Sample records for interplanetary space vehicle

  1. A Spherical Torus Nuclear Fusion Reactor Space Propulsion Vehicle Concept for Fast Interplanetary Travel (United States)

    Williams, Craig H.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.; Juhasz, Albert J.


    A conceptual vehicle design enabling fast outer solar system travel was produced predicated on a small aspect ratio spherical torus nuclear fusion reactor. Initial requirements were for a human mission to Saturn with a greater than 5% payload mass fraction and a one way trip time of less than one year. Analysis revealed that the vehicle could deliver a 108 mt crew habitat payload to Saturn rendezvous in 235 days, with an initial mass in low Earth orbit of 2,941 mt. Engineering conceptual design, analysis, and assessment was performed on all ma or systems including payload, central truss, nuclear reactor (including divertor and fuel injector), power conversion (including turbine, compressor, alternator, radiator, recuperator, and conditioning), magnetic nozzle, neutral beam injector, tankage, start/re-start reactor and battery, refrigeration, communications, reaction control, and in-space operations. Detailed assessment was done on reactor operations, including plasma characteristics, power balance, power utilization, and component design.

  2. Interplanetary magnetic field according to measurements on the Fobos-1,-2 space vehicles. 3. Heliospheric substorm of August 5-7, 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, K.G.


    Three-phase disturbance of the interplanetary magnetic field was observed by FOBOS-1 and Fobos-2 space vehicles being at 10 million km distance from the Earth and by IMP-8 near-the-Earth satellite. Disturbance configuration and structure demonstrate that passing of nonstandard bend of heliospheric current layer is the reason of it. Structure, intensity and origination of disturbance enable to classify it as belonging to a category of heliospheric substorms. All three phases of interplanetary disturbance were represented in special near-the-Earth geomagnetic variations of polar cap. 9 refs

  3. VISTA -- A Vehicle for Interplanetary Space Transport Application Powered by Inertial Confinement Fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, C D


    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is an ideal technology to power self-contained single-stage piloted (manned) spacecraft within the solar system because of its inherently high power/mass ratios and high specific impulses (i.e., high exhaust velocities). These technological advantages are retained when ICF is utilized with a magnetic thrust chamber, which avoids the plasma thermalization and resultant degradation of specific impulse that are unavoidable with the use of mechanical thrust chambers. We started with Rod Hyde's 1983 description of an ICF-powered engine concept using a magnetic thrust chamber, and conducted a more detailed systems study to develop a viable, realistic, and defensible spacecraft concept based on ICF technology projected to be available in the first half of the 21st century. The results include an entirely new conical spacecraft conceptual design utilizing near-existing radiator technology. We describe the various vehicle systems for this new concept, estimate the missions performance capabilities for general missions to the planets within the solar system, and describe in detail the performance for the baseline mission of a piloted roundtrip to Mars with a 100-ton payload. For this mission, we show that roundtrips totaling {ge}145 days are possible with advanced DT fusion technology and a total (wet) spacecraft mass of about 6000 metric tons. Such short-duration missions are advantageous to minimize the known cosmic-radiation hazards to astronauts, and are even more important to minimize the physiological deteriorations arising from zero gravity. These ICF-powered missions are considerably faster than those available using chemical or nuclear-electric-propulsion technologies with minimum-mass vehicle configurations. VISTA also offers onboard artificial gravity and propellant-based shielding from cosmic rays, thus reducing the known hazards and physiological deteriorations to insignificant levels. We emphasize, however, that the degree

  4. International Launch Vehicle Selection for Interplanetary Travel (United States)

    Ferrone, Kristine; Nguyen, Lori T.


    In developing a mission strategy for interplanetary travel, the first step is to consider launch capabilities which provide the basis for fundamental parameters of the mission. This investigation focuses on the numerous launch vehicles of various characteristics available and in development internationally with respect to upmass, launch site, payload shroud size, fuel type, cost, and launch frequency. This presentation will describe launch vehicles available and in development worldwide, then carefully detail a selection process for choosing appropriate vehicles for interplanetary missions focusing on international collaboration, risk management, and minimization of cost. The vehicles that fit the established criteria will be discussed in detail with emphasis on the specifications and limitations related to interplanetary travel. The final menu of options will include recommendations for overall mission design and strategy.

  5. Optimizing interplanetary trajectories with deep space maneuvers (United States)

    Navagh, John


    Analysis of interplanetary trajectories is a crucial area for both manned and unmanned missions of the Space Exploration Initiative. A deep space maneuver (DSM) can improve a trajectory in much the same way as a planetary swingby. However, instead of using a gravitational field to alter the trajectory, the on-board propulsion system of the spacecraft is used when the vehicle is not near a planet. The purpose is to develop an algorithm to determine where and when to use deep space maneuvers to reduce the cost of a trajectory. The approach taken to solve this problem uses primer vector theory in combination with a non-linear optimizing program to minimize Delta(V). A set of necessary conditions on the primer vector is shown to indicate whether a deep space maneuver will be beneficial. Deep space maneuvers are applied to a round trip mission to Mars to determine their effect on the launch opportunities. Other studies which were performed include cycler trajectories and Mars mission abort scenarios. It was found that the software developed was able to locate quickly DSM's which lower the total Delta(V) on these trajectories.

  6. Dynamics of magnetic clouds in interplanetary space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, T.


    Magnetic clouds observed in interplanetary space may be regarded as extraneous bodies immersed in the magnetized medium of the solar wind. The interface between a magnetic cloud and its surrounding medium separates the internal and external magnetic fields. Polarization currents are induced in the peripheral layer to make the ambient magnetic field tangential. The motion of a magnetic cloud through the interplanetary medium may be partitioned into a translational motion of the magnetic cloud as a whole and an expansive motion of the volume relative to the axis of the magnetic cloud. The translational motion is determined by two kinds of forces, i.e., the gravitational force exerted by the Sun, and the hydromagnetic buoyancy force exerted by the surrounding medium. On the other hand, the expansive motion is determined by the pressure gradient sustaining the gross difference between the internal and external pressures and by the self-induced magnetic force that results from the interaction among the internal currents. The force resulting from the internal and external currents is a part of the hydromagnetic buoyancy force, manifested by a thermal stress caused by the inhomogeneity of the ambient magnetic pressure

  7. Dynamics of magnetic clouds in interplanetary space (United States)

    Yeh, Tyan


    Magnetic clouds observed in interplanetary space may be regarded as extraneous bodies immersed in the magnetized medium of the solar wind. The interface between a magnetic cloud and its surrounding medium separates the internal and external magnetic fields. Polarization currents are induced in the peripheral layer to make the ambient magnetic field tangential. The motion of a magnetic cloud through the interplanetary medium may be partitioned into a translational motion of the magnetic cloud as a whole and an expansive motion of the volume relative to the axis of the magnetic cloud. The translational motion is determined by two kinds of forces, i.e., the gravitational force exerted by the Sun, and the hydromagnetic buoyancy force exerted by the surrounding medium. On the other hand, the expansive motion is determined by the pressure gradient sustaining the gross difference between the internal and external pressures and by the self-induced magnetic force that results from the interaction among the internal currents. The force resulting from the internal and external currents is a part of the hydromagnetic buoyancy force, manifested by a thermal stress caused by the inhomogeneity of the ambient magnetic pressure.

  8. Interplanetary space transport using inertial fusion propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, C.D.


    In this paper, we indicate how the great advantages that ICF offers for interplanetary propulsion can be accomplished with the VISTA spacecraft concept. The performance of VISTA is expected to surpass that from other realistic technologies for Mars missions if the energy gain achievable for ICF targets is above several hundred. Based on the good performance expected from the U. S. National Ignition Facility (NIF), the requirements for VISTA should be well within the realm of possibility if creative target concepts such as the fast ignitor can be developed. We also indicate that a 6000-ton VISTA can visit any planet in the solar system and return to Earth in about 7 years or less without any significant physiological hazards to astronauts. In concept, VISTA provides such short-duration missions, especially to Mars, that the hazards from cosmic radiation and zero gravity can be reduced to insignificant levels. VISTA therefore represents a significant step forward for space-propulsion concepts

  9. Particle acceleration in the interplanetary space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tverskoj, B.A.


    A review on the problem of particle acceleration in the interplanetary space is given. The main lationship attention is paid to the problem of the re/ between the impact- and turbulent acceleration when an undisturbed magnetic field forms not too small angle THETA > 10 deg with the shock wave front. The following conclusions are drawn. Particle acceleration at the shock wave front is manifested in the explicit form, if the shock wave propagates along a homogeneous (in the 11 cm range) solar wind. The criterion of such an acceleration is the exponential distribution function F approximately vsup(-ν) (v is the particle velocity and ν is the accelerated particle spectrum index) in the low energy range and the conservation of this function at considerable distances behind the front. The presence of an additional turbulent acceleration behind the front is manifested in decreasing ν down to approximately 3.5 in the low energy range and in the spectrum evolution behind the front

  10. Space vehicle chassis (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Seitz, Daniel; Martinez, John; Storms, Steven; Kestell, Gayle


    A modular space vehicle chassis may facilitate convenient access to internal components of the space vehicle. Each module may be removable from the others such that each module may be worked on individually. Multiple panels of at least one of the modules may swing open or otherwise be removable, exposing large portions of the internal components of the space vehicle. Such chassis architectures may reduce the time required for and difficulty of performing maintenance or modifications, may allow multiple space vehicles to take advantage of a common chassis design, and may further allow for highly customizable space vehicles.

  11. Preconditioning of Interplanetary Space Due to Transient CME Disturbances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temmer, M.; Reiss, M. A.; Hofmeister, S. J.; Veronig, A. M.; Nikolic, L.


    Interplanetary space is characteristically structured mainly by high-speed solar wind streams emanating from coronal holes and transient disturbances such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs). While high-speed solar wind streams pose a continuous outflow, CMEs abruptly disrupt the rather steady structure, causing large deviations from the quiet solar wind conditions. For the first time, we give a quantification of the duration of disturbed conditions (preconditioning) for interplanetary space caused by CMEs. To this aim, we investigate the plasma speed component of the solar wind and the impact of in situ detected interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs), compared to different background solar wind models (ESWF, WSA, persistence model) for the time range 2011–2015. We quantify in terms of standard error measures the deviations between modeled background solar wind speed and observed solar wind speed. Using the mean absolute error, we obtain an average deviation for quiet solar activity within a range of 75.1–83.1 km s −1 . Compared to this baseline level, periods within the ICME interval showed an increase of 18%–32% above the expected background, and the period of two days after the ICME displayed an increase of 9%–24%. We obtain a total duration of enhanced deviations over about three and up to six days after the ICME start, which is much longer than the average duration of an ICME disturbance itself (∼1.3 days), concluding that interplanetary space needs ∼2–5 days to recover from the impact of ICMEs. The obtained results have strong implications for studying CME propagation behavior and also for space weather forecasting.

  12. Preconditioning of Interplanetary Space Due to Transient CME Disturbances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temmer, M.; Reiss, M. A.; Hofmeister, S. J.; Veronig, A. M. [Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitätsplatz 5/II, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Nikolic, L., E-mail: [Canadian Hazards Information Service, Natural Resources Canada, 2617 Anderson Road, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0Y3 (Canada)


    Interplanetary space is characteristically structured mainly by high-speed solar wind streams emanating from coronal holes and transient disturbances such as coronal mass ejections (CMEs). While high-speed solar wind streams pose a continuous outflow, CMEs abruptly disrupt the rather steady structure, causing large deviations from the quiet solar wind conditions. For the first time, we give a quantification of the duration of disturbed conditions (preconditioning) for interplanetary space caused by CMEs. To this aim, we investigate the plasma speed component of the solar wind and the impact of in situ detected interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs), compared to different background solar wind models (ESWF, WSA, persistence model) for the time range 2011–2015. We quantify in terms of standard error measures the deviations between modeled background solar wind speed and observed solar wind speed. Using the mean absolute error, we obtain an average deviation for quiet solar activity within a range of 75.1–83.1 km s{sup −1}. Compared to this baseline level, periods within the ICME interval showed an increase of 18%–32% above the expected background, and the period of two days after the ICME displayed an increase of 9%–24%. We obtain a total duration of enhanced deviations over about three and up to six days after the ICME start, which is much longer than the average duration of an ICME disturbance itself (∼1.3 days), concluding that interplanetary space needs ∼2–5 days to recover from the impact of ICMEs. The obtained results have strong implications for studying CME propagation behavior and also for space weather forecasting.

  13. Space Travel is Utter Bilge: Early Ideas on Interplanetary Exploration (United States)

    Yeomans, D. K.


    Until a few decades ago, interplanetary travel was the stuff of dreams but the dreamers often turned out to be farsighted while the predictions of some eminent scientists were far too conservative. The prescient dreamers include the Russian schoolteacher, Konstanin Tsiolkovsky who, in 1883, was the first to note that only rockets could serve the needs of space travel. In 1923, Herman Oberth published a treatise discussing various aspects of interplanetary travel including the impulse necessary to escape the Earth's gravitational pull. In his spare time, a German civil engineer, Walter Hohmann, established in 1925 that the optimal energy transfer orbit between planets is an ellipse that is tangent to the orbits of both bodies. Four year later, an Austrian army officer, Hermann Potocnik outlined the benefits of space stations including those in geosynchronous orbits. Whereas Tsiolkovsky, Oberth, Hohmann, and Potocnik provided ideas and theories, the American, Robert H. Goddard, was testing liquid fueled rockets by as early as 1925. By the time he was finished in 1941, Goddard flew liquid fueled rockets that reached speeds of 700 mph and altitudes above 8,000 feet. In direct contrast to the advances by these mostly amateur engineers, many respected authorities scoffed at space travel because of the insurmountable technological difficulties. One year prior to the launch of Sputnik, the British Astronomer Royal, Sir Richard Wooley, declared, "space travel is utter bilge." While the theories of space travel were well developed by the late 1920's, space travel technology was still a poorly funded, mostly amateur, endeavor until the German army hired Oberth's student, Werner von Braun, and others to develop long range rockets for military purposes. In the early 1940's, Von Braun's team developed the rocket propulsion and guidance systems that would one day form the basis of the American space program.

  14. Space Vehicle Valve System (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R. (Inventor); Lindner, Jeffrey L. (Inventor)


    The present invention is a space vehicle valve system which controls the internal pressure of a space vehicle and the flow rate of purged gases at a given internal pressure and aperture site. A plurality of quasi-unique variable dimension peaked valve structures cover the purge apertures on a space vehicle. Interchangeable sheet guards configured to cover valve apertures on the peaked valve structure contain a pressure-activated surface on the inner surface. Sheet guards move outwardly from the peaked valve structure when in structural contact with a purge gas stream flowing through the apertures on the space vehicle. Changing the properties of the sheet guards changes the response of the sheet guards at a given internal pressure, providing control of the flow rate at a given aperture site.

  15. Two-step photoionization of hydrogen atoms in interplanetary space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruntman, M.A.


    Photoionization is one of the key processes which determine the properties of fluxes of neutral atoms in interplanetary space. A new two-step channel (called indirect) of photoionization of hydrogen atoms is proposed. Hydrogen atoms are at first excited to states with principal quantum number n > 2, then decay to metastable H(2S) states, where they can be photoionized. Competing processes due to the interaction with solar wind plasma and solar radiation are considered and the photoionization rate through the proposed indirect channel is calculated. This rate depends on distance from the Sun as ∝ 1/R 4 at large distances (R > 1-2 a.u.) and as ∝ 1/R 2 at close approaches, where it is higher than the rate of direct photoionization. (author)

  16. Space robot simulator vehicle (United States)

    Cannon, R. H., Jr.; Alexander, H.


    A Space Robot Simulator Vehicle (SRSV) was constructed to model a free-flying robot capable of doing construction, manipulation and repair work in space. The SRSV is intended as a test bed for development of dynamic and static control methods for space robots. The vehicle is built around a two-foot-diameter air-cushion vehicle that carries batteries, power supplies, gas tanks, computer, reaction jets and radio equipment. It is fitted with one or two two-link manipulators, which may be of many possible designs, including flexible-link versions. Both the vehicle body and its first arm are nearly complete. Inverse dynamic control of the robot's manipulator has been successfully simulated using equations generated by the dynamic simulation package SDEXACT. In this mode, the position of the manipulator tip is controlled not by fixing the vehicle base through thruster operation, but by controlling the manipulator joint torques to achieve the desired tip motion, while allowing for the free motion of the vehicle base. One of the primary goals is to minimize use of the thrusters in favor of intelligent control of the manipulator. Ways to reduce the computational burden of control are described.

  17. Toroidal Plasma Thruster for Interplanetary and Interstellar Space Flights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelenkov, N.N.; Zakharov, L.E.; Gorelenkova, M.V.


    This work involves a conceptual assessment for using the toroidal fusion reactor for deep space interplanetary and interstellar missions. Toroidal thermonuclear fusion reactors, such as tokamaks and stellarators, are unique for space propulsion, allowing for a design with the magnetic configuration localized inside toroidal magnetic field coils. Plasma energetic ions, including charged fusion products, can escape such a closed configuration at certain conditions, a result of the vertical drift in toroidal rippled magnetic field. Escaping particles can be used for direct propulsion (since toroidal drift is directed one way vertically) or to create and heat externally confined plasma, so that the latter can be used for propulsion. Deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons with an energy of 14.1 MeV also can be used for direct propulsion. A special design allows neutrons to escape the shield and the blanket of the tokamak. This provides a direct (partial) conversion of the fusion energy into the directed motion of the propellant. In contrast to other fusion concepts proposed for space propulsion, this concept utilizes the natural drift motion of charged particles out of the closed magnetic field configuration

  18. Coronal mass ejections and their sheath regions in interplanetary space (United States)

    Kilpua, Emilia; Koskinen, Hannu E. J.; Pulkkinen, Tuija I.


    Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are large-scale heliospheric transients that originate from the Sun. When an ICME is sufficiently faster than the preceding solar wind, a shock wave develops ahead of the ICME. The turbulent region between the shock and the ICME is called the sheath region. ICMEs and their sheaths and shocks are all interesting structures from the fundamental plasma physics viewpoint. They are also key drivers of space weather disturbances in the heliosphere and planetary environments. ICME-driven shock waves can accelerate charged particles to high energies. Sheaths and ICMEs drive practically all intense geospace storms at the Earth, and they can also affect dramatically the planetary radiation environments and atmospheres. This review focuses on the current understanding of observational signatures and properties of ICMEs and the associated sheath regions based on five decades of studies. In addition, we discuss modelling of ICMEs and many fundamental outstanding questions on their origin, evolution and effects, largely due to the limitations of single spacecraft observations of these macro-scale structures. We also present current understanding of space weather consequences of these large-scale solar wind structures, including effects at the other Solar System planets and exoplanets. We specially emphasize the different origin, properties and consequences of the sheaths and ICMEs.

  19. Coronal mass ejections and their sheath regions in interplanetary space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Kilpua


    Full Text Available Abstract Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs are large-scale heliospheric transients that originate from the Sun. When an ICME is sufficiently faster than the preceding solar wind, a shock wave develops ahead of the ICME. The turbulent region between the shock and the ICME is called the sheath region. ICMEs and their sheaths and shocks are all interesting structures from the fundamental plasma physics viewpoint. They are also key drivers of space weather disturbances in the heliosphere and planetary environments. ICME-driven shock waves can accelerate charged particles to high energies. Sheaths and ICMEs drive practically all intense geospace storms at the Earth, and they can also affect dramatically the planetary radiation environments and atmospheres. This review focuses on the current understanding of observational signatures and properties of ICMEs and the associated sheath regions based on five decades of studies. In addition, we discuss modelling of ICMEs and many fundamental outstanding questions on their origin, evolution and effects, largely due to the limitations of single spacecraft observations of these macro-scale structures. We also present current understanding of space weather consequences of these large-scale solar wind structures, including effects at the other Solar System planets and exoplanets. We specially emphasize the different origin, properties and consequences of the sheaths and ICMEs.

  20. Observations of interplanetary scintillation and their application to the space weather forecast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, Masayoshi; Kakinuma, Takakiyo


    The interplanetary scintillation (IPS) method using natural radio sources can observe the solar wind near the sun and at high latitudes that have never been accessible to any spacecraft. Therefore, the IPS has been the most powerful method to observe the solar wind in three-dimensional space. Although the IPS method cannot predict when a flare will occur or when a filament will disappear, it can be used to forecast the propagation of interplanetary disturbances and to warn when they will attack the earth. Thus, the IPS method can be used to forecast recurrent interplanetary phenomena as well as transient phenomena. (author)

  1. Propagation Characteristics of Two Coronal Mass Ejections from the Sun Far into Interplanetary Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Xiaowei; Liu, Ying D.; Hu, Huidong; Wang, Rui, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)


    Propagation of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) from the Sun far into interplanetary space is not well understood, due to limited observations. In this study we examine the propagation characteristics of two geo-effective CMEs, which occurred on 2005 May 6 and 13, respectively. Significant heliospheric consequences associated with the two CMEs are observed, including interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs) at the Earth and Ulysses , interplanetary shocks, a long-duration type II radio burst, and intense geomagnetic storms. We use coronagraph observations from SOHO /LASCO, frequency drift of the long-duration type II burst, in situ measurements at the Earth and Ulysses , and magnetohydrodynamic propagation of the observed solar wind disturbances at 1 au to track the CMEs from the Sun far into interplanetary space. We find that both of the CMEs underwent a major deceleration within 1 au and thereafter a gradual deceleration when they propagated from the Earth to deep interplanetary space, due to interactions with the ambient solar wind. The results also reveal that the two CMEs interacted with each other in the distant interplanetary space even though their launch times on the Sun were well separated. The intense geomagnetic storm for each case was caused by the southward magnetic fields ahead of the CME, stressing the critical role of the sheath region in geomagnetic storm generation, although for the first case there is a corotating interaction region involved.

  2. An Investigation of Interplanetary Structures for Solar Cycles 23 and 24 and their Space Weather Consequences. (United States)

    Sultan, M. S.; Jules, A.; Marchese, P.; Damas, M. C.


    It is crucial to study space weather because severe interplanetary conditions can cause geomagnetic storms that may damage both space- and ground-based technological systems such as satellites, communication systems, and power grids. Interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) and corotating interaction regions (CIRs) are the primary drivers of geomagnetic storms. As they travel through interplanetary space and reach geospace, their spatial structures change which can result in various geomagnetic effects. Therefore, studying these drivers and their structures is essential in order to better understand and mitigate their impact on technological systems, as well as to forecast geomagnetic storms. In this study, over 150 storms were cross-checked for both solar cycles (SC) 23 and 24. This data has revealed the most common interplanetary structures, i.e., sheath (Sh); magnetic cloud following a shock front (sMC); sheath region and magnetic cloud (Sh/MC); and corotating interaction regions (CIRs). Furthermore, plasma parameters as well as variation in the intensity and duration of storms resulting from different interplanetary structures are studied for their effect on geomagnetically induced currents (GICs), as well as for their effect on power grids. Although preliminary results for SC 23 indicate that storm intensity may play a dominant role for GICs, duration might also be a factor, albeit smaller. Results from both SC 23 and 24 are analyzed and compared, and should lead to an enhanced understanding of space weather consequences of interplanetary structures and their possible forecasting.

  3. First Taste of Hot Channel in Interplanetary Space (United States)

    Song, H. Q.; Zhang, J.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, X.; Li, G.; Wang, Y. M.


    A hot channel (HC) is a high temperature (˜10 MK) structure in the inner corona first revealed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Eruptions of HCs are often associated with flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Results of previous studies have suggested that an HC is a good proxy for a magnetic flux rope (MFR) in the inner corona as well as another well known MFR candidate, the prominence-cavity structure, which has a normal coronal temperature (˜1-2 MK). In this paper, we report a high temperature structure (HTS, ˜1.5 MK) contained in an interplanetary CME induced by an HC eruption. According to the observations of bidirectional electrons, high temperature and density, strong magnetic field, and its association with the shock, sheath, and plasma pile-up region, we suggest that the HTS is the interplanetary counterpart of the HC. The scale of the measured HTS is around 14 R ⊙ , and it maintained a much higher temperature than the background solar wind even at 1 AU. It is significantly different from the typical magnetic clouds, which usually have a much lower temperature. Our study suggests that the existence of a corotating interaction region ahead of the HC formed a magnetic container to inhibit expansion of the HC and cool it down to a low temperature.

  4. Mass ejections from the solar corona into interplanetary space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildner, E.


    Mass ejections from the corona are common occurrances, as observations with the High Altitude Observatory's white light coronagraph aboard Skylab showed. During 227 days of operation in 1973 and 1974 at least 77 mass ejections were observed and as many more probably occurred unobserved. It is suggested that the frequency of ejections varies with the solar cycle and that ejections may contribute 10 percent or more of the total solar mass efflux to the interplanetary medium at solar maximum. Since ejections are confined to relatively low latitudes, their fractional mass flux contribution is greater near the ecliptic than far from it. From the behavior of ejecta, we can estimate the magnitude of the force driving them through the corona. It is also suggested that loop-shaped ejection - the largest fraction of ejections - are driven, primarily, by magnetic forces. By comparison, gas pressure forces are negligible, and forces due to wave pressure are completely inadequate. That magnetic forces are important is consistent with observation that ejections seem to come, primarily, from regions where the magnetic field is more intense and more complex than elsewhere. Indeed, ejections are associated with phenomena (flares and eruptive prominences) which occur over lines separating regions of opposite polarities. (Auth.)

  5. Orbital Dynamics of Low-Earth Orbit Laser-Propelled Space Vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Funaki, Ikkoh; Komurasaki, Kimiya


    Trajectories applicable to laser-propelled space vehicles with a laser station in low-Earth orbit are investigated. Laser vehicles are initially located in the vicinity of the Earth-orbiting laser station in low-earth orbit at an altitude of several hundreds kilometers, and are accelerated by laser beaming from the laser station. The laser-propelled vehicles start from low-earth orbit and finally escape from the Earth gravity well, enabling interplanetary trajectories and planetary exploration

  6. Interplanetary Transit Simulations Using the International Space Station (United States)

    Charles, J. B.; Arya, Maneesh


    It has been suggested that the International Space Station (ISS) be utilized to simulate the transit portion of long-duration missions to Mars and near-Earth asteroids (NEA). The ISS offers a unique environment for such simulations, providing researchers with a high-fidelity platform to study, enhance, and validate technologies and countermeasures for these long-duration missions. From a space life sciences perspective, two major categories of human research activities have been identified that will harness the various capabilities of the ISS during the proposed simulations. The first category includes studies that require the use of the ISS, typically because of the need for prolonged weightlessness. The ISS is currently the only available platform capable of providing researchers with access to a weightless environment over an extended duration. In addition, the ISS offers high fidelity for other fundamental space environmental factors, such as isolation, distance, and accessibility. The second category includes studies that do not require use of the ISS in the strictest sense, but can exploit its use to maximize their scientific return more efficiently and productively than in ground-based simulations. In addition to conducting Mars and NEA simulations on the ISS, increasing the current increment duration on the ISS from 6 months to a longer duration will provide opportunities for enhanced and focused research relevant to long-duration Mars and NEA missions. Although it is currently believed that increasing the ISS crew increment duration to 9 or even 12 months will pose little additional risk to crewmembers, additional medical monitoring capabilities may be required beyond those currently used for the ISS operations. The use of the ISS to simulate aspects of Mars and NEA missions seems practical, and it is recommended that planning begin soon, in close consultation with all international partners.

  7. Coronal and interplanetary propagation, interplanetary acceleration, cosmic-ray observations by deep space network and anomalous component (United States)

    Ng, C. K.


    The purpose is to provide an overview of the contributions presented in sessions SH3, SH1.5, SH4.6 and SH4.7 of the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference. These contributed papers indicate that steady progress continues to be made in both the observational and the theoretical aspects of the transport and acceleration of energetic charged particles in the heliosphere. Studies of solar and interplanetary particles have placed emphasis on particle directional distributions in relation to pitch-angle scattering and magnetic focusing, on the rigidity and spatial dependence of the mean free path, and on new propagation regimes in the inner and outer heliosphere. Coronal propagation appears in need of correlative multi-spacecraft studies in association with detailed observation of the flare process and coronal magnetic structures. Interplanetary acceleration has now gone into a consolidation phase, with theories being worked out in detail and checked against observation.

  8. Coronal and interplanetary propagation, interplanetary acceleration, cosmic-ray observations by deep space network and anomalous component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, C.K.


    The purpose is to provide an overview of the contributions presented in sessions SH3, SH1.5, SH4.6 and SH4.7 of the 19th International Cosmic Ray Conference. These contributed papers indicate that steady progress continues to be made in both the observational and the theoretical aspects of the transport and acceleration of energetic charged particles in the heliosphere. Studies of solar and interplanetary particles have placed emphasis on particle directional distributions in relation to pitch-angle scattering and magnetic focusing, on the rigidity and spatial dependence of the mean free path, and on new propagation regimes in the inner and outer heliosphere. Coronal propagation appears in need of correlative multi-spacecraft studies in association with detailed observation of the flare process and coronal magnetic structures. Interplanetary acceleration has now gone into a consolidation phase, with theories being worked out in detail and checked against observation

  9. Low-energy ion bombardment of frozen bacterial spores and its relevance to interplanetary space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuleta, M.; Gabla, L.; Szkarlat, A.


    The panspermia hypothesis is concerned with the dissemination of life in space in the form of simple micro-organisms. During an interplanetary journey the micro-organisms are subjected to the action of, among others, the solar wind. We have simulated experimentally such conditions bombarding frozen bacterial spores with low-energy hydrogen ions. On the basis of the results obtained and our earlier research, a new look at the panspermia hypothesis is discussed. The general conclusion is that unprotected naked spores, their conglomerates and protected spores can survive attack of the solar wind, although to various degrees. (authors)

  10. Low-energy ion bombardment of frozen bacterial spores and its relevance to interplanetary space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuleta, M.; Gabla, L. [Jagiellonian Univ., Institute of Physics, Cracow (Poland); Szkarlat, A. [Clinical Children' s Hospital of the Jagiellonian Univ., Medical College, Lab. of Microbiology, Cracow (Poland)


    The panspermia hypothesis is concerned with the dissemination of life in space in the form of simple micro-organisms. During an interplanetary journey the micro-organisms are subjected to the action of, among others, the solar wind. We have simulated experimentally such conditions bombarding frozen bacterial spores with low-energy hydrogen ions. On the basis of the results obtained and our earlier research, a new look at the panspermia hypothesis is discussed. The general conclusion is that unprotected naked spores, their conglomerates and protected spores can survive attack of the solar wind, although to various degrees. (authors)

  11. Dynamical modeling approach to risk assessment for radiogenic leukemia among astronauts engaged in interplanetary space missions. (United States)

    Smirnova, Olga A; Cucinotta, Francis A


    A recently developed biologically motivated dynamical model of the assessment of the excess relative risk (ERR) for radiogenic leukemia among acutely/continuously irradiated humans (Smirnova, 2015, 2017) is applied to estimate the ERR for radiogenic leukemia among astronauts engaged in long-term interplanetary space missions. Numerous scenarios of space radiation exposure during space missions are used in the modeling studies. The dependence of the ERR for leukemia among astronauts on several mission parameters including the dose equivalent rates of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and large solar particle events (SPEs), the number of large SPEs, the time interval between SPEs, mission duration, the degree of astronaut's additional shielding during SPEs, the degree of their additional 12-hour's daily shielding, as well as the total mission dose equivalent, is examined. The results of the estimation of ERR for radiogenic leukemia among astronauts, which are obtained in the framework of the developed dynamical model for various scenarios of space radiation exposure, are compared with the corresponding results, computed by the commonly used linear model. It is revealed that the developed dynamical model along with the linear model can be applied to estimate ERR for radiogenic leukemia among astronauts engaged in long-term interplanetary space missions in the range of applicability of the latter. In turn, the developed dynamical model is capable of predicting the ERR for leukemia among astronauts for the irradiation regimes beyond the applicability range of the linear model in emergency cases. As a supplement to the estimations of cancer incidence and death (REIC and REID) (Cucinotta et al., 2013, 2017), the developed dynamical model for the assessment of the ERR for leukemia can be employed on the pre-mission design phase for, e.g., the optimization of the regimes of astronaut's additional shielding in the course of interplanetary space missions. The developed model can

  12. Stapledon's Interplanetary Man: A Commonwealth of Worlds and the Ultimate Purpose of Space Colonisation (United States)

    Crawford, Ian A.

    In his 1948 lecture to the British Interplanetary Society Stapledon considered the ultimate purpose of colonising other worlds. Having examined the possible motivations arising from improved scientific knowledge and access to extraterrestrial raw materials, he concludes that the ultimate benefits of space colonisation will be the increased opportunities for developing human (and post-human) diversity, intellectual and aesthetic potential and, especially, `spirituality'. By the latter concept he meant a striving for ``sensitive and intelligent awareness of things in the universe (including persons), and of the universe as a whole.'' A key insight articulated by Stapledon in this lecture was that this should be the aspiration of all human development anyway, with or without space colonisation, but that the latter would greatly increase the scope for such developments. Another key aspect of his vision was the development of a diverse, but connected, `Commonwealth of Worlds' extending throughout the Solar System, and eventually beyond, within which human potential would be maximised. In this paper I analyse Stapledon's vision of space colonisation, and will conclude that his overall conclusions remain sound. However, I will also argue that he was overly utopian in believing that human social and political unity are prerequisites for space exploration (while agreeing that they are desirable objectives in their own right), and that he unnecessarily downplayed the more prosaic scientific and economic motivations which are likely to be key drivers for space exploration (if not colonisation) in the shorter term. Finally, I draw attention to some recent developments in international space policy which, although probably not influenced by Stapledon's work, are nevertheless congruent with his overarching philosophy as outlined in `Interplanetary Man?'.

  13. Fundamental issues on kappa-distributions in space plasmas and interplanetary proton distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leubner, M.P.


    Numerous in situ observations indicate clearly the presence of nonthermal electron and ion structures as ubiquitous and persistent feature in a variety of astrophysical plasma environments. In particular, the detected suprathermal particle populations are accurately represented by the family of κ-distributions, a power-law in particle speed. After clarifying the characteristics of high-energy tail distributions under various space plasma conditions, different generation mechanisms of energetic particles are introduced where numerical simulations of wave-particle interaction based on a Fokker-Planck approach demonstrate how Landau interaction ultimately leads to κ-like distributions. Because of lack of theoretical justification, the use of the analytical form of κ-functions was frequently criticized. It is shown that these distributions turn out as consequence of an entropy generalization favored by nonextensive thermo-statistics, thus providing the missing link for powerlaw models of suprathermal tails from fundamental physics, along with a physical interpretation of the structure parameter κ. Moreover, with regard to the full nonextensive formalism, compatible also with negative values of κ, it is demonstrated that core-halo distribution structures, as observed for instance under typical interplanetary plasma conditions, are a natural content of the pseudo-additive entropy concept. The significance of the complete κ-distribution family with regard to observed core-halo electron and double-humped ion velocity space characteristics is illuminated, where the observed peak separation scale of interplanetary proton distributions is compatible with a maximum entropy condition

  14. Gravity Probe B Space Vehicle (United States)


    The space vehicle for Gravity Probe B (GP-B) arrives at the launch site at Vandenburg Air Force Base. GP-B is the relativity experiment being developed at Stanford University to test two extraordinary predictions of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity. The experiment will measure, very precisely, the expected tiny changes in the direction of the spin axes of four gyroscopes contained in an Earth-orbiting satellite at a 400-mile altitude. So free are the gyroscopes from disturbance that they will provide an almost perfect space-time reference system. They will measure how space and time are very slightly warped by the presence of the Earth, and, more profoundly, how the Earth's rotation very slightly drags space-time around with it. These effects, though small for the Earth, have far-reaching implications for the nature of matter and the structure of the Universe. GP-B is among the most thoroughly researched programs ever undertaken by NASA. This is the story of a scientific quest in which physicists and engineers have collaborated closely over many years. Inspired by their quest, they have invented a whole range of technologies that are already enlivening other branches of science and engineering. Scheduled for launch in 2003 and managed for NASA by the Marshall Space Flight Center, development of the GP-B is the responsibility of Stanford University, with major subcontractor Lockheed Martin Corporation.

  15. Space Vehicle Reliability Modeling in DIORAMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tornga, Shawn Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    When modeling system performance of space based detection systems it is important to consider spacecraft reliability. As space vehicles age the components become prone to failure for a variety of reasons such as radiation damage. Additionally, some vehicles may lose the ability to maneuver once they exhaust fuel supplies. Typically failure is divided into two categories: engineering mistakes and technology surprise. This document will report on a method of simulating space vehicle reliability in the DIORAMA framework.

  16. The scheduling of tracking times for interplanetary spacecraft on the Deep Space Network (United States)

    Webb, W. A.


    The Deep Space Network (DSN) is a network of tracking stations, located throughout the globe, used to track spacecraft for NASA's interplanetary missions. This paper describes a computer program, DSNTRAK, which provides an optimum daily tracking schedule for the DSN given the view periods at each station for a mission set of n spacecraft, where n is between 2 and 6. The objective function is specified in terms of relative total daily tracking time requirements between the n spacecraft. Linear programming is used to maximize the total daily tracking time and determine an optimal daily tracking schedule consistent with DSN station capabilities. DSNTRAK is used as part of a procedure to provide DSN load forecasting information for proposed future NASA mission sets.

  17. Lightning Protection for the Orion Space Vehicle (United States)

    Scully, Robert


    The Orion space vehicle is designed to requirements for both direct attachment and indirect effects of lightning. Both sets of requirements are based on a full threat 200kA strike, in accordance with constraints and guidelines contained in SAE ARP documents applicable to both commercial and military aircraft and space vehicles. This paper describes the requirements as levied against the vehicle, as well as the means whereby the design shows full compliance.

  18. Electric Vehicles at Kennedy Space Center (United States)

    Chesson, Bruce E.


    The story of how the transportation office began by introducing low speed electric cars (LSEV) to the fleet managers and employees. This sparked and interest in purchasing some of these LSEV and the usage on KSC. Transportation was approached by a vender of High Speed Electric Vehicle (HSEV) we decided to test the HSEV to see if they would meet our fleet vehicle needs. Transportation wrote a Space Act Agreement (SAA) for the loan of three Lithium Powered Electric vehicles for a one year test. The vehicles have worked very well and we have extended the test for another year. The use of HSEV has pushed for an independent Electric Vehicle Study to be performed to consider ways to effectively optimize the use of electric vehicles in replacement of gasoline vehicles in the KSC vehicle fleet. This will help the center to move closer to meeting the Executive Order 13423.

  19. Radiation and Internal Charging Environments for Thin Dielectrics in Interplanetary Space (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard; Altstatt, Richard L.


