative evaluation, and the visualisation of swallowing ability. The device can be used during activities of daily life with minimal intervention, making it potentially more capable of capturing aspirations and risky swallow patterns through the continuous monitoring. It also consists of a cloud-based system for the server-side analyzing and automatic sharing of the swallowing sound. The real-time algorithm we developed for the detection of dry and water swallows is based on a template matching approach. We analyzed the wavelet transformation-based spectral characteristics and the temporal characteristics of simultaneous synchronised VFSS and swallowing sound recordings of 25% barium mixed 3-ml water swallows of 70 subjects and the dry or saliva swallowing sound of 15 healthy subjects to establish the parameters of the template. With this algorithm, we achieved an overall detection accuracy of 79.3% (standard error: 4.2%) for the 92 water swallows; and a precision of 83.7% (range: 66.6%–100%) and a recall of 93.9% (range: 72.7%–100%) for the 71 episodes of dry swallows. PMID:27170905

  4. Smartphone-Based Real-time Assessment of Swallowing Ability From the Swallowing Sound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayatilake, Dushyantha; Ueno, Tomoyuki; Teramoto, Yohei; Nakai, Kei; Hidaka, Kikue; Ayuzawa, Satoshi; Eguchi, Kiyoshi; Matsumura, Akira; Suzuki, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Dysphagia can cause serious challenges to both physical and mental health. Aspiration due to dysphagia is a major health risk that could cause pneumonia and even death. The videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS), which is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of dysphagia, is not widely available, expensive and causes exposure to radiation. The screening tests used for dysphagia need to be carried out by trained staff, and the evaluations are usually non-quantifiable. This paper investigates the development of the Swallowscope, a smartphone-based device and a feasible real-time swallowing sound-processing algorithm for the automatic screening, quantitative evaluation, and the visualisation of swallowing ability. The device can be used during activities of daily life with minimal intervention, making it potentially more capable of capturing aspirations and risky swallow patterns through the continuous monitoring. It also consists of a cloud-based system for the server-side analyzing and automatic sharing of the swallowing sound. The real-time algorithm we developed for the detection of dry and water swallows is based on a template matching approach. We analyzed the wavelet transformation-based spectral characteristics and the temporal characteristics of simultaneous synchronised VFSS and swallowing sound recordings of 25% barium mixed 3-ml water swallows of 70 subjects and the dry or saliva swallowing sound of 15 healthy subjects to establish the parameters of the template. With this algorithm, we achieved an overall detection accuracy of 79.3% (standard error: 4.2%) for the 92 water swallows; and a precision of 83.7% (range: 66.6%-100%) and a recall of 93.9% (range: 72.7%-100%) for the 71 episodes of dry swallows.

  5. Barium Sulfate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses a computer to put together x-ray images to create cross-sectional or three dimensional pictures of the inside of the body). Barium sulfate is in a class of medications called radiopaque contrast media. It works by coating the esophagus, stomach, or ...

  6. Mastication and swallowing in patients with postirradiation xerostomia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamlet, Sandra; Faull, Jennifer; Klein, Barbara; Aref, Amr; Fontanesi, James; Stachler, Robert; Shamsa, Falah; Jones, Lewis; Simpson, Mark

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: Very little objective data has been reported on mastication and swallowing in xerostomic patients, which would substantiate presumed causal relationships between xerostomia and patient complaints. The purpose was to elucidate which components of mastication and swallowing were abnormal, and most directly related to xerostomia, and which appeared unaffected. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of timing events in mastication and swallowing was done using videofluoroscopic data for 15 cancer patients with xerostomia, and 20 normal controls. Scintigraphy was also used to determine oropharyngeal residue after a water swallow. Cancer treatment modalities included radiation therapy or chemoradiation therapy. Results: For barium liquid and paste substances, timing measures were equivalent for controls and patients. Xerostomic patients took 46% longer to masticate a shortbread cookie, and timing for the initiation of swallowing was shorter, but duration of swallowing appeared unaffected. Oral and pharyngeal residues following the swallow were greater in the patient group. Conclusions: Xerostomia primarily affected mastication and oral manipulation of a dry, absorbent food material. Increased oral and pharyngeal residues after a water swallow are ambiguously related to xerostomia. The initiation and duration of the pharyngeal swallow was not abnormal

  7. Esophageal Transit, Contraction and Perception of Transit After Swallows of Two Viscous Boluses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmazo, Jucileia; Aprile, Lilian Rose Otoboni; Dantas, Roberto Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    There have been results showing the influence of bolus viscosities and consistency on esophageal motility and transit. However, there is no description about the influence of two different viscous boluses on esophageal contractions, bolus transit and perception of transit. Our objective in this investigation was to evaluate the esophageal transit and contraction after swallows of two viscous boluses. By impedance and manometric methods, we measured the esophageal transit and contraction after swallows of two viscous boluses of 5 mL volume, 100% barium sulfate and yogurt, swallowed in duplicate in the supine and upright positions. The bolus transit, esophageal contractions and the perception of bolus transit through the esophagus were evaluated in both positions. Impedance and contraction were measured at 5, 10, 15 and 20 cm from the lower esophageal sphincter. After each swallow, the volunteers were asked about the sensation of bolus transit through the esophagus. In supine position, the yogurt had a less frequent complete bolus transit than barium. Also in the supine position, the esophageal transit was longer with yogurt than with barium. Esophageal contractions after swallows were similar between barium and yogurt boluses. There was no difference in perception of transit between the two boluses. Although both 100% barium sulfate and yogurt are viscous boluses and have similar viscosities, the transit through the esophagus is slower with yogurt bolus than with barium bolus, which suggests that viscosity may be not the sole factor to determine transit.

  8. Acute respiratory failure caused by aspiration of high density barium: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ki Soon; Jung, Eun A; Yang, Ik; Lee, Yul; Chung, Soo Young

    1994-01-01

    Accidental aspiration of barium contrast medium during the upper gastrointestinal study can occur in patients with swallowing disorder, especially in the elderly patients. We experienced a case of respiratory failure followed by death within a few hours in 85 year-old patient after barium aspiration

  9. Barite (Barium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Craig A.; Piatak, Nadine M.; Miller, M. Michael; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    Barite (barium sulfate, BaSO4) is vital to the oil and gas industry because it is a key constituent of the mud used to drill oil and gas wells. Elemental barium is an additive in optical glass, ceramic glazes, and other products. Within the United States, barite is produced mainly from mines in Nevada. Imports in 2011 (the latest year for which complete data were available) accounted for 78 percent of domestic consumption and came mostly from China.Barite deposits can be divided into the following four main types: bedded-sedimentary; bedded-volcanic; vein, cavity-fill, and metasomatic; and residual. Bedded-sedimentary deposits, which are found in sedimentary rocks with characteristics of high biological productivity during sediment accumulation, are the major sources of barite production and account for the majority of reserves, both in the United States and worldwide. In 2013, China and India were the leading producers of barite, and they have large identified resources that position them to be significant producers for the foreseeable future. The potential for undiscovered barite resources in the United States and in many other countries is considerable, however. The expected tight supply and rising costs in the coming years will likely be met by increased production from such countries as Kazakhstan, Mexico, Morocco, and Vietnam.Barium has limited mobility in the environment and exposed barium in the vicinity of barite mines poses minimal risk to human or ecosystem health. Of greater concern is the potential for acidic metal-bearing drainage at sites where the barite ores or waste rocks contain abundant sulfide minerals. This risk is lessened naturally if the host rocks at the site are acid-neutralizing, and the risk can also be lessened by engineering measures.

  10. Speech and Swallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... like stuttering. The term for swallowing difficulty is dysphagia. It affects the mechanics of swallowing and quality ... as dining with friends or family. More importantly, dysphagia can lead to malnutrition, dehydration and aspiration (when ...

  11. Derangement of swallowing in children with myelomeningocele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernbach, S.K.; McLone, D.G.

    1985-01-01

    Barium esophagrams performed in 13 children with myelomeningocele demonstrated a variety of swallowing disorders: difficulty in bolus formation, nasopharyngeal reflux, tracheobronchial aspiration. Cricopharyngeal spasm was not identified in this group. Antegrade peristalsis in the distal two-thirds of the esophagus was normal. Gastroesophageal reflux was demonstrated in 8 of the children. Vocal cord paralysis (8/13) and death in early child-hood (6/13) occurred with greater frequency than in the general myelomeningocele population. Correct management of these children may require tracheostomy, gastrostomy, and fundoplication. (orig.)

  12. Derangement of swallowing in children with myelomeningocele

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernbach, S.K.; McLone, D.G.

    1985-07-01

    Barium esophagrams performed in 13 children with myelomeningocele demonstrated a variety of swallowing disorders: difficulty in bolus formation, nasopharyngeal reflux, tracheobronchial aspiration. Cricopharyngeal spasm was not identified in this group. Antegrade peristalsis in the distal two-thirds of the esophagus was normal. Gastroesophageal reflux was demonstrated in 8 of the children. Vocal cord paralysis (8/13) and death in early child-hood (6/13) occurred with greater frequency than in the general myelomeningocele population. Correct management of these children may require tracheostomy, gastrostomy, and fundoplication.

  13. Clearance of barium from the oesophagus with diet cola and metoclopramide: A one stop approach to patients with dysphagia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, J.; Farrow, R.; Hussaini, S.H.; Dalton, H.R

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To establish a 'one-stop' dysphagia service in which a consultation, barium swallow and endoscopy can all be performed in the same hospital visit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to allow both barium swallow examination and endoscopy to be performed on the same day, a novel technique for clearing barium from the upper gastrointestinal tract was established. Following the barium swallow examination, patients were given diet cola and metoclopramide syrup. If appropriate, an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was then performed shortly afterwards. The service was piloted for 6 months in which time 25 patients were investigated in this way. RESULTS: All patients were seen within 2 weeks of referral. The mean time between barium swallow and endoscopy was 3 h 38 min (range, 1 h 50 min to 5 h 20 min). In all 24 patients in whom an endoscopy was performed, barium had been satisfactorily cleared from the oesophagus and stomach. CONCLUSION: This technique allows both barium swallow and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy to be performed on the same day, providing a rapid, safe and accurate diagnosis with minimum patient inconvenience. Mitchell, J. (2001)

  14. Clearance of barium from the oesophagus with diet cola and metoclopramide: A one stop approach to patients with dysphagia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, J.; Farrow, R.; Hussaini, S.H.; Dalton, H.R.

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To establish a 'one-stop' dysphagia service in which a consultation, barium swallow and endoscopy can all be performed in the same hospital visit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to allow both barium swallow examination and endoscopy to be performed on the same day, a novel technique for clearing barium from the upper gastrointestinal tract was established. Following the barium swallow examination, patients were given diet cola and metoclopramide syrup. If appropriate, an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was then performed shortly afterwards. The service was piloted for 6 months in which time 25 patients were investigated in this way. RESULTS: All patients were seen within 2 weeks of referral. The mean time between barium swallow and endoscopy was 3 h 38 min (range, 1 h 50 min to 5 h 20 min). In all 24 patients in whom an endoscopy was performed, barium had been satisfactorily cleared from the oesophagus and stomach. CONCLUSION: This technique allows both barium swallow and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy to be performed on the same day, providing a rapid, safe and accurate diagnosis with minimum patient inconvenience. Mitchell, J. (2001)

  15. BARIUM RECOVERY PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanco, R.E.

    1959-07-21

    A method of separating barium from nuclear fission products is described. In accordance with the invention, barium may be recovered from an acidic solution of neutron-irradiated fissionable material by carrying ihe barium cut of solution as a sulfate with lead as a carrier and then dissolving the barium-containing precipitate in an aqueous solution of an aliphatic diamine chelating reagent. The barium values together with certain other metallic values present in the diamine solution are then absorbed onto a cation exchange resin and the barium is selectively eluted from the resin bed with concentrated nitric acid.

  16. Barium and radium radiopolarography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourest, B.

    1979-01-01

    Radiopolarography has been applied to the study of two elements (barium and radium) which is difficult by classical polarography because of their strong electropositivity. Various parameters have been considered: nature, concentration and pH of supporting electrolyte. In any case of investigated mediums, the reduction to the metallic state reaction appeared to be reversible. An important variation of the barium half-wave potential E 1/2 with the ionic strength μ of the solution, imposed by LiCl used as supporting electrolyte, has been observed. It gives the possibility to estimate, for μ = 0, E 1/2 (Ba) = - 1.916 V/S.C.E. and E 1/2(Ra) = - 1.852 V/S.C.E. The values of barium and radium half wave potentials, obtained with a good accuracy in LiCl (or LiClO 4 ) 0.1 M medium, have been used to establish the amalgamation energy Δ 2 (M) of these elements. A linear variation of Δ 2 (M) with the metallic radius of the 2a elements has been obtained. On the other hand, by making the concentration of the complex forming agent (Cit 3- ) vary in the solution, we have a shift in the half wave potential from which we can deduce the stability constant of the complexe and its composition (BaCit - ; pK 1 =2). At last, nature and concentration of the supporting electrolyte (between 5.10 -2 M and 5M) have a determining influence on the extent of the polarogram plateau. This plateau is limited by an 'hollow effect' preceding the supporting electrolyte discharge. An interpretation of this effect is suggested which is based on the Stern model [fr

  17. Barium enema (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A barium enema is performed to examine the walls of the colon. During the procedure, a well lubricated enema tube is inserted gently into the rectum. The barium, a radiopaque (shows up on X-ray) contrast ...

  18. Solid bolus swallowing in the radiologic evaluation of dysphagia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westen, D. van; Ekberg, O.

    1993-01-01

    Patients with dysphagia, heartburn and chest pain are regularly referred for radiologic evaluation of swallowing. The liquid barium swallow has been of great value for the biphasic evaluation of the pharynx and esophagus. Though many patients complain of dysphagia specifically for solids, solid bolus swallow is ususally not part of the evaluation. For the present study we therefore included the use of a solid bolus with a diameter of 13 mm and interviewed the patients carefully for any symptoms during this tablet swallow. Of 200 patients examined, the tablet passed through the esophagus without delay in 102. In the 98 patients with delayed passage, the solid bolus arrest occurred in the pharynx in 5 and in the esophagus in 93. Arrest in the esophagus was due to esophageal dysmotility in 48 patients. Twenty of these were symptomatic during the tablet swallow. A narrowing was the cause in 45, of whom 9 had symptoms. In 18 patients (9%) the solid bolus added key information to the radiologic evaluation. We therefore recommend that the solid bolus is included in the routine radiologic work-up of patients with dysphagia. Careful attention to symptoms during the tablet swallow is important. (orig.)

  19. Solid bolus swallowing in the radiologic evaluation of dysphagia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westen, D. van (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Malmoe General Hospital, Univ. Lund (Sweden)); Ekberg, O. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Malmoe General Hospital, Univ. Lund (Sweden))

    1993-07-01

    Patients with dysphagia, heartburn and chest pain are regularly referred for radiologic evaluation of swallowing. The liquid barium swallow has been of great value for the biphasic evaluation of the pharynx and esophagus. Though many patients complain of dysphagia specifically for solids, solid bolus swallow is ususally not part of the evaluation. For the present study we therefore included the use of a solid bolus with a diameter of 13 mm and interviewed the patients carefully for any symptoms during this tablet swallow. Of 200 patients examined, the tablet passed through the esophagus without delay in 102. In the 98 patients with delayed passage, the solid bolus arrest occurred in the pharynx in 5 and in the esophagus in 93. Arrest in the esophagus was due to esophageal dysmotility in 48 patients. Twenty of these were symptomatic during the tablet swallow. A narrowing was the cause in 45, of whom 9 had symptoms. In 18 patients (9%) the solid bolus added key information to the radiologic evaluation. We therefore recommend that the solid bolus is included in the routine radiologic work-up of patients with dysphagia. Careful attention to symptoms during the tablet swallow is important. (orig.).

  20. [Dysphagia and swallowing rehabilitation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigematsu, Takashi; Fujishima, Ichiro

    2015-02-01

    Dysphagia is a life-threatening disorder caused by many medical conditions such as stroke, neurological disorders, tumors, etc. The symptoms of dysphagia are quite variable and diagnosed by observation or through screening involving instrumental swallowing examinations such as video-fluoroscopy and video-endoscopy, to determine functional severity and treatment-prognosis. Direct- and indirect-therapy is used with and without food, respectively. Swallowing rehabilitation is very effective, and could be used in conjunction with compensatory techniques. Here we present an overview of dysphagia and swallowing rehabilitation.

  1. Barium appendicitis after upper gastrointestinal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, Nathan M; Lillemoe, Keith D; Falimirski, Mark E

    2010-02-01

    Barium appendicitis (BA) is a rarely seen entity with fewer than 30 reports in the literature. However, it is a known complication of barium imaging. To report a case of BA in a patient whose computed tomography (CT) scan was initially read as foreign body ingestion. An 18-year-old man presented with right lower quadrant pain after upper gastrointestinal imaging 2 weeks prior. A CT scan was obtained of his abdomen and pelvis that revealed a finding that was interpreted as a foreign body at the area of the terminal ileum. A plain X-ray study of the abdomen revealed radiopaque appendicoliths. Pathology confirmed the diagnosis of barium appendicitis. BA is a rare entity and the pathogenesis is unclear. Shorter intervals between barium study and presentation with appendicitis usually correlate with fewer complications. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Objective Measures of Swallowing Function Applied to the Dysphagia Population: A One Year Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Katherine A; Ellerston, Julia; Heller, Amanda; Houtz, Daniel R; Zhang, Chong; Presson, Angela P

    2016-08-01

    Quantitative, reliable measures of swallowing physiology can be made from an modified barium swallowing study. These quantitative measures have not been previously employed to study large dysphagic patient populations. The present retrospective study of 139 consecutive patients with dysphagia seen in a university tertiary voice and swallowing clinic sought to use objective measures of swallowing physiology to (1) quantify the most prevalent deficits seen in the patient population, (2) identify commonly associated diagnoses and describe the most prevalent swallowing deficits, and (3) determine any correlation between objective deficits and Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) scores and body mass index. Poor pharyngeal constriction (34.5 %) and airway protection deficits (65.5 %) were the most common swallowing abnormalities. Reflux-related dysphagia (36 %), nonspecific pharyngeal dysphagia (24 %), Parkinson disease (16 %), esophageal abnormality (13 %), and brain insult (10 %) were the most common diagnoses. Poor pharyngeal constriction was significantly associated with an esophageal motility abnormality (p dysphagia symptoms as determined by the EAT-10 did not correlate with swallowing function abnormalities. This preliminary study indicates that reflux disease is common in patients with dysphagia and that associated esophageal abnormalities are common in dysphagic populations and may be associated with specific pharyngeal swallowing abnormalities. However, symptom scores from the EAT-10 did not correspond to swallowing pathophysiology.

  3. Difficulty Swallowing After Stroke (Dysphagia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stroke Heroes Among Us Difficulty Swallowing After Stroke (Dysphagia) Updated:Nov 15,2016 Excerpted and adapted from "Swallowing Disorders After a Stroke," Stroke Connection Magazine July/August ...

  4. Swallowing Disorders in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Deepika P; Kamath, Vandan D; Stewart, Jonathan T

    2017-08-01

    Disorders of swallowing are poorly characterized but quite common in schizophrenia. They are a source of considerable morbidity and mortality in this population, generally as a result of either acute asphyxia from airway obstruction or more insidious aspiration and pneumonia. The death rate from acute asphyxia may be as high as one hundred times that of the general population. Most swallowing disorders in schizophrenia seem to fall into one of two categories, changes in eating and swallowing due to the illness itself and changes related to psychotropic medications. Behavioral changes related to the illness are poorly understood and often involve eating too quickly or taking inappropriately large boluses of food. Iatrogenic problems are mostly related to drug-induced extrapyramidal side effects, including drug-induced parkinsonism, dystonia, and tardive dyskinesia, but may also include xerostomia, sialorrhea, and changes related to sedation. This paper will provide an overview of common swallowing problems encountered in patients with schizophrenia, their pathophysiology, and management. While there is a scarcity of quality evidence in the literature, a thorough history and examination will generally elucidate the predominant problem or problems, often leading to effective management strategies.

  5. Effect of barium sulfate contrast medium on rheology and sensory texture attributes in a model food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekberg, O; Bulow, M; Ekman, S; Hall, G; Stading, M; Wendin, K

    2009-03-01

    The swallowing process can be visualized using videoradiography, by mixing food with contrast medium, e.g., barium sulfate (BaSO(4)), making it radiopaque. The sensory properties of foods may be affected by adding this medium. To evaluate if and to what extent sensory and rheological characteristics of mango purée were altered by adding barium sulfate to the food. This study evaluated four food samples based on mango purée, with no or added barium sulfate contrast medium (0%, 12.5%, 25.0%, and 37.5%), by a radiographic method, and measured sensory texture properties and rheological characteristics. The sensory evaluation was performed by an external trained panel using quantitative descriptive analysis. The ease of swallowing the foods was also evaluated. The sensory texture properties of mango purée were significantly affected by the added barium in all evaluated attributes, as was the perception of particles. Moreover, ease of swallowing was significantly higher in the sample without added contrast medium. All samples decreased in extensional viscosity with increasing extension rate, i.e., all samples were tension thinning. Shear viscosity was not as dependent on the concentration of BaSO(4) as extensional viscosity. Addition of barium sulfate to a model food of mango purée has a major impact on perceived sensory texture attributes as well as on rheological parameters.

  6. Lost and found…Tracking a swallowed denture: Role of radiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogita Khalekar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Denture ingestion or aspiration is a problem requiring awareness of different specialists including dentists, surgeons, otolaryngologists, and anesthesiologists for prevention, early diagnosis and adequate treatment. Complications of swallowed dentures include hollow viscous necrosis, perforation, and penetration to neighbouring organs leading to fistulae, bleeding and obstruction. Here, we present the case of a 65 year old female patient who swallowed the denture, which was detected by barium swallow and removed by endoscopy. Hence, the management of swallowed denture needs a multidisciplinary approach with the help of a dentist, otolaryngologist and anesthesiologists. Dentists should recommend patients to visit them for planned check ups or revisit them in case of denture dislodgement or loosening as soon as possible to prevent such life threatening events.

  7. VIDEOFLUOROSCOPIC SWALLOWING STUDY: esophageal alterations in patients with dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina SCHEEREN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Context Videofluoroscopic swallowing study is a dynamic exam and allows the evaluation of the complete swallowing process. However, most published studies have only reported alterations in the oropharynx and pharyngoesophageal transition, leaving the analysis of the esophagus as a secondary goal. Objectives The goal of this study was to investigate the prevalence of alterations in the esophageal phase thorough videofluoroscopic swallowing study in patients with dysphagia. Methods Consecutive patients with dysphagia who underwent videofluoroscopic swallowing study including esophageal analysis between May 2010 and May 2012 had their exams retrospectively reviewed. Patients were classified into two groups: Group I - without a pre-established etiological diagnosis and Group II - with neurological disease. During the exam, the patients ingested three different consistencies of food (liquid, pasty and solid contrasted with barium sulfate and 19 items were analyzed according to a protocol. The esophageal phase was considered abnormal when one of the evaluated items was compromised. Results Three hundred and thirty-three (n = 333 consecutive patients were studied - 213 (64% in Group I and 120 (36% in Group II. Esophageal alterations were found in 104 (31% patients, with a higher prevalence in Group I (36.2%, especially on the items esophageal clearance (16.9% and tertiary contractions (16.4%. It was observed that 12% of individuals in Group I only presented alterations on the esophageal phase. Conclusion Evaluation of the esophageal phase of swallowing during videofluoroscopic swallowing study detects abnormalities in patients with cervical dysphagia, especially in the group without pre-established etiological diagnosis.

  8. Quantitative Measures of Swallowing Deficits in Patients With Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerston, Julia K; Heller, Amanda C; Houtz, Daniel R; Kendall, Katherine A

    2016-05-01

    Dysphagia and associated aspiration pneumonia are commonly reported sequelae of Parkinson's disease (PD). Previous studies of swallowing in patients with PD have described prolonged pharyngeal transit time, delayed onset of pharyngeal transit, cricopharyngeal (CP) achalasia, reduced pharyngeal constriction, and slowed hyolaryngeal elevation. These studies were completed using inconsistent evaluation methodology, reliance on qualitative analysis, and a lack of a large control group, resulting in concerns regarding diagnostic precision. The purpose of this study was to investigate swallowing function in patients with PD using a norm-referenced, quantitative approach. This retrospective study includes 34 patients with a diagnosis of PD referred to a multidisciplinary voice and swallowing clinic. Modified barium swallow studies were performed using quantitative measures of pharyngeal transit time, hyoid displacement, CP sphincter opening, area of the pharynx at maximal constriction, and timing of laryngeal vestibule closure relative to bolus arrival at the CP sphincter. Reduced pharyngeal constriction was found in 30.4%, and a delay in airway closure relative to arrival of the bolus at the CP sphincter was the most common abnormality, present in 62% of patients. Previously reported findings of prolonged pharyngeal transit, poor hyoid elevation, and CP achalasia were not identified as prominent features. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Aspiration of Barium Contrast

    OpenAIRE

    Fuentes Santos, Cristina; Steen, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    The aspiration of barium contrast is a rare complication that may occur during studies of the digestive tract. Barium is an inert material that can cause anywhere from an asymptomatic mechanical obstruction to serious symptoms of respiratory distress that can result in patient death. We present the case of a 79-year-old male patient in whom we observed the presence of contrast medium residue in the lung parenchyma as an incidental finding during hospitalization. When the patient’s medical fil...

  10. Pulmonary function in infants with swallowing dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Tutor

    Full Text Available Swallowing dysfunction can lead to recurring aspiration and is frequently associated with chronic symptoms such as cough and wheezing in infants. Our objective was to describe the characteristics of infants with swallowing dysfunction, determine if pulmonary function abnormalities are detectable, and if they improve after therapy.We studied 38 infants with a history of coughing and wheezing who had pulmonary function tests performed within two weeks of their diagnosis of swallowing dysfunction. The raised lung volume rapid thoracoabdominal compression technique was used. After 6 months of therapy, 17 of the infants repeated the tests.Initially, 25 had abnormal spirometry, 18 had abnormal plethysmography, and 15 demonstrated bronchodilator responsiveness. Six months later test were repeated for seventeen patients. Ten patients had continued abnormal spirometry, two patients remained normal, three patients' abnormal spirometry had normalized, and two patients' previously normal studies became abnormal. Eight of the 17 patients had continued abnormal plethysmography, six had continued normal plethysmography, and three patients' normal plethysmography became abnormal. After 6 months of treatment, eight patients demonstrated bronchodilator responsiveness, of which five continued to demonstrate bronchodilator responsiveness and three developed responsiveness. The remainder either continued to be non- bronchodilator responsive (two or lost responsiveness (three. The findings of the abnormal tests in most infants tested is complicated by frequent occurrence of other co-morbidities in this population, including gastroesophageal reflux in 23 and passive smoke exposure in 13 of the infants.The interpretation of lung function changes is complicated by the frequent association of swallowing dysfunction with gastroesophageal reflux and passive smoke exposure in this population. Six months of medical therapy for swallowing dysfunction/gastroesophageal reflux

  11. Changes in Swallowing Symptoms and Esophageal Motility After Thyroid Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Jesper Roed; Markoew, Simone; Døssing, Helle

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Swallowing difficulties, the pathophysiology behind which is incompletely understood, have been reported in 47-83% of goiter patients referred for thyroidectomy. We aimed at examining the influence of thyroid surgery on swallowing symptoms and esophageal motility. METHODS: Thirty-th...... to esophageal motility disturbances. This information is essential when interpreting dysphagia in patients with nodular goiter, and when balancing patients' expectations to surgical goiter therapy. REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03100357 ( www.clinicaltrials.org ).......INTRODUCTION: Swallowing difficulties, the pathophysiology behind which is incompletely understood, have been reported in 47-83% of goiter patients referred for thyroidectomy. We aimed at examining the influence of thyroid surgery on swallowing symptoms and esophageal motility. METHODS: Thirty......-three patients with benign nodular goiter undergoing thyroid surgery were included. All completed high-resolution esophageal manometry examinations and the goiter symptom scale score, assessed by the thyroid-specific patient-reported outcome measure. The evaluations were performed before and 6 months after...

  12. Dynamic imaging of oropharyngeal swallowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanucci, A.; Cerro, P.; Diotallevi, P.; Metastasio, F.; Fanucci, E.

    1991-01-01

    Oropharyngeal swallowing is too fast and complex a motion for the human eye to seize its various phases and subsequently evaluate morphology and function of the anatomical structures involved. A chronological subdivision of the swallowing act is needed for e step-by-step analysis. Dinamic evaluation of oropharyngeal swallowing by means of fluoroscopic and US videorecording proved to be a reliable method. Echovideorecording allowed tongue movements to be depicted, together with bolus formation and propulsion. Fluorovideorecording (U-Matic Sony unit, 25-30 images/sec) demonstrated pharyngeal and esophageal phases. A series of chronological and morphological reference points, which characterize oropharyngeal swallowing, were employed to analyze videorecorded images. Slowmotion mode, 'freezed' images, and rewinding allowed an easy and accurate evaluation of swallowing details. Combined chronological and morphological pieces of information allow a comprehensive evaluation of the swallowing act

  13. Modeling and minimization of barium sulfate scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan W. Rudie; Peter W. Hart

    2006-01-01

    The majority of the barium present in the pulping process exits the digester as barium carbonate. Barium carbonate dissolves in the bleach plant when the pH drops below 7 and, if barium and sulfate concentrations are too high, begins to precipitate as barium sulfate. Barium is difficult to control because a mill cannot avoid this carbonate-to-sulfate transition using...

  14. Observed Barium Emission Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenbaek-Nielsen, H. C.; Wescott, E. M.; Hallinan, T. J.

    1993-01-01

    The barium releases from the CRRES satellite have provided an opportunity for verifying theoretically calculated barium ion and neutral emission rates. Spectra of the five Caribbean releases in the summer of 1991 were taken with a spectrograph on board a U.S. Air Force jet aircraft. Because the line of sight release densities are not known, only relative rates could be obtained. The observed relative rates agree well with the theoretically calculated rates and, together with other observations, confirm the earlier detailed theoretical emission rates. The calculated emission rates can thus with good accuracy be used with photometric observations. It has been postulated that charge exchange between neutral barium and oxygen ions represents a significant source for ionization. If so. it should be associated with emissions at 4957.15 A and 5013.00 A, but these emissions were not detected.

  15. Lower GI Series (Barium Enema)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses x-rays and a chalky liquid called barium to view your large intestine . The barium will make your large intestine more visible on ... single-contrast lower GI series, which uses only barium a double-contrast or air-contrast lower GI ...

  16. A Preliminary Videofluoroscopic Investigation of Swallowing Physiology and Function in Individuals with Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy (OPMD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waito, Ashley A; Steele, Catriona M; Peladeau-Pigeon, Melanie; Genge, Angela; Argov, Zohar

    2018-05-03

    Dysphagia is one of the primary symptoms experienced by individuals with Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy (OPMD). However, we lack understanding of the discrete changes in swallowing physiology that are seen in OPMD, and the resulting relationship to impairments of swallowing safety and efficiency. This study sought to describe the pathophysiology of dysphagia in a small sample of patients with OPMD using a videofluoroscopy examination (VFSS) involving 3 × 5 mL boluses of thin liquid barium (22% w/v). The aim of this study is to extend what is known about the pathophysiology of dysphagia in OPMD, by quantifying changes in swallow timing, kinematics, safety, and efficiency, measured from VFSS. This study is a secondary analysis of baseline VFSS collected from 11 adults (4 male), aged 48-62 (mean 57) enrolled in an industry-sponsored phase 2 therapeutic drug trial. Blinded raters scored the VFSS recordings for safety [Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS)], efficiency [Normalized Residue Ratio Scale (NRRS)], timing [Pharyngeal Transit Time (PTT), Swallow Reaction Time (SRT), Laryngeal Vestibule Closure Reaction Time (LVCrt), Upper Esophageal Sphincter Opening Duration (UESD)], and kinematics (hyoid movement, pharyngeal constriction, UES opening width). Impairment thresholds from existing literature were defined to characterize swallowing physiology and function. Further, Fisher's Exact tests and Pearson's correlations were used to conduct a preliminary exploration of associations between swallowing physiology (e.g., kinematics, timing) and function (i.e., safety, efficiency). Compared to published norms, we identified significant differences in the degree of maximum pharyngeal constriction, hyoid movement distance and speed, as well as degree and timeliness of airway closure. Unsafe swallowing (PAS ≥ 3) was seen in only 3/11 patients. By contrast, clinically significant residue (i.e., NRRS scores ≥ 0.09 vallecular; ≥ 0.2 pyriform) was seen in

  17. Feasibility and usefulness of using swallow contrast-enhanced ultrasound to diagnose Zenker's diverticulum: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xin-Wu; Ignee, Andre; Baum, Ulrich; Dietrich, Christoph F

    2015-04-01

    Zenker's diverticulum (ZD) may be misdiagnosed on conventional ultrasound as a thyroid nodule or other lesion. A barium esophagram is usually used to confirm the diagnosis; however, this procedure exposes the patient to radiation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using swallow contrast-enhanced ultrasound (swallow-CEUS) to diagnose ZD. Ten consecutive patients with ZD (7 men and 3 women, aged 67 ± 11 y) were included in the study. In 4 patients, ZD was incidentally found on head and neck ultrasound, and in 6 patients, ZD was suspected because of dysphagia. All lesions could be detected on conventional ultrasound before swallow-CEUS. Ten healthy volunteers (8 men and 2 women, aged 60 ± 12 y) were chosen as a control group. Written informed consent was obtained. With the patient in the sitting or upright position, conventional ultrasound was performed first to image the lesion, then the patient was asked to swallow ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) (2-4 drops of SonoVue diluted with about 200 mL of tap water). Transity of the contrast agent in the esophagus was imaged with CEUS. Retention of the UCA in the diverticulum was monitored for at least 3 min. All patients underwent a barium esophagram as the gold standard. Swallow-CEUS revealed that in all patients (100%), the UCA was transported from the pharynx to the esophagus while the patient swallowed. ZD appeared as a pouch-shaped structure at the posterior pharyngo-esophageal junction that retained UCA longer than 3 min. The barium esophagram confirmed the diagnosis of ZD in all patients. For the 10 volunteers, no abnormal structure (retaining UCA) was detected during or after swallowing of UCA. With the advantages of no radiation and bedside availability, swallow-CEUS may become a method of choice in confirmation of the diagnosis of ZD, especially when ZD is suspected on conventional ultrasound. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier

  18. [Visualization of laryngopharynx during swallowing of negative contrast media (air) with cine mode 64-row MDCT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudeya, Taku; Otake, Shoichiro; Watabe, Hirotaka; Mitsuoka, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Akitoshi

    2010-05-20

    Video fluoroscopic examination of swallowing generally needs a contrast media such as a barium sulfate. Since the examination is usually performed in patients with dysphasia, there is a risk of aspiration. We tried to visualize the laryngopharynx during swallowing of negative contrast media (air) with 64-row multi-detector computed tomography (64-MDCT). Cine mode 64-MDCT was performed to visualize the laryngopharynx in 4 healthy volunteers during swallowing of negative contrast media (air). The data were converted to three-dimensional (3D) images of 2 conditions (air and bone) and sagittal images of the soft tissue condition at a workstation. These images were sent to a personal computer and modeled to 3D cine images with Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM) Viewer and Quick Time Player. 3D cine images demonstrated movements of the epiglottis, vallecula, piriform sinus, tongue, pharyngeal wall, hyoid bone and thyroid cartilage.

  19. Bank Swallow - Monitoring [ds6

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The data set represents the annual count of bank swallow burrows at nesting colonies located along the Sacramento River. The data set contains two databases which...

  20. Children with central and peripheral neurologic disorders have distinguishable patterns of dysphagia on videofluoroscopic swallow study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Engel-Hoek, Lenie; Erasmus, Corrie E; van Hulst, Karen C M; Arvedson, Joan C; de Groot, Imelda J M; de Swart, Bert J M

    2014-05-01

    To determine whether findings on videofluoroscopic swallow studies reveal different patterns of dysphagia between children with central and peripheral neurologic disorders, a retrospective study of 118 videofluoroscopic swallow studies was completed. There were 3 groups: cerebral palsy with only spastic features (n = 53), cerebral palsy with dyskinetic features (n = 34), and neuromuscular disorders (myotonic dystrophy I, n = 5; spinal muscular atrophy I-II, n = 8; Duchenne muscular dystrophy, n = 8; other neuromuscular disorder, n = 10). Interpretation of the videofluoroscopic swallow studies was not blinded. The video fluoroscopic swallow study findings were compared dichotomously between the groups. Children with cerebral palsy demonstrated dysphagia in 1 or all phases of swallowing. In neuromuscular disorder, muscle weakness results in pharyngeal residue after swallow. The underlying swallowing problem in neuromuscular disorder is muscle weakness whereas that in cerebral palsy is more complex, having to do with abnormal control of swallowing. This study serves as a first exploration on specific characteristics of swallowing in different neurologic conditions and will help clinicians anticipate what they might expect.

  1. Etiology and long-term functional swallow outcomes in pediatric unilateral vocal fold immobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, Kathleen M; Wu, Derek; Hsu, Jeffrey V; Burton, William B; Nassar, Michel; Tan, Melin

    2016-09-01

    Unilateral vocal fold immobility (UVFI) results in deficits in phonatory, respiratory, and swallow function of the pediatric patient. Little is known about long-term functional swallow outcomes. Medical records of children diagnosed with UVFI between 2005 and 2014 at a tertiary children's hospital were retrospectively reviewed. Etiology, laryngoscopy findings, and swallow status at diagnosis and follow-up were recorded. Swallow outcomes were compared by etiology using Fisher's exact test. McNemar's test was used to identify correlations between return of mobility and swallow recovery. Rates of pneumonia were compared with initial swallow evaluation results using a two-tailed t-test. Eighty-eight patients with UVFI were identified and 73 patients (47% female, mean age 14.4 months, standard deviation (SD) 26.7 months) had complete medical records. Mean follow up time was 52.7 months (SD 36.8 months). Etiologies included cardiothoracic surgery (68.5%), idiopathic (12.3%), prolonged intubation (11.0%), central nervous system (CNS) abnormality (5.5%), and non-cardiac iatrogenic injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve (2.7%). Forty-seven patients underwent a follow up laryngoscopy, and recovery of vocal fold (VF) mobility was documented in 42.6% (20/47). At diagnosis, 31.5% fed orally, compared with 79.5% at follow-up. Direct correlation between recovery of VF mobility and swallow recovery was not demonstrated. Cardiac etiologies demonstrated higher rates of swallow recovery than CNS abnormalities (p = 0.0393). Twenty-five children aspirated on initial modified barium swallow (MBS) and 10 children developed pneumonias at some point during the follow up period. There was no significant difference in rates of pneumonia in patients with and without aspiration on MBS. Recovery of swallow in children with UVFI does not directly parallel return of VF mobility. Long-term swallow outcome is favorable in this population. Initial MBS does not indicate ultimate swallow outcome

  2. Roosts and migrations of swallows

    OpenAIRE

    Winkler, David W.

    2006-01-01

    Swallows of the north temperate zone display a wide variety of territorial behaviour during the breeding season, but as soon as breeding is over, they all appear to adopt a pattern of independent diurnal foraging interleaved with aggregation every night in dense roosts. Swallows generally migrate during the day, feeding on the wing. On many stretches of their annual journeys, their migrations can thus be seen as the simple spatial translation of nocturnal roost sites with foraging routes stra...

  3. Isotopic exchange reaction between barium ion and tri barium phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilgin, G.B.; Cetin, I.

    1982-01-01

    Heterogeneous exchange reaction of tri barium phosphate in barium chloride solution has been studied using 133 Ba as a tracer. The results show that the exchange fraction increases as barium chloride concentration increases for different mole ratio of the exchange ion on the solid surface and in the solution. The phenomenon was studied with respect to the previous treatment of the precipitate leading to different crystal sizes and the effect of reaction time. (author)

  4. Immediate effect of laryngeal surface electrical stimulation on swallowing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Keizo; Hori, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Fujiu-Kurachi, Masako; Ono, Takahiro; Tsujimura, Takanori; Magara, Jin; Inoue, Makoto

    2018-01-01

    Surface electrical stimulation of the laryngeal region is used to improve swallowing in dysphagic patients. However, little is known about how electrical stimulation affects tongue movements and related functions. We investigated the effect of electrical stimulation on tongue pressure and hyoid movement, as well as suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscle activity, in 18 healthy young participants. Electrical stimulation (0.2-ms duration, 80 Hz, 80% of each participant's maximal tolerance) of the laryngeal region was applied. Each subject swallowed 5 ml of barium sulfate liquid 36 times at 10-s intervals. During the middle 2 min, electrical stimulation was delivered. Tongue pressure, electromyographic activity of the suprahyoid and infrahyoid muscles, and videofluorographic images were simultaneously recorded. Tongue pressure during stimulation was significantly lower than before or after stimulation and was significantly greater after stimulation than at baseline. Suprahyoid activity after stimulation was larger than at baseline, while infrahyoid muscle activity did not change. During stimulation, the position of the hyoid at rest was descended, the highest hyoid position was significantly inferior, and the vertical movement was greater than before or after stimulation. After stimulation, the positions of the hyoid at rest and at the maximum elevation were more superior than before stimulation. The deviation of the highest positions of the hyoid before and after stimulation corresponded to the differences in tongue pressures at those times. These results suggest that surface electrical stimulation applied to the laryngeal region during swallowing may facilitate subsequent hyoid movement and tongue pressure generation after stimulation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Surface electrical stimulation applied to the laryngeal region during swallowing may facilitate subsequent hyoid movement and tongue pressure generation after stimulation. Tongue muscles may contribute to overshot recovery

  5. Lithium in the barium stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsonneault, M.H.; Sneden, C.

    1984-01-01

    New high-resolution spectra of the lithium resonance doublet have provided lithium abundances or upper limits for 26 classical and mild barium stars. The lithium lines always are present in the classical barium stars. Lithium abundances in these stars obey a trend with stellar masses consistent with that previously derived for ordinary K giants. This supports the notion that classical barium stars are post-core-He-flash or core-He-burning stars. Lithium contents in the mild barium stars, however, often are much smaller than those of the classical barium stars sometimes only upper limits may be determined. The cause for this difference is not easily understood, but may be related to more extensive mass loss by the mild barium stars. 45 references

  6. Colonic transit time in patient with slow-transit constipation: Comparison of radiopaque markers and barium suspension method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Huimin [Department of General Surgery, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 8 Gongtina Lu, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100020 (China); Department of General Surgery, Weifang People' s Hospital, ShanDong Province 261041 (China); Han Jiagang [Department of General Surgery, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 8 Gongtina Lu, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100020 (China); Na Ying [Department of Medical Imaging, Weifang People' s Hospital, ShanDong Province 261041 (China); Zhao Bo; Ma Huachong [Department of General Surgery, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 8 Gongtina Lu, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100020 (China); Wang Zhenjun, E-mail: wang3zj@sohu.com [Department of General Surgery, Beijing Chaoyang Hospital, Capital Medical University, No. 8 Gongtina Lu, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100020 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Background: Colonic transit study provides valuable information before surgical treatment is considered for patient with constipation. The radiopaque markers method is the most common way for evaluating colon transit time. The aim of this study is to compare the barium suspension with the radiopaque makers to assess the colonic mobility in patient with constipation. Methods: Colonic transit time was measured in 11 female patients with slow-transit constipation using both radiopaque markers and barium suspension method. In radiopaque markers method, the patient ingested 20 markers on the first day, and an abdominal radiograph was performed every 24 h until 80% markers were excreted. In barium suspension method, the patient swallowed up to 50 ml of 200% (w/v) barium meal. The abdominal radiographs were taken at the same time point as the former. Results: The total or segmental colonic transit time were obviously prolonged in all patients. Segmental transits time spent in the right colon, left colon and rectosigmoid for radiopaque markers and barium suspension method was, respectively, 30 {+-} 6 h and 34 {+-} 7 h; 38 {+-} 9 h and 32 {+-} 6 h; 40 {+-} 8 h and 38 {+-} 10 h. In the radiopaque markers method, total colonic transit time was 108 {+-} 14 h and it was 103 {+-} 13 h in the barium suspension method (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The barium suspension and radiopaque markers gave the similar results for colonic transit time. The barium suspension was a simple and cheap method for evaluating the colonic mobility.

  7. Colonic transit time in patient with slow-transit constipation: Comparison of radiopaque markers and barium suspension method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Huimin; Han Jiagang; Na Ying; Zhao Bo; Ma Huachong; Wang Zhenjun

    2011-01-01

    Background: Colonic transit study provides valuable information before surgical treatment is considered for patient with constipation. The radiopaque markers method is the most common way for evaluating colon transit time. The aim of this study is to compare the barium suspension with the radiopaque makers to assess the colonic mobility in patient with constipation. Methods: Colonic transit time was measured in 11 female patients with slow-transit constipation using both radiopaque markers and barium suspension method. In radiopaque markers method, the patient ingested 20 markers on the first day, and an abdominal radiograph was performed every 24 h until 80% markers were excreted. In barium suspension method, the patient swallowed up to 50 ml of 200% (w/v) barium meal. The abdominal radiographs were taken at the same time point as the former. Results: The total or segmental colonic transit time were obviously prolonged in all patients. Segmental transits time spent in the right colon, left colon and rectosigmoid for radiopaque markers and barium suspension method was, respectively, 30 ± 6 h and 34 ± 7 h; 38 ± 9 h and 32 ± 6 h; 40 ± 8 h and 38 ± 10 h. In the radiopaque markers method, total colonic transit time was 108 ± 14 h and it was 103 ± 13 h in the barium suspension method (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The barium suspension and radiopaque markers gave the similar results for colonic transit time. The barium suspension was a simple and cheap method for evaluating the colonic mobility.

  8. Evaluation of swallowing ability using swallowing sounds in maxillectomy patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiyanagi, A; Sumita, Y; Ino, S; Chikai, M; Nakane, A; Tohara, H; Minakuchi, S; Seki, Y; Endo, H; Taniguchi, H

    2018-02-01

    Maxillectomy for oral tumours often results in debilitating oral hypofunction, which markedly decreases quality of life. Dysphagia, in particular, is one of the most serious problems following maxillectomy. This study used swallowing sounds as a simple evaluation method to evaluate swallowing ability in maxillectomy patients with and without their obturator prosthesis placed. Twenty-seven maxillectomy patients (15 men, 12 women; mean age 66.0 ± 12.1 years) and 30 healthy controls (14 men, 16 women; mean age 44.9 ± 21.3 years) were recruited for this study. Participants were asked to swallow 4 mL of water, and swallowing sounds were recorded using a throat microphone. Duration of the acoustic signal and duration of peak intensity (DPI) were measured. Duration of peak intensity was significantly longer in maxillectomy patients without their obturator than with it (P maxillectomy patients without their obturator than in healthy controls (P maxillectomy patients who had undergone soft palate resection than in those who had not (P maxillectomy patients could be improved by wearing an obturator prosthesis, particularly during the oral stage. However, it is difficult to improve the oral stage of swallowing in patients who have undergone soft palate resection even with obturator placement. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The impact of digital imaging on patient doses during barium studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broadhead, D.A.; Chapple, C.-L.; Faulkner, K.

    1995-01-01

    Barium studies performed on 10 digital and four non-digital fluoroscopic systems were monitored with dose-area product meters as part of a Regional Patient Dosimetry Audit programme. The data have been collected using a computer to read and reset the dose-area product meter and also to collect patient and examination details. A comparison of dose-area product measurements from digital and non-digital fluoroscopy units on over 10 000 barium studies is presented. The data have been corrected according to patient size. The mean size corrected dose-area product for a barium meal examination was found to be 7.62 Gy cm -2 for a digital set compared with 15.45 Gy cm -2 for a non-digital set with 2462 and 1308 patients included in each measurement series, respectively. Dose-area products were also a factor of approximately two lower for barium enema, barium swallow and barium follow-through examinations performed on digital systems. (author)

  10. Swallowing disorders after ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Camargo Remesso

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate occurrences of swallowing disorders after ischemic stroke. METHOD: This was a retrospective study on 596 medical files. The inclusion criterion was that the patients needed to have been hospitalized with a diagnosis of ischemic stroke; the exclusion criteria were the presence of associated cardiac problems and hospital stay already more than 14 days. RESULTS: 50.5% were men and 49.5% women; mean age 65.3 years (SD=±11.7 (p<0.001. Among the risk factors, 79.4% had hypertension, 36.7% had diabetes (p<0.001 and 42.7% were smokers. 13.3% of the patients died. Swallowing disorders occurred in 19.6%, among whom 91.5% had mild difficulty and 8.5% had severe difficulty. 87.1% had spontaneous recovery after a mean of 2.4 months. A lesion in the brainstem region occurred in 6.8% (p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Swallowing disorders occurred in almost 20% of the population and most of the difficulty in swallowing found was mild. The predictors for swallowing disorders were older age, diabetes mellitus and lesions in the brainstem region.

  11. Surface studies of barium and barium oxide on tungsten and its application to understanding the mechanism of operation of an impregnated tungsten cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, R.

    1976-01-01

    Surface studies have been made of multilayer and monolayer films of barium and barium oxide on a tungsten substrate. The purpose of the investigation was to synthesize the surface conditions that exist on an activated impregnated tungsten cathode and obtain a better understanding of the mechanism of operation of such cathodes. The techniques employed in these measurements were Auger spectroscopy and work-function measurements. The results of this study show that the surface of an impregnated cathode is identical to that observed for a synthesized monolayer or partial monolayer of barium on oxidized tungsten by evaluating Auger spectra and work-function measurements. Data obtained from desorption studies of barium monolayers on a tungsten substrate in conjunction with Auger and work-function results have been interpreted to show that throughout most of its life an impreganated cathode has a partial monolayer, rather than a monolayer, of barium on its surface.

  12. Barium uranyl diphosphonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Anna-Gay D., E-mail: nelsoa@umich.edu [Department of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1005 (United States); Alekseev, Evgeny V. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-6), Forschungszentrum Juelich Wilhelm-Johnen-Strasse, Juelich 52428 (Germany); Ewing, Rodney C. [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1005 (United States); Albrecht-Schmitt, Thomas E. [Department of Civil Engineering and Geological Sciences and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Three Ba{sup 2+}/UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} methylenediphosphonates have been prepared from mild hydrothermal treatment of uranium trioxide, methylendiphosphonic acid (C1P2) with barium hydroxide octahydrate, barium iodate monohydrate, and small aliquots of HF at 200 Degree-Sign C. These compounds, Ba[UO{sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{center_dot}1.4H{sub 2}O (Ba-1), Ba{sub 3}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 4}(CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 2}F{sub 6}]{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O (Ba-2), and Ba{sub 2}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 2}(CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2})F{sub 4}]{center_dot}5.75H{sub 2}O (Ba-3) all adopt layered structures based upon linear uranyl groups and disphosphonate molecules. Ba-2 and Ba-3 are similar in that they both have UO{sub 5}F{sub 2} pentagonal bipyramids that are bridged and chelated by the diphosphonate moiety into a two-dimensional zigzag anionic sheet (Ba-2) and a one-dimensional ribbon anionic chain (Ba-3). Ba-1, has a single crystallographically unique uranium metal center where the C1P2 ligand solely bridges to form [UO{sub 2}[CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}]{sup 2-} sheets. The interlayer space of the structures is occupied by Ba{sup 2+}, which, along with the fluoride ion, mediates the structure formed and maintains overall charge balance. - Graphical abstract: Illustration of the stacking of the layers in Ba{sub 3}[(UO{sub 2}){sub 4}(CH{sub 2}(PO{sub 3}){sub 2}){sub 2})F{sub 6}]{center_dot}6H{sub 2}O viewed along the c-axis. The structure is constructed from UO{sub 7} pentagonal bipyramidal units, U(1)O{sub 7}=gray, U(2)O{sub 7}=yellow, barium=blue, phosphorus=magenta, fluorine=green, oxygen=red, carbon=black, and hydrogen=light peach. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The polymerization of the UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} sites to form uranyl dimers leads to structural variations in compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Barium cations stitch uranyl diphosphonate anionic layers together, and help mediate structure formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HF acts as both a

  13. Standardization of a Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study Protocol to Investigate Dysphagia in Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, R A; Grobman, M E; Allen, M J; Schachtel, J; Rawson, N E; Bennett, B; Ledyayev, J; Hopewell, B; Coates, J R; Reinero, C R; Lever, T E

    2017-03-01

    Videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) is the gold standard for diagnosis of dysphagia in veterinary medicine but lacks standardized protocols that emulate physiologic feeding practices. Age impacts swallow function in humans but has not been evaluated by VFSS in dogs. To develop a protocol with custom kennels designed to allow free-feeding of 3 optimized formulations of contrast media and diets that address limitations of current VFSS protocols. We hypothesized that dogs evaluated by a free-feeding VFSS protocol would show differences in objective swallow metrics based on age. Healthy juvenile, adult, and geriatric dogs (n = 24). Prospective, experimental study. Custom kennels were developed to maintain natural feeding behaviors during VFSS. Three food consistencies (thin liquid, pureed food, and dry kibble) were formulated with either iohexol or barium to maximize palatability and voluntary prehension. Dogs were evaluated by 16 swallow metrics and compared across age groups. Development of a standardized VFSS protocol resulted in successful collection of swallow data in healthy dogs. No significant differences in swallow metrics were observed among age groups. Substantial variability was observed in healthy dogs when evaluated under these physiologic conditions. Features typically attributed to pathologic states, such as gastric reflux, were seen in healthy dogs. Development of a VFSS protocol that reflects natural feeding practices may allow emulation of physiology resulting in clinical signs of dysphagia. Age did not result in significant changes in swallow metrics, but additional studies are needed, particularly in light of substantial normal variation. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  14. Use of fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) in the management of psychogenic dysphagia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thottam, Prasad John; Silva, Rodrigo C; McLevy, Jennifer D; Simons, Jeffrey P; Mehta, Deepak K

    2015-02-01

    To describe the use of fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) as an adjunct in the management of children presenting with psychogenic dysphagia, defined as food avoidance and excessive fear of eating without identifiable anatomic or functional swallowing abnormalities. Case series of patients presenting to the otolaryngology clinic of a tertiary pediatric teaching hospital between 2007 and 2008 that were evaluated and managed with the utilization of FEES. The outcomes measured were age, gender, duration of symptoms, findings of FEES, additional work-up and resolution of symptoms at follow-up. Five patients (4 males, 1 female) with ages ranging from 5 to 13 years old (mean=8.6). The median duration of symptoms before presentation was 3 weeks. Four families described refusal of solids starting after choking episode and variable estimated weight loss (mean 2.8kg). One child presented with vague complaints of intermittent odynophagia and food refusal. Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing was performed on all patients. No abnormalities of the oropharyngeal swallow were appreciated. Additional management included different combinations of modified barium swallow study, esophagastroduodenoscopy (EGD), upper GI series, antibiotics, and psychotherapy. Mean follow-up with clinic visit was 4.2 months. Three of the five children reported complete resolution of symptoms after FEES at follow-up visit. Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing can be a useful management tool in children with psychogenic dysphagia as it provides direct visualization of the oropharyngeal swallowing mechanism. This can be used to provide visual reassure and biofeedback to patients and parents. Additional workup should be decided on an individual basis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Swallowing disorders in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamolar Andrés, Sandra; Santamarina Rabanal, María Liliana; Granda Membiela, Carla María; Fernández Gutiérrez, María José; Sirgo Rodríguez, Paloma; Álvarez Marcos, César

    Parkinson's disease is a type of chronic neurodegenerative pathology with a typical movement pattern, as well as different, less studied symptoms such as dysphagia. Disease-related disorders in efficacy or safety in the process of swallowing usually lead to malnutrition, dehydration or pneumonias. The aim of this study was identifying and analyzing swallowing disorders in Parkinson's disease. The initial sample consisted of 52 subjects with Parkinson's disease to whom the specific test for dysphagia SDQ was applied. Nineteen participants (36.5%) with some degree of dysphagia in the SDQ test were selected to be evaluated by volume-viscosity clinical exploration method and fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing. Disorders in swallowing efficiency and safety were detected in 94.7% of the selected sample. With regards to efficiency, disorders were found in food transport (89.5%), insufficient labial closing (68.4%) and oral residues (47.4%), relating to duration of ingestion. Alterations in security were also observed: pharynx residues (52.7%), coughing (47.4%), penetration (31.64%), aspiration and decrease of SaO 2 (5.3%), relating to the diagnosis of respiratory pathology in the previous year. The SDQ test detected swallowing disorders in 36.5% of the subjects with Parkinson's disease. Disorders in swallowing efficiency and safety were demonstrated in 94.7% of this subset. Disorders of efficiency were more frequent than those of safety, establishing a relationship with greater time in ingestion and the appearance of respiratory pathology and pneumonias. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  16. Barium toxicosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Fiona H; Noble, Peter J M; Swift, Simon T; Higgins, Brent M; Sieniawska, Christine E

    2010-09-01

    A 2-year-old 14.9-kg (32.8-lb) neutered female Shetland Sheepdog was admitted to the University of Liverpool Small Animal Teaching Hospital for evaluation of acute collapse. At admission, the dog was tachypneic and had reduced limb reflexes and muscle tone in all limbs consistent with diffuse lower motor neuron dysfunction. The dog was severely hypokalemic (1.7 mEq/L; reference range, 3.5 to 5.8 mEq/L). Clinical status of the dog deteriorated; there was muscle twitching, flaccid paralysis, and respiratory failure, which was considered a result of respiratory muscle weakness. Ventricular arrhythmias and severe acidemia (pH, 7.18; reference range, 7.35 to 7.45) developed. Intoxication was suspected, and plasma and urine samples submitted for barium analysis had barium concentrations comparable with those reported in humans with barium toxicosis. Analysis of barium concentrations in 5 control dogs supported the diagnosis of barium toxicosis in the dog. Fluids and potassium supplementation were administered IV. The dog recovered rapidly. Electrolyte concentrations measured after recovery were consistently unremarkable. Quantification of plasma barium concentration 56 days after the presumed episode of intoxication revealed a large decrease; however, the plasma barium concentration remained elevated, compared with that in control dogs. To our knowledge, this case represented the first description of barium toxicosis in the veterinary literature. Barium toxicosis can cause life-threatening hypokalemia; however, prompt supportive treatment can yield excellent outcomes. Barium toxicosis is a rare but important differential diagnosis in animals with hypokalemia and appropriate clinical signs.

  17. On barium oxide solubility in barium-containing chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaeva, Elena V.; Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Bovet, Andrey L.; Korzun, Iraida V.

    2016-01-01

    Oxide solubility in chloride melts depends on temperature and composition of molten solvent. The solubility of barium oxide in the solvents with barium chloride content is essentially higher than that in molten alkali chlorides. Spectral data demonstrate the existence of oxychloride ionic groupings in such melts. This work presents the results of the BaO solubility in two molten BaCl 2 -NaCl systems with different barium chloride content. The received data together with earlier published results revealed the main regularities of BaO solubility in molten BaO-BaCl 2 -MCl systems.

  18. Pregnancy outcome after 1st-trimester inadvertent exposure to barium sulphate as a contrast media for upper gastrointestinal tract radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, B H; Lee, K S; Han, J Y; Choi, J S; Ahn, H K; Ryu, H M; Yang, J H; Han, H W; Nava-Ocampo, A A

    2011-10-01

    Despite barium being used as a contrast media for decades, the specific assessment of its safety in pregnant women is scarce. We are reporting the favourable pregnancy outcome in women who were inadvertently exposed to barium swallow and associated ionising radiation, early in pregnancy. A control group of age- and gravidity-matched unexposed pregnant women was also included. There were 32 live-born babies in the exposed group and 94 in the control group. Women had undergone diagnostic upper gastrointestinal tract (UGT) fluoroscopic examination at 3.3 ± 1.5 weeks' gestation. Estimated maternal radiation dose secondary to barium swallow varied widely, the maximum dose was estimated to be 2.45 mSv. Similar pregnancy outcomes were observed between the groups. The number of babies born with major malformations was not significantly different (p = 1.0) between cases and controls: one (3.1%) vs three (3.2%), respectively. In conclusion, our small prospective cohort study of women suggests no association between inadvertent exposure to ionising radiation and barium sulphate during fluoroscopic barium swallow and adverse fetal outcomes.

  19. Effect of posture on swallowing.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ertekin C, Keskin A, Kiylioglu N, Kirazli Y, On AY,. Tarlaci S, et al. The effect of head and neck positions on oropharyngeal swallowing: a clinical and electrophysio- logic study. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilita- tion. 2001;829:1255-60. Epub 2001/09/12. 17. Logemann JA, Pauloski BR, Rademaker AW, Kahrilas.

  20. Reaction between barium and nitrogen in liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addison, C.C.; Pulham, R.J.; Trevillion, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    Nitrogen in increasing amounts has been added to separate solutions of barium in sodium of constant composition (ca.4.40 mol % Ba) at 300 0 C. After rendering each mixture homogenous using an electromagnetic pump, filtration, and nitrogen analysis, all the N 2 added has been found in solution up to a solution composition approximating to Ba 4 N (i.e. 1.1 mol % N) beyond which the quantity of dissolved N 2 decreases progressively due to precipitation of the nitride Ba 2 N. The solubilization is interpreted in terms of strong preferential solvation of the nitride ion by barium cations. (author)

  1. MR Colonography with fecal tagging: Barium vs. barium ferumoxsil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, M.P.; Chabanova, E.; Logager, V.B.

