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Sample records for interpret change scores

  1. Interval Coded Scoring: a toolbox for interpretable scoring systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieven Billiet

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decades, clinical decision support systems have been gaining importance. They help clinicians to make effective use of the overload of available information to obtain correct diagnoses and appropriate treatments. However, their power often comes at the cost of a black box model which cannot be interpreted easily. This interpretability is of paramount importance in a medical setting with regard to trust and (legal responsibility. In contrast, existing medical scoring systems are easy to understand and use, but they are often a simplified rule-of-thumb summary of previous medical experience rather than a well-founded system based on available data. Interval Coded Scoring (ICS connects these two approaches, exploiting the power of sparse optimization to derive scoring systems from training data. The presented toolbox interface makes this theory easily applicable to both small and large datasets. It contains two possible problem formulations based on linear programming or elastic net. Both allow to construct a model for a binary classification problem and establish risk profiles that can be used for future diagnosis. All of this requires only a few lines of code. ICS differs from standard machine learning through its model consisting of interpretable main effects and interactions. Furthermore, insertion of expert knowledge is possible because the training can be semi-automatic. This allows end users to make a trade-off between complexity and performance based on cross-validation results and expert knowledge. Additionally, the toolbox offers an accessible way to assess classification performance via accuracy and the ROC curve, whereas the calibration of the risk profile can be evaluated via a calibration curve. Finally, the colour-coded model visualization has particular appeal if one wants to apply ICS manually on new observations, as well as for validation by experts in the specific application domains. The validity and applicability

  2. Interpreting force concept inventory scores: Normalized gain and SAT scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey J. Steinert

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G on the force concept inventory (FCI were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335 and one university (N=292 , and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations ( r=0.57 and r=0.46 , respectively. These correlations are likely due to the importance of cognitive skills and abstract reasoning in learning physics. The larger correlation coefficient for the high school population may be a result of the much shorter time interval between taking the SAT and studying mechanics, because the SAT may provide a more current measure of abilities when high school students begin the study of mechanics than it does for college students, who begin mechanics years after the test is taken. In prior research a strong correlation between FCI G and scores on Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning for students from the same two schools was observed. Our results suggest that, when interpreting class average normalized FCI gains and comparing different classes, it is important to take into account the variation of students’ cognitive skills, as measured either by the SAT or by Lawson’s test. While Lawson’s test is not commonly given to students in most introductory mechanics courses, SAT scores provide a readily available alternative means of taking account of students’ reasoning abilities. Knowing the students’ cognitive level before instruction also allows one to alter instruction or to use an intervention designed to improve students’ cognitive level.

  3. Validating the Interpretations and Uses of Test Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    To validate an interpretation or use of test scores is to evaluate the plausibility of the claims based on the scores. An argument-based approach to validation suggests that the claims based on the test scores be outlined as an argument that specifies the inferences and supporting assumptions needed to get from test responses to score-based…

  4. Changing interpretations of Plotinus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catana, Leo

    2013-01-01

    ’ writings relatively late, in the 18th and 19th centuries, and that it was primarily made possible by Brucker’s methodology for history of philosophy, dating from the 1740s, in which the concept system of philosophy was essential. It is observed that the concept was absent in Ficino’s commentary from the 15......th century, and that it remained absent in interpretative works produced between the 15th and 18th century. It is also argued that it is erroneous to assume that Plotinus presented a system of philosophy, or intended to do so — we do not find this concept in Plotinus’ writings, and his own statements...

  5. Changing interpretations of Plotinus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catana, Leo

    2013-01-01

    th century, and that it remained absent in interpretative works produced between the 15th and 18th century. It is also argued that it is erroneous to assume that Plotinus presented a system of philosophy, or intended to do so — we do not find this concept in Plotinus’ writings, and his own statements......’ writings relatively late, in the 18th and 19th centuries, and that it was primarily made possible by Brucker’s methodology for history of philosophy, dating from the 1740s, in which the concept system of philosophy was essential. It is observed that the concept was absent in Ficino’s commentary from the 15...... about method point in other directions. Eduard Zeller (active in the second half of the 19th century) is typically regarded as the first who gave a satisfying account of Plotinus’ philosophy as a whole. In this article, on the other hand, Zeller is seen as the one who finalised a tradition initiated...

  6. Resistance to change: Four interpretations

    OpenAIRE

    Bringselius, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Although the phenomenon of resistance to change has gained considerable attention in organization theory over the years, the meaning of the concept is rarely discussed. In this paper, a conceptual framework is suggested that distinguishes between four interpretations of resistance and builds upon the two variables of changeability and emotionality. Each interpretation is based on various assumptions and theoretical influences, as well as connected to different change management strategies. Th...

  7. Validating Score Interpretations and Uses: Messick Lecture, Language Testing Research Colloquium, Cambridge, April 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The argument-based approach to validation involves two steps; specification of the proposed interpretations and uses of the test scores as an interpretive argument, and the evaluation of the plausibility of the proposed interpretive argument. More ambitious interpretations and uses tend to involve an extended network of inferences and assumptions…

  8. Facilitating the Interpretation of English Language Proficiency Scores: Combining Scale Anchoring and Test Score Mapping Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald; Schedl, Mary; Papageorgiou, Spiros

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop, for the benefit of both test takers and test score users, enhanced "TOEFL ITP"® test score reports that go beyond the simple numerical scores that are currently reported. To do so, we applied traditional scale anchoring (proficiency scaling) to item difficulty data in order to develop performance…

  9. Validity of interpretation: a user validity perspective beyond the test score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MacIver, R.; Anderson, N.; Costa, A-C.; Evers, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the concept of user validity and provides a new perspective on the validity of interpretations from tests. Test interpretation is based on outputs such as test scores, profiles, reports, spreadsheets of multiple candidates' scores, etc. The user validity perspective focuses on

  10. Interpretation and precision of the Observer Scar Assessment Scale improved by a revised scoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, Jerome A.; Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet, Elisabeth S.; Kuijper, Ed J.; Polsbroek, Roger M.; Horsthuis, Roy B.; Prins, Jan M.; Lindeboom, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To apply Rasch measurement to develop a rule for clinical interpretation of the Observer Scar Assessment Scale (OSAS) to help surgeons judge reported sum scores clinically. Study Design and Setting: We used cross-sectional data of a multicenter randomized clinical trial for the treatment

  11. Interpretation and precision of the Observer Scar Assessment Scale improved by a revised scoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindeboom, J.A.; Bruijnesteijn van Coppenraet, E.S.; Kuijper, E.J.; Polsbroek, R.M.; Horsthuis, R.B.G.; Prins, J.M.; Lindeboom, R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To apply Rasch measurement to develop a rule for clinical interpretation of the Observer Scar Assessment Scale (OSAS) to help surgeons judge reported sum scores clinically. Study Design and Setting We used cross-sectional data of a multicenter randomized clinical trial for the treatment of

  12. Interpreting neuroticism scores across the adult life course : immutable or experience-dependent set points of negative affect?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ormel, Johan; Riese, Harriette; Rosmalen, Judith G. M.

    Neuroticism (N) scores predict psychopathology. Therefore, it is important to know how to best interpret N-scores. This paper. reviews prior interpretations, the item content of N-measures and relevant empirical studies. We propose that N-scores reflect person-specific negative affect set points. We

  13. A scored human protein-protein interaction network to catalyze genomic interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Taibo; Wernersson, Rasmus; Hansen, Rasmus B

    2017-01-01

    Genome-scale human protein-protein interaction networks are critical to understanding cell biology and interpreting genomic data, but challenging to produce experimentally. Through data integration and quality control, we provide a scored human protein-protein interaction network (InWeb_InBioMap,......Web_InBioMap, or InWeb_IM) with severalfold more interactions (>500,000) and better functional biological relevance than comparable resources. We illustrate that InWeb_InBioMap enables functional interpretation of >4,700 cancer genomes and genes involved in autism....

  14. Statistical interpretation of machine learning-based feature importance scores for biomarker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh-Thu, Vân Anh; Saeys, Yvan; Wehenkel, Louis; Geurts, Pierre

    2012-07-01

    Univariate statistical tests are widely used for biomarker discovery in bioinformatics. These procedures are simple, fast and their output is easily interpretable by biologists but they can only identify variables that provide a significant amount of information in isolation from the other variables. As biological processes are expected to involve complex interactions between variables, univariate methods thus potentially miss some informative biomarkers. Variable relevance scores provided by machine learning techniques, however, are potentially able to highlight multivariate interacting effects, but unlike the p-values returned by univariate tests, these relevance scores are usually not statistically interpretable. This lack of interpretability hampers the determination of a relevance threshold for extracting a feature subset from the rankings and also prevents the wide adoption of these methods by practicians. We evaluated several, existing and novel, procedures that extract relevant features from rankings derived from machine learning approaches. These procedures replace the relevance scores with measures that can be interpreted in a statistical way, such as p-values, false discovery rates, or family wise error rates, for which it is easier to determine a significance level. Experiments were performed on several artificial problems as well as on real microarray datasets. Although the methods differ in terms of computing times and the tradeoff, they achieve in terms of false positives and false negatives, some of them greatly help in the extraction of truly relevant biomarkers and should thus be of great practical interest for biologists and physicians. As a side conclusion, our experiments also clearly highlight that using model performance as a criterion for feature selection is often counter-productive. Python source codes of all tested methods, as well as the MATLAB scripts used for data simulation, can be found in the Supplementary Material.

  15. Examining the reliability of ADAS-Cog change scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochowalski, Joseph H; Liu, Ying; Siedlecki, Karen L

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate and examine ways to improve the reliability of change scores on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale, Cognitive Subtest (ADAS-Cog). The sample, provided by the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, included individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) (n = 153) and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 352). All participants were administered the ADAS-Cog at baseline and 1 year, and change scores were calculated as the difference in scores over the 1-year period. Three types of change score reliabilities were estimated using multivariate generalizability. Two methods to increase change score reliability were evaluated: reweighting the subtests of the scale and adding more subtests. Reliability of ADAS-Cog change scores over 1 year was low for both the AD sample (ranging from .53 to .64) and the MCI sample (.39 to .61). Reweighting the change scores from the AD sample improved reliability (.68 to .76), but lengthening provided no useful improvement for either sample. The MCI change scores had low reliability, even with reweighting and adding additional subtests. The ADAS-Cog scores had low reliability for measuring change. Researchers using the ADAS-Cog should estimate and report reliability for their use of the change scores. The ADAS-Cog change scores are not recommended for assessment of meaningful clinical change.

  16. Interpreting changes in quality of life in atrial fibrillation: how much change is meaningful?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorian, Paul; Burk, Caroline; Mullin, Christopher M; Bubien, Rosemary; Godejohn, Donna; Reynolds, Matthew R; Lakkireddy, Dhanunjaya R; Wimmer, Alan P; Bhandari, Anil; Spertus, John

    2013-08-01

    The Atrial Fibrillation Effect on QualiTy of Life (AFEQT) questionnaire is a novel quality of life (QOL) measure previously shown to be valid, reliable, and sensitive to clinical change in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). The clinical relevance of a given change in the score is not known. The most useful "anchor" for a measure of meaningful change in QOL is patient-reported magnitude of change. The aim of this study was to define the interpretability of changes in the AFEQT score from the patients' perspective. With the use of the original validation study of AFEQT, in which 210 patients completed the questionnaire at baseline and at 3 months, we estimated the AFEQT score corresponding to a meaningful improvement in QOL using the patients' assessments of global change in QOL, AF symptoms from the Atrial Fibrillation Severity Scale (AFSS), and physicians' assessment of global QOL over the 3 months, as anchors. In patients with a moderate improvement in global QOL, the AFEQT scores increased from 51.9 ± 21.8 to 70.8 ± 17.4 (an increase of 18.9 ± 20.7), compared with an increase of 6.9 ± 16.9 units in patients with "unimportant change" in global QOL. Physicians' global assessment yielded a similar change in AFEQT score corresponding to a moderate change in global QOL (21.3 ± 20.2 units). Patients with moderate improvement in AF symptom severity using the AFSS scale had an increase of 17.9 ± 11.8 units on the AFEQT scale. A change in 19 units in the AFEQT score corresponded to a 0.9 SD unit change or greater than a minimal important difference from a distribution based method. A meaningful improvement in QOL in patients with AF can be measured from a change in the AFEQT score. These results can assist in monitoring patient progress and interpreting the effects of interventions in patients with AF. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Interpreting the change detection error matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van P.A.J.

    2007-01-01

    Two different matrices are commonly reported in assessment of change detection accuracy: (1) single date error matrices and (2) binary change/no change error matrices. The third, less common form of reporting, is the transition error matrix. This paper discuses the relation between these matrices.

  18. UNE INTERPRETATION DU TAUX DE CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galina ULIAN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dans l’étude ci-dessous on a été réalisé une interprétation de l'impact des fluctuations des taux de change du leu moldave (MDL sur certaines variables économiques. La période considérée est Novembre-Décembre 2014 et le début de l'année 2015. Notamment au cours de cette période, le taux de la monnaie nationale par rapport aux principales devises de référence de change a commencé la voie de fortes dévaluations. Cette tendance, cependant, s’est placée dans le contexte des situations similaires dans la région, qui a ainsi permis sa dépréciation graduelle. Compte tenu que la dépréciation de la monnaie est un phénomène aux effets complexes et multilatérales, une fois arrivé dans un pays "X", celui-ci devrait, afin d'améliorer la situation, en premier lieu, augmenter leur présence sur d'autres marchés de ventes, plus stable et avec de plus grandes possibilités.

  19. A simple scoring system for breast MRI interpretation: does it compensate for reader experience?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, Maria Adele; Clauser, Paola; Woitek, Ramona; Wengert, Georg J.; Kapetas, Panagiotis; Bernathova, Maria; Pinker-Domenig, Katja; Helbich, Thomas H.; Baltzer, Pascal A.T.; Preidler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the impact of a scoring system (Tree) on inter-reader agreement and diagnostic performance in breast MRI reading. This IRB-approved, single-centre study included 100 patients with 121 consecutive histopathologically verified lesions (52 malignant, 68 benign). Four breast radiologists with different levels of MRI experience and blinded to histopathology retrospectively evaluated all examinations. Readers independently applied two methods to classify breast lesions: BI-RADS and Tree. BI-RADS provides a reporting lexicon that is empirically translated into likelihoods of malignancy; Tree is a scoring system that results in a diagnostic category. Readings were compared by ROC analysis and kappa statistics. Inter-reader agreement was substantial to almost perfect (kappa: 0.643-0.896) for Tree and moderate (kappa: 0.455-0.657) for BI-RADS. Diagnostic performance using Tree (AUC: 0.889-0.943) was similar to BI-RADS (AUC: 0.872-0.953). Less experienced radiologists achieved AUC: improvements up to 4.7 % using Tree (P-values: 0.042-0.698); an expert's performance did not change (P = 0.526). The least experienced reader improved in specificity using Tree (16 %, P = 0.001). No further sensitivity and specificity differences were found (P > 0.1). The Tree scoring system improves inter-reader agreement and achieves a diagnostic performance similar to that of BI-RADS. Less experienced radiologists, in particular, benefit from Tree. (orig.)

  20. Teacher Interpretation of Test Scores and Feedback to Students in EFL Classrooms: A Comparison of Two Rating Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Mu-hsuan

    2013-01-01

    Rating scales have been used as a major assessment instrument to measure language performance on oral tasks. The present research concerned, under the same rating criteria, how far teachers interpreted students' speaking scores by using two different types of rating method, and how far students could benefit from the feedback of the description of…

  1. Target Practice: Reader Response Theory and Teachers' Interpretations of Students' SAT 10 Scores in Data-Based Professional Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Becky M.

    2012-01-01

    The study reported in this article examines how teachers read and respond to their students' Stanford Achievement Test 10 (SAT 10) scores with the goal of investigating the assumption that data-based teaching practice is more "objective" and less susceptible to divergent teacher interpretation. The study uses reader response theory to…

  2. What do these scores mean? Presenting patient-reported outcomes data to patients and clinicians to improve interpretability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Claire F; Smith, Katherine C; Bantug, Elissa T; Tolbert, Elliott E; Blackford, Amanda L; Brundage, Michael D

    2017-05-15

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) (eg, symptoms, functioning) can inform patient management. However, patients and clinicians often have difficulty interpreting score meaning. The authors tested approaches for presenting PRO data to improve interpretability. This mixed-methods study included an Internet survey of cancer patients/survivors, oncology clinicians, and PRO researchers circulated via snowball sampling, plus individual in-person interviews. Clinical importance was conveyed using 3 approaches (presented in random order): normal score range shaded green, concerning scores circled in red, and red threshold lines indicating normal versus concerning scores. Versions also tested 2 approaches to score directionality: higher = more (better for function, worse for symptoms) and higher = better for both function and symptoms. Qualitative data from online comments and in-person interviews supplemented quantitative results on interpretation accuracy, clarity, and the "most useful" format. The survey included 1113 respondents: 627 survivors, 236 clinicians, and 250 researchers, plus 10 patients and 10 clinicians who were purposively sampled interviewees. Interpretation accuracy ranged from 53% to 100%. The formats in which higher = better were interpreted more accurately versus those in which higher = more (odds ratio [OR], 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.58) and were more likely to be rated "very"/"somewhat" clear (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.13-1.70) and "very" clear (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.18-1.58). Red circle formats were interpreted more accurately than green-shaded formats when the first format presented (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.00-1.65). Threshold-line formats were more likely to be rated "very" clear than green-shaded (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.19-1.71) and red-circled (OR, 1.22, 95% CI, 1.02-1.46) formats. Threshold lines were most often selected as "most useful." The current results support presenting PRO data with higher = better directionality and

  3. Interpreting change on the SCAT3 in professional ice hockey players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänninen, Timo; Parkkari, Jari; Tuominen, Markku; Iverson, Grant L; Öhman, Juha; Vartiainen, Matti; Luoto, Teemu M

    2017-05-01

    To examine test-retest reliability of the SCAT3 for two consecutive seasons using a large sample of professional male ice hockey players, and to make recommendations for interpreting change on the test. A cross-sectional descriptive study. Preseason baseline testing was administered in the beginning of the seasons 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 to 179 professional male hockey players in rink side settings. The test-retest reliabilities of the SCAT3 components were uniformly low. However, the majority of athletes remained grossly within their own individual performance range when two pre-season SCAT3 baseline scores were compared to published normative reference values. Being tested by the same person or a different person did not influence the results. It was uncommon for the Symptom score to worsen by ≥3 points, the Symptom Severity score to worsen by ≥5 points, SAC total score to worsen by ≥3 points, M-BESS total error points to increase by ≥3, or the time to complete Tandem Gait to increase by ≥4s; each occurred in less than 10% of the sample. The SCAT3 has low test-retest reliability. Change scores should be interpreted with caution, and more research is needed to determine the clinical usefulness of the SCAT3 for diagnosing concussion and monitoring recovery. Careful examination of the natural distributions of difference scores provides clinicians with useful information on how to interpret change on the test. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellac, Michel Le

    2014-11-01

    Although nobody can question the practical efficiency of quantum mechanics, there remains the serious question of its interpretation. As Valerio Scarani puts it, "We do not feel at ease with the indistinguishability principle (that is, the superposition principle) and some of its consequences." Indeed, this principle which pervades the quantum world is in stark contradiction with our everyday experience. From the very beginning of quantum mechanics, a number of physicists--but not the majority of them!--have asked the question of its "interpretation". One may simply deny that there is a problem: according to proponents of the minimalist interpretation, quantum mechanics is self-sufficient and needs no interpretation. The point of view held by a majority of physicists, that of the Copenhagen interpretation, will be examined in Section 10.1. The crux of the problem lies in the status of the state vector introduced in the preceding chapter to describe a quantum system, which is no more than a symbolic representation for the Copenhagen school of thought. Conversely, one may try to attribute some "external reality" to this state vector, that is, a correspondence between the mathematical description and the physical reality. In this latter case, it is the measurement problem which is brought to the fore. In 1932, von Neumann was first to propose a global approach, in an attempt to build a purely quantum theory of measurement examined in Section 10.2. This theory still underlies modern approaches, among them those grounded on decoherence theory, or on the macroscopic character of the measuring apparatus: see Section 10.3. Finally, there are non-standard interpretations such as Everett's many worlds theory or the hidden variables theory of de Broglie and Bohm (Section 10.4). Note, however, that this variety of interpretations has no bearing whatsoever on the practical use of quantum mechanics. There is no controversy on the way we should use quantum mechanics!

  5. Interpreting the Relationships between TOEFL iBT Scores and GPA: Language Proficiency, Policy, and Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginther, April; Yan, Xun

    2018-01-01

    This study examines the predictive validity of the TOEFL iBT with respect to academic achievement as measured by the first-year grade point average (GPA) of Chinese students at Purdue University, a large, public, Research I institution in Indiana, USA. Correlations between GPA, TOEFL iBT total and subsection scores were examined on 1990 mainland…

  6. Deep convolutional neural networks for interpretable analysis of EEG sleep stage scoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilamala, Albert; Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard; Hansen, Lars K.

    2017-01-01

    Sleep studies are important for diagnosing sleep disorders such as insomnia, narcolepsy or sleep apnea. They rely on manual scoring of sleep stages from raw polisomnography signals, which is a tedious visual task requiring the workload of highly trained professionals. Consequently, research efforts...

  7. The Impact of Linking Distinct Achievement Test Scores on the Interpretation of Student Growth in Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airola, Denise Tobin

    2011-01-01

    Changes to state tests impact the ability of State Education Agencies (SEAs) to monitor change in performance over time. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Standardized Performance Growth Index (PGIz), a proposed statistical model for measuring change in student and school performance, across transitions in tests. The PGIz is a…

  8. Influence of IQ in interpreting MMSE scores in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gontkovsky, Samuel T

    2014-01-01

    The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) were administered to 46 outpatients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS). MMSE total raw score was significantly and positively correlated with all WAIS-IV indexes, even when controlling for the effects of participant educational level, with the strongest relationship being with Full Scale IQ. These results suggest that clinicians consider patient intellectual functioning, in particular Full Scale IQ, when diagnosing neurocognitive impairment based on screening with the MMSE in individuals with MS.

  9. Agents of Change: Interpreters as Witnesses of Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Mullamaa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article we would like to share the preliminary results of our on-going research on the memories of interpreters. From 2011-2012 we have carried out in-depth interviews with representatives of two different samples: experienced dialogue interpreters a in Estonia and  b in Sweden, most of whom have worked from the 1960s till today. This article sums up the preliminary results on the sample from Estonia. The focus is on the development of the interpreter´s role as reflecting the changes in society, cultural and social practices. As for the theoretical background, we view the processes within the framework of Transition Studies (cf. Lauristin, Vihalemm 2010;  Kennedy 2002. The methodological framework is ethnographic research. More specifically:  we combine narrative studies and memory research ( Kõresaar, Kirss 2004; Riessman 1993, Middleton, Brown 2005, Gilbert 2008; method:  semi-structured interviews (cf. Nunan 1992, Van Maanen 1983, Gilbert 2008. The analysis of our on-going research also enables us to test and share with our readers the pros and cons of the chosen methodology and methods.

  10. Gray Matter Changes in Demyelinating Disease: Correlations with Clinical Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onu, Mihaela; Aroceanu, Adina; Ferastraoaru, Victor; Bajenaru, Ovidiu

    2015-09-01

    Recent MR studies have shown that, in multiple sclerosis, selective regional, but not global gray matter atrophy occurs in multiple sclerosis. Our aim was to identify specific areas of gray matter volume changes and explore the relationship between atrophy and clinical motor outcomes. Nine patients with relapsing remitting MS and 9 matched healthy controls were recruited. The Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite was administered. For MR acquisitions, a GE- Genesis- Signa, 1.5T MR system, was used. A voxel-based morphometry (VBM), subcortical structures segmentation (FIRST) and volumetric (SIENAx) FSL tools were used in the study. Group comparison showed atrophy for several gray matter regions. The most important volume reductions were found for subcortical deep gray matter areas. Correlations with clinical scores were checked and specific gray matter areas showed significant volume reductions associated with motor scores (9-hole peg time and 25-feet walk time) and EDSS (Expanded Disability Status Scale). We performed a voxelwise analysis of gray matter changes in MS and found a more prominent atrophy for the subcortical structures than for cortical gray matter. Using an additional analysis (FIRST and SIENAx segmentation/volumetry) we were able to confirm the VBM results and to quantify the degree of atrophy in specific structures. Specific gray matter regions which volume reductions correlate with 25-feet walk, 9-hole peg times and EDSS suggest that 25-feet walk time is the best predictor of disease progression in terms of gray matter reduction.

  11. Significance of changes in medium-range forecast scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Geer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The impact of developments in weather forecasting is measured using forecast verification, but many developments, though useful, have impacts of less than 0.5 % on medium-range forecast scores. Chaotic variability in the quality of individual forecasts is so large that it can be hard to achieve statistical significance when comparing these ‘smaller’ developments to a control. For example, with 60 separate forecasts and requiring a 95 % confidence level, a change in quality of the day-5 forecast needs to be larger than 1 % to be statistically significant using a Student's t-test. The first aim of this study is simply to illustrate the importance of significance testing in forecast verification, and to point out the surprisingly large sample sizes that are required to attain significance. The second aim is to see how reliable are current approaches to significance testing, following suspicion that apparently significant results may actually have been generated by chaotic variability. An independent realisation of the null hypothesis can be created using a forecast experiment containing a purely numerical perturbation, and comparing it to a control. With 1885 paired differences from about 2.5 yr of testing, an alternative significance test can be constructed that makes no statistical assumptions about the data. This is used to experimentally test the validity of the normal statistical framework for forecast scores, and it shows that the naive application of Student's t-test does generate too many false positives (i.e. false rejections of the null hypothesis. A known issue is temporal autocorrelation in forecast scores, which can be corrected by an inflation in the size of confidence range, but typical inflation factors, such as those based on an AR(1 model, are not big enough and they are affected by sampling uncertainty. Further, the importance of statistical multiplicity has not been appreciated, and this becomes particularly dangerous

  12. Magnitude and meaningfulness of change in SF-36 scores in four types of orthopedic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buchbinder Rachelle

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Medical Outcomes General Health Survey (SF-36 is a widely used health status measure; however, limited evidence is available for its performance in orthopedic settings. The aim of this study was to examine the magnitude and meaningfulness of change and sensitivity of SF-36 subscales following orthopedic surgery. Methods Longitudinal data on outcomes of total hip replacement (THR, n = 255, total knee replacement (TKR, n = 103, arthroscopic partial meniscectomy (APM, n = 74 and anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL, n = 62 were used to estimate the effect sizes (ES, magnitude of change and minimal detectable change (sensitivity at the group and individual level. To provide context for interpreting the magnitude of changes in SF-36 scores, we also compared patients' scores with age and sex-matched population norms. The studies were conducted in Sweden. Follow-up was five years in THR and TKR studies, two years in ACL, and three months in APM. Results On average, large effect sizes (ES≥0.80 were found after orthopedic surgery in SF-36 subscales measuring physical aspects (physical functioning, role physical, and bodily pain. Small (0.20–0.49 to moderate (0.50–0.79 effect sizes were found in subscales measuring mental and social aspects (role emotional, vitality, social functioning, and mental health. General health scores remained relatively unchanged during the follow-up. Despite improvements, post-surgery mean scores of patients were still below the age and sex matched population norms on physical subscales. Patients' scores on mental and social subscales approached population norms following the surgery. At the individual level, scores of a large proportion of patients were affected by floor or ceiling effects on several subscales and the sensitivity to individual change was very low. Conclusion Large to moderate meaningful changes in group scores were observed in all SF-36 subscales except General Health

  13. Do we still need IQ-scores? Misleading interpretations of neurocognitive outcome in pediatric patients with medulloblastoma: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegenschimmel, Barbara; Leiss, Ulrike; Veigl, Michaela; Rosenmayr, Verena; Formann, Anton; Slavc, Irene; Pletschko, Thomas

    2017-11-01

    Over the past decades, many studies used global outcome measures like the IQ when reporting cognitive outcome of pediatric brain tumor patients, assuming that intelligence is a singular and homogeneous construct. In contrast, especially in clinical neuropsychology, the assessment and interpretation of distinct neurocognitive domains emerged as standard. By definition, the full scale IQ (FIQ) is a score attempting to measure intelligence. It is established by calculating the average performance of a number of subtests. Therefore, FIQ depends on the subtests that are used and the influence neurocognitive functions have on these performances. Consequently, the present study investigated the impact of neuropsychological domains on the singular "g-factor" concept and analysed the consequences for interpretation of clinical outcome. The sample consisted of 37 pediatric patients with medulloblastoma, assessed 0-3 years after diagnosis with the Wechsler Intelligence Scales. Information processing speed and visuomotor function were measured by the Trailmaking Test, Form A. Our findings indicate that FIQ was considerably impacted by processing speed and visuomotor coordination, which leaded to an underestimation of the general cognitive performance of many patients. One year after diagnosis, when patients showed the largest norm-deviation, this effect seemed to be at its peak. As already recommended in international guidelines, a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery is necessary to fully understand cognitive outcome. If IQ-tests are used, a detailed subtest analysis with respect to the impact of processing speed seems essential. Otherwise patients may be at risk for wrong decision making, especially in educational guidance.

  14. Beware of the origin of numbers: Standard scoring of the SF-12 and SF-36 summary measures distorts measurement and score interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagell, Peter; Westergren, Albert; Årestedt, Kristofer

    2017-08-01

    The 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) is a generic health rating scale developed to reproduce the Physical and Mental Component Summary scores (PCS and MCS, respectively) of a longer survey, the SF-36. The standard PCS/MCS scoring algorithm has been criticized because its expected dimensionality often lacks empirical support, scoring is based on the assumption that physical and mental health are uncorrelated, and because scores on physical health items influence MCS scores, and vice versa. In this paper, we review the standard PCS/MCS scoring algorithm for the SF-12 and consider alternative scoring procedures: the RAND-12 Health Status Inventory (HSI) and raw sum scores. We corroborate that the SF-12 reproduces SF-36 scores but also inherits its problems. In simulations, good physical health scores reduce mental health scores, and vice versa. This may explain results of clinical studies in which, for example, poor physical health scores result in good MCS scores despite compromised mental health. When applied to empirical data from people with Parkinson's disease (PD) and stroke, standard SF-12 scores suggest a weak correlation between physical and mental health (r s .16), whereas RAND-12 HSI and raw sum scores show a much stronger correlation (r s .67-.68). Furthermore, standard PCS scores yield a different statistical conclusion regarding the association between physical health and age than do RAND-12 HSI and raw sum scores. We recommend that the standard SF-12 scoring algorithm be abandoned in favor of alternatives that provide more valid representations of physical and mental health, of which raw sum scores appear the simplest. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Meaningful Change Scores in the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score in Patients Undergoing Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingelsrud, Lina Holm; Terwee, Caroline B; Terluin, Berend

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Meaningful change scores in the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) in patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction have not yet been established. PURPOSE: To define the minimal important change (MIC) for the KOOS after ACL reconstruction. STUDY....... Presurgery KOOS scores were retrieved from the registry. The MIC for improvement was calculated with anchor-based approaches using the predictive modeling method adjusted for the proportion of improved patients, the mean change method, and the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) method. RESULTS: Complete......% to 10% of patients reported subscale-specific worsening, MIC deterioration calculations were not possible. The ROC MIC values were associated with high degrees of misclassification. Values obtained by the mean change method were considered less reliable because these estimates are derived from subgroups...

  16. Can linear regression modeling help clinicians in the interpretation of genotypic resistance data? An application to derive a lopinavir-score.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Cozzi-Lepri

    Full Text Available The question of whether a score for a specific antiretroviral (e.g. lopinavir/r in this analysis that improves prediction of viral load response given by existing expert-based interpretation systems (IS could be derived from analyzing the correlation between genotypic data and virological response using statistical methods remains largely unanswered.We used the data of the patients from the UK Collaborative HIV Cohort (UK CHIC Study for whom genotypic data were stored in the UK HIV Drug Resistance Database (UK HDRD to construct a training/validation dataset of treatment change episodes (TCE. We used the average square error (ASE on a 10-fold cross-validation and on a test dataset (the EuroSIDA TCE database to compare the performance of a newly derived lopinavir/r score with that of the 3 most widely used expert-based interpretation rules (ANRS, HIVDB and Rega. Our analysis identified mutations V82A, I54V, K20I and I62V, which were associated with reduced viral response and mutations I15V and V91S which determined lopinavir/r hypersensitivity. All models performed equally well (ASE on test ranging between 1.1 and 1.3, p = 0.34.We fully explored the potential of linear regression to construct a simple predictive model for lopinavir/r-based TCE. Although, the performance of our proposed score was similar to that of already existing IS, previously unrecognized lopinavir/r-associated mutations were identified. The analysis illustrates an approach of validation of expert-based IS that could be used in the future for other antiretrovirals and in other settings outside HIV research.

  17. Interpreting change on the WAIS-III/WMS-III in clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, G L

    2001-02-01

    Clinicians should note that there is considerable variability in the reliabilities of the index and subtest scores derived from the third editions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) and the Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III). The purpose of this article is to review these reliabilities and to illustrate how they can be used to interpret change in patients' performances from test to retest. The WAIS-III IQ and Index scores are consistently the most reliable scores, in terms of both internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The most internally consistent WAIS-III subtests are Vocabulary, Information, Digit Span, Matrix Reasoning, and Arithmetic. Information and Vocabulary have the highest test-retest reliability. On the WMS-III, the Auditory Immediate Index, Immediate Memory Index, Auditory Delayed Index, and General Memory Index are the most reliable, in terms of both internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The Logical Memory I and Verbal Paired Associates I subtests are the most reliable. Data from three clinical groups (i.e., Alzheimer's disease, chronic alcohol abuse, and schizophrenia) were extracted from the Technical Manual [Psychological Corporation (1997). WAIS-III/WMS-III Technical Manual. San Antonio: Harcourt Brace] for the purpose of calculating reliable change estimates. A table of confidence intervals for test-retest measurement error is provided to help the clinician determine if patients have reliably improved or deteriorated on follow-up testing.

  18. Reliable change indices and standardized regression-based change score norms for evaluating neuropsychological change in children with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Robyn M; Lineweaver, Tara T; Ferguson, Lisa; Haut, Jennifer S

    2015-06-01

    Reliable change indices (RCIs) and standardized regression-based (SRB) change score norms permit evaluation of meaningful changes in test scores following treatment interventions, like epilepsy surgery, while accounting for test-retest reliability, practice effects, score fluctuations due to error, and relevant clinical and demographic factors. Although these methods are frequently used to assess cognitive change after epilepsy surgery in adults, they have not been widely applied to examine cognitive change in children with epilepsy. The goal of the current study was to develop RCIs and SRB change score norms for use in children with epilepsy. Sixty-three children with epilepsy (age range: 6-16; M=10.19, SD=2.58) underwent comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations at two time points an average of 12 months apart. Practice effect-adjusted RCIs and SRB change score norms were calculated for all cognitive measures in the battery. Practice effects were quite variable across the neuropsychological measures, with the greatest differences observed among older children, particularly on the Children's Memory Scale and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. There was also notable variability in test-retest reliabilities across measures in the battery, with coefficients ranging from 0.14 to 0.92. Reliable change indices and SRB change score norms for use in assessing meaningful cognitive change in children following epilepsy surgery are provided for measures with reliability coefficients above 0.50. This is the first study to provide RCIs and SRB change score norms for a comprehensive neuropsychological battery based on a large sample of children with epilepsy. Tables to aid in evaluating cognitive changes in children who have undergone epilepsy surgery are provided for clinical use. An Excel sheet to perform all relevant calculations is also available to interested clinicians or researchers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The Changes of Students’ Toefl Score After One Year Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ienneke Indra Dewi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BINUS students are supposed to increase their English competence indicated by their TOEFL scores. This paper aims to observe the differences between studens TOEFL scores obtained when they entered BINUS and the scores after they joined TOEFL courses at BINUS for one year. The participants were 121 students. The data for the entrance test were taken from the BINUS data center and the final test data were taken from their final test at English class. The data were analysed using statistics especially the descriptive statistics, comparing means, and correlation. To support the quantative data, a set of questionnaires was distributed to those 121 students. The results show that the students’ TOEFL scores have increased significantly in the final test compared to those in the entrance test. The low achiever students showed a better performance than the higher ones. Students’ motivation and background support their English study. Students proved to have the most problem in listening. The results of the research are expected to be the input for English lecturers to improve their teaching especially the existence of SALLC (Self Access Language Learning Center. 

  20. "Global warming, continental drying? Interpreting projected aridity changes over land under climate change"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Alexis

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, a number of studies have suggested that, as climate warms, the land surface will globally become more arid. Such results usually rely on drought or aridity diagnostics, such as the Palmer Drought Severity Index or the Aridity Index (ratio of precipitation over potential evapotranspiration, PET), applied to climate model projections of surface climate. From a global perspective, the projected widespread drying of the land surface is generally interpreted as the result of the dominant, ubiquitous warming-induced PET increase, which overwhelms the slight overall precipitation increase projected over land. However, several lines of evidence, based on (paleo)observations and climate model projections, raise questions regarding this interpretation of terrestrial climate change. In this talk, I will review elements of the literature supporting these different perspectives, and will present recent results based on CMIP5 climate model projections regarding changes in aridity over land that shed some light on this discussion. Central to the interpretation of projected land aridity changes is the understanding of projected PET trends over land and their link with changes in other variables of the terrestrial water cycle (ET, soil moisture) and surface climate in the context of the coupled land-atmosphere system.

  1. Interpreting important health-related quality of life change using the Haem-A-QoL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrwich, K W; Krishnan, S; Poon, J L; Auguste, P; von Maltzahn, R; Yu, R; von Mackensen, S

    2015-09-01

    The Haemophilia Quality of Life Questionnaire for Adults (Haem-A-QoL) measures health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adults with haemophilia; however, change score thresholds for identifying individuals experiencing a HRQoL benefit have not been appropriately investigated. The objective of this analysis was to derive appropriate HRQoL responder definitions (RDs) for two Haem-A-QoL domains that reflect key impairments, 'Physical Health' and 'Sports & Leisure,' and the Haem-A-QoL 'Total Score' using anchor- and distribution-based methods. In this analysis, data from adults in A-LONG and B-LONG, two Phase 3 clinical studies of rFVIIIFc in haemophilia A and rFIXFc in haemophilia B, respectively, were used. The anchor-based approach identified Haem-A-QoL changes corresponding to EQ-5D item improvements between baseline and 6 months; the distribution-based methods examined the magnitude at baseline of one-half standard deviation and the standard error of measurement. Through triangulation, the most appropriate RDs were derived. Of the 133 A-LONG and 73 B-LONG subjects with baseline Haem-A-QoL scores, 67 and 51 subjects, respectively, completed the Haem-A-QoL questionnaire at both baseline and 6 months follow-up. Triangulation of anchor- and distribution-based estimates with the observed Haem-A-QoL change scores identified a 10-point reduction in the 'Physical Health' and 'Sports & Leisure' domains, and a 7-point reduction in 'Total Score' as the RD thresholds most indicative of HRQoL benefit. These empirically derived RDs for two key Haem-A-QoL domains and 'Total Score' are reasonable and practical thresholds for identifying subjects with notable improvements in HRQoL, and provides HRQoL RDs that can be used for further analysis and interpretation of data from haemophilia clinical trials. © 2015 Evidera, Inc. Haemophilia published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Interpretive medicine: Supporting generalism in a changing primary care world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the

  3. Misspecification in Latent Change Score Models: Consequences for Parameter Estimation, Model Evaluation, and Predicting Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D Angus; Nuttall, Amy K; Bowles, Ryan P

    2018-01-01

    Latent change score models (LCS) are conceptually powerful tools for analyzing longitudinal data (McArdle & Hamagami, 2001). However, applications of these models typically include constraints on key parameters over time. Although practically useful, strict invariance over time in these parameters is unlikely in real data. This study investigates the robustness of LCS when invariance over time is incorrectly imposed on key change-related parameters. Monte Carlo simulation methods were used to explore the impact of misspecification on parameter estimation, predicted trajectories of change, and model fit in the dual change score model, the foundational LCS. When constraints were incorrectly applied, several parameters, most notably the slope (i.e., constant change) factor mean and autoproportion coefficient, were severely and consistently biased, as were regression paths to the slope factor when external predictors of change were included. Standard fit indices indicated that the misspecified models fit well, partly because mean level trajectories over time were accurately captured. Loosening constraint improved the accuracy of parameter estimates, but estimates were more unstable, and models frequently failed to converge. Results suggest that potentially common sources of misspecification in LCS can produce distorted impressions of developmental processes, and that identifying and rectifying the situation is a challenge.

  4. Durkheim's Sociology of Education: Interpretations of Social Change Through Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Marc A.

    1976-01-01

    Three questions are examined: (1) Why have contemporary American educators generally ignored Durkheim's sociology of education? (2) What were Durkheim's contributions to the sociology of education as his analysis related to social change through education? and (3) What is the relationship between Durkheim's sociology of education, social change,…

  5. Changing Attitudes about Spanking Using Alternative Biblical Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Robin; Miller-Perrin, Cindy; Song, Jeongbin

    2017-01-01

    Social scientists are generally in agreement that spanking is not an especially effective method of discipline and is associated with a variety of behavioral and mental health problems in children. Interventions that have focused on disseminating this empirical research have met with some success in changing pro-spanking attitudes. However, given…

  6. Interpretations of vegetative change through 1989: The photopoints

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. E. Gruell; W. C. Schmidt; S. F. Arno; W. J. Reich

    1999-01-01

    The 1907 to 1911 logging operations and subsequent lack of surface fires dramatically changed the patterns of plant succession at Lick Creek. Large quantities of overstory pines were felled, creating sizable openings. Logs were skidded and slash was burned in piles (Koch 1998) locally scraping off or consuming surface vegetation, pine needle litter, and humus, and...

  7. Difficulties in the interpretation of focal changes on liver scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derimanov, S.G. (Oblastnoj Onkologicheskij Dispanser, Veliko-Tyrnovo (Bulgaria))

    1983-01-01

    A series of cases are presented in which erroneous conclusions were arrived at by liver scans. The analysis of these errors has shown that they are determined by the similarity of a scanographic picture of focal changes in various diseases of the liver (cancer, cirrhosis, echinococcus, etc.) and the adjacent organs (bronchogenic cyst, renal tumor, etc.). In this connection all attempts to determine the etiology of a pathological process by liver scans without correlation with the results of multidimensional examination frequently result in errors.

  8. Efficacy of the seven feature, fifteen point histological scoring system and CD56 in interpretation of liver biopsies in persistent neonatal cholestasis: A five-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O H Radhika Krishna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Neonatal cholestasis (NC lasting more than 2 weeks affects one in 2500 live births. Extrahepatic biliary atresia (EHBA and idiopathic neonatal hepatitis account for about 70% of all cases of NC. Differentiating these two conditions is important as patient management is very different for both the conditions. Aims: To assess the usefulness of the seven-feature, 15-point histological scoring system in the interpretation of liver biopsy in NC and usefulness of immunostaining with CD56 (N-CAM in EHBA. Settings and Design: Retrospective study of 5 years′ duration at a pediatric referral institute, where the case load of NC is high and definitive surgery for EHBA is undertaken after histological confirmation. Materials and Methods: The study is of a 5-year duration conducted between June 2007 and May 2012. A total of 210 cases of NC were clinically diagnosed during this period. All the slides were reviewed with reference to a seven-feature, 15-point histological scoring system assessing its usefulness in the interpretation of liver biopsy in NC and utility of the immunohistochemical marker CD56 was also assessed as an aid in the characterization of bile ductular proliferation in EHBA. Statistical Analysis: Statistical analysis was performed and sensitivity and specificity of the histological scoring system for EHBA was analyzed. Results: Of the 210 liver biopsies reviewed using the scoring system, 122 cases were diagnosed as EHBA and 88 cases were diagnosed as other causes of NC. The overall sensitivity of this scoring system was 95.5%, specificity was 93.1% and diagnostic accuracy was 94.6%. Conclusions: The seven-feature, 15-point histological scoring system has good diagnostic accuracy in the interpretation of liver histology in NC as advanced histopathological findings even at younger age require immediate surgery. CD-56 is a useful marker in the assessment of bile ductular proliferation in EHBA.

  9. What's in a word? Conflicting interpretations of vulnerability in climate change research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, Karen; Eriksen, Siri; Schjolden, Ane; Nygaard, Lynn

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss two competing interpretations of vulnerability in the climate change literature and consider the implications for both research and policy. The first interpretation, which can be referred to as the ''end point'' approach, views vulnerability as a residual of climate change impacts minus adaptation. The second interpretation, which takes vulnerability as a ''starting point'', views vulnerability as a general characteristic generated by multiple factors and processes. Viewing vulnerability as an end point considers that adaptations and adaptive capacity determine vulnerability, whereas viewing vulnerability as a starting point holds that vulnerability determines adaptive capacity. The practical consequences of these two interpretations are illustrated through the examples of Norway and Mozambique. We show that, if the underlying causes and contexts of vulnerability are not taken into account, there is a danger of underestimating the magnitude (large), scope (social arid environmental) and urgency (high) of climate change. (author)

  10. Interobserver agreement in interpretation of radiographic pulmonary changes in dogs in relation to radiology training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilde Rodrigues Froes

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Interpretation of pulmonary radiographs is one of the most difficult aspects of radiology and interobserver variability is high. The aim of this study was to assess variations in interpretation of pulmonary pathology amongst Brazilian veterinarians with different levels of training and experience, using the interpretation by American board-certified radiologists as a reference. We identified areas where interpretation is particularly challenging. Sixty digital canine thoracic radiographic examinations were interpreted by four groups of three Brazilian observers, each group being defined by different levels of training and experience. The radiographic findings of the 4 groups of observers in the study were compared to a reference interpretation established from the findings of three ACVR board-certified radiologists. The degree of discrepancy for each list between each group and the reference interpretation was assessed according to a three-level scoring system: no discrepancy, minor discrepancy, or major discrepancy. Data was analyzed using a Kappa and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests. Brazilian veterinarians with the most training and experience showed the least interobserver variation and best performance when compared to the reference interpretation, followed by those with practical training, but with little work experience in professional practice. The radiographic patterns that were associated with the highest interobserver variability were the vascular, unstructured interstitial and bronchial patterns. Interobserver major discrepancies occurred in all groups, but is more evident in groups with the least training (44.4% and the general practitioners (26.7% group. It can be concluded that training positively influences the accuracy of radiographic interpretation and is recommended to reduce erroneous diagnoses.

  11. REVEAL risk scores applied to riociguat-treated patients in PATENT-2: Impact of changes in risk score on survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benza, Raymond L; Farber, Harrison W; Frost, Adaani; Ghofrani, Hossein-Ardeschir; Gómez-Sánchez, Miguel A; Langleben, David; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Busse, Dennis; Meier, Christian; Nikkho, Sylvia; Hoeper, Marius M

    2018-04-01

    The Registry to Evaluate Early and Long-term PAH Disease Management (REVEAL) risk score (RRS) calculator was developed using data derived from the REVEAL registry, and predicts survival in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) based on multiple patient characteristics. Herein we applied the RRS to a pivotal PAH trial database, the 12-week PATENT-1 and open-label PATENT-2 extension studies of riociguat. We examined the effect of riociguat vs placebo on RRS in PATENT-1, and investigated the prognostic implications of change in RRS during PATENT-1 on long-term outcomes in PATENT-2. RRS was calculated post hoc for baseline and Week 12 of PATENT-1, and Week 12 of PATENT-2. Patients were grouped into risk strata by RRS. Kaplan-Meier estimates were made for survival and clinical worsening-free survival in PATENT-2 to evaluate the relationship between RRS in PATENT-1 and long-term outcomes in PATENT-2. A total of 396 patients completed PATENT-1 and participated in PATENT-2. In PATENT-1, riociguat significantly improved RRS (p = 0.031) and risk stratum (p = 0.018) between baseline and Week 12 compared with placebo. RRS at baseline, and at PATENT-1 Week 12, and change in RRS during PATENT-1 were significantly associated with survival (hazard ratios for a 1-point reduction in RRS: 0.675, 0.705 and 0.804, respectively) and clinical worsening-free survival (hazard ratios of 0.736, 0.716 and 0.753, respectively) over 2 years in PATENT-2. RRS at baseline and Week 12, and change in RRS, were significant predictors of both survival and clinical worsening-free survival. These data support the long-term predictive value of the RRS in a controlled study population. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Changes in Diet Quality Scores and Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Among US Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotos-Prieto, Mercedes; Bhupathiraju, Shilpa N; Mattei, Josiemer; Fung, Teresa T; Li, Yanping; Pan, An; Willett, Walter C; Rimm, Eric B; Hu, Frank B

    2015-12-08

    Adherence to several diet quality scores, including the Alternative Healthy Eating Index, Alternative Mediterranean Diet score, and Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension, has been associated with lower risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but little is known about how changes in these scores over time influence subsequent CVD risk. We analyzed the association between 4-year changes in the 3 diet quality scores (Alternative Healthy Eating Index, Alternative Mediterranean Diet score, and Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension) and subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among 29 343 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and 51 195 women in the Nurses' Health Study (1986-2010). During 1 394 702 person-years of follow-up, we documented 11 793 CVD cases. Compared with participants whose diet quality remained relatively stable in each 4-year period, those with the greatest improvement in diet quality scores had a 7% to 8% lower CVD risk in the subsequent 4-year period (pooled hazard ratio, 0.92 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.87-0.99] for the Alternative Healthy Eating Index; 0.93 [95% CI, 0.85-1.02] for the Alternative Mediterranean Diet score; and 0.93 [95% CI, 0.87-0.99] for the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension; all P for trend the long term, increasing the diet scores from baseline to the first 4-year follow-up was associated with lower CVD risk during the next 20 years (7% [95% CI, 1-12] for the Alternative Healthy Eating Index, and 9% [95% CI, 3-14] for the Alternative Mediterranean Diet score). A decrease in diet quality scores was associated with significantly elevated risk of CVD in subsequent time periods. Improving adherence to diet quality scores over time is associated with significantly lower CVD risk in both the short term and long term. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. You changed your mind! Infants interpret a change in word as signaling a change in an agent's goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Kyong-Sun; Song, Hyun-Joo

    2017-10-01

    Language provides information about our psychological states. For instance, adults can use language to convey information about their goals or preferences. The current research examined whether 14- and 12-month-old infants could interpret a change in an agent's word as signaling a change in her goals. In two experiments, 14-month-olds (Experiment 1) and 12-month-olds (Experiment 2) were first familiarized to an event in which an agent uttered a novel word and then reached for one of two novel objects. During the test trials, the agent uttered a different novel word (different-word condition) or the same word (same-word condition) and then reached for the same object or the other object. Both 14- and 12-month-olds in the different-word condition expected the agent to change her goal and reach for the other object. In contrast, the infants in the same-word condition expected the agent to maintain her goal. In Experiment 3, 12-month-olds who heard two distinct sounds instead of the agent's novel words expected the agent to maintain her goal regardless of the change in the nonlinguistic sounds. Together, these results indicate that by 12months of age infants can use an agent's verbal information to detect a change in her goals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Patient-perceived satisfactory improvement (PPSI): interpreting meaningful change in pain from the patient's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Klooster, Peter M.; Drossaers-Bakker, K.W.; Taal, Erik; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2006-01-01

    The assessment of clinically meaningful changes in patient-reported pain has become increasingly important when interpreting results of clinical studies. However, proposed response criteria, such as the minimal clinically important difference, do not correspond with the growing need for information

  15. Evaluating Transcription Factor Activity Changes by Scoring Unexplained Target Genes in Expression Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Berchtold

    Full Text Available Several methods predict activity changes of transcription factors (TFs from a given regulatory network and measured expression data. But available gene regulatory networks are incomplete and contain many condition-dependent regulations that are not relevant for the specific expression measurement. It is not known which combination of active TFs is needed to cause a change in the expression of a target gene. A method to systematically evaluate the inferred activity changes is missing. We present such an evaluation strategy that indicates for how many target genes the observed expression changes can be explained by a given set of active TFs. To overcome the problem that the exact combination of active TFs needed to activate a gene is typically not known, we assume a gene to be explained if there exists any combination for which the predicted active TFs can possibly explain the observed change of the gene. We introduce the i-score (inconsistency score, which quantifies how many genes could not be explained by the set of activity changes of TFs. We observe that, even for these minimal requirements, published methods yield many unexplained target genes, i.e. large i-scores. This holds for all methods and all expression datasets we evaluated. We provide new optimization methods to calculate the best possible (minimal i-score given the network and measured expression data. The evaluation of this optimized i-score on a large data compendium yields many unexplained target genes for almost every case. This indicates that currently available regulatory networks are still far from being complete. Both the presented Act-SAT and Act-A* methods produce optimal sets of TF activity changes, which can be used to investigate the difficult interplay of expression and network data. A web server and a command line tool to calculate our i-score and to find the active TFs associated with the minimal i-score is available from https://services.bio.ifi.lmu.de/i-score.

  16. Defining the minimal detectable change in scores on the eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muntner, Paul; Joyce, Cara; Holt, Elizabeth; He, Jiang; Morisky, Donald; Webber, Larry S; Krousel-Wood, Marie

    2011-05-01

    Self-report scales are used to assess medication adherence. Data on how to discriminate change in self-reported adherence over time from random variability are limited. To determine the minimal detectable change for scores on the 8-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8). The MMAS-8 was administered twice, using a standard telephone script, with administration separated by 14-22 days, to 210 participants taking antihypertensive medication in the CoSMO (Cohort Study of Medication Adherence among Older Adults). MMAS-8 scores were calculated and participants were grouped into previously defined categories (<6, 6 to <8, and 8 for low, medium, and high adherence). The mean (SD) age of participants was 78.1 (5.8) years, 43.8% were black, and 68.1% were women. Overall, 8.1% (17/210), 16.2% (34/210), and 51.0% (107/210) of participants had low, medium, and high MMAS-8 scores, respectively, at both survey administrations (overall agreement 75.2%; 158/210). The weighted κ statistic was 0.63 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.72). The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.78. The within-person standard error of the mean for change in MMAS-8 scores was 0.81, which equated to a minimal detectable change of 1.98 points. Only 4.3% (9/210) of the participants had a change in MMAS-8 of 2 or more points between survey administrations. Within-person changes in MMAS-8 scores of 2 or more points over time may represent a real change in antihypertensive medication adherence.

  17. Building Capacity: The National Network for Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, W.

    2014-12-01

    In the US, more than 1,500 informal science venues (science centers, museums, aquariums, zoos, nature centers, national parks) are visited annually by 61% of the population. Research shows that these visitors are receptive to learning about climate change, and expect these institutions to provide reliable information about environmental issues and solutions. These informal science venues play a critical role in shaping public understanding. Since 2007, the New England Aquarium has led a national effort to increase the capacity of informal science venues to effectively communicate about climate change. We are now leading the NSF-funded National Network for Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation (NNOCCI), partnering with the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, FrameWorks Institute, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Monterey Bay Aquarium, and National Aquarium, with evaluation conducted by the New Knowledge Organization, Pennsylvania State University, and Ohio State University. After two years of project implementation, key findings include: 1. Importance of adaptive management - We continue to make ongoing changes in training format, content, and roles of facilitators and participants. 2. Impacts on interpreters - We have multiple lines of evidence for changes in knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors. 3. Social radiation - Trained interpreters have a significant influence on their friends, family and colleagues. 4. Visitor impacts - "Exposure to "strategically framed" interpretation does change visitors' perceptions about climate change. 5. Community of practice - We are seeing evidence of growing participation, leadership, and sustainability. 6. Diffusion of innovation - Peer networks are facilitating dissemination throughout the informal science education community. Over the next five years, NNOCCI will achieve a systemic national impact across the ISE community, embed its work within multiple ongoing regional and national climate change education

  18. Developmental Relations between Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension: A Latent Change Score Modeling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jamie M.; Wagner, Richard K.; Petscher, Yaacov; Lopez, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    The present study followed a sample of first-grade (N = 316, M[subscript age] = 7.05 at first test) through fourth-grade students to evaluate dynamic developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Using latent change score modeling, competing models were fit to the repeated measurements of vocabulary knowledge and…

  19. Divorce and Child Behavior Problems: Applying Latent Change Score Models to Life Event Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Patrick S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Castellino, Domini R.; Berlin, Lisa J.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.; Pettit, Gregory S.

    2004-01-01

    Effects of parents' divorce on children's adjustment have been studied extensively. This article applies new advances in trajectory modeling to the problem of disentangling the effects of divorce on children's adjustment from related factors such as the child's age at the time of divorce and the child's gender. Latent change score models were used…

  20. Pre-to-post race changes in self-reported depression scores in ultra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pre-to-post race changes in self-reported depression scores in ultra-distance triathletes - a pilot study. AM Harrison, DT Yaldoo, CM Fiesler, JT Connor. Abstract. SA Sports Medicine Vol.15(3) 2003: 11-16. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  1. Test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change scores for fitness assessment in older adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso-Rosa, Rosa M; Del Pozo-Cruz, Borja; Del Pozo-Cruz, Jesus; Sañudo, Borja; Rogers, Michael E

    2014-01-01

    To assess the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and to determine the minimal detectable change (MDC95 ) scores of the data for the Hand Grip Strength Test, the Chair Sit and Reach Test (CSRT), the Timed "Up and Go" (TUG) test, the 6-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) and 30 seconds Sit to Stand Test (30s-STS) test in older adults with type 2 NIDDM. Test-retest reliability. Eighteen subject participated in two sessions (1 week apart), which included the different tests. High ICCs (≥ 0.92) were found for all tests. The MDC₉₅ scores were as follows: 4.0 kg for Hand Grip Strength Tests, 7.5 cm for the right leg-CSRT, 9.0 cm for the left leg-CSRT, 1.0 second for the TUG test, 27 m for the 6MWT, and 3.3 repetitions for the 30s-STS test. All tests evaluated are reliable outcome measures for type 2 NIDDM patients. This study has generated novel MCD₉₅ data, which will assist nursing practitioners in both prescribing the most beneficial exercise and interpreting posttreatment changes after rehabilitation in patients with T2DM. © 2013 Association of Rehabilitation Nurses.