    Spacecraft designs using solar sails for propulsion or thin membranes to shade instruments from the sun to achieve cryogenic operating temperatures are being considered for a number of missions in the next decades. A common feature of these designs are thin dielectric materials that will be exposed to the solar wind, solar energetic particle events, and the distant magnetotail plasma environments encountered by spacecraft in orbit about the Earth-Sun L2 point. This paper will discuss the relevant radiation and internal charging environments developed to support spacecraft design for both total dose radiation effects as well as dose rate dependent phenomenon, such as internal charging in the solar wind and distant magnetotail environments. We will describe the development of radiation and internal charging environment models based on nearly a complete solar cycle of Ulysses solar wind plasma measurements over a complete range of heliocentric latitudes and the early years of the Geotail mission where distant magnetotail plasma environments were sampled beyond X(sub GSE) = -100 Re to nearly L2 (X(sub GSE) -236 Re). Example applications of the environment models are shown to demonstrate the radiation and internal charging environments of thin materials exposed to the interplanetary space plasma environments.

  20. Acceleration of H, He, and heavy ions observed in the magnetosheath, magnetotail, and near-by interplanetary space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, C.Y.; Gloeckler, G.; Hovestadt, D.


    Pulses of electrons and ions composed of H, He, and heavier elements were observed in the magnetosheath, magnetotail, and near-by interplanetary space. From the spatial positions where these particles were detected and the ion flow directions we conclude that they were accelerated at the bow shock near the sub-solar point and in the near-earth region of the neutral sheet of the magnetotail. (orig.) [de

  1. Solar and interplanetary disturbances

    CERN Document Server

    Alurkar, S K


    Over the last three decades, a spate of solar wind observations have been made with sophisticated ground-based and space-borne instruments. Two highly successful space missions of the Skylab and the twin spacecraft Helios 1 and 2 have amassed an invaluable wealth of information on the large scale structure of the inner heliosphere, the solar and interplanetary magnetic field, coronal holes, interplanetary dust, solar windflows, etc.Solar and interplanetary propagating phenomena have been extensively studied during the last two decades. Very recently, a new simple model based on results from a

  2. Transport coefficients of low-energy cosmic rays in interplanetary space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, I.


    The propagation of energetic particles along and across the interplantary magnetic field is governed by the large-scale field geometry and by scattering in small-scale turbulent fields. Values of the scattering mean free path parallel to the field, γ/sub parallel/ (R), are reviewed in prompt solar bursts and nonimpulsive (corotating) events. Analysis of intensity and anisotropy profiles in combination is a powerful tool for elucidating γ/sub parallel/ (R). A consensus is found: at 1 AU, γ/sub parallel/ = 0.08--0.3 AU over a wide range of rigidity, R = 5 x 10 -4 to 5 GV. Efforts to explain the discrepancy between empirical values of γ/sub parallel/ and scattering theory are discussed. Quantitative measures of γ/sub parallel/ in rare scatter-free events, where magnetic power spectra. Cross-field diffusion due to random walk of field lines is revisited. Recent values deduced from magnetic power spectra in interplanetary space, magnetic diffusion at the sun, Jovian electron propagation, and cosmic ray events are evaluated. Again, a consensus is sought, and a reasonable mean is K/sub perpendicular//sup r//β = 10 21 cm 2 s -1 . Previous arguments against a significant K/sub perpendicular//sup r/ are reassessed, including the problem of the persistance of intensity fluctuations in cosmic ray events. Combining the consensus for K/sub perpendicular//sup r//β with that for γ/sub parallel/<0.1 at 1 AU, and thus neglect of K/sub perpendicular//sup r/ in the modeling of solar cosmic ray events appears justified (although account needs to be taken of coronal propagation). The outlook for the future includes better empirical values of γ/sub parallel/ down to E/sub p/approx.10 keV and E/sub e/approx. 1 keV, comparison with scattering theories at these energies, and comparison between empirical and theoretical γ/sub parallel/ in other regions such as the magnetosheath and upstream solar wind

  3. Ground Processing Affordability for Space Vehicles (United States)

    Ingalls, John; Scott, Russell


    Launch vehicles and most of their payloads spend the majority of their time on the ground. The cost of ground operations is very high. So, why so often is so little attention given to ground processing during development? The current global space industry and economic environment are driving more need for efficiencies to save time and money. Affordability and sustainability are more important now than ever. We can not continue to treat space vehicles as mere science projects. More RLV's (Reusable Launch Vehicles) are being developed for the gains of reusability which are not available for ELV's (Expendable Launch Vehicles). More human-rated vehicles are being developed, with the retirement of the Space Shuttles, and for a new global space race, yet these cost more than the many unmanned vehicles of today. We can learn many lessons on affordability from RLV's. DFO (Design for Operations) considers ground operations during design, development, and manufacturing-before the first flight. This is often minimized for space vehicles, but is very important. Vehicles are designed for launch and mission operations. You will not be able to do it again if it is too slow or costly to get there. Many times, technology changes faster than space products such that what is launched includes outdated features, thus reducing competitiveness. Ground operations must be considered for the full product Lifecycle, from concept to retirement. Once manufactured, launch vehicles along with their payloads and launch systems require a long path of processing before launch. Initial assembly and testing always discover problems to address. A solid integration program is essential to minimize these impacts, as was seen in the Constellation Ares I-X test rocket. For RLV's, landing/recovery and post-flight turnaround activities are performed. Multi-use vehicles require reconfiguration. MRO (Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul) must be well-planned--- even for the unplanned problems. Defect limits and

  4. Crewed Space Vehicle Battery Safety Requirements (United States)

    Jeevarajan, Judith A.; Darcy, Eric C.


    This requirements document is applicable to all batteries on crewed spacecraft, including vehicle, payload, and crew equipment batteries. It defines the specific provisions required to design a battery that is safe for ground personnel and crew members to handle and/or operate during all applicable phases of crewed missions, safe for use in the enclosed environment of a crewed space vehicle, and safe for use in launch vehicles, as well as in unpressurized spaces adjacent to the habitable portion of a space vehicle. The required provisions encompass hazard controls, design evaluation, and verification. The extent of the hazard controls and verification required depends on the applicability and credibility of the hazard to the specific battery design and applicable missions under review. Evaluation of the design and verification program results shall be completed prior to certification for flight and ground operations. This requirements document is geared toward the designers of battery systems to be used in crewed vehicles, crew equipment, crew suits, or batteries to be used in crewed vehicle systems and payloads (or experiments). This requirements document also applies to ground handling and testing of flight batteries. Specific design and verification requirements for a battery are dependent upon the battery chemistry, capacity, complexity, charging, environment, and application. The variety of battery chemistries available, combined with the variety of battery-powered applications, results in each battery application having specific, unique requirements pertinent to the specific battery application. However, there are basic requirements for all battery designs and applications, which are listed in section 4. Section 5 includes a description of hazards and controls and also includes requirements.

  5. 46 CFR 116.940 - Guards in vehicle spaces. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Guards in vehicle spaces. 116.940 Section 116.940... ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 116.940 Guards in vehicle spaces. On a vessel authorized to carry one or more vehicles, suitable chains, cables, or other barriers must be installed at the end of each vehicle runway...

  6. Ares Launch Vehicles Overview: Space Access Society (United States)

    Cook, Steve


    America is returning to the Moon in preparation for the first human footprint on Mars, guided by the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration. This presentation will discuss NASA's mission, the reasons for returning to the Moon and going to Mars, and how NASA will accomplish that mission in ways that promote leadership in space and economic expansion on the new frontier. The primary goals of the Vision for Space Exploration are to finish the International Space Station, retire the Space Shuttle, and build the new spacecraft needed to return people to the Moon and go to Mars. The Vision commits NASA and the nation to an agenda of exploration that also includes robotic exploration and technology development, while building on lessons learned over 50 years of hard-won experience. NASA is building on common hardware, shared knowledge, and unique experience derived from the Apollo Saturn, Space Shuttle, and contemporary commercial launch vehicle programs. The journeys to the Moon and Mars will require a variety of vehicles, including the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, which transports the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle, which transports the Lunar Surface Access Module. The architecture for the lunar missions will use one launch to ferry the crew into orbit, where it will rendezvous with the Lunar Module in the Earth Departure Stage, which will then propel the combination into lunar orbit. The imperative to explore space with the combination of astronauts and robots will be the impetus for inventions such as solar power and water and waste recycling. This next chapter in NASA's history promises to write the next chapter in American history, as well. It will require this nation to provide the talent to develop tools, machines, materials, processes, technologies, and capabilities that can benefit nearly all aspects of life on Earth. Roles and responsibilities are shared between a nationwide Government and industry team. The Exploration Launch

  7. Interplanetary spheromacs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, K.G.; Kharshiladze, A.F.


    The solution of Helmholtz's equation is used for the representation of force-free magnetic fields as series of spheroidal wave functions. It is assumed that these functions describe painly interplanetary hydromagnetic clouds in the shape of flattered and extended ellipsoids which are formed at the interaction of flare e ections with corona and interplanetary plasma

  8. A review of planetary and space science projects presented at iCubeSat, the Interplanetary CubeSat Workshop (United States)

    Johnson, Michael


    iCubeSat, the Interplanetary CubeSat Workshop, is an annual technical workshop for researchers working on an exciting new standardised platform and opportunity for planetary and space scientists. The first workshop was held in 2012 at MIT, 2013 at Cornell, 2014 at Caltech with the 2015 workshop scheduled to take place on the 26-27th May 2015 at Imperial College London. Mission concepts and flight projects presented since 2012 have included orbiters and landers targeting asteroids, the moon, Mars, Venus, Saturn and their satellites to perform science traditionally reserved for flagship missions at a fraction of their cost. Some of the first missions proposed are currently being readied for flight in Europe, taking advantage of multiple ride share launch opportunities and technology providers. A review of these and other interplanetary CubeSat projects will be presented, covering details of their science objectives, instrument capabilities, technology, team composition, budget, funding sources, and the other programattic elements required to implement this potentially revolutionary new class of mission.

  9. Carbon composites in space vehicle structures (United States)

    Mayer, N. J.


    Recent developments in the technology of carbon or graphite filaments now provide the designer with greatly improved materials offering high specific strength and modulus. Besides these advantages are properties which are distinctly useful for space applications and which provide feasibility for missions not obtainable by other means. Current applications include major and secondary structures of communications satellites. A number of R & D projects are exploring carbon-fiber application to rocket engine motor cases, advanced antenna systems, and space shuttle components. Future system studies are being made, based on the successful application of carbon fibers for orbiting space telescope assemblies, orbital transfer vehicles, and very large deployable energy generation systems. Continued technology development is needed in analysis, material standards, and advanced structural concepts to exploit the full potential of carbon filaments in composite materials.

  10. Studies of Solar Flare and Interplanetary Particle Acceleration and Coordination of Ground-Based Solar Observations in Support of US and International Space Missions (United States)

    Kiplinger, Alan L.


    A primary focus has been to conduct studies of particular types of hard X-ray evolution in solar flares and their associations with high energy interplanetary protons observed near Earth. Previously, two large investigations were conducted that revealed strong associations between episodes of progressive spectral hardening seen in solar events and interplanetary proton events (Kiplinger, 1995). An algorithm was developed for predicting interplanetary protons that is more accurate than those currently in use when hard X-ray spectra are available. The basic research on a third study of the remaining independent subset of Hard X-ray Burst Spectrometer (HXRBS) events randomly not selected by the original studies was completed. This third study involves independent analyses of the data by two analysts. The results echo the success of the earlier studies. Of 405 flares analyzed, 12 events were predicted to have associated interplanetary protons at the Space Environment Service Center (SESC) level. Of these, five events appear to be directly associated with SESC proton events, six other events had lower level associated proton events, and there was only one false alarm with no protons. Another study by Garcia and Kiplinger (1995) established that progressively hardening hard X-ray flares associated with interplanetary proton events are intrinsically cooler and not extremely intense in soft X-rays unless a "contaminating" large impulsive flare accompanies the hardening flare.

  11. 46 CFR 177.940 - Guards in vehicle spaces. (United States)


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Guards in vehicle spaces. 177.940 Section 177.940... TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Rails and Guards § 177.940 Guards in vehicle spaces. On a vessel authorized to carry one or more vehicles, suitable chains, cables, or other barriers must be installed at the...

  12. Spacesuit and Space Vehicle Comparative Ergonomic Evaluation (United States)

    England, Scott; Benson, Elizabeth; Cowley, Matthew; Harvill, Lauren; Blackledge, Christopher; Perez, Esau; Rajulu, Sudhakar


    With the advent of the latest manned spaceflight objectives, a series of prototype launch and reentry spacesuit architectures were evaluated for eventual down selection by NASA based on the performance of a set of designated tasks. A consolidated approach was taken to testing, concurrently collecting suit mobility data, seat-suit-vehicle interface clearances and movement strategies within the volume of a Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle mockup. To achieve the objectives of the test, a requirement was set forth to maintain high mockup fidelity while using advanced motion capture technologies. These seemingly mutually exclusive goals were accommodated with the construction of an optically transparent and fully adjustable frame mockup. The mockup was constructed such that it could be dimensionally validated rapidly with the motion capture system. This paper will describe the method used to create a motion capture compatible space vehicle mockup, the consolidated approach for evaluating spacesuits in action, as well as the various methods for generating hardware requirements for an entire population from the resulting complex data set using a limited number of test subjects. Kinematics, hardware clearance, suited anthropometry, and subjective feedback data were recorded on fifteen unsuited and five suited subjects. Unsuited subjects were selected chiefly by anthropometry, in an attempt to find subjects who fell within predefined criteria for medium male, large male and small female subjects. The suited subjects were selected as a subset of the unsuited subjects and tested in both unpressurized and pressurized conditions. Since the prototype spacesuits were fabricated in a single size to accommodate an approximately average sized male, the findings from the suit testing were systematically extrapolated to the extremes of the population to anticipate likely problem areas. This extrapolation was achieved by first performing population analysis through a comparison of suited

  13. Navigation simulator for the Space Tug vehicle (United States)

    Colburn, B. K.; Boland, J. S., III; Peters, E. G.


    A general simulation program (GSP) for state estimation of a nonlinear space vehicle flight navigation system is developed and used as a basis for evaluating the performance of a Space Tug navigation system. An explanation of the iterative guidance mode (IGM) guidance law, derivation of the dynamics, coordinate frames and state estimation routines are given in order to clarify the assumptions and approximations made. A number of simulation and analytical studies are used to demonstrate the operation of the Tug system. Included in the simulation studies are (1) initial offset vector parameter study; (2) propagation time vs accuracy; (3) measurement noise parametric study and (4) reduction in computational burden of an on-board implementable scheme. From the results of these studies, conclusions and recommendations concerning future areas of practical and theoretical work are presented.

  14. Design Optimization of Space Launch Vehicles Using a Genetic Algorithm

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bayley, Douglas J


    .... A genetic algorithm (GA) was employed to optimize the design of the space launch vehicle. A cost model was incorporated into the optimization process with the goal of minimizing the overall vehicle cost...

  15. Low-latitude active longitudes on the Sun and in interplanetary space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bumba, V.; Hejna, L.


    Following a short review of the history of the development of the active longitude concept, several graphs are given of the longitudinal distribution of various low-latitude phenomena of solar activity published by various authors. The inclinations of the active longitudes found were calculated. A summary picture of all these inclinations demonstrates the concentration of such active longitudes into two main directions. Two values of synodic rotation: 26.77 days and 27.16 days, correspond to these two types of low-latitude active longitudes, rotating faster than Carrington's rotation. The summary graph of all active longitudes belonging to these two types shows that active longitudes of different activity phenomena and from different authors overlap to a relatively high degree and that they run at least through three eleven-year cycles. The first of these active longitudes moves around the whole Sun in about 45-55 rotations and the second one in about 200 Carrington's rotations. It is believed that both these low-latitude active longitudes have their reflections in the two main inclinations of the interplanetary magnetic field sector boundaries demonstrated by Svalgaard and Wilcox (1975), their synodic rotations being 26.84 days and 27.14 days. (author). 9 figs., 25 refs

  16. Detecting Interplanetary Dust Particles with Radars to Study the Dynamics at the Edge of the Space (United States)

    Janches, Diego


    The Earth's mesosphere is the region of the atmosphere between approximately 60-120 km altitude, where the transition from hydrodynamic flow to molecular diffusion occurs. It is highly dynamic region where turbulence by wave braking is produced and energy is deposited from sources from both, below and above this altitude range. Because aircraft and nearly all balloons reach altitudes below approximately 50 km and orbital spacecrafts are well above approximately 400 km, the mesosphere has only been accessed through the use of sounding rockets or remote sensing techniques, and as a result, it is the most poorly understood part of the atmosphere. In addition, millions of Interplanetary Dust Particles (IDPs) enter the atmosphere. Within the mesosphere most of these IDPs melt or vaporize as a result of collisions with the air particles producing meteors that can be detected with radars. This provides a mean to study the dynamics of this region. In this lecture the basic principles of the utilization of meteor radars to study the dynamics of the mesosphere will be presented. A system overview of these systems will be provided as well as discuss the advantages/disadvantages of these systems, provide details of the data processing methodology and give a brief overview of the current status of the field as well as the vision for the next decade.

  17. On-Orbit Verification of Luminance Based Target Tracking and Faint Body Extractions by a Small Telescope on the World's First Micro-Interplanetary Space Probe


    Ariu, Kaito; Ikari, Satoshi; Kawabata, Yosuke; Nagata, Kazutaka; Matsuguma, Toshihiro; Inamori, Takaya; Miyamura, Norihide; Funase, Ryu; Nakasuka, Shinichi


    In recent years, low cost and quick development of very small satellites ranging from CubeSats of 1 kg to micro-satellites of approximately 50 kg have allowed advances in space development and application. Although most of these satellites are in Earth orbits, a small spacecraft for deep-space missions has been developed and launched for the first time in the world. The Proximate Object Close Flyby with Optical Navigation (PROCYON) micro-interplanetary spacecraft, developed by the University ...

  18. Skylab experiments. Volume 5: Astronomy and space physics. [Skylab observations of galactic radiation, solar energy, and interplanetary composition for high school level education (United States)


    The astronomy and space physics investigations conducted in the Skylab program include over 20 experiments in four categories to explore space phenomena that cannot be observed from earth. The categories of space research are as follows: (1) phenomena within the solar system, such as the effect of solar energy on Earth's atmosphere, the composition of interplanetary space, the possibility of an inner planet, and the X-ray radiation from Jupiter, (2) analysis of energetic particles such as cosmic rays and neutrons in the near-earth space, (3) stellar and galactic astronomy, and (4) self-induced environment surrounding the Skylab spacecraft.

  19. Small star trackers for modern space vehicles (United States)

    Kouzmin, Vladimir; Jushkov, Vladimir; Zaikin, Vladimir


    Based on experience of many years creation of spacecrafts' star trackers with diversified detectors (from the first star trackers of 60's to tens versions of star trackers in the following years), using technological achievements in the field of optics and electronics the NPP "Geofizika-Cosmos" has provided celestial orientation for all the space vehicles created in Russia and now has developed a series of new star trackers with CCD matrix and special processors, which are able to meet needs in celestial orientation of the modern spacecrafts for the nearest 10-15 years. In the given article the main characteristics and description of some star trackers' versions are presented. The star trackers have various levels of technical characteristics and use both combined (Russian and foreign) procurement parts, and only national (Russian) procurement parts for the main units.

  20. Space vehicle with customizable payload and docking station (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; McCabe, Kevin; Seitz, Daniel


    A "black box" space vehicle solution may allow a payload developer to define the mission space and provide mission hardware within a predetermined volume and with predetermined connectivity. Components such as the power module, radios and boards, attitude determination and control system (ADCS), command and data handling (C&DH), etc. may all be provided as part of a "stock" (i.e., core) space vehicle. The payload provided by the payload developer may be plugged into the space vehicle payload section, tested, and launched without custom development of core space vehicle components by the payload developer. A docking station may facilitate convenient development and testing of the space vehicle while reducing handling thereof.

  1. Interplanetary matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceplecha, Z.; Pecina, P.


    Of the total number of 57 presented papers 56 have been submitted to INIS. One paper was out of INIS scope. List of sessions (in brackets is the number of papers presented in the respective session and incorporated in the INIS): Preface (2), Comets (17), Asteroids (7), Meteors (19), Interplanetary dust (9), Other bodies (2). (Z.S.). 155 figs., 68 tabs., 1140 refs


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, Frederic E.; Ben-Jaffel, Lotfi; Harris, Walter M.


    The interplanetary hydrogen (IPH), a population of neutrals that fill the space between planets inside the heliosphere, carries the signature of the interstellar medium (ISM) and the heliospheric interface. As the incoming ISM-ionized component deflects at the heliopause, charge exchange reactions decelerate the bulk motion of the neutrals that penetrate the heliosphere. Inside the heliosphere, the IPH bulk velocity is further affected by solar gravity, radiation pressure, and ionization processes, with the latter two processes dependent on solar activity. Solar cycle 23 provided the first partial temporal map of the IPH velocity, including measurements from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) spectrometers (Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph (GHRS) and Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS)) and the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Solar Wind ANisotropies (SWAN) instrument. We present an updated analysis of IPH velocity measurements from GHRS and STIS and compare these results with those of SWAN and two different time-dependent models. Our reanalysis of STIS data reveals a significant change in IPH velocity relative to earlier reports, because of the contamination by geocoronal oxygen that was not accounted for. While current models of the heliospheric interface predict the observed IPH velocity for solar maximum, they are not consistent with data covering solar minimum. With updates to the HST data points, we now find that all data can be fit by the existing models to within 1σ, with the exception of SWAN observations taken at solar minimum (1997/1998). We conclude that the current data lack the temporal coverage and/or precision necessary to determine the detailed characteristics of the solar cycle dependence. Hence, new observations are merited.

  3. Cross-field diffusion of energetic (100 keV to 2 MeV) protons in interplanetary space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costa Jr, Edio da [Instituto Federal de Minas Gerais-IFMG, Ouro Preto, MG, 35400-000 (Brazil); Tsurutani, Bruce T. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Alves, Maria Virgínia; Echer, Ezequiel [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais-INPE, São José dos Campos, SP, 12227-010 (Brazil); Lakhina, Gurbax S., E-mail:, E-mail: [Indian Institute for Geomagnetism, Navi Mumbai 410 218 (India)


    Magnetic field magnitude decreases (MDs) are observed in several regions of the interplanetary medium. In this paper, we characterize MDs observed by the Ulysses spacecraft instrumentation over the solar south pole by using magnetic field data to obtain the empirical size, magnetic field MD, and frequency of occurrence distribution functions. The interaction of energetic (100 keV to 2 MeV) protons with these MDs is investigated. Charged particle and MD interactions can be described by a geometrical model allowing the calculation of the guiding center shift after each interaction. Using the distribution functions for the MD characteristics, Monte Carlo simulations are used to obtain the cross-field diffusion coefficients as a function of particle kinetic energy. It is found that the protons under consideration cross-field diffuse at a rate of up to ≈11% of the Bohm rate. The same method used in this paper can be applied to other space regions where MDs are observed, once their local features are well known.

  4. Wooden Spaceships: Human-Centered Vehicle Design for Space (United States)

    Twyford, Evan


    Presentation will focus on creative human centered design solutions in relation to manned space vehicle design and development in the NASA culture. We will talk about design process, iterative prototyping, mockup building and user testing and evaluation. We will take an inside look at how new space vehicle concepts are developed and designed for real life exploration scenarios.

  5. The Significance of the Influence of the CME Deflection in Interplanetary Space on the CME Arrival at Earth (United States)

    Zhuang, Bin; Wang, Yuming; Shen, Chenglong; Liu, Siqing; Wang, Jingjing; Pan, Zonghao; Li, Huimin; Liu, Rui


    As one of the most violent astrophysical phenomena, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) have strong potential space weather effects. However, not all Earth-directed CMEs encounter the Earth and produce geo-effects. One reason is the deflected propagation of CMEs in interplanetary space. Although there have been several case studies clearly showing such deflections, it has not yet been statistically assessed how significantly the deflected propagation would influence the CME’s arrival at Earth. We develop an integrated CME-arrival forecasting (iCAF) system, assembling the modules of CME detection, three-dimensional (3D) parameter derivation, and trajectory reconstruction to predict whether or not a CME arrives at Earth, and we assess the deflection influence on the CME-arrival forecasting. The performance of iCAF is tested by comparing the two-dimensional (2D) parameters with those in the Coordinated Data Analysis Workshop (CDAW) Data Center catalog, comparing the 3D parameters with those of the gradual cylindrical shell model, and estimating the success rate of the CME Earth-arrival predictions. It is found that the 2D parameters provided by iCAF and the CDAW catalog are consistent with each other, and the 3D parameters derived by the ice cream cone model based on single-view observations are acceptable. The success rate of the CME-arrival predictions by iCAF with deflection considered is about 82%, which is 19% higher than that without deflection, indicating the importance of the CME deflection for providing a reliable forecasting. Furthermore, iCAF is a worthwhile project since it is a completely automatic system with deflection taken into account.

  6. Space-based Networking Technology Developments in the Interplanetary Network Directorate Information Technology Program (United States)

    Clare, Loren; Clement, B.; Gao, J.; Hutcherson, J.; Jennings, E.


    Described recent development of communications protocols, services, and associated tools targeted to reduce risk, reduce cost and increase efficiency of IND infrastructure and supported mission operations. Space-based networking technologies developed were: a) Provide differentiated quality of service (QoS) that will give precedence to traffic that users have selected as having the greatest importance and/or time-criticality; b) Improve the total value of information to users through the use of QoS prioritization techniques; c) Increase operational flexibility and improve command-response turnaround; d) Enable new class of networked and collaborative science missions; e) Simplify applications interfaces to communications services; and f) Reduce risk and cost from a common object model and automated scheduling and communications protocols. Technologies are described in three general areas: communications scheduling, middleware, and protocols. Additionally developed simulation environment, which provides comprehensive, quantitative understanding of the technologies performance within overall, evolving architecture, as well as ability to refine & optimize specific components.

  7. Modular space vehicle boards, control software, reprogramming, and failure recovery (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; McCabe, Kevin; Delapp, Jerry; Prichard, Dean; Proicou, Michael; Seitz, Daniel; Stein, Paul; Michel, John; Tripp, Justin; Palmer, Joseph; Storms, Steven


    A space vehicle may have a modular board configuration that commonly uses some or all components and a common operating system for at least some of the boards. Each modular board may have its own dedicated processing, and processing loads may be distributed. The space vehicle may be reprogrammable, and may be launched without code that enables all functionality and/or components. Code errors may be detected and the space vehicle may be reset to a working code version to prevent system failure.

  8. Preliminary Assessment of Artificial Gravity Impacts to Deep-Space Vehicle Design (United States)

    Joosten, B. Kent


    Even after more than thirty years of scientific investigation, serious concerns regarding human physiological effects of long-duration microgravity exposure remain. These include loss of bone mineral density, skeletal muscle atrophy, and orthostatic hypertension, among others. In particular, "Safe Passage: Astronaut Care for Exploration Missions," states "loss of bone density, which apparently occurs at a rate of 1% per month in microgravity, is relatively manageable on the short-duration missions of the space shuttle, but it becomes problematic on the ISS [International Space Station]. ...If this loss is not mitigated, interplanetary missions will be impossible." While extensive investigations into potential countermeasures are planned on the ISS, the delay in attaining full crew complement and onboard facilities, and the potential for extending crews tours of duty threaten the timely (definitive design requirements, especially acceptable artificial gravity levels and rotation rates, the perception of high vehicle mass and performance penalties, the incompatibility of resulting vehicle configurations with space propulsion options (i.e., aerocapture), the perception of complications associated with de-spun components such as antennae and photovoltaic arrays, and the expectation of effective crew micro-gravity countermeasures. These perception and concerns may have been overstated, or may be acceptable alternatives to countermeasures of limited efficacy. This study was undertaken as an initial step to try to understand the implications of and potential solutions to incorporating artificial gravity in the design of human deep-space exploration vehicles. Of prime interest will be the mass penalties incurred by incorporating AG, along with any mission performance degradation.

  9. Second Generation RLV Space Vehicle Concept (United States)

    Bailey, M. D.; Daniel, C. C.


    NASA has a long history of conducting development programs and projects in a consistant fashion. Systems Engineering within those programs and projects has also followed a given method outlined by such documents as the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook. The relatively new NASA Space Launch Initiative (SLI) is taking a new approach to developing a space vehicle, with innovative management methods as well as new Systems Engineering processes. With the program less than a year into its life cycle, the efficacy of these new processes has yet to be proven or disproven. At 776M for phase I, SLI represents a major portion of the NASA focus; however, the new processes being incorporated are not reflected in the training provided by NASA to its engineers. The NASA Academy of Program and Project Leadership (APPL) offers core classes in program and project management and systems engineering to NASA employees with the purpose of creating a "knowledge community where ideas, skills, and experiences are exchanged to increase each other's capacity for strong leadership". The SLI program is, in one sense, a combination of a conceptual design program and a technology program. The program as a whole doesn't map into the generic systems engineering project cycle as currently, and for some time, taught. For example, the NASA APPL Systems Engineering training course teaches that the "first step in developing an architecture is to define the external boundaries of the system", which will require definition of the interfaces with other systems and the next step will be to "define all the components that make up the next lower level of the system hierarchy" where fundamental requirements are allocated to each component. Whereas, the SLI technology risk reduction approach develops architecture subsystem technologies prior to developing architectures. The higher level architecture requirements are not allowed to fully develop and undergo decomposition and allocation down to the subsystems

  10. Remote In-Space Manufacturing Applied with the Science of Interplanetary Supply Chain Modeling for Deep Space Gateway Application (United States)

    Galluzzi, M. C.


    Three goals can be achieved by 2030: 1. NASA will have the capability for remote on-demand 3d printing of critical hardware using regolith material as feedstock, 2. Logistics footprint reduced by 35%, 3. Deep Space Gateway will become 75% self-sustaining.

  11. Aircraft operability methods applied to space launch vehicles (United States)

    Young, Douglas


    The commercial space launch market requirement for low vehicle operations costs necessitates the application of methods and technologies developed and proven for complex aircraft systems. The ``building in'' of reliability and maintainability, which is applied extensively in the aircraft industry, has yet to be applied to the maximum extent possible on launch vehicles. Use of vehicle system and structural health monitoring, automated ground systems and diagnostic design methods derived from aircraft applications support the goal of achieving low cost launch vehicle operations. Transforming these operability techniques to space applications where diagnostic effectiveness has significantly different metrics is critical to the success of future launch systems. These concepts will be discussed with reference to broad launch vehicle applicability. Lessons learned and techniques used in the adaptation of these methods will be outlined drawing from recent aircraft programs and implementation on phase 1 of the X-33/RLV technology development program.

  12. Propagation of Energetic Electrons from the Corona into Interplanetary Space and Type III Radio Emission. Planetary Radio Emissions| PLANETARY RADIO EMISSIONS VII 7|


    Vocks, C.; Breitling, F.; Mann, G.


    During solar flares a large amount of electrons with energies greater than 20 keV is generated with a production rate of typically 1036 s-1. A part of them is able to propagate along open magnetic field lines through the corona into interplanetary space. During their travel they emit radio radiation which is observed as type III radio bursts in the frequency range from 100 MHz down to 10 kHz by the WAVES radio spectrometer aboard the spacecraft WIND, for instance. From the drift rates of thes...

  13. Nonlinear Alfvén waves, discontinuities, proton perpendicular acceleration, and magnetic holes/decreases in interplanetary space and the magnetosphere: intermediate shocks?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Tsurutani


    Full Text Available Alfvén waves, discontinuities, proton perpendicular acceleration and magnetic decreases (MDs in interplanetary space are shown to be interrelated. Discontinuities are the phase-steepened edges of Alfvén waves. Magnetic decreases are caused by a diamagnetic effect from perpendicularly accelerated (to the magnetic field protons. The ion acceleration is associated with the dissipation of phase-steepened Alfvén waves, presumably through the Ponderomotive Force. Proton perpendicular heating, through instabilities, lead to the generation of both proton cyclotron waves and mirror mode structures. Electromagnetic and electrostatic electron waves are detected as well. The Alfvén waves are thus found to be both dispersive and dissipative, conditions indicting that they may be intermediate shocks. The resultant 'turbulence' created by the Alfvén wave dissipation is quite complex. There are both propagating (waves and nonpropagating (mirror mode structures and MDs byproducts. Arguments are presented to indicate that similar processes associated with Alfvén waves are occurring in the magnetosphere. In the magnetosphere, the 'turbulence' is even further complicated by the damping of obliquely propagating proton cyclotron waves and the formation of electron holes, a form of solitary waves. Interplanetary Alfvén waves are shown to rapidly phase-steepen at a distance of 1AU from the Sun. A steepening rate of ~35 times per wavelength is indicated by Cluster-ACE measurements. Interplanetary (reverse shock compression of Alfvén waves is noted to cause the rapid formation of MDs on the sunward side of corotating interaction regions (CIRs. Although much has been learned about the Alfvén wave phase-steepening processfrom space plasma observations, many facets are still not understood. Several of these topics are discussed for the interested researcher. Computer simulations and theoretical developments will be particularly useful in making further progress in

  14. Design optimization of space launch vehicles using a genetic algorithm (United States)

    Bayley, Douglas James

    The United States Air Force (USAF) continues to have a need for assured access to space. In addition to flexible and responsive spacelift, a reduction in the cost per launch of space launch vehicles is also desirable. For this purpose, an investigation of the design optimization of space launch vehicles has been conducted. Using a suite of custom codes, the performance aspects of an entire space launch vehicle were analyzed. A genetic algorithm (GA) was employed to optimize the design of the space launch vehicle. A cost model was incorporated into the optimization process with the goal of minimizing the overall vehicle cost. The other goals of the design optimization included obtaining the proper altitude and velocity to achieve a low-Earth orbit. Specific mission parameters that are particular to USAF space endeavors were specified at the start of the design optimization process. Solid propellant motors, liquid fueled rockets, and air-launched systems in various configurations provided the propulsion systems for two, three and four-stage launch vehicles. Mass properties models, an aerodynamics model, and a six-degree-of-freedom (6DOF) flight dynamics simulator were all used to model the system. The results show the feasibility of this method in designing launch vehicles that meet mission requirements. Comparisons to existing real world systems provide the validation for the physical system models. However, the ability to obtain a truly minimized cost was elusive. The cost model uses an industry standard approach, however, validation of this portion of the model was challenging due to the proprietary nature of cost figures and due to the dependence of many existing systems on surplus hardware.

  15. Experiments in teleoperator and autonomous control of space robotic vehicles (United States)

    Alexander, Harold L.


    A program of research embracing teleoperator and automatic navigational control of freely flying satellite robots is presented. Current research goals include: (1) developing visual operator interfaces for improved vehicle teleoperation; (2) determining the effects of different visual interface system designs on operator performance; and (3) achieving autonomous vision-based vehicle navigation and control. This research program combines virtual-environment teleoperation studies and neutral-buoyancy experiments using a space-robot simulator vehicle currently under development. Visual-interface design options under investigation include monoscopic versus stereoscopic displays and cameras, helmet-mounted versus panel-mounted display monitors, head-tracking versus fixed or manually steerable remote cameras, and the provision of vehicle-fixed visual cues, or markers, in the remote scene for improved sensing of vehicle position, orientation, and motion.

  16. Designing interior space for drivers of passenger vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spasojević-Brkić Vesna K.


    Full Text Available The current study is a review of our previous papers with certain improvements, so it proves the hypothesis that passenger vehicles are still not sufficiently adapted to man in terms of ergonomics, especially from the aspect of interior space. In the ergonomic adjustment of passenger vehicles, the limits of anthropomeasures and technical limitations, are the most important. The methodology mainly uses operative investigations, and the 'man-vehicle' system is optimized within existing limitations. Here, we also explain original methodology for modeling that space. The fact that there is a point '0' as the origin point of a coordinate system with x, y and z axes of the man-vehicle system, which can be considered to be more or less fixed, enabled us to determine more accurately the mechanical and mathematical codependence in this system. The paper also proves that the anthropomeasures of length have mechanical and mathematical functions which also determine the width, i.e. all three dimensions and provides the design of the space behind the windscreen glass, the position of the steering wheel and the position of the foot commands with space for feet and knees determined, as well as the total space which the driver occupies. It is proved that the floor-ceiling height of a vehicle is primarily affected by the anthropomeasures of seating height and lower leg, while width is affected by the anthropomeasures of lower and upper leg and only then by shoulder width, so that the interior space for the driver of a passenger vehicle is 1250 mm and the width for knees spread at seat level is 926 mm maximum.

  17. Investigation of Vehicle Requirements and Options for Future Space Tourism (United States)

    Olds, John R.


    The research in support of this grant was performed by the PI, Dr. John Olds, and graduate students in the Space Systems Design Lab (SSDL) at Georgia Tech over the period December 1999 to December 2000. The work was sponsored by Dr. Ted Talay, branch chief of the Vehicle Analysis Branch at the NASA Langley Research Center. The objective of the project was to examine the characteristics of future space tourism markets and to identify the vehicle requirements that are necessary to enable this emerging new business segment.

  18. Technical and Economical study of New Technologies and Reusable Space Vehicles promoting Space Tourism. (United States)

    Srivastav, Deepanshu; Malhotra, Sahil


    For many of us space tourism is an extremely fascinating and attractive idea. But in order for these to start we need vehicles that will take us to orbit and bring us back. Current space vehicles clearly cannot. Only the Space Shuttle survives past one use, and that's only if we ignore the various parts that fall off on the way up. So we need reusable launch vehicles. Launch of these vehicles to orbit requires accelerating to Mach 26, and therefore it uses a lot of propellant - about 10 tons per passenger. But there is no technical reason why reusable launch vehicles couldn't come to be operated routinely, just like aircraft. The main problem about space is how much it costs to get there, it's too expensive. And that's mainly because launch vehicles are expendable - either entirely, like satellite launchers, or partly, like the space shuttle. The trouble is that these will not only reduce the cost of launch - they'll also put the makers out of business, unless there's more to launch than just a few satellites a year, as there are today. Fortunately there's a market that will generate far more launch business than satellites ever well - passenger travel. This paper assesses this emerging market as well as technology that will make space tourism feasible. The main conclusion is that space vehicles can reduce the cost of human transport to orbit sufficiently for large new commercial markets to develop. Combining the reusability of space vehicles with the high traffic levels of space tourism offers the prospect of a thousandfold reduction in the cost per seat to orbit. The result will be airline operations to orbit involving dozens of space vehicles, each capable of more than one flight per day. These low costs will make possible a rapid expansion of space science and exploration. Luckily research aimed at developing low-cost reusable launch vehicles has increased recently. Already there are various projects like Spaceshipone, Spaceshiptwo, Spacebus, X-33 NASA etc. The


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marjon, P. L.