    2008-01-01

    and Methods. Twenty patients referred to CC underwent dark lumen MRC prior to the colonoscopy. Two groups of patients received two different oral contrast agents (barium sulfate and barium sulfate/ferumoxsil) as a laxative-free fecal tagging prior to the MRC. After MRC, the contrast agent was rated...... qualitatively (with the standard method using contrast-to-wall ratio) and subjectively (using a visual analog scale [VAS]) by three different blinded observers. Results. Evaluated both qualitatively and subjectively, the tagging efficiency of barium sulfate/ferumoxsil was significantly better (P ... barium sulfate alone. The VAS method for evaluating the tagging efficiency of contrast agents showed a high correlation (observer 11, r = 0.91) to the standard method using contrast-to-wall ratio and also a high interclass correlation (observer 11 and III = 0.89/0.85). MRC found I of 22 (5%) polyps

  2. Barium aluminate cement: its application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdz, M.; Wolek, W.

    1975-01-01

    The technology of manufacturing barium aluminate cement from barium sulfate and alumina, using a rotary kiln for firing the clinker is described. The method of granulation of the homogenized charge was used. Conditions of using the ''to mud'' method in industry were indicated. The physical and chemical properties of barium aluminate cement are determined and the quality of several batches of cement prepared on a semi-industrial scale and their suitability for making highly refractory concretes are tested. The optimal composition of the concretes is determined as a function of the mixing water and barium aluminate cement contents. Several experimental batches of concretes were used in the linings of furnaces in the steel industry. The suitability of these cements for use in fields other than steelmaking is examined. It is established that calcium aluminate cement has certain limited applications [fr

  3. INFLUENCE OF AGE ON SWALLOWS OF A HIGHLY VISCOUS LIQUID BOLUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weslania Viviane NASCIMENTO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Swallow function has a decline with aging, mainly in those over 80 years old. In the population over 69 years, about 11% of subjects reported symptoms indicative of significant dysphagia. Objectives Our objective was to evaluate the hypothesis that older asymptomatic subjects before 80 years old have compensations to sustain a safe and efficient swallow, at least with swallows of liquid bolus. Methods We performed videofluoroscopic evaluation of swallows in 55 normal volunteers, a younger group with 33 subjects (16 men and 17 women aged 19 to 55 years, mean 35.5±9.8 years, and an older group with 22 subjects (15 men and 7 women aged 56 to 77 years, mean 64.8±6.8 years. The subjects swallowed in duplicate 5 mL and 10 mL of liquid barium with a pH of 7.9, density of 1.82 g/cm3, and viscosity of 895 cp. Results The mean duration of pharyngeal transit, pharyngeal clearance, upper esophageal sphincter opening, hyoid movement and oral-pharyngeal transit were longer in the younger group compared with the older group. The relation between pharyngeal clearance duration and hyoid movement duration was similar in younger and older subjects, for 5 mL and 10 mL bolus volumes. Conclusions On average, a highly viscous liquid bolus crosses the pharynx faster in older subjects (56-77 years old than in younger subjects (19-55 years old, which suggested an adaptation to the aging process to maintain a safe swallow.

  4. A Novel Imaging Analysis Method for Capturing Pharyngeal Constriction During Swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwertner, Ryan W; Garand, Kendrea L; Pearson, William G

    2016-01-01

    Videofluoroscopic imaging of swallowing known as the Modified Barium Study (MBS) is the standard of care for assessing swallowing difficulty. While the clinical purpose of this radiographic imaging is to primarily assess aspiration risk, valuable biomechanical data is embedded in these studies. Computational analysis of swallowing mechanics (CASM) is an established research methodology for assessing multiple interactions of swallowing mechanics based on coordinates mapping muscle function including hyolaryngeal movement, pharyngeal shortening, tongue base retraction, and extension of the head and neck, however coordinates characterizing pharyngeal constriction is undeveloped. The aim of this study was to establish a method for locating the superior and middle pharyngeal constrictors using hard landmarks as guides on MBS videofluoroscopic imaging, and to test the reliability of this new method. Twenty de-identified, normal, MBS videos were randomly selected from a database. Two raters annotated landmarks for the superior and middle pharyngeal constrictors frame-by-frame using a semi-automated MATLAB tracker tool at two time points. Intraclass correlation coefficients were used to assess test-retest reliability between two raters with an ICC = 0.99 or greater for all coordinates for the retest measurement. MorphoJ integrated software was used to perform a discriminate function analysis to visualize how all 12 coordinates interact with each other in normal swallowing. The addition of the superior and middle pharyngeal constrictor coordinates to CASM allows for a robust analysis of the multiple components of swallowing mechanics interacting with a wide range of variables in both patient specific and cohort studies derived from common use imaging data.

  5. Statistical properties of barium stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, J.E.

    1986-01-01

    Barium stars are G- and K-giant stars with atmospheric excesses of s-process elements, and a broadband spectral depression in the blue portion of the spectrum. The strength of the λ4554 Ball line is used as a classification parameter known as the Barium Intensity. They have a mean absolute magnitude of 1.0 and a dispersion of 1.2 magnitudes (assuming a Gaussian distribution in absolute magnitude) as measured from secular and statistical parallaxes. These stars apparently belong to a young-disk population from analyses of both the solar reflex motion and their residual velocity distribution, which implies that they have an upper mass limit of around three solar masses. There is no apparent correlation of barium intensity with either luminosity or kinematic properties. The barium stars appear to be preferentially distributed in the direction of the local spiral arm, but show no preference to associate with or avoid the direction of the galactic center. They do not appear related to either the carbon or S-stars because of these tendencies and because of the stellar population to which each type of star belongs. The distribution in absolute magnitude combined with star count analyses implies that these stars are slightly less numerous than previously believed. Barium stars show infrared excesses that correlate with their barium intensities

  6. Barium light source method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, John J. (Inventor); MacDonagh-Dumler, Jeffrey (Inventor); Anderson, Heidi M. (Inventor); Lawler, James E. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Visible light emission is obtained from a plasma containing elemental barium including neutral barium atoms and barium ion species. Neutral barium provides a strong green light emission in the center of the visible spectrum with a highly efficient conversion of electrical energy into visible light. By the selective excitation of barium ionic species, emission of visible light at longer and shorter wavelengths can be obtained simultaneously with the green emission from neutral barium, effectively providing light that is visually perceived as white. A discharge vessel contains the elemental barium and a buffer gas fill therein, and a discharge inducer is utilized to induce a desired discharge temperature and barium vapor pressure therein to produce from the barium vapor a visible light emission. The discharge can be induced utilizing a glow discharge between electrodes in the discharge vessel as well as by inductively or capacitively coupling RF energy into the plasma within the discharge vessel.

  7. Swallowing Dysfunctions in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Janine A

    2017-01-01

    Dysphagia is a very frequent and highly relevant symptom in Parkinson's disease (PD) for quality of life, morbidity, and remaining lifetime, which is unfortunately widely underdiagnosed and underestimated regarding patients' centered care. Especially in early stages, the causal association between disease and swallowing disabilities remains unnoticed, which may be accounted for by the inability of caregivers and physicians to detect subtle swallowing problems and by the low self-awareness among PD patients. In order to prevent patients from serious negative consequences for health issues (e.g., aspiration pneumonia or malnutrition) as well as for negative impact on their quality of life, it is on the highest importance of managing dysphagia timely and working closely together in a multidisciplinary team, who all are involved in the patients' care system. This chapter includes background information on epidemiology, pathophysiology, and symptomatology of swallowing disorders in PD. This is followed by a summary of the clinical course and health treats, adequate diagnostic procedures for early identification of dysphagia as well as effective treatment strategies. The conclusion provides recommendations for clinical practice routine. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Automatic discrimination between safe and unsafe swallowing using a reputation-based classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikjoo Mohammad S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Swallowing accelerometry has been suggested as a potential non-invasive tool for bedside dysphagia screening. Various vibratory signal features and complementary measurement modalities have been put forth in the literature for the potential discrimination between safe and unsafe swallowing. To date, automatic classification of swallowing accelerometry has exclusively involved a single-axis of vibration although a second axis is known to contain additional information about the nature of the swallow. Furthermore, the only published attempt at automatic classification in adult patients has been based on a small sample of swallowing vibrations. Methods In this paper, a large corpus of dual-axis accelerometric signals were collected from 30 older adults (aged 65.47 ± 13.4 years, 15 male referred to videofluoroscopic examination on the suspicion of dysphagia. We invoked a reputation-based classifier combination to automatically categorize the dual-axis accelerometric signals into safe and unsafe swallows, as labeled via videofluoroscopic review. From these participants, a total of 224 swallowing samples were obtained, 164 of which were labeled as unsafe swallows (swallows where the bolus entered the airway and 60 as safe swallows. Three separate support vector machine (SVM classifiers and eight different features were selected for classification. Results With selected time, frequency and information theoretic features, the reputation-based algorithm distinguished between safe and unsafe swallowing with promising accuracy (80.48 ± 5.0%, high sensitivity (97.1 ± 2% and modest specificity (64 ± 8.8%. Interpretation of the most discriminatory features revealed that in general, unsafe swallows had lower mean vibration amplitude and faster autocorrelation decay, suggestive of decreased hyoid excursion and compromised coordination, respectively. Further, owing to its performance-based weighting of component classifiers, the static

  9. Barium and iron abundances in red giants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Villacanas, J.L.; Rego, M.; Cornide, M.

    1990-01-01

    An intermediate-dispersion abundance analysis has been carried out on a sample of 21 barium and 14 comparison stars. The excess of barium over iron has been used as the most representative indicator of peculiarity. These excesses are higher in the peculiar stars than in the nonpeculiar stars. Particularly interesting is the case of HD 67447, included in the comparison stars, with an excess Ba/Fe abundance = 1.61, probably a new barium star. A trend indicating a possible anticorrelation between barium overabundance and metallicity favors the suggestion that the barium strong group is older than the barium weak one. 36 refs

  10. Pediatric feeding and swallowing rehabilitation: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Engel-Hoek, Lenie; Harding, Celia; van Gerven, Marjo; Cockerill, Helen

    2017-05-16

    Children with neurological disabilities frequently have problems with feeding and swallowing. Such problems have a significant impact on the health and well-being of these children and their families. The primary aims in the rehabilitation of pediatric feeding and swallowing disorders are focused on supporting growth, nutrition and hydration, the development of feeding activities, and ensuring safe swallowing with the aim of preventing choking and aspiration pneumonia. Pediatric feeding and swallowing disorders can be divided into four groups: transient, developmental, chronic or progressive.This article provides an overview of the available literature about the rehabilitation of feeding and swallowing disorders in infants and children. Principles of motor control, motor learning and neuroplasticity are discussed for the four groups of children with feeding and swallowing disorders.

  11. Preliminary Evaluation of the Pathomechanisms of Dysphagia After Occipitospinal Fusion: Kinematic Analysis by Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneyama, Shuichi; Sumi, Masatoshi; Takabatake, Masato; Kasahara, Koichi; Kanemura, Aritetsu; Koh, Akihiro; Hirata, Hiroaki

    2016-12-01

    Kinematic analysis of swallowing function using videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS). The aims of this study were to analyze swallowing process in the patients who underwent occipitospinal fusion (OSF) and elucidate the pathomechanism of dysphagia after OSF. Although several hypotheses about the pathomechanisms of dysphagia after OSF were suggested, there has been little tangible evidence to support these hypotheses since these hypotheses were based on the analysis of static radiogram or CT. Considering that swallowing is a compositive motion of oropharyngeal structures, the etiology of postoperative dysphagia should be investigated through kinematic approaches. Each four patients with or without postoperative dysphagia (group D and N, respectively) participated in this study. For VFSS, all patients were monitored to swallow 5-mL diluted barium solution by fluoroscopy, and then dynamic passing pattern of the barium solution was analyzed. Additionally, O-C2 angle (O-C2A) was measured for the assessment of craniocervical alignment. O-C2A in group D was -7.5 degrees, which was relatively smaller than 10.3 degrees in group N (P = 0.07). In group D, all cases presented smooth medium passing without any obstruction at the upper cervical level regardless of O-C2A, whereas the obstruction to the passage of medium was detected at the apex of mid-lower cervical ocurvature, where the anterior protrusion of mid-lower cervical spine compressed directly the pharyngeal space. In group N, all cases showed smooth passing of medium through the whole process of swallowing. This study presented that postoperative dysphagia did not occur at the upper cervical level even though there was smaller angle of O-C2A and demonstrated the narrowing of the oropharyngeal space towing to direct compression by the anterior protrusion of mid-lower cervical spine was the etiology of dysphagia after OSF. Therefore, surgeon should pay attention to the alignment of mid-cervical spine as well as

  12. Comparison of swallowing outcomes of laryngotracheal separation versus total laryngectomy in a validated ovine model of profound oropharyngeal dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, N N; Johnson, C M; Siddiqui, M T; Cates, D J; Kuhn, M A; Postma, G N; Belafsky, P C

    2017-04-01

    To validate the ovine model of profound oropharyngeal dysphagia and compare swallowing outcomes of laryngotracheal separation with those of total laryngectomy. Under real-time fluoroscopy, swallowing trials were conducted using the head and neck of two Dorper cross ewes and one human cadaver, secured in lateral fluoroscopic orientation. Barium trials were administered at baseline, pre- and post-laryngohyoid suspension, following laryngotracheal separation, and following laryngectomy in the ovine model. Mean pre-intervention Penetration Aspiration Scale and National Institutes of Health Swallow Safety Scale scores were 8 ± 0 and 6 ± 0 respectively in sheep and human cadavers, with 100 per cent intra- and inter-species reproducibility. These scores improved to 1 ± 0 and 2 ± 0 post-laryngohyoid suspension (p < 0.01). Aerodigestive tract residue was 18.6 ± 2.4 ml at baseline, 15.4 ± 3.8 ml after laryngotracheal separation and 3.0 ± 0.7 ml after total laryngectomy (p < 0.001). The ovine model displayed perfect intra- and inter- species reliability for the Penetration Aspiration Scale and Swallow Safety Scale. Less aerodigestive tract residue after narrow-field laryngectomy suggests that swallowing outcomes after total laryngectomy are superior to those after laryngotracheal separation.

  13. How do tablet properties influence swallowing behaviours?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Shinya; Taniguchi, Hiroshige; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Hori, Kazuhiro; Tsujimura, Takanori; Nakamura, Yuki; Sato, Hideaki; Inoue, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Behavioural performance of tablet swallowing was evaluated with different tablet conditions in terms of size, number and surface coating. Four different types of tablets were prepared: small or large, and with or without a surface coating. Fourteen normal male adults were instructed to swallow the prepared tablets with 15 ml of water. The number of tablets in one trial was changed from one to three. To evaluate swallowing and tablet transport, electromyographic activity was recorded in the left suprahyoid muscles, and videofluorographic images were examined. All tablet conditions (size, number and surface coating) affected the swallowing performance in terms of total number of swallows, electromyographic burst patterns and location of remaining tablets. Increases in the size and number of tablets increased the number of swallows and electromyographic burst area and duration. In addition, all of these parameters increased while swallowing tablets without a coating compared with tablets with a coating. Location of the remaining tablets was mainly within the mouth. This study only clarified the normal pattern of tablet swallowing under several conditions in healthy subjects, but the results may facilitate comprehensive evaluation and treatment planning in terms of administering medication to dysphagic patients. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  14. How does esophagus look on barium esophagram in pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hussaini, Abdulrahman; AboZeid, Amany; Hai, Abdul

    2016-08-01

    The clinical, endoscopic, and histologic findings of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) are well characterized; however, there have been very limited data regarding the radiologic findings of pediatric EoE. We report on the radiologic findings of pediatric EoE observed on barium esophagram and correlate them with the endoscopic findings. We identified children diagnosed with EoE in our center from 2004 to 2015. Two pediatric radiologists met after their independent evaluations of each fluoroscopic study to reach a consensus on each case. Clinical and endoscopic data were collected by retrospective chart review. Twenty-six pediatric EoE cases (age range 2-13 years; median 7.5 years) had barium esophagram done as part of the diagnostic approach for dysphagia. Thirteen children had abnormal radiologic findings of esophagus (50%): rings formation (n = 4), diffuse irregularity of mucosa (n = 8), fixed stricture formation (n = 3), and narrow-caliber esophagus (n = 10). Barium esophagram failed to show one of 10 cases of narrow-caliber esophagus and 10 of 14 cases of rings formation visualized endoscopically. The mean duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis of EoE was longer (3.7 vs. 1.7 year; p value 0.019), and the presentation with intermittent food impaction was commoner in the group with abnormal barium esophagram as compared to the group with normal barium esophagram (69% vs. 8%; p value 0.04). Barium swallow study is frequently normal in pediatric EoE. With the exception of narrow-caliber esophagus, our data show poor correlation between radiologic and endoscopic findings.

  15. Oesophageal narrowing on barium oesophagram is more common in adult patients with eosinophilic oesophagitis than PPI-responsive oesophageal eosinophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podboy, A; Katzka, D A; Enders, F; Larson, J J; Geno, D; Kryzer, L; Alexander, J

    2016-06-01

    To date there have been no clear features that aid in differentiating patients with eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) from PPI-responsive oesophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE). However, barium swallow roentgenography is a more sensitive and specific measure to detect subtle fibrostenotic remodeling changes present in EoE. We aim to characterise any clinical, endoscopic, histiological or barium roentgenographic differences between EoE and PPI-REE. To characterise any clinical, endoscopic, histiological or barium roentgenographic differences between EoE and PPI-REE. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis on data collected from a tertiary referral centre population from 2010 to 2015. Data from 66 patients with EoE and 28 patients with PPI-REE were analysed. Cases were adults who met consensus guidelines for EOE, and had a barium swallow study within 6 months of the index endoscopy. Clinical, endoscopic, histiological and barium swallow findings were collected. Patients with EoE reported similar characteristics as PPI-REE patients, except EoE patients were younger (35.6 vs. 46.6 years; P = 0.011), had earlier symptom onset (29.0 vs. 38.0 years; P = 0.026), and smaller oesophageal diameters on barium swallow (19.5 mm vs. 20; P = 0.042). Patients with EoE were more likely to have distal strictures (EoE 77% vs. 25%; P = 0.02) and, importantly, a greater likelihood of small calibre oesophagus (51.5% vs. 17.9%; P = 0.002). Moreover, EoE patients had a higher probability of developing small calibre oesophagus after 20 years of symptoms (72.3% vs. 30.2%; P = 0.074) compared to PPI-REE patients. When compared with eosinophilic oesophagitis, PPI-REE patients demonstrate findings that suggest PPI-responsive oesophageal eosinophilia to be a later onset, less aggressive form of oesophageal stricturing disease than eosinophilic oesophagitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Inconceivable Hypokalemia: A Case Report of Acute Severe Barium Chloride Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Tao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium is a heavy divalent alkaline earth metal that has been known as a muscle poison. Barium can cause human toxicity, which may lead to significant hypokalemia and have serious consequences. This paper reports a case of unprecedented barium intoxication in which the patient, who suffered from depression, swallowed at least 3.0 g barium chloride to commit suicide. On admission, the patient presented with nausea, vomiting, stomach burning feeling, dizziness, and weakness. Emergency biochemical testing showed that the patient was suffering from severe hypokalemia (K+ 1.7 mmol/L. His electrocardiogram (ECG prompted atrioventricular blocking, ventricular tachycardia, prolongation of PR interval, ST segment depression with U waves, and T wave inversion. Intravenous potassium supplements were given immediately to correct hypokalemia and regular monitoring of vital signs and fluid balance was arranged. After all-out rescue of our hospital personnel, the condition of the patient is currently stable and he is gradually recovering. This case exemplifies the weaknesses of the management of toxic substances and the lack of mental health education for young people. We hope to get more attention for the supervision of toxic substances and the healthy development of young people.

  17. Patient dose variation investigated in four Irish hospitals for barium meal and barium enema examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carroll, E.; Brennan, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    Four hospitals have been studied, intra- and inter-hospital variations examined and the mean DAP values recorded for barium enemas and barium meals. Mean DAP values for barium meals and barium enemas at 11.4 Gy.cm 2 and 20.1 Gy.cm 2 respectively have been shown. Differences between individual examinations for barium meals varied by up to a factor of 185 and for barium enemas, up to a factor of 19, with hospital means for barium meal and enema examinations each differing by up to a factor of 3. The data provided by this study have suggested that large variations in patient dose do exist in Ireland for barium meal and barium enema examinations. Fluoroscopy time was shown to be a major contributor to the variations reported, with number of images playing a minor role. Results have demonstrated the need for standardisation of technique throughout the country for these examinations. (author)

  18. Immediate effects of thermal-tactile stimulation on timing of swallow in idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Julie; Walshe, Margaret; Tobin, W Oliver

    2010-09-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia frequently presents in people with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). Clinical sequelae of dysphagia in this group include weight loss and aspiration pneumonia, the latter of which is the leading cause of hospital admissions and death in IPD. Thermal-tactile stimulation (TTS) is a sensory technique whereby stimulation is provided to the anterior faucial pillars to speed up the pharyngeal swallow. The effects of TTS on swallowing have not yet been investigated in IPD. The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of TTS on the timing of swallow in a cohort of people with IPD and known oropharyngeal dysphagia. Thirteen participants with IPD and known dysphagia attended for videofluoroscopy during which standardised volumes of liquid barium and barium paste were administered preceding and immediately subsequent to TTS. The immediate effects of TTS on swallowing were examined using oral, pharyngeal, and total transit times and pharyngeal delay times as outcome measures. TTS significantly reduced median pharyngeal transit time on fluids (0.20 s, 95% CI = 0.12-0.28, p = 0.004) and on paste (0.3 s, 95% CI = 0.08-0.66, p = 0.01). Median total transit time was also reduced on fluids (0.48 s, 95% CI = 0.00-1.17, p = 0.049) and on paste (0.52 s, 95% CI = 0.08-1.46, p = 0.033). Median pharyngeal delay time was reduced on fluids (0.20 s, 95% CI = 0.12-0.34, p = 0.002). TTS did not significantly alter median oral transit time on either fluid or paste consistency. TTS significantly reduced temporal measures of the pharyngeal phase of swallowing in the IPD population. Significant results may be attributed to the role of sensory stimulation in improving motor function in IPD, with emphasis on the impaired glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves in this population. It is still unclear whether these findings will translate into a clinically beneficial effect.

  19. Immediate effects of thermal-tactile stimulation on timing of swallow in idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Regan, Julie

    2012-02-01

    Oropharyngeal dysphagia frequently presents in people with idiopathic Parkinson\\'s disease (IPD). Clinical sequelae of dysphagia in this group include weight loss and aspiration pneumonia, the latter of which is the leading cause of hospital admissions and death in IPD. Thermal-tactile stimulation (TTS) is a sensory technique whereby stimulation is provided to the anterior faucial pillars to speed up the pharyngeal swallow. The effects of TTS on swallowing have not yet been investigated in IPD. The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate effects of TTS on the timing of swallow in a cohort of people with IPD and known oropharyngeal dysphagia. Thirteen participants with IPD and known dysphagia attended for videofluoroscopy during which standardised volumes of liquid barium and barium paste were administered preceding and immediately subsequent to TTS. The immediate effects of TTS on swallowing were examined using oral, pharyngeal, and total transit times and pharyngeal delay times as outcome measures. TTS significantly reduced median pharyngeal transit time on fluids (0.20 s, 95% CI = 0.12-0.28, p = 0.004) and on paste (0.3 s, 95% CI = 0.08-0.66, p = 0.01). Median total transit time was also reduced on fluids (0.48 s, 95% CI = 0.00-1.17, p = 0.049) and on paste (0.52 s, 95% CI = 0.08-1.46, p = 0.033). Median pharyngeal delay time was reduced on fluids (0.20 s, 95% CI = 0.12-0.34, p = 0.002). TTS did not significantly alter median oral transit time on either fluid or paste consistency. TTS significantly reduced temporal measures of the pharyngeal phase of swallowing in the IPD population. Significant results may be attributed to the role of sensory stimulation in improving motor function in IPD, with emphasis on the impaired glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves in this population. It is still unclear whether these findings will translate into a clinically beneficial effect.

  20. Stuttered swallowing: Electric stimulation of the right insula interferes with water swallowing. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoemaker J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Various functional resonance imaging, magnetoencephalographic and lesion studies suggest the involvement of the insular cortex in the control of swallowing. However, the exact location of insular activation during swallowing and its functional significance remain unclear. Case presentation Invasive electroencephalographic monitoring was performed in a 24-year-old man with medically intractable stereotyped nocturnal hypermotor seizures due to a ganglioglioma. During stimulation of the right inferior posterior insular cortex with depth electrodes the patient spontaneously reported a perception of a "stutter in swallowing". Stimulation of the inferior posterior insular cortex at highest intensity (4 mA was also associated with irregular and delayed swallows. Swallowing was not impaired during stimulation of the superior posterior insular cortex, regardless of stimulation intensity. Conclusions These results indicate that the right inferior posterior insular cortex is involved in the neural circuitry underlying the control of swallowing.

  1. Interjudge agreement in videofluoroscopic studies of swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, F; Liss, J M; Siegel, G M

    1996-02-01

    Videofluoroscopic swallowing examinations of 3 patients with dysphagia were reviewed independently by 10 speech-language pathologists. Prior to viewing each video, clinicians were provided with information about the patient's history, the results of a bedside swallow examination, and oral-facial and oral motor control examinations. Clinicians completed a swallowing observation protocol as they viewed each video. They then recommended, from a list of treatment strategies, intervention techniques that would be most appropriate for each patient. Interjudge agreement was calculated by determining how many clinicians observed a given swallowing event or deficit, and how many recommended a given treatment strategy. Results suggest that the level of interjudge agreement for videofluoroscopic evaluations is not encouragingly high.

  2. Pharyngoesophageal swallowing disorders in Parkinson disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, F.; Dumas, F.; Miremont, F.; Ferrer, X.; Amouretti, M.; Drouillard, J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates pharyngeal and esophageal swallowing disorders in Parkinson disease. Clinical, videofluorographic and manometric investigations were performed prospectively in 12 control subjects (eight men and four women; mean age, 60 years) and 21 patients with Parkinson disease (10 men and 11 women; mean age, 64 years) to study oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal motoricity. Seventeen patients (81%) complained of swallowing disorders: buccal bolus retention (48%), split swallowing (48%), and saliva buccal outflow (57%). Videofluorography was normal in control subjects and in eight patients (40%). Abnormal findings included vallecular and piriform recesses retention (60%) and split swallowing (35%). Manometry showed a nonperistaltic pharyngeal motoricity with simultaneous contraction in 14 patients (67%) and incomplete upper esophageal sphincter relaxation in three patients (14%). Body esophageal motoricity disorders indicated achalasia in five patients (24%), diffuse esophageal spasm in six (29%), and nonspecific esophageal motility disorder in five (24%)

  3. The Andean Swallow (Orochelidon andecola) in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Mazar Barnett, Juan; Pugnali, Germán D.; Pearman Morrison, Mark; Bodrati, Alejandro; Moschione, Flavio; Clark, Ricardo; Roesler, Carlos Ignacio; Monteleone, Diego; Casañas, Hernán; Burgos Gallardo, Freddy; Segovia, José; Pagano, Luis; Povedano, Hernán; Areta, Juan Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    During ornithological studies in the provinces of Jujuy, Salta, and San Juan, we recorded the Andean Swallow Orochelidon andecola at 40 localities. These are the first records in Argentina, and also represent the southernmost for the species. Some of these localities are up to 1500 m lower than the previously known elevational limit (now 800 masl), and up to 1100 km southwards. This is a relatively poorly known swallow, and we present novel natural history data. We found evidence of breeding ...

  4. Characterization of swallow modulation in response to bolus volume in healthy subjects accounting for catheter diameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, Lara; Schar, Mistyka; McCall, Lisa; Doeltgen, Sebastian; Scholten, Ingrid; Rommel, Nathalie; Cock, Charles; Omari, Taher

    2018-06-01

    Characterization of the pharyngeal swallow response to volume challenges is important for swallowing function assessment. The diameter of the pressure-impedance recording catheter may influence these results. In this study, we captured key physiological swallow measures in response to bolus volume utilizing recordings acquired by two catheters of different diameter. Ten healthy adults underwent repeat investigations with 8- and 10-Fr catheters. Liquid bolus swallows of volumes 2.5, 5, 10, 20, and 30 mL were recorded. Measures indicative of distension, contractility, and flow timing were assessed. Pressure-impedance recordings with pressure-flow analysis were used to capture key distension, contractility, and pressure-flow timing parameters. Larger bolus volumes increased upper esophageal sphincter distension diameter (P < .001) and distension pressures within the hypopharynx and upper esophageal sphincter (P < .05). Bolus flow timing measures were longer, particularly latency of bolus propulsion ahead of the pharyngeal stripping wave (P < .001). Use of a larger-diameter catheter produced higher occlusive pressures, namely upper esophageal sphincter basal pressure (P < .005) and upper esophageal sphincter postdeglutitive pressure peak (P < .001). The bolus volume swallowed changed measurements indicative of distension pressure, luminal diameter, and pressure-flow timing; this is physiologically consistent with swallow modulation to accommodate larger, faster-flowing boluses. Additionally, catheter diameter predominantly affects lumen occlusive pressures. Appropriate physiological interpretation of the pressure-impedance recordings of pharyngeal swallowing requires consideration of the effects of volume and catheter diameter. NA. Laryngoscope, 128:1328-1334, 2018. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Candidate Dosimetric Predictors of Long-Term Swallowing Dysfunction After Oropharyngeal Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, David L.; Hutcheson, Katherine; Barringer, Denise; Tucker, Susan L.; Kies, Merrill; Holsinger, F. Christopher; Ang, K. Kian; Morrison, William H.; Rosenthal, David I.; Garden, Adam S.; Dong Lei; Lewin, Jan S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate long-term swallowing function in oropharyngeal cancer patients treated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and to identify novel dose-limiting criteria predictive for dysphagia. Methods and Materials: Thirty-one patients with Stage IV oropharyngeal squamous carcinoma enrolled on a Phase II trial were prospectively evaluated by modified barium swallow studies at baseline, and 6, 12, and 24 months post-IMRT treatment. Candidate dysphagia-associated organs at risk were retrospectively contoured into original treatment plans. Twenty-one (68%) cases were base of tongue and 10 (32%) were tonsil. Stage distribution was T1 (12 patients), T2 (10), T3 (4), T4 (2), and TX (3), and N2 (24), N3 (5), and NX (2). Median age was 52.8 years (range, 42-78 years). Thirteen patients (42%) received concurrent chemotherapy during IMRT. Thirteen (42%) were former smokers. Mean dose to glottic larynx for the cohort was limited to 18 Gy (range, 6-39 Gy) by matching IMRT to conventional low-neck fields. Results: Dose-volume constraints (V30 < 65% and V35 < 35% for anterior oral cavity and V55 < 80% and V65 < 30% for high superior pharyngeal constrictors) predictive for objective swallowing dysfunction were identified by univariate and multivariate analyses. Aspiration and feeding tube dependence were observed in only 1 patient at 24 months. Conclusions: In the context of glottic laryngeal shielding, we describe candidate oral cavity and superior pharyngeal constrictor organs at risk and dose-volume constraints associated with preserved long-term swallowing function; these constraints are currently undergoing prospective validation. Strict protection of the glottic larynx via beam-split IMRT techniques promises to make chronic aspiration an uncommon outcome.

  6. Early Identification and Treatment of Communication and Swallowing Deficits in Parkinson Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciucci, Michelle R.; Grant, Laura M.; Paul Rajamanickam, Eunice S.; Hilby, Breanna L.; Blue, Katherine V.; Jones, Corinne A.; Kelm-Nelson, Cynthia A.

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) is a complex, progressive, neurodegenerative disorder that leads to a wide range of deficits including fine and gross sensorimotor impairment, autonomic dysfunction, mood disorders, and cognitive decline. Traditionally, the focus for diagnosis and treatment has been on sensorimotor impairment related to dopamine depletion. It is now widely recognized, however, that PD-related pathology affects multiple central nervous system neurotransmitters and pathways. Communication and swallowing functions can be impaired even in the early stages, significantly affecting health and quality of life. The purpose of this article is to review the literature on early intervention for communication and swallowing impairment in PD. Overarching themes were that (1) studies and interpretation of data from studies in early PD are limited; (2) best therapy practices have not been established, in part due to the heterogeneous nature of PD; and (3) as communication and swallowing problems are pervasive in PD, further treatment research is essential. PMID:24166192

  7. Worldwide survey of damage from swallowing multiple magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestreich, Alan E. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Radiology Department 5031, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2009-02-15

    It is increasingly recognized that in children swallowed multiple magnets cause considerable damage to the gastrointestinal tract. To emphasize that complications from swallowed magnets are extensive worldwide and throughout childhood. The author surveyed radiologists and researched cases of magnet swallowing in the literature and documented age and gender, numbers of magnets, nature of the magnets, reasons for swallowing, and clinical course. A total of 128 instances of magnet swallowing were identified, one fatal. Cases from 21 countries were found. Magnet swallowing occurred throughout childhood, with most children older than 3 years of age. Numbers of swallowed magnets ranged up to 100. Twelve children were known to be autistic. Many reasons were given for swallowing magnets, and a wide range of gastrointestinal damage was encountered. Considerable delay before seeking medical assistance was frequent, as was delay before obtaining radiographs or US imaging. Damage from swallowing multiple magnets is a considerable worldwide problem. More educational and preventative measures are needed. (orig.)

  8. Worldwide survey of damage from swallowing multiple magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestreich, Alan E.

    2009-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that in children swallowed multiple magnets cause considerable damage to the gastrointestinal tract. To emphasize that complications from swallowed magnets are extensive worldwide and throughout childhood. The author surveyed radiologists and researched cases of magnet swallowing in the literature and documented age and gender, numbers of magnets, nature of the magnets, reasons for swallowing, and clinical course. A total of 128 instances of magnet swallowing were identified, one fatal. Cases from 21 countries were found. Magnet swallowing occurred throughout childhood, with most children older than 3 years of age. Numbers of swallowed magnets ranged up to 100. Twelve children were known to be autistic. Many reasons were given for swallowing magnets, and a wide range of gastrointestinal damage was encountered. Considerable delay before seeking medical assistance was frequent, as was delay before obtaining radiographs or US imaging. Damage from swallowing multiple magnets is a considerable worldwide problem. More educational and preventative measures are needed. (orig.)

  9. Primary versus secondary achalasia: New signs on barium esophagogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pankaj; Debi, Uma; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Prasad, Kaushal Kishor

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate new signs on barium swallow that can differentiate primary from secondary achalasia. Materials and Methods: Records of 30 patients with primary achalasia and 17 patients with secondary achalasia were reviewed. Clinical, endoscopic, and manometric data was recorded. Barium esophagograms were evaluated for peristalsis and morphology of distal esophageal segment (length, symmetry, nodularity, shouldering, filling defects, and “tram-track sign”). Results: Mean age at presentation was 39 years in primary achalasia and 49 years in secondary achalasia. The mean duration of symptoms was 3.5 years in primary achalasia and 3 months in secondary achalasia. False-negative endoscopic results were noted in the first instance in five patients. In the secondary achalasia group, five patients had distal esophageal segment morphology indistinguishable from that of primary achalasia. None of the patients with primary achalasia and 35% patients with secondary achalasia had a length of the distal segment approaching combined height of two vertebral bodies. None of the patients with secondary achalasia and 34% patients with primary achalasia had maximum caliber of esophagus approaching combined height of two vertebral bodies. Tertiary contractions were noted in 90% patients with primary achalasia and 24% patients with secondary achalasia. Tram-track sign was found in 55% patients with primary achalasia. Filling defects in the distal esophageal segment were noted in 94% patients with secondary achalasia. Conclusion: Length of distal esophageal segment, tertiary contractions, tram-track sign, and filling defects in distal esophageal segment are useful esophagographic features distinguishing primary from secondary achalasia. PMID:26288525

  10. Effects of pharyngeal electrical stimulation on swallowing performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeishi, Ryosuke; Magara, Jin; Watanabe, Masahiro; Tsujimura, Takanori; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Hori, Kazuhiro; Inoue, Makoto

    2018-01-01

    Pharyngeal electrical stimulation (PEStim) has been found to facilitate voluntary swallowing. This study investigated how PEStim contributed to modulation of swallowing function in 15 healthy humans. In the involuntary swallowing test, water was injected onto the pharynx at 0.05 ml/s and the onset latency of the first swallow was measured. In the voluntary swallowing test, subjects swallowed their own saliva as quickly as possible for 30 s and the number of swallows was counted. Voluntary and involuntary swallowing was evaluated before (baseline), immediately after, and every 10 min after 10-min PEStim for 60 min. A voluntary swallowing test with simultaneous 30-s PEStim was also conducted before and 60 min after 10-min PEStim. The number of voluntary swallows with simultaneous PEStim significantly increased over 60 min after 10-min PEStim compared with the baseline. The onset latency of the first swallow in the involuntary swallowing test was not affected by 10-min PEStim. The results suggest that PEStim may have a long-term facilitatory effect on the initiation of voluntary swallowing in healthy humans, but not on peripherally-evoked swallowing. The physiological implications of this modulation are discussed.

  11. Barium Depletion in Hollow Cathode Emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, James E.; Capece, Angela M.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira

    2009-01-01

    The effect of tungsten erosion, transport and redeposition on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in detailed examinations of the discharge cathode inserts from an 8200 hour and a 30,352 hour ion engine wear test. Erosion and subsequent re-deposition of tungsten in the electron emission zone at the downstream end of the insert reduces the porosity of the tungsten matrix, preventing the ow of barium from the interior. This inhibits the interfacial reactions of the barium-calcium-aluminate impregnant with the tungsten in the pores. A numerical model of barium transport in the internal xenon discharge plasma shows that the barium required to reduce the work function in the emission zone can be supplied from upstream through the gas phase. Barium that flows out of the pores of the tungsten insert is rapidly ionized in the xenon discharge and pushed back to the emitter surface by the electric field and drag from the xenon ion flow. This barium ion flux is sufficient to maintain a barium surface coverage at the downstream end greater than 0.6, even if local barium production at that point is inhibited by tungsten deposits. The model also shows that the neutral barium pressure exceeds the equilibrium vapor pressure of the impregnant decomposition reaction over much of the insert length, so the reactions are suppressed. Only a small region upstream of the zone blocked by tungsten deposits is active and supplies the required barium. These results indicate that hollow cathode failure models based on barium depletion rates in vacuum dispenser cathodes are very conservative.

  12. Dynamical symmetry breaking in barium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawat, Bir Singh; Chattopadhyay, P.K.

    1997-01-01

    The isotopes of Xe with mass numbers 124, 126, 128, 130 and the isotopes of barium with mass numbers 128, 130, 132, 134 were shown to correspond to the O(6) dynamical symmetry of IBM. In the investigation of the dynamical symmetry breaking in this region, the barium isotopes for departures from O(6) symmetry have been studied

  13. Laser cooling and trapping of barium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De, Subhadeep

    2008-01-01

    Laser cooling and trapping of heavy alkaline-earth element barium have been demonstrated for the first time ever. For any possible cycling transition in barium that could provide strong cooling forces, the excited state has a very large branching probability to metastable states. Additional lasers

  14. Posture of the head and pharyngeal swallowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekberg, O.

    1986-01-01

    Closure of the laryngeal vestibule during swallowing is important for protection of the airways. The present investigation included 53 patients with dysphagia examined cineradiographically with the head held in resting posture, flexion and extension. The ability to protect the airways by the downward movement of the epiglottis and by obliteration of the laryngeal vestibule was studied in different postures of the head. Of 35 patients with normal laryngeal obliteration with the head in resting position 10 showed a defective closure at swallowing in extension. In 18 patients with defective closure of the laryngeal vestibule in resting position 9 were improved on flexion and two on extension of the head. In one patient with defectie closure of the laryngeal vestibule in resting position swallowing in flexion showed an aggravated dysfunction. In our other patients the defective closure became more marked on extension. Four patients had less effective downward movement of the epiglottis with the head in extension. Of 10 patients with defective epiglottic movement with the head in resting position two were improved on tilting the head forwards. The results show that the position of the head influences the closure of the airways during swallowing. Patients with defective protection of the laryngeal vestibule should be instructed to swallow with the head tilted forwards. (orig.)

  15. Chemical Sensing Regulates Mastication/Swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamura, Kensuke; Kurose, Masayuki; Okamoto, Keiichiro

    2016-01-01

    Mastication and swallowing are the first stage of digestion involving several motor processes such as food intake, intra-oral food transport, bolus formation and chewing and swallowing reflex. These complicated motor functions are accomplished by the well-coordinated activities in the jaw, hyoid, tongue, facial and pharyngeal muscles. Although the basic activity patterns of these movements are controlled by the brainstem pattern generators, these movements generate various peripheral sensory inputs. Among the sensory inputs, it is well-known that somatic sensory inputs play important roles in reflexively modulating the movements so that the final motor outputs fit the environmental demand. However, little is known about the effects of chemical sensory inputs such as taste and olfaction originating from the ingested foods by these movements. A possible reason could be raised that cognition of the chemical sensory inputs at the higher brain also influences the movements, so it is difficult to discuss the neural mechanisms underlying the observed effect. In this review, we focus on the effects of chemical sensory inputs on the masticatory movements and initiation of swallowing. We first summarize chemical sensory inputs occurring during mastication and swallowing, and their receptive mechanisms. In addition, we will introduce the effect of application of monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) solution as an umami taste to the oropharynx on the swallow initiation which is involuntary controlled and the possible neural mechanisms underlying this effect is discussed.

  16. Seed germination behavior of swallow wort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    amir hosein pahlavani

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The exotic plant, Swallow- wort, a twining perennial of the Milkweed family, has become increasingly invasive in some place of Iran, especially orchards. Increased knowledge of wort germination biology would facilitate development of an optimum control program. Germination of Swallow wort seeds as affected by environmental factors was studied under controlled-environment growth chamber conditions. The following studies were conducted in plant Pests & Diseases Research Institute during the years 2003-4: 1- Effect of constant temperature on germination that including 10, 15, 18, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40˚C; 2- Effect of light on constant germination; 3- Effect of temperature fluctuations on seed germination: 15/7, 20/12, 25/17 and 30/22˚C. All experiments were conducted with 8 replications. Swallow wort seeds showed no dormancy when detachment from mother plant. Seed germination was strongly influenced by temperature. Light did not play a crucial role on seed germination of this weed. Therefore Swallow wort seeds were not photoblastic and temperature fluctuations did not increase seed germination of Swallow wort. The above characteristics are very important in making swallowwort an invasive weed. Having precise information of these traits enables us to a better management and control of this troublesome weed.

  17. Analysis of barium by isotope mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long Kaiming; Jia Baoting; Liu Xuemei

    2004-01-01

    The isotopic abundance ratios for barium at sub-microgram level are analyzed by thermal surface ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). Rhenium trips used for sample preparation are firstly treated to eliminate possible barium background interference. During the preparation of barium samples phosphoric acid is added as an emitting and stabilizing reagent. The addition of phosphoric acid increases the collection efficiency and ion current strength and stability for barium. A relative standard deviation of 0.02% for the isotopic abundance ratio of 137 Ba to 138 Ba is achieved when the 138 Ba ion current is (1-3) x 10 -12 A. The experimental results also demonstrate that the isotope fractionation effect is negligibly small in the isotopic analysis of barium

  18. Pressure derivatives of the second-order elastic constants of strontium, barium, and lead nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedi, S.S.; Verma, M.P.

    1980-01-01

    An interpretation is given of the measured results on the pressure derivatives of second-order elastic constants (SOEC) of strontium barium, and lead nitrate crystallizing in the fluorite type structure from the Lundquist potential. Potential parameters are determined from the experimental values of SOEC and the equilibrium condition

  19. Growth and study of barium oxalate single crystals in agar gel

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    tive Powder Diffraction Data Interpretation and Indexing. Program, Version 2.2) was used to calculate 'd' values. Calculated 'd' values matched with reported values. Table. 2 shows calculated unit cell parameters. Table 2. Calculated unit cell parameters. Parameters. Barium oxalate. System. Monoclinic (P) a. 8⋅2426 Å b.

  20. Compensation filtration for decubitus radiography during double-contrast barium enema examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feczko, P.J.; Haggar, A.M.; Rauch, P.L.; Halpert, R.D.; Simms, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    Lateral decubitus images obtained during double-contrast barium enema examinations may be difficult to interpret because of the large difference in density between the various parts of the radiographs. Several types of filters are described which can be used to rectify this problem, thus improving the quality of the decubitus radiographs and achieving a slight reduction in radiation exposure

  1. EFFECT OF GUM CHEWING ON AIR SWALLOWING, SALIVA SWALLOWING AND BELCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Viana da SILVA

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundEructation is a physiologic event which allows gastric venting of swallowed air and most of the time is not perceived as a symptom. This is called gastric belching. Supragastric belching occurs when swallowed air does not reach the stomach and returns by mouth a short time after swallowing. This situation may cause discomfort, life limitations and problems in daily life.ObjectiveOur objective in this investigation was to evaluate if gum chewing increases the frequency of gastric and/or supragastric belches.MethodsEsophageal transit of liquid and gas was evaluated by impedance measurement in 16 patients with complaint of troublesome belching and in 15 controls. The Rome III criteria were used in the diagnosis of troublesome belching. The esophageal transit of liquid and gas was measured at 5 cm, 10 cm, 15 cm and 20 cm from the lower esophageal sphincter. The subjects were evaluated for 1 hour which was divided into three 20-minute periods: (1 while sitting for a 20-minute base period; (2 after the ingestion of yogurt (200 mL, 190 kcal, in which the subjects were evaluated while chewing or not chewing gum; (3 final 20-minute period in which the subjects then inverted the task of chewing or not chewing gum. In gastric belch, the air flowed from the stomach through the esophagus in oral direction and in supragastric belch the air entered the esophagus rapidly from proximal and was expulsed almost immediately in oral direction. Air swallows were characterized by an increase of at least 50% of basal impedance and saliva swallow by a decrease of at least 50% of basal impedance, that progress from proximal to distal esophagus.ResultsIn base period, air swallowing was more frequent in patients than in controls and saliva swallowing was more frequent in controls than in patients. There was no difference between the medians of controls and patients in the number of gastric belches and supragastric belches. In six patients, supragastric belches

  2. Alterations to Swallowing Physiology as the Result of Effortful Swallowing in Healthy Seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molfenter, Sonja M; Hsu, Chuan-Ya; Lu, Ying; Lazarus, Cathy L

    2018-06-01

    A significant proportion of healthy seniors report difficulty swallowing, thought to result from age-related decline in muscle bulk/function. Effortful Swallowing (ES) is used both as a compensatory maneuver to improve pharyngeal propulsion/clearance and has been proposed as an exercise to improve pharyngeal strength. This study sought to quantify the immediate kinematic, temporal, and functional changes during an ES maneuver to quantify its exercise potential to combat age-related changes in swallowing. Videofluoroscopy data were collected from 44 healthy seniors (21 male) over 65 years old (mean = 76.9, SD = 7.1). Each participant swallowed six 5 ml boluses of Varibar nectar-thick liquids: three with regular effort and three using ES. Individual swallows (n = 260) were measured on pharyngeal constriction, pharyngeal shortening, laryngeal closure duration, hyoid movement duration, UES opening duration, stage transition duration, pharyngeal transit time, pharyngeal response duration, Normalized Residue Ratio Scale (NRRS), and the Penetration-Aspiration Scale (PAS). Non-parametric Wilcoxon Rank Sum for repeated measures tested the effect of ES on each outcome. Exact p-values were calculated based on permutation methods, individual p values < 0.008 was deemed to be significant. The ES maneuver significantly prolonged all temporal variables. While we found no significant differences for pharyngeal constriction, significantly less (i.e., worse) pharyngeal shortening was observed in ES condition compared with regular effort swallows. Further, significantly worse pyriform sinus residue (NRRSv) was observed in the ES condition. No differences between ES and regular effort swallows were noted for pharyngeal constriction, NRRSv or PAS. We speculate that these negative manifestations of worse kinematics (less pharyngeal shortening) and function (increase in NRRSp) may be the result of forced volitional manipulation of swallowing in the ES condition in an otherwise

  3. Effects of pollution on swallowing: how little we know

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, J.B.; Silver, K.H. (Division of Rehabilitation Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States))

    1992-06-01

    Swallowing is an essential function of the upper alimentary tract. It is highly complex, requiring precise coordination of numerous nerves and muscles of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus. Swallowing is integrated with other physiologic functions, including mastication and respiration. Impairments of swallowing may result from many different structural or physiologic disorders. Little is currently known about the direct effects of pollution on swallowing. Structures critical to swallowing, however, are vulnerable to damage by environmental hazards such as exposure to ionizing radiation or intake of toxins by ingestion or inhalation. The relationship of swallowing to environmental lung disease is an area of particular interest because impaired swallowing may result in aspiration of food particles into the lung, and because pollutants may hamper airway defense mechanisms. In this article, we discuss the possible impact of selected environmental agents on swallowing and suggest future directions for research.26 references.

  4. Methods for excluding cliff swallows from nesting on highway structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-01

    Cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) are colonially breeding migratory birds that frequently nest on highway : structures. Protected by the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918, nesting control methods cannot harm swallows or active : nests. This c...

  5. A Mathematical Model for Swallowing of Concentrated Fluids in Oesophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Pandey

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This model investigates particularly the impact of an integral and a non-integral number of waves on the swallowing of food stuff such as jelly, tomato puree, soup, concentrated fruits juices and honey transported peristaltically through the oesophagus. The fluid is considered as a Casson fluid. Emphasis is on the study of the dependence of local pressure distribution on space and time. Mechanical efficiency, reflux limit and trapping are also discussed. The effect of Casson fluid vis-à-vis Newtonian fluid is investigated analytically and numerically too. The result is physically interpreted as that the oesophagus makes more efforts to swallow fluids with higher concentration. It is observed that the pressure is uniformly distributed when an integral number of waves is there in the oesophagus; but it is non-uniform when a non-integral number of waves is present therein. It is further observed that as the plug flow region widens, the pressure difference increases, which indicates that the averaged flow rate will reduce for a Casson fluid. It is also concluded that Casson fluids are more prone to reflux.

  6. Swallowing difficulties in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: indications for feeding assessment and outcome of videofluroscopic swallow studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aloysius, A.; Born, P.; Kinali, M.

    2008-01-01

    were performed. Prolonged chewing and effortful bolus transport for solids increased with age. Swallow trigger was normal in the majority of cases. All patients had some post-swallow pharyngeal residue around the laryngeal inlet increasing in volume with age. Although this residue did not result...... on VFSS. It is the oral phase of swallowing that is most significantly affected in DMD. The pharyngeal phase is well triggered but is weak with incomplete pharyngeal clearance leaving pharyngeal residue. Insufficient or effortful chewing coupled with weak clearance may predispose them to choking episodes...

  7. A new double contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jun Sang; Cho, Won Sik; Lee, Sung Woo; Lee, Mun Gyu; Jeon, Jeong Dong; Jaun, Woo Ki; Han, Chung Yul

    1987-01-01

    A new technic of the barium enema was proposed for the better colonic double contrast study with the average 204ml of 50w/v% barium, applied to 109 serial patients. The barium was introduced to sigmoid colon, and then pushed to a mid transverse colon by the air insufflation through an enema syringe, a new device. An advance to cecum is accomplished by the air insufflation and/or the position change of the patient. The barium transfer method was developed for the best spot film exposure, through colon, by the position change of the patient, the tilting of the x-ray table and the air insufflation with the enema syringe. The mean angle of the x-ray table tilted was -10 .deg. at the beginning the barium enema till the barium sent past the splenic flexure, -15 . deg. for the best lateral view of rectum and -18 .deg. for the bet prone PA view of rectosigmoid colon. This was a simple, better and economic double contrast barium enema for the cooperative patients

  8. Establishment of a protocol for determining gastrointestinal transit time in mice using barium and radiopaque markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myagmarjaibuu, Bilomaa; Moon, Myeong Ju; Heo, Suk Hee; Jeong, Seo In; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Kang, Heoung Keun [Dept. of Radiology, Chonnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Chonnam National University Medical School, Hwasun (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Seong [Dept. of Physiology, Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Jae Yeoul [Dept. of Physiology, College of Medicine, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    The purpose of this study was to establish a minimally invasive and reproducible protocol for estimating the gastrointestinal (GI) transit time in mice using barium and radiopaque markers. Twenty 5- to 6-week-old Balb/C female mice weighing 19-21 g were used. The animals were divided into three groups: two groups that received loperamide and a control group. The control group (n = 10) animals were administered physiological saline (1.5 mL/kg) orally. The loperamide group I (n = 10) and group II (n = 10) animals were administered 5 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg loperamide orally, respectively. Thirty minutes after receiving the saline or loperamide, the mice was administered 80 μL of barium solution and six iron balls (0.5 mm) via the mouth and the upper esophagus by gavage, respectively. Afterwards, the mice were continuously monitored with fluoroscopic imaging in order to evaluate the swallowing of the barium solution and markers. Serial fluoroscopic images were obtained at 5- or 10-min intervals until all markers had been excreted from the anal canal. For analysis, the GI transit times were subdivided into intestinal transit times (ITTs) and colon transit times (CTTs). The mean ITT was significantly longer in the loperamide groups than in the control group (p < 0.05). The mean ITT in loperamide group II (174.5 ± 32.3) was significantly longer than in loperamide group I (133.2 ± 24.2 minute) (p < 0.05). The mean CTT was significantly longer in loperamide group II than in the control group (p < 0.05). Also, no animal succumbed to death after the experimental procedure. The protocol for our study using radiopaque markers and barium is reproducible and minimally invasive in determining the GI transit time of the mouse model.

  9. Double contrast barium meal and acetylcysteine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, J.; Pietilae, J.; Ahovuo, J.; Mankinen, P.; Tervahartiala, P.

    1989-01-01

    In a prospective double blind study, acetylcysteine, a local and systemic respiratory tract mucolytic agent, or a placebo, were given to 100 patients prior to a double contrast barium meal to decrease the gastric mucus viscosity and to make the mucus layer thinner, in order to permit barium to outline the furrows surrounding the areae gastricae instead of the overlying thick mucus. However, acetylcysteine failed to improve either visualization of the areae gastricae or the general quality of the double contrast barium meal. (orig.)

  10. Atomization mechanisms for barium in furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styris, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectrometry and mass spectrometry are used simultaneously in order to elucidate atomization mechanisms of barium dichloride in pyrolytic graphite, vitreous carbon, and tantalum furnaces. Gas-phase barium dicarbide is observed to appear concurrently with the free barium. Barium oxide and barium dihydroxide precursors appear with the chlorides. Surface reactions involving species that are absorbed on the various furnaces are postulated to explain the appearances of the species that are observed in the gas phase. 49 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  11. The Neurobiology of Swallowing and Dysphagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Arthur J.

    2008-01-01

    The neurobiological study of swallowing and its dysfunction, defined as dysphagia, has evolved over two centuries beginning with electrical stimulation applied directly to the central nervous system, and then followed by systematic investigations that have used lesioning, transmagnetic stimulation, magnetoencephalography, and functional magnetic…

  12. VIDEOFLUOROSCOPIC EVALUATION OF SWALLOWS IN ANOREXIA NERVOSA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carla Manfredi; Cassiani, Rachel Aguiar; Dantas, Roberto Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    There are some studies in the literature about the feeding behavior and masticatory process in patients with feeding disorders; however, it is not very well known if there are alterations in oral-pharyngeal swallowing dynamics in subjects with anorexia nervosa. To evaluate the oral and pharyngeal bolus transit in patients with anorexia nervosa. The study was conducted with 8 individuals clinically diagnosed and in treatment for restricting-type anorexia nervosa (seven women and one man), and 14 healthy individuals with no digestive or neurological symptoms (10 women, 4 men). Swallows were evaluated by videofluoroscopy with three swallows of 5 mL liquid bolus and three swallows of 5 mL paste bolus consistency, given in a random sequence. The participants were asked after each swallow about the sensation of the bolus passage. In the analysis of oral-pharyngeal transit duration, the mean duration of pharyngeal transit with paste bolus in patients with anorexia was shorter than in healthy volunteers (P=0.02). In the duration of movement of the hyoid bone, longer movement was observed in anorexia than in healthy volunteers with liquid bolus (P=0.01). With liquid bolus, five (62.5%) patients and one (7.1%) control had sensation of the bolus passage (Panorexia nervosa, although the results suggest that pharyngeal transit has shorter duration than that seen in healthy volunteers and the hyoid movement duration is longer in patients than in healthy volunteers. Fast pharyngeal transit may be the cause of bolus transit perception in patients with anorexia nervosa.

  13. Senescent Swallowing: Impact, Strategies and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ney, Denise; Weiss, Jennifer; Kind, Amy; Robbins, JoAnne

    2010-01-01

    The risk for disordered oropharyngeal swallowing (dysphagia) increases with age. Loss of swallowing function can have devastating health implications including dehydration, malnutrition, and pneumonia, as well as reduced quality of life. Age-related changes place older adults at risk for dysphagia for two major reasons: One is that natural, healthy aging takes its toll on head and neck anatomy and physiologic and neural mechanisms underpinning swallowing function. This progression of change contributes to alterations in the swallowing in healthy older adults and is termed presbyphagia, naturally diminishing functional reserve. Second, disease prevalence increases with age and dysphagia is a co-morbidity of many age-related diseases and/or their treatments. Sensory changes, medication, sarcopenia and age-related diseases are discussed herein. Relatively recent findings that health complications are associated with dysphagia are presented. Nutrient requirements, fluid intake and nutritional assessment for older adults are reviewed relative to their relations to dysphagia. Dysphagia screening and the pros and cons of tube feeding as a solution are discussed. Optimal intervention strategies for elders with dysphagia ranging from compensatory interventions to more rigorous exercise approaches are presented. Compelling evidence of improved functional swallowing and eating outcomes resulting from active rehabilitation focusing on increasing strength of head and neck musculature is provided. In summary, while oropharyngeal dysphagia may be life-threatening, so are some of the traditional alternatives, particularly for frail, elderly patients. While the state of the evidence calls for more research, this review indicates the behavioral, dietary and environmental modifications emerging in this past decade are compassionate, promising and in many cases preferred alternatives to the always present option of tube feeding. PMID:19483069

  14. Time requirement for barium reduction in intussusception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Hye Eun; Kim, Seung Ho; Kang, In Young; Park, Byoung Lan; Kim, Byoung Geun

    1988-01-01

    During the period between January 1985 and December 1987, barium reduction was performed in 146 cases of intussusception who were admitted to Kwangju Christian Hospital. The results were as follows: 1. Success rate to the symptom duration is relatively constant. 2. The success rate in infants with severe dehydration was 50% but it was gradually increased in infants with moderate dehydration and in infants with mild dehydration, 83.3% and 100% respectively. 3. The success rate of 12 cases in severely dehydrated infants with positive dissection sign was 16.7%. 4. The success rate of 15 cases in moderately dehydrated infants with positive dissection sign was 66.7%. 5. The average time requirement for barium reduction was 58.3 minutes. No serious complications were noted during barium reduction, except mild vomiting. 6. With above results, it is desirable that barium reduction should be performed according to the patient's physical status and radiologic findings.

  15. Barium Isotopes in Single Presolar Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellin, M. J.; Davis, A. M.; Savina, M. R.; Kashiv, Y.; Clayton, R. N.; Lewis, R. S.; Amari, S.

    2001-01-01

    Barium isotopic compositions of single presolar grains were measured by laser ablation laser resonant ionization mass spectrometry and the implications of the data for stellar processes are discussed. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  16. Effect of body posture on involuntary swallow in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiino, Yoshitaka; Sakai, Shogo; Takeishi, Ryosuke; Hayashi, Hirokazu; Watanabe, Masahiro; Tsujimura, Takanori; Magara, Jin; Ito, Kayoko; Tsukada, Tetsu; Inoue, Makoto

    2016-03-01

    Clinically, reclining posture has been reported to reduce risk of aspiration. However, during involuntary swallow in reclining posture, changes in orofacial and pharyngeal movement before and during pharyngeal swallow should be considered. Further, the mechanisms underlying the effect of body posture on involuntary swallow remain unclear. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of body posture on activity patterns of the suprahyoid muscles and on patterns of bolus transport during a natural involuntary swallow. Thirteen healthy male adults participated in a water infusion test and a chewing test. In the water infusion test, thickened water was delivered into the pharynx at a very slow rate until the first involuntary swallow was evoked. In the chewing test, subjects were asked to eat 10 g of gruel rice. In both tests, the recording was performed at four body postures between upright and supine positions. Results showed that reclining changed the location of the bolus head at the start of swallow and prolonged onset latency of the swallowing initiation. Muscle burst duration and whiteout time measured by videoendoscopy significantly increased with body reclining and prolongation of the falling time. In the chewing test, reclining changed the location of the bolus head at the start of swallow, and the frequency of bolus residue after the first swallow increased. Duration and area of EMG burst and whiteout time significantly increased with body reclining. These data suggest that body reclining may result in prolongation of pharyngeal swallow during involuntary swallow. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neutral barium cloud evolution at different altitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lei; Xu Ronglan

    2002-01-01

    Considering the joint effects of diffusion, collision, oxidation and photoionization, the authors study the evolution of the barium cloud at different altitudes in the space plasma active experiment. The results present the variation of the loss rate, number density distribution and brightness of the barium cloud over the range from 120 to 260 km. This can be divided into oxidation, oxidation plus photoionization and photoionization regions

  18. Bacterial Reduction Of Barium Sulphate By Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luptáková Alena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is a worldwide problem leading to contamination of water sources. AMD are characterized by low pH and high content of heavy metals and sulphates. The barium salts application presents one of the methods for the sulphates removing from AMD. Barium chloride, barium hydroxide and barium sulphide are used for the sulphates precipitation in the form of barium sulphate. Because of high investment costs of barium salts, barium sulphide is recycled from barium sulphate precipitates. It can be recycled by thermic or bacterial reduction of barium sulphate. The aim of our study was to verify experimentally the possibility of the bacterial transformation of BaSO4 to BaS by sulphate-reducing bacteria. Applied BaSO4 came from experiments of sulphates removal from Smolnik AMD using BaCl2.