  2. Elite athletes' sensitivity to context: the case of a change in scoring system in table tennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sève, Carole

    2004-12-01

    3 elite table tennis players' streams of actions during international matches were compared under the old scoring system (3 winning sets of 21 points) and the new (4 winning sets of 11 points). The organization of actions changed under the new system, with the relative duration of exploration activity becoming shorter than that of execution activity. These results indicate that elite performance in table tennis is characterized by the athletes' close attunement to elements of context--in this case, the scoring system--for the organization of their actions.

  3. Health-related Quality of Life Scores Changes Significantly within the First Three Months After Hernia Mesh Repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mette W; Rosenberg, Jacob; Jorgensen, Lars Nannestad

    2014-01-01

    or change of scores on PROMs as a function of time after hernia repair, we compared the CCS scores with the visual analog scale (VAS) scores reflecting the subdomains of the CCS. RESULTS: A total of 166 patients completed the study. CCS scores for QoL, pain, sensation of mesh, and activity limitations...... changed significantly with time during the 90-day study period. Furthermore, CCS and VAS showed significant agreement and correlation (ρ = 0.52-0.82, P

  4. Association of metabolic syndrome and change in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leehey, Maureen; Luo, Sheng; Sharma, Saloni; Wills, Anne-Marie A; Bainbridge, Jacquelyn L; Wong, Pei Shieen; Simon, David K; Schneider, Jay; Zhang, Yunxi; Pérez, Adriana; Dhall, Rohit; Christine, Chadwick W; Singer, Carlos; Cambi, Franca; Boyd, James T

    2017-10-24

    To explore the association between metabolic syndrome and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) scores and, secondarily, the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). This is a secondary analysis of data from 1,022 of 1,741 participants of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Exploratory Clinical Trials in Parkinson Disease Long-Term Study 1, a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of creatine. Participants were categorized as having or not having metabolic syndrome on the basis of modified criteria from the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Those who had the same metabolic syndrome status at consecutive annual visits were included. The change in UPDRS and SDMT scores from randomization to 3 years was compared in participants with and without metabolic syndrome. Participants with metabolic syndrome (n = 396) compared to those without (n = 626) were older (mean [SD] 63.9 [8.1] vs 59.9 [9.4] years; p metabolic syndrome experienced an additional 0.6- (0.2) unit annual increase in total UPDRS ( p = 0.02) and 0.5- (0.2) unit increase in motor UPDRS ( p = 0.01) scores compared with participants without metabolic syndrome. There was no difference in the change in SDMT scores. Persons with Parkinson disease meeting modified criteria for metabolic syndrome experienced a greater increase in total UPDRS scores over time, mainly as a result of increases in motor scores, compared to those who did not. Further studies are needed to confirm this finding. NCT00449865. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  5. "It Takes a Network": Building National Capacity for Climate Change Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, W.

    2014-12-01

    Since 2007, the New England Aquarium has led a national effort to increase the capacity of informal science venues to effectively communicate about climate change. We are now leading the NSF-funded National Network for Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation (NNOCCI), partnering with the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, FrameWorks Institute, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Monterey Bay Aquarium, and National Aquarium, with evaluation conducted by the New Knowledge Organization, Pennsylvania State University, and Ohio State University. More than 1,500 informal science venues (science centers, museums, aquariums, zoos, nature centers, national parks) are visited annually by 61% of the U.S. population. These visitors expect reliable information about environmental issues and solutions. NNOCCI enables teams of informal science interpreters across the country to serve as "communication strategists" - beyond merely conveying information they can influence public perceptions, given their high level of commitment, knowledge, public trust, social networks, and visitor contact. Beyond providing in-depth training, we have found that our "alumni network" is assuming an increasingly important role in achieving our goals: 1. Ongoing learning - Training must be ongoing given continuous advances in climate and social science research. 2. Implementation support - Social support is critical as interpreters move from learning to practice, given complex and potentially contentious subject matter. 3. Leadership development - We rely on a national cadre of interpretive leaders to conduct workshops, facilitate study circle trainings, and support alumni. 4. Coalition building - A peer network helps to build and maintain connections with colleagues, and supports further dissemination through the informal science community. We are experimenting with a variety of online and face to face strategies to support the growing alumni network. Our goals are to achieve a systemic national

  6. Interpretation of scenario results in terms of described and mapped land change trajectories and archetypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuemmerle, Tobias; Stürck, Julia; Levers, Christian

    Module VISIONS seeks to identify critical pathways to reach desired futures for land systems (i.e., visions). In order to do so, work package (WP) 11 links the model-based scenarios (module ASSESSMENT) to the visions formulated derived in a transdisciplinary process together with stakeholders...... of future developments of current land change archetypes; and (3) an interpretation of future land change in light of long-term land system trajectories. Synthesizing across these analyses, six key insights emerged. First, future land change was relatively similar across marker scenarios and different...... policy alternatives, for many regions in Europe, suggesting strong path dependency. Second, the impact of policy options can differ (a) between regions in Europe and (b) among marker scenarios, highlighting the need for contextualized, regionalized policy making. Third, the expansion and intensification...

  7. Developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension: a latent change score modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Jamie M; Wagner, Richard K; Petscher, Yaacov; Lopez, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    The present study followed a sample of first-grade (N = 316, Mage = 7.05 at first test) through fourth-grade students to evaluate dynamic developmental relations between vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension. Using latent change score modeling, competing models were fit to the repeated measurements of vocabulary knowledge and reading comprehension to test for the presence of leading and lagging influences. Univariate models indicated growth in vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension was determined by two parts: constant yearly change and change proportional to the previous level of the variable. Bivariate models indicated previous levels of vocabulary knowledge acted as leading indicators of reading comprehension growth, but the reverse relation was not found. Implications for theories of developmental relations between vocabulary and reading comprehension are discussed. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  8. The Effects of the Clock and Kickoff Rule Changes on Actual and Market-Based Expected Scoring in NCAA Football

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Linna

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Clock rule changes were introduced in the 2006 season with the goal of reducing the average duration of the game; these changes were reversed in 2007. In addition, in 2007 the kickoff rule was changed to create more excitement and potentially more scoring. We examine what happened to actual and expected scoring during these National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA football seasons. The clock rule change in 2006 led to lower scoring which was not fully encompassed in the betting market, leading to significant returns to betting the under. Multiple rule changes in 2007 led to volatility in the betting market that subsided by season’s end.

  9. Developmental Relations between Reading and Writing at the Word, Sentence, and Text Levels: A Latent Change Score Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Yusra; Wagner, Richard K.; Lopez, Danielle

    2014-01-01

    Relations between reading and writing have been studied extensively, but the less is known about the developmental nature of their interrelations. This study applied latent change score modeling to investigate longitudinal relations between reading and writing skills at the word, sentence, and text levels. Latent change score models were used to…

  10. Coordinated analysis of age, sex, and education effects on change in MMSE scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccinin, Andrea M; Muniz-Terrera, Graciela; Clouston, Sean; Reynolds, Chandra A; Thorvaldsson, Valgeir; Deary, Ian J; Deeg, Dorly J H; Johansson, Boo; Mackinnon, Andrew; Spiro, Avron; Starr, John M; Skoog, Ingmar; Hofer, Scott M

    2013-05-01

    We describe and compare the expected performance trajectories of older adults on the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) across six independent studies from four countries in the context of a collaborative network of longitudinal studies of aging. A coordinated analysis approach is used to compare patterns of change conditional on sample composition differences related to age, sex, and education. Such coordination accelerates evaluation of particular hypotheses. In particular, we focus on the effect of educational attainment on cognitive decline. Regular and Tobit mixed models were fit to MMSE scores from each study separately. The effects of age, sex, and education were examined based on more than one centering point. Findings were relatively consistent across studies. On average, MMSE scores were lower for older individuals and declined over time. Education predicted MMSE score, but, with two exceptions, was not associated with decline in MMSE over time. A straightforward association between educational attainment and rate of cognitive decline was not supported. Thoughtful consideration is needed when synthesizing evidence across studies, as methodologies adopted and sample characteristics, such as educational attainment, invariably differ.

  11. [Using a modified remote sensing imagery for interpreting changes in cultivated saline-alkali land].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Hui; Liu, Hui-tao; Liu, Hong-juan; Liu, Jin-tong

    2015-04-01

    This paper developed a new interpretation symbol system for grading and classifying saline-alkali land, using Huanghua, a cosatal city in Hebei Province as a case. The system was developed by inverting remote sensing images from 1992 to 2011 based on site investigation, plant cover characteristics and features of remote sensing images. Combining this interpretation symbol system with supervising classification method, the information on arable land was obtained for the coastal saline-alkali ecosystem of Huanghua City, and the saline-alkali land area, changes in intensity of salinity-alkalinity and spatial distribution from 1992 to 2011 were analyzed. The results showed that salinization of arable land in Huanghua City alleviated from 1992 to 2011. The severely and moderately saline-alkali land area decreased in 2011 compared with 1992, while the non/slightly saline land area increased. The moderately saline-alkali land in southeast transformed to non/slightly saline-alkaline, while the severely saline-alkali land in west of the city far from the coastal zone became moderately saline-alkaline. The center of gravity (CG) of severely and non/slightly saline-alkali land moved closer the coastline, while that of the moderately saline-alkali land moved from southwest coastal line to northwest. Factors influencing changes in arable land within the saline-alkali ecosystem of Huanghua City were climate, hydrology and human activities.

  12. Teaching Urban High School Students Global Climate Change Information and Graph Interpretation Skills Using Evidence from the Scientific Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Audrey C.; Meyer, Mary A.

    2009-01-01

    Curriculum materials designed to provide students with practice interpreting plotted evidence of global climate change were developed using graphs from the scientific literature and tested with one hundred urban high school students from a high-poverty school in a major northern city in the US. The graph interpretation lessons followed a…

  13. Disciplinary reporting affects the interpretation of climate change impacts in global oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauser, Donna D W; Tobin, Elizabeth D; Feifel, Kirsten M; Shah, Vega; Pietri, Diana M

    2016-01-01

    Climate change is affecting marine ecosystems, but different investigative approaches in physical, chemical, and biological disciplines may influence interpretations of climate-driven changes in the ocean. Here, we review the ocean change literature from 2007 to 2012 based on 461 of the most highly cited studies in physical and chemical oceanography and three biological subdisciplines. Using highly cited studies, we focus on research that has shaped recent discourse on climate-driven ocean change. Our review identified significant differences in spatial and temporal scales of investigation among disciplines. Physical/chemical studies had a median duration of 29 years (n = 150) and covered the greatest study areas (median 1.41 × 10(7) km(2) , n = 148). Few biological studies were conducted over similar spatial and temporal scales (median 8 years, n = 215; median 302 km(2) , n = 196), suggesting a more limited ability to separate climate-related responses from natural variability. We linked physical/chemical and biological disciplines by tracking studies examining biological responses to changing ocean conditions. Of the 545 biological responses recorded, a single physical or chemical stressor was usually implicated as the cause (59%), with temperature as the most common primary stressor (44%). The most frequently studied biological responses were changes in physiology (31%) and population abundance (30%). Differences in disciplinary studies, as identified in this review, can ultimately influence how researchers interpret climate-related impacts in marine systems. We identified research gaps and the need for more discourse in (1) the Indian and other Southern Hemisphere ocean basins; (2) research themes such as archaea, bacteria, viruses, mangroves, turtles, and ocean acidification; (3) physical and chemical stressors such as dissolved oxygen, salinity, and upwelling; and (4) adaptive responses of marine organisms to climate-driven ocean change. Our findings reveal

  14. Regional distribution shifts help explain local changes in wintering raptor abundance: implications for interpreting population trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprocki, Neil; Heath, Julie A; Novak, Stephen J

    2014-01-01

    Studies of multiple taxa across broad-scales suggest that species distributions are shifting poleward in response to global climate change. Recognizing the influence of distribution shifts on population indices will be an important part of interpreting trends within management units because current practice often assumes that changes in local populations reflect local habitat conditions. However, the individual- and population-level processes that drive distribution shifts may occur across a large, regional scale and have little to do with the habitats within the management unit. We examined the latitudinal center of abundance for the winter distributions of six western North America raptor species using Christmas Bird Counts from 1975-2011. Also, we considered whether population indices within western North America Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs) were explained by distribution shifts. All six raptors had significant poleward shifts in their wintering distributions over time. Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus) and Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) showed the fastest rate of change, with 8.41 km yr(-1) and 7.74 km yr(-1) shifts, respectively. Raptors may be particularly responsive to warming winters because of variable migration tendencies, intraspecific competition for nesting sites that drives males to winter farther north, or both. Overall, 40% of BCR population trend models were improved by incorporating information about wintering distributions; however, support for the effect of distribution on BCR indices varied by species with Rough-legged Hawks showing the most evidence. These results emphasize the importance of understanding how regional distribution shifts influence local-scale population indices. If global climate change is altering distribution patterns, then trends within some management units may not reflect changes in local habitat conditions. The methods used to monitor and manage bird populations within local BCRs will fundamentally change as

  15. Regional Distribution Shifts Help Explain Local Changes in Wintering Raptor Abundance: Implications for Interpreting Population Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paprocki, Neil; Heath, Julie A.; Novak, Stephen J.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of multiple taxa across broad-scales suggest that species distributions are shifting poleward in response to global climate change. Recognizing the influence of distribution shifts on population indices will be an important part of interpreting trends within management units because current practice often assumes that changes in local populations reflect local habitat conditions. However, the individual- and population-level processes that drive distribution shifts may occur across a large, regional scale and have little to do with the habitats within the management unit. We examined the latitudinal center of abundance for the winter distributions of six western North America raptor species using Christmas Bird Counts from 1975–2011. Also, we considered whether population indices within western North America Bird Conservation Regions (BCRs) were explained by distribution shifts. All six raptors had significant poleward shifts in their wintering distributions over time. Rough-legged Hawks (Buteo lagopus) and Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) showed the fastest rate of change, with 8.41 km yr−1 and 7.74 km yr−1 shifts, respectively. Raptors may be particularly responsive to warming winters because of variable migration tendencies, intraspecific competition for nesting sites that drives males to winter farther north, or both. Overall, 40% of BCR population trend models were improved by incorporating information about wintering distributions; however, support for the effect of distribution on BCR indices varied by species with Rough-legged Hawks showing the most evidence. These results emphasize the importance of understanding how regional distribution shifts influence local-scale population indices. If global climate change is altering distribution patterns, then trends within some management units may not reflect changes in local habitat conditions. The methods used to monitor and manage bird populations within local BCRs will fundamentally change as

  16. Assessing Trust and Effectiveness in Virtual Teams: Latent Growth Curve and Latent Change Score Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Coovert

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Trust plays a central role in the effectiveness of work groups and teams. This is the case for both face-to-face and virtual teams. Yet little is known about the development of trust in virtual teams. We examined cognitive and affective trust and their relationship to team effectiveness as reflected through satisfaction with one’s team and task performance. Latent growth curve analysis reveals both trust types start at a significant level with individual differences in that initial level. Cognitive trust follows a linear growth pattern while affective trust is overall non-linear, but becomes linear once established. Latent change score models are utilized to examine change in trust and also its relationship with satisfaction with the team and team performance. In examining only change in trust and its relationship to satisfaction there appears to be a straightforward influence of trust on satisfaction and satisfaction on trust. However, when incorporated into a bivariate coupling latent change model the dynamics of the relationship are revealed. A similar pattern holds for trust and task performance; however, in the bivariate coupling change model a more parsimonious representation is preferred.

  17. Building National Capacity for Climate Change Interpretation: The Role of Leaders, Partnerships, and Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, W.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2007, the New England Aquarium has led a national effort to increase the capacity of informal science venues to effectively communicate about climate change. We are now leading the NSF-funded National Network for Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation (NNOCCI), partnering with the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, FrameWorks Institute, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Monterey Bay Aquarium, and National Aquarium, with evaluation conducted by the New Knowledge Organization, Pennsylvania State University, and Ohio State University. NNOCCI enables teams of informal science interpreters across the country to serve as "communication strategists" - beyond merely conveying information they can influence public perceptions, given their high level of commitment, knowledge, public trust, social networks, and visitor contact. We provide in-depth training as well as an alumni network for ongoing learning, implementation support, leadership development, and coalition building. Our goals are to achieve a systemic national impact, embed our work within multiple ongoing regional and national climate change education networks, and leave an enduring legacy. Our project represents a cross-disciplinary partnership among climate scientists, social and cognitive scientists, and informal education practitioners. We have built a growing national network of more than 250 alumni, including approximately 15-20 peer leaders who co-lead both in-depth training programs and introductory workshops. We have found that this alumni network has been assuming increasing importance in providing for ongoing learning, support for implementation, leadership development, and coalition building. As we look toward the future, we are exploring potential partnerships with other existing networks, both to sustain our impact and to expand our reach. This presentation will address what we have learned in terms of network impacts, best practices, factors for success, and future directions.

  18. Building A National Network for Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, W.; Anderson, J.

    2013-12-01

    In the US, more than 1,500 informal science venues (science centers, museums, aquariums, zoos, nature centers, national parks) are visited annually by 61% of the population. Research shows that these visitors are receptive to learning about climate change, and expect these institutions to provide reliable information about environmental issues and solutions. Given that we spend less than 5% of our lifetime in a classroom, informal science venues play a critical role in shaping public understanding. Since 2007, the New England Aquarium (NEAq) has led a national effort to increase the capacity of informal science education institutions (ISEIs) to effectively communicate about the impacts of climate change on the oceans. NEAq is now leading the NSF-funded National Network for Ocean and Climate Change Interpretation (NNOCCI), partnering with the Association of Zoos and Aquariums, FrameWorks Institute, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Monterey Bay Aquarium, and National Aquarium, with evaluation conducted by the New Knowledge Organization, Pennsylvania State University, and Ohio State University. NNOCCI's design is based on best practices in informal science learning, cognitive/social psychology, community and network building: Interpreters as Communication Strategists - Interpreters can serve not merely as educators disseminating information, but can also be leaders in influencing public perceptions, given their high level of commitment, knowledge, public trust, social networks, and visitor contact. Communities of Practice - Learning is a social activity that is created through engagement in a supportive community context. Social support is particularly important in addressing a complex, contentious and distressing subject. Diffusion of Innovation - Peer networks are of primary importance in spreading innovations. Leaders serve as 'early adopters' and influence others to achieve a critical mass of implementation. Over the next five years, NNOCCI will achieve a

  19. Distribution-based estimates of clinically significant changes in the International Standards for Neurological Classification of Spinal Cord Injury motor and sensory scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scivoletto, G; Tamburella, F; Laurenza, L; Molinari, M

    2013-06-01

    those who did not achieve clinical significant scores: the functional relevance of the ISNCSCI change is maximal for AIS C cervical and thoracic lesions, whereas it appears to be limited for AIS A cervical and thoracic lesions, and null for lumbar lesions of any kind. The results of the study provide information on the amount of motor and sensory scores that can be considered as true and clinical significant, as well as on the percentage of patients that achieve clinical significant improvements. Worthy to note, most groups of patients showed a statistically significant improvement of MS and SS between admission and discharge, but in some of the groups (for example thoracic AIS A patients), this improvement was limited to a very low percentage of patients. Our results provide useful benchmarks for clinicians and researchers with which changes in patient ISNCSCI motor and sensory scores can be interpreted as true and clinically meaningful, thus allowing a clinical judgment on interventions based on patients' progress. The proportion of patients with clinically significant improvements may be a useful benchmark in clinical trials: an intervention should be considered to be effective not only if it produces a greater statistically significant improvement in neurological status than another intervention or the natural course of the lesion, but also if it effects an increase in the percentage of subjects who achieve a clinically significant improvement.

  20. Undergraduate Understanding of Climate Change: The Influences of College Major and Environmental Group Membership on Survey Knowledge Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huxster, Joanna K.; Uribe-Zarain, Ximena; Kempton, Willett

    2015-01-01

    A survey covering the scientific and social aspects of climate change was administered to examine U.S. undergraduate student mental models, and compare knowledge between groups based on major and environmental group membership. A Knowledge Score (scale 0-35, mean score = 17.84) was generated for respondents at two, central East Coast, U.S.…

  1. 76 FR 10050 - Changes to the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Management Operations Scoring Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Management Operations Scoring Notice SUMMARY: This notice provides... issuing scores under the management operations indicator of the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS... notice is to provide additional information about the scoring process for the PHAS management operations...

  2. 76 FR 20366 - Changes to the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Management Operations Scoring Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Management Operations Scoring Notice AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... Management Operations interim scoring notice. The document inadvertently omitted a word with respect to the... INFORMATION: I. Background The proposed management operations scoring information was published on August 21...

  3. Changes in Specific Substance Involvement Scores among SBIRT recipients in an HIV primary care setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson-Rose, Carol; Draughon, Jessica E; Cuca, Yvette; Zepf, Roland; Huang, Emily; Cooper, Bruce A; Lum, Paula J

    2017-12-12

    Substance use is common among people living with HIV (PLHIV) and is associated with worse outcomes along the HIV care continuum. One potentially effective clinic-based approach to addressing unhealthy substance use is screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT). We conducted a two-arm randomized trial to examine the effects of a self-administered, computerized SBIRT intervention compared to a clinician-administered SBIRT intervention in an HIV primary clinic. Patients were surveyed before receiving the intervention and again at 1, 3, and 6 months. We administered the WHO Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test to determine Specific Substance Involvement Scores (SSIS) and to assign participants to categories of lower, moderate, or high risk to health and other problems for each substance. We collapsed moderate or severe risk responses into a single moderate-high risk category. Based on low rates of participation in the computerized arm, we conducted an "as treated" analysis to examine 6-month changes in mean SSIS among SBIRT intervention participants. For the overall sample (n = 208), baseline mean SSIS were in the moderate risk category for alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine, amphetamine, sedatives and opioids. Of those enrolled, 134 (64.4%) received the intervention, and 109 (52.4%) completed the 6-month follow up. There was a statistically significant decline in mean SSIS for all substances except tobacco and cannabis among participants who were at moderate-high risk at baseline. We also observed a statistically significant increase in mean SSIS for all substances except amphetamines and sedatives among participants who were at lower risk at baseline. Substance use among patients in this urban, safety-net, HIV primary care clinic was near universal, and moderate risk substance use was common. Among participants who received the SBIRT intervention, mean SSISs decreased among those at moderate-high risk at baseline, but

  4. Changing to AIS 2005 and agreement of injury severity scores in a trauma registry with scores based on manual chart review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Kenneth E; Cowan, Linda D; Thompson, David M

    2011-09-01

    The Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) recently underwent a major revision from AIS 98 to AIS 05. AIS injury codes form the basis of widely used injury severity scores such as the injury severity score (ISS). ISS thresholds are often used in trauma case definitions and ISS is widely used in injury research to adjust for injury severity. This study evaluated changes from AIS 98 to AIS 05, the changes' effect on ISS distributions, and presents an application of the results. Injury descriptions from medical records of 137 randomly selected patients in the Oklahoma Trauma Registry (OTR) were obtained. A single trained coder used AIS 98 and AIS 05 to code each injury. ISS values were calculated and grouped into 4 categories: 1-8, 9-14, 16-24, >24. Paired ISS was compared using Kappa statistics and tests of symmetry. We identified common injury diagnoses for which AIS severity changed between versions. Estimates of the proportion of patients changing ISS groups were applied to the entire OTR to assess the impact on reporting and on a model for reimbursement. OTR AIS 98 and manual AIS 98-based ISS values had a weighted Kappa of 0.71. OTR AIS 98 and manual AIS 05-based ISS values had a Kappa of 0.58. Manual AIS 98 and manual AIS 05 ISS had the highest Kappa of 0.81, however, though the scores differed by only 1 ISS category, there were 30 discordant pairs. The distribution of these discordant pairs was not symmetrical (Bowker's S=30; df=6; p<0.0001) with AIS 05-based ISS values consistently shifted to a lower ISS category. Reductions in AIS severity and ISS values using AIS 05 were common for extremity fractures and thorax injuries. The results suggest fewer patients would be reported to the OTR or be eligible for reimbursement. Changing from AIS 98 to AIS 05 injury coding resulted in systematic changes in AIS codes and ISS. Specific injuries and body regions were differentially affected. Trauma registries and injury researchers that use AIS based injury coding can use this

  5. Using Modified Remote Sensing Imagery to Interpret Changes in Cultivated Land under Saline-Alkali Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Gao

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Managing the rapidly changing saline-alkali land under cultivation in the coastal areas of China is important not only for mitigating the negative impacts of such land on the environment, but also for ensuring long-term sustainability of agriculture. In this light, setting up rapid monitoring systems to assist decision-making in developing sustainable management plans is therefore an absolute necessity. In this study, we developed a new interpretation system where symbols are used to grade and classify saline-alkali lands in space and time, based on the characteristics of plant cover and features of remote sensing images. The system was used in combination with the maximum likelihood supervised classification to analyze the changes in cultivated lands under saline-alkali conditions in Huanghua City. The analysis revealed changes in the area and spatial distribution of cultivated under saline-alkali conditions in the region. The total area of saline-alkali land was 139,588.8 ha in 1992 and 134,477.5 ha in 2011. Compared with 1992, severely and moderately saline-alkali land areas decreased in 2011. However, non/slightly saline land areas increased over that in 1992. The results showed that the salinization rate of arable lands in Huanghua City decreased from 1992 to 2011. The moderately saline-alkali land southeast of the city transformed into non/slightly saline-alkaline. Then, severely saline-alkali land far from the coastal zone west of the city became moderately saline-alkaline. Spatial changes in cultivated saline-alkali lands in Huanghua City were such that the centers of gravity (CG of severely and non/slightly saline-alkali land moved closer the coastline, while that of the moderately saline-alkali land moved from southwest coastal line to northwest. Factors influencing changes in cultivated lands in the saline-alkali ecosystem included climate, hydrology and human activity. Thus, studies are required to further explore these factors in

  6. Agreement among graders on Heidelberg retina tomograph (HRT) topographic change analysis (TCA) glaucoma progression interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iester, Michele M; Wollstein, Gadi; Bilonick, Richard A; Xu, Juan; Ishikawa, Hiroshi; Kagemann, Larry; Schuman, Joel S

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate agreement among experts of Heidelberg retina tomography's (HRT) topographic change analysis (TCA) printout interpretations of glaucoma progression and explore methods for improving agreement. 109 eyes of glaucoma, glaucoma suspect and healthy subjects with ≥5 visits and 2 good quality HRT scans acquired at each visit were enrolled. TCA printouts were graded as progression or non-progression. Each grader was presented with 2 sets of tests: a randomly selected single test from each visit and both tests from each visit. Furthermore, the TCA printouts were classified with grader's individual criteria and with predefined criteria (reproducible changes within the optic nerve head, disregarding changes along blood vessels or at steep rim locations and signs of image distortion). Agreement among graders was modelled using common latent factor measurement error structural equation models for ordinal data. Assessment of two scans per visit without using the predefined criteria reduced overall agreement, as indicated by a reduction in the slope, reflecting the correlation with the common factor, for all graders with no effect on reducing the range of the intercepts between the graders. Using the predefined criteria improved grader agreement, as indicated by the narrower range of intercepts among the graders compared with assessment using individual grader's criteria. A simple set of predefined common criteria improves agreement between graders in assessing TCA progression. The inclusion of additional scans from each visit does not improve the agreement. We, therefore, recommend setting standardised criteria for TCA progression evaluation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Perception and Interpretation of Climate Change among Quechua Farmers of Bolivia: Indigenous Knowledge as a Resource for Adaptive Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Boillat

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We aim to explore how indigenous peoples observe and ascribe meaning to change. The case study involves two Quechua-speaking farmer communities from mountainous areas near Cochabamba, Bolivia. Taking climate change as a starting point, we found that, first, farmers often associate their observations of climate change with other social and environmental changes, such as value change in the community, population growth, out-migration, urbanization, and land degradation. Second, some of the people interpret change as part of a cycle, which includes a belief in the return of some characteristics of ancient or mythological times. Third, environmental change is also perceived as the expression of "extra-human intentionalities," a reaction of natural or spiritual entities that people consider living beings. On the basis of these interpretations of change and their adaptive strategies, we discuss the importance of indigenous knowledge as a component of adaptive capacity. Even in the context of living with modern science and mass media, indigenous patterns of interpreting phenomena tend to be persistent. Our results support the view that indigenous knowledge must be acknowledged as process, emphasizing ways of observing, discussing, and interpreting new information. In this case, indigenous knowledge can help address complex relationships between phenomena, and help design adaptation strategies based on experimentation and knowledge coproduction.

  8. Conceptualising engagement with digital behaviour change interventions: a systematic review using principles from critical interpretive synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perski, Olga; Blandford, Ann; West, Robert; Michie, Susan

    2017-06-01

    "Engagement" with digital behaviour change interventions (DBCIs) is considered important for their effectiveness. Evaluating engagement is therefore a priority; however, a shared understanding of how to usefully conceptualise engagement is lacking. This review aimed to synthesise literature on engagement to identify key conceptualisations and to develop an integrative conceptual framework involving potential direct and indirect influences on engagement and relationships between engagement and intervention effectiveness. Four electronic databases (Ovid MEDLINE, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, ScienceDirect) were searched in November 2015. We identified 117 articles that met the inclusion criteria: studies employing experimental or non-experimental designs with adult participants explicitly or implicitly referring to engagement with DBCIs, digital games or technology. Data were synthesised using principles from critical interpretive synthesis. Engagement with DBCIs is conceptualised in terms of both experiential and behavioural aspects. A conceptual framework is proposed in which engagement with a DBCI is influenced by the DBCI itself (content and delivery), the context (the setting in which the DBCI is used and the population using it) and the behaviour that the DBCI is targeting. The context and "mechanisms of action" may moderate the influence of the DBCI on engagement. Engagement, in turn, moderates the influence of the DBCI on those mechanisms of action. In the research literature, engagement with DBCIs has been conceptualised in terms of both experience and behaviour and sits within a complex system involving the DBCI, the context of use, the mechanisms of action of the DBCI and the target behaviour.

  9. Longitudinal changes of trabecular bone score after estrogen deprivation: effect of menopause and aromatase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrazzoni, M; Casola, A; Verzicco, I; Abbate, B; Vescovini, R; Sansoni, P

    2014-09-01

    To examine the effects of the menopausal transition and treatment with aromatase inhibitors (AI) on trabecular bone score (TBS, a newly proposed index of bone architecture derived from DXA vertebral scans) and vertebral bone mineral density (BMD). Retrospective cohort study on 29 women who became postmenopausal during a mean follow-up of 2.9 years (MP group) and 34 women treated with AI during a mean follow-up of 2.1 years (AI group). BMD was measured by DXA and TBS with a specific software. TBS decreased after menopause, but the change was significantly lower than that of the lumbar BMD (-4.6 vs. -6.8 %; mean difference: 2.2 %; p = 0.016). An even larger difference was observed in the AI group (-2.1 vs. -5.9 %; mean difference: 3.8 %; p = 0.002). The decrease of TBS induced by menopause or treatment with AI is significantly lower than that of lumbar BMD.

  10. Primer on statistical interpretation or methods report card on propensity-score matching in the cardiology literature from 2004 to 2006: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Peter C

    2008-09-01

    Propensity-score matching is frequently used in the cardiology literature. Recent systematic reviews have found that this method is, in general, poorly implemented in the medical literature. The study objective was to examine the quality of the implementation of propensity-score matching in the general cardiology literature. A total of 44 articles published in the American Heart Journal, the American Journal of Cardiology, Circulation, the European Heart Journal, Heart, the International Journal of Cardiology, and the Journal of the American College of Cardiology between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2006, were examined. Twenty of the 44 studies did not provide adequate information on how the propensity-score-matched pairs were formed. Fourteen studies did not report whether matching on the propensity score balanced baseline characteristics between treated and untreated subjects in the matched sample. Only 4 studies explicitly used statistical methods appropriate for matched studies to compare baseline characteristics between treated and untreated subjects. Only 11 (25%) of the 44 studies explicitly used statistical methods appropriate for the analysis of matched data when estimating the effect of treatment on the outcomes. Only 2 studies described the matching method used, assessed balance in baseline covariates by appropriate methods, and used appropriate statistical methods to estimate the treatment effect and its significance. Application of propensity-score matching was poor in the cardiology literature. Suggestions for improving the reporting and analysis of studies that use propensity-score matching are provided.

  11. Stability and Change in the Cognitive and Adaptive Behaviour Scores of Preschoolers with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Helen E.; Smith, Isabel M.; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Duku, Eric; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Mirenda, Pat; Roberts, Wendy; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Bennett, Teresa; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Georgiades, Stelios

    2015-01-01

    We examined the stability of cognitive and adaptive behaviour standard scores in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) between diagnosis and school entry approximately age 6. IQ increased 18 points in 2-year-olds, 12 points in 3-year-olds, and 9 points in 4-year-olds (N = 281). Adaptive behaviour scores increased 4 points across age groups…

  12. Magnitude and meaningfulness of change in SF-36 scores in four types of orthopedic surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busija, Lucy; Osborne, Richard H; Nilsdotter, Anna

    2008-01-01

    below the age and sex matched population norms on physical subscales. Patients' scores on mental and social subscales approached population norms following the surgery. At the individual level, scores of a large proportion of patients were affected by floor or ceiling effects on several subscales...

  13. Gray-Matter Volume Estimate Score: A Novel Semi-Automatic Method Measuring Early Ischemic Change on CT

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Dongbeom; Lee, Kijeong; Kim, Eun Hye; Kim, Young Dae; Lee, Hye Sun; Kim, Jinkwon; Song, Tae-Jin; Ahn, Sung Soo; Nam, Hyo Suk; Heo, Ji Hoe

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose We developed a novel method named Gray-matter Volume Estimate Score (GRAVES), measuring early ischemic changes on Computed Tomography (CT) semi-automatically by computer software. This study aimed to compare GRAVES and Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) with regards to outcome prediction and inter-rater agreement. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study. Among consecutive patients with ischemic stroke in the anterior circulation who received intra-art...

  14. Pain flare following external beam radiotherapy and meaningful change in pain scores in the treatment of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, Edward; Ling, Alison; Davis, Lori; Panzarella, Tony; Danjoux, Cyril

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: To examine the incidence of pain flare following external beam radiotherapy and to determine what constitutes a meaningful change in pain scores in the treatment of bone metastases. Patients and methods: Patients with bone metastases treated with external beam radiotherapy were asked to score their pain on a scale of 0-10 before the treatment (baseline), daily during the treatment and for 10 days after completion of external beam radiation. Pain flare was defined as a two-point increase from baseline pain in the pain scale of 0-10 with no decrease in analgesic intake or a 25% increase in analgesic intake employing daily oral morphine equivalent with no decrease in pain score. To distinguish pain flare from progression of pain, we required the pain score and analgesic intake to return back to baseline levels after the increase/flare. They were also asked to indicate if their pain changed during that time compared to pre-treatment level. The change in pain score was compared with patient perception. Results: Eighty-eight patients were evaluated in this study. There were 49 male and 39 female patients with the median age of 70 years. Twelve of 88 patients (14%) had pain flare on day 1. The overall incidence of pain flare during the study period ranged from 2 to 16%. A total of 797 pain scorings were obtained. Patients perceived an improvement in pain when their self-reported pain score decreased by at least two points. Conclusions: Our study confirms the occurrence of pain flare following the external beam radiotherapy in the treatment of bone metastases. Further studies are required to predict who are at risk for flare. Appropriate measures can be taken to alleviate the pain flare. The finding in the meaningful change in pain scores supports the investigator-defined partial response used in some clinical trials

  15. Responsiveness of isokinetic dynamometry parameters, pain and activity level scores to evaluate changes in patients with capsulitis of the shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meeteren, J; Roebroeck, M E; Selles, R W; Stam, H J

    2006-06-01

    To determine the responsiveness to change of isokinetic dynamometry of the shoulder and to compare this responsiveness with outcome measures of pain and activity level. Responsiveness was evaluated as the change in outcome after intra-articular steroid injection in patients with capsulitis of the shoulder. Effect sizes of all outcome measures, quantified as standardized response means, were compared. Relationships between change scores of shoulder function and activities were assessed. Ten patients with unilateral capsulitis of the shoulder. Muscle strength and active range of motion were measured by isokinetic dynamometry. We then calculated involved/uninvolved ratios of the maximal peak torques of abduction, adduction, external and internal rotation, active range of motion of abduction and external rotation. In addition, pain was scored using the numeric rating scale (NRS-101) and activity level was scored using the Shoulder Disability Questionnaire. The standardized response mean of all outcome parameters was equal to or greater than 0.8, except for active range of motion of abduction. No significant differences between the standardized response means were found. There is a significant correlation between the change scores of NRS-101 and Shoulder Disability Questionnaire. No significant correlations were found between the change scores of NRS-101 and Shoulder Disability Questionnaire on the one hand, and involved/ uninvolved ratios of peak torques and active range of motion on the other. Responsiveness of all outcome measures is good. Parameters of isokinetic dynamometry may provide additional information as compared with the usual outcome measures of pain and functional level.

  16. Changes in metamorphopsia in daily life after successful epiretinal membrane surgery and correlation with M-CHARTS score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinoshita T

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Takamasa Kinoshita,1,2 Hiroko Imaizumi,1 Hirotomo Miyamoto,1 Utako Okushiba,1 Yuki Hayashi,2 Takashi Katome,2 Yoshinori Mitamura2 1Department of Ophthalmology, Sapporo City General Hospital, Sapporo, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima, Japan Purpose: To determine the correlation between the changes in metamorphopsia in daily life environment and the M-CHARTS scores after epiretinal membrane (ERM removal, and to determine the criterion for determining whether clinically significant changes in the metamorphopsia score have occurred in M-CHARTS. Methods: We studied 65 eyes undergoing vitrectomy for unilateral ERM. Self-administered questionnaires were used to examine the metamorphopsia in their daily life. The degree of metamorphopsia was determined by M-CHARTS. The receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the best predictor of the changes in metamorphopsia in daily life. To determine the reproducibility of the M-CHARTS score, another set of 56 eyes with ERM was tested twice on two different days. Results: The postoperative changes in the logarithm of the M-CHARTS score was defined as M2-value. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the M2-value as a predictor of the changes in metamorphopsia in daily life was larger than area under the receiver operating characteristic curve obtained for any other parameter. The optimal cutoff value was -0.4. The 95% limits of agreement between test and retest measurements had a reproducibility of ±0.3 logarithm of the M-CHARTS score. Taking into account not only the reproducibility but also the consistency with the subjective changes, we determined the criterion for clinically significant changes in the M-CHARTS scores as a change of the M2-value by ≥0.4. Conclusion: Evaluating the changes in the M-CHARTS scores in logarithmic form is favorable not only theoretically but also

  17. Association between dietary scores and 13-year weight change and obesity risk in a French prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassale, C; Fezeu, L; Andreeva, V A; Hercberg, S; Kengne, A-P; Czernichow, S; Kesse-Guyot, E

    2012-11-01

    The relationship between diet quality and development of obesity is complex and unresolved. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the predictive value of six different dietary scores on both relative weight change and the risk of obesity after 13 years of follow-up in adults aged 45 years and older. Six scores reflecting adherence to different nutritional recommendations (the French Programme National Nutrition Santé-Guideline Score (PNNS-GS), the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Index (DGAI), the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I), the Mediterranean Diet Scale (MDS), the relative Mediterranean Diet Score (rMED) and the Mediterranean Style Dietary Pattern Score (MSDPS)) were estimated in 3151 participants in the French SU.VI.MAX (SUpplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants) study. Associations of dietary scores with 13-year weight change were assessed through multivariate linear regression models, and obesity risk was analyzed with logistic regression, providing odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Except for the MSDPS, higher scores, that is, better adherence to nutritional guidelines or to a Mediterranean diet, were associated with lower weight gain in men (all P-value for trend obese after 13 years associated with a 1 s.d. increase in dietary scores ranged from 0.63, 95% CI: 0.51, 0.78 for DGAI to 0.72, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.88 for MDS. These associations were weaker or not statistically significant in women. Overall, the six dietary scores predicted obesity risk equally well. Among French adults, strong adherence to dietary guidelines appears to be protective with regard to weight gain and obesity, especially in men.

  18. Reliability and sensitivity to change of the OMERACT rheumatoid arthritis magnetic resonance imaging score in a multireader, longitudinal setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haavardsholm, ea; Østergaard, Mikkel; Kvan, NP

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the intra- and interreader reliability and the sensitivity to change of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials (OMERACT) Rheumatoid Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (RAMRIS) system on digital images of the wrist joints of patients with early or establi......OBJECTIVE: To assess the intra- and interreader reliability and the sensitivity to change of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials (OMERACT) Rheumatoid Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (RAMRIS) system on digital images of the wrist joints of patients with early...... or established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Ten sets of baseline and 1-year followup MR images of the wrists of patients with progressive changes on conventional hand radiographs were scored independently by 4 readers on 2 consecutive days, preceded by reader training and calibration. The MR images were...

  19. Can Linear Regression Modeling Help Clinicians in the Interpretation of Genotypic Resistance Data? An Application to Derive a Lopinavir-Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cozzi-Lepri, Alessandro; Prosperi, Mattia C F; Kjær, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    explored the potential of linear regression to construct a simple predictive model for lopinavir/r-based TCE. Although, the performance of our proposed score was similar to that of already existing IS, previously unrecognized lopinavir/r-associated mutations were identified. The analysis illustrates...

  20. Interest in School and Learning. A Guide to the Analysis and Interpretation of EQA Scores and Related Intervention Techniques. Guide to Strategies for Improvement, Goal 4. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerriero, Carl A.

    This document is designed to assist school district personnel in the identification of intervention strategies that have a good probability of increasing the district's mean score on the Goal IV Educational Quality Assessment (EQA) instrument. Appropriate educational research has been reviewed and distilled into seven propositions that are…

  1. Describing Structural Changes in the Human Brain by Fractal Dimension – The Road from Data Acquisition to Interpretable Results

    OpenAIRE

    Anca Larisa Sandu

    2008-01-01

    The changes that appear in the human brain asa result of aging or diseases can be described using theconcept of fractality. The steps required to pass from rawdata to interpretable results are briefly presented. Themethod has been applied to patients with schizophrenia,children with dyslexia and to compare children with adults.

  2. Describing Structural Changes in the Human Brain by Fractal Dimension – The Road from Data Acquisition to Interpretable Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Larisa Sandu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes that appear in the human brain asa result of aging or diseases can be described using theconcept of fractality. The steps required to pass from rawdata to interpretable results are briefly presented. Themethod has been applied to patients with schizophrenia,children with dyslexia and to compare children with adults.

  3. Assessing working memory in children with ADHD: Minor administration and scoring changes may improve digit span backward's construct validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Erica L; Kofler, Michael J; Soto, Elia F; Schaefer, Hillary S; Sarver, Dustin E

    2018-01-01

    Pediatric ADHD is associated with impairments in working memory, but these deficits often go undetected when using clinic-based tests such as digit span backward. The current study pilot-tested minor administration/scoring modifications to improve digit span backward's construct and predictive validities in a well-characterized sample of children with ADHD. WISC-IV digit span was modified to administer all trials (i.e., ignore discontinue rule) and count digits rather than trials correct. Traditional and modified scores were compared to a battery of criterion working memory (construct validity) and academic achievement tests (predictive validity) for 34 children with ADHD ages 8-13 (M=10.41; 11 girls). Traditional digit span backward scores failed to predict working memory or KTEA-2 achievement (allns). Alternate administration/scoring of digit span backward significantly improved its associations with working memory reordering (r=.58), working memory dual-processing (r=.53), working memory updating (r=.28), and KTEA-2 achievement (r=.49). Consistent with prior work, these findings urge caution when interpreting digit span performance. Minor test modifications may address test validity concerns, and should be considered in future test revisions. Digit span backward becomes a valid measure of working memory at exactly the point that testing is traditionally discontinued. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychometric Properties and Responsiveness to Change of 15- and 28-Item Versions of the SCORE: A Family Assessment Questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Elena; Carr, Alan; Cahill, Paul; Cassells, Ciara; Hartnett, Dan

    2015-09-01

    The SCORE (Systemic Clinical Outcome and Routine Evaluation) is a 40-item questionnaire for completion by family members 12 years and older to assess outcome in systemic therapy. This study aimed to investigate psychometric properties of two short versions of the SCORE and their responsiveness to therapeutic change. Data were collected at 19 centers from 701 families at baseline and from 433 of these 3-5 months later. Results confirmed the three-factor structure (strengths, difficulties, and communication) of the 15- and 28-item versions of the SCORE. Both instruments had good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. They also showed construct and criterion validity, correlating with measures of parent, child, and family adjustment, and discriminating between clinical and nonclinical cases. Total and factor scales of the SCORE-15 and -28 were responsive to change over 3-5 months of therapy. The SCORE-15 and SCORE-28 are brief psychometrically robust family assessment instruments which may be used to evaluate systemic therapy. © 2015 Family Process Institute.

  5. Advanced clinical interpretation of the WAIS-IV and WMS-IV: prevalence of low scores varies by level of intelligence and years of education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Brian L; Holdnack, James A; Iverson, Grant L

    2011-06-01

    Clinicians can use the base rates of low scores in healthy people to reduce the likelihood of misdiagnosing cognitive impairment. In the present study, base rates were developed for the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) and Wechsler Memory Scale-Fourth Edition (WMS-IV) using 900 healthy adults and validated on 28 patients with moderate or severe traumatic brain injuries (TBIs). Results indicated that healthy people obtain some low scores on the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV, with prevalence rates increasing with fewer years of education and lower predicted intelligence. When applying the base rates information to the clinical sample, the TBI patients were 13 times more likely to be identified as having a low cognitive profile compared with the controls. Using the base rates information is a psychometrically advanced method for establishing criteria to determine low cognitive abilities on the WAIS-IV/WMS-IV.

  6. Change in fibrosis score as a predictor of mortality among HIV-infected patients with viral hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mamta K; Seremba, Emmanuel; Bhore, Rafia; Dao, Doan; Joshi, Reeti; Attar, Nahid; Yuan, He-Jun; Lee, William M

    2012-02-01

    Noninvasive markers of liver fibrosis, measured at baseline, have been shown to predict liver-related mortality. It remains unknown if a change in the value of the scores over time predicts mortality in patients with HIV and viral hepatitis. In this retrospective study, survival in HIV/hepatitis B virus (HBV; n = 67), HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV; n = 43), and HIV/HBV/HCV (n = 41) patients was examined using Kaplan-Meier life table analysis. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)-to-platelet ratio index (APRI) and FIB-4 scores, two noninvasive markers of liver fibrosis, were calculated at baseline and at last available clinical follow-up to determine the change in fibrosis score. Factors associated with mortality were assessed by Cox proportional hazards, including the change in the noninvasive marker score between the two time points. All-cause mortality was determined by Social Security Death Index and chart review. Sixty-seven were coinfected with HIV/HBV, 43 with HIV/HCV, and 41 were triply infected (HIV/HBV/HCV). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed similar survival for the three groups at 7 years of follow-up (p = 0.10). However, median length of follow-up was lower in HIV/HCV (60.5; range 0-102) compared to HIV/HBV (75.7; 12.3-126.5) and HIV/HBV/HCV (80.0; 2.7-123) months, respectively, p = 0.02. Baseline fibrosis score (p = 0.002), an increase in the value for noninvasive measurements for fibrosis (p < 0.001), and the presence of HIV/HCV coinfection (p = 0.041) were each associated with higher risk for mortality. Baseline fibrosis score (p = 0.03) and an increase in FIB-4 score (p = 0.05) were independent predictors of all-cause mortality, but liver-related mortality was not evaluated. In this study, baseline fibrosis score was predictive of 7-year all-cause mortality. Further studies are needed in a prospective cohort to evaluate the predictive value of monitoring changes in fibrosis scores over time to predict mortality in patients with viral hepatitis.

  7. Reliability, validity and sensitivity to change of neurogenic bowel dysfunction score in patients with spinal cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdem, D.; Hava, D.; Keskinoglu, P.

    2017-01-01

    Study design: Psychometrics study. Objectives: The aim of this study is to investigate the validity, reliability and sensitivity to change of neurogenic bowel dysfunction (NBD) score. Setting: Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Medicine, Turkey. Methods: The study included 42 patients with spinal ...

  8. Reliability and sensitivity to change of the OMERACT rheumatoid arthritis magnetic resonance imaging score in a multireader, longitudinal setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haavardsholm, ea; Østergaard, Mikkel; Kvan, NP

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the intra- and interreader reliability and the sensitivity to change of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials (OMERACT) Rheumatoid Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (RAMRIS) system on digital images of the wrist joints of patients with early or establi...

  9. Association between Mediterranean and Nordic diet scores and changes in weight and waist circumference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roswall, Nina; Ängquist, Lars; Ahluwalia, Tarun Veer Singh

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that adherence to the Mediterranean Diet measured by using the Mediterranean diet score (MDS) is associated with lower obesity risk. The newly proposed Nordic Diet could hold similar beneficial effects. Because of the increasing focus on the interaction...

  10. 76 FR 10047 - Changes to the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Financial Condition Scoring Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... accepted accounting principles (GAAP)-based financial information. This notice updates and clarifies the... Housing Assessment System (PHAS): Financial Condition Scoring Notice AGENCY: Office of the Assistant... under the financial condition indicator of the Public Housing Assessment System (PHAS). This notice...

  11. Developmental Relations between Reading and Writing at the Word, Sentence and Text Levels: A Latent Change Score Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Yusra; Wagner, Richard K.; Lopez, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    Relations between reading and writing have been studied extensively but the less is known about the developmental nature of their interrelations. This study applied latent change score modeling to investigate longitudinal relations between reading and writing skills at the word, sentence and text levels. Latent change score models were used to compare unidirectional pathways (reading-to-writing and writing-to-reading) and bidirectional pathways in a test of nested models. Participants included 316 boys and girls who were assessed annually in grades 1 through 4. Measures of reading included pseudo-word decoding, sentence reading efficiency, oral reading fluency and passage comprehension. Measures of writing included spelling, a sentence combining task and writing prompts. Findings suggest that a reading-to-writing model better described the data for the word and text levels of language, but a bidirectional model best fit the data at the sentence level. PMID:24954951

  12. Developmental Relations between Reading and Writing at the Word, Sentence and Text Levels: A Latent Change Score Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Yusra; Wagner, Richard K; Lopez, Danielle

    2014-05-01

    Relations between reading and writing have been studied extensively but the less is known about the developmental nature of their interrelations. This study applied latent change score modeling to investigate longitudinal relations between reading and writing skills at the word, sentence and text levels. Latent change score models were used to compare unidirectional pathways (reading-to-writing and writing-to-reading) and bidirectional pathways in a test of nested models. Participants included 316 boys and girls who were assessed annually in grades 1 through 4. Measures of reading included pseudo-word decoding, sentence reading efficiency, oral reading fluency and passage comprehension. Measures of writing included spelling, a sentence combining task and writing prompts. Findings suggest that a reading-to-writing model better described the data for the word and text levels of language, but a bidirectional model best fit the data at the sentence level.

  13. Characterization and scoring of skin changes in severe acute malnutrition in children between 6 months and 5 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilskov, S; Vestergaard, C; Iriso, Esther Babirekere

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Severe acute malnutrition is a life-threatening condition. It can be associated with severe skin changes, first properly described by Williams in 1933. The aetiology of these skin changes is still unknown and their character has never been systematically described in dermatological...... objective was to identify the skin changes characteristic of children with severe acute malnutrition and to develop a clinical score that describes the morphology and severity in dermatological terms. We also investigated if any of the different skin changes were connected to prognosis. MATERIALS...... AND METHODS: At Mulago Hospital, Mwanamugimu (Department of Paediatrics and Child Health), Uganda, 120 children were included over a period of six months and observed when treated for severe acute malnutrition. Skin changes were registered through clinical examination and photo documentation and associated...

  14. The Human Behaviour-Change Project: harnessing the power of artificial intelligence and machine learning for evidence synthesis and interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michie, Susan; Thomas, James; Johnston, Marie; Aonghusa, Pol Mac; Shawe-Taylor, John; Kelly, Michael P; Deleris, Léa A; Finnerty, Ailbhe N; Marques, Marta M; Norris, Emma; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; West, Robert

    2017-10-18

    Behaviour change is key to addressing both the challenges facing human health and wellbeing and to promoting the uptake of research findings in health policy and practice. We need to make better use of the vast amount of accumulating evidence from behaviour change intervention (BCI) evaluations and promote the uptake of that evidence into a wide range of contexts. The scale and complexity of the task of synthesising and interpreting this evidence, and increasing evidence timeliness and accessibility, will require increased computer support. The Human Behaviour-Change Project (HBCP) will use Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning to (i) develop and evaluate a 'Knowledge System' that automatically extracts, synthesises and interprets findings from BCI evaluation reports to generate new insights about behaviour change and improve prediction of intervention effectiveness and (ii) allow users, such as practitioners, policy makers and researchers, to easily and efficiently query the system to get answers to variants of the question 'What works, compared with what, how well, with what exposure, with what behaviours (for how long), for whom, in what settings and why?'. The HBCP will: a) develop an ontology of BCI evaluations and their reports linking effect sizes for given target behaviours with intervention content and delivery and mechanisms of action, as moderated by exposure, populations and settings; b) develop and train an automated feature extraction system to annotate BCI evaluation reports using this ontology; c) develop and train machine learning and reasoning algorithms to use the annotated BCI evaluation reports to predict effect sizes for particular combinations of behaviours, interventions, populations and settings; d) build user and machine interfaces for interrogating and updating the knowledge base; and e) evaluate all the above in terms of performance and utility. The HBCP aims to revolutionise our ability to synthesise, interpret and deliver

  15. Demographic transition in India: an evolutionary interpretation of population and health trends using 'change-point analysis'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goli, Srinivas; Arokiasamy, Perianayagam

    2013-01-01

    Lack of a robust analytical tool for trend analysis of population and health indicators is the basic rationale of this study. In an effort to fill this gap, this study advances 'Change-Point analyzer' as a new analytical tool for assessment of the progress and its pattern in population and health indicators. The defining feature of 'change-point analyzer' is that, it detects subtle changes that are often missed in simple trend line plots and also quantified the volume of change that is not possible in simple trend line plots. A long-term assessment of 'change-point analyses' of trends in population and health indicators such as IMR, Population size, TFR, and LEB in India show multiple points of critical changes. Measured change points of demographic and health trends helps in understanding the demographic transitional shifts connecting it to contextual policy shifts. Critical change-points in population and health indicators in India are associated with the evolution of structural changes in population and health policy framework. This study, therefore, adds significantly to the evolutionary interpretation of critical change-points in long-term trajectories of population and health indicators vis-a-vis population and health policy shifts in India. The results have not only helped in reassessing the historical past and the current demographic transition trajectory but also advanced a new method of assessing the population and health trends which are necessary for robust monitoring of the progress in population and health policies.

  16. Interpreting landscape change in high mountains of northeastern Oregon from long-term repeat photography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon M. Skovlin; Gerald S. Strickler; Jesse L. Peterson; Arthur W. Sampson

    2001-01-01

    We compared 45 photographs taken before 1925 to photographs taken as late as 1999 and documented landscape changes above 5,000 feet elevation in the Wallowa, Elkhorn, and Greenhorn Mountains of northeastern Oregon. We noted the following major changes from these comparisons: (1) the expansion of subalpine fir into mountain grasslands, (2) the invasion of moist and wet...

  17. Dairy cows change locomotion score and sensitivity to pain with trimming and infectious or non-infectious lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, L T; Cruz, E A da; Fischer, V; Porciuncula, G C da; Werncke, D; Dalto, A G C; Stumpf, M T; Vizzotto, E F; da Silveira, I D B

    2017-04-01

    Lameness can negatively affect production, but there is still controversy about the perception of pain in dairy cows. This study aimed to verify the effects of hoof affections in dairy cows on locomotion score, physiological attributes, pressure nociceptive threshold, and thermographic variables, as well as assess improvement on these variables after corrective trimming and treatment. Thirty-four lame lactating cows were gait-scored, and all cows with locomotion score ≥4 were retained for this study 1 day before trimming. Lame cows were diagnosed, pressure nociceptive threshold at sound, and affected hooves were measured, thermographic images were recorded, and physiological attributes were evaluated. Hooves with lesions were trimmed and treated and cows were re-evaluated 1 week after such procedures. The experimental design was a completely randomized design. Each cow was considered an experimental unit and traits were analyzed using paired t test, linear correlation, and linear regression. Digital and interdigital dermatitis were classified as infectious diseases while laminitis sequels, sole ulcers, and white line were classified as non-infectious diseases. After 1 week, the locomotion score was reduced on average in 1.5 points. Trimming increased the pressure nociceptive threshold for cows with non-infectious affections while tended to increase the pressure nociceptive threshold for cows with infectious affections. Physiological attributes and thermographic values did not change with trimming. Trimming and treatment have benefic effects on animal welfare as gait is improved and sensitivity to pain is reduced.