    Maintenance and repair of spacecraft are discussed from the hardware viewpoint. Interior operations are rather straight forward, but study results show that space suits are not sufficient for exterior repair work. Evaluation of worker requirements leads to a maintenance capsule concept. Capsule application is depicted in contrasting situations: repair of meteoroid damage and nuclear engine replacement. Radiation shielding is also considered. (D.C.W.)

  20. Advancing Autonomous Operations for Deep Space Vehicles (United States)

    Haddock, Angie T.; Stetson, Howard K.


    Starting in Jan 2012, the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) Project began to investigate the ability to create and execute "single button" crew initiated autonomous activities [1]. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) designed and built a fluid transfer hardware test-bed to use as a sub-system target for the investigations of intelligent procedures that would command and control a fluid transfer test-bed, would perform self-monitoring during fluid transfers, detect anomalies and faults, isolate the fault and recover the procedures function that was being executed, all without operator intervention. In addition to the development of intelligent procedures, the team is also exploring various methods for autonomous activity execution where a planned timeline of activities are executed autonomously and also the initial analysis of crew procedure development. This paper will detail the development of intelligent procedures for the NASA MSFC Autonomous Fluid Transfer System (AFTS) as well as the autonomous plan execution capabilities being investigated. Manned deep space missions, with extreme communication delays with Earth based assets, presents significant challenges for what the on-board procedure content will encompass as well as the planned execution of the procedures.

  1. Space vehicle electromechanical system and helical antenna winding fixture (United States)

    Judd, Stephen; Dallmann, Nicholas; Guenther, David; Enemark, Donald; Seitz, Daniel; Martinez, John; Storms, Steven


    A space vehicle electromechanical system may employ an architecture that enables convenient and practical testing, reset, and retesting of solar panel and antenna deployment on the ground. A helical antenna winding fixture may facilitate winding and binding of the helical antenna.

  2. Cyber threat impact assessment and analysis for space vehicle architectures (United States)

    McGraw, Robert M.; Fowler, Mark J.; Umphress, David; MacDonald, Richard A.


    This paper covers research into an assessment of potential impacts and techniques to detect and mitigate cyber attacks that affect the networks and control systems of space vehicles. Such systems, if subverted by malicious insiders, external hackers and/or supply chain threats, can be controlled in a manner to cause physical damage to the space platforms. Similar attacks on Earth-borne cyber physical systems include the Shamoon, Duqu, Flame and Stuxnet exploits. These have been used to bring down foreign power generation and refining systems. This paper discusses the potential impacts of similar cyber attacks on space-based platforms through the use of simulation models, including custom models developed in Python using SimPy and commercial SATCOM analysis tools, as an example STK/SOLIS. The paper discusses the architecture and fidelity of the simulation model that has been developed for performing the impact assessment. The paper walks through the application of an attack vector at the subsystem level and how it affects the control and orientation of the space vehicle. SimPy is used to model and extract raw impact data at the bus level, while STK/SOLIS is used to extract raw impact data at the subsystem level and to visually display the effect on the physical plant of the space vehicle.

  3. Robust on-off pulse control of flexible space vehicles (United States)

    Wie, Bong; Sinha, Ravi


    The on-off reaction jet control system is often used for attitude and orbital maneuvering of various spacecraft. Future space vehicles such as the orbital transfer vehicles, orbital maneuvering vehicles, and space station will extensively use reaction jets for orbital maneuvering and attitude stabilization. The proposed robust fuel- and time-optimal control algorithm is used for a three-mass spacing model of flexible spacecraft. A fuel-efficient on-off control logic is developed for robust rest-to-rest maneuver of a flexible vehicle with minimum excitation of structural modes. The first part of this report is concerned with the problem of selecting a proper pair of jets for practical trade-offs among the maneuvering time, fuel consumption, structural mode excitation, and performance robustness. A time-optimal control problem subject to parameter robustness constraints is formulated and solved. The second part of this report deals with obtaining parameter insensitive fuel- and time- optimal control inputs by solving a constrained optimization problem subject to robustness constraints. It is shown that sensitivity to modeling errors can be significantly reduced by the proposed, robustified open-loop control approach. The final part of this report deals with sliding mode control design for uncertain flexible structures. The benchmark problem of a flexible structure is used as an example for the feedback sliding mode controller design with bounded control inputs and robustness to parameter variations is investigated.

  4. Investigation of Secondary Neutron Production in Large Space Vehicles for Deep Space (United States)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Koontz, Steve; Reddell, Brandon; Atwell, William; Boeder, Paul


    Future NASA missions will focus on deep space and Mars surface operations with large structures necessary for transportation of crew and cargo. In addition to the challenges of manufacturing these large structures, there are added challenges from the space radiation environment and its impacts on the crew, electronics, and vehicle materials. Primary radiation from the sun (solar particle events) and from outside the solar system (galactic cosmic rays) interact with materials of the vehicle and the elements inside the vehicle. These interactions lead to the primary radiation being absorbed or producing secondary radiation (primarily neutrons). With all vehicles, the high-energy primary radiation is of most concern. However, with larger vehicles, there is more opportunity for secondary radiation production, which can be significant enough to cause concern. In a previous paper, we embarked upon our first steps toward studying neutron production from large vehicles by validating our radiation transport codes for neutron environments against flight data. The following paper will extend the previous work to focus on the deep space environment and the resulting neutron flux from large vehicles in this deep space environment.

  5. Worldwide Space Launch Vehicles and Their Mainstage Liquid Rocket Propulsion (United States)

    Rahman, Shamim A.


    Space launch vehicle begins with a basic propulsion stage, and serves as a missile or small launch vehicle; many are traceable to the 1945 German A-4. Increasing stage size, and increasingly energetic propulsion allows for heavier payloads and greater. Earth to Orbit lift capability. Liquid rocket propulsion began with use of storable (UDMH/N2O4) and evolved to high performing cryogenics (LOX/RP, and LOX/LH). Growth versions of SLV's rely on strap-on propulsive stages of either solid propellants or liquid propellants.

  6. The Ergonomics of Human Space Flight: NASA Vehicles and Spacesuits (United States)

    Reid, Christopher R.; Rajulu, Sudhakar


    Space...the final frontier...these are the voyages of the starship...wait, wait, wait...that's not right...let's try that again. NASA is currently focusing on developing multiple strategies to prepare humans for a future trip to Mars. This includes (1) learning and characterizing the human system while in the weightlessness of low earth orbit on the International Space Station and (2) seeding the creation of commercial inspired vehicles by providing guidance and funding to US companies. At the same time, NASA is slowly leading the efforts of reestablishing human deep space travel through the development of the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) known as Orion and the Space Launch System (SLS) with the interim aim of visiting and exploring an asteroid. Without Earth's gravity, current and future human space travel exposes humans to micro- and partial gravity conditions, which are known to force the body to adapt both physically and physiologically. Without the protection of Earth's atmosphere, space is hazardous to most living organisms. To protect themselves from these difficult conditions, Astronauts utilize pressurized spacesuits for both intravehicular travel and extravehicular activities (EVAs). Ensuring a safe living and working environment for space missions requires the creativity of scientists and engineers to assess and mitigate potential risks through engineering designs. The discipline of human factors and ergonomics at NASA is critical in making sure these designs are not just functionally designed for people to use, but are optimally designed to work within the capacities specific to the Astronaut Corps. This lecture will review both current and future NASA vehicles and spacesuits while providing an ergonomic perspective using case studies that were and are being carried out by the Anthropometry and Biomechanics Facility (ABF) at NASA's Johnson Space Center.

  7. Space imaging infrared optical guidance for autonomous ground vehicle (United States)

    Akiyama, Akira; Kobayashi, Nobuaki; Mutoh, Eiichiro; Kumagai, Hideo; Yamada, Hirofumi; Ishii, Hiromitsu


    We have developed the Space Imaging Infrared Optical Guidance for Autonomous Ground Vehicle based on the uncooled infrared camera and focusing technique to detect the objects to be evaded and to set the drive path. For this purpose we made servomotor drive system to control the focus function of the infrared camera lens. To determine the best focus position we use the auto focus image processing of Daubechies wavelet transform technique with 4 terms. From the determined best focus position we transformed it to the distance of the object. We made the aluminum frame ground vehicle to mount the auto focus infrared unit. Its size is 900mm long and 800mm wide. This vehicle mounted Ackerman front steering system and the rear motor drive system. To confirm the guidance ability of the Space Imaging Infrared Optical Guidance for Autonomous Ground Vehicle we had the experiments for the detection ability of the infrared auto focus unit to the actual car on the road and the roadside wall. As a result the auto focus image processing based on the Daubechies wavelet transform technique detects the best focus image clearly and give the depth of the object from the infrared camera unit.

  8. New space vehicle archetypes for human planetary missions (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent


    Contemporary, archetypal, crew-carrying spacecraft concepts developed for NASA are presented for: a lunar transportation system, two kinds of Mars landers, and five kinds of Mars transfer vehicles. These cover the range of propulsion technologies and mission modes of interest for the Space Exploration Initiative, and include both aerobraking and artificial gravity as appropriate. They comprise both upgrades of extant archetypes and completely new ones. Computer solid models, configurations and mass statements are presented for each.

  9. Features of the Gravity Probe B Space Vehicle (United States)

    Reeve, William; Green, Gaylord


    Space vehicle performance enabled successful relativity data collection throughout the Gravity Probe B mission. Precision pointing and drag-free translation control was maintained using proportional helium micro-thrusters. Electrical power was provided by rigid, double sided solar arrays. The 1.8 kelvin science instrument temperature was maintained using the largest cryogenic liquid helium dewar ever flown in space. The flight software successfully performed autonomous operations and safemode protection. Features of the Gravity Probe B Space Vehicle mechanisms include: 1) sixteen helium micro-thrusters, the first proportional thrusters flown in space, and large-orifice thruster isolation valves, 2) seven precision and high-authority mass trim mechanisms, 3) four non-pyrotechnic, highly reliable solar array deployment and release mechanism sets. Early incremental prototyping was used extensively to reduce spacecraft development risk. All spacecraft systems were redundant and provided multiple failure tolerance in critical systems. Lockheed Martin performed the spacecraft design, systems engineering, hardware and software integration, environmental testing and launch base operations, as well as on-orbit operations support for the Gravity Probe B space science experiment.

  10. Observations of Heliospheric Faraday Rotation (FR) and Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) with the LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR): Steps Towards Improving Space-Weather Forecasting Capabilities (United States)

    Bisi, M. M.; Fallows, R. A.; Sobey, C.; Eftekhari, T.; Jensen, E. A.; Jackson, B. V.; Yu, H. S.; Hick, P. P.; Odstrcil, D.; Tokumaru, M.


    The phenomenon of space weather - analogous to terrestrial weather which describes the changing pressure, temperature, wind, and humidity conditions on Earth - is essentially a description of the changes in velocity, density, magnetic field, high-energy particles, and radiation in the near-Earth space environment including the effects of such changes on the Earth's magnetosphere, radiation belts, ionosphere, and thermosphere. Space weather can be considered to have two main strands: (i) scientific research, and (ii) applications. The former is self-explanatory, but the latter covers operational aspects which includes its forecasting. Understanding and forecasting space weather in the near-Earth environment is vitally important to protecting our modern-day reliance (militarily and commercially) on satellites, global-communication and navigation networks, high-altitude air travel (radiation concerns particularly on polar routes), long-distance power/oil/gas lines and piping, and for any future human exploration of space to list but a few. Two ground-based radio-observing remote-sensing techniques that can aid our understanding and forecasting of heliospheric space weather are those of interplanetary scintillation (IPS) and heliospheric Faraday rotation (FR). The LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) is a next-generation 'software' radio telescope centered in The Netherlands with international stations spread across central and northwest Europe. For several years, scientific observations of IPS on LOFAR have been undertaken on a campaign basis and the experiment is now well developed. More recently, LOFAR has been used to attempt scientific heliospheric FR observations aimed at remotely sensing the magnetic field of the plasma traversing the inner heliosphere. We present our latest progress using these two radio heliospheric-imaging remote-sensing techniques including the use of three-dimensional (3-D) modeling and reconstruction techniques using other, additional data as input

  11. Some Problems of Rocket-Space Vehicles' Characteristics co- ordination (United States)

    Sergienko, Alexander A.


    of the XX century suffered a reverse. The designers of the United States' firms and enterprises of aviation and rocket-space industry (Boeing, Rocketdyne, Lockheed Martin, McDonnell Douglas, Rockwell, etc.) and NASA (Marshall Space Flight Center, Johnson Space Center, Langley Research Center and Lewis Research Center and others) could not correctly co-ordinate the characteristics of a propulsion system and a space vehicle for elaboration of the "Single-Stage-To-Orbit" reusable vehicle (SSTO) as an integral whole system, which is would able to inject a payload into an orbit and to return back on the Earth. jet nozzle design as well as the choice of propulsion system characteristics, ensuring the high ballistic efficiency, are considered in the present report. The efficiency criterions for the engine and launch system parameters optimization are discussed. The new methods of the nozzle block optimal parameters' choice for the satisfaction of the object task of flight are suggested. The family of SSTO with a payload mass from 5 to 20 ton and initial weight under 800 ton is considered.

  12. Development of a Refined Space Vehicle Rollout Forcing Function (United States)

    James, George; Tucker, Jon-Michael; Valle, Gerard; Grady, Robert; Schliesing, John; Fahling, James; Emory, Benjamin; Armand, Sasan


    For several decades, American manned spaceflight vehicles and the associated launch platforms have been transported from final assembly to the launch pad via a pre-launch phase called rollout. The rollout environment is rich with forced harmonics and higher order effects can be used for extracting structural dynamics information. To enable this utilization, processing tools are needed to move from measured and analytical data to dynamic metrics such as transfer functions, mode shapes, modal frequencies, and damping. This paper covers the range of systems and tests that are available to estimate rollout forcing functions for the Space Launch System (SLS). The specific information covered in this paper includes: the different definitions of rollout forcing functions; the operational and developmental data sets that are available; the suite of analytical processes that are currently in-place or in-development; and the plans and future work underway to solve two immediate problems related to rollout forcing functions. Problem 1 involves estimating enforced accelerations to drive finite element models for developing design requirements for the SLS class of launch vehicles. Problem 2 involves processing rollout measured data in near real time to understand structural dynamics properties of a specific vehicle and the class to which it belongs.

  13. Automated space vehicle control for rendezvous proximity operations (United States)

    Lea, Robert N.


    Rendezvous during the unmanned space exploration missions, such as a Mars Rover/Sample Return will require a completely automatic system from liftoff to docking. A conceptual design of an automated rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking system is being implemented and validated at the Johnson Space Center (JSC). The emphasis is on the progress of the development and testing of a prototype system for control of the rendezvous vehicle during proximity operations that is currently being developed at JSC. Fuzzy sets are used to model the human capability of common sense reasoning in decision making tasks and such models are integrated with the expert systems and engineering control system technology to create a system that performs comparably to a manned system.

  14. Weight and cost forecasting for advanced manned space vehicles (United States)

    Williams, Raymond


    A mass and cost estimating computerized methology for predicting advanced manned space vehicle weights and costs was developed. The user friendly methology designated MERCER (Mass Estimating Relationship/Cost Estimating Relationship) organizes the predictive process according to major vehicle subsystem levels. Design, development, test, evaluation, and flight hardware cost forecasting is treated by the study. This methodology consists of a complete set of mass estimating relationships (MERs) which serve as the control components for the model and cost estimating relationships (CERs) which use MER output as input. To develop this model, numerous MER and CER studies were surveyed and modified where required. Additionally, relationships were regressed from raw data to accommodate the methology. The models and formulations which estimated the cost of historical vehicles to within 20 percent of the actual cost were selected. The result of the research, along with components of the MERCER Program, are reported. On the basis of the analysis, the following conclusions were established: (1) The cost of a spacecraft is best estimated by summing the cost of individual subsystems; (2) No one cost equation can be used for forecasting the cost of all spacecraft; (3) Spacecraft cost is highly correlated with its mass; (4) No study surveyed contained sufficient formulations to autonomously forecast the cost and weight of the entire advanced manned vehicle spacecraft program; (5) No user friendly program was found that linked MERs with CERs to produce spacecraft cost; and (6) The group accumulation weight estimation method (summing the estimated weights of the various subsystems) proved to be a useful method for finding total weight and cost of a spacecraft.

  15. Advanced Data Mining and Deployment for Integrated Vehicle Health Management and the Space Vehicle Lifecycle, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In a successful Phase 1 project for NASA SBIR topic A1.05, "Data Mining for Integrated Vehicle Health Management," Michigan Aerospace Corporation (MAC) demonstrated...

  16. Relationship between Interplanetary (IP) Parameters and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3SITAA-SAC, Indian Space Research Organisation, Ahmedabad, Gujarat 380 015, India. 4Indian Space Research Organisation-Head Quarters, Bangalore, Karnataka, India. Abstract. In the present study, .... Lepping, R. P., Jones, J. A., Burlaga, L. F. 1990, Magnetic field structure of Interplanetary. Magnetic Clouds at 1 A.U; ...

  17. Operations and support cost modeling of conceptual space vehicles (United States)

    Ebeling, Charles


    The University of Dayton is pleased to submit this annual report to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center which documents the development of an operations and support (O&S) cost model as part of a larger life cycle cost (LCC) structure. It is intended for use during the conceptual design of new launch vehicles and spacecraft. This research is being conducted under NASA Research Grant NAG-1-1327. This research effort changes the focus from that of the first two years in which a reliability and maintainability model was developed to the initial development of an operations and support life cycle cost model. Cost categories were initially patterned after NASA's three axis work breakdown structure consisting of a configuration axis (vehicle), a function axis, and a cost axis. A revised cost element structure (CES), which is currently under study by NASA, was used to established the basic cost elements used in the model. While the focus of the effort was on operations and maintenance costs and other recurring costs, the computerized model allowed for other cost categories such as RDT&E and production costs to be addressed. Secondary tasks performed concurrent with the development of the costing model included support and upgrades to the reliability and maintainability (R&M) model. The primary result of the current research has been a methodology and a computer implementation of the methodology to provide for timely operations and support cost analysis during the conceptual design activities.

  18. Cryogenic Moisture Uptake in Foam Insulation for Space Launch Vehicles (United States)

    Fesmire, James E.; ScholtensCoffman, Brekke E.; Sass, Jared P.; Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.; Meneghelli, Barrry J.


    Rigid polyurethane foams and rigid polyisocyanurate foams (spray-on foam insulation), like those flown on Shuttle, Delta IV, and will be flown on Ares-I and Ares-V, can gain an extraordinary amount of water when under cryogenic conditions for several hours. These foams, when exposed for eight hours to launch pad environments on one side and cryogenic temperature on the other, increase their weight from 35 to 80 percent depending on the duration of weathering or aging. This effect translates into several thousand pounds of additional weight for space vehicles at lift-off. A new cryogenic moisture uptake apparatus was designed to determine the amount of water/ice taken into the specimen under actual-use propellant loading conditions. This experimental study included the measurement of the amount of moisture uptake within different foam materials. Results of testing using both aged specimens and weathered specimens are presented. To better understand cryogenic foam insulation performance, cryogenic moisture testing is shown to be essential. The implications for future launch vehicle thermal protection system design and flight performance are discussed.

  19. Developing a vitamin greenhouse for the life support system of the international space station and for future interplanetary missions (United States)

    Berkovich, Y. A.; Krivobok, N. M.; Sinyak, Yu. Ye.; Smolyanina, S. O.; Grigoriev, Yu. I.; Romanov, S. Yu.; Guissenberg, A. S.


    In order to evaluate the effects of gravity on growing plants, we conducted ground based long-term experiments with dwarf wheat, cultivar Apogee and Chinese cabbage, cultivar Khibinskaya. The test crops had been grown in overhead position with HPS lamp below root module so gravity and light intensity gradients had been in opposite direction. Plants of the control crop grew in normal position under the same lamp. Both crops were grown on porous metallic membranes with stable -1 kPa matric potential on their surface. Results from these and other studies allowed us to examine the differences in growth and development of the plants as well as the root systems in relation to the value of the gravity force influence. Dry weight of the roots from test group was decreased in 2.5 times for wheat and in 6 times - at the Chinese cabbage, but shoot dry biomass was practically same for both test and control versions. A harvest index of the test plants increased substantially. The data shows, that development of the plants was essentially changed in microgravity. The experiments in the space greenhouse Svet aboard the Mir space station proved that it is possible to compensate the effects of weightlessness on higher plants by manipulating gradients of environmental parameters (i.e. photon flux, matric potential in the root zone, etc.). However, the average productivity of Svet concerning salad crops even in ground studies did not provide more than 14 g fresh biomass per day. This does not provide a sufficient level of supplemental nutrients to the crew of the ISS. A cylindrical design of a space plant growth chamber (SPGC) allows for maximal productivity in presence of very tight energy and volume limitations onboard the ISS and provides a number of operational advantages. Productivity from this type of SPGF with a 0.5 kW energy utilization when salad growing would provide approximately 100 g of edible biomass per day, which would almost satisfy requirements for a crew of two in

  20. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard: Test Requirements for Launch, Upper-Stage and Space Vehicles (United States)


    Aviation Blvd. El Segundo, CA 90245 4. This standard has been approved for use on all Space and Missile Systems Center/Air Force Program...140 Satellite Hardness and Survivability; Testing Rationale for Electronic Upset and Burnout Effects 30. JANNAF-GL-2012-01-RO Test and Evaluation...vehicle, subsystem, and unit lev- els . Acceptance testing shall be conducted on all subsequent flight items. The protoqualification strategy shall require

  1. The study of field and density cavity in the near wake region of a space vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Qing; Wang Jing; Hu Taoping


    Under the static limit,using the method of Fourier transformation, the non-steady, nonlinear interactions between plasma and field in the near wake region of a space vehicle are investigated. Numerical calculations are performed and the results show that there are the formation of the electromagnetic soliton and density caviton in the near wake region of the space vehicle, which can be detected due to the collapse of electric field. Therefore, we can trace out the space vehicle by means of observing the structure and intensity of the density caviton and electromagnetic soliton although the space vehicle may be have a disguised characteristic. (authors)

  2. Comparative Ergonomic Evaluation of Spacesuit and Space Vehicle Design (United States)

    England, Scott; Cowley, Matthew; Benson, Elizabeth; Harvill, Lauren; Blackledge, Christopher; Perez, Esau; Rajulu, Sudhakar


    With the advent of the latest human spaceflight objectives, a series of prototype architectures for a new launch and reentry spacesuit that would be suited to the new mission goals. Four prototype suits were evaluated to compare their performance and enable the selection of the preferred suit components and designs. A consolidated approach to testing was taken: concurrently collecting suit mobility data, seat-suit-vehicle interface clearances, and qualitative assessments of suit performance within the volume of a Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle mockup. It was necessary to maintain high fidelity in a mockup and use advanced motion-capture technologies in order to achieve the objectives of the study. These seemingly mutually exclusive goals were accommodated with the construction of an optically transparent and fully adjustable frame mockup. The construction of the mockup was such that it could be dimensionally validated rapidly with the motioncapture system. This paper describes the method used to create a space vehicle mockup compatible with use of an optical motion-capture system, the consolidated approach for evaluating spacesuits in action, and a way to use the complex data set resulting from a limited number of test subjects to generate hardware requirements for an entire population. Kinematics, hardware clearance, anthropometry (suited and unsuited), and subjective feedback data were recorded on 15 unsuited and 5 suited subjects. Unsuited subjects were selected chiefly based on their anthropometry in an attempt to find subjects who fell within predefined criteria for medium male, large male, and small female subjects. The suited subjects were selected as a subset of the unsuited medium male subjects and were tested in both unpressurized and pressurized conditions. The prototype spacesuits were each fabricated in a single size to accommodate an approximately average-sized male, so select findings from the suit testing were systematically extrapolated to the extremes

  3. Lunar and interplanetary trajectories

    CERN Document Server

    Biesbroek, Robin


    This book provides readers with a clear description of the types of lunar and interplanetary trajectories, and how they influence satellite-system design. The description follows an engineering rather than a mathematical approach and includes many examples of lunar trajectories, based on real missions. It helps readers gain an understanding of the driving subsystems of interplanetary and lunar satellites. The tables and graphs showing features of trajectories make the book easy to understand. .

  4. Modeling and Simulation for Multi-Missions Space Exploration Vehicle (United States)

    Chang, Max


    Asteroids and Near-Earth Objects [NEOs] are of great interest for future space missions. The Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle [MMSEV] is being considered for future Near Earth Object missions and requires detailed planning and study of its Guidance, Navigation, and Control [GNC]. A possible mission of the MMSEV to a NEO would be to navigate the spacecraft to a stationary orbit with respect to the rotating asteroid and proceed to anchor into the surface of the asteroid with robotic arms. The Dynamics and Real-Time Simulation [DARTS] laboratory develops reusable models and simulations for the design and analysis of missions. In this paper, the development of guidance and anchoring models are presented together with their role in achieving mission objectives and relationships to other parts of the simulation. One important aspect of guidance is in developing methods to represent the evolution of kinematic frames related to the tasks to be achieved by the spacecraft and its robot arms. In this paper, we compare various types of mathematical interpolation methods for position and quaternion frames. Subsequent work will be on analyzing the spacecraft guidance system with different movements of the arms. With the analyzed data, the guidance system can be adjusted to minimize the errors in performing precision maneuvers.

  5. A Comprehensive CFD Tool for Aerothermal Environment Around Space Vehicles, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this SBIR project is to develop an innovative, high fidelity computational tool for accurate prediction of aerothermal environment around space vehicles....

  6. A Comprehensive CFD Tool for Aerothermal Environment Around Space Vehicles, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this SBIR project is to develop an innovative, high fidelity computational tool for accurate prediction of aerothermal environment around space vehicles....

  7. Exercise Equipment Usability Assessment for a Deep Space Concept Vehicle (United States)

    Rhodes, Brooke M.; Reynolds, David W.


    With international aspirations to send astronauts to deep space, the world is now faced with the complex problem of keeping astronauts healthy in unexplored hostile environments for durations of time never before attempted by humans. The great physical demands imparted by space exploration compound the problem of astronaut health, as the astronauts must not only be healthy, but physically fit upon destination arrival in order to perform the scientific tasks required of them. Additionally, future deep space exploration necessitates the development of environments conducive to long-duration habitation that would supplement propulsive vehicles. Space Launch System (SLS) core stage barrel sections present large volumes of robust structure that can be recycled and used for long duration habitation. This assessment will focus on one such conceptual craft, referred to as the SLS Derived Habitat (SLS-DH). Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) has formulated a high-level layout of this SLS-DH with parameters such as floor number and orientation, floor designations, grid dimensions, wall placement, etc. Yet to be determined, however, is the layout of the exercise area. Currently the SLS-DH features three floors laid out longitudinally, leaving 2m of height between the floor and ceilings. This short distance between levels introduces challenges for proper placement of exercise equipment such as treadmills and stationary bicycles, as the dynamic envelope for the 95th percentile male astronauts is greater than 2m. This study aims to assess the optimal equipment layout and sizing for the exercise area of this habitat. Figure 1 illustrates the layout of the DSH concept demonstrator located at MSFC. The exercise area is located on the lower level, seen here as the front half of the level occupied by a crew member. This small volume does not allow for numerous or bulky exercise machines, so the conceptual equipment has been limited to a treadmill and

  8. An investigation of the double layers caused by space vehicles moving through the ionosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Sanqiu; Liao Jingjing


    On the basis of non-steady-state nonlinear coupling equations of high-frequency field, density disturbance and potential, the evolution of double layers in the wake region of space vehicles moving through the ionosphere is numerically simulated in the non-static limit case. The results show that the interactions among plasmas, the vehicle and high-frequency electromagnetic waves radiated from the antenna system of the vehicle can lead to the formation of double layers. It is shown that the double layer is a nonlinear entity-caviton. Potential disturbance far away from the vehicle and the peak value of potential near the vehicle in the double layer are obvious. This is very important for detecting space vehicles with a stealth characteristic and preventing space vehicles from being harmed by double layers.

  9. Life Science on the International Space Station Using the Next Generation of Cargo Vehicles (United States)

    Robinson, J. A.; Phillion, J. P.; Hart, A. T.; Comella, J.; Edeen, M.; Ruttley, T. M.


    With the retirement of the Space Shuttle and the transition of the International Space Station (ISS) from assembly to full laboratory capabilities, the opportunity to perform life science research in space has increased dramatically, while the operational considerations associated with transportation of the experiments has changed dramatically. US researchers have allocations on the European Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) and Japanese H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV). In addition, the International Space Station (ISS) Cargo Resupply Services (CRS) contract will provide consumables and payloads to and from the ISS via the unmanned SpaceX (offers launch and return capabilities) and Orbital (offers only launch capabilities) resupply vehicles. Early requirements drove the capabilities of the vehicle providers; however, many other engineering considerations affect the actual design and operations plans. To better enable the use of the International Space Station as a National Laboratory, ground and on-orbit facility development can augment the vehicle capabilities to better support needs for cell biology, animal research, and conditioned sample return. NASA Life scientists with experience launching research on the space shuttle can find the trades between the capabilities of the many different vehicles to be confusing. In this presentation we will summarize vehicle and associated ground processing capabilities as well as key concepts of operations for different types of life sciences research being launched in the cargo vehicles. We will provide the latest status of vehicle capabilities and support hardware and facilities development being made to enable the broadest implementation of life sciences research on the ISS.

  10. Milestones Towards Hot CMC Structures for Operational Space Rentry Vehicles (United States)

    Hald, H.; Weihs, H.; Reimer, T.


    Hot structures made of ceramic matrix composites (CMC) for space reentry vehicles play a key role regarding feasibility of advanced and reusable future space transportation systems. Thus realization of applicable flight hardware concerning hot primary structures like a nose cap or body flaps and thermal protection systems (TPS) requires system competence w.r.t. sophisticated know how in material processing, manufacturing and qualification of structural components and in all aspects from process control, use of NDI techniques, arc jet testing, hot structure testing to flight concept validation. This goal has been achieved so far by DLR while following a dedicated development road map since more than a decade culminating at present in the supply of the nose cap system for NASA's X-38; the flight hardware has been installed successfully in October 2001. A number of unique hardware development milestones had to be achieved in the past to finally reach this level of system competence. It is the intention of this paper to highlight the most important technical issues and achievements from the essential projects and developments to finally provide a comprehensive insight into DLR's past and future development road map w.r.t. CMC hot structures for space reentry vehicles. Based on DLR's C/C-SiC material which is produced with the inhouse developed liquid silicon infiltration process (LSI) the development strategy first concentrated on basic material properties evaluation in various arc jet testing facilities. As soon as a basic understanding of oxidation and erosion mechanisms had been achieved further efforts concentrated on inflight verification of both materials and design concepts for hot structures. Consequently coated and uncoated C/C-SiC specimens were integrated into the ablative heat shield of Russian FOTON capsules and they were tested during two missions in 1992 and 1994. Following on, a hot structure experiment called CETEX which principally was a kind of a

  11. Parking Space Detection and Trajectory Tracking Control for Vehicle Auto-Parking


    Shiuh-Jer Huang; Yu-Sheng Hsu


    On-board available parking space detecting system, parking trajectory planning and tracking control mechanism are the key components of vehicle backward auto-parking system. Firstly, pair of ultrasonic sensors is installed on each side of vehicle body surface to detect the relative distance between ego-car and surrounding obstacle. The dimension of a found empty space can be calculated based on vehicle speed and the time history of ultrasonic sensor detecting information. This result can be u...

  12. Measurements in interplanetary space and in the Martian upper atmosphere with a hydrogen absorption-cell spectrophotometer for Lα-radiation on-board Mars 4 - 7 spaceprobes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babichenko, S.I.; Deregusov, E.V.; Kurt, V.G.; Romanova, N.N.; Skljankin, V.A.; Smirnov, A.S.; Bertaux, J.J.; Blamont, J.


    An ultraviolet spectrophotometer UFS-2, designed to measure radiation of atomic hydrogen in the Lα-line, was installed onboard the interplanetary Mars 4 - 7 spaceprobes launched in August 1973. The absorption cell which was used for the first time outside the hydrogen geocorona allowed direct temperature measurements of neutral interstellar hydrogen near the Sun and in the upper Martian atmosphere. (Auth.)

  13. A FMM-FFT accelerated hybrid volume surface integral equation solver for electromagnetic analysis of re-entry space vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Yü cel, Abdulkadir C.; Gomez, Luis J.; Liu, Yang; Bagci, Hakan; Michielssen, Eric


    Space vehicles that re-enter the atmosphere often experience communication blackout. The blackout occurs when the vehicle becomes engulfed in plasma produced by interactions between the vehicle surface and the atmosphere. The plasma often

  14. Large Scale System Safety Integration for Human Rated Space Vehicles (United States)

    Massie, Michael J.


    Since the 1960s man has searched for ways to establish a human presence in space. Unfortunately, the development and operation of human spaceflight vehicles carry significant safety risks that are not always well understood. As a result, the countries with human space programs have felt the pain of loss of lives in the attempt to develop human space travel systems. Integrated System Safety is a process developed through years of experience (since before Apollo and Soyuz) as a way to assess risks involved in space travel and prevent such losses. The intent of Integrated System Safety is to take a look at an entire program and put together all the pieces in such a way that the risks can be identified, understood and dispositioned by program management. This process has many inherent challenges and they need to be explored, understood and addressed.In order to prepare truly integrated analysis safety professionals must gain a level of technical understanding of all of the project's pieces and how they interact. Next, they must find a way to present the analysis so the customer can understand the risks and make decisions about managing them. However, every organization in a large-scale project can have different ideas about what is or is not a hazard, what is or is not an appropriate hazard control, and what is or is not adequate hazard control verification. NASA provides some direction on these topics, but interpretations of those instructions can vary widely.Even more challenging is the fact that every individual/organization involved in a project has different levels of risk tolerance. When the discrete hazard controls of the contracts and agreements cannot be met, additional risk must be accepted. However, when one has left the arena of compliance with the known rules, there can be no longer be specific ground rules on which to base a decision as to what is acceptable and what is not. The integrator must find common grounds between all parties to achieve

  15. Advanced automation for in-space vehicle processing (United States)

    Sklar, Michael; Wegerif, D.


    The primary objective of this 3-year planned study is to assure that the fully evolved Space Station Freedom (SSF) can support automated processing of exploratory mission vehicles. Current study assessments show that required extravehicular activity (EVA) and to some extent intravehicular activity (IVA) manpower requirements for required processing tasks far exceeds the available manpower. Furthermore, many processing tasks are either hazardous operations or they exceed EVA capability. Thus, automation is essential for SSF transportation node functionality. Here, advanced automation represents the replacement of human performed tasks beyond the planned baseline automated tasks. Both physical tasks such as manipulation, assembly and actuation, and cognitive tasks such as visual inspection, monitoring and diagnosis, and task planning are considered. During this first year of activity both the Phobos/Gateway Mars Expedition and Lunar Evolution missions proposed by the Office of Exploration have been evaluated. A methodology for choosing optimal tasks to be automated has been developed. Processing tasks for both missions have been ranked on the basis of automation potential. The underlying concept in evaluating and describing processing tasks has been the use of a common set of 'Primitive' task descriptions. Primitive or standard tasks have been developed both for manual or crew processing and automated machine processing.

  16. A new propulsion concept for interplanetary missions (United States)

    Dujarric, C.


    When tons of payload must be brought back from the planets to Earth, the current launch-system technology hits size limitations. The huge Saturn-V launcher that enabled the Apollo missions to go to the Moon would be dwarfed by a single launcher capable of sending men to a destination like Mars and bringing them back. Keeping interplanetary missions within a reasonable size and cost therefore requires technological progress in terms of both vehicle weight reduction and propulsion efficiency.

  17. Meteoroid Measurements in the Deep Space Cruising and the Jupiter Trojan Rendezvous Phases of the Solar Power Sail Mission by the Arrayed Large-Area Dust Detectors in INterplanetary Space (ALADDIN)-II (United States)

    Yano, H.; Hirai, T.; Arai, K.; Fujii, M.


    The PVDF thin films have been long, space-proven instruments for hypervelocity impact detection in the diverse regions of the Solar System from orbits of Venus by IKAROS and of Pluto by New Horizons. In particular, light weight but large area membranes of a solar sail spacecraft is an ideal location for such detectors to be deployed for detecting statistically enough nubers of so large micrometeoroids that are sensitive to mean motion resonances and other gravitational effects of flux enhancements and voids with planets. The IKAROS spacecraft first detected in situ dust flux enhancement and gap region within the Earth's circumsolar dust ring as well as those of Venus by 0.54 m^2 detection area of ALADDIN sensors on the slar sail membrane. Advancing this heritage, the Solar Power Sail membrane will carry 0.4+ m^2 ALADDIN-II PVDF sensors with improved impact signal prosessng units to detect both hyperveloity dust impacts in the interplanetary space cruising phase and slow dust impacts bound to the Jupiter Trojan region in its rendezvours phase.

  18. "Driverless" Shocks in the Interplanetary Medium (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Kaiser, M. L.; Lara, A.


    Many interplanetary shocks have been detected without an obvious driver behind them. These shocks have been thought to be either blast waves from solar flares or shocks due to sudden increase in solar wind speed caused by interactions between large scale open and closed field lines of the Sun. We investigated this problem using a set of interplanetary shock detected {\\it in situ} by the Wind space craft and tracing their solar origins using low frequency radio data obtained by the Wind/WAVES experiment. For each of these "driverless shocks" we could find a unique coronal mass ejections (CME) event observed by the SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) coronagraphs. We also found that these CMEs were ejected at large angles from the Sun-Earth line. It appears that the "driverless shocks" are actually driver shocks, but the drivers were not intercepted by the spacecraft. We conclude that the interplanetary shocks are much more extended than the driving CMEs.

  19. Study of Travelling Interplanetary Phenomena Report (United States)

    Dryer, Murray


    Scientific progress on the topic of energy, mass, and momentum transport from the Sun into the heliosphere is contingent upon interdisciplinary and international cooperative efforts on the part of many workers. Summarized here is a report of some highlights of research carried out during the SMY/SMA by the STIP (Study of Travelling Interplanetary Phenomena) Project that included solar and interplanetary scientists around the world. These highlights are concerned with coronal mass ejections from solar flares or erupting prominences (sometimes together); their large-scale consequences in interplanetary space (such as shocks and magnetic 'bubbles'); and energetic particles and their relationship to these large-scale structures. It is concluded that future progress is contingent upon similar international programs assisted by real-time (or near-real-time) warnings of solar activity by cooperating agencies along the lines experienced during the SMY/SMA.