  19. An experimental study on barium peritonitis in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Heung Sik; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan

    1985-01-01

    Barium sulfate is universally used contrast media in gastrointestinal roentgenology, and spillage of barium into peritoneal cavity can occur. The references on effect of barium sulfate in the peritoneal cavity have been scattered and the results are varied. In 80 rats, body weight of 130 gm to 150 gm, sterile pure barium, sterile commercial barium, intestinal content, and mixed pure barium and intestinal content were experimentally injected into the peritoneal cavity. Consecutive weekly laparotomy and microscopic examination were done for 4 weeks. The results are as followings: 1. Mind inflammatory reaction and mild adhesion after sterile pure barium injection. 2. Mild inflammatory reaction and moderate adhesion after sterile commercial barium injection. 3. Acute peritonitis and abscess formation after intestinal content injection. 4. High mortality due to severe acute peritonitis, and severe adhesion in survivors after injection of both pure barium and intestinal content.

  20. Transnasal endoscopic evaluation of swallowing: a bedside technique to evaluate ability to swallow pureed diets in elderly patients with dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Torao; Horiuchi, Akira; Nakayama, Yoshiko

    2013-08-01

    Endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (EES) is not commonly used by gastroenterologists to evaluate swallowing in patients with dysphagia. To use transnasal endoscopy to identify factors predicting successful or failed swallowing of pureed foods in elderly patients with dysphagia. EES of pureed foods was performed by a gastroenterologist using a small-calibre transnasal endoscope. Factors related to successful versus unsuccessful swallowing of pureed foods were analyzed with regard to age, comorbid diseases, swallowing activity, saliva pooling, vallecular residues, pharyngeal residues and airway penetration⁄aspiration. Unsuccessful swallowing was defined in patients who could not eat pureed foods at bedside during hospitalization. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of swallowing of pureed foods. During a six-year period, 458 consecutive patients (mean age 80 years [range 39 to 97 years]) were considered for the study, including 285 (62%) men. Saliva pooling, vallecular residues, pharyngeal residues and penetration⁄aspiration were found in 240 (52%), 73 (16%), 226 (49%) and 232 patients (51%), respectively. Overall, 247 patients (54%) failed to swallow pureed foods. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the presence of pharyngeal residues (OR 6.0) and saliva pooling (OR 4.6) occurred significantly more frequently in patients who failed to swallow pureed foods. Pharyngeal residues and saliva pooling predicted impaired swallowing of pureed foods. Transnasal EES performed by a gastroenterologist provided a unique bedside method of assessing the ability to swallow pureed foods in elderly patients with dysphagia.

  1. Effects of Change in Tongue Pressure and Salivary Flow Rate on Swallow Efficiency Following Chemoradiation Treatment for Head and Neck Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogus-Pulia, Nicole M; Larson, Charles; Mittal, Bharat B; Pierce, Marge; Zecker, Steven; Kennelty, Korey; Kind, Amy; Connor, Nadine P

    2016-10-01

    Patients treated with chemoradiation for head and neck cancer frequently develop dysphagia. Tissue damage to the oral tongue causing weakness along with decreases in saliva production may contribute to dysphagia. Yet, effects of these variables on swallowing-related measures are unclear. The purpose of this study was (1) to determine effects of chemoradiation on tongue pressures, as a surrogate for strength, and salivary flow rates and (2) to elucidate relationships among tongue pressures, saliva production, and swallowing efficiency by bolus type. Twenty-one patients with head and neck cancer treated with chemoradiation were assessed before and after treatment and matched with 21 healthy control participants who did not receive chemoradiation. Each participant was given a questionnaire to rate dysphagia symptoms. Videofluoroscopic Evaluation of Swallowing (VFES) was used to determine swallowing efficiency; the Saxon test measured salivary flow rate; and the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI) was used for oral tongue maximum and endurance measures. Results revealed significantly lower tongue endurance measures for patients post-treatment as compared to controls (p = .012). Salivary flow rates also were lower compared to pre-treatment (p = .000) and controls (p = .000). Simple linear regression analyses showed that change in salivary flow rate was predictive of change in swallow efficiency measures from pre- to post-treatment for 1 mL thin liquid (p = .017), 3 mL nectar-thick liquid (p = .026), and 3 mL standard barium pudding (p = .011) boluses. Based on these findings, it appears that chemoradiation treatment affects tongue endurance and salivary flow rate, and these changes may impact swallow efficiency. These factors should be considered when planning treatment for dysphagia.

  2. Effects of Change in Tongue Pressure and Salivary Flow Rate on Swallow Efficiency Following Chemoradiation Treatment for Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogus-Pulia, Nicole M.; Larson, Charles; Mittal, Bharat B; Pierce, Marge; Zecker, Steven; Kennelty, Korey; Kind, Amy; Connor, Nadine P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Patients treated with chemoradiation for head and neck cancer frequently develop dysphagia. Tissue damage to the oral tongue causing weakness and decreases in saliva production may contribute to dysphagia. Yet, effects of these variables on swallowing-related measures are unclear. The purpose of this study was (1) to determine effects of chemoradiation on tongue pressures, as a surrogate for strength, and salivary flow rates and (2) to elucidate relationships among tongue pressures, saliva production, and swallowing efficiency by bolus type. Methods and Materials 21 patients with head and neck cancer treated with chemoradiation were assessed before and after treatment and matched with 21 healthy control participants who did not receive chemoradiation. Each participant was given a questionnaire to rate dysphagia symptoms. Videofluoroscopic evaluation of swallowing was used to determine swallowing efficiency; the Saxon test measured salivary flow rate; and the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument (IOPI) was used for oral tongue maximum and endurance measures. Results Results revealed significantly lower tongue endurance measures for patients post-treatment as compared to controls (p=.012). Salivary flow rates also were lower compared to pre-treatment (p=.000) and controls (p=.000). Simple linear regression analyses showed that change in salivary flow rate was predictive of change in swallow efficiency measures from pre- to post-treatment for 1mL thin liquid (p=.017), 3mL nectar-thick liquid (p=.026), and 3mL standard barium pudding (p=.011) boluses. Conclusions Based on these findings, it appears that chemoradiation treatment affects tongue endurance and salivary flow rate and these changes may impact swallow efficiency. These factors should be considered when planning treatment for dysphagia. PMID:27492408

  3. Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine and recovery of barium as a barium salt mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Zvimba, John N; Mulopo, Jean; Motaung, Solly

    2013-01-01

    Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine using barium hydroxide and recovery of the barium salts has been investigated. The sodium sulphate-rich brine treated with different dosages of barium hydroxide to precipitate barium sulphate showed sulphate removal from 13.5 g/L to less than 400 mg/L over 60 min using a barium to sulphate molar ratio of 1.1. The thermal conversion of precipitated barium sulphate to barium sulphide achieved a conversion yield of 85% using coal as both a reducing agent and an energy source. The recovery of a pure mixture of barium salts from barium sulphide, which involved dissolution of barium sulphide and reaction with ammonium hydroxide resulted in recovery of a mixture of barium carbonate (62%) and barium hydroxide (38%), which is a critical input raw material for barium salts based acid mine drainage (AMD) desalination technologies. Under alkaline conditions of this barium salt mixture recovery process, ammonia gas is given off, while hydrogen sulfide is retained in solution as bisulfide species, and this provides basis for ammonium hydroxide separation and recovery for reuse, with hydrogen sulfide also recoverable for further industrial applications such as sulfur production by subsequent stripping.

  4. Synthesis of barium mercaptides and application of antimony/barium mercaptides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    瞿龙; 张露露; 舒万艮

    2001-01-01

    Mercaptoacetic acid, isooctyl thioglycolate and barium hydroxide used as start materials, barium bis (2-ethylhexyl thioglycolate) (Ba(2EHTG)2), barium thioglycolate (Ba(TG)) and barium bisthioglycolate (Ba(TG)2) were synthesized. Their optimum synthetic techniques were discussed, and some physicochemical data were reported. Infrared spectroscopy and elemental analysis methods were used to identify the structures. They were put into PVC plastic products together with antimony tris (2-ethylhexyl thioglycolate) (Sb(2EHTG)3) under the suitable compounding, and their heat stability to PVC was studied. It is shown that these barium mercaptides have remarkable synergisms with antimony mercaptides and the long-term stabilizing effect of organoantimony stabilizer can be effectively improved, reducing the amount of antimony compounds so as to avoid the decrease of its stabilizing effect.

  5. Speech, language and swallowing in Huntington’ Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryluz Camargo-Mendoza

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Huntington’s disease (HD has been described as a genetic condition caused by a mutation in the CAG (cytosine-adenine-guanine nucleotide sequence. Depending on the stage of the disease, people may have difficulties in speech, language and swallowing. The purpose of this paper is to describe these difficulties in detail, as well as to provide an account on speech and language therapy approach to this condition. Regarding speech, it is worth noticing that characteristics typical of hyperkinetic dysarthria can be found due to underlying choreic movements. The speech of people with HD tends to show shorter sentences, with much simpler syntactic structures, and difficulties in tasks that require complex cognitive processing. Moreover, swallowing may present dysphagia that progresses as the disease develops. A timely, comprehensive and effective speech-language intervention is essential to improve the quality of life of people and contribute to their communicative welfare.

  6. Prefrontal cortex activity during swallowing in dysphagia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jun; Yamate, Chisato; Taira, Masato; Shinoda, Masamichi; Urata, Kentaro; Maruno, Mitsuru; Ito, Reio; Saito, Hiroto; Gionhaku, Nobuhito; Iinuma, Toshimitsu; Iwata, Koichi

    2018-05-24

    Prefrontal cortex activity is modulated by flavor and taste stimuli and changes during swallowing. We hypothesized that changes in the modulation of prefrontal cortex activity by flavor and taste were associated with swallowing movement and evaluated brain activity during swallowing in patients with dysphagia. To evaluate prefrontal cortex activity in dysphagia patients during swallowing, change in oxidized hemoglobin (z-score) was measured with near-infrared spectroscopy while dysphagia patients and healthy controls swallowed sweetened/unsweetened and flavored/unflavored jelly. Total z-scores were positive during swallowing of flavored/unsweetened jelly and negative during swallowing of unflavored/sweetened jelly in controls but negative during swallowing of sweetened/unsweetened and flavored/unflavored jelly in dysphagia patients. These findings suggest that taste and flavor during food swallowing are associated with positive and negative z-scores, respectively. Change in negative and positive z-scores may be useful in evaluating brain activity of dysphagia patients during swallowing of sweetened and unsweetened food.

  7. Aspirating and Nonaspirating Swallow Sounds in Children: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frakking, Thuy; Chang, Anne; O'Grady, Kerry; David, Michael; Weir, Kelly

    2016-12-01

    Cervical auscultation (CA) may be used to complement feeding/swallowing evaluations when assessing for aspiration. There are no published pediatric studies that compare the properties of sounds between aspirating and nonaspirating swallows. To establish acoustic and perceptual profiles of aspirating and nonaspirating swallow sounds and determine if a difference exists between these 2 swallowing types. Aspiration sound clips were obtained from recordings using CA simultaneously undertaken with videofluoroscopic swallow study. Aspiration was determined using the Penetration-Aspiration Scale. The presence of perceptual swallow/breath parameters was rated by 2 speech pathologists who were blinded to the type of swallow. Acoustic data between groups were compared using Mann Whitney U-tests, while perceptual differences were determined by a test of 2 proportions. Combinations of perceptual parameters of 50 swallows (27 aspiration, 23 no aspiration) from 47 children (57% male) were statistically analyzed using area under a receiver operating characteristic (aROC), sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values to determine predictors of aspirating swallows. The combination of post-swallow presence of wet breathing and wheeze and absence of GRS and normal breathing was the best predictor of aspiration (aROC = 0.82, 95% CI, 0.70-0.94). There were no significant differences between these 2 swallow types for peak frequency, duration, and peak amplitude. Our pilot study has shown that certain characteristics of swallow obtained using CA may be useful in the prediction of aspiration. However, further research comparing the acoustic swallowing sound profiles of normal children to children with dysphagia (who are aspirating) on a larger scale is required. © The Author(s) 2016.

  8. Prevalence of atypical swallowing: a kinesiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, A; Cattaneo, R; Spadaro, A; Marchetti, E; Barone, A

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of kinesiographic coincidence between the most cranial position during deglutition of mandible and habitual occlusal position and to evaluate the distribution of clinical diagnosis according to the kinesiographic pattern of deglutition. 201 random patients in waiting list for dental treatment and classified as orthodontic patients, prosthetic patients, TMD patients and control patients, were evaluated. Kinesiographic records were acquired using K7I and positioning a magnetic sensor frame integral with the head and with the sensory field balanced on an artificial magnet adhering to the mucosa covering the roots of the lower mandibular incisors. The kinesiographic occlusal position was compared to the kinesiographic most cranial position of the mandible during swallowing. 99 patients displayed a discrepancy between the most cranial position during swallowing and the occlusal position. 102 patients did not show any discrepancy. In this group the kinesiographic most cranial position during swallowing coincided with the occlusal position. The finding suggests that computerised kinesiography could be useful to study deglutition, detecting in a reliable way the movement pattern. Atypical deglutition seems to be less atypical than previously though in dental patient population and, despite these data confirm its correlation with malocclusion, we noted an inverse correlation with necessity of prosthetic treatment and no higher prevalence in TMD patients.

  9. Diagnosis of Spasmodic Dysphonia Manifested by Swallowing Difficulty in Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Han Gyeol; Lee, Seong Jae; Hyun, Jung Keun

    2015-01-01

    Spasmodic dysphonia is defined as a focal laryngeal disorder characterized by dystonic spasms of the vocal cord during speech. We described a case of a 22-year-old male patient who presented complaining of idiopathic difficulty swallowing that suddenly developed 6 months ago. The patient also reported pharyngolaryngeal pain, throat discomfort, dyspnea, and voice change. Because laryngoscopy found no specific problems, an electrodiagnostic study and videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) were performed to find the cause of dysphagia. The VFSS revealed continuous twitch-like involuntary movement of the laryngeal muscle around the vocal folds. Then, he was diagnosed with spasmodic dysphonia by VFSS, auditory-perceptual voice analysis, and physical examination. So, we report the first case of spasmodic dysphonia accompanied with difficulty swallowing that was confirmed by VFSS. PMID:25932430

  10. Radiological demonstration of gastroesophageal reflux. Diagnostic value of barium and bread studies compared with 24-hour pH monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksglaede, K.; Funch-Jensen, P.; Thommesen, P.

    1999-01-01

    To correlate gastroesophageal reflux (GER), demonstrated by a radiological method using food, with the reflux events, as determined by 24-h pH monitoring. One hundred and seventeen patients with a median age of 47 years (86 male and 31 female) were examined. In the supine left position, the patient consumed 360 ml of barium contrast. Fluoroscopy was performed with the patient in the supine right oblique position during mastication and swallowing a piece of rye bread with liver pate and barium. The test was positive if barium was observed >= 5 cm proximal to the gastroesophageal junction. An antimony pH-probe was placed 5 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter, previously determined by manometry. The position was controlled by radiography after positioning and before removal. The total time of esophageal pH<4 exceeding 5.0% was considered pathological. The radiological method had a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 52% compared to 24-h pH monitoring. The high specificity of this radiological method justify direct therapeutic consequence of a positive test. However, a negative test still renders the problem unsolved

  11. Radiological demonstration of gastroesophageal reflux. Diagnostic value of barium and bread studies compared with 24-hour pH monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksglaede, K.; Thommesen, P.; Funch-Jensen, P.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To correlate gastroesophageal reflux (GER), demonstrated by a radiological method using food, with the reflux events, as determined by 24-h pH monitoring. Material and Methods: One hundred and seventeen patients with a median age of 47 years (86 male and 31 female) were examinated. In the supine left position, the patient consumed 360 ml of barium contrast. Fluoroscopy was performed with the patient in the supine right oblique position during mastication and swallowing a piece of rye bread with liver pate and barium. The test was positive if barium was observed ≥5 cm proximal to the gastroesophageal junction. An antimony pH-probe was placed 5 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter, previously determined by manometry. The position was controlled by radiography after positioning and before removal. The total time of esophageal pH<4 exceeding 5.0% was considered pathological. Results: The radiological method had a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 52% compared to 24-h pH monitoring. Conclusion: The high specificity of this radiological method justify direct therapeutic consequence of a positive test. However, a negative test still renders the problem unsolved. (orig.)

  12. Radiological demonstration of gastroesophageal reflux. Diagnostic value of barium and bread studies compared with 24-hour pH monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aksglaede, K.; Thommesen, P. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology R, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark); Funch-Jensen, P. [Surgical Gastroenterology L, Aarhus Univ. Hospital, Aarhus (Denmark)

    1999-11-01

    Purpose: To correlate gastroesophageal reflux (GER), demonstrated by a radiological method using food, with the reflux events, as determined by 24-h pH monitoring. Material and Methods: One hundred and seventeen patients with a median age of 47 years (86 male and 31 female) were examinated. In the supine left position, the patient consumed 360 ml of barium contrast. Fluoroscopy was performed with the patient in the supine right oblique position during mastication and swallowing a piece of rye bread with liver pate and barium. The test was positive if barium was observed {>=}5 cm proximal to the gastroesophageal junction. An antimony pH-probe was placed 5 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter, previously determined by manometry. The position was controlled by radiography after positioning and before removal. The total time of esophageal pH<4 exceeding 5.0% was considered pathological. Results: The radiological method had a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 52% compared to 24-h pH monitoring. Conclusion: The high specificity of this radiological method justify direct therapeutic consequence of a positive test. However, a negative test still renders the problem unsolved. (orig.)

  13. The effect of aspirated barium sulfate, iodixanol, and diatrizoic acid on survival and lung injury in a lagomorph model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, M Tausif; Litts, Juliana K; Cheney, Diane M; Kuhn, Maggie A; Nativ-Zeltzer, Nogah; Belafsky, Peter C

    2017-05-01

    Contrast agents are an integral component of the video fluoroscopic swallow study. Agents commonly used include barium sulfate (E-Z Paque), iodixanol (Visipaque), and diatrizoic acid (Gastrografin). Barium is water insoluble, whereas iodixanol and diatrizoic acid are water-soluble iodine-based agents. The detrimental effect of these agents on the lungs has not been systematically evaluated. Our aim was to evaluate and compare the effects of aspirated barium, iodixanol, and diatrizoic acid on pulmonary injury in a lagomorph model. Animal model. Twenty adult male New Zealand White rabbits were divided into four groups (n = 5). Group 1 received 3 mL of barium sulfate injected into the trachea for 3 consecutive days. Group 2 received 3 mL of iodixanol injected into the trachea for 3 consecutive days. Group 3 received 3 mL of diatrizoic acid injected into the trachea for 3 consecutive days. A control group received 3 mL of air injected into the trachea under an identical protocol. All animals were euthanized on day 4, and the lung and trachea were harvested for blinded histopathologic analysis. The primary outcome measure was survival. The secondary endpoint was a blinded, histologic grading system of lung injury. Two animals in the barium group, one in the diatrizoic acid group, and 0 animals in the iodixanol and control groups died. The overall lung injury score for the barium (60.60 ± 6.34) and iodixanol groups (52.30 ± 3.11) were significantly higher (worse) than the diatrizoic acid (49.60 ± 7.64) and control groups (37.80 ± 3.56) (P barium sulfate (E-Z Paque) over 3 consecutive days causes more severe lung injury in a lagomorph model than 3 mL of aspirated iodixanol (Visipaque) and diatrizoic acid (Gastrografin). Diatrizoic acid caused the least histologic evidence of lung injury. NA Laryngoscope, 127:E148-E152, 2017. © 2017 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  14. Prophylactic Swallowing Exercises in Head and Neck Cancer Radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, H R; Jensen, Kenneth; Aksglæde, K

    2015-01-01

    Many head and neck cancer (HNC) survivors experience reduced quality of life due to radiotherapy (RT)-related dysphagia. The aim of this prospective randomized trial was to evaluate the impact of prophylactic swallowing exercises on swallowing-related outcomes in HNC patients treated with curative...... of the dysphagia outcomes during and after treatment. Adherence to exercises was poor and dropouts due to especially fatigue were very frequent in both groups. Systematic swallowing exercises had no impact on swallowing outcomes within the first year after RT. Despite repeated supervised sessions, adherence...

  15. Variability of the pharyngeal phase of swallow in the cat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G Spearman

    Full Text Available The pharyngeal phase of swallow has been thought to be a stereotypical motor behavior.This is a prospective, preclinical, hypothesis driven, one group by three-task design.We sought to compare the effects of pharyngeal swabbing, water only, and water plus punctate mechanical stimulation on the spatiotemporal features of the pharyngeal phase of swallow in the cat. Swallow was elicited under these three conditions in six anaesthetized cats. Electromyographic activity was recorded from seven muscles used to evaluate swallow: mylohyoid, geniohyoid, thyrohyoid, thyroarytenoid, thyropharyngeus, cricopharyngeus, and parasternal.Pharyngeal swabbing in comparison to the other stimulus conditions, results in decreases in post-swallow cricopharyngeus activity (upper esophageal sphincter; a significant increase in parasternal (schluckatmung; swallow breath activity; and increases in thyrohyoid (laryngeal elevator, thyroarytenoid (laryngeal adductor and parasternal muscles burst duration. Pearson correlations were found of moderate strength between 19% of burst duration comparisons and weak to moderate relationships between 29% of burst amplitude comparisons. However, there were no positive significant relationships between phase durations and electromyogram amplitudes between any of the muscles studied during swallow.The results support the concept that a stereotypical behavior, such as pharyngeal swallowing in animal models, can be modified by sensory feedback from pharyngeal mucosal mechanoreceptors. Furthermore, differences in swallow phase durations and amplitudes provide evidence that separate regulatory mechanisms exist which regulate spatial and temporal aspects of the behavior.

  16. STAMPS: development and verification of swallowing kinematic analysis software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Woo Hyung; Chun, Changmook; Seo, Han Gil; Lee, Seung Hak; Oh, Byung-Mo

    2017-10-17

    Swallowing impairment is a common complication in various geriatric and neurodegenerative diseases. Swallowing kinematic analysis is essential to quantitatively evaluate the swallowing motion of the oropharyngeal structures. This study aims to develop a novel swallowing kinematic analysis software, called spatio-temporal analyzer for motion and physiologic study (STAMPS), and verify its validity and reliability. STAMPS was developed in MATLAB, which is one of the most popular platforms for biomedical analysis. This software was constructed to acquire, process, and analyze the data of swallowing motion. The target of swallowing structures includes bony structures (hyoid bone, mandible, maxilla, and cervical vertebral bodies), cartilages (epiglottis and arytenoid), soft tissues (larynx and upper esophageal sphincter), and food bolus. Numerous functions are available for the spatiotemporal parameters of the swallowing structures. Testing for validity and reliability was performed in 10 dysphagia patients with diverse etiologies and using the instrumental swallowing model which was designed to mimic the motion of the hyoid bone and the epiglottis. The intra- and inter-rater reliability tests showed excellent agreement for displacement and moderate to excellent agreement for velocity. The Pearson correlation coefficients between the measured and instrumental reference values were nearly 1.00 (P software is expected to be useful for researchers who are interested in the swallowing motion analysis.

  17. Coprecipitation of iron and silver with barium fluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopilova, N.V.; Khamidov, B.O.; Kashina, Z.A.; Ikrami, D.D.

    1986-01-01

    Distribution of trace contaminants of iron and silver at coprecipitation of barium fluoride is studied in present work. It is defined that iron almost completely coprecipitated with barium fluoride in wide range of ph 5.5-12. Silver coprecipitated with barium fluoride in ph range 4-7. The value of coprecipitation varies from 94% to 100%.

  18. 40 CFR 721.10011 - Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Barium calcium manganese strontium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10011 Barium calcium manganese strontium oxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium calcium...

  19. A simple bedside test to assess the swallowing dysfunction in Parkinson′s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Vinoth Kanna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Swallowing changes are common in Parkinson′s disease (PD. Early identification is essential to avoid complications of aspiration. Objectives: To evaluate the swallowing ability of the PD patients and to correlate it with the indicators of disease progression. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 PD patients (70 males and 30 females aged between 50 years and 70 years with varying stage, duration, and severity were enrolled in a cross-sectional study carried out between January and May 2012. A simple bedside water swallowing test was performed using standard 150 ml of water. Swallowing process was assessed under three categories-swallowing speeds (ml/s, swallowing volume (ml/swallow and swallowing duration (s/swallow. Equal number of age and sex matched controls were also evaluated. Results: All of them completed the task of swallowing. A mean swallowing speed (27.48 ml/s, swallowing volume (28.5 ml/s, and swallowing duration (1.05 s/swallow was established by the control group. The PD patients showed decreased swallowing speed (7.15 ml/s in males and 6.61 ml/s in females, decreased swallowing volume (14.59 ml/swallow and 14 ml/swallow in females, and increased swallowing duration (2.37 s/swallow and 2.42 s/swallow which are statistically significant. There was a significant positive correlation between the severity, duration, and staging of the disease with the swallowing performance and a poor correlation between the subjective reports of dysphagia and the objective performance on water swallow test. Conclusion: The water swallowing test is a simple bedside test to identify the swallowing changes early in PD. It is recommended to do the test in all PD Patients to detect dysphagia early and to intervene appropriately.

  20. Barium ion beam. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazar, N.; Dandl, R.; Rynn, N.; Wickham, M.

    1985-01-01

    The barium ion beam Zeeman diagnostic is an in situ nonperturbing diagnostic designed to measure both the plasma electric and magnetic fields in devices such as STM and EBT. The diagnostic satisfies the requirements of high precision, spatial resolution and nonperturbation of the plasma. The technique uses resonance absorption of light from a single moded laser in a beam of energetic barium ions to measure the Zeeman effect in the absorption spectrum (to measure changes in the magnetic field) and to observe the changes in beam velocity by the Doppler shift of the absorption lines

  1. Printed Barium Strontium Titanate capacitors on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sette, Daniele [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology LIST, Materials Research and Technology Department, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg); Kovacova, Veronika [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Defay, Emmanuel, E-mail: emmanuel.defay@list.lu [Univ. Grenoble Alpes, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, LETI, MINATEC Campus, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Luxembourg Institute of Science and Technology LIST, Materials Research and Technology Department, L-4422 Belvaux (Luxembourg)

    2015-08-31

    In this paper, we show that Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) films can be prepared by inkjet printing of sol–gel precursors on platinized silicon substrate. Moreover, a functional variable capacitor working in the GHz range has been made without any lithography or etching steps. Finally, this technology requires 40 times less precursors than the standard sol–gel spin-coating technique. - Highlights: • Inkjet printing of Barium Strontium Titanate films • Deposition on silicon substrate • Inkjet printed silver top electrode • First ever BST films thinner than 1 μm RF functional variable capacitor that has required no lithography.

  2. Swallowing dysfunction as a factor that should be remembered in recurrent pneumonia: videofluoroscopic swallow study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymaz, Nazan; Özçelik, Uğur; Demir, Numan; Cinel, Güzin; Yalçin, Ebru; Ersöz, Deniz D; Kiper, Nural

    2017-10-01

    The swallow function is one of the strong defense mechanism against aspiration. Aspiration and pneumonia are unavoidable in patients with defective mechanism of swallowing. The aim of this study was to evaluate patients with recurrent pneumonia in terms of videofluoroscopic examination results. The study comprised fifty pediatric cases (22 boys, 28 girls) with an average age of 2.9 years (2 months-7.5 years) who were referred to our clinic due to suffering from recurrent pneumonia. The videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) was performed on all patients. The presence of a correlation with pneumonia was investigated. In 45 of the children, VFSS results were not normal. Of the children, 41 had mental-motor retardation. The results of the videofluoroscopic study show that silent aspiration was the most common pathology in participants with the percentage of 40 (27.5% mild, 17.5% severe). Patients in the study had pneumonia with an incidence of 2.6 illnesses per year. Having one than more results on VFSS was found to be associated with more number of annual pneumonia episodes. Children with neurological impairments are at risk of recurrent acute pneumonia due to aspiration. Disturbances of swallowing phases should be remembered as a cause of pneumonia in these patients.

  3. Hyolaryngeal excursion as the physiological source of swallowing accelerometry signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoratto, D C B; Chau, T; Steele, C M

    2010-01-01

    Swallowing dysfunction, or dysphagia, is a serious condition that can result from any structural or neurological impairment (such as stroke, neurodegenerative disease or brain injury) that affects the swallowing mechanism. The gold-standard method of instrumental swallowing assessment is an x-ray examination known as the videofluoroscopic swallowing study, which involves radiation exposure. Consequently, there is interest in exploring the potential of less invasive methods, with lesser risks of biohazard, to accurately detect swallowing abnormalities. Accelerometry is one such technique, which measures the epidermal vibration signals on a patient's neck during swallowing. Determining the utility of accelerometry signals for detecting dysphagia requires an understanding of the physiological source of the vibrations that are measured on the neck during swallowing. The purpose of the current study was to determine the extent to which movement of the hyoid bone and larynx contributes to the vibration signal that is registered during swallowing accelerometry. This question was explored by mapping the movement trajectories of the hyoid bone and the arytenoid cartilages from lateral videofluoroscopy recordings collected during thin liquid swallowing, and comparing these trajectories to time-linked signals obtained from a dual-axis accelerometer placed on the neck, just anterior to the cricoid cartilage. Participants for this study included 43 adult patients referred for videofluoroscopic swallowing studies to characterize the nature and severity of suspected neurogenic dysphagia. A software program was created to allow frame-by-frame tracking of structural movement on the videofluoroscopy recordings. These movement data were then compared to the integrated acceleration data using multiple linear regressions. The results concur with previous studies, implicating hyolaryngeal excursion as the primary physiological source of swallowing accelerometry signals, with both

  4. Swallowing frequency in elderly people during daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, N; Nohara, K; Kotani, Y; Matsumura, M; Sakai, T

    2013-10-01

    Disuse atrophy of swallowing-related organs due to an excessive decrease in swallowing frequency is suspected to occur in patients with poor oral intake, especially elderly people. However, swallowing frequency in daily life has not previously been examined in the elderly. This study examined swallowing frequency in elderly people and compared these findings to those in a younger population and differences in the degree of activity in daily life. (i) We compared swallowing frequency in 20 elderly people (82·0 ± 8·3 year) and 15 healthy young people (26·5 ± 3·5 year). (ii) 20 elderly people were divided into two groups according to the degree of activity in daily life: a semi-bedridden group and bedridden group; the swallowing frequency was compared between these groups. (i) The swallowing frequency in the elderly people was 2-19 times per hour and the mean was 9·4 ± 4·9, and that in the healthy young people was 16-76 times per hour and the mean was 40·7 ± 19·5. Swallowing frequency in elderly people was significantly lower than that in young healthy people (P bedridden group was 2-11 times per hour and the mean was 6·8 ± 3·3, and that in semi-bedridden group was 3-19 times per hour and the mean was 11·9 ± 5·1. Swallowing frequency in bedridden group was significantly lower than that in semi-bedridden group (P elderly people tend to swallow less frequently than young people. In addition, swallowing frequency was lower in elderly subjects with a low degree of activity in daily life. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Microscopic theory of the phonon frequencies in BCC barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oli, B.A.

    1988-09-01

    The phonon dispersion frequencies are calculated from first principles for bbc barium using a resonance pseudopotential model which incorporates the effect of s-d hybridization. It was also possible using this scheme to account for the anomalous feature of the Ba dispersion curve observed experimentally in the (ξ,0,0) direction where the frequencies of the transverse branch are higher than the frequencies of the longitudinal branch. The frequencies obtained were also used to calculate the phonon density of states by the linear-analytic tetrahedra method of zone integration. The results of these calculations are qualitatively in good agreement with experimental data, and provide further support to the interpretation of the anomalous behaviour in the (ξ,0,0) direction as arising from s-d hybridization. (author). 27 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  6. Effect of sodium bicarbonate pretreatment on barium coating of mucosa during double contrast barium meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinnunen, J.; Toetterman, S.; Kaila, R.; Pietilae, J.; Linden, H.; Tervahartiala, P.

    1983-01-01

    The radiographic pattern of the areae gastricae is produced by barium lying in the intersecting furrows of the gastric mucosal surface. However, if the mucus layer on the gastric mucosa is thick, it interferes with the barium coating of the areae gastricae during double contrast barium meal. As sodium bicarbonate decreases the viscosity of mucus and thus may make the gastric mucus layer thinner, it was evaluated as a pretreatment agent in a routine double contrast upper-gastrointestinal study to improve the visualization of the areae gastricae. In a single blind study, 53 of 106 patients took sodium bicarbonate water mixtures at bedtime the day before and on the morning of the examination. According to the results of the present study mucolysis induced by the used doses of sodium bicarbonate does not significantly affect micromucosal visualization during double-contrast barium meal. (orig.) [de

  7. Effect of sodium bicarbonate pretreatment on barium coating of mucosa during double contrast barium meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinnunen, J.; Toetterman, S.; Kaila, R.; Pietilae, J.; Linden, H.; Tervahartiala, P.

    1983-08-01

    The radiographic pattern of the areae gastricae is produced by barium lying in the intersecting furrows of the gastric mucosal surface. However, if the mucus layer on the gastric mucosa is thick, it interferes with the barium coating of the areae gastricae during double contrast barium meal. As sodium bicarbonate decreases the viscosity of mucus and thus may make the gastric mucus layer thinner, it was evaluated as a pretreatment agent in a routine double contrast upper-gastrointestinal study to improve the visualization of the areae gastricae. In a single blind study, 53 of 106 patients took sodium bicarbonate water mixtures at bedtime the day before and on the morning of the examination. According to the results of the present study mucolysis induced by the used doses of sodium bicarbonate does not significantly affect micromucosal visualization during double-contrast barium meal.

  8. Do Dysphagic Patients with an Absent Pharyngeal Swallow Have a Shorter Survival than Dysphagic Patients with Pharyngeal Swallow? Prognostic Importance of a Therapeutic Videoradiographic Swallowing Study (TVSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelow, M.; Olsson, R.; Ekberg, O.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To study survival in two groups of dysphagic patients - one group unable to elicit the pharyngeal stage of swallow (APS) and another group with pharyngeal swallow (WPS) - and to compare recommendations regarding nutrition and therapeutic strategies based on the therapeutic swallowing study. Material and Methods: In this retrospective study, the records of dysphagic patients who have undergone a therapeutic videoradiographic swallowing study (TVSS) were reviewed. Forty patients without pharyngeal swallow were matched for age and gender with 40 patients with pharyngeal swallow; altogether 80 patients were included in the study. Survival was registered at 3, 12, and 72 months after the TVSS. Results: In this study, the APS group had a significantly shorter survival time compared to the WPS group when followed-up at 12 months. In the APS group, most patients (37.5% (15/40)) died within the 3 months after TVSS. At 72 months, 62.5% (25/40) of the patients in the APS group had died. In the WPS group, 5% (2/40) had died within 3 months and 47.4% (19/40) after 12 months. At 72 months, 52.5% (21/40) of the patients in the WPS group had died. Regarding nutritional and therapeutic recommendations based on TVSS, 34/40 in the APS group were recommended no oral intake. Eighteen naso-gastric tubes were placed directly after TVSS. The therapeutic strategies recommended were head-positioning, thermal tactile stimulation, and tongue exercises (in 8 patients). In the WPS group, all patients were recommended oral intake. Diet modification was recommended in 29 patients. The therapeutic strategies recommended were head-positioning, thermal tactile stimulation, tongue exercises, supraglottic swallow, and effortful swallow (in 24 patients). Conclusion: Patients unable to elicit the pharyngeal stage of swallow had a shorter survival time than patients with pharyngeal swallow, probably due to a more severe underlying disease. Tube feeding was more frequent in the APS group. Fewer

  9. Enterogastroesophageal reflux during barium enema: Report of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hyoun Ja; Rhee, Hak Song

    1972-01-01

    Enterogastric reflux during barium enema examination has been ascribed to various causes including incompetence of the ilepcecal valve, shunt, fistula, excessive barium etc. Recently we have encountered a case of complete enterogastroesphageal regurgitation during barium enema examination performed for the reduction of the ileocolic intuosusception in 6 months old baby. The regurgitation occurred only in the first of two barium enema examinations conducted at one month interval for recurring intussusception. The barium-saline solution used in the present study was not more than 350 ml in quantity. No organic or physical causes of such a complete regurgitation could be determined

  10. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of Commission determination... China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with a full review pursuant to... antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  11. Blood pressure changes during barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, S.C.; Martin, O.J.D.; Owen, A.; Martin, D.F.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS: To document blood pressure changes during barium enema examination and to determine at what point in the examination changes are likely to occur. METHODS AND RESULTS: Blood pressure measurements were taken at seven points during the course of barium enema examination in 107 consecutive patients. We found that patients over the age of 60 years had statistically significant decreases in blood pressure when they were stood up during the course of the examination. Many of these patients were asymptomatic. Patients who had symptoms (15/107, 14%) when standing up had a degree of hypotension. The duration of barium enema examination is longer in those patients who experience symptoms. CONCLUSION: During a barium enema examination hypotension occurs at the point of standing up more frequently in patients over 60 years and in those who suffer symptoms at this time. Patients who fall into one of these groups should be considered at risk of fainting at this point in the examination. A modified technique to avoid standing should be considered in at-risk patients. Roach, S.C. et al. (2001)

  12. High temperature impedance spectroscopy of barium stannate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (M = Ba, Sr, Ca and Pb). ... Barium stannate (BaSnO3) is a cubic pervoskite oxide com- .... were gold-sputtered and scanned in different regions using .... de ions. Water insertion into the oxide structure can be re- presented as the process of ...

  13. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review)] Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: April 9, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Amy Sherman (202-205-3289...

  14. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... China Determination On the basis of the record\\1\\ developed in the subject five-year review, the United... China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the... contained in USITC Publication 4157 (June 2010), entitled Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No. 731...

  15. Thermal decomposition of barium valerate in argon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torres, P.; Norby, Poul; Grivel, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of barium valerate (Ba(C4H9CO2)(2)/Ba-pentanoate) was studied in argon by means of thermogravimetry, differential thermal analysis, IR-spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and hot-stage optical microscopy. Melting takes place in two different steps, at 200 degrees C and 280...

  16. Rheological properties of potassium barium borate glasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szwejda, K.A.; Vogel, D.L.; Stevels, J.M.

    1973-01-01

    Several series of potassium barium borate glasses have been investigated as to their rheological properties. It has been found, that all these glasses show deviations from ‘Newtonian’ behaviour below temperatures corresponding to viscosities of 1010 poises. The activation energies of viscous flow

  17. Impurities in barium titanate posistor ceramics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korniyenko, S. M.; Bykov, I. P.; Glinchuk, M. J.; Laguta, V. V.; Belous, A. G.; Jastrabík, Lubomír

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 239, - (2000), s. 1209-1218 ISSN 0015-0193 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : barium titanate phase transition * ESR * positive temperature coefficient of resistivity Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.547, year: 2000

  18. Demonstration of Single-Barium-Ion Sensitivity for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Using Single-Molecule Fluorescence Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, A. D.; Jones, B. J. P.; Nygren, D. R.; Adams, C.; Álvarez, V.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; Benlloch-Rodríguez, J. M.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Botas, A.; Cárcel, S.; Carrión, J. V.; Cebrián, S.; Conde, C. A. N.; Díaz, J.; Diesburg, M.; Escada, J.; Esteve, R.; Felkai, R.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Ferrario, P.; Ferreira, A. L.; Freitas, E. D. C.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; González-Díaz, D.; Gutiérrez, R. M.; Guenette, R.; Hafidi, K.; Hauptman, J.; Henriques, C. A. O.; Hernandez, A. I.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Herrero, V.; Johnston, S.; Labarga, L.; Laing, A.; Lebrun, P.; Liubarsky, I.; López-March, N.; Losada, M.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez-Lema, G.; Martínez, A.; Monrabal, F.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mora, F. J.; Moutinho, L. M.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Musti, M.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Novella, P.; Palmeiro, B.; Para, A.; Pérez, J.; Querol, M.; Repond, J.; Renner, J.; Riordan, S.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, J.; Rogers, L.; Santos, F. P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Stiegler, T.; Toledo, J. F.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Webb, R.; White, J. T.; Yahlali, N.; NEXT Collaboration

    2018-03-01

    A new method to tag the barium daughter in the double-beta decay of Xe 136 is reported. Using the technique of single molecule fluorescent imaging (SMFI), individual barium dication (Ba++ ) resolution at a transparent scanning surface is demonstrated. A single-step photobleach confirms the single ion interpretation. Individual ions are localized with superresolution (˜2 nm ), and detected with a statistical significance of 12.9 σ over backgrounds. This lays the foundation for a new and potentially background-free neutrinoless double-beta decay technology, based on SMFI coupled to high pressure xenon gas time projection chambers.

  19. Demonstration of Single-Barium-Ion Sensitivity for Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay Using Single-Molecule Fluorescence Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, A. D.; Jones, B. J. P.; Nygren, D. R.; Adams, C.; Álvarez, V.; Azevedo, C. D. R.; Benlloch-Rodríguez, J. M.; Borges, F. I. G. M.; Botas, A.; Cárcel, S.; Carrión, J. V.; Cebrián, S.; Conde, C. A. N.; Díaz, J.; Diesburg, M.; Escada, J.; Esteve, R.; Felkai, R.; Fernandes, L. M. P.; Ferrario, P.; Ferreira, A. L.; Freitas, E. D. C.; Goldschmidt, A.; Gómez-Cadenas, J. J.; González-Díaz, D.; Gutiérrez, R. M.; Guenette, R.; Hafidi, K.; Hauptman, J.; Henriques, C. A. O.; Hernandez, A. I.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; Herrero, V.; Johnston, S.; Labarga, L.; Laing, A.; Lebrun, P.; Liubarsky, I.; López-March, N.; Losada, M.; Martín-Albo, J.; Martínez-Lema, G.; Martínez, A.; Monrabal, F.; Monteiro, C. M. B.; Mora, F. J.; Moutinho, L. M.; Muñoz Vidal, J.; Musti, M.; Nebot-Guinot, M.; Novella, P.; Palmeiro, B.; Para, A.; Pérez, J.; Querol, M.; Repond, J.; Renner, J.; Riordan, S.; Ripoll, L.; Rodríguez, J.; Rogers, L.; Santos, F. P.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Simón, A.; Sofka, C.; Sorel, M.; Stiegler, T.; Toledo, J. F.; Torrent, J.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Veloso, J. F. C. A.; Webb, R.; White, J. T.; Yahlali, N.

    2018-03-01

    A new method to tag the barium daughter in the double beta decay of $^{136}$Xe is reported. Using the technique of single molecule fluorescent imaging (SMFI), individual barium dication (Ba$^{++}$) resolution at a transparent scanning surface has been demonstrated. A single-step photo-bleach confirms the single ion interpretation. Individual ions are localized with super-resolution ($\\sim$2~nm), and detected with a statistical significance of 12.9~$\\sigma$ over backgrounds. This lays the foundation for a new and potentially background-free neutrinoless double beta decay technology, based on SMFI coupled to high pressure xenon gas time projection chambers.

  20. IMPLICATIONS OF MOUTH BREATHING AND ATYPICAL SWALLOWING IN BODY POSTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronique Sousa

    2017-07-01

    Conclusion: Statistically significant associations were established between the breathing pattern and the horizontal alignment of acromions, as well as the horizontal and vertical alignment of the head; between the pattern of breathing and swallowing with occlusal relationship anteroposterior and occlusal relationship vertical and also between breathing pattern and swallowing with digital sucking habits and pacifier use.

  1. Swallow Characteristics in Patients with Oculopharyngeal Muscular Dystrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Phyllis M.; Neel, Amy T.; Sprouls, Gwyneth; Morrison, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This prospective investigation evaluates oral weakness and its impact on swallow function, weight, and quality of life in patients with oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy (OPMD). Method: Intraoral pressure, swallow pressure, and endurance were measured using an Iowa Oral Performance Instrument in participants with OPMD and matched…

  2. Current distribution and population size of the Blue Swallow Hirundo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , the crops, natural pastures, livestock and their dung possibly provide the food source for the aerial arthropods on which the Blue Swallows feed. In total, 151 Blue Swallows were recorded consisting of 62 males, 68 females and 21 unsexed ...

  3. Swallowing in moderate and severe phases of Alzheimer's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheilla de Medeiros Correia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To characterize the problems of feeding and swallowing in individuals with moderate and severe Alzheimer´s disease (AD and to correlate these with functional aspects. METHOD: Fifty patients with AD and their caregivers participated in this study. The instruments used were: Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR, Mini-Mental State Examination, Index of Activities of Daily Living, Assessment of Feeding and Swallowing Difficulties in Dementia, Functional Outcome Questionnaire for Aphasia, and Swallowing Rating Scale. RESULTS: Problems with passivity, distraction and refusal to eat were encountered in the CDR2 group. Distraction, passivity and inappropriate feeding velocity were predominant in the CDR3 group. The problems were correlated with communication, swallowing severity of AD individuals and caregiver schooling. CONCLUSION: Given the inexorable functional alterations during the course of the disease, it is vital to observe these in patients with a compromised feeding and swallowing mechanism. The present study supplies the instruments to orient caregivers and professionals.

  4. Involvement of hypoglossal and recurrent laryngeal nerves on swallowing pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Takanori; Suzuki, Taku; Yoshihara, Midori; Sakai, Shogo; Koshi, Naomi; Ashiga, Hirokazu; Shiraishi, Naru; Tsuji, Kojun; Magara, Jin; Inoue, Makoto

    2018-05-01

    Swallowing pressure generation is important to ensure safe transport of an ingested bolus without aspiration or leaving residue in the pharynx. To clarify the mechanism, we measured swallowing pressure at the oropharynx (OP), upper esophageal sphincter (UES), and cervical esophagus (CE) using a specially designed manometric catheter in anesthetized rats. A swallow, evoked by punctate mechanical stimulation to the larynx, was identified by recording activation of the suprahyoid and thyrohyoid muscles using electromyography (EMG). Areas under the curve of the swallowing pressure at the OP, UES, and CE from two trials indicated high intrasubject reproducibility. Effects of transecting the hypoglossal nerve (12N) and recurrent laryngeal nerve (RLN) on swallowing were investigated. Following bilateral hypoglossal nerve transection (Bi-12Nx), OP pressure was significantly decreased, and time intervals between peaks of thyrohyoid EMG bursts and OP pressure were significantly shorter. Decreased OP pressure and shortened times between peaks of thyrohyoid EMG bursts and OP pressure following Bi-12Nx were significantly increased and longer, respectively, after covering the hard and soft palates with acrylic material. UES pressure was significantly decreased after bilateral RLN transection compared with that before transection. These results suggest that the 12N and RLN play crucial roles in OP and UES pressure during swallowing, respectively. We speculate that covering the palates with a palatal augmentation prosthesis may reverse the reduced swallowing pressure in patients with 12N or tongue damage by the changes of the sensory information and of the contact between the tongue and a palates. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Hypoglossal nerve transection reduced swallowing pressure at the oropharynx. Covering the hard and soft palates with acrylic material may reverse the reduced swallowing function caused by hypoglossal nerve damage. Recurrent laryngeal nerve transection reduced upper

  5. Barium carbonate as an agent to improve the electrical properties of neodymium-barium-copper system at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, J.P.; Duarte, G.W.; Caldart, C.; Kniess, C.T.; Montedo, O.R.K.; Rocha, M.R.; Riella, H.G.; Fiori, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Specialized ceramics are manufactured under special conditions and contain specific elements. They possess unique electrical and thermal properties and are frequently used by the electronics industry. Ceramics containing neodymium-barium-copper (NBC) exhibit high conductivities at low temperatures. NBC-based ceramics are typically combined with oxides, i.e., NBCo produced from neodymium oxide, barium oxide and copper oxide. This study presents NBC ceramics that were produced with barium carbonate, copper oxide and neodymium oxide (NBCa) as starting materials. These ceramics have good electrical conductivities at room temperature. Their conductivities are temperature dependent and related to the starting amount of barium carbonate (w%). - Highlights: • The new crystalline structure were obtained due presence of the barium carbonate. • The NBCa compound has excellent electrical conductivity at room temperature. • The grain crystalline morphology was modified by presence of the barium carbonate. • New Phases α and β were introduced by carbonate barium in the NBC compound

  6. Barium carbonate as an agent to improve the electrical properties of neodymium-barium-copper system at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, J.P. [Post-Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, SC, 88040-900 (Brazil); Duarte, G.W. [Post-Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, SC, 88040-900 (Brazil); Research Group in Technology and Information, Centro Universitário Barriga Verde (UNIBAVE), Santa Catarina, SC (Brazil); Caldart, C. [Post-Graduate Program in Science and Materials Engineering, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciúma, SC, 88806-000 (Brazil); Kniess, C.T. [Post-Graduate Program in Professional Master in Management, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Montedo, O.R.K.; Rocha, M.R. [Post-Graduate Program in Science and Materials Engineering, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense (UNESC), Criciúma, SC, 88806-000 (Brazil); Riella, H.G. [Post-Graduate Program in Chemical Engineering, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianópolis, SC, 88040-900 (Brazil); Fiori, M.A., E-mail: fiori@unochapeco.edu.br [Post-Graduate Program in Environmental Science, Universidade Comunitária da Região de Chapecó (UNOCHAPECÓ), Chapecó, SC, 89809-000 (Brazil); Post-Graduate Program in Technology and Management of the Innovation, Universidade Comunitária da Região de Chapecó (UNOCHAPECÓ), Chapecó, SC, 89809-000 (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    Specialized ceramics are manufactured under special conditions and contain specific elements. They possess unique electrical and thermal properties and are frequently used by the electronics industry. Ceramics containing neodymium-barium-copper (NBC) exhibit high conductivities at low temperatures. NBC-based ceramics are typically combined with oxides, i.e., NBCo produced from neodymium oxide, barium oxide and copper oxide. This study presents NBC ceramics that were produced with barium carbonate, copper oxide and neodymium oxide (NBCa) as starting materials. These ceramics have good electrical conductivities at room temperature. Their conductivities are temperature dependent and related to the starting amount of barium carbonate (w%). - Highlights: • The new crystalline structure were obtained due presence of the barium carbonate. • The NBCa compound has excellent electrical conductivity at room temperature. • The grain crystalline morphology was modified by presence of the barium carbonate. • New Phases α and β were introduced by carbonate barium in the NBC compound.

  7. Correlation between Timed Barium Esophagogram and the Eckardt Stage in Achalasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waraporn Boonsomjint, M.D.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the correlation of timed barium esophagogram (TBE parameters and the Eckardt stage in patients with achalasia. Methods: This prospective study was done in 29 adult achalasia patients who underwent TBE and were assessed for clinical symptoms according to the Eckardt stage. The association between the Eckardt stage and TBE parameters including the height and the width of barium column, esophageal emptying between 1 and 5 minutes, which was calculated by comparing the area of barium column and esophageal emptying between 0 and 5 minutes, which was calculated from the relative changes in ingested volume to estimated volume of barium column on the 5-min image and this was calculated by using Kruskal-Wallis test. Comparison of mean emptied volume at 1 min. image and mean emptied volume between 1 and 5 minutes was done by using paired samples t-tests. Results: There was a significant difference in the amount of emptied volume at 1 min image (mean = 118.27, SD = 31.1 and emptied volume between 1 min and 5 min images (mean = 11.41, SD = 9.4; t(27 =15.375, p < 0.001. Statistically significant difference in esophageal emptying between 1 and 5 minutes across the Eckardt stages was found (H=8.115, 3 d.f., p=0.044. The difference was statistically significant between the Eckardt stage 2 and 3 (p=0.039. There were no statistically significant differences in other TBE parameters across the Eckardt stages. Conclusion: No statistically significant difference in TBE parameters across the Eckardt stages was found in the present study. However, TBE is a useful objective method to assess esophageal emptying in patients with achalasia. Interpretation of TBE should be standardized. Calculation of esophageal emptying should include the amount of barium emptied from the esophagus in the first minute.

  8. Oesophageal motility disorders - diagnosis with a barium-rice study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwickert, H.C.; Schadmand-Fischer, S.; Klose, P.; Staritz, M.; Ueberschaer, B.; Thelen, M.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of a 'barium-rice' study for diagnosis of dysphagia and oesophageal motility disorders. Material and methods: 203 patients with oesophageal motility disorders of various aetiologies were examined by both conventional barium study and a 'barium-rice' study. During the latter, oesophageal clearance of a defined mixture of barium sulfate and boiled rice was measured. Results: The conventional barium study revealed prolonged transit time in only 15.8% (32 of 203 cases), whereas barium-rice study was pathological in 50.8% (103 of 203 cases). In 71 of 171 patients (41.5%) with a normal barium study, barium-rice passage was prolonged. In 23 patients, radiological results were confirmed by manometric measurements. Conclusion: Oesophageal motility disorders are detected by a barim-rice study with high sensitivity independent of the underlying disease. The barium-rice study offers a simple diagnostic tool revealing quantitative and reliable results. The barium-rice study is a suitable method for screening and follow-up of patients with dysphagia and oesophageal motility disorders. (orig.) [de

  9. Motor imagery and swallowing: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ada Salvetti Cavalcanti Caldas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objetive: to identify, in the literature, studies that address the use of motor imagery of swallowing. Methods: a systematic review in SCOPUS databases, Science Direct and Medline, with descriptors and free terms "Motor Imagery"; "Swallow"; "Feeding"; "Stomatognathic System"; "mastication ", "Chew "; "Deglutition "; "Deglutition Disorders "; and "Mental Practice". Original articles using the motor imagery of swallowing were included, while reviews were excluded. For data analysis, at the first and second steps, the reading of titles and abstracts of the studies was carried out. In the third step, all studies that were not excluded were read in full. Results: four manuscripts were selected. The use of motor imagery in the rehabilitation of swallowing shows to be a recent proposal (2014-2015. The sample was reduced and comprised mainly healthy individuals. The EMG of the supra-hyoid muscles was used in two manuscripts. The most used neuroimaging technique was the Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, demonstrating the occurrence of hemodynamic changes during motor imagery and motor execution of swallowing. Conclusion: the motor imagery produces brain response in the motor area of the brain, suggesting that mentalization of actions related to swallowing is effective. However, further studies are needed for the application of this approach in the swallowing rehabilitation.

  10. Risk factors for swallowing dysfunction in stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Flávia Ferraz Barros Baroni

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Stroke is a frequent cause of dysphagia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in a tertiary care hospital the prevalence of swallowing dysfunction in stroke patients, to analyze factors associated with the dysfunction and to relate swallowing dysfunction to mortality 3 months after the stroke. METHODS: Clinical evaluation of deglutition was performed in 212 consecutive patients with a medical and radiologic diagnosis of stroke. The occurrence of death was determined 3 months after the stroke. RESULTS: It was observed that 63% of the patients had swallowing dysfunction. The variables gender and specific location of the lesion were not associated with the presence or absence of swallowing dysfunction. The patients with swallowing dysfunction had more frequently a previous stroke, had a stroke in the left hemisphere, motor and/or sensitivity alterations, difficulty in oral comprehension, alteration of oral expression, alteration of the level of consciousness, complications such as fever and pneumonia, high indexes on the Rankin scale, and low indexes on the Barthel scale. These patients had a higher mortality rate. CONCLUSIONS: Swallowing evaluation should be done in all patients with stroke, since swallowing dysfunction is associated with complications and an increased risk of death.

  11. Ginger Orally Disintegrating Tablets to Improve Swallowing in Older People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Ayumu; Funato, Hiroki; Nakai, Megumi; Iizuka, Michiro; Abe, Noriaki; Yagi, Yusuke; Shiraishi, Hisashi; Jobu, Kohei; Yokota, Junko; Hirose, Kahori; Hyodo, Masamitsu; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    We previously prepared and pharmaceutically evaluated ginger orally disintegrating (OD) tablets, optimized the base formulation, and carried out a clinical trial in healthy adults in their 20 s and 50s to measure their effect on salivary substance P (SP) level and improved swallowing function. In this study, we conducted clinical trials using the ginger OD tablets in older people to clinically evaluate the improvements in swallowing function resulting from the functional components of the tablet. The ginger OD tablets were prepared by mixing the excipients with the same amount of mannitol and sucrose to a concentration of 1% ginger. Eighteen healthy older adult volunteers aged 63 to 90 were included in the swallowing function test. Saliva was collected before and 15 min after administration of the placebo and ginger OD tablets. Swallowing endoscopy was performed by an otolaryngologist before administration and 15 min after administration of the ginger OD tablets. A scoring method was used to evaluate the endoscopic swallowing. Fifteen minutes after taking the ginger OD tablets, the salivary SP amount was significantly higher than prior to ingestion or after taking the placebo (pginger OD tablets. Our findings showed that the ginger OD tablets increased the salivary SP amount and improved swallowing function in older people with appreciably reduced swallowing function.

  12. Tactile thermal oral stimulation increases the cortical representation of swallowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suntrup Sonja

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dysphagia is a leading complication in stroke patients causing aspiration pneumonia, malnutrition and increased mortality. Current strategies of swallowing therapy involve on the one hand modification of eating behaviour or swallowing technique and on the other hand facilitation of swallowing with the use of pharyngeal sensory stimulation. Thermal tactile oral stimulation (TTOS is an established method to treat patients with neurogenic dysphagia especially if caused by sensory deficits. Little is known about the possible mechanisms by which this interventional therapy may work. We employed whole-head MEG to study changes in cortical activation during self-paced volitional swallowing in fifteen healthy subjects with and without TTOS. Data were analyzed by means of synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM and the group analysis of individual SAM data was performed using a permutation test. Results Compared to the normal swallowing task a significantly increased bilateral cortical activation was seen after oropharyngeal stimulation. Analysis of the chronological changes during swallowing suggests facilitation of both the oral and the pharyngeal phase of deglutition. Conclusion In the present study functional cortical changes elicited by oral sensory stimulation could be demonstrated. We suggest that these results reflect short-term cortical plasticity of sensory swallowing areas. These findings facilitate our understanding of the role of cortical reorganization in dysphagia treatment and recovery.

  13. Clock gene variation in Tachycineta swallows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dor, Roi; Cooper, Caren B; Lovette, Irby J; Massoni, Viviana; Bulit, Flor; Liljesthrom, Marcela; Winkler, David W

    2012-01-01

    Many animals use photoperiod cues to synchronize reproduction with environmental conditions and thereby improve their reproductive success. The circadian clock, which creates endogenous behavioral and physiological rhythms typically entrained to photoperiod, is well characterized at the molecular level. Recent work provided evidence for an association between Clock poly-Q length polymorphism and latitude and, within a population, an association with the date of laying and the length of the incubation period. Despite relatively high overall breeding synchrony, the timing of clutch initiation has a large impact on the fitness of swallows in the genus Tachycineta. We compared length polymorphism in the Clock poly-Q region among five populations from five different Tachycineta species that breed across a hemisphere-wide latitudinal gradient (Fig. 1). Clock poly-Q variation was not associated with latitude; however, there was an association between Clock poly-Q allele diversity and the degree of clutch size decline within breeding seasons. We did not find evidence for an association between Clock poly-Q variation and date of clutch initiation in for any of the five Tachycineta species, nor did we found a relationship between incubation duration and Clock genotype. Thus, there is no general association between latitude, breeding phenology, and Clock polymorphism in this clade of closely related birds.Figure 1Photos of Tachycineta swallows that were used in this study: A) T. bicolor from Ithaca, New York, B) T. leucorrhoa from Chascomús, Argentina, C) T. albilinea from Hill Bank, Belize, D) T. meyeni from Puerto Varas, Chile, and E) T. thalassina from Mono Lake, California, Photographers: B: Valentina Ferretti; A, C-E: David Winkler.

  14. Isometric and swallowing tongue strength in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, J Tee; Lintzenich, Catherine Rees; Butler, Susan G

    2013-10-01

    The tongue contributes to a safe swallow. It facilitates bolus control during mastication, maintains a bolus in the oral cavity to prevent premature entry of the bolus into the hypopharynx, and helps generate pressure in the hypopharynx during swallowing. This study examined isometric tongue strength and tongue pressure measured during swallowing in healthy young and older adults. Prospective group design. One hundred twenty-six healthy individuals who were recruited as part of a larger study on swallowing participated in this study. Participants were divided into three age groups: 20 to 40 years, 41 to 60 years, and ≥61 years. A KayPentax Digital Swallowing Workstation with an air-filled bulb array was placed on the tongue of each participant (anterior to posterior). Participants completed three isometric tongue presses and three swallows. Repeated measures analyses of variance revealed a significant main effect of age (P = .01) and gender by tongue bulb location interaction (P = .02) for isometric tongue strength. That is, older adults had lower isometric tongue strength than young adults, and females had a greater difference between anterior and posterior tongue strength than males. Tongue strength during swallowing yielded significantly greater anterior versus posterior tongue pressure. This study comprises one of the largest in terms of number of healthy participants reported to date and confirms previous findings that isometric tongue strength decreases with age. Furthermore, given young and older adults generate similar swallowing pressures, swallowing is a submaximal strength activity, yet older adults have less functional reserve. 4. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Radar observations of ion cyclotron waves associated with two barium shaped-charge releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Providakes, J.; Swartz, W.E.; Kelley, M.C.; Djuth, F.T.; Noble, S.; Jost, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    A 50-MHz Doppler radar interferometer and a 138-MHz Doppler radar were operated from Kennedy Space Center to study 3-m and 1-m plasma waves associated with two shaped-charged barium releases from Wallops Island, Virginia, on May 13, 1986. During the first release, interferometer and Doppler power spectral studies showed the existence of short-lived ( + EIC waves were unstable for field-aligned electron drifts greater than 0.7υ the at the altitude of 510 km in a multispecies (O + , NO + , or similarly O 2 + ) ionospheric plasma. The authors interpret the 30-Hz waves seen by the two radars far above the release as strong electrostatic ion cyclotron waves generated by intense field-aligned currents associated with the barium stream acting like an MHD generator coupled to the ionospheres

  16. Radioactive Barium Ion Trap Based on Metal-Organic Framework for Efficient and Irreversible Removal of Barium from Nuclear Wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yaguang; Huang, Hongliang; Liu, Dahuan; Zhong, Chongli

    2016-04-06

    Highly efficient and irreversible capture of radioactive barium from aqueous media remains a serious task for nuclear waste disposal and environmental protection. To address this task, here we propose a concept of barium ion trap based on metal-organic framework (MOF) with a strong barium-chelating group (sulfate and sulfonic acid group) in the pore structures of MOFs. The functionalized MOF-based ion traps can remove >90% of the barium within the first 5 min, and the removal efficiency reaches 99% after equilibrium. Remarkably, the sulfate-group-functionalized ion trap demonstrates a high barium uptake capacity of 131.1 mg g(-1), which surpasses most of the reported sorbents and can selectively capture barium from nuclear wastewater, whereas the sulfonic-acid-group-functionalized ion trap exhibits ultrafast kinetics with a kinetic rate constant k2 of 27.77 g mg(-1) min(-1), which is 1-3 orders of magnitude higher than existing sorbents. Both of the two MOF-based ion traps can capture barium irreversibly. Our work proposes a new strategy to design barium adsorbent materials and provides a new perspective for removing radioactive barium and other radionuclides from nuclear wastewater for environment remediation. Besides, the concrete mechanisms of barium-sorbent interactions are also demonstrated in this contribution.