  18. USING PHARMACOKINETIC DATA TO INTERPRET METABOLOMIC CHANGES IN CD-1 MICE TREATED WITH TRIAZOLE FUNGICIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triazoles are a class of fungicides widely used in both pharmaceutical and agricultural applications. These compounds elicit a variety of toxic effects including disruption of normal metabolic processes such as steroidogenesis. Metabolomics is used to measure dynamic changes in e...

  19. The Effect of Changing Scan Mode on Trabecular Bone Score Using Lunar Prodigy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiwen; Slattery, Anthony; Center, Jacqueline; Pocock, Nicholas

    2016-10-01

    Trabecular bone score (TBS) is a measure of gray scale homogeneity that correlates with trabecular microarchitecture and is an independent predictor of fracture risk. TBS is being increasingly used in the assessment of patients at risk of osteoporosis and has recently been incorporated into FRAX ® . GE Lunar machines acquire spine scans using 1 of 3 acquisition modes depending on abdominal tissue thickness (thin, standard, and thick). From a database review, 30 patients (mean body mass index: 30.8, range 26.2-34.1) were identified who had undergone lumbar spine DXA scans (GE Lunar Prodigy, software 14.10; Lunar Radiation Corporation, Madison, WI) in both standard mode and thick mode, on the same day with no repositioning. Lumbar spine bone mineral density (L1-L4) and TBS were derived from the 30 paired spine scans. There was no significant difference in lumbar spine bone mineral density between the 2 scanning modes. There were, however, significant higher TBS values from the spine scans acquired in thick mode compared to the TBS values derived from spine acquisitions in standard mode (mean TBS difference: 0.24 [20%], standard deviation ±0.10). In conclusion, these preliminary data suggest that TBS values acquired in the GE Lunar Prodigy are dependent on the scanning mode used. Further evaluation is required to confirm the cause and develop appropriate protocols. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Changes in LASSI Scores Among Reading and Study Skills Students at the United States Military Academy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince, Elizabeth J.; Priest, Robert

    1998-01-01

    Describes administration of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) to three groups of United States Military Academy students in order to evaluate changes in student performance as a result of taking a student-success course (RS101). LASSI measures students' affective growth upon completion of the RS101 course and their growth in…

  1. Potential for erroneous interpretation of poisoning outcomes due to changes in National Poison Data System reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Bruce; Ke, Xuehua; Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

    2010-08-01

    In 2006, the annual report of poison centers in the United States changed the method of reporting profiles for generic substance categories from all exposures to single-substance exposures only. The objective of this study is to describe the potential impact of this reporting change on longitudinal analysis of outcomes. Generic substance categories with data available for all years of the study were manually extracted from Table 22 of the National Poison Data System (NPDS) annual reports for 2002-2007. For each generic substance category, the following data were extracted for each of the 6 years: total number of substance mentions (2002-2005) or single-substance exposures (2006-2007), reason (unintentional or intentional), pediatric exposures (children age average annual number of reported deaths by substance category decreased by 80.8%, from 2,229 in year 2002-2005 to 428 after the 2006 reporting change (p average annual number of reported major outcomes by substance category dropped by 76.0% (p average number of deaths and major effects by substance category decreased by about 50% from 394 and 4,639 per year during 2002-2005 to 198 deaths (p average rates of reported deaths (61.7 and 35.9%) and major effects (36.3 and 11.2%) for drug categories and nondrug categories, respectively (p change in 2006 will yield inaccurate results if the change in reporting methodology is not taken into account.

  2. Perturbative diffusion theory formalism for interpreting temporal light intensity changes during laser interstitial thermal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Lee C L; Whelan, William M; Vitkin, I Alex

    2007-03-21

    In an effort to understand dynamic optical changes during laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT), we utilize the perturbative solution of the diffusion equation in heterogeneous media to formulate scattering weight functions for cylindrical line sources. The analysis explicitly shows how changes in detected interstitial light intensity are associated with the extent and location of the volume of thermal coagulation during treatment. Explanations for previously reported increases in optical intensity observed early during laser heating are clarified using the model and demonstrated with experimental measurements in ex vivo bovine liver tissue. This work provides an improved understanding of interstitial optical signal changes during LITT and indicates the sensitivity and potential of interstitial optical monitoring of thermal damage.

  3. Scatter and attenuation correction changes interpretation of gated myocardial perfusion imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Allan; Grupe, Peter; Veje, Annegrete

    2004-01-01

    disease as judged from MPI. Agreement rates with regard to normal, reversible or irreversible defects between MPI-attenuation and MPI-routine for the LAD, LCX and RCA territories were 88%, 97% and 85%, respectively, without significant sex differences. In conclusion, attenuation correction caused a change...

  4. Associating Changes in the Immune System with Clinical Diseases for Interpretation in Risk Assessment##

    Science.gov (United States)

    This overview is a revision to the unit originally published in 2004. While the basic tenants of immunotoxicity have not changed in the past 10 years, several publications have explored the application of immunotoxicological data to the risk assessment process. Therefore, the goa...

  5. Observations and Interpretation of Strain Changes Caused by Volcanic Activity: Significance for Earthscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linde, A. T.; Sacks, I. S.

    2002-12-01

    Sacks-Evertson borehole strainmeters installed in a number of tectonically active regions have recorded strain changes due to activity in volcanic systems in Japan, Iceland and California. The eruption of Izu-Oshima, Japan, in 1986 produced observed strain changes at distances up to ~55 km from the volcano. Data for the first stage of the eruption show that, while the ultimate reservoir was relatively shallow (5-10 km deep), during and immediately following the eruption that shallow reservoir was replenished by magma flowing up from a reservoir about 30 km deep. The second stage of the eruption (a fissure eruption) was preceded (by almost 2 hours) by strain changes due to dike initiation and propagation. Large strain changes continued for about 10 days after the eruption. These strain changes are well satisfied by a model comprised of a reservoir and 2 dikes. One dike (to the north-west) resulted in fissures in the caldera and on the north-west flank; formation of this dike initiated about 2 hours before the fissuring. The second dike, which did not break the surface, propagated more slowly to the south-west and caused strain changes that continued for many days after the eruptive activity. The 1991 and 2000 eruptions of Hekla, Iceland, were well recorded by borehole strainmeters. Only one site was close enough (15 km) to record pre-eruptive (by about 30 min) changes due to dike propagation but the strain data were sufficient to allow modeling of the eruption in terms of a deflating Mogi reservoir together with a vertically propagating dike. The 2000 eruption was somewhat smaller than the 1991 event but the strain records were very similar. That, together with the increase in local seismicity, allowed a specific prediction and warning to be issued 20 minutes before the eruption. These examples (and data from Long Valley showing significant deformation triggered by the Landers earthquake) have allowed new insight into the physics of volcanic activity despite the

  6. The use of hidden curriculum in the interpretation of climate change on infographics in higher education students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abner Colón Ortiz

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance of environmental issues is evident deemed climate change to educate students. The main purpose of this study was to explore the interpretation of climate change on infographics in higher education students using the hidden curriculum. To achieve the purpose, a content analysis was performed to analyze the infographics that present students before (diagnostic and after (formative to use a hidden curriculum concepts of climate change in a course of General Biology. The study was conducted was a qualitative content analysis approach. The sample consisted of undergraduate students of an institution of higher education in Puerto Rico who took a course in General Biology.The results of the content analysis reflected that 81% of students had some misconceptions of climate change at the beginning of the course. Then offer the course General Biology and integrate concepts of climate change with a hidden curriculum, students downplayed their erroneous concepts to 9%. Therefore, we conclude that concepts should be integrated in climate change science courses for better environmental education. This explains why there is a need to educate students on climate change as recommended by the state and international agencies. So states to consider the potential of universities to develop environmental education and close collaboration between institutions of higher education as well as established the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. 

  7. The Preliminary Processing and Geological Interpretation of Lunar Penetrating Radar Channel-1 Data from Chang'E-3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Y.; Zhu, P.; Zhao, N.; Guo, S.; Xiao, L.; Xiao, Z.

    2014-12-01

    This is the first time to obtain the subsurface profiles using the lunar penetrating radar (LPR) on the Moon surface. Two types of antennas, channel-1 and channel-2, with different resolutions were equipped on the LPR, which detected the lunar subsurface structure with low frequency and the thickness of regolith with high frequency, respectively. We focus on the study of the lunar subsurface structure using channel-1 data. Considering the propagation characteristics of radar wave, the processing of amplitude compensation and filtering are applied to improve the imaging quality, and the processed profile clearly represents deeper than 300 meters of layered information. Based on the geological background around landing site, we present the preliminary geological interpretation for the lunar subsurface structure. More than 5 obvious reflecting events should be concerned along the track of the Yutu rover, which infer different lava sequences, including the Eratosthenian basalts, paleo-regolith formed between Eratosthenian and Imbrium, and multistage infilled lavas formed inter-layers among the Imbrium basalts.

  8. Dynamic evolutionary change in post-Paleozoic echinoids and the importance of scale when interpreting changes in rates of evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Melanie J; Smith, Andrew B

    2015-03-24

    How ecological and morphological diversity accrues over geological time has been much debated by paleobiologists. Evidence from the fossil record suggests that many clades reach maximal diversity early in their evolutionary history, followed by a decline in evolutionary rates as ecological space fills or due to internal constraints. Here, we apply recently developed methods for estimating rates of morphological evolution during the post-Paleozoic history of a major invertebrate clade, the Echinoidea. Contrary to expectation, rates of evolution were lowest during the initial phase of diversification following the Permo-Triassic mass extinction and increased over time. Furthermore, although several subclades show high initial rates and net decreases in rates of evolution, consistent with "early bursts" of morphological diversification, at more inclusive taxonomic levels, these bursts appear as episodic peaks. Peak rates coincided with major shifts in ecological morphology, primarily associated with innovations in feeding strategies. Despite having similar numbers of species in today's oceans, regular echinoids have accrued far less morphological diversity than irregular echinoids due to lower intrinsic rates of morphological evolution and less morphological innovation, the latter indicative of constrained or bounded evolution. These results indicate that rates of evolution are extremely heterogenous through time and their interpretation depends on the temporal and taxonomic scale of analysis.

  9. Measuring, interpreting, and responding to changes in coral reefs: A challenge for biologists, geologist, and managers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Caroline S.; Miller, Jeff; Hubbard, Dennis K.; Rogers, Caroline S.; Lipps, Jere H.; Stanley, George D.

    2016-01-01

    What, exactly, is a coral reef? And how have the world’s reefs changed in the last several decades? What are the stressors undermining reef structure and function? Given the predicted effects of climate change, do reefs have a future? Is it possible to “manage” coral reefs for resilience? What can coral reef scientists contribute to improve protection and management of coral reefs? What insights can biologists and geologists provide regarding the persistence of coral reefs on a human timescale? What is reef change to a biologist… to a geologist?Clearly, there are many challenging questions. In this chapter, we present some of our thoughts on monitoring and management of coral reefs in US national parks in the Caribbean and western Atlantic based on our experience as members of monitoring teams. We reflect on the need to characterize and evaluate reefs, on how to conduct high-quality monitoring programs, and on what we can learn from biological and geological experiments and investigations. We explore the possibility that specific steps can be taken to “manage” coral reefs for greater resilience.

  10. Proof, interpretation and evaluation of radiation-induced microstructural changes in WWER reactor pressure vessel steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehmert, J.; Gokhman, A.; Grosse, M.; Ulbricht, A.

    2003-06-01

    Neutron embrittlement is a special issue for the VVER-type reactors. One of the fundamentals for a reliable assessment of the current material state is knowledge of the causes and mechanisms of neutron embrittlement. The aim of the project is to understand and to quantify the microstructural appearances due to neutron radiation in VVER-type reactor pressure vessel steels. The material base is a broad variation of irradiation probes taken from the irradiation programme Rheinsberg, surveillance programmes of Russian, Ukrainian or Hungarian NPPs or irradiation experiments with mockup-alloys. The microstructure was investigated by different methods. The small angle neutron scattering (SANS) proved to be the most suitable method. A procedure was developed to determine mean diameter, size distribution and volume fraction of irradiation-induced microstructure from SANS experiments in a reliable and comparable manner. With this method microstructural parameters were systematically determined and the main factors of influence were identified. Apart from the neutron fluence the volume fraction of radiation defects mainly changes with the copper or nickel content whereas phosphorus is hardly relevant. Annealing remedies the radiation-induced microstructural appearances. The ratio between nuclear and magnetic neutron scattering provides information on the type of radiation defects. This leads to the conclusion that the material composition changes the radiation defects. The change occurs gradually rather than abruptly. The radiation defects detected by SANS correlate with the radiation hardening and embrittlement. Generally, the results suggest a bimodal mechanism due to radiation-enhanced and radiation-induced defect evolution. A kinetic model on base of the rate theory approach was established. (orig.)

  11. How to Interpret Uncertainty Avoidance Scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schramm, Jette

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the cultural dimension of uncertainty avoidance (UA), of US and German staffing decisions – but uses a different viewpoint. Discusses and challenges the hitherto accepted meaning of individual positions of countries UA, using Höfstede’s guide. Adumbrates the concept of UA at the two lev...

  12. Interpretation of 798: Changes in Power of Representation and Sustainability of Industrial Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juncheng Dai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Against the background of economic transformation and urban renewal, the protection and sustainable development of urban industrial landscapes has become an important practical issue, and how to maintain the unique local culture of these landscapes is key to solving the problem. By integrating the concept of “layer” and regarding the landscape as text, this paper will investigate the representation of industrial landscapes and the process of changes in power represented by different actors through different texts from the perspective of representation. The paper selected Beijing 798 as the research area to explore the shaping of changes in the industrial landscape of 798 from a weapon manufacturing area to an arts district, creative industry park and the “pan 798” by the factory owners, government, management committee, artists, media and tourists through different presentation forms, revealing the game process of representation of powers among the coalition between artists, management committee and the government. The paper points out that in fact, the representation of industrial landscape by different actors through different texts is a process that continues to explore and define the value of landscape. However, we need to look at this when the value of the industrial landscape is no longer given by localized life practices, but rather depends on different actors to produce and reproduce the value of landscape by representation, and thereby affecting the sustainable development of industrial landscape.

  13. Using Maps of City Analogues to Display and Interpret Climate Change scenarios and their uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopf, S.; Minh, Ha-Duong; Hallegatte, St.

    2008-02-01

    We describe a method to represent the results of climate simulation models with analogues. An analogue to a city A is a city B whose climate today represents A's simulated future climate. Climates were characterized and compared non-parametrically, using the 30-years distribution of three indicators: Aridity Index, Heating Degree Days and Cooling Degree Days. Analogy was evaluated statistically with the two-samples Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, generalized to 3 dimensions. We looked at the climate of 12 European cities at the end of the century under an A2 climate change scenario. We used two datasets produced with high-resolution regional climate simulation models from the Hadley Center and Meteo France. Climate analogues were generally found southward of present locations, a clear warming trend even if much model and scenario uncertainty remains. Climate analogues provide an intuitive way to show the possible effects of climate change on urban areas, offering a holistic approach to think about how cities adapt to different climates. Evidence of its communication value comes from the reuse of our maps in teaching and in several European mass-media. (authors)

  14. Ascending colon rotation following patient positional change during CT colonography: a potential pitfall in interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Yeon; Park, Seong Ho; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Ah Young; Ha, Hyun Kwon

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the degree and pattern of ascending colonic rotation as patients moved from supine to prone positions during CTC. A search of our CTC and colonoscopy database found 37 patients (43 eligible lesions) who fulfilled the following criteria: colonoscopy-proven sessile polyps ≥6 mm in the straight mid-ascending colon, lesion visualisation in both supine and prone CTC, and optimal colonic distension. A coordinate system was developed to designate the polyp radial location ( ) along the luminal circumference, unaffected by rotation of the torso. The degree/direction of polyp radial location change (i.e. ascending colonic rotation) between supine and prone positions correlated with anthropometric measurements. Movement from supine to prone positions resulted in a change in the radial polyp location of between -23 and 79 (median, 21 ), demonstrating external rotation of the ascending colon in almost all cases (2 to 79 in 36/37 patients and 42/43 lesions). The degree/direction of rotation mildly correlated with the degree of abdominal compression in the anterior-posterior direction in prone position (r = 0.427 [P = 0.004] and r = 0.404 [P = 0.007]). The ascending colon was usually found to rotate externally as patients moved from supine to prone positions, partly dependent on the degree of abdominal compression. (orig.)

  15. Change or continuity: an interpretation of the economic politics of Lula’s government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André MOREIRA CUNHA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the first year of government, the administration of Lula implanted a macroeconomic politics characterized by a strong fiscal and monetary restriction and for structural reformations (tributary and of the Social Security before criticized by the Party of the Workers and for its bases of social support in the last two decades. Keeping in mind these facts and the international expectation generated by the election of a government of left in Brazil in front of the crisis of the neoliberal pattern in Latin America, this article has for objective to analyses: (i the economic circumstances of the government’s principle Lula that conditioned the adoption of a transition strategy; (ii the results of this strategy; and (iii the aspects of continuity and change in the new government. Empiric evidences that sustain that the margin of manoeuvre of the new administration was sensibly narrow as to promote deep changes in the economic politics’s conduction, are presented. However, to part of those restrictions, inherited of the deregulated adjustment of the nineties, the government of Lula opted for the adoption of a group of politicians that will be able to generate a new trap of low growth with macroeconomic uncertainty, in the terms of that experienced in last decade.

  16. Using maps of city analogues to display and interpret climate change scenarios and their uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kopf

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe a method to represent the results of climate simulation models with spatial analogues. An analogue to a city A is a city B whose climate today corresponds to A's simulated future climate. Climates were characterized and compared non-parametrically, using the 30-years distribution of three indicators: Aridity Index, Heating Degree Days and Cooling Degree Days. The level of correspondence (i.e. strength of analogy was evaluated statistically with the two-samples Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, generalized to 3 dimensions. We looked at the climate of 12 European cities at the end of the 21st century under an A2 climate change scenario. We used two datasets produced with high-resolution regional climate simulation models from the Hadley Centre and Meteo France. As expected from the modelled warming in local climate, analogues were found in warmer regions, mostly at more southerly latitudes within Europe, although much model and scenario uncertainty remains. Climate analogues provide an intuitive way to show the possible effects of climate change on urban areas, offering a holistic approach to think about how cities might adapt to different climates. Evidence of its communication value comes from the reuse of our maps in teaching and in several European mass-media.

  17. The Human Behaviour-Change Project: harnessing the power of artificial intelligence and machine learning for evidence synthesis and interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Michie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Behaviour change is key to addressing both the challenges facing human health and wellbeing and to promoting the uptake of research findings in health policy and practice. We need to make better use of the vast amount of accumulating evidence from behaviour change intervention (BCI evaluations and promote the uptake of that evidence into a wide range of contexts. The scale and complexity of the task of synthesising and interpreting this evidence, and increasing evidence timeliness and accessibility, will require increased computer support. The Human Behaviour-Change Project (HBCP will use Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning to (i develop and evaluate a ‘Knowledge System’ that automatically extracts, synthesises and interprets findings from BCI evaluation reports to generate new insights about behaviour change and improve prediction of intervention effectiveness and (ii allow users, such as practitioners, policy makers and researchers, to easily and efficiently query the system to get answers to variants of the question ‘What works, compared with what, how well, with what exposure, with what behaviours (for how long, for whom, in what settings and why?’. Methods The HBCP will: a develop an ontology of BCI evaluations and their reports linking effect sizes for given target behaviours with intervention content and delivery and mechanisms of action, as moderated by exposure, populations and settings; b develop and train an automated feature extraction system to annotate BCI evaluation reports using this ontology; c develop and train machine learning and reasoning algorithms to use the annotated BCI evaluation reports to predict effect sizes for particular combinations of behaviours, interventions, populations and settings; d build user and machine interfaces for interrogating and updating the knowledge base; and e evaluate all the above in terms of performance and utility. Discussion The HBCP aims to

  18. Recent climate change in the Arctic and its impact on contaminant pathways and interpretation of temporal trend data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, R.W.; Harner, T.; Fyfe, J.

    2005-01-01

    possibility, presently difficult to predict, is combination of immune suppression together with expanding ranges of disease vectors. Finally, biotransport through migratory species is exceptionally vulnerable to changes in migration strength or in migration pathway-in the Arctic, change in the distribution of ice and temperature may already have caused such changes. Hydrocarbons, which tend to impact surfaces, will be mostly affected by change in the ice climate (distribution and drift tracks). Perhaps the most dramatic changes will occur because our view of the Arctic Ocean will change as it becomes more amenable to transport, tourism and mineral exploration on the shelves. Radionuclides have tended not to produce a radiological problem in the Arctic; nevertheless one pathway, the ice, remains a risk because it can accrue, concentrate and transport radio-contaminated sediments. This pathway is sensitive to where ice is produced, what the transport pathways of ice are, and where ice is finally melted-all strong candidates for change during the coming century. The changes that have already occurred in the Arctic and those that are projected to occur have an effect on contaminant time series including direct measurements (air, water, biota) or proxies (sediment cores, ice cores, archive material). Although these 'system' changes can alter the flux and concentrations at given sites in a number of obvious ways, they have been all but ignored in the interpretation of such time series. To understand properly what trends mean, especially in complex 'recorders' such as seals, walrus and polar bears, demands a more thorough approach to time series by collecting data in a number of media coherently. Presently, a major reservoir for contaminants and the one most directly connected to biological uptake in species at greatest risk-the ocean-practically lacks such time series

  19. Recent climate change in the Arctic and its impact on contaminant pathways and interpretation of temporal trend data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macdonald, R.W. [Institute of Ocean Sciences, Department of Fisheries and Oceans, P.O. Box 6000, Sydney, BC (Canada); Harner, T. [Meteorological Service of Canada, Environment Canada, 4905 Dufferin Street, Downsview, ON (Canada); Fyfe, J. [Meteorological Service of Canada, Centre for Climate Modelling and Analysis, 3964 Gordon Head Road, Victoria, BC (Canada)

    2005-04-15

    possibility, presently difficult to predict, is combination of immune suppression together with expanding ranges of disease vectors. Finally, biotransport through migratory species is exceptionally vulnerable to changes in migration strength or in migration pathway-in the Arctic, change in the distribution of ice and temperature may already have caused such changes. Hydrocarbons, which tend to impact surfaces, will be mostly affected by change in the ice climate (distribution and drift tracks). Perhaps the most dramatic changes will occur because our view of the Arctic Ocean will change as it becomes more amenable to transport, tourism and mineral exploration on the shelves. Radionuclides have tended not to produce a radiological problem in the Arctic; nevertheless one pathway, the ice, remains a risk because it can accrue, concentrate and transport radio-contaminated sediments. This pathway is sensitive to where ice is produced, what the transport pathways of ice are, and where ice is finally melted-all strong candidates for change during the coming century. The changes that have already occurred in the Arctic and those that are projected to occur have an effect on contaminant time series including direct measurements (air, water, biota) or proxies (sediment cores, ice cores, archive material). Although these 'system' changes can alter the flux and concentrations at given sites in a number of obvious ways, they have been all but ignored in the interpretation of such time series. To understand properly what trends mean, especially in complex 'recorders' such as seals, walrus and polar bears, demands a more thorough approach to time series by collecting data in a number of media coherently. Presently, a major reservoir for contaminants and the one most directly connected to biological uptake in species at greatest risk-the ocean-practically lacks such time series.

  20. Validity and sensitivity to change of the semi-quantitative OMERACT ultrasound scoring system for tenosynovitis in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll-Danielsen, Mads; Østergaard, Mikkel; Naredo, Esperanza

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim was to evaluate the metric properties of the semi-quantitative OMERACT US scoring system vs a novel quantitative US scoring system for tenosynovitis, by testing its intra- and inter-reader reliability, sensitivity to change and comparison with clinical tenosynovitis scoring...... in a 6-month follow-up study. METHODS: US and clinical assessments of the tendon sheaths of the clinically most affected hand and foot were performed at baseline, 3 and 6 months in 51 patients with RA. Tenosynovitis was assessed using the semi-quantitative scoring system (0-3) proposed by the OMERACT US...... tenosynovitis score was performed, calculating a sum score per patient. RESULTS: The intra- and inter-observer agreements for US tenosynovitis assessments were very good at baseline and for change for GS and CD, but less good for PI. The smallest detectable change was 0.97 for GS, 0.93 for CD and 30.1 for PI...

  1. Interpreting the response of a dryland river system to Late Quaternary climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candy, I.; Black, S.; Sellwood, B. W.

    2004-12-01

    A U-series calcrete chronology has been constructed for three Late Quaternary terrace units, termed the D1, D2 and D3 terraces in age descending order, from the Rio Aguas river system of the Sorbas basin, southeast Spain. The D1 terrace formed between 30,300±4400 year BP and 12,140±360 year BP, correlating well with the Last Glacial Maximum when rates of sediment supply would have increased greatly, because of higher rates of weathering, reduced vegetation cover and weak soil development. The D2 terrace formed between 12,800±1100 year BP and 9,600±530 year BP, correlating well with the Younger Dryas event. The D3 terrace could only be poorly constrained to the early Holocene and no unequivocal cause could be assigned to this period of aggradation. The sedimentology and geomorphology of the D2 terrace suggests, however, that the aggradation of this unit was a response to diapirism/karstic processes occurring within the underlying Messinian gypsum strata and the subsequent damming of the Aguas system. Therefore, despite its coincident occurrence with the Younger Dryas, aggradation of the D2 terrace is unrelated to climate change. The style of this response, controlled predominantly by the characteristics of the underlying bedrock, makes correlating the terrace record of the Aguas with other systems in the Mediterranean unreliable. This study, therefore, highlights the problems of correlating fluvial sequences in regions of variable tectonics, climatic history and bedrock geology and emphasises the need to properly understand the main controls on individual fluvial systems before any attempt is made to correlate their depositional histories.

  2. The Mystery of the Z-Score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Alexander E; Smith, Tanya A; Ziganshin, Bulat A; Elefteriades, John A

    2016-08-01

    Reliable methods for measuring the thoracic aorta are critical for determining treatment strategies in aneurysmal disease. Z-scores are a pragmatic alternative to raw diameter sizes commonly used in adult medicine. They are particularly valuable in the pediatric population, who undergo rapid changes in physical development. The advantage of the Z-score is its inclusion of body surface area (BSA) in determining whether an aorta is within normal size limits. Therefore, Z-scores allow us to determine whether true pathology exists, which can be challenging in growing children. In addition, Z-scores allow for thoughtful interpretation of aortic size in different genders, ethnicities, and geographical regions. Despite the advantages of using Z-scores, there are limitations. These include intra- and inter-observer bias, measurement error, and variations between alternative Z-score nomograms and BSA equations. Furthermore, it is unclear how Z-scores change in the normal population over time, which is essential when interpreting serial values. Guidelines for measuring aortic parameters have been developed by the American Society of Echocardiography Pediatric and Congenital Heart Disease Council, which may reduce measurement bias when calculating Z-scores for the aortic root. In addition, web-based Z-score calculators have been developed to aid in efficient Z-score calculations. Despite these advances, clinicians must be mindful of the limitations of Z-scores, especially when used to demonstrate beneficial treatment effect. This review looks to unravel the mystery of the Z-score, with a focus on the thoracic aorta. Here, we will discuss how Z-scores are calculated and the limitations of their use.

  3. Effect of white matter changes on risk score for peri-procedural complications after carotid artery stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chun; Guo, Wen Cheng; Zhu, Lei; Tan, Jin Yun; Shi, Wei Hao; Zhang, Xiao Long; Gu, Yu Xiang; Han, Xiang; Dong, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    The presence of more severe white matter changes (WMC) may be associated with a higher risk of peri-procedural strokes in patients undergoing carotid artery stenting (CAS). However, to what extent WMC affects peri-procedural risk of CAS is unclear. We aimed to evaluate the effect of WMC on peri-procedural complications by modifying a CAS peri-procedural risk scale through adding the assessment of WMC. A database of patients undergoing CAS was sampled from 2007 to 2014 in a single Chinese medical center. Risk factors were evaluated for peri-interventional cerebral and cardiac events and mortality. A risk score including contralateral stenosis ≥ 50%, diabetes with HbA1c > 7%, age ≥ 80 years old, symptomatic stenosis or with an ulcer lesion was applied to predict peri-interventional risk. Age-related white matter change (ARWMC) score was calculated and added to this risk scale. The predictive power of the new scale was evaluated. 151 patients were enrolled in the study. 14 peri-interventional events were recorded. Patients with peri-procedural complications had higher rates of diabetes (57.1% vs 18.2%, P = 0.001), contralateral stenosis (64.29% vs 32.85%, P = 0.019), coronary heart disease (42.9% vs 14.6%, P = 0.008) and ARWMC ≥ 7 (64.3% vs 25.5%, P = 0.002) compared with patients without peri-procedural complications. ARWMC ≥ 7 was an independent risk factor for peri-procedural complications from factors of the CAS scale after adjusting other confounders including contralateral stenosis ≥ 50%, HbA1c > 7%, age ≥ 80 years old and symptomatic stenosis or with an ulcer lesion. After the ARWMC score was added to the original scale, the AUC value of the new scale to predict the risk of peri-procedural complications after CAS was elevated (0.808 vs 0.730, p = 0.068). More severe WMC was a risk factor for peri-procedural complications after CAS in patients with carotid artery stenosis. ARWMC score may help to

  4. Molecular change signal-to-noise criteria for interpreting experiments involving exposure of biological systems to weakly interacting electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Timothy E; Weaver, James C

    2005-05-01

    We describe an approach to aiding the design and interpretation of experiments involving biological effects of weakly interacting electromagnetic fields that range from steady (dc) to microwave frequencies. We propose that if known biophysical mechanisms cannot account for an inferred, underlying molecular change signal-to-noise ratio, (S/N)gen, of a observed result, then there are two interpretation choices: (1) there is an unknown biophysical mechanism with stronger coupling between the field exposure and the ongoing biochemical process, or (2) the experiment is responding to something other than the field exposure. Our approach is based on classical detection theory, the recognition that weakly interacting fields cannot break chemical bonds, and the consequence that such fields can only alter rates of ongoing, metabolically driven biochemical reactions, and transport processes. The approach includes both fundamental chemical noise (molecular shot noise) and other sources of competing chemical change, to be compared quantitatively to the field induced change for the basic case that the field alters a single step in a biochemical network. Consistent with pharmacology and toxicology, we estimate the molecular dose (mass associated with field induced molecular change per mass tissue) resulting from illustrative low frequency field exposures for the biophysical mechanism of voltage gated channels. For perspective, we then consider electric field-mediated delivery of small molecules across human skin and into individual cells. Specifically, we consider the examples of iontophoretic and electroporative delivery of fentanyl through skin and electroporative delivery of bleomycin into individual cells. The total delivered amount corresponds to a molecular change signal and the delivery variability corresponds to generalized chemical noise. Viewed broadly, biological effects due to nonionizing fields may include animal navigation, medical applications, and environmental

  5. Changing the interpretation of monuments for the purpose of influencing the Czechoslovak collective identity through Rudé Právo and presidential speeches (1948-1957)

    OpenAIRE

    Hobl, Elisabeth Anna

    2015-01-01

    CHARLES UNIVERSITY IN PRAGUE FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES Institute of International Studies Elisabeth Anna Hobl Changing the interpretation of monuments for the purpose of influencing the Czechoslovak collective identity through Rudé Právo and presidential speeches (1948-1957) Masters thesis Prague 2015 Abstract The Communist Party of Czechoslovak (KSČ) tried self-servingly to shape the interpretation of Czechoslovak history. National identity can theoretically change over time by adapting amo...

  6. Changes in medical treatment six months after risk stratification with HeartScore and coronary artery calcification scanning of healthy middle-aged subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette Hjortdal; Gerke, Oke; Lambrechtsen, Jess

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim was to examine and compare the impact of HeartScore and coronary artery calcification (CAC) score on subsequent changes in the use of medication. Methods: A total of 1156 healthy men and women, aged 50 or 60, had a baseline medical examination and a coronary artery CT-scan as ...

  7. A new CT-score as index of hemodynamic changes in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Maria Barbara; Giannotta, Marica; Palazzini, Massimiliano; Cefarelli, Mariano; Martìn Suàrez, Sofia; Gotti, Enrico; Bacchi Reggiani, Maria Letizia; Zompatori, Maurizio; Galiè, Nazzareno

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the relationship between radiological and hemodynamic parameters in patients with chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). We introduced a new CT-score to evaluate hemodynamic changes, only employing CT-pulmonary angiography (CTPA). 145 patients affected by CTEPH underwent hemodynamic and CTPA evaluation. Among these 145 patients, 69 underwent pulmonary endarterectomy (PEA) and performed a CTPA evaluation even after surgery. Hemodynamic assessment considered the values of mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), obtained through right heart catheterization (RHC). Radiological evaluation included CTPA signs of pulmonary hypertension. A highly significant statistical correlation was observed between the new CT-score and both mPAP and PVR (p < 0.000) in the whole sample and also in the subgroup who underwent PEA. In addition, mPAP and PVR showed an important association with the severity of mosaic perfusion (p < 0.000). mPAP also correlated with main pulmonary artery diameter (p < 0.01); a significant association was found in both between PVR and tricuspid regurgitation(p < 0.000) and with PVR and presence of unilateral or bilateral pulmonary thromboembolic occlusion (p < 0.05). Our results confirm the diagnostic role of CTPA in evaluating patients with CTEPH and in addition open a new horizon in assessing hemodynamic changes in patients with CTEPH, only employing a CTPA, especially when RHC is contraindicated or not possible.

  8. Changes in bird functional diversity across multiple land uses: interpretations of functional redundancy depend on functional group identity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary W Luck

    Full Text Available Examinations of the impact of land-use change on functional diversity link changes in ecological community structure driven by land modification with the consequences for ecosystem function. Yet, most studies have been small-scale, experimental analyses and primarily focussed on plants. There is a lack of research on fauna communities and at large-scales across multiple land uses. We assessed changes in the functional diversity of bird communities across 24 land uses aligned along an intensification gradient. We tested the hypothesis that functional diversity is higher in less intensively used landscapes, documented changes in diversity using four diversity metrics, and examined how functional diversity varied with species richness to identify levels of functional redundancy. Functional diversity, measured using a dendogram-based metric, increased from high to low intensity land uses, but observed values did not differ significantly from randomly-generated expected values. Values for functional evenness and functional divergence did not vary consistently with land-use intensification, although higher than expected values were mostly recorded in high intensity land uses. A total of 16 land uses had lower than expected values for functional dispersion and these were mostly low intensity native vegetation sites. Relations between functional diversity and bird species richness yielded strikingly different patterns for the entire bird community vs. particular functional groups. For all birds and insectivores, functional evenness, divergence and dispersion showed a linear decline with increasing species richness suggesting substantial functional redundancy across communities. However, for nectarivores, frugivores and carnivores, there was a significant hump-shaped or non-significant positive linear relationship between these functional measures and species richness indicating less redundancy. Hump-shaped relationships signify that the most

  9. Changes in bird functional diversity across multiple land uses: interpretations of functional redundancy depend on functional group identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luck, Gary W; Carter, Andrew; Smallbone, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Examinations of the impact of land-use change on functional diversity link changes in ecological community structure driven by land modification with the consequences for ecosystem function. Yet, most studies have been small-scale, experimental analyses and primarily focussed on plants. There is a lack of research on fauna communities and at large-scales across multiple land uses. We assessed changes in the functional diversity of bird communities across 24 land uses aligned along an intensification gradient. We tested the hypothesis that functional diversity is higher in less intensively used landscapes, documented changes in diversity using four diversity metrics, and examined how functional diversity varied with species richness to identify levels of functional redundancy. Functional diversity, measured using a dendogram-based metric, increased from high to low intensity land uses, but observed values did not differ significantly from randomly-generated expected values. Values for functional evenness and functional divergence did not vary consistently with land-use intensification, although higher than expected values were mostly recorded in high intensity land uses. A total of 16 land uses had lower than expected values for functional dispersion and these were mostly low intensity native vegetation sites. Relations between functional diversity and bird species richness yielded strikingly different patterns for the entire bird community vs. particular functional groups. For all birds and insectivores, functional evenness, divergence and dispersion showed a linear decline with increasing species richness suggesting substantial functional redundancy across communities. However, for nectarivores, frugivores and carnivores, there was a significant hump-shaped or non-significant positive linear relationship between these functional measures and species richness indicating less redundancy. Hump-shaped relationships signify that the most functionally diverse

  10. The OMERACT Psoriatic Arthritis Magnetic Resonance Imaging Score (PsAMRIS) is reliable and sensitive to change: results from an OMERACT workshop

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøyesen, Pernille; McQueen, Fiona M; Gandjbakhch, Frédérique

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this multireader exercise was to assess the reliability and sensitivity to change of the psoriatic arthritis magnetic resonance imaging score (PsAMRIS) in PsA patients followed for 1 year.......The aim of this multireader exercise was to assess the reliability and sensitivity to change of the psoriatic arthritis magnetic resonance imaging score (PsAMRIS) in PsA patients followed for 1 year....

  11. Do Multidimensional Pain Inventory scale score changes indicate risk of receiving sick leave benefits 1 year after a pain rehabilitation programme?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Vanja E; Novo, Mehmed; Sjölund, Bengt H

    2011-01-01

    To study whether scale score changes in the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) can predict which persons disabled by pain will receive sick leave benefits 1 year after completing a pain rehabilitation programme.......To study whether scale score changes in the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) can predict which persons disabled by pain will receive sick leave benefits 1 year after completing a pain rehabilitation programme....

  12. Who will be sicker in the morning? Changes in the Simple Clinical Score the day after admission and the subsequent outcomes of acutely ill unselected medical patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kellett, John

    2011-08-01

    All doctors are haunted by the possibility that a patient they reassured yesterday will return seriously ill tomorrow. We examined changes in the Simple Clinical Score (SCS) the day after admission, factors that might influence these changes and the relationship of these changes to subsequent clinical outcome.

  13. Life satisfaction and perceived stress among young offenders in a residential therapeutic community: Latent change score analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kristen N S; Chan, Christian S

    2017-06-01

    Recent rehabilitation frameworks underscore the importance of strength-based interventions for young offenders who may lack internal and external resources to manage their stress and plan for their life. This multi-wave longitudinal study investigated the dynamic relationship between perceived stress and life satisfaction among a group of young ex-offenders in a residential therapeutic community. Four waves of data were collected from 117 Hong Kong youths (24.0% female, mean age = 17.7) over one year. Latent change score analysis was employed to examine the univairate and bivariate changes of their perceived stress and life satisfaction. Results suggest a positive growth trajectory in life satisfaction over time. The results of perceived stress were less conclusive. Bivariate models indicated that the previous level of life satisfaction was negatively linked to the subsequent perceived stress level but not vice versa. The findings suggest that improvement in life satisfaction may reduce perceived stress in young ex-offenders. Copyright © 2017 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Late Holocene climate and environmental change from Asiul cave speleothems: interpretations in light of modern cave monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew; Wynn, Peter; Barker, Philip; Leng, Melanie; Noble, Steve; Tych, Wlodek

    2017-04-01

    Northern Iberia offers an excellent location to study fluctuations in North Atlantic Ocean (NA) conditions and the impact that changes in the NA have on atmospheric systems, which dominate Europe's climate. Two speleothems from Cueva de Asiul (Matienzo, N. Spain) have been used to reconstruct rainfall variability in N. Spain throughout the Holocene (Smith et al., 2016a). The carbonate δ18O records from these speleothems are interpreted in the light of a rigorous modern cave monitoring program undertaken at Cueva de Asiul (Smith et al., 2016b). Drip water δ18O reflects a modern rainfall amount effect whilst δ13C appears influenced by Prior Calcite Precipitation (PCP) in the short term and changes in vegetation at long timescales. The speleothem δ18O shows that long duration ( 1500 year) cycles in wetting and drying are prevalent in N. Spain during the Holocene and that dry climate phases are related to the timing of cold events (Bond et al., 2001) in the NA. Here we look in more detail at one of these speleothems, assessing both δ18O and δ13C during the last two thousand years. We show that Cueva de Asiul speleothems not only preserve long duration climate cycles in δ18O, but that they also appear influenced by shorter duration changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), in-sync with other NAO archives (Olsen et al., 2012). However, the Cueva de Asiul record does not appear to preserve a predominately positive NAO signal during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) as is common within many European archives (Trouet et al., 2009), possibly due to the sites' close proximity to the NA and localised oceanic weather systems (Moreno et al., 2012). Alongside climatic changes, the speleothem δ13C shows a clear transition toward higher isotope values around 360 years BP (BP=1950), signalling a major environmental change in the region possibly due to anthropogenic removal of vast swathes of natural forest to support ship building and industry related to the Spanish

  15. Laboratory Measurement and Interpretation of the Changes of Physical Properties after Heat Treatment in Tight Porous Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yili Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of water blocking and optimization of multiscale flow channels will increase gas production of tight reservoirs. Physical properties of samples from representative tight gas reservoirs were measured before and after high temperature treatment. Results show that, with the increase of treatment temperature, mass decreases, acoustic transit time increases, and permeability and porosity increase. Permeability begins to increase dramatically if treatment temperature exceeds the threshold value of thermal fracturing, which is 600~700°C, 500~600°C, 300~500°C, and 300~400°C for shale, mudstone, tight sandstone, and tight carbonate rock, respectively. Comprehensive analyses indicate that the mechanisms of heat treatment on tight porous media include evaporation and dehydration of water, change of mineral structure, generation of microfracture, and network connectivity. Meanwhile, field implementation is reviewed and prospected. Interpretations indicate that, according to the characteristics of multiscale mass transfer in tight gas formation, combining heat treatment with conventional stimulation methods can achieve the best stimulation result.

  16. Conference Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leal Lobato, Ana Isabel

    2017-01-01

    Conference Interpreters: How to serve the cause of minorized communities in the new postmonolingual / ‘postmonodiscoursive’ order,......Conference Interpreters: How to serve the cause of minorized communities in the new postmonolingual / ‘postmonodiscoursive’ order,...

  17. Two-Way Interpretation about Climate Change: Preliminary Results from a Study in Select Units of the United States National Park System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forist, B. E.; Knapp, D.

    2014-12-01

    Much interpretation in units of the National Park System, conducted by National Park Service (NPS) rangers and partners today is done in a didactic, lecture style. This "one-way" communication runs counter to research suggesting that long-term impacts of park interpretive experiences must be established through direct connections with the visitor. Previous research in interpretation has suggested that interpretive experiences utilizing a "two-way" dialogue approach are more successful at facilitating long-term memories than "one-way" approaches where visitors have few, if any, opportunities to ask questions, offer opinions, or share interests and experiences. Long-term memories are indicators of connections to places and resources. Global anthropogenic change poses critical threats to NPS sites, resources, and visitor experiences. As climate change plays an ever-expanding role in public, political, social, economic, and environmental discourse it stands to reason that park visitors may also be interested in engaging in this discourse. Indeed, NPS Director Jonathan Jarvis stated in the agency's Climate Change Action Plan 2012 - 2014 that, "We now know through social science conducted in parks that our visitors are looking to NPS staff for honest dialogue about this critical issue." Researchers from Indiana University will present preliminary findings from a multiple park study that assessed basic visitor knowledge and the impact of two-way interpretation related to climate change. Observations from park interpretive program addressing climate change will be presented. Basic visitor knowledge of climate change impacts in the select parks as well as immediate and long-term visitor recollections will be presented. Select units of the National Park System in this research included Cape Cod National Seashore, Cape Hatteras National Seashore, North Cascades National Park, Shenandoah National Park, and Zion National Park.

  18. Early Mathematics Skills from Prekindergarten to First Grade: Score Changes and Ability Group Differences in Kentucky, Nebraska, and Shanghai Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, Ji Hoon; Molfese, Victoria J.; Heaton, Ruth; Zhou, Xin; Brown, E. Todd; Prokasky, Amanda; Davis, Erika

    2014-01-01

    The 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study shows average mathematics scores of U.S. fourth graders are lower than children in many Asian countries. There are questions about differences in mathematics skills at younger ages. This study examines differences in score growth for High-, Average-, and Low-performing children in two…

  19. Longitudinal trends in diet and effects of sex, race, and education on dietary quality score change: the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijtsma, F.P.C.; Meyer, K.A.; Steffen, L.M.; Shikany, J.M.; Horn, van L.; Harnack, L.J.; Kromhout, D.; Jacobs, D.R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The food supply and dietary preferences have changed in recent decades. Objective: We studied time- and age-related individual and population-wide changes in a dietary quality score and food groups during 1985–2006. Design: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA)

  20. Impact on house staff evaluation scores when changing from a Dreyfus- to a Milestone-based evaluation model: one internal medicine residency program's findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Karen A; Balwan, Sandy; Cacace, Frank; Katona, Kyle; Sunday, Suzanne; Chaudhry, Saima

    2014-01-01

    As graduate medical education (GME) moves into the Next Accreditation System (NAS), programs must take a critical look at their current models of evaluation and assess how well they align with reporting outcomes. Our objective was to assess the impact on house staff evaluation scores when transitioning from a Dreyfus-based model of evaluation to a Milestone-based model of evaluation. Milestones are a key component of the NAS. We analyzed all end of rotation evaluations of house staff completed by faculty for academic years 2010-2011 (pre-Dreyfus model) and 2011-2012 (post-Milestone model) in one large university-based internal medicine residency training program. Main measures included change in PGY-level average score; slope, range, and separation of average scores across all six Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) competencies. Transitioning from a Dreyfus-based model to a Milestone-based model resulted in a larger separation in the scores between our three post-graduate year classes, a steeper progression of scores in the PGY-1 class, a wider use of the 5-point scale on our global end of rotation evaluation form, and a downward shift in the PGY-1 scores and an upward shift in the PGY-3 scores. For faculty trained in both models of assessment, the Milestone-based model had greater discriminatory ability as evidenced by the larger separation in the scores for all the classes, in particular the PGY-1 class.

  1. δ18O and Carbonate Clumped Isotopes as Proxies of Lake Level Change: Mono Lake Modern Sediments Inform Pleistocene Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westacott, S.; Ingalls, M.; Meixnerova, J.; Betts, M.; Lloyd, M. K.; Miller, L. G.; Sessions, A. L.; Trower, L.; Geobiology Course, A.

    2017-12-01

    In 1941 LA County began diverting water from the Mono Lake basin, causing lake level to fall dramatically until 1994 when diversion was substantially discontinued. High sedimentation rate (0.7 cm/yr) in combination with rapid, well-documented environmental change offers a unique opportunity to investigate the isotopic fingerprint of lake level change at a much finer scale than is typically accessible in the geologic record. δ18Ocarb can record lake level in a closed-basin system, but relies on knowing the relative contributions from carbonate precipitated from lake water and from authigenic carbonates, both of which are expected to exist in alkaline lake sediments. Here, we combine δ18Ocarb with clumped isotope thermometry (T(Δ47)) on a 70 cm sediment core to "unmix" the carbonate sources and reconstruct δ18Owater of Mono Lake over the past 116 years. Carbonate from the upper 10 cm of the sediment core yields a T(Δ47) of 26°C, reflecting surface water carbonate precipitation during late summer. Carbonates from sediment depths greater than 10cm yield a consistent T(Δ47) of 9.6°C, warmer than today's bottom waters, suggesting dissolution and reprecipitation of originally "warm" carbonate deposited from the water column alongside "cold" water of a different δ18Ow than Mono Lake surface water. A clumped isotope mixing model (Defliese & Lohmann, 2015) used to calculate the relative contributions of the two carbonate precipitates, corroborated by mirrored shifts in δ13Corg and δ13Ccarb down-core, suggests that about half of the carbonate found in the lower 60 cm of the sediment core is authigenic. As an example of how this strategy can be applied to older strata with looser constraints on primary composition, we also analysed the Pleistocene Wilson Creek Formation—lake sediments from Mono Lake's predecessor, Lake Russell. Although Pleistocene Lake Russell should have been cooler than modern Mono Lake, T(Δ47) values were similar to those of modern sediments

  2. Interpretive Journalism

    OpenAIRE

    Salgado, Susana; Strömbäck, Jesper; Aalberg, Toril; Esser, Frank

    2017-01-01

    In summary one-third of the political coverage analyzed in the 16 countries was found to contain interpretive journalism, with some countries - including France and the United States - making use of it much more than the rest. Indeed, the story genres and the interpretive journalism used in the various countries differ substantially, indicating distinct motives and news cultures. A multivariate analysis conducted to identify the most powerful predictors of interpretive journ...

  3. Independent or Integrated? The Impact on Subject Examination Scores of Changing a Neuropsychiatry Clerkship to Independent Clerkships in Psychiatry and Neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Heather S; Gabrielli, William F; Paolo, Anthony; Walling, Anne

    2017-08-01

    This study was undertaken to assess any impact on National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) neurology and psychiatry subject examination scores of changing from an integrated neuropsychiatry clerkship to independent neurology and psychiatry clerkships. NBME psychiatry and neurology subject examinations scores were compared for all 625 students completing the required neuropsychiatry clerkship in academic years 2005-2006 through 2008-2009 with all 650 students completing the independent neurology and psychiatry clerkships in academic years 2009-2010 through 2012-2013. Statistical adjustments were made to ensure comparability across groups and over time. A significant improvement in subject examination scores was associated with the independent clerkships. The independent clerkship model was associated with a modest improvement in NBME subject examination scores. This finding may be attributable to many causes or combination of causes other than curricular design. Curricular planners need to pay attention to the potential impact of course integration on specialty-specific NBME subject examination performance.

  4. Relationships among participant international prostate symptom score, benign prostatic hyperplasia impact index changes and global ratings of change in a trial of phytotherapy in men with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Michael J; Cantor, Alan; Roehrborn, Claus G

    2013-03-01

    We related changes in American Urological Association symptom index scores with bother measures and global ratings of change in men with lower urinary tract symptoms who were enrolled in a saw palmetto trial. To be eligible for study men were 45 years old or older, and had a peak uroflow of 4 ml per second or greater and an American Urological Association symptom index score of 8 to 24. Participants self-administered the American Urological Association symptom index, International Prostate Symptom Score quality of life item, Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Impact Index and 2 global change questions at baseline, and at 24, 48 and 72 weeks. In 357 participants global ratings of a little better were associated with a mean decrease in American Urological Association symptom index scores from 2.8 to 4.1 points across 3 time points. The analogous range for mean decreases in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Impact Index scores was 1.0 to 1.7 points and for the International Prostate Symptom Score quality of life item it was 0.5 to 0.8 points. At 72 weeks for the first global change question each change measure discriminated between participants who rated themselves at least a little better vs unchanged or worse 70% to 72% of the time. A multivariate model increased discrimination to 77%. For the second global change question each change measure correctly discriminated ratings of at least a little better vs unchanged or worse 69% to 74% of the time and a multivariate model increased discrimination to 79%. Changes in American Urological Association symptom index scores could discriminate between participants rating themselves at least a little better vs unchanged or worse. Our findings support the practice of powering studies to detect group mean differences in American Urological Association symptom index scores of at least 3 points. Copyright © 2013 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Propensity Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luellen, Jason K.; Shadish, William R.; Clark, M. H.

    2005-01-01

    Propensity score analysis is a relatively recent statistical innovation that is useful in the analysis of data from quasi-experiments. The goal of propensity score analysis is to balance two non-equivalent groups on observed covariates to get more accurate estimates of the effects of a treatment on which the two groups differ. This article…

  6. Interpretation miniatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolić, Hrvoje

    Most physicists do not have patience for reading long and obscure interpretation arguments and disputes. Hence, to attract attention of a wider physics community, in this paper various old and new aspects of quantum interpretations are explained in a concise and simple (almost trivial) form. About the “Copenhagen” interpretation, we note that there are several different versions of it and explain how to make sense of “local nonreality” interpretation. About the many-world interpretation (MWI), we explain that it is neither local nor nonlocal, that it cannot explain the Born rule, that it suffers from the preferred basis problem, and that quantum suicide cannot be used to test it. About the Bohmian interpretation, we explain that it is analogous to dark matter, use it to explain that there is no big difference between nonlocal correlation and nonlocal causation, and use some condensed-matter ideas to outline how nonrelativistic Bohmian theory could be a theory of everything. We also explain how different interpretations can be used to demystify the delayed choice experiment, to resolve the problem of time in quantum gravity, and to provide alternatives to quantum nonlocality. Finally, we explain why is life compatible with the second law.

  7. Reduced leptin level is independently of fat mass changes and hunger scores from high-intensity intermittent plus strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Daniela S; Gonçalves Panissa, Valéria L; Mello Antunes, Barbara; Poleto de Oliveira, Flaviane; Bernardes Malta, Raoni; Santos Caldeira, Renan; Zapaterra Campos, Eduardo; Duarte Pimentel, Gustavo; Franchini, Emerson; Santos Lira, Fábio

    2017-05-09

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) plus strength training on body composition, hormone related to energetic balance (leptin), and hunger scores in physically active non-obese men. Sixteen men were allocated in two different groups, training group (n=10) performed a combined HIIT (5 km, 1 min of effort interspersed by 1 min of rest in passive recovery) followed by strength exercise session (three sets, with load of 8-12 repetition maximum) twice a week, during 8 weeks, while control group (n=6) did not suffer any intervention. Hunger scores, leptin concentrations and body composition were assessed. Body composition, fasting leptin and hunger score were compared through two-way analysis (group and period) with repeated measures in the second factor while leptin and hunger scores in exercise session pre- and post-8weeks through two-way analysis (period and time of measurement) with repeated measures in the second factor. The fasting leptin decreased pre- to post-8week in training group (7.7 ± 4.9 to 2.9 ± 2.1 ng/ml; p = 0.012). For leptin response to exercise session there was main effect of training period, with higher values pre- (6.5 ± 3.9 ng/ml) than post-training (2.6 ± 2.1 ng/ml; p < 0.001). For hunger scores there was effect of time of measurement (p <0.001), decreasing after breakfast and increasing over the experiment. Combined HIIT plus strength training were able to promote alterations in a hormone related to energy balance independent of body composition and hunger index alterations in physically active non-obese men.

  8. Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidka Rodak

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and should be rather linked with conforming interpretation. And what this actually implies is that it is not the virtue of certainty and predictability – which are usually associated with objectivity- but coherence that makes the foundation of applicability of objectivity in law.What could be observed from the analyses, is that both the phenomenon of conforming interpretation and objective interpretation play the role of arguments in the interpretive discourse, arguments that provide justification that interpretation is not arbitrary or subjective. With regards to the important part of the ideology of legal application which is the conviction that decisions should be taken on the basis of law in order to exclude arbitrariness, objective interpretation could be read as a question “what kind of authority “supports” certain interpretation”? that is almost never free of judicial creativity and judicial activism.One can say that, objective and conforming interpretation are just another arguments used in legal discourse.

  9. Interpretation of Climate Change and Agricultural Adaptations by Local Household Farmers: a Case Study at Bin County, Northeast China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Q.; Wu, W.; Liu, Z.; Verburg, P.H.; Xia, T.; Yang, P.; Lu, Z.; You, L.; Tang, H.

    2014-01-01

    Although climate change impacts and agricultural adaptations have been studied extensively, how smallholder farmers perceive climate change and adapt their agricultural activities is poorly understood. Survey-based data (presents farmers' personal perceptions and adaptations to climate change)

  10. Impact on house staff evaluation scores when changing from a Dreyfus- to a Milestone-based evaluation model: one internal medicine residency program's findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A. Friedman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: As graduate medical education (GME moves into the Next Accreditation System (NAS, programs must take a critical look at their current models of evaluation and assess how well they align with reporting outcomes. Our objective was to assess the impact on house staff evaluation scores when transitioning from a Dreyfus-based model of evaluation to a Milestone-based model of evaluation. Milestones are a key component of the NAS. Method: We analyzed all end of rotation evaluations of house staff completed by faculty for academic years 2010–2011 (pre-Dreyfus model and 2011–2012 (post-Milestone model in one large university-based internal medicine residency training program. Main measures included change in PGY-level average score; slope, range, and separation of average scores across all six Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME competencies. Results: Transitioning from a Dreyfus-based model to a Milestone-based model resulted in a larger separation in the scores between our three post-graduate year classes, a steeper progression of scores in the PGY-1 class, a wider use of the 5-point scale on our global end of rotation evaluation form, and a downward shift in the PGY-1 scores and an upward shift in the PGY-3 scores. Conclusions: For faculty trained in both models of assessment, the Milestone-based model had greater discriminatory ability as evidenced by the larger separation in the scores for all the classes, in particular the PGY-1 class.