  20. Maneuverability Strategy for Assistive Vehicles Navigating within Confined Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Auat Cheein


    Full Text Available In this work, a path planning strategy for both a car-like and a unicycle type assistive vehicles is presented. The assistive vehicles are confined to restricted environments. The path planning strategy uses the environment information to generate a kinematically plausible path to be followed by the vehicle. The environment information is provided by a SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping algorithm implemented on the vehicles. The map generated by the SLAM algorithm compensates the lack of sensor at the back of the vehicles' chassis. A Monte Carlo-based technique is used to find the optimum path given the SLAM information. A visual and user-friendly interface enhances the user-vehicle communication allowing him/her to select a desired position and orientation (pose that the vehicle should reach within the mapped environment. A trajectory controller drives the vehicle until it reaches a neighborhood of the desired pose. Several real-time experimental results within real environments are also shown herein.

  1. Coupled radiative gasdynamic interaction and non-equilibrium dissociation for large-scale returned space vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surzhikov, S.


    Graphical abstract: It has been shown that different coupled vibrational dissociation models, being applied for solving coupled radiative gasdynamic problems for large size space vehicles, exert noticeable effect on radiative heating of its surface at orbital entry on high altitudes (h ⩾ 70 km). This influence decreases with decreasing the space vehicles sizes. Figure shows translational (solid lines) and vibrational (dashed lines) temperatures in shock layer with (circle markers) and without (triangles markers) radiative-gasdynamic interaction for one trajectory point of entering space vehicle. Highlights: ► Nonequilibrium dissociation processes exert effect on radiation heating of space vehicles (SV). ► The radiation gas dynamic interaction enhances this influence. ► This influence increases with increasing the SV sizes. - Abstract: Radiative aerothermodynamics of large-scale space vehicles is considered for Earth orbital entry at zero angle of attack. Brief description of used radiative gasdynamic model of physically and chemically nonequilibrium, viscous, heat conductive and radiative gas of complex chemical composition is presented. Radiation gasdynamic (RadGD) interaction in high temperature shock layer is studied by means of numerical experiment. It is shown that radiation–gasdynamic coupling for orbital space vehicles of large size is important for high altitude part of entering trajectory. It is demonstrated that the use of different models of coupled vibrational dissociation (CVD) in conditions of RadGD interaction gives rise temperature variation in shock layer and, as a result, leads to significant variation of radiative heating of space vehicle.

  2. Optimizing Materials for Energy Harvesting on Interplanetary Return Missions (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Manned interplanetary missions will only be desirable once the ability to return is established. Even using improved fuel technologies we have not resourced the fuel...

  3. Fast, Autonomous Chemical Interplanetary Mission Design via Hybrid Optimal Control (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Interplanetary mission design is historically a complex and expensive process requiring many human-hours of work. This proposal outlines a novel technique for...

  4. Radar Characterization of the Interplanetary Meteoroid Environment, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a new modeling effort that will make substantial refinements and improvements to our existing models of the interplanetary meteoroid environment near...

  5. Sensor Systems for Vehicle Environment Perception in a Highway Intelligent Space System (United States)

    Tang, Xiaofeng; Gao, Feng; Xu, Guoyan; Ding, Nenggen; Cai, Yao; Ma, Mingming; Liu, Jianxing


    A Highway Intelligent Space System (HISS) is proposed to study vehicle environment perception in this paper. The nature of HISS is that a space sensors system using laser, ultrasonic or radar sensors are installed in a highway environment and communication technology is used to realize the information exchange between the HISS server and vehicles, which provides vehicles with the surrounding road information. Considering the high-speed feature of vehicles on highways, when vehicles will be passing a road ahead that is prone to accidents, the vehicle driving state should be predicted to ensure drivers have road environment perception information in advance, thereby ensuring vehicle driving safety and stability. In order to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the HISS, a traditional vehicle-mounted sensor system for environment perception is used to obtain the relative driving state. Furthermore, an inter-vehicle dynamics model is built and model predictive control approach is used to predict the driving state in the following period. Finally, the simulation results shows that using the HISS for environment perception can arrive at the same results detected by a traditional vehicle-mounted sensors system. Meanwhile, we can further draw the conclusion that using HISS to realize vehicle environment perception can ensure system stability, thereby demonstrating the method's feasibility. PMID:24834907

  6. The Road from the NASA Access to Space Study to a Reusable Launch Vehicle (United States)

    Powell, Richard W.; Cook, Stephen A.; Lockwood, Mary Kae


    NASA is cooperating with the aerospace industry to develop a space transportation system that provides reliable access-to-space at a much lower cost than is possible with today's launch vehicles. While this quest has been on-going for many years it received a major impetus when the U.S. Congress mandated as part of the 1993 NASA appropriations bill that: "In view of budget difficulties, present and future..., the National Aeronautics and Space Administration shall ... recommend improvements in space transportation." NASA, working with other organizations, including the Department of Transportation, and the Department of Defense identified three major transportation architecture options that were to be evaluated in the areas of reliability, operability and cost. These architectural options were: (1) retain and upgrade the Space Shuttle and the current expendable launch vehicles; (2) develop new expendable launch vehicles using conventional technologies and transition to these new vehicles beginning in 2005; and (3) develop new reusable vehicles using advanced technology, and transition to these vehicles beginning in 2008. The launch needs mission model was based on 1993 projections of civil, defense, and commercial payload requirements. This "Access to Space" study concluded that the option that provided the greatest potential for meeting the cost, operability, and reliability goals was a rocket-powered single-stage-to-orbit fully reusable launch vehicle (RLV) fleet designed with advanced technologies.

  7. Conceptual Design For Interplanetary Spaceship Discovery (United States)

    Benton, Mark G.


    With the recently revived national interest in Lunar and Mars missions, this design study was undertaken by the author in an attempt to satisfy the long-term space exploration vision of human travel ``to the Moon, Mars, and beyond'' with a single design or family of vehicles. This paper describes a conceptual design for an interplanetary spaceship of the not-to-distant future. It is a design that is outwardly similar to the spaceship Discovery depicted in the novel ``2001 - A Space Odyssey'' and film of the same name. Like its namesake, this spaceship could one day transport a human expedition to explore the moons of Jupiter. This spaceship Discovery is a real engineering design that is capable of being implemented using technologies that are currently at or near the state-of-the-art. The ship's main propulsion and electrical power are provided by bi-modal nuclear thermal rocket engines. Configurations are presented to satisfy four basic Design Reference Missions: (1) a high-energy mission to Jupiter's moon Callisto, (2) a high-energy mission to Mars, (3) a low-energy mission to Mars, and (4) a high-energy mission to the Moon. The spaceship design includes dual, strap-on boosters to enable the high-energy Mars and Jupiter missions. Three conceptual lander designs are presented: (1) Two types of Mars landers that utilize atmospheric and propulsive braking, and (2) a lander for Callisto or Earth's Moon that utilizes only propulsive braking. Spaceship Discovery offers many advantages for human exploration of the Solar System: (1) Nuclear propulsion enables propulsive capture and escape maneuvers at Earth and target planets, eliminating risky aero-capture maneuvers. (2) Strap-on boosters provide robust propulsive energy, enabling flexibility in mission planning, shorter transit times, expanded launch windows, and free-return abort trajectories from Mars. (3) A backup abort propulsion system enables crew aborts at multiple points in the mission. (4) Clustered NTR

  8. Program to determine space vehicle response to wind turbulence (United States)

    Wilkening, H. D.


    Computer program was developed as prelaunch wind monitoring tool for Saturn 5 vehicle. Program accounts for characteristic wind changes including turbulence power spectral density, wind shear, peak wind velocity, altitude, and wind direction using stored variational statistics.

  9. Transceiver optics for interplanetary communications (United States)

    Roberts, W. T.; Farr, W. H.; Rider, B.; Sampath, D.


    In-situ interplanetary science missions constantly push the spacecraft communications systems to support successively higher downlink rates. However, the highly restrictive mass and power constraints placed on interplanetary spacecraft significantly limit the desired bandwidth increases in going forward with current radio frequency (RF) technology. To overcome these limitations, we have evaluated the ability of free-space optical communications systems to make substantial gains in downlink bandwidth, while holding to the mass and power limits allocated to current state-of-the-art Ka-band communications systems. A primary component of such an optical communications system is the optical assembly, comprised of the optical support structure, optical elements, baffles and outer enclosure. We wish to estimate the total mass that such an optical assembly might require, and assess what form it might take. Finally, to ground this generalized study, we should produce a conceptual design, and use that to verify its ability to achieve the required downlink gain, estimate it's specific optical and opto-mechanical requirements, and evaluate the feasibility of producing the assembly.

  10. The use of x-ray pulsar-based navigation method for interplanetary flight (United States)

    Yang, Bo; Guo, Xingcan; Yang, Yong


    As interplanetary missions are increasingly complex, the existing unique mature interplanetary navigation method mainly based on radiometric tracking techniques of Deep Space Network can not meet the rising demands of autonomous real-time navigation. This paper studied the applications for interplanetary flights of a new navigation technology under rapid development-the X-ray pulsar-based navigation for spacecraft (XPNAV), and valued its performance with a computer simulation. The XPNAV is an excellent autonomous real-time navigation method, and can provide comprehensive navigation information, including position, velocity, attitude, attitude rate and time. In the paper the fundamental principles and time transformation of the XPNAV were analyzed, and then the Delta-correction XPNAV blending the vehicles' trajectory dynamics with the pulse time-of-arrival differences at nominal and estimated spacecraft locations within an Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) was discussed with a background mission of Mars Pathfinder during the heliocentric transferring orbit. The XPNAV has an intractable problem of integer pulse phase cycle ambiguities similar to the GPS carrier phase navigation. This article innovatively proposed the non-ambiguity assumption approach based on an analysis of the search space array method to resolve pulse phase cycle ambiguities between the nominal position and estimated position of the spacecraft. The simulation results show that the search space array method are computationally intensive and require long processing time when the position errors are large, and the non-ambiguity assumption method can solve ambiguity problem quickly and reliably. It is deemed that autonomous real-time integrated navigation system of the XPNAV blending with DSN, celestial navigation, inertial navigation and so on will be the development direction of interplanetary flight navigation system in the future.

  11. Interplanetary Overlay Network Bundle Protocol Implementation (United States)

    Burleigh, Scott C.


    The Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) system's BP package, an implementation of the Delay-Tolerant Networking (DTN) Bundle Protocol (BP) and supporting services, has been specifically designed to be suitable for use on deep-space robotic vehicles. Although the ION BP implementation is unique in its use of zero-copy objects for high performance, and in its use of resource-sensitive rate control, it is fully interoperable with other implementations of the BP specification (Internet RFC 5050). The ION BP implementation is built using the same software infrastructure that underlies the implementation of the CCSDS (Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems) File Delivery Protocol (CFDP) built into the flight software of Deep Impact. It is designed to minimize resource consumption, while maximizing operational robustness. For example, no dynamic allocation of system memory is required. Like all the other ION packages, ION's BP implementation is designed to port readily between Linux and Solaris (for easy development and for ground system operations) and VxWorks (for flight systems operations). The exact same source code is exercised in both environments. Initially included in the ION BP implementations are the following: libraries of functions used in constructing bundle forwarders and convergence-layer (CL) input and output adapters; a simple prototype bundle forwarder and associated CL adapters designed to run over an IPbased local area network; administrative tools for managing a simple DTN infrastructure built from these components; a background daemon process that silently destroys bundles whose time-to-live intervals have expired; a library of functions exposed to applications, enabling them to issue and receive data encapsulated in DTN bundles; and some simple applications that can be used for system checkout and benchmarking.

  12. Human Engineering of Space Vehicle Displays and Controls (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Holden, Kritina L.; Boyer, Jennifer; Stephens, John-Paul; Ezer, Neta; Sandor, Aniko


    Proper attention to the integration of the human needs in the vehicle displays and controls design process creates a safe and productive environment for crew. Although this integration is critical for all phases of flight, for crew interfaces that are used during dynamic phases (e.g., ascent and entry), the integration is particularly important because of demanding environmental conditions. This panel addresses the process of how human engineering involvement ensures that human-system integration occurs early in the design and development process and continues throughout the lifecycle of a vehicle. This process includes the development of requirements and quantitative metrics to measure design success, research on fundamental design questions, human-in-the-loop evaluations, and iterative design. Processes and results from research on displays and controls; the creation and validation of usability, workload, and consistency metrics; and the design and evaluation of crew interfaces for NASA's Crew Exploration Vehicle are used as case studies.

  13. Demonstration of Self-Training Autonomous Neural Networks in Space Vehicle Docking Simulations (United States)

    Patrick, M. Clinton; Thaler, Stephen L.; Stevenson-Chavis, Katherine


    Neural Networks have been under examination for decades in many areas of research, with varying degrees of success and acceptance. Key goals of computer learning, rapid problem solution, and automatic adaptation have been elusive at best. This paper summarizes efforts at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center harnessing such technology to autonomous space vehicle docking for the purpose of evaluating applicability to future missions.

  14. Space commercialization: Launch vehicles and programs; Symposium on Space Commercialization: Roles of Developing Countries, Nashville, TN, Mar. 5-10, 1989, Technical Papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahrokhi, F.; Greenberg, J.S.; Al-saud, Turki.


    The present volume on progress in astronautics and aeronautics discusses the advent of commercial space, broad-based space education as a prerequisite for space commercialization, and obstacles to space commercialization in the developing world. Attention is given to NASA directions in space propulsion for the year 2000 and beyond, possible uses of the external tank in orbit, power from the space shuttle and from space for use on earth, Long-March Launch Vehicles in the 1990s, the establishment of a center for advanced space propulsion, Pegasus as a key to low-cost space applications, legal problems of developing countries' access to space launch vehicles, and international law of responsibility for remote sensing. Also discussed are low-cost satellites and satellite launch vehicles, satellite launch systems of China; Raumkurier, the German recovery program; and the Ariane transfer vehicle as logistic support to Space Station Freedom

  15. Requirements for a near-earth space tug vehicle (United States)

    Gunn, Charles R.


    The requirement for a small but powerful space tug, which will be capable of autonomous orbital rendezvous, docking and translating cargos between near-earth orbits by the end of this decade to support the growing national and international space infrastructure focused near the Space Station Freedom, is described. An aggregate of missions drives the need for a space tug including reboosting decaying satellites back to their operational altitudes, retrieving failed or exhausted satellites to Shuttle or SSF for on-orbit refueling or repair, and transporting a satellite servicer system with an FTS to ailing satellites for supervised in-place repair. It is shown that the development and operation of a space tug to perform such numerous missions is more cost effective than separate module and satellite systems to perform the same tasks.

  16. The Application of the Human Engineering Modeling and Performance Laboratory for Space Vehicle Ground Processing Tasks at Kennedy Space Center (United States)

    Woodbury, Sarah K.


    The introduction of United Space Alliance's Human Engineering Modeling and Performance Laboratory began in early 2007 in an attempt to address the problematic workspace design issues that the Space Shuttle has imposed on technicians performing maintenance and inspection operations. The Space Shuttle was not expected to require the extensive maintenance it undergoes between flights. As a result, extensive, costly resources have been expended on workarounds and modifications to accommodate ground processing personnel. Consideration of basic human factors principles for design of maintenance is essential during the design phase of future space vehicles, facilities, and equipment. Simulation will be needed to test and validate designs before implementation.

  17. The magnetic field of Mars according to data of Mars-3 and Mars-5 space vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolginov, Sh.Sh.; Eroshenko, E.G.; Zhuzgov, L.N.


    Magnitograms obtained by the space probe ''Mars-5'' on the evening and day sides as well as those from the ''Mars-3'' obtained earlier suggest the following: In the vicinity of Mars there exists a shock front and its disposition is tracked at various angles to the direction to the sun. Magnetometers have registered a region in space where magnetic field features the properties of a magnetosphere field in its topology and action on plasma. The magnetic field in the region of the ''magnitosphere'' does not change its sign when the interplanetary field does shile in adjacent boundary regions the regular part of the field changes its sign when that of the interplanetary field does. The configuration and dimensions of the ''magnitosphere'' depend on thesolar wind intensity. On the day side (''Mars-3'') the magnitospheric field ceases to be registered at an altitude of 2200km, whereas on the night side (''Mars-5'') the regular field is traced up to 7500-9500km from the planet surface. All the above unambiguously suggests that the planet Mars has its own magnetic field. Under the influence of the solar wind the field takes the characteristic form: it is limited on the day side and elongated on the night one. The topology oif force lines is explicable if one assumes that the axis of the Mars magnetic dipole is inclined to the rotation axis at an abgle of 15-20deg. The northern magnetic pole of the dipole is licated in the northern hemisphere, i.e. the Mars fields in their regularity are opposite to the geomagnetic field. The magnetic moment of the Mars dipole is equal to M=2.5x10 22 3 . (author)

  18. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations orbit transfer vehicle serving. Phase 2, task 1: Space station support of operational OTV servicing (United States)


    Representative space based orbital transfer vehicles (OTV), ground based vehicle turnaround assessment, functional operational requirements and facilities, mission turnaround operations, a comparison of ground based versus space based tasks, activation of servicing facilities prior to IOC, fleet operations requirements, maintenance facilities, OTV servicing facilities, space station support requirements, and packaging for delivery are discussed.

  19. Current Hypersonic and Space Vehicle Flight Test and Instrumentation (United States)


    ground station hardware and software. B. Space- based Platforms There are already in place several satellite based options to collecting and... Transceive data over very long range at low to very high altitudes DARPA: XS-1 Ground Based Aircraft Based Space Based Future Data...412TW-PA-15264 AIR FORCE TEST CENTER EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE , CALIFORNIA AIR FORCE MATERIEL COMMAND UNITED STATES AIR FORCE REPORT

  20. Necessity of Mutual Understandings in Supply Chain Management of Lithium-Ion Battery for Space Vehicle (United States)

    Kiyokawa, T.; Nakajima, M.; Mori, Y.


    Application of Lithium Ion Battery (LIB) is getting growth these days in space industry. Through the supply chain of LIB, it is very important to establish deepen mutual understandings between space industry people and non-space industry people in order to meet requirements of space grade quality control. Furthermore, this approach has positive effects for safety handling and safety transportation. This paper explains necessity of mutual understandings based on the analysis of aviation incident report. The study is focused on its background and issues on each related industry. These contents are studied and discussed in the New Work Item Proposal of the International Standard of LIB for space vehicle.

  1. The General-Use Nodal Network Solver (GUNNS) Modeling Package for Space Vehicle Flow System Simulation (United States)

    Harvey, Jason; Moore, Michael


    The General-Use Nodal Network Solver (GUNNS) is a modeling software package that combines nodal analysis and the hydraulic-electric analogy to simulate fluid, electrical, and thermal flow systems. GUNNS is developed by L-3 Communications under the TS21 (Training Systems for the 21st Century) project for NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC), primarily for use in space vehicle training simulators at JSC. It has sufficient compactness and fidelity to model the fluid, electrical, and thermal aspects of space vehicles in real-time simulations running on commodity workstations, for vehicle crew and flight controller training. It has a reusable and flexible component and system design, and a Graphical User Interface (GUI), providing capability for rapid GUI-based simulator development, ease of maintenance, and associated cost savings. GUNNS is optimized for NASA's Trick simulation environment, but can be run independently of Trick.

  2. Expert system isssues in automated, autonomous space vehicle rendezvous (United States)

    Goodwin, Mary Ann; Bochsler, Daniel C.


    The problems involved in automated autonomous rendezvous are briefly reviewed, and the Rendezvous Expert (RENEX) expert system is discussed with reference to its goals, approach used, and knowledge structure and contents. RENEX has been developed to support streamlining operations for the Space Shuttle and Space Station program and to aid definition of mission requirements for the autonomous portions of rendezvous for the Mars Surface Sample Return and Comet Nucleus Sample return unmanned missions. The experience with REMEX to date and recommendations for further development are presented.

  3. Modelling interplanetary CMEs using magnetohydrodynamic simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Cargill

    Full Text Available The dynamics of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs are discussed from the viewpoint of numerical modelling. Hydrodynamic models are shown to give a good zero-order picture of the plasma properties of ICMEs, but they cannot model the important magnetic field effects. Results from MHD simulations are shown for a number of cases of interest. It is demonstrated that the strong interaction of the ICME with the solar wind leads to the ICME and solar wind velocities being close to each other at 1 AU, despite their having very different speeds near the Sun. It is also pointed out that this interaction leads to a distortion of the ICME geometry, making cylindrical symmetry a dubious assumption for the CME field at 1 AU. In the presence of a significant solar wind magnetic field, the magnetic fields of the ICME and solar wind can reconnect with each other, leading to an ICME that has solar wind-like field lines. This effect is especially important when an ICME with the right sense of rotation propagates down the heliospheric current sheet. It is also noted that a lack of knowledge of the coronal magnetic field makes such simulations of little use in space weather forecasts that require knowledge of the ICME magnetic field strength.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (interplanetary magnetic fields Solar physics, astrophysics, and astronomy (flares and mass ejections Space plasma physics (numerical simulation studies

  4. International Space Station Crew Return Vehicle: X-38. Educational Brief. (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The International Space Station (ISS) will provide the world with an orbiting laboratory that will have long-duration micro-gravity experimentation capability. The crew size for this facility will depend upon the crew return capability. The first crews will consist of three astronauts from Russia and the United States. The crew is limited to three…

  5. The Radiation, Interplanetary Shocks, and Coronal Sources (RISCS) Toolset (United States)

    Zank, G. P.; Spann, James F.


    The goal of this project is to serve the needs of space system designers and operators by developing an interplanetary radiation environment model within 10 AU:Radiation, Interplanetary Shocks, and Coronal Sources (RISCS) toolset: (1) The RISCS toolset will provide specific reference environments for space system designers and nowcasting and forecasting capabilities for space system operators; (2) We envision the RISCS toolset providing the spatial and temporal radiation environment external to the Earth's (and other planets') magnetosphere, as well as possessing the modularity to integrate separate applications (apps) that can map to specific magnetosphere locations and/or perform the subsequent radiation transport and dosimetry for a specific target.

  6. Trailblazing Medicine Sustaining Explorers During Interplanetary Missions

    CERN Document Server

    Seedhouse, Erik


    To prepare for the day when astronauts leave low-Earth orbit for long-duration exploration missions, space medicine experts must develop a thorough understanding of the effects of microgravity on the human body, as well as ways of mitigating them. To gain a complete understanding of the effects of space on the human body and to create tools and technologies required for successful exploration, space medicince will become an increasingly collaborative discipline incorporating the skills of physicians, biomedical scientists, engineers, and mission planners. Trailblazing Medicine examines the future of space medicine in relation to human space exploration; describes what is necessary to keep a crew alive in space, including the use of surgical robots, surface-based telemedicine, and remote emergency care; discusses bioethical problems such as euthanasia, sex, and precautionary surgery; investigates the medical challenges faced by interplanetary astronauts; details the process of human hibernation.

  7. SIGMA/B, Doses in Space Vehicle for Multiple Trajectories, Various Radiation Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, T.M.


    1 - Description of problem or function: SIGMA/B calculates radiation dose at arbitrary points inside a space vehicle, taking into account vehicle geometry, heterogeneous placement of equipment and stores, vehicle materials, time-weighted astronaut positions and many radiation sources from mission trajectories, e.g. geomagnetically trapped protons and electrons, solar flare particles, galactic cosmic rays and their secondary radiations. The vehicle geometry, equipment and supplies, and man models are described by quadric surfaces. The irradiating flux field may be anisotropic. The code can be used to perform simultaneous dose calculations for multiple vehicle trajectories, each involving several radiation sources. Results are presented either as dose as a function of shield thickness, or the dose received through designated outer sections of the vehicle. 2 - Method of solution: Automatic sectoring of the vehicle is performed by a Simpson's rule integration over angle; the dose is computed by a numerical angular integration of the dose attenuation kernels about the dose points. The kernels are curve-fit functions constructed from input data tables. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: The code uses variable dimensioning techniques to store data. The only restriction on problem size is the available core storage

  8. Levitation characteristics of a high-temperature superconducting Maglev system for launching space vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wenjiang; Liu Yu; Chen Xiaodong; Wen Zheng; Duan Yi; Qiu Ming


    Maglev launch assist is viewed as an effective method to reduce the cost of space launch. The primary aerodynamic characteristics of the Maglev launch vehicle and the space vehicle are discussed by analyzing their aerodynamic shapes and testing a scale mode in a standard wind tunnel. After analyzing several popular Maglev systems, we present a no-controlling Maglev system with bulk YBaCuO high-temperature superconductors (HTSs). We tested a HTS Maglev system unit, and obtained the levitation force density of 3.3 N/cm 2 and the lateral force density of 2.0 N/cm 2 . We also fabricated a freely levitated test platform to investigate the levitation characteristics of the HTS Maglev system in load changing processes. We found that the HTS system could provide the strong self-stable levitation performance due to the magnetic flux trapped in superconductors. The HTS Maglev system provided feasibility for application in the launch vehicle

  9. Analyzing Damping Vibration Methods of Large-Size Space Vehicles in the Earth's Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Shcheglov


    Full Text Available It is known that most of today's space vehicles comprise large antennas, which are bracket-attached to the vehicle body. Dimensions of reflector antennas may be of 30 ... 50 m. The weight of such constructions can reach approximately 200 kg.Since the antenna dimensions are significantly larger than the size of the vehicle body and the points to attach the brackets to the space vehicles have a low stiffness, conventional dampers may be inefficient. The paper proposes to consider the damping antenna in terms of its interaction with the Earth's magnetic field.A simple dynamic model of the space vehicle equipped with a large-size structure is built. The space vehicle is a parallelepiped to which the antenna is attached through a beam.To solve the model problems, was used a simplified model of Earth's magnetic field: uniform, with intensity lines parallel to each other and perpendicular to the plane of the antenna.The paper considers two layouts of coils with respect to the antenna, namely: a vertical one in which an axis of magnetic dipole is perpendicular to the antenna plane, and a horizontal layout in which an axis of magnetic dipole lies in the antenna plane. It also explores two ways for magnetic damping of oscillations: through the controlled current that is supplied from the power supply system of the space vehicle, and by the self-induction current in the coil. Thus, four objectives were formulated.In each task was formulated an oscillation equation. Then a ratio of oscillation amplitudes and their decay time were estimated. It was found that each task requires the certain parameters either of the antenna itself, its dimensions and moment of inertia, or of the coil and, respectively, the current, which is supplied from the space vehicle. In each task for these parameters were found the ranges, which allow us to tell of efficient damping vibrations.The conclusion can be drawn based on the analysis of tasks that a specialized control system

  10. Passive Shielding Effect on Space Profile of Magnetic Field Emissions for Wireless Power Transfer to Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batra, Tushar; Schaltz, Erik


    Magnetic fields emitted by wireless power transfer systems are of high importance with respect to human safety and health. Aluminum and ferrite are used in the system to reduce the fields and are termed as passive shielding. In this paper, the influence of these materials on the space profile has...... fields for wireless power transfer for vehicle applications....

  11. Process Improvement for Next Generation Space Flight Vehicles: MSFC Lessons Learned (United States)

    Housch, Helen


    This viewgraph presentation reviews the lessons learned from process improvement for Next Generation Space Flight Vehicles. The contents include: 1) Organizational profile; 2) Process Improvement History; 3) Appraisal Preparation; 4) The Appraisal Experience; 5) Useful Tools; and 6) Is CMMI working?

  12. A space vehicle rotating with a uniform angu- lar velocity about a ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    A space vehicle rotating with a uniform angu- lar velocity about a vertical axis fixed to it is falling freely vertically downwards, say, with its engine shut off. It carries two astronauts inside it. One astronaut throws a tiny tool towards the other astronaut. The motion of the tiny tool with reference to a rotating frame rigidly fixed.

  13. Prospects for the use of thermionic nuclear power plants for interorbital transfers of space vehicles in near space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, P.V.; Zhabotinskii, E.E.; Nikonov, A.M.


    In a previous study the authors considered the use of thermionic nuclear power plants with a thermal reactor for interorbital transfers of space vehicles by electrojet propulsion systems (EJPSs), opening up broad prospects for putting payloads into a high orbit with relatively inexpensive means for a launch into a reference orbit, e.g., the Proton launch vehicle. This is of major importance for the commercial use of space technology, in particular, for erecting technological platforms for the production of various materials. In the work reported here the authors continue the study of interorbital transfers and explore the potentialities of thermionic NPPs with a thermal reactor and with a fast reactor. In boosted operation the electrical power of the latter may reach several hundred kilowatts. What type of NPP is desirable for testing an electrojet propulsion system in interorbital transfers from a reference orbit to a high orbit, providing that the time is limited, depends on the class of the launch vehicle characterized by the mass M o that the vehicle can carry into the reference orbit, where radiation safety conditions allow the NPP to be started up. Results of studies are presented that give an idea of the rational choice of type of thermionic NPP for the organization in interorbital transfers

  14. Automated procedure execution for space vehicle autonomous control (United States)

    Broten, Thomas A.; Brown, David A.


    Increased operational autonomy and reduced operating costs have become critical design objectives in next-generation NASA and DoD space programs. The objective is to develop a semi-automated system for intelligent spacecraft operations support. The Spacecraft Operations and Anomaly Resolution System (SOARS) is presented as a standardized, model-based architecture for performing High-Level Tasking, Status Monitoring and automated Procedure Execution Control for a variety of spacecraft. The particular focus is on the Procedure Execution Control module. A hierarchical procedure network is proposed as the fundamental means for specifying and representing arbitrary operational procedures. A separate procedure interpreter controls automatic execution of the procedure, taking into account the current status of the spacecraft as maintained in an object-oriented spacecraft model.

  15. Analytic Shielding Optimization to Reduce Crew Exposure to Ionizing Radiation Inside Space Vehicles (United States)

    Gaza, Razvan; Cooper, Tim P.; Hanzo, Arthur; Hussein, Hesham; Jarvis, Kandy S.; Kimble, Ryan; Lee, Kerry T.; Patel, Chirag; Reddell, Brandon D.; Stoffle, Nicholas; hide


    A sustainable lunar architecture provides capabilities for leveraging out-of-service components for alternate uses. Discarded architecture elements may be used to provide ionizing radiation shielding to the crew habitat in case of a Solar Particle Event. The specific location relative to the vehicle where the additional shielding mass is placed, as corroborated with particularities of the vehicle design, has a large influence on protection gain. This effect is caused by the exponential- like decrease of radiation exposure with shielding mass thickness, which in turn determines that the most benefit from a given amount of shielding mass is obtained by placing it so that it preferentially augments protection in under-shielded areas of the vehicle exposed to the radiation environment. A novel analytic technique to derive an optimal shielding configuration was developed by Lockheed Martin during Design Analysis Cycle 3 (DAC-3) of the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV). [1] Based on a detailed Computer Aided Design (CAD) model of the vehicle including a specific crew positioning scenario, a set of under-shielded vehicle regions can be identified as candidates for placement of additional shielding. Analytic tools are available to allow capturing an idealized supplemental shielding distribution in the CAD environment, which in turn is used as a reference for deriving a realistic shielding configuration from available vehicle components. While the analysis referenced in this communication applies particularly to the Orion vehicle, the general method can be applied to a large range of space exploration vehicles, including but not limited to lunar and Mars architecture components. In addition, the method can be immediately applied for optimization of radiation shielding provided to sensitive electronic components.

  16. Space and Missile Systems Center Standard: Technical Requirements for Electronic Parts, Materials, and Processes used in Space Vehicles (United States)


    glass or oxide passivation over junctions . 4.3 Screening (100 percent). Screening (100 percent) shall be in accordance with section 1400 for the JAN...75 VCE = 75 IC = 75 VCE = 75 IC = 75 Hetero - junction Bipolar Transistor Gallium Arsenide 3/ 105 125 N/A N/A 75 75 Current...HDBK-339 Custom Large Scale Integrated Circuit Development and Acquisition for Space Vehicles MIL-STD-403C Preparation for and Installation of

  17. A two stage launch vehicle for use as an advanced space transportation system for logistics support of the space station (United States)


    This report describes the preliminary design specifications for an Advanced Space Transportation System consisting of a fully reusable flyback booster, an intermediate-orbit cargo vehicle, and a shuttle-type orbiter with an enlarged cargo bay. It provides a comprehensive overview of mission profile, aerodynamics, structural design, and cost analyses. These areas are related to the overall feasibility and usefullness of the proposed system.

  18. Space transfer vehicle concepts and requirements, volume 2, book 1 (United States)


    The objective of the systems engineering task was to develop and implement an approach that would generate the required study products as defined by program directives. This product list included a set of system and subsystem requirements, a complete set of optimized trade studies and analyses resulting in a recommended system configuration, and the definition of an integrated system/technology and advanced development growth path. A primary ingredient in the approach was the TQM philosophy stressing job quality from the inception. Included throughout the Systems Engineering, Programmatics, Concepts, Flight Design, and Technology sections are data supporting the original objectives as well as supplemental information resulting from program activities. The primary result of the analyses and studies was the recommendation of a single propulsion stage Lunar Transportation System (LTS) configuration that supports several different operations scenarios with minor element changes. This concept has the potential to support two additional scenarios with complex element changes. The space based LTS concept consists of three primary configurations--Piloted, Reusable Cargo, and Expendable Cargo.

  19. TP-Space RRT – Kinematic Path Planning of Non-Holonomic Any-Shape Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Blanco


    Full Text Available The autonomous navigation of vehicles typically combines two kinds of methods: a path is first planned, and then the robot is driven by a local obstacle-avoidance controller. The present work, which focuses on path planning, proposes an extension to the well-known rapidly-exploring random tree (RRT algorithm to allow its integration with a trajectory parameter-space (TP-space as an efficient method to detect collision-free, kinematically-feasible paths for arbitrarily-shaped vehicles. In contrast to original RRT, this proposal generates navigation trees, with poses as nodes, whose edges are all kinematically-feasible paths, suitable to being accurately followed by vehicles driven by pure reactive algorithms. Initial experiments demonstrate the suitability of the method with an Ackermann-steering vehicle model whose severe kinematic constraints cannot be obviated. An important result that sets this work apart from previous research is the finding that employing several families of potential trajectories to expand the tree, which can be done efficiently under the TP-space formalism, improves the optimality of the planned trajectories. A reference C++ implementation has been released as open-source.

  20. Radio emission from coronal and interplanetary shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cane, H.V.


    Observational data on coronal and interplanetary (IP) type II burst events associated with shock-wave propagation are reviewed, with a focus on the past and potential future contributions of space-based observatories. The evidence presented by Cane (1983 and 1984) in support of the hypothesis that the coronal (metric) and IP (kilometric) bursts are due to different shocks is summarized, and the fast-drift kilometric events seen at the same time as metric type II bursts (and designated shock-accelerated or shock-associated events) are characterized. The need for further observations at 0.5-20 MHz is indicated. 20 references

  1. Navier-Stokes structure of merged layer flow on the spherical nose of a space vehicle (United States)

    Jain, A. C.; Woods, G. H.


    Hypersonic merged layer flow on the forepart of a spherical surface of a space vehicle has been investigated on the basis of the full steady-state Navier-Stokes equations using slip and temperature jump boundary conditions at the surface and free-stream conditions far from the surface. The shockwave-like structure was determined as part of the computations. Using an equivalent body concept, computations were carried out under conditions that the Aeroassist Flight Experiment (AFE) Vehicle would encounter at 15 and 20 seconds in its flight path. Emphasis was placed on understanding the basic nature of the flow structure under low density conditions. Particular attention was paid to the understanding of the structure of the outer shockwave-like region as the fluid expands around the sphere. Plots were drawn for flow profiles and surface characteristics to understand the role of dissipation processes in the merged layer of the spherical nose of the vehicle.

  2. Meetings: Interplanetary GPS (United States)


    A system onboard the International Space Station found its location in the cosmos by detecting periodic x-ray signals from neutron stars—a technique that could eventually work for distant space probes.

  3. Numerical study for flame deflector design of a space launch vehicle (United States)

    Oh, Hwayoung; Lee, Jungil; Um, Hyungsik; Huh, Hwanil


    A flame deflector is a structure that prevents damage to a launch vehicle and a launch pad due to exhaust plumes of a lifting-off launch vehicle. The shape of a flame deflector should be designed to restrain the discharged gas from backdraft inside the deflector and to reflect the impact to the surrounding environment and the engine characteristics of the vehicle. This study presents the five preliminary flame deflector configurations which are designed for the first-stage rocket engine of the Korea Space Launch Vehicle-II and surroundings of the Naro space center. The gas discharge patterns of the designed flame deflectors are investigated using the 3D flow field analysis by assuming that the air, in place of the exhaust gas, forms the plume. In addition, a multi-species unreacted flow model is investigated through 2D analysis of the first-stage engine of the KSLV-II. The results indicate that the closest Mach number and temperature distributions to the reacted flow model can be achieved from the 4-species unreacted flow model which employs H2O, CO2, and CO and specific heat-corrected plume.

  4. Closed Loop Guidance Trade Study for Space Launch System Block-1B Vehicle (United States)

    Von der Porten, Paul; Ahmad, Naeem; Hawkins, Matt


    NASA is currently building the Space Launch System (SLS) Block-1 launch vehicle for the Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) test flight. The design of the next evolution of SLS, Block-1B, is well underway. The Block-1B vehicle is more capable overall than Block-1; however, the relatively low thrust-to-weight ratio of the Exploration Upper Stage (EUS) presents a challenge to the Powered Explicit Guidance (PEG) algorithm used by Block-1. To handle the long burn durations (on the order of 1000 seconds) of EUS missions, two algorithms were examined. An alternative algorithm, OPGUID, was introduced, while modifications were made to PEG. A trade study was conducted to select the guidance algorithm for future SLS vehicles. The chosen algorithm needs to support a wide variety of mission operations: ascent burns to LEO, apogee raise burns, trans-lunar injection burns, hyperbolic Earth departure burns, and contingency disposal burns using the Reaction Control System (RCS). Additionally, the algorithm must be able to respond to a single engine failure scenario. Each algorithm was scored based on pre-selected criteria, including insertion accuracy, algorithmic complexity and robustness, extensibility for potential future missions, and flight heritage. Monte Carlo analysis was used to select the final algorithm. This paper covers the design criteria, approach, and results of this trade study, showing impacts and considerations when adapting launch vehicle guidance algorithms to a broader breadth of in-space operations.

  5. Advanced Space Vehicle Design Taking into Account Multidisciplinary Couplings and Mixed Epistemic/Aleatory Uncertainties


    Balesdent , Mathieu; Brevault , Loïc; Price , Nathaniel; Defoort , Sébastien; Le Riche , Rodolphe; Kim , Nam-Ho; Haftka , Raphael T.; Bérend , Nicolas


    International audience; Space vehicle design is a complex process involving numerous disciplines such as aerodynamics, structure, propulsion and trajectory. These disciplines are tightly coupled and may involve antagonistic objectives that require the use of specific methodologies in order to assess trade-offs between the disciplines and to obtain the global optimal configuration. Generally, there are two ways to handle the system design. On the one hand, the design may be considered from a d...

  6. Particle acceleration by coronal and interplanetary shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesses, M.E.