  17. Nanoparticles of barium induce apoptosis in human phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mores, Luana; França, Eduardo Luzia; Silva, Núbia Andrade; Suchara, Eliane Aparecida; Honorio-França, Adenilda Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Nutrients and immunological factors of breast milk are essential for newborn growth and the development of their immune system, but this secretion can contain organic and inorganic toxins such as barium. Colostrum contamination with barium is an important issue to investigate because this naturally occurring element is also associated with human activity and industrial pollution. The study evaluated the administration of barium nanoparticles to colostrum, assessing the viability and functional activity of colostral mononuclear phagocytes. Colostrum was collected from 24 clinically healthy women (aged 18-35 years). Cell viability, superoxide release, intracellular Ca(2+) release, and phagocyte apoptosis were analyzed in the samples. Treatment with barium lowered mononuclear phagocyte viability, increased superoxide release, and reduced intracellular calcium release. In addition, barium increased cell death by apoptosis. These data suggest that nanoparticles of barium in colostrum are toxic to cells, showing the importance of avoiding exposure to this element.

  18. Cervical auscultation as an adjunct to the clinical swallow examination: a comparison with fibre-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Liza; Svensson, Per; Hartelius, Lena

    2014-10-01

    This prospective, single-blinded study investigated the validity and reliability of cervical auscultation (CA) under two conditions; (1) CA-only, using isolated swallow-sound clips, and (2) CSE + CA, using extra clinical swallow examination (CSE) information such as patient case history, oromotor assessment, and the same swallow-sound clips as condition one. The two CA conditions were compared against a fibre-optic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) reference test. Each CA condition consisted of 18 swallows samples compiled from 12 adult patients consecutively referred to the FEES clinic. Patients' swallow sounds were simultaneously recorded during FEES via a Littmann E3200 electronic stethoscope. These 18 swallow samples were sent to 13 experienced dysphagia clinicians recruited from the UK and Australia who were blinded to the FEES results. Samples were rated in terms of (1) if dysphagic, (2) if the patient was safe on consistency trialled, and (3) dysphagia severity. Sensitivity measures ranged from 83-95%, specificity measures from 50-92% across the conditions. Intra-rater agreement ranged from 69-97% total agreement. Inter-rater reliability for dysphagia severity showed substantial agreement (rs = 0.68 and 0.74). Results show good rater reliability for CA-trained speech-language pathologists. Sensitivity and specificity for both CA conditions in this study are comparable to and often better than other well-established CSE components.

  19. Barium Titanate Nanoparticles for Biomarker Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matar, O; Hondow, N S; Brydson, R M D; Milne, S J; Brown, A P; Posada, O M; Wälti, C; Saunders, M; Murray, C A

    2015-01-01

    A tetragonal crystal structure is required for barium titanate nanoparticles to exhibit the nonlinear optical effect of second harmonic light generation (SHG) for use as a biomarker when illuminated by a near-infrared source. Here we use synchrotron XRD to elucidate the tetragonal phase of commercially purchased tetragonal, cubic and hydrothermally prepared barium titanate (BaTiO 3 ) nanoparticles by peak fitting with reference patterns. The local phase of individual nanoparticles is determined by STEM electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), measuring the core-loss O K-edge and the Ti L 3 -edge energy separation of the t 2g , e g peaks. The results show a change in energy separation between the t 2g and e g peak from the surface and core of the particles, suggesting an intraparticle phase mixture of the barium titanate nanoparticles. HAADF-STEM and bright field TEM-EDX show cellular uptake of the hydrothermally prepared BaTiO 3 nanoparticles, highlighting the potential for application as biomarkers. (paper)

  20. Barium hexaferrite nanoparticles: Synthesis and magnetic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martirosyan, K.S.; Galstyan, E.; Hossain, S.M.; Wang Yiju; Litvinov, D.

    2011-01-01

    Carbon combustion synthesis is applied to rapid and energy efficient fabrication of crystalline barium hexaferrite nanoparticles with the average particle size of 50-100 nm. In this method, the exothermic oxidation of carbon nanoparticles with an average size of 5 nm with a surface area of 80 m 2 /g generates a self-propagating thermal wave with maximum temperatures of up to 1000 deg. C. The thermal front rapidly propagates through the mixture of solid reactants converting it to the hexagonal barium ferrite. Carbon is not incorporated in the product and is emitted from the reaction zone as a gaseous CO 2 . The activation energy for carbon combustion synthesis of BaFe 12 O 19 was estimated to be 98 kJ/mol. A complete conversion to hexagonal barium ferrite is obtained for carbon concentration exceeding 11 wt.%. The magnetic properties H c ∼3000 Oe and M s ∼50.3 emu/g of the compact sintered ferrites compare well with those produced by other synthesis methods.

  1. BARIUM REDUCTION OF INTUSSUSCEPTION IN INFANCY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denenholz, Edward J.; Feher, George. S.

    1955-01-01

    Barium enema reduction was used as the initial routine treatment in 29 infants with intussusception. In 22 of them the intussusception was reduced by this means. In three of eight patients operated upon the intussusception was found to be reduced. Four of the remaining five patients had clinical or x-ray evidence of complications before reduction by barium enema was attempted. Twenty-one of the patients, all of whom were observed in private practice, were treated without admission to the hospital. After reduction, these patients were observed closely by the clinician. None of these patients showed clinical or x-ray signs of complications before reduction. Certain clinical and roentgen criteria must be satisfied before it can be concluded that reduction by barium enema is complete. If there are clinical signs of complications with x-ray evidence of small bowel obstruction, only a very cautious attempt at hydrostatic reduction should be made. As the time factor is generally a reliable clinical guide to reducibility, the late cases should be viewed with greater caution. Long duration of symptoms, however, is not per se a contraindication to an attempt at hydrostatic reduction. PMID:13230908

  2. Making of Magnet Barium Ferit Anisotropic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idayati, Novrita; Dedi

    2003-01-01

    Barium Hexa ferrite (BaFe 12 O 19 ) is ceramic and materials which usually used for making of permanent magnet. In this research Barium Hexa ferrite were made Anisotropic, and applied for loudspeaker, electro motors, dynamo, KWh metre, etc. this Magnet is commonly used due to its high Induction of Remanen (Br) and coercivity (high Hc). Besides it applies a more simple and easier process technology, cheaper raw material, and easy to find it, hence the magnetic component is much cheaper. Powder Metallurgy was used for the process technology, by reacting all materials in the powder (oxide), with a certain size distribution and a tight preparation step. The next step was mixing ferrite and Barium Carbonate (in the form of oxide), calcination, compaction, cantering and characterisation. The Anisotropic particle effects a high Induce Remanen (Br) and of koersifitas (high Hc). All the process steps will is determine physical and chemical characteristics of the magnet. The best Magnet characteristic of the magnet produced in this research is Induction of Remanen (Br) = 4,27 kg, Coercivity (Hc) = 1,745 kOe, Energy Product max (BHmaks) = 2,31 MGOe

  3. Kinematic and spatial distributions of barium stars - are the barium stars and Am stars related?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakkila, J.

    1989-01-01

    The possibility of an evolutionary link between Am stars and barium stars is considered, and an examination of previous data suggests that barium star precursors are main-sequence stars of intermediate mass, are most likely A and/or F dwarfs, and are intermediate-mass binaries with close to intermediate orbital separations. The possible role of mass transfer in the later development of Am systems is explored. Mass transfer and loss from systems with a range of masses and orbital separations may explain such statistical peculiarities of barium stars as the large dispersion in absolute magnitude, the large range of elemental abundances from star to star, and the small number of stars with large peculiar velocities. 93 refs

  4. Contrast characteristics of barium preparations and the timing of exposure

    OpenAIRE

    渋谷, 光一; 中桐, 義忠; 東, 義晴; 杉田, 勝彦; 小橋, 高郎; 大倉, 保彦; 丹谷, 延義; 三上, 泰隆; 平木, 祥夫

    1995-01-01

    We studied the relationship between the contrast characteristics of barium suspension and timing of exposure. We poured several kinds of barium preparations on the phantom manufactured by ourselves, and took X-ray pictures continuously by a DSA system. We analyzed each of the characteris-tics of the contrast. The time which was reguired for the contrast to reach the peak (Contrast Peak Time ; CPT) was unrelated with the kind of barium preparations used. It depended on the viscosity of the con...

  5. Barium peritonitis following upper gastrointestinal series: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Su Jin; Hwang, Ji Young; Kim, Yong Jin; Hong, Seong Sook [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Seoul Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    We report a rare case of barium peritonitis following an upper gastrointestinal (GI) series and its imaging findings in a 74-year-old female. Barium peritonitis is a rare but life-threatening complication of GI contrast investigation. Therefore, clinical awareness of barium peritonitis as a complication of GI tract contrast investigation would help to prevent such a complication and manage the patients properly.

  6. Barium peritonitis following upper gastrointestinal series: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Su Jin; Hwang, Ji Young; Kim, Yong Jin; Hong, Seong Sook

    2017-01-01

    We report a rare case of barium peritonitis following an upper gastrointestinal (GI) series and its imaging findings in a 74-year-old female. Barium peritonitis is a rare but life-threatening complication of GI contrast investigation. Therefore, clinical awareness of barium peritonitis as a complication of GI tract contrast investigation would help to prevent such a complication and manage the patients properly

  7. History and challenges of barium titanate: Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijatović M.M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Barium titanate is the first ferroelectric ceramics and a good candidate for a variety of applications due to its excellent dielectric, ferroelectric and piezoelectric properties. Barium titanate is a member of a large family of compounds with the general formula ABO3 called perovskites. Barium titanate can be prepared using different methods. The synthesis method depends on the desired characteristics for the end application. The used method has a significant influence on the structure and properties of barium titanate materials. In this review paper, Part I contains a study of the BaTiO3 structure and frequently used synthesis methods.

  8. Lanthanide doped strontium-barium cesium halide scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizarri, Gregory; Bourret-Courchesne, Edith; Derenzo, Stephen E.; Borade, Ramesh B.; Gundiah, Gautam; Yan, Zewu; Hanrahan, Stephen M.; Chaudhry, Anurag; Canning, Andrew

    2015-06-09

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising an inorganic scintillator comprising an optionally lanthanide-doped strontium-barium, optionally cesium, halide, useful for detecting nuclear material.

  9. Role of Basal Ganglia in Swallowing Process: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh Ghaemi

    2016-12-01

    Discussion: Swallowing is a multifaceted performance that needs contribution of the tongue, larynx, pharynx, and esophagus as well as the neurological structures such as neocortex and subcortical regions - BG and brainstem.

  10. Swallowing rehabilitation before and during concurrent chemoradiotherapy for oropharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuneyuki, Miki; Yonezawa, Kouichiro; Morimoto, Koichi; Tanimoto, Hitoshi; Saito, Miki; Otsuki, Naoki; Nibu, Ken-ichi

    2011-01-01

    Recently, oropharyngeal cancer is more frequently being managed with concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). As more patients receive CCRT, there is increasing attention on dysphagia. Since 2009, speech therapists in our hospital have performed swallowing rehabilitation for dysphagia associated with CCRT. We evaluated dysphagia after CCRT and examined the relationship between swallowing rehabilitation and swallowing disability. A total of 26 patients (22 males and 4 females) with a mean age of 63 years (range, 41 to 79), underwent CCRT between March 2008 and March 2010. Dysphagia after treatment was graded at the end of CCRT and discharge according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) version 4.0 and Fujishima dysphagia grade. Ten of the 26 patients underwent swallowing rehabilitation, exercise and education on muscle strengthening programs before and during CCRT. They tended not to have severe dysphagia, but there were no significant differences. (author)

  11. Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES): proposal for informed consent

    OpenAIRE

    Nacci, A; Ursino, F; La Vela, R; Matteucci, F; Mallardi, V; Fattori, B

    2008-01-01

    Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) is now a first choice method for studying swallowing disorders on account of the various advantages it offers: easy to use, very well tolerated, allows bedside examination and is economic. Nevertheless, this diagnostic procedure is not without risks, the most probable consequences of which include discomfort, gagging and/or vomiting, vasovagal syncope, epistaxis, mucosal perforation, adverse reactions to topical anaesthetics and laryngospa...

  12. Occurrences of yawn and swallow are temporally related.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Kimiko; Weisz, Sarah E M; Dunn, Rachelle L; DiGioacchino, Martina C; Nyentap, Jennifer A; Stanbouly, Seta; Theurer, Julie A; Bureau, Yves; Affoo, Rebecca H; Martin, Ruth E

    2015-02-01

    Yawning is a stereotyped motor behavior characterized by deep inhalation and associated dilation of the respiratory tract, pronounced jaw opening, and facial grimacing. The frequency of spontaneous yawning varies over the diurnal cycle, peaking after waking and before sleep. Yawning can also be elicited by seeing or hearing another yawn, or by thinking about yawning, a phenomenon known as "contagious yawning". Yawning is mediated by a distributed network of brainstem and supratentorial brain regions, the components of which are shared with other airway behaviors including respiration, swallowing, and mastication. Nevertheless, the possibility of behavioral coordination between yawning and other brainstem-mediated functions has not been examined. Here we show, with a double-blind methodology, a greater-than-fivefold increase in rest (saliva) swallowing rate during the 10-s period immediately following contagious yawning elicited in 14 adult humans through the viewing of videotaped yawn stimuli. Sixty-five percent of yawns were followed by a swallow within 10 s and swallows accounted for 26 % of all behaviors produced during this post-yawn period. This novel finding of a tight temporal coupling between yawning and swallowing provides preliminary evidence that yawning and swallowing are physiologically related, thus extending current models of upper airway physiology and neurophysiology. Moreover, our finding suggests the possibility that yawning plays a role in eliciting rest swallowing, a view not considered in previous theories of yawning. As such, the present demonstration of a temporal association between yawning and swallowing motivates a re-examination of the longstanding question, "Why do we yawn?".

  13. Evidence for adaptive cortical changes in swallowing in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suntrup, Sonja; Teismann, Inga; Bejer, Joke; Suttrup, Inga; Winkels, Martin; Mehler, David; Pantev, Christo; Dziewas, Rainer; Warnecke, Tobias

    2013-03-01

    Dysphagia is a relevant symptom in Parkinson's disease, whose pathophysiology is poorly understood. It is mainly attributed to degeneration of brainstem nuclei. However, alterations in the cortical contribution to deglutition control in the course of Parkinson's disease have not been investigated. Here, we sought to determine the patterns of cortical swallowing processing in patients with Parkinson's disease with and without dysphagia. Swallowing function in patients was objectively assessed with fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation. Swallow-related cortical activation was measured using whole-head magnetoencephalography in 10 dysphagic and 10 non-dysphagic patients with Parkinson's disease and a healthy control group during self-paced swallowing. Data were analysed applying synthetic aperture magnetometry, and group analyses were done using a permutation test. Compared with healthy subjects, a strong decrease of cortical swallowing activation was found in all patients. It was most prominent in participants with manifest dysphagia. Non-dysphagic patients with Parkinson's disease showed a pronounced shift of peak activation towards lateral parts of the premotor, motor and inferolateral parietal cortex with reduced activation of the supplementary motor area. This pattern was not found in dysphagic patients with Parkinson's disease. We conclude that in Parkinson's disease, not only brainstem and basal ganglia circuits, but also cortical areas modulate swallowing function in a clinically relevant way. Our results point towards adaptive cerebral changes in swallowing to compensate for deficient motor pathways. Recruitment of better preserved parallel motor loops driven by sensory afferent input seems to maintain swallowing function until progressing neurodegeneration exceeds beyond the means of this adaptive strategy, resulting in manifestation of dysphagia.

  14. Swallow Event Sequencing: Comparing Healthy Older and Younger Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberg, Erica G; Lazarus, Cathy L; Steele, Catriona M; Molfenter, Sonja M

    2018-04-23

    Previous research has established that a great deal of variation exists in the temporal sequence of swallowing events for healthy adults. Yet, the impact of aging on swallow event sequence is not well understood. Kendall et al. (Dysphagia 18(2):85-91, 2003) suggested there are 4 obligatory paired-event sequences in swallowing. We directly compared adherence to these sequences, as well as event latencies, and quantified the percentage of unique sequences in two samples of healthy adults: young ( 65). The 8 swallowing events that contribute to the sequences were reliably identified from videofluoroscopy in a sample of 23 healthy seniors (10 male, mean age 74.7) and 20 healthy young adults (10 male, mean age 31.5) with no evidence of penetration-aspiration or post-swallow residue. Chi-square analyses compared the proportions of obligatory pairs and unique sequences by age group. Compared to the older subjects, younger subjects had significantly lower adherence to two obligatory sequences: Upper Esophageal Sphincter (UES) opening occurs before (or simultaneous with) the bolus arriving at the UES and UES maximum distention occurs before maximum pharyngeal constriction. The associated latencies were significantly different between age groups as well. Further, significantly fewer unique swallow sequences were observed in the older group (61%) compared with the young (82%) (χ 2  = 31.8; p < 0.001). Our findings suggest that paired swallow event sequences may not be robust across the age continuum and that variation in swallow sequences appears to decrease with aging. These findings provide normative references for comparisons to older individuals with dysphagia.

  15. Swallow syncope caused by third-degree atrioventricular block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roust Aaberg, Anne Marie; Eriksson, Anna Elin; Madsen, Per Lav

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a patient with more than 30 years of repeated syncopes, always following food intake. The patient was diagnosed with a swallow-related third-degree atrioventricular block and successfully treated with an artificial pacemaker.......We report a case of a patient with more than 30 years of repeated syncopes, always following food intake. The patient was diagnosed with a swallow-related third-degree atrioventricular block and successfully treated with an artificial pacemaker....

  16. Changes in the frequency of swallowing during electrical stimulation of superior laryngeal nerve in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Kojun; Tsujimura, Takanori; Magara, Jin; Sakai, Shogo; Nakamura, Yuki; Inoue, Makoto

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the adaptation of the swallowing reflex in terms of reduced swallowing reflex initiation following continuous superior laryngeal nerve stimulation. Forty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were anesthetized with urethane. To identify swallowing, electromyographic activity of the left mylohyoid and thyrohyoid muscles was recorded. To evoke the swallowing response, the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN), recurrent laryngeal nerve, or cortical swallowing area was electrically stimulated. Repetitive swallowing evoked by continuous SLN stimulation was gradually reduced, and this reduction was dependent on the resting time duration between stimulations. Prior SLN stimulation also suppressed subsequent swallowing initiation. The reduction in evoked swallows induced by recurrent laryngeal nerve or cortical swallowing area stimulation was less than that following superior laryngeal nerve stimulation. Decerebration had no effect on the reduction in evoked swallows. Prior subthreshold stimulation reduced subsequent initiation of swallowing, suggesting that there was no relationship between swallowing movement evoked by prior stimulation and the subsequent reduction in swallowing initiation. Overall, these data suggest that reduced sensory afferent nerve firing and/or trans-synaptic responses, as well as part of the brainstem central pattern generator, are involved in adaptation of the swallowing reflex following continuous stimulation of swallow-inducing peripheral nerves and cortical areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The effects of barium sufate and iodide compound on the characteristics of dental acrylic resins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Keun; Lee, Keon Il; Jung, Sung Woo

    1996-01-01

    Aspiratin or swallowing foreign bodies is a common occurrence. If they are wholly or partly radiopaque, their localization in and progress through the gastrointestinal tract can be more effective. Of the dental origin foreign materials swallowed, the most common things are fragments of anterior maxillary partial denture. But the radiopacity of denture base resins is not sufficient to determine the location of the objects. The purpose of this study was to develop a radiopaque dental acrylic resin, which has clinically detectable radiopacity with minimal change of mechanical properties and color. the radiopacity, color change (CIE E) and microhardness of acrylic resins were determined after mixing barium sulfate or iolide compound. Thermocycling course was conducted to deter mine the change of characteristic of resins after using for a long time I the mouth. Five or ten percent of barium sulfa te to total weight of cured material was mixed with heat curing dental acrylic resin or chemically curing orthodontic re sin. In the case of iodide compound, the mixing ratio was two or three percent. After mixing the high radiopaque material s, resin was cured to 20X20X2 mm plate, polished with 600 sand paper and finally polished with Microcloth (Buehler). T he specimens were thermocycled in 5 and 55 degree distilled water for 2,000 times, and the measurement of radiopacity, color and Vickers hardness was repeated every 500 times thermocycling. The radiopacity of specimens on the X-ray films was measured with densitometer (X-rite). The color change was determined with differential colorimeter (Model TC-6FX, Tokyo Denshoku), and the Vickers hardness number was measured with microhardness tester (Mitsuzawa). The following results were obtained : 1. All the three variables, the kinds of acrylic resins, the mixing or the kinds radiopaque materials and thermocycling , had combined effect on the radiopacity of the dental acrylic resins (p<0.01). 2. The two variables, the mixing or

  18. The effects of barium sufate and iodide compound on the characteristics of dental acrylic resins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Keun; Lee, Keon Il; Jung, Sung Woo [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Wonkwang University, Iksan(Korea, Republic of)

    1996-08-15

    Aspiratin or swallowing foreign bodies is a common occurrence. If they are wholly or partly radiopaque, their localization in and progress through the gastrointestinal tract can be more effective. Of the dental origin foreign materials swallowed, the most common things are fragments of anterior maxillary partial denture. But the radiopacity of denture base resins is not sufficient to determine the location of the objects. The purpose of this study was to develop a radiopaque dental acrylic resin, which has clinically detectable radiopacity with minimal change of mechanical properties and color. the radiopacity, color change (CIE E) and microhardness of acrylic resins were determined after mixing barium sulfate or iolide compound. Thermocycling course was conducted to deter mine the change of characteristic of resins after using for a long time I the mouth. Five or ten percent of barium sulfa te to total weight of cured material was mixed with heat curing dental acrylic resin or chemically curing orthodontic re sin. In the case of iodide compound, the mixing ratio was two or three percent. After mixing the high radiopaque material s, resin was cured to 20X20X2 mm plate, polished with 600 sand paper and finally polished with Microcloth (Buehler). T he specimens were thermocycled in 5 and 55 degree distilled water for 2,000 times, and the measurement of radiopacity, color and Vickers hardness was repeated every 500 times thermocycling. The radiopacity of specimens on the X-ray films was measured with densitometer (X-rite). The color change was determined with differential colorimeter (Model TC-6FX, Tokyo Denshoku), and the Vickers hardness number was measured with microhardness tester (Mitsuzawa). The following results were obtained : 1. All the three variables, the kinds of acrylic resins, the mixing or the kinds radiopaque materials and thermocycling , had combined effect on the radiopacity of the dental acrylic resins (p<0.01). 2. The two variables, the mixing or

  19. Quality of life related to swallowing in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Danielle; das Graças Wanderley de Sales Coriolano, Maria; Belo, Luciana Rodrigues; de Marcos Rabelo, Aneide Rocha; Asano, Amdore Guescel; Lins, Otávio Gomes

    2014-10-01

    Swallowing difficulties in Parkinson's disease can result in decreased quality of life. The swallowing quality of life questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) is an instrument for specifically assessing quality of life with respect to swallowing, which has been little explored in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). The goal of this study was to evaluate the quality of life with respect to swallowing in persons with PD compared to controls and at several stages of the disease using the SWAL-QOL. The experimental group was composed of 62 persons with PD at stages 1-4. Forty-one age-matched healthy subjects constituted the control group. The SWAL-QOL scores were significantly lower for the patients with PD than for the controls in all SWAL-QOL domains. Eating duration had the largest difference in score between persons with PD and the controls and the lowest mean score, followed by communication, fatigue, fear, sleep, and food selection. The scores of most domains were lower at later stages of the disease. The scores for eating duration, symptom frequency, and sleep were significantly lower at stage 4 than stages 1 and 2. In conclusion, patients with PD have significantly lower scores in all domains of the SWAL-QOL than normal controls. This means swallowing difficulties occurring in patients with PD negatively affect their QOL. Progression of the disease worsens swallowing QOL, more specifically in the domains of eating duration, symptom frequency, and sleep. This occurs mostly at later stages of the disease.

  20. Swallowing Quality of Life After Zona Incerta Deep Brain Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstedt, Stina; Nordh, Erik; Linder, Jan; Hedström, Johanna; Finizia, Caterina; Olofsson, Katarina

    2017-02-01

    The management of Parkinson's disease (PD) has been improved, but management of signs like swallowing problems is still challenging. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) alleviates the cardinal motor symptoms and improves quality of life, but its effect on swallowing is not fully explored. The purpose of this study was to examine self-reported swallowing-specific quality of life before and after caudal zona incerta DBS (cZI DBS) in comparison with a control group. Nine PD patients (2 women and 7 men) completed the self-report Swallowing Quality of Life questionnaire (SWAL-QOL) before and 12 months after cZI DBS surgery. The postoperative data were compared to 9 controls. Median ages were 53 years (range, 40-70 years) for patients and 54 years (range, 42-72 years) for controls. No significant differences were found between the pre- or postoperative scores. The SWAL-QOL total scores did not differ significantly between PD patients and controls. The PD patients reported significantly lower scores in the burden subscale and the symptom scale. Patients with PD selected for cZI DBS showed good self-reported swallowing-specific quality of life, in many aspects equal to controls. The cZI DBS did not negatively affect swallowing-specific quality of life in this study.

  1. A Targeted Swallow Screen for the Detection of Postoperative Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, Erica; Lancaster, Elizabeth; Meltzer, Jospeh; Mendelsohn, Abie H; Benharash, Peyman

    2015-10-01

    Postoperative dysphagia leads to aspiration pneumonia, prolonged hospital stay, and is associated with increased mortality. A simple and sensitive screening test to identify patients requiring objective dysphagia evaluation is presently lacking. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of a novel targeted swallow screen evaluation. This was a prospective trial involving all adult patients who underwent elective cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass at our institution over an 8-week period. Within 24 hours of extubation and before the initiation of oral intake, all postsurgical patients were evaluated using the targeted swallow screen. A fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing was requested for failed screenings. During the study, 50 postcardiac surgery patients were screened. Fifteen (30%) failed the targeted swallow screen, and ten of the fifteen (66%) failed the subsequent fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing exam and were confirmed to have dysphagia. The screening test had 100 per cent sensitivity for detecting dysphagia in our patient population, and a specificity of 87.5 per cent. The overall incidence of dysphagia was 20 per cent. We have shown that a targeted swallow evaluation can efficiently screen patients during the postcardiac surgery period. Furthermore, we have shown that the true incidence of dysphagia after cardiac surgery is significantly higher than previously recognized in literature.

  2. Swallowing difficulties for cerebellar stroke may recover beyond three years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périé, S; Wajeman, S; Vivant, R; St Guily, J L

    1999-01-01

    Swallowing disorders after stroke or skull base surgery can be life threatening. Although late recovery can occur, it remains poorly documented. We report a case of a 54-year-old woman with dysphagia resulting from a cerebellar stroke with hemorrhage that was evacuated through craniotomy. Swallowing difficulties were assessed by a videoendoscopic swallowing study. She presented with disruption of swallow initiation and impairment of the pharyngeal stage, resulting in hypopharyngeal stasis and penetration with aspiration. Supportive swallowing therapy was conducted with careful reeducation to assist initiation of the pharyngeal stage as well as development of compensatory postural technique. Initial improvement was very slow but became rapidly progressive from the 31st month after the stroke. By the 34th month, oral feeding was possible without aspiration. This case demonstrates that improvement in swallowing function can be expected even 3 years after stroke or skull base surgery. Determination of predictive factors for late functional recovery is of great importance and should be the focus of further investigation.

  3. Swallowing and pharyngo-esophageal manometry in obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Almeida Moreira da Paz Oliveira

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Upper airway nerve and muscle damage associated with obstructive sleep apnea may impair the strength and dynamics of pharyngeal and esophageal contractions during swallowing. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the presence of alterations in pharyngoesophageal manometry in patients with obstructive sleep apnea with and without oropharyngeal dysphagia. METHODS: This study prospectively evaluated 22 patients with obstructive sleep apnea without spontaneous complaints of dysphagia, using a questionnaire, fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing, and pharyngoesophageal manometry, including measurement of the upper and lower esophageal sphincter pressures and mean pharyngeal pressures at three levels during swallowing. RESULTS: The dysphagia group consisted of 17 patients (77.3% in whom swallowing abnormalities were detected on fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (n = 15; 68.2% and/or in the questionnaire (n = 7; 31.8%. The five remaining cases comprised a control group without oropharyngeal dysphagia. In all cases of abnormalities on fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing, there was premature bolus leakage into the pharynx. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding any of the pharyngoesophageal manometry measurements, age, or severity of obstructive sleep apnea. CONCLUSION: Pharyngoesophageal manometry detected no statistically significant difference between the groups with and without oropharyngeal dysphagia.

  4. [Telemonitoring of swallowing function: technologies in speech therapy practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedesco, Angela; Lavermicocca, Valentina; Notarnicola, Marilina; De Francesco, Luca; Dellomonaco, Anna Rita

    2018-02-01

    The process of medical-healthcare technological revolution represents an advantage for the patient and for the care provider, in terms of costs and distances reduction. The telehomecare approach could be useful for monitoring the swallowing disorder in neurodegenerative diseases, preventing complications. In this study the applicability of telemedicine techniques for the monitoring of swallowing function, in patients affected by Huntington's disease (HD), was evaluated through the acquisition and analysis of the sound of swallowing. Two patients with HD were outpatient screened for dysphagia through the Bedside Swallowing Assessment Scale (BSAS) sensitized with pulse oximetry and cervical auscultation. Subsequently, the swallowing functionality was telemonitored for three months with Skype. The swallowing sounds were acquired with a detection microphone attached to the lateral edge of the trachea during fluid intake. The sounds were instantly processed and graphically represented through the Praat software. The analysis of the acoustic signal acquired remotely has made it possible to identify the situations that required immediate speech therapy intervention, suggesting to the patients further modifications of food consistencies, and saving frequent moving to the hospital even in the absence of critical situations. Remote assistance applied to speech therapy could represent a benefit for patients and their carers and a more efficient use of medical and health resources.

  5. Observation the swallowing mechanism in elderly patients with pharyngeal dysphagia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Ximena Campo-Cañar

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Observation of the swallowing dynamics is an issue that demands close attention by the health professionals involved in the diagnosis and management of patients with dysphagia. This article is a review of the literature aimed to enhance the knowledge regarding the speech therapy assessment of pharyngeal dysphagia in elder adults. The disorder of the swallowing is called dysphagia and it is defined as difficulty swallowing. The dysphagia is often caused by affectation of mechanical or neuromuscular components of the swallowing mechanism. This type of disorder is likely to impact the the oral, pharyngeal and esophageal phases of the swallowing. The speech therapist should take into account assessing aspects such as level of consciousness, vital signs, whether or not the patient is ventilator dependent, means of feeding, if intubated what type of cannula, whether or not the patient uses a speaking valve (if a trach tube is present, nutritional status, the patient’s expressive and receptive language, the anatomical and physiological state of the oral motor structures. When assessing swallowing clinicians should also make sure to develop an adequate beside clinical, voice assessment and videofluoroscopy.

  6. Swallowing and pharyngo-esophageal manometry in obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Luciana Almeida Moreira da Paz; Fontes, Luiz Henrique de Souza; Cahali, Michel Burihan

    2015-01-01

    Upper airway nerve and muscle damage associated with obstructive sleep apnea may impair the strength and dynamics of pharyngeal and esophageal contractions during swallowing. To evaluate the presence of alterations in pharyngoesophageal manometry in patients with obstructive sleep apnea with and without oropharyngeal dysphagia. This study prospectively evaluated 22 patients with obstructive sleep apnea without spontaneous complaints of dysphagia, using a questionnaire, fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing, and pharyngoesophageal manometry, including measurement of the upper and lower esophageal sphincter pressures and mean pharyngeal pressures at three levels during swallowing. The dysphagia group consisted of 17 patients (77.3%) in whom swallowing abnormalities were detected on fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (n=15; 68.2%) and/or in the questionnaire (n=7; 31.8%). The five remaining cases comprised a control group without oropharyngeal dysphagia. In all cases of abnormalities on fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing, there was premature bolus leakage into the pharynx. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding any of the pharyngoesophageal manometry measurements, age, or severity of obstructive sleep apnea. Pharyngoesophageal manometry detected no statistically significant difference between the groups with and without oropharyngeal dysphagia. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Binding and leakage of barium in alginate microbeads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mørch, Yrr A; Qi, Meirigeng; Gundersen, Per Ole M; Formo, Kjetil; Lacik, Igor; Skjåk-Braek, Gudmund; Oberholzer, Jose; Strand, Berit L

    2012-11-01

    Microbeads of alginate crosslinked with Ca(2+) and/or Ba(2+) are popular matrices in cell-based therapy. The aim of this study was to quantify the binding of barium in alginate microbeads and its leakage under in vitro and accumulation under in vivo conditions. Low concentrations of barium (1 mM) in combination with calcium (50 mM) and high concentrations of barium (20 mM) in gelling solutions were used for preparation of microbeads made of high-G and high-M alginates. High-G microbeads accumulated barium from gelling solution and contained higher concentrations of divalent ions for both low- and high-Ba exposure compared with high-G microbeads exposed to calcium solely and to high-M microbeads for all gelling conditions. Although most of the unbound divalent ions were removed during the wash and culture steps, leakage of barium was still detected during storage. Barium accumulation in blood and femur bone of mice implanted with high-G beads was found to be dose-dependent. Estimated barium leakage relevant to transplantation to diabetic patients with islets in alginate microbeads showed that the leakage was 2.5 times lower than the tolerable intake value given by WHO for high-G microbeads made using low barium concentration. The similar estimate gave 1.5 times higher than is the tolerable intake value for the high-G microbeads made using high barium concentration. To reduce the risk of barium accumulation that may be of safety concern, the microbeads made of high-G alginate gelled with a combination of calcium and low concentration of barium ions is recommended for islet transplantation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Dosimetric assessment of swallowing examinations with videofluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, M.M.B.; Canevaro, L.V.; Azevedo, A.C.P.

    2001-01-01

    Dosimetric analysis measurements of the Dose-Area-Product (DAP) of 7 individuals were estimated for the deglutition dynamic using the videofluoroscopic method. The aim of this study is to establish in a preliminary way, typical DAP values for this kind of study. The DAP values were obtained attaching to the X ray tube exit, an ionization chamber from PTW and a Diamentor M4 meter. The typical DAP values obtained during the videofluoroscopic evaluation of the deglutition dynamic, including its three phases, was: 4101 ± 881 cGy.cm 2 and the typical DAP rate was 577 ± 94 cGy.cm 2 /min. These values refer to a standard patient (1.57 cm height, 56 kg. weight) and a protocol that can be performed in about 7 minutes. The values, defined herein as typical refer to the used protocol. To our knowledge, the mean DAP rate is a good parameter to estimate radiation exposure from videofluoroscopic study of swallowing process. (author)

  9. Outcome of barium enema in patients with colorectal symptoms ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: For many years, double contrast barium enema has been an effective way to evaluate the large bowel. With the development of the colonoscope, the role of barium enema has been questioned. However it is still useful in investigating patients with colorectal symptoms especially in the developing world where ...

  10. Synthesis and properties of barium diketonates as precursors for MOCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drozdov, A.A. (Dept. of Chemistry, Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)); Troyanov, S.I. (Dept. of Chemistry, Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)); Kuzmina, N.P. (Dept. of Chemistry, Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)); Martynenko, L.I. (Dept. of Chemistry, Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)); Alikhanyan, A.S. (Dept. of Chemistry, Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation)); Malkerova, I.P. (Dept. of Chemistry, Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation))

    1993-08-01

    The structures of barium diketonates depend on the way in which they are synthesized. It is shown that there is a correlation between the volatility of these compounds and their crystal structures. A new volatile mononuclear adduct of barium dipivaloylmethanate suitable for MOCVD is suggested. (orig.).

  11. Synthesis and properties of barium diketonates as precursors for MOCVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drozdov, A.A.; Troyanov, S.I.; Kuzmina, N.P.; Martynenko, L.I.; Alikhanyan, A.S.; Malkerova, I.P.

    1993-01-01

    The structures of barium diketonates depend on the way in which they are synthesized. It is shown that there is a correlation between the volatility of these compounds and their crystal structures. A new volatile mononuclear adduct of barium dipivaloylmethanate suitable for MOCVD is suggested. (orig.)

  12. Thermal reactions of some calcium, strontium, and barium chromates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piekarska-Piesse, B.; Gontarz, Z.; Ostrowski, A.; Kucharski, R.

    2000-01-01

    Thermal decomposition of calcium chromates and solid state reactions of barium and strontium chromates(VI) with barium and strontium hydroxides and carbonates, as well as the reduction of chromates by carbon and hydrogen, have been investigated. The mechanisms of individual stages of the thermal decomposition have been proposed on the basis of morphological classification. (author)

  13. Charge distributions of barium isotopes from muonic X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shera, E.B.; Wohlfahrt, H.D.; Hoehn, M.V.; Tanaka, Y.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a muonic X-ray study of the charge radii of stable barium isotopes are presented and compared with optical isotope shifts. The isotope shifts Δ 2 > of a wide range of barium isotopes are found to be in good agreement with the droplet model and with IBA calculations. (orig.)

  14. Barium transport in the hot spot region of fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigeneger, F; Rackow, K; Uhrlandt, D; Ehlbeck, J; Lieder, G

    2010-01-01

    The transport of barium atoms and ions in the vicinity of the hot spot in fluorescent lamps operating at 25 kHz is investigated by a combined experimental and theoretical approach. By laser-induced fluorescence, the particle densities of barium atoms and ions were measured time-resolved at different distances from the spot centre. In addition, the time-dependent cathode fall voltage was measured using an improved band method. The model combines a kinetic part for the electrons with a fluid part for the barium atoms and ions. Both parts are spatially resolved in spherically symmetric geometry. The space-dependent electron Boltzmann equation yields the electron density and the ionization rate coefficient of barium as functions of the cathode fall voltage. These results are used to solve the time-dependent particle balance equations of barium atoms and ions which include the ionization of barium as gain and loss terms, respectively. Good agreement between the measured and calculated particle densities of barium atoms is obtained. A sensitive dependence of the ionization frequency and of the barium particle densities on the cathode fall voltage was found.

  15. Barium enema findings of milk allergy in infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gyoung Ju; Kim, Mi Jeong; Lee, Hee Jung

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate the barium enema findings of milk allergy in infants. Retrospective evaluation of the plain abdominal radiography and barium enema findings was performed in fifteen young infants suffering with milk allergy. The presence of gaseous distension, rectal gas, paralytic ileus and mechanical obstruction was evaluated on the plain radiography. The presence of spasm, a transitional zone, a reversed rectosigmoid index and mucosal irregularity was analyzed on the barium enema; the presence of barium retention was also evaluated on 24-hour-delayed plain radiography. Paralytic ileus was the most common finding on the plain radiography (93%). On the barium enema, continuous spasm of the colon, ranging from the rectum to the descending colon, was revealed in ten infants (67%). A transitional zone was observed in one infant and a reversed rectosigmoid index was revealed in four. Mucosal irregularity was observed in two infants. Barium retention was demonstrated in 11 of fifteen cases: throughout the entire colon (n = 3), from the rectum to the descending colon (n = 7), and up to the transverse colon (n = 1). The most common barium enema finding of milk allergy in infants was spasm of the distal colon. The other findings were a transitional zone, a reversed rectosigmoid index, mucosal irregularity and barium retention

  16. INFLUENCE OF BARIUM OXIDE ADDITIONS ON PORTLAND CLINKER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anezka Zezulova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, nuclear power plants are widespread around the world and research is of great interest. Together with nuclear research, shielding of different types of radiation is an important current topic of research aiming at their safety. Portland cement has been an elementary building material for centuries. Since barium is very efficient in shielding different types of radiation, it can be assumed that the radiation shielding capability of cement can be improved by incorporation of barium. This work deals with the influence of barium oxide, added in the form of barium carbonate and sulphate, on the formation and properties of Portland clinker. The structure of burnt clinkers and the ratio of clinker phases were studied by polarizing microscopy and by X-ray diffraction. With increasing barium content, the alite-belite ratio decreases and the content of free lime gradually increases. Moreover, sulphates induce the growth of alite crystals. The ability of barium to be a part of the clinker minerals was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Belite and clinker melt contain the highest amount of barium, but aggregates of barium oxide are formed in the clinker melt. Furthermore, the rate of alite crystallization was studied under isothermal conditions.

  17. Application of magnesium hydroxide and barium hydroxide for the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of magnesium hydroxide and barium hydroxide for the removal of metals and sulphate from mine water. ... equivalent to the Ba(OH)2 dosage. During CO2-dosing, CaCO3 is precipitated to the saturation level of CaCO3. Keywords: Magnesium hydroxide; barium hydroxide; sulphate removal; water treatment ...

  18. Duodenal diverticula demonstrated by barium examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, T.; Thommesen, P.

    An investigation for biliary tract calculi and food-stimulated gastro-oesophageal reflux was carried out in 37 patients with duodenal diverticula demonstrated by barium examination. Sixty per cent of the diverticula were located in the descending part of the duodenum. Biliary tract calculi were demonstrated in 38 per cent and food-stimulated gastro-oesophageal reflux in 81 per cent of the patients. The detection of a duodenal diverticulum should result in a supplementary investigation for gallstones and gastrooesophageal reflux and its sequelae.

  19. Short-cavity squeezing in barium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, D. M.; Bachor, H-A.; Manson, P. J.; Mcclelland, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    Broadband phase sensitive noise and squeezing were experimentally observed in a system of barium atoms interacting with a single mode of a short optical cavity. Squeezing of 13 +/- 3 percent was observed. A maximum possible squeezing of 45 +/- 8 percent could be inferred for out experimental conditions, after correction for measured loss factors. Noise reductions below the quantum limit were found over a range of detection frequencies 60-170 MHz and were best for high cavity transmission and large optical depths. The amount of squeezing observed is consistent with theoretical predictions from a full quantum statistical model of the system.

  20. Evaluation of barium hydroxide treatment efficacy on a dolomitic marble.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toniolo, L; Colombo, C; Realini, M; Peraio, A; Positano, M

    2001-01-01

    The Arch of Peace, by Luigi Cagnola, is one of the most famous neoclassical monuments in Milan. It has been subjected to conservative intervention in 1998. In the present paper the efficacy of the consolidation by means of barium hydroxide has been evaluated. The stone material showed severe degradation phenomena as: erosion, pulverisation, exfoliation. The analytical data acquired through X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectrophotometry (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDX), allowed to compare the conditions of stone before and after the treatment with barium hydroxide. The presence of barium has been put in evidence mainly on the surface as barium sulphate, whereas barium is only sporadically present within the thickness of the decayed material. The treatment was judged not satisfying and its inefficacy is, most probably, due to a not suitable cleaning procedure carried out before the consolidation.

  1. Barium and radium migration in unconsolidated Canadian geological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillham, R.W.; Sharma, H.D.; Reddy, M.R.; Cooper, E.L.; Cherry, J.A.

    1981-05-01

    This report describes the results of laboratory studies on the distribution coefficients of radium and barium in samples of unconsolidated geologic materials. Graphs of Ksub(d) versus solution concentration for the respective elements showed constant Ksub(d) values in the low concentration range suggesting that, at low concentrations, a distribution coefficient is a valid means of representing the geochemical reactions of both barium and radium. The Ksub(d) values for barium range between 60 and 3500 ml/g. The values appear to be influenced by the amount of barium occurring naturally in the soil materials and thus there is little possiblility of using barium as an analog of radium in laboratory experiments. The Ksub(d) values of radium vary from 50 to 1000 ml/g indicating that a wide range of geological materials have a substantial capacity to retard the migration of radium

  2. Barium sulfate aspiration: Severe chemical pneumonia induced by a massive reflux of contrast medium during small bowel barium enema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin; Yang, Yi; Zhang, Ji; Zhou, Xiaowei; Dong, Hongmei; Zhou, Yiwu

    2015-08-01

    Barium contrast radiography is a conventional procedure aimed at revealing lesions of the alimentary tract using barium sulfate on X-ray irradiation. Although it is widely used in clinics, adverse effects and complications are observed, such as anaphylaxis, granuloma, fecalithes, abdomen-leaking, embolism, bacterial contamination, and aspiration. We report a case of death due to a massive barium sulfate aspiration resulted from an air-barium double contrast enema radiography. A 25-year-old female patient was hospitalized with symptoms of abdominal distention, nausea, vomiting and diarrhea for three days. A progressive respiratory distress presented only 1h after a small bowel air-barium double contrast enema. The patient died 11h later. The result of autopsy revealed the cause of death to be severe chemical pneumonitis induced by gastric fluid which was aspirated into her lungs. Barium sulfate is generally recognized to be chemically inert for the respiratory system, but a mixture of barium sulfate with gastric contents is fatal. Here we intend to suggest that, when determining the potential cause of death, medical examiners should consider a patient's status quo as well as the possible adverse effects and complications caused by the barium sulfate preparation during gastrointestinal radiography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Gamma radiation effects on nestling Tree Swallows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, R.; Mayoh, K.R.

    1984-01-01

    The sensitivity of Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) to the stress of ionizing radiation was investigated with growth analysis. Freshly hatched nestlings were temporarily removed from nests, taken to the laboratory and acutely exposed to 0.9, 2.7, or 4.5 Gy gamma radiation. Some of the unirradiated control nestlings were also taken to the laboratory whereas others were left in the nests. Growth of all the nestlings was measured daily and analyzed by fitting growth models. There was no detectable radiation-induced mortality up to fledgling, approx. = 20 d after irradiation. Radiation exposure did not affect the basic growth pattern; the logistic growth model was most suitable for body mass and foot length, and the von Bertalanffy model for primary-feather length, irrespective of treatment. Parameter values from these models indicated pronounced growth depression in the 2.7-Gy and 4.5-Gy groups, particularly for body mass. Radiation also affected the timing of development. The growth depression of the 2.7-Gy group was similar to that caused by hatching asynchrony in unirradiated nestlings. The 4.5-Cy nestlings grew as well as unexposed nestlings that died from natural causes. Chronic irradiation at approx. = 1.0 Cy/d caused more severe growth effects than acute exposure to 4.5 Gy and may have caused permanent stunting. Growth analysis is a potent tool for assessing man-made environmental stresses. Observed body-mass statistics and model parameters seem to be most sensitive to environmental stresses, but coefficients of variation are not necessarily correlated with sensitivity. 34 references, 2 figures, 4 tables

  4. NANOSCALE BARIUM HYDROSILICATES: CHOOSING THE SYNTHESIS TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRISHINA Anna Nikolaevna

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Cement concretes are the most used materials in modern civil engineering. Due to that such materials draw great attention both in the Russian Federation and abroad. The possibility to enhance the manufacturability and operational properties of concretes results in significant reduction of overall operating costs. Many enhancement methods have been elaborated. Among them there is one based on introduction of calcium hydrosilicates into construction composition. The authors set up a hypothesis that similarity between properties and structures of different hydrosilicates (for example, alkaline earth metals and metals of the second group will provide similar increased operational characteristics. The specialists of Research and Educational Center «Nanotechnology» are developing cement composites nanomodification methods which include introduction of nanodimensional barium hydrosilicates particles. The synthesis of barium hydrosilicates particles can be done with the use of many technologies, different by energy consumption or performing complexity. Taking into account both these factors, one can assume that low-temperature sol-gel synthesis from diluted water solutions is the proper technology. The present paper shows that this assumption is correct. The selection of certain technology is made by the means of multiobjective optimization, which is in turn is performed by the means of linear scalarization. This method, while not always giving the Pareto optimal solutions, can be easily implemented. The particle size distribution is taken into consideration during selection of objectives and weights. It is shown that selected technology allows manufacturing nanoparticles with median size about 30 nm.

  5. High resolution studies of barium Rydberg states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eliel, E.R.

    1982-01-01

    The subtle structure of Rydberg states of barium with orbital angular momentum 0, 1, 2 and 3 is investigated. Some aspects of atomic theory for a configuration with two valence electrons are reviewed. The Multi Channel Quantum Defect Theory (MQDT) is concisely introduced as a convenient way to describe interactions between Rydberg series. Three high-resolution UV studies are presented. The first two, presenting results on a transition in indium and europium serve as an illustration of the frequency doubling technique. The third study is of hyperfine structure and isotope shifts in low-lying p states in Sr and Ba. An extensive study of the 6snp and 6snf Rydberg states of barium is presented with particular emphasis on the 6snf states. It is shown that the level structure cannot be fully explained with the model introduced earlier. Rather an effective two-body spin-orbit interaction has to be introduced to account for the observed splittings, illustrating that high resolution studies on Rydberg states offer an unique opportunity to determine the importance of such effects. Finally, the 6sns and 6snd series are considered. The hyperfine induced isotope shift in the simple excitation spectra to 6sns 1 S 0 is discussed and attention is paid to series perturbers. It is shown that level mixing parameters can easily be extracted from the experimental data. (Auth.)

  6. Three barium diphosphonates with 3-D structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuikka, Matti; Haukka, Matti; Ahlgrén, Markku

    2007-06-01

    The gel crystallization method was exploited in this work in order to study the 3-D solid state structures of barium diphosphonates. This technique proved to be an effective tool for the growth of single crystals of diphosphonates for structure analysis. By using this approach, three barium diphosphonates, Ba[HO 3P(CH 2) 2PO 3H] ( 1), Ba 2[O 3P(CH 2) 3PO 3]·3H 2O ( 2) and Ba[HO 3P(CH 2) 4PO 3H] ( 3), with different three dimensional structures, were synthesized and characterized. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction and the structure of 3 by the powder diffraction method. In the structure of 1, the diphosphonate ligand is completely surrounded by the Ba atoms, which is an unusual arrangement in a diphosphonate system. The structures of 2 and 3 are more conventional. They are organized in typical pillared layers in which the separation of the layers can be adjusted by varying the length of the hydrocarbon chain.

  7. The Novel Formation of Barium Titanate Nanodendrites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Jung Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The barium titanate (BaTiO3 nanoparticles with novel dendrite-like structures have been successfully fabricated via a simple coprecipitation method, the so-called BaTiO3 nanodendrites (BTNDs. This method was remarkable, fast, simple, and scalable. The growth solution is prepared by barium chloride (BaCl2, titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4, and oxalic acid. The shape and size of BaTiO3 depend on the amount of added BaCl2 solvent. To investigate the influence of amount of BaCl2 on BTNDs, the amount of BaCl2 was varied in the range from 3 to 6 mL. The role of BaCl2 is found to have remarkable influence on the morphology, crystallite size, and formation of dendrite-like structures. The thickness and length of the central stem of BTND were ~300 nm and ~20 μm, respectively. The branchings were found to occur at irregular intervals along the main stem. Besides, the formation mechanism of BTND is proposed and discussed.

  8. Videofluoroscopic evaluation of mastication and swallowing in individuals with TMD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, Carla; Mello, Marçal Motta de; Biase, Noemi Grigoletto de; Pasetti, Lilian; Camargo, Paulo A Monteiro; Silvério, Kelly Cristina Alves; Gonçalves, Maria Inês Rebelo

    2012-01-01

    To study mastication and swallowing disorders in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). To investigate mastication and swallowing disorders in patients with severe TMD referred to surgery. Clinical and experimental study involving ten individuals with TMD submitted to deglutition videofluoroscopy. These patients did not have posterior teeth, mastication pain and food replacement in favor of pasty consistence food. The assessment of the oral and pharyngeal phases approached the following aspects: side of onset and preferential side for chewing, premature escape, remains of food residues in the oral cavity or in the pharyngeal recesses, number of necessary swallowing efforts, laryngeal penetration and/or tracheal aspiration. During mastication and the oral phase we observed tongue compensatory movements upon chewing (n = 7; 70%), premature escape (n = 4; 40%), food remains in the cavity after swallowing (n = 5; 50%) and an excessive number of deglutition efforts (n = 5; 50%). On the pharyngeal phase we observed food remains in the valleculae (n = 6; 60%), in the pyriform sinuses (n = 4; 40%); laryngeal penetration (n = 1; 10%) and tracheal aspiration (n = 4; 40%). TMD patients may have alterations in their chewing and swallowing patterns, with laryngeal penetration and/or tracheal aspiration. The study indicates the need for a multidisciplinary assessment because of dysphagia in TMD patients.

  9. The Videofluorographic Swallowing Study in Rheumatologic Diseases: A Comprehensive Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Piazza, Ambra; Costanzo, Massimo; Scopelliti, Laura; Salvaggi, Francesco; Cupido, Francesco; Salerno, Sergio; Lo Casto, Antonio; Midiri, Massimo; Lo Re, Giuseppe; Lagalla, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune connective tissue diseases are a heterogeneous group of pathologies that affect about 10% of world population with chronic evolution in 20%–80%. Inflammation in autoimmune diseases may lead to serious damage to other organs including the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal tract involvement in these patients may also due to both a direct action of antibodies against organs and pharmacological therapies. Dysphagia is one of the most important symptom, and it is caused by failure of the swallowing function and may lead to aspiration pneumonia, malnutrition, dehydration, weight loss, and airway obstruction. The videofluorographic swallowing study is a key diagnostic tool in the detection of swallowing disorders, allowing to make an early diagnosis and to reduce the risk of gastrointestinal and pulmonary complications. This technique helps to identify both functional and structural anomalies of the anatomic chain involved in swallowing function. The aim of this review is to systematically analyze the basis of the pathological involvement of the swallowing function for each rheumatological disease and to show the main features of the videofluorographic study that may be encountered in these patients. PMID:28706536

  10. Swallowing in patients with Parkinson's disease: a surface electromyography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ws Coriolano, Maria das Graças; R Belo, Luciana; Carneiro, Danielle; G Asano, Amdore; Al Oliveira, Paulo José; da Silva, Douglas Monteiro; G Lins, Otávio

    2012-12-01

    Our goal was to study deglutition of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients and normal controls (NC) using surface electromyography (sEMG). The study included 15 patients with idiopathic PD and 15 age-matched normal controls. Surface electromyography was collected over the suprahyoid muscle group. Conditions were the following: swallow at once 10 and 20 ml of water and 5 and 10 ml of yogurt of firm consistency, and freely drink 100 ml of water. During swallowing, durations of sEMG were significantly longer in PD patients than in normal controls but no significant differences of amplitudes were found. Eighty percent of the PD patients and 20 % of the NC needed more than one swallow to consume 20 ml of water, while 70 % of the PD patients and none of the NC needed more than one swallow to consume 5 ml of yogurt. PD patients took significantly more time and needed significantly more swallows to drink 100 ml of water than normal controls. We conclude that sEMG might be a simple and useful tool to study and monitor deglutition in PD patients.

  11. A procedure for denoising dual-axis swallowing accelerometry signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sejdić, Ervin; Chau, Tom; Steele, Catriona M

    2010-01-01

    Dual-axis swallowing accelerometry is an emerging tool for the assessment of dysphagia (swallowing difficulties). These signals however can be very noisy as a result of physiological and motion artifacts. In this note, we propose a novel scheme for denoising those signals, i.e. a computationally efficient search for the optimal denoising threshold within a reduced wavelet subspace. To determine a viable subspace, the algorithm relies on the minimum value of the estimated upper bound for the reconstruction error. A numerical analysis of the proposed scheme using synthetic test signals demonstrated that the proposed scheme is computationally more efficient than minimum noiseless description length (MNDL)-based denoising. It also yields smaller reconstruction errors than MNDL, SURE and Donoho denoising methods. When applied to dual-axis swallowing accelerometry signals, the proposed scheme exhibits improved performance for dry, wet and wet chin tuck swallows. These results are important for the further development of medical devices based on dual-axis swallowing accelerometry signals. (note)

  12. Nonimaging clinical assessment of impaired swallowing in community-dwelling older adults in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Miao-Yen; Lin, Li-Chan

    2012-12-01

    Impaired swallowing is common in elderly patients as well as those with neurological disorders and degenerative diseases. Convenient and accurate assessments should be available to community-dwelling older adults to diagnose and provide early management and care of swallowing difficulties, an important factor of influence on elderly life quality. This study used convenient nonimaging methods to assess swallowing functions in community-dwelling older adults and estimated the prevalence of swallowing difficulties. The study adopted a survey method and recruited 216 community-dwelling older adults over 65 years old in northern Taiwan. Researchers used tools including a swallowing test, questionnaire, water test, peripheral arterial pulse oximeter, and laryngeal S-EMG to assess participant swallowing functions and the prevalence of impaired swallowing. We found a 9.5% prevalence of impaired swallowing based on swallow questionnaire and water test results. Age correlated negatively with swallowing speed. A one-way ANOVA showed a significant difference in swallowing speed among the four age groups (F = 6.478, p < .00). A post hoc Scheffe comparison showed significant differences in swallowing time between the 60- to 69- and 70- to 79-year-old groups and 60- to 69- and 80- to 89-year-old groups. Multiple regression of impaired swallowing on various independent variables showed a significant standardized coefficient of 0.163 for age (t = 2.328, p = .021). Logistic regression showed a significant Wals test value for age (p = .007). The Kappa value was 0.307 for agreement analysis between impaired swallowing and SaO(2) value reduction of more than 2%. Swallowing function deteriorates with age. Results of this study provide an assessment of the prevalence of impaired swallowing in community-dwelling older adults in Taiwan. Results can help guide clinical nurses to enhance their objective assessment of impaired swallowing to improve patient quality of life.

  13. Prevalence of swallowing dysfunction screened in Swedish cohort of COPD patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Lindh, Margareta; Blom Johansson, Monica; Jennische, Margareta; Koyi, Hirsh

    2017-01-01

    Background COPD is a common problem associated with morbidity and mortality. COPD may also affect the dynamics and coordination of functions such as swallowing. A misdirected swallow may, in turn, result in the bolus entering the airway. A growing body of evidence suggests that a subgroup of people with COPD is prone to oropharyngeal dysphagia. The aim of this study was to evaluate swallowing dysfunction in patients with stable COPD and to determine the relation between signs and symptoms of swallowing dysfunction and lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second percent predicted). Methods Fifty-one patients with COPD in a stable phase participated in a questionnaire survey, swallowing tests, and spirometry. A post-bronchodilator ratio of the forced expiratory volume in 1 second/best of forced vital capacity and vital capacity <0.7 was used to define COPD. Swallowing function was assessed by a questionnaire and two swallowing tests (water and cookie swallow tests). Results Sixty-five percent of the patients reported subjective signs and symptoms of swallowing dysfunction in the questionnaire and 49% showed measurable ones in the swallowing tests. For the combined subjective and objective findings, 78% had a coexisting swallowing dysfunction. No significant difference was found between male and female patients. Conclusion Swallowing function is affected in COPD patients with moderate to severe airflow limitation, and the signs and symptoms of this swallowing dysfunction were subjective, objective, or both. PMID:28176891

  14. A rare cause of gastric obstruction: Lighters swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aday, Ulas; Tardu, Ali; Yagci, Mehmet Ali; Yonder, Huseyin

    2015-01-01

    The majority of swallowed foreign bodies are thrown spontaneously without causing complications in the digestive system. Multiple number of foreign bodies may be swallowed by psychiatric patients which delay diagnosis and increase the complication rate. Long and hard objects cannot pass through the pylorus, and may cause obstruction, ulceration, bleeding and perforation. Endoscopy is used as an effective method in such cases. An exploratory laparatomy was performed after unsuccessful endoscopic foreign object removal in a 28-year-old schizophrenic patient with gastric outlet obstruction due to multiple cigarette lighter swallowing. Ten lighters were removed from the stomach through gastrotomy and one more lighter was removed from the descending colon by milking through the anus. The aim of this paper is to discuss encountered difficulties in psychiatric patients who underwent surgery due to intake of foreign bodies.

  15. Interpretative commenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasikaran, Samuel

    2008-08-01

    * Clinical laboratories should be able to offer interpretation of the results they produce. * At a minimum, contact details for interpretative advice should be available on laboratory reports.Interpretative comments may be verbal or written and printed. * Printed comments on reports should be offered judiciously, only where they would add value; no comment preferred to inappropriate or dangerous comment. * Interpretation should be based on locally agreed or nationally recognised clinical guidelines where available. * Standard tied comments ("canned" comments) can have some limited use.Individualised narrative comments may be particularly useful in the case of tests that are new, complex or unfamiliar to the requesting clinicians and where clinical details are available. * Interpretative commenting should only be provided by appropriately trained and credentialed personnel. * Audit of comments and continued professional development of personnel providing them are important for quality assurance.

  16. Radiation doses to patients undergoing barium meal and barium enema examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delichas, M. G.; Hatziioannou, K.; Papanastassiou, E.; Albanopoulou, P.; Chatzi, E.; Sioundas, A.; Psarrakos, K.