  11. Interpreting the results of patient reported outcome measures in clinical trials: The clinician's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schünemann Holger J

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article deals with the problem of interpreting health-related quality of life (HRQL outcomes in clinical trials. First, we will briefly describe how dichotomization and item response theory can facilitate interpretation. Based on examples from the medical literature for the interpretation of HRQL scores we will show that dichotomies may help clinicians understand information provided by HRQL instruments in RCTs. They can choose thresholds to calculate proportions of patients benefiting based on absolute scores or change scores. For example, clinicians interpreting clinical trial results could consider the difference in the proportion of patients who achieve a mean score of 50 before and after an intervention on a scale from 1 to 100. For the change score approach, they could consider the proportion of patients who have changed by a score of 5 or more. Finally, they can calculate the proportion of patients benefiting and transform these numbers into a number needed to treat or natural frequencies. Second, we will describe in more detail an approach to the interpretation of HRQL scores based on the minimal important difference (MID and proportions. The MID is the smallest difference in score in the outcome of interest that informed patients or informed proxies perceive as important, either beneficial or harmful, and that would lead the patient or clinician to consider a change in the management. Any change in management will depend on the downsides, including cost and inconvenience, associated with the intervention. Investigators can help with the interpretation of HRQL scores by determining the MID of an HRQL instrument and provide mean differences in relation to the MID. For instance, for an MID of 0.5 on a seven point scale investigators could provide the mean change on the instrument as well as the proportion of patients with scores greater than the MID. Thus, there are several steps investigators can take to facilitate this

  12. Interpretive Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHaan, Frank, Ed.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an interpretative experiment involving the application of symmetry and temperature-dependent proton and fluorine nmr spectroscopy to the solution of structural and kinetic problems in coordination chemistry. (MLH)

  13. Changes in Allergy Symptoms and Depression Scores Are Positively Correlated In Patients With Recurrent Mood Disorders Exposed to Seasonal Peaks in Aeroallergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teodor T. Postolache

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although growing evidence supports an association between allergy, allergens and depression, it remains unknown if this relationship is between “states” (possible triggers or “traits” (possible vulnerabilities. We hypothesized that patients with recurrent mood disorders who are sensitized to tree pollen (as determined by allergen specific IgE antibodies, in comparison to those who are not sensitized, would report larger negative changes in mood during exposure to tree pollen in spring. We also hypothesized that differences between high and low tree pollen periods in self reported allergy symptoms would correlate positively with differences in self reported depression scores. We present 1-year preliminary data on the first 51 patients with unipolar or bipolar disorder (age: 19-63 years, 65% female, twelve patients were tree-pollen IgE positive. Ratings of mood and allergic disease status were performed once during the peak airborne pollen counts and once during the period of low airborne pollen counts, as reported by two local pollen counting stations. Linear regression models were developed to examine associations of changes in depression scores (dependent variable with tree pollen sensitization, changes in the allergy symptom severity score, adjusted for gender and order of testing. We did not confirm the hypothesized relationship between a specific tree pollen sensitization and changes in mood during tree pollen exposure. We did confirm the hypothesized positive relationship between the changes in allergy symptoms and changes in subjects' depression scores (adjusted p<0.05. This result is consistent with previous epidemiological evidence connecting allergy with depression, as well as our recent reports of increased expression of cytokines in the prefrontal cortex in victims of suicide and in experimental animals sensitized and exposed to tree pollen. A relationship between changes in allergy symptom scores and changes in depression

  14. Cytological artifacts masquerading interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khushboo Sahay

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: In order to justify a cytosmear interpretation, a cytologist must be well acquainted with delayed fixation-induced cellular changes and microscopic appearances of common contaminants so as to implicate better prognosis and therapy.

  15. Predictive validity of weekly monitoring of wound status using DESIGN-R score change for pressure ulcer healing: a multicenter prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizaka, Shinji; Sanada, Hiromi; Matsui, Yuko; Furue, Masutaka; Tachibana, Takao; Nakayama, Takeo; Sugama, Junko; Furuta, Katsunori; Tachi, Masahiro; Tokunaga, Keiko; Miyachi, Yoshiki

    2012-01-01

    There are few studies on predictive validity of methods to monitor the healing process of pressure ulcers. We evaluated whether the change of DESIGN-R (rating) score could predict subsequent healing, and determined the optimal cutoff points. In a multicenter prospective cohort study, patients were followed until wound healing or censoring. Wound severity was evaluated by the DESIGN-R tool every week, and the score change was calculated over 1-4 weeks (n = 411, 286, 224, and 170, respectively). In the multivariate analyses stratified by depth, a one-point improvement in DESIGN-R score over any period was positively associated with healing within the next 30 days independent of initial wound severity (hazard ratios over each 1-4 weeks ranging from 1.16 to 1.33 for superficial ulcers and from 1.21 to 1.27 for deep ulcers; all p DESIGN-R score change below the cutoff points than that aforementioned for both depths. Weekly monitoring by the DESIGN-R tool will be advantageous for evaluating prognosis of pressure ulcers independent of initial wound severity and depth. © 2012 by the Wound Healing Society.

  16. The use of plaque score measurements to assess changes in atherosclerotic plaque burden induced by lipid-lowering therapy over time: the METEOR study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Sanne A E; Dogan, Soner; Meijer, Rudy; Palmer, Mike K; Grobbee, Diederick E; Crouse, John R; O'Leary, Daniel H; Evans, Gregory W; Raichlen, Joel S; Bots, Michiel L

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate whether plaque scoring measurements are able to track changes in atherosclerotic plaque burden over time and to study whether this is affected by lipid-lowering therapy. Data used were from METEOR (Measuring Effects on Intima-Media Thickness: an Evaluation Of Rosuvastatin), a randomized controlled trial of rosuvastatin 40 mg among 984 low-risk patients with modest carotid intima-media thickening (CIMT). In this analysis, duplicate ultrasound images from 12 carotid sites were collected at the baseline and end of the study from 495 European patients and were evaluated for plaque presence and severity. Plaques were scored from near and far walls of the 12 sites (0= none; 1= minimal; 2= moderate; 3= severe) and plaque scores (PS) were combined into two summary measures for each examination. The MeanMaxPS is the mean over the 12 carotid sites of the maximum score at each site and the MaxMaxPS reflects the most severe lesion at any site. Baseline MeanMaxPS and MaxMaxPS were 0.31 (SD: 0.20) and 1.15 (SD: 0.51), respectively. Changes in MeanMaxPS and MaxMaxPS significantly differed between rosuvastatin and placebo (mean difference: -0.03 [SE: 0.01; p =0.016] and -0.09 [SE: 0.04; p =0.027], respectively). In contrast to rosuvastatin, which demonstrated no change from the baseline, placebo showed significant progression in MeanMaxPS and MaxMaxPS (p =0.002; both). The plaque-scoring method proved capable of assessing the change in atherosclerotic plaque burden over time and proved useful to evaluate lipid-lowering in asymptomatic individuals with a low risk of cardiovascular disease and subclinical atherosclerosis.

  17. "I'm pretty sure that we will win!": The influence of score-related nonverbal behavioral changes on the confidence in winning a basketball game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furley, Philip; Schweizer, Geoffrey

    2014-06-01

    The goal of the present research was to test whether score-related changes in opponents' nonverbal behavior influence athletes' confidence in beating their opponents. In an experiment, 40 participants who were experienced basketball players watched brief video clips depicting athletes' nonverbal behavior. Video clips were not artificially created, but showed naturally occurring behavior. Participants indicated how confident they were in beating the presented athletes in a hypothetical scenario. Results indicated that participants' confidence estimations were influenced by opponents' score-related nonverbal behavior. Participants were less confident about beating a leading team and more confident about beating a trailing team, although they were unaware of the actual score during the depicted scenes. The present research is the first to show that in-game variations of naturally occurring nonverbal behavior can influence athletes' confidence. This finding highlights the importance of research into nonverbal behavior in sports, particularly in relation to athletes' confidence.

  18. What Does It Take to Change an Editor's Mind? Identifying Minimally Important Difference Thresholds for Peer Reviewer Rating Scores of Scientific Articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callaham, Michael; John, Leslie K

    2018-01-05

    We define a minimally important difference for the Likert-type scores frequently used in scientific peer review (similar to existing minimally important differences for scores in clinical medicine). The magnitude of score change required to change editorial decisions has not been studied, to our knowledge. Experienced editors at a journal in the top 6% by impact factor were asked how large a change of rating in "overall desirability for publication" was required to trigger a change in their initial decision on an article. Minimally important differences were assessed twice for each editor: once assessing the rating change required to shift the editor away from an initial decision to accept, and the other assessing the magnitude required to shift away from an initial rejection decision. Forty-one editors completed the survey (89% response rate). In the acceptance frame, the median minimally important difference was 0.4 points on a scale of 1 to 5. Editors required a greater rating change to shift from an initial rejection decision; in the rejection frame, the median minimally important difference was 1.2 points. Within each frame, there was considerable heterogeneity: in the acceptance frame, 38% of editors did not change their decision within the maximum available range; in the rejection frame, 51% did not. To our knowledge, this is the first study to determine the minimally important difference for Likert-type ratings of research article quality, or in fact any nonclinical scientific assessment variable. Our findings may be useful for future research assessing whether changes to the peer review process produce clinically meaningful differences in editorial decisionmaking. Copyright © 2017 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Significance of baseline and change in quality of life scores in predicting clinical outcomes in an international phase III trial of advanced pancreatic cancer: NCIC CTG PA.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vickers, M M; Lee, C; Tu, D; Wheatley-Price, P; Parulekar, W; Brundage, M D; Moore, M J; Au, H; O'Callaghan, C J; Jonker, D J; Ringash, J; Goldstein, D

    There is insufficient information regarding the prognostic significance of baseline and change in quality of life (QoL) scores on overall survival (OS) in advanced pancreatic cancer. QoL was assessed prospectively using the EORTC QLQ-C30 as part of the PA.3 trial of gemcitabine + erlotinib (G + E) vs. gemcitabine + placebo (G + P). Relevant variables and QoL scores at baseline and change at 8 weeks were analyzed by Cox stepwise regression to determine predictors of OS. 222 of 285 patients (pts) treated with G + E and 220 of 284 pts treated with G + P completed baseline QoL assessments. In a multivariable Cox analysis combining all pts, better QoL physical functioning (PF) score independently predicted longer OS (HR 0.86; CI: 0.80-0.93), as did non-white race (HR 0.64; CI: 0.44-0.95), PS 0-1 (HR 0.65; CI: 0.50-0.85), locally advanced disease (HR 0.55; CI: 0.43-0.71) and G + E (HR 0.78; CI: 0.64-0.96). Improvement in physical function at week 8 also predicted for improved survival (HR 0.89; CI: 0.81-0.97 for 10 point increase in score, p = 0.02). In addition to clinical variables, patient reported QoL scores at baseline and change from baseline to week 8 added incremental predictive information regarding survival for advanced pancreatic cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. New risk markers may change the HeartScore risk classification significantly in one-fifth of the population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M H; Hansen, T W; Christensen, M K

    2008-01-01

    The study aim was to determine whether urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) or N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (Nt-proBNP) added to risk prediction based on HeartScore and history of diabetes or cardiovascular disease. A Danish population...... sample of 2460 individuals was divided in three groups: 472 subjects receiving cardiovascular medication or having history of diabetes, prior myocardial infarction or stroke, 559 high-risk subjects with a 10-year risk of cardiovascular death above 5% as estimated by HeartScore, and 1429 low-moderate risk......CRP> or =6.0/7.3 mg l(-1) identified a subgroup of 16% who experienced one-third of the CEPs. In the patient group, combined absence of high UACR and high Nt-proBNP> or =110/164 pg ml(-1) (men/women) identified a subgroup of 52% who experienced only 15% of the CEPs. Additional use of UACR and hs...

  1. Interpreting Physics

    CERN Document Server

    MacKinnon, Edward

    2012-01-01

    This book is the first to offer a systematic account of the role of language in the development and interpretation of physics. An historical-conceptual analysis of the co-evolution of mathematical and physical concepts leads to the classical/quatum interface. Bohrian orthodoxy stresses the indispensability of classical concepts and the functional role of mathematics. This book analyses ways of extending, and then going beyond this orthodoxy orthodoxy. Finally, the book analyzes how a revised interpretation of physics impacts on basic philosophical issues: conceptual revolutions, realism, and r

  2. Comparison of infarct size changes with delayed contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and electrocardiogram QRS scoring during the 6 months after acutely reperfused myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, L.E.; Ripa, R.S.; Grande, P.

    2008-01-01

    that has infarcted. There are no comparison of serial changes on ECG and DE-MRI measuring infarct size. AIM: The general aim of this study was to describe the acute, healing, and chronic phases of the changes in infarct size estimated by the ECG and DE-MRI. The specific aim was to compare estimates......INTRODUCTION: Magnetic resonance imaging using the delayed contrast-enhanced (DE-MRI) method can be used for characterizing and quantifying myocardial infarction (MI). Electrocardiogram (ECG) score after the acute phase of MI can be used to estimate the portion of left ventricular myocardium...... of the Selvester QRS scoring system and DE-MRI to identify the difference between the extent of left ventricle occupied by infarction in the acute and chronic phases. METHODS: In 31 patients (26 men, age 56 +/- 9) with reperfused ST-elevation MI (11 anterior, 20 inferior), standard 12-lead ECG and DE-MRI were...

  3. Integrating Cutting-edge Approaches to Describe and Interpret the Timing of Physical and Biological events: A Leap Forward for Monitoring Global Change Across Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadinski, W.; Gallant, A.; Thompson, D.; Houlahan, J.; Roth, M.; Brisco, B.; Kaya, S.; Gage, S.; Brininger, W.; Mushet, D.; Petersen, D.; Tessler, D.; Snively, M.; Jones, P. M.; Tate, D. P.; Morton, J. M.; Brodman, R.; Muths, E.; Brown, J. F.; Pauli, B.; Rosenberry, D. O.

    2010-12-01

    Our ability to integrate measures of phenological events across methods and scales has taken a significant step forward with recent advances in recording and analyzing sounds. For example, we now can measure bird and amphibian responses to climate/global change extensively and intensively from the ground and relate them to other landscape responses measured via satellite, airborne, and ground-based sensors. Thus, we can document changes in the timing of related biotic and abiotic events and understand the ramifications for biodiversity-related ecosystem services more fully. We designed and continue to expand the Terrestrial Wetland Global Change Research Network based upon this new potential to describe and interpret the impacts of global change and to provide stakeholders vital information on the specific nature and relevance of those impacts. We began implementing field research in 2008 and continue to add new research nodes across portions of Alaska, Canada, and the conterminous U.S. by leveraging resources across multiple organizations. Our standardized approach enables us to compare phenological responses in wetland-upland landscape matrices across local, regional, and continental scales and along several physical and ecological gradients. The power of this approach is evident in comparisons of calling events for individual species or entire soundscapes with other biotic and abiotic conditions and demonstrates a significant step forward in our ability to describe and interpret the impacts of global change on interconnected wetlands and uplands.

  4. Local processes and regional patterns - Interpreting a multi-decadal altimetry record of Greenland Ice Sheet changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csatho, B. M.; Schenk, A. F.; Babonis, G. S.; van den Broeke, M. R.; Kuipers Munneke, P.; van der Veen, C. J.; Khan, S. A.; Porter, D. F.

    2016-12-01

    This study presents a new, comprehensive reconstruction of Greenland Ice Sheet elevation changes, generated using the Surface Elevation And Change detection (SERAC) approach. 35-year long elevation-change time series (1980-2015) were obtained at more than 150,000 locations from observations acquired by NASA's airborne and spaceborne laser altimeters (ATM, LVIS, ICESat), PROMICE laser altimetry data (2007-2011) and a DEM covering the ice sheet margin derived from stereo aerial photographs (1970s-80s). After removing the effect of Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) and the elastic crustal response to changes in ice loading, the time series were partitioned into changes due to surface processes and ice dynamics and then converted into mass change histories. Using gridded products, we examined ice sheet elevation, and mass change patterns, and compared them with other estimates at different scales from individual outlet glaciers through large drainage basins, on to the entire ice sheet. Both the SERAC time series and the grids derived from these time series revealed significant spatial and temporal variations of dynamic mass loss and widespread intermittent thinning, indicating the complexity of ice sheet response to climate forcing. To investigate the regional and local controls of ice dynamics, we examined thickness change time series near outlet glacier grounding lines. Changes on most outlet glaciers were consistent with one or more episodes of dynamic thinning that propagates upstream from the glacier terminus. The spatial pattern of the onset, duration, and termination of these dynamic thinning events suggest a regional control, such as warming ocean and air temperatures. However, the intricate spatiotemporal pattern of dynamic thickness change suggests that, regardless of the forcing responsible for initial glacier acceleration and thinning, the response of individual glaciers is modulated by local conditions. We use statistical methods, such as principal

  5. Interpreter-mediated dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Susan; Drew, Paul; Zayts, Olga; McGrath, Colman; Yiu, Cynthia K Y; Wong, H M; Au, T K F

    2015-05-01

    The global movements of healthcare professionals and patient populations have increased the complexities of medical interactions at the point of service. This study examines interpreter mediated talk in cross-cultural general dentistry in Hong Kong where assisting para-professionals, in this case bilingual or multilingual Dental Surgery Assistants (DSAs), perform the dual capabilities of clinical assistant and interpreter. An initial language use survey was conducted with Polyclinic DSAs (n = 41) using a logbook approach to provide self-report data on language use in clinics. Frequencies of mean scores using a 10-point visual analogue scale (VAS) indicated that the majority of DSAs spoke mainly Cantonese in clinics and interpreted for postgraduates and professors. Conversation Analysis (CA) examined recipient design across a corpus (n = 23) of video-recorded review consultations between non-Cantonese speaking expatriate dentists and their Cantonese L1 patients. Three patterns of mediated interpreting indicated were: dentist designated expansions; dentist initiated interpretations; and assistant initiated interpretations to both the dentist and patient. The third, rather than being perceived as negative, was found to be framed either in response to patient difficulties or within the specific task routines of general dentistry. The findings illustrate trends in dentistry towards personalized care and patient empowerment as a reaction to product delivery approaches to patient management. Implications are indicated for both treatment adherence and the education of dental professionals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Score Correlation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fabián, Zdeněk

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 6 (2010), s. 793-798 ISSN 1210-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1079 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : score function * correlation * rank correlation coefficient * heavy tails Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.511, year: 2010

  7. Improvement of HAS-BLED bleeding score predictive capability by changing the definition of renal dysfunction in Japanese atrial fibrillation patients on anticoagulation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Makoto; Matsue, Yuya; Nakamura, Rena; Matsumura, Akihiko; Hashimoto, Yuji

    2014-12-01

    Severe chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a risk factor for hemorrhagic events in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients on anticoagulation therapy. We postulated that even moderate CKD may be a risk factor for hemorrhage and this recognition would improve predictive capabilities of hemorrhagic risk stratification models in Japanese patients. In this prospective study, 231 non-valvular AF patients were divided into three groups according to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and followed-up for a median of 7.1 years. The clinical endpoint was a major hemorrhagic event (MHE). HAS-BLED score was calculated for the cohort and the predictive capability of the original HAS-BLED score was compared with that in which renal dysfunction was redefined as eGFRMHE risks (log rank: both pMHE risk of patients with moderate CKD was more than threefold higher than the no/mild CKD group even after adjusting for other risk factors (hazard ratio 3.8, 95% confidence interval 1.7-8.7). The C-statistic in receiver-operating curve analysis was numerically but not significantly superior in modified HAS-BLED score compared to original HAS-BLED score (0.67 and 0.64, respectively; p=0.55). However, using modified HAS-BLED score was associated with significant improvement of net reclassification improvement (0.50, p=0.002) and integrated discrimination improvement (0.033, p=0.043). Moderate CKD contributes to the risk of future major hemorrhagic events in AF patients. Modification of HAS-BLED score by changing the definition of renal failure markedly improved predictive capability. Copyright © 2014 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Analysis of the Scoliosis Research Society-22 Questionnaire Scores: Is There a Difference Between a Child and Parent and Does Physician Review Change That?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Paul; Berryman, Fiona; Baker, De; Pynsent, Paul; Gardner, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    Prospective sequential patient series. To investigate whether at initial assessment information imparted by a physician changed the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) score for a patient or a parent scoring independently of the child; to investigate whether the SRS score should be assessed before or after consultation to achieve the most accurate representation of the patient; and to investigate the differences between the patient and parent assessment of the scoliosis using the SRS questionnaire. A total of 52 children with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and their parents were given the SRS-22 questionnaire at first consultation before and after meeting the physician. Parents and patients completed the questionnaires in isolation. Assessment and discussion with a physician made no statistical difference for the SRS-22 scores for both the patients and the parents when comparing SRS-22 scores before and after consultation in most domains. Significant differences were found in a few cases. This was the case for the patient group before and after consultation for the function domain (p = .023), the patient and parent groups before and after consultation for the pain domain (p = .025 and .022 for patient and parent groups respectively), the patient and parent groups after consultation for self-image domain (p = .024), and the parent group before and after consultation for mental health domain (p = .018). However, the differences in all these cases were low and not considered clinically important. The SRS-22 questionnaire is robust and a true reflection of patients' assessment of their symptoms not influenced by meeting a physician. Assessment of the child by the parent is not statistically different from the child's self-assessment using the SRS-22 instrument. It makes no difference to the total SRS-22 score as to when it is measured in the initial clinic visit. Copyright © 2014 Scoliosis Research Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. California Environmental Vulnerability Assessment (CEVA) Score, San Joaquin Valley CA, 2013, UC Davis Center for Regional Change

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data set is based on a three year study by the UC Davis Center for Regional Change, in affiliation with the Environmental Justice Project of the John Muir...

  10. Export of pharmaceuticals and medical devices under the federal Food, Drug & Cosmetic Act: FDA's striking change in interpretation post-Shelhigh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, Edward M; Tolomeo, Deborah; Gluck, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    With no communication to industry except court filings in United States v. Undetermined Quantities of Boxes of Articles of Device (Shelhigh) and a draft guidance document, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has articulated new policies regarding export of pharmaceutical products and medical devices. FDA's departure from its historic interpretation of the export provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA) significantly limits the ability of manufacturers to export misbranded drugs and medical devices that FDA deems "adulterated," contrary to the plain language and legislative intent of the FDCA. To further exacerbate the issue, FDA has begun to implement these policies without the notice-and-comment rulemaking required by the Administrative Procedures Act (APA), but rather through an enforcement proceeding brought in the United States District Court for the District of New Jersey. In a letter opinion, the District Court prevented the export of Current Good Manufacturing Practices (CGMP) --adulterated medical devices that complied with FDCA Section 801(e)(1), at least as historically interpreted by FDA. The purpose of this article is to review the history of FDA's export policies for pharmaceuticals and medical devices, particularly those aspects of the export policies that are affected by FDA's recent change in position. Three changes in FDA's interpretation of the export provisions of the FDCA will be addressed: 1) unapproved devices that a manufacturer reasonably believes are eligible for Section 510(k) clearance may no longer be exported under Section 801(e) and now must be exported under Section 802, in substantial compliance with Current CGMP; 2) adulterated devices and misbranded drugs can only be exported if the foreign purchaser's specifications cause the product to be adulterated; and 3) an article may not be exported if a like article has ever been sold or offered for sale in domestic commerce. FDA's new interpretations of FDCA

  11. The demographic effects of technological change and capitalist transformation--a re-interpretation of the demographic transition theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitra, P

    1992-06-01

    The interrelationship between demographic transition, capitalist transformation, and technological change in the 2 contrasting cases of the UK and India is explored. In the UK, technological change evolved from the extensive to the intensive phase, while technological change was introduced in India from the UK and other developed economies. The Demographic Transition Model is re-examined for these cases while the extensive and intensive phases of technological change with their effects on labor demand and consequent effects on fertility rate are analyzed. Changes in economic structure, demography, and factor pricing systems are presented as indicators of capitalist transformation of an economy. At the onset of capitalist transformation, population growth tends to decline as a result of increasing demand for labor in productive activities. Accordingly, the pattern of population growth depends upon the growth of demand for labor in productive activities which in turn depends upon the nature of the source of technological change; Demographic Transition theory ignores this point. Debate remains over whether imported technology, once reaching maturity, may effect capitalist transformation of economies toward true integrated development.

  12. The effects of a novel hostile interpretation bias modification paradigm on hostile interpretations, mood, and aggressive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlMoghrabi, Nouran; Huijding, Jorg; Franken, Ingmar H A

    2018-03-01

    Cognitive theories of aggression propose that biased information processing is causally related to aggression. To test these ideas, the current study investigated the effects of a novel cognitive bias modification paradigm (CBM-I) designed to target interpretations associated with aggressive behavior. Participants aged 18-33 years old were randomly assigned to either a single session of positive training (n = 40) aimed at increasing prosocial interpretations or negative training (n = 40) aimed at increasing hostile interpretations. The results revealed that the positive training resulted in an increase in prosocial interpretations while the negative training seemed to have no effect on interpretations. Importantly, in the positive condition, a positive change in interpretations was related to lower anger and verbal aggression scores after the training. In this condition, participants also reported an increase in happiness. In the negative training no such effects were found. However, the better participants performed on the negative training, the more their interpretations were changed in a negative direction and the more aggression they showed on the behavioral aggression task. Participants were healthy university students. Therefore, results should be confirmed within a clinical population. These findings provide support for the idea that this novel CBM-I paradigm can be used to modify interpretations, and suggests that these interpretations are related to mood and aggressive behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Interpretive Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Patient-centredness is a core value of general practice; it is defined as the interpersonal processes that support the holistic care of individuals. To date, efforts to demonstrate their relationship to patient outcomes have been disappointing, whilst some studies suggest values may be more rhetoric than reality. Contextual issues influence the quality of patient-centred consultations, impacting on outcomes. The legitimate use of knowledge, or evidence, is a defining aspect of modern practice, and has implications for patient-centredness. Based on a critical review of the literature, on my own empirical research, and on reflections from my clinical practice, I critique current models of the use of knowledge in supporting individualised care. Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM), and its implementation within health policy as Scientific Bureaucratic Medicine (SBM), define best evidence in terms of an epistemological emphasis on scientific knowledge over clinical experience. It provides objective knowledge of disease, including quantitative estimates of the certainty of that knowledge. Whilst arguably appropriate for secondary care, involving episodic care of selected populations referred in for specialist diagnosis and treatment of disease, application to general practice can be questioned given the complex, dynamic and uncertain nature of much of the illness that is treated. I propose that general practice is better described by a model of Interpretive Medicine (IM): the critical, thoughtful, professional use of an appropriate range of knowledges in the dynamic, shared exploration and interpretation of individual illness experience, in order to support the creative capacity of individuals in maintaining their daily lives. Whilst the generation of interpreted knowledge is an essential part of daily general practice, the profession does not have an adequate framework by which this activity can be externally judged to have been done well. Drawing on theory related to the

  14. Baseline Characteristics and Changes in Bone Mineral Density T-Scores of Bulgarian Women with Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Receiving Denosumab in Routine Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyanov, Mihail; Shinkov, Alexander; Psachoulia, Emi; Intorcia, Michele; Petkova, Reneta

    2017-03-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) is common among women over 50 years of age and is associated with an increased risk of fracture. Bone-targeted agents, such as denosumab, can reduce fracture risk in patients with PMO. The aim was to describe baseline characteristics and changes in bone mineral density (BMD) T-scores among women with PMO receiving denosumab in Bulgaria. This multicenter chart review included women with PMO receiving denosumab for ≥1 year in Bulgaria (October 2011-August 2013). Participants were required to have a baseline BMD T-score of ≤-2.5 standard deviations (SDs) at one or more skeletal sites. Overall, 222 women were included. The mean (SD) age at denosumab initiation was 64.2 (8.5) years; 26.6% reported a previous osteoporotic fracture and 6.8% a previous hip fracture. Only half of those reporting a previous fracture (49.2%) had received prior osteoporosis therapy. At baseline, mean (SD) BMD T-scores were lumbar spine -3.2 SD (0.6 SD), total hip -2.3 SD (0.8 SD), and femoral neck -2.7 SD (0.7 SD). After 1 year of denosumab treatment, scores increased significantly at all three sites, reaching -2.7 SD (0.6 SD), -2.1 SD (0.9 SD), and -2.4 SD (0.7 SD), respectively (all p women with PMO at high fracture risk. In the patients who were persistent with treatment at 1 year, denosumab was well tolerated and effective at increasing BMD T-scores at several skeletal sites.

  15. Early changes in scores of chronic damage on transplant kidney protocol biopsies reflect donor characteristics, but not future graft function

    OpenAIRE

    Caplin, Ben; Veighey, Kristin; Mahenderan, Arundathi; Manook, Miriam; Henry, Joanne; Nitsch, Dorothea; Harber, Mark; Dupont, Peter; Wheeler, David C; Jones, Gareth; Fernando, Bimbi; Howie, Alexander J; Veitch, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The amount of irreversible injury on renal allograft biopsy predicts function, but little is known about the early evolution of this damage. In a single-center cohort, we examined the relationship between donor-, recipient-, and transplantation-associated factors and change in a morphometric index of chronic damage (ICD) between protocol biopsies performed at implantation and at 2-3 months. We then investigated whether early delta ICD predicted subsequent biochemical outcomes. We found little...

  16. BioCore Guide: A Tool for Interpreting the Core Concepts of Vision and Change for Biology Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Scott; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Crowe, Alison J.

    2014-01-01

    Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education outlined five core concepts intended to guide undergraduate biology education: 1) evolution; 2) structure and function; 3) information flow, exchange, and storage; 4) pathways and transformations of energy and matter; and 5) systems. We have taken these general recommendations and created a Vision and Change BioCore Guide—a set of general principles and specific statements that expand upon the core concepts, creating a framework that biology departments can use to align with the goals of Vision and Change. We used a grassroots approach to generate the BioCore Guide, beginning with faculty ideas as the basis for an iterative process that incorporated feedback from more than 240 biologists and biology educators at a diverse range of academic institutions throughout the United States. The final validation step in this process demonstrated strong national consensus, with more than 90% of respondents agreeing with the importance and scientific accuracy of the statements. It is our hope that the BioCore Guide will serve as an agent of change for biology departments as we move toward transforming undergraduate biology education. PMID:26086653

  17. Age interpretation of the Wonderkrater spring sediments and vegetation change in the Savanna Biome, Limpopo province, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scott, L

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available is proposed by excluding samples that were possibly contaminated by younger or older materials. The dating places the pollen-based vegetation history more firmly in a framework of regional and global climate change during the Late Quaternary, thereby making...

  18. Climate Change Implications for Tropical Islands: Interpolating and Interpreting Statistically Downscaled GCM Projections for Management and Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad Henareh Khalyani; William A. Gould; Eric Harmsen; Adam Terando; Maya Quinones; Jaime A. Collazo

    2016-01-01

    change for tropical islands were studied using output from 12 statistically downscaled general circulation models (GCMs) taking Puerto Rico as a test case. Two model selection/model averaging strategies were used: the average of all available GCMs and the av-erage of the models that are able to...

  19. Impact of absence of critical respiratory rate change on oxygen desaturation following tracheal extubation after general anaesthesia: a propensity score-matched analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanishi, Hideaki; Inoue, Satoki; Kawaguchi, Masahiko

    2017-01-01

    It has been suggested that oxygen desaturation may be paradoxically related to the absence of an abnormal respiratory rate (RR) during acoustic respiratory rate (RRa) monitoring in a postoperative setting. We retrospectively compared the incidence of desaruration in patients without an abnormal RR with that in patients with an abnormal RR using propensity scorer matching. We also explored the factors contributing to oxygen desaturation without an RR monitoring alert. We used ≤ 8 h postoperative data of the first 935 patients. Outcomes of patients with and without critical RR changes (RR > 30 or 2 min) (critical RR change vs. noncritical RR change) were first compared according to oxygen desaturation levels (SpO₂ 10 s). Multivariate analysis was used to determine oxygen desaturation-associated explanatory factors. Propensity score matching yielded 259 patients without critical RR changes and 259 patients with critical RR changes, respectively. Oxygen desaturation rates were higher in patients without critical RR changes [noncritical RR change vs. critical RR change: 39/220 (15.1%) vs. 16/243 (6.2%)]. An odds ratio and 95% CI for the noncritical RR change was 2.56 (1.38-4.55, P = 0.002). A critical change in the RRa was not observed in 576 patients; of these, oxygen desaturation was observed in 76 (13.2%) patients. Surgery duration (OR, 1.018 per 10 min increase; 95% CI, 1.002 to 1.035) was independently associated with oxygen desaturation without critical RR change. Postoperative oxygen desaturation paradoxically occurred more frequently in patients without critical RR changes, whose RR was monitored by the RRa under oxygen therapy. The duration of surgery may explain the possibility of postoperative oxygen desaturation without an RRa device alert.

  20. Objective interpretation as conforming interpretation

    OpenAIRE

    Lidka Rodak

    2011-01-01

    The practical discourse willingly uses the formula of “objective interpretation”, with no regards to its controversial nature that has been discussed in literature.The main aim of the article is to investigate what “objective interpretation” could mean and how it could be understood in the practical discourse, focusing on the understanding offered by judicature.The thesis of the article is that objective interpretation, as identified with textualists’ position, is not possible to uphold, and ...

  1. [Propensity score matching in SPSS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fuqiang; DU, Chunlin; Sun, Menghui; Ning, Bing; Luo, Ying; An, Shengli

    2015-11-01

    To realize propensity score matching in PS Matching module of SPSS and interpret the analysis results. The R software and plug-in that could link with the corresponding versions of SPSS and propensity score matching package were installed. A PS matching module was added in the SPSS interface, and its use was demonstrated with test data. Score estimation and nearest neighbor matching was achieved with the PS matching module, and the results of qualitative and quantitative statistical description and evaluation were presented in the form of a graph matching. Propensity score matching can be accomplished conveniently using SPSS software.

  2. BioCore Guide: A Tool for Interpreting the Core Concepts of Vision and Change for Biology Majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Sara E; Freeman, Scott; Wenderoth, Mary Pat; Crowe, Alison J

    2014-01-01

    Vision and Change in Undergraduate Biology Education outlined five core concepts intended to guide undergraduate biology education: 1) evolution; 2) structure and function; 3) information flow, exchange, and storage; 4) pathways and transformations of energy and matter; and 5) systems. We have taken these general recommendations and created a Vision and Change BioCore Guide-a set of general principles and specific statements that expand upon the core concepts, creating a framework that biology departments can use to align with the goals of Vision and Change. We used a grassroots approach to generate the BioCore Guide, beginning with faculty ideas as the basis for an iterative process that incorporated feedback from more than 240 biologists and biology educators at a diverse range of academic institutions throughout the United States. The final validation step in this process demonstrated strong national consensus, with more than 90% of respondents agreeing with the importance and scientific accuracy of the statements. It is our hope that the BioCore Guide will serve as an agent of change for biology departments as we move toward transforming undergraduate biology education. © 2014 S. E. Brownell et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  3. The association between glucocorticoid therapy and BMI z-score changes in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arpe, Marie-Louise Hyre; Rørvig, Sascha; Kok, Karin

    2015-01-01

    to BAZ. RESULTS: During 150 days of treatment, the proportion of overweight/obese patients increased significantly from 9.8 to 33.3 %. The mean change in BAZ (∆BAZ) was +1 standard deviation (0.02 ± 1.16 vs. 1.12 ± 1.44; p ...) treatment but not in periods without GC. ΔBAZ was larger in boys compared to girls, and ΔBAZ was higher in patients who were under/normal weight at diagnosis, compared to patients who were overweight/obese (1.26 ± 1.29 vs. -0.04 ± 0.41; p = 0.032). CONCLUSION: BAZ increased significantly in children...

  4. Comparison of the Classifier Oriented Gait Score and the Gait Profile Score based on imitated gait impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Josef; Kröll, Josef; Schwameder, Hermann

    2017-06-01

    Common summary measures of gait quality such as the Gait Profile Score (GPS) are based on the principle of measuring a distance from the mean pattern of a healthy reference group in a gait pattern vector space. The recently introduced Classifier Oriented Gait Score (COGS) is a pathology specific score that measures this distance in a unique direction, which is indicated by a linear classifier. This approach has potentially improved the discriminatory power to detect subtle changes in gait patterns but does not incorporate a profile of interpretable sub-scores like the GPS. The main aims of this study were to extend the COGS by decomposing it into interpretable sub-scores as realized in the GPS and to compare the discriminative power of the GPS and COGS. Two types of gait impairments were imitated to enable a high level of control of the gait patterns. Imitated impairments were realized by restricting knee extension and inducing leg length discrepancy. The results showed increased discriminatory power of the COGS for differentiating diverse levels of impairment. Comparison of the GPS and COGS sub-scores and their ability to indicate changes in specific variables supports the validity of both scores. The COGS is an overall measure of gait quality with increased power to detect subtle changes in gait patterns and might be well suited for tracing the effect of a therapeutic treatment over time. The newly introduced sub-scores improved the interpretability of the COGS, which is helpful for practical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Scientists and Science Museums: Forging New Collaborations to Interpret the Environment and Engage Public Audiences in Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. K.; Bartels, D.; Schwartzenberg, S.; Andrews, M. S.

    2011-12-01

    The Exploratorium engages Americans on issues of climate change, and energy use and production in a distinctive way; using a multilayered approach emphasizing all of the Exploratorium's strengths, not simply exhibitions. Specifically, the institution gives people access to the latest science research and researchers, provides the inquiry skills and basic science needed to make sense of this research, studies perception and cognition and how we come to believe what we believe, and sets up social communities and spaces for people to test their ideas and understandings with others. Using exhibits, the web and other media, visualization technology, building architecture, physical spaces, classes and professional education the Exploratorium achieves this multilayered approach. This powerful combination enhances people's own ability to make sound, evidence-based decisions for themselves, their families, and their communities. In 2013, the Exploratorium will move from its current home in the Palace of Fine Arts in San Francisco to a waterfront campus with access to the bay and outdoor platforms for instrumentation and observation. This will allow program and exhibit development in the environmental sciences that focuses on natural phenomena and physical and biological systems. Some current and planned Exploratorium projects with an emphasis on global climate change and potential for further development in the new location: 1. An Observatory building, where visitors can investigate Bay waters and climate. 2. Wired Pier, a suite of environmental sensors that will track local conditions over time and connect to larger observing networks regionally and globally 3. NOAA education and climate science partnership, including a scientist-in-residence program for training front-line staff 4. Global Climate Change Research Explorer website enabling visitors to observe current climate data or analyze evidence. 5. The Ice Stories project which trained polar scientists in media

  6. Epigenetic Changes in the CRH Gene are Related to Severity of Suicide Attempt and a General Psychiatric Risk Score in Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Jokinen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study, comprising 88 suicide attempters, was to identify hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA -axis coupled CpG-sites showing methylation shifts linked to severity of the suicide attempt. Candidate methylation loci were further investigated as risk loci for a general psychiatric risk score in two cohorts of adolescents (cohort 1 and 2. The genome-wide methylation pattern was measured in whole blood using the Illumina Infinium Methylation EPIC BeadChip. Subjects were stratified into high-risk and low-risk groups based on the severity of the suicidal behavior. We included CpG sites located within 2000 basepairs away from transcriptional start site of the following HPA-axis coupled genes: corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH, corticotropin releasing hormone binding protein (CRHBP, corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1, corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 2 (CRHR2, FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP5 and the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1. The methylation state of two corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH-associated CpG sites were significantly hypomethylated in the high-risk group of suicide attempters (n = 31 (cg19035496 and cg23409074 (p ~50% risk or controls. In adolescent cohort 2, cg19035496 was hypermethylated in subjects with a high general psychiatric risk score. Our results show epigenetic changes in the CRH gene related to severity of suicide attempt in adults and a general psychiatric risk score in adolescents.

  7. Community stress and social and technological change: a framework for interpreting the behavior of social movements and community action groups

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, R.W.; Schuller, C.R.; Lindell, M.K.; Greene, M.R.; Walsh, J.T.; Earle, T.

    1980-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a comprehensive examination of existing research on community organizations and community political systems. These findings will be integrated into a framework for understanding the variety of social and political responses which may be manifest in small communities facing the prospect of hosting a major nuclear facility. The principal focus is on the formation and behavior of social groups in communities, particularly politically oriented social movements or community action groups. This analysis is set on the context of a community experiencing social stress. Most of the discussion which follows is based on an extrapolation from the large body of reseach literature on the topics in sociology, political science, and psychology. Chapter I examines the community political systems which are the arena in which local action groups will operate. Chapter II focuses on the internal conditions necessary for the formation and maintenance of community action groups. Chapter III reviews the research literature on the social environment of organizations in communities and the external conditions which are necessary to maintain organizations over time. Chapter IV develops a logic whereby the community consensus model can be adopted to particular social movement organizations and community actions groups. Chapter V examines changes in aspects of the environment which can be a function of the operation of movement organizations, and changes in the structure and tactics of movement organizations which appear to be a response to the environment.

  8. Predictors of change of trabecular bone score (TBS) in older men: results from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schousboe, J T; Vo, T N; Langsetmo, L; Taylor, B C; Kats, A M; Schwartz, A V; Bauer, D C; Cauley, J A; Ensrud, K E

    2018-01-01

    Among older men, characteristics that predict longitudinal changes in trabecular bone score (TBS) are different from characteristics that predict changes in bone mineral density (BMD). Most notably, weight loss is strongly associated with concomitant loss in BMD but with concomitant increases in TBS, when measured on Hologic densitometers. Our objective was to compare and contrast predictors of changes in TBS, total hip BMD, and lumbar spine BMD. Our study population was 3969 Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) cohort participants (mean age 72.8 years) with repeat measures of TBS, lumbar spine and total hip BMD, body mass index (BMI) less than 37 kg/m 2 , and no use of bisphosphonate or glucocorticoid medications. TBS was scored (Med-Imaps Software version 2.1) and BMD measured on Hologic densitometers. One thousand four hundred forty-four men had a TBS decrease > 0.04 units (estimated least significant change for TBS), 795 men had a TBS increase > 0.04 units, and 1730 men had TBS change ≤ 0.04 units over mean follow-up of 4.6 years. Older age was not associated with TBS change, but was associated with greater decline in lumbar spine and total hip BMD. Compared to stable weight, > 10% weight loss was strongly associated with an increase in TBS [effect size = 1.24 (95% CI 1.12, 1.36)] and strongly associated with a decrease in total hip BMD [- 1.16 (95% CI - 1.19, - 1.03)]. Other predictors discordant for longitudinal changes of TBS and BMD included baseline BMI, walk speed, and ACE inhibitor use. Predictors of changes in TBS are different from predictors of changes in lumbar spine and total hip BMD. At least when assessed on Hologic densitometers, weight loss is associated with subsequent declines in spine and total hip BMD but subsequent increase in TBS. Faster walk speed may protect against loss of hip BMD, but is not associated with longitudinal changes of TBS.

  9. Early changes in scores of chronic damage on transplant kidney protocol biopsies reflect donor characteristics, but not future graft function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplin, Ben; Veighey, Kristin; Mahenderan, Arundathi; Manook, Miriam; Henry, Joanne; Nitsch, Dorothea; Harber, Mark; Dupont, Peter; Wheeler, David C; Jones, Gareth; Fernando, Bimbi; Howie, Alexander J; Veitch, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The amount of irreversible injury on renal allograft biopsy predicts function, but little is known about the early evolution of this damage. In a single-center cohort, we examined the relationship between donor-, recipient-, and transplantation-associated factors and change in a morphometric index of chronic damage (ICD) between protocol biopsies performed at implantation and at 2-3 months. We then investigated whether early delta ICD predicted subsequent biochemical outcomes. We found little evidence to support differences between the study group, who had undergone serial biopsies, and a contemporaneous control group, who had not. In allografts with serial biopsies (n = 162), there was an increase in ICD between implantation (median: 2%, IQR:0-8) and 2-3 months post-transplant (median 8% IQR:4-15; p < 0.0001). Donation from younger or live donors was independently associated with smaller early post-transplant increases in ICD. There was no evidence for a difference in delta ICD between donation after cardiac death vs. donation after brain death, nor association with length of cold ischemia. After adjustment for GFR at the time of the second biopsy, delta ICD after three months did not predict allograft function at one yr. These findings suggest that graft damage develops shortly after transplantation and reflects donor factors, but does not predict future biochemical outcomes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Quantification of temporal changes in calcium score in active atherosclerotic plaque in major vessels by {sup 18}F-sodium fluoride PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishiwata, Yoshinobu; Kaneta, Tomohiro; Nawata, Shintaro; Hino-Shishikura, Ayako; Yoshida, Keisuke; Inoue, Tomio [Yokohama City University, Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Yokohama, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2017-08-15

    Our aim was to assess whether {sup 18}F-NaF PET/CT is able to predict progression of the CT calcium score. Between August 2007 and November 2015, 34 patients (18 women, 16 men; age, mean ± standard deviation, 57.5 ± 13.9 years; age range 19-78 years) with malignancy or orthopaedic disease were enrolled in this study, with approximately 1-year follow-up data. Baseline and follow-up CT images were retrospectively evaluated for the presence of calcification sites in major vessel walls. The maximum and mean CT values (CTmax and CTmean, in Hounsfield units), calcification volumetric score (CVS, in cubic millimetres) and Agatston units score (AU) were evaluated for each site. Subsequent changes in CTmax, CTmean, CVS and AU were calculated and expressed as ΔCTmax, ΔCTmean, ΔCVS and ΔAU, respectively. We then evaluated the relationship between {sup 18}F-NaF uptake (using the maximum target-to-background ratio, TBRmax, and the maximum blood-subtracted {sup 18}F-NaF activity, bsNaFmax, which was obtained by subtracting the SUVmax of each calcified plaque lesion and NaF-avid site from the SUVmean in the right atrium blood pool) and the change in calcified plaque volume and characteristics obtained after 1 year. We detected and analysed 182 calcified plaque sites and 96 hot spots on major vessel walls. {sup 18}F-NaF uptake showed very weak correlations with CTmax, CTmean, CVS, CVS after 1 year, AU and AU after 1 year on both baseline and follow-up PET/CT scans for each site. {sup 18}F-NaF uptake showed no correlation with ΔCTmax or ΔCTmean. However, there was a significant correlation between the intensity of {sup 18}F-NaF uptake and ΔCVS and ΔAU. {sup 18}F-NaF uptake has a strong correlation with calcium score progression which was a predictor of future cardiovascular disease risk. PET/CT using {sup 18}F-NaF may be able to predict calcium score progression which is known to be the major characteristic of atherosclerosis. (orig.)

  11. Interpretations of Resilience and Change and The Catalytic Roles of Media: A Case of Canadian Daily Newspaper Discourse on Natural Disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Mahed-Ul-Islam; Emdad Haque, C.

    2018-02-01

    The varied interpretations of the concept of resilience in natural hazards research literature has attracted numerous criticisms. A common criticism centers around a poor understanding of the changes caused by natural disasters by the research stream. Considering resilience as a metaphor of change, and newspaper as a catalyst that often highlights post-disaster opportunities for "forward looking" (rather than bouncing back) changes, we examined some specific aspects of change in Canadian communities by analyzing coverage of natural disasters in daily newspapers. We posit that post-disaster newspaper discourse on resilience and change can not only assist enhancing academic inquiries on resilience but also contribute to improving practices for transformative changes in post-disaster contexts. We adopted a social constructivist approach to analyzing newspaper discourse, using the ProQuest database to find articles from the 1996-2017 period. The findings exhibited a trend of the increased use of narratives on resilience in Canadian newspapers since the 1990s that substantiates the hypothesis that transformative change in the personal and practical spheres requires alteration of peoples' attitude, behavior, and thinking toward environmental risks. The discourse emphasized incremental changes at the policy level: (i) to improve response and recovery, and (ii) to address the needs of vulnerable and disaster-affected population. Our findings overall underscore the importance of documentation and efforts towards streamlining learning; application of learning at multiple interconnected levels for progressive changes to enhance community resilience, and the need for building consensus among academicians, practitioners and policy makers regarding the meaning and use of the concept of resilience.

  12. Extent of early ischemic changes on computed tomography (CT) before thrombolysis: prognostic value of the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score in ECASS II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzialowski, Imanuel; Hill, Michael D; Coutts, Shelagh B; Demchuk, Andrew M; Kent, David M; Wunderlich, Olaf; von Kummer, Rüdiger

    2006-04-01

    The significance of early ischemic changes (EICs) on computed tomography (CT) to triage patients for thrombolysis has been controversial. The Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) semiquantitatively assesses EICs within the middle cerebral artery territory using a10-point grading system. We hypothesized that dichotomized ASPECTS predicts response to intravenous thrombolysis and incidence of secondary hemorrhage within 6 hours of stroke onset. Data from the European-Australian Acute Stroke Study (ECASS) II study were used in which 800 patients were randomized to recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) or placebo within 6 hours of symptom onset. We retrospectively assessed all baseline CT scans, dichotomized ASPECTS at 7, defined favorable outcome as modified Rankin Scale score 0 to 2 after 90 days, and secondary hemorrhage as parenchymal hematoma 1 (PH1) or PH2. We performed a multivariable logistic regression analysis and assessed for an interaction between rt-PA treatment and baseline ASPECTS score. We scored ASPECTS >7 in 557 and < or =7 in 231 patients. There was no treatment-by-ASPECTS interaction with dichotomized ASPECTS (P=0.3). This also applied for the 0- to 3-hour and 3- to 6-hour cohorts. However, a treatment-by-ASPECTS effect modification was seen in predicting PH (0.043 for the interaction term), indicating a much higher likelihood of thrombolytic-related parenchymal hemorrhage in those with ASPECTS < or =7. In ECASS II, the effect of rt-PA on functional outcome is not influenced by baseline ASPECTS. Patients with low ASPECTS have a substantially increased risk of thrombolytic-related PH.

  13. THE ANALYSIS OF THE DYNAMICS OF CHANGE OF CRITERIA USED FOR INTERPRETATION OF DGA RESULTS, IN CORRECT HIGH-VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS OF NON-GERMETIC EXECUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Shutenko

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Investigate the nature of the dynamics of changes in the criteria used for interpreting the results of DGA, in serviceable high-voltage transformers, leaky performance. Methodology. Theory of time series, regression analysis, the theory of pattern recognition, the method of reference levels, metric methods of recognition, diagnostics by distance to the standard. Findings. According to the results of the research, it is established that in normal functioning transformers, the values of all the diagnostic features used to interpret DGA results are changed randomly. Emergency actions on the part of the power grid lead to a short-term occurrence of a systematic component in the dependencies of the concentrations and rates of gas build-up on the duration of operation, and to a short-term stabilization of the values of the gas ratios at the level corresponding to this energy impact, as well as to the similarity of the graphic images. Originality. The performed analysis showed that in transformers of leaky performance, the appearance and development of a defect is accompanied not only by a change in the numerical values of the diagnostic criteria, which is known and used in the diagnosis, but also to a significant change in the nature of the dependencies of the diagnostic criteria versus time. Practical value. The obtained results make it possible to detect developing defects in transformers of non-germetic execution at an early stage of their development, even before the values of gas concentrations exceed the boundary values, which will help to avoid the destruction of insulation, and also to recognize the growth of concentrations of gases dissolved in oil, caused by the influence of emergency operation of electrical networks.

  14. Has the Time Come to Stratify and Score SUDEP Risk to Inform People With Epilepsy of Their Changes in Safety?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Shankar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent publication of the American Academy of Neurology SUDEP guidance highlighted the importance to American clinicians of making people with epilepsy aware of SUDEP risk. It is the first guideline to do this in the United States. It follows precedent set out in the UK by National Institute of Clinical Excellence in 2004. While a significant achievement, the lack of clarity of how to deliver this guidance in an enduring and person-centered manner, raises concerns on how its long-term effectiveness in risk mitigation. Shared decision-making with an emphasis on delivering person-centered communication to foster self-management strategies is increasingly recognized as the ideal model of patient–clinician communication in chronic diseases such as epilepsy. The tension between delivering evidence-based risk information, yet, tailoring it to the individual is complex. It needs to incorporate the potential for change not only in seizure factors but also other health and social factors. Safety advice needs to be dynamic and situation sensitive as opposed to a “one off” discussion. As a significant minority of people with epilepsy have drug-resistant seizures, the importance of keeping the advice contextual at different intervals of the person’s life cannot be overstated as many of them are managed in primary care. We present some exploratory work, which identifies the need to improve communication at a primary care level and to review risks regularly. Regular reviews using a structured risk factor checklist as a screening tool could identify, sooner, people who’s health issues are worsening and justify referrals to specialists.

  15. Mammographic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabor, L.

    1987-01-01

    For mammography to be an effective diagnostic method, it must be performed to a very high standard of quality. Otherwise many lesions, in particular cancer in its early stages, will simply not be detectable on the films, regardless of the skill of the mammographer. Mammographic interpretation consists of two basic steps: perception and analysis. The process of mammographic interpretation begins with perception of the lesion on the mammogram. Perception is influenced by several factors. One of the most important is the parenchymal pattern of the breast tissue, detection of pathologic lesions being easier with fatty involution. The mammographer should use a method for the systematic viewing of the mammograms that will ensure that all parts of each mammogram are carefully searched for the presence of lesions. The method of analysis proceeds according to the type of lesion. The contour analysis of primary importance in the evaluation of circumscribed tumors. After having analyzed the contour and density of a lesion and considered its size, the mammographer should be fairly certain whether the circumscribed tumor is benign or malignant. Fine-needle puncture and/or US may assist the mammographer in making this decision. Painstaking analysis is required because many circumscribed tumors do not need to be biopsied. The perception of circumscribed tumors seldom causes problems, but their analysis needs careful attention. On the other hand, the major challenge with star-shaped lesions is perception. They may be difficult to discover when small. Although the final diagnosis of a stellate lesion can be made only with the help of histologic examination, the preoperative mammorgraphic differential diagnosis can be highly accurate. The differential diagnostic problem is between malignant tumors (scirrhous carcinoma), on the one hand, and traumatic fat necrosis as well as radial scars on the other hand

  16. Associations of cumulative Pb exposure and longitudinal changes in Mini-Mental Status Exam scores, global cognition and domains of cognition: The VA Normative Aging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Zishaan; Bakulski, Kelly M.; Power, Melinda C.; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Sparrow, David; Spiro, Avron; Vokonas, Pantel S.; Nie, Huiling; Hu, Howard; Park, Sung Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Lead (Pb) exposure has been associated with poorer cognitive function cross-sectionally in aging adults, however the association between cumulative Pb exposure and longitudinal changes in cognition is little characterized. Methods In a 1993–2007 subcohort of the VA Normative Aging Study (Mini-mental status exam (MMSE) n=741; global cognition summary score n=715), we used linear mixed effects models to test associations between cumulative Pb exposure (patella or tibia bone Pb) and repeated measures of cognition (MMSE, individual cognitive tests, and global cognition summary). Cox proportional hazard modeling assessed the risk of an MMSE score falling below 25. Results Among men 51–98 at baseline, higher patella Pb concentration (IQR: 21 µg/g) was associated with −0.13 lower baseline MMSE (95% CI: −0.25, −0.004) and faster longitudinal MMSE decline (−0.016 units/year, 95% CI: −0.032, −0.0004) over 15 years. Each IQR increase in patella Pb was associated with increased risk of a MMSE score below 25 (HR=1.21, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.49; p=0.07). There were no significant associations between Pb and global cognition (both baseline and longitudinal change). Patella Pb was associated with faster longitudinal decline in Word List Total Recall in the language domain (0.014 units/year, 95% CI: −0.026, −0.001) and Word List Delayed Recall in the memory domain (0.014 units/year, 95% CI: −0.027, −0.002). We found weaker associations with tibia Pb. Conclusions Cumulative Pb exposure is associated with faster declines in MMSE and Word List Total and Delayed Recall tests. These findings support the hypothesis that Pb exposure accelerates cognitive aging. PMID:27770710

  17. Associations of cumulative Pb exposure and longitudinal changes in Mini-Mental Status Exam scores, global cognition and domains of cognition: The VA Normative Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqui, Zishaan; Bakulski, Kelly M; Power, Melinda C; Weisskopf, Marc G; Sparrow, David; Spiro, Avron; Vokonas, Pantel S; Nie, Linda H; Hu, Howard; Park, Sung Kyun

    2017-01-01

    Lead (Pb) exposure has been associated with poorer cognitive function cross-sectionally in aging adults, however the association between cumulative Pb exposure and longitudinal changes in cognition is little characterized. In a 1993-2007 subcohort of the VA Normative Aging Study (Mini-mental status exam (MMSE) n=741; global cognition summary score n=715), we used linear mixed effects models to test associations between cumulative Pb exposure (patella or tibia bone Pb) and repeated measures of cognition (MMSE, individual cognitive tests, and global cognition summary). Cox proportional hazard modeling assessed the risk of an MMSE score falling below 25. Among men 51-98 at baseline, higher patella Pb concentration (IQR: 21μg/g) was associated with -0.13 lower baseline MMSE (95% CI: -0.25, -0.004) and faster longitudinal MMSE decline (-0.016 units/year, 95% CI: -0.032, -0.0004) over 15 years. Each IQR increase in patella Pb was associated with increased risk of a MMSE score below 25 (HR=1.21, 95% CI: 0.99, 1.49; p=0.07). There were no significant associations between Pb and global cognition (both baseline and longitudinal change). Patella Pb was associated with faster longitudinal decline in Word List Total Recall in the language domain (0.014 units/year, 95% CI: -0.026, -0.001) and Word List Delayed Recall in the memory domain (0.014 units/year, 95% CI: -0.027, -0.002). We found weaker associations with tibia Pb. Cumulative Pb exposure is associated with faster declines in MMSE and Word List Total and Delayed Recall tests. These findings support the hypothesis that Pb exposure accelerates cognitive aging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. An Interpreter's Interpretation: Sign Language Interpreters' View of Musculoskeletal Disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, William L

    2003-01-01

    Sign language interpreters are at increased risk for musculoskeletal disorders. This study used content analysis to obtain detailed information about these disorders from the interpreters' point of view...

  19. Mediterranean and Nordic diet scores and long-term changes in body weight and waist circumference: results from a large cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yingjun; Roswall, Nina; Ström, Peter; Sandin, Sven; Adami, Hans-Olov; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2015-12-28

    Dietary patterns, which represent a broader picture of food and nutrient consumption, have gained increasing interest over the last decades. In a cohort design, we followed 27 544 women aged 29-49 years from baseline in 1991-1992. We collected data from an FFQ at baseline and body weight (BW) and waist circumference (WC) data both at baseline and at follow-up in 2003. We calculated the Mediterranean diet score (MDS, ranging from 0 to 9) and the Nordic diet score (NDS, ranging from 0 to 6). We used linear regression to examine the association between MDS and NDS (exposures) with subsequent BW change (ΔBW) and WC change (ΔWC) (outcomes) both continuously and categorically. Higher adherence to the MDS or NDS was not associated with ΔBW. The multivariable population average increment in BW was 0·03 kg (95 % CI -0·03, 0·09) per 1-point increase in MDS and 0·04 kg (95 % CI -0·02, 0·10) per 1-point increase in NDS. In addition, higher adherence to the MDS was not associated with ΔWC, with the multivariable population average increment per 1-point increase in MDS being 0·05 cm (95 % CI -0·03, 0·13). Higher adherence to the NDS was not significantly associated with gain in WC when adjusted for concurrent ΔBW. In conclusion, a higher adherence to the MDS or NDS was not associated with changes in average BW or WC in the present cohort followed for 12 years.