    Utilizing many years of observation from deep space and near-earth spacecraft a theoretical understanding has evolved on how ions and electrons are accelerated in interplanetary shock waves. This understanding is now being applied to solar flare-induced shock waves propagating through the solar atmosphere. Such solar flare phenomena as gamma-ray line and neutron emissions, interplanetary energetic electron and ion events, and Type II and moving Type IV radio bursts appear understandable in terms of particle acceleration in shock waves

  7. Interplanetary laser ranging - an emerging technology for planetary science missions (United States)

    Dirkx, D.; Vermeersen, L. L. A.


    Interplanetary laser ranging (ILR) is an emerging technology for very high accuracy distance determination between Earth-based stations and spacecraft or landers at interplanetary distances. It has evolved from laser ranging to Earth-orbiting satellites, modified with active laser transceiver systems at both ends of the link instead of the passive space-based retroreflectors. It has been estimated that this technology can be used for mm- to cm-level accuracy range determination at interplanetary distances [2, 7]. Work is being performed in the ESPaCE project [6] to evaluate in detail the potential and limitations of this technology by means of bottom-up laser link simulation, allowing for a reliable performance estimate from mission architecture and hardware characteristics.

  8. Soft Spaces as Vehicles for Neoliberal Transformations of Strategic Spatial Planning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian


    This paper analyses how policy agendas are being shaped and reshaped in new soft spaces emerging in Danish spatial planning at subnational scales, and how policy-making in these soft spaces seeks to influence formal planning arenas. The paper demonstrates how the new soft planning spaces in Danis...... spatial planning, being used as vehicles for neoliberal transformations of strategic spatial planning. This paper therefore argues for a need to maintain a critical stance towards the emergence of soft spaces in spatial planning.......This paper analyses how policy agendas are being shaped and reshaped in new soft spaces emerging in Danish spatial planning at subnational scales, and how policy-making in these soft spaces seeks to influence formal planning arenas. The paper demonstrates how the new soft planning spaces in Danish...... spatial planning primarily are concerned with promoting policy agendas centred on economic development, whilst doing limited work in filling in the gaps between formal scales of planning, as envisaged in the planning literature. Instead, soft spaces seem to add to the increasing pressures on statutory...

  9. Cascade Storage and Delivery System for a Multi Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) (United States)

    Yagoda, Evan; Swickrath, Michael; Stambaugh, Imelda


    NASA is developing a Multi Mission Space Exploration Vehicle (MMSEV) for missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The MMSEV is a pressurized vehicle used to extend the human exploration envelope for Lunar, Near Earth Object (NEO), and Deep Space missions. The Johnson Space Center is developing the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) for the MMSEV. The MMSEV s intended use is to support longer sortie lengths with multiple Extra Vehicular Activities (EVAs) on a higher magnitude than any previous vehicle. This paper presents an analysis of a high pressure oxygen cascade storage and delivery system that will accommodate the crew during long duration Intra Vehicular Activity (IVA) and capable of multiple high pressure oxygen fills to the Portable Life Support System (PLSS) worn by the crew during EVAs. A cascade is a high pressure gas cylinder system used for the refilling of smaller compressed gas cylinders. Each of the large cylinders are filled by a compressor, but the cascade system allows small cylinders to be filled without the need of a compressor. In addition, the cascade system is useful as a "reservoir" to accommodate low pressure needs. A regression model was developed to provide the mechanism to size the cascade systems subject to constraints such as number of crew, extravehicular activity duration and frequency, and ullage gas requirements under contingency scenarios. The sizing routine employed a numerical integration scheme to determine gas compressibility changes during depressurization and compressibility effects were captured using the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) equation of state. A multi-dimensional nonlinear optimization routine was used to find the minimum cascade tank system mass that meets the mission requirements. The sizing algorithms developed in this analysis provide a powerful framework to assess cascade filling, compressor, and hybrid systems to design long duration vehicle ECLSS architecture. 1

  10. Soyuz-TM-based interim Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) for the Space Station Freedom (United States)

    Semenov, Yu. P.; Babkov, Oleg I.; Timchenko, Vladimir A.; Craig, Jerry W.


    The concept of using the available Soyuz-TM Assured Crew Return Vehicle (ACRV) spacecraft for the assurance of the safety of the Space Station Freedom (SSF) crew after the departure of the Space Shuttle from SSF was proposed by the NPO Energia and was accepted by NASA in 1992. The ACRV will provide the crew with the capability to evacuate a seriously injured/ill crewmember from the SSF to a ground-based care facility under medically tolerable conditions and with the capability for a safe evacuation from SSF in the events SSF becomes uninhabitable or the Space Shuttle flights are interrupted for a time that exceeds SSF ability for crew support and/or safe operations. This paper presents the main results of studies on Phase A (including studies on the service life of ACRV; spacecraft design and operations; prelaunch processing; mission support; safety, reliability, maintenance and quality and assurance; landing, and search/rescue operations; interfaces with the SSF and with Space Shuttle; crew accommodation; motion of orbital an service modules; and ACRV injection by the Expendable Launch Vehicles), along with the objectives of further work on the Phase B.

  11. 3-D model of ICME in the interplanetary medium (United States)

    Borgazzi, A.; Lara, A.; Niembro, T.


    We developed a method that describes with simply geometry the coordinates of intersection between the leading edge of an ICME and the position of an arbitrary satellite. When a fast CME is ejected from the Sun to the interplanetary space in most of the cases drives a shock. As the CME moves in the corona and later in the interplanetary space more material is stacking in the front and edges of the ejecta. In a first approximation, it is possible to assume the shape of these structures, the CME and the stacked material as a cone of revolution, (the ice-cream model [Schwenn et al., (2005)]). The interface may change due to the interaction of the structure and the non-shocked material in front of the ICME but the original shape of a cone of revolution is preserved. We assume, in a three dimensional geometry, an ice-cream cone shape for the ICME and apply an analytical model for its transport in the interplanetary medium. The goal of the present method is to give the time and the intersection coordinates between the leading edge of the ICME and any satellite that may be in the path of the ICME. With this information we can modelate the travel of the ICME in the interplanetary space using STEREO data.

  12. Implementing a Near-Optimal Optical Receiver for Inter-Planetary Communication (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Proposal Objective: Interplanetary communications signals are inherently weak at the receiver. In fact, for a desired data rate the received optical pulses may...

  13. Quantity Distance for the Kennedy Space Center Vehicle Assembly Building for Solid Propellant Fueled Launchers (United States)

    Stover, Steven; Diebler, Corey; Frazier, Wayne


    The NASA KSC VAB was built to process Apollo launchers in the 1960's, and later adapted to process Space Shuttles. The VAB has served as a place to assemble solid rocket motors (5RM) and mate them to the vehicle's external fuel tank and Orbiter before rollout to the launch pad. As Space Shuttle is phased out, and new launchers are developed, the VAB may again be adapted to process these new launchers. Current launch vehicle designs call for continued and perhaps increased use of SRM segments; hence, the safe separation distances are in the process of being re-calculated. Cognizant NASA personnel and the solid rocket contractor have revisited the above VAB QD considerations and suggest that it may be revised to allow a greater number of motor segments within the VAB. This revision assumes that an inadvertent ignition of one SRM stack in its High Bay need not cause immediate and complete involvement of boosters that are part of a vehicle in adjacent High Bay. To support this assumption, NASA and contractor personnel proposed a strawman test approach for obtaining subscale data that may be used to develop phenomenological insight and to develop confidence in an analysis model for later use on full-scale situations. A team of subject matter experts in safety and siting of propellants and explosives were assembled to review the subscale test approach and provide options to NASA. Upon deliberations regarding the various options, the team arrived at some preliminary recommendations for NASA.

  14. Near Space Hypersonic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Dynamic Surface Backstepping Control Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyong YU


    Full Text Available Compared with traditional aircraft, the near space hypersonic unmanned aerial vehicle control system design must deal with the extra prominent dynamics characters, which are differ from the traditional aircrafts control system design. A new robust adaptive control design method is proposed for one hypersonic unmanned aerial vehicle (HSUAV uncertain MIMO nonaffine block control system by using multilayer neural networks, feedback linearization technology, and dynamic surface backstepping. Multilayer neural networks are used to compensate the influence from the uncertain, which designs the robust terms to solve the problem from approach error. Adaptive backstepping is adopted designed to ensure control law, the dynamic surface control strategy to eliminate “the explosion of terms” by introducing a series of first order filters to obtain the differentiation of the virtual control inputs. Finally, nonlinear six-degree-of-freedom (6-DOF numerical simulation results for a HSUAV model are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Tracking heliospheric disturbances by interplanetary scintillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Tokumaru


    Full Text Available Coronal mass ejections are known as a solar cause of significant geospace disturbances, and a fuller elucidation of their physical properties and propagation dynamics is needed for space weather predictions. The scintillation of cosmic radio sources caused by turbulence in the solar wind (interplanetary scintillation; IPS serves as an effective ground-based method for monitoring disturbances in the heliosphere. We studied global properties of transient solar wind streams driven by CMEs using 327-MHz IPS observations of the Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory (STEL of Nagoya University. In this study, we reconstructed three-dimensional features of the interplanetary (IP counterpart of the CME from the IPS data by applying the model fitting technique. As a result, loop-shaped density enhancements were deduced for some CME events, whereas shell-shaped high-density regions were observed for the other events. In addition, CME speeds were found to evolve significantly during the propagation between the corona and 1 AU.

  16. Probing interferometric parallax with interplanetary spacecraft (United States)

    Rodeghiero, G.; Gini, F.; Marchili, N.; Jain, P.; Ralston, J. P.; Dallacasa, D.; Naletto, G.; Possenti, A.; Barbieri, C.; Franceschini, A.; Zampieri, L.


    We describe an experimental scenario for testing a novel method to measure distance and proper motion of astronomical sources. The method is based on multi-epoch observations of amplitude or intensity correlations between separate receiving systems. This technique is called Interferometric Parallax, and efficiently exploits phase information that has traditionally been overlooked. The test case we discuss combines amplitude correlations of signals from deep space interplanetary spacecraft with those from distant galactic and extragalactic radio sources with the goal of estimating the interplanetary spacecraft distance. Interferometric parallax relies on the detection of wavefront curvature effects in signals collected by pairs of separate receiving systems. The method shows promising potentialities over current techniques when the target is unresolved from the background reference sources. Developments in this field might lead to the construction of an independent, geometrical cosmic distance ladder using a dedicated project and future generation instruments. We present a conceptual overview supported by numerical estimates of its performances applied to a spacecraft orbiting the Solar System. Simulations support the feasibility of measurements with a simple and time-saving observational scheme using current facilities.

  17. Integration Assessment of Visiting Vehicle Induced Electrical Charging of the International Space Station Structure (United States)

    Kramer, Leonard; Kerslake, Thomas W.; Galofaro, Joel T.


    The International Space Station (ISS) undergoes electrical charging in low Earth orbit (LEO) due to positively biased, exposed conductors on solar arrays that collect electrical charges from the space plasma. Exposed solar array conductors predominately collect negatively charged electrons and thus drive the metal ISS structure electrical ground to a negative floating potential (FP) relative to plasma. This FP is variable in location and time as a result of local ionospheric conditions. ISS motion through Earth s magnetic field creates an addition inductive voltage up to 20 positive and negative volts across ISS structure depending on its attitude and location in orbit. ISS Visiting Vehicles (VVs), such as the planned Orion crew exploration vehicle, contribute to the ISS plasma charging processes. Upon physical contact with ISS, the current collection properties of VVs combine with ISS. This is an ISS integration concern as FP must be controlled to minimize arcing of ISS surfaces and ensure proper management of extra vehicular activity crewman shock hazards. This report is an assessment of ISS induced charging from docked Orion vehicles employing negatively grounded, 130 volt class, UltraFlex (ATK Space Systems) solar arrays. To assess plasma electron current collection characteristics, Orion solar cell test coupons were constructed and subjected to plasma chamber current collection measurements. During these tests, coupon solar cells were biased between 0 and 120 V while immersed in a simulated LEO plasma. Tests were performed using several different simulated LEO plasma densities and temperatures. These data and associated theoretical scaling of plasma properties, were combined in a numerical model which was integrated into the Boeing Plasma Interaction Model. It was found that the solar array design for Orion will not affect the ISS FP by more than about 2 V during worst case charging conditions. This assessment also motivated a trade study to determine

  18. A Statistical Study of Interplanetary Type II Bursts: STEREO Observations (United States)

    Krupar, V.; Eastwood, J. P.; Magdalenic, J.; Gopalswamy, N.; Kruparova, O.; Szabo, A.


    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are the primary cause of the most severe and disruptive space weather events such as solar energetic particle (SEP) events and geomagnetic storms at Earth. Interplanetary type II bursts are generated via the plasma emission mechanism by energetic electrons accelerated at CME-driven shock waves and hence identify CMEs that potentially cause space weather impact. As CMEs propagate outward from the Sun, radio emissions are generated at progressively at lower frequencies corresponding to a decreasing ambient solar wind plasma density. We have performed a statistical study of 153 interplanetary type II bursts observed by the two STEREO spacecraft between March 2008 and August 2014. These events have been correlated with manually-identified CMEs contained in the Heliospheric Cataloguing, Analysis and Techniques Service (HELCATS) catalogue. Our results confirm that faster CMEs are more likely to produce interplanetary type II radio bursts. We have compared observed frequency drifts with white-light observations to estimate angular deviations of type II burst propagation directions from radial. We have found that interplanetary type II bursts preferably arise from CME flanks. Finally, we discuss a visibility of radio emissions in relation to the CME propagation direction.

  19. Improved Fractal Space Filling Curves Hybrid Optimization Algorithm for Vehicle Routing Problem. (United States)

    Yue, Yi-xiang; Zhang, Tong; Yue, Qun-xing


    Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is one of the key issues in optimization of modern logistics system. In this paper, a modified VRP model with hard time window is established and a Hybrid Optimization Algorithm (HOA) based on Fractal Space Filling Curves (SFC) method and Genetic Algorithm (GA) is introduced. By incorporating the proposed algorithm, SFC method can find an initial and feasible solution very fast; GA is used to improve the initial solution. Thereafter, experimental software was developed and a large number of experimental computations from Solomon's benchmark have been studied. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the HOA.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Egorov


    Full Text Available Simulation results for on-board optical system of a space mini-vehicle with laser propulsion are presented. This system gives the possibility for receiving theremote laser radiation power independently of a system telescope mutual orientation to the vehicle orbiting direction. The on-board optical system is designed with the use of such optical elements as optical hinges and turrets. The system incorporates the optical switch that is a special optical system adapting optically both receiving telescope and laser propulsion engines. Modeling and numerical simulation of the system have been performed with the use of ZEMAX software (Radiant Ltd. The object matter of calculations lied in size definition of system optical elements, requirements to accuracy of their manufacturing and reciprocal adjusting to achieve an efficient radiation energy delivery to laser propulsion engine. Calculations have been performed with account to the limitations on the mini-vehicle mass, its overall dimensions, and radiation threshold density of the optical elements utilized. The requirements to the laser beam quality at the entrance aperture of laser propulsion engine have been considered too. State-of-the-art optical technologies make it possible to manufacture space reflectors made of CO-115M glassceramics with weight-reducing coefficient of 0.72 and the radiation threshold of 5 J/cm2 for the radiation with a 1.064 microns wavelength at 10-20 ns pulse duration. The optimal diameter of a receiving telescope primary mirror has been 0.5 m when a coordinated transmitting telescope diameter is equal to 1 m. This provides the reception of at least 84% of laser energy. The main losses of radiation energy are caused by improper installation of receiving telescope mirrors and by in-process errors arising at manufacturing the telescope mirrors with a parabolic surface. It is shown that requirements to the in-process admissible errors for the on-board optical system elements

  1. The space shuttle ascent vehicle aerodynamic challenges configuration design and data base development (United States)

    Dill, C. C.; Young, J. C.; Roberts, B. B.; Craig, M. K.; Hamilton, J. T.; Boyle, W. W.


    The phase B Space Shuttle systems definition studies resulted in a generic configuration consisting of a delta wing orbiter, and two solid rocket boosters (SRB) attached to an external fuel tank (ET). The initial challenge facing the aerodynamic community was aerodynamically optimizing, within limits, this configuration. As the Shuttle program developed and the sensitivities of the vehicle to aerodynamics were better understood the requirements of the aerodynamic data base grew. Adequately characterizing the vehicle to support the various design studies exploded the size of the data base to proportions that created a data modeling/management challenge for the aerodynamicist. The ascent aerodynamic data base originated primarily from wind tunnel test results. The complexity of the configuration rendered conventional analytic methods of little use. Initial wind tunnel tests provided results which included undesirable effects from model support tructure, inadequate element proximity, and inadequate plume simulation. The challenge to improve the quality of test results by determining the extent of these undesirable effects and subsequently develop testing techniques to eliminate them was imposed on the aerodynamic community. The challenges to the ascent aerodynamics community documented are unique due to the aerodynamic complexity of the Shuttle launch. Never before was such a complex vehicle aerodynamically characterized. The challenges were met with innovative engineering analyses/methodology development and wind tunnel testing techniques.

  2. An Analytical Solution for Yaw Maneuver Optimization on the International Space Station and Other Orbiting Space Vehicles (United States)

    Dobrinskaya, Tatiana


    This paper suggests a new method for optimizing yaw maneuvers on the International Space Station (ISS). Yaw rotations are the most common large maneuvers on the ISS often used for docking and undocking operations, as well as for other activities. When maneuver optimization is used, large maneuvers, which were performed on thrusters, could be performed either using control moment gyroscopes (CMG), or with significantly reduced thruster firings. Maneuver optimization helps to save expensive propellant and reduce structural loads - an important factor for the ISS service life. In addition, optimized maneuvers reduce contamination of the critical elements of the vehicle structure, such as solar arrays. This paper presents an analytical solution for optimizing yaw attitude maneuvers. Equations describing pitch and roll motion needed to counteract the major torques during a yaw maneuver are obtained. A yaw rate profile is proposed. Also the paper describes the physical basis of the suggested optimization approach. In the obtained optimized case, the torques are significantly reduced. This torque reduction was compared to the existing optimization method which utilizes the computational solution. It was shown that the attitude profiles and the torque reduction have a good match for these two methods of optimization. The simulations using the ISS flight software showed similar propellant consumption for both methods. The analytical solution proposed in this paper has major benefits with respect to computational approach. In contrast to the current computational solution, which only can be calculated on the ground, the analytical solution does not require extensive computational resources, and can be implemented in the onboard software, thus, making the maneuver execution automatic. The automatic maneuver significantly simplifies the operations and, if necessary, allows to perform a maneuver without communication with the ground. It also reduces the probability of command

  3. Cultural ethology as a new approach of interplanetary crew's behavior (United States)

    Tafforin, Carole; Giner Abati, Francisco


    From an evolutionary perspective, during short-term and medium-term orbital flights, human beings developed new spatial and motor behaviors to compensate for the lack of terrestrial gravity. Past space ethological studies have shown adaptive strategies to the tri-dimensional environment, with the goal of optimizing relationships between the astronaut and unusual sensorial-motor conditions. During a long-term interplanetary journey, crewmembers will have to develop new individual and social behaviors to adapt, far from earth, to isolation and confinement and as a result to extreme conditions of living and working together. Recent space psychological studies pointed out that heterogeneity is a feature of interplanetary crews, based on personality, gender mixing, internationality and diversity of backgrounds. Intercultural issues could arise between space voyagers. As a new approach we propose to emphasize the behavioral strategies of human groups' adaptation to this new multicultural dimension of the environment.

  4. The Role of Habitability Studies in Space Facility and Vehicle Design (United States)

    Adams, Constance M.


    This document is a viewgraph presentation which reviews the role of the space architect in designing a space vehicle with habitability as a chief concern. Habitability is composed of the qualities of the environment or system which support the crew in working and living. All the impacts from habitability are interdependent; i.e., impacts to well-being can impact performance, safety or efficiency. After reviewing the issues relating to habitability the presentation discusses the application of these issues in two case studies. The first studies the Bio-Plex Hab chamber which includes designs of the living and working areas. The second case study is the ISS-TransHab which is being studied as a prototype for Mars transit.

  5. A study of upwind schemes on the laminar hypersonic heating predictions for the reusable space vehicle (United States)

    Qu, Feng; Sun, Di; Zuo, Guang


    With the rapid development of the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), Accurate computing hypersonic heating is in a high demand for the design of the new generation reusable space vehicle to conduct deep space exploration. In the past years, most researchers try to solve this problem by concentrating on the choice of the upwind schemes or the definition of the cell Reynolds number. However, the cell Reynolds number dependencies and limiter dependencies of the upwind schemes, which are of great importance to their performances in hypersonic heating computations, are concerned by few people. In this paper, we conduct a systematic study on these properties respectively. Results in our test cases show that SLAU (Simple Low-dissipation AUSM-family) is with a much higher level of accuracy and robustness in hypersonic heating predictions. Also, it performs much better in terms of the limiter dependency and the cell Reynolds number dependency.

  6. A FMM-FFT accelerated hybrid volume surface integral equation solver for electromagnetic analysis of re-entry space vehicles

    KAUST Repository

    Yücel, Abdulkadir C.


    Space vehicles that re-enter the atmosphere often experience communication blackout. The blackout occurs when the vehicle becomes engulfed in plasma produced by interactions between the vehicle surface and the atmosphere. The plasma often is concentrated in a relatively thin shell around the vehicle, with higher densities near its nose than rear. A less structured, sometimes turbulent plasma wake often trails the vehicle. The plasma shell severely affects the performance of side-mounted antennas as it alters their characteristics (frequency response, gain patterns, axial ratio, and impedance) away from nominal, free-space values, sometimes entirely shielding the antenna from the outside world. The plasma plume/turbulent wake similarly affect the performance of antennas mounted at the back of the vehicle. The electromagnetic characteristics of the thin plasma shell and plume/turbulent wake heavily depend on the type of re-entry trajectory, the vehicle\\'s speed, angles of attack, and chemical composition, as well as environmental conditions. To analyze the antennas\\' performance during blackout and to design robust communication antennas, efficient and accurate simulation tools for charactering the antennas\\' performance along the trajectory are called for.

  7. A Morphing Radiator for High-Turndown Thermal Control of Crewed Space Exploration Vehicles (United States)

    Cognata, Thomas J.; Hardtl, Darren; Sheth, Rubik; Dinsmore, Craig


    Spacecraft designed for missions beyond low earth orbit (LEO) face a difficult thermal control challenge, particularly in the case of crewed vehicles where the thermal control system (TCS) must maintain a relatively constant internal environment temperature despite a vastly varying external thermal environment and despite heat rejection needs that are contrary to the potential of the environment. A thermal control system is in other words required to reject a higher heat load to warm environments and a lower heat load to cold environments, necessitating a quite high turndown ratio. A modern thermal control system is capable of a turndown ratio of on the order of 12:1, but for crew safety and environment compatibility these are massive multi-loop fluid systems. This paper discusses the analysis of a unique radiator design which employs the behavior of shape memory alloys (SMA) to vary the turndown of, and thus enable, a single-loop vehicle thermal control system for space exploration vehicles. This design, a morphing radiator, varies its shape in response to facesheet temperature to control view of space and primary surface emissivity. Because temperature dependence is inherent to SMA behavior, the design requires no accommodation for control, instrumentation, nor power supply in order to operate. Thermal and radiation modeling of the morphing radiator predict a turndown ranging from 11.9:1 to 35:1 independent of TCS configuration. Stress and deformation analyses predict the desired morphing behavior of the concept. A system level mass analysis shows that by enabling a single loop architecture this design could reduce the TCS mass by between 139 kg and 225 kg. The concept is demonstrated in proof-of-concept benchtop tests.

  8. Dynamics of interplanetary dust grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamy, P.L.


    The interaction of spherical grains of various materials-three silicates (quartz, obsidian and andesite), water-ice and iron - whose radii lie in the micronic and submicronic range with the interplanetary medium is solved. This includes: the interaction with the solar radiation field which is solved using Mie scattering theory and taking into account the precise dependence of the optical properties of the five materials upon wavelength; the interaction with the solar wind: corpuscular tangential drag is found to be always important and may even be larger than the Poynting-Robertson drag; the interaction with the interplanetary magnetic field is investigated in terms of a diffusion or random walk through a series of electromagnetic scatterings, leading to a Chapman-Komolgorov equation (i.e., a generalized Liouville equation). Numerical results are presented for these interactions spanning the entire solar system with circularity of elliptical orbits, direct or retrograde, with grains of various materials and sizes and giving -probably for the first time - a clear global picture of the interaction of dust grains with the interplanetary medium. The dynamics of the grains is then investigated using the theory of general perturbations and the numerical integration of trajectories of circum-solar grains

  9. Effect of Space Vehicle Structure Vibration on Control Moment Gyroscope Dynamics (United States)

    Dobrinskaya, Tatiana


    Control Moment Gyroscopes (CMGs) are used for non-propulsive attitude control of satellites and space stations, including the International Space Station (ISS). CMGs could be essential for future long duration space missions due to the fact that they help to save propellant. CMGs were successfully tested on the ground for many years, and have been successfully used on satellites. However, operations have shown that the CMG service life on the ISS is significantly shorter than predicted. Since the dynamic environment of the ISS differs greatly from the nominal environment of satellites, it was important to analyze how operations specific to the station (dockings and undockings, huge solar array motion, crew exercising, robotic operations, etc) can affect the CMG performance. This task became even more important since the first CMG failure onboard the ISS. The CMG failure resulted in the limitation of the attitude control capabilities, more propellant consumption, and additional operational issues. Therefore, the goal of this work was to find out how the vibrations of a space vehicle structure, caused by a variety of onboard operations, can affect the CMG dynamics and performance. The equations of CMG motion were derived and analyzed for the case when the gyro foundation can vibrate in any direction. The analysis was performed for unbalanced CMG gimbals to match the CMG configuration on ISS. The analysis showed that vehicle structure vibrations can amplify and significantly change the CMG motion if the gyro gimbals are unbalanced in flight. The resonance frequencies were found. It was shown that the resonance effect depends on the magnitude of gimbal imbalance, on the direction of a structure vibration, and on gimbal bearing friction. Computer modeling results of CMG dynamics affected by the external vibration are presented. The results can explain some of the CMG vibration telemetry observed on ISS. This work shows that balancing the CMG gimbals decreases the effect

  10. The Design and Operation of Suborbital Low Cost and Low Risk Vehicle to the Edge of Space (SOLVES) (United States)

    Ridzuan Zakaria, Norul; Nasrun, Nasri; Rashidy Zulkifi, Mohd; Izmir Yamin, Mohd; Othman, Jamaludin; Rafidi Zakaria, Norul


    Inclusive in the planning of Spaceport Malaysia are 2 local suborbital vehicles development. One of the vehicles is called SOLVES or Suborbital Low Cost and Low Risk Vehicle to the Edge of Space. The emphasis on the design and operation of SOLVES is green and robotic technology, where both green technology and robotic technology are used to protect the environment and enhance safety. As SOLVES climbs, its center of gravity stabilizes and remains at the bottom as its propellant being used until it depletes, due to the position of the vehicle's passenger cabin and its engines at its lower end. It will reach 80km from sea level generally known as "the edge of space" due to its momentum although its propellant will be depleted at a lower altitude. As the suborbital vehicle descends tail first, its wings automatically extend and rotate at horizontal axes perpendicular to the fuselage. These naturally and passively rotating wings ensure controlled low velocity and stable descend of the vehicle. The passenger cabin also rotates automatically at a steady low speed at the centerline of its fuselage as it descends, caused naturally by the lift force, enabling its passengers a surrounding 360 degrees view. SOLVES is steered automatically to its landing point by an electrical propulsion system with a vectoring nozzle. The electrical propulsion minimizes space and weight and is free of pollution and noise. Its electrical power comes from a battery aided by power generated by the naturally rotating wings. When the vehicle lands, it is in the safest mode as its propellant is depleted and its center of gravity remains at the bottom of its cabin. The cabin, being located at the bottom of the fuselage, enables very convenient, rapid and safe entry and exit of its passengers. SOLVES will be a robotic suborbital vehicle with green technology. The vehicle will carry 4 passengers and each passenger will be trained to land the vehicle manually if the fully automated landing system fails

  11. Geomagnetic response of interplanetary coronal mass ejections in the Earth's magnetosphere (United States)

    Badruddin; Mustajab, F.; Derouich, M.


    A coronal mass ejections (CME) is the huge mass of plasma with embedded magnetic field ejected abruptly from the Sun. These CMEs propagate into interplanetary space with different speed. Some of them hit the Earth's magnetosphere and create many types of disturbances; one of them is the disturbance in the geomagnetic field. Individual geomagnetic disturbances differ not only in their magnitudes, but the nature of disturbance is also different. It is, therefore, desirable to understand these differences not only to understand the physics of geomagnetic disturbances but also to understand the properties of solar/interplanetary structures producing these disturbances of different magnitude and nature. In this work, we use the spacecraft measurements of CMEs with distinct magnetic properties propagating in the interplanetary space and generating disturbances of different levels and nature. We utilize their distinct plasma and field properties to search for the interplanetary parameter(s) playing important role in influencing the geomagnetic response of different coronal mass ejections.

  12. Sheath-accumulating Propagation of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Takuya; Shibata, Kazunari, E-mail: [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto 607–8471 (Japan)


    Fast interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are the drivers of strong space weather storms such as solar energetic particle events and geomagnetic storms. The connection between the space-weather-impacting solar wind disturbances associated with fast ICMEs at Earth and the characteristics of causative energetic CMEs observed near the Sun is a key question in the study of space weather storms, as well as in the development of practical space weather prediction. Such shock-driving fast ICMEs usually expand at supersonic speeds during the propagation, resulting in the continuous accumulation of shocked sheath plasma ahead. In this paper, we propose a “sheath-accumulating propagation” (SAP) model that describes the coevolution of the interplanetary sheath and decelerating ICME ejecta by taking into account the process of upstream solar wind plasma accumulation within the sheath region. Based on the SAP model, we discuss (1) ICME deceleration characteristics; (2) the fundamental condition for fast ICMEs at Earth; (3) the thickness of interplanetary sheaths; (4) arrival time prediction; and (5) the super-intense geomagnetic storms associated with huge solar flares. We quantitatively show that not only the speed but also the mass of the CME are crucial for discussing the above five points. The similarities and differences between the SAP model, the drag-based model, and the“snow-plow” model proposed by Tappin are also discussed.

  13. Sheath-accumulating Propagation of Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Takuya; Shibata, Kazunari


    Fast interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) are the drivers of strong space weather storms such as solar energetic particle events and geomagnetic storms. The connection between the space-weather-impacting solar wind disturbances associated with fast ICMEs at Earth and the characteristics of causative energetic CMEs observed near the Sun is a key question in the study of space weather storms, as well as in the development of practical space weather prediction. Such shock-driving fast ICMEs usually expand at supersonic speeds during the propagation, resulting in the continuous accumulation of shocked sheath plasma ahead. In this paper, we propose a “sheath-accumulating propagation” (SAP) model that describes the coevolution of the interplanetary sheath and decelerating ICME ejecta by taking into account the process of upstream solar wind plasma accumulation within the sheath region. Based on the SAP model, we discuss (1) ICME deceleration characteristics; (2) the fundamental condition for fast ICMEs at Earth; (3) the thickness of interplanetary sheaths; (4) arrival time prediction; and (5) the super-intense geomagnetic storms associated with huge solar flares. We quantitatively show that not only the speed but also the mass of the CME are crucial for discussing the above five points. The similarities and differences between the SAP model, the drag-based model, and the“snow-plow” model proposed by Tappin are also discussed.

  14. Preliminary Investigation of Impact on Multiple-Sheet Structures and an Evaluation of the Meteoroid Hazard to Space Vehicles (United States)

    Nysmith, C. Robert; Summers, James L.


    Small pyrex glass spheres, representative of stoney meteoroids, were fired into 2024-T3 aluminum alclad multiple-sheet structures at velocities to 11,000 feet per second to evaluate the effectiveness of multisheet hull construction as a means of increasing the resistance of a spacecraft to meteoroid penetrations. The results of these tests indicate that increasing the number of sheets in a structure while keeping the total sheet thickness constant and increasing the spacing between sheets both tend to increase the penetration resistance of a structure of constant weight per unit area. In addition, filling the space between the sheets with a light filler material was found to substantially increase structure penetration resistance with a small increase in weight. An evaluation of the meteoroid hazard to space vehicles is presented in the form of an illustrative-example for two specific lunar mission vehicles, a single-sheet, monocoque hull vehicle and a glass-wool filled, double-sheet hull vehicle. The evaluation is presented in terms of the "best" and the "worst" conditions that might be expected as determined from astronomical and satellite measurements, high-speed impact data, and hypothesized meteoroid structures and compositions. It was observed that the vehicle flight time without penetration can be increased significantly by use of multiple-sheet rather than single-sheet hull construction with no increase in hull weight. Nevertheless, it is evident that a meteoroid hazard exists, even for the vehicle with the selected multiple-sheet hull.

  15. Radio images of the interplanetary turbulent plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, V.I.


    The results of the interplanetary scintillation daily observations of approximately 140 radio sources are given. The observations were carried out at the radiotelescope VLPA FIAN during 24 days in October-November 1975 and 6 days in April 1976. The maps (radio images) of interplanetary turbulent plasma are presented. The analysis of the maps reveals the presence of large-scale irregularities in the interplanetary plasma. The variability in large-scale structure of the interplanetary plasma is due mainly to transport of matter from the Sun. A comparison of the scintillation with the geomagnetic activity index detected the presence of a straight connection between them

  16. Passive shielding effect on space profile of magnetic field emissions for wireless power transfer to vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batra, T., E-mail:; Schaltz, E. [Department of Energy Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg 9220 (Denmark)


    Magnetic fields emitted by wireless power transfer systems are of high importance with respect to human safety and health. Aluminum and ferrite are used in the system to reduce the fields and are termed as passive shielding. In this paper, the influence of these materials on the space profile has been investigated with the help of simulations on Comsol for the four possible geometries—no shielding, ferrite, aluminum, and full shielding. As the reflected impedance varies for the four geometries, the primary current is varied accordingly to maintain constant power transfer to the secondary side. Surrounding magnetic field plots in the vertical direction show that maxima's of the two coils for the no shielding geometry are centered at the respective coils and for the remaining three are displaced closer to each other. This closeness would lead to more effective addition of the two coil fields and an increase in the resultant field from space point of view. This closeness varies with distance in the horizontal direction and vertical gap between the coils and is explained in the paper. This paper provides a better understanding of effect of the passive shielding materials on the space nature of magnetic fields for wireless power transfer for vehicle applications.

  17. Passive shielding effect on space profile of magnetic field emissions for wireless power transfer to vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batra, T.; Schaltz, E.


    Magnetic fields emitted by wireless power transfer systems are of high importance with respect to human safety and health. Aluminum and ferrite are used in the system to reduce the fields and are termed as passive shielding. In this paper, the influence of these materials on the space profile has been investigated with the help of simulations on Comsol for the four possible geometries—no shielding, ferrite, aluminum, and full shielding. As the reflected impedance varies for the four geometries, the primary current is varied accordingly to maintain constant power transfer to the secondary side. Surrounding magnetic field plots in the vertical direction show that maxima's of the two coils for the no shielding geometry are centered at the respective coils and for the remaining three are displaced closer to each other. This closeness would lead to more effective addition of the two coil fields and an increase in the resultant field from space point of view. This closeness varies with distance in the horizontal direction and vertical gap between the coils and is explained in the paper. This paper provides a better understanding of effect of the passive shielding materials on the space nature of magnetic fields for wireless power transfer for vehicle applications

  18. Development of a large scale Chimera grid system for the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle (United States)

    Pearce, Daniel G.; Stanley, Scott A.; Martin, Fred W., Jr.; Gomez, Ray J.; Le Beau, Gerald J.; Buning, Pieter G.; Chan, William M.; Chiu, Ing-Tsau; Wulf, Armin; Akdag, Vedat


    The application of CFD techniques to large problems has dictated the need for large team efforts. This paper offers an opportunity to examine the motivations, goals, needs, problems, as well as the methods, tools, and constraints that defined NASA's development of a 111 grid/16 million point grid system model for the Space Shuttle Launch Vehicle. The Chimera approach used for domain decomposition encouraged separation of the complex geometry into several major components each of which was modeled by an autonomous team. ICEM-CFD, a CAD based grid generation package, simplified the geometry and grid topology definition by provoding mature CAD tools and patch independent meshing. The resulting grid system has, on average, a four inch resolution along the surface.

  19. Affordable Electro-Magnetic Interference (EMI) Testing on Large Space Vehicles (United States)

    Aldridge, Edward; Curry, Bruce; Scully, Robert


    Objective: Perform System-Level EMI testing of the Orion Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) spacecraft in situ in the Kennedy Space Center's Neil Armstrong Operations & Checkout (O&C) Facility in 6 days. The only way to execute the system-level EMI testing and meet this schedule challenge was to perform the EMI testing in situ in the Final Assembly & System Test (FAST) Cell in a reverberant mode, not the direct illumination mode originally planned. This required the unplanned construction of a Faraday Cage around the vehicle and FAST Cell structure. The presence of massive steel platforms created many challenges to developing an efficient screen room to contain the RF energy and yield an effective reverberant chamber. An initial effectiveness test showed marginal performance, but improvements implemented afterward resulted in the final test performing surprisingly well! The paper will explain the design, the challenges, and the changes that made the difference in performance!

  20. Modulational instability for an induced field in the far-wake region of a space vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Jingjing; Deng Qian; Qu Wen


    The behavior of the induced field and the generation of density cavitons in the far-wake region (|k 0 | → 0) of a space vehicle can be described by a set of nonlinear coupling equations. Modulational instability of the induced field is investigated on the basis of the nonlinear equations. The results show that the induced field is modulationally unstable and will collapse into spatial localized structures; meanwhile, density cavitons will be generated. The characteristic scale and the maximum growth rate of the induced field depend not only on the angle between the amplitude of pump waves E 0 and the perturbation wave vector k, but also on the energy density of pump waves |E 0 | 2 . (paper)

  1. Prediction of shock-layer ultraviolet radiation for hypersonic vehicles in near space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niu Qinglin


    Full Text Available A systemic and validated model was developed to predict ultraviolet spectra features from the shock layer of near-space hypersonic vehicles in the “solar blind” band region. Computational procedures were performed with 7-species thermal non-equilibrium fluid mechanics, finite rate chemistry, and radiation calculations. The thermal non-equilibrium flow field was calculated with a two-temperature model by the finite volume technique and verified against the bow-shock ultra-violet (BSUV flight experiments. The absorption coefficient of the mixture gases was evaluated with a line-by-line method and validated through laboratory shock tube measurements. Using the line of sight (LOS method, radiation was calculated from three BSUV flights at altitudes of 38, 53.5 and 71 km. The investigation focused on the level and structure of ultraviolet spectra radiated from a NO band system in wavelengths of 200–400 nm. Results predicted by the current model show qualitative spatial agreement with the measured data. At a velocity of 3.5 km/s (about Mach 11, the peak absolute intensity at an altitude of 38 km is two orders of magnitude higher than that at 53.5 km. Under the same flight conditions, the spectra structures have quite a similar distribution at different viewing angles. The present computational model performs well in the prediction of the ultraviolet spectra emitted from the shock layer and will contribute to the investigation and analysis of radiative features of hypersonic vehicles in near space.