    2004-01-01

    The radiation doses received by patients during 41 barium meal (BM) and 42 barium enema (BE) examinations in two Greek hospitals are presented. Radiation dose was measured in terms of the dose area product (DAP). The effective dose and doses to certain organs were estimated using the ODS-60 software. Mean total DAP values were found to be 25 ± 11 Gy cm 2 for BM and 60 ± 35 Gy cm 2 for BE examinations, whereas the estimated mean values of effective dose were 8.6 ± 4.0 and 24 ± 16 mSv respectively. DAP to effective dose conversion coefficients were estimated to be 0.34 mSv per Gy cm 2 for BM and 0.41 mSv per Gy cm 2 for BE. (authors)

  17. Cortical recovery of swallowing function in wound botulism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ringelstein Erich B

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Botulism is a rare disease caused by intoxication leading to muscle weakness and rapidly progressive dysphagia. With adequate therapy signs of recovery can be observed within several days. In the last few years, brain imaging studies carried out in healthy subjects showed activation of the sensorimotor cortex and the insula during volitional swallowing. However, little is known about cortical changes and compensation mechanisms accompanying swallowing pathology. Methods In this study, we applied whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG in order to study changes in cortical activation in a 27-year-old patient suffering from wound botulism during recovery from dysphagia. An age-matched group of healthy subjects served as control group. A self-paced swallowing paradigm was performed and data were analyzed using synthetic aperture magnetometry (SAM. Results The first MEG measurement, carried out when the patient still demonstrated severe dysphagia, revealed strongly decreased activation of the somatosensory cortex but a strong activation of the right insula and marked recruitment of the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC. In the second measurement performed five days later after clinical recovery from dysphagia we found a decreased activation in these two areas and a bilateral cortical activation of the primary and secondary sensorimotor cortex comparable to the results seen in a healthy control group. Conclusion These findings indicate parallel development to normalization of swallowing related cortical activation and clinical recovery from dysphagia and highlight the importance of the insula and the PPC for the central coordination of swallowing. The results suggest that MEG examination of swallowing can reflect short-term changes in patients suffering from neurogenic dysphagia.

  18. The effect of dairy farm management regime on swallow (Hirundo rustica) abundance in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubbe, S.K.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2007-01-01

    Aim To identify differences in Swallow abundance between organically and conventionally managed dairy farms, by examining three factors: farm buildings, food availability and farmer attitudes to Swallows. Methods Organic and conventional dairy farm holdings were compared in pairwise fashion. On

  19. Role of Basal Ganglia in Swallowing Process: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Hamideh Ghaemi; Davood Sobhani-Rad; Ali Arabi; Sadegh Saifpanahi; Zahra Ghayoumi Anaraki

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The basal ganglia (BG) controls different patterns of behavior by receiving inputs from sensory-motor and pre-motor cortex and projecting it to pre-frontal, pre-motor and supplementary motor areas. As the exact role of BG in swallowing process has not been fully determined, we aimed at reviewing the published data on neurological control in the swallowing technique to have a better understanding of BG’s role in this performance.  Methods: English-language articles, w...

  20. Swallowing function in pediatric patients with bilateral vocal fold immobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jeffrey; Tibbetts, Kathleen M; Wu, Derek; Nassar, Michel; Tan, Melin

    2017-02-01

    Infants with bilateral vocal fold immobility (BVFI) often have poor swallow function in addition to potential airway compromise. While there are several reports on BVFI and its effect on patients' airway status, little is known about long term swallow function. We aim to characterize the swallowing function over time in pediatric patients with bilateral vocal fold immobility. A retrospective review of medical records of infants diagnosed with BVFI at a tertiary care children's hospital between 2005 and 2014 was conducted. Patient demographics, nature and etiology of immobility, laryngoscopy findings, comorbidities, and swallow outcomes at diagnosis and follow-up were recorded. Swallowing outcomes as measured by presence or absence of a gastrostomy tube were compared by etiology, vocal fold status, and normal or developmentally delay using the Fisher's exact test. 110 patients with a diagnosis of vocal fold immobility were identified. Twenty-nine (26%) had BVFI and twenty-three had complete medical records. Etiologies of vocal fold immobility include cardiac related in 13% (3/23), idiopathic in 30% (7/23) prolonged intubation in 26% (6/23) central neurologic in 22% (5/23), trauma in 4% (1/23), and infection in 4% (1/23). Average follow-up time was 44 months (range 5-94 months). Ten patients (56.5%) required a gastrostomy tube at time of diagnosis. Of this cohort who received gastrostomy tubes, three (30%) ultimately transitioned to complete oral feeds. Return of vocal fold mobility did not correlate with swallow function. In those with non-neurologic etiologies, the need for gastrostomy tube at end of follow up was unlikely. There was a statistically significant difference in the percentage of gastrostomy tube-free children at most recent follow up in patients who were normally developed (86%) versus those who were developmentally delayed (33%) (p = 0.02). We characterized the swallowing function of 23 pediatric patients with BVFI. Comorbidities are significant

  1. Hydrolytic enzyme activity enhanced by Barium supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Muñoz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolysis of polymers is a first and often limiting step during the degradation of plant residues. Plant biomass is generally a major component of waste residues and a major renewable resource to obtain a variety of secondary products including biofuels. Improving the performance of enzymatic hydrolysis of plant material with minimum costs and limiting the use of additional microbial biomass or hydrolytic enzymes directly influences competitiveness of these green biotechnological processes. In this study, we cloned and expressed a cellulase and two esterases recovered from environmental thermophilic soil bacterial communities and characterize their optimum activity conditions including the effect of several metal ions. Results showed that supplementing these hydrolytic reactions with Barium increases the activity of these extracellular hydrolytic enzymes. This observation represents a simple but major improvement to enhance the efficiency and competitiveness of this process within an increasingly important biotechnological sector.

  2. Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidka Rodak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and should be rather linked with conforming interpretation. And what this actually implies is that it is not the virtue of certainty and predictability – which are usually associated with objectivity- but coherence that makes the foundation of applicability of objectivity in law.What could be observed from the analyses, is that both the phenomenon of conforming interpretation and objective interpretation play the role of arguments in the interpretive discourse, arguments that provide justification that interpretation is not arbitrary or subjective. With regards to the important part of the ideology of legal application which is the conviction that decisions should be taken on the basis of law in order to exclude arbitrariness, objective interpretation could be read as a question “what kind of authority “supports” certain interpretation”? that is almost never free of judicial creativity and judicial activism.One can say that, objective and conforming interpretation are just another arguments used in legal discourse.

  3. The Karlsruhe 4π barium fluoride detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wisshak, K.; Guber, K.; Kaeppeler, F.; Krisch, J.; Mueller, H.; Rupp, G.; Voss, F.

    1989-12-01

    A new experimental approach has been implemented for accurate measurements of neutron capture cross sections in the energy range from 5 to 200 keV. The Karlsruhe 4π Barium Fluoride Detector consists of 42 crystals shaped as hexagonal and pentagonal truncated pyramids forming a spherical shell with 10 cm inner radius and 15 cm thickness. All crystals are supplied with reflector and photomultiplier, thus representing independent gamma-ray detectors. Each detector module covers the same solid angle with respect to a gamma-ray source located in the centre. The energy resolution of the 4π detector is 14% at 662 keV and 7% at 2.5 MeV gamma-ray energy, the overall time reslution is 500 ps and the peak efficiency 90% at 1 MeV. The detector allows to register capture cascades with 95% probability above a threshold energy of 2.5 MeV in the sum energy spectrum. Neutrons are produced via the 7 Li(p,n) 7 Be reaction using the pulsed proton beam of a Van de Graaff accelerator. The neutron spectrum can be taylored according to the experimental requirements in an energy range from 5 to 200 keV by choosing appropriate proton energies. A collimated neutron beam is passing through the detector and hits the sample in the centre. The energy of captured neutrons is determined via time of flight, the primary flight path being 77 cm. The combination of short primary flight path, a 10 cm inner radius of the spherical BaF 2 shell, and the low capture cross section of barium allows to discriminate background due to capture of sample scattered neutrons in the scintillator by time of flight, leaving part of the neutron energy range completely undisturbed. (orig./HSI) [de

  4. Solar Twins and the Barium Puzzle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Arumalla B. S.; Lambert, David L.

    2017-01-01

    Several abundance analyses of Galactic open clusters (OCs) have shown a tendency for Ba but not for other heavy elements (La−Sm) to increase sharply with decreasing age such that Ba was claimed to reach [Ba/Fe] ≃ +0.6 in the youngest clusters (ages < 100 Myr) rising from [Ba/Fe] = 0.00 dex in solar-age clusters. Within the formulation of the s -process, the difficulty to replicate higher Ba abundance and normal La−Sm abundances in young clusters is known as the barium puzzle. Here, we investigate the barium puzzle using extremely high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra of 24 solar twins and measured the heavy elements Ba, La, Ce, Nd, and Sm with a precision of 0.03 dex. We demonstrate that the enhanced Ba ii relative to La−Sm seen among solar twins, stellar associations, and OCs at young ages (<100 Myr) is unrelated to aspects of stellar nucleosynthesis but has resulted from overestimation of Ba by standard methods of LTE abundance analysis in which the microturbulence derived from the Fe lines formed deep in the photosphere is insufficient to represent the true line broadening imposed on Ba ii lines by the upper photospheric layers from where the Ba ii lines emerge. Because the young stars have relatively active photospheres, Ba overabundances most likely result from the adoption of a too low value of microturbulence in the spectrum synthesis of the strong Ba ii lines but the change of microturbulence in the upper photosphere has only a minor affect on La−Sm abundances measured from the weak lines.

  5. Solar Twins and the Barium Puzzle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Arumalla B. S.; Lambert, David L., E-mail: bala@astro.as.utexas.edu [W.J. McDonald Observatory and Department of Astronomy, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States)

    2017-08-20

    Several abundance analyses of Galactic open clusters (OCs) have shown a tendency for Ba but not for other heavy elements (La−Sm) to increase sharply with decreasing age such that Ba was claimed to reach [Ba/Fe] ≃ +0.6 in the youngest clusters (ages < 100 Myr) rising from [Ba/Fe] = 0.00 dex in solar-age clusters. Within the formulation of the s -process, the difficulty to replicate higher Ba abundance and normal La−Sm abundances in young clusters is known as the barium puzzle. Here, we investigate the barium puzzle using extremely high-resolution and high signal-to-noise spectra of 24 solar twins and measured the heavy elements Ba, La, Ce, Nd, and Sm with a precision of 0.03 dex. We demonstrate that the enhanced Ba ii relative to La−Sm seen among solar twins, stellar associations, and OCs at young ages (<100 Myr) is unrelated to aspects of stellar nucleosynthesis but has resulted from overestimation of Ba by standard methods of LTE abundance analysis in which the microturbulence derived from the Fe lines formed deep in the photosphere is insufficient to represent the true line broadening imposed on Ba ii lines by the upper photospheric layers from where the Ba ii lines emerge. Because the young stars have relatively active photospheres, Ba overabundances most likely result from the adoption of a too low value of microturbulence in the spectrum synthesis of the strong Ba ii lines but the change of microturbulence in the upper photosphere has only a minor affect on La−Sm abundances measured from the weak lines.

  6. Acoustic analysis of swallowing sounds: a new technique for assessing dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamato, Andrea; Panza, Francesco; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Russo, Anna; Frisardi, Vincenza; Megna, Marisa; Ranieri, Maurizio; Fiore, Pietro

    2009-07-01

    To perform acoustic analysis of swallowing sounds, using a microphone and a notebook computer system, in healthy subjects and patients with dysphagia affected by neurological diseases, testing the positive/negative predictive value of a pathological pattern of swallowing sounds for penetration/aspiration. Diagnostic test study, prospective, not blinded, with the penetration/aspiration evaluated by fibreoptic endoscopy of swallowing as criterion standard. Data from a previously recorded database of normal swallowing sounds for 60 healthy subjects according to gender, age, and bolus consistency was compared with those of 15 patients with dysphagia from a university hospital referral centre who were affected by various neurological diseases. Mean duration of the swallowing sounds and post-swallowing apnoea were recorded. Penetration/aspiration was verified by fibreoptic endoscopy of swallowing in all patients with dysphagia. The mean duration of swallowing sounds for a liquid bolus of 10 ml water was significantly different between patients with dysphagia and healthy patients. We also described patterns of swallowing sounds and tested the negative/positive predictive values of post-swallowing apnoea for penetration/aspiration verified by fibreoptic endoscopy of swallowing (sensitivity 0.67 (95% confidence interval 0.24-0.94); specificity 1.00 (95% confidence interval 0.56-1.00)). The proposed technique for recording and measuring swallowing sounds could be incorporated into the bedside evaluation, but it should not replace the use of more diagnostic and valuable measures.

  7. Disturbance of food ingestion and swallowing due to late toxicity of concurrent chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Masanori; Ishitoya, Junichi; Ikeda, Youichi; Shiono, Osamu; Kawano, Toshirou; Tsukuda, Mamoru

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate late disturbance of food ingestion and swallowing in patients with advanced head and neck carcinoma after concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT). Patients answered a questionnaire, the Quality of Life Radiation Therapy Instrument (QOL-RTI) for Japanese, and swallowing function was investigated by videoendoscopy (VE) more than 1 year after treatment. The results of patients after CCRT were compared with normal elderly serving as the control group. The total QOL score of the patient group was significantly lower than that of the control group. In terms of the results of the QOL questionnaires, the QOL scores for quantity of saliva, quality of saliva, taste and food swallowing were significantly lower in the patient group. Regarding the VE findings, the control group exhibited almost normal swallowing function, but pooling in the vallecura, laryngeal palsy and pooling in the hypopharynx were observed in the phase of not swallowing. Furthermore, dysfunction of swallowing using the colored water swallowing test was observed in about 40% of the patients. In addition, the factors associated with disturbance of QOL score and swallowing function were analyzed. All factors, id est (i.e.), age, T and N classification, stage, duration after treatment, acute toxicity of chemoradiotherapy and order of chemotherapy, had not influence on food ingestion or swallowing. Patients after CCRT might have potential dysfunction of swallowing. The colored water swallowing test is useful for diagnosis of swallowing dysfunction in head and neck cancer patients after CCRT. (author)

  8. Treatment of post-stroke dysphagia by vitalstim therapy coupled with conventional swallowing training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Wenguang; Zheng, Chanjuan; Lei, Qingtao; Tang, Zhouping; Hua, Qiang; Zhang, Yangpu; Zhu, Suiqiang

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the effects of VitalStim therapy coupled with conventional swallowing training on recovery of post-stroke dysphagia, a total of 120 patients with post-stroke dysphagia were randomly and evenly divided into three groups: conventional swallowing therapy group, VitalStim therapy group, and VitalStim therapy plus conventional swallowing therapy group. Prior to and after the treatment, signals of surface electromyography (sEMG) of swallowing muscles were detected, swallowing function was evaluated by using the Standardized Swallowing Assessment (SSA) and Videofluoroscopic Swallowing Study (VFSS) tests, and swallowing-related quality of life (SWAL-QOL) was evaluated using the SWAL-QOL questionnaire. There were significant differences in sEMG value, SSA, VFSS, and SWAL-QOL scores in each group between prior to and after treatment. After 4-week treatment, sEMG value, SSA, VFSS and SWAL-QOL scores were significantly greater in the VitalStim therapy plus conventional swallowing training group than in the conventional swallowing training group and VitalStim therapy group, but no significant difference existed between conventional swallowing therapy group and VitalStim therapy group. It was concluded that VitalStim therapy coupled with conventional swallowing training was conducive to recovery of post-stroke dysphagia.

  9. Barium ferrite nanoparticles prepared by self-propagating low ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Kubo et al 1982; Lucchini et al 1983), hydrothermal. (Barb et al 1986), microemulsion ... combustion route employing metal oxalate precursors. In search of a suitable ... heptahydrate/barium nitrate and oxalic acid were dis- solved in minimum ...

  10. Late changes in barium sulfate aspiration: HRCT features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloudaki, A.; Ergazakis, N.; Gourtsoyiannis, N.

    2003-01-01

    Aspiration of barium sulfate occurs accidentally. Lung reaction is usually mild in the early phase due to inert character of the substance and long-term reactions or late toxicities are not expected. Little if any fibrotic response is speculated. We present a case with barium aspiration, studied by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) 1 year after the event, as late pulmonary sequelae studied by CT have not been described yet, to the best of our knowledge. The HRCT revealed thickened interlobular septa, subpleural lines, subpleural cysts, and centrilobular micronodules along with barium particles in a subpleural distribution. Those findings indicated that barium is capable of producing mild though silent clinically fibrosis. (orig.)

  11. Synthesis, photoluminescence and magnetic properties of barium vanadate nanoflowers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jing; Hu, Chenguo; Xi, Yi; Peng, Chen; Wan, Buyong; He, Xiaoshan

    2011-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The flower-shaped barium vanadate was obtained for the first time. The photoluminescence and magnetic properties of the barium vanadate nanoflowers were investigated at room temperature. Research highlights: → In the paper, the flower-shaped barium vanadate were obtained for the first time. The CHM method used here is new and simple for preparation of barium vanadate. → The photoluminescence and magnetic properties of the barium vanadate nanoflowers were investigated at room temperature. The strong bluish-green emission was observed. → The ferromagnetic behavior of the barium vanadate nanoflowers was found with saturation magnetization of about 83.50 x 10 -3 emu/g, coercivity of 18.89 Oe and remnant magnetization of 4.63 x 10 -3 emu/g. → The mechanisms of PL and magnetic property of barium vanadate nanoflowers have been discussed. -- Abstract: The flower-shaped barium vanadate has been obtained by the composite hydroxide mediated (CHM) method from V 2 O 5 and BaCl 2 at 200 o C for 13 h. XRD and XPS spectrum of the as-synthesized sample indicate it is hexagonal Ba 3 V 2 O 8 with small amount of Ba 3 VO 4.8 coexistence. Scan electron microscope and transmission electron microscope display that the flower-shaped crystals are composed of nanosheets with thickness of ∼20 nm. The UV-visible spectrum shows that the barium vanadate sample has two optical gaps (3.85 eV and 3.12 eV). Photoluminescence spectrum of the barium vanadate flowers exhibits a visible light emission centered at 492 and 525 nm which might be attributed to VO 4 tetrahedron with T d symmetry in Ba 3 V 2 O 8 . The ferromagnetic behavior of the barium vanadate nanoflowers has been found with saturation magnetization of about 83.50 x 10 -3 emu/g, coercivity of 18.89 Oe and remnant magnetization of 4.63 x 10 -3 emu/g, which is mainly due to the presence of a non-orthovanadate phase with spin S = 1/2.

  12. Adolescents' struggles with swallowing tablets: barriers, strategies and learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Dana Lee; Tulinius, Ditte; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2008-01-01

    To explore adolescents' struggles with taking oral medications. Copenhagen, Denmark. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 89 adolescents (33 boys, 56 girls) between the ages of 11 and 20. Adolescents were recruited through four public schools. To identify struggles with taking oral medication, interview transcripts were systematically searched for statements including the terms swallow, chew, crush and eat. Thematic analysis of the identified statements was carried out to reveal dominant themes in the adolescents' accounts. Over one-third of the adolescents spontaneously provided accounts of the difficulties they experienced with taking oral medications, especially with swallowing tablets. Three themes were dominant in their narratives: barriers, strategies and learning. Barriers experienced by the adolescents involved the medications' properties, e.g. taste. Adolescents developed strategies to overcome these barriers, e.g. crushing tablets. Via a process of learning-by-doing and the acquisition of increased experience and autonomy, many adolescents mastered the skill of swallowing tablets. Many adolescents experienced barriers in their attempts to swallow tablets. They developed various strategies to overcome these barriers and gradually mastered taking medicines in a learning-by-doing process.

  13. Swallowing function before and after concurrent chemoradiotherapy for pharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiyuna, Asanori; Hasegawa, Masahiro; Higa, Asano; Shinhama, Akihiko; Suzuki, Mikio

    2010-01-01

    Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) for patients with advanced head or neck cancer has become popular as an effective treatment that can preserve their organs and functions after treatment. However, severe dysfunctions as the complications related to CCRT, e.g. dysphagia, sometimes appear in spite of preservation of the affected organs. The aim of the present study is to clarify swallowing function during and after CCRT. Medical records of subjects who received CCRT for treatment of oropharyngeal (21 cases) and hypopharyngeal (19 cases) cancer were retrospectively reviewed for mucositis and dysphagia before, during, and after CCRT using National Cancer Institute-Common Toxicity Criteria (NCI-CTC) version 2.0. Severity of mucositis and dysphagia kept deteriorating during CCRT and 27.5% of the subjects required tube feeding at the end of CCRT. The mucositis improved rapidly after treatment, but severe dysphagia still persisted in 7.5% of the subjects 6 months after CCRT. Planned neck dissections were carried out in 14 patients as additional treatment against lymph node involvement. Although severe dysphagia appeared immediately after surgery, swallowing function returned to preoperative condition within 1 month. The majority of patients who receive CCRT recover their swallowing function within 6 months after CCRT. However, since some patients demonstrate prolonged dysphagia after CCRT, we should receive informed consent from patients about their swallowing condition after CCRT. (author)

  14. Mastication and swallowing : influence of fluid addition to foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, Luciano Jose; Duarte Gaviao, Maria Beatriz; Engelen, Lina; van der Bilt, Andries

    2007-01-01

    introduction: The production of sufficient saliva is indispensable for good chewing. Recent research has demonstrated that salivary flow rate has little influence on the swallowing threshold. Objectives: The hypothesis examined in the present study was that adding fluids to foods will influence

  15. Evaluation of swallowing disorders with videofluoroscopy in Austria: a survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhuber, Edith; Schima, Wolfgang; Stadler, Alfred; Schober, Ewald; Schibany, Nadja; Denk, Doris-Maria

    2005-01-01

    Aim: The aim of our study was to assess the availability of videofluoroscopy to examine patients with swallowing disorders in Austria. Materials and methods: A questionnaire was sent to the department heads of the radiology departments of all hospitals (n=143) and to all non-hospital-based radiologic practices (n=226) throughout Austria. The survey focused on the availability of videofluoroscopic swallowing studies and on the studies performed in patients with deglutition disorders. Results: The questionnaire was completed and returned by 134 of 143 radiology departments (94%) and 65 of 226 non-hospital-based radiologists (29%). Videofluoroscopic swallowing studies were performed in 38 of 134 radiology departments (28%) and in 21 of 65 practices (32%). The method is available in all nine Austrian states (100%) and 27 of 99 districts (27%). The number of examinations performed in different states ranged from 0.7 to 19 studies/10,000 population per year. The number of videofluoroscopic examinations per department or practice in the year 2001 ranged between 5 and 690 (median, 100 examinations). To 85% of videofluoroscopy units patients were referred from otorhinolaryngology/phoniatrics-logopedics, to 69% of videofluoroscopy units referrals were also from internal medicine, from neurology in 54%, and from pediatrics in 20%. Conclusion: Despite the widespread availability of videofluoroscopy throughout Austria, its use still varies largely between different states. The data show that in general there is a wide-spread demand for videofluoroscopic swallowing studies

  16. Current conservation status of the Blue Swallow Hirundo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The overall probability of extinction of the species in the wild is 3%. Minimum viable population size analysis suggests that a goal for the long-term conservation of the Blue Swallow should be to mitigate current threats that are driving declines such that the population increases to a minimum of 3 600 individuals. This should ...

  17. [Age-related changes in swallowing. Physiology and pathophysiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhle, P; Wirth, R; Glahn, J; Dziewas, R

    2015-04-01

    The term presbyphagia refers to all changes of swallowing physiology that are manifested with increasing age. Alterations in the pattern of deglutition that are part of healthy aging are called primary presbyphagia. Primary presbyphagia is not an illness in itself but contributes to a more pervasive naturally diminished functional reserve, making older adults more susceptible to dysphagia. If disorders in swallowing occur in the elderly as a comorbidity of a specific disease, for example stroke or neurodegenerative disorders, this is called secondary presbyphagia. Increasing age has an impact on each stage of deglutition. In the oral preparatory phase a diminished input for smell and taste as well as a usually multifactorial cause of dry mouth are the most important influencing factors. Sarcopenia, the degenerative loss of skeletal muscle mass, strength and quality associated with aging, interferes in particular with the oropharyngeal phase. A decreased sensory feedback from the oropharyngeal mucosa leads to a delayed triggering of the swallowing reflex. Finally, a reduction in connective tissue elasticity and changes of the axial skeleton lead to various modifications of the swallowing pattern with advanced age.

  18. Differences in Swallowing between High and Low Concentration Taste Stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Nagy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taste is a property that is thought to potentially modulate swallowing behavior. Whether such effects depend on taste, intensity remains unclear. This study explored differences in the amplitudes of tongue-palate pressures in swallowing as a function of taste stimulus concentration. Tongue-palate pressures were collected in 80 healthy women, in two age groups (under 40, over 60, stratified by genetic taste status (nontasters, supertasters. Liquids with different taste qualities (sweet, sour, salty, and bitter were presented in high and low concentrations. General labeled magnitude scale ratings captured perceived taste intensity and liking/disliking of the test liquids. Path analysis explored whether factors of taste, concentration, age group, and/or genetic taste status impacted: (1 perceived intensity; (2 palatability; and (3 swallowing pressures. Higher ratings of perceived intensity were found in supertasters and with higher concentrations, which were more liked/disliked than lower concentrations. Sweet stimuli were more palatable than sour, salty, or bitter stimuli. Higher concentrations elicited stronger tongue-palate pressures independently and in association with intensity ratings. The perceived intensity of a taste stimulus varies as a function of stimulus concentration, taste quality, participant age, and genetic taste status and influences swallowing pressure amplitudes. High-concentration salty and sour stimuli elicit the greatest tongue-palate pressures.

  19. Effect of posture on swallowing | Alghadir | African Health Sciences

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Swallowing is a systematic process. Any structural, physiological or neurological disturbance in this process may cause dysphagia. Although there are studies that report head/neck movements during mastication, there are fewer studies that show the effect of different head/neck postures on difficulty while ...

  20. \\'The snake will swallow you': supernatural snakes and the creation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    \\'The snake will swallow you': supernatural snakes and the creation of the Khotso legend. Felicity Wood. Abstract. No Abstract. Indilinga: African Journal of Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IAJIKS) Vol. 4(1) 2005: 347-359. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  1. Tongue-mandible coupling movements during saliva swallowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdiol, P; Mishellany-Dutour, A; Peyron, M-A; Woda, A

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the tongue and mandible positions and displacements in relation to the maxilla in the midsagittal plane to characterize the different saliva swallowing patterns by recording their kinematics. A 2D electromagnetic articulograph using four transducer coils, three attached to the upper surface of the tongue midline plus one attached to the chin anterior part allowed continuous evaluation of tongue and chin movements in twelve young adults in good general health. During 170 s sequences recorded at a frequency of 100 Hz, subjects were at rest, silently reading a text they had chosen. The subjects were free to swallow during the sequence. Deglutition of accumulated saliva was analysed after averaging all values obtained during successive 250 ms periods. We identified three elementary swallowing patterns. Mean duration of tongue-mandible movements were 1·51 ± 0·17 s, 1·63 ± 0·14 s and 2·00 ± 0·08 s for the first, second and third patterns respectively. In the light of other studies based on intra-oral pressure recordings, our results help to understand the tongue-mandible coupling behaviours involved in managing an in-mouth saliva bolus during the three elementary swallowing patterns identified. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Swallowing Disorders in Parkinson's Disease: Impact of Lingual Pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argolo, Natalie; Sampaio, Marília; Pinho, Patrícia; Melo, Ailton; Nóbrega, Ana Caline

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lingual pumping (LP) is a repetitive, involuntary, anteroposterior movement of the tongue on the soft palate that is executed prior to transferring the food bolus to the pharynx, but we also observed LP when multiple swallows were taken. LP may be associated with rigidity and bradykinesia in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). This…

  3. Cost-effectiveness of barium enemas performed by radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Lorraine; Desai, Sharad

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To assess the cost-effectiveness of barium enemas performed by radiographers compared to those performed by consultant radiologists. METHOD: Prospective study of 200 barium enemas carried out by a senior radiographer and a consultant radiologist. The sample was a consecutive sample of adult out-patients over a 3-month period, with no exclusion. The length of time of the enema and the numbers and grades of staff involved in the procedure were recorded. This was translated into staffing costs using the appropriate pay scales. RESULTS: The barium enemas performed by the superintendent radiographer were more cost-effective than those performed by the consultant radiologist (1406 pounds for 100 radiographer-performed barium enemas compared to 1787 pounds for 100 carried out by the consultant radiologist). CONCLUSION: In terms of staffing costs, radiographers performing barium enemas not only liberates radiologist time, it is also a cost-effective method of providing an out-patient barium enema service. Brown, L. and Desai, S. (2002)

  4. Penultimate interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Yair

    2010-10-01

    Interpretation is at the center of psychoanalytic activity. However, interpretation is always challenged by that which is beyond our grasp, the 'dark matter' of our mind, what Bion describes as ' O'. O is one of the most central and difficult concepts in Bion's thought. In this paper, I explain the enigmatic nature of O as a high-dimensional mental space and point to the price one should pay for substituting the pre-symbolic lexicon of the emotion-laden and high-dimensional unconscious for a low-dimensional symbolic representation. This price is reification--objectifying lived experience and draining it of vitality and complexity. In order to address the difficulty of approaching O through symbolization, I introduce the term 'Penultimate Interpretation'--a form of interpretation that seeks 'loopholes' through which the analyst and the analysand may reciprocally save themselves from the curse of reification. Three guidelines for 'Penultimate Interpretation' are proposed and illustrated through an imaginary dialogue. Copyright © 2010 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  5. Stricture location predicts swallowing outcomes following endoscopic rendezvous procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Katherine N; Shah, Rupali N; Buckmire, Robert A

    2017-06-01

    Complete pharyngoesophageal strictures may be encountered by the otolaryngologist as a consequence of radiation/chemoradiotherapy therapies for head and neck cancer. A combined anterograde and retrograde dilation procedure (rendezvous procedure) has proven to be a useful surgical intervention in these cases. We assess the long-term swallowing outcomes of this patient cohort including gastrostomy tube (G-tube) reliance, swallowing quality of life, and variables that contribute to improved swallowing outcomes. Retrospective chart review. A retrospective chart review of 18 consecutive patients treated with rendezvous procedures between April 2007 and May 2015 was carried out. Data were collected from chart review and follow-up telephone calls including demographics, surgical/postoperative course details, and Eating Assessment Tool (EAT-10) (swallowing quality of life) scores. The completion rate of the procedure was 83% (15 completed/3 procedures aborted). Average follow-up was 22 months. Thirteen of 15 (86.7%) achieved an oral diet, and 7/15 (46.7%) had their G-tube removed. G-tube-independent (GTI) patients had an average stricture length of 2.33 cm and an average distance from the incisors of 17.4 cm compared to G-tube dependent-(GTD) patients who had an average stricture length of 2.63 cm and 14.6 cm mean distance from the incisors (P = .66 and .0343, respectively). Final EAT-10 scores averaged 20.1 in GTI patients and 33.8 in GTD patients (P = .022). Stricture/incisor distance and EAT-10 scores demonstrated a moderate to strong negative correlation (r = -0.67). Following the endoscopic rendezvous procedure, swallowing outcomes and G-tube status is related to the distance of the stricture from the incisors. 2b Laryngoscope, 127:1388-1391, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  6. Barn swallows nesting near radioactive leaching ponds in southeastern Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, J.B.; Whicker, F.W.; Markham, O.D.

    1978-01-01

    Seasonally occurring populations of barn swallows nest near the Test Reactor Area (TRA) radioactive leaching ponds on the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Site. These birds utilize leaching pond arthropods and are therefore capable of accumulating radioactive materials and exporting them from the INEL Site during migration. The breeding biology is discussed for these swallows and a control group located 100 km away. Total nestling mortality for the controls and a 1977 TRA population was found to be statistically identical. Over 20 fission and activation products have been detected in immature and adult TRA birds. Mean concentrations of detectable radionuclides were used to calculate internal dose rates, and results showed that Na-24 contributed about 72% of the total average of 21.9 mrad/d for adult birds. Concentration factors were also calculated for predominant radionuclides in swallows relative to filtered pond water. Data from LiF dosimeters in swallow nests constructed with contaminated mud indicated average dose rates were 84 mrad/d for eggs and 220 mrad/d for nestlings. Growth curves were constructed for the immature TRA birds and controls. The first clutch of TRA swallows was found to have a significantly lower mean growth rate constant than the first clutch of controls. The statistical difference in growth rate between the control and TRA first clutch populations may have resulted from differences in climate, nesting site habitat, or available food sources, and cannot be solely attributed to radiation exposure as a causative factor. Growth rate parameters for TRA birds were within the range of values reported in the literature

  7. Analysis of vocal and swallowing functions after horizontal glottectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaloğlu, İlhan; Bal, Muhlis; Salturk, Ziya; Berkiten, Güler; Atar, Yavuz

    2016-08-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess vocal and swallowing functions after horizontal glottectomy. Our study population was made up of 22 men aged 45 to 72 years (mean: 58.3) who underwent horizontal glottectomy and completed at least 1 year of follow-up. To compare postoperative results, 20 similarly aged men were included as a control group; all glottectomy patients and all controls were smokers. We used three methods-acoustic and aerodynamic voice analyses, the GRBAS (grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenicity, and strain) scale, and the voice handicap index-30 (VHI-30)-to assess vocal function objectively, perceptually, and subjectively, respectively. We also assessed swallowing function objectively by fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) and subjectively with the M.D. Anderson dysphagia inventory (MDADI). The 22 patients were also subcategorized into three groups according to the extent of their arytenoid cartilage resection, and their outcomes were compared. Acoustic and aerodynamic analyses showed that the mean maximum phonation time was significantly shorter and the fundamental frequency was significantly lower in the glottectomy group than in the controls (p = 0.001 for both), and that the mean jitter and shimmer values and the mean harmonics-to-noise ratio were all significantly higher (p = 0.001 for all); there were no significant differences among the three arytenoid subgroups. Self-assessments revealed that there were no statistically significant differences among the three subgroups in GRBAS scale scores except for the breathiness score (p = 0.045), which was lower in the arytenoid preservation subgroup than in the total resection subgroup; there were no statistically significant differences among the three subgroups in VHI-30 scores. Finally, swallow testing found no statistically significant differences in FEES scores or MDADI scores. We conclude that horizontal glottectomy caused a deterioration in vocal function, but

  8. Functional MRI study of cerebral cortical activation during volitional swallowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakasa, Toru; Aiga, Hideki; Yanagi, Yoshinobu; Kawai, Noriko; Sugimoto, Tomosada; Kuboki, Takuo; Kishi, Kanji

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the somatotropic distribution and lateralization of motor and sensory cortical activity during swallowing in healthy adult human subjects using functional MR imaging. Nine healthy right-handed adult volunteers (6 men, 3 women; ages 22-38) were examined. Their cortical activities were evoked by having them swallow, five times, a small bolus of water (3 ml) supplied through a plastic catheter. As a positive control, the subjects performed five repetitions of right-handed grasping tasks. Blood oxygenation level-dependent images were obtained using a 1.5 Tesla MR system (Magnetom Vision, Siemens Germany; repetition time/echo time (TR/TE)=0.96/0.66, flip angle (FA)=90 deg). T1 weighted anatomical images were obtained for the same slices in each subject. Cerebral activity was observed most notably in the primary motor cortex and primary somatosensory cortex, followed by the premotor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, frontal operculum, and insula. The hand-grasping task activated relatively superior parts of the primary motor and somatosensory cortices. The swallowing task, on the other hand, activated the inferior parts of the pre- and postcentral gyri. The hand-grasping activation of motor and sensory cortices was localized absolutely on the contralateral side, whereas swallowing activated the motor cortex either bilaterally or unilaterally. Swallowing activated the sensory cortex almost always bilaterally. This study suggested that fMRI could be used to identify the specific areas of cortical activation caused by various tasks, and to differentiate the locations of cortical activation between tasks. (author)

  9. Dynamic evaluation of swallowing disorders with electron-beam tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raith, J.; Lindbichler, F.; Kern, R.; Groell, R.; Rienmueller, R.

    1996-01-01

    Three cases preselected by videofluorography were studied to evaluate whether electron beam tomography (EBT) permits more detailed dynamic imaging of swallowing disorders focusing on the mesonasopharyngeal segment, the hypopharynx and the upper esophageal sphincter (UES). Immediately after videofluorographic examination of the oropharyngeal deglutition, EBT is performed. The patient is in a supine position and while the patient swallows a 20 ml bolus of water or diluted iodine containing contrast agent, a sequence of 20 images per level is scanned. The levels, which are determined by using the scout view, are oriented parallel to the hard palate either at the level of the hard palate to image the mesonasopharyngel segment or just above the hyoid bone to focus on the hypopharynx or at the location of the USE. The scan technique is a single-slice cinemode with a slice thickness of 3 mm (exposure time 100 ms, interscan delay 16 ms, 130 kV, 620 mA). The following structural interactions that we have so far been unable to image can be clearly demonstrated with EBT: During normal swallowing, the mesonasopharyngeal segment is completely and symmetrically closed by the soft palate and Passavant's cushion; lateral hypopharyngeal pouches can be located more precisely; and disorders of the UES can be differentiated into functional or morphologically caused disorders (e.g., goiter or cervical osteophytes). Videofluorography and cinematography are still the gold standard in functional evaluation of swallowing disorders. However, EBT permits dynamic imaging of pharyngeal deglutition in a preselected transverse plane and can give useful additional information concerning functional anatomical changes in the pharynx during swallowing. Further clinical evaluation is needed. (orig.) [de

  10. Functional MRI study of cerebral cortical activation during volitional swallowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakasa, Toru; Aiga, Hideki; Yanagi, Yoshinobu; Kawai, Noriko; Sugimoto, Tomosada; Kuboki, Takuo; Kishi, Kanji [Okayama Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry

    2002-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the somatotropic distribution and lateralization of motor and sensory cortical activity during swallowing in healthy adult human subjects using functional MR imaging. Nine healthy right-handed adult volunteers (6 men, 3 women; ages 22-38) were examined. Their cortical activities were evoked by having them swallow, five times, a small bolus of water (3 ml) supplied through a plastic catheter. As a positive control, the subjects performed five repetitions of right-handed grasping tasks. Blood oxygenation level-dependent images were obtained using a 1.5 Tesla MR system (Magnetom Vision, Siemens Germany; repetition time/echo time (TR/TE)=0.96/0.66, flip angle (FA)=90 deg). T1 weighted anatomical images were obtained for the same slices in each subject. Cerebral activity was observed most notably in the primary motor cortex and primary somatosensory cortex, followed by the premotor cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, frontal operculum, and insula. The hand-grasping task activated relatively superior parts of the primary motor and somatosensory cortices. The swallowing task, on the other hand, activated the inferior parts of the pre- and postcentral gyri. The hand-grasping activation of motor and sensory cortices was localized absolutely on the contralateral side, whereas swallowing activated the motor cortex either bilaterally or unilaterally. Swallowing activated the sensory cortex almost always bilaterally. This study suggested that fMRI could be used to identify the specific areas of cortical activation caused by various tasks, and to differentiate the locations of cortical activation between tasks. (author)

  11. Interpreting Physics

    CERN Document Server

    MacKinnon, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This book is the first to offer a systematic account of the role of language in the development and interpretation of physics. An historical-conceptual analysis of the co-evolution of mathematical and physical concepts leads to the classical/quatum interface. Bohrian orthodoxy stresses the indispensability of classical concepts and the functional role of mathematics. This book analyses ways of extending, and then going beyond this orthodoxy orthodoxy. Finally, the book analyzes how a revised interpretation of physics impacts on basic philosophical issues: conceptual revolutions, realism, and r

  12. Neural network pattern recognition of lingual-palatal pressure for automated detection of swallow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Aaron J; Krival, Kate R; Ridgel, Angela L; Hahn, Elizabeth C; Tyler, Dustin J

    2015-04-01

    We describe a novel device and method for real-time measurement of lingual-palatal pressure and automatic identification of the oral transfer phase of deglutition. Clinical measurement of the oral transport phase of swallowing is a complicated process requiring either placement of obstructive sensors or sitting within a fluoroscope or articulograph for recording. Existing detection algorithms distinguish oral events with EMG, sound, and pressure signals from the head and neck, but are imprecise and frequently result in false detection. We placed seven pressure sensors on a molded mouthpiece fitting over the upper teeth and hard palate and recorded pressure during a variety of swallow and non-swallow activities. Pressure measures and swallow times from 12 healthy and 7 Parkinson's subjects provided training data for a time-delay artificial neural network to categorize the recordings as swallow or non-swallow events. User-specific neural networks properly categorized 96 % of swallow and non-swallow events, while a generalized population-trained network was able to properly categorize 93 % of swallow and non-swallow events across all recordings. Lingual-palatal pressure signals are sufficient to selectively and specifically recognize the initiation of swallowing in healthy and dysphagic patients.

  13. Dysphagia progression and swallowing management in Parkinson's disease: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchesi, Karen Fontes; Kitamura, Satoshi; Mourão, Lucia Figueiredo

    2015-01-01

    Dysphagia is relatively common in individuals with neurological disorders. To describe the swallowing management and investigate associated factors with swallowing in a case series of patients with Parkinson's disease. It is a long-term study with 24 patients. The patients were observed in a five-year period (2006-2011). They underwent Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing, Functional Oral Intake Scale and therapeutic intervention every three months. In the therapeutic intervention they received orientation about exercises to improve swallowing. The Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher's tests were used. The period of time for improvement or worsening of swallowing was described by Kaplan-Meier analysis. During the follow-up, ten patients improved, five stayed the same and nine worsened their swallowing functionality. The median time for improvement was ten months. Prior to the worsening there was a median time of 33 months of follow-up. There was no associated factor with improvement or worsening of swallowing. The maneuvers frequently indicated in therapeutic intervention were: chin-tuck, bolus consistency, bolus effect, strengthening-tongue, multiple swallows and vocal exercises. The swallowing management was characterized by swallowing assessment every three months with indication of compensatory and rehabilitation maneuvers, aiming to maintain the oral feeding without risks. There was no associated factor with swallowing functionality in this case series. Copyright © 2014 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  14. Dysphagia progression and swallowing management in Parkinson's disease: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Fontes Luchesi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dysphagia is relatively common in individuals with neurological disorders. Objective: To describe the swallowing management and investigate associated factors with swallowing in a case series of patients with Parkinson's disease. Methods: It is a long-term study with 24 patients. The patients were observed in a five-year period (2006-2011. They underwent Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing, Functional Oral Intake Scale and therapeutic intervention every three months. In the therapeutic intervention they received orientation about exercises to improve swallowing. The Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis and Fisher's tests were used. The period of time for improvement or worsening of swallowing was described by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: During the follow-up, ten patients improved, five stayed the same and nine worsened their swallowing functionality. The median time for improvement was ten months. Prior to the worsening there was a median time of 33 months of follow-up. There was no associated factor with improvement or worsening of swallowing. The maneuvers frequently indicated in therapeutic intervention were: chin-tuck, bolus consistency, bolus effect, strengthening-tongue, multiple swallows and vocal exercises. Conclusion: The swallowing management was characterized by swallowing assessment every three months with indication of compensatory and rehabilitation maneuvers, aiming to maintain the oral feeding without risks. There was no associated factor with swallowing functionality in this case series.

  15. A comparison between swallowing sounds and vibrations in patients with dysphagia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movahedi, Faezeh; Kurosu, Atsuko; Coyle, James L.; Perera, Subashan

    2017-01-01

    The cervical auscultation refers to the observation and analysis of sounds or vibrations captured during swallowing using either a stethoscope or acoustic/vibratory detectors. Microphones and accelerometers have recently become two common sensors used in modern cervical auscultation methods. There are open questions about whether swallowing signals recorded by these two sensors provide unique or complementary information about swallowing function; or whether they present interchangeable information. The aim of this study is to present a broad comparison of swallowing signals recorded by a microphone and a tri-axial accelerometer from 72 patients (mean age 63.94 ± 12.58 years, 42 male, 30 female), who underwent videofluoroscopic examination. The participants swallowed one or more boluses of thickened liquids of different consistencies, including thin liquids, nectar-thick liquids, and pudding. A comfortable self-selected volume from a cup or a controlled volume by the examiner from a 5ml spoon was given to the participants. A comprehensive set of features was extracted in time, information-theoretic, and frequency domains from each of 881 swallows presented in this study. The swallowing sounds exhibited significantly higher frequency content and kurtosis values than the swallowing vibrations. In addition, the Lempel-Ziv complexity was lower for swallowing sounds than those for swallowing vibrations. To conclude, information provided by microphones and accelerometers about swallowing function are unique and these two transducers are not interchangeable. Consequently, the selection of transducer would be a vital step in future studies. PMID:28495001

  16. Soft-robotic esophageal swallowing as a clinically-inspired bolus rheometry technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirven, Steven; Allen, Jacqueline; Xu, Weiliang; Cheng, Leo K

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the impact of viscosity and peristaltic transport parameters on manometric pressure signatures, a reproducible swallowing process is required. Due to inter- and intra-subject variability from swallow to swallow, the human body does not represent an optimal mechanism for such an investigation. A smooth and continuous swallowing soft-robot has been developed to produce biomimetic swallowing trajectories, and is proposed to operate as a bench-top bolus rheometric investigation method. The method compares conventional viscometry and pressure signature findings from robotic swallowing experiments. The robotic aspect of experimentation involved 450 biomimetic swallows (10 repetitions of 45 unique experiments). The method examined swallowing transport in three dimensions: bolus formulation, peristaltic wavelength, and peristaltic velocity, each of which are known to contribute to safe and effective swallowing in vivo . It is found that the pressure gradients and magnitudes are commensurate with clinical reports on biological swallowing, on the order of 100 mmHg peak, however, the relationship between viscosity and pressure signatures is less clear. Bolus transport cannot be predicted as a function of bolus viscosity alone. Traditional viscometric data at 50 s −1 , as used in clinical practice, may not be a strong indicator of swallow effort, safety, or efficacy in vivo . (paper)

  17. Anastomotic stenosis of the descending colon caused by barium granuloma formation following barium peritonitis: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitajima, Toshihiro; Tomizawa, Kenji; Hanaoka, Yutaka; Toda, Shigeo; Matoba, Shuichiro; Kuroyanagi, Hiroya; Oota, Yasunori

    2014-11-01

    Anastomotic stricture reportedly often recurs following barium peritonitis, regardless of whether the anastomotic diameter is initially sufficient. However, the causes of repetitive stricture have not been clarified. We report a case that suggests the pathophysiology of recurrent anastomotic strictures following barium peritonitis. The patient was a 39-year-old Japanese man with idiopathic perforation of the descending colon after undergoing an upper gastrointestinal barium contrast study. After emergency peritoneal lavage and diverting colostomy, created using the perforated region, the patient recovered uneventfully and 3 months later, the colostomy was closed and the perforated colon was resected. However, 7 months after colostomy closure, abdominal distention gradually developed, and colonoscopy revealed an anastomotic stricture. The patient was referred to our hospital where he underwent resection of the anastomotic stricture. The surgical specimen exhibited barium granulomas not only in the subserosa of the entire specimen, but also in the submucosa and lamina propria localized in the anastomotic site. These findings suggest that barium was embedded in the submucosa and lamina propria with manipulation of the stapled anastomosis and that the barium trapped in the anastomotic site caused persistent inflammation, resulting in an anastomotic stricture.

  18. Electrooptic and piezoelectric measurements in photorefractive barium titanate and strontium barium niobate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ducharme, S.; Feinberg, J.; Neurgaonkar, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    The authors measured the low-frequency (''unclamped'') electrooptic and piezoelectric coefficients in undoped BaTiO/sub 3/ and Sr/sub x/Ba/sub 1-x/Nb/sub 2/O/sub 6/ (chi - 0.61) crystals using interferometric techniques. The contribution of the piezoelectric effect to the Pockels measurement is discussed. For an applied ac electric field in the range 0.1-200 V/cm, the electrooptic and piezoelectric effects are linear in the magnitude of of the applied field and independent of its frequency in the range of 10 Hz-100 kHz. The unclamped electrooptic coefficients of poled BaTiO/sub 3/ single crystals are r/sub 13/ = 19.5 +- 1 pm/V and r/sub 33/ = 97 +- 7 pm/V, and for strontium barium niobate are r/sub 13/ = 47 +- 5 pm/V and r/sub 33/ = 235 +- 21 pm/V, all measured at a wavelength of 514.5 nm and at T = 23 0 C. For the barium titanate samples the measured Pockels coefficient r/sub c/ identical to r/sub 33/ - (n/sub 1//n/sub 3/)/sup 3/r/sub 13/ = 79 +- 6 pm/V in good agreement with the value r/sub c/ = 76 +- 7 pm/V computed from the above values of r/sub 13/ and r/sub 33/, where n/sub 1/ and n/sub 3/ are the ordinary and extraordinary indexes of refraction, respectively. The measured piezoelectric coefficient is d/sub 23/ = +28.7 +- 2 pm/V for barium titanate, and is d/sub 23/ = +24.6 +- 2 pm/V for strontium barium niobate. They also measured the photoreflective coupling of two optical beams in the crystals, and they show that the dependence of the coupling strength on beam polarization is in fair agreement with the measured values of the Pockels coefficients

  19. Performing Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothe, Elsa Lenz; Berard, Marie-France

    2013-01-01

    Utilizing a/r/tographic methodology to interrogate interpretive acts in museums, multiple areas of inquiry are raised in this paper, including: which knowledge is assigned the greatest value when preparing a gallery talk; what lies outside of disciplinary knowledge; how invitations to participate invite and disinvite in the same gesture; and what…

  20. Barium low concentration determination in solutions using X rays energy spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, Joao Batista Santos; Pereira, Jose dos Santos Jorge

    1999-01-01

    This work was proposed to establish an analytical methodology for barium determination in samples from the Waste Supervision of CDTN. Barium is the focus here because it has the same chemical behaviour as radium. Therefore, barium can replace it as an inactive tracer in contention matrix studies. The methodology is made up of two phases; physical concentration and barium determination by an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer using an Am 241 photon excitation system. A very good set of results is found when Am 241 is used in fluorescing barium atoms. This fact, in addition to the physical concentration process, allows to detect up 12 ppb of elementary barium. (author)

  1. Prevalence of swallowing dysfunction screened in Swedish cohort of COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Lindh M

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Margareta Gonzalez Lindh,1,2 Monica Blom Johansson,1 Margareta Jennische,1 Hirsh Koyi2,3 1Department of Neuroscience, Speech and Language Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 2Centre for Research and Development (CFUG, Uppsala University, County Council of Gävleborg, Gävle, Sweden; 3Department of Respiratory Medicine, Gävle Hospital, Gävle, Sweden Background: COPD is a common problem associated with morbidity and mortality. COPD may also affect the dynamics and coordination of functions such as swallowing. A misdirected swallow may, in turn, result in the bolus entering the airway. A growing body of evidence suggests that a subgroup of people with COPD is prone to oropharyngeal dysphagia. The aim of this study was to evaluate swallowing dysfunction in patients with stable COPD and to determine the relation between signs and symptoms of swallowing dysfunction and lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second percent predicted.Methods: Fifty-one patients with COPD in a stable phase participated in a questionnaire survey, swallowing tests, and spirometry. A post-bronchodilator ratio of the forced expiratory volume in 1 second/best of forced vital capacity and vital capacity <0.7 was used to define COPD. Swallowing function was assessed by a questionnaire and two swallowing tests (water and cookie swallow tests.Results: Sixty-five percent of the patients reported subjective signs and symptoms of swallowing dysfunction in the questionnaire and 49% showed measurable ones in the swallowing tests. For the combined subjective and objective findings, 78% had a coexisting swallowing dysfunction. No significant difference was found between male and female patients.Conclusion: Swallowing function is affected in COPD patients with moderate to severe airflow limitation, and the signs and symptoms of this swallowing dysfunction were subjective, objective, or both. Keywords: deglutition, deglutition disorders, swallowing, COPD, speech

  2. The efficacy of steroids for postoperative persistent inflammatory reaction in a patient with barium peritonitis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Kojima

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Residual barium in the intraperitoneal cavity causes persistent inflammatory reaction in patients with barium peritonitis. The use of steroids is effective for postoperative persistent inflammation due to the residual barium.

  3. High H⁻ ionic conductivity in barium hydride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbraeken, Maarten C; Cheung, Chaksum; Suard, Emmanuelle; Irvine, John T S

    2015-01-01

    With hydrogen being seen as a key renewable energy vector, the search for materials exhibiting fast hydrogen transport becomes ever more important. Not only do hydrogen storage materials require high mobility of hydrogen in the solid state, but the efficiency of electrochemical devices is also largely determined by fast ionic transport. Although the heavy alkaline-earth hydrides are of limited interest for their hydrogen storage potential, owing to low gravimetric densities, their ionic nature may prove useful in new electrochemical applications, especially as an ionically conducting electrolyte material. Here we show that barium hydride shows fast pure ionic transport of hydride ions (H(-)) in the high-temperature, high-symmetry phase. Although some conductivity studies have been reported on related materials previously, the nature of the charge carriers has not been determined. BaH2 gives rise to hydride ion conductivity of 0.2 S cm(-1) at 630 °C. This is an order of magnitude larger than that of state-of-the-art proton-conducting perovskites or oxide ion conductors at this temperature. These results suggest that the alkaline-earth hydrides form an important new family of materials, with potential use in a number of applications, such as separation membranes, electrochemical reactors and so on.

  4. Barium enema in frail elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, R; Khahil, A; Leibovitz, A; Gil, I; Annuar, M; Habot, B

    2000-01-01

    Barium enema (BE) examinations for the investigation of suspected colonic disease are often unsuccessful in elderly patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the success rate of BE in hospitalized frail elderly patients. Four hundred and seventy-two elderly patients hospitalized for different reasons underwent BE examinations. The medical charts and radiological reports were retrospectively reviewed. One hundred and ninety-two (41%) BE examinations were considered inadequate; mostly (32%) because of inappropriate preparation. Sixty-seven patients (14%) were not cooperative and could not retain the contrast material, and in 25 patients (5%), the examination failed due to both these reasons. The characteristics associated with unsuccessful BE examination were the mean number of medical problems (p < 0.001), the mean number of scheduled medications (p < 0.05) and in particular the long-term use of laxatives (p < 0.01) or antiparkinsonian drugs (p < 0.01). Of great significance in predicting an inadequate BE were the patient's functional status (p < 0.001) and the presence of dementia (p < 0.001). The high percentage of unsuccessful BEs in the frail elderly suggests that clinicians should carefully consider the need for that examination in these patients. We suggest that only in patients where there is a clear suspicion of a bleeding or obstructing tumor should a BE examination be performed, and even in these cases, colonoscopy or CT may be preferable as the initial examination in the frail elderly. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  5. Optical properties of calcium barium niobate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heine, Urs; Betzler, Klaus [Department of Physics, University of Osnabrueck (Germany); Burianek, Manfred; Muehlberg, Manfred [Institute of Crystallography, University of Cologne (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    We report on optical measurements on the novel tungsten bronze type calcium barium niobate. [001]-oriented transparent and colorless single crystals were grown by the Czochralski method with dimensions of 12 mm in diameter and about 80 mm in length. With its relatively high Curie temperature of about 538 K for the congruently melting composition of 28.1 mole% calcium and its high nonlinear coefficients, CBN is a promising material for future applications. Recent experiments revealed, that the application of an external electric field of several kV/cm to CBN at room temperature leads to an increasing opacity of the sample. This might be a drawback considering the future usability of CBN in optical systems. We present investigations on the transmittance behaviour of CBN under external electric fields, demonstrating the erasement of the clouding without affecting the polarization. Experiments have been performed at temperatures ranging from room temperature to approximately 480 K. When heating up the sample, its colorless appearance changes to a light yellow, which can be attributed to a shift of the band edge to longer wavelengths with increasing temperature. To further investigate the transmittance properties of CBN, measurements of the band edge under various temperatures up to the ferroelectric phase transition have been performed.

  6. Effectiveness of therapeutic barium enema for diverticular hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Mizue; Inamori, Masahiko; Nakajima, Atsushi; Komiya, Yasuhiko; Inoh, Yumi; Kawasima, Keigo; Naitoh, Mai; Fujita, Yuji; Eduka, Akiko; Kanazawa, Noriyoshi; Uchiyama, Shiori; Tani, Rie; Kawana, Kennichi; Ohtani, Setsuya; Nagase, Hajime

    2015-05-14

    To evaluate the effectiveness of barium impaction therapy for patients with colonic diverticular bleeding. We reviewed the clinical charts of patients in whom therapeutic barium enema was performed for the control of diverticular bleeding between August 2010 and March 2012 at Yokohama Rosai Hospital. Twenty patients were included in the review, consisting of 14 men and 6 women. The median age of the patients was 73.5 years. The duration of the follow-up period ranged from 1 to 19 mo (median: 9.8 mo). Among the 20 patients were 11 patients who required the procedure for re-bleeding during hospitalization, 6 patients who required it for re-bleeding that developed after the patient left the hospital, and 3 patients who required the procedure for the prevention of re-bleeding. Barium (concentration: 150 w%/v%) was administered per the rectum, and the leading edge of the contrast medium was followed up to the cecum by fluoroscopy. After confirmation that the ascending colon and cecum were filled with barium, the enema tube was withdrawn, and the patient's position was changed every 20 min for 3 h. Twelve patients remained free of re-bleeding during the follow-up period (range: 1-19 mo) after the therapeutic barium enema, including 9 men and 3 women with a median age of 72.0 years. Re-bleeding occurred in 8 patients including 5 men and 3 women with a median age of 68.5 years: 4 developed early re-bleeding, defined as re-bleeding that occurs within one week after the procedure, and the remaining 4 developed late re-bleeding. The DFI (disease-free interval) decreased 0.4 for 12 mo. Only one patient developed a complication from therapeutic barium enema (colonic perforation). Therapeutic barium enema is effective for the control of diverticular hemorrhage in cases where the active bleeding site cannot be identified by colonoscopy.

  7. The diagnostic value of barium enema in acute appendicitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong Ga; Chung, Duck Soo; Kim, Ok Dong

    1986-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is the most common acute surgical condition of the abdomen. When the clinical presentation is atypical, barium enema has proven to be safe and useful in confirming the diagnosis and reducing the negative surgical exploration. However, the performance of barium enema in acute appendicitis has known contraindication primarily because of fear of leakage by perforation of the inflamed appendix. This study using barium enema as a diagnostic aid in acute appendicitis with atypical clinical presentation was performed to further support the previously noted efficacy and safety of this procedure. The results were as followings: 1. In case of acute appendicitis with atypical clinical presentation, the use of barium enema as a diagnostic aid increased the accuracy of diagnosis and decreased the negative surgical exploration. In women between 11 to 50 years old age, especially, it played important role differentiating appendicitis from nonsurgical acute abdomen. 2. The results of the study were 92.31% in sensitivity, 7.69% in false positive, 6.9% in false negative, and 10.26% in negative appendectomy. 3. None of case of leakage of barium by perforation of the inflamed appendix was noted, therefore, barium enema was thought to be safe as a diagnostic aid in acute appendicitis. 4. A simple partial or non filling of appendix without other associated positive finding could not exclude appendicitis, therefore, close clinical observation was necessary. 5. The positive findings of barium enema and their sensitivity were as followings: 1. Non filling of appendix: 90% 2. Partial filling of appendix: 91.7% 3. Displacement or a local impression on terminal ileum: 100%

  8. Interpreting conjunctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bott, Lewis; Frisson, Steven; Murphy, Gregory L

    2009-04-01

    The interpretation generated from a sentence of the form P and Q can often be different to that generated by Q and P, despite the fact that and has a symmetric truth-conditional meaning. We experimentally investigated to what extent this difference in meaning is due to the connective and and to what extent it is due to order of mention of the events in the sentence. In three experiments, we collected interpretations of sentences in which we varied the presence of the conjunction, the order of mention of the events, and the type of relation holding between the events (temporally vs. causally related events). The results indicated that the effect of using a conjunction was dependent on the discourse relation between the events. Our findings contradict a narrative marker theory of and, but provide partial support for a single-unit theory derived from Carston (2002). The results are discussed in terms of conjunction processing and implicatures of temporal order.

  9. Freeze cast porous barium titanate for enhanced piezoelectric energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscow, J. I.; Zhang, Y.; Kraśny, M. J.; Lewis, R. W. C.; Taylor, J.; Bowen, C. R.

    2018-06-01

    Energy harvesting is an important developing technology for a new generation of self-powered sensor networks. This paper demonstrates the significant improvement in the piezoelectric energy harvesting performance of barium titanate by forming highly aligned porosity using freeze casting. Firstly, a finite element model demonstrating the effect of pore morphology and angle with respect to poling field on the poling behaviour of porous ferroelectrics was developed. A second model was then developed to understand the influence of microstructure-property relationships on the poling behaviour of porous freeze cast ferroelectric materials and their resultant piezoelectric and energy harvesting properties. To compare with model predictions, porous barium titanate was fabricated using freeze casting to form highly aligned microstructures with excellent longitudinal piezoelectric strain coefficients, d 33. The freeze cast barium titanate with 45 vol.% porosity had a d 33  =  134.5 pC N‑1 compared to d 33  =  144.5 pC N‑1 for dense barium titanate. The d 33 coefficients of the freeze cast materials were also higher than materials with uniformly distributed spherical porosity due to improved poling of the aligned microstructures, as predicted by the models. Both model and experimental data indicated that introducing porosity provides a large reduction in the permittivity () of barium titanate, which leads to a substantial increase in energy harvesting figure of merit, , with a maximum of 3.79 pm2 N‑1 for barium titanate with 45 vol.% porosity, compared to only 1.40 pm2 N‑1 for dense barium titanate. Dense and porous barium titanate materials were then used to harvest energy from a mechanical excitation by rectification and storage of the piezoelectric charge on a capacitor. The porous barium titanate charged the capacitor to a voltage of 234 mV compared to 96 mV for the dense material, indicating a 2.4-fold increase that was similar to that

  10. Interpretive Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the

  11. Swallowing endoscopy findings in Huntington's disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Thaís Coelho; Cola, Paula Cristina; Santos, Rarissa Rúbia Dallaqua Dos; Motonaga, Suely Mayumi; Silva, Roberta Gonçalves da

    2016-01-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is a degenerative genetic disorder with autosomal-dominant transmission. The triad of symptoms of this disease consists of psychiatric disorders, jerky movements, and dementia. Oropharyngeal dysphagia, which is more evident with disease progression, is also present. Few studies have addressed the swallowing characteristics using objective analysis in this population. The purpose of this research was to describe the swallowing endoscopic findings of the pharyngeal phase in HD. This is a cross-sectional study addressing a clinical case which included two individuals of the same family, male, 32 and 63 years old, designated as individual A and individual B, with progression of the disease for five and 13 years, respectively. Consistent liquid, nectar, and puree were offered during the evaluation. There was presence of posterior oral spillage in liquid and nectar, small amount of pharyngeal residues, and no laryngeal penetration or aspiration in the individuals with HD in this study.