  20. Change in CD3 positive T-cell expression in psoriatic arthritis synovium correlates with change in DAS28 and magnetic resonance imaging synovitis scores following initiation of biologic therapy--a single centre, open-label study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pontifex, Eliza K

    2011-01-01

    With the development of increasing numbers of potential therapeutic agents in inflammatory disease comes the need for effective biomarkers to help screen for drug efficacy and optimal dosing regimens early in the clinical trial process. This need has been recognized by the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials (OMERACT) group, which has established guidelines for biomarker validation. To seek a candidate synovial biomarker of treatment response in psoriatic arthritis (PsA), we determined whether changes in immunohistochemical markers of synovial inflammation correlate with changes in disease activity scores assessing 28 joints (ΔDAS28) or magnetic resonance imaging synovitis scores (ΔMRI) in patients with PsA treated with a biologic agent.

  1. Tracers of diabatic changes in potential temperature and potential vorticity: Integral interpretation in terms of net heating and circulation and applications to model consistency across resolutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Alvarado, Oscar; Gray, Suzanne; Methven, John

    2016-04-01

    Diabatic processes in the atmosphere can be characterised by the changes they produce on potential temperature (θ) and potential vorticity (PV) following an air parcel. Diabatic tracers of θ and PV track the changes undergone by those two variables due to the action of diabatic processes in a Lagrangian frame by splitting θ and PV into components that are materially conserved and components that are diabatically generated. Since diabatic tracers are subject to advection by the three-dimensional wind field, they are useful tools for the investigation of the interaction of diabatic processes with the atmospheric flow and the impact of diabatic processes on the evolution of the atmosphere. In this contribution, we present a novel integral interpretation of diabatic tracers over suitably defined control volumes, which depend on the weather system under consideration. Using two contrasting extratropical cyclones as examples, it is shown that θ tracers can be used to assess and systematically compare the cross-isentropic mass transport around each cyclone, which is related to the amount and distribution of heat produced during each cyclone's development. PV tracers are related to circulation and area-average isentropic vorticity through the application of Stoke's theorem. Using the impermeability theorem for PV, which states there can be no PV flux across isentropic surfaces, it is also shown that cross-isentropic motion within the control volumes does not directly influence circulation. Instead, the influence of diabatic processes on the circulation crucially depends on the balance between the fluxes along isentropic surfaces of the materially-conserved and diabatically-generated PV components across the lateral boundaries of the control volumes. Finally, the application of the integral interpretation of diabatic tracers for the assessment of model consistency across different model resolutions is discussed.

  2. Interpretation training influences memory for prior interpretations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salemink, E.; Hertel, P.; Mackintosh, B.

    2010-01-01

    Anxiety is associated with memory biases when the initial interpretation of the event is taken into account. This experiment examined whether modification of interpretive bias retroactively affects memory for prior events and their initial interpretation. Before training, participants imagined

  3. Change in CD3 positive T-cell expression in psoriatic arthritis synovium correlates with change in DAS28 and magnetic resonance imaging synovitis scores following initiation of biologic therapy - a single centre, open-label study

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Pontifex, Eliza K

    2011-01-27

    Abstract Introduction With the development of increasing numbers of potential therapeutic agents in inflammatory disease comes the need for effective biomarkers to help screen for drug efficacy and optimal dosing regimens early in the clinical trial process. This need has been recognized by the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology Clinical Trials (OMERACT) group, which has established guidelines for biomarker validation. To seek a candidate synovial biomarker of treatment response in psoriatic arthritis (PsA), we determined whether changes in immunohistochemical markers of synovial inflammation correlate with changes in disease activity scores assessing 28 joints (ΔDAS28) or magnetic resonance imaging synovitis scores (ΔMRI) in patients with PsA treated with a biologic agent. Methods Twenty-five consecutive patients with PsA underwent arthroscopic synovial biopsies and MRI scans of an inflamed knee joint at baseline and 12 weeks after starting treatment with either anakinra (first 10 patients) or etanercept (subsequent 15 patients) in two sequential studies of identical design. DAS28 scores were measured at both time points. Immunohistochemical staining for CD3, CD68 and Factor VIII (FVIII) was performed on synovial samples and scored by digital image analysis (DIA). MRI scans performed at baseline and at 12 weeks were scored for synovitis semi-quantitatively. The ΔDAS28 of the European League Against Rheumatism good response definition (>1.2) was chosen to divide patients into responder and non-responder groups. Differences between groups (Mann Whitney U test) and correlations between ΔDAS28 with change in immunohistochemical and MRI synovitis scores (Spearman\\'s rho test) were calculated. Results Paired synovial samples and MRI scans were available for 21 patients (8 anakinra, 13 etanercept) and 23 patients (8 anakinra, 15 etanercept) respectively. Change in CD3 (ΔCD3) and CD68 expression in the synovial sublining layer (ΔCD68sl) was significantly greater in

  4. Proverb Interpretation Changes in Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uekermann, Jennifer; Thoma, Patrizia; Daum, Irene

    2008-01-01

    Recent investigations have emphasized the involvement of fronto-subcortical networks to proverb comprehension. Although the prefrontal cortex is thought to be affected by normal aging, relatively little work has been carried out to investigate potential effects of aging on proverb comprehension. In the present investigation participants in three…

  5. Prosthetic alignment after total knee replacement is not associated with dissatisfaction or change in Oxford Knee Score: A multivariable regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huijbregts, Henricus J T A M; Khan, Riaz J K; Fick, Daniel P; Jarrett, Olivia M; Haebich, Samantha

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 18% of the patients are dissatisfied with the result of total knee replacement. However, the relation between dissatisfaction and prosthetic alignment has not been investigated before. We retrospectively analysed prospectively gathered data of all patients who had a primary TKR, preoperative and one-year postoperative Oxford Knee Scores (OKS) and postoperative computed tomography (CT). The CT protocol measures hip-knee-ankle (HKA) angle, and coronal, sagittal and axial component alignment. Satisfaction was defined using a five-item Likert scale. We dichotomised dissatisfaction by combining '(very) dissatisfied' and 'neutral/not sure'. Associations with dissatisfaction and change in OKS were calculated using multivariable logistic and linear regression models. 230 TKRs were implanted in 105 men and 106 women. At one year, 12% were (very) dissatisfied and 10% neutral. Coronal alignment of the femoral component was 0.5 degrees more accurate in patients who were satisfied at one year. The other alignment measurements were not different between satisfied and dissatisfied patients. All radiographic measurements had a P-value>0.10 on univariate analyses. At one year, dissatisfaction was associated with the three-months OKS. Change in OKS was associated with three-months OKS, preoperative physical SF-12, preoperative pain and cruciate retaining design. Neither mechanical axis, nor component alignment, is associated with dissatisfaction at one year following TKR. Patients get the best outcome when pain reduction and function improvement are optimal during the first three months and when the indication to embark on surgery is based on physical limitations rather than on a high pain score. 2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Change in DASH diet score and cardiovascular risk factors in youth with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus: The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, T L; Crandell, J L; Bell, R A; Mayer-Davis, E J; Dabelea, D; Liese, A D

    2013-10-14

    Youth with diabetes are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet has been shown to improve CVD risk. In this study, we evaluated whether changes in diet quality as characterized by DASH are associated with changes in CVD risk factors in youth with diabetes over time. Longitudinal mixed models were applied to data from 797 participants in the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study representing three time points: baseline, 12- and 60-month follow-up. Data were restricted to youth whose diabetes was first diagnosed in 2002-2005. DASH-related adherence was poor and changed very little over time. However, an increase in DASH diet score was significantly associated with a decrease in HbA1c levels in youth with type 1 diabetes (β=-0.20, P-value=0.0063) and a decrease in systolic blood pressure among youth with type 2 diabetes (β=-2.02, P-value=0.0406). Improvements in dietary quality may be beneficial in youth with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. However, further work in larger groups of youth with type 1 and 2 diabetes is desirable.

  7. ClimateInterpreter.org: an online sharing platform with best practices and resources on effective climate change communication, climate change exhibits, and sustainability efforts at aquariums, zoos, and science museums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M. K.; MacKenzie, S.

    2011-12-01

    Many aquariums, zoos, museums, and other informal science education (ISE) centers across the country want to connect their visitors with the important issue of climate change. Communicating climate change and the science it embodies is no easy task though, and ISE institutions are seeking creative and collaborative ways to best interpret the issue with their audiences. Some of these institutions, particularly aquariums and zoos, have live specimens on exhibit that stand to be severely impacted by climate change. Others see it as an educational and moral imperative to address such an important issue affecting the world today, especially one so close to the core mission of their institution. Regardless, informal science educators have noticed that the public is increasingly coming to them with questions related to climate change, and they want to be able to respond as effectively as they can. The Monterey Bay Aquarium is one partner in a coalition of aquariums, zoos, museums and informal science education institutions that are working together to present climate change to its visitors. These institutions hold enormous public trust as sources of sound scientific information. Whether it is through exhibitions like the Aquarium's Hot Pink Flamingos: Stories of Hope in a Changing Sea, interpretive and communication techniques to navigate challenging climate change discussions, or with sustainability planning and operational greening efforts, there is a concerted movement to improve the capacity of these institutions to respond to the issue. Ultimately, their goal is to inspire visitors in a way that positively impacts the country's discourse surrounding climate change, and helps steer our dialog toward a focus on solutions. In addition to the Hot Pink Flamingos exhibit, the Aquarium is also working with the coalition to build a website, www.climateinterpreter.org, that can serve as an online platform for sharing the experiences of what different partners have learned at

  8. Plasma concentrations of leptin, insulin-like growth factor-I, and insulin in relation to changes in body condition score in heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    León, H V; Hernández-Cerón, J; Keislert, D H; Gutierrez, C G

    2004-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relationships among plasma concentrations of leptin, insulin, and IGF-I with dynamic changes in body condition scores (BCS) in heifers. Nineteen Zebu-Brown Swiss crossbred heifers, 24 to 30 mo old, weighing 322 +/- 9 kg, and with an initial BCS of 2.6 +/- 0.11 (range = 1 to 9) were used. Heifers were fed 60% of their maintenance requirements until they reached a BCS of Heifers were then maintained at that level for 25 d, after which they were fed to gain 1 kg of body weight daily until a BCS of 6 was reached. Heifers were weighed weekly and BCS was measured every 2 wk. Plasma samples were collected twice weekly, and leptin and insulin were determined by RIA. An immunoradiometric assay was used to measure IGF-I from one sample every 2 wk. Plasma concentrations of leptin were positively correlated during nutritional restriction (NR) and weight gain (WG) periods with BCS (r = 0.47 for NR, and r = 0.83 for WG; P weight (r = 0.40 for NR, and r = 0.78 for WG; P weight gain, leptin concentration increased at BCS 3 and thereafter for each integer change in the BCS. Regression analysis showed that changes in body weight affect leptin concentrations within a given BCS. There was a decrease in IGF-I as BCS declined (P weight gain, by contrast, IGF-I increased significantly (P heifers with BCS 1 (P heifers of BCS 2 and 3, insulin did not differ and was lower than in heifers of BCS 1 (P heifers at BCS 4 to 6. Leptin was positively correlated (P heifers, as well as an indicator of nutritional status.

  9. Association between Mediterranean and Nordic diet scores and changes in weight and waist circumference: influence of FTO and TCF7L2 loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Ängquist, Lars; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Romaguera, Dora; Larsen, Sofus C; Østergaard, Jane N; Halkjaer, Jytte; Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Wareham, Nicolas J; Bendinelli, Benedetta; Palli, Domenico; Boer, Jolanda M A; van der A, Daphne L; Boeing, Heiner; Loos, Ruth J F; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Tjønneland, Anne

    2014-10-01

    Several studies have shown that adherence to the Mediterranean Diet measured by using the Mediterranean diet score (MDS) is associated with lower obesity risk. The newly proposed Nordic Diet could hold similar beneficial effects. Because of the increasing focus on the interaction between diet and genetic predisposition to adiposity, studies should consider both diet and genetics. We investigated whether FTO rs9939609 and TCF7L2 rs7903146 modified the association between the MDS and Nordic diet score (NDS) and changes in weight (Δweight), waist circumference (ΔWC), and waist circumference adjusted for body mass index (BMI) (ΔWCBMI). We conducted a case-cohort study with a median follow-up of 6.8 y that included 11,048 participants from 5 European countries; 5552 of these subjects were cases defined as individuals with the greatest degree of unexplained weight gain during follow-up. A randomly selected subcohort included 6548 participants, including 5496 noncases. Cases and noncases were compared in analyses by using logistic regression. Continuous traits (ie, Δweight, ΔWC, and ΔWCBMI) were analyzed by using linear regression models in the random subcohort. Interactions were tested by including interaction terms in models. A higher MDS was significantly inversely associated with case status (OR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.00), ΔWC (β = -0.010 cm/y; 95% CI: -0.020, -0.001 cm/y), and ΔWCBMI (β = -0.008; 95% CI:-0.015, -0.001) per 1-point increment but not Δweight (P = 0.53). The NDS was not significantly associated with any outcome. There was a borderline significant interaction between the MDS and TCF7L2 rs7903146 on weight gain (P = 0.05), which suggested a beneficial effect of the MDS only in subjects who carried 1 or 2 risk alleles. FTO did not modify observed associations. A high MDS is associated with a lower ΔWC and ΔWCBMI, regardless of FTO and TCF7L2 risk alleles. For Δweight, findings were less clear, but the effect may depend on the TCF7L2 rs7903146

  10. What explains the correlation between growth in vocabulary and grammar? New evidence from latent change score analyses of simultaneous bilingual development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Erika; Quinn, Jamie M; Giguere, David

    2018-03-01

    A close relationship between children's vocabulary size and the grammatical complexity of their speech is well attested but not well understood. The present study used latent change score modeling to examine the dynamic relationships between vocabulary and grammar growth within and across languages in longitudinal data from 90 simultaneous Spanish-English bilingual children who were assessed at 6-month intervals between 30 and 48 months. Slopes of vocabulary and grammar growth were strongly correlated within each language and showed moderate or nonsignificant relationships across languages. There was no evidence that vocabulary level predicted subsequent grammar growth or that the level of grammatical development predicted subsequent vocabulary growth. We propose that a common influence of properties of input on vocabulary and grammatical development is the source of their correlated but uncoupled growth. An unanticipated across-language finding was a negative relationship between level of English skill and subsequent Spanish growth. We propose that the cultural context of Spanish-English bilingualism in the US is the reason that strong English skills jeopardize Spanish language growth, while Spanish skills do not affect English growth. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: https://youtu.be/qEHSQ0yRre0. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Reliability, validity, and minimal detectable change of the push-off test scores in assessing upper extremity weight-bearing ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Saurabh P; George, Hannah R; Goering, Christian A; Shafer, Danielle R; Koester, Alan; Novotny, Steven

    2017-11-01

    Clinical measurement study. The push-off test (POT) was recently conceived and found to be reliable and valid for assessing weight bearing through injured wrist or elbow. However, further research with larger sample can lend credence to the preliminary findings supporting the use of the POT. This study examined the interrater reliability, construct validity, and measurement error for the POT in patients with wrist conditions. Participants with musculoskeletal (MSK) wrist conditions were recruited. The performance on the POT, grip isometric strength of wrist extensors was assessed. The shortened version of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand and numeric pain rating scale were completed. The intraclass correlation coefficient assessed interrater reliability of the POT. Pearson correlation coefficients (r) examined the concurrent relationships between the POT and other measures. The standard error of measurement and the minimal detectable change at 90% confidence interval were assessed as measurement error and index of true change for the POT. A total of 50 participants with different elbow or wrist conditions (age: 48.1 ± 16.6 years) were included in this study. The results of this study strongly supported the interrater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient: 0.96 and 0.93 for the affected and unaffected sides, respectively) of the POT in patients with wrist MSK conditions. The POT showed convergent relationships with the grip strength on the injured side (r = 0.89) and the wrist extensor strength (r = 0.7). The POT showed smaller standard error of measurement (1.9 kg). The minimal detectable change at 90% confidence interval for the POT was 4.4 kg for the sample. This study provides additional evidence to support the reliability and validity of the POT. This is the first study that provides the values for the measurement error and true change on the POT scores in patients with wrist MSK conditions. Further research should examine the

  12. Is pregnancy a teachable moment for diet and physical activity behaviour change? An interpretative phenomenological analysis of the experiences of women during their first pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Lou; Shaw, Rachel L; French, David P

    2016-11-01

    Pregnancy may provide a 'teachable moment' for positive health behaviour change, as a time when women are both motivated towards health and in regular contact with health care professionals. This study aimed to investigate whether women's experiences of pregnancy indicate that they would be receptive to behaviour change during this period. Qualitative interview study. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis, this study details how seven women made decisions about their physical activity and dietary behaviour during their first pregnancy. Two women had required fertility treatment to conceive. Their behaviour was driven by anxiety and a drive to minimize potential risks to the pregnancy. This included detailed information seeking and strict adherence to diet and physical activity recommendations. However, the majority of women described behaviour change as 'automatic', adopting a new lifestyle immediately upon discovering their pregnancy. Diet and physical activity were influenced by what these women perceived to be normal or acceptable during pregnancy (largely based on observations of others) and internal drivers, including bodily signals and a desire to retain some of their pre-pregnancy self-identity. More reasoned assessments regarding benefits for them and their baby were less prevalent and influential. Findings suggest that for women who conceived relatively easily, diet and physical activity behaviour during pregnancy is primarily based upon a combination of automatic judgements, physical sensations, and perceptions of what pregnant women are supposed to do. Health professionals and other credible sources appear to exert less influence. As such, pregnancy alone may not create a 'teachable moment'. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? Significant life events can be cues to action with relation to health behaviour change. However, much of the empirical research in this area has focused on negative health experiences such as

  13. Interpretive Media Study and Interpretive Social Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carragee, Kevin M.

    1990-01-01

    Defines the major theoretical influences on interpretive approaches in mass communication, examines the central concepts of these perspectives, and provides a critique of these approaches. States that the adoption of interpretive approaches in mass communication has ignored varied critiques of interpretive social science. Suggests that critical…

  14. An Interpreter's Interpretation: Sign Language Interpreters' View of Musculoskeletal Disorders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, William L

    2003-01-01

    ...; interpreting style, such as poor body posture, tensing muscles, signing too forcefully; job control, including the emotional and physical stress of the job, being overworked, and disliking the job...

  15. Allegheny County Walk Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Walk Score measures the walkability of any address using a patented system developed by the Walk Score company. For each 2010 Census Tract centroid, Walk Score...

  16. The effect of changes of model for end-stage liver disease score during waiting time on post-liver transplant mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Freah, Mohammad A B; Gane, Edward J; Livingstone, Vicki; McCall, John; Munn, Stephen

    2012-04-01

    Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score is found to be a robust predictor of mortality while on waiting list for liver transplantation. However, studies have shown inconsistent results for transplant MELD as a predictor of posttransplant mortality. To find whether utilization of MELD at listing, at transplant, or Δ MELD while waiting can predict outcome at a national transplant center, which is not part of an organ sharing network. Retrospective analysis of patients listed for liver transplantation at the New Zealand Liver Transplant Unit (NZLTU) with calculation of MELD score at the time of listing and at transplant with/without adjustment points for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Between 1998 and 2005, 264 adult patients were listed for liver transplantation. Median age at transplant was 49 years (range 16-70) and 65% were male. The most common etiology was viral hepatitis (50%). A total of 48 patients (20%) had known HCC. MELD scores (adjusted and nonadjusted) at listing and at transplantation were similar across all primary liver diseases (P = 0.88, 0.93, respectively). Adjusted MELD scores were significantly higher in patients listed for HCC compared to those without HCC (P 1 point or less (P = 0.67). Waiting time does not appear to influence posttransplant survival (P = 0.75). In a country with a single transplant center and organ retrieval organization, the addition of MELD score to current minimal listing criteria does not improve prioritization of patients on the waiting list or predict posttransplant survival. Also, adjusting MELD score for HCC would unfairly disadvantage patients listed without HCC.

  17. Minimal important change and other measurement properties of the Oxford Elbow Score and the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand in patients with a simple elbow dislocation : Validation study alongside the multicenter FuncSiE trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.I.T. Iordens (Gijs); D. den Hartog (Dennis); W.E. Tuinebreijer (Wim); D. Eygendaal (Denise); N.W.L. Schep (Niels); M.H.J. Verhofstad (Michiel); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractStudy design: Validation study using data from a multicenter, randomized, clinical trial (RCT). Objectives: To evaluate the reliability, validity, responsiveness, and minimal important change (MIC) of the Dutch version of the Oxford Elbow Score (OES) and the Quick Disabilities of the

  18. Interpreting Impoliteness: Interpreters’ Voices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Radanović Felberg

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Interpreters in the public sector in Norway interpret in a variety of institutional encounters, and the interpreters evaluate the majority of these encounters as polite. However, some encounters are evaluated as impolite, and they pose challenges when it comes to interpreting impoliteness. This issue raises the question of whether interpreters should take a stance on their own evaluation of impoliteness and whether they should interfere in communication. In order to find out more about how interpreters cope with this challenge, in 2014 a survey was sent to all interpreters registered in the Norwegian Register of Interpreters. The survey data were analyzed within the theoretical framework of impoliteness theory using the notion of moral order as an explanatory tool in a close reading of interpreters’ answers. The analysis shows that interpreters reported using a variety of strategies for interpreting impoliteness, including omissions and downtoning. However, the interpreters also gave examples of individual strategies for coping with impoliteness, such as interrupting and postponing interpreting. These strategies border behavioral strategies and conflict with the Norwegian ethical guidelines for interpreting. In light of the ethical guidelines and actual practice, mapping and discussing different strategies used by interpreters might heighten interpreters’ and interpreter-users’ awareness of the role impoliteness can play in institutional interpreter– mediated encounters. 

  19. Digital watermarking for the protection of music scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmucker, Martin; Busch, Christoph; Pant, Anoop

    2001-08-01

    The need for protection mechanisms for multimedia content is widely recognized. In the past digital watermarking algorithms for images have been developed that provide a certain level of protection for colored or gray-scale images. Since classical raster-oriented watermarking algorithms do not satisfy the needs for symbol oriented music score images we present in this paper a solution that should give promising robustness of the watermark at minimal visibility impact. This solution respects the content of binary images and can be considered as a symbolic interpretation and modification of music scores. Some music symbols are used by changing their features for hiding an information string in a music score. The advantage is its robustness and invisibility. Regarding the invisibility a musician should under no circumstances be impeded in reading the music. One must even consider the fact of being influenced unconsciously. For example, it might be more difficult to concentrate on a music sheet if the symbols were changed invisibly. The most probable way of distributing music scores is the analog (paper) form. Music scores are copied and distributed. So watermarks should be readable even after multiple copy procedures. By choosing suitable features a blind detection of the watermark is possible.

  20. Fiber intake, not dietary energy density, is associated with subsequent change in BMI z-score among sub-groups of children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kring, Sofia I Iqbal; Heitmann, Berit L

    2008-01-01

    to collect dietary energy intake. Overweight was defined as 1.05 SD, equivalent to the 85th percentile, of age- and sex-specific BMI z-score reference values. RESULTS: An inverse association between fiber intake and subsequent excess weight gain was observed among the normal weight boys. In overweight boys...

  1. Comparison of infarct size changes with delayed contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and electrocardiogram QRS scoring during the 6 months after acutely reperfused myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, L.E.; Ripa, R.S.; Grande, P.

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Magnetic resonance imaging using the delayed contrast-enhanced (DE-MRI) method can be used for characterizing and quantifying myocardial infarction (MI). Electrocardiogram (ECG) score after the acute phase of MI can be used to estimate the portion of left ventricular myocardium...

  2. Reliability, validity, responsiveness, and minimal important change of the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand and Constant-Murley scores in patients with a humeral shaft fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.C. Mahabier (Kiran); D. den Hartog (Dennis); Theyskens, N. (Nina); M.H.J. Verhofstad (Michiel); E.M.M. van Lieshout (Esther)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) and Constant-Murley scores are commonly used instruments. The DASH is patient-reported, and the Constant-Murley combines a clinician-reported and a patient-reported part. For patients with a humeral shaft fracture, their

  3. Impact on house staff evaluation scores when changing from a Dreyfus- to a Milestone-based evaluation model: one internal medicine residency program's findings

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Karen A.; Balwan, Sandy; Cacace, Frank; Katona, Kyle; Sunday, Suzanne; Chaudhry, Saima

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: As graduate medical education (GME) moves into the Next Accreditation System (NAS), programs must take a critical look at their current models of evaluation and assess how well they align with reporting outcomes. Our objective was to assess the impact on house staff evaluation scores when transitioning from a Dreyfus-based model of evaluation to a Milestone-based model of evaluation. Milestones are a key component of the NAS.Method: We analyzed all end of rotation evaluations of hous...

  4. Post Hoc Analysis of Data from Two Clinical Trials Evaluating the Minimal Clinically Important Change in International Restless Legs Syndrome Sum Score in Patients with Restless Legs Syndrome (Willis-Ekbom Disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondo, William G; Grieger, Frank; Moran, Kimberly; Kohnen, Ralf; Roth, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Determine the minimal clinically important change (MCIC), a measure determining the minimum change in scale score perceived as clinically beneficial, for the international restless legs syndrome (IRLS) and restless legs syndrome 6-item questionnaire (RLS-6) in patients with moderate to severe restless legs syndrome (RLS/Willis-Ekbom disease) treated with the rotigotine transdermal system. This post hoc analysis analyzed data from two 6-mo randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies (SP790 [NCT00136045]; SP792 [NCT00135993]) individually and as a pooled analysis in rotigotine-treated patients, with baseline and end of maintenance IRLS and Clinical Global Impressions of change (CGI Item 2) scores available for analysis. An anchor-based approach and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine the MCIC for the IRLS and RLS-6. We specifically compared "much improved vs minimally improved," "much improved/very much improved vs minimally improved or worse," and "minimally improved or better vs no change or worse" on the CGI-2 using the full analysis set (data as observed). The MCIC IRLS cut-off scores for SP790 and SP792 were similar. Using the pooled SP790+SP792 analysis, the MCIC total IRLS cut-off score (sensitivity, specificity) for "much improved vs minimally improved" was -9 (0.69, 0.66), for "much improved/very much improved vs minimally improved or worse" was -11 (0.81, 0.84), and for "minimally improved or better vs no change or worse" was -9 (0.79, 0.88). MCIC ROC cut-offs were also calculated for each RLS-6 item. In patients with RLS, the MCIC values derived in the current analysis provide a basis for defining meaningful clinical improvement based on changes in the IRLS and RLS-6 following treatment with rotigotine. © 2016 American Academy of Sleep Medicine.

  5. Evaluation of urinary prostate cancer antigen-3 (PCA3) and TMPRSS2-ERG score changes when starting androgen-deprivation therapy with triptorelin 6-month formulation in patients with locally advanced and metastatic prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez-Piñeiro, Luis; Schalken, Jack A; Cabri, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess prostate cancer antigen-3 (PCA3) and TMPRSS2-ERG scores in patients with advanced and metastatic prostate cancer at baseline and after 6 months of treatment with triptorelin 22.5 mg, and analyse these scores in patient-groups defined by different disease characteristics....... PATIENTS AND METHODS: The Triptocare study was a prospective, open-label, multicentre, single-arm, Phase III study of triptorelin 22.5 mg in men with locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer, who were naïve to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT). The primary objective was to model the urinary PCA3...... change at 6 months, according to baseline variables. Other outcome measures included urinary PCA3 and TMPRSS2-ERG scores and statuses, and serum testosterone and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels at baseline and at 1, 3 and 6 months after initiation of ADT. Safety was assessed by recording adverse...

  6. Geoscientific investigations on the Indian coast: Their application to interpret the paleoclimates and future sea level changes with special reference to greenhouse effect

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Hashimi, N.H.; Pathak, M.C.

    Objectives of this paper are: (1) To delineate the paleo sea level fluctuations and erosional environmental changes along the Indian Coast and their relationship with the changing coastline and human settlements in the recent past. (2) To study...

  7. Interpreting. PEPNet Tipsheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darroch, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    An interpreter's role is to facilitate communication and convey all auditory and signed information so that both hearing and deaf individuals may fully interact. The common types of services provided by interpreters are: (1) American Sign Language (ASL) Interpretation--a visual-gestural language with its own linguistic features; (2) Sign Language…

  8. Engineering Definitional Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midtgaard, Jan; Ramsay, Norman; Larsen, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    A definitional interpreter should be clear and easy to write, but it may run 4--10 times slower than a well-crafted bytecode interpreter. In a case study focused on implementation choices, we explore ways of making definitional interpreters faster without expending much programming effort. We...

  9. Journalists as Interpretive Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelizer, Barbie

    1993-01-01

    Proposes viewing journalists as members of an interpretive community (not a profession) united by its shared discourse and collective interpretations of key public events. Applies the frame of the interpretive community to journalistic discourse about two events central for American journalists--Watergate and McCarthyism. (SR)

  10. Maxillofacial trauma scoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahni, Vaibhav

    2016-07-01

    The changing complexity of maxillofacial fractures in recent years has created a situation where classical systems of classification of maxillofacial injuries fall short of defining trauma particularly that observed with high-velocity collisions where more than one region of the maxillofacial skeleton is affected. Trauma scoring systems designed specifically for the maxillofacial region are aimed to provide a more accurate assessment of the injury, its prognosis, the possible treatment outcomes, economics, length of hospital stay, and triage. The evolution and logic of such systems along with their merits and demerits are discussed. The author also proposes a new system to aid users in quickly and methodically choosing the system best suited to their needs without having to study a plethora of literature available in order to isolate their choice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The relation between the working memory skills of sign language interpreters and the quality of their interpretations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, R.J.M. van; Christoffels, I.K.; Postma, A.; Hermans, D.

    2012-01-01

    n two experiments we investigated the relationship between the working memory skills of sign language interpreters and the quality of their interpretations. In Experiment 1, we found that scores on 3-back tasks with signs and words were not related to the quality of interpreted narratives. In

  12. Retrospective evaluation of residents' American Board of Surgery In-Service Training Examination (ABSITE) scores as a tool to evaluate changes made in a basic science curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lube, Matthew W; Borman, Karen R; Fulbright, Ava E; Friedell, Mark L

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a new basic science curriculum at a university-affiliated general surgery residency program. A retrospective evaluation of general surgery residents' American Board of Surgery (ABS) In-Training Examination (ABSITE) scores before and after the implementation of a new basic science curriculum. Not-for-profit tertiary referral center with a university-affiliated Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) accredited community general surgery residency program. Postgraduate year (PGY) 1 through 5 general surgical residents. The total questions answered correctly (percent correct) in the main 3 categories improved after implementation of the new curriculum for PGY 1 (total test: 70 +/- 7 vs 60 +/- 9, p science: 71 +/- 10 vs 59 +/- 9, p science: 69 +/- 7 vs 60 +/- 10, p = 0.0003) and for PGY 2 residents (total test: 74 +/- 5 vs 66 +/- 7, p science: 74 +/- 7 vs 66 +/- 8, p = 0.003; and basic science: 74 +/- 5 vs 66 +/- 8, p science curriculum organized and directed by the faculty, there were statistically significant improvements of PGY 1 and 2 residents' ABSITE scores. Copyright (c) 2010 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A multistage decision support framework to guide tree species management under climate change via habitat suitability and colonization models, and a knowledge-based scoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anantha M. Prasad; Louis R. Iverson; Stephen N. Matthews; Matthew P. Peters

    2016-01-01

    Context. No single model can capture the complex species range dynamics under changing climates--hence the need for a combination approach that addresses management concerns. Objective. A multistage approach is illustrated to manage forested landscapes under climate change. We combine a tree species habitat model--DISTRIB II, a species colonization model--SHIFT, and...

  14. Revolutionizing volunteer interpreter services: an evaluation of an innovative medical interpreter education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbún Avalos, Oswaldo; Pennington, Kaylin; Osterberg, Lars

    2013-12-01

    In our ever-increasingly multicultural, multilingual society, medical interpreters serve an important role in the provision of care. Though it is known that using untrained interpreters leads to decreased quality of care for limited English proficiency patients, because of a short supply of professionals and a lack of formalized, feasible education programs for volunteers, community health centers and internal medicine practices continue to rely on untrained interpreters. To develop and formally evaluate a novel medical interpreter education program that encompasses major tenets of interpretation, tailored to the needs of volunteer medical interpreters. One-armed, quasi-experimental retro-pre-post study using survey ratings and feedback correlated by assessment scores to determine educational intervention effects. Thirty-eight students; 24 Spanish, nine Mandarin, and five Vietnamese. The majority had prior interpreting experience but no formal medical interpreter training. Students completed retrospective pre-test and post-test surveys measuring confidence in and perceived knowledge of key skills of interpretation. Primary outcome measures were a 10-point Likert scale for survey questions of knowledge, skills, and confidence, written and oral assessments of interpreter skills, and qualitative evidence of newfound knowledge in written reflections. Analyses showed a statistically significant (P  0.8). The second half of the program was also quantitatively and qualitatively shown to be a vital learning experience, resulting in 18 % more students passing the oral assessments; a 19 % increase in mean scores for written assessments; and a newfound understanding of interpreter roles and ways to navigate them. This innovative program was successful in increasing volunteer interpreters' skills and knowledge of interpretation, as well as confidence in own abilities. Additionally, the program effectively taught how to navigate the roles of the interpreter to maintain

  15. Levels of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I and thyroid hormones in relation to the body condition score changes in periparturient dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fratrić Natalija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the levels of insulin, insulin like growth factor I (IGF-I and thyroid hormones in relation to the body condition score (BCS of periparturient dairy cows. The study was carried out on twenty Holstein-Friesian dairy cows with average milk production of 7000 L/305 days in the previous lactation, parity ranging from 2-4. All cows were BCS scored during the early dry period, 7±3 days before and after parturition. Based on the BCS at the early dry period, cows were divided in two groups: cows with high BCS (3.75- 4.25, HBCS, n=10, and cows with moderate BCS (2.75-3.75, MBCS, n=10. Blood samples were taken at the time of BCS evaluation. Concentrations of insulin, IGF-I, triiodothyroinine (T3 and thyroxine (T4 were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA, INEP-Zemun, Serbia. Statistical differences between mean values were determined using Student t-test (p0.05. IGF-I level in HBCS cows at days 7±3 before calving was significantly higher (16.28±3.07:11.76±2.28, p<0.01, with a reverse relationship after calving (3.77±1.64:8.46±2.37, p<0.01. Insulin level was significantly lower at 7±3 days before calving in HBCS cows (16.26±4.60:20.18±4.96mIU/L, p<0.05. Thyroid hormones levels were significantly lower in HBCS group et all examined periods. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46002 i br. 31003

  16. Lung tissue remodelling in MCT-induced pulmonary hypertension: a proposal for a novel scoring system and changes in extracellular matrix and fibrosis associated gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Marcus; Grün, Katja; Betge, Stefan; Rohm, Ilonka; Ndongson-Dongmo, Bernadin; Bauer, Reinhard; Schulze, P. Christian; Lichtenauer, Michael; Petersen, Iver; Neri, Dario; Berndt, Alexander; Jung, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is associated with vasoconstriction and remodelling. We studied lung tissue remodelling in a rat model of PH with special focus on histology and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodelling. After induction of PH by monocrotaline, lung tissue was analysed histologically, by gene expression analysis and immunofluorescence labelling of ED-A domain containing fibronectin (ED-A+ Fn), B domain containing tenascin-C (B+ Tn-C) as well as alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). Serum concentrations of ED-A+ Fn were determined by ELISA. Systolic right ventricular pressure (RVPsys) values were significantly elevated in PH (n = 18; 75 ± 26.4 mmHg) compared to controls (n = 10; 29 ± 19.3 mmHg; p = 0.015). The histological sum-score was significantly increased in PH (8.0 ± 2.2) compared to controls (2.5 ± 1.6; p < 0.001). Gene expression analysis revealed relevant induction of several key genes of extracellular matrix remodelling. Increased protein deposition of ED-A+ Fn but not of B+ Tn-C and α-SMA in lung tissue was found in PH (2.88 ± 3.19 area%) compared to controls (1.32 ± 0.16 area%; p = 0.030). Serum levels of ED-A+ Fn were significantly higher in PH (p = 0.007) positively correlating with RVPsys (r = 0.618, p = 0.019). We here present a novel histological scoring system to assess lung tissue remodelling in PH. Gene expression analysis revealed induction of candidate genes involved in collagen matrix turnover, fibrosis and vascular remodelling. The stable increased tissue deposition of ED-A+ Fn in PH as well as its dynamics in serum suggests a role as a promising novel biomarker and potential therapeutic target. PMID:27835899

  17. Association Between Change in Body Mass Index, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Scores, and Survival Among Persons With Parkinson Disease: Secondary Analysis of Longitudinal Data From NINDS Exploratory Trials in Parkinson Disease Long-term Study 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Anne-Marie A; Pérez, Adriana; Wang, Jue; Su, Xiao; Morgan, John; Rajan, Suja S; Leehey, Maureen A; Pontone, Gregory M; Chou, Kelvin L; Umeh, Chizoba; Mari, Zoltan; Boyd, James

    2016-03-01

    Greater body mass index (BMI, calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) is associated with improved survival among persons with Huntington disease or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Weight loss is common among persons with Parkinson disease (PD) and is associated with worse quality of life. To explore the association between change in BMI, Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor and total scores, and survival among persons with PD and to test whether there is a positive association between BMI at randomization and survival. Secondary analysis (from May 27, 2014, to October 13, 2015) of longitudinal data (3-6 years) from 1673 participants who started the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Exploratory Trials in PD Long-term Study-1 (NET-PD LS-1). This was a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial of creatine monohydrate (10 g/d) that was performed at 45 sites throughout the United States and Canada. Participants with early (within 5 years of diagnosis) and treated (receiving dopaminergic therapy) PD were enrolled from March 2007 to May 2010 and followed up until September 2013. Change across time in motor UPDRS score, change across time in total UPDRS score, and time to death. Generalized linear mixed models were used to estimate the effect of BMI on the change in motor and total UPDRS scores after controlling for covariates. Survival was analyzed using Cox proportional hazards models of time to death. A participant's BMI was measured at randomization, and BMI trajectory groups were classified according to whether participants experienced weight loss ("decreasing BMI"), weight stability ("stable BMI"), or weight gain ("increasing BMI") during the study. Of the 1673 participants (mean [SD] age, 61.7 [9.6] years; 1074 [64.2%] were male), 158 (9.4%) experienced weight loss (decreasing BMI), whereas 233 (13.9%) experienced weight gain (increasing BMI). After adjusting for covariates, we

  18. Change of BNP between admission and discharge after ST-elevation myocardial infarction (Killip I) improves risk prediction of heart failure, death, and recurrent myocardial infarction compared to single isolated measurement in addition to the GRACE score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Luiz Sergio F; Bogniotti, Lauro Afonso C; de Almeida, Osorio Luis Rangel; E Silva, Jose C Quinaglia; Nadruz, Wilson; Coelho, Otavio Rizzi; Sposito, Andrei C

    2018-01-01

    In ST-elevation myocardial infarction, 7-15% of patients admitted as Killip I will develop symptomatic heart failure or decreased ejection fraction. However, available clinical scores do not predict the risk of severe outcomes well, such as heart failure, recurrent myocardial infarction, and sudden death in these Killip I individuals. Therefore, we evaluated whether one vs two measurements of BNP would improve prediction of adverse outcomes in addition to the GRACE score in ST-elevation myocardial infarction/Killip I individuals. Consecutive patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction/Killip I ( n=167) were admitted and followed for 12 months. The GRACE score was calculated and plasma BNP levels were obtained in the first 12 h after symptom onset (D1) and at the fifth day (D5). Fifteen percent of patients admitted as Killip I developed symptomatic heart failure and/or decreased ejection fraction in 12 months. The risk of developing symptomatic heart failure or ejection fraction <40% at 30 days was increased by 8.7-fold (95% confidence interval: 1.10-662, p=0.046) per each 100 pg/dl increase in BNP-change. Both in unadjusted and adjusted Cox-regressions, BNP-change as a continuous variable was associated with incident sudden death/myocardial infarction at 30 days (odds ratio 1.032 per each increase of 10 pg/dl, 95% confidence interval: 1.013-1.052, p<0.001), but BNP-D1 was not. The GRACE score alone showed a moderate C-statistic=0.709 ( p=0.029), but adding BNP-change improved risk discrimination (C-statistic=0.831, p=0.001). Net reclassification confirmed a significant improvement in individual risk prediction by 33.4% (95% confidence interval: 8-61%, p=0.034). However, GRACE +BNP-D1 did not improve risk reclassification at 30 days compared to GRACE ( p=0.8). At 12 months, BNP-change was strongly associated with incident sudden death/myocardial infarction, but not BNP-D1. Only BNP-change following myocardial infarction was associated with poorer short- and

  19. Long-term trends in tourism climate index scores for 40 stations across Iran: the role of climate change and influence on tourism sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roshan, Gholamreza; Yousefi, Robabe; Fitchett, Jennifer M

    2016-01-01

    Tourism is a rapidly growing international sector and relies intrinsically on an amenable climate to attract visitors. Climate change is likely to influence the locations preferred by tourists and the time of year of peak travel. This study investigates the effect of climate change on the Tourism Climate Index (TCI) for Iran. The paper first calculates the monthly TCI for 40 cities across Iran for each year from 1961 to 2010. Changes in the TCI over the study period for each of the cities are then explored. Increases in TCI are observed for at least one station in each month, whilst for some months no decreases occurred. For October, the maximum of 45% of stations demonstrated significant changes in TCI, whilst for December only 10% of stations demonstrated change. The stations Kashan, Orumiyeh, Shahrekord, Tabriz, Torbat-e-Heidarieh and Zahedan experienced significant increases in TCI for over 6 months. The beginning of the change in TCI is calculated to have occurred from 1970 to 1980 for all stations. Given the economic dependence on oil exports, the development of sustainable tourism in Iran is of importance. This critically requires the identification of locations most suitable for tourism, now and in the future, to guide strategic investment.

  20. Genre and Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auken, Sune

    2015-01-01

    Despite the immensity of genre studies as well as studies in interpretation, our understanding of the relationship between genre and interpretation is sketchy at best. The article attempts to unravel some of intricacies of that relationship through an analysis of the generic interpretation carried...... out by us all in everyday life, and the role of generic interpretation in scholarly work. The article argues that the role played by genre in interpretation has as much to do with the individual characteristics of an utterance as with its relationship to other utterances. An interest in the generic...... traits of an utterance will lead to a characterization of its individual, as well as its general characteristics. The article proceeds to describe three central concepts within genre studies that are applicable to generic interpretation: “horizon of expectation,” “world,” and the triad “theme...

  1. On court interpreters' visibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dubslaff, Friedel; Martinsen, Bodil

    in by the participants almost immediately after the interrogations and supplemented by interviews. The main objective of the project is to explore the interpreters' own perception of the quality of the service they render as well as the professional users´ and the other language users' perception of the quality...... of the service they receive. Ultimately, the findings will be used for training purposes. Future - and, for that matter, already practising - interpreters as well as the professional users of interpreters ought to take the reality of the interpreters' work in practice into account when assessing the quality......, such as the interpreter's engagement in explicit co-construction of meaning. In addition, we shall include social factors which must be assumed to have a bearing on the interpreter's behaviour. Here we can, at least to some extent, draw upon the questionnaires and interviews mentioned above. Finally, we shall discuss...

  2. Interpreting land records

    CERN Document Server

    Wilson, Donald A

    2014-01-01

    Base retracement on solid research and historically accurate interpretation Interpreting Land Records is the industry's most complete guide to researching and understanding the historical records germane to land surveying. Coverage includes boundary retracement and the primary considerations during new boundary establishment, as well as an introduction to historical records and guidance on effective research and interpretation. This new edition includes a new chapter titled "Researching Land Records," and advice on overcoming common research problems and insight into alternative resources wh

  3. Approximating frustration scores in complex networks via perturbed Laplacian spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savol, Andrej J.; Chennubhotla, Chakra S.

    2015-12-01

    Systems of many interacting components, as found in physics, biology, infrastructure, and the social sciences, are often modeled by simple networks of nodes and edges. The real-world systems frequently confront outside intervention or internal damage whose impact must be predicted or minimized, and such perturbations are then mimicked in the models by altering nodes or edges. This leads to the broad issue of how to best quantify changes in a model network after some type of perturbation. In the case of node removal there are many centrality metrics which associate a scalar quantity with the removed node, but it can be difficult to associate the quantities with some intuitive aspect of physical behavior in the network. This presents a serious hurdle to the application of network theory: real-world utility networks are rarely altered according to theoretic principles unless the kinetic impact on the network's users are fully appreciated beforehand. In pursuit of a kinetically interpretable centrality score, we discuss the f-score, or frustration score. Each f-score quantifies whether a selected node accelerates or inhibits global mean first passage times to a second, independently selected target node. We show that this is a natural way of revealing the dynamical importance of a node in some networks. After discussing merits of the f-score metric, we combine spectral and Laplacian matrix theory in order to quickly approximate the exact f-score values, which can otherwise be expensive to compute. Following tests on both synthetic and real medium-sized networks, we report f-score runtime improvements over exact brute force approaches in the range of 0 to 400 % with low error (<3 % ).

  4. Interpreter-mediated neuropsychological testing of monolingual Spanish speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Rachel; Guzmán-Vélez, Edmarie; Cardona-Rodriguez, Javier; Rodriguez, Nayra; Quiñones, Gabriela; Izaguirre, Borja; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate empirically whether using an interpreter to conduct neuropsychological testing of monolingual Spanish speakers affects test scores. Participants included 40 neurologically normal Spanish speakers with limited English proficiency, aged 18-65 years (M = 39.7, SD = 13.9), who completed the Vocabulary, Similarities, Block Design, and Matrix Reasoning subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III in two counterbalanced conditions: with and without an interpreter. Results indicated that interpreter use significantly increased scores on Vocabulary and Similarities. However, scores on Block Design and Matrix Reasoning did not differ depending on whether or not an interpreter was used. In addition the findings suggested a trend toward higher variability in scores when an interpreter was used to administer Vocabulary and Similarities; this trend did not show up for Block Design or Matrix Reasoning. Together the results indicate that interpreter use may significantly affect scores for some tests commonly used in neuropsychological practice, with this influence being greater for verbally mediated tests. Additional research is needed to identify the types of tests that may be most affected as well as the factors that contribute to the effects. In the meantime neuropsychologists are encouraged to avoid interpreter use whenever practically possible, particularly for tests with high demands on interpreter abilities and skills, with tests that have not been appropriately adapted and translated into the patient's target language, and with interpreters who are not trained professionals.

  5. Our approach to changing the culture of caring for the acutely unwell patient at a large UK teaching hospital: A service improvement focus on Early Warning Scoring tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, S D; Candeland, J L; Dinning, A; Dow, S; Hunkin, H; McHale, S; McNeill, G; Taylor, N

    2015-04-01

    Early Warning Scoring tools (EWS) play a major role in the detection of the deteriorating ward patient. EWS tools have been in place in Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust for over five years but compliance has been low. A service improvement project commenced across all admission wards in 2013, initiated through a financially driven CQUIN. Prior to the project, only one out of five clinical care targets set were achieved. An established framework for service improvement was used to guide delivery. The approach has consisted of multi-faceted, inter-professional high impact interventions including ward delivered education, human factors training and clinician feedback, combined with regular performance audits. Since introduction of the service improvement team, consistent signs of improvement have been visible across the admission areas in four out of five of the clinical care targets. The first 12 months of the project has seen tangible benefits in patient care and staff experience. Personal feedback both to medical and nursing staff has been effective where a top-down approach may not have been. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Data-model integration to interpret connectivity between biogeochemical cycling, and vegetation phenology and productivity in mountainous ecosystems under changing hydrologic regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, E.; Arora, B.; Beller, H. R.; Bill, M.; Bouskill, N.; Chakraborty, R.; Conrad, M. E.; Dafflon, B.; Enquist, B. J.; Falco, N.; Henderson, A.; Karaoz, U.; Polussa, A.; Sorensen, P.; Steltzer, H.; Wainwright, H. M.; Wang, S.; Williams, K. H.; Wilmer, C.; Wu, Y.

    2017-12-01

    In mountainous systems, snow-melt is associated with a large pulse of nutrients that originates from under-snow microbial mineralization of organic matter and microbial biomass turnover. Vegetation phenology in these systems is regulated by environmental cues such as air temperature ranges and photoperiod, such that, under typical conditions, vegetation greening and nutrient uptake occur in sync with microbial biomass turnover and nutrient release, closing nutrient cycles and enhancing nutrient retention. However, early snow-melt has been observed with increasing frequency in the mountainous west and is hypothesized to disrupt coupled plant-microbial behavior, potentially resulting in a temporal discontinuity between microbial nutrient release and vegetation greening. As part of the Watershed Function Scientific Focus Area (SFA) at Berkeley Lab we are quantifying below-ground biogeochemistry and above-ground phenology and vegetation chemistry and their relationships to hydrologic events at a lower montane hillslope in the East River catchment, Crested Butte, CO. This presentation will focus on data-model integration to interpret connectivity between biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen and vegetation nitrogen demand. Initial model results suggest that early snow-melt will result in an earlier accumulation and leaching loss of nitrate from the upper soil depths but that vegetation productivity may not decline as traits such as greater rooting depth and resource allocation to stems are favored.

  7. An investigation of developmental changes in interpretation and construction of graphic AAC symbol sequences through systematic combination of input and output modalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, Natacha; Sutton, Ann; Morford, Jill P

    2014-09-01

    While research on spoken language has a long tradition of studying and contrasting language production and comprehension, the study of graphic symbol communication has focused more on production than comprehension. As a result, the relationships between the ability to construct and to interpret graphic symbol sequences are not well understood. This study explored the use of graphic symbol sequences in children without disabilities aged 3;0 to 6;11 (years; months) (n=111). Children took part in nine tasks that systematically varied input and output modalities (speech, action, and graphic symbols). Results show that in 3- and 4-year-olds, attributing meaning to a sequence of symbols was particularly difficult even when the children knew the meaning of each symbol in the sequence. Similarly, while even 3- and 4-year-olds could produce a graphic symbol sequence following a model, transposing a spoken sentence into a graphic sequence was more difficult for them. Representing an action with graphic symbols was difficult even for 5-year-olds. Finally, the ability to comprehend graphic-symbol sequences preceded the ability to produce them. These developmental patterns, as well as memory-related variables, should be taken into account in choosing intervention strategies with young children who use AAC.

  8. Can score databanks help teaching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mendonça, Vitor Rosa Ramos; Andrade, Bruno Bezerril; Almeida, Alessandro; Barral-Netto, Manoel

    2011-01-05

    Basic courses in most medical schools assess students' performance by conferring scores. The objective of this work is to use a large score databank for the early identification of students with low performance and to identify course trends based on the mean of students' grades. We studied scores from 2,398 medical students registered in courses over a period of 10 years. Students in the first semester were grouped into those whose ratings remained in the lower quartile in two or more courses (low-performance) and students who had up to one course in the lower quartile (high-performance). ROC curves were built, aimed at the identification of a cut-off average score in the first semesters that would be able to predict low performances in future semesters. Moreover, to follow the long-term pattern of each course, the mean of all scores conferred in a semester was compared to the overall course mean obtained by averaging 10 years of data. Individuals in the low-performance group had a higher risk of being in the lower quartile of at least one course in the second semester (relative risk 3.907; 95% CI: 3.378-4.519) and in the eighth semester (relative risk 2.873; 95% CI: 2.495-3.308). The prediction analysis revealed that an average score of 7.188 in the first semester could identify students that presented scores below the lower quartiles in both the second and eighth semesters (pstudents with low performance may be useful in promoting pedagogical strategies for these individuals. Evaluation of the time trend of scores conferred by courses may help departments monitoring changes in personnel and methodology that may affect a student's performance.

  9. Identification of networks of co-occurring, tumor-related DNA copy number changes using a genome-wide scoring approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiaan Klijn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumorigenesis is a multi-step process in which normal cells transform into malignant tumors following the accumulation of genetic mutations that enable them to evade the growth control checkpoints that would normally suppress their growth or result in apoptosis. It is therefore important to identify those combinations of mutations that collaborate in cancer development and progression. DNA copy number alterations (CNAs are one of the ways in which cancer genes are deregulated in tumor cells. We hypothesized that synergistic interactions between cancer genes might be identified by looking for regions of co-occurring gain and/or loss. To this end we developed a scoring framework to separate truly co-occurring aberrations from passenger mutations and dominant single signals present in the data. The resulting regions of high co-occurrence can be investigated for between-region functional interactions. Analysis of high-resolution DNA copy number data from a panel of 95 hematological tumor cell lines correctly identified co-occurring recombinations at the T-cell receptor and immunoglobulin loci in T- and B-cell malignancies, respectively, showing that we can recover truly co-occurring genomic alterations. In addition, our analysis revealed networks of co-occurring genomic losses and gains that are enriched for cancer genes. These networks are also highly enriched for functional relationships between genes. We further examine sub-networks of these networks, core networks, which contain many known cancer genes. The core network for co-occurring DNA losses we find seems to be independent of the canonical cancer genes within the network. Our findings suggest that large-scale, low-intensity copy number alterations may be an important feature of cancer development or maintenance by affecting gene dosage of a large interconnected network of functionally related genes.

  10. Linguistics in Text Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Togeby, Ole

    2011-01-01

    A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'.......A model for how text interpretation proceeds from what is pronounced, through what is said to what is comunicated, and definition of the concepts 'presupposition' and 'implicature'....

  11. Acquiring specific interpreting competence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Zidar Forte

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In postgraduate interpreter training, the main objective of the course is to help trainees develop various competences, from linguistic, textual and cultural competence, to professional and specific interpreting competence. For simultaneous interpreting (SI, the main focus is on mastering the SI technique and strategies as well as on developing and strengthening communicative skills, which is discussed and illustrated with examples in the present paper. First, a brief overview is given of all the necessary competences of a professional interpreter with greater emphasis on specific interpreting competence for SI. In the second part of the paper, various approaches are described in terms of acquiring specific skills and strategies, specifically through a range of exercises. Besides interpreting entire speeches, practical courses should also consist of targeted exercises, which help trainees develop suitable coping strategies and mechanisms (later on almost automatisms, while at the same time "force" them to reflect on their individual learning process and interpreting performance. This provides a solid base on which trained interpreters can progress and develop their skills also after joining the professional sphere.

  12. Life Cycle Interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonou, Alexandra; Olsen, Stig Irving

    2017-01-01

    an interpretation. The process of interpretation starts with identification of potentially significant issues in the previous stages of goal and scope definition, inventory analysis and impact assessment, and examples of potential significant issues are given for each phase. The significance is then determined...

  13. Educational principles and techniques for interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. David Boulanger; John P. Smith

    1973-01-01

    Interpretation is in large part education, since it attempts to convey information, concepts, and principles while creating attitude changes and such emotional states as wonder, delight, and appreciation. Although interpreters might profit greatly by formal training in the principles and techniques of teaching, many have not had such training. Some means of making the...

  14. South African Scoring System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-18

    Nov 18, 2014 ... suitability of the rapid macroinvertebrate biomonitoring tool (the South African Scoring System) was investigated by determining the ... for 80% (SASS score) and 75% (NOT) of the variation in the regression model. Consequently ... et al., 2012), while settled sediments can alter habitat (Wood and Armitage ...