  2. GEO Debris and Interplanetary Dust: Fluxes and Charging Behavior (United States)

    Graps, A. L.; Green, S. F.; McBride, N. M.; McDonnell, J. A. M.; Drolshagen, G.; Svedhem, H.; Bunte, K. D.


    A population of cosmic dust mixed with a population of man-made debris exists within the Earth's magnetosphere. Measurements of these provide the data samples for studies of the interplanetary dust particles that travel through our magnetosphere from the outside and for studies of the local byproducts of our space endeavours. Even though instruments to detect natural meteoroids and space debris particles have been flown in Low Earth Orbits (LEO) and on interplanetary missions, very little information on the particle environment for Earth orbits above about 600 km altitude have been available. In particular, knowledge about particles smaller than 1 m in the geostationary (GEO) region was largely unknown before GORID. In September 1996, a dust/debris detector: GORID was launched into GEO as a piggyback instrument on the Russian Express-2 telecommunications spacecraft. The instrument began its normal operation in April 1997 and ended its mission in July 2002. The goal of this work was to use GORID's particle data to identify and separate the space debris from the interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) in GEO, to more finely determine the instrument's measurement characteristics and to derive impact fluxes. Here we present some results of that study. We give GORID flux distributions for debris and IDPs and then present intriguing debris clustering features that might be the result of electrostatic fragmentation of the rocket slag particles.

  3. Comparison and Validation of FLUKA and HZETRN as Tools for Investigating the Secondary Neutron Production in Large Space Vehicles (United States)

    Rojdev, Kristina; Koontz, Steve; Reddell, Brandon; Atwell, William; Boeder, Paul


    NASA's exploration goals are focused on deep space travel and Mars surface operations. To accomplish these goals, large structures will be necessary to transport crew and logistics in the initial stages, and NASA will need to keep the crew and the vehicle safe during transport and any surface activities. One of the major challenges of deep space travel is the space radiation environment and its impacts on the crew, the electronics, and the vehicle materials. The primary radiation from the sun (solar particle events) and from outside the solar system (galactic cosmic rays) interact with materials of the vehicle. These interactions lead to some of the primary radiation being absorbed, being modified, or producing secondary radiation (primarily neutrons). With all vehicles, the high energy primary radiation is of most concern. However, with larger vehicles that have large shielding masses, there is more opportunity for secondary radiation production, and this secondary radiation can be significant enough to cause concern. When considering surface operations, there is also a secondary radiation source from the surface of the planet, known as albedo, with neutrons being one of the most significant species. Given new vehicle designs for deep space and Mars missions, the secondary radiation environment and the implications of that environment is currently not well understood. Thus, several studies are necessary to fill the knowledge gaps of this secondary radiation environment. In this paper, we put forth the initial steps to increasing our understanding of neutron production from large vehicles by comparing the neutron production resulting from our radiation transport codes and providing a preliminary validation of our results against flight data. This paper will review the details of these results and discuss the finer points of the analysis.

  4. Radiation protection for human interplanetary spaceflight and planetary surface operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, B.C. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)]|[DLR Inst. of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne (Germany)]|[NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)


    Radiation protection issues are reviewed for five categories of radiation exposure during human missions to the moon and Mars: trapped radiation belts, galactic cosmic rays, solar flare particle events, planetary surface emissions, and on-board radiation sources. Relative hazards are dependent upon spacecraft and vehicle configurations, flight trajectories, human susceptibility, shielding effectiveness, monitoring and warning systems, and other factors. Crew cabins, interplanetary mission modules, surface habitats, planetary rovers, and extravehicular mobility units (spacesuits) provide various degrees of protection. Countermeasures that may be taken are reviewed relative to added complexity and risks that they could entail, with suggestions for future research and analysis.

  5. Powered Explicit Guidance Modifications and Enhancements for Space Launch System Block-1 and Block-1B Vehicles (United States)

    Von der Porten, Paul; Ahmad, Naeem; Hawkins, Matt; Fill, Thomas


    NASA is currently building the Space Launch System (SLS) Block-1 launch vehicle for the Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) test flight. NASA is also currently designing the next evolution of SLS, the Block-1B. The Block-1 and Block-1B vehicles will use the Powered Explicit Guidance (PEG) algorithm (of Space Shuttle heritage) for closed loop guidance. To accommodate vehicle capabilities and design for future evolutions of SLS, modifications were made to PEG for Block-1 to handle multi-phase burns, provide PEG updated propulsion information, and react to a core stage engine out. In addition, due to the relatively low thrust-to-weight ratio of the Exploration Upper Stage (EUS) and EUS carrying out Lunar Vicinity and Earth Escape missions, certain enhancements to the Block-1 PEG algorithm are needed to perform Block-1B missions to account for long burn arcs and target translunar and hyperbolic orbits. This paper describes the design and implementation of modifications to the Block-1 PEG algorithm as compared to Space Shuttle. Furthermore, this paper illustrates challenges posed by the Block-1B vehicle and the required PEG enhancements. These improvements make PEG capable for use on the SLS Block-1B vehicle as part of the Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) System.

  6. Mitigating vestibular disturbances during space flight using virtual reality training and reentry vehicle design guidelines (United States)

    Stroud, Kenneth Joshua

    Seventy to eighty percent of astronauts reportedly exhibit undesirable vestibular disturbances during the first few days of weightlessness, including space motion sickness (SMS) and spatial disorientation (SD). SMS presents a potentially dangerous situation, both because critical piloted tasks such as docking maneuvers and emergency reentry may be compromised, and because of the potential for asphyxiation should an astronaut vomit while wearing a space suit. SD can be provocative for SMS as well as become dangerous during an emergency in which it is critical for an astronaut to move quickly through the vehicle. In the U.S. space program, medication is currently used both for prevention and treatment of SMS. However, this approach has had only moderate success, and the side effects of drowsiness and lack of concentration are undesirable. Research suggests that preflight training in virtual reality devices can simulate certain aspects of microgravity and may prove to be an effective countermeasure for SMS and SD. It was hypothesized that exposing subjects preflight to variable virtual orientations, similar to those encountered during space flight, will reduce the incidence and/or severity of SMS and SD. Results from a study conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center as part of this research demonstrated that this type of training is effective for reducing motion sickness and improving task performance in potentially disorienting visual surroundings, thus suggesting the possibility that such training may prove an effective countermeasure for SMS, SD and related performance decrements that occur in space flight. In addition to the effects associated with weightlessness, almost all astronauts experience vestibular disturbances associated with gravity-transitions incurred during the return to Earth, which could be exacerbated if traveling in a spacecraft that is designed differently than a conventional aircraft. Therefore, for piloted descent and landing operations

  7. In-Space Repair and Refurbishment of Thermal Protection System Structures for Reusable Launch Vehicles (United States)

    Singh, M.


    Advanced repair and refurbishment technologies are critically needed for the thermal protection system of current space transportation systems as well as for future launch and crew return vehicles. There is a history of damage to these systems from impact during ground handling or ice during launch. In addition, there exists the potential for in-orbit damage from micrometeoroid and orbital debris impact as well as different factors (weather, launch acoustics, shearing, etc.) during launch and re-entry. The GRC developed GRABER (Glenn Refractory Adhesive for Bonding and Exterior Repair) material has shown multiuse capability for repair of small cracks and damage in reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) material. The concept consists of preparing an adhesive paste of desired ceramic with appropriate additives and then applying the paste to the damaged/cracked area of the RCC composites with an adhesive delivery system. The adhesive paste cures at 100-120 C and transforms into a high temperature ceramic during reentry conditions. A number of plasma torch and ArcJet tests were carried out to evaluate the crack repair capability of GRABER materials for Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) composites. For the large area repair applications, Integrated Systems for Tile and Leading Edge Repair (InSTALER) have been developed and evaluated under various ArcJet testing conditions. In this presentation, performance of the repair materials as applied to RCC is discussed. Additionally, critical in-space repair needs and technical challenges are reviewed.

  8. Conceptual Design of In-Space Vehicles for Human Exploration of the Outer Planets (United States)

    Adams, R. B.; Alexander, R. A.; Chapman, J. M.; Fincher, S. S.; Hopkins, R. C.; Philips, A. D.; Polsgrove, T. T.; Litchford, R. J.; Patton, B. W.; Statham, G.


    During FY-2002, a team of engineers from TD30/Advanced Concepts and TD40/Propulsion Research Center embarked on a study of potential crewed missions to the outer solar system. The study was conducted under the auspices of the Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts activity administered by Langley Research Center (LaRC). The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) team interacted heavily with teams from other Centers including Glenn Research Center, LaRC, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and Johnson Space Center. The MSFC team generated five concept missions for this project. The concept missions use a variety of technologies, including magnetized target fusion (MTF), magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters, solid core reactors, and molten salt reactors in various combinations. The Technical Publication (TP) reviews these five concepts and the methods used to generate them. The analytical methods used are described for all significant disciplines and subsystems. The propulsion and power technologies selected for each vehicle are reviewed in detail. The MSFC team also expended considerable effort refining the MTF concept for use with this mission. The results from this effort are also contained within this TP. Finally, the lessons learned from this activity are summarized in the conclusions section.

  9. Evolving Coronal Holes and Interplanetary Erupting Stream ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Jan 27, 2016 ... Coronal holes and interplanetary disturbances are important aspects of the physics of the Sun and heliosphere. Interplanetary disturbances are identified as an increase in the density turbulence compared with the ambient solar wind. Erupting stream disturbances are transient large-scale structures of ...

  10. An automated rendezvous and capture system design concept for the cargo transfer vehicle and Space Station Freedom (United States)

    Fuchs, Ron; Marsh, Steven


    A rendezvous sensor system concept was developed for the cargo transfer vehicle (CTV) to autonomously rendezvous with and be captured by Space Station Freedom (SSF). The development of requirements, the design of a unique Lockheed developed sensor concept to meet these requirements, and the system design to place this sensor on the CTV and rendezvous with the SSF are described .

  11. Definition of technology development missions for early space station, orbit transfer vehicle servicing. Volume 1: Executive summary (United States)


    Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) servicing study scope, propellant transfer, storage and reliquefaction technology development missions (TDM), docking and berthing TDM, maintenance TDM, OTV/payload integration TDM, combined TDMS design, summary space station accomodations, programmatic analysis, and TDM equipment operational usage are discussed.

  12. Interplanetary and lunar surface SP-100 nuclear power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josloff, A.T.; Shepard, N.F.; Smith, M.; Stephen, J.D.


    This paper describes how the SP-100 Space Reactor Power System (SRPS) can be tailored to meet the specific requirements for a lunar surface power system to meet the needs of the consolidation and utilization phases outlined in the 90-day NASA SEI study report. This same basic power system can also be configured to obtain the low specific masses needed to enable robotic interplanetary science missions employing Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). In both cases it is shown that the SP-100 SRPS can meet the specific requirements. For interplanetary NEP missions, performance upgrades currently being developed in the area of light weight radiators and improved thermoelectric material are assumed to be technology ready in the year 2000 time frame. For lunar applications, some system rearrangement and enclosure of critical components are necessary modifications to the present baseline design

  13. Study of Travelling Interplanetary Phenomena (STIP) workshop travel (United States)

    Wu, S. T.


    Thirty six abstracts are provided from the SCOSTEP/STIP Symposium on Retrospective Analyses and Future Coordinated Intervals held in Switzerland on June 10 to 12, 1985. Six American scientists participated in the symposium and their abstracts are also included. The titles of their papers are: (1) An analysis of near surface and coronal activity during STIP interval 12, by T. E. Gergely; (2) Helios images of STIP intervals 6, B. V. Jackson; (3) Results from the analysis of solar and interplanetary observations during STIP interval 7, S. R. Kane; (4) STIP interval 19, E. Cliver; (5) Hydrodynamic buoyancy force in the solar atmosphere, T. Yeh; and (6) A combined MHD modes for the energy and momentum transport from solar surface to interplanetary space, S. T. Wu.

  14. Global Optimization of Interplanetary Missions with, Hybrid Propulsion, Multi-Stage Spacecraft, Aerocapture, and Planetary Atmospheric Probes (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this IRAD is to expand the capability of Goddard’s interplanetary trajectory preliminary design tool, the Evolutionary Mission Trajectory Generator...

  15. Automated guidance algorithms for a space station-based crew escape vehicle. (United States)

    Flanary, R; Hammen, D G; Ito, D; Rabalais, B W; Rishikof, B H; Siebold, K H


    An escape vehicle was designed to provide an emergency evacuation for crew members living on a space station. For maximum escape capability, the escape vehicle needs to have the ability to safely evacuate a station in a contingency scenario such as an uncontrolled (e.g., tumbling) station. This emergency escape sequence will typically be divided into three events: The first separation event (SEP1), the navigation reconstruction event, and the second separation event (SEP2). SEP1 is responsible for taking the spacecraft from its docking port to a distance greater than the maximum radius of the rotating station. The navigation reconstruction event takes place prior to the SEP2 event and establishes the orbital state to within the tolerance limits necessary for SEP2. The SEP2 event calculates and performs an avoidance burn to prevent station recontact during the next several orbits. This paper presents the tools and results for the whole separation sequence with an emphasis on the two separation events. The first challenge includes collision avoidance during the escape sequence while the station is in an uncontrolled rotational state, with rotation rates of up to 2 degrees per second. The task of avoiding a collision may require the use of the Vehicle's de-orbit propulsion system for maximum thrust and minimum dwell time within the vicinity of the station vicinity. The thrust of the propulsion system is in a single direction, and can be controlled only by the attitude of the spacecraft. Escape algorithms based on a look-up table or analytical guidance can be implemented since the rotation rate and the angular momentum vector can be sensed onboard and a-priori knowledge of the position and relative orientation are available. In addition, crew intervention has been provided for in the event of unforeseen obstacles in the escape path. The purpose of the SEP2 burn is to avoid re-contact with the station over an extended period of time. Performing this maneuver requires

  16. Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle Development and Global Competitiveness of US Space Transportation Industry: Critical Success Factors Assessment (United States)

    Enyinda, Chris I.


    In response to the unrelenting call in both public and private sectors fora to reduce the high cost associated with space transportation, many innovative partially or fully RLV (Reusable Launch Vehicles) designs (X-34-37) were initiated. This call is directed at all levels of space missions including scientific, military, and commercial and all aspects of the missions such as nonrecurring development, manufacture, launch, and operations. According to Wertz, tbr over thirty years, the cost of space access has remained exceedingly high. The consensus in the popular press is that to decrease the current astronomical cost of access to space, more safer, reliable, and economically viable second generation RLVs (SGRLV) must be developed. Countries such as Brazil, India, Japan, and Israel are now gearing up to enter the global launch market with their own commercial space launch vehicles. NASA and the US space launch industry cannot afford to lag behind. Developing SGRLVs will immeasurably improve the US's space transportation capabilities by helping the US to regain the global commercial space markets while supporting the transportation capabilities of NASA's space missions, Developing the SGRLVs will provide affordable commercial space transportation that will assure the competitiveness of the US commercial space transportation industry in the 21st century. Commercial space launch systems are having difficulty obtaining financing because of the high cost and risk involved. Access to key financial markets is necessary for commercial space ventures. However, public sector programs in the form of tax incentives and credits, as well as loan guarantees are not yet available. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate discussion and assess the critical success factors germane for RLVs development and US global competitiveness.

  17. Distributed Model Predictive Control over Multiple Groups of Vehicles in Highway Intelligent Space for Large Scale System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tang Xiaofeng


    Full Text Available The paper presents the three time warning distances for solving the large scale system of multiple groups of vehicles safety driving characteristics towards highway tunnel environment based on distributed model prediction control approach. Generally speaking, the system includes two parts. First, multiple vehicles are divided into multiple groups. Meanwhile, the distributed model predictive control approach is proposed to calculate the information framework of each group. Each group of optimization performance considers the local optimization and the neighboring subgroup of optimization characteristics, which could ensure the global optimization performance. Second, the three time warning distances are studied based on the basic principles used for highway intelligent space (HIS and the information framework concept is proposed according to the multiple groups of vehicles. The math model is built to avoid the chain avoidance of vehicles. The results demonstrate that the proposed highway intelligent space method could effectively ensure driving safety of multiple groups of vehicles under the environment of fog, rain, or snow.

  18. Tracking a major interplanetary disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tappin, S.J.; Hewish, A.; Gapper, G.R.


    The severe geomagnetic storm which occurred during 27-29 August 1978 was remarkable because it arrived unexpectedly and was not related to a solar flare or long-lived coronal hole. Observations on 900 celestial radio sources show that the storm was associated with a large-scale region causing enhanced interplanetary scintillation which enveloped the Earth at the same time. The disturbance was first detected on 26 August, when the outer boundary had reached a distance of about 0.8 a.u. from the Sun and it was tracked until 30 August. The enhancement was followed by a fast solar wind stream and its shape suggests that it was a compression zone caused by the birth of the stream. (author)

  19. Operation and evaluation of the Terminal Configured Vehicle Mission Simulator in an automated terminal area metering and spacing ATC environment (United States)

    Houck, J. A.


    This paper describes the work being done at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Langley Research Center on the development of a mission simulator for use in the Terminal Configured Vehicle Program. A brief description of the goals and objectives of the Terminal Configured Vehicle Program is presented. A more detailed description of the Mission Simulator, in its present configuration, and its components is provided. Finally, a description of the first research study conducted in the Mission Simulator is presented along with a discussion of some preliminary results from this study.

  20. Minimum stiffness criteria for ring frame stiffeners of space launch vehicles (United States)

    Friedrich, Linus; Schröder, Kai-Uwe


    Frame stringer-stiffened shell structures show high load carrying capacity in conjunction with low structural mass and are for this reason frequently used as primary structures of aerospace applications. Due to the great number of design variables, deriving suitable stiffening configurations is a demanding task and needs to be realized using efficient analysis methods. The structural design of ring frame stringer-stiffened shells can be subdivided into two steps. One, the design of a shell section between two ring frames. Two, the structural design of the ring frames such that a general instability mode is avoided. For sizing stringer-stiffened shell sections, several methods were recently developed, but existing ring frame sizing methods are mainly based on empirical relations or on smeared models. These methods do not mandatorily lead to reliable designs and in some cases the lightweight design potential of stiffened shell structures can thus not be exploited. In this paper, the explicit physical behaviour of ring frame stiffeners of space launch vehicles at the onset of panel instability is described using mechanical substitute models. Ring frame stiffeners of a stiffened shell structure are sized applying existing methods and the method suggested in this paper. To verify the suggested method and to demonstrate its potential, geometrically non-linear finite element analyses are performed using detailed finite element models.

  1. Probabilistic risk assessment of the Space Shuttle. Phase 3: A study of the potential of losing the vehicle during nominal operation. Volume 2: Integrated loss of vehicle model (United States)

    Fragola, Joseph R.; Maggio, Gaspare; Frank, Michael V.; Gerez, Luis; Mcfadden, Richard H.; Collins, Erin P.; Ballesio, Jorge; Appignani, Peter L.; Karns, James J.


    The application of the probabilistic risk assessment methodology to a Space Shuttle environment, particularly to the potential of losing the Shuttle during nominal operation is addressed. The different related concerns are identified and combined to determine overall program risks. A fault tree model is used to allocate system probabilities to the subsystem level. The loss of the vehicle due to failure to contain energetic gas and debris, to maintain proper propulsion and configuration is analyzed, along with the loss due to Orbiter, external tank failure, and landing failure or error.

  2. A methodology for the validated design space exploration of fuel cell powered unmanned aerial vehicles (United States)

    Moffitt, Blake Almy

    Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are the most dynamic growth sector of the aerospace industry today. The need to provide persistent intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance for military operations is driving the planned acquisition of over 5,000 UAVs over the next five years. The most pressing need is for quiet, small UAVs with endurance beyond what is capable with advanced batteries or small internal combustion propulsion systems. Fuel cell systems demonstrate high efficiency, high specific energy, low noise, low temperature operation, modularity, and rapid refuelability making them a promising enabler of the small, quiet, and persistent UAVs that military planners are seeking. Despite the perceived benefits, the actual near-term performance of fuel cell powered UAVs is unknown. Until the auto industry began spending billions of dollars in research, fuel cell systems were too heavy for useful flight applications. However, the last decade has seen rapid development with fuel cell gravimetric and volumetric power density nearly doubling every 2--3 years. As a result, a few design studies and demonstrator aircraft have appeared, but overall the design methodology and vehicles are still in their infancy. The design of fuel cell aircraft poses many challenges. Fuel cells differ fundamentally from combustion based propulsion in how they generate power and interact with other aircraft subsystems. As a result, traditional multidisciplinary analysis (MDA) codes are inappropriate. Building new MDAs is difficult since fuel cells are rapidly changing in design, and various competitive architectures exist for balance of plant, hydrogen storage, and all electric aircraft subsystems. In addition, fuel cell design and performance data is closely protected which makes validation difficult and uncertainty significant. Finally, low specific power and high volumes compared to traditional combustion based propulsion result in more highly constrained design spaces that are

  3. Fuels and Space Propellants for Reusable Launch Vehicles: A Small Business Innovation Research Topic and Its Commercial Vision (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.


    Under its Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program (and with NASA Headquarters support), the NASA Lewis Research Center has initiated a topic entitled "Fuels and Space Propellants for Reusable Launch Vehicles." The aim of this project would be to assist in demonstrating and then commercializing new rocket propellants that are safer and more environmentally sound and that make space operations easier. Soon it will be possible to commercialize many new propellants and their related component technologies because of the large investments being made throughout the Government in rocket propellants and the technologies for using them. This article discusses the commercial vision for these fuels and propellants, the potential for these propellants to reduce space access costs, the options for commercial development, and the benefits to nonaerospace industries. This SBIR topic is designed to foster the development of propellants that provide improved safety, less environmental impact, higher density, higher I(sub sp), and simpler vehicle operations. In the development of aeronautics and space technology, there have been limits to vehicle performance imposed by traditionally used propellants and fuels. Increases in performance are possible with either increased propellant specific impulse, increased density, or both. Flight system safety will also be increased by the use of denser, more viscous propellants and fuels.

  4. Effectiveness of media awareness campaigns on the proportion of vehicles that give space to ambulances on roads: An observational study. (United States)

    Shaikh, Shiraz; Baig, Lubna A; Polkowski, Maciej


    The findings of the Health Care in Danger project in Karachi suggests that there is presence of behavioral negligence among vehicle operators on roads in regards to giving way to ambulances. A mass media campaign was conducted to raise people's awareness on the importance of giving way to ambulances. The main objective of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the campaign on increasing the proportion of vehicles that give way to ambulances. This was a quasi-experimental study that was based on before and after design. Three observation surveys were carried out in different areas of the city in Karachi, Pakistan before, during and after the campaign by trained observers who recorded their findings on a checklist. Each observation was carried out at three different times of the day for at least two days on each road. The relationship of the media campaign with regards to a vehicle giving space to an ambulance was calculated by means of odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using multivariate logistic regression. Overall, 245 observations were included in the analysis. Traffic congestion and negligence/resistance, by vehicles operators who were in front of the ambulance, were the two main reasons why ambulances were not given way. Other reasons include: sudden stops by minibuses and in the process causing obstruction, ambulances not rushing through to alert vehicle operators to give way and traffic interruption by VIP movement. After adjustment for site, time of day, type of ambulance and number of cars in front of the ambulance, vehicles during (OR=2.13, 95% CI=1.22-3.71, p=0.007) and after the campaign (OR=1.73, 95% CI=1.02-2.95, p=0.042) were significantly more likely give space to ambulances. Mass media campaigns can play a significant role in changing the negligent behavior of people, especially when the campaign conveys a humanitarian message such as: giving way to ambulances can save lives.

  5. Water and organics in interplanetary dust particles (United States)

    Bradley, John

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and larger micrometeorites (MMs) impinge on the upper atmosphere where they decelerate at 90 km altitude and settle to the Earths surface. Comets and asteroids are the major sources and the flux, 30,000-40,000 tons/yr, is comparable to the mass of larger meteorites impacting the Earths surface. The sedimentary record suggests that the flux was much higher on the early Earth. The chondritic porous (CP) subset of IDPs together with their larger counterparts, ultracarbonaceous micrometeorites (UCMMs), appear to be unique among known meteoritic materials in that they are composed almost exclusively of anhydrous minerals, some of them contain >> 50% organic carbon by volume as well as the highest abundances of presolar silicate grains including GEMS. D/H and 15N abundances implicate the Oort Cloud or presolar molecular cloud as likely sources of the organic carbon. Prior to atmospheric entry, IDPs and MMs spend 104-105 year lifetimes in solar orbit where their surfaces develop amorphous space weathered rims from exposure to the solar wind (SW). Similar rims are observed on lunar soil grains and on asteroid Itokawa regolith grains. Using valence electron energy-loss spectroscopy (VEELS) we have detected radiolytic water in the rims on IDPs formed by the interaction of solar wind protons with oxygen in silicate minerals. Therefore, IDPs and MMs continuously deliver both water and organics to the earth and other terrestrial planets. The interaction of protons with oxygen-rich minerals to form water is a universal process.

  6. Maneuverability Strategy for Assistive Maneuverability Strategy for Assistive Vehicles Navigating within Confined Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Auat Cheein


    Full Text Available In this work, a path planning strategy for both a car-like and a unicycle type assistive vehicles is presented. The assistive vehicles are confined to restricted environments. The path planning strategy uses the environment information to generate a kinematically plausible path to be followed by the vehicle. The environment information is provided by a SLAM (Simultaneous Localization and Mapping algorithm implemented on the vehicles. The map generated by the SLAM algorithm compensates the lack of sensor at the back of the vehicles' chassis. A Monte Carlo-based technique is used to find the optimum path given the SLAM information. A visual and user-friendly interface enhances the user-vehicle communication allowing him/her to select a desired position and orientation (pose that the vehicle should reach within the mapped environment. A trajectory controller drives the vehicle until it reaches a neighborhood of the desired pose. Several real-time experimental results within real environments are also shown herein.

  7. Practical Methodology for the Inclusion of Nonlinear Slosh Damping in the Stability Analysis of Liquid-Propelled Space Vehicles (United States)

    Ottander, John A.; Hall, Robert A.; Powers, J. F.


    A method is presented that allows for the prediction of the magnitude of limit cycles due to adverse control-slosh interaction in liquid propelled space vehicles using non-linear slosh damping. Such a method is an alternative to the industry practice of assuming linear damping and relying on: mechanical slosh baffles to achieve desired stability margins; accepting minimal slosh stability margins; or time domain non-linear analysis to accept time periods of poor stability. Sinusoidal input describing functional analysis is used to develop a relationship between the non-linear slosh damping and an equivalent linear damping at a given slosh amplitude. In addition, a more accurate analytical prediction of the danger zone for slosh mass locations in a vehicle under proportional and derivative attitude control is presented. This method is used in the control-slosh stability analysis of the NASA Space Launch System.

  8. LauncherOne: Virgin Orbit's Dedicated Launch Vehicle for Small Satellites & Impact to the Space Enterprise Vision (United States)

    Vaughn, M.; Kwong, J.; Pomerantz, W.

    Virgin Orbit is developing a space transportation service to provide an affordable, reliable, and responsive dedicated ride to orbit for smaller payloads. No longer will small satellite users be forced to make a choice between accepting the limitations of flight as a secondary payload, paying dramatically more for a dedicated launch vehicle, or dealing with the added complexity associated with export control requirements and international travel to distant launch sites. Virgin Orbit has made significant progress towards first flight of a new vehicle that will give satellite developers and operators a better option for carrying their small satellites into orbit. This new service is called LauncherOne (See the figure below). LauncherOne is a two stage, air-launched liquid propulsion (LOX/RP) rocket. Air launched from a specially modified 747-400 carrier aircraft (named “Cosmic Girl”), this system is designed to conduct operations from a variety of locations, allowing customers to select various launch azimuths and increasing available orbital launch windows. This provides small satellite customers an affordable, flexible and dedicated option for access to space. In addition to developing the LauncherOne vehicle, Virgin Orbit has worked with US government customers and across the new, emerging commercial sector to refine concepts for resiliency, constellation replenishment and responsive launch elements that can be key enables for the Space Enterprise Vision (SEV). This element of customer interaction is being led by their new subsidiary company, VOX Space. This paper summarizes technical progress made on LauncherOne in the past year and extends the thinking of how commercial space, small satellites and this new emerging market can be brought to bear to enable true space system resiliency.

  9. Solar events and their influence on the interplanetary medium (United States)

    Joselyn, Jo Ann

    The Workshop on Solar Events and Their Influence on the Interplanetary Medium very successfully met its goal “to foster interactions among colleagues, leading to an improved understanding of the unified relationship between solar events and interplanetary disturbances.” Organized by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Space Environment Laboratory and funded by the national Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Solar Maximum Mission Principal Investigators and the Space Environment Laboratory, this meeting was held held September 8—11, 1986, in Estes Park, Colo. A total of 94 scientists, including representatives from Argentina, Germany, Japan, France, Scotland, England, Australia, Poland, Israel, Greece, China and the United States attended. A novel meeting schedule was adopted, with no formal presentations other than a keynote address by Rainer Schwenn of the Max Planck Institut fur Aeronomie (Federal republic of Germany), entitled “Transients on the Sun and Their Effects on the Interplanetary Medium: An Interdisciplinary Challenge” a Gordon A. Newkirk Memorial talk on “Early History of the Coronagraph” by John Eddy of the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research Office of Interdisciplinary Earth Studies (Boulder, Colo.); and introductory and summary statements by working group leaders. Instead, there were three working groups, which met either independently or with one of the other groups according to a prearranged plan. Suggested roundtable discussion topics were distributed in advance to the members of each group, but primarily, each group was expected to think of questions for the other groups and respond to requests for information from them. As may be expected, for some topics there was group consensus. Other topics were contentious.

  10. Space engineering modeling and optimization with case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Pintér, János


    This book presents a selection of advanced case studies that cover a substantial range of issues and real-world challenges and applications in space engineering. Vital mathematical modeling, optimization methodologies and numerical solution aspects of each application case study are presented in detail, with discussions of a range of advanced model development and solution techniques and tools. Space engineering challenges are discussed in the following contexts: •Advanced Space Vehicle Design •Computation of Optimal Low Thrust Transfers •Indirect Optimization of Spacecraft Trajectories •Resource-Constrained Scheduling, •Packing Problems in Space •Design of Complex Interplanetary Trajectories •Satellite Constellation Image Acquisition •Re-entry Test Vehicle Configuration Selection •Collision Risk Assessment on Perturbed Orbits •Optimal Robust Design of Hybrid Rocket Engines •Nonlinear Regression Analysis in Space Engineering< •Regression-Based Sensitivity Analysis and Robust Design ...

  11. The Profile Envision and Splice Tool (PRESTO): Developing an Atmospheric Wind Analysis Tool for Space Launch Vehicles Using Python (United States)

    Orcutt, John M.; Barbre, Robert E., Jr.; Brenton, James C.; Decker, Ryan K.


    Tropospheric winds are an important driver of the design and operation of space launch vehicles. Multiple types of weather balloons and Doppler Radar Wind Profiler (DRWP) systems exist at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC), co-located on the United States Air Force's (USAF) Eastern Range (ER) at the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), that are capable of measuring atmospheric winds. Meteorological data gathered by these instruments are being used in the design of NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) and other space launch vehicles, and will be used during the day-of-launch (DOL) of SLS to aid in loads and trajectory analyses. For the purpose of SLS day-of-launch needs, the balloons have the altitude coverage needed, but take over an hour to reach the maximum altitude and can drift far from the vehicle's path. The DRWPs have the spatial and temporal resolutions needed, but do not provide complete altitude coverage. Therefore, the Natural Environments Branch (EV44) at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed the Profile Envision and Splice Tool (PRESTO) to combine balloon profiles and profiles from multiple DRWPs, filter the spliced profile to a common wavelength, and allow the operator to generate output files as well as to visualize the inputs and the spliced profile for SLS DOL operations. PRESTO was developed in Python taking advantage of NumPy and SciPy for the splicing procedure, matplotlib for the visualization, and Tkinter for the execution of the graphical user interface (GUI). This paper describes in detail the Python coding implementation for the splicing, filtering, and visualization methodology used in PRESTO.

  12. A Common Communications, Navigation and Surveillance Infrastructure for Accommodating Space Vehicles in the Next Generation Air Transportation System (United States)

    VanSuetendael, RIchard; Hayes, Alan; Birr, Richard


    Suborbital space flight and space tourism are new potential markets that could significantly impact the National Airspace System (NAS). Numerous private companies are developing space flight capabilities to capture a piece of an emerging commercial space transportation market. These entrepreneurs share a common vision that sees commercial space flight as a profitable venture. Additionally, U.S. space exploration policy and national defense will impose significant additional demands on the NAS. Air traffic service providers must allow all users fair access to limited airspace, while ensuring that the highest levels of safety, security, and efficiency are maintained. The FAA's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) will need to accommodate spacecraft transitioning to and from space through the NAS. To accomplish this, space and air traffic operations will need to be seamlessly integrated under some common communications, navigation and surveillance (CNS) infrastructure. As part of NextGen, the FAA has been developing the Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) which utilizes the Global Positioning System (GPS) to track and separate aircraft. Another key component of NextGen, System-Wide Information Management/ Network Enabled Operations (SWIM/NEO), is an open architecture network that will provide NAS data to various customers, system tools and applications. NASA and DoD are currently developing a space-based range (SBR) concept that also utilizes GPS, communications satellites and other CNS assets. The future SBR will have very similar utility for space operations as ADS-B and SWIM has for air traffic. Perhaps the FAA, NASA, and DoD should consider developing a common space-based CNS infrastructure to support both aviation and space transportation operations. This paper suggests specific areas of research for developing a CNS infrastructure that can accommodate spacecraft and other new types of vehicles as an integrated part of NextGen.

  13. Condition Based Maintenance of Space Exploration Vehicles Using Structural Health Monitoring, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Acellent Technologies proposes to develop an autonomous and automated diagnostic system for condition based maintenance (CBM) of safety critical structures for space...

  14. The Ares Launch Vehicles: Critical for America's Continued Leadership in Space (United States)

    Cook, Stephen A.


    This video is designed to accompany the presentation of the paper delivered at the Joint Army, Navy, NASA, Airforce (JANNAF) Propulsion Meeting held in 2009. It shows various scenes: from the construction of the A-3 test stand, construction of portions of the vehicles, through various tests of the components of the Ares Launch Vehicles, including wind tunnel testing of the Ares V, shell buckling tests, and thermal tests of the avionics, to the construction of the TPS thermal spray booth.

  15. Smart and secure charging of electric vehicles in public parking spaces


    Strobbe, Matthias; Mets, Kevin; Tahon, Mathieu; Tilman, M; Spiessens, F; Gheerardyn, J; De Craemer, K; Vandael, S; Geebelen, K; Lagaisse, B; Claessens, B; Develder, Chris


    Governments worldwide are starting to give incentives to promote the use of (hybrid) electrical vehicles to achieve cleaner and more energy-efficient road transport with a low carbon footprint. Through tax/VAT reductions and free additional services — such as free parking, and/or battery charging or lower traffic congestion taxes — private users, public organizations and car fleet operators are stimulated to adopt the plug-in (hybrid) electrical vehicle (PHEV). This upcoming breakthrough of P...

  16. Interplanetary Supply Chain Risk Management (United States)

    Galluzzi, Michael C.


    Emphasis on KSC ground processing operations, reduced spares up-mass lift requirements and campaign-level flexible path perspective for space systems support as Regolith-based ISM is achieved by; Network modeling for sequencing space logistics and in-space logistics nodal positioning to include feedstock. Economic modeling to assess ISM 3D printing adaption and supply chain risk.

  17. Standards and Specifications for Ground Processing of Space Vehicles: From an Aviation-Based Shuttle Project to Global Application (United States)

    Ingalls, John; Cipolletti, John


    Proprietary or unique designs and operations are expected early in any industry's development, and often provide a competitive early market advantage. However, there comes a time when a product or industry requires standardization for the whole industry to advance...or survive. For the space industry, that time has come. Here, we will focus on standardization of ground processing for space vehicles and their ground systems. With the retirement of the Space Shuttle, and emergence of a new global space race, affordability and sustainability are more important now than ever. The growing commercialization of the space industry and current global economic environment are driving greater need for efficiencies to save time and money. More RLV's (Reusable Launch Vehicles) are being developed for the gains of reusability not achievable with traditional ELV's (Expendable Launch Vehicles). More crew/passenger vehicles are also being developed. All of this calls for more attention needed for ground processing-repeatedly before launch and after landing/recovery. RLV's should provide more efficiencies than ELV's, as long as MRO (Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul) is well-planned-even for the unplanned problems. NASA's Space Shuttle is a primary example of an RLV which was supposed to thrive on reusability savings with efficient ground operations, but lessons learned show that costs were (and still are) much greater than expected. International standards and specifications can provide the commonality needed to simplify design and manufacturing as well as to improve safety, quality, maintenance, and operability. There are standards organizations engaged in the space industry, but ground processing is one of the areas least addressed. Challenges are encountered due to various factors often not considered during development. Multiple vehicle elements, sites, customers, and contractors pose various functional and integration difficulties. Resulting technical publication structures

  18. A Compendium of Wind Statistics and Models for the NASA Space Shuttle and Other Aerospace Vehicle Programs (United States)

    Smith, O. E.; Adelfang, S. I.