  12. "Music & Memory" and improved swallowing in advanced dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Dan; Post, Stephen G; Lo, Angela; Lombardo, Robin; Pfeffer, Brandon

    2018-01-01

    Background Dysphagia and difficulty with eating affects a significant portion of individuals with advanced dementia. Such problems with oral intake can have serious health consequences including mealtime distress, dehydration and malnutrition, aspiration, reduced quality of life, and increased mortality risk. Design We present the first data indicating that "Music & Memory" interventions improve swallowing in individuals with advanced dementia, thereby making oral feeding easier and potentially diminishing reliance on PEG. Setting Columbia Health Care Center, Wyocena, WI (with Music&Memory.org, Mineola, NY and Stony Brook University). Participants Residents with advanced dementia (N = 5). Observation by eight professional caregivers. Results (1) Enhanced swallowing mechanism with Music & Memory prior to dining; (2) decreased incidents of choking during mealtime; (3) improved nutritional status; (4) reduced weight loss; (5) reduced need for speech interventions; (6) enhanced quality of life. Conclusions The preliminary results call for additional research.

  13. Speech and swallowing outcomes in buccal mucosa carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunila John

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Buccal carcinoma is one of the most common malignant neoplasms among all oral cancers in India. Understanding the role of speech language pathologists (SLPs in the domains of evaluation and management strategies of this condition is limited, especially in the Indian context. This is a case report of a young adult with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa with no deleterious habits usually associated with buccal mucosa carcinoma. Following composite resection, pectoralis major myocutaneous flap reconstruction, he developed severe oral dysphagia and demonstrated unintelligible speech. This case report focuses on the issues of swallowing and speech deficits in buccal mucosa carcinoma that need to be addressed by SLPs, and the outcomes of speech and swallowing rehabilitation and prognostic issues.

  14. Innate immune response development in nestling tree swallows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambaugh, T.; Houdek, B.J.; Lombardo, M.P.; Thorpe, P.A.; Caldwell, Hahn D.

    2011-01-01

    We tracked the development of innate immunity in nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and compared it to that of adults using blood drawn from nestlings during days 6, 12, and 18 of the ???20-day nestling period and from adults. Innate immunity was characterized using an in vitro assay of the ability of whole blood to kill Escherichia coli. The ability of whole blood to kill E. coli increased as nestlings matured. Neither this component of innate immunity nor right wing chord length on day18 were as developed as in adults indicating that development of the innate immune system and growth both continued after fledging. Narrow sense heritability analyses suggest that females with strong immune responses produced nestlings with strong immune responses. These data suggest nestling Tree Swallows allocated sufficient energy to support rapid growth to enable fledging by day 18, but that further development of innate immunity occurred post-fledging. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  15. Automated acoustic analysis in detection of spontaneous swallows in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golabbakhsh, Marzieh; Rajaei, Ali; Derakhshan, Mahmoud; Sadri, Saeed; Taheri, Masoud; Adibi, Peyman

    2014-10-01

    Acoustic monitoring of swallow frequency has become important as the frequency of spontaneous swallowing can be an index for dysphagia and related complications. In addition, it can be employed as an objective quantification of ingestive behavior. Commonly, swallowing complications are manually detected using videofluoroscopy recordings, which require expensive equipment and exposure to radiation. In this study, a noninvasive automated technique is proposed that uses breath and swallowing recordings obtained via a microphone located over the laryngopharynx. Nonlinear diffusion filters were used in which a scale-space decomposition of recorded sound at different levels extract swallows from breath sounds and artifacts. This technique was compared to manual detection of swallows using acoustic signals on a sample of 34 subjects with Parkinson's disease. A speech language pathologist identified five subjects who showed aspiration during the videofluoroscopic swallowing study. The proposed automated method identified swallows with a sensitivity of 86.67 %, a specificity of 77.50 %, and an accuracy of 82.35 %. These results indicate the validity of automated acoustic recognition of swallowing as a fast and efficient approach to objectively estimate spontaneous swallow frequency.

  16. Assessment of the swallowing function in older individuals referred to myocardial revascularization surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Mara de Oliveira Rodrigues Luiz; Auler, José Otávio Costa; Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim de

    2010-01-01

    Swallowing evaluation of older individuals with coronary disease referred to heart surgery. To identify the characteristics of the swallowing function in older individuals referred to myocardial revascularization surgery (MR), using an evaluating protocol composed by a water test, cervical auscultation and pulse oximetry. The Assessment Protocol for Dysphagia Risk through a Combined Swallowing test and Vital Signs monitoring was used (PADTC)--measurements of HR and SpO2 (heart rate and oxygen saturation), water swallowing test with 1, 3, 5, 10, 15 e 20 ml, measurement of respiratory rate and cervical auscultation. The electronic stethoscope was used to analyze the number of swallows, response time and swallowing sound classification. In the Research Group (RG) older individuals with heart disease who were referred to MR were included. In the Control Group (CG) healthy older individuals were included. 38 older individuals were evaluated in the RG (mean age 68 years). In the CG, 30 older individuals were evaluated (mean age 70 years). There was a significant difference for the swallowing response time in older individuals with heart disease who presented HR below 60: swallowing response was shorter for 3 ml, 10 ml, 15 ml e 20 ml. HR was lower for individuals with heart disease. No significant difference was found between the groups for the other analyzed parameters. Older individuals with heart disease presented differences in the swallowing function when compared to healthy older individuals. Older individuals with heart disease presented alterations in the temporal coordination between breathing and swallowing, thus indicating risk for dysphagia.

  17. Volitional chewing with a conscious effort alters and facilitates swallowing during feeding sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, J; Hara, A; Nomura, T; Kondo, H

    2014-03-01

    The key objective of mastication is to form a food bolus suitable for smooth swallowing. However, chewing is usually performed without a conscious effort. Poor bolus formation can cause pharyngeal residue and suffocation in elderly individuals with reduced swallowing function. Therefore, chewing with a conscious effort may help the bolus to more easily pass the pharynx. This study aimed to clarify the impact of mastication with a conscious effort on the feeding sequence. Subjects included 25 dentulous volunteers who were informed and provided written consent. Lateral videofluoroscopy was performed during the feeding of solid agar jelly under two conditions: chewing naturally in their usual manner (without volition) and chewing with a conscious effort (with volition). Temporal evaluation was performed for mastication, stage II transport (STII), swallow onset and oropharyngeal transit time. Moreover, bolus volume at swallow onset and subjective evaluation of swallowing easiness were measured. Volitional chewing with a conscious effort lengthened the duration of the chewing sequence before and after STII and delayed the swallow onset despite the fact that the bolus volume in the vallecula and hypopharynx (HYP) had significantly increased. Furthermore, with volition, the bolus transit time from swallow onset in the oral cavity, upper oropharynx and HYP was reduced, and subjective evaluation of swallowing easiness demonstrated significant improvement. These results suggest that volitional chewing with a conscious effort can alter bolus transport and swallowing, resulting in easier swallowing. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Fabry-Perot measurements of barium temperature in fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadrath, S; Garner, R

    2010-01-01

    A scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) is used to determine the temperature of barium atoms that are liberated from the electrodes of fluorescent lamps during their steady-state operation. Barium, a constituent of the work function lowering emitter material that is placed on the tungsten coil that forms the electrode, is liberated primarily by evaporation from the hot (∼1300 K) thermionic electrode. However, there may be situations or modes of operation in which barium is, in addition, sputtered, a condition which may lead to increased end-darkening, shortened life and increased mercury consumption in the lamp. Using the FPI diagnostic, the occurrence of sputtering is inferred when barium temperatures are much greater than the electrode temperature. The FPI diagnostic senses resonance radiation (λ = 553 nm) emitted by barium atoms excited in the low pressure discharge environment, and infers temperature from the Doppler broadened linewidth. The diagnostic has proven to be successful in a number of situations. Measurements have been made on rare gas discharges and on Hg-argon discharges for different discharge currents, gas pressures and auxiliary coil currents. Measurements are phase resolved for ac-driven discharges.

  19. Air (CO2) double-contrast barium enteroclysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maglinte, Dean D T; Kohli, Marc D; Romano, Stefania; Lappas, John C

    2009-09-01

    In the 1980s and 1990s in North America and Europe, air (CO(2)) double-contrast barium enteroclysis took a back seat to biphasic methylcellulose double-contrast enteroclysis in the investigation of small-bowel diseases. The widespread application of capsule endoscopy in the 21st century has identified a number of limitations of radiologic examinations in the investigation of mucosal diseases of the small intestine. Evidence-based studies comparing barium, computed tomographic (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) enteroclysis have shown that in spite of improvements in small-bowel examination methods using CT and MR, barium examinations remain superior in the depiction of mucosal abnormalities, particularly the apthoid lesions of early Crohn disease. Barium small-bowel examinations have been recommended in the patient with a negative CT or MR enteroclysis study where the pretest probability of Crohn disease is high. A recent prospective comparison of methylcellulose double-contrast barium enteroclysis to capsule endoscopy with review of the literature has shown that air enteroclysis depicts mucosal details better than does methylcellulose double-contrast enteroclysis because of the "washout" effect of methylcellulose on superficial mucosal features. Recent articles have shown that air enteroclysis compares favorably with wireless capsule endoscopy and double-balloon endoscopy in the diagnosis of mucosal abnormalities of the small bowel. This article describes the authors' technique of performing air double-contrast enteroclysis, its clinical indications, and its pitfalls.

  20. Creating unstable velocity-space distributions with barium injections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pongratz, M.B.

    1983-01-01

    Large Debye lengths relative to detector dimensions and the absence of confining walls makes space an attractive laboratory for studying fundamental theories of plasma instabilities. However, natural space plasmas are rarely found displaced from equilibrium enough to permit isolation and diagnosis of the controlling parameters and driving conditions. Furthermore, any plasma or field response to the departure from equilibrium can be masked by noise in the natural system. Active experiments provide a technique for addressing the chicken or egg dilemma. Early thermite barium releases were generally conducted at low altitudes from sounding rockets to trace electric fields passively or to study configuration-space instabilities. One can also study velocity-space instabilities with barium releases. Neutral barium vapor releases wherein a typical speed greatly exceeds the thermal speed can be used to produce barium ion velocity-space distributions that should be subject to a number of microinstabilities. We examine the ion velocity-space distributions resulting from barium injections from orbiting spacecraft and shaped-charges

  1. Difficult to swallow: patient preferences for alternative valproate pharmaceutical formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monali Bhosle

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Monali Bhosle,1 Joshua S Benner,1 Mitch DeKoven,1 Jeff Shelton21Health Economics and Outcomes Research, IMS Health Inc, Falls Church, VA, USA; 2Answers and Insights Market Research, Inc, Indianapolis, IN, USAObjective: To determine the degree to which swallowing valproate (VP tablets is an issue, the proportion of patients who would prefer an alternative formulation, and the predictors of preference.Methods: A quantitative telephone survey of eligible adults (n = 400, ≥18 years old who currently take (n = 236 or previously took (n = 164 VP tablets within the past 6 months was conducted.Results: More than half of the patients indicated that VP tablets were ‘uncomfortable to swallow’ (68.5%, n = 274 and were ‘very interested’ (65.8%, n = 263 in medications that were easier to swallow. When choosing conceptually between taking VP tablet once/day or an equally safe and effective but significantly smaller soft gel capsule twice per day, the 82.8%, (n = 331 preferred the soft gel capsule. In the multivariate regression analysis, perceiving soft gel capsules to be easier to swallow (OR = 73.54; 95% CI = 15.01 to 360.40 and taking VP more frequently (OR = 2.02; 95% CI = 1.13 to 3.61 were significant predictors of soft gel capsule treatment preference.Conclusion: VP users would prefer a formulation that is easier to swallow, even if it is needed to be taken twice per day. When choosing between medications with similar efficacy and safety, physicians can consider patient preferences to optimize conditions for medication adherence.Keywords: patient preference, valproate formulations, tablet characteristics

  2. Time budget of South African cliff swallows during breeding

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of time by the South African cliff swallow was determined and use of energy calculated by using equations for predicting standard metabolic rate and the cost of flight. The highest daily energy expenditur.e was during the feeding of nestlings when 9,22 h were spent foraging. The cost of 127 kJ for building a nest is ...

  3. The feasibility of magnetic resonance imaging of the dynamic swallowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jingquan; Gao Mingyong; Luo Suling; Lu Ruiliang; He Xiaohong

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To offer some visual and valuable clinical bases for the pharynx disease diagnosis and treatment by comparing the influence of different scanning sequences on the image quality and scanning time, and studying the application to the dynamic swallowing MRI scanning. Methods: The dynamic swallowing scanning of pharyngeal was performed on 20 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients without deglutition disorders through GE 3.0 MRI system with fast imaging employing steady state acquisition (FIESTA) and fast gradient recalled echo (Fast GRE) sequences, and combined with the array spatial sensitivity encoding technique (ASSET), which accelerating factors was 2.0 ph, and sixty dynamic images were acquired sequentially. The image quality was graded into three classes:excellent, favorable and poor,which were visually assessed by three senior MRI physician using double-blinded method. The quantitative data were analyzed statistically with the SPSS13.0 software. Results: Under the same parameters,the scanning time with FIESTA, FIESTA+ASSET, Fast GRE and Fast GREA+ASSET sequences were 54 s, 28 s, 49 s and 25 s respectively. The number of excellent images with the four sequences were 44, 52, 52 and 56 respectively. The scanning time was the shortest and the image quality was the best with Fast GRE+ASSET sequence. Conclusions: The dynamic imaging of swallowing in sagittal view was achieved with Fast GRE+ASSET sequence on GE 3.0T MRI system. It could present status of the pharynx well, and the soft tissue of swallowing was showed clearly in the dynamic images. These will provide visual and effective evidence for clinical diagnosis and treatment. (authors)

  4. A Mathematical Model for Swallowing of Concentrated Fluids in Oesophagus

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, S. K.; Tripathi, Dharmendra

    2011-01-01

    This model investigates particularly the impact of an integral and a non-integral number of waves on the swallowing of food stuff such as jelly, tomato puree, soup, concentrated fruits juices and honey transported peristaltically through the oesophagus. The fluid is considered as a Casson fluid. Emphasis is on the study of the dependence of local pressure distribution on space and time. Mechanical efficiency, reflux limit and trapping are also discussed. The effect of Casson fluid vis-à-vis N...

  5. Characterisation of lead barium zirconate thin films for utilisation of the electrocaloric effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, C.P., E-mail: c.p.shaw@cranfield.ac.uk [Surface Engineering and Nanotechnology Institute, Manufacturing and Materials Department, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Zhang, Qi, E-mail: q.zhang@cranfield.ac.uk [Surface Engineering and Nanotechnology Institute, Manufacturing and Materials Department, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL (United Kingdom); Correia, T.M., E-mail: Tatiana.correia@ktn-uk.org [Knowledge Transfer Network (United Kingdom); Weaver, P.M., E-mail: paul.weaver@innotecuk.com [InotekUK (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-01

    Characterisation of a composition of Lead Barium Zirconate thin films deposited by a spin coating sol-gel process onto platinised silicon substrates has been undertaken to investigate a potential application utilising the reported electrocaloric properties of the material. Xray diffraction studies revealed that above 700 °C the presence of pyrochlore phase was replaced by ferroelectric phase but the identification of antiferroelectric phases previously reported could not be identified. Wet etching of the films produced an insoluble residue containing only evidence of zirconium out of the original three metals, which resembled a skeletal structure similar to the original rosette morphology of the annealed films. Elemental analysis of the annealed films using EDX indicated a non-target Pb:Ba:Zr ratio, which suggested a reduced Zr content of the films. “Solution-like” rather than “sol-like” nature of the spin coated sol and phase boundary proximity are proposed for reported observations, and a mechanism is proposed to account for the unusual observed trend in dielectric constant. - Highlights: • Characterisation of sol-gel deposited Lead barium zirconnate films. • Absence of previously reported antiferroelectric phase. • Identification of proposed non-PBZ phase. • Anomalous increase in film capacitance with thickness interpreted.

  6. Barium Depletion in the NSTAR Discharge Cathode After 30,000 Hours of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, James E.; Capece, Angela M.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira

    2010-01-01

    Dispenser hollow cathodes rely on a consumable supply of barium released by impregnant materials in the pores of a tungsten matrix to maintain a low work function surface. Examinations of cathode inserts from long duration ion engine tests show deposits of tungsten at the downstream end that appear to block the flow of barium from the interior. In addition, a numerical model of barium transport in the insert plasma indicates that the barium partial pressure in the insert may exceed the equilibrium vapor pressure of the dominant barium-producing reaction, and it was postulated previously that this would suppress barium loss in the upstream part of the insert. New measurements of the depth of barium depletion from a cathode insert operated for 30,352 hours reveal that barium loss is confined to a narrow region near the downstream end, confirming this hypothesis.

  7. Controlling Barium Sulphate Scale Deposition Problems in an unbleached Kraft Paper Mill

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sithole, Bruce

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Troubleshooting of scale deposits and defects in paper samples showed that the problem was caused by barium sulphate and calcium sulphate scales. However, it was ascertained that barium sulphate was more of a concern than calcium sulphate...

  8. Cine-MRI swallowing evaluation after tongue reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartl, Dana M. [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Institute Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France)], E-mail: dmhartl@aol.com; Kolb, Frederic; Bretagne, Evelyne [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Institute Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France); Bidault, Francois; Sigal, Robert [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France)

    2010-01-15

    Objective: To determine the feasibility of cine-MRI for non-invasive swallowing evaluation after surgery for lingual carcinoma with reconstruction using microvascular free flaps. Methods: Ten patients with stage IV carcinoma of the mobile tongue and/or tongue base treated by surgical resection and reconstruction with a free flap were evaluated after an average of 4.3 years (range: 1.5-11 years), using cine-MRI in 'single-shot fast spin echo' (SSFSE) mode. Fiberoptic laryngoscopy of swallowing was performed before MRI to detect aspiration. The tolerance and ability to complete the exam were noted. The mobilities of the oral and pharyngeal structures visualized were evaluated as normal, reduced or increased. Results: Cine-MRI was well tolerated in all cases; 'dry' swallow was performed for the 2 patients with clinical aspiration. Tongue base-pharyngeal wall contact was observed in 5 cases. An increased anterior tongue recoil, increased mandibular recoil, increased posterior oropharyngeal wall advancement and an increased laryngeal elevation were observed in 4 cases. One case of a passive 'slide' mechanism was observed. Conclusions: Cine-MRI is a safe, non-invasive technique for the evaluation of the mobility of oral and oropharyngeal structures after free-flap reconstruction of the tongue. For selected cases, it may be complementary to clinical examination for evaluation of dysphagia after surgery and free-flap reconstruction. Further technical advances will be necessary before cine-MRI can replace videofluoroscopy, however.

  9. Cine-MRI swallowing evaluation after tongue reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartl, Dana M.; Kolb, Frederic; Bretagne, Evelyne; Bidault, Francois; Sigal, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To determine the feasibility of cine-MRI for non-invasive swallowing evaluation after surgery for lingual carcinoma with reconstruction using microvascular free flaps. Methods: Ten patients with stage IV carcinoma of the mobile tongue and/or tongue base treated by surgical resection and reconstruction with a free flap were evaluated after an average of 4.3 years (range: 1.5-11 years), using cine-MRI in 'single-shot fast spin echo' (SSFSE) mode. Fiberoptic laryngoscopy of swallowing was performed before MRI to detect aspiration. The tolerance and ability to complete the exam were noted. The mobilities of the oral and pharyngeal structures visualized were evaluated as normal, reduced or increased. Results: Cine-MRI was well tolerated in all cases; 'dry' swallow was performed for the 2 patients with clinical aspiration. Tongue base-pharyngeal wall contact was observed in 5 cases. An increased anterior tongue recoil, increased mandibular recoil, increased posterior oropharyngeal wall advancement and an increased laryngeal elevation were observed in 4 cases. One case of a passive 'slide' mechanism was observed. Conclusions: Cine-MRI is a safe, non-invasive technique for the evaluation of the mobility of oral and oropharyngeal structures after free-flap reconstruction of the tongue. For selected cases, it may be complementary to clinical examination for evaluation of dysphagia after surgery and free-flap reconstruction. Further technical advances will be necessary before cine-MRI can replace videofluoroscopy, however.

  10. Effect of age on proximal esophageal response to swallowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Oliveira Dantas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: It has been demonstrated that the ageing process affects esophageal motility. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of the age on the proximal esophageal response to wet swallows. METHOD: We measured the proximal esophageal response to swallows of a 5 mL bolus of water in 69 healthy volunteers, 20 of them aged 18-30 years (group I, 27 aged 31-50 years (group II, and 22 aged 51-74 years (group III. We used the manometric method with continuous perfusion. The proximal esophageal contractions were recorded 5 cm from a pharyngeal recording site located 1 cm above the upper esophageal sphincter. The time between the onset of the pharyngeal and of the proximal esophageal recording (pharyngeal-esophageal time and the amplitude, duration and area under the curve of the proximal esophageal contraction were measured. RESULTS: The pharyngeal-esophageal time was shorter in group I subjects than in group II and III subjects (P<0.05. The duration of proximal esophageal contractions was longer in group I than in groups II and III (P<0.001. There was no differences between groups in the amplitude or area under the curve of contractions. There were no differences between groups II and III for any of the measurements. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the age may affects the response of the proximal esophagus to wet swallows.

  11. Evaluation of Chewing and Swallowing Sensors for Monitoring Ingestive Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Juan M; Sazonov, Edward S

    2013-03-01

    Monitoring Ingestive Behavior (MIB) of individuals is of special importance to identify and treat eating patterns associated with obesity and eating disorders. Current methods for MIB require subjects reporting every meal consumed, which is burdensome and tend to increase the reporting bias over time. This study presents an evaluation of the burden imposed by two wearable sensors for MIB during unrestricted food intake: a strain sensor to detect chewing events and a throat microphone to detect swallowing sounds. A total of 30 healthy subjects with various levels of adiposity participated in experiments involving the consumption of four meals in four different visits. A questionnaire was handled to subjects at the end of the last visit to evaluate the sensors burden in terms of the comfort levels experienced. Results showed that sensors presented high comfort levels as subjects indicated that the way they ate their meal was not considerably affected by the presence of the sensors. A statistical analysis showed that chewing sensor presented significantly higher comfort levels than the swallowing sensor. The outcomes of this study confirmed the suitability of the chewing and swallowing sensors for MIB and highlighted important aspects of comfort that should be addressed to obtain acceptable and less burdensome wearable sensors for MIB.

  12. Selectivity in biomineralization of barium and strontium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krejci, Minna R; Wasserman, Brian; Finney, Lydia; McNulty, Ian; Legnini, Daniel; Vogt, Stefan; Joester, Derk

    2011-11-01

    The desmid green alga Closterium moniliferum belongs to a small number of organisms that form barite (BaSO(4)) or celestite (SrSO(4)) biominerals. The ability to sequester Sr in the presence of an excess of Ca is of considerable interest for the remediation of (90)Sr from the environment and nuclear waste. While most cells dynamically regulate the concentration of the second messenger Ca(2+) in the cytosol and various organelles, transport proteins rarely discriminate strongly between Ca, Sr, and Ba. Herein, we investigate how these ions are trafficked in C. moniliferum and how precipitation of (Ba,Sr)SO(4) crystals occurs in the terminal vacuoles. Towards this goal, we simultaneously visualize intracellular dynamics of multiple elements using X-ray fluorescence microscopy (XFM) of cryo-fixed/freeze-dried samples. We correlate the resulting elemental maps with ultrastructural information gleaned from freeze-fracture cryo-SEM of frozen-hydrated cells and use micro X-ray absorption near edge structure (micro-XANES) to determine sulfur speciation. We find that the kinetics of Sr uptake and efflux depend on external Ca concentrations, and Sr, Ba, and Ca show similar intracellular localization. A highly ion-selective cross-membrane transport step is not evident. Based on elevated levels of sulfate detected in the terminal vacuoles, we propose a "sulfate trap" model, where the presence of dissolved barium leads to preferential precipitation of (Ba,Sr)SO(4) due to its low solubility relative to SrSO(4) and CaSO(4). Engineering the sulfate concentration in the vacuole may thus be the most direct way to increase the Sr sequestered per cell, an important consideration in using desmids for phytoremediation of (90)Sr. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Occupational doses in pediatric barium meal procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filipov, D.; Schelin, H.R.; Denyak, V.; Legnani, A.; Ledesma, J.A.; Paschuk, S.A.; Sauzen, J.; Yagui, A.; Hoff, G.; Khoury, H.J.

    2015-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has become an indispensable tool when it comes to diagnosis and therapy. However, its use should happen in a rational manner, taking into account the risks to which the staff is being exposed. Barium meal (BM), or upper gastrointestinal (GI) studies, using fluoroscopy, are widely used for gastroesophageal reflux disease diagnostic in children and professionals are required to stay inside the examination room to position and immobilize pediatric patients during the procedure. Therefore, it is very important that proffessionals strictly follow the technical standards of radiation protection. According to the ICRP and the NCRP recommendations, the annual limit equivalent doses for eyes, thyroid and hands are, espectively, 20 mSv, 150 mSv and 500 mSv. Based on those data, the aim of the current study is to estimate the annual equivalent dose for eyes, thyroid and hands of professionals who perform BM procedures in children. This was done using properly package LiF:Mg,Cu,P thermoluminescent dosimeters in 37 procedures; 2 pairs were positioned near each staff´s eye, 2 pairs on each professional´s neck (on and under the lead protector) and 2 pairs on both staff´s hands. The range of the estimative annual equivalent doses, for eyes, thyroid and hands, are, respectively: 14 – 36 mSv, 7 – 22 mSv and 14 – 58 mSv. Only the closest staff to the patient exceeded the annual equivalent doses in the eyes (around 80% higher than the limit set by ICRP). However, the results from this study, for hands and thyroid, compared to similar studies, show higher values. Therefore, the optimization implementation is necessary, so that the radiation levels can be reduced. (authors)

  14. Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Lidka Rodak

    2011-01-01

    The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and ...

  15. Fabrication and properties of yttrium doped barium titanate film by RF sputtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, H.; Yuasa, M.; Okazaki, K.

    1985-01-01

    Semiconductive barium titanate films were fabricated by RF sputtering on fused quartz, alumina and barium titanate ceramic substrates using barium titanate ceramic with a small amount of yttria as a target. The films on the barium titanate substrates turned blue color and showed a small PTC effect by heat-treating at 1000 0 C in the air after deposition at the substrate temperature of 600 0 C

  16. TV observations of the Barium-GEOS ion jet experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hapgood, M.A.; Collin, H.L.; Rothwell, P.

    1980-01-01

    The barium jet released by the Barium-GEOS rocket was observed by low light television cameras at Skibotn, Norway and Esrange, Sweden. The release produced a single well-defined jet containing barium ions with initial velocities between 7 and 12 km s -1 systematically slower than the velocities reported in previous experiments. Accurate data on the motion of the jet has been obtained for the first two minutes after release (up to a height of 2000 km). The orientation of the jet was close to that of an IGRF1975 model field line but was significantly different from that predicted by the Barraclough and Olson field model. The motion of the jet across the field lines was southwards with a velocity of about 150 m s -1 . (Auth.)

  17. Barium-borate-flyash glasses: As radiation shielding materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Sukhpal; Kumar, Ashok; Singh, Devinder; Thind, Kulwant Singh; Mudahar, Gurmel S.

    2008-01-01

    The attenuation coefficients of barium-borate-flyash glasses have been measured for γ-ray photon energies of 356, 662, 1173 and 1332 keV using narrow beam transmission geometry. The photon beam was highly collimated and overall scatter acceptance angle was less than 3 o . Our results have an uncertainty of less than 3%. These coefficients were then used to obtain the values of mean free path (mfp), effective atomic number and electron density. Good agreements have been observed between experimental and theoretical values of these parameters. From the studies of the obtained results it is reported here that from the shielding point of view the barium-borate-flyash glasses are better shields to γ-radiations in comparison to the standard radiation shielding concretes and also to the ordinary barium-borate glasses

  18. Barium titanate thick films prepared by screen printing technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana M. Vijatović

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The barium titanate (BaTiO3 thick films were prepared by screen printing technique using powders obtained by soft chemical route, modified Pechini process. Three different barium titanate powders were prepared: i pure, ii doped with lanthanum and iii doped with antimony. Pastes for screen printing were prepared using previously obtained powders. The thick films were deposited onto Al2O3 substrates and fired at 850°C together with electrode material (silver/palladium in the moving belt furnace in the air atmosphere. Measurements of thickness and roughness of barium titanate thick films were performed. The electrical properties of thick films such as dielectric constant, dielectric losses, Curie temperature, hysteresis loop were reported. The influence of different factors on electrical properties values was analyzed.

  19. Diagnostic role of barium enema in carcinoma rectum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asghar, M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this barium enema study was to evaluate its role in patients suspected to have rectal pathologies with complaints of change in bowel habit, anorexia/weight loss, bleeding per rectum and acute/sub-acute colonic obstruction. Results: barium enema study as screening test for colo-rectal carcinoma was undertaken. Contrast outlined the colonic growth in 35 cases, out of which the cases of carcinoma colon were 24 including 13 patients suffering from carcinoma rectum. The percentage of carcinoma colon to total colonic growth was 68% while, carcinoma rectum to total carcinoma colon was 54%. Conclusion: On the basis of these investigations, it is concluded that patient's compliance is important factor in the early detection of colonic neoplasia. Though results of colonoscopy are more reliable but in practice, barium enema (double contrast) is performed initially to outline the lesion and then colonoscopy for biopsy purpose. (author)

  20. Gastrointestinal tract wall visualization and distention during abdominal and pelvic multidetector CT with a neutral barium sulphate suspension: comparison with positive barium sulphate suspension and with water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, M R; Erturk, S M; Ichikawa, T; Rocha, T; Ros, P R; Silverman, S G; Mortele, K J

    2012-01-01

    When examining patients with contrast-enhanced multidetector-row CT, we determined if the stomach and small bowel were visualized and distended better with a neutral barium sulphate suspension than with positive barium sulphate suspension or water. After obtaining approval from our institutional review board, 156 patients (women: 84; mean age: 54 yrs) with no history of gastrointestinal tract disease were randomized prospectively to receive orally either 900 ml of neutral (0.1% w/v) barium sulphate suspension (n = 53), 900 ml of positive (2.1% w/v) barium sulphate suspension (n = 53), or 900 ml of water (n = 50), prior to undergoing contrast-enhanced abdominal and pelvic multidetector-row CT. Two independent radiologists evaluated the stomach, and small bowel, for luminal distension and wall visualization, using a five point scale. Results were compared using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. The walls of the stomach, and small bowel were visualized better in patients who were administered neutral barium sulphate suspension than those who were administered either positive barium sulphate suspension (p barium sulphate suspension, the stomach and small bowel were distended better compared to patients administered water (p barium sulphate suspension (p contrast-enhanced abdominal and pelvic multidetector-row CT, orally administered neutral barium sulphate suspension allows the gastrointestinal tract to be visualized and distended better than either positive barium sulphate suspension, or water.

  1. 21 CFR 201.304 - Tannic acid and barium enema preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. 201.304... Tannic acid and barium enema preparations. (a) It has become a widespread practice for tannic acid to be added to barium enemas to improve X-ray pictures. Tannic acid is capable of causing diminished liver...

  2. 49 CFR 173.182 - Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Barium azide-50 percent or more water wet. 173.182 Section 173.182 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.182 Barium azide—50 percent or more water wet. Barium azide—50 percent or more...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10010 - Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). 721... Substances § 721.10010 Barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as barium manganese oxide (BaMnO3) (PMN P-00...

  4. The diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux disease cannot be made with barium esophagograms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saleh, C. M. G.; Smout, A. J. P. M.; Bredenoord, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    For over 50 years, barium studies have been used to diagnose gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), but the value of this test is controversial. Our study aimed to determine if barium esophagograms can be used to diagnose GERD. Barium esophagograms and pH-impedance measurement were performed in 20

  5. Swallowing sound detection using hidden markov modeling of recurrence plot features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aboofazeli, Mohammad; Moussavi, Zahra

    2009-01-01

    Automated detection of swallowing sounds in swallowing and breath sound recordings is of importance for monitoring purposes in which the recording durations are long. This paper presents a novel method for swallowing sound detection using hidden Markov modeling of recurrence plot features. Tracheal sound recordings of 15 healthy and nine dysphagic subjects were studied. The multidimensional state space trajectory of each signal was reconstructed using the Taken method of delays. The sequences of three recurrence plot features of the reconstructed trajectories (which have shown discriminating capability between swallowing and breath sounds) were modeled by three hidden Markov models. The Viterbi algorithm was used for swallowing sound detection. The results were validated manually by inspection of the simultaneously recorded airflow signal and spectrogram of the sounds, and also by auditory means. The experimental results suggested that the performance of the proposed method using hidden Markov modeling of recurrence plot features was superior to the previous swallowing sound detection methods.

  6. Swallowing sound detection using hidden markov modeling of recurrence plot features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aboofazeli, Mohammad [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 5V6 (Canada)], E-mail: umaboofa@cc.umanitoba.ca; Moussavi, Zahra [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 5V6 (Canada)], E-mail: mousavi@ee.umanitoba.ca

    2009-01-30

    Automated detection of swallowing sounds in swallowing and breath sound recordings is of importance for monitoring purposes in which the recording durations are long. This paper presents a novel method for swallowing sound detection using hidden Markov modeling of recurrence plot features. Tracheal sound recordings of 15 healthy and nine dysphagic subjects were studied. The multidimensional state space trajectory of each signal was reconstructed using the Taken method of delays. The sequences of three recurrence plot features of the reconstructed trajectories (which have shown discriminating capability between swallowing and breath sounds) were modeled by three hidden Markov models. The Viterbi algorithm was used for swallowing sound detection. The results were validated manually by inspection of the simultaneously recorded airflow signal and spectrogram of the sounds, and also by auditory means. The experimental results suggested that the performance of the proposed method using hidden Markov modeling of recurrence plot features was superior to the previous swallowing sound detection methods.

  7. Barium Tagging from nEXO Using Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twelker, K.; Kravitz, S.

    nEXO is a 5-ton liquid enriched-xenon time projection chamber (TPC) to search for neutrinoless double-beta decay, designed to have the sensitivity to completely probe the inverted mass hierarchy of Majorana neutrinos. The detector will accommodate-as a background reduction technique-a system to recover and identify the barium decay product. This upgrade will allow a background-free measurement of neutrinoless double-beta decay and increase the half-life sensitivity of the experiment by at least one order of magnitude. Ongoing research and development includes a system to test barium extraction from liquid xenon using surface adsorption and Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy (RIS).

  8. Electronic and chemical properties of barium and indium clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onwuagba, B.N.

    1992-11-01

    The ground state electronic and chemical properties of divalent barium and trivalent indium are investigated in a self-consistent manner using the spin-polarized local density approximation in the framework of Density Functional Theory. A jellium model is adopted in the spirit of Gunnarsson and Lundqvist exchange and correlation energies and the calculated properties primarily associated with the s-p orbitals in barium and p orbitals in indium provide deepened insight towards the understanding of the mechanisms to the magic numbers in both clusters. (author). 21 refs, 5 figs

  9. Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis characterized by barium esophagography: a case report

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Owen J

    2010-05-21

    Abstract Introduction Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis is a rare condition characterized by the dilatation of the submucosal glands. Case presentation We present a case of esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis in a 72-year-old Caucasian man who presented with dysphagia and with a background history of alcohol abuse. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy of our patient showed an esophageal stricture with abnormal mucosal appearances, but no malignant cells were seen at biopsy. Appearances on a barium esophagram were pathognomonic for esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis. Conclusion We demonstrate the enduring usefulness of barium esophagography in the characterization of abnormal mucosal appearances at endoscopy.

  10. Barium atoms and N20 molecular agregates reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visticot, J.P.; Mestdagh, J.M.; Alcaraz, C.; Cuvellier, J.; Berlande, J.

    1988-06-01

    The collisions between a barium atom and N20 molecular agregates are studied, for a better understanding of the solvation part in a chemical reaction. The experiments are carried out in a crossed molecular beam device. The light coming from the collision zone is scattered, and analysed by means of a photon detector. A time-of-flight technique is applied in the investigation of the beam's polymer concentration. The results show a nearly negligible chemiluminescent effect in the reaction between barium and N20 polymer. A solvated BaO formation mechanism is proposed to justify the experimental results [fr

  11. The Kerr nonlinearity of the beta-barium borate crystal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Guo, Hairun; Zhou, Binbin

    2013-01-01

    A popular crystal for ultrafast cascading experiments is beta-barium-borate (β-BaB2O4, BBO). It has a decent quadratic nonlinear coefficient, and because the crystal is anisotropie it can be birefringence phase-matched for type I (oo → e) second-harmonic generation (SHG). For femtosecond experime......A popular crystal for ultrafast cascading experiments is beta-barium-borate (β-BaB2O4, BBO). It has a decent quadratic nonlinear coefficient, and because the crystal is anisotropie it can be birefringence phase-matched for type I (oo → e) second-harmonic generation (SHG). For femtosecond...

  12. Preparation and characterization of antimony barium composite oxide photocatalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, X. P.; Yao, B. H.; Pan, Q. H.; Pen, C.; Zhang, C. L.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, two kinds of antimony barium composite oxide photocatalysts have been prepared by two methods and characterized by XRD and SEM. The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by a photocatalytic reactor and an ultraviolet spectrophotometer. The results showed that-BaSb2O5•4H2O, BaSb2O6 two kinds of antimony barium composite oxide photocatalysts were successfully prepared in this experiment and they showed good photocatalytic properties. In addition, BaSb2O6 morphology showed more regular, microstructure and better catalytic performance.

  13. Mammographic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabor, L.

    1987-01-01

    For mammography to be an effective diagnostic method, it must be performed to a very high standard of quality. Otherwise many lesions, in particular cancer in its early stages, will simply not be detectable on the films, regardless of the skill of the mammographer. Mammographic interpretation consists of two basic steps: perception and analysis. The process of mammographic interpretation begins with perception of the lesion on the mammogram. Perception is influenced by several factors. One of the most important is the parenchymal pattern of the breast tissue, detection of pathologic lesions being easier with fatty involution. The mammographer should use a method for the systematic viewing of the mammograms that will ensure that all parts of each mammogram are carefully searched for the presence of lesions. The method of analysis proceeds according to the type of lesion. The contour analysis of primary importance in the evaluation of circumscribed tumors. After having analyzed the contour and density of a lesion and considered its size, the mammographer should be fairly certain whether the circumscribed tumor is benign or malignant. Fine-needle puncture and/or US may assist the mammographer in making this decision. Painstaking analysis is required because many circumscribed tumors do not need to be biopsied. The perception of circumscribed tumors seldom causes problems, but their analysis needs careful attention. On the other hand, the major challenge with star-shaped lesions is perception. They may be difficult to discover when small. Although the final diagnosis of a stellate lesion can be made only with the help of histologic examination, the preoperative mammorgraphic differential diagnosis can be highly accurate. The differential diagnostic problem is between malignant tumors (scirrhous carcinoma), on the one hand, and traumatic fat necrosis as well as radial scars on the other hand

  14. Swallowing disorders in patients with blepharospasm Trastornos deglutorios en pacientes con blefaroespasmo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María G. Cersósimo

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Blepharospasm is a focal dystonia characterized by involuntary eye closure due to abnormal contraction of orbicular eyelid muscles. When blepharospasm is associated to the presence of involuntary oromandibular movements, it is termed Meige syndrome. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of deglutition alterations in patients with concurrent blepharospasm and Meige syndrome. Twenty consecutive patients were studied by video fluoroscopy using a barium technique. The 4 stages of deglutition were investigated. Ninety percent of patients (18 cases presented deglutition disorders. The more commonly found alterations were premature food drop, 15 cases (83% and vallecuale residuals, 14 cases (78%. Sixty seven percent of abnormal findings occurred in the third stage of deglutition. Eighty-nine percent of patients (16 presented more than one swallowing alteration. There was a positive and significant correlation between the number of alterations and patient's age or disease duration. Prevalence of swallowing disorders in the healthy elderly population is reported to be 44%. In our series it reached 90%, suggesting that our findings might be related not only with age but also with a more widespread dystonia exceeding the orofacial muscles.El blefaroespasmo es una distonía focal caracterizada por el cierre involuntario de los ojos debido a la contracción anormal de los músculos orbiculares de los párpados. Cuando el blefaroespasmo se asocia a la presencia de movimientos involuntarios oromandibulares se denomina síndrome de Meige. El objetivo de este estudio fue investigar la presencia de alteraciones deglutorias en pacientes con blefaroespasmo y síndrome de Meige. Se incluyeron 20 pacientes consecutivos que fueron estudiados mediante vídeo fluoroscopia con técnica de bario. Se investigaron las 4 etapas de la deglución. El 90% de los pacientes (18 casos presentó trastornos en la deglución. Las alteraciones más comúnmente halladas

  15. Spontaneous swallowing frequency has potential to identify dysphagia in acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crary, Michael A; Carnaby, Giselle D; Sia, Isaac; Khanna, Anna; Waters, Michael F

    2013-12-01

    Spontaneous swallowing frequency has been described as an index of dysphagia in various health conditions. This study evaluated the potential of spontaneous swallow frequency analysis as a screening protocol for dysphagia in acute stroke. In a cohort of 63 acute stroke cases, swallow frequency rates (swallows per minute [SPM]) were compared with stroke and swallow severity indices, age, time from stroke to assessment, and consciousness level. Mean differences in SPM were compared between patients with versus without clinically significant dysphagia. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to identify the optimal threshold in SPM, which was compared with a validated clinical dysphagia examination for identification of dysphagia cases. Time series analysis was used to identify the minimally adequate time period to complete spontaneous swallow frequency analysis. SPM correlated significantly with stroke and swallow severity indices but not with age, time from stroke onset, or consciousness level. Patients with dysphagia demonstrated significantly lower SPM rates. SPM differed by dysphagia severity. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis yielded a threshold of SPM≤0.40 that identified dysphagia (per the criterion referent) with 0.96 sensitivity, 0.68 specificity, and 0.96 negative predictive value. Time series analysis indicated that a 5- to 10-minute sampling window was sufficient to calculate spontaneous swallow frequency to identify dysphagia cases in acute stroke. Spontaneous swallowing frequency presents high potential to screen for dysphagia in acute stroke without the need for trained, available personnel.

  16. Spontaneous Swallowing Frequency [Has Potential to] Identify Dysphagia in Acute Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnaby, Giselle D; Sia, Isaac; Khanna, Anna; Waters, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Spontaneous swallowing frequency has been described as an index of dysphagia in various health conditions. This study evaluated the potential of spontaneous swallow frequency analysis as a screening protocol for dysphagia in acute stroke. Methods In a cohort of 63 acute stroke cases swallow frequency rates (swallows per minute: SPM) were compared to stroke and swallow severity indices, age, time from stroke to assessment, and consciousness level. Mean differences in SPM were compared between patients with vs. without clinically significant dysphagia. ROC analysis was used to identify the optimal threshold in SPM which was compared to a validated clinical dysphagia examination for identification of dysphagia cases. Time series analysis was employed to identify the minimally adequate time period to complete spontaneous swallow frequency analysis. Results SPM correlated significantly with stroke and swallow severity indices but not with age, time from stroke onset, or consciousness level. Patients with dysphagia demonstrated significantly lower SPM rates. SPM differed by dysphagia severity. ROC analysis yielded a threshold of SPM ≤ 0.40 which identified dysphagia (per the criterion referent) with 0.96 sensitivity, 0.68 specificity, and 0.96 negative predictive value. Time series analysis indicated that a 5 to 10 minute sampling window was sufficient to calculate spontaneous swallow frequency to identify dysphagia cases in acute stroke. Conclusions Spontaneous swallowing frequency presents high potential to screen for dysphagia in acute stroke without the need for trained, available personnel. PMID:24149008

  17. Aspiration and swallowing in Parkinson disease and rehabilitation with EMST: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troche, M S; Okun, M S; Rosenbek, J C; Musson, N; Fernandez, H H; Rodriguez, R; Romrell, J; Pitts, T; Wheeler-Hegland, K M; Sapienza, C M

    2010-11-23

    Dysphagia is the main cause of aspiration pneumonia and death in Parkinson disease (PD) with no established restorative behavioral treatment to date. Reduced swallow safety may be related to decreased elevation and excursion of the hyolaryngeal complex. Increased submental muscle force generation has been associated with expiratory muscle strength training (EMST) and subsequent increases in hyolaryngeal complex movement provide a strong rationale for its use as a dysphagia treatment. The current study's objective was to test the treatment outcome of a 4-week device-driven EMST program on swallow safety and define the physiologic mechanisms through measures of swallow timing and hyoid displacement. This was a randomized, blinded, sham-controlled EMST trial performed at an academic center. Sixty participants with PD completed EMST, 4 weeks, 5 days per week, for 20 minutes per day, using a calibrated or sham, handheld device. Measures of swallow function including judgments of swallow safety (penetration-aspiration [PA] scale scores), swallow timing, and hyoid movement were made from videofluoroscopic images. No pretreatment group differences existed. The active treatment (EMST) group demonstrated improved swallow safety compared to the sham group as evidenced by improved PA scores. The EMST group demonstrated improvement of hyolaryngeal function during swallowing, findings not evident for the sham group. EMST may be a restorative treatment for dysphagia in those with PD. The mechanism may be explained by improved hyolaryngeal complex movement. This intervention study provides Class I evidence that swallow safety as defined by PA score improved post EMST.

  18. The relationship between limit of Dysphagia and average volume per swallow in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belo, Luciana Rodrigues; Gomes, Nathália Angelina Costa; Coriolano, Maria das Graças Wanderley de Sales; de Souza, Elizabete Santos; Moura, Danielle Albuquerque Alves; Asano, Amdore Guescel; Lins, Otávio Gomes

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this study was to obtain the limit of dysphagia and the average volume per swallow in patients with mild to moderate Parkinson's disease (PD) but without swallowing complaints and in normal subjects, and to investigate the relationship between them. We hypothesize there is a direct relationship between these two measurements. The study included 10 patients with idiopathic PD and 10 age-matched normal controls. Surface electromyography was recorded over the suprahyoid muscle group. The limit of dysphagia was obtained by offering increasing volumes of water until piecemeal deglutition occurred. The average volume per swallow was calculated by dividing the time taken by the number of swallows used to drink 100 ml of water. The PD group showed a significantly lower dysphagia limit and lower average volume per swallow. There was a significantly moderate direct correlation and association between the two measurements. About half of the PD patients had an abnormally low dysphagia limit and average volume per swallow, although none had spontaneously related swallowing problems. Both measurements may be used as a quick objective screening test for the early identification of swallowing alterations that may lead to dysphagia in PD patients, but the determination of the average volume per swallow is much quicker and simpler.

  19. Computational Analysis of Pharyngeal Swallowing Mechanics in Patients with Motor Neuron Disease: A Pilot Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garand, K L; Schwertner, Ryan; Chen, Amy; Pearson, William G

    2018-04-01

    Swallowing impairment (dysphagia) is a common sequela in patients with motor neuron disease (MND). The purpose of this retrospective, observational pilot investigation was to characterize how pharyngeal swallowing mechanics are impacted in patients with MND using a comparison with healthy, non-dysphagic control group. Computational analysis of swallowing mechanics (CASM) was used to determine covariate biomechanics of pharyngeal swallowing from videofluoroscopic assessment in 15 patients with MND and 15 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Canonical variant analysis with post hoc discriminate function analysis (DFA) was performed on coordinate data mapping functional muscle groups underlying pharyngeal swallowing. Differences in swallowing mechanics associated with group (MND; control), motor neuron predominance (upper; lower), onset (bulbar; spinal), and swallow task (thin, pudding) were evaluated and visualized. Pharyngeal swallowing mechanics differed significantly in patients with MND compared with healthy controls (D = 2.01, p mechanics by motor neuron predominance (D = 5.03, p mechanics of patients with MND differ from and are more heterogeneous than healthy controls. These findings suggest patients with MND may compensate reductions in pharyngeal shortening and tongue base retraction by extending the head and neck and increasing hyolaryngeal excursion. This work and further CASM investigations will lead to further insights into development and evaluation of targeted clinical treatments designed to prolong safe and efficient swallowing function in patients with MND.

  20. Central inhibition of initiation of swallowing by systemic administration of diazepam and baclofen in anaesthetized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Takanori; Sakai, Shogo; Suzuki, Taku; Ujihara, Izumi; Tsuji, Kojun; Magara, Jin; Canning, Brendan J; Inoue, Makoto

    2017-05-01

    Dysphagia is caused not only by neurological and/or structural damage but also by medication. We hypothesized memantine, dextromethorphan, diazepam, and baclofen, all commonly used drugs with central sites of action, may regulate swallowing function. Swallows were evoked by upper airway (UA)/pharyngeal distension, punctate mechanical stimulation using a von Frey filament, capsaicin or distilled water (DW) applied topically to the vocal folds, and electrical stimulation of a superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) in anesthetized rats and were documented by recording electromyographic activation of the suprahyoid and thyrohyoid muscles and by visualizing laryngeal elevation. The effects of intraperitoneal or topical administration of each drug on swallowing function were studied. Systemic administration of diazepam and baclofen, but not memantine or dextromethorphan, inhibited swallowing evoked by mechanical, chemical, and electrical stimulation. Both benzodiazepines and GABA A receptor antagonists diminished the inhibitory effects of diazepam, whereas a GABA B receptor antagonist diminished the effects of baclofen. Topically applied diazepam or baclofen had no effect on swallowing. These data indicate that diazepam and baclofen act centrally to inhibit swallowing in anesthetized rats. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Systemic administration of diazepam and baclofen, but not memantine or dextromethorphan, inhibited swallowing evoked by mechanical, chemical, and electrical stimulation. Both benzodiazepines and GABA A receptor antagonists diminished the inhibitory effects of diazepam, whereas a GABA B receptor antagonist diminished the effects of baclofen. Topical applied diazepam or baclofen was without effect on swallowing. Diazepam and baclofen act centrally to inhibit swallowing in anesthetized rats. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Feeding and Swallowing Disorders in Pediatric Neuromuscular Diseases: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Engel-Hoek, Lenie; de Groot, Imelda J M; de Swart, Bert J M; Erasmus, Corrie E

    2015-11-20

    Feeding and swallowing problems in infants and children have a great impact on health and wellbeing. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of recognized feeding and swallowing problems in different groups of children with neuromuscular diseases, based on relevant literature and expert opinion, and to propose recommendations for the assessment and treatment of these problems. Almost all pediatric neuromuscular diseases are accompanied by feeding and swallowing problems during the different phases of deglutition, problems that give rise to a wide variety of signs and symptoms, which emphasizes the importance of a comprehensive feeding and swallowing assessment by a speech and language therapist.

  2. Coordination of cough and swallow: a meta-behavioral response to aspiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, Teresa; Rose, Melanie J; Mortensen, Ashley N; Poliacek, Ivan; Sapienza, Christine M; Lindsey, Bruce G; Morris, Kendall F; Davenport, Paul W; Bolser, Donald C

    2013-12-01

    Airway protections is the prevention and/or removal of material by behaviors such as cough and swallow. We hypothesized these behaviors are coordinated to respond to aspiration. Anesthetized animals were challenged with simulated aspiration that induced both coughing and swallowing. Electromyograms of upper airway and respiratory muscles together with esophageal pressure were recorded to identify and evaluate cough and swallow. During simulated aspiration, both cough and swallow intensity increased and swallow duration decreased consistent with rapid pharyngeal clearance. Phase restriction between cough and swallow was observed; swallow was restricted to the E2 phase of cough. These results support three main conclusions: 1) the cough and swallow pattern generators are tightly coordinated so as to generate a protective meta-behavior; 2) the trachea provides feedback on swallow quality, informing the brainstem about aspiration incidences; and 3) the larynx and upper esophageal sphincter act as two separate valves controlling the direction of positive and negative pressures from the upper airway into the thorax. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Self-perception of swallowing by patients with benign nonsurgical thyroid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernambuco, Leandro; Silva, Marlisson Pinheiro da; Almeida, Marluce Nascimento de; Costa, Erika Beatriz de Morais; Souza, Lourdes Bernadete Rocha de

    2017-02-23

    To verify the frequency of swallowing complaints in patients with benign nonsurgical thyroid disease and compare the self-perception of swallowing disorder intensity between different types of thyroid disease. The study sample comprised 39 women aged 19-58 years (38.54 ± 10.74) with hypothyroidism (n=22; 56.4%) or thyroid nodules (n=17; 43.6%). Presence and type of swallowing complaint and self-perception of swallowing disorder intensity were investigated by means of self-ratings recorded on a 100-millimeter visual analog scale. The data were analyzed by descriptive measures and the Mann-Whitney nonparametric test was used to compare the self-perception of swallowing disorder intensity between both clinical diagnoses of thyroid disease. The level of 5% was adopted for statistical significance. Twenty-six (66.7%) individuals reported the following swallowing complaints: pharyngolaryngeal stasis sensation (37.15%), chocking (34.29%), and odynophagia (28.57%). The mean value of self-perception of swallowing disorder intensity by the visual analog scale was 59.35 (± 27.38) millimeters. No difference in self-perception was reported between the clinical diagnoses of thyroid disease. In this sample, swallowing complaint was frequently observed in patients with benign nonsurgical thyroid disease. Moderate self-perception of swallowing disorder intensity was reported regardless of the clinical diagnosis of thyroid disease.

  4. Size effect in barium titanate powders synthesized by different hydrothermal methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Weian

    2006-01-01

    The size effect in barium titanate (BaTiO 3 ) was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Tetragonal BaTiO 3 powders with average sizes from 80 to 420 nm were directly prepared by different hydrothermal methods. The tetragonality of the hydrothermal BaTiO 3 decreased with decreasing particle size, which exhibited a dependence on the synthesis method. A phenomenological model for the size effect was proposed to interpret the experimental observations. The influence of the defects, mainly the lattice hydroxyl, on the size effect was investigated to understand the correlation between the size effect and synthesis condition. The permittivities of BaTiO 3 powder at different particle sizes were calculated, which predicted a maximum permittivity of over 16 000 around the room-temperature critical size of ∼70 nm. The prediction was in good accordance with the experimental data reported recently

  5. An Interpreter's Interpretation: Sign Language Interpreters' View of Musculoskeletal Disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, William L

    2003-01-01

    Sign language interpreters are at increased risk for musculoskeletal disorders. This study used content analysis to obtain detailed information about these disorders from the interpreters' point of view...

  6. A comparative analysis of DBSCAN, K-means, and quadratic variation algorithms for automatic identification of swallows from swallowing accelerometry signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudik, Joshua M; Kurosu, Atsuko; Coyle, James L; Sejdić, Ervin

    2015-04-01

    Cervical auscultation with high resolution sensors is currently under consideration as a method of automatically screening for specific swallowing abnormalities. To be clinically useful without human involvement, any devices based on cervical auscultation should be able to detect specified swallowing events in an automatic manner. In this paper, we comparatively analyze the density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise algorithm (DBSCAN), a k-means based algorithm, and an algorithm based on quadratic variation as methods of differentiating periods of swallowing activity from periods of time without swallows. These algorithms utilized swallowing vibration data exclusively and compared the results to a gold standard measure of swallowing duration. Data was collected from 23 subjects that were actively suffering from swallowing difficulties. Comparing the performance of the DBSCAN algorithm with a proven segmentation algorithm that utilizes k-means clustering demonstrated that the DBSCAN algorithm had a higher sensitivity and correctly segmented more swallows. Comparing its performance with a threshold-based algorithm that utilized the quadratic variation of the signal showed that the DBSCAN algorithm offered no direct increase in performance. However, it offered several other benefits including a faster run time and more consistent performance between patients. All algorithms showed noticeable differentiation from the endpoints provided by a videofluoroscopy examination as well as reduced sensitivity. In summary, we showed that the DBSCAN algorithm is a viable method for detecting the occurrence of a swallowing event using cervical auscultation signals, but significant work must be done to improve its performance before it can be implemented in an unsupervised manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Status of barium studies in the present era of oncology: Are they a history?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Abhishek; Desai, Subash; Sable, Nilesh Pandurang; Thakur, Meenakshi Haresh

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of the modern imaging technologies, the present era of oncology is seeing steady decline in requests for barium studies due to the many reasons. It is prudent to mention here, that, barium examinations cannot be made obsolete! Our aim to preserve the age old technique of barium studies not only to keep it going on but also for the betterment and appropriate management of the patient. Our goal is not to "save" barium studies simply to keep this technology alive, per se, but rather to preserve barium radiology for the quality in patient care.

  8. SEPARATION OF BARIUM VALUES FROM URANYL NITRATE SOLUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, E.R.

    1959-02-24

    The separation of radioactive barium values from a uranyl nitrate solution of neutron-irradiated uranium is described. The 10 to 20% uranyl nitrate solution is passed through a flrst column of a cation exchange resin under conditions favoring the adsorption of barium and certain other cations. The loaded resin is first washed with dilute sulfuric acid to remove a portion of the other cations, and then wash with a citric acid solution at pH of 5 to 7 to recover the barium along with a lesser amount of the other cations. The PH of the resulting eluate is adjusted to about 2.3 to 3.5 and diluted prior to passing through a smaller second column of exchange resin. The loaded resin is first washed with a citric acid solution at a pH of 3 to elute undesired cations and then with citric acid solution at a pH of 6 to eluts the barium, which is substantially free of undesired cations.

  9. Characterization of Barium Borate Frameworks Using Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharavi-Naeini, Jafar; Yoo, Kyung W; Stump, Nathan A

    2018-04-01

    Systematic micro-Raman scattering investigations have been carried out on Sm +2 doped 2(BaO)-n(B 2 O 3 ) matrices for n = 4, 5, 8, and 2(BaO)-(Na 2 O)-9(B 2 O 3 ) using the 364 nm excitation of an Ar + laser. The Raman results have been compared with the known structures of barium tetraborate, barium pentaborate, barium octaborate, and barium sodium nonaborate. An excellent correlation has been found between the BO 4 /BO 3 composition ratios for each product and intensity ratios of the designated BO 4 and BO 3 Raman peaks. Furthermore, the Raman frequencies of both BO 4 and BO 3 groups undergo a systematic blueshift as n increases from four to nine. The shift results from a decrease of the B-O bond lengths for both BO 4 and BO 3 groups as the samples transition from the tetraborate to nonaborate structures. Linear relations (with negative slopes) have been determined between the measured Raman frequencies and B-O bond lengths in the frameworks.

  10. Dynamics of a barium release in the magnetospheric tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende, S. B.; Swenson, G. R.; Geller, S. P.; Doolittle, J. H.; Haerendel, G.

    1989-01-01

    The late time behavior of the May 13, 1985 magnetotail barium cloud is examined. The bulk dynamics of the cloud are studied based on triangulated data and data from Fabry-Perot Doppler velocity measurements. The changes in cloud morphology in relation to the in situ measurements made by the Ion Release Module satellite are discussed.

  11. Barium titanate inverted opals-synthesis, characterization, and optical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soten, I.; Miguez, H.; Yang, S.M.; Petrov, S.; Coombs, N.; Tetreault, N.; Ozin, G.A. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Matsuura, N.; Ruda, H.E. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Metallurgy and Materials Science

    2002-01-01

    The engineering of cubic or tetragonal polymorphs of nanocrystalline barium titanate inverted opals has been achieved by thermally induced transformations. Optical characterization demonstrated photonic crystal behavior of the opals. The tuning of the ferroelectric-paraelectric transition around the Curie temperature is shown in this paper. (orig.)

  12. Electrical transport properties of calcium and barium aluminates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metselaar, R.; Hoefsloot, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    Electrical conductivity and ionic transport numbers have been measured of barium and calcium aluminates with composition CaO·nAl2O3 (n=7/12, 1, 2, 6) and 0.82 BaO·6Al2O3. At room temperatures these compounds are insulators, but at high temperatures mixed conductivity is observed. Ionic transport

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLE ORIG ORIG Comparison of barium and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • June 2007. ORIG. Abstract. Background. Simulation of patients with carcinoma of the oesophagus using radio-opaque contrast is a standard step in treatment planning prior to delivering radiation therapy. Various contrast mediums such as barium, gastrograffin and hexabrix have been used ...

  14. Synthesis and surface properties of submicron barium sulfate particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ming; Zhang Bao; Li Xinhai; Yin Zhoulan; Guo Xueyi

    2011-01-01

    Barium sulfate particles were synthesized in the presence of EDTA at room temperature. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared resonance (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the structure and morphology of BaSO 4 particles. The effect of the preparation parameters on the particle size distribution and morphology was investigated. The conditional formation constants of Ba-EDTA at different pH values were calculated. The results show that the size and morphology of BaSO 4 particles can be effectively controlled by adding EDTA in the precipitation process. Among all the operation conditions, the pH value has significant effect on the particle size. The obtained barium sulfate particles are spherical and well dispersed at pH = 9-10. Zeta potentials of BaSO 4 were measured at different pH. The isoelectric point (IEP) of barium sulfate colloid appears at pH 6.92. The model of the solid-solution interface at a particle of BaSO 4 was presented. The FTIR result indicates that the surface of the prepared BaSO 4 absorbs the functional groups of EDTA, which lower the IEP of the barium sulfate particles.