  15. SCORE - A DESCRIPTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SLACK, CHARLES W.

    REINFORCEMENT AND ROLE-REVERSAL TECHNIQUES ARE USED IN THE SCORE PROJECT, A LOW-COST PROGRAM OF DELINQUENCY PREVENTION FOR HARD-CORE TEENAGE STREET CORNER BOYS. COMMITTED TO THE BELIEF THAT THE BOYS HAVE THE POTENTIAL FOR ETHICAL BEHAVIOR, THE SCORE WORKER FOLLOWS B.F. SKINNER'S THEORY OF OPERANT CONDITIONING AND REINFORCES THE DELINQUENT'S GOOD…

  16. Interpreting radiographs. 4. The carpus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burguez, P.N.

    1984-01-01

    The complexity of the carpus which has three major joints, seven or eight carpal bones and five adjacent bones, each of which articulates with one or more of the carpal elements, necessitates good quality radiographs for definitive radiographic interpretation may be extremely difficult because of the disparity between radiographic changes and obvious clinical signs and, therefore, must be discussed in the light of a thorough clinical assessment

  17. Syncope diagnostic scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Robert

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of syncope poses unique challenges. Syncope has multiple etiologies, with most carrying benign prognoses, and a few less common causes carrying a risk of serious morbidity or death. The history at first glance carries few clues. Faced with this many patients are heavily investigated with tests known to be both useless and expensive. For these reasons considerable emphasis has been placed on developing evidence-based and quantitative histories that might distinguish among the main causes of syncope. Quantitative histories were first developed in populations of several hundred patients with definite diagnoses of various losses of consciousness. Their derivation and use mirror those of experienced clinicians. The first score - the Calgary Syncope Seizures Score - discriminates between epileptic convulsions and syncope with a sensitivity and specificity of about 94%. The second score, the Calgary Syncope Score for normal hearts, discriminates between vasovagal syncope and other causes of syncope with a sensitivity and specificity of about 90%. The third score, the Calgary Syncope Score for Structural Heart Disease, diagnoses ventricular tachycardia with 98% sensitivity and 71% specificity. It also accurately predicts serious arrhythmic outcomes and all cause death. Gaps in the accuracy of the second score have been identified and are being addressed. These scores are proving useful in the clinic, and as entry criteria for observation studies, genetic studies, and randomized clinical trials. A very simple score predicts vasovagal syncope recurrences, based on the number of faints in the preceding year. Work from several centres indicates that scores will distinguish among competing causes of syncope in select populations, such as those with bifascicular heart block, Brugada syndrome, and Long QT syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Influence of transvaginal ultrasound-guided follicular punctures in the mare on heart rate, respiratory rate, facial expression changes, and salivary cortisol as pain scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego, Rodrigo; Douet, Cécile; Reigner, Fabrice; Blard, Thierry; Cognié, Juliette; Deleuze, Stefan; Goudet, Ghylène

    2016-10-15

    Transvaginal ultrasound-guided follicular punctures are widely used in the mare for diagnosis, research, and commercial applications. The objective of our study was to determine their influence on pain, stress, and well-being in the mare, by evaluating heart rate, breath rate, facial expression changes, and salivary cortisol before, during, and after puncture. For this experiment, 21 pony mares were used. Transvaginal ultrasound-guided aspirations were performed on 11 mares. After injections for sedation, analgesia, and antispasmodia, the follicles from both ovaries were aspirated with a needle introduced through the vagina wall into the ovary. In the control group, 10 mares underwent similar treatments and injections, but no follicular aspiration. Along the session, heart rate and breath rate were evaluated by a trained veterinarian, ears position, eyelid closure, and contraction of facial muscles were evaluated, and salivary samples were taken for evaluation of cortisol concentration. A significant relaxation was observed after sedative injection in the punctured and control mares, according to ear position, eyelid closure, and contraction of facial muscles, but no difference between punctured and control animals was recorded. No significant modification of salivary cortisol concentration during puncture and no difference between punctured and control mares at any time were observed. No significant modification of the breath rate was observed along the procedure for the punctured and the control mares. Heart rate increased significantly but transiently when the needle was introduced in the ovary and was significantly higher at that time for the punctured mares than that for control mares. None of the other investigated parameters were affected at that time, suggesting discomfort is minimal and transient. Improving analgesia, e.g., through a multimodal approach, during that possibly more sensitive step could be recommended. The evaluation of facial expression

  19. Minimal important change and other measurement properties of the Oxford Elbow Score and the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand in patients with a simple elbow dislocation; validation study alongside the multicenter FuncSiE trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gijs I T Iordens

    Full Text Available Validation study using data from a multicenter, randomized, clinical trial (RCT.To evaluate the reliability, validity, responsiveness, and minimal important change (MIC of the Dutch version of the Oxford Elbow Score (OES and the Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (Quick-DASH in patients with a simple elbow dislocation.Patient-reported outcome measures are increasingly important for assessing outcome following elbow injuries, both in daily practice and in clinical research. However measurement properties of the OES and Quick-DASH in these patients are not fully known.OES and Quick-DASH were completed four times until one year after trauma. Mayo Elbow Performance Index, pain (VAS, Short Form-36, and EuroQol-5D were completed for comparison. Data of a multicenter RCT (n = 100 were used. Internal consistency was determined using Cronbach's alpha. Construct and longitudinal validity were assessed by determining hypothesized strength of correlation between scores or changes in scores, respectively, of (subscales. Finally, floor and ceiling effects, MIC, and smallest detectable change (SDC were determined.OES and Quick-DASH demonstrated adequate internal consistency (Cronbach α, 0.882 and 0.886, respectively. Construct validity and longitudinal validity of both scales were supported by >75% correctly hypothesized correlations. MIC and SDC were 8.2 and 12.0 point for OES, respectively. For Quick-DASH, these values were 11.7 and 25.0, respectively.OES and Quick-DASH are reliable, valid, and responsive instruments for evaluating elbow-related quality of life. The anchor-based MIC was 8.2 points for OES and 11.7 for Quick-DASH.

  20. Abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) interpretation: discrepancy rates among experienced radiologists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abujudeh, Hani H.; Boland, Giles W.; Kaewlai, Rathachai; Rabiner, Pavel; Thrall, James H. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Halpern, Elkarn F.; Gazelle, G.S. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Institute for Technology Assessment, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-08-15

    To assess the discrepancy rate for the interpretation of abdominal and pelvic computed tomography (CT) examinations among experienced radiologists. Ninety abdominal and pelvic CT examinations reported by three experienced radiologists who specialize in abdominal imaging were randomly selected from the radiological database. The same radiologists, blinded to previous interpretation, were asked to re-interpret 60 examinations: 30 of their previous interpretations and 30 interpreted by others. All reports were assessed for the degree of discrepancy between initial and repeat interpretations according to a three-level scoring system: no discrepancy, minor, or major discrepancy. Inter- and intrareader discrepancy rates and causes were evaluated. CT examinations included in the investigation were performed on 90 patients (43 men, mean age 59 years, SD 14, range 19-88) for the following indications: follow-up/evaluation of malignancy (69/90, 77%), pancreatitis (5/90, 6%), urinary tract stone (4/90, 4%) or other (12/90, 13%). Interobserver and intraobserver major discrepancy rates were 26 and 32%, respectively. Major discrepancies were due to missed findings, different opinions regarding interval change of clinically significant findings, and the presence of recommendation. Major discrepancy of between 26 and 32% was observed in the interpretation of abdominal and pelvic CT examinations. (orig.)

  1. Characterization of magnetic spherical fractions in sand deposits for interpretation of environmental change around the El- Zayyan temple, Kharga Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Makiko; Koizumi, Natsuko; Kato, Sayuri; Kikuchi, Ryohei; Kamei, Hiroyuki

    2014-05-01

    Desertification in North Africa has rapidly advanced over the last 6,000 years. Such environmental changes began in the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt (4200 - 3150 BC), and the occupation of Achaemenid Persian and Roman cultures in Egypt occurred under even drier climates. Kharga is the largest oasis of the five oases, located in the western desert of Egypt that contains a treasure trove of archaeological resources. This oasis has been highlighted to promote resource exploration and development of archaeological tourism since the 1980's. The El-Zayyan temple is located 27 km south of the central Kharga oasis. Zayyan was once called 'Tchonemyris', which has connection with the means of 'huge well' in Greek. Although major portions of the temple were rebuilt in 140 AD during the rule of the Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius, this temple is considered to be originally built in the Ptolemaic period (4c-1c BC). It is likely that the area had a sufficient water supply in the past as the El-Zayyan temple stands at the lowest point (-18 m a.s.l.) in the Kharga oasis. Furthermore, the El-Ghueita temple that stands on a hill top at 68.5 m a.s.l., 4 km northward from the El-Zayyan temple, has given name that means 'beautiful garden' in Greek. From these facts, we can imagine that the past landscape of this area contained green surroundings. The El-Ghueita temple was well known as a production centre of high quality wine since the mid-Dynastic age (2050 -1786 BC). As this area is currently arid, it is expected that there were irrigation facilities to maintain the vast farm land during the ancient period. To deepen our knowledge of how people developed their technologies and conducted their life within the natural environment of a drastic drying period, understanding the process of environmental change on a region scale is necessary. The aim of this study was to extract proxies from sand deposits in the western desert area to estimate the change in the environment. We examined the

  2. Measurable Changes in Pre-Post Test Scores in Iraqi 4-H Leader’s Knowledge of Animal Science Production Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justen O. Smith

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The 4-H volunteer program is a new concept to the people of Iraq, for decades the country has been closed to western ideas. Iraqi culture and the Arabic customs have not embraced the volunteer concept and even more the concept of scientific animal production technologies designed to increase profitability for producers. In 2011 the USAID-Inma Agribusiness program teamed with the Iraq 4-H program to create youth and community entrepreneurship opportunities for widowed families. Iraq 4-H provided the youth members and adult volunteers and Inma provided the financial capital (livestock and the animal science training program for the volunteers. The purpose of this study was to measure the knowledge level gained through intensive animal science training for Iraqi 4-H volunteers. Researchers designed and implemented a pre and post test to measure the knowledge of fifteen volunteers who participated in the three day course. The pretest exposed a general lack of animal science knowledge of all volunteers; over 80% of the participants incorrectly answered the questions. However, the post-test indicated positive change in the participants understanding of animal science production principles.

  3. Interpretation bias and anxiety in childhood: stability, specificity and longitudinal associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Cathy; O'Connor, Thomas G

    2011-03-01

    Biases in the interpretation of ambiguous material are central to cognitive models of anxiety; however, understanding of the association between interpretation and anxiety in childhood is limited. To address this, a prospective investigation of the stability and specificity of anxious cognitions and anxiety and the relationship between these factors was conducted. Sixty-five children (10-11 years) from a community sample completed measures of self-reported anxiety, depression, and conduct problems, and responded to ambiguous stories at three time points over one-year. Individual differences in biases in interpretation of ambiguity (specifically "anticipated distress" and "threat interpretation") were stable over time. Furthermore, anticipated distress and threat interpretation were specifically associated with anxiety symptoms. Distress anticipation predicted change in anxiety symptoms over time. In contrast, anxiety scores predicted change in threat interpretation over time. The results suggest that different cognitive constructs may show different longitudinal links with anxiety. These preliminary findings extend research and theory on anxious cognitions and their link with anxiety in children, and suggest that these cognitive processes may be valuable targets for assessment and intervention.

  4. Interpretability in PRA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bílková, Marta; De Jongh, D.; Joosten, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 161, č. 2 (2009), s. 128-138 ISSN 0168-0072 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA900090703 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA401/06/0387 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10300504 Keywords : interpretability * arithmetic * primitive recursive arithmetic * interpretability logic Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2009

  5. The Bandim tuberculosis score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, Frauke; Joaquim, Luis Carlos; Vieira, Cesaltina

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study was carried out in Guinea-Bissau ’ s capital Bissau among inpatients and outpatients attending for tuberculosis (TB) treatment within the study area of the Bandim Health Project, a Health and Demographic Surveillance Site. Our aim was to assess the variability between 2...... physicians in performing the Bandim tuberculosis score (TBscore), a clinical severity score for pulmonary TB (PTB), and to compare it to the Karnofsky performance score (KPS). Method : From December 2008 to July 2009 we assessed the TBscore and the KPS of 100 PTB patients at inclusion in the TB cohort and...

  6. A simple approximation of productivity scores of fuzzy production plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth

    2005-01-01

    This paper suggests a simple approximation procedure for the assessment of productivity scores with respect to fuzzy production plans. The procedure has a clear economic interpretation and all the necessary calculations can be performed in a spreadsheet making it highly operational......This paper suggests a simple approximation procedure for the assessment of productivity scores with respect to fuzzy production plans. The procedure has a clear economic interpretation and all the necessary calculations can be performed in a spreadsheet making it highly operational...

  7. An Objective Fluctuation Score for Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Malcolm K.; McGregor, Sarah; Bergquist, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Establishing the presence and severity of fluctuations is important in managing Parkinson’s Disease yet there is no reliable, objective means of doing this. In this study we have evaluated a Fluctuation Score derived from variations in dyskinesia and bradykinesia scores produced by an accelerometry based system. Methods The Fluctuation Score was produced by summing the interquartile range of bradykinesia scores and dyskinesia scores produced every 2 minutes between 0900-1800 for at least 6 days by the accelerometry based system and expressing it as an algorithm. Results This Score could distinguish between fluctuating and non-fluctuating patients with high sensitivity and selectivity and was significant lower following activation of deep brain stimulators. The scores following deep brain stimulation lay in a band just above the score separating fluctuators from non-fluctuators, suggesting a range representing adequate motor control. When compared with control subjects the score of newly diagnosed patients show a loss of fluctuation with onset of PD. The score was calculated in subjects whose duration of disease was known and this showed that newly diagnosed patients soon develop higher scores which either fall under or within the range representing adequate motor control or instead go on to develop more severe fluctuations. Conclusion The Fluctuation Score described here promises to be a useful tool for identifying patients whose fluctuations are progressing and may require therapeutic changes. It also shows promise as a useful research tool. Further studies are required to more accurately identify therapeutic targets and ranges. PMID:25928634

  8. On the use of a simple deciduous forest model for the interpretation of climate change effects at the level of carbon dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veroustraete, F. (Flemish Inst. for Technological Research, Boeretang, Mol (Belgium))

    1994-09-01

    In this publication an approach is described to model the Net Carbon Exchange (NCE) between the vegetated surface-atmosphere interface of a deciduous forest. In that context it is not only important to simulate effects of climatology (temperature, CO[sub 2]) on forest evolution, but also to evaluate its NCE. For climatological conditions representative for the mid latitudes the influences of changes in atmospheric temperature and CO[sub 2] levels are simulated. Four compartments are defined in the model, two compartments simulating phytomass functional elements with large temporal biomass fluctuations (green compartment) and phytomass temporal fluctuations that are relatively small (non-green compartment). The litter compartment is also incorporated in the model and its fluxes evaluated. Model runs were executed for two CO[sub 2] scenarios and a climatological record reconstructed for the period covering 1833 till 1989 at a latitude and longitude of 51[sup o]N, 2.5[sup o]E. It has to be remarked that the addition of 4.5[sup o]C to a climatological record for all seasons is a simplification when simulating the effects of a temperature rise. The model outcome however suggests that the CO[sub 2] mixing ratio rate increase after World War II (WW II) has induced a phytomass increase in young forests. The constraints of the model and its application in Remote Sensing-derived data sets are discussed

  9. Volleyball Scoring Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, William; Dargahi-Noubary, G. R.; Shi, Yixun

    2002-01-01

    The widespread interest in sports in our culture provides an excellent opportunity to catch students' attention in mathematics and statistics classes. One mathematically interesting aspect of volleyball, which can be used to motivate students, is the scoring system. (MM)

  10. Inuit interpretations of sleep paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Samuel; Kirmayer, Laurence J

    2005-03-01

    Traditional and contemporary Inuit concepts of sleep paralysis were investigated through interviews with elders and young people in Iqaluit, Baffin Island. Sleep paralysis was readily recognized by most respondents and termed uqumangirniq (in the Baffin region) or aqtuqsinniq (Kivalliq region). Traditional interpretations of uqumangirniq referred to a shamanistic cosmology in which the individual's soul was vulnerable during sleep and dreaming. Sleep paralysis could result from attack by shamans or malevolent spirits. Understanding the experience as a manifestation of supernatural power, beyond one's control, served to reinforce the experiential reality and presence of the spirit world. For contemporary youth, sleep paralysis was interpreted in terms of multiple frameworks that incorporated personal, medical, mystical, traditional/shamanistic, and Christian views, reflecting the dynamic social changes taking place in this region.

  11. Localized Smart-Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundh Gulbrandsen, Mats; Mejer Hansen, Thomas; Bach, Torben; Pallesen, Tom

    2014-05-01

    The complex task of setting up a geological model consists not only of combining available geological information into a conceptual plausible model, but also requires consistency with availably data, e.g. geophysical data. However, in many cases the direct geological information, e.g borehole samples, are very sparse, so in order to create a geological model, the geologist needs to rely on the geophysical data. The problem is however, that the amount of geophysical data in many cases are so vast that it is practically impossible to integrate all of them in the manual interpretation process. This means that a lot of the information available from the geophysical surveys are unexploited, which is a problem, due to the fact that the resulting geological model does not fulfill its full potential and hence are less trustworthy. We suggest an approach to geological modeling that 1. allow all geophysical data to be considered when building the geological model 2. is fast 3. allow quantification of geological modeling. The method is constructed to build a statistical model, f(d,m), describing the relation between what the geologists interpret, d, and what the geologist knows, m. The para- meter m reflects any available information that can be quantified, such as geophysical data, the result of a geophysical inversion, elevation maps, etc... The parameter d reflects an actual interpretation, such as for example the depth to the base of a ground water reservoir. First we infer a statistical model f(d,m), by examining sets of actual interpretations made by a geological expert, [d1, d2, ...], and the information used to perform the interpretation; [m1, m2, ...]. This makes it possible to quantify how the geological expert performs interpolation through f(d,m). As the geological expert proceeds interpreting, the number of interpreted datapoints from which the statistical model is inferred increases, and therefore the accuracy of the statistical model increases. When a model f

  12. The Interpretive Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    Approximately a decade ago, it was suggested that a new function should be added to the lexicographical function theory: the interpretive function(1). However, hardly any research has been conducted into this function, and though it was only suggested that this new function was relevant to incorp......Approximately a decade ago, it was suggested that a new function should be added to the lexicographical function theory: the interpretive function(1). However, hardly any research has been conducted into this function, and though it was only suggested that this new function was relevant...... to incorporate into lexicographical theory, some scholars have since then assumed that this function exists(2), including the author of this contribution. In Agerbo (2016), I present arguments supporting the incorporation of the interpretive function into the function theory and suggest how non-linguistic signs...... can be treated in specific dictionary articles. However, in the current article, due to the results of recent research, I argue that the interpretive function should not be considered an individual main function. The interpretive function, contrary to some of its definitions, is not connected...

  13. School Inputs, Household Substitution, and Test Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Jishnu; Dercon, Stefan; Krishnan, Pramila; Sundararaman, Venkatesh; Muralidharan, Karthik; Habyarimana, James

    2013-01-01

    Empirical studies of the relationship between school inputs and test scores typically do not account for the fact that households will respond to changes in school inputs. This paper presents a dynamic household optimization model relating test scores to school and household inputs, and tests its predictions in two very different low-income country settings -- Zambia and India. The authors...

  14. 24 CFR 902.63 - PHAS scoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... audit firm that will perform the audit of the PHA and may serve as the audit committee for the audit in... indicators. (b) Adjustments to the PHAS score. (1) Adjustments to the score may be made after a PHA's audit... changed by HUD in accordance with data included in the independent audit report, or obtained through such...

  15. Interpretation of panoramic radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perschbacher, Susanne

    2012-03-01

    Panoramic radiography has become a commonly used imaging modality in dental practice and can be a valuable diagnostic tool in the dentist's armamentarium. However, the panoramic image is a complex projection of the jaws with multiple superimpositions and distortions which may be exacerbated by technical errors in image acquisition. Furthermore, the panoramic radiograph depicts numerous anatomic structures outside of the jaws which may create additional interpretation challenges. Successful interpretation of panoramic radiographs begins with an understanding of the normal anatomy of the head and neck and how it is depicted in this image type. This article will describe how osseous structures, soft tissues, air spaces and ghost shadows contribute to the final panoramic image. A systematic and repeated approach to examining panoramic radiographs, which is recommended to ensure that critical findings are not overlooked, is also outlined. Examples of challenging interpretations, including variations of anatomy, artefacts and disease, are presented to illustrate these concepts. © 2012 Australian Dental Association.

  16. The Interpretive Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerbo, Heidi

    2017-01-01

    to acting and therefore the only difference between reception and interpretation is that they work with different types of sign. However, the type of sign is not relevant for a function, or rather, it should not be a criterion for distinguishing between functions. The lemma selection for the communicative......Approximately a decade ago, it was suggested that a new function should be added to the lexicographical function theory: the interpretive function(1). However, hardly any research has been conducted into this function, and though it was only suggested that this new function was relevant...... to incorporate into lexicographical theory, some scholars have since then assumed that this function exists(2), including the author of this contribution. In Agerbo (2016), I present arguments supporting the incorporation of the interpretive function into the function theory and suggest how non-linguistic signs...

  17. RIASEC Interest and Confidence Cutoff Scores: Implications for Career Counseling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitz, Verena S.; Armstrong, Patrick Ian; Larson, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    One strategy commonly used to simplify the joint interpretation of interest and confidence inventories is the use of cutoff scores to classify individuals dichotomously as having high or low levels of confidence and interest, respectively. The present study examined the adequacy of cutoff scores currently recommended for the joint interpretation…

  18. Reflections and Interpretations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reflections and Interpretations is an anthology on The Freedom Writers’ methodology. It is an anthology for all those with a professional need for texts explaining, not only how The Freedom Writers’ tools are being used, but also why they work so convincingly well. It is not an anthology of guide......Reflections and Interpretations is an anthology on The Freedom Writers’ methodology. It is an anthology for all those with a professional need for texts explaining, not only how The Freedom Writers’ tools are being used, but also why they work so convincingly well. It is not an anthology...

  19. Conjunctive interpretations of disjunctions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert van Rooij

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available In this extended commentary I discuss the problem of how to account for "conjunctive" readings of some sentences with embedded disjunctions for globalist analyses of conversational implicatures. Following Franke (2010, 2009, I suggest that earlier proposals failed, because they did not take into account the interactive reasoning of what else the speaker could have said, and how else the hearer could have interpreted the (alternative sentence(s. I show how Franke's idea relates to more traditional pragmatic interpretation strategies. doi:10.3765/sp.3.11 BibTeX info

  20. Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pickl Peter

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The problems of modern physics are man made. The Copenhagen version of quantum mechanics is formulated in a vague prosaic way, inconsistencies and paradoxes are the price. New interpretations try to solve the problem, however a reformulation rather than an interpretation is needed. In this manuscript I will point out, where the Copenhagen formulation of quantum mechanics is flawed and how one can make sense out of it. Then I will show, that it is possible to give a precise formulation of quantum mechanics without losing its compelling ability in describing experiments.

  1. Interpretations of Quantum Mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickl, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The problems of modern physics are man made. The Copenhagen version of quantum mechanics is formulated in a vague prosaic way, inconsistencies and paradoxes are the price. New interpretations try to solve the problem, however a reformulation rather than an interpretation is needed. In this manuscript I will point out, where the Copenhagen formulation of quantum mechanics is flawed and how one can make sense out of it. Then I will show, that it is possible to give a precise formulation of quantum mechanics without losing its compelling ability in describing experiments.

  2. Translation, Interpreting and Lexicography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Helle Vrønning; Tarp, Sven

    2018-01-01

    Translation, interpreting and lexicography represent three separate areas of human activity, each of them with its own theories, models and methods and, hence, with its own disciplinary underpinnings. At the same time, all three disciplines are characterized by a marked interdisciplinary dimension...... in the sense that their practice fields are typically ‘about something else’. Translators may, for example, be called upon to translate medical texts, and interpreters may be assigned to work on medical speeches. Similarly, practical lexicography may produce medical dictionaries. In this perspective, the three...

  3. Instant MuseScore

    CERN Document Server

    Shinn, Maxwell

    2013-01-01

    Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant MuseScore is written in an easy-to follow format, packed with illustrations that will help you get started with this music composition software.This book is for musicians who would like to learn how to notate music digitally with MuseScore. Readers should already have some knowledge about musical terminology; however, no prior experience with music notation software is necessary.

  4. Changes in the SF-8 scores among healthy non-smoking school teachers after the enforcement of a smoke-free school policy: a comparison by passive smoke status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyohara, Kosuke; Itani, Yuri; Kawamura, Takashi; Matsumoto, Yoshitaka; Takahashi, Yuko

    2010-04-28

    The effects of the enforcement of a smoke-free workplace policy on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among a healthy population are poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of the enforcement of a smoke-free school policy on HRQOL among healthy non-smoking schoolteachers with respect to their exposure to passive smoke. Two self-reported questionnaire surveys were conducted, the first before and the second after the enforcement of a total smoke-free public school policy in Nara City. A total of 1534 teachers were invited from 62 schools, and their HRQOL was assessed using six domains extracted from the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-8 questionnaire (SF-8): general health perception (GH), role functioning-physical (RP), vitality (VT), social functioning (SF), mental health (MH), and role functioning-emotional (RE). The participants were divided into two groups according to their exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at baseline: participants not exposed to ETS at school (non-smokers), and participants exposed to ETS at school (passive smokers). Changes in each SF-8 score were evaluated using paired t-tests for each group, and their inter-group differences were evaluated using multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for sex, age, school type, managerial position, and attitude towards a smoke-free policy. After ineligible subjects were excluded, 689 teachers were included in the analyses. The number of non-smokers and passive smokers was 447 and 242, respectively. Significant changes in SF-8 scores were observed for MH (0.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2-1.5) and RE (0.7; 95% CI, 0.0-1.3) in non-smokers, and GH (2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-3.1), VT (1.8; 95% CI, 0.9-2.7), SF (2.7; 95% CI, 1.6-3.8), MH (2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-2.9), and RE (2.0; 95% CI, 1.2-2.8) in passive smokers. In the multiple linear regression analyses, the net changes in the category scores of GH (1.8; 95% CI, 0.7-2.9), VT (1.4, 95% CI, 0.3-2.5), SF (2

  5. Interpreting the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, William J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

  6. Listening and Message Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Renee

    2011-01-01

    Message interpretation, the notion that individuals assign meaning to stimuli, is related to listening presage, listening process, and listening product. As a central notion of communication, meaning includes (a) denotation and connotation, and (b) content and relational meanings, which can vary in ambiguity and vagueness. Past research on message…

  7. Interpretation as conflict resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Henriëtte de; Zwart, J.

    Semantic interpretation is not a simple process. When we want to know what a given sentence means, more is needed than just a simple ‘adding up’ of the meanings of the component words. Not only can the words in a sentence interact and conflict with each other, but also with the linguistic and

  8. Interpretations of Greek Mythology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Jan

    1987-01-01

    This collection of original studies offers new interpretations of some of the best known characters and themes of Greek mythology, reflecting the complexity and fascination of the Greek imagination. Following analyses of the concept of myth and the influence of the Orient on Greek mythology, the

  9. Interpretability in PRA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bílková, M.; de Jongh, D.; Joosten, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we study IL(PRA), the interpretability logic of PRA. As PRA is neither an essentially reflexive theory nor finitely axiomatizable, the two known arithmetical completeness results do not apply to PRA: IL(PRA) is not ILM or ILP. IL(PRA) does, of course, contain all the principles known

  10. Food sustainability: diverging interpretations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aiking, H.; de Boer, J.

    2004-01-01

    The concept of sustainability in general and food sustainability, in particular, entails many aspects and many interpretations. During a conference on food sustainability a broad, multidisciplinary picture was painted and many key issues were dealt with, from ecology, economy and society. In

  11. Nursing activities score

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miranda, DR; Nap, R; de Rijk, A; Schaufeli, W; Lapichino, G

    Objectives. The instruments used for measuring nursing workload in the intensive care unit (e.g., Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28) are based on therapeutic interventions related to severity of illness. Many nursing activities are not necessarily related to severity of illness, and

  12. The Bayesian Score Statistic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleibergen, F.R.; Kleijn, R.; Paap, R.

    2000-01-01

    We propose a novel Bayesian test under a (noninformative) Jeffreys'priorspecification. We check whether the fixed scalar value of the so-calledBayesian Score Statistic (BSS) under the null hypothesis is aplausiblerealization from its known and standardized distribution under thealternative. Unlike

  13. Developing Scoring Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.

  14. South African Scoring System

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-11-18

    Nov 18, 2014 ... for 80% (SASS score) and 75% (NOT) of the variation in the regression model. Consequently, SASS ... further investigation: spatial analyses of macroinvertebrate assemblages; and the use of structural and functional metrics. Keywords: .... conductivity levels was assessed using multiple linear regres- sion.

  15. Automated Essay Scoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semire DIKLI

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Automated Essay Scoring Semire DIKLI Florida State University Tallahassee, FL, USA ABSTRACT The impacts of computers on writing have been widely studied for three decades. Even basic computers functions, i.e. word processing, have been of great assistance to writers in modifying their essays. The research on Automated Essay Scoring (AES has revealed that computers have the capacity to function as a more effective cognitive tool (Attali, 2004. AES is defined as the computer technology that evaluates and scores the written prose (Shermis & Barrera, 2002; Shermis & Burstein, 2003; Shermis, Raymat, & Barrera, 2003. Revision and feedback are essential aspects of the writing process. Students need to receive feedback in order to increase their writing quality. However, responding to student papers can be a burden for teachers. Particularly if they have large number of students and if they assign frequent writing assignments, providing individual feedback to student essays might be quite time consuming. AES systems can be very useful because they can provide the student with a score as well as feedback within seconds (Page, 2003. Four types of AES systems, which are widely used by testing companies, universities, and public schools: Project Essay Grader (PEG, Intelligent Essay Assessor (IEA, E-rater, and IntelliMetric. AES is a developing technology. Many AES systems are used to overcome time, cost, and generalizability issues in writing assessment. The accuracy and reliability of these systems have been proven to be high. The search for excellence in machine scoring of essays is continuing and numerous studies are being conducted to improve the effectiveness of the AES systems.

  16. Test-retest reliability and minimal detectable change scores for sit-to-stand-to-sit tests, the six-minute walk test, the one-leg heel-rise test, and handgrip strength in people undergoing hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Ortí, Eva; Martínez-Olmos, Francisco José

    2011-08-01

    Determining the relative and absolute reliability of outcomes of physical performance tests for people undergoing hemodialysis is necessary to discriminate between the true effects of exercise interventions and the inherent variability of this cohort. The aims of this study were to assess the relative reliability of sit-to-stand-to-sit tests (the STS-10, which measures the time [in seconds] required to complete 10 full stands from a sitting position, and the STS-60, which measures the number of repetitions achieved in 60 seconds), the Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), the one-leg heel-rise test, and the handgrip strength test and to calculate minimal detectable change (MDC) scores in people undergoing hemodialysis. This study was a prospective, nonexperimental investigation. Thirty-nine people undergoing hemodialysis at 2 clinics in Spain were contacted. Study participants performed the STS-10 (n=37), the STS-60 (n=37), and the 6MWT (n=36). At one of the settings, the participants also performed the one-leg heel-rise test (n=21) and the handgrip strength test (n=12) on both the right and the left sides. Participants attended 2 testing sessions 1 to 2 weeks apart. High intraclass correlation coefficients (≥.88) were found for all tests, suggesting good relative reliability. The MDC scores at 90% confidence intervals were as follows: 8.4 seconds for the STS-10, 4 repetitions for the STS-60, 66.3 m for the 6MWT, 3.4 kg for handgrip strength (force-generating capacity), 3.7 repetitions for the one-leg heel-rise test with the right leg, and 5.2 repetitions for the one-leg heel-rise test with the left leg. Limitations A limited sample of patients was used in this study. The STS-16, STS-60, 6MWT, one-leg heel rise test, and handgrip strength test are reliable outcome measures. The MDC scores at 90% confidence intervals for these tests will help to determine whether a change is due to error or to an intervention.

  17. Personal literary interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Januszkiewicz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article titled “Personal literary interpretation” deals with problems which have usually been marginalized in literary studies, but which seem to be very important in the context of the humanities, as broadly defined. The author of this article intends to rethink the problem of literary studies not in objective, but in personal terms. This is why the author wants to talk about what he calls personal literary interpretation, which has nothing to do with subjective or irrational thinking, but which is rather grounded in the hermeneutical rule that says that one must believe in order tounderstand a text or the other (where ‘believe’ also means: ‘to love’, ‘engage’, and ‘be open’. The article presents different determinants of this attitude, ranging from Dilthey to Heidegger and Gadamer. Finally, the author subscribes to the theory of personal interpretation, which is always dialogical.

  18. Interpretation and clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, C.B.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter discusses the factors to be kept in mind during routine interpretation of MR images. This includes the factors that determine contrast on standard spin-echo images and some distinguishing features between true lesions and artifactually simulated lesions. This chapter also indicates the standard protocols for MRI of various portions of the body. Finally, the current indications for MRI of various portions of the body are suggested; however, it is recognized that the indications for MRI are rapidly increasing and consequently, at the time of publication of this chapter, it is likely that many more applications will have become evident. Interpretation of magnetic resonance (MR) images requires consideration of anatomy and tissue characteristics and extraction of artifacts resulting from motion and other factors

  19. Interpretation as doing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Majgaard Krarup, Jonna

    2008-01-01

    The intent of the paper is to address and discuss relationships between the aesthetic perception and interpretation of contemporary landscape architecture. I will try to do this by setting up a cross-disciplinary perspective that looks into themes from the contemporary art scene and aesthetic...... theories, and relate them to observations in contemporary landscape architecture. It is my premise that investigating the relationship between modes of aesthetic perception and examples in contemporary art, and landscape architecture, will enable us to better understand characteristics of a contemporary...... concept of landscape and design in landscape architecture, and hereby address the question of how interpretation might be processed. It is also my premise that a key point in this is the interplay between different sensory experiences of both material and non-material aspects...

  20. Interpretation of Internet technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Charlotte Øland

    2001-01-01

    Research scope: The topic of the research project is to investigate how new internet technologies such as e-trade and customer relation marketing and management are implemented in Danish food processing companies. The aim is to use Weick's (1995) sensemaking concept to analyse the strategic...... processes leading to the use of internet marketing technologies and to investigate how these new technologies are interpreted into the organisation. Investigating the organisational socio-cognitive processes underlying the decision making processes will give further insight into the socio......-cognitive competencies of organisations (Rindova & Fombrunn, 1999). The aim is to contribute to the existing technological implementation theory complex by studying the relationships between the elements of the socio-cognitive processes and the resulting interpretations and actions when new technologies are implemented...

  1. Interpretations of interpretivism

    OpenAIRE

    Gerring, John

    2003-01-01

    What is interpretivism? As is common with broad methodological debates, much hinges on matters of definition. Interpretivism might be defined residually — as non-positivism. However, this scarcely clarifies the matter, as noted by Robert Adcock and David Dessler in their contributions to this symposium. We might start with David Laitin’s suggestion that interpretivism refers to interpretation or clarification— rendering the ambiguous into a clearer form. This is true enough, so far as it ...

  2. A Narrative Interpretive Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Adorisio, Anna Linda Musacchio

    2015-01-01

    In this paper I will discuss the possibility offered by the “linguistic turn” for narrative research in the realm of financial communication. I will propose three categories by which a narrative interpretive approach can be applied to financial communication: narrative-as-artifacts, narrative-as-practice and narrative-as-method. Such a constitutive communication approach challenges a mechanistic and functionalist view of communication as a tool to represent social realities in ...

  3. Interpretative phenomenological analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Eatough, Virginia; Smith, Jonathan A.

    2017-01-01

    The Second Edition of The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research in Psychology provides comprehensive coverage of the qualitative methods, strategies, and research issues in psychology.\\ud \\ud Qualitative research in psychology has been transformed since the first edition's publication. Responding to this evolving field, existing chapters have been updated while three new chapters have been added on Thematic Analysis, Interpretation, and Netnography. With a focus on methodological progress thr...

  4. The Age of Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Vattimo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gianni Vattimo, who is both a Catholic and a frequent critic of the Church, explores the surprising congruence between Christianity and hermeneutics in light of the dissolution of metaphysical truth. As in hermeneutics, Vatimo claims, interpretation is central to Christianity. Influenced by hermeneutics and borrowing largely from the Nietzschean and Heideggerian heritage, the Italian philosopher, who has been instrumental in promoting a nihilistic approach to Christianity, draws here on Nietzsche’s writings on nihilism, which is not to be understood in a purely negative sense. Vattimo suggests that nihilism not only expands the Christian message of charity, but also transforms it into its endless human potential. In “The Age of Interpretation,” the author shows that hermeneutical radicalism “reduces all reality to message,” so that the opposition between facts and norms turns out to be misguided, for both are governed by the interpretative paradigms through which someone (always a concrete, historically situated someone makes sense of them. Vattimo rejects some of the deplorable political consequences of hermeneutics and claims that traditional hermeneutics is in collusion with various political-ideological neutralizations.

  5. Visually scoring hirsutism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Bulent O; Bolour, Sheila; Woods, Keslie; Moore, April; Azziz, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Hirsutism is the presence of excess body or facial terminal (coarse) hair growth in females in a male-like pattern, affects 5-15% of women, and is an important sign of underlying androgen excess. Different methods are available for the assessment of hair growth in women. We conducted a literature search and analyzed the published studies that reported methods for the assessment of hair growth. We review the basic physiology of hair growth, the development of methods for visually quantifying hair growth, the comparison of these methods with objective measurements of hair growth, how hirsutism may be defined using a visual scoring method, the influence of race and ethnicity on hirsutism, and the impact of hirsutism in diagnosing androgen excess and polycystic ovary syndrome. Objective methods for the assessment of hair growth including photographic evaluations and microscopic measurements are available but these techniques have limitations for clinical use, including a significant degree of complexity and a high cost. Alternatively, methods for visually scoring or quantifying the amount of terminal body and facial hair growth have been in use since the early 1920s; these methods are semi-quantitative at best and subject to significant inter-observer variability. The most common visual method of scoring the extent of body and facial terminal hair growth in use today is based on a modification of the method originally described by Ferriman and Gallwey in 1961 (i.e. the mFG method). Overall, the mFG scoring method is a useful visual instrument for assessing excess terminal hair growth, and the presence of hirsutism, in women.

  6. Credit scoring methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vojtek, Martin; Kočenda, Evžen

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, 3-4 (2006), s. 152-167 ISSN 0015-1920 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/05/0931 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : banking sector * credit scoring * discrimination analysis Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.190, year: 2006 http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1050_s_152_167.pdf

  7. Video interpretations in Danish hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søbjerg, Lene Mosegaard; Noesgaard, Susanne; Henriksen, Jan Erik

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a study of an RCT comparing video interpretation with in-person interpretation at the Endocrinology Ward at Odense University Hospital.......This article presents a study of an RCT comparing video interpretation with in-person interpretation at the Endocrinology Ward at Odense University Hospital....

  8. Measurement of osteogenic exercise – How to interpret accelerometric data?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo eJämsä

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Bone tissue adapts to its mechanical loading environment. We review here the accelerometric measurements with special emphasis on osteogenic exercise. The accelerometric method offers a unique opportunity to assess the intensity of mechanical loadings. We present methods to interpret accelerometric data, reducing it to the daily distributions of magnitude, slope, area and energy of signal. These features represent the intensity level of physical activities, and were associated with the changes in bone density, bone geometry, physical performance and metabolism in healthy premenopausal women. Bone adaptations presented a dose- and intensity dependent relationship with impact loading. Changes in hip were threshold dependent, indicating the importance of high impacts exceeding acceleration of 4 g or slope of 100 g/s as an osteogenic stimulus. The number of impacts needed was 60 per day. We also present the Daily Impact Score to describe the osteogenic potential of daily mechanical loading with a single score. The methodology presented here can be used to study musculoskeletal adaptation to exercise in other target groups as well.

  9. Hawthorne effect with transient behavioral and biochemical changes in a randomized controlled sleep extension trial of chronically short-sleeping obese adults: implications for the design and interpretation of clinical studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Cizza

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of study participation per se at the beginning of a sleep extension trial between screening, randomization, and the run-in visit.Subjects were screened, returned for randomization (Comparison vs. Intervention after 81 days (median, and attended run-in visit 121 days later.Outpatient.Obese (N = 125; M/F, 30/95; Blacks/Whites/Other, N = 73/44/8, mean weight 107.6±19.7 kg, <6.5 h sleep/night.Non-pharmacological sleep extension.Sleep duration (diaries and actigraphy watch, sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, daily sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale, fasting glucose, insulin and lipids.Prior to any intervention, marked improvements occurred between screening and randomization. Sleep duration increased (diaries: 357.4 ±51.2 vs. 388.1±48.6 min/night; mean±SD; P<0.001 screening vs. randomization; actigraphy: 344.3 ±41.9 vs. 358.6±48.2 min/night; P<0.001 sleep quality improved (9.1±3.2 vs. 8.2±3.0 PSQI score; P<0.001, sleepiness tended to improve (8.9±4.6 vs. 8.3±4.5 ESS score; P = 0.06, insulin resistance decreased (0.327±0.038 vs. 0.351±0.045; Quicki index; P<0.001, and lipids improved, except for HDL-C. Abnormal fasting glucose (25% vs. 11%; P = 0.007, and metabolic syndrome (42% vs. 29%; P = 0.007 both decreased. In absence of intervention, the earlier metabolic improvements disappeared at the run-in visit.Relatively small sample size.Improvements in biochemical and behavioral parameters between screening and randomization changed the "true" study baseline, thereby potentially affecting outcome. While regression to the mean and placebo effect were considered, these findings are most consistent with the "Hawthorne effect", according to which behavior measured in the setting of an experimental study changes in response to the attention received from study investigators. This is the first time that biochemical changes were documented with respect to the Hawthorne effect. The findings

  10. Changes in the SF-8 scores among healthy non-smoking school teachers after the enforcement of a smoke-free school policy: a comparison by passive smoke status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsumoto Yoshitaka

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of the enforcement of a smoke-free workplace policy on health-related quality of life (HRQOL among a healthy population are poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to examine the effects of the enforcement of a smoke-free school policy on HRQOL among healthy non-smoking schoolteachers with respect to their exposure to passive smoke. Methods Two self-reported questionnaire surveys were conducted, the first before and the second after the enforcement of a total smoke-free public school policy in Nara City. A total of 1534 teachers were invited from 62 schools, and their HRQOL was assessed using six domains extracted from the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-8 questionnaire (SF-8: general health perception (GH, role functioning-physical (RP, vitality (VT, social functioning (SF, mental health (MH, and role functioning-emotional (RE. The participants were divided into two groups according to their exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS at baseline: participants not exposed to ETS at school (non-smokers, and participants exposed to ETS at school (passive smokers. Changes in each SF-8 score were evaluated using paired t-tests for each group, and their inter-group differences were evaluated using multiple linear regression analyses adjusted for sex, age, school type, managerial position, and attitude towards a smoke-free policy. Results After ineligible subjects were excluded, 689 teachers were included in the analyses. The number of non-smokers and passive smokers was 447 and 242, respectively. Significant changes in SF-8 scores were observed for MH (0.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2-1.5 and RE (0.7; 95% CI, 0.0-1.3 in non-smokers, and GH (2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-3.1, VT (1.8; 95% CI, 0.9-2.7, SF (2.7; 95% CI, 1.6-3.8, MH (2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-2.9, and RE (2.0; 95% CI, 1.2-2.8 in passive smokers. In the multiple linear regression analyses, the net changes in the category scores of GH (1.8; 95% CI, 0

  11. Testing Vegetation Flammability: The Problem of Extremely Low Ignition Frequency and Overall Flammability Score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Kauf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent decades changes in fire regimes led to higher vulnerability of fire prone ecosystems, with vegetation being the only component influencing fire regime which can be managed in order to reduce probability of extreme fire events. For these management practices to be effective reliable information on the vegetation flammability is being crucial. Epiradiator based testing methods are one of the methods commonly used to investigate vegetation flammability and decrease in ignition frequency is always interpreted as a decrease in flammability. Furthermore, gathered information is often combined into a single flammability score. Here we present results of leaf litter testing which, together with previously conducted research on similar materials, show that material with very low ignition frequency under certain testing conditions can be extremely flammable if testing conditions are slightly changed. Additionally, our results indicate that combining measured information into one single flammability score, even though sometimes useful, is not always meaningful and should be performed with caution.

  12. Monadic abstract interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sergey, Ilya; Devriese, Dominique; Might, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    -insensitive analysis. To achieve this unification, we develop a systematic method for transforming a concrete semantics into a monadically-parameterized abstract machine. Changing the monad changes the behavior of the machine. By changing the monad, we recover a spectrum of machines—from the original concrete...

  13. Disease severity scoring systems in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cemal Bilaç

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Scoring systems have been developed to interpret the disease severity objectively by evaluating the parameters of the disease. Body surface area, visual analogue scale, and physician global assessment are the most frequently used scoring systems for evaluating the clinical severity of the dermatological diseases. Apart from these scoring systems, many specific scoring systems for many dermatological diseases, including acne (acne vulgaris, acne scars, alopecia (androgenetic alopecia, tractional alopecia, bullous diseases (autoimmune bullous diseases, toxic epidermal necrolysis, dermatitis (atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis, dyshidrotic eczema, hidradenitis suppurativa, hirsutismus, connective tissue diseases (dermatomyositis, skin involvement of systemic lupus erythematosus (LE, discoid LE, scleroderma, lichen planoplaris, mastocytosis, melanocytic lesions, melasma, onychomycosis, oral lichen planus, pityriasis rosea, psoriasis (psoriasis vulgaris, psoriatic arthritis, nail psoriasis, sarcoidosis, urticaria, and vitiligo, have also been developed. Disease severity scoring methods are ever more extensively used in the field of dermatology for clinical practice to form an opinion about the prognosis by determining the disease severity; to decide on the most suitable treatment modality for the patient; to evaluate the efficacy of the applied medication; and to compare the efficiency of different treatment methods in clinical studies.

  14. Improved interpretation of stroke trial results using empirical Barthel item weights.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartingsveld, F. van; Lucas, C.; Kwakkel, G.; Lindeboom, R.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Attempts have been made to provide guidelines for interpreting Barthel scores. We used a Rasch analysis to improve the measurement properties and clinical interpretability of the Barthel index score. METHODS: A specific extension of Rasch model was used to identify items that

  15. Improved interpretation of stroke trial results using empirical Barthel item weights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hartingsveld, Frank; Lucas, Cees; Kwakkel, Gert; Lindeboom, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Attempts have been made to provide guidelines for interpreting Barthel scores. We used a Rasch analysis to improve the measurement properties and clinical interpretability of the Barthel index score. A specific extension of Rasch model was used to identify items that preclude the summation of items

  16. Bayesian Model Averaging for Propensity Score Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, David; Chen, Jianshen

    2014-01-01

    This article considers Bayesian model averaging as a means of addressing uncertainty in the selection of variables in the propensity score equation. We investigate an approximate Bayesian model averaging approach based on the model-averaged propensity score estimates produced by the R package BMA but that ignores uncertainty in the propensity score. We also provide a fully Bayesian model averaging approach via Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling (MCMC) to account for uncertainty in both parameters and models. A detailed study of our approach examines the differences in the causal estimate when incorporating noninformative versus informative priors in the model averaging stage. We examine these approaches under common methods of propensity score implementation. In addition, we evaluate the impact of changing the size of Occam's window used to narrow down the range of possible models. We also assess the predictive performance of both Bayesian model averaging propensity score approaches and compare it with the case without Bayesian model averaging. Overall, results show that both Bayesian model averaging propensity score approaches recover the treatment effect estimates well and generally provide larger uncertainty estimates, as expected. Both Bayesian model averaging approaches offer slightly better prediction of the propensity score compared with the Bayesian approach with a single propensity score equation. Covariate balance checks for the case study show that both Bayesian model averaging approaches offer good balance. The fully Bayesian model averaging approach also provides posterior probability intervals of the balance indices.

  17. Interpretive Flexibility in Mobile Health:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger Nielsen, Jeppe; Mathiassen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    a growing body of evidence supports the use of mobile technologies, the diverse implications of mobile health have yet to be fully documented. Objective: Our objective was to examine a large-scale government-sponsored mobile health implementation program in the Danish home care sector and to understand how...... stakeholders in the Danish home care sector (government bodies, vendors, consultants, interest organizations, and managers) helped initiate and energize the change process, and government funding supported quick and widespread technology adoption. However, although supported by the same government...... of debate as technology use arrangements ran counter to existing norms and values in individual agencies. Conclusions: Government-sponsored programs can have both positive and negative results, and managers need to be aware of this and the interpretive flexibility of mobile technology. Mobile technology...

  18. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy - image interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maca, F.

    1998-01-01

    The basic ideas of image interpretation in Scanning Tunneling Microscopy are presented using simple quantum-mechanical models and supplied with examples of successful application. The importance is stressed of a correct interpretation of this brilliant experimental surface technique

  19. What Language Do Interpreters Speak?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, Gerald B.

    1982-01-01

    States that both the register and variety of an interpreter's speech are quite limited and analyzes the linguistic characteristics of "International English," the English used by interpreters at international conferences. (CFM)

  20. The debbuggable interpreter design pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Vrany, Jan; Bergel, Alexandre

    2007-01-01

    peer-reviewed The use of Interpreter and Visitor design patterns has been widely adopted to implement programming language interpreters due to their expressive and simple design. However, no general approach to conceive a debugger is commonly adopted. This paper presents the debuggable interpreter design pattern as a general approach to extend a language interpreter with debugging facilities such as step-over and step-into. Moreover, it enables multiple debuggers coexisting and extends ...

  1. Intercultural pragmatics and court interpreting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    2008-01-01

    . The court interpreters are all state-authorized court interpreters and thus fully competent professionals.   The centrality of pragmatics in triadic speech events has been demonstrated by a number of studies (e.g. Berk-Seligson 2002, Hale 2004, Jacobsen 2002). Thus, conversational implicatures, which....../Philadelphia: John Benjamins.   Jacobsen, B. (2002). Pragmatic meaning in court interpreting: An empirical study of additions in consecutively-interpreted question-answer dialogues. PhD thesis, The Aarhus School of Business....

  2. The interpretation of administrative contracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cătălin-Silviu SĂRARU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the principles of interpretation for administrative contracts, in French law and in Romanian law. In the article are highlighted derogations from the rules of contract interpretation in common law. Are examined the exceptions to the principle of good faith, the principle of common intention (willingness of the parties, the principle of good administration, the principle of extensive interpretation of the administrative contract. The article highlights the importance and role of the interpretation in administrative contracts.

  3. Hawthorne effect with transient behavioral and biochemical changes in a randomized controlled sleep extension trial of chronically short-sleeping obese adults: implications for the design and interpretation of clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizza, Giovanni; Piaggi, Paolo; Rother, Kristina I; Csako, Gyorgy

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of study participation per se at the beginning of a sleep extension trial between screening, randomization, and the run-in visit. Subjects were screened, returned for randomization (Comparison vs. Intervention) after 81 days (median), and attended run-in visit 121 days later. Outpatient. Obese (N = 125; M/F, 30/95; Blacks/Whites/Other, N = 73/44/8), mean weight 107.6±19.7 kg, sleep/night. Non-pharmacological sleep extension. Sleep duration (diaries and actigraphy watch), sleep quality (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), daily sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), fasting glucose, insulin and lipids. Prior to any intervention, marked improvements occurred between screening and randomization. Sleep duration increased (diaries: 357.4 ±51.2 vs. 388.1±48.6 min/night; mean±SD; Psleep quality improved (9.1±3.2 vs. 8.2±3.0 PSQI score; Pattention received from study investigators. This is the first time that biochemical changes were documented with respect to the Hawthorne effect. The findings have implications for the design and conduct of clinical research. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00261898.

  4. Testing safety commitment in organizations through interpretations of safety artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Gil; Rafaeli, Anat

    2008-01-01

    Safety culture relates to injuries and safety incidents in organizations, but is difficult to asses and measure. We describe a preliminary test of assessing an organization's safety culture by examining employee interpretations of organizational safety artifacts (safety signs). We collected data in three organizations using a new safety culture assessment tool that we label the Safety Artifact Interpretation (SAI) scale; we then crossed these data with safety climate and leadership evaluations. SAI were interpreted by employees in accordance with two conceptually distinct themes that are salient in the literature on organizational safety culture: safety compliance and commitment to safety. A significant correlation exists between SAI scores and the organizational safety climate. A similar (though insignificant) relationship was observed between SAI scores and leadership ratings. Employee perceptions and interpretations of safety artifacts can facilitate assessments of safety culture and can ultimately lead to understanding of and improvements in the level of organizational safety.

  5. Score based procedures for the calculation of forensic likelihood ratios - Scores should take account of both similarity and typicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Geoffrey Stewart; Enzinger, Ewald

    2018-01-01

    Score based procedures for the calculation of forensic likelihood ratios are popular across different branches of forensic science. They have two stages, first a function or model which takes measured features from known-source and questioned-source pairs as input and calculates scores as output, then a subsequent model which converts scores to likelihood ratios. We demonstrate that scores which are purely measures of similarity are not appropriate for calculating forensically interpretable likelihood ratios. In addition to taking account of similarity between the questioned-origin specimen and the known-origin sample, scores must also take account of the typicality of the questioned-origin specimen with respect to a sample of the relevant population specified by the defence hypothesis. We use Monte Carlo simulations to compare the output of three score based procedures with reference likelihood ratio values calculated directly from the fully specified Monte Carlo distributions. The three types of scores compared are: 1. non-anchored similarity-only scores; 2. non-anchored similarity and typicality scores; and 3. known-source anchored same-origin scores and questioned-source anchored different-origin scores. We also make a comparison with the performance of a procedure using a dichotomous "match"/"non-match" similarity score, and compare the performance of 1 and 2 on real data. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Lexical Knowledge and Interpreter Attitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaaden, Hanne

    1999-01-01

    Examines the performance of six student interpreters attending a training course at the University of Oslo. Data are drawn from video recordings in which the students interpret dialogs in two test situations. Students use consecutive interpreting with short speaker intervals and perform in Norwegian/Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian. Compares students'…

  7. Student Interpretations of Political Cartoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedient, Douglas; Moore, David M.

    1985-01-01

    This study investigated the accuracy and types of interpretations that fifth, eighth, and eleventh graders gave to 24 editorial cartoons in four issue areas and the effect of intelligence on political cartoon interpretation. Numerous misinterpretations and no interpretations indicates assumptions that cartoons are an effective teaching medium…

  8. Interpretation of computed tomographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stickle, R.L.; Hathcock, J.T.

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses the production of optimal CT images in small animal patients as well as principles of radiographic interpretation. Technical factors affecting image quality and aiding image interpretation are included. Specific considerations for scanning various anatomic areas are given, including indications and potential pitfalls. Principles of radiographic interpretation are discussed. Selected patient images are illustrated

  9. Improvement of interpretation in cystic fibrosis clinical laboratory reports: longitudinal analysis of external quality assessment data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwouts, Sarah; Girodon, Emmanuelle; Schwarz, Martin; Stuhrmann, Manfred; Morris, Michael A; Dequeker, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Participation in external quality assessment (EQA) is a key element of quality assurance in medical laboratories. In genetics EQA, both genotyping and interpretation are assessed. We aimed to analyse changes in the completeness of interpretation in clinical laboratory reports of the European cystic fibrosis EQA scheme and to investigate the effect of the number of previous participations, laboratory accreditation/certification status, setting and test volume. We distributed similar versions of mock clinical cases to eliminate the influence of the difficulty of the clinical question on interpretation performance: a cystic fibrosis patient (case 1) and a cystic fibrosis carrier (case 2). We then performed a retrospective longitudinal study of reports over a 6-year period from 298 participants for case 1 (2004, 2008, 2009) and from 263 participants for case 2 (2006, 2008, 2009). The number of previous participations had a positive effect on the interpretation score (P<0.0001), whereas the laboratory accreditation/certification status, setting and test volume had no effect. Completeness of interpretation improved over time. The presence of the interpretation element ‘requirement for studying the parents to qualify the genotype' increased most (from 49% in 2004 to 93% in 2009). We still observed room for improvement for elements that concerned offering testing for familial mutations in relatives and prenatal/preimplantation diagnosis (16% and 24% omission, respectively, for case 1 in 2009). Overall, regular participation in external quality assessment contributes to improved interpretation in reports, with potential value for quality of care for patients and families by healthcare professionals involved in genetic testing. PMID:22713805

  10. Chest radiograph interpretation by medical students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, D.R.; Goddard, P.R.; Callaway, M.P.; Greenwood, R.

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To assess the ability of final year medical students to interpret conventional chest radiographs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten conventional chest radiographs were selected from a teaching hospital radiology department library that were good radiological examples of common conditions. All were conditions that a medical student should be expected to recognize by the end of their training. One normal radiograph was included. The radiographs were shown to 52 final year medical students who were asked to describe their findings. RESULTS: The median score achieved was 12.5 out of 20 (range 6-18). There was no difference between the median scores of male and female students (12.5 and 12.3, respectively, p=0.82) but male students were more likely to be certain of their answers than female students (median certainty scores 23.0 and 14.0, respectively). The overall degree of certainty was low. On no radiograph were more than 25% of students definite about their answer. Students had received little formal radiology teaching (2-42 h, median 21) and few expressed an interest in radiology as a career. Only two (3.8%) students thought they were good at interpreting chest radiographs, 17 (32.7%) thought they were bad or awful. CONCLUSION: Medical students reaching the end of their training do not perform well at interpreting simple chest radiographs. They lack confidence and have received little formal radiological tuition. Perhaps as a result, few are interested in radiology as a career, which is a matter for concern in view of the current shortage of radiologists in the UK

  11. Credit Scoring Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siana Halim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is generally easier to predict defaults accurately if a large data set (including defaults is available for estimating the prediction model. This puts not only small banks, which tend to have smaller data sets, at disadvantage. It can also pose a problem for large banks that began to collect their own historical data only recently, or banks that recently introduced a new rating system. We used a Bayesian methodology that enables banks with small data sets to improve their default probability. Another advantage of the Bayesian method is that it provides a natural way for dealing with structural differences between a bank’s internal data and additional, external data. In practice, the true scoring function may differ across the data sets, the small internal data set may contain information that is missing in the larger external data set, or the variables in the two data sets are not exactly the same but related. Bayesian method can handle such kind of problem.

  12. Aging display's effect on interpretation of digital pathology slide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanaki, Ali R. N.; Espig, Kathryn S.; Sawhney, Sameer; Pantanowitzc, Liron; Parwani, Anil V.; Xthona, Albert; Kimpe, Tom R. L.