    The wind profile with all of its variations with respect to altitude has been, is now, and will continue to be important for aerospace vehicle design and operations. Wind profile databases and models are used for the vehicle ascent flight design for structural wind loading, flight control systems, performance analysis, and launch operations. This report presents the evolution of wind statistics and wind models from the empirical scalar wind profile model established for the Saturn Program through the development of the vector wind profile model used for the Space Shuttle design to the variations of this wind modeling concept for the X-33 program. Because wind is a vector quantity, the vector wind models use the rigorous mathematical probability properties of the multivariate normal probability distribution. When the vehicle ascent steering commands (ascent guidance) are wind biased to the wind profile measured on the day-of-launch, ascent structural wind loads are reduced and launch probability is increased. This wind load alleviation technique is recommended in the initial phase of vehicle development. The vehicle must fly through the largest load allowable versus altitude to achieve its mission. The Gumbel extreme value probability distribution is used to obtain the probability of exceeding (or not exceeding) the load allowable. The time conditional probability function is derived from the Gumbel bivariate extreme value distribution. This time conditional function is used for calculation of wind loads persistence increments using 3.5-hour Jimsphere wind pairs. These increments are used to protect the commit-to-launch decision. Other topics presented include the Shuttle Shuttle load-response to smoothed wind profiles, a new gust model, and advancements in wind profile measuring systems. From the lessons learned and knowledge gained from past vehicle programs, the development of future launch vehicles can be accelerated. However, new vehicle programs by their very

  19. Intermittent character of interplanetary magnetic field fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, Roberto; Carbone, Vincenzo; Chapman, Sandra; Hnat, Bogdan; Noullez, Alain; Sorriso-Valvo, Luca


    Interplanetary magnetic field magnitude fluctuations are notoriously more intermittent than velocity fluctuations in both fast and slow wind. This behavior has been interpreted in terms of the anomalous scaling observed in passive scalars in fully developed hydrodynamic turbulence. In this paper, the strong intermittent nature of the interplanetary magnetic field is briefly discussed comparing results performed during different phases of the solar cycle. The scaling properties of the interplanetary magnetic field magnitude show solar cycle variation that can be distinguished in the scaling exponents revealed by structure functions. The scaling exponents observed around the solar maximum coincide, within the errors, to those measured for passive scalars in hydrodynamic turbulence. However, it is also found that the values are not universal in the sense that the solar cycle variation may be reflected in dependence on the structure of the velocity field

  20. Multifrequency techniques for studying interplanetary scintillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, R.


    Rytov's approximation or the method of smooth perturbations is utilized to derive the temporal frequency spectra of the amplitude and phase fluctuations of multifrequency plane and spherical waves propagating in the interplanetary medium and solar corona. It is shown that multifrequency observations of interplanetary scintillations using either compact radio stars or spacecraft radio signals are desirable because the correlation of the multifrequency waves yields additional independent measurements of the solar wind and turbulence. Measurements of phase fluctuations are also desirable because, unlike amplitude fluctuations, they provide information on the full range of scale sizes for the electron density fluctuations. It is shown that a coherent dual-frequency radio system is particularly useful in making such measurements. In addition to providing a means for interpreting observations of multifrequency interplanetary scintillations, the analysis is also essential for estimating the effects of solar corona turbulence on the communications and navigation of a spacecraft whose line-of-sight path passes close to the Sun

  1. Outer Radiation Belt Dropout Dynamics Following the Arrival of Two Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (United States)

    Alves, L. R.; Da Silva, L. A.; Souza, V. M.; Sibeck, D. G.; Jauer, P. R.; Vieira, L. E. A.; Walsh, B. M.; Silveira, M. V. D.; Marchezi, J. P.; Rockenbach, M.; hide


    Magnetopause shadowing and wave-particle interactions are recognized as the two primary mechanisms for losses of electrons from the outer radiation belt. We investigate these mechanisms, sing satellite observations both in interplanetary space and within the magnetosphere and particle drift modeling. Two interplanetary shocks sheaths impinged upon the magnetopause causing a relativistic electron flux dropout. The magnetic cloud (C) and interplanetary structure sunward of the MC had primarily northward magnetic field, perhaps leading to a concomitant lack of substorm activity and a 10 day long quiescent period. The arrival of two shocks caused an unusual electron flux dropout. Test-particle simulations have shown 2 to 5 MeV energy, equatorially mirroring electrons with initial values of L 5.5can be lost to the magnetosheath via magnetopause shadowing alone. For electron losses at lower L-shells, coherent chorus wave-driven pitch angle scattering and ULF wave-driven radial transport have been shownto be viable mechanisms.

  2. Potential Cislunar and Interplanetary Proving Ground Excursion Trajectory Concepts (United States)

    McGuire, Melissa L.; Strange, Nathan J.; Burke, Laura M.; MacDonald, Mark A.; McElrath, Timothy P.; Landau, Damon F.; Lantoine, Gregory; Hack, Kurt J.; Lopez, Pedro


    NASA has been investigating potential translunar excursion concepts to take place in the 2020s that would be used to test and demonstrate long duration life support and other systems needed for eventual Mars missions in the 2030s. These potential trajectory concepts could be conducted in the proving ground, a region of cislunar and near-Earth interplanetary space where international space agencies could cooperate to develop the technologies needed for interplanetary spaceflight. Enabled by high power Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) technologies, the excursion trajectory concepts studied are grouped into three classes of increasing distance from the Earth and increasing technical difficulty: the first class of excursion trajectory concepts would represent a 90-120 day round trip trajectory with abort to Earth options throughout the entire length, the second class would be a 180-210 day round trip trajectory with periods in which aborts would not be available, and the third would be a 300-400 day round trip trajectory without aborts for most of the length of the trip. This paper provides a top-level summary of the trajectory and mission design of representative example missions of these three classes of excursion trajectory concepts.

  3. Interplanetary Magnetic Field Guiding Relativistic Particles (United States)

    Masson, S.; Demoulin, P.; Dasso, S.; Klein, K. L.


    The origin and the propagation of relativistic solar particles (0.5 to few Ge V) in the interplanetary medium remains a debated topic. These relativistic particles, detected at the Earth by neutron monitors have been previously accelerated close to the Sun and are guided by the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) lines, connecting the acceleration site and the Earth. Usually, the nominal Parker spiral is considered for ensuring the magnetic connection to the Earth. However, in most GLEs the IMF is highly disturbed, and the active regions associated to the GLEs are not always located close to the solar footprint of the nominal Parker spiral. A possible explanation is that relativistic particles are propagating in transient magnetic structures, such as Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs). In order to check this interpretation, we studied in detail the interplanetary medium where the particles propagate for 10 GLEs of the last solar cycle. Using the magnetic field and the plasma parameter measurements (ACE/MAG and ACE/SWEPAM), we found widely different IMF configurations. In an independent approach we develop and apply an improved method of the velocity dispersion analysis to energetic protons measured by SoHO/ERNE. We determined the effective path length and the solar release time of protons from these data and also combined them with the neutron monitor data. We found that in most of the GLEs, protons propagate in transient magnetic structures. Moreover, the comparison between the interplanetary magnetic structure and the interplanetary length suggest that the timing of particle arrival at Earth is dominantly determined by the type of IMF in which high energetic particles are propagating. Finally we find that these energetic protons are not significantly scattered during their transport to Earth.

  4. More space and improved living conditions in cities with autonomous vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugel, J.M.; Bal, Frans


    Many people live in cities today. Many more will do so in future. This increases the demand for space and (space for) transport. Space to expand roads is usually scarce. Building tunnels or elevated bridges is very expensive. Solving one bottleneck creates another bottleneck downstream. More road

  5. More space and improved living conditions in cities with autonomous vehicles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vleugel, J.M.; Bal, Frans


    Many people live in cities today. Many more will do so in future. This increases the demand for space and (space for) transport. Space to expand roads is usually scarce. Building tunnels or elevated bridges is very expensive. Solving one bottleneck creates a next bottleneck downstream. More road

  6. 3D Path Planning for Autonomous Aerial Vehicles in Constrained Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schøler, Flemming

    , this planner uses a more analytical approach since it relies on combinations of optimal curves. Both planners operate on an explicit description of the configuration space in a work space containing 3D obstacles. A method was developed that generates convex configuration space obstacles from any point clouds...

  7. Evolution of coronal and interplanetary magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, R.H.


    Numerous studies have provided the detailed information necessary for a substantive synthesis of the empirical relation between the magnetic field of the sun and the structure of the interplanetary field. The author points out the latest techniques and studies of the global solar magnetic field and its relation to the interplanetary field. The potential to overcome most of the limitations of present methods of analysis exists in techniques of modelling the coronal magnetic field using observed solar data. Such empirical models are, in principle, capable of establishing the connection between a given heliospheric point and its magnetically-connected photospheric point, as well as the physical basis for the connection. (Auth.)

  8. Geometrical Relationship Between Interplanetary Flux Ropes and Their Solar Sources (United States)

    Marubashi, K.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.; Gopalswamy, N.; Cho, K.-S.; Park, Y.-D.


    We investigated the physical connection between interplanetary flux ropes (IFRs) near Earth and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) by comparing the magnetic field structures of IFRs and CME source regions. The analysis is based on the list of 54 pairs of ICMEs (interplanetary coronal mass ejections) and CMEs that are taken to be the most probable solar source events. We first attempted to identify the flux rope structure in each of the 54 ICMEs by fitting models with a cylinder and torus magnetic field geometry, both with a force-free field structure. This analysis determined the possible geometries of the identified flux ropes. Then we compared the flux rope geometries with the magnetic field structure of the solar source regions. We obtained the following results: (1) Flux rope structures are seen in 51 ICMEs out of the 54. The result implies that all ICMEs have an intrinsic flux rope structure, if the three exceptional cases are attributed to unfavorable observation conditions. (2) It is possible to find flux rope geometries with the main axis orientation close to the orientation of the magnetic polarity inversion line (PIL) in the solar source regions, the differences being less than 25°. (3) The helicity sign of an IFR is strongly controlled by the location of the solar source: flux ropes with positive (negative) helicity are associated with sources in the southern (northern) hemisphere (six exceptions were found). (4) Over two-thirds of the sources in the northern hemisphere are concentrated along PILs with orientations of 45° ± 30° (measured clockwise from the east), and over two-thirds in the southern hemisphere along PILs with orientations of 135° ± 30°, both corresponding to the Hale boundaries. These results strongly support the idea that a flux rope with the main axis parallel to the PIL erupts in a CME and that the erupted flux rope propagates through the interplanetary space with its orientation maintained and is observed as an IFR.

  9. Forecasting Space Weather Hazards for Astronauts in Deep Space (United States)

    Martens, P. C.


    Deep Space Gateway provides a unique platform to develop, calibrate, and test a space weather forecasting system for interplanetary travel in a real life setting. We will discuss requirements and design of such a system.

  10. Soft Spaces as Vehicles for Neoliberal Transformations of Strategic Spatial Planning?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Kristian

    focused on the lack of transparency and potential democratic deficits of contemporary spatial planning. Limited critical attention has been paid to how policy agendas are being shaped and reshaped in soft spaces, and how these agendas seek to influence formal planning arenas. These questions seem...... spatial planning practices. This paper seeks to broaden the soft space debate in a European context by offering an account of the emergence of soft spaces in Danish spatial planning. The paper analyses how spatial strategy-making is carried out at the scale of two new soft spaces emerging in Danish...... spatial planning at subnational scales. In these soft spaces, the paper explores how policy agendas are being shaped and reshaped, and how these agendas seek to influence formal planning arenas. The central argument running through this paper is that soft spaces in neoliberal political climates might...

  11. Onboard radiation shielding estimates for interplanetary manned missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totemeier, A.; Jevremovic, T.; Hounshel, D.


    The main focus of space related shielding design is to protect operating systems, personnel and key structural components from outer space and onboard radiation. This paper summarizes the feasibility of a lightweight neutron radiation shield design for a nuclear powered, manned space vehicle. The Monte Carlo code MCNP5 is used to determine radiation transport characteristics of the different materials and find the optimized shield configuration. A phantom torso encased in air is used to determine a dose rate for a crew member on the ship. Calculation results indicate that onboard shield against neutron radiation coming from nuclear engine can be achieved with very little addition of weight to the space vehicle. The selection of materials and neutron transport analysis as presented in this paper are useful starting data to design shield against neutrons generated when high-energy particles from outer space interact with matter on the space vehicle. (authors)

  12. Novel High Temperature Magnetic Bearings for Space Vehicle Systems, Phase II (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Previous high temperature magnetic bearings employed electromagnets only. The work proposed in this SBIR program seeks to utilize High Temperature Permanent Magnets...

  13. Novel High Temperature Magnetic Bearings for Space Vehicle Systems, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Previous high temperature magnetic bearings employed only electromagnets. The work proposed in this SBIR program seeks to utilize High Temperature Permanent Magnets...

  14. Geomagnetic response to solar and interplanetary disturbances

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Saiz, E.; Cerrato, Y.; Cid, C.; Dobrica, V.; Hejda, Pavel; Nenovski, P.; Stauning, P.; Bochníček, Josef; Danov, D.; Demetrescu, C.; Gonzalez, W. D.; Maris, G.; Teodosiev, D.; Valach, F.


    Roč. 3, July (2013), A26/1-A26/20 ISSN 2115-7251 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OC09070 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : solar activity * interplanetary medium * indices * ionosphere (general) * ring current Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 2.519, year: 2013

  15. Analysis Of Interplanetary Phenomenon, Geomagnetic And ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The storm was found to be a double step storm with the first Dstmin resulting mainly from ring current injection due to increase in solar wind density while magnetospheric convection electric field played the leading role in the development of the second Dstmin . The analysis of the interplanetary and foF2 data show that the ...

  16. Sector boundary distortion in the interplanetary medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suess, S.T.; Feynman, J.


    We address the theoretical problem of the effect of a solar wind meridional velocity gradient on the orientation, or tipping, of a line embedded within the interplanetary plasma. We find that rotations of from 30degree to 75degree, between 1.5 solar radii and I AU, are produced when observed values for the solar wind velocity and its meridional gradient are used. This is not a small effect, nor is it difficult to calculate: it is a natural consequence of any meridional velocity gradient in the interplanetary medium. In relating this result to observed sector boundaries we note that the latitude dependence of the width of interplanetary magnetic sectors (dominant polarity or Rosenberg-Coleman effect) implies that sector boundaries at I AU are generally inclined at an angle of from 10degree to 20degree to the solar equatorial plane. Conversely, studies of photospheric magnetic fields have led to the conclusion that sector boundaries near the sun are, on the average, at large angles (approx.90degree) to the solar equatorial plane. If the dominant polarity effect were to be produced by rotation in the interplanetary medium, the sign of the solar wind meridional velocity gradient must not change at the equator, but the gradient does have to change sign for +/- boundary crossings in comparison to -/+ boundary crossings

  17. Multiple Model-Based Synchronization Approaches for Time Delayed Slaving Data in a Space Launch Vehicle Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haryong Song


    Full Text Available Due to the inherent characteristics of the flight mission of a space launch vehicle (SLV, which is required to fly over very large distances and have very high fault tolerances, in general, SLV tracking systems (TSs comprise multiple heterogeneous sensors such as radars, GPS, INS, and electrooptical targeting systems installed over widespread areas. To track an SLV without interruption and to hand over the measurement coverage between TSs properly, the mission control system (MCS transfers slaving data to each TS through mission networks. When serious network delays occur, however, the slaving data from the MCS can lead to the failure of the TS. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose multiple model-based synchronization (MMS approaches, which take advantage of the multiple motion models of an SLV. Cubic spline extrapolation, prediction through an α-β-γ filter, and a single model Kalman filter are presented as benchmark approaches. We demonstrate the synchronization accuracy and effectiveness of the proposed MMS approaches using the Monte Carlo simulation with the nominal trajectory data of Korea Space Launch Vehicle-I.

  18. Counterstreaming electrons in small interplanetary magnetic flux ropes (United States)

    Feng, H. Q.; Zhao, G. Q.; Wang, J. M.


    Small interplanetary magnetic flux ropes (SIMFRs) are commonly observed by spacecraft at 1 AU, and their origin still remains disputed. We investigated the counterstreaming suprathermal electron (CSE) signatures of 106 SIMFRs measured by Wind during 1995-2005. We found that 79 (75%) of the 106 flux ropes contain CSEs, and the percentages of counterstreaming vary from 8% to 98%, with a mean value of 51%. CSEs are often observed in magnetic clouds (MCs), and this indicates these MCs are still attached to the Sun at both ends. CSEs are also related to heliospheric current sheets (HCSs) and the Earth's bow shock. We divided the SIMFRs into two categories: The first category is far from HCSs, and the second category is in the vicinity of HCSs. The first category has 57 SIMFRs, and only 7 of 57 ropes have no CSEs. This ratio is similar to that of MCs. The second category has 49 SIMFRs; however, 20 of the 49 events have no CSEs. This ratio is larger than that of MCs. These two categories have different origins. One category originates from the solar corona, and most ropes are still connected to the Sun at both ends. The other category is formed near HCSs in the interplanetary space.

  19. Design of cryogenic tanks for space vehicles shell structures analytical modeling (United States)

    Copper, Charles; Mccarthy, K.; Pilkey, W. D.; Haviland, J. K.


    The initial objective was to study the use of superplastically formed corrugated hat section stringers and frames in place of integrally machined stringers over separate frames for the tanks of large launch vehicles subjected to high buckling loads. The ALS was used as an example. The objective of the follow-on project was to study methods of designing shell structures subjected to severe combinations of structural loads and thermal gradients, with emphasis on new combinations of structural arrangements and materials. Typical applications would be to fuselage sections of high speed civil transports and to cryogenic tanks on the National Aerospace Plane.

  20. Definition of technology development missions for early space station, orbit transfer vehicle servicing, volume 2 (United States)


    Propellant transfer, storage, and reliquefaction TDM; docking and berthing technology development mission; maintenance technology development mission; OTV/payload integration, space station interface/accommodations; combined TDM conceptual design; programmatic analysis; and TDM equipment usage are discussed.

  1. The VISTA spacecraft: Advantages of ICF [Inertial Confinement Fusion] for interplanetary fusion propulsion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, C.D.; Klein, G.; Sercel, J.; Hoffman, N.; Murray, K.; Chang-Diaz, F.


    Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) is an attractive engine power source for interplanetary manned spacecraft, especially for near-term missions requiring minimum flight duration, because ICF has inherent high power-to-mass ratios and high specific impulses. We have developed a new vehicle concept called VISTA that uses ICF and is capable of round-trip manned missions to Mars in 100 days using A.D. 2020 technology. We describe VISTA's engine operation, discuss associated plasma issues, and describe the advantages of DT fuel for near-term applications. Although ICF is potentially superior to non-fusion technologies for near-term interplanetary transport, the performance capabilities of VISTA cannot be meaningfully compared with those of magnetic-fusion systems because of the lack of a comparable study of the magnetic-fusion systems. We urge that such a study be conducted

  2. Energy Management of the Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicle Using a Goal-Oriented Control System (United States)

    Braman, Julia M. B.; Wagner, David A.


    Safe human exploration in space missions requires careful management of limited resources such as breathable air and stored electrical energy. Daily activities for astronauts must be carefully planned with respect to such resources, and usage must be monitored as activities proceed to ensure that they can be completed while maintaining safe resource margins. Such planning and monitoring can be complex because they depend on models of resource usage, the activities being planned, and uncertainties. This paper describes a system - and the technology behind it - for energy management of the NASA-Johnson Space Center's Multi-Mission Space Exploration Vehicles (SEV), that provides, in an onboard advisory mode, situational awareness to astronauts and real-time guidance to mission operators. This new capability was evaluated during this year's Desert RATS (Research and Technology Studies) planetary exploration analog test in Arizona. This software aided ground operators and crew members in modifying the day s activities based on the real-time execution of the plan and on energy data received from the rovers.

  3. Interplanetary Alfvenic fluctuations: A stochastic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, A.


    The strong alignment of the average directions of minimum magnetic variance and mean magnetic field in interplanetary Alfvenic fluctuations is inconsistent with the usual wave-propagation models. We investigate the concept of minimum variance for nonplanar Alfvenic fluctuations in which the field direction varies stochastically. It is found that the tendency of the minimum variance and mean field directions to be aligned may be purely a consequence of the randomness of the field direction. In particular, a well-defined direction of minimum variance does not imply that the fluctuations are necessarily planar. The fluctuation power spectrum is a power law for frequencies much higher than the inverse of the correlation time. The probability distribution of directions a randomly fluctuating field of constant magnitude is calculated. A new approach for observational studies of interplanetary fluctuations is suggested

  4. 77 FR 23463 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and... (United States)


    ... survival.'' Regulations governing the taking of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), by harassment, and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) (adults by harassment and pups by injury or mortality), incidental to space... required timeframe and the report is posted on NMFS Web site:

  5. Space shuttle launch vehicle performance trajectory, exchange ratios, and dispersion analysis (United States)

    Toelle, R. G.; Blackwell, D. L.; Lott, L. N.


    A baseline space shuttle performance trajectory for Mission 3A launched from WTR has been generated. Design constraints of maximum dynamic pressure, longitudinal acceleration, and delivered payload were satisfied. Payload exchange ratios are presented with explanation on use. Design envelopes of dynamic pressure, SRB staging point, aerodynamic heating and flight performance reserves are calculated and included.

  6. Forecasting intense geomagnetic activity using interplanetary magnetic field data (United States)

    Saiz, E.; Cid, C.; Cerrato, Y.


    Southward interplanetary magnetic fields are considered traces of geoeffectiveness since they are a main agent of magnetic reconnection of solar wind and magnetosphere. The first part of this work revises the ability to forecast intense geomagnetic activity using different procedures available in the literature. The study shows that current methods do not succeed in making confident predictions. This fact led us to develop a new forecasting procedure, which provides trustworthy results in predicting large variations of Dst index over a sample of 10 years of observations and is based on the value Bz only. The proposed forecasting method appears as a worthy tool for space weather purposes because it is not affected by the lack of solar wind plasma data, which usually occurs during severe geomagnetic activity. Moreover, the results obtained guide us to provide a new interpretation of the physical mechanisms involved in the interaction between the solar wind and the magnetosphere using Faraday's law.

  7. Geoeffectiveness of interplanetary shocks controlled by impact angles: A review (United States)

    Oliveira, D. M.; Samsonov, A. A.


    The high variability of the Sun's magnetic field is responsible for the generation of perturbations that propagate throughout the heliosphere. Such disturbances often drive interplanetary shocks in front of their leading regions. Strong shocks transfer momentum and energy into the solar wind ahead of them which in turn enhance the solar wind interaction with magnetic fields in its way. Shocks then eventually strike the Earth's magnetosphere and trigger a myriad of geomagnetic effects observed not only by spacecraft in space, but also by magnetometers on the ground. Recently, it has been revealed that shocks can show different geoeffectiveness depending closely on the angle of impact. Generally, frontal shocks are more geoeffective than inclined shocks, even if the former are comparatively weaker than the latter. This review is focused on results obtained from modeling and experimental efforts in the last 15 years. Some theoretical and observational background are also provided.

  8. Doppler frequency in interplanetary radar and general relativity (United States)

    Mcvittie, G. C.


    The change of frequency of an interplanetary radar signal sent from the earth to another planet or to a space probe is worked out according to general relativity. The Schwarzschild spacetime is employed and its null geodesics control the motion of the signals. Exact Doppler frequency formulas are derived for one-way and two-way radar in terms of an arbitrary Schwarzschild radial coordinate. A reduction to the special relativity case is used to interpret the formulas in terms of the relative radial velocity of emitter and target. The general relativity corrections are worked out approximately for each of three possible Schwarzschild radial coordinates, and a numerical example is given. The amount of the correction is different according as one or the other of the Schwarzschild coordinates is identified with the radius vector deduced from classical celestial mechanics. The identification problem is discussed.

  9. Vehicle Based Vector Sensor (United States)


    buoyant underwater vehicle with an interior space in which a length of said underwater vehicle is equal to one tenth of the acoustic wavelength...underwater vehicle with an interior space in which a length of said underwater vehicle is equal to one tenth of the acoustic wavelength; an...unmanned underwater vehicle that can function as an acoustic vector sensor. (2) Description of the Prior Art [0004] It is known that a propagating

  10. Interplanetary cosmic-ray scintillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toptygin, I N; Vasiliev, V N [Kalininskij Sel' skokhozyajstvennyj Inst. (USSR)


    The equation for the two-particles cosmic-ray distribution function is derived by means of the Boltzmann kinetic equation averaging. This equation is valid for arbitrary ratio of regular and random parts of the magnetic field. For small energy particles the guiding-center approximation is used. On the basis of the derived equation the dependence between power spectra of cosmic-ray intensity and random magnetic field is obtained. If power spectra are degree functions for high energy particles (approximately 10 GeV nucleon/sup -1/), then the spectral exponent ..gamma.. of magnetic field lies between rho and rho-2, where rho is the spectral exponent of cosmic-ray power spectra. The experimental data concerning moderate energy particles are in accordance with ..gamma..=rho, which demonstrates that the magnetic fluctuations are isotropic or cosmic-ray space gradient is small near the Earth orbit.

  11. Big savings from small holes. [Liquid Droplet Radiator project for space vehicles (United States)

    White, Alan


    The status and results to date of the NASA-Lewis/USAF Astronautics study of technology for large spacecraft heat-dissipation by means of liquid-droplet radiation (LDR) are discussed. The LDR concept uses a droplet generator to create billions of 200-micron droplets of a heatsink fluid which will cool through radiation into deep space as they fly toward a dropet collector. This exposure to the space environment entails the maintenance of vapor pressure as low as 10 to the -7th torr; the fluid must also be very stable chemically. While certain oils are good fluids for LDR use at low temperatures, higher-temperature heatsink fluids include Li, Sn, and Ga liquid metals.

  12. Definition of a near real time microbiological monitor for space vehicles (United States)

    Kilgore, Melvin V., Jr.; Zahorchak, Robert J.; Arendale, William F.


    Efforts to identify the ideal candidate to serve as the biological monitor on the space station Freedom are discussed. The literature review, the evaluation scheme, descriptions of candidate monitors, experimental studies, test beds, and culture techniques are discussed. Particular attention is given to descriptions of five candidate monitors or monitoring techniques: laser light scattering, primary fluorescence, secondary fluorescence, the volatile product detector, and the surface acoustic wave detector.

  13. U.S. Access to Space Launch Vehicle Choices for 1990-2010 (United States)


    own study of future space goals included a range of options such as increased study of the Earth, unmanned explorr-.oi. of the Solar System, and human...and activity beyond Earth orbit into the solar system.ř This could result in the establishment of a permanently manned lunar base, expeditions to...6, -8, -11, and -14 derived from ballistic missile systems and the SI,12, -13, and -16. The SL-X.17 booster, ’ Energia ," is still undergoing flight

  14. Human Factors and Information Operation for a Nuclear Power Space Vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Brown-Van Hoozer, S. Alenka


    This paper describes human-interactive systems needed for a crew nuclear-enabled space mission. A synthesis of aircraft engine and nuclear power plant displays, biofeedback of sensory input, virtual control, brain mapping for control process and manipulation, and so forth are becoming viable solutions. These aspects must maintain the crew's situation awareness and performance, which entails a delicate function allocation between crew and automation. (authors)

  15. The Ares Launch Vehicles: Critical Capabilities for America's Continued Leadership in Space (United States)

    Cook, Stephen A.


    The Constellation Program renews the nation's commitment to human space exploration a) Access to ISS. b) Human explorers to the Moon and beyond. c) Large telescopes and other hardware to LEO . Hardware is being built today. Development made easier by applying lessons learned from 50 years of spaceflight experience. Ares V heavy-lift capability will be a strategic asset for the nation. Constellation provides a means for world leadership through inspiration and strategic capability.

  16. Coherent Doppler lidar for automated space vehicle rendezvous, stationkeeping and capture (United States)

    Bilbro, James A.


    The inherent spatial resolution of laser radar makes ladar or lidar an attractive candidate for Automated Rendezvous and Capture application. Previous applications were based on incoherent lidar techniques, requiring retro-reflectors on the target vehicle. Technology improvements (reduced size, no cryogenic cooling requirement) have greatly enhanced the construction of coherent lidar systems. Coherent lidar permits the acquisition of non-cooperative targets at ranges that are limited by the detection capability rather than by the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) requirements. The sensor can provide translational state information (range, velocity, and angle) by direct measurement and, when used with any array detector, also can provide attitude information by Doppler imaging techniques. Identification of the target is accomplished by scanning with a high pulse repetition frequency (dependent on the SNR). The system performance is independent of range and should not be constrained by sun angle. An initial effort to characterize a multi-element detection system has resulted in a system that is expected to work to a minimum range of 1 meter. The system size, weight and power requirements are dependent on the operating range; 10 km range requires a diameter of 3 centimeters with overall size at 3 x 3 x 15 to 30 cm, while 100 km range requires a 30 cm diameter.

  17. Interplanetary stream magnetism: Kinematic effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlaga, L.F.; Barouch, E.


    The particle density, and the magnetic field intensity and direction, are calculated for volume elements of the solar wind as a function of the initial magnetic field direction, Phi 0 , and the initial speed gradient, (deltaV/deltaR) 0 . It is assumed that the velocity is constant and radial. These assumptions are approximately valid between approx.0.1 and 1.0 AU for many streams. Time profiles of n, B, and V are calculated for corotating streams, neglecting effects of pressure gradients. The compression and rarefaction of B depend sensitively on Phi 0 . By averaging over a typical stream, it is found that approx.r -2 , whereas does not vary in a simple way, consistent with deep space observations. Changes of field direction may be very large, depending on the initial angle; but when the initial angle at 0.1 Au is such that the base of the field line corotates with the Sun, the spiral angle is the preferred direction at 1 AU. The theory is also applicable to nonstationary flows

  18. Development of SPIES (Space Intelligent Eyeing System) for smart vehicle tracing and tracking (United States)

    Abdullah, Suzanah; Ariffin Osoman, Muhammad; Guan Liyong, Chua; Zulfadhli Mohd Noor, Mohd; Mohamed, Ikhwan


    SPIES or Space-based Intelligent Eyeing System is an intelligent technology which can be utilized for various applications such as gathering spatial information of features on Earth, tracking system for the movement of an object, tracing system to trace the history information, monitoring driving behavior, security and alarm system as an observer in real time and many more. SPIES as will be developed and supplied modularly will encourage the usage based on needs and affordability of users. SPIES are a complete system with camera, GSM, GPS/GNSS and G-Sensor modules with intelligent function and capabilities. Mainly the camera is used to capture pictures and video and sometimes with audio of an event. Its usage is not limited to normal use for nostalgic purpose but can be used as a reference for security and material of evidence when an undesirable event such as crime occurs. When integrated with space based technology of the Global Navigational Satellite System (GNSS), photos and videos can be recorded together with positioning information. A product of the integration of these technologies when integrated with Information, Communication and Technology (ICT) and Geographic Information System (GIS) will produce innovation in the form of information gathering methods in still picture or video with positioning information that can be conveyed in real time via the web to display location on the map hence creating an intelligent eyeing system based on space technology. The importance of providing global positioning information is a challenge but overcome by SPIES even in areas without GNSS signal reception for the purpose of continuous tracking and tracing capability

  19. Mid-Infrared Spectrum of the Zodiacal Emission: Detection of Crystalline Silicates in Interplanetary Dust (United States)

    Ootsubo, T.; Onaka, T.; Yamamura, I.; Ishihara, D.; Tanabe, T.; Roellig, T. L.


    Within a few astronomical units of the Sun the solar system is filled with interplanetary dust, which is believed to be dust of cometary and asteroidal origin. Spectroscopic observations of the zodiacal emission with moderate resolution provide key information on the composition and size distribution of the dust in the interplanetary space. They can be compared directly to laboratory measurements of candidate materials, meteorites, and dust particles collected in the stratosphere. Recently mid-infrared spectroscopic observations of the zodiacal emission have been made by two instruments on board the Infrared Space Observatory; the camera (ISOCAM) and the spectrophotometer (ISOPHOT-S). A broad excess emission feature in the 9-11 micron range is reported in the ISOCAM spectrum, whereas the ISOPHOT-S spectra in 6-12 microns can be well fitted by a blackbody radiation without spectral features.

  20. Estimating the Effects of Astronaut Career Ionizing Radiation Dose Limits on Manned Interplanetary Flight Programs (United States)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Rojdev, Kristina; Valle, Gerard D.; Zipay, John J.; Atwell, William S.


    The Hybrid Inflatable DSH combined with electric propulsion and high power solar-electric power systems offer a near TRL-now solution to the space radiation crew dose problem that is an inevitable aspect of long term manned interplanetary flight. Spreading program development and launch costs over several years can lead to a spending plan that fits with NASA's current and future budgetary limitations, enabling early manned interplanetary operations with space radiation dose control, in the near future while biomedical research, nuclear electric propulsion and active shielding research and development proceed in parallel. Furthermore, future work should encompass laboratory validation of HZETRN calculations, as previous laboratory investigations have not considered large shielding thicknesses and the calculations presented at these thicknesses are currently performed via extrapolation.

  1. Space Vehicle Flight Mechanics (La Mecanique du Vol des Vehicules Spatiaux) (United States)


    Space Telescope, an astrophysics spacelab mission, Astro , the Gamma Ray Observatory, Spacelab Life Sciences -1 and ESA/NASA Ulysses. The Great...all the hardware/avionics subsystems, the flight software, and the astro - nauts. Here, the software and the interfaces can be thoroughly checked out...rm6di ai re de Il’angl e G ,(F,,, Fz,)~ = h,, 7 (171) de rotatioa des axes lies 5 la Terre F ,U3P rapport aux axes Fxc ; (Fg.30. Iqest la vitesse de

  2. Definition of a near real-time microbiological monitor for application in space vehicles (United States)

    Kilgore, Melvin V., Jr.; Zahorchak, Robert J.; Arendale, William F.; Woodward, Samuel S.; Pierson, Duane L.


    The concepts and methodologies for microbiological monitoring in space are examined, focusing on the determination of the requirements of a near real-time microbiological monitor. Results are presented from the technical evaluation of five microbiological monitor concepts, including cultural methods, single cell detection, biomolecular detection, specific product detection, and general molecular composition. Within these concepts, twenty-eight specific methodolgies were assessed and the five candidate methodologies with the highest engineering and feasibility scores were selected for further evaluations. The candidate methodologies are laser light scattering, primary fluorescence, secondary fluorescence, volatile product detection, and electronic particle detection. The advantages and disadvantages of these five candidate methodologies are discussed.

  3. Automation of vibroacoustic data bank for random vibration criteria development. [for the space shuttle and launch vehicles (United States)

    Ferebee, R. C.


    A computerized data bank system was developed for utilization of large amounts of vibration and acoustic data to formulate component random vibration design and test criteria. This system consists of a computer, graphics tablet, and a dry-silver hard copier which are all desk-top type hardware and occupy minimal space. The data bank contains data from the Saturn V and Titan III flight and static test programs. The vibration and acoustic data are stored in the form of power spectral density and one-third octave band plots over the frequency range from 20 to 2000 Hz. The data was stored by digitizing each spectral plot by tracing with the graphics tablet. The digitized data was statistically analyzed and the resulting 97.5% probability levels were stored on tape along with the appropriate structural parameters. Standard extrapolation procedures were programmed for prediction of component random vibration test criteria for new launch vehicle and payload configurations. This automated vibroacoustic data bank system greatly enhances the speed and accuracy of formulating vibration test criteria. In the future, the data bank will be expanded to include all data acquired from the space shuttle flight test program.

  4. A Space-Time Network-Based Modeling Framework for Dynamic Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Routing in Traffic Incident Monitoring Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisheng Zhang


    Full Text Available It is essential for transportation management centers to equip and manage a network of fixed and mobile sensors in order to quickly detect traffic incidents and further monitor the related impact areas, especially for high-impact accidents with dramatic traffic congestion propagation. As emerging small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs start to have a more flexible regulation environment, it is critically important to fully explore the potential for of using UAVs for monitoring recurring and non-recurring traffic conditions and special events on transportation networks. This paper presents a space-time network- based modeling framework for integrated fixed and mobile sensor networks, in order to provide a rapid and systematic road traffic monitoring mechanism. By constructing a discretized space-time network to characterize not only the speed for UAVs but also the time-sensitive impact areas of traffic congestion, we formulate the problem as a linear integer programming model to minimize the detection delay cost and operational cost, subject to feasible flying route constraints. A Lagrangian relaxation solution framework is developed to decompose the original complex problem into a series of computationally efficient time-dependent and least cost path finding sub-problems. Several examples are used to demonstrate the results of proposed models in UAVs’ route planning for small and medium-scale networks.

  5. On the use of a pulsed nuclear thermal rocket for interplanetary travel


    Arias Montenegro, Francisco Javier


    The object of this work is a first assessment of the use of a pulsed nuclear thermal rocket for thrust and specific impulse (Isp) augmentation with particular reference to interplanetary travel. The basis of the novel space propulsion idea is the possibility of working in a bimodal fashion where the classical stationary nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) could be switch on or switch off as a pulsed reactor as desired by the mission planners. It was found that the key factor for Isp augmentation ...

  6. Migration of Interplanetary Dust and Comets (United States)

    Ipatov, S. I.; Mather, J. C.

    Our studies of migration of interplanetary dust and comets were based on the results of integration of the orbital evolution of 15,000 dust particles and 30,000 Jupiter-family comets (JFCs) [1-3]. For asteroidal and cometary particles, the values of the ratio β between the radiation pressure force and the gravitational force varied from 1000 and 1 microns. The probability of a collision of a dust particle started from an asteroid or JFC with the Earth during a lifetime of the particle was maximum at diameter d ˜100 microns. For particles started from asteroids and comet 10P, this maximum probability was ˜0.01. Different studies of migration of dust particles and small bodies testify that the fraction of cometary dust particles of the overall dust population inside Saturn's orbit is considerable and can be dominant: (1) Cometary dust particles produced both inside and outside Jupiter's orbit are needed to explain the observed constant number density of dust particles at 3-18 AU. The number density of migrating trans-Neptunian particles near Jupiter's orbit is smaller by a factor of several than that beyond Saturn's orbit. Only a small fraction of asteroidal particles can get outside Jupiter's orbit. (2) Some (less than 0.1%) JFCs can reach typical near-Earth object orbits and remain there for millions of years. Dynamical lifetimes of most of the former JFCs that have typical near-Earth object orbits are about 106 -109 yr, so during most of these times they were extinct comets. Such former comets could disintegrate and produce a lot of mini-comets and dust. (3) Comparison of the velocities of zodiacal dust particles (velocities of MgI line) based on the distributions of particles over their orbital elements obtained in our runs [3-4] with the velocities obtained at the WHAM observations shows that only asteroidal dust particles cannot explain these observations, and particles produced by comets, including high-eccentricity comets, are needed for such explanation

  7. Near noise field characteristics of Nike rocket motors for application to space vehicle payload acoustic qualification (United States)

    Hilton, D. A.; Bruton, D.


    Results of a series of noise measurements that were made under controlled conditions during the static firing of two Nike solid propellant rocket motors are presented. The usefulness of these motors as sources for general spacecraft noise testing was assessed, and the noise expected in the cargo bay of the orbiter was reproduced. Brief descriptions of the Nike motor, the general procedures utilized for the noise tests, and representative noise data including overall sound pressure levels, one third octave band spectra, and octave band spectra were reviewed. Data are presented on two motors of different ages in order to show the similarity between noise measurements made on motors having different loading dates. The measured noise from these tests is then compared to that estimated for the space shuttle orbiter cargo bay.

  8. The Ultimate Destination: Choice of Interplanetary Exploration Path can define Future of Interstellar Spaceflight (United States)

    Silin, D. V.

    Manned interstellar spaceflight is facing multiple challenges of great magnitude; among them are extremely large distances and the lack of known habitable planets other than Earth. Many of these challenges are applicable to manned space exploration within the Solar System to the same or lesser degree. If these issues are resolved on an interplanetary scale, better position to pursue interstellar exploration can be reached. However, very little progress (if any) was achieved in manned space exploration since the end of Space Race. There is no lack of proposed missions, but all of them require considerable technological and financial efforts to implement while yielding no tangible benefits that would justify their costs. To overcome this obstacle highest priority in future space exploration plans should be assigned to the creation of added value in outer space. This goal can be reached if reductions in space transportation, construction and maintenance of space-based structures costs are achieved. In order to achieve these requirements several key technologies have to be mastered, such as near-Earth object mining, space- based manufacturing, agriculture and structure assembly. To keep cost and difficulty under control next exploration steps can be limited to nearby destinations such as geostationary orbit, low lunar orbit, Moon surface and Sun-Earth L1 vicinity. Completion of such a program will create a solid foundation for further exploration and colonization of the Solar System, solve common challenges of interplanetary and interstellar spaceflight and create useful results for the majority of human population. Another important result is that perception of suitable destinations for interstellar missions will change significantly. If it becomes possible to create habitable and self-sufficient artificial environments in the nearby interplanetary space, Earth-like habitable planets will be no longer required to expand beyond our Solar System. Large fraction of the

  9. Realizing "2001: A Space Odyssey": Piloted Spherical Torus Nuclear Fusion Propulsion (United States)

    Williams, Craig H.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Juhasz, Albert J.


    A conceptual vehicle design enabling fast, piloted outer solar system travel was created predicated on a small aspect ratio spherical torus nuclear fusion reactor. The initial requirements were satisfied by the vehicle concept, which could deliver a 172 mt crew payload from Earth to Jupiter rendezvous in 118 days, with an initial mass in low Earth orbit of 1,690 mt. Engineering conceptual design, analysis, and assessment was performed on all major systems including artificial gravity payload, central truss, nuclear fusion reactor, power conversion, magnetic nozzle, fast wave plasma heating, tankage, fuel pellet injector, startup/re-start fission reactor and battery bank, refrigeration, reaction control, communications, mission design, and space operations. Detailed fusion reactor design included analysis of plasma characteristics, power balance/utilization, first wall, toroidal field coils, heat transfer, and neutron/x-ray radiation. Technical comparisons are made between the vehicle concept and the interplanetary spacecraft depicted in the motion picture 2001: A Space Odyssey.

  10. Commercially-driven human interplanetary propulsion systems: Rationale, concept, technology, and performance requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.H.; Borowski, S.K.


    Previous studies of human interplanetary missions are largely characterized by long trip times, limited performance capabilities, and enormous costs. Until these missions become dramatically more open-quote open-quote commercial-friendly close-quote close-quote, their funding source and rationale will be restricted to national governments and their political/scientific interests respectively. A rationale is discussed for human interplanetary space exploration predicated on the private sector. Space propulsion system requirements are identified for interplanetary transfer times of no more than a few weeks/months to and between the major outer planets. Nuclear fusion is identified as the minimum requisite space propulsion technology. A conceptual design is described and evolutionary catalyzed-DD to DHe 3 fuel cycles are proposed. Magnetic nozzles for direct thrust generation and quantifying the operational aspects of the energy exchange mechanisms between high energy reaction products and neutral propellants are identified as two of the many key supporting technologies essential to satisfying system performance requirements. Government support of focused, breakthrough technologies is recommended at funding levels appropriate to other ongoing federal research. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  11. Nuclear interactions of cosmic rays with the Mars atmosphere and rocks according to data of the Mars-5 space vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surkov, Yu A; Moskaleva, L P; Kharyukova, V P; Borodin, A M [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Geokhimii i Analiticheskoj Khimii


    Gamma-spectra of Mars have been analyzed measured by the ''Mars-5'' interplanetary station at the altitude of approximately 200 km over the planet. A model spectrum of the Mars atmosphere gamma-radiation obtained earlier has been employed for obtaining cosmo-chemical information of the Mars rocks. In the energy range of gamma radiation Esub(..gamma..)(>=)2.6 MeV, in which no contribution of gamma radiation of natural radioisotopes is present, the best agreement has been obtained for the spectrum of gamma-radiation induced by cosmic rays in rocks of the type of earthly basalts.

  12. Simulating the Effect of Space Vehicle Environments on Directional Solidification of a Binary Alloy (United States)

    Westra, D. G.; Heinrich, J. C.; Poirier, D. R.


    Space microgravity missions are designed to provide a microgravity environment for scientific experiments, but these missions cannot provide a perfect environment, due to vibrations caused by crew activity, on-board experiments, support systems (pumps, fans, etc.), periodic orbital maneuvers, and water dumps. Therefore, it is necessary to predict the impact of these vibrations on space experiments, prior to performing them. Simulations were conducted to study the effect of the vibrations on the directional solidification of a dendritic alloy. Finite element ca!cu!attie?ls were dme with a simd2titcr based on a continuum model of dendritic solidification, using the Fractional Step Method (FSM). The FSM splits the solution of the momentum equation into two steps: the viscous intermediate step, which does not enforce continuity; and the inviscid projection step, which calculates the pressure and enforces continuity. The FSM provides significant computational benefits for predicting flows in a directionally solidified alloy, compared to other methods presently employed, because of the efficiency gains in the uncoupled solution of velocity and pressure. finite differences, arises when the interdendritic liquid reaches the eutectic temperature and concentration. When a node reaches eutectic temperature, it is assumed that the solidification of the eutectic liquid continues at constant temperature until all the eutectic is solidified. With this approach, solidification is not achieved continuously across an element; rather, the element is not considered solidified until the eutectic isotherm overtakes the top nodes. For microgravity simulations, where the convection is driven by shrinkage, it introduces large variations in the fluid velocity. When the eutectic isotherm reaches a node, all the eutectic must be solidified in a short period, causing an abrupt increase in velocity. To overcome this difficulty, we employed a scheme to numerically predict a more accurate value

  13. MRV - Modular Robotic Vehicle (United States)

    Ridley, Justin; Bluethmann, Bill


    The Modular Robotic Vehicle, or MRV, completed in 2013, was developed at the Johnson Space Center in order to advance technologies which have applications for future vehicles both in space and on Earth. With seating for two people, MRV is a fully electric vehicle modeled as a "city car", suited for busy urban environments.

  14. Distributed Interplanetary Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network (DTN) Monitor and Control System (United States)

    Wang, Shin-Ywan


    The main purpose of Distributed interplanetary Delay Tolerant Network Monitor and Control System as a DTN system network management implementation in JPL is defined to provide methods and tools that can monitor the DTN operation status, detect and resolve DTN operation failures in some automated style while either space network or some heterogeneous network is infused with DTN capability. In this paper, "DTN Monitor and Control system in Deep Space Network (DSN)" exemplifies a case how DTN Monitor and Control system can be adapted into a space network as it is DTN enabled.

  15. Autonomous aerobraking for low-cost interplanetary missions (United States)

    Carrelli, David; O'Shaughnessy, Daniel; Strikwerda, Thomas; Kaidy, James; Prince, Jill; Powell, Richard


    Aerobraking has previously been used to reduce the propellant required to deliver an orbiter to its desired final orbit. In principle, aerobraking should be possible around any target planet or moon having sufficient atmosphere to permit atmospheric drag to provide a portion of the mission ΔV, in lieu of supplying all of the required ΔV propulsively. The spacecraft is flown through the upper atmosphere of the target using multiple passes, ensuring that the dynamic pressure and thermal loads remain within the spacecraft's design parameters. NASA has successfully conducted aerobraking operations four times, once at Venus and three times at Mars. While aerobraking reduces the fuel required, it does so at the expense of time (typically 3-6 months), continuous Deep Space Network (DSN) coverage, and a large ground staff. These factors can result in aerobraking being a very expensive operational phase of the mission. However, aerobraking has matured to the point that much of the daily operation could potentially be performed autonomously onboard the spacecraft, thereby reducing the required ground support and attendant aerobraking related costs. To facilitate a lower-risk transition from ground processing to an autonomous capability, the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) has assembled a team of experts in aerobraking and interplanetary guidance and control to develop a high-fidelity, flight-like simulation. This simulation will be used to demonstrate the overall feasibility while exploring the potential for staff and DSN coverage reductions that autonomous aerobraking might provide. This paper reviews the various elements of autonomous aerobraking and presents an overview of the various models and algorithms that must be transformed from the current ground processing methodology to a flight-like environment. Additionally the high-fidelity flight software test bed, being developed from models used in a recent interplanetary mission, will be summarized.

  16. Using Pre-melted Phase Change Material to Keep Payload Warm without Power for Hours in Space (United States)

    Choi, Michael K.


    During a payload transition from the transport vehicle to its worksite on the International Space Station (ISS), the payload is unpowered for up to 6 hours. Its radiator(s) will continue to radiate heat to space. It is necessary to make up the heat loss to maintain the payload temperature above the cold survival limit. Typically an interplanetary Probe has no power generation system. It relies on its battery to provide limited power for the Communication and Data Handling (C&DH) subsystem during cruise, and heater power is unavailable. It is necessary to maintain the C&DH temperature above the minimum operating limit. This paper presents a novel thermal design concept that utilizes phase change material (PCM) to store thermal energy by melting it before the payload or interplanetary Probe is unpowered. For the ISS, the PCM is melted by heaters just prior to the payload transition from the transport vehicle to its worksite. For an interplanetary Probe, the PCM is melted by heaters just prior to separation from the orbiter. The PCM releases thermal energy to keep the payload warm for several hours after power is cut off.

  17. Study of optimum propellant production facilities for launch of space shuttle vehicles (United States)

    Laclair, L. M.


    An integrated propellant manufacturing plant and distribution system located at Kennedy Space Center is studied. The initial planned propellant and pressurant production amounted to 160 tons/day (TPD) LH2, 10 TPD GH2, 800 TPD LO2, 400 TPD LN2, and 120 TPD GN2. This was based on a shuttle launch frequency of 104 per year. During the study, developments occurred which may lower cryogen requirements. A variety of plant and processing equipment sizes and costs are considered for redundancy and supply level considerations. Steam reforming is compared to partial oxidation as a means of generating hydrogen. Electric motors, steam turbines, and gas turbines are evaluated for driving compression equipment. Various sites on and off Government property are considered to determine tradeoffs between costs and problems directly associated with the site, product delivery and storage costs, raw material costs, and energy costs. Coproduction of other products such as deuterium, methanol, and ammonia are considered. Legal questions are discussed concerning a private company's liabilities and its rights to market commercial products under Government tax and cost shelters.

  18. The near-Earth and interplanetary plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al'pert, Y.L.


    This monograph is an extensive revision and expansion of the original paper which first appeared in 1976 in the encyclopedia, Handbuch der Physik. It presents a detailed and comprehensive treatment of wave processes and of the motion of bodies through plasma around moving bodies such as artificial satellites, and with natural plasma waves and oscillations. Contents, abridged: General properties of the near-Earth and interplanetary plasma. Refractive indexes of cold magnetoplasma. Growth rates for the different oscillation branches. Nonlinear effects in a plasma. Group velocity, trajectories, and trapping of electromagnetic waves in a magnetoplasma. Indexes

  19. Nonthermal Radiation Processes in Interplanetary Plasmas (United States)

    Chian, A. C. L.


    RESUMEN. En la interacci6n de haces de electrones energeticos con plasmas interplanetarios, se excitan ondas intensas de Langmuir debido a inestabilidad del haz de plasma. Las ondas Langmuir a su vez interaccio nan con fluctuaciones de densidad de baja frecuencia para producir radiaciones. Si la longitud de las ondas de Langmujr exceden las condicio nes del umbral, se puede efectuar la conversi5n de modo no lineal a on- das electromagneticas a traves de inestabilidades parametricas. As se puede excitar en un plasma inestabilidades parametricas electromagneticas impulsadas por ondas intensas de Langmuir: (1) inestabilidades de decaimiento/fusi5n electromagnetica impulsadas por una bomba de Lang- muir que viaja; (2) inestabilidades dobles electromagneticas de decai- miento/fusi5n impulsadas por dos bombas de Langrnuir directamente opues- tas; y (3) inestabilidades de dos corrientes oscilatorias electromagne- ticas impulsadas por dos bombas de Langmuir de corrientes contrarias. Se concluye que las inestabilidades parametricas electromagneticas in- ducidas por las ondas de Langmuir son las fuentes posibles de radiacio- nes no termicas en plasmas interplanetarios. ABSTRACT: Nonthermal radio emissions near the local electron plasma frequency have been detected in various regions of interplanetary plasmas: solar wind, upstream of planetary bow shock, and heliopause. Energetic electron beams accelerated by solar flares, planetary bow shocks, and the terminal shock of heliosphere provide the energy source for these radio emissions. Thus, it is expected that similar nonthermal radiation processes may be responsible for the generation of these radio emissions. As energetic electron beams interact with interplanetary plasmas, intense Langmuir waves are excited due to a beam-plasma instability. The Langmuir waves then interact with low-frequency density fluctuations to produce radiations near the local electron plasma frequency. If Langmuir waves are of sufficiently large

  20. Coherent Doppler lidar for automated space vehicle, rendezvous, station-keeping and capture (United States)

    Dunkin, James A.


    Recent advances in eye-safe, short wavelength solid-state lasers offer real potential for the development of compact, reliable, light-weight, efficient coherent lidar. Laser diode pumping of these devices has been demonstrated, thereby eliminating the need for flash lamp pumping, which has been a major drawback to the use of these lasers in space based applications. Also these lasers now have the frequency stability required to make them useful in coherent lidar, which offers all of the advantages of non-coherent lidar, but with the additional advantage that direct determination of target velocity is possible by measurement of the Doppler shift. By combining the Doppler velocity measurement capability with the inherent high angular resolution and range accuracy of lidar it is possible to construct Doppler images of targets for target motion assessment. A coherent lidar based on a Tm,Ho:YAG 2-micrometer wavelength laser was constructed and successfully field tested on atmospheric targets in 1990. This lidar incorporated an all solid state (laser diode pumped) master oscillator, in conjunction with a flash lamp pumped slave oscillator. Solid-state laser technology is rapidly advancing, and with the advent of high efficiency, high power, semiconductor laser diodes as pump sources, all-solid-state, coherent lidars are a real possibility in the near future. MSFC currently has a feasibility demonstration effort under way which will involve component testing, and preliminary design of an all-solid-state, coherent lidar for automatic rendezvous, and capture. This two year effort, funded by the Director's Discretionary Fund is due for completion in 1992.

  1. Motion of the sources for type II and type IV radio bursts and flare-associated interplanetary disturbances (United States)

    Sakurai, K.; Chao, J. K.


    Shock waves are indirectly observed as the source of type II radio bursts, whereas magnetic bottles are identified as the source of moving metric type IV radio bursts. The difference between the expansion speeds of these waves and bottles is examined during their generation and propagation near the flare regions. It is shown that, although generated in the explosive phase of flares, the bottles behave quite differently from the waves and that the bottles are generally much slower than the waves. It has been suggested that the waves are related to flare-associated interplanetary disturbances which produce SSC geomagnetic storms. These disturbances may, therefore, be identified as interplanetary shock waves. The relationship among magnetic bottles, shock waves near the sun, and flare-associated disturbances in interplanetary space is briefly discussed.

  2. Evolution and interaction of large interplanetary streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whang, Y.C.; Burlaga, L.F.


    A computer simulation for the evolution and interaction of large interplanetary streams based on multi-spacecraft observations and an unsteady, one-dimensional MHD model is presented. Two events, each observed by two or more spacecraft separated by a distance of the order of 10 AU, were studied. The first simulation is based on the plasma and magnetic field observations made by two radially-aligned spacecraft. The second simulation is based on an event observed first by Helios-1 in May 1980 near 0.6 AU and later by Voyager-1 in June 1980 at 8.1 AU. These examples show that the dynamical evolution of large-scale solar wind structures is dominated by the shock process, including the formation, collision, and merging of shocks. The interaction of shocks with stream structures also causes a drastic decrease in the amplitude of the solar wind speed variation with increasing heliocentric distance, and as a result of interactions there is a large variation of shock-strengths and shock-speeds. The simulation results shed light on the interpretation for the interaction and evolution of large interplanetary streams. Observations were made along a few limited trajectories, but simulation results can supplement these by providing the detailed evolution process for large-scale solar wind structures in the vast region not directly observed. The use of a quantitative nonlinear simulation model including shock merging process is crucial in the interpretation of data obtained in the outer heliosphere

  3. Remarks on transport theories of interplanetary fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Zhou; Matthaeus, W.H.


    The structure of approximate transport theories for the radial behavior of interplanetary fluctuations is reconsidered. The emphasis is on theories derived under the assumption of scale separation; i.e., the correlation length of the fluctuations is much less than the scale of large inhomogeneities. In these cases the zero-wavelength limit provides a first approximation to the spectral evolution equations for the radial dependence of interplanetary fluctuation spectra. The goal here is to investigate the structure of a recently presented (Zhou and Matthaeus, 1989) transport theory, in which coupling of inward- and outward-type fluctuations appears in the leading order, an effect the authors call mixing. In linear theory, mixing-type couplings of inward-type and outward-type waves are formally a nonresonant effect. However, leading order mixing terms do not vanish at zero wavelength for fluctuations that vary nearly perpendicular to the local magnetic field, or when the mean magnetic field is weak. Leading order mixing terms also survive when the dispersion relation fails and there is a nonunique relationship between frequency and wave number. The former case corresponds to nearly two-dimensional structures; these are included, for example, in isotropic models of turbulence. The latter instance occurs when wave-wave couplings are sufficiently strong. Thus there are a variety of situations in which leading order mixing effects are expected to be present

  4. Performance Evaluation of Target Detection with a Near-Space Vehicle-Borne Radar in Blackout Condition. (United States)

    Li, Yanpeng; Li, Xiang; Wang, Hongqiang; Deng, Bin; Qin, Yuliang


    Radar is a very important sensor in surveillance applications. Near-space vehicle-borne radar (NSVBR) is a novel installation of a radar system, which offers many benefits, like being highly suited to the remote sensing of extremely large areas, having a rapidly deployable capability and having low vulnerability to electronic countermeasures. Unfortunately, a target detection challenge arises because of complicated scenarios, such as nuclear blackout, rain attenuation, etc. In these cases, extra care is needed to evaluate the detection performance in blackout situations, since this a classical problem along with the application of an NSVBR. However, the existing evaluation measures are the probability of detection and the receiver operating curve (ROC), which cannot offer detailed information in such a complicated application. This work focuses on such requirements. We first investigate the effect of blackout on an electromagnetic wave. Performance evaluation indexes are then built: three evaluation indexes on the detection capability and two evaluation indexes on the robustness of the detection process. Simulation results show that the proposed measure will offer information on the detailed performance of detection. These measures are therefore very useful in detecting the target of interest in a remote sensing system and are helpful for both the NSVBR designers and users.

  5. Estimation of position and velocity for a low dynamic vehicle in near space using nonresolved photometric and astrometric data. (United States)

    Jing, Nan; Li, Chuang; Chong, Yaqin


    An estimation method for indirectly observable parameters for a typical low dynamic vehicle (LDV) is presented. The estimation method utilizes apparent magnitude, azimuth angle, and elevation angle to estimate the position and velocity of a typical LDV, such as a high altitude balloon (HAB). In order to validate the accuracy of the estimated parameters gained from an unscented Kalman filter, two sets of experiments are carried out to obtain the nonresolved photometric and astrometric data. In the experiments, a HAB launch is planned; models of the HAB dynamics and kinematics and observation models are built to use as time update and measurement update functions, respectively. When the HAB is launched, a ground-based optoelectronic detector is used to capture the object images, which are processed using aperture photometry technology to obtain the time-varying apparent magnitude of the HAB. Two sets of actual and estimated parameters are given to clearly indicate the parameter differences. Two sets of errors between the actual and estimated parameters are also given to show how the estimated position and velocity differ with respect to the observation time. The similar distribution curve results from the two scenarios, which agree within 3σ, verify that nonresolved photometric and astrometric data can be used to estimate the indirectly observable state parameters (position and velocity) for a typical LDV. This technique can be applied to small and dim space objects in the future.

  6. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells for space and electric vehicle applications: From basic research to technology development (United States)

    Srinivasan, Supramaniam; Mukerjee, Sanjeev; Parthasarathy, A.; CesarFerreira, A.; Wakizoe, Masanobu; Rho, Yong Woo; Kim, Junbom; Mosdale, Renaut A.; Paetzold, Ronald F.; Lee, James


    The proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is one of the most promising electrochemical power sources for space and electric vehicle applications. The wide spectrum of R&D activities on PEMFC's, carried out in our Center from 1988 to date, is as follows (1) Electrode Kinetic and Electrocatalysis of Oxygen Reduction; (2) Optimization of Structures of Electrodes and of Membrane and Electrode Assemblies; (3) Selection and Evaluation of Advanced Proton Conducting Membranes and of Operating Conditions to Attain High Energy Efficiency; (4) Modeling Analysis of Fuel Cell Performance and of Thermal and Water Management; and (5) Engineering Design and Development of Multicell Stacks. The accomplishments on these tasks may be summarized as follows: (1) A microelectrode technique was developed to determine the electrode kinetic parameters for the fuel cell reactions and mass transport parameters for the H2 and O2 reactants in the proton conducting membrane. (2) High energy efficiencies and high power densities were demonstrated in PEMFCs with low platinum loading electrodes (0.4 mg/cm(exp 2) or less), advanced membranes and optimized structures of membrane and electrode assemblies, as well as operating conditions. (3) The modeling analyses revealed methods to minimize mass transport limitations, particularly with air as the cathodic reactant; and for efficient thermal and water management. (4) Work is in progress to develop multi-kilowatt stacks with the electrodes containing low platinum loadings.

  7. Design of Fuzzy Enhanced Hierarchical Motion Stabilizing Controller of Unmanned Ground Vehicle in Three DimensionalSpace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Ma


    Full Text Available In this paper, stabilizing control of tracked unmanned ground vehicle in 3-D space was presented. Firstly, models of major modules of tracked UGV were established. Next, to reveal the mechanism of disturbances applied on the UGV, two kinds of representative disturbances (slope and general disturbances in yaw motion were discussed in depth. Consequently, an attempting PID method was employed to compensate the impacts of disturbances andsimulation results proved the validity for disturbance incited by slope force, but revealed the lack for general disturbance on yaw motion. Finally, a hierarchical fuzzy controller combined with PID controller was proposed. In lower level, there were two PID controllers to compensate the disturbance of slope force, and on top level, the fuzzy logic controller was employed to correct the yaw motion error based on the differences between the model and the real UGV, which was able to guide the UGV maintain on the stable state. Simulation results demonstrated the excellent effectiveness of the newly designed controller.

  8. Multi-objective trajectory optimization of Space Manoeuvre Vehicle using adaptive differential evolution and modified game theory (United States)

    Chai, Runqi; Savvaris, Al; Tsourdos, Antonios; Chai, Senchun


    Highly constrained trajectory optimization for Space Manoeuvre Vehicles (SMV) is a challenging problem. In practice, this problem becomes more difficult when multiple mission requirements are taken into account. Because of the nonlinearity in the dynamic model and even the objectives, it is usually hard for designers to generate a compromised trajectory without violating strict path and box constraints. In this paper, a new multi-objective SMV optimal control model is formulated and parameterized using combined shooting-collocation technique. A modified game theory approach, coupled with an adaptive differential evolution algorithm, is designed in order to generate the pareto front of the multi-objective trajectory optimization problem. In addition, to improve the quality of obtained solutions, a control logic is embedded in the framework of the proposed approach. Several existing multi-objective evolutionary algorithms are studied and compared with the proposed method. Simulation results indicate that without driving the solution out of the feasible region, the proposed method can perform better in terms of convergence ability and convergence speed than its counterparts. Moreover, the quality of the pareto set generated using the proposed method is higher than other multi-objective evolutionary algorithms, which means the newly proposed algorithm is more attractive for solving multi-criteria SMV trajectory planning problem.

  9. The Soyuz launch vehicle the two lives of an engineering triumph

    CERN Document Server

    Lardier, Christian


    The Soyuz launch vehicle has had a long and illustrious history. Built as the world's first intercontinental missile, it took the first man into space in April 1961, before becoming the workhorse of Russian spaceflight, launching satellites, interplanetary probes, every cosmonaut from Gagarin onwards, and, now, the multinational crews of the International Space Station. This remarkable book gives a complete and accurate description of the two lives of Soyuz, chronicling the cooperative space endeavor of Europe and Russia. First, it takes us back to the early days of astronautics, when technology served politics. From archives found in the Soviet Union the authors describe the difficulty of designing a rocket in the immediate post-war period. Then, in Soyuz's golden age, it launched numerous scientific missions and manned flights which were publicized worldwide while the many more numerous military missions were kept highly confidential! The second part of the book tells the contemporary story of the second li...

  10. Role and design options of a logistics vehicle to support European and international space infrastructures in low earth orbit (United States)

    Apel, U.; Ress, R.


    Design options for a low-cost logistic vehicle for transporting uploads in LEO are discussed. Preferable design features based on mission requirements and constraints are identified and it is shown that the ATV currently under study has a suitable design for such a vehicle.

  11. Laser-fusion rocket for interplanetary propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyde, R.A.


    A rocket powered by fusion microexplosions is well suited for quick interplanetary travel. Fusion pellets are sequentially injected into a magnetic thrust chamber. There, focused energy from a fusion Driver is used to implode and ignite them. Upon exploding, the plasma debris expands into the surrounding magnetic field and is redirected by it, producing thrust. This paper discusses the desired features and operation of the fusion pellet, its Driver, and magnetic thrust chamber. A rocket design is presented which uses slightly tritium-enriched deuterium as the fusion fuel, a high temperature KrF laser as the Driver, and a thrust chamber consisting of a single superconducting current loop protected from the pellet by a radiation shield. This rocket can be operated with a power-to-mass ratio of 110 W gm -1 , which permits missions ranging from occasional 9 day VIP service to Mars, to routine 1 year, 1500 ton, Plutonian cargo runs

  12. Suprathermal protons in the interplanetary solar wind (United States)

    Goodrich, C. C.; Lazarus, A. J.


    Using the Mariner 5 solar wind plasma and magnetic field data, we present observations of field-aligned suprathermal proton velocity distributions having pronounced high-energy shoulders. These observations, similar to the interpenetrating stream observations of Feldman et al. (1974), are clear evidence that such proton distributions are interplanetary rather than bow shock associated phenomena. Large Alfven speed is found to be a requirement for the occurrence of suprathermal proton distribution; further, we find the proportion of particles in the shoulder to be limited by the magnitude of the Alfven speed. It is suggested that this last result could indicate that the proton thermal anisotropy is limited at times by wave-particle interactions

  13. Motion of shocks through interplanetary streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burlaga, L.F.; Scudder, J.D.


    A model for the motion of flare-generated shocks through interplanetary streams is presented, illustrating the effects of a stream-shock interaction on the shock strength and geometry. It is a gas dynamic calculation based on Whitham's method and on an empirical approximation for the relevant characteristics of streams. The results show that the Mach number of a shock can decrease appreciably to near unity in the interaction region ahead of streams and that the interaction of a spherically symmetric shock with a spiral-shaped corotating stream can cause significant distortions of the initial shock front geometry. The geometry of the February 15--16, 1967, shock discussed by Lepping and Chao (1972) is qualitatively explained by this model

  14. Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections detected by HAWC (United States)

    Lara, Alejandro

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is being constructed at the volcano Sierra Negra (4100 m a.s.l.) in Mexico. HAWC’s primary purpose is the study of both: galactic and extra-galactic sources of high energy gamma rays. HAWC will consist of 300 large water Cherenkov detectors (WCD), instrumented with 1200 photo-multipliers. The Data taking has already started while construction continues, with the completion projected for late 2014. The HAWC counting rate will be sensitive to cosmic rays with energies above the geomagnetic cutoff of the site (˜ 8 GV). In particular, HAWC will detect solar energetic particles known as Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs), and the effects of Coronal Mass Ejections on the galactic cosmic ray flux, known as Forbush Decreases. In this paper, we present a description of the instrument and its response to interplanetary coronal mass ejections, and other solar wind large scale structures, observed during the August-December 2013 period.

  15. Type III bursts in interplanetary space - Fundamental or harmonic? (United States)

    Dulk, G. A.; Steinberg, J. L.; Hoang, S.


    ISEE-3 spacecraft observation of 120 relatively simple, isolated bursts in the 30-1980 kHz range are the basis of the present study of Type III bursts in the solar wind. Several characteristics are identified for many of these bursts which imply that the mode of emission changes from predominantly fundamental plasma radiation during the rise phase to predominantly second harmonic during decay. The fundamental emission begins in time coincidence with the start of Langmuir waves, confirming the conventional belief in these waves' causation of Type III bursts. Attention is given to the characteristics of fundamental components, by comparison to harmonics, at km-wavelengths.

  16. Results of investigations conducted in the LaRC 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel using the 0.010-scale 72-OTS model of the space shuttle integrated vehicle (IA93), volume 2 (United States)

    Nichols, M. E.


    Test procedures, history, and plotted coefficient data are presented for an aero-loads investigation on the updated configuration-5 space shuttle launch vehicle at Mach numbers from 0.600 to 1.205. Six-component vehicle forces and moments, base and sting-cavity pressures, elevon hinge moments, wing-root bending and torsion moments, and normal shear force data were obtained. Full simulation of updated vehicle protuberances and attach hardware was employed.

  17. Interplanetary Radiation and Internal Charging Environment Models for Solar Sails (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Altstatt, Richard L.; NeegaardParker, Linda


    A Solar Sail Radiation Environment (SSRE) model has been developed for defining charged particle environments over an energy range from 0.01 keV to 1 MeV for hydrogen ions, helium ions, and electrons. The SSRE model provides the free field charged particle environment required for characterizing energy deposition per unit mass, charge deposition, and dose rate dependent conductivity processes required to evaluate radiation dose and internal (bulk) charging processes in the solar sail membrane in interplanetary space. Solar wind and energetic particle measurements from instruments aboard the Ulysses spacecraft in a solar, near-polar orbit provide the particle data over a range of heliospheric latitudes used to derive the environment that can be used for radiation and charging environments for both high inclination 0.5 AU Solar Polar Imager mission and the 1.0 AU L1 solar missions. This paper describes the techniques used to model comprehensive electron, proton, and helium spectra over the range of particle energies of significance to energy and charge deposition in thin (less than 25 micrometers) solar sail materials.

  18. Machine learning and evolutionary techniques in interplanetary trajectory design


    Izzo, Dario; Sprague, Christopher; Tailor, Dharmesh


    After providing a brief historical overview on the synergies between artificial intelligence research, in the areas of evolutionary computations and machine learning, and the optimal design of interplanetary trajectories, we propose and study the use of deep artificial neural networks to represent, on-board, the optimal guidance profile of an interplanetary mission. The results, limited to the chosen test case of an Earth-Mars orbital transfer, extend the findings made previously for landing ...

  19. Ariane transfer vehicle scenario (United States)

    Deutscher, Norbert; Cougnet, Claude


    ESA's Ariane Transfer Vehicle (ATV) is a vehicle design concept for the transfer of payloads from Ariane 5 launch vehicle orbit insertion to a space station, on the basis of the Ariane 5 program-developed Upper Stage Propulsion Module and Vehicle Equipment Bay. The ATV is conceived as a complement to the Hermes manned vehicle for lower cost unmanned carriage of logistics modules and other large structural elements, as well as waste disposal. It is also anticipated that the ATV will have an essential role in the building block transportation logistics of any prospective European space station.

  20. Results of a jet plume effects test on Rockwell International integrated space shuttle vehicle using a vehicle 5 configuration 0.02-scale model (88-OTS) in the 11 by 11 foot leg of the NASA/Ames Research Center unitary plan wind tunnel (IA19), volume 1 (United States)

    Nichols, M. E.


    Results are presented of jet plume effects test IA19 using a vehicle 5 configuration integrated space shuttle vehicle 0.02-scale model in the NASA/Ames Research Center 11 x 11-foot leg of the unitary plan wind tunnel. The jet plume power effects on the integrated vehicle static pressure distribution were determined along with elevon, main propulsion system nozzle, and solid rocket booster nozzle effectiveness and elevon hinge moments.

  1. Space Microbiology (United States)

    Horneck, Gerda; Klaus, David M.; Mancinelli, Rocco L.


    Summary: The responses of microorganisms (viruses, bacterial cells, bacterial and fungal spores, and lichens) to selected factors of space (microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation, solar UV radiation, and space vacuum) were determined in space and laboratory simulation experiments. In general, microorganisms tend to thrive in the space flight environment in terms of enhanced growth parameters and a demonstrated ability to proliferate in the presence of normally inhibitory levels of antibiotics. The mechanisms responsible for the observed biological responses, however, are not yet fully understood. A hypothesized interaction of microgravity with radiation-induced DNA repair processes was experimentally refuted. The survival of microorganisms in outer space was investigated to tackle questions on the upper boundary of the biosphere and on the likelihood of interplanetary transport of microorganisms. It was found that extraterrestrial solar UV radiation was the most deleterious factor of space. Among all organisms tested, only lichens (Rhizocarpon geographicum and Xanthoria elegans) maintained full viability after 2 weeks in outer space, whereas all other test systems were inactivated by orders of magnitude. Using optical filters and spores of Bacillus subtilis as a biological UV dosimeter, it was found that the current ozone layer reduces the biological effectiveness of solar UV by 3 orders of magnitude. If shielded against solar UV, spores of B. subtilis were capable of surviving in space for up to 6 years, especially if embedded in clay or meteorite powder (artificial meteorites). The data support the likelihood of interplanetary transfer of microorganisms within meteorites, the so-called lithopanspermia hypothesis. PMID:20197502

  2. BACODINE/3rd Interplanetary Network burst localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurley, K.; Barthelmy, S.; Butterworth, P.; Cline, T.; Sommer, M.; Boer, M.; Niel, M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Fishman, G.; Meegan, C.


    Even with only two widely separated spacecraft (Ulysses and GRO), 3rd Interplanetary Network (IPN) localizations can reduce the areas of BATSE error circles by two orders of magnitude. Therefore it is useful to disseminate them as quickly as possible following BATSE bursts. We have implemented a system which transmits the light curves of BACODINE/BATSE bursts directly by e-mail to UC Berkeley immediately after detection. An automatic e-mail parser at Berkeley watches for these notices, determines the Ulysses crossing time window, and initiates a search for the burst data on the JPL computer as they are received. In ideal cases, it is possible to retrieve the Ulysses data within a few hours of a burst, generate an annulus of arrival directions, and e-mail it out to the astronomical community by local nightfall. Human operators remain in this loop, but we are developing a fully automated routine which should remove them, at least for intense events, and reduce turn-around times to an absolute minimum. We explain the current operations, the data types used, and the speed/accuracy tradeoffs

  3. Radioisotopic heater units warm an interplanetary spacecraft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco-Ferreira, E.A.


    The Cassini orbiter and Huygens probe, which were successfully launched on October 15, 1997, constitute NASA's last grand-scale interplanetary mission of this century. The mission, which consists of a four-year, close-up study of Saturn and its moons, begins in July 2004 with Cassini's 60 orbits of Saturn and about 33 fly-bys of the large moon Titan. The Huygens probe will descend and land on Titan. Investigations will include Saturn's atmosphere, its rings and its magnetosphere. The atmosphere and surface of Titan and other icy moons also will be characterized. Because of the great distance of Saturn from the sun, some of the instruments and equipment on both the orbiter and the probe require external heaters to maintain their temperature within normal operating ranges. These requirements are met by Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) designed, fabricated and safety tested at Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico. An improved gas tungsten arc welding procedure lowered costs and decreased processing time for heat units for the Cassini spacecraft

  4. Cosmic ray anisotropy along with interplanetary transients (United States)

    Mishra, Rajesh Kumar

    The present work deals with the study of first three harmonics of low amplitude anisotropic wave trains of cosmic ray intensity over the period 1991-1994 for Deep River neutron monitoring station. It is observed that the diurnal time of maximum remains in the corotational direction; whereas, the time of maximum for both diurnal and semi-diurnal anisotropy has significantly shifted towards later hours as compared to the quiet day annual average for majority of the LAE events. It is noticed that these events are not caused either by the high-speed solar wind streams or by the sources on the Sun responsible for producing these streams; such as, polar coronal holes. The direction of the tri-diurnal anisotropy shows a good negative correlation with Bz component of interplanetary magnetic field. The occurrence of low amplitude events is dominant for positive polarity of Bz. The Disturbance Storm Time index i.e. Dst remains consistently negative only throughout the entire low amplitude wave train event.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocher, M.; Lepri, S. T.; Landi, E.; Zhao, L.; Manchester, W. B. IV, E-mail: [Department of Climate and Space Sciences and Engineering, University of Michigan, 2455 Hayward Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2143 (United States)


    We report a subset of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs) containing distinct periods of anomalous heavy-ion charge state composition and peculiar ion thermal properties measured by ACE /SWICS from 1998 to 2011. We label them “depleted ICMEs,” identified by the presence of intervals where C{sup 6+}/C{sup 5+} and O{sup 7+}/O{sup 6+} depart from the direct correlation expected after their freeze-in heights. These anomalous intervals within the depleted ICMEs are referred to as “Depletion Regions.” We find that a depleted ICME would be indistinguishable from all other ICMEs in the absence of the Depletion Region, which has the defining property of significantly low abundances of fully charged species of helium, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen. Similar anomalies in the slow solar wind were discussed by Zhao et al. We explore two possibilities for the source of the Depletion Region associated with magnetic reconnection in the tail of a CME, using CME simulations of the evolution of two Earth-bound CMEs described by Manchester et al.

  6. Interaction of the geomagnetic field with northward interplanetary magnetic field (United States)

    Bhattarai, Shree Krishna

    The interaction of the solar wind with Earth's magnetic field causes the transfer of momentum and energy from the solar wind to geospace. The study of this interaction is gaining significance as our society is becoming more and more space based, due to which, predicting space weather has become more important. The solar wind interacts with the geomagnetic field primarily via two processes: viscous interaction and the magnetic reconnection. Both of these interactions result in the generation of an electric field in Earth's ionosphere. The overall topology and dynamics of the magnetosphere, as well as the electric field imposed on the ionosphere, vary with speed, density, and magnetic field orientation of the solar wind as well as the conductivity of the ionosphere. In this dissertation, I will examine the role of northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) and discuss the global topology of the magnetosphere and the interaction with the ionosphere using results obtained from the Lyon-Fedder-Mobarry (LFM) simulation. The electric potentials imposed on the ionosphere due to viscous interaction and magnetic reconnection are called the viscous and