  15. Synthesis and surface properties of submicron barium sulfate particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Ming, E-mail: csu.light@yahoo.com.cn [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Zhaoqing University, Zhaoqing 526061 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Zhang Bao; Li Xinhai [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Yin Zhoulan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Guo Xueyi [School of Metallurgical Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2011-10-15

    Barium sulfate particles were synthesized in the presence of EDTA at room temperature. X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier transform infrared resonance (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterize the structure and morphology of BaSO{sub 4} particles. The effect of the preparation parameters on the particle size distribution and morphology was investigated. The conditional formation constants of Ba-EDTA at different pH values were calculated. The results show that the size and morphology of BaSO{sub 4} particles can be effectively controlled by adding EDTA in the precipitation process. Among all the operation conditions, the pH value has significant effect on the particle size. The obtained barium sulfate particles are spherical and well dispersed at pH = 9-10. Zeta potentials of BaSO{sub 4} were measured at different pH. The isoelectric point (IEP) of barium sulfate colloid appears at pH 6.92. The model of the solid-solution interface at a particle of BaSO{sub 4} was presented. The FTIR result indicates that the surface of the prepared BaSO{sub 4} absorbs the functional groups of EDTA, which lower the IEP of the barium sulfate particles.

  16. Pressure-assisted sintering of high purity barium titanate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Cruijsem, S.; Varst, van der P.G.T.; With, de G.; Bortzmeyer, D.; Boussuge, M.; Chartier, Th.; Hausonne, J.M.; Mocellin, A.; Rousset, A.; Thevenot, F.

    1997-01-01

    The dielectric behaviour of High Purity Barium titanate (HPB) ceramics is strongly dependent on the grain size and porosity. For applications, control of grain size and porosity is required. Pressure-assisted sintering techniques at relatively low temperatures meet these requirements. In this study,

  17. Iatrogen perforation of the rectum following barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggum, R.; Kressner, U.; Haffner, J.

    1998-01-01

    Perforation of the rectum following barium enema is relatively rare, occurring in 1 of 3,000 procedures. Colorectal perforation is a serious condition and early diagnosis is of paramount importance in order to avoid any delay in treating the patient. Direct suture of the perforation, lavage, presacral drainage and stomia are the preferred methods of primary surgical treatment. 10 refs., 1 fig

  18. Effectiveness of therapeutic barium enema for diverticular hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Mizue; Inamori, Masahiko; Nakajima, Atsushi; Komiya, Yasuhiko; Inoh, Yumi; Kawasima, Keigo; Naitoh, Mai; Fujita, Yuji; Eduka, Akiko; Kanazawa, Noriyoshi; Uchiyama, Shiori; Tani, Rie; Kawana, Kennichi; Ohtani, Setsuya; Nagase, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of barium impaction therapy for patients with colonic diverticular bleeding. METHODS: We reviewed the clinical charts of patients in whom therapeutic barium enema was performed for the control of diverticular bleeding between August 2010 and March 2012 at Yokohama Rosai Hospital. Twenty patients were included in the review, consisting of 14 men and 6 women. The median age of the patients was 73.5 years. The duration of the follow-up period ranged from 1 to 19 mo (median: 9.8 mo). Among the 20 patients were 11 patients who required the procedure for re-bleeding during hospitalization, 6 patients who required it for re-bleeding that developed after the patient left the hospital, and 3 patients who required the procedure for the prevention of re-bleeding. Barium (concentration: 150 w%/v%) was administered per the rectum, and the leading edge of the contrast medium was followed up to the cecum by fluoroscopy. After confirmation that the ascending colon and cecum were filled with barium, the enema tube was withdrawn, and the patient’s position was changed every 20 min for 3 h. RESULTS: Twelve patients remained free of re-bleeding during the follow-up period (range: 1-19 mo) after the therapeutic barium enema, including 9 men and 3 women with a median age of 72.0 years. Re-bleeding occurred in 8 patients including 5 men and 3 women with a median age of 68.5 years: 4 developed early re-bleeding, defined as re-bleeding that occurs within one week after the procedure, and the remaining 4 developed late re-bleeding. The DFI (disease-free interval) decreased 0.4 for 12 mo. Only one patient developed a complication from therapeutic barium enema (colonic perforation). CONCLUSION: Therapeutic barium enema is effective for the control of diverticular hemorrhage in cases where the active bleeding site cannot be identified by colonoscopy. PMID:25987779

  19. Interpreting the Customary Rules on Interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkouris, Panos

    2017-01-01

    International courts have at times interpreted the customary rules on interpretation. This is interesting because what is being interpreted is: i) rules of interpretation, which sounds dangerously tautological, and ii) customary law, the interpretation of which has not been the object of critical

  20. Unilateral Superior Laryngeal Nerve Lesion in an Animal Model of Dysphagia and Its Effect on Sucking and Swallowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Malone, Regina; Holman, Shaina D.; Lukasik, Stacey L.; Fukuhara, Takako; Gierbolini-Norat, Estela M.; Thexton, Allan J.; German, Rebecca Z.

    2013-01-01

    We tested two hypotheses relating to the sensory deficit that follows a unilateral superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) lesion in an infant animal model. We hypothesized that it would result in (1) a higher incidence of aspiration and (2) temporal changes in sucking and swallowing. We ligated the right-side SLN in six 2–3-week-old female pigs. Using videofluoroscopy, we recorded swallows in the same pre- and post-lesion infant pigs. We analyzed the incidence of aspiration and the duration and latency of suck and swallow cycles. After unilateral SLN lesioning, the incidence of silent aspiration during swallowing increased from 0.7 to 41.5 %. The durations of the suck containing the swallow, the suck immediately following the swallow, and the swallow itself were significantly longer in the post-lesion swallows, although the suck prior to the swallow was not different. The interval between the start of the suck containing a swallow and the subsequent epiglottal movement was longer in the post-lesion swallows. The number of sucks between swallows was significantly greater in post-lesion swallows compared to pre-lesion swallows. Unilateral SLN lesion increased the incidence of aspiration and changed the temporal relationships between sucking and swallowing. The longer transit time and the temporal coordinative dysfunction between suck and swallow cycles may contribute to aspiration. These results suggest that swallow dysfunction and silent aspiration are common and potentially overlooked sequelae of unilateral SLN injury. This validated animal model of aspiration has the potential for further dysphagia studies. PMID:23417250

  1. Fluid mechanics of eating, swallowing and digestion - overview and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engmann, Jan; Burbidge, Adam S

    2013-02-26

    From a very simplistic viewpoint, the human digestive system can be regarded as a long tube (with dramatic variations in diameter, cross-section, wall properties, pumping mechanisms, regulating valves and in-line sensors). We single out a few fluid mechanical phenomena along the trajectory of a food bolus from the mouth to the small intestine and discuss how they influence sensorial perception, safe transport, and nutrient absorption from a bolus. The focus is on lubrication flows between the tongue and palate, the oropharyngeal stage of swallowing and effects of flow on absorption in the small intestine. Specific challenges and opportunities in this research area are highlighted.

  2. Clinical investigation on application of water swallowing to MR esophagography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jinping, E-mail: zjpmri@163.com [Department of Radiology, Tongling People' s Hospital, Bijiashan Road 468, Tongling 244000, Anhui (China); Hu, Weijian; Zang, Lin [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Tongling People' s Hospital, Bijiashan Road 468, Tongling 244000, Anhui (China); Yao, Yibin; Tang, Yongxiang; Qian, Zhen; Gao, Ping; Wu, Xiaoyan; Li, Shijian [Department of Radiology, Tongling People' s Hospital, Bijiashan Road 468, Tongling 244000, Anhui (China); Xie, Zhenlan; Yuan, Xiaoqing [Department of Pathology, Tongling People' s Hospital, Bijiashan Road 468, Tongling 244000, Anhui (China)

    2012-09-15

    Objective: To verify the clinical outcomes of applying water swallowing to MR esophagography. Methods: Thirty patients confirmed postoperatively or histopathologically with thoracic esophageal carcinoma by endoscopic biopsy and 10 healthy volunteers with normal esophagus underwent respectively conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detection and water swallowing MR esophagography. Of those patients, 4 underwent second examination after radiotherapy. Assessment on imaging effects of MR esophagography was performed. Assessment on definition on MR esophagography of the tumor in both upper and lower ends, specific localization, tumor size finally measured, coincidence with the gross pathologic types and tumor staging were respectively performed by comparison with conventional MRI. Additionally, we evaluated the outcomes of radiotherapy by comparing the previous MR esophagography with the second one with interventional technique. Results: Of the total 44 images of MR esophagography, 97.7% (43/44) were in high resolution by sagittal view and 81.8% (36/44) by cross-section. 93.3% (56/60) of the MR esophagography were clearly defined with the neoplastic lesion ends in the 30 patients with thoracic esophageal carcinoma, compared with 11.7% (7/60) by conventional MRI. The results were totally different in statistics (P < 0.005). Preoperative conventional MRI detection of the 22 cases in 25 undergone radical resection suggested vague diameter of the primary tumor and impossibly identified it at middle-lower thoracic esophagus in 5, and even failed to confirm gross pathologic types in 19 cases. Yet, MR esophagography with water swallowing represented accurate tumor length (graded as excellent) in 88% (22/25), localization in 100% (25/25), exact gross pathologic types in 88% (22/25), and accuracy for tumor staging in 80.8% (21/26) compared to 92.3% (24/26) by conventional MRI. Therapeutic effects achieved in 4 patients with radiotherapy. Conclusions: MR esophagography

  3. Dose-dependent deterioration of swallowing function after induction chemotherapy and definitive chemoradiotherapy for laryngopharyngeal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haderlein, M.; Semrau, S.; Ott, O.; Speer, S.; Fietkau, R. [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Erlangen (Germany); Bohr, C. [University Hospital Erlangen, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Erlangen (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    To evaluate the influence of clinical, treatment- and dose-dependent factors on posttreatment swallowing function after induction chemotherapy and definitive chemoradiotherapy in a group of homogeneously treated laryngopharyngeal cancer patients. From 28 May 2008 to 15 February 2013, 45 patients with borderline inoperable laryngopharyngeal cancer that had responded well to induction chemotherapy were treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy. Median follow-up was 22 months. Swallowing function and clinical data were prospectively analyzed using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Swallowing structures were retrospectively delineated on the original treatment planning CT. Dose-volume histograms were calculated for swallowing structures and D{sub mean}, D{sub max} and V50-V64 values (in 2 Gy increments) were determined for each patient. Tumor volume and infiltration of the swallowing apparatus was defined by CT before induction chemotherapy. Of the 45 patients, 26 (57.8 %) fully regained swallowing function after chemoradiotherapy. A further 12 patients (26.7 %) were able to manage soft, pureed and/or liquid foods; the remaining 7 (15.6 %) were completely dependent on percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). Posttreatment swallowing function was significantly influenced by D{sub mean} to the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle (PCM, p = 0.041). Correlations between late dysphagia and dose-volume relationships in the superior PCM and soft palate were also observed, which were significant from V60 (p = 0.043) and V58 for the soft palate and superior PCM, respectively. Of the evaluated clinical and tumor-related factors, only alcohol abuse (p = 0.024) had an influence on posttreatment swallowing function. Almost 50 % of patients had deterioration of swallowing function after definitive chemoradiotherapy for laryngopharyngeal cancer. The dose to anatomical structures responsible for swallowing function appears to play a role. Therefore, in selected patients, target

  4. Voice- and swallow-related quality of life in idiopathic Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooren, Michel R A; Baijens, Laura W J; Vos, Rein; Pilz, Walmari; Kuijpers, Laura M F; Kremer, Bernd; Michou, Emilia

    2016-02-01

    This study explores whether changes in voice- and swallow-related QoL are associated with progression of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). Furthermore, it examines the relationship between patients' perception of both voice and swallowing disorders in IPD. Prospective clinical study, quality of life (QoL). One-hundred mentally competent IPD patients with voice and swallowing complaints were asked to answer four QoL questionnaires (Voice Handicap Index, MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory, Visual Analog Scale [VAS] voice, and Dysphagia Severity Scale [DSS]). Differences in means for the QoL questionnaires and their subscales within Hoehn and Yahr stage groups were calculated using one-way analysis of variance. The relationship between voice- and swallow-related QoL questionnaires was determined with the Spearman correlation coefficient. Scores on both voice and swallow questionnaires suggest an overall decrease in QoL with progression of IPD. A plateau in QoL for VAS voice and the DSS was seen in the early Hoehn and Yahr stages. Finally, scores on voice-related QoL questionnaires were significantly correlated with swallow-related QoL outcomes. Voice- and swallow-related QoL decreases with progression of IPD. A significant association was found between voice- and swallow-related QoL questionnaires. Healthcare professionals can benefit from voice- and swallow-related QoL questionnaires in a multidimensional voice- or swallow-assessment protocol. The patient's perception of his/her voice and swallowing disorders and its impact on QoL in IPD should not be disregarded. 2b. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  5. Effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on swallowing apraxia and cortical excitability in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Wang, Jie; Wu, Dongyu; Huang, Xiaobo; Song, Weiqun

    2017-10-01

    Swallowing apraxia is characterized by impaired volitional swallowing but relatively preserved reflexive swallowing. Few studies are available on the effectiveness of behavioral therapy and management of the condition. This study aimed to investigate the effect of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on swallowing apraxia and cortical activation in stroke patients. The study included three inpatients (age 48-70 years; 1 male, 2 females; duration of stroke, 35-55 d) with post-stroke swallowing apraxia and six age-matched healthy subjects (age 45-65 years; 3 males, 3 females). Treatments were divided into two phases: Phase A and Phase B. During Phase A, the inpatients received three weeks of sham tDCS and conventional treatments. During Phase B, these patients received three weeks of anodal tDCS over the bilateral primary sensorimotor cortex (S 1 M 1 ) of swallowing and conventional treatments. Swallowing apraxia assessments were measured in three inpatients before Phase A, before Phase B, and after Phase B. The electroencephalography (EEG) nonlinear index of approximate entropy (ApEn) was calculated for three patients and six healthy subjects. After tDCS, scores of swallowing apraxia assessments increased, and ApEn indices increased in both stimulated and non-stimulated areas. Anodal tDCS might provide a useful means for recovering swallowing apraxia, and the recovery could be related to increased excitability of the swallowing cortex. Further investigations should explore the relationship between lesion size and/or lesion site and the prognosis of swallowing apraxia. Clinical trial registry: http://www.chictr.org Registration Number: ChiCTR-TRC-14004955.

  6. The anatomy and physiology of normal and abnormal swallowing in oropharyngeal dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasegbon, A; Hamdy, S

    2017-11-01

    Eating and drinking are enjoyable activities that positively impact on an individual's quality of life. The ability to swallow food and fluid is integral to the process of eating. Swallowing occupies a dual role being both part of the enjoyment of eating and being a critically important utilitarian activity to enable adequate nutrition and hydration. Any impairment to the process of swallowing can negatively affect a person's perception of their quality of life. The process of swallowing is highly complex and involves muscles in the mouth, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus. The oropharynx is the anatomical region encompassing the oral cavity and the pharynx. Food must be masticated, formed into a bolus and transported to the pharynx by the tongue whereas fluids are usually held within the mouth before being transported ab-orally. The bolus must then be transported through the pharynx to the esophagus without any matter entering the larynx. The muscles needed for all these steps are coordinated by swallowing centers within the brainstem which are supplied with sensory information by afferent nerve fibers from several cranial nerves. The swallowing centers also receive modulatory input from higher centers within the brain. Hence, a swallow has both voluntary and involuntary physiologic components and the term dysphagia is given to difficult swallowing while oropharyngeal dysphagia is difficult swallowing due to pathology within the oropharynx. Problems affecting any point along the complex swallowing pathway can result in dysphagia. This review focuses on the anatomy and physiology behind normal and abnormal oropharyngeal swallowing. It also details the common diseases and pathology causing oropharyngeal dysphagia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Dose-dependent deterioration of swallowing function after induction chemotherapy and definitive chemoradiotherapy for laryngopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haderlein, M.; Semrau, S.; Ott, O.; Speer, S.; Fietkau, R.; Bohr, C.

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of clinical, treatment- and dose-dependent factors on posttreatment swallowing function after induction chemotherapy and definitive chemoradiotherapy in a group of homogeneously treated laryngopharyngeal cancer patients. From 28 May 2008 to 15 February 2013, 45 patients with borderline inoperable laryngopharyngeal cancer that had responded well to induction chemotherapy were treated with definitive chemoradiotherapy. Median follow-up was 22 months. Swallowing function and clinical data were prospectively analyzed using the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire. Swallowing structures were retrospectively delineated on the original treatment planning CT. Dose-volume histograms were calculated for swallowing structures and D mean , D max and V50-V64 values (in 2 Gy increments) were determined for each patient. Tumor volume and infiltration of the swallowing apparatus was defined by CT before induction chemotherapy. Of the 45 patients, 26 (57.8 %) fully regained swallowing function after chemoradiotherapy. A further 12 patients (26.7 %) were able to manage soft, pureed and/or liquid foods; the remaining 7 (15.6 %) were completely dependent on percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG). Posttreatment swallowing function was significantly influenced by D mean to the superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle (PCM, p = 0.041). Correlations between late dysphagia and dose-volume relationships in the superior PCM and soft palate were also observed, which were significant from V60 (p = 0.043) and V58 for the soft palate and superior PCM, respectively. Of the evaluated clinical and tumor-related factors, only alcohol abuse (p = 0.024) had an influence on posttreatment swallowing function. Almost 50 % of patients had deterioration of swallowing function after definitive chemoradiotherapy for laryngopharyngeal cancer. The dose to anatomical structures responsible for swallowing function appears to play a role. Therefore, in selected patients, target volume

  8. Comparison of pressure between barium reduction and air reduction of the intussusception in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Hwan; Park, Sang Gyu; Park, Choong Ki; Yoon, Jong Sup [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-08-15

    There are many method of treatment of the intussusception in children, including surgery, barium reduction, air reduction, and saline enema under ultrasonographic monitoring. Among them, barium reduction and air reduction have been used widely as nonsurgical method of treatment in radiologic department. During barium reduction, the bottle filled with barium solution must not be elevated over a 3 feet from the operating table. In air reduction, diagnostic pressure is about 60 mmHg and pressure during reduction usually is maintained between 90 mmHg and 130 mmHg. The authors have studied about pressure difference of barium solution by changing height of the bottle filled with barium solution, and have compared with pressure in air reduction. The results are as follows; 1. Pressure of 20 w/v % barium solution at the 60 cm height is 44.4 mmHg, and 69.6 mmHg at the 90 cm height. 2. Pressure of 40 w/v % barium solution at the 60 cm height is 51.4 mmHg, and 80.1 mmHg at the 90 cm height. 3. Pressure of 40 w/v % barium solution at the 90cm height is much lower than the pressure maintained during air reduction, and this difference in pressure may be one of the causes of low reduction rate in barium reduction then air reduction. 4. The pressure gradient per 10 cm height is about 8.45 mmHg in 20 w/v % barium solution, about 9.21 mmHg in 30 w/v % barium solution, and about 9.72 mmHg 40 w/v % barium solution. 5. Intraluminal pressure difference between the barium reduction and the air reduction is probably of the major causes of rapid diagnosis and high reduction rate in the air reduction.

  9. Comparison of pressure between barium reduction and air reduction of the intussusception in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Hwan; Park, Sang Gyu; Park, Choong Ki; Yoon, Jong Sup

    1989-01-01

    There are many method of treatment of the intussusception in children, including surgery, barium reduction, air reduction, and saline enema under ultrasonographic monitoring. Among them, barium reduction and air reduction have been used widely as nonsurgical method of treatment in radiologic department. During barium reduction, the bottle filled with barium solution must not be elevated over a 3 feet from the operating table. In air reduction, diagnostic pressure is about 60 mmHg and pressure during reduction usually is maintained between 90 mmHg and 130 mmHg. The authors have studied about pressure difference of barium solution by changing height of the bottle filled with barium solution, and have compared with pressure in air reduction. The results are as follows; 1. Pressure of 20 w/v % barium solution at the 60 cm height is 44.4 mmHg, and 69.6 mmHg at the 90 cm height. 2. Pressure of 40 w/v % barium solution at the 60 cm height is 51.4 mmHg, and 80.1 mmHg at the 90 cm height. 3. Pressure of 40 w/v % barium solution at the 90cm height is much lower than the pressure maintained during air reduction, and this difference in pressure may be one of the causes of low reduction rate in barium reduction then air reduction. 4. The pressure gradient per 10 cm height is about 8.45 mmHg in 20 w/v % barium solution, about 9.21 mmHg in 30 w/v % barium solution, and about 9.72 mmHg 40 w/v % barium solution. 5. Intraluminal pressure difference between the barium reduction and the air reduction is probably of the major causes of rapid diagnosis and high reduction rate in the air reduction

  10. Association between swallow perception and esophageal bolus clearance in patients with globus sensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Lin; Yi, Chih-Hsun; Liu, Tso-Tsai

    2013-04-01

    Globus sensation is common, but its pathogenesis is not yet clear. Our purpose was to investigate subjective perception of swallowing and esophageal motility by combined multichannel intraluminal impedance and manometry (MII-EM) for patients with globus sensation. Combined MII-EM was performed for 25 globus patients and 15 healthy controls. Swallows were abnormal if hypocontractivity or simultaneous contractions occurred. Esophageal bolus transit was incomplete if bolus exit was not found at one or more of all measurement sites. Perception of each swallow was assessed by use of a standardized scoring system, and was enhanced if the score was >1. Few globus patients reported enhanced perception during viscous or solid swallows. Incomplete bolus transit and enhanced perception occurred similarly between viscous and solid boluses. Agreement between enhanced perception and proximal bolus clearance was greater during solid swallows (κ = 0.45, 95 % CI: 0.32-0.58) than during viscous swallows (κ = 0.13, 95 % CI: 0-0.25) (P perception and total bolus clearance was greater during solid swallows (κ = 0.46, 95 % CI: 0.34-0.58) than during viscous swallows (κ = 0.11, 95 % CI: 0-0.22) (P perception is uncommon in patients with globus sensation, although there is a significant association between enhanced esophageal perception and solid bolus clearance. Application of a solid bolus may help better delineation of the interrelationship between the subjective perception of bolus passage and the objective measurement of bolus clearance.

  11. Demography of invasive black and pale swallow-wort populations in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincetoxicum nigrum (Black Swallow-wort) and Vincetoxicum rossicum (Pale Swallow-wort) are perennial twining vines introduced from Europe. Both species have become invasive in northeastern North America in a variety of habitats. To develop parameters for a population model for evaluating potential b...

  12. Gum chewing improves swallow frequency and latency in Parkinson patients: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Angela R; Somers, Stephanie M; Jog, Mandar S

    2010-04-13

    Reduced swallowing frequency affects secretion management in Parkinson disease (PD). Gum chewing increases saliva flow and swallow frequency. This study uses chewing gum to modify swallow frequency and latency between swallows in patients with PD. 1) Assess the frequency and latency of swallow at baseline (BL), during gum chewing (GC), and post gum chewing (PGC) for participants with PD (stage 2-4) nonsymptomatic for prandial dysphagia; and 2) assess carryover after gum is expectorated. Twenty participants were studied across 3 tasks, each of 5 minutes in duration: BL, GC, and PGC. Respiratory and laryngeal signals were continuously recorded using PowerLab (version 5.5.5; ADI Instruments, Castle Hill, Australia). Frequency and latency of swallow events were calculated. Differences (analysis of variance) are reported for frequency (p Parkinson disease. This study provides Class III evidence that chewing gum increases swallow frequency and decreases latency of swallowing in an experiment in patients with stage 2 to 4 Parkinson disease who are nonsymptomatic for significant prandial dysphagia.

  13. The Test of Masticating and Swallowing Solids (TOMASS): Reliability, Validity and International Normative Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckabee, Maggie-Lee; McIntosh, Theresa; Fuller, Laura; Curry, Morgan; Thomas, Paige; Walshe, Margaret; McCague, Ellen; Battel, Irene; Nogueira, Dalia; Frank, Ulrike; van den Engel-Hoek, Lenie; Sella-Weiss, Oshrat

    2018-01-01

    Background: Clinical swallowing assessment is largely limited to qualitative assessment of behavioural observations. There are limited quantitative data that can be compared with a healthy population for identification of impairment. The Test of Masticating and Swallowing Solids (TOMASS) was developed as a quantitative assessment of solid bolus…

  14. Evidence-Based Systematic Review: Effects of Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation on Swallowing and Neural Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Heather; Lazarus, Cathy; Arvedson, Joan; Schooling, Tracy; Frymark, Tobi

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To systematically review the literature examining the effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on swallowing and neural activation. The review was conducted as part of a series examining the effects of oral motor exercises (OMEs) on speech, swallowing, and neural activation. Method: A systematic search was conducted to…

  15. Mercury Contamination in Tree Swallows Nesting at Northern Wisconsin Inland Lakes that Differ in Methylation Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) are a useful species to assess the bioavailability and effects of trace elements, including mercury, because they will nest in boxes in relatively close proximity to one another. Because tree swallows feed on the aerial stages of benthic aquat...

  16. Bilateral Killian-Jamieson diverticula demonstrated by videofluoroscopic swallowing study: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betina Scheeren

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the case of a 56-year-old male patient complaining of dysphagia for solids and food impaction, submitted to videofluoroscopic swallowing study that demonstrated the presence of two esophageal diverticula. The videofluoroscopic swallowing study was critical in the identification and diagnosis of the diverticula, an esophageal cause of dysphagia.

  17. Tongue Pressure Modulation during Swallowing: Water versus Nectar-Thick Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Catriona M.; Bailey, Gemma L.; Molfenter, Sonja M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Evidence of tongue-palate pressure modulation during swallowing between thin and nectar-thick liquids stimuli has been equivocal. This mirrors a lack of clear evidence in the literature of tongue and hyoid movement modulation between nectar-thick and thin liquid swallows. In the current investigation, the authors sought to confirm whether…

  18. Relationships between air swallowing, intragastric air, belching and gastro-oesophageal reflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredenoord, AJ; Weusten, BLAM; Timmer, R; Akkermans, LMA; Smout, AJPM

    Background: With each swallow a certain amount of air is transported to the stomach. The stomach protects itself against excessive distention by swallowed air through belching (gas reflux). The mechanism of belching (transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation) is also one of the mechanisms

  19. Relationships between air swallowing, intragastric air, belching and gastro-oesophageal reflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bredenoord, A. J.; Weusten, B. L. A. M.; Timmer, R.; Akkermans, L. M. A.; Smout, A. J. P. M.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With each swallow a certain amount of air is transported to the stomach. The stomach protects itself against excessive distention by swallowed air through belching (gas reflux). The mechanism of belching (transient lower oesophageal sphincter relaxation) is also one of the mechanisms

  20. Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES): proposal for informed consent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacci, A; Ursino, F; La Vela, R; Matteucci, F; Mallardi, V; Fattori, B

    2008-08-01

    Fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing (FEES) is now a first choice method for studying swallowing disorders on account of the various advantages it offers: easy to use, very well tolerated, allows bedside examination and is economic. Nevertheless, this diagnostic procedure is not without risks, the most probable consequences of which include discomfort, gagging and/or vomiting, vasovagal syncope, epistaxis, mucosal perforation, adverse reactions to topical anaesthetics and laryngospasm. The risks involved with FEES stress the importance of informing the patient of these; this is an important aspect in medicine that necessarily and immediately implies receiving the patient's so-called "informed consent". Informed consent should be obtained not only by means of specific printed forms but also after the patient has had an interview with the physician who will be performing the procedure and who will offer information according to the personal clinical, psychological, cultural and linguistic situation of the patient and in keeping with the type of procedure proposed. In the case of FEES, as with other invasive or non-invasive diagnostic procedures, therefore, routine written and signed consent, together with a patient/physician interview should fulfil what is known as "complete information". In this report, a specific form for informed consent to FEES procedures, is proposed.

  1. Post-operative swallowing in multiple system atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueha, R; Nito, T; Sakamoto, T; Yamauchi, A; Tsunoda, K; Yamasoba, T

    2016-02-01

    Some patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA) require surgical interventions such as tracheostomy and aspiration prevention. Few studies have investigated the postoperative clinical course of MSA patients. The aim of this study was to determine a management strategy for dysphagia and respiratory disorder in MSA. From 2001 to 2014, 18 MSA patients (13 males and 5 females, 52-76 years) underwent tracheostomy (TR, n = 11) or laryngeal closure (LC, n = 12). Five patients underwent LC following TR. Vocal fold impairment, the degree of dysphagia and pre/post-operative oral ingestion, and postoperative survival time were evaluated retrospectively. Swallowing function was assessed using the penetration aspiration scale (PAS). TR was performed due to respiratory disorder in seven patients and due to dysphagia in four patients. PAS scores ranged 1-8 in TR patients and 7-8 in LC patients. Seven of 11 patients who underwent TR displayed worsened PAS scores, and no patients displayed improved PAS scores following TR. All patients who underwent LC regained complete or partial oral intake after surgery. There were no significant differences in postoperative survival time between the two groups. Considering the impacts of TR and LC on survival time, postoperative feeding and swallowing, LC is a good option for treating MSA patients with dysphagia. © 2015 EAN.

  2. Intrarater and interrater reliability for measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baijens, Laura; Barikroo, Ali; Pilz, Walmari

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Intrarater and interrater reliability is crucial to the quality of diagnostic and therapy-effect studies. This paper reports on a systematic review of studies on intrarater and interrater reliability for measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing. The aim of this review was to summarize and qualitatively analyze published studies on that topic. Materials and methods: Those published up to March 2013 were found through a comprehensive electronic database search using PubMed, Embase, and The Cochrane Library. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies using strict inclusion criteria. Results: Nineteen studies were included and then qualitatively analyzed. In several of these, methodological problems were found. Moreover, intrarater and interrater reliability varied with the measure applied. A meta-analysis was not carried out as studies were not of sufficient quality to warrant doing so. Conclusion: In order to achieve reliable measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing, it is recommended that raters use well-defined guidelines for the levels of ordinal visuoperceptual variables. Furthermore, in order to make the measurements reliable (intrarater and interrater) it is recommended that, following protocolled pre-experimental training, the raters should have maximum consensus about the definition of the measured variables

  3. Radiological evaluation of swallowing and clinical patterns of systemic sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montesi, A.; Pesaresi, A.; Cavalli, M.L.; Serri, L.; Salmistraro, D.; Candela, M.; Gabrielli, A.

    1990-01-01

    Fifty-one patients with systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) were studied by means of videofluoroscopy in order to evaluate the abnormalities in the oral-pharyngeal and esophageal phases of deglutition and to correlate the radiological patterns with the clinical features of the disease. Thirteen patients (25.5%) exhibited swallowing disorders such as oral leakage, retention, penetration, mild or moderate aspiration and abnormal upper esophageal sphincter behavior. These dysfunctions were more evident in patients with esophageal motility abnormalities. A normal radiological pattern in the esophagus was not associated with swallowing alterations. Remarkably, patients with oral-pharyngeal disorders had a higher incidence of lung diseases. Forty-five patients (88%) exhibited disorders of the esophageal phase of deglutition, such as mild or severe motility abnormalities or hiatal hernia, gastro-esophageal reflux, reflux esophagitis, and stricture. Radiological findings in the esophagus can be abnormal in the early stages of the disease. On the other hand, the radiological pattern of esophageal motility can be occasionally negative in advanced or extensive disease. This indicates a discrepancy between clinical symptoms and radiological picture of the esophagus. The radiological examination of the oral-pharyngeal and esophageal phases of deglutition is important in patients with scleroderma in order to evaluate visceral involvement, motility disorders, and risk of aspiration. Such radiological information can be useful in preventing esophagitis and pulmonary complications

  4. Intrarater and interrater reliability for measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baijens, Laura, E-mail: laura.baijens@mumc.nl [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands); Barikroo, Ali, E-mail: a.Barikroo@ufl.edu [Swallowing Research Laboratory, Department of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences, College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Pilz, Walmari, E-mail: walmari.pilz@mumc.nl [Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Center, Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2013-10-01

    Objective: Intrarater and interrater reliability is crucial to the quality of diagnostic and therapy-effect studies. This paper reports on a systematic review of studies on intrarater and interrater reliability for measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing. The aim of this review was to summarize and qualitatively analyze published studies on that topic. Materials and methods: Those published up to March 2013 were found through a comprehensive electronic database search using PubMed, Embase, and The Cochrane Library. Two reviewers independently assessed the studies using strict inclusion criteria. Results: Nineteen studies were included and then qualitatively analyzed. In several of these, methodological problems were found. Moreover, intrarater and interrater reliability varied with the measure applied. A meta-analysis was not carried out as studies were not of sufficient quality to warrant doing so. Conclusion: In order to achieve reliable measurements in videofluoroscopy of swallowing, it is recommended that raters use well-defined guidelines for the levels of ordinal visuoperceptual variables. Furthermore, in order to make the measurements reliable (intrarater and interrater) it is recommended that, following protocolled pre-experimental training, the raters should have maximum consensus about the definition of the measured variables.

  5. Lead concentrations and reproduction in highway-nesting barn swallows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grue, C.E.; O'Shea, T.J.; Hoffman, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    Swallows (Hirundo rustica) collected within the right-of-way of a major Maryland highway were greater than those found in Barn Swallows nesting within a rural area. Lead concentrations in the feathers of adults from the highway colony were also greater than Lead concentrations in the carcasses and stomach contents of adult and nestling Barn those of rural adults, but concentrations in the feathers of nestlings from the two locations were similar. Activity of u-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase in red blood cells was lower in highway-nesting adults and their young than in their rural counterparts, although hemoglobin concentrations and hematocrits did not differ. The number of eggs, nestlings, and body weights of the latter at 16-18 days of age were similar in the two colonies, as were body weights of adults from the two areas. These results suggest that contamination of roadside habitats by lead from automotive emissions does not pose a serious hazard to birds that are aerial feeders.

  6. Cineradiography of the liquid bolus swallow. A study of the speed ot the bolus and peristaltic wave and of movement of the hyoid bone, larynx, and epiglottis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundgren, P.

    1991-01-01

    In the evaluation of the dysphagic patient, radiology is crucial as a technique for monitoring morphology and function. In particular, high-speed cineradiography can reveal a variety of pharyngeal dysfunctions. However, in the literature and in practice the difference between normal and abnormal function is not always clear. This monography is based on high-speed cineradiographies of swallowing in 75 non-dysphagic volunteers and in 189 dysphagic patients. The purpose was to study whether differences in bolus volumes, patient position, age and gender had any effects on the following parameters: the speed of the peristaltic wave and apex of the liquid barium bolus, the length of movement and the movement pattern of the hyoid bone and larynx, and epiglottic function. The study disclosed that the speed of the bolus, the anterior-superior movement and net movement of the hyoid bone increased significantly with larger bolus volumes. The position of the individual in relation to gravity significantly influenced the speed of peristalsis. In most of the measured parameters there were no differences between non-dysphagic and dysphagic individuals expect for differences in the intrapersonal variations and in the anterior-superior movement of the hyoid bone. In patients with pharyngeal dysfunction the initial stage of the elevation of the larynx was significantly lower than in patients without dysfunction. The approximation of the thyroid cartilage to the hyoid bone was significantly greater in individuals with normal epiglottic function than in those with epiglottic dysmobility. It is suggested that abnormal speed of peristalsis may be a mild form of dysfunction. Measurements of the aforementioned speed and movements can be done if bolus volume, age and position of the patient, film speed and magnifications factors are known. Hypotheses concerning epiglottic function and central control of swallowing are proposed. (au)

  7. Soft Electronics Enabled Ergonomic Human-Computer Interaction for Swallowing Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yongkuk; Nicholls, Benjamin; Sup Lee, Dong; Chen, Yanfei; Chun, Youngjae; Siang Ang, Chee; Yeo, Woon-Hong

    2017-04-01

    We introduce a skin-friendly electronic system that enables human-computer interaction (HCI) for swallowing training in dysphagia rehabilitation. For an ergonomic HCI, we utilize a soft, highly compliant (“skin-like”) electrode, which addresses critical issues of an existing rigid and planar electrode combined with a problematic conductive electrolyte and adhesive pad. The skin-like electrode offers a highly conformal, user-comfortable interaction with the skin for long-term wearable, high-fidelity recording of swallowing electromyograms on the chin. Mechanics modeling and experimental quantification captures the ultra-elastic mechanical characteristics of an open mesh microstructured sensor, conjugated with an elastomeric membrane. Systematic in vivo studies investigate the functionality of the soft electronics for HCI-enabled swallowing training, which includes the application of a biofeedback system to detect swallowing behavior. The collection of results demonstrates clinical feasibility of the ergonomic electronics in HCI-driven rehabilitation for patients with swallowing disorders.

  8. Gas thermodesorption study of barium and strontium cerates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksenova, T.I.; Khromushin, I.V.; Zhotabaev, Zh.R.; Bukenov, K.D.; Medvedeva, Z.V.; Berdauletov, A.K.

    2002-01-01

    Kinetic of water, oxygen, hydrogen and carbon dioxide molecules release from doped and undoped samples of barium cerates and doped strontium cerates during vacuum heating was studied. The samples were prepared by inductive melting method. The following two kinds of preliminary samples treatments were used: annealing in air (650-750 deg. C) and wet nitrogen atmosphere (625 deg.C). Main results of thermodesorption studies of barium and strontium cerates are represented in the table. The samples of doped LaSrMnO were investigated also. It was found that the initial doped samples (without preliminary annealing) did not show any gas release in temperature range of 20-1100 deg. C. This fact indicates on high stability of compositions and strong bond of 'host' oxygen in their lattice. A significant amount of water and oxygen molecules were released from BaCe 0.9 Nd 0.1 O 3 samples whereas water and hydrogen molecules desorption from SrCe 0.95 Y 0.05 O 3 samples took place. Hydrogen molecules desorption was found for strontium cerates samples; no hydrogen molecules release was observed for doped and pure barium cerate samples.Intensive water molecules release from doped samples confirms the necessity of oxygen vacancies creation in these compounds to get properties of proton conductivity, since it was not found any water molecules release from annealed undoped samples of BaCeO 3 It is necessary to notice that oxygen molecules release from these samples took place at ∼1000 deg. C that is significantly higher then from BaCeNdO samples. Forms of high temperatures part of oxygen and low temperature part of water spectra indicate that phase transformations are responsible for oxygen and water molecules desorption in this cases. These results are in good agreement with literature data. Desorption of water molecules from barium and strontium cerates took place. Oxygen desorption took place only from barium cerates. It can be explained as the following: doped barium cerates have

  9. The Effects of Oral-Motor Exercises on Swallowing in Children: An Evidence-Based Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvedson, Joan; Clark, Heather; Lazarus, Cathy; Schooling, Tracy; Frymark, Tobi

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this unregistered evidence-based systematic review was to determine the state and quality of evidence on the effects of oral motor exercises (OME) on swallowing physiology, pulmonary health, functional swallowing outcomes, and drooling management in children with swallowing disorders. Method: A systematic search of 20 electronic…

  10. Exposure to low-dose barium by drinking water causes hearing loss in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgami, Nobutaka; Hori, Sohjiro; Ohgami, Kyoko; Tamura, Haruka; Tsuzuki, Toyonori; Ohnuma, Shoko; Kato, Masashi

    2012-10-01

    We continuously ingest barium as a general element by drinking water and foods in our daily life. Exposure to high-dose barium (>100mg/kg/day) has been shown to cause physiological impairments. Direct administration of barium to inner ears by vascular perfusion has been shown to cause physiological impairments in inner ears. However, the toxic influence of oral exposure to low-dose barium on hearing levels has not been clarified in vivo. We analyzed the toxic influence of oral exposure to low-dose barium on hearing levels and inner ears in mice. We orally administered barium at low doses of 0.14 and 1.4 mg/kg/day to wild-type ICR mice by drinking water. The doses are equivalent to and 10-fold higher than the limit level (0.7 mg/l) of WHO health-based guidelines for drinking water, respectively. After 2-week exposure, hearing levels were measured by auditory brain stem responses and inner ears were morphologically analyzed. After 2-month exposure, tissue distribution of barium was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Low-dose barium in drinking water caused severe hearing loss in mice. Inner ears including inner and outer hair cells, stria vascularis and spiral ganglion neurons showed severe degeneration. The Barium-administered group showed significantly higher levels of barium in inner ears than those in the control group, while barium levels in bone did not show a significant difference between the two groups. Barium levels in other tissues including the cerebrum, cerebellum, heart, liver and kidney were undetectably low in both groups. Our results demonstrate for the first time that low-dose barium administered by drinking water specifically distributes to inner ears resulting in severe ototoxicity with degeneration of inner ears in mice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Regeneration of barium carbonate from barium sulphide in a pilot-scale bubbling column reactor and utilization for acid mine drainage

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mulopo, J

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Batch regeneration of barium carbonate (BaCO3) from barium sulphide (BaS) slurries by passing CO2 gas into a pilot-scale bubbling column reactor under ambient conditions was used to assess the technical feasibility of BaCO3 recovery in the Alkali...

  12. Deglutição com e sem comando verbal: achados videofluoroscópicos Swallowing with and without verbal commands: videofluoroscopy findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita de Cássia de Araújo Almeida

    2011-09-01

    swallowing problems. Mean age was 23 years and 5 months (SD±2.5, with a minimum age of 20 years and a maximum of 30 years, and 87.5% of the subjects were female (35/40. A videofluoroscopy swallowing study (VFSS was carried out with the ingestion of barium in the liquid, thick liquid, pureed and solid consistencies. Two swallowing tests were held during the administration of the liquid consistency, with and without verbal commands. The place of beginning of the pharyngeal phase of swallowing in different structures was analyzed, as well as the presence of premature spillage of food, delayed oral transit time, multiple swallowing, stasis, and laryngeal penetration and/or aspiration in both situations. RESULTS: The beginning of the pharyngeal phase took place in the base of the tongue and in the valleculae for most consistencies and quantities, with the exception of the liquid swallowing (5 ml, which started in the valleculae. There was no influence of the verbal command both in the place where the pharyngeal phase of swallowing started, and the presence of stasis of residue. However, the command was effective in reducing oropharyngeal findings. CONCLUSION: The pharyngeal phase of swallowing occurred in the base of the tongue and valleculae. The verbal commands influenced the dynamics of swallowing.

  13. The use of low-osmolar water-soluble contrast in videofluoroscopic swallowing exams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Julie A; Bartelt, Detlef; Campion, Molly; Gayler, Bob W; Jones, Bronwyn; Hayes, Andrea; Haynos, Judith; Herbick, Seanne; Kling, Therese; Lingaraj, Arpana; Singer, Michele; Starmer, Heather; Smith, Christine; Webster, Kim

    2013-12-01

    The selection of the contrast agent used during fluoroscopic exams is an important clinical decision. The purpose of this article is to document the usage of a nonionic, water-soluble contrast (iohexol) and barium contrast in adult patients undergoing fluoroscopic exams of the pharynx and/or esophagus and provide clinical indications for the use of each. For 1 year, data were collected on the use of iohexol and barium during fluoroscopic exams. The contrast agent used was selected by the speech language pathologist (SLP) or the radiologist based on the exam's indications. A total of 1,978 fluoroscopic exams were completed in the 12-month period of documentation. Of these exams, 60.6 % were completed for medical reasons and 39.4 % for surgical reasons. Fifty-five percent of the exams were performed jointly by a SLP and a radiologist and 45 % were performed by a radiologist alone. Aspiration was present in 22 % of the exams, vestibular penetration occurred in 38 %, extraluminal leakage of contrast was observed in 4.6 %, and both aspiration and leakage were seen in 1 % of the exams. In cases with aspiration, iohexol was used alone in 8 %, iohexol and barium were both used in 45 %, and barium was used alone in 47 %. In cases with extraluminal leakage, iohexol was used alone in 58 %, iohexol and barium were both used in 31 %, and barium was used alone in 11 %. No adverse effects were seen with the use of iohexol. When barium was used in cases of aspiration and extraluminal leakage, the amount of aspirated barium was small and the extraluminal barium in the instances of leakage was small. Iohexol is a useful screening contrast agent and can safely provide information, and its use reduces the risk of aspiration and the chance of leakage of large amounts of barium.

  14. Barium determination in gastric contents, blood and urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the case of oral barium chloride poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasik-Głębocka, Magdalena; Sommerfeld, Karina; Hanć, Anetta; Grzegorowski, Adam; Barałkiewicz, Danuta; Gaca, Michał; Zielińska-Psuja, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    A serious case of barium intoxication from suicidal ingestion is reported. Oral barium chloride poisoning with hypokalemia, neuromuscular and cardiac toxicity, treated with intravenous potassium supplementation and hemodialysis, was confirmed by the determination of barium concentrations in gastric contents, blood, serum and urine using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method. Barium concentrations in the analyzed specimens were 20.45 µg/L in serum, 150 µg/L in blood, 10,500 µg/L in urine and 63,500 µg/L in gastric contents. Results were compared with barium levels obtained from a non-intoxicated person. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Evaluating Swallowing Muscles Essential for Hyolaryngeal Elevation by Using Muscle Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearson, William G.; Hindson, David F.; Langmore, Susan E.; Zumwalt, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Reduced hyolaryngeal elevation, a critical event in swallowing, is associated with radiation therapy. Two muscle groups that suspend the hyoid, larynx, and pharynx have been proposed to elevate the hyolaryngeal complex: the suprahyoid and longitudinal pharyngeal muscles. Thought to assist both groups is the thyrohyoid, a muscle intrinsic to the hyolaryngeal complex. Intensity modulated radiation therapy guidelines designed to preserve structures important to swallowing currently exclude the suprahyoid and thyrohyoid muscles. This study used muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging (mfMRI) in normal healthy adults to determine whether both muscle groups are active in swallowing and to test therapeutic exercises thought to be specific to hyolaryngeal elevation. Methods and Materials: mfMRI data were acquired from 11 healthy subjects before and after normal swallowing and after swallowing exercise regimens (the Mendelsohn maneuver and effortful pitch glide). Whole-muscle transverse relaxation time (T2 signal, measured in milliseconds) profiles of 7 test muscles were used to evaluate the physiologic response of each muscle to each condition. Changes in effect size (using the Cohen d measure) of whole-muscle T2 profiles were used to determine which muscles underlie swallowing and swallowing exercises. Results: Post-swallowing effect size changes (where a d value of >0.20 indicates significant activity during swallowing) for the T2 signal profile of the thyrohyoid was a d value of 0.09; a d value of 0.40 for the mylohyoid, 0.80 for the geniohyoid, 0.04 for the anterior digastric, and 0.25 for the posterior digastric-stylohyoid in the suprahyoid muscle group; and d values of 0.47 for the palatopharyngeus and 0.28 for the stylopharyngeus muscles in the longitudinal pharyngeal muscle group. The Mendelsohn maneuver and effortful pitch glide swallowing exercises showed significant effect size changes for all muscles tested, except for the thyrohyoid. Conclusions

  16. Evaluating Swallowing Muscles Essential for Hyolaryngeal Elevation by Using Muscle Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, William G., E-mail: bp1@bu.edu [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Hindson, David F. [Department of Radiology, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Langmore, Susan E. [Department of Otolaryngology, Boston Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Speech and Hearing Sciences, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Zumwalt, Ann C. [Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Reduced hyolaryngeal elevation, a critical event in swallowing, is associated with radiation therapy. Two muscle groups that suspend the hyoid, larynx, and pharynx have been proposed to elevate the hyolaryngeal complex: the suprahyoid and longitudinal pharyngeal muscles. Thought to assist both groups is the thyrohyoid, a muscle intrinsic to the hyolaryngeal complex. Intensity modulated radiation therapy guidelines designed to preserve structures important to swallowing currently exclude the suprahyoid and thyrohyoid muscles. This study used muscle functional magnetic resonance imaging (mfMRI) in normal healthy adults to determine whether both muscle groups are active in swallowing and to test therapeutic exercises thought to be specific to hyolaryngeal elevation. Methods and Materials: mfMRI data were acquired from 11 healthy subjects before and after normal swallowing and after swallowing exercise regimens (the Mendelsohn maneuver and effortful pitch glide). Whole-muscle transverse relaxation time (T2 signal, measured in milliseconds) profiles of 7 test muscles were used to evaluate the physiologic response of each muscle to each condition. Changes in effect size (using the Cohen d measure) of whole-muscle T2 profiles were used to determine which muscles underlie swallowing and swallowing exercises. Results: Post-swallowing effect size changes (where a d value of >0.20 indicates significant activity during swallowing) for the T2 signal profile of the thyrohyoid was a d value of 0.09; a d value of 0.40 for the mylohyoid, 0.80 for the geniohyoid, 0.04 for the anterior digastric, and 0.25 for the posterior digastric-stylohyoid in the suprahyoid muscle group; and d values of 0.47 for the palatopharyngeus and 0.28 for the stylopharyngeus muscles in the longitudinal pharyngeal muscle group. The Mendelsohn maneuver and effortful pitch glide swallowing exercises showed significant effect size changes for all muscles tested, except for the thyrohyoid. Conclusions

  17. NASA/Max Planck Institute Barium Ion Cloud Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brence, W. A.; Carr, R. E.; Gerlach, J. C.; Neuss, H.

    1973-01-01

    NASA and the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE), Munich, Germany, conducted a cooperative experiment involving the release and study of a barium cloud at 31,500 km altitude near the equatorial plane. The release was made near local magnetic midnight on Sept. 21, 1971. The MPE-built spacecraft contained a canister of 16 kg of Ba CuO mixture, a two-axis magnetometer, and other payload instrumentation. The objectives of the experiment were to investigate the interaction of the ionized barium cloud with the ambient medium and to deduce the properties of electric fields in the proximity of the release. An overview of the project is given to briefly summarize the organization, responsibilities, objectives, instrumentation, and operational aspects of the project.

  18. Attainment of barium hexaferrite nanoparticles by a Pechini Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, S.B.; Timoteo, Jr.J.F.; Melo, G.M.; Souto, K.K.O.; Florioto, N.T.; Paskocimas, C.A.

    2009-01-01

    The barium hexaferrites (BaFe 12 O 19 ) are used as a compound of materials applied in electronic devices, as medical devices, satellites, dada servers systems, wireless systems and others. The general properties are strongly related to the microstructure and morphology, and the particles size decrease results in advantages to the majority applications, mainly the high-tech thumbnail devices. These magnetic ceramic materials, with perovskite structure, are traditionally prepared my conventional oxide mixture synthesis. In this work was studied the nanoparticle synthesis of BaFe 12 O 19 by the precursors polymeric method (Pechini), using as precursors the barium carbonate and the iron nitrate, under different thermal treatment conditions. The samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, BET, DTA and TGA. The results presented the attainment of a monophasic powder with particles size around 100 nm. (author)

  19. Influence of Magnetron Effect on Barium Hexaferrite Thin Layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassane, H.; Chatelon, J.P.; Rousseau, J.J; Siblini, A.; Kriga, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the effects of a magnet, located in the cathode, on barium hexaferrite thin films deposited by RF magnetron sputtering technique. During the process, these effects can modify thickness, roughness and stress of coatings. The characteristics of the deposited layers depend on the substrate position that is located opposite of magnetron cathode. In the m agnetron area , one can observe that the high stress can produce cracks or detachment of layers and the increasing of both depositing rate and surface roughness. After sputtering elaboration, barium hexaferrite films are in a compressive stress mode. But, after the post-deposition heat treatment these films are in a tensile stress mode. To improve the quality of BaM films, the subsrtate has to be set outside the magnetron area. (author)

  20. Electromagnetic properties of carbon black and barium titanate composite materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Guiqin; Chen Xiaodong; Duan Yuping; Liu Shunhua

    2008-01-01

    Nanocrystalline carbon black/barium titanate compound particle (CP) was synthesized by sol-gel method. The phase structure and morphology of compound particle were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and Raman spectrum measurements, the electroconductivity was test by trielectrode arrangement and the precursor powder was followed by differential scanning calorimetric measurements (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). In addition, the complex relative permittivity and permeability of compound particle were investigated by reflection method. The compound particle/epoxide resin composite (CP/EP) with different contents of CP were measured. The results show barium titanate crystal is tetragonal phase and its grain is oval shape with 80-100 nm which was coated by carbon black film. As electromagnetic (EM) complex permittivity, permeability and reflection loss (RL) shown that the compound particle is mainly a kind of electric and dielectric lossy materials and exhibits excellent microwave absorption performance in the X- and Ku-bands

  1. Attainment of barium hexa ferrite nanoparticles by a Pechini method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galvao, Sheila B.; Timoteo, Flavio Junior J.; Machado, Tercio G.; Souto, Kesia K.O.; Floreoto, Neide T.; Paskocimas, Carlos A.

    2009-01-01

    The barium hexa ferrites (BaFe 12 O 19 ) are used as a compound of materials applied in electronic devices, as medical devices, satellites, dada servers systems, wireless systems and others. The general properties are strongly related to the microstructure and morphology, and the particles size decrease results in advantages to the majority applications, mainly the high-tech thumbnail devices. These magnetic ceramic materials, with perovskite structure, are traditionally prepared my conventional oxide mixture synthesis. In this work was studied the nanoparticle synthesis of BaFe 12 O 19 by the precursors polymeric method (Pechini), using as precursors the barium carbonate and the iron nitrate, under different thermal treatment conditions. The samples were characterized by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, SEM, BET, DTA and TGA. The results presented the attainment of a monophasic powder with particles size around 100 nm. (author)

  2. Electromagnetic properties of photodefinable barium ferrite polymer composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sholiyi, Olusegun; Lee, Jaejin; Williams, John D.

    2014-07-01

    This article reports the magnetic and microwave properties of a Barium ferrite powder suspended in a polymer matrix. The sizes for Barium hexaferrite powder are 3-6 μm for coarse and 0.8-1.0 μm for the fine powder. Ratios 1:1 and 3:1 (by mass) of ferrite to SU8 samples were characterized and analyzed for predicting the necessary combinations of these powders with SU8 2000 Negative photoresist. The magnetization properties of these materials were equally determined and were analyzed using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The Thru, Reflect, Line (TRL) calibration technique was employed in determining complex relative permittivity and permeability of the powders and composites with SU8 between 26.5 and 40 GHz.

  3. Electromagnetic properties of photodefinable barium ferrite polymer composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Sholiyi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the magnetic and microwave properties of a Barium ferrite powder suspended in a polymer matrix. The sizes for Barium hexaferrite powder are 3–6 μm for coarse and 0.8–1.0 μm for the fine powder. Ratios 1:1 and 3:1 (by mass of ferrite to SU8 samples were characterized and analyzed for predicting the necessary combinations of these powders with SU8 2000 Negative photoresist. The magnetization properties of these materials were equally determined and were analyzed using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM. The Thru, Reflect, Line (TRL calibration technique was employed in determining complex relative permittivity and permeability of the powders and composites with SU8 between 26.5 and 40 GHz.

  4. Radium and thorium with barium in micronodules of cattle thyroids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Middlesworth, L.

    1980-01-01

    Radium isotopes were found concentrated in thyroid glands of cattle. The incidence of measurable radium varied from 80% to less than 0.1% in thyroids from different abattoirs. The radium was concentrated in microscopic bodies containing predominantly barium and sulfur and lying within the storage of thyroglobulin, adjacent to follicular cells. Some thyroid cells may receive biologically significant doses of alpha radiation from these sources

  5. Preparation of barium and uranium targets on thick backings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sletten, G.

    1982-01-01

    Targets of 135 Ba and 235 U have been prepared by the technique of heavy ion sputtering. Rolled foils of 208 Pb and 197 Au were used to support 250-500 μg/cm 2 layers of barium. Uranium films have been prepared by sputtering UO 2 onto 1 mg/cm 2 titanium foils. Uranium deposit thicknesses of 300 to 1800 μg/cm 2 have been prepared. (orig.)

  6. Barium enema and CT findings of Douglas pouch metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyakawa, Kunihisa; Uchiyama, Nachiko; Iinuma, Hajime; Moriyama, Noriyuki

    1999-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed barium enema and CT findings of Douglas pouch metastasis in 170 patients. The findings were divided into three types: Anterior compression type, anterior fixed folds type, and stenosis type. Patients with gastric cancer usually showed a stenosis type, especially in those with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Patients with colon and ovary cancer usually showed an anterior compression type. In patients with gastric cancer, those who showed a stenosis type had the most favorable prognosis among these three types. (author)

  7. Synthesis and characterization of barium ferrite–silica nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-González, M.A.; Mendoza-Suárez, G.; Padmasree, K.P.

    2013-01-01

    In this work, we prepared barium ferrite-silica (BaM-SiO 2 ) nanocomposites of different molar ratios by high-energy ball milling, followed by heat-treatment at different temperatures. The microstructure, morphology and magnetic properties were characterized for different synthesis conditions by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM). The results indicate that 15 h of milling was enough to avoid the generation of hematite phase and to get a good dispersion of barium ferrite particles in the ceramic matrix. For milling periods beyond 15 h and heat treatment above 900 °C, the XRD patterns showed the presence of hematite phase caused by the decomposition of BaM. The agglomerate size observed through SEM analysis was around 150 nm with a good BaM dispersion into the SiO 2 matrix. The highest saturation magnetization (Ms) value obtained was 43 emu/g and the corresponding coercivity (Hc) value of 3.4 kOe for the composition 60BaM-40SiO 2 milled for 15 h and heat treated at 900 °C. This coercivity value is acceptable for the application in magnetic recording media. Highlights: • Barium ferrite–silica nanocomposites were prepared by high energy ball milling. • Optimal processing time is 15 h milling and heat treatment at 900 °C. • This is enough to avoid the generation of hematite phase. • Obtain good dispersion of barium ferrite particles in the ceramic matrix • Above this processing time shows the presence of increased amount of hematite

  8. Optical and luminescent properties of the lead and barium molybdates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spassky, D.A. E-mail: dima@opts.phys.msu.ru; Ivanov, S.N.; Kolobanov, V.N.; Mikhailin, V.V.; Zemskov, V.N.; Zadneprovski, B.I.; Potkin, L.I

    2004-12-01

    Time-resolved luminescence as well as excitation and reflectivity spectra of the oriented lead and barium molybdate single crystals were studied using synchrotron radiation. Features in reflectivity spectra in the fundamental absorption region were analyzed. The contribution of electronic states of lead cation to the formation of the bandgap in PbMoO{sub 4} is supposed. The role of lead states in the intrinsic luminescence of PbMoO{sub 4} is discussed.

  9. Clinical efficacy of a new barium sulfate for abdominal CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Tatuya; Kohno, Mitio; Uematsu, Sadao; Nisitani, Hiromu; Tanaka, Takao.

    1988-01-01

    Computed Tomography of the abdomen requires that the intestines are filled with contrast medium so that the gut is not misinterpreted as a pathologic process. Besides, normal structures may be difficult to delimit in patients with scanty intra-abdominal fat. In Japan, up to date, only a single contrast medium has been available for this purpose, Gastrografin and thus identical with the intravasculaly used Urografin or Angiografin. A new Barium Sulfate suspention (Fusimi Seiyaku, Kagawa) for computed tomographic use has been dilute solution (4.77 %) and with suspending agents that prevent a rapid sedimentation of the Barium Sulfate. The aim of this investigation was to compare Gastrografin with a new barium regarding patients tolerance, side effects and diagnostic information. The investigation comprised 146 patients who were reffered for abdominal CT and was carried out by 5 facilities; National Cancer Center, Kobe University, Chiba University, Kyushu University and Juntendo University. Diagnostic information was judged with respect to the filling of the stomach and intestines, the presence of imaging artifacts and finally clinical estimation. Patients tolerance was investigated as regards taste and side effects. Good filling of the stomach and intestines was obtained in this investigation. However, imaging artifacts occured in only a few cases. The imaging artifacts appeared almost exclusively to arise in the boundary layer between the bowel gas and contrast medium, and were most common in the stomach. However, the contrasting effect of this medium did not in itself appear to cause any imaging artifacts. Fushimi's new barium seems to be preffered because of its lesser tendency to arise artifacts and better tendency to make good filling of the stomach and intestines. Moreover, this investigation did not have any side effects. (J.P.N.)

  10. Structure and multiferroic properties of barium hexaferrite ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Guolong; Chen, Xiuna

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous occurrence of large ferroelectricity and strong ferromagnetism have been observed in barium hexaferrite ceramics. Barium hexaferrite (BaFe 12 O 19 ) powders with hexagonal crystal structure were successfully synthesized in a polymer precursor method using barium acetate and ferric acetylacetonate as the precursors. The powders were pressed into pellets which were sintered into ceramics at 1200 °C and 1300 °C for 1 h. The structure and morphology of the ceramics were examined using X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Large spontaneous polarization was observed in the BaFe 12 O 19 ceramics at room temperature, revealing a clear ferroelectric hysteresis loop. The maximum remanent polarization of the BaFe 12 O 19 ceramic was estimated approximately 11.8 μC cm −2 . The FeO 6 octahedron in its perovskite-like hexagonal unit cell and the shift of Fe 3+ off the center of octahedron are suggested to be the origin of the polarization in BaFe 12 O 19 . The BaFe 12 O 19 ceramics also showed strong ferromagnetism at room temperature. - Graphical abstract: Ferroelectric hysteresis loops of BaFe 12 O 19 ceramics measured at a frequency of 120 Hz, which shows that the ceramics sintered at 1200 °C is ferroelectric with P r ∼11.8 μC/cm 2 . Highlights: ► Large ferroelectricity and strong ferromagnetism were observed in barium hexaferrite ceramics. ► The maximum remanent polarization of the BaFe 12 O 19 ceramic was estimated to be 11.8 μC cm −2 . ► The FeO 6 octahedron and off-center shift of Fe 3+ are suggested to be the origin of the polarization.