    2015-03-01

    It is our conjecture that the variability of colors in a pathology image effects the interpretation of pathology cases, whether it is diagnostic accuracy, diagnostic confidence, or workflow efficiency. In this paper, digital pathology images are analyzed to quantify the perceived difference in color that occurs due to display aging, in particular a change in the maximum luminance, white point, and color gamut. The digital pathology images studied include diagnostically important features, such as the conspicuity of nuclei. Three different display aging models are applied to images: aging of luminance and chrominance, aging of chrominance only, and a stabilized luminance and chrominance (i.e., no aging). These display models and images are then used to compare conspicuity of nuclei using CIE ΔE2000, a perceptual color difference metric. The effect of display aging using these display models and images is further analyzed through a human reader study designed to quantify the effects from a clinical perspective. Results from our reader study indicate significant impact of aged displays on workflow as well as diagnosis. Comparing original (not aged) images to aged images, aged images were significantly more difficult to read (p-value of 0.0005) and took longer to score (p-value of 0.02). Moreover, luminance and chrominance aging significantly reduced inter-session percent agreement of diagnostic scores (p-value of 0.0418).

  13. 75 FR 39196 - Proposed Legal Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... proposed change in the Schwab Interpretation, the FAA believes that a company wishing to take advantage of... cost of owning, operating and maintaining a company aircraft when used for routine personal travel by senior company officials and employees under certain conditions. DATES: Comments must be received on or...

  14. Utility of proverb interpretation measures with cardiac transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugbartey, A T

    1998-12-01

    To assess metaphorical understanding and proverb interpretation in cardiac transplant candidates, the neuropsychological assessment records of 22 adults with end-stage cardiac disease under consideration for transplantation were analyzed. Neuropsychological tests consisted of the Controlled Oral Word Association Test, Halstead Category Test, Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure Test (Copy), Trial Making Test, and summed scores for the proverb items of the WAIS-R Comprehension subtest. Analysis showed that the group tended to interpret proverbs literally. Proverb scores were significantly associated with scores on the Similarities and Picture Arrangement subtests of the WAIS-R. There was a moderate negative association between number of reported heart attacks and Proverb scores. The need for brief yet robust assessments including measures of inferential thinking and conceptualization in transplant candidates are highlighted.

  15. "Inter-language Interpretation and Mehmed Rauf's Own Interpretation for His Novel "Eylul""

    OpenAIRE

    DOĞAN, Enfel

    2011-01-01

    Translation is defined as interpreting a text from one language to another. According to this definition, translation is an act between languages. However, in some literary and cultural works, the simplification or the modernization of the language used in the original copy is also a kind of translation and this is called inter-language interpretation in translation studies. Revising the unknown or older forms of words and replacing them with the new ones, as well as changing the stylistic fe...

  16. Conducting psychotherapy with an interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuay, Justin; Chopra, Prem; Kaplan, Ida; Szwarc, Josef

    2015-06-01

    This qualitative study assessed how clinicians prepared and used interpreters during psychotherapeutic sessions and investigated the strategies they used to manage the dynamics of this process. Ten therapists were interviewed at the Victorian Foundation for the Survivors of Torture (VFST). A semi-structured interview format was used. Thematic analysis was conducted on transcripts of recorded interviews to identify key themes. Factors affecting the provision of psychotherapy with interpreters agreed with general guidelines for working with interpreters but there were exceptions. The possible roles of the interpreter as a cultural consultant, community advocate and co-therapist were explored. Specific troubleshooting strategies were identified for improving empathy, redefining roles, and adjusting interactions with interpreters. Working with interpreters in psychotherapy is a complex process. These findings may benefit clinicians providing psychotherapy to patients using interpreters. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  17. The interpretation of performance assessments for elementary science curriculum units by teachers and teacher educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowery, Patricia A.

    2000-10-01

    The Local Systemic Change Initiative (LSCI) project that is the focus for this study is part of a Teacher Enhancement program that is promoted by the National Science Foundation (NSF). The LSCI project supports former classroom teachers in their role of teacher educators as leaders of professional development for teachers in the classroom implementation of elementary science curriculum units. This study explores the reform vision of using assessment as a means to drive changes in classroom instruction (Champagne & Lovitts, 1990). This qualitative research study was a naturalistic inquiry into the interpretation of assessments by teachers and teacher educators. The study focussed on the development and field testing of two elementary science end of unit assessments. This study revealed three categories where significant differences between the perspectives of teachers and teacher educators were apparent. These categories were identified as interpreting the role of assessment, interpreting the curriculum, and interpreting student learning. The student responses to the assessment provided information that was interpreted in a summative manner as a measure of student achievement. The teacher educators also viewed the assessment as a diagnostic tool that provided information that could be used by teachers in a formative manner to produce changes in future classroom instruction. The teachers predicted changes to their classroom practice as a result of implementing the assessment that could be interpreted as teaching to the test. The contexts selected for the assessment questions by the teacher educators narrowed the curricula choices that teachers were likely to use during classroom instruction. This strategy would reduce the flexibility and creativity of the classroom teacher as a curriculum maker and may be interpreted as a top down approach toward teacher professional development. The teacher educators' detached analysis of student responses to the assessment

  18. Keeping Your Audience in Mind: Applying Audience Analysis to the Design of Interactive Score Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata-Rivera, Juan Diego; Katz, Irvin R.

    2014-01-01

    Score reports have one or more intended audiences: the people who use the reports to make decisions about test takers, including teachers, administrators, parents and test takers. Attention to audience when designing a score report supports assessment validity by increasing the likelihood that score users will interpret and use assessment results…

  19. Do Test Scores Buy Happiness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Neal

    2017-01-01

    Since at least the enactment of No Child Left Behind in 2002, standardized test scores have served as the primary measures of public school effectiveness. Yet, such scores fail to measure the ultimate goal of education: maximizing happiness. This exploratory analysis assesses nation level associations between test scores and happiness, controlling…

  20. Orientalismi: nuove prospettive interpretative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Proglio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at reconsidering the concept of Orientalism in a new and multiple perspective, and at proposing a different interpretation of the relationship between culture and power, starting from Edward Said’s theoretical frame of reference. If Said’s representational model is repositioned out of structuralist and foucaultian frameworks and separated from the gramscian idea of hegemony-subordination, indeed, it may be possible to re-discuss the traditional profile identifying the Other in the European cultures. My basic assumption here is that Orientalism should not be understood as a consensus mechanism, which is able to produce diversified images of the Orient and the Oriental on demand. Although, of course, in most cases Orientalism is connected to the issue of power, its meanings could also be explained —as it will be soon shown— otherwise. Let’s take The Invisible Cities by Italo Calvino as an example. Here the narratives are not just multiple repetitions of Venice —in Said’s case, the same would hold for Europeanism—, but they could be strategically re-appropriated by those “others” and “alterities” whose bodies and identities are imposed by the Eurocentric discourse. In this sense, a double link may be identified with queer theories and postcolonial studies, and the notion of subordination will be rethought. Finally, from the above mentioned borders, a new idea of image emerges, which appears as linear, uniform and flattened only to the European gaze, whereas in actual fact it is made of imaginaries and forms of knowledge, which combine representation with the conceptualization of power relationships.

  1. Differences of wells scores accuracy, caprini scores and padua scores in deep vein thrombosis diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatot, D.; Mardia, A. I.

    2018-03-01

    Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) is the venous thrombus in lower limbs. Diagnosis is by using venography or ultrasound compression. However, these examinations are not available yet in some health facilities. Therefore many scoring systems are developed for the diagnosis of DVT. The scoring method is practical and safe to use in addition to efficacy, and effectiveness in terms of treatment and costs. The existing scoring systems are wells, caprini and padua score. There have been many studies comparing the accuracy of this score but not in Medan. Therefore, we are interested in comparative research of wells, capriniand padua score in Medan.An observational, analytical, case-control study was conducted to perform diagnostic tests on the wells, caprini and padua score to predict the risk of DVT. The study was at H. Adam Malik Hospital in Medan.From a total of 72 subjects, 39 people (54.2%) are men and the mean age are 53.14 years. Wells score, caprini score and padua score has a sensitivity of 80.6%; 61.1%, 50% respectively; specificity of 80.65; 66.7%; 75% respectively, and accuracy of 87.5%; 64.3%; 65.7% respectively.Wells score has better sensitivity, specificity and accuracy than caprini and padua score in diagnosing DVT.

  2. Working memory and simultaneous interpreting

    OpenAIRE

    Timarova, Sarka

    2009-01-01

    Working memory is a cognitive construct underlying a number of abilities, and it has been hypothesised for many years that it is crucial for interpreting. A number of studies have been conducted with the aim to support this hypothesis, but research has not yielded convincing results. Most researchers focused on studying working memory differences between interpreters and non-interpreters with the rationale that differences in working memory between the two groups would provide evidence of wor...

  3. Assessment of Interpretive Facilities and the Delivery of Interpretive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of interpretive facilities and the delivery of interpretive services in Chad Basin National Park (CBNP), Kainji Lake National Park (KLNP), Okomu National Park (OKNP), and Yankari National Park (YNP) were conducted. The parks were selected to represent the major ecological zones where National Parks are ...

  4. Monitoring and interpreting bioremediation effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragg, J.R.; Prince, R.C.; Harner, J.; Atlas, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Following the Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989, extensive research was conducted by the US Environments Protection Agency and Exxon to develop and implement bioremediation techniques for oil spill cleanup. A key challenge of this program was to develop effective methods for monitoring and interpreting bioremediation effectiveness on extremely heterogenous intertidal shorelines. Fertilizers were applied to shorelines at concentrations known to be safe, and effectiveness achieved in acceleration biodegradation of oil residues was measure using several techniques. This paper describes the most definitive method identified, which monitors biodegradation loss by measuring changes in ratios of hydrocarbons to hopane, a cycloalkane present in the oil that showed no measurable degradation. Rates of loss measured by the hopane ratio method have high levels of statistical confidence, and show that the fertilizer addition stimulated biodegradation rates as much a fivefold. Multiple regression analyses of data show that fertilizer addition of nitrogen in interstitial pore water per unit of oil load was the most important parameter affecting biodegradation rate, and results suggest that monitoring nitrogen concentrations in the subsurface pore water is preferred technique for determining fertilizer dosage and reapplication frequency

  5. Using interpretation services during clerkships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijbers, Laura; Gerritsen, Debby; Suurmond, Jeanine

    2017-01-01

    Although using professional interpreters is known to improve health outcomes for patients when language barriers are present, care providers often hesitate to use them. Training in how to use interpreters has been effective in increasing students' knowledge and self-efficacy, but little is known

  6. Basic Interpreting Strategies for Parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luetke-Stahlman, Barbara

    1993-01-01

    Some deaf interpreting strategies are offered to parents of children who are deaf or hard of hearing. Parents are urged to utilize space in their interpreting, use name signs, utilize sight lines to distinguish characters in stories, use exaggerated signs to translate nursery rhymes, place themselves carefully at a public performance, and learn…

  7. Pragmatics in Court Interpreting: Additions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    2003-01-01

    Danish court interpreters are expected to follow ethical guidelines, which instruct them to deliver exact verbatim versions of source texts. However, this requirement often clashes with the reality of the interpreting situation in the courtroom. This paper presents and discusses the findings...

  8. Interpreting Recoil for Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, Tarek A.

    2012-01-01

    The phenomenon of recoil is usually explained to students in the context of Newton's third law. Typically, when a projectile is fired, the recoil of the launch mechanism is interpreted as a reaction to the ejection of the smaller projectile. The same phenomenon is also interpreted in the context of the conservation of linear momentum, which is…

  9. A double-blind, delayed-start trial of rasagiline in Parkinson's disease (the ADAGIO study): prespecified and post-hoc analyses of the need for additional therapies, changes in UPDRS scores, and non-motor outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rascol, Olivier; Fitzer-Attas, Cheryl J; Hauser, Robert; Jankovic, Joseph; Lang, Anthony; Langston, J William; Melamed, Eldad; Poewe, Werner; Stocchi, Fabrizio; Tolosa, Eduardo; Eyal, Eli; Weiss, Yoni M; Olanow, C Warren

    2011-05-01

    The ADAGIO study investigated whether rasagiline has disease-modifying effects in Parkinson's disease. Rasagiline 1 mg per day, but not 2 mg per day, was shown to be efficacious in the primary analysis. Here, we report additional secondary and post-hoc analyses of the ADAGIO study. ADAGIO was a placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicentre, delayed-start study, in which 1176 patients with untreated early Parkinson's disease were randomly assigned to receive rasagiline 1 mg or 2 mg per day for 72 weeks (early-start groups) or placebo for 36 weeks followed by rasagiline 1 mg or 2 mg per day for 36 weeks (delayed-start groups). We assessed the need for additional antiparkinsonian therapy and changes in non-motor experiences of daily living and fatigue scales (prespecified outcomes) and changes in unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) scores and subscores in placebo and active groups (post-hoc outcomes). The ADAGIO study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00256204. The need for additional antiparkinsonian therapy was reduced with rasagiline 1 mg (25 of 288 [9%] patients) and 2 mg (26 of 293 [9%]) versus placebo (108 of 593 [18%]; odds ratio for 1 mg rasagiline vs placebo 0·41, 95% CI 0·25-0·65, p=0·0002; 2 mg rasagiline vs placebo 0·41, 0·26-0·64, p=0·0001). At week 36, both doses significantly improved UPDRS motor subscores compared with placebo (1 mg rasagiline mean difference -1·88 [SE 0·35]; 2 mg rasagiline -2·18 [0·35]; both prasagiline -0·86 [0·18]; 2 mg rasagiline -0·88 [0·18]; both prasagiline significantly improved UPDRS mentation subscore (-0·22 [0·08]; p=0·004). At week 72, the only significant difference between early-start and delayed-start groups was for ADL subscore with the 1 mg dose (-0·62 [0·29]; p=0·035). When assessed for the effect on non-motor symptoms at week 36, both doses showed benefits on the Parkinson fatigue scale versus placebo (1 mg rasagiline mean difference -0·14 [SE 0·05], p=0·0032; 2

  10. Abstract Interpretation and Attribute Gramars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    The objective of this thesis is to explore the connections between abstract interpretation and attribute grammars as frameworks in program analysis. Abstract interpretation is a semantics-based program analysis method. A large class of data flow analysis problems can be expressed as non-standard ......The objective of this thesis is to explore the connections between abstract interpretation and attribute grammars as frameworks in program analysis. Abstract interpretation is a semantics-based program analysis method. A large class of data flow analysis problems can be expressed as non......-standard semantics where the ``meaning'' contains information about the runtime behaviour of programs. In an abstract interpretation the analysis is proved correct by relating it to the usual semantics for the language. Attribute grammars provide a method and notation to specify code generation and program analysis...

  11. Electrocardiographic interpretation skills of cardiology residents: are they competent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibbald, Matthew; Davies, Edward G; Dorian, Paul; Yu, Eric H C

    2014-12-01

    Achieving competency at electrocardiogram (ECG) interpretation among cardiology subspecialty residents has traditionally focused on interpreting a target number of ECGs during training. However, there is little evidence to support this approach. Further, there are no data documenting the competency of ECG interpretation skills among cardiology residents, who become de facto the gold standard in their practice communities. We tested 29 Cardiology residents from all 3 years in a large training program using a set of 20 ECGs collected from a community cardiology practice over a 1-month period. Residents interpreted half of the ECGs using a standard analytic framework, and half using their own approach. Residents were scored on the number of correct and incorrect diagnoses listed. Overall diagnostic accuracy was 58%. Of 6 potentially life-threatening diagnoses, residents missed 36% (123 of 348) including hyperkalemia (81%), long QT (52%), complete heart block (35%), and ventricular tachycardia (19%). Residents provided additional inappropriate diagnoses on 238 ECGs (41%). Diagnostic accuracy was similar between ECGs interpreted using an analytic framework vs ECGs interpreted without an analytic framework (59% vs 58%; F(1,1333) = 0.26; P = 0.61). Cardiology resident proficiency at ECG interpretation is suboptimal. Despite the use of an analytic framework, there remain significant deficiencies in ECG interpretation among Cardiology residents. A more systematic method of addressing these important learning gaps is urgently needed. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Interpretations of NMR images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, J.Z.; McFarland, W.D.; Chen, S.S.; Sadhu, V.K.

    1986-01-01

    Two color display schemes are generally considered in medical images: pseudo-color and color composite. Psuedo-color technique maps the intensity means of a single monochrome image into a three dimensional color space, the gray level is thus replaced by the assigned color. Such a psuedo-color assignment is somewhat arbitrary but may be advantageous if the monochrome image is composed of simple intensity patterns. A good example of psuedo-color application is in nuclear medicine: The change of gray levels can be simply determined and the isocounts from two regions with different surroundings can be readily recognized. However, the use of psuedo-color in CT or MR imaging is controversial because it does not give additional information and may exaggerate insignificant gray scale differences. The color composite technique maps three parametric image data into a three dimensional color space, and thus three monochrome images are merged to form a single color image. The color composite technique increases the number of ways information can be displayed and provides both quantitative and qualitative data about the object or event represented. This paper describes the application of color composite in NMR images

  13. [Neurological interpretation of dreams] .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pareja, J A; Gil-Nagel, A

    2000-10-01

    Cerebral cortical activity is constant throughout the entire human life, but substantially changes during the different phases of the sleep-wake cycle (wakefulness, non-REM sleep and REM sleep), as well as in relation to available information. In particular, perception of the environment is closely linked to the wake-state, while during sleep perception turns to the internal domain or endogenous cerebral activity. External and internal information are mutually exclusive. During wakefulness a neuronal mechanism allows attention to focus on the environment whereas endogenous cortical activity is ignored. The opposite process is provided during sleep. The function external attention-internal attention is coupled with the two modes of brain function during wakefulness and during sleep, providing two possible cortical status: thinking and dreaming. Several neurological processes may influence the declaration of the three states of being or may modify their orderly oscillation through the sleep-wake cycle. In addition, endogenous information and its perception (dreams) may be modified. Disturbances of dreaming may configurate in different general clinical scenarios: lack of dreaming, excess of dreaming (epic dreaming), paroxysmal dreaming (epileptic), nightmares, violent dreaming, daytime-dreaming (hallucinations), and lucid dreaming. Sensorial deprivation, as well as the emergence of internal perception may be the underlying mechanism of hallucinations. The probable isomorphism between hallucinations and dreaming is postulated, analyzed and discussed.

  14. Noninvasive assessment of extracellular and intracellular dehydration in healthy humans using the resistance-reactance-score graph method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heavens, Kristen R; Charkoudian, Nisha; O'Brien, Catherine; Kenefick, Robert W; Cheuvront, Samuel N

    2016-03-01

    Few dehydration assessment measures provide accurate information; most are based on reference change values and very few are diagnostically accurate from a single observation or measure. Bioelectrical impedance may lack the precision to detect common forms of dehydration in healthy individuals. Limitations in bioimpedance may be addressed by a unique resistance-reactance (RXc)-score graph method, which transforms vector components into z scores for use with any impedance analyzer in any population. We tested whether the RXc-score graph method provides accurate single or serial assessments of dehydration when compared with gold-standard measures of total body water by using stable isotope dilution (deuterium oxide) combined with body-weight changes. We retrospectively analyzed data from a previous study in which 9 healthy young men participated in 3 trials: euhydration (EUH), extracellular dehydration (ED; via a diuretic), and intracellular dehydration (ID; via exercise in the heat). Participants lost 4-5% of their body weight during the dehydration trials; volume loss was similar between trials (ID compared with ED group: 3.5 ± 0.8 compared with 3.0 ± 0.6 L; P > 0.05). Despite significant losses of body water, most RXc vector scores for ED and ID groups were classified as "normal" (within the 75% population tolerance ellipse). However, directional displacement of vectors was consistent with loss of volume in both ED and ID conditions compared with the EUH condition and tended to be longer in ED than in ID conditions (P = 0.054). We conclude that, whereas individual RXc-score graph values do not provide accurate detection of dehydration from single measurements, directional changes in vector values from serial measurements are consistent with fluid loss for both ED and ID conditions. The RXc-score graph method may therefore alert clinicians to changes in hydration state, which may bolster the interpretation of other recognized change measures of hydration. © 2016

  15. Timing and Magnitude of Initial Change in Disease Activity Score 28 Predicts the Likelihood of Achieving Low Disease Activity at 1 Year in Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Treated with Certolizumab Pegol: A Post-hoc Analysis of the RAPID 1 Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijde, Désirée; Keystone, Edward C.; Curtis, Jeffrey R.; Landewé, Robert B.; Schiff, Michael H.; Khanna, Dinesh; Kvien, Tore K.; Ionescu, Lucian; Gervitz, Leon M.; Davies, Owen R.; Luijtens, Kristel; Furst, Daniel E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To determine the relationship between timing and magnitude of Disease Activity Score [DAS28(ESR)] nonresponse (DAS28 improvement thresholds not reached) during the first 12 weeks of treatment with certolizumab pegol (CZP) plus methotrexate, and the likelihood of achieving low disease

  16. sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the chilga basin sediments

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    ABSTRACT: Sequence stratigraphic interpretation of passive margins and marine environments reveal stratigraphic records that result from the influence of long-term change in eustatic sea level, tectonic subsidence, and climate. On the other hand, sequence stratigraphic interpretation of continental rift basin sediments ...

  17. D-score: a search engine independent MD-score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudel, Marc; Breiter, Daniela; Beck, Florian; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Martens, Lennart; Zahedi, René P

    2013-03-01

    While peptides carrying PTMs are routinely identified in gel-free MS, the localization of the PTMs onto the peptide sequences remains challenging. Search engine scores of secondary peptide matches have been used in different approaches in order to infer the quality of site inference, by penalizing the localization whenever the search engine similarly scored two candidate peptides with different site assignments. In the present work, we show how the estimation of posterior error probabilities for peptide candidates allows the estimation of a PTM score called the D-score, for multiple search engine studies. We demonstrate the applicability of this score to three popular search engines: Mascot, OMSSA, and X!Tandem, and evaluate its performance using an already published high resolution data set of synthetic phosphopeptides. For those peptides with phosphorylation site inference uncertainty, the number of spectrum matches with correctly localized phosphorylation increased by up to 25.7% when compared to using Mascot alone, although the actual increase depended on the fragmentation method used. Since this method relies only on search engine scores, it can be readily applied to the scoring of the localization of virtually any modification at no additional experimental or in silico cost. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Quadratic prediction of factor scores

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wansbeek, T

    1999-01-01

    Factor scores are naturally predicted by means of their conditional expectation given the indicators y. Under normality this expectation is linear in y but in general it is an unknown function of y. II is discussed that under nonnormality factor scores can be more precisely predicted by a quadratic

  19. Peer Scores for Group Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, Linda; Malone, Virginia

    1992-01-01

    Explains how peer scores can be used to constitute one part of students' grades on group projects. Contributions students make to a project are defined in four categories: creativity/ideas contributed, research/data collection, writing/typing/artwork, and organizing/collating. A scoring rubric for these categories is presented. (PR)

  20. Matching score based face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, B.J.; Beumer, G.M.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    2006-01-01

    Accurate face registration is of vital importance to the performance of a face recognition algorithm. We propose a new method: matching score based face registration, which searches for optimal alignment by maximizing the matching score output of a classifier as a function of the different

  1. The Machine Scoring of Writing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurry, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…

  2. Reproducibility of scoring emphysema by HRCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malinen, A.; Partanen, K.; Rytkoenen, H.; Vanninen, R. [Kuopio Univ. Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Clinical Radiology; Erkinjuntti-Pekkanen, R. [Kuopio Univ. Hospital (Finland). Dept. of Pulmonary Diseases

    2002-04-01

    Purpose: We evaluated the reproducibility of three visual scoring methods of emphysema and compared these methods with pulmonary function tests (VC, DLCO, FEV1 and FEV%) among farmer's lung patients and farmers. Material and Methods: Three radiologists examined high-resolution CT images of farmer's lung patients and their matched controls (n=70) for chronic interstitial lung diseases. Intraobserver reproducibility and interobserver variability were assessed for three methods: severity, Sanders' (extent) and Sakai. Pulmonary function tests as spirometry and diffusing capacity were measured. Results: Intraobserver -values for all three methods were good (0.51-0.74). Interobserver varied from 0.35 to 0.72. The Sanders' and the severity methods correlated strongly with pulmonary function tests, especially DLCO and FEV1. Conclusion: The Sanders' method proved to be reliable in evaluating emphysema, in terms of good consistency of interpretation and good correlation with pulmonary function tests.

  3. Reproducibility of scoring emphysema by HRCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinen, A.; Partanen, K.; Rytkoenen, H.; Vanninen, R.; Erkinjuntti-Pekkanen, R.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: We evaluated the reproducibility of three visual scoring methods of emphysema and compared these methods with pulmonary function tests (VC, DLCO, FEV1 and FEV%) among farmer's lung patients and farmers. Material and Methods: Three radiologists examined high-resolution CT images of farmer's lung patients and their matched controls (n=70) for chronic interstitial lung diseases. Intraobserver reproducibility and interobserver variability were assessed for three methods: severity, Sanders' (extent) and Sakai. Pulmonary function tests as spirometry and diffusing capacity were measured. Results: Intraobserver -values for all three methods were good (0.51-0.74). Interobserver varied from 0.35 to 0.72. The Sanders' and the severity methods correlated strongly with pulmonary function tests, especially DLCO and FEV1. Conclusion: The Sanders' method proved to be reliable in evaluating emphysema, in terms of good consistency of interpretation and good correlation with pulmonary function tests

  4. Interpreting Sustainability for Urban Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Ordóñez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Incisive interpretations of urban-forest sustainability are important in furthering our understanding of how to sustain the myriad values associated with urban forests. Our analysis of earlier interpretations reveals conceptual gaps. These interpretations are attached to restrictive definitions of a sustainable urban forest and limited to a rather mechanical view of maintaining the biophysical structure of trees. The probing of three conceptual domains (urban forest concepts, sustainable development, and sustainable forest management leads to a broader interpretation of urban-forest sustainability as the process of sustaining urban forest values through time and across space. We propose that values—and not services, benefits, functions or goods—is a superior concept to refer to what is to be sustained in and by an urban forest.

  5. Federal Aviation Administration Legal Interpretations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Legal Interpretations and the Chief Counsel's opinions are now available at this site. Your may choose to search by year or by text search. Please note that not all...

  6. Changes in life satisfaction in persons with spinal cord injury during and after inpatient rehabilitation : adaptation or measurement bias?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Christel M. C.; Post, Marcel W. M.; van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; de Groot, Sonja; Smit, Christof; van Kuppevelt, Dirk; Lindeman, Eline

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To analyze changes in life satisfaction (LS) scores over time in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) and to interpret what these changes mean. Methods Multicenter, prospective cohort study of persons with SCI (n = 96) classified into 3 life satisfaction trajectories identified earlier.

  7. COURT INTERPRETING AT DENPASAR COURT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Ayu Made Puspani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This is a research on interpreting (oral translation on a criminal case ofdrug user in the court proceedings at Denpasar Court. The study of theinterpreting is concerned with two-ways rendition from Indonesian into Englishand vice-versa. The study is related to: (1 the description of modes of interpretingapplied by the interpreter, (2 the application of translation strategies: shift,addition and deletion of information, (3 factors that underlie the application ofthe strategies, and (4 the impact of the application of those strategies towards thequality of the interpreting.The methodology applied in this study is qualitative based on eclectictheories (translation, syntax, semantics and pragmatics. The utilization of thetheories is in accordance with the type of the data analyzed in regard to thetranslation phenomena as an applied study and its complexity.The interpreting at court applied the consecutive and simultaneous modes.The strategy of shift was applied when there were differences in structure betweenthe source and the target languages. Addition of information was used when theinterpreter emphasized the message of the source language in the target language.The deletion of information applied if the context in the target language has beencovered, and it was not necessary for the interpreter to interpret the same thingbecause the message of the source language was pragmatically implied in thetarget language.The factors which underlie the application of the interpreting strategies incourt interpreting were communication factor and the differences in the languagesystems between the source and the target languages. The impact of the use of thestrategies towards the quality of the interpreting happened when the interpretationof the source language message into the message of the target language and themessage in the source language was not completely render into the targetlanguage.The novelties of the research are: (1 relevance theory and its

  8. Interpretation of macroscopic quantum phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumann, K.

    1986-01-01

    It is argued that a quantum theory without observer is required for the interpretation of macroscopic quantum tunnelling. Such a theory is obtained by augmenting QED by the actual electric field in the rest system of the universe. An equation of the motion of this field is formulated form which the correct macroscopic behavior of the universe and the validity of the Born interpretation is derived. Care is taken to use mathematically sound concepts only. (Author)

  9. Court interpreting and pragmatic meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Bente

    In Denmark, court interpreters are required to deliver verbatim translations of speakers' originals and to refrain from transferring pragmatic meaning. Yet, as this paper demonstrates, pragmatic meaning is central to courtroom interaction.......In Denmark, court interpreters are required to deliver verbatim translations of speakers' originals and to refrain from transferring pragmatic meaning. Yet, as this paper demonstrates, pragmatic meaning is central to courtroom interaction....

  10. Interpretive Management: What General Managers Can Learn from Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Richard K.; Piore, Michael J.; Malek, Kamal M.

    1998-01-01

    An analytical management approach reflects a traditional perspective and an interpretive approach involves a perspective suited to rapidly changing, unpredictable markets. Both approaches are valid, but each serves different purposes and calls for different strategies and skills. (JOW)

  11. MRI-based semiquantitative scoring of joint pathology in osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guermazi, Ali; Roemer, Frank W; Haugen, Ida K; Crema, Michel D; Hayashi, Daichi

    2013-04-01

    The use of MRI techniques to investigate tissue pathology has become increasingly widespread in osteoarthritis (OA) research. Semiquantitative assessment of the joints by expert interpreters of MRI data is a powerful tool that can increase our understanding of the natural history of this complex disease. Several reliable and validated semiquantitative scoring systems now exist and have been applied to large-scale, multicentre, cross-sectional and longitudinal observational epidemiological studies. Such approaches have advanced our understanding of the associations of different tissue pathologies with pain and improved the definition of joint alterations that lead to disease progression. Semiquantitative MRI outcome measures have also been applied in several clinical trials in OA. Indeed, interest in MRI-based semiquantitative scoring systems has led to the development of several novel scoring systems that can be applied to different joints: a knee synovitis scoring system based on contrast-enhanced MRI; the MRI Osteoarthritis Knee Score (MOAKS); the Hip Osteoarthritis MRI Score (HOAMS); and the Oslo Hand Osteoarthritis MRI score (OHOA-MRI). Although these new scoring systems offer theoretical advantages over pre-existing systems, whether they offer actual superiority with regard to reliability, responsiveness and validity remains to be seen.

  12. The interpreter as cultural educator of residents: improving communication for Latino parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ann Chen; Leventhal, John M; Ortiz, Jacqueline; Gonzalez, Ernesto E; Forsyth, Brian

    2006-11-01

    To determine whether augmentation of the Spanish interpreter's role to include cultural education of residents can improve the satisfaction of Latino patients. We assessed parent satisfaction during 4 sequential 2-month periods between June 1, 2004, and February 11, 2005, using different interpretation methods: telephone interpretation (n = 91 patient encounters), trained in-person interpretation (n = 49), in-person interpretation with cultural education of residents (n = 65), and postprogram telephone interpretation (n = 45). General pediatric practice at a large teaching hospital. A total of 250 Spanish-speaking parents who were limited in English proficiency. The cultural education program included 3 brief preclinic conferences taught by an interpreter and one-on-one teaching of residents about language and cultural issues after each clinical encounter. Parent satisfaction was assessed using 8 questions that have previously been validated in Spanish. Lower scores indicated more satisfaction. Because they were limited in English proficiency, our Spanish-speaking patients were significantly more satisfied when an in-person interpreter was used compared with a telephone interpreter (mean total satisfaction score of 14.5 [in-person] vs 17.4 [telephone]; P = .006) but were even more satisfied when the interpreter educated residents in cultural and language issues (mean, 11.5 [in-person with education] vs 17.4 [telephone]; P<.001). Although use of an in-person interpreter can increase Latino parents' satisfaction, a program using an interpreter to educate residents in cultural and language issues can increase satisfaction further.

  13. Measuring English Language Workplace Proficiency across Subgroups: Using CFA Models to Validate Test Score Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hanwook; Manna, Venessa F.

    2017-01-01

    This study assessed the factor structure of the Test of English for International Communication (TOEIC®) Listening and Reading test, and its invariance across subgroups of test-takers. The subgroups were defined by (a) gender, (b) age, (c) employment status, (d) time spent studying English, and (e) having lived in a country where English is the…

  14. The FCE Speaking Test: Using rater Reports To Help Interpret Test Scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Reports research using oral examiner verbal reports that attempts to gain insights into the rating process in the Cambridge First Certificate in English Speaking Test. Raters' verbal reports of the decision-making process were analyzed and heeded aspects of the test performances were identified, with a view to better understanding how test scores…

  15. What Defense Mechanisms Do Therapists Interpret In-Session?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Maneet; Petraglia, Jonathan; de Roten, Yves; Banon, Elisabeth; Despland, Jean-Nicolas; Drapeau, Martin

    2016-01-01

    One of the key technical guidelines outlined by psychodynamic theorists and clinicians is for therapists to interpret a patient's most prominent defenses (Greenson, 1967; Langs, 1973). However, a debate exists about what constitutes a patient's most prominent defense and which defenses therapists actually choose to interpret in-session. This study aimed to shed light on this debate by examining 35 psychotherapy sessions (18 high alliance and 17 low alliance dyads) of individuals in therapy at a university counselling center. The analysis focused on comparing the patients' most prominent defenses and the range of defenses they utilized, and the therapists' most prominent interpretation level as well as the range of interpretation level. Paired sample t-tests showed no significant mean difference between sessions with low and high alliance scores in patient defense levels (e.g., frequency and range) and therapist interpretation levels (e.g., frequency and range). Significant differences were found between the range of patient defense levels and the range of therapist interpretation levels. Correlational analyses showed no significant relationship between patient defense levels and therapist interpretation levels on both the frequency and range levels. Clinical implications of these results, and directions for future research are discussed.

  16. A Human Capital Model of Educational Test Scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, James; D. Munk, Martin

    Latent class Poisson count models are used to analyze a sample of Danish test score results from a cohort of individuals born in 1954-55 and tested in 1968. The procedure takes account of unobservable effects as well as excessive zeros in the data. The bulk of unobservable effects are uncorrelated...... with observable parental attributes and, thus, are environmental rather than genetic in origin. We show that the test scores measure manifest or measured ability as it has evolved over the life of the respondent and is, thus, more a product of the human capital formation process than some latent or fundamental...... measure of pure cognitive ability. We find that variables which are not closely associated with traditional notions of intelligence explain a significant proportion of the variation in test scores. This adds to the complexity of interpreting test scores and suggests that school culture, attitudes...

  17. From Rasch scores to regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl Bang

    2006-01-01

    Rasch models provide a framework for measurement and modelling latent variables. Having measured a latent variable in a population a comparison of groups will often be of interest. For this purpose the use of observed raw scores will often be inadequate because these lack interval scale propertie....... This paper compares two approaches to group comparison: linear regression models using estimated person locations as outcome variables and latent regression models based on the distribution of the score....

  18. Quantitation of PET signal as an adjunct to visual interpretation of florbetapir imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pontecorvo, Michael J.; Arora, Anupa K.; Devine, Marybeth; Lu, Ming; Galante, Nick; Siderowf, Andrew; Devadanam, Catherine; Joshi, Abhinay D.; Heun, Stephen L.; Teske, Brian F.; Truocchio, Stephen P.; Krautkramer, Michael; Devous, Michael D.; Mintun, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the feasibility of using quantitation to augment interpretation of florbetapir PET amyloid imaging. A total of 80 physician readers were trained on quantitation of florbetapir PET images and the principles for using quantitation to augment a visual read. On day 1, the readers completed a visual read of 96 scans (46 autopsy-verified and 50 from patients seeking a diagnosis). On day 2, 69 of the readers reinterpreted the 96 scans augmenting their interpretation with quantitation (VisQ method) using one of three commercial software packages. A subset of 11 readers reinterpreted all scans on day 2 based on a visual read only (VisVis control). For the autopsy-verified scans, the neuropathologist's modified CERAD plaque score was used as the truth standard for interpretation accuracy. Because an autopsy truth standard was not available for scans from patients seeking a diagnosis, the majority VisQ interpretation of the three readers with the best accuracy in interpreting autopsy-verified scans was used as the reference standard. Day 1 visual read accuracy was high for both the autopsy-verified scans (90%) and the scans from patients seeking a diagnosis (87.3%). Accuracy improved from the visual read to the VisQ read (from 90.1% to 93.1%, p < 0.0001). Importantly, access to quantitative information did not decrease interpretation accuracy of the above-average readers (>90% on day 1). Accuracy in interpreting the autopsy-verified scans also increased from the first to the second visual read (VisVis group). However, agreement with the reference standard (best readers) for scans from patients seeking a diagnosis did not improve with a second visual read, and in this cohort the VisQ group was significantly improved relative to the VisVis group (change 5.4% vs. -1.1%, p < 0.0001). These results indicate that augmentation of visual interpretation of florbetapir PET amyloid images with quantitative information obtained using commercially available

  19. Quantitation of PET signal as an adjunct to visual interpretation of florbetapir imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontecorvo, Michael J.; Arora, Anupa K.; Devine, Marybeth; Lu, Ming; Galante, Nick; Siderowf, Andrew; Devadanam, Catherine; Joshi, Abhinay D.; Heun, Stephen L.; Teske, Brian F.; Truocchio, Stephen P.; Krautkramer, Michael; Devous, Michael D.; Mintun, Mark A. [Avid Radiopharmaceuticals (a wholly owned subsidiary of Eli Lilly and Company), Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2017-05-15

    This study examined the feasibility of using quantitation to augment interpretation of florbetapir PET amyloid imaging. A total of 80 physician readers were trained on quantitation of florbetapir PET images and the principles for using quantitation to augment a visual read. On day 1, the readers completed a visual read of 96 scans (46 autopsy-verified and 50 from patients seeking a diagnosis). On day 2, 69 of the readers reinterpreted the 96 scans augmenting their interpretation with quantitation (VisQ method) using one of three commercial software packages. A subset of 11 readers reinterpreted all scans on day 2 based on a visual read only (VisVis control). For the autopsy-verified scans, the neuropathologist's modified CERAD plaque score was used as the truth standard for interpretation accuracy. Because an autopsy truth standard was not available for scans from patients seeking a diagnosis, the majority VisQ interpretation of the three readers with the best accuracy in interpreting autopsy-verified scans was used as the reference standard. Day 1 visual read accuracy was high for both the autopsy-verified scans (90%) and the scans from patients seeking a diagnosis (87.3%). Accuracy improved from the visual read to the VisQ read (from 90.1% to 93.1%, p < 0.0001). Importantly, access to quantitative information did not decrease interpretation accuracy of the above-average readers (>90% on day 1). Accuracy in interpreting the autopsy-verified scans also increased from the first to the second visual read (VisVis group). However, agreement with the reference standard (best readers) for scans from patients seeking a diagnosis did not improve with a second visual read, and in this cohort the VisQ group was significantly improved relative to the VisVis group (change 5.4% vs. -1.1%, p < 0.0001). These results indicate that augmentation of visual interpretation of florbetapir PET amyloid images with quantitative information obtained using commercially available

  20. The influence of a continuing education program on the image interpretation accuracy of rural radiographers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Tony N; Traise, Peter; Cook, Aiden

    2009-01-01

    In regional, rural and remote clinical practice, radiographers work closely with medical members of the acute care team in the interpretation of radiographic images, particularly when no radiologist is available. However, the misreading of radiographs by non-radiologist physicians has been shown to be the most common type of clinical error in the emergency department. Further, in Australia few rural radiographers are specifically trained to interpret and report on images. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of a group of rural radiographers in interpreting musculoskeletal plain radiographs, and to assess the effectiveness of continuing education (CE) in improving their accuracy within a short time frame. Following ethics approval, 16 rural radiographers were recruited to the study. At inception a purpose-designed 'test-object' of 25 cases compiled by a radiologist was used to assess image interpretation accuracy. The cases were categorised into three grades of complexity. The radiographers entered their answers on a structured radiographer opinion form (ROF) that had three levels of response - 'general opinion', 'observations' and 'open comment'. Subsequent to base-line testing, the radiographers participated in a CE program aimed at improving their image interpretation skills. After a 4 month period they were re-tested using the same methodology. The ROFs were scored by the radiologist and the pooled results analysed for statistically significant changes at all ROF levels and grades of complexity. While for the small number of less complex grade 1 cases there was no change in image interpretation accuracy, for the more numerous and more complex grade 2 and grade 3 cases there was a statistically significant improvement at the 'general opinion' and 'observation' levels (paired t-test, p radiologist. However, radiographers' ability to use radiological vocabulary needs improvement. The complementary role that exists between radiographers and other members of

  1. Interpreting expressive performance through listener judgments of musical tension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbood, Morwaread M; Upham, Finn

    2013-01-01

    This study examines listener judgments of musical tension for a recording of a Schubert song and its harmonic reduction. Continuous tension ratings collected in an experiment and quantitative descriptions of the piece's musical features, include dynamics, pitch height, harmony, onset frequency, and tempo, were analyzed from two different angles. In the first part of the analysis, the different processing timescales for disparate features contributing to tension were explored through the optimization of a predictive tension model. The results revealed the optimal time windows for harmony were considerably longer (~22 s) than for any other feature (~1-4 s). In the second part of the analysis, tension ratings for the individual verses of the song and its harmonic reduction were examined and compared. The results showed that although the average tension ratings between verses were very similar, differences in how and when participants reported tension changes highlighted performance decisions made in the interpretation of the score, ambiguity in tension implications of the music, and the potential importance of contrast between verses and phrases. Analysis of the tension ratings for the harmonic reduction also provided a new perspective for better understanding how complex musical features inform listener tension judgments.

  2. Towards operational interpretations of generalized entropies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topsoee, Flemming

    2010-01-01

    The driving force behind our study has been to overcome the difficulties you encounter when you try to extend the clear and convincing operational interpretations of classical Boltzmann-Gibbs-Shannon entropy to other notions, especially to generalized entropies as proposed by Tsallis. Our approach is philosophical, based on speculations regarding the interplay between truth, belief and knowledge. The main result demonstrates that, accepting philosophically motivated assumptions, the only possible measures of entropy are those suggested by Tsallis - which, as we know, include classical entropy. This result constitutes, so it seems, a more transparent interpretation of entropy than previously available. However, further research to clarify the assumptions is still needed. Our study points to the thesis that one should never consider the notion of entropy in isolation - in order to enable a rich and technically smooth study, further concepts, such as divergence, score functions and descriptors or controls should be included in the discussion. This will clarify the distinction between Nature and Observer and facilitate a game theoretical discussion. The usefulness of this distinction and the subsequent exploitation of game theoretical results - such as those connected with the notion of Nash equilibrium - is demonstrated by a discussion of the Maximum Entropy Principle.

  3. Andries van Aarde’s Matthew Interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurie H. le Roux

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article focused on Andries van Aarde’s interpretation of the Gospel of Matthew. It argues that Van Aarde has changed his approach to Matthew in the course of time. At the beginning of his career he focused on structural analysis and even made a contribution to the Gattung problem from a structural perspective. Then his attention shifted to narrative criticism and social-scientific criticism. Van Aarde’s consistent narratological interpretation of Matthew enabled him to identify Matthew’s ideology and to determine the way in which it took shape on the surface structure. This narratological investigation also shed new light on, amongst others, the parables, the characters and the problem of direct and indirect discourse. To conclude the article, some critical statements with regard to the historical understanding of the Gospel of Matthew were formulated.

  4. Interpretive focus groups: a participatory method for interpreting and extending secondary analysis of qualitative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman-MacLaren, Michelle; Mills, Jane; Tommbe, Rachael

    2014-01-01

    Participatory approaches to qualitative research practice constantly change in response to evolving research environments. Researchers are increasingly encouraged to undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data, despite epistemological and ethical challenges. Interpretive focus groups can be described as a more participative method for groups to analyse qualitative data. To facilitate interpretive focus groups with women in Papua New Guinea to extend analysis of existing qualitative data and co-create new primary data. The purpose of this was to inform a transformational grounded theory and subsequent health promoting action. A two-step approach was used in a grounded theory study about how women experience male circumcision in Papua New Guinea. Participants analysed portions or 'chunks' of existing qualitative data in story circles and built upon this analysis by using the visual research method of storyboarding. New understandings of the data were evoked when women in interpretive focus groups analysed the data 'chunks'. Interpretive focus groups encouraged women to share their personal experiences about male circumcision. The visual method of storyboarding enabled women to draw pictures to represent their experiences. This provided an additional focus for whole-of-group discussions about the research topic. Interpretive focus groups offer opportunity to enhance trustworthiness of findings when researchers undertake secondary analysis of qualitative data. The co-analysis of existing data and co-generation of new data between research participants and researchers informed an emergent transformational grounded theory and subsequent health promoting action.

  5. Asking for work adjustments or initiating behavioural changes - what makes a 'problematic co-worker' score Brownie points? An experimental study on the reactions towards colleagues with a personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschalla, Beate; Fay, Doris; Seemann, Anne

    2016-10-01

    People with mental disorders, especially personality disorders, often face low acceptance at work. This is particularly problematic when returning to work after sick leave, because it impedes reintegration into the former workplace. This study explores colleagues' reactions towards a problematic worker dependent on the returning person's reintegration strategy: The returning person undertaking changes in their behaviour is compared with the person requesting adjustments of the workplace. In an experimental study, 188 employed persons read one of four vignettes that described a return-to-work-situation of a problematic co-worker. Across all vignettes, the co-worker was depicted as having previously caused problems in the work team. In the first vignette, the co-worker did not change anything (control condition) when she returned to work; in the second, she asked for workplace adjustments; in the third vignette she initiated efforts to change her own behaviour; and the fourth vignette combined both workplace adjustments and behavioural change. Study participants were asked for their reactions towards the problematic co-worker. Vignettes that included a behavioural change evoked more positive reactions towards the co-worker than vignettes without any behavioural change. Asking for workplace adjustments alone did not yield more positive reactions compared to not initiating any change. When preparing employees with interactional problems for their return to work, it is not effective to only instruct them on their statutory entitlement for workplace adjustments. Instead, it is advisable to encourage them to proactively strive for behaviour changes.

  6. The Interpretive Approach to Religious Education: Challenging Thompson's Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In a recent book chapter, Matthew Thompson makes some criticisms of my work, including the interpretive approach to religious education and the research and activity of Warwick Religions and Education Research Unit. Against the background of a discussion of religious education in the public sphere, my response challenges Thompson's account,…

  7. Default Sarcastic Interpretations: On the Priority of Nonsalient Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giora, Rachel; Drucker, Ari; Fein, Ofer; Mendelson, Itamar

    2015-01-01

    Findings from five experiments support the view that negation generates sarcastic utterance-interpretations by default. When presented in isolation, novel negative constructions ("Punctuality is not his forte," "Thoroughness is not her most distinctive feature"), free of semantic anomaly or internal incongruity, were…

  8. Interpretative reports and critical values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piva, Elisa; Plebani, Mario

    2009-06-01

    In the clinical laboratory to allow an effective testing process, post-analytical activity can have two goals in trying to improve patient safety: result interpretation and communication of critical values. Both are important issues, and their success requires a cooperative effort. Misinterpretation of laboratory test results or ineffectiveness in their notification can lead to diagnostic errors or errors in identifying patient critical conditions. With the awareness that the incorrect interpretation of tests and the breakdown in the communication of critical values are preventable errors, laboratorians should make every effort to prevent the types of errors that potentially harm patients. In order to improve the reliability of laboratories, we attempt to explain how interpretative reporting and automated notification of critical values can be used to reduce errors. Clinical laboratories can therefore work to improve clinical effectiveness, without forgetting that everything should be designed to provide the best outcomes for patients.

  9. Longitudinal Factor Score Estimation Using the Kalman Filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Johan H.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    How longitudinal factor score estimation--the estimation of the evolution of factor scores for individual examinees over time--can profit from the Kalman filter technique is described. The Kalman estimates change more cautiously over time, have lower estimation error variances, and reproduce the LISREL program latent state correlations more…

  10. 8 CFR 1240.44 - Interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpreter. 1240.44 Section 1240.44 Aliens....44 Interpreter. Any person acting as interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under this part shall be sworn to interpret and translate accurately, unless the interpreter is an employee of the...

  11. 25 CFR 81.16 - Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Interpreters. 81.16 Section 81.16 Indians BUREAU OF... STATUTE § 81.16 Interpreters. Interpreters, where needed, may be provided to explain the manner of voting... that the interpreter does not influence the voter in casting the ballot. The interpreter may accompany...

  12. Validating Automated Essay Scoring: A (Modest) Refinement of the "Gold Standard"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Donald E.; Escoffery, David S.; Duchnowski, Matthew P.

    2015-01-01

    By far, the most frequently used method of validating (the interpretation and use of) automated essay scores has been to compare them with scores awarded by human raters. Although this practice is questionable, human-machine agreement is still often regarded as the "gold standard." Our objective was to refine this model and apply it to…

  13. Psychometric Properties of Raw and Scale Scores on Mixed-Format Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolen, Michael J.; Lee, Won-Chan

    2011-01-01

    This paper illustrates that the psychometric properties of scores and scales that are used with mixed-format educational tests can impact the use and interpretation of the scores that are reported to examinees. Psychometric properties that include reliability and conditional standard errors of measurement are considered in this paper. The focus is…

  14. Speed-Accuracy Response Models: Scoring Rules Based on Response Time and Accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maris, Gunter; van der Maas, Han

    2012-01-01

    Starting from an explicit scoring rule for time limit tasks incorporating both response time and accuracy, and a definite trade-off between speed and accuracy, a response model is derived. Since the scoring rule is interpreted as a sufficient statistic, the model belongs to the exponential family. The various marginal and conditional distributions…

  15. Minimal Clinically Important Differences for American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society Score in Hallux Valgus Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Hiok Yang; Chen, Jerry Yongqiang; Zainul-Abidin, Suraya; Ying, Hao; Koo, Kevin; Rikhraj, Inderjeet Singh

    2017-05-01

    fair satisfaction levels. At 2 years, patients who had good satisfaction had higher AOFAS scores than fair satisfaction (83.9 vs 78.1, P change (30.2 vs 22.3, P = .015). Mean change in AOFAS score in patients with good satisfaction was 30.2 (SD = 19.8). Mean difference in good versus fair satisfaction was 7.9. Using ROC analysis, the cut-off point is 29.0, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.62. Effect size method derived an MCID of 8.4 with a moderate effect size of 0.5. Multiple linear regression demonstrated increasing age (β = -0.129, CI = -0.245, -0.013, P = .030) and higher preoperative AOFAS score (β = -0.874, CI = -0.644, -0.081, P change in the AOFAS score. The MCID of AOFAS score in hallux valgus surgery was 7.9 to 30.2. The MCID can ensure clinical improvement from a patient's perspective and also aid in interpreting results from clinical trials and other studies. Level III, retrospective comparative series.

  16. Skin scoring in systemic sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariae, Hugh; Bjerring, Peter; Halkier-Sørensen, Lars

    1994-01-01

    Forty-one patients with systemic sclerosis were investigated with a new and simple skin score method measuring the degree of thickening and pliability in seven regions together with area involvement in each region. The highest values were, as expected, found in diffuse cutaneous systemic sclerosis...... (type III SS) and the lowest in limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis (type I SS) with no lesions extending above wrists and ancles. A positive correlation was found to the aminoterminal propeptide of type III procollagen, a serological marker for synthesis of type III collagen. The skin score...

  17. Interpretive Reproduction in Children's Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsaro, William A.

    2012-01-01

    The author looks at children's play from the perspective of interpretive reproduction, emphasizing the way children create their own unique peer cultures, which he defines as a set of routines, artifacts, values, and concerns that children engage in with their playmates. The article focuses on two types of routines in the peer culture of preschool…

  18. Interpreting Data: The Hybrid Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterkamp, Kimberly; Talanquer, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize major patterns of reasoning exhibited by college chemistry students when analyzing and interpreting chemical data. Using a case study approach, we investigated how a representative student used chemical models to explain patterns in the data based on structure-property relationships. Our results…

  19. Analyzing and Interpreting Historical Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kipping, Matthias; Wadhwani, Dan; Bucheli, Marcelo

    2014-01-01

    on social scientific methods as well as the practice and reflections of historians, the chapter describes analytical and interpretive process based on three basic elements, illustrating them with exemplars from management research: source criticism to identify possible biases and judge the extent to which....... The chapter contributes to the creation of a language for describing the use of historical sources in management research....

  20. Abstract Interpretation of Mobile Ambients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, René Rydhof; Jensen, J. G.; Nielson, Flemming

    1999-01-01

    We demonstrate that abstract interpretation is useful for analysing calculi of computation such as the ambient calculus (which is based on the p-calculus); more importantly, we show that the entire development can be expressed in a constraint-based formalism that is becoming exceedingly popular...

  1. Probabilistic interpretation of resonant states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    E-mail: hatano@iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp. Abstract. We provide probabilistic interpretation of resonant states. We do this by showing that the integral of the modulus square of resonance wave functions (i.e., the conventional norm) over a properly expanding spatial domain is independent of time, and therefore leads to probability ...

  2. Intercultural Understanding: An Interpretive Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting-Toomey, Stella

    Noting that intercultural understanding is a prime construct in the study of intercultural communication, this paper examines two questions that confront all intercultural communication researchers: (1) What are the underlying characteristics of intercultural understanding? and (2) What constitutes an interpretative perspective to intercultural…

  3. meaning, interpretation and literary theory

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thetic concepts and interpretations within particular historical, political and cultural frameworks. The impact of cultural studies, postcolonial stu- dies, New Historicism and feminism on all textual practices is very strong. These approaches ask differing sets of questions, questions such as: How does a particular text fit into a ...

  4. Interpretation of Recurrent Neural Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Morten With; Larsen, Jan

    1997-01-01

    This paper addresses techniques for interpretation and characterization of trained recurrent nets for time series problems. In particular, we focus on assessment of effective memory and suggest an operational definition of memory. Further we discuss the evaluation of learning curves. Various...

  5. Probabilistic interpretation of resonant states

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We provide probabilistic interpretation of resonant states. We do this by showing that the integral of the modulus square of resonance wave functions (i.e., the conventional norm) over a properly expanding spatial domain is independent of time, and therefore leads to probability conservation. This is in contrast with the ...

  6. Andries van Aarde's Matthew Interpretation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Test

    2011-01-14

    Jan 14, 2011 ... To conclude the article, some critical statements with regard to the historical understanding ... important texts. In what follows, this answer is described by emphasising the many facets of Van Aarde's Matthew interpretation. Van Aarde is an .... has created the necessary distance between text and reader, it.

  7. A Generator for Composition Interpreters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jørgen

    1997-01-01

    Composition of program components must be expressed in some language, and late composition can be achieved by an interpreter for the composition language. A suitable notion of component is obtained by identifying it with the semantics of a generalised structured command. Experiences from programm...

  8. Interpretative challenges in face analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Oliveira, Sandi Michele; Hernández-Flores, Nieves

    2015-01-01

    In current research on face analysis questions of who and what should be interpreted, as well as how, are of central interest. In English language research, this question has led to a debate on the concepts of P1 (laypersons, representing the “emic” perspective) and P2 (researchers, representing ...

  9. Interpretation and the Aesthetic Dimension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Charles O.

    1976-01-01

    The author, utilizing a synthesis of philosophic comments on aesthetics, provides a discourse on the aesthetic dimension and offers examples of how interpreters can nurture the innate sense of beauty in man. Poetic forms, such as haiku, are used to relate the aesthetic relationship between man and the environment. (BT)

  10. Visual Interpretation of Children's Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstone, Bette P.

    1989-01-01

    Examines how visual literacy (the ability to interpret the visual images of advertisements, illustrations, television, and other visual media) can promote creative and analytic thinking. Provides several instructional strategies to teach visual literacy through book illustrations. Notes that visual literacy is essential in a world increasingly…

  11. Re-Interpreting the "Chinese miracle"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Xingyuan; Ljungwall, Christer; Guo, Sujian

    2011-01-01

    The rapid economic development and transformation of Chinese society over the past three decades has, by a large mass of analysts, been called a "Miracle." This paper not only addresses the shortcomings of existing interpretations but also develops a new multi-dimensional framework based on North......'s theory of institutional change and Hayek's theory of institutional evolution to explain China's miraculous growth. Our analysis shows that both Hayekian spontaneous order and Popper's "piecemeal social engineering" played a major role in attaining China's miraculous growth....

  12. String Analysis as an Abstract Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Won; Choe, Kwang-Moo

    We formalize a string analysis within abstract interpretation framework. The abstraction of strings is given as a conjunction of predicates that describes the common configuration changes on the reference pushdown automaton while processing the strings. We also present a family of pushdown automata called ɛ bounded pushdown automata. This family covers all context-free languages, and by using this family of pushdown automata, we can prevent abstract values from becoming infinite conjunctions and guarantee that the operations required in the analyzer are computable.

  13. From Rasch scores to regression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Karl Bang

    2006-01-01

    Rasch models provide a framework for measurement and modelling latent variables. Having measured a latent variable in a population a comparison of groups will often be of interest. For this purpose the use of observed raw scores will often be inadequate because these lack interval scale propertie...

  14. Developing Scoring Algorithms (Earlier Methods)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.

  15. Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards Interpretations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — NHTSA's Chief Counsel interprets the statutes that the agency administers and the regulations that it promulgates. The Chief Counsel's interpretations, issued in the...