  11. Barium fluoride surface preparation, analysis and UV reflective coatings at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wuest, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has begun a program of study on barium fluoride scintillating crystals for the Barium Fluoride Electromagnetic Calorimeter Collaboration. This program has resulted in a number of significant improvements in the mechanical processing, polishing and coating of barium fluoride crystals. Techniques have been developed using diamond-loaded pitch lapping that can produce 15 angstrom RMS surface finishes over large areas. These lapped surfaces have been shown to be crystalline using Rutherford Back-scattering (RBS). Also, special polishing fixtures have been designed based on mounting technology developed for the 1.1 m diameter optics used in LLNL's Nova Laser. These fixtures allow as many as five 25--50 cm long barium fluoride crystals to be polished and lapped at a time with the necessary tolerances for the 16,000 crystal Barium Fluoride Calorimeter. In addition, results will be presented on coating barium fluoride with UV reflective layers of magnesium fluoride and aluminum

  12. Early colon cancer : findings on double contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Kwon; Lim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Soon Jin; Lim, Hyo Keun

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the radiologic findings of early colon cancer on double-contrast barium enema. We retrospectively reviewed the double-contrast barium enemas of eight patients (M:F = 6:2; mean age : 67 yrs; range : 48-77 yrs) who were pathologically proven to be early colon cancer. The location, size and gross morphology of lesions was evaluated using double-contrast barium enema, while depth of invasion, degree of differentiation, precancerous lesions and lymph node metastasis were evaluated histopathologically. Early colon cancer was found in the rectum (n=4), sigmoid colon (n=3) and ascending colon (n=1). The size of mass ranged from 2.3 ∼ 8.3 (mean, 4.6) cm. And the polypoid type was most common (n=7); this was subdivided into sessile (Is, n=5), semipedunculated (Isp, n=1) and pedunculated type (Ip, n=1). Another mass was a sessile polypoid combined with a flat depressed lesion. In eight cases, four cancers were confined to the mucosa, while the remaining four had infiltrated the submucosa. Most cancers arose from villous and villotubular adenoma. All cases were well-differentiated adenocarcinoma and no metastasis to lymph nodes had occurred. In early colon cancer, lesions were mainly polypoid and large. Most arose from villous and villotubular adenoma. (author). 19 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  13. Complications from radiographer-performed double contrast barium enemas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vora, P.; Chapman, A. E-mail: anthony.chapman@leedsth.nhs.uk

    2004-04-01

    AIM: To determine the types and rates of complications encountered by radiographers when performing double contrast barium enemas (DCBE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven hundred and forty-one questionnaires were posted to radiographers who had in the last 5 years attended one of the biannual barium enema training courses. RESULTS: Of 741 questionnaires posted 407 (54.9%) were returned completed. Approximately 348,000 barium enema examinations had been performed. Fifty-nine radiographers reported 89 complications, including 13 intra-peritoneal and 11 extra-peritoneal perforations. There were five deaths (mortality 1 in 70,000). Deaths resulted from two of 24 (10%) perforations, two of 45 (5%) cardiac events and one cerebrovascular accident that occurred during an examination. CONCLUSIONS: Radiographers have been regularly performing DCBEs for almost a decade. The mortality for radiographer-performed DCBE is similar to that previously reported for radiologists, although a slightly higher rate of perforation is noted and so this is an area where radiographer training should be targeted.

  14. Complications from radiographer-performed double contrast barium enemas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vora, P.; Chapman, A.

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To determine the types and rates of complications encountered by radiographers when performing double contrast barium enemas (DCBE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven hundred and forty-one questionnaires were posted to radiographers who had in the last 5 years attended one of the biannual barium enema training courses. RESULTS: Of 741 questionnaires posted 407 (54.9%) were returned completed. Approximately 348,000 barium enema examinations had been performed. Fifty-nine radiographers reported 89 complications, including 13 intra-peritoneal and 11 extra-peritoneal perforations. There were five deaths (mortality 1 in 70,000). Deaths resulted from two of 24 (10%) perforations, two of 45 (5%) cardiac events and one cerebrovascular accident that occurred during an examination. CONCLUSIONS: Radiographers have been regularly performing DCBEs for almost a decade. The mortality for radiographer-performed DCBE is similar to that previously reported for radiologists, although a slightly higher rate of perforation is noted and so this is an area where radiographer training should be targeted

  15. Microwave-hydrothermal synthesis of barium strontium titanate nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simoes, A.Z.; Moura, F.; Onofre, T.B.; Ramirez, M.A.; Varela, J.A.; Longo, E.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Barium strontium titanate nanoparticles were obtained by the Hydrothemal microwave technique (HTMW) → This is a genuine technique to obtain nanoparticles at low temperature and short times → Barium strontium titanate free of carbonates with tetragonal structure was grown at 130 o C. - Abstract: Hydrothermal-microwave method (HTMW) was used to synthesize crystalline barium strontium titanate (Ba 0.8 Sr 0.2 TiO 3 ) nanoparticles (BST) in the temperature range of 100-130 o C. The crystallization of BST with tetragonal structure was reached at all the synthesis temperatures along with the formation of BaCO 3 as a minor impurity at lower syntheses temperatures. Typical FT-IR spectra for tetragonal (BST) nanoparticles presented well defined bands, indicating a substantial short-range order in the system. TG-DTA analyses confirmed the presence of lattice OH- groups, commonly found in materials obtained by HTMW process. FE/SEM revealed that lower syntheses temperatures led to a morphology that consisted of uniform grains while higher syntheses temperature consisted of big grains isolated and embedded in a matrix of small grains. TEM has shown BST nanoparticles with diameters between 40 and 80 nm. These results show that the HTMW synthesis route is rapid, cost effective, and could serve as an alternative to obtain BST nanoparticles.

  16. Spectrophotometry of barium, CH, and R-type carbon stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gow, C.E.

    1976-01-01

    Observations of 35 barium, CH, R, and hydrogen-deficient carbon stars, along with ten comparison K giants, have been made with the Indiana rapid spectrum scanner and the Indiana SIT vidicon spectrometer. The scanner observations cover a wavelength range of 3300--7000 A at 30-A resolution, while the SIT vidicon observations cover a wavelength range of 3800--5000 A at 2.5-A resolution. The data have been used to form molecular indices for a quantitative measurement of the strength of molecular features appearing in this region of the spectrum, and to compare the spectral energy distribution of carbon and oxygen stars over the entire observed wavelength range. We find the C 2 Swan index correlated strongly with both the strength of an unidentified feature centered near 4000 A, and the barium-to-hydrogen ratio. A detailed comparison of the spectral energy distribution of the barium stars with normal K giants shows that this unidentified absorption feature consists of two shallows depressions, one at 4000 A and another at 4325 A

  17. Effects of polyacrylic acid additive on barium sulfate particle morphology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jie; Liu, Dandan; Jiang, Hongkun; Wang, Jun; Jing, Xiaoyan; Chen, Rongrong [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Zhu, Wenting [Department of Gastroenterology, Harbin Medical University Cancer Hospital, Harbin 150081 (China); Han, Shihui [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Li, Wanyou [College of Power and Energy Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); Wei, Hao, E-mail: weihao7512@126.com [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Material Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China); College of Power and Energy Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, polyacrylic acid (PAA) was used as a growth modifier to control micron-sized barium sulfate particles via a simple precipitation reaction between sodium sulfate and barium chloride at ambient temperature. The barium sulfate particles were exhibited various morphologies, such as monodisperse spheres, ellipsoids, rose-like aggregates, etc. To better understand the formation mechanisms of the various morphologies of these particles, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) were employed. It was found that the PAA concentration, pH, and Ba{sup 2+} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions concentrations were the most important parameters controlling the morphology of the BaSO{sub 4} particles. These parameters affected the BaSO{sub 4} morphology by influencing the interactions between the PAA carboxyl groups and inorganic ions and the conformation change of the PAA molecular chains. Moreover, this work attempts to provide a preliminary understanding of the formation of the spherical BaSO{sub 4} particles with the randomly coiled conformation of the polymer. - Highlights: • Polyacrylic acid (PAA) was used as a growth modifier to control micron-sized BaSO{sub 4} particles. • The PAA/BaSO{sub 4} particles were exhibited various morphologies. • Provide a preliminary understanding of the formation mechanism of BaSO{sub 4} particles.

  18. Barium as a potential indicator of phosphorus in agricultural runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlgren, Joakim; Djodjic, Faruk; Wallin, Mats

    2012-01-01

    In many catchments, anthropogenic input of contaminants, and in particular phosphorus (P), into surface water is a mixture of agricultural and sewage runoff. Knowledge about the relative contribution from each of these sources is vital for mitigation of major environmental problems such as eutrophication. In this study, we investigated whether the distribution of trace elements in surface waters can be used to trace the contamination source. Water from three groups of streams was investigated: streams influenced only by agricultural runoff, streams influenced mainly by sewage runoff, and reference streams. Samples were collected at different flow regimes and times of year and analyzed for 62 elements using ICP-MS. Our results show that there are significant differences between the anthropogenic sources affecting the streams in terms of total element composition and individual elements, indicating that the method has the potential to trace anthropogenic impact on surface waters. The elements that show significant differences between sources are strontium (p barium (p barium shows the greatest potential as a tracer for an individual source of anthropogenic input to surface waters. We observed a strong relationship between barium and total P in the investigated samples (R(2) = 0.78), which could potentially be used to apportion anthropogenic sources of P and thereby facilitate targeting of mitigation practices. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. Indications and interpretation of esophageal function testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, C Prakash; de Bortoli, Nicola; Clarke, John; Marinelli, Carla; Tolone, Salvatore; Roman, Sabine; Savarino, Edoardo

    2018-05-12

    Esophageal symptoms are common, and can arise from mucosal, motor, functional, and neoplastic processes, among others. Judicious use of diagnostic testing can help define the etiology of symptoms and can direct management. Endoscopy, esophageal high-resolution manometry (HRM), ambulatory pH or pH-impedance manometry, and barium radiography are commonly used for esophageal function testing; functional lumen imaging probe is an emerging option. Recent consensus guidelines have provided direction in using test findings toward defining mechanisms of esophageal symptoms. The Chicago Classification describes hierarchical steps in diagnosing esophageal motility disorders. The Lyon Consensus characterizes conclusive evidence on esophageal testing for a diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and establishes a motor classification of GERD. Taking these recent advances into consideration, our discussion focuses primarily on the indications, technique, equipment, and interpretation of esophageal HRM and ambulatory reflux monitoring in the evaluation of esophageal symptoms, and describes indications for alternative esophageal tests. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Therapeutic singing as an early intervention for swallowing in persons with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemöller, E L; Hibbing, P; Radig, H; Wingate, J

    2017-04-01

    For persons with Parkinson's disease (PD), secondary motor symptoms such as swallow impairment impact the quality of life and are major contributors to mortality. There is a present need for therapeutic interventions aimed at improving swallow function during the early stages of PD. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of a group therapeutic singing intervention on swallowing in persons with PD with no significant dysphagia symptoms. Cohort study. University in the United States. Twenty-four participants with PD. Eight weeks of group therapeutic singing. Electromyography (EMG) was used to assess muscle activity associated with swallow pre and post the group singing intervention. Swallow quality of life (SWAL-QOL) and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) were also obtained pre- and post-intervention. Participants reported minimal difficulty with swallowing, yet results revealed a significant increase in EMG outcome measures, as well as significant improvement in UPDRS total and UPDRS motor scores. No significant differences were revealed for SWAL-QOL. Increases in EMG timing measures may suggest that group singing results in the prolongation of laryngeal elevation, protecting the airway from foreign material for longer periods of time during swallow. Combined with the improvement in UPDRS clinical measures, therapeutic singing may be an engaging early intervention strategy to address oropharyngeal dysphagia while also benefiting additional clinical symptoms of PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dysphagia in Lewy body dementia - a clinical observational study of swallowing function by videofluoroscopic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londos, Elisabet; Hanxsson, Oskar; Alm Hirsch, Ingrid; Janneskog, Anna; Bülow, Margareta; Palmqvist, Sebastian

    2013-10-07

    Dysphagia, which can result in aspiration pneumonia and death, is a well-known problem in patients with dementia and Parkinson's disease. There are few studies on dysphagia in patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), especially studies objectively documenting the type of swallowing dysfunction. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the prevalence, and define the actual swallowing dysfunction according to a videofluoroscopic swallowing examination (VFSE) in patients with DLB and PDD. Eighty-two consecutive patients with DLB or PDD in a clinical follow-up program were asked about symptoms of dysphagia. Those experiencing dysphagia were examined with VFSE. Prevalence and type of swallowing dysfunction was recorded. Twenty-six patients (32%) reported symptoms of dysphagia such as swallowing difficulties or coughing. Twenty-four (92%) of these had a documented swallowing dysfunction on VFSE. Eighty-eight percent suffered from pharyngeal dysfunction. Almost all DLB or PDD patients with subjective signs of dysphagia had pathologic results on VFSE, the majority of pharyngeal type. This type of dysphagia has not been reported in DLB before. The results have clinical implications and highlight the importance of asking for and examining swallowing function to prevent complications such as aspiration.

  2. Swallowing and deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troche, Michelle S.; Brandimore, Alexandra E.; Foote, Kelly D.; Okun, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to assess the current state of the literature on the topic of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and its effects on swallowing function in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Pubmed, Cochrane review, and web of science searches were completed on all articles addressing DBS that contained a swallowing outcome measure. Outcome measures included the penetration/aspiration scale, pharyngeal transit time, oropharyngeal residue, drooling, aspiration pneumonia, death, hyolaryngeal excursion, epiglottic inversion, UPDRS scores, and presence of coughing/throat clearing during meals. The search identified 13 studies specifically addressing the effects of DBS on swallowing. Critical assessment of the 13 identified peer-reviewed publications revealed nine studies employing an experimental design, (e.g. “on” vs. “off”, pre- vs. post-DBS) and four case reports. None of the nine experimental studies were found to identify clinically significant improvement or decline in swallowing function with DBS. Despite these findings, several common threads were identified across experimental studies and will be examined in this review. Additionally, available data demonstrate that, although subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation has been considered to cause more impairment to swallowing function than globus pallidus internus (GPi) stimulation, there are no experimental studies directly comparing swallowing function in STN vs. GPi. Moreover, there has been no comparison of unilateral vs. bilateral DBS surgery and the coincident effects on swallowing function. This review includes a critical analysis of all experimental studies and discusses methodological issues that should be addressed in future studies. PMID:23726461

  3. Non-invasive assessment determine the swallowing and respiration dysfunction in early Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chin-Man; Shieh, Wann-Yun; Weng, Yi-Hsin; Hsu, Yi-Hsuan; Wu, Yih-Ru

    2017-09-01

    Dysphagia is common among patients with Parkinson's disease. Swallowing and its coordination with respiration is extremely important to achieve safety swallowing. Different tools have been used to assess this coordination, however the results have been inconsistent. We aimed to investigate this coordination in patients with Parkinson's disease using a non-invasive method. Signals of submental muscle activity, thyroid cartilage excursion, and nasal airflow during swallowing were recorded simultaneously. Five different water boluses were swallowed three times, and the data were recorded and analyzed. Thirty-seven controls and 42 patients with early-stage Parkinson's disease were included. The rates of non-expiratory/expiratory pre- and post-swallowing respiratory phase patterns were higher in the patients than in the controls (P Parkinson's disease, and safety compensation mechanisms were used more than efficiency during swallowing. The results of this study may serve as a baseline for further research into new treatment regimens and to improve the management of swallowing in patients with Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of chair-side evaluation system of swallowing discomfort of denture wearers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Keisuke; Ikuta, Ryuhei; Kataoka, Kanako; Ono, Yumie; Tamaki, Katsushi

    2018-02-01

    We investigated the appropriate hemodynamic parameters of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to best differentiate the discomfort intensity related to swallowing in healthy subjects wearing different types of simulated dentures. Thirty-one subjects performed 4 sessions of water-swallowing task in a sitting position without or with wearing any one of the 3 simulated dentures under continuous fNIRS monitoring of the prefrontal cortex. The simulated dentures were consisted of a flat maxillary palatal bar and bilateral support attachment to the teeth and gum. The palatal bar positions were arranged along with the anterior, middle, or posterior areas of the upper jaw. The cumulative values of oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin concentration changes were calculated for periods of 5 - 10 s from completion of swallowing. Subjective rating of swallowing-discomfort was the lowest without wearing denture and increased along with the palatal bar position placed from anterior to posterior. Cumulated deoxyhemoglobin signals calculated for 10 s post-swallowing event in the left frontopolar prefrontal cortex showed the best correlation with the subjective rating of discomfort in swallowing with dentures. These neurological signatures would be beneficial to detect swallowing discomfort in elderly denture wearers who have difficulty in communicating with dentists.

  5. Characterizing Dysphagia and Swallowing Intervention in the Traumatic Spinal Injury Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzano, Teresa J.; Waito, Ashley A.; Steele, Catriona M.

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia is reported to be a common secondary complication for individuals with traumatic spinal injuries. Different etiologies of traumatic spinal injuries may lead to different profiles of swallowing impairment. We conducted a systematic review to determine the characteristics of dysphagia after traumatic spinal injury and to describe interventions currently used to improve swallowing function in this population. A comprehensive multi-engine literature search identified 137 articles of which 5 were judged to be relevant. These underwent review for study quality, rating for level of evidence, and data extraction. The literature describing dysphagia after traumatic spinal injury was comprised predominantly of low level evidence and single case reports. Aspiration, pharyngeal residue, and decreased/absent hyolaryngeal elevation were found to be common characteristics of dysphagia in this population. The most commonly used swallowing interventions included tube feeding, compensatory swallowing strategies, and steroids/antibiotics. Improvement in swallowing function following swallowing intervention was reported in all studies, however there was no control for spontaneous recovery. The results demonstrate a need for high-quality research to profile the pathophysiology of dysphagia after traumatic spinal injury and controlled studies to demonstrate the efficacy of swallowing interventions in this population. PMID:27412004

  6. Routine Use of Contrast Swallow After Total Gastrectomy and Esophagectomy: Is it Justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sourani, Nader; Bruns, Helge; Troja, Achim; Raab, Hans-Rudolf; Antolovic, Dalibor

    2017-01-01

    After gastrectomy or esophagectomy, esophagogastrostomy and esophagojejunostomy are commonly used for reconstruction. Water-soluble contrast swallow is often used as a routine screening to exclude anastomotic leakage during the first postoperative week. In this retrospective study, the sensitivity and specificity of oral water-soluble contrast swallow for the detection of anastomotic leakage and its clinical symptoms were analysed. Records of 104 consecutive total gastrectomies and distal esophagectomies were analysed. In all cases, upper gastrointestinal contrast swallow with the use of a water-soluble contrast agent was performed on the 5 th postoperative day. Extravasation of the contrast agent was defined as anastomotic leakage. When anastomotic insufficiency was suspected but no extravasation was present, a computed tomography (CT) scan and upper endoscopy were performed. Oral contrast swallow detected 7 anastomotic leaks. Based on CT-scans and upper endoscopy, the true number of anastomotic leakage was 15. The findings of the oral contrast swallow were falsely positive in 4 and falsely negative in 12 patients, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the oral contrast swallow was 20% and 96%, respectively. Routine radiological contrast swallow following total gastrectomy or distal esophagectomy cannot be recommended. When symptoms of anastomotic leakage are present, a CT-scan and endoscopy are currently the methods of choice.

  7. Assessment of swallowing and its disorders—A dynamic MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vijay Kumar, K.V., E-mail: vijaykumarkv@yahoo.in [Department of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences, SRU (India); Shankar, V., E-mail: drshankarv@yahoo.co.in [Department of Neurology, SRU (India); Santosham, Roy, E-mail: santoshamroy@yahoo.com [Department of Radiology and Imaging Sciences, SRU (India)

    2013-02-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging overcomes the limitations of videofluoroscopy in assessing without radiation exposure. The clinical utility of dynamic MRI for swallowing disorders is not well documented. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using dynamic MRI in assessment of swallowing disorders. Ten normal and three brainstem lesion patients participated in this study. GE Signa HDxt 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner with head-and-neck coil as a receiver and fast imaging employing steady state acquisition sequence was used. The swallow was analyzed in terms of symmetry and amplitude of movements of velum, faucial pillars, tongue, epiglottis and cricopharyngeous and images from the sagittal, coronal and axial planes. In sagittal plane posterior movement of tongue and its compression on velum, elevation of hyoid bone, elevation of larynx and lid action of epiglottis, in the coronal view the symmetrical movements of the faucial pillars and pharyngeal constrictor muscles and in axial plane three anatomical landmarks were targeted based on their role in swallowing, viz. velum, epiglottis and cricopharyngeous were studied. In brainstem lesion individuals, posterior movement of tongue, and elevation of larynx were not seen. Asymmetrical movements of faucial pillars and cricopharyngeous muscle were appreciated in the dynamic MRI. This demonstrates that, dynamic MRI is an efficient tool to understand the swallowing physiology and helps the speech language pathologist in modifying the swallowing maneuvers. Dynamic MRI is an effective tool in assessing swallowing and its disorders. This muscle specific information is not appreciated in videofluoroscopy and this information is necessary to modify the therapy maneuvers.

  8. Assessment of swallowing and its disorders—A dynamic MRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijay Kumar, K.V.; Shankar, V.; Santosham, Roy

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging overcomes the limitations of videofluoroscopy in assessing without radiation exposure. The clinical utility of dynamic MRI for swallowing disorders is not well documented. This study demonstrates the feasibility of using dynamic MRI in assessment of swallowing disorders. Ten normal and three brainstem lesion patients participated in this study. GE Signa HDxt 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner with head-and-neck coil as a receiver and fast imaging employing steady state acquisition sequence was used. The swallow was analyzed in terms of symmetry and amplitude of movements of velum, faucial pillars, tongue, epiglottis and cricopharyngeous and images from the sagittal, coronal and axial planes. In sagittal plane posterior movement of tongue and its compression on velum, elevation of hyoid bone, elevation of larynx and lid action of epiglottis, in the coronal view the symmetrical movements of the faucial pillars and pharyngeal constrictor muscles and in axial plane three anatomical landmarks were targeted based on their role in swallowing, viz. velum, epiglottis and cricopharyngeous were studied. In brainstem lesion individuals, posterior movement of tongue, and elevation of larynx were not seen. Asymmetrical movements of faucial pillars and cricopharyngeous muscle were appreciated in the dynamic MRI. This demonstrates that, dynamic MRI is an efficient tool to understand the swallowing physiology and helps the speech language pathologist in modifying the swallowing maneuvers. Dynamic MRI is an effective tool in assessing swallowing and its disorders. This muscle specific information is not appreciated in videofluoroscopy and this information is necessary to modify the therapy maneuvers

  9. New Swallowing Evaluation Using Piezoelectricity in Normal Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogawa, Yuichiro; Kimura, Shinji; Harigai, Toru; Sakurai, Naoki; Toyosato, Akira; Nishikawa, Taro; Inoue, Makoto; Murasawa, Akira; Endo, Naoto

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the relationship between the piezoelectric waveform latency, hyoid bone movement, surface electromyogram (sEMG), and the pharyngeal transit time (PTT) during swallowing. Forty-one healthy subjects were divided into three age groups: younger (20-39 years, n = 8), middle-aged (40-59 years, n = 9), and older (60-79 years, n = 24). Motion analysis of the hyoid bone using videofluorography (VF), waveform analysis of the front neck using piezoelectric films, and sEMG of the suprahyoid muscle group were performed simultaneously. Latencies of the three movement phases were defined as upward (VFS1), forward (VFS2), and returning to starting position (VFS3). The three phases of the piezoelectric waveform-from wave initiation of the negative wave to the start of the second deep negative wave; from the start of the second deep negative wave to the start of the last positive wave (SLPW); and from the SLPW to the end of the last positive wave-were defined as PS1, PS2, and PS3, respectively. VFS1-3 and PS1-3 were significantly correlated. VFS1 and PS1 latencies were significantly longer with thick liquid than with thin liquid. VFS2, PS1, and PS2 latencies were longer in the older group than in the other two groups. The start of PS1 was nearly equal to those of sEMG and VFS1. Bolus arrival time in the valleculae was statistically equal to the end of the PS1 with both thin and thick liquids. To establish the swallowing screening using Piezoelectric film, further investigation is necessary in the dysphagia patients.

  10. Strontium-90 sorption from fresh waters in the process of barium manganite modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryzhen'kov, A.P.; Egorov, Yu.V.

    1995-01-01

    Strontium-90 extraction by barium manganite from fresh water (natural non-salty water in open ponds) may be increased adding to the solution the sulfate anion containing reagents that modify a sorbent and chemically bind a sorbate. Heterogeneous anion-exchanging reaction of barium manganite transformation into barium sulfate-manganese dioxide and simultaneous coprecipitation of strontium sulfate (microelement) occur as a result of it. 9 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  11. Simplified assessment of segmental gastrointestinal transit time with orally small amount of barium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Weitang; Zhang, Zhiyong; Liu, Jinbo; Li, Zhen; Song, Junmin; Wu, Changcai [Department of Colorectal Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital and Institute of Clinical Medicine, Zhengzhou University, 450052 Zhengzhou (China); Wang, Guixian, E-mail: guixianwang@hotmail.com [Department of Colorectal Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital and Institute of Clinical Medicine, Zhengzhou University, 450052 Zhengzhou (China)

    2012-09-15

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness and advantage of small amount of barium in the measurement of gastrointestinal transmission function in comparison with radio-opaque pallets. Methods: Protocal 1: 8 healthy volunteers (male 6, female 2) with average age 40 ± 6.1 were subjected to the examination of radio-opaque pellets and small amount of barium with the interval of 1 week. Protocol 2: 30 healthy volunteers in group 1 (male 8, female 22) with average age 42.5 ± 8.1 and 50 patients with chronic functional constipation in group 2 (male 11, female 39) with average age 45.7 ± 7.8 were subjected to the small amount of barium examination. The small amount of barium was made by 30 g barium dissolved in 200 ml breakfast. After taking breakfast which contains barium, objectives were followed with abdominal X-ray at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 h until the barium was evacuated totally. Results: Small amount of barium presented actual chyme or stool transit. The transit time of radio-opaque pallets through the whole gastrointestinal tract was significantly shorter than that of barium (37 ± 8 h vs. 47 ± 10 h, P < 0.05) in healthy people. The transit times of barium in constipation patients were markedly prolonged in colon (61.1 ± 22 vs. 37.3 ± 11, P < 0.01) and rectum (10.8 ± 3.7 vs. 2.3 ± 0.8 h, P < 0.01) compared with unconstipated volunteers. Transit times in individual gastrointestinal segments were also recorded by using small amount of barium, which allowed identifying the subtypes of constipation. Conclusion: The small amount barium examination is a convenient and low cost method to provide the most useful and reliable information on the transmission function of different gastrointestinal segments and able to classify the subtypes of slow transit constipation.

  12. A Comparative Study on Magnetostructural Properties of Barium Hexaferrite Powders Prepared by Polyethylene Glycol

    OpenAIRE

    Zehra Durmus

    2014-01-01

    Nanocrystalline particles of barium hexaferrite were synthesized by a sol-gel combustion route using nitrate-citrate gels prepared from metal nitrates and citric acid solutions with Fe/Ba molar ratio 12. The present paper aims to study the effect of addition of polyethylene glycol (PEG) solutions with different molecular weights (MW: 400, 2000, and 10.000 g/mol) on magnetostructural properties of barium hexaferrite. The formation of the barium hexaferrite was inspected using X-ray diffractio...

  13. Simplified assessment of segmental gastrointestinal transit time with orally small amount of barium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Weitang; Zhang, Zhiyong; Liu, Jinbo; Li, Zhen; Song, Junmin; Wu, Changcai; Wang, Guixian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effectiveness and advantage of small amount of barium in the measurement of gastrointestinal transmission function in comparison with radio-opaque pallets. Methods: Protocal 1: 8 healthy volunteers (male 6, female 2) with average age 40 ± 6.1 were subjected to the examination of radio-opaque pellets and small amount of barium with the interval of 1 week. Protocol 2: 30 healthy volunteers in group 1 (male 8, female 22) with average age 42.5 ± 8.1 and 50 patients with chronic functional constipation in group 2 (male 11, female 39) with average age 45.7 ± 7.8 were subjected to the small amount of barium examination. The small amount of barium was made by 30 g barium dissolved in 200 ml breakfast. After taking breakfast which contains barium, objectives were followed with abdominal X-ray at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 h until the barium was evacuated totally. Results: Small amount of barium presented actual chyme or stool transit. The transit time of radio-opaque pallets through the whole gastrointestinal tract was significantly shorter than that of barium (37 ± 8 h vs. 47 ± 10 h, P < 0.05) in healthy people. The transit times of barium in constipation patients were markedly prolonged in colon (61.1 ± 22 vs. 37.3 ± 11, P < 0.01) and rectum (10.8 ± 3.7 vs. 2.3 ± 0.8 h, P < 0.01) compared with unconstipated volunteers. Transit times in individual gastrointestinal segments were also recorded by using small amount of barium, which allowed identifying the subtypes of constipation. Conclusion: The small amount barium examination is a convenient and low cost method to provide the most useful and reliable information on the transmission function of different gastrointestinal segments and able to classify the subtypes of slow transit constipation

  14. Swallowing function after laryngeal cleft repair: more than just fixing the cleft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, Alexander J; de Alarcon, Alessandro; Tabangin, Meredith E; Miller, Claire K; Cotton, Robin T; Rutter, Michael J

    2014-08-01

    To evaluate and describe the swallowing function in children after laryngeal cleft repair. Ten-year (2002-2012) retrospective chart review. Academic tertiary care pediatric otolaryngology practice. Records of 60 children who had surgical repair of laryngeal cleft (ages 2 weeks-14 years) and postoperative functional endoscopic evaluation of swallowing or videofluoroscopic swallow studies were examined retrospectively. Twenty-nine children had one postoperative swallow evaluation, 19 children had two, 4 children had three, 5 children had four, and 3 children had five. Median time to the first evaluation was 10.8 weeks (interquartile range [IQR]: 36.5, 231). On the final swallow evaluation, 34 (57%) children demonstrated normal swallowing parameters, 12 (20%) children showed penetration, and 14 (23%) children showed aspiration. Forty-three (72%) children were able to take everything by mouth normally or with minor behavioral modifications, 11 (18%) children required thickened fluids, and six (10%) children were kept nil per os (NPO). Mean improvement on the penetration-aspiration (pen-asp) scale was 2.13. On multivariable analysis, neurodevelopmental issues and gastronomy tube use were associated with the need for NPO status. Despite a high rate of surgical success, a substantial minority of children have persistent swallowing dysfunction after laryngeal cleft repair. Swallowing dysfunction after repair is multifactorial and arises from concomitant neurologic, anatomic, or other comorbidities that contribute to oropharyngeal and pharyngeal dysphagia. Based on our results, we recommend a testing schedule for postoperative swallowing evaluations after cleft repair. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  15. Differential Response Pattern of Oropharyngeal Pressure by Bolus and Dry Swallows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Mana; Kurose, Masayuki; Okamoto, Keiichiro; Yamada, Yoshiaki; Tsujimura, Takanori; Inoue, Makoto; Sato, Taisuke; Narumi, Takatsune; Fujii, Noritaka; Yamamura, Kensuke

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if bolus and dry swallow showed similar pressure changes in the oropharynx using our newly developed device. A unique character of it includes that baropressure can be measured with the sensor being placed in the balloon and can assess the swallowing mechanics in terms of pressure changes in the oropharynx with less influences of direct contacts of boluses and oropharyngeal structures during swallow indirectly. Fifteen healthy subjects swallowed saliva (dry), 15 ml of water, 45 ml of water, and 15 ml of two different types of food in terms of viscosity (potage soup-type and mayonnaise-type foods). Suprahyoid muscle activity was recorded simultaneously. Three parameters, area under the curve (AUC), peak amplitude, and duration of pressure, were analyzed from each swallow. Almost all of the bolus swallowing events had biphasic baropressure responses consisting of an early phase and late phase (99%), whereas 90% of the saliva swallowing events had a single phase. AUC, peak, and duration displayed greater effects during the late phase than during the early phase. Baropressure of the early phase, but not of the late phase, significantly increased with increasing volume; however, small but significant viscosity effects on pressure were seen during both phases. Peak pressure of the late phase was preceded by maximum muscle activity, whereas that of the early phase was seen when muscle activity displayed a peak response. These findings indicated that our device with the ability to measure baropressure has the potential to provide additional parameter to assess the swallow physiology, and biphasic baropressure responses in the early and late phases could reflect functional aspects of the swallowing reflexes.

  16. Involvement of ERK phosphorylation in brainstem neurons in modulation of swallowing reflex in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Takanori; Kondo, Masahiro; Kitagawa, Junichi; Tsuboi, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Kimiko; Tohara, Haruka; Ueda, Koichiro; Sessle, Barry J; Iwata, Koichi

    2009-01-01

    In order to evaluate the neuronal mechanisms underlying functional abnormalities of swallowing in orofacial pain patients, this study investigated the effects of noxious orofacial stimulation on the swallowing reflex, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) immunohistochemical features in brainstem neurons, and also analysed the effects of brainstem lesioning and of microinjection of GABA receptor agonist or antagonist into the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) on the swallowing reflex in anaesthetized rats. The swallowing reflex elicited by topical administration of distilled water to the pharyngolaryngeal region was inhibited after capsaicin injection into the facial (whisker pad) skin or lingual muscle. The capsaicin-induced inhibitory effect on the swallowing reflex was itself depressed after the intrathecal administration of MAPK kinase (MEK) inhibitor. No change in the capsaicin-induced inhibitory effect was observed after trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis lesioning, but the inhibitory effect was diminished by paratrigeminal nucleus (Pa5) lesioning. Many pERK-like immunoreactive neurons in the NTS showed GABA immunoreactivity. The local microinjection of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol into the NTS produced a significant reduction in swallowing reflex, and the capsaicin-induced depression of the swallowing reflex was abolished by microinjection of the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline into the NTS. The present findings suggest that facial skin–NTS, lingual muscle–NTS and lingual muscle–Pa5–NTS pathways are involved in the modulation of swallowing reflex by facial and lingual pain, respectively, and that the activation of GABAergic NTS neurons is involved in the inhibition of the swallowing reflex following noxious stimulation of facial and intraoral structures. PMID:19124539

  17. Involvement of ERK phosphorylation in brainstem neurons in modulation of swallowing reflex in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Takanori; Kondo, Masahiro; Kitagawa, Junichi; Tsuboi, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Kimiko; Tohara, Haruka; Ueda, Koichiro; Sessle, Barry J; Iwata, Koichi

    2009-02-15

    In order to evaluate the neuronal mechanisms underlying functional abnormalities of swallowing in orofacial pain patients, this study investigated the effects of noxious orofacial stimulation on the swallowing reflex, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) immunohistochemical features in brainstem neurons, and also analysed the effects of brainstem lesioning and of microinjection of GABA receptor agonist or antagonist into the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) on the swallowing reflex in anaesthetized rats. The swallowing reflex elicited by topical administration of distilled water to the pharyngolaryngeal region was inhibited after capsaicin injection into the facial (whisker pad) skin or lingual muscle. The capsaicin-induced inhibitory effect on the swallowing reflex was itself depressed after the intrathecal administration of MAPK kinase (MEK) inhibitor. No change in the capsaicin-induced inhibitory effect was observed after trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis lesioning, but the inhibitory effect was diminished by paratrigeminal nucleus (Pa5) lesioning. Many pERK-like immunoreactive neurons in the NTS showed GABA immunoreactivity. The local microinjection of the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol into the NTS produced a significant reduction in swallowing reflex, and the capsaicin-induced depression of the swallowing reflex was abolished by microinjection of the GABA(A) receptor antagonist bicuculline into the NTS. The present findings suggest that facial skin-NTS, lingual muscle-NTS and lingual muscle-Pa5-NTS pathways are involved in the modulation of swallowing reflex by facial and lingual pain, respectively, and that the activation of GABAergic NTS neurons is involved in the inhibition of the swallowing reflex following noxious stimulation of facial and intraoral structures.

  18. Results of a cooperative study for the evaluation of the barium meal Falibaryt HD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reisinger, W.; Liess, G.; Beckmann, D.; Block, H.G.; Dietze, R.; Grosche, N.; Hall, E.; Lasch, G.; Knoth, H.J.; Kroeger, W.

    1986-01-01

    The diagnostic capabilities of radiologic investigations of the stomach in double contrast can be significantly improved with high-density low-viscosity barium meals. In the GDR the barium meal Falibaryt HD with a barium sulfate content of 215 g per 100 ml suspension has been developed. In nearly 1,000 radiologic investigations of the stomach (81% in relaxation with spasmolytics, 66% without hypotony) all fine structures were well imaged and the preparation therefore is comparable with the best barium meals presently on the market. (author)

  19. Barium titanate coated with magnesium titanate via fused salt method and its dielectric property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Renzheng; Cui Aili; Wang Xiaohui; Li Longtu

    2003-01-01

    Barium titanate fine particles were coated homogeneously with magnesium titanate via the fused salt method. The thickness of the magnesium titanate film is 20 nm, as verified by TEM and XRD. The mechanism of the coating is that: when magnesium chloride is liquated in 800 deg. C, magnesium will replace barium in barium titanate, and form magnesium titanate film on the surface of barium titanate particles. Ceramics sintered from the coated particles show improved high frequency ability. The dielectric constant is about 130 at the frequency from 1 to 800 MHz

  20. Barium and Tc-poor S stars: Binary masqueraders among carbon stars

    OpenAIRE

    Jorissen, A.; Van Eck, S.

    1997-01-01

    The current understanding of the origin of barium and S stars is reviewed, based on new orbital elements and binary frequencies. The following questions are addressed: (i) Is binarity a necessary condition to produce a barium star? (ii) What is the mass transfer mode (wind accretion or RLOF?) responsible for their formation? (iii) Do barium stars form as dwarfs or as giants? (iv) Do barium stars evolve into Tc-poor S stars? (v) What is the relative frequency of Tc-rich and Tc-poor S stars?

  1. Prompt striations observed in a barium thermite release at 335 km

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, D.J.; Pongratz, M.B.; Smith, G.M.; Barasch, G.E.; Fitzgerald, T.J.

    1981-01-01

    Three barium clouds have been released from a single rocket at altitudes of 335, 443, and 535 km. The releases were by means of barium thermite injection. Adding the different cross-field velocity components of the rocket at each of the releases resulted in barium clouds with different kinetic velocity distributions. The barium cloud with the most peaked velocity distribution striated promptly, in good agreement with theoretical predictions based on a kinetic plasma instability. Details of the data analysis and experiment are discussed

  2. Radiation losses in microwave K_u region by conducting pyrrole/barium titanate and barium hexaferrite based nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Talwinder; Kumar, Sachin; Narang, S.B.; Srivastava, A.K.

    2016-01-01

    Nanocomposites of substituted barium hexaferrite and barium titanate embedded in a polymer were synthesized via emulsion polymerization. The study was performed by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron spin resonance spectroscopy, a vibrating sample magnetometer and a vector network analyzer. It is found that maximum radiation loss occur at 16.09 GHz (−14.23 dB) frequency owing to the combined effect of conducting polymer, suitable dielectric and magnetic material. This suggests that prepared material is suitable for radiation losses. Micro structural study reveals the presence of all the phases of the compounds comprises composite. Benzene ring absorption band (at 1183 cm"−"1) in FT-IR spectra illustrates the presence of polymer. Surface morphology reveals the presence of array of particles encapsulated by the polymer. - Highlights: • Composites having polymer, barium titanate and hexaferrite have been successfully prepared. • Effective radiation absorption and losses have been achieved. • Magnetic properties have made an impact on shielding effectiveness.

  3. Radiation losses in microwave K{sub u} region by conducting pyrrole/barium titanate and barium hexaferrite based nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, Talwinder [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara 144411 (India); Kumar, Sachin [Department of Chemistry, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Narang, S.B. [Department of Electronics Technology, Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar 143005 (India); Srivastava, A.K., E-mail: srivastava_phy@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara 144411 (India)

    2016-12-15

    Nanocomposites of substituted barium hexaferrite and barium titanate embedded in a polymer were synthesized via emulsion polymerization. The study was performed by using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron spin resonance spectroscopy, a vibrating sample magnetometer and a vector network analyzer. It is found that maximum radiation loss occur at 16.09 GHz (−14.23 dB) frequency owing to the combined effect of conducting polymer, suitable dielectric and magnetic material. This suggests that prepared material is suitable for radiation losses. Micro structural study reveals the presence of all the phases of the compounds comprises composite. Benzene ring absorption band (at 1183 cm{sup −1}) in FT-IR spectra illustrates the presence of polymer. Surface morphology reveals the presence of array of particles encapsulated by the polymer. - Highlights: • Composites having polymer, barium titanate and hexaferrite have been successfully prepared. • Effective radiation absorption and losses have been achieved. • Magnetic properties have made an impact on shielding effectiveness.

  4. Interpretive Media Study and Interpretive Social Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carragee, Kevin M.

    1990-01-01

    Defines the major theoretical influences on interpretive approaches in mass communication, examines the central concepts of these perspectives, and provides a critique of these approaches. States that the adoption of interpretive approaches in mass communication has ignored varied critiques of interpretive social science. Suggests that critical…

  5. Interpreters, Interpreting, and the Study of Bilingualism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Guadalupe; Angelelli, Claudia

    2003-01-01

    Discusses research on interpreting focused specifically on issues raised by this literature about the nature of bilingualism. Suggests research carried out on interpreting--while primarily produced with a professional audience in mind and concerned with improving the practice of interpreting--provides valuable insights about complex aspects of…

  6. A review of the health impacts of barium from natural and anthropogenic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Julia; Darrah, Thomas H; Miller, Richard K; Lyerly, H Kim; Vengosh, Avner

    2014-08-01

    There is an increasing public awareness of the relatively new and expanded industrial barium uses which are potential sources of human exposure (e.g., a shale gas development that causes an increased awareness of environmental exposures to barium). However, absorption of barium in exposed humans and a full spectrum of its health effects, especially among chronically exposed to moderate and low doses of barium populations, remain unclear. We suggest a systematic literature review (from 1875 to 2014) on environmental distribution of barium, its bioaccumulation, and potential and proven health impacts (in animal models and humans) to provide the information that can be used for optimization of future experimental and epidemiological studies and developing of mitigative and preventive strategies to minimize negative health effects in exposed populations. The potential health effects of barium exposure are largely based on animal studies, while epidemiological data for humans, specifically for chronic low-level exposures, are sparse. The reported health effects include cardiovascular and kidney diseases, metabolic, neurological, and mental disorders. Age, race, dietary patterns, behavioral risks (e.g., smoking), use of medications (those that interfere with absorbed barium in human organism), and specific physiological status (e.g., pregnancy) can modify barium effects on human health. Identifying, evaluating, and predicting the health effects of chronic low-level and moderate-level barium exposures in humans is challenging: Future research is needed to develop an understanding of barium bioaccumulation in order to mitigate its potential health impacts in various exposured populations. Further, while occupationally exposed at-risk populations exist, it is also important to identify potentially vulnerable subgroups among non-occupationally exposed populations (e.g., elderly, pregnant women, children) who are at higher risk of barium exposure from drinking water and food.

  7. The diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux disease cannot be made with barium esophagograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, C M G; Smout, A J P M; Bredenoord, A J

    2015-02-01

    For over 50 years, barium studies have been used to diagnose gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), but the value of this test is controversial. Our study aimed to determine if barium esophagograms can be used to diagnose GERD. Barium esophagograms and pH-impedance measurement were performed in 20 subjects with reflux symptoms. pH-impedance measurements were used as gold standard for the diagnosis of GERD. Gastro-esophageal reflux measured with the barium study was defined as a positive outcome. 50% of patients presented gastro-esophageal reflux on the barium esophagogram. No significant differences were observed in acid exposure time between subjects with (median: 7.4%; interquartile range, IQR: 8.4%) or without reflux at barium esophagography (median: 5.95%; IQR: 13.05%; p > 0.05). Nor did we find differences in median proximal extent of reflux measured with impedance monitoring between patients with a positive (median: 6.7%; IQR: 1.95%) and negative barium study (median: 7.1%; IQR: 0.68%; p > 0.05). Patients with reflux on barium esophagogram did not have a positive symptom association probability more often than those who did not have reflux at barium esophagography. Lastly, there were no differences in numbers of acid, weakly acidic or total reflux episodes between those with positive or negative barium esophagogram (p > 0.05). No correlations were found between the maximum proximal extent of gastro-esophageal reflux during esophagography and pH-impedance parameters. Presence or absence of gastro-esophageal reflux during barium esophagography does not correlate with incidence or extent of reflux observed during 24-h pH-impedance monitoring and is not of value for the diagnosis of GERD. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Comparison of Masticatory and Swallowing Functional Outcomes in Surgically and Prosthetically Rehabilitated Maxillectomy Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeraj, R; Krishnan, Vinod; V, Manju; Thankappan, Krishnakumar

    This study compared masticatory and swallowing functional outcomes in maxillectomy patients who underwent surgical and prosthetic rehabilitation or prosthetic rehabilitation only following surgical resection. This comparative cross-sectional study involved 20 maxillectomy patients and compared their masticatory and swallowing functions following combined surgical and prosthodontic management vs an exclusively prosthodontic approach. Masticatory performance was measured by an originally modified sieve method using hydrocolloid material, and video fluoroscopic examination was employed for swallowing assessments. Masticatory performance was significantly better in the patient group treated with flaps and removable denture prostheses compared to patients treated with obturator prosthesis alone. Swallowing outcomes were comparable in both groups. Flap reconstruction followed by an obturator prosthesis seems to be a preferable option when planning for functional rehabilitation in maxillectomy patients. Further research is needed to substantiate the functional outcomes noted in this study.

  9. SWALLOWING DISORDERS IN CLINICAL PRACTICE: FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY, ASSESSMENT AND REHABILITATION STRATEGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STANESCU Ioana

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Swallowing is a complex process consisting in transporting food from mouth to the stomach; it involves voluntary and reflex activity of more than 30 nerves and muscles, requiring complex neuromuscular coordination and brainstem and cortical centers for controle. Dysphagia is defined as a alteration in the swallowing process, which cause difficulty in transporting saliva and aliments from the mouth trough the pharynx and esophagus into the stomach . It is a frequent symptom, affecting especially old people, people with neurological diseases, cancers of head and neck or severe reflux . Dysphagia can result from a wide variety of functional or structural deficits of the oral cavity, pharynx, larynx or esophagus, which could e caused by neurological conditions. Dysphagia carries serious health risks: malnutrition, dehydration, increase risk of infections. Effective dysphagia management requires an interdisciplinary approach; the goal of rehabilitation is to identify and treat abnormalities of swallowing while maintaining safe and efficient nutrition. KEY WORDS: swallowing, dysphagia, functional anatomy, rehabilitation, neuroplasticity

  10. Kinematic MRI using short TR single shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) in evaluating swallowing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isogai, Satoshi; Takehara, Yasuo; Isoda, Haruo; Kodaira, Nami; Masunaga, Hatsuko; Ozawa, Fukujirou; Kaneko, Masao [Hamamatsu Univ. School of Medicine, Shizuoka (Japan); Nozaki, Atsushi; Kabasawa, Hiroyuki

    1999-03-01

    The utility of short TR single shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) MR imaging for evaluating swallowing was determined. Five healthy volunteers underwent kinematic MR imaging of swallowing with a 1.5 T MR scanner using the short TR (300 ms) SSFSE sequence. Twenty phases of sagittal sections were acquired within 6 sec, where the temporal resolution was 300 ms. For oral contrast medium, we used prune yogurt juice with Fe added. The image contrast of short TR SSFSE was found to be somewhere like that of T1-weighted images. In all cases, both the buccal and pharyngeal stages of swallowing were successfully depicted. The Fe-added prune yogurt juice performed as a positive contrast medium and helped determine anatomical structures in the buccal stage. Short TR (300 ms) SSFSE was useful in evaluating swallowing. The combined use of Fe-added prune yogurt juice was helpful in enhancing the surface of the oropharynx. (author)

  11. Kinematic MRI using short TR single shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) in evaluating swallowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isogai, Satoshi; Takehara, Yasuo; Isoda, Haruo; Kodaira, Nami; Masunaga, Hatsuko; Ozawa, Fukujirou; Kaneko, Masao; Nozaki, Atsushi; Kabasawa, Hiroyuki

    1999-01-01

    The utility of short TR single shot fast spin echo (SSFSE) MR imaging for evaluating swallowing was determined. Five healthy volunteers underwent kinematic MR imaging of swallowing with a 1.5 T MR scanner using the short TR (300 ms) SSFSE sequence. Twenty phases of sagittal sections were acquired within 6 sec, where the temporal resolution was 300 ms. For oral contrast medium, we used prune yogurt juice with Fe added. The image contrast of short TR SSFSE was found to be somewhere like that of T1-weighted images. In all cases, both the buccal and pharyngeal stages of swallowing were successfully depicted. The Fe-added prune yogurt juice performed as a positive contrast medium and helped determine anatomical structures in the buccal stage. Short TR (300 ms) SSFSE was useful in evaluating swallowing. The combined use of Fe-added prune yogurt juice was helpful in enhancing the surface of the oropharynx. (author)

  12. Swallowing dysfunction in patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis: aetiology and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollivere, B; Duce, K; Rowlands, G; Harrison, P; O'Reilly, B J

    2006-01-01

    Although unilateral vocal fold palsy (UVFP) is a common problem, data relating to swallowing dysfunction are sparse. We reviewed the clinical findings (method of presentation, underlying diagnosis and position of the vocal folds) of 30 patients and conducted a follow-up telephone survey. Outcome measures used were direct visualization of fold function, position and compensation. In addition, standardized speech and language assessments for swallowing dysfunction and dysphonia were noted and compared to presentation. Our study indicates that 56 per cent of patients with UVFP have associated dysphagia. Outcome with speech therapy is significant, with 73 per cent showing improvement. These data indicate a significant link between UVFP and swallowing dysfunction. There is a marked therapeutic benefit from voice therapy. Further work is required to evaluate the long-term outcomes and establish the mechanism of swallowing dysfunction in these patients.

  13. Time-Frequency Analysis and Hermite Projection Method Applied to Swallowing Accelerometry Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ervin Sejdić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast Hermite projections have been often used in image-processing procedures such as image database retrieval, projection filtering, and texture analysis. In this paper, we propose an innovative approach for the analysis of one-dimensional biomedical signals that combines the Hermite projection method with time-frequency analysis. In particular, we propose a two-step approach to characterize vibrations of various origins in swallowing accelerometry signals. First, by using time-frequency analysis we obtain the energy distribution of signal frequency content in time. Second, by using fast Hermite projections we characterize whether the analyzed time-frequency regions are associated with swallowing or other phenomena (vocalization, noise, bursts, etc.. The numerical analysis of the proposed scheme clearly shows that by using a few Hermite functions, vibrations of various origins are distinguishable. These results will be the basis for further analysis of swallowing accelerometry to detect swallowing difficulties.

  14. Swallowing abnormalities in multiple sclerosis: correlation between videofluoroscopy and subjective symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, W.; Steinbrich, W. [Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, University Hospital of Basel (Switzerland); Wetzel, S.G.; Radue, E.W. [Institute of Neuroradiology, University Hospital Basel (Switzerland); Kappos, L.; Hoshi, M.M. [Department of Neurology, University Hospital of Basel (Switzerland); Witte, U. [Section of Logopedia, University Hospital of Basel (Switzerland)

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if subjective symptoms indicating an impaired deglutition correlate with videofluoroscopic findings in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Videofluoroscopic examinations of 18 MS patients were analyzed by a radiologist and a logopedist and compared with the symptoms of these patients. Four patients complained about permanent dysphagia. Six patients reported mild and intermittent difficulties in swallowing, but were asymptomatic at the time of videofluoroscopy. Eight patients had no symptoms regarding their deglutition. All patients (n=4) who complained of permanent dysphagia showed aspiration. All patients (n=6) with mild and intermittent difficulties in swallowing showed undercoating of the epiglottis and/or laryngeal penetration. Of those 8 patients without any swallowing symptoms, only 2 had a normal videofluoroscopy. Swallowing abnormalities seem to be much more frequent in patients with MS than generally believed and they may easily be missed clinically as long as the patients do not aspirate. (orig.)

  15. Comprehensive swallowing exercises to treat complicated dysphagia caused by esophageal replacement with colon: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Wang, Yujue; Li, Na; Qiu, Weihong; Wu, Huixiang; Huo, Jianshan; Dai, Meng; Yu, Yong; Wan, Guifang; Dou, Zulin; Guo, Weiping

    2017-02-01

    Surgical procedures for colonic replacement of the esophagus are most commonly associated with anastomotic stricture which cause dysphagia. In this report, we describe a rare case of a patient who demonstrated dysphagia resulting from an anastomotic stricture following esophageal replacement with the colon. All the treatments to dilate the anastomotic stricture were ineffective. To investigate the new treatment strategy for a case with complicated dysphagia, clinical dysphagia evaluations, functional oral intake scale (FOIS), videofluoroscopic swallowing study as well as high-resolution manometry were used to evaluate the swallowing function of the patient before and after treatments. Comprehensive swallowing exercises included the protective airway maneuver, tongue pressure resistance feedback exercise, Masako Maneuver swallowing exercise, and the effortful swallowing exercise. Comprehensive swallowing exercises showed good effect in the patient. The FOIS score increased from level 1 to level 7. The videofluoroscopy digital analysis showed that the pharynx constriction rate was 23% and 50%, before and after treatment, respectively. The data from the high-resolution manometry displayed that: the value of the velopharyngeal pressure peak was 82.8 mmHg before treatment and 156.9 mmHg after treatment; the velopharyngeal contraction duration time was 310 milliseconds before treatment and 525 milliseconds after treatment; the value of the hypopharynx pressure peak was 53.7 mmHg before treatment and 103.2 mmHg after treatment; and the hypopharynx contraction duration time was 390 milliseconds before treatment and 1030 milliseconds after treatment. The swallowing visualization illustrated that a bolus could normally pass through the anastomotic stoma, and the bolus leakage was no longer present. The patient was able to eat various consistencies of food independently, and we were able to remove the jejunum nutrient catheter before discharging the patient. For

  16. Effect of aging on oral and swallowing function after meal consumption

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    Hiramatsu T

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetsuya Hiramatsu,1,2 Hideyuki Kataoka,3 Mari Osaki,4 Hiroshi Hagino3,4 1Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology, Matsue Co-medical College, Matsue, Japan; 2Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Tottori University, 3School of Health Science, Faculty of Medicine, Tottori University, 4Rehabilitation Division, Tottori University Hospital, Yonago, Japan Background/purpose: Dysphagia may worsen due to fatigue of the infrahyoid and suprahyoid muscle groups as a result of repetitive swallowing during a meal. We investigated the hypothesis that meal consumption may reduce tongue strength and endurance in older adults (OAs.Methods: Tongue–palate pressure, oral diadochokinesis, repetitive saliva swallowing, and surface electromyography activity before and after a meal were measured in 23 young adults (YAs and 23 OA volunteers.Results: There was a statistically significant difference in both tongue pressure and the number of voluntary swallows between YAs and OAs. Peak tongue pressure was significantly lower in OAs than YAs both before and after meal consumption. The most notable finding was that the first time interval (the time from test initiation to the beginning of the first swallow was prolonged after meal consumption only in OAs, whereas the first time interval showed no difference between YAs and OAs before meal consumption with reference to the repetitive saliva swallowing test. The initiation of swallowing was prolonged by both meal consumption and aging; there was a significant interaction between these two factors. The number of repetitions of the monosyllable/pa/was statistically similar between YAs and OAs before meal consumption, but it was significantly lower in OAs after meal consumption.Conclusion: Aging leads to declining tongue pressure and motor function of the lips. It is possible that swallowing function declines in older individuals when meal consumption is prolonged, especially at the end of mealtime, as a result of their

  17. The digastric muscle is less involved in pharyngeal swallowing in rabbits.

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    Tsujimura, Takanori; Yamada, Aki; Nakamura, Yuki; Fukuhara, Takako; Yamamura, Kensuke; Inoue, Makoto

    2012-06-01

    The swallowing reflex is centrally programmed by the lower brain stem, the so-called swallowing central pattern generator (CPG), and once the reflex is initiated, many muscles in the oral, pharyngeal, laryngeal, and esophageal regions are systematically activated. The mylohyoid (MH) muscle has been considered to be a "leading muscle" according to previous studies, but the functional role of the digastric (DIG) muscle in the swallowing reflex remains unclear. In the present study, therefore, the activities of single units of MH and DIG neurons were recorded extracellularly, and the functional involvement of these neurons in the swallowing reflex was investigated. The experiments were carried out on eight adult male Japanese white rabbits anesthetized with urethane. To identify DIG and MH neurons, the peripheral nerve (either DIG or MH) was stimulated to evoke action potentials of single motoneurons. Motoneurons were identified as such if they either (1) responded to antidromic nerve stimulation of DIG or MH in an all-or-none manner at threshold intensities and (2) followed stimulation frequencies of up to 0.5 kHz. As a result, all 11 MH neurons recorded were synchronously activated during the swallowing reflex, while there was no activity in any of the 7 DIG neurons recorded during the swallowing reflex. All neurons were anatomically localized ventromedially at the level of the caudal portion of the trigeminal motor nucleus, and there were no differences between the MH and DIG neuron sites. The present results strongly suggest that at least in the rabbit, DIG motoneurons are not tightly controlled by the swallowing CPG and, hence, the DIG muscle is less involved in the swallowing reflex.

  18. Role of physical bolus properties as sensory inputs in the trigger of swallowing.

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    Peyron, Marie-Agnès; Gierczynski, Isabelle; Hartmann, Christoph; Loret, Chrystel; Dardevet, Dominique; Martin, Nathalie; Woda, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Swallowing is triggered when a food bolus being prepared by mastication has reached a defined state. However, although this view is consensual and well supported, the physical properties of the swallowable bolus have been under-researched. We tested the hypothesis that measuring bolus physical changes during the masticatory sequence to deglutition would reveal the bolus properties potentially involved in swallowing initiation. Twenty normo-dentate young adults were instructed to chew portions of cereal and spit out the boluses at different times in the masticatory sequence. The mechanical properties of the collected boluses were measured by a texture profile analysis test currently used in food science. The median particle size of the boluses was evaluated by sieving. In a simultaneous sensory study, twenty-five other subjects expressed their perception of bolus texture dominating at any mastication time. Several physical changes appeared in the food bolus as it was formed during mastication: (1) in rheological terms, bolus hardness rapidly decreased as the masticatory sequence progressed, (2) by contrast, adhesiveness, springiness and cohesiveness regularly increased until the time of swallowing, (3) median particle size, indicating the bolus particle size distribution, decreased mostly during the first third of the masticatory sequence, (4) except for hardness, the rheological changes still appeared in the boluses collected just before swallowing, and (5) physical changes occurred, with sensory stickiness being described by the subjects as a dominant perception of the bolus at the end of mastication. Although these physical and sensory changes progressed in the course of mastication, those observed just before swallowing seem to be involved in swallowing initiation. They can be considered as strong candidates for sensory inputs from the bolus that are probably crucially involved in the triggering of swallowing, since they appeared in boluses prepared in various

  19. Role of physical bolus properties as sensory inputs in the trigger of swallowing.

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    Marie-Agnès Peyron

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Swallowing is triggered when a food bolus being prepared by mastication has reached a defined state. However, although this view is consensual and well supported, the physical properties of the swallowable bolus have been under-researched. We tested the hypothesis that measuring bolus physical changes during the masticatory sequence to deglutition would reveal the bolus properties potentially involved in swallowing initiation. METHODS: Twenty normo-dentate young adults were instructed to chew portions of cereal and spit out the boluses at different times in the masticatory sequence. The mechanical properties of the collected boluses were measured by a texture profile analysis test currently used in food science. The median particle size of the boluses was evaluated by sieving. In a simultaneous sensory study, twenty-five other subjects expressed their perception of bolus texture dominating at any mastication time. FINDINGS: Several physical changes appeared in the food bolus as it was formed during mastication: (1 in rheological terms, bolus hardness rapidly decreased as the masticatory sequence progressed, (2 by contrast, adhesiveness, springiness and cohesiveness regularly increased until the time of swallowing, (3 median particle size, indicating the bolus particle size distribution, decreased mostly during the first third of the masticatory sequence, (4 except for hardness, the rheological changes still appeared in the boluses collected just before swallowing, and (5 physical changes occurred, with sensory stickiness being described by the subjects as a dominant perception of the bolus at the end of mastication. CONCLUSIONS: Although these physical and sensory changes progressed in the course of mastication, those observed just before swallowing seem to be involved in swallowing initiation. They can be considered as strong candidates for sensory inputs from the bolus that are probably crucially involved in the triggering of

  20. Deleterious sucking habits and atypical swallowing in children with otitis media with effusion.

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    Ralli, Giovanni; Ruoppolo, Giovanni; Mora, Renzo; Guastini, Luca

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the possible correlation between otitis media with effusion, bad sucking habits and atypical swallowing in children affected by otitis media with effusion. 65 children, aged from 7 to 12 years, observed in the ENT Department of the "La Sapienza" University of Rome, were enrolled in the study group (group A). All children were affected by otitis media with effusion for more than 3 months. As control group, 60 healthy children, aged from 7 to 12 years were identified (group B). All the children underwent medical history, with evaluation of the sucking habits, ENT examination, tympanometry, orthodontic examination and evaluation of swallowing. In the orthodontic examination the variables analyzed were: maximum mouth opening, right and left mandibular lateral movements and mandibular protrusion. Atypical swallowing was considered to occur when lip activity produced strong tension in the perioral musculature, and/or the tip of the tongue was placed or pushed against the anterior teeth during swallowing. In the group A, atypical swallowing was found in 33/65 subjects out of the 65 children (50.7%). In the control group (group B) 16/60 children (26.6%) showed atypical swallowing. Compared with group B, deleterious sucking habits were significantly higher (phabits were present in almost all children with atypical swallowing (28/33 in group A and 12/16 in group B). Our data suggest a correlation between otitis media with effusion, deleterious sucking habits and prevalence of atypical swallowing. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.