  16. Inaccuracy of ECG interpretations reported to the poison center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, Jane M; Smith, Silas W; Rhim, Eugene S; Olsen, Dean; Nelson, Lewis S; Hoffman, Robert S

    2011-02-01

    The ECG is an essential tool in the care of poisoned patients. This study is designed to investigate the accuracy of ECG interpretation reported to a poison center. In this prospective study, all cases in which both an electronically faxed copy of the ECG and the caller's interpretation of the ECG were available were eligible for inclusion. ECG interpretation of callers was compared with that of a blinded electrophysiologist. In cases of disagreement, a Delphi panel of toxicologists decided whether the differences were clinically significant or would have changed recommendations. Two hundred cases were included, with complete agreement in 78. In 23 cases, the sole difference was nonspecific ST-T-wave changes, which were believed insignificant and classified as agreement for a total of 101. The Delphi panel reviewed the remaining 99. In 42 cases, the differences in ECG interpretations were thought to be clinically significant; 37 of these would have resulted in a change in management recommendations. Forty-five cases were thought not likely to be clinically significant and would not have resulted in a recommendation change. Twelve cases were thought not clinically significant but would still have resulted in a change in recommendations. Initial interpretation of the ECG reported by callers to the poison center is frequently inaccurate. In this study, the misinterpretation was clinically significant or would have resulted in a change in management recommendations in approximately one quarter of all calls. Copyright © 2010 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterizing neuropathic pain profiles: enriching interpretation of painDETECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cappelleri JC

    2016-07-01

    . Conclusion: painDETECT differentiates pain profiles across the range of scores such that, for a particular score, the probability of experiencing at least a moderate sensation of each symptom was determined and compared. These results can help characterize NeP symptomatology, enrich interpretation of painDETECT scores, and provide a basis for individualizing NeP management. Keywords: neuropathic pain, painDETECT, sensory symptoms, pain profile, interpretation, patient-reported outcomes

  18. Directionality effects in simultaneous language interpreting: the case of sign language interpreters in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of The Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives was assessed by 5 certified sign language interpreters who did not participate in the study. Two measures were used to assess interpreting quality: the propositional accuracy of the interpreters' interpretations and a subjective quality measure. The results showed that the interpreted narratives in the SLN-to-Dutch interpreting direction were of lower quality (on both measures) than the interpreted narratives in the Dutch-to-SLN and Dutch-to-SSD directions. Furthermore, interpreters who had begun acquiring SLN when they entered the interpreter training program performed as well in all 3 interpreting directions as interpreters who had acquired SLN from birth.

  19. INTERPRETER TRAINING CURRICULUM IN TURKEY: THE CASE OF SAKARYA UNIVERSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel OKUYAN

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In our globalizing and rapidly changing world thanks to the communication technologies, Turkey has a significant strategic position in terms of socio-cultural and economical aspects. Therefore, Turkey has a different commercial and political relationship with many countries comprising various cultures and languages. In order to maintain these relations healthfully, interpreting is of utmost importance. Turkey’s membership application for EU shows that Turkey is now an important political power. Besides, commercial contacts with other countries are on the rise and foreign people pay a visit to our country for health tourism. On the other hand, conflicts in neighboring countries increase. All of these factors raise the demand for interpreting in Turkey. In this respect, considering aforementioned explanations we believe that contents of the interpreting courses in academic translation institutions must be refreshed and updated, while doing so, market conditions must also be taken into account. This study deals with interpreting courses offered at Sakarya University taking the above-mentioned suggestions into consideration. In this study, we aim to evaluate interpreting courses in terms of the developments in academic interpreter training and interpreting profession. Hence, curricula of Translation & Interpreting (Studies Departments were compared to each other and the findings are discussed.

  20. Re-Scoring the Game’s Score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gasselseder, Hans-Peter

    2014-01-01

    This study explores immersive presence as well as emotional valence and arousal in the context of dynamic and non-dynamic music scores in the 3rd person action-adventure video game genre while also considering relevant personality traits of the player. 60 subjects answered self-report questionnai......This study explores immersive presence as well as emotional valence and arousal in the context of dynamic and non-dynamic music scores in the 3rd person action-adventure video game genre while also considering relevant personality traits of the player. 60 subjects answered self......-report questionnaires of experiential states each time after playing the game 'Batman: Arkham City' in one of three randomized conditions accounting for [1] dynamic music, [2] non-dynamic music/low arousal potential and [3] non-dynamic music/high arousal potential, aiming to manipulate emotional arousal and structural......-temporal alignment in the resulting emotional congruency of nondiegetic music. Whereas imaginary aspects of immersive presence are systemically affected by the presentation of dynamic music, sensory spatial aspects show higher sensitivity towards the arousal potential of the music score. It is argued...

  1. Improved interpretation of stroke trial results using empirical Barthel item weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hartingsveld, Frank; Lucas, Cees; Kwakkel, Gert; Lindeboom, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Attempts have been made to provide guidelines for interpreting Barthel scores. We used a Rasch analysis to improve the measurement properties and clinical interpretability of the Barthel index score. A specific extension of Rasch model was used to identify items that preclude the summation of items and to improve the item rating scale by examining the scores on the Barthel of 559 stroke patients scored 3 weeks (n=89) and 6 months (n=470) after stroke. The clinical interpretation of the revised Rasch modeled Barthel was illustrated by re-examining the results of a previously published trial on the effectiveness of leg and arm training after stroke. Most rating scales could be improved by collapsing nondiscriminating rating categories. Two items showed misfit: Bladder and Bowel. The remaining Barthel showed an excellent fit to the extended Rasch model (R1c Goodness-of-Fit P=0.35). Both items and patients could be placed on a common logit unit scale, allowing a clearer interpretation of the trial effect. Using the modeled activities of daily living difficulty/ability scale, we could express the differences between treatment arms in modeled probabilities of a positive score to each Barthel item for the treatment arms not conveyed by the original ordinal Barthel sum scores. We improved the psychometric properties and clinical interpretation of the Barthel index.

  2. The role of biomedical knowledge in echocardiographic interpretation expertise development: a correlation study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dorte Guldbrand; Gøtzsche, Ole; Eika, Berit

    2010-01-01

    interpretation skills. An anatomical focused checklist was developed based on Danish Cardiology Society guidelines for a standard echocardiography of adults. A TTE case of a common and complex clinical presentation was recorded and presented to participants on a portable computer using EchoPac software....... Participants made an immediate diagnosis and after that filled out the checklist of possible pathologies. Each correct answer was awarded one point, with a possible maximum score of 111. The echocardiography interpretation scores of the 45 physicians were then correlated with their scores on a MCQ test...... of echocardiography relevant physiology knowledge. Results: A strong and significant correlation between expertise level and scores on the TTE interpretation checklist was found (r = 0.70, p test. A weak, but significant correlation was found between expertise level and physiology...

  3. Genetic effect on apgar score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Franchi-Pinto

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Intraclass correlation coefficients for one- and five-min Apgar scores of 604 twin pairs born at a southeastern Brazilian hospital were calculated, after adjusting these scores for gestational age and sex. The data support a genetic hypothesis only for 1-min Apgar score, probably because it is less affected by the environment than 4 min later, after the newborns have been under the care of a neonatology team. First-born twins exhibited, on average, better clinical conditions than second-born twins. The former showed a significantly lower proportion of Apgar scores under seven than second-born twins, both at 1 min (17.5% vs. 29.8% and at 5 min (7.2% vs. 11.9%. The proportion of children born with "good" Apgar scores was significantly smaller among twins than among 1,522 singletons born at the same hospital. Among the latter, 1- and 5-min Apgar scores under seven were exhibited by 9.2% and 3.4% newborns, respectively.Os coeficientes de correlação intraclasse foram calculados para os índices de Apgar 1 e 5 minutos após o nascimento de 604 pares de gêmeos em uma maternidade do sudeste brasileiro, depois que esses índices foram ajustados para idade gestacional e sexo. Os dados obtidos apoiaram a hipótese genética apenas em relação ao primeiro índice de Apgar, provavelmente porque ele é menos influenciado pelo ambiente do que 4 minutos depois, quando os recém-nascidos já estiveram sob os cuidados de uma equipe de neonatologistas. Os gêmeos nascidos em primeiro lugar apresentaram, em média, melhor estado clínico que os nascidos em segundo lugar, visto que os primeiros mostraram uma proporção de índices de Apgar inferiores a 7 significativamente menor do que os nascidos em segundo lugar, tanto um minuto (17,5% contra 29,8% quanto cinco minutos após o nascimento (7,2% contra 11,9%. A proporção de recém-nascidos com índices de Apgar que indicam bom prognóstico foi significativamente menor nos gêmeos do que em 1.522 conceptos

  4. Modeling and interpretation of images*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Michiel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging protoplanetary disks is a challenging but rewarding task. It is challenging because of the glare of the central star outshining the weak signal from the disk at shorter wavelengths and because of the limited spatial resolution at longer wavelengths. It is rewarding because it contains a wealth of information on the structure of the disks and can (directly probe things like gaps and spiral structure. Because it is so challenging, telescopes are often pushed to their limitations to get a signal. Proper interpretation of these images therefore requires intimate knowledge of the instrumentation, the detection method, and the image processing steps. In this chapter I will give some examples and stress some issues that are important when interpreting images from protoplanetary disks.

  5. Visual perception and radiographic interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papageorges, M.

    1998-01-01

    Although interpretation errors are common in radiology, their causes are still debated. Perceptual mechanisms appear to be responsible for a large proportion of mistakes made by both neophytes and trained radiologists. Erroneous perception of familiar contours can be triggered by unrelated opacities. Conversely, visual information cannot induce a specific perception if the observer is not familiar with the concept represented or its radiographicappearance. Additionally, the area of acute vision is smaller than is commonly recognized. Other factors, such as the attitude, beliefs,.: preconceptions, and expectations of the viewer, can affect what he or she ''sees'' whenviewing any object, including a radiograph. Familiarity with perceptual mechanisms and the limitations of the visual system as well as multiple readings may be necessary to reduce interpretation errors

  6. Phonological Interpretation into Preordered Algebras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Yusuke; Pollard, Carl

    We propose a novel architecture for categorial grammar that clarifies the relationship between semantically relevant combinatoric reasoning and semantically inert reasoning that only affects surface-oriented phonological form. To this end, we employ a level of structured phonology that mediates between syntax (abstract combinatorics) and phonology proper (strings). To notate structured phonologies, we employ a lambda calculus analogous to the φ-terms of [8]. However, unlike Oehrle's purely equational φ-calculus, our phonological calculus is inequational, in a way that is strongly analogous to the functional programming language LCF [10]. Like LCF, our phonological terms are interpreted into a Henkin frame of posets, with degree of definedness ('height' in the preorder that interprets the base type) corresponding to degree of pronounceability; only maximal elements are actual strings and therefore fully pronounceable. We illustrate with an analysis (also new) of some complex constituent-order phenomena in Japanese.

  7. Design of interpretable fuzzy systems

    CERN Document Server

    Cpałka, Krzysztof

    2017-01-01

    This book shows that the term “interpretability” goes far beyond the concept of readability of a fuzzy set and fuzzy rules. It focuses on novel and precise operators of aggregation, inference, and defuzzification leading to flexible Mamdani-type and logical-type systems that can achieve the required accuracy using a less complex rule base. The individual chapters describe various aspects of interpretability, including appropriate selection of the structure of a fuzzy system, focusing on improving the interpretability of fuzzy systems designed using both gradient-learning and evolutionary algorithms. It also demonstrates how to eliminate various system components, such as inputs, rules and fuzzy sets, whose reduction does not adversely affect system accuracy. It illustrates the performance of the developed algorithms and methods with commonly used benchmarks. The book provides valuable tools for possible applications in many fields including expert systems, automatic control and robotics.

  8. A Bootstrap Procedure of Propensity Score Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    Propensity score estimation plays a fundamental role in propensity score matching for reducing group selection bias in observational data. To increase the accuracy of propensity score estimation, the author developed a bootstrap propensity score. The commonly used propensity score matching methods: nearest neighbor matching, caliper matching, and…

  9. Cross Talk: Evaluation of a Curriculum to Teach Medical Students How to Use Telephone Interpreter Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoruyi, Emma A; Dunkle, Jesse; Dendy, Colby; McHugh, Erin; Barratt, Michelle S

    2018-03-01

    Telephone interpretation and recent technology advances assist patients with more timely access to rare languages, but no one has examined the role of this technology in the medical setting and how medical students can be prepared for their use. We sought to determine if structured curriculum on interpretation would promote learners self-reported competency in these encounters and if proficiency would be demonstrated in actual patient encounters. Training on the principles of interpreter use with a focus on communication technology was added to medical student education. The students later voluntarily completed a retrospective pre/post training competency self-assessment. A cohort of students rotating at a clinical site had a blinded review of their telephone interpretation encounters scored on a modified validated scale and compared to scored encounters with preintervention learners. Nested ANOVA models were used for audio file analysis. A total of 176 students who completed the training reported a statistically significant improvement in all 4 interpretation competency domains. Eighty-three audio files were analyzed from students before and after intervention. These scored encounters showed no statistical difference between the scores of the 2 groups. However, plotting the mean scores over time from each encounter suggests that those who received the curriculum started their rotation with higher scores and maintained those scores. In an evaluation of learners' ability to use interpreters in actual patient encounters, focused education led to earlier proficiency of using interpreters compared to peers who received no training. Copyright © 2018 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Abstract Interpretation Using Attribute Grammar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Mads

    1990-01-01

    This paper deals with the correctness proofs of attribute grammars using methods from abstract interpretation. The technique will be described by defining a live-variable analysis for a small flow-chart language and proving it correct with respect to a continuation style semantics. The proof...... technique is based on fixpoint induction and introduces an extended class of attribute grammars as to express a standard semantics....

  11. Paris convention - Decisions, recommendations, interpretations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This booklet is published in a single edition in English and French. It contains decisions, recommendations and interpretations concerning the 1960 Paris Convention on Third Party Liability in the Field of Nuclear Energy adopted by the OECD Steering Committee and the OECD Council. All the instruments are set out according to the Article of the Convention to which they relate and explanatory notes are added where necessary [fr

  12. Consistent interpretations of quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omnes, R.

    1992-01-01

    Within the last decade, significant progress has been made towards a consistent and complete reformulation of the Copenhagen interpretation (an interpretation consisting in a formulation of the experimental aspects of physics in terms of the basic formalism; it is consistent if free from internal contradiction and complete if it provides precise predictions for all experiments). The main steps involved decoherence (the transition from linear superpositions of macroscopic states to a mixing), Griffiths histories describing the evolution of quantum properties, a convenient logical structure for dealing with histories, and also some progress in semiclassical physics, which was made possible by new methods. The main outcome is a theory of phenomena, viz., the classically meaningful properties of a macroscopic system. It shows in particular how and when determinism is valid. This theory can be used to give a deductive form to measurement theory, which now covers some cases that were initially devised as counterexamples against the Copenhagen interpretation. These theories are described, together with their applications to some key experiments and some of their consequences concerning epistemology

  13. Description and validation of a scoring system for tomosynthesis in pulmonary cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vult von Steyern, Kristina; Bjoerkman-Burtscher, Isabella M.; Bozovic, Gracijela; Wiklund, Marie; Geijer, Mats; Hoeglund, Peter

    2012-01-01

    To design and validate a scoring system for tomosynthesis (digital tomography) in pulmonary cystic fibrosis. A scoring system dedicated to tomosynthesis in pulmonary cystic fibrosis was designed. Three radiologists independently scored 88 pairs of radiographs and tomosynthesis examinations of the chest in 60 patients with cystic fibrosis and 7 oncology patients. Radiographs were scored according to the Brasfield scoring system and tomosynthesis examinations were scored using the new scoring system. Observer agreements for the tomosynthesis score were almost perfect for the total score with square-weighted kappa >0.90, and generally substantial to almost perfect for subscores. Correlation between the tomosynthesis score and the Brasfield score was good for the three observers (Kendall's rank correlation tau 0.68, 0.77 and 0.78). Tomosynthesis was generally scored higher as a percentage of the maximum score. Observer agreements for the total score for Brasfield score were almost perfect (square-weighted kappa 0.80, 0.81 and 0.85). The tomosynthesis scoring system seems robust and correlates well with the Brasfield score. Compared with radiography, tomosynthesis is more sensitive to cystic fibrosis changes, especially bronchiectasis and mucus plugging, and the new tomosynthesis scoring system offers the possibility of more detailed and accurate scoring of disease severity. (orig.)

  14. Description and validation of a scoring system for tomosynthesis in pulmonary cystic fibrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vult von Steyern, Kristina; Bjoerkman-Burtscher, Isabella M.; Bozovic, Gracijela; Wiklund, Marie; Geijer, Mats [Skaane University Hospital, Lund University, Centre for Medical Imaging and Physiology, Lund (Sweden); Hoeglund, Peter [Skaane University Hospital, Competence Centre for Clinical Research, Lund (Sweden)

    2012-12-15

    To design and validate a scoring system for tomosynthesis (digital tomography) in pulmonary cystic fibrosis. A scoring system dedicated to tomosynthesis in pulmonary cystic fibrosis was designed. Three radiologists independently scored 88 pairs of radiographs and tomosynthesis examinations of the chest in 60 patients with cystic fibrosis and 7 oncology patients. Radiographs were scored according to the Brasfield scoring system and tomosynthesis examinations were scored using the new scoring system. Observer agreements for the tomosynthesis score were almost perfect for the total score with square-weighted kappa >0.90, and generally substantial to almost perfect for subscores. Correlation between the tomosynthesis score and the Brasfield score was good for the three observers (Kendall's rank correlation tau 0.68, 0.77 and 0.78). Tomosynthesis was generally scored higher as a percentage of the maximum score. Observer agreements for the total score for Brasfield score were almost perfect (square-weighted kappa 0.80, 0.81 and 0.85). The tomosynthesis scoring system seems robust and correlates well with the Brasfield score. Compared with radiography, tomosynthesis is more sensitive to cystic fibrosis changes, especially bronchiectasis and mucus plugging, and the new tomosynthesis scoring system offers the possibility of more detailed and accurate scoring of disease severity. (orig.)

  15. 32 CFR 1605.81 - Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interpreters. 1605.81 Section 1605.81 National... ORGANIZATION Interpreters § 1605.81 Interpreters. (a) The local board, district appeal board and the National Selective Service Appeal Board are authorized to use interpreters when necessary. (b) The following oath...

  16. Interpreting Inexplicit Language during Courtroom Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieun

    2009-01-01

    Court interpreters are required to provide accurate renditions of witnesses' utterances during courtroom examinations, but the accuracy of interpreting may be compromised for a number of reasons, among which is the effect on interpretation of the limited contextual information available to court interpreters. Based on the analysis of the discourse…

  17. 8 CFR 1003.22 - Interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interpreters. 1003.22 Section 1003.22... EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW Immigration Court-Rules of Procedure § 1003.22 Interpreters. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing shall swear or affirm to interpret and translate accurately...

  18. What Does It Mean to Teach "Interpretively"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodge, Jennifer; Holtzman, Richard; van Hulst, Merlijn; Yanow, Dvora

    2016-01-01

    The "interpretive turn" has gained traction as a research approach in recent decades in the empirical social sciences. While the contributions of interpretive research and interpretive research methods are clear, we wonder: Does an interpretive perspective lend itself to--or even demand--a particular style of teaching? This question was…

  19. Inter-language Interpretation and Mehmed Rauf’s Own Interpretation for His Novel “Eylul”

    OpenAIRE

    DOĞAN, Enfel

    2016-01-01

    Translation is defined as interpreting a text from one language to another. According to this definition, translation is an act between languages. However, in some literary and cultural works, the simplification or the modernization of the language used in the original copy is also a kind of translation and this is called inter-language interpretation in translation studies. Revising the unknown or older forms of words and replacing them with the new ones, as well as changing the stylistic fe...

  20. Application of statistical process control to physician-specific emergency department patient satisfaction scores: a novel use of the funnel plot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffen, David; Callahan, Charles D; Markwell, Stephen; de la Cruz, Jonathan; Milbrandt, Joseph C; Harvey, Timothy

    2012-03-01

    Emergency department (ED) patient satisfaction remains a high priority for many hospitals. Patient surveys are a common tool for measuring patient satisfaction, and process improvement efforts are aimed at improving patient satisfaction scores. In some institutions, patient satisfaction scores can be calculated for each emergency physician (EP). ED leaders are faced with the task of interpreting individual as well as group physician scores to identify opportunities for improvement. Analysis of these data can be challenging because of the relatively small numbers of returned surveys assignable to a single physician, variable numbers of surveys returned for each physician and high standard deviations (SDs) for individual physician scores. The objective was to apply statistical process control methodology to analyze individual as well as group physician patient satisfaction scores. The novel use of funnel plots to interpret individual physician patient satisfaction scores, track individual physician scores over two successive 8-month periods, and monitor physician group performance is demonstrated. Patient satisfaction with physicians was measured using Press Ganey surveys for a 65,000-volume ED over two successive 8-month periods. Using funnel plots, individual physician patient satisfaction scores were plotted against the number of surveys completed for each physician for each 8-month period. Ninety-fifth and 99th percentile control limits were displayed on the funnel plots to illustrate individual physician patient satisfaction scores that are within, versus those that are outside of, expected random variation. Control limits were calculated using mean patient satisfaction scores and SDs for the entire group of physicians. Additional funnel plots were constructed to demonstrate changes in individual physicians' patient satisfaction scores as a function of increasing numbers of returned surveys and to illustrate changes in the group's patient satisfaction scores

  1. High frequency mesozooplankton monitoring: Can imaging systems and automated sample analysis help us describe and interpret changes in zooplankton community composition and size structure — An example from a coastal site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnan, Jean Baptiste; Aldamman, Lama; Gasparini, Stéphane; Nival, Paul; Aubert, Anaïs; Jamet, Jean Louis; Stemmann, Lars

    2016-10-01

    The present work aims to show that high throughput imaging systems can be useful to estimate mesozooplankton community size and taxonomic descriptors that can be the base for consistent large scale monitoring of plankton communities. Such monitoring is required by the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) in order to ensure the Good Environmental Status (GES) of European coastal and offshore marine ecosystems. Time and cost-effective, automatic, techniques are of high interest in this context. An imaging-based protocol has been applied to a high frequency time series (every second day between April 2003 to April 2004 on average) of zooplankton obtained in a coastal site of the NW Mediterranean Sea, Villefranche Bay. One hundred eighty four mesozooplankton net collected samples were analysed with a Zooscan and an associated semi-automatic classification technique. The constitution of a learning set designed to maximize copepod identification with more than 10,000 objects enabled the automatic sorting of copepods with an accuracy of 91% (true positives) and a contamination of 14% (false positives). Twenty seven samples were then chosen from the total copepod time series for detailed visual sorting of copepods after automatic identification. This method enabled the description of the dynamics of two well-known copepod species, Centropages typicus and Temora stylifera, and 7 other taxonomically broader copepod groups, in terms of size, biovolume and abundance-size distributions (size spectra). Also, total copepod size spectra underwent significant changes during the sampling period. These changes could be partially related to changes in the copepod assemblage taxonomic composition and size distributions. This study shows that the use of high throughput imaging systems is of great interest to extract relevant coarse (i.e. total abundance, size structure) and detailed (i.e. selected species dynamics) descriptors of zooplankton dynamics. Innovative

  2. Visualisation and interpretation of Support Vector Regression models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustün, B; Melssen, W J; Buydens, L M C

    2007-07-09

    This paper introduces a technique to visualise the information content of the kernel matrix and a way to interpret the ingredients of the Support Vector Regression (SVR) model. Recently, the use of Support Vector Machines (SVM) for solving classification (SVC) and regression (SVR) problems has increased substantially in the field of chemistry and chemometrics. This is mainly due to its high generalisation performance and its ability to model non-linear relationships in a unique and global manner. Modeling of non-linear relationships will be enabled by applying a kernel function. The kernel function transforms the input data, usually non-linearly related to the associated output property, into a high dimensional feature space where the non-linear relationship can be represented in a linear form. Usually, SVMs are applied as a black box technique. Hence, the model cannot be interpreted like, e.g., Partial Least Squares (PLS). For example, the PLS scores and loadings make it possible to visualise and understand the driving force behind the optimal PLS machinery. In this study, we have investigated the possibilities to visualise and interpret the SVM model. Here, we exclusively have focused on Support Vector Regression to demonstrate these visualisation and interpretation techniques. Our observations show that we are now able to turn a SVR black box model into a transparent and interpretable regression modeling technique.

  3. Reliability of a Scoring System for Qualitative Evaluation of Lymphoscintigraphy of the Lower Extremities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahim, Mojgan; Savitcheva, Irina; Axelsson, Rimma

    2017-09-01

    Lymphoscintigraphy is an imaging technique to diagnose and characterize the severity of edema in the upper and lower extremities. In lymphoscintigraphy, a scoring system can increase the ability to differentiate between diagnoses, but the use of any scoring system requires sufficient reliability. Our aim was to determine the inter- and intraobserver reliability of a proposed scoring system for visual interpretation of lymphoscintigrams of the lower extremities. Methods: The lymphoscintigrams of 81 persons were randomly selected from our database for retrospective evaluation. Two nuclear medicine physicians scored these scans according to the 8 criteria of a proposed scoring system for visual interpretation of lymphoscintigrams of the lower extremities. Each scan was scored twice 3 mo apart. The total score was the sum of the scores for all criteria, with a potential range of 0 (normal lymphatic drainage) to 58 (severe lymphatic impairment). The intra- and interobserver reliability of the scoring system was determined using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, percentage of agreement, weighted κ, and intraclass correlation coefficient with 95% confidence interval. In addition, for 7 categories, differences in total scores between and within observers were determined. Results: We found some insignificant differences between observers. Percentage agreement was high or very high, at 82.7%-99.4% between observers and 84.6%-99.4% within observers. For each criterion of the scoring system, the κ-correlations showed moderate to very good inter- or intraobserver reliability. The total scores for all criteria had good inter- and intraobserver reliability. Regarding the interobserver comparison, 66% and 64% of the difference in total scores were within ±1 scale point (-1, +1), and regarding the intraobserver comparison, 68% and 72% of the difference in total scores were within ±1 scale point. Conclusion: The proposed scoring system is a reliable tool for visual qualitative

  4. Blind Grid Scoring Record No. 290

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the APG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  5. Blind Grid Scoring Record No. 293

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Overbay, Larry; Robitaille, George; Archiable, Robert; Fling, Rick; McClung, Christina

    2005-01-01

    ...) utilizing the YPG Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Blind Grid. Scoring Records have been coordinated by Larry Overbay and the Standardized UXO Technology Demonstration Site Scoring Committee...

  6. REQUIREMENTS FOR A GENERAL INTERPRETATION THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anda Laura Lungu Petruescu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Time has proved that Economic Analysis is not enough as to ensure all the needs of the economic field. The present study wishes to propose a new approach method of the economic phenomena and processes based on the researches made outside the economic space- a new general interpretation theory- which is centered on the human being as the basic actor of economy. A general interpretation theory must assure the interpretation of the causalities among the economic phenomena and processes- causal interpretation; the interpretation of the correlations and dependencies among indicators- normative interpretation; the interpretation of social and communicational processes in economic organizations- social and communicational interpretation; the interpretation of the community status of companies- transsocial interpretation; the interpretation of the purposes of human activities and their coherency – teleological interpretation; the interpretation of equilibrium/ disequilibrium from inside the economic systems- optimality interpretation. In order to respond to such demands, rigor, pragmatism, praxiology and contextual connectors are required. In order to progress, the economic science must improve its language, both its syntax and its semantics. The clarity of exposure requires a language clarity and the scientific theory progress asks for the need of hypotheses in the building of the theories. The switch from the common language to the symbolic one means the switch from ambiguity to rigor and rationality, that is order in thinking. But order implies structure, which implies formalization. Our paper should be a plea for these requirements, requirements which should be fulfilled by a modern interpretation theory.

  7. Scoring function to predict solubility mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deutsch Christopher

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutagenesis is commonly used to engineer proteins with desirable properties not present in the wild type (WT protein, such as increased or decreased stability, reactivity, or solubility. Experimentalists often have to choose a small subset of mutations from a large number of candidates to obtain the desired change, and computational techniques are invaluable to make the choices. While several such methods have been proposed to predict stability and reactivity mutagenesis, solubility has not received much attention. Results We use concepts from computational geometry to define a three body scoring function that predicts the change in protein solubility due to mutations. The scoring function captures both sequence and structure information. By exploring the literature, we have assembled a substantial database of 137 single- and multiple-point solubility mutations. Our database is the largest such collection with structural information known so far. We optimize the scoring function using linear programming (LP methods to derive its weights based on training. Starting with default values of 1, we find weights in the range [0,2] so that predictions of increase or decrease in solubility are optimized. We compare the LP method to the standard machine learning techniques of support vector machines (SVM and the Lasso. Using statistics for leave-one-out (LOO, 10-fold, and 3-fold cross validations (CV for training and prediction, we demonstrate that the LP method performs the best overall. For the LOOCV, the LP method has an overall accuracy of 81%. Availability Executables of programs, tables of weights, and datasets of mutants are available from the following web page: http://www.wsu.edu/~kbala/OptSolMut.html.

  8. Lost in translation: an interpretative phenomenological analysis of mental health professionals' experiences of empathy in clinical work with an interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Matthew A; Vetere, Arlene

    2009-09-01

    Although empathy is considered by many to be fundamental to psychotherapeutic practice, little is known about how working with an interpreter may affect empathy in clinical work. Accordingly, the present study aims to provide an exploration of mental health professionals' experiences of empathy in clinical work with an interpreter. A qualitative methodology was utilized in order to provide a rich understanding of participants' shared experiences of empathy in work with an interpreter. Data were gathered using a semi-structured interviewing approach. Interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA) was chosen as the method of analysis as this would provide a highly descriptive and in-depth account of participants' experiences. Interviews were conducted with 10 mental health professionals regularly working with linguistic interpreters. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using IPA. The analysis yielded four major themes which described the effects of translation upon empathic dialogues with service-users; changes in the quality of empathic communication with service-users; the effects of cultural similarities and dissimilarities upon empathy within client-interpreter and client-professional dyads; and opportunities for the interpreter to enrich participants' understanding of service-users' perspectives. The difficulties participants encountered in work with an interpreter highlight a need for training in cross-language empathy for interpreters and mental health professionals, and encourage the use of transcultural models of psychotherapy in work with non-English speaking service-users. Some of the difficulties associated with adopting traditional humanistic models of empathy, which tend to centralize the therapist within empathic processes, when working with interpreters are also discussed.

  9. Touch design and narrative interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Sumin; Unsworth, Len

    2016-01-01

    of technology, but also a resource for meaning making. We distinguish two basic types of interactivity—intra-text and extra-text—incorporated in the touch design, and explore the different functions they perform in a broad range of picture book apps. In particular, we look at the app version of The Heart...... and the Bottle in depth, and illustrate how interactive design elements help to create an interpretative possibility of the story. We suggest that a better understanding of interactive touch design would promote more effective adult-child interactions around mobile applications....

  10. An open room for interpretation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tofte-Hansen, Inge

    2015-01-01

    not only be seen as a learning task where initiative and product is defined by the teacher. In contrast, I suggest that creative activities and aesthetic processes must be seen as an interaction between children's immediate physicality and curiosity and the teacher's musical skills and abilities to follow......Based on a concept that I have developed, which is called: "An open room for interpretation", the following article states that creative work and aesthetic expression in a pedagogical context with 2-6 years old children must give space for the children's own expressions. To teach music should...

  11. Interpreting CNNs via Decision Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Quanshi; Yang, Yu; Wu, Ying Nian; Zhu, Song-Chun

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a method to learn a decision tree to quantitatively explain the logic of each prediction of a pre-trained convolutional neural networks (CNNs). Our method boosts the following two aspects of network interpretability. 1) In the CNN, each filter in a high conv-layer must represent a specific object part, instead of describing mixed patterns without clear meanings. 2) People can explain each specific prediction made by the CNN at the semantic level using a decision tree, i.e....

  12. Communicating efficacy information based on composite scores in direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Pamela A; O'Donoghue, Amie C; Sullivan, Helen W; Willoughby, Jessica Fitts; Squire, Claudia; Parvanta, Sarah; Betts, Kevin R

    2016-04-01

    Drug efficacy can be measured by composite scores, which consist of two or more symptoms or other clinical components of a disease. We evaluated how individuals interpret composite scores in direct-to-consumer (DTC) prescription drug advertising. We conducted an experimental study of seasonal allergy sufferers (n=1967) who viewed a fictitious print DTC ad that varied by the type of information featured (general indication, list of symptoms, or definition of composite scores) and the presence or absence of an educational intervention about composite scores. We measured composite score recognition and comprehension, and perceived drug efficacy and risk. Ads that featured either (1) the composite score definition alone or (2) the list of symptoms or general indication information along with the educational intervention improved composite score comprehension. Ads that included the composite score definition or the educational intervention led to lower confidence in the drug's benefits. The composite score definition improved composite score recognition and lowered drug risk perceptions. Adding composite score information to DTC print ads may improve individuals' comprehension of composite scores and affect their perceptions of the drug. Providing composite score information may lead to more informed patient-provider prescription drug decisions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Interpretation of ultrasonic images; Interpretation von Ultraschall-Abbildungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, W.; Schmitz, V.; Kroening, M. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefverfahren, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    During the evaluation of ultrasonic images, e.g. SAFT-reconstructed B-scan images (SAFT=Synthetic Aperture Focusing Technique) it is often difficult to decide, what is the origin of reconstructed image points: were they caused by defects, specimens geometry or mode-conversions. To facilitate this evaluation a tool based on the comparison of data was developed. Different kinds of data comparison are possible: identification of that RF-signals, which caused the reconstructed image point. This is the comparison of a reconstructed image with the corresponding RF-data. Comparison of two reconstructed images performing a superposition using logical operators. In this case e.g. the reconstruction of an unknown reflector is compared with that of a known one. Comparison of raw-RF-data by simultaneous scanning through two data sets. Here the echoes of an unknown reflector are compared with the echoes of a known one. The necessary datasets of known reflectors may be generated experimentally on reference reflectors or modelled. The aim is the identification of the reflector type, e.g. cracklike or not, the determination of position, size and orientation as well as the identification of accompanying satellite echoes. The interpretation of the SAFT-reconstructed B-scan image is carried out by a complete description of the reflector. In addition to the aim of interpretation the tool described is well suited to educate and train ultrasonic testers. (orig./MM) [Deutsch] Bei der Auswertung von Ultraschall-Abbildungen, z.B. SAFT-rekonstruierten B-Bildern (SAFT=Synthetische Apertur Fokus Technik), ist es oft schwierig zu entscheiden, wo rekonstruierte Bildpunkte herruehren: wurden sie durch Materialfehler, Bauteilgeometrie oder durch Wellenumwandlungen versursacht. Um diese Auswertung zu erleichtern, wurde ein Werkzeug entwickelt, welches auf dem Vergleich von Datensaetzen basiert. Es koennen verschiedene Arten des Datenvergleichs durchgefuehrt werden: Identifikation der HF

  14. Conflicting Interpretations of Scientific Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galamba, Arthur

    2016-05-01

    Not surprisingly historical studies have suggested that there is a distance between concepts of teaching methods, their interpretations and their actual use in the classroom. This issue, however, is not always pitched to the personal level in historical studies, which may provide an alternative insight on how teachers conceptualise and engage with concepts of teaching methods. This article provides a case study on this level of conceptualisation by telling the story of Rómulo de Carvalho, an educator from mid-twentieth century Portugal, who for over 40 years engaged with the heuristic and Socratic methods. The overall argument is that concepts of teaching methods are open to different interpretations and are conceptualised within the melting pot of external social pressures and personal teaching preferences. The practice and thoughts of Carvalho about teaching methods are scrutinised to unveil his conflicting stances: Carvalho was a man able to question the tenets of heurism, but who publicly praised the heurism-like "discovery learning" method years later. The first part of the article contextualises the arrival of heurism in Portugal and how Carvalho attacked its philosophical tenets. In the second part, it dwells on his conflicting positions in relation to pupil-centred approaches. The article concludes with an appreciation of the embedded conflicting nature of the appropriation of concepts of teaching methods, and of Carvalho's contribution to the development of the philosophy of practical work in school science.

  15. [Effect of using an interpreter in psychotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Rikke Sander; Nørregaard, Trine Maria; Carlsson, Jessica

    2017-05-22

    An evaluation of the effect of using an interpreter in psychotherapy is quite complex. In the few existing studies on the use of interpreters in psychotherapy no significant difference was found in treatment outcome related to whether an interpreter was used or not. On the other hand, the inclusion of an interpreter affects the therapeutic alliance and the relationships between the parties. The role of the interpreter in psychotherapy is characterized by diversity, and the included studies indicate the need for training to improve the cooperation between the interpreter and the therapist.

  16. Directionality Effects in Simultaneous Language Interpreting: The Case of Sign Language Interpreters in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, Rick; Boers, Eveline; Christoffels, Ingrid; Hermans, Daan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of interpretations produced by sign language interpreters was investigated. Twenty-five experienced interpreters were instructed to interpret narratives from (a) spoken Dutch to Sign Language of the Netherlands (SLN), (b) spoken Dutch to Sign Supported Dutch (SSD), and (c) SLN to spoken Dutch. The quality of the interpreted narratives…

  17. Exploring a Source of Uneven Score Equity across the Test Score Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins-Manley, Anne Corinne; Qiu, Yuxi; Penfield, Randall D.

    2018-01-01

    Score equity assessment (SEA) refers to an examination of population invariance of equating across two or more subpopulations of test examinees. Previous SEA studies have shown that score equity may be present for examinees scoring at particular test score ranges but absent for examinees scoring at other score ranges. No studies to date have…

  18. Changes in the Authority of the Father in the Polish Family in the Twentieth Century. The Interpretation from the Historical and Pedagogical Perspective [Przemiany autorytetu ojca w rodzinie polskiej w XX wieku. Interpretacja z perspektywy historyczno-pedagogicznej

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł ŚPICA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays numerous researchers are interested in the subject area concerning fatherhood, including the father’s role in bringing up the child. It is not coincidental. In the last couple of years the position of men has significantly changed in Polish families. Jerzy Witczak has indicated that since the 1970s the role of man has not been thoroughly defined. The changes have led to the modification the roles of fathers, previously which were traditionally based on taking care of material needs and representing the family to the outside world. While in the first half of the twentieth century the role of man in family was clearly defined, in the second half of the twentieth century the father’s authority was increasingly contested. The reasons for this state of affairs lie in the transformations that took place in Polish culture and in socio-economic policy. Consequently traditional educational methods upon which parents used to build their authority ceased to be effective in the educational practise. Increasingly, researchers have begun to ask questions concerning the importance of father in the process of raising a child. However, the transformation of family life in the twentieth-century Poland did not proceed equally in all social classes. Fathers from the villages held different positions than men living in the cities. The latter group adopted the so-called urban lifestyle. There is no doubt, however, that in the first and second environment – although in varying degrees – the father as the head of the family has lost its dominant position. In order to understand why the old methods stopped working, we should look through the prism of social history and we should not forget about the consequences of political and economical transformations, which directly and indirectly influenced the transformations of Polish families in the twentieth century. The main aim of the article is to provide the historical context and the scholars

  19. Direct interpretation of dreams: typology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Daele, L

    1992-12-01

    The dream typology assorts dreams into three major categories: dreams whose origin is endogenous, exogenous, or relational. Dreams of the first type arise from somatic needs, feelings, and states that accompany organismic adjustments to system requirements. Dreams of the second type are initiated by kinetic and dispositional tendencies toward engagement and exploration of the outer world. And dreams of the third type derive from interpersonal dispositions to interaction and relationship with other people. Within each category, dreams may occur at different levels of complexity. The dream typology permits the integration of psychoanalytic observations about the dreams from a variety of perspectives within a common framework. Freud's view that a dream is a wish fulfillment finds its primary niche in endogenous need, wish fulfillment, and convenience dreams. Kohut's observations about self-state dreams and inner regulation (1971, 1977) are accommodated to the middle range of endogenous dreams, and Jung's individuation dreams (1930) occupy the advanced range. Similarly, Bonime's interpersonal approach to dream interpretation (1962) is encompassed by relational dreams of the middle level. In addition, types and modes of dreams that are only infrequently encountered in clinical psychoanalysis are accommodated. The dream typology suggests that different psychoanalytic theories are like the position papers that might have derived from the fabled committee of learned blind who were commissioned to determine the appearance of an elephant. Each individual got a hold on some part, but could not see the whole; so for each, the part became the whole. The psychoanalytic theorist is in exactly an analogous position because, in fact, he is blind to the extent of the unconscious and is constrained to what he can infer. What he can infer depends on cohort, client population, and how he calibrates his observations. The result has been procrustean interpretation, dissention, and a

  20. Usage of microbial mats in depostional environment interpretation and sea level changes: A study of carbonate deposits of members 1 to 2 of the Mila Group (Deh-Sufiyan Formation in Central Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asadollah Mahboubi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate deposits of members 1 to 2 of the Mila Group (Middle Cambrian in Central Alborz that call Deh-Sufiyan Formation in this research, were studied in Shahmirzad, Tueh-Darvar, Mila-Kuh and Deh-Molla sections. These sediments were deposited in four facies belts on a carbonate ramp including basinal environments, outer ramp (deep subtidal sequences, mid ramp (shallow subtidal to lower intertidal sequences, and inner ramp (shoal and upper intertidal to supratidal sequences. Various microbialites were recognized in the shallow-water sediments (includes subtidal and intertidal of this unit. Based on this study, microbial mats have various morphology of form and type of growth structure and inluding laminar to wavy-laminar, domal or hemispheroidal, bulbous, columnar, regular ï‌‚abellate columns, unlaminated, loaf- to mound-shaped thrombolities. Facies associations of Deh-Sufiyan Formation are arranged in small-scale of peritidal, shallow subtidal, and deep subtidal cycles and microbial mats are the major features of them. The trends of vertical changes of facies in shallowing-upward and deepening-upward cycles and distribution of various types of microbialites in these cycles had been related to depostional environments and their postions on carbonate ramp. Basal classification method used in this study can provide valuable informations for application of microbiali mats in paleo-environmental and sequence stratigraphy analysis.

  1. Gas valves, forests and global change: a commentary on Jarvis (1976) 'The interpretation of the variations in leaf water potential and stomatal conductance found in canopies in the field'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerling, David J

    2015-04-19

    Microscopic turgor-operated gas valves on leaf surfaces-stomata-facilitate gas exchange between the plant and the atmosphere, and respond to multiple environmental and endogenous cues. Collectively, stomatal activities affect everything from the productivity of forests, grasslands and crops to biophysical feedbacks between land surface vegetation and climate. In 1976, plant physiologist Paul Jarvis reported an empirical model describing stomatal responses to key environmental and plant conditions that predicted the flux of water vapour from leaves into the surrounding atmosphere. Subsequent theoretical advances, building on this earlier approach, established the current paradigm for capturing the physiological behaviour of stomata that became incorporated into sophisticated models of land carbon cycling. However, these models struggle to accurately predict observed trends in the physiological responses of Northern Hemisphere forests to recent atmospheric CO2 increases, highlighting the need for improved representation of the role of stomata in regulating forest-climate interactions. Bridging this gap between observations and theory as atmospheric CO2 rises and climate change accelerates creates challenging opportunities for the next generation of physiologists to advance planetary ecology and climate science. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

  2. Usage of microbial mats in depostional environment interpretation and sea level changes: A study of carbonate deposits of members 1 to 2 of the Mila Group (Deh-Sufiyan Formation in Central Alborz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aram Bayetgol

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbonate deposits of members 1 to 2 of the Mila Group (Middle Cambrian in Central Alborz that call Deh-Sufiyan Formation in this research, were studied in Shahmirzad, Tueh-Darvar, Mila-Kuh and Deh-Molla sections. These sediments were deposited in four facies belts on a carbonate ramp including basinal environments, outer ramp (deep subtidal sequences, mid ramp (shallow subtidal to lower intertidal sequences, and inner ramp (shoal and upper intertidal to supratidal sequences. Various microbialites were recognized in the shallow-water sediments (includes subtidal and intertidal of this unit. Based on this study, microbial mats have various morphology of form and type of growth structure and inluding laminar to wavy-laminar, domal or hemispheroidal, bulbous, columnar, regular flabellate columns, unlaminated, loaf- to mound-shaped thrombolities. Facies associations of Deh-Sufiyan Formation are arranged in small-scale of peritidal, shallow subtidal, and deep subtidal cycles and microbial mats are the major features of them. The trends of vertical changes of facies in shallowing-upward and deepening-upward cycles and distribution of various types of microbialites in these cycles had been related to depostional environments and their postions on carbonate ramp. Basal classification method used in this study can provide valuable informations for application of microbiali mats in paleo-environmental and sequence stratigraphy analysis.

  3. How we developed an effective e-learning module for medical students on using professional interpreters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, Umar Z; Essink-Bot, Marie-Louise; Suurmond, Jeanine

    2015-05-01

    Language barriers may lead to poorer healthcare services for patients who do not speak the same language as their care provider. Despite the benefits of professional interpreters, care providers tend to underuse professional interpretation. Evidence suggests that students who received training on language barriers and interpreter use are more likely to utilize interpretation services. We developed an e-learning module for medical students on using professional interpreters during the medical interview, and evaluated its effects on students' knowledge and self-efficacy. In the e-learning module, three patient-physician-interpreter video vignettes were presented, with three different types of interpreters: a family member, an untrained bilingual staff member, and a professional interpreter. The students answered two questions about each vignette, followed by feedback which compared their responses with expert information. In total, 281 fourth-year medical students took the e-learning module during the academic year 2012-2013. We assessed their knowledge and self-efficacy in interpreter use pre- and post-test on 1 (lowest)-10 (highest) scale, and analysed the differences in mean scores using paired t-tests. Upon completing the e-learning module, students reported higher self-efficacy in using professional interpretation. The mean knowledge score on the pre-test was 5.5 (95% confidence interval 5.3-5.8), but on the post-test this increased to 8.4 (95% CI 8.2-8.6). The difference was highly significant (p learning module improved students' knowledge and self-efficacy in using professional interpreters during the medical interview. Using such tools in medical curricula might encourage future doctors to use professional interpretation services to overcome language barriers, thereby potentially contributing to equitable healthcare services for a linguistically diverse patient population.

  4. Scoring Models of Bank Credit Policy Management

    OpenAIRE

    Aida Hanic; Emina Zunic; Adnan Dzelihodzic

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present how credit scoring models can be used in financial institutions, in this case in banks, in order to simplify credit lending. Unlike traditional models of credit analysis, scoring models provides valuation based on numerical score who represent clients’ possibility to fulfil their obligation. Using credit scoring models, bank can create a numerical snapshot of consumers risk profile. One of the most important characteristic of scoring models is objectivity w...

  5. Confidence scores for prediction models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerds, Thomas Alexander; van de Wiel, MA

    2011-01-01

    In medical statistics, many alternative strategies are available for building a prediction model based on training data. Prediction models are routinely compared by means of their prediction performance in independent validation data. If only one data set is available for training and validation......, then rival strategies can still be compared based on repeated bootstraps of the same data. Often, however, the overall performance of rival strategies is similar and it is thus difficult to decide for one model. Here, we investigate the variability of the prediction models that results when the same...... to distinguish rival prediction models with similar prediction performances. Furthermore, on the subject level a confidence score may provide useful supplementary information for new patients who want to base a medical decision on predicted risk. The ideas are illustrated and discussed using data from cancer...

  6. Interpretation of neonatal chest radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung [Dept. of Radiology, Kangwon National University Hospital, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Plain radiographs for infants in the neonatal intensive care unit are obtained using the portable X-ray equipment in order to evaluate the neonatal lungs and also to check the position of the tubes and catheters used for monitoring critically-ill neonates. Neonatal respiratory distress is caused by a variety of medical or surgical disease conditions. Clinical information about the gestational week, respiratory symptoms, and any events during delivery is essential for interpretation of the neonatal chest radiographs. Awareness of common chest abnormality in the prematurely born or term babies is also very important for chest evaluation in the newborn. Furthermore, knowledge about complications such as air leaks and bronchopulmonary dysplasia following treatment are required to accurately inform the clinicians. The purpose of this article was to briefly review radiographic findings of chest diseases in newborns that are relatively common in daily practice.

  7. APL interpreter on MITRA-15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davcev, Danco

    1975-01-01

    APL in its present forms is an ideal instrument for the establishment of logic systems since it requires no specific declaration of type or form of variables. An APL system for C II computer of the MITRA series is described, with the following minimum configuration: MITRA central unit, 16-bit 32 K word memory, disc with fixed or mobile heads, type 4013 TEKTRONIX visualisation system. The originality of our APL interpreter on MITRA 15 lies in the use of a virtual memory system with pages of 128 word size. The so-called beating process is used to set up APL operators: the selection expressions in the tables may be evaluated without any manipulation of the values. (author) [fr

  8. Interpretation of neonatal chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Hye Kyung

    2016-01-01

    Plain radiographs for infants in the neonatal intensive care unit are obtained using the portable X-ray equipment in order to evaluate the neonatal lungs and also to check the position of the tubes and catheters used for monitoring critically-ill neonates. Neonatal respiratory distress is caused by a variety of medical or surgical disease conditions. Clinical information about the gestational week, respiratory symptoms, and any events during delivery is essential for interpretation of the neonatal chest radiographs. Awareness of common chest abnormality in the prematurely born or term babies is also very important for chest evaluation in the newborn. Furthermore, knowledge about complications such as air leaks and bronchopulmonary dysplasia following treatment are required to accurately inform the clinicians. The purpose of this article was to briefly review radiographic findings of chest diseases in newborns that are relatively common in daily practice

  9. Defunctionalized Interpreters for Programming Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier

    2008-01-01

    by Reynolds in ``Definitional Interpreters for Higher-Order Programming Languages'' for functional implementations of denotational semantics, natural semantics, and big-step abstract machines using closure conversion, CPS transformation, and defunctionalization. Over the last few years, the author and his......This document illustrates how functional implementations of formal semantics (structural operational semantics, reduction semantics, small-step and big-step abstract machines, natural semantics, and denotational semantics) can be transformed into each other. These transformations were foreshadowed...... students have further observed that functional implementations of small-step and of big-step abstract machines are related using fusion by fixed-point promotion and that functional implementations of reduction semantics and of small-step abstract machines are related using refocusing and transition...

  10. Model-based biosignal interpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, S

    1994-03-01

    Two relatively new approaches to model-based biosignal interpretation, qualitative simulation and modelling by causal probabilistic networks, are compared to modelling by differential equations. A major problem in applying a model to an individual patient is the estimation of the parameters. The available observations are unlikely to allow a proper estimation of the parameters, and even if they do, the task appears to have exponential computational complexity if the model is non-linear. Causal probabilistic networks have both differential equation models and qualitative simulation as special cases, and they can provide both Bayesian and maximum-likelihood parameter estimates, in most cases in much less than exponential time. In addition, they can calculate the probabilities required for a decision-theoretical approach to medical decision support. The practical applicability of causal probabilistic networks to real medical problems is illustrated by a model of glucose metabolism which is used to adjust insulin therapy in type I diabetic patients.

  11. Language production and interpretation linguistics meets cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Zeevat, Henk

    2014-01-01

    A model of production and interpretation of natural language utterances is developed which explains why communication is normally fast and successful. Interpretation is taken to be analogous with visual perception in finding the most probable hypothesis that explains the utterance.

  12. 8 CFR 1240.5 - Interpreter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... PROCEEDINGS TO DETERMINE REMOVABILITY OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Removal Proceedings § 1240.5 Interpreter. Any person acting as an interpreter in a hearing before an immigration judge under this part shall be...

  13. Pure Quantum Interpretations Are not Viable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmelzer, I.

    2011-02-01

    Pure interpretations of quantum theory, which throw away the classical part of the Copenhagen interpretation without adding new structure to its quantum part, are not viable. This is a consequence of a non-uniqueness result for the canonical operators.

  14. Decoherence and Copenhagen Interpretation : A Scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we give a reasonable explanation (not proof) to the Copenhagen interpretation of Quantum Mechanics from the view point of decoherence theory. Mathematical physicists with strong mission must prove {\\bf the Copenhagen interpretation} at all costs.

  15. THE EFFECTS OF CONTEXT ON UTTERANCE INTERPRETATION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Some questions about context and interpretation. One of the most important problems in the study of language use is that of the interpretation of utterances. For our purposes this problem can be formulated in the form of the following question:.

  16. Interpretation of the fluorescence signatures from vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, C.

    Vegetation emits fluorescence as part of the energy taken up by absorption %of solar radiation from UV to the visible. This fluorescence consists of light with low intensity (only few percents of the reflected light) emitted from the leaves. The fluorescence emission of a green leaf is characterized by four bands with maxima in the blue (440 nm), green (520 nm), red (690 nm) and far red (740 nm) spectral region. The intensity of fluorescence in the maxima of the emission spectrum varies depending on the following six basic parameters which must be taken into account for the interpretation of fluorescence signatures from vegetation: (a) content of the fluorophores (ferulic acid, chlorophyll a), (b) temperature of the leaf, (c) penetration of excitation light into the leaf, (d) emission of fluorescence from the leaf (re-absorption inside the leaf tissue), (e) photosynthetic activity of the leaf, (f) non-radiative decay (heat production) parallel to the fluorescence The ratios between the intensities of the maxima (F440/F690, F440/F520, F690/F740) are used as characteristic fluorescence parameter. The wide range of changes of these ratios caused by differences in the leaf tissue (aerial interspaces, variegated/homogeneous green leaves), various types of stress (UV, photoinhibition, sun exposure, heat, water deficiency, N-deficiency) and chemicals (inhibitors, fertilizers) can be explained by changes of the six basic parameters. It will be shown that the interpretation of the fluorescence signatures, in most cases, must be based on a complex consideration of more than one of the basic parameters.

  17. Semantic interpretation of search engine resultant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasution, M. K. M.

    2018-01-01

    In semantic, logical language can be interpreted in various forms, but the certainty of meaning is included in the uncertainty, which directly always influences the role of technology. One results of this uncertainty applies to search engines as user interfaces with information spaces such as the Web. Therefore, the behaviour of search engine results should be interpreted with certainty through semantic formulation as interpretation. Behaviour formulation shows there are various interpretations that can be done semantically either temporary, inclusion, or repeat.

  18. Predictors of Knowledge and Image Interpretation Skill Development in Radiology Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravesloot, Cécile J; van der Schaaf, Marieke F; Kruitwagen, Cas L J J; van der Gijp, Anouk; Rutgers, Dirk R; Haaring, Cees; Ten Cate, Olle; van Schaik, Jan P J

    2017-09-01

    Purpose To investigate knowledge and image interpretation skill development in residency by studying scores on knowledge and image questions on radiology tests, mediated by the training environment. Materials and Methods Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the ethical review board of the Netherlands Association for Medical Education. Longitudinal test data of 577 of 2884 radiology residents who took semiannual progress tests during 5 years were retrospectively analyzed by using a nonlinear mixed-effects model taking training length as input variable. Tests included nonimage and image questions that assessed knowledge and image interpretation skill. Hypothesized predictors were hospital type (academic or nonacademic), training hospital, enrollment age, sex, and test date. Results Scores showed a curvilinear growth during residency. Image scores increased faster during the first 3 years of residency and reached a higher maximum than knowledge scores (55.8% vs 45.1%). The slope of image score development versus knowledge question scores of 1st-year residents was 16.8% versus 12.4%, respectively. Training hospital environment appeared to be an important predictor in both knowledge and image interpretation skill development (maximum score difference between training hospitals was 23.2%; P radiology residency and leveled off in the 3rd and 4th training year. The shape of the curve was mainly influenced by the specific training hospital. © RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  19. Characteristics of Patients with High Lie Scores in a Personality Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Yuichi; Sakakibara, Toshihiko; Mizuno, Tetsutaro

    2017-01-01

    It is reported that persons with high Lie score (L score) of a personality test are aggressively self-confident and are also related to depression or schizophrenia In this study, we examined the characteristics of patients with high L scores on the Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI) and examined the significance of the L score. We collected the data of 10789 subjects and examined the relationship between L score or the number of characteristic biased persons and the parameters of age, sex, education level, occupation, and degree of pain. Furthermore, we examined the changes in extraversion-introversion (E score), neuroticism (N score), and L scores at approximately 1 year after surgery in 1711 patients who underwent surgery at our university hospital or affiliated hospitals. L score was significantly higher among persons with a high degree of pain, and ratio of the characteristic biased persons in L score was significantly high among persons in their 40s to 60s, healthcare professionals and those with a high degree of pain. Moreover, L score scarcely changed between before and after surgery when compared with E score and N score. L score is not greatly influenced by an individual's state of mind or situation at different times, and may indicate the personality traits proper to the person. It is shown that L score may indicate the personality trait characteristics of persons who want to make themselves look good in the eyes of other.

  20. Literature in focus: How to Score

    CERN Document Server

    2006-01-01

    What is the perfect way to take a free kick? Which players are under more stress: attackers, midfielders or defenders? How do we know when a ball has crossed the goal-line? And how can teams win a penalty shoot out? From international team formations to the psychology of the pitch and the changing room... The World Cup might be a time to forget about physics for a while, but not for Ken Bray, a theoretical physicist and visiting Fellow of the Sport and Exercise Science Group at the University of Bath who specializes in the science of football. Dr Bray will visit CERN to talk exclusively about his book: How to Score. As a well-seasoned speaker and advisor to professional football teams, this presentation promises to be a fascinating and timely insight into the secret science that lies behind 'the beautiful game'. If you play or just watch football, don't miss this event! Ken Bray - How to Score Thursday 22 June at 3 p.m. (earlier than usual to avoid clashes with World Cup matches!) Central Library reading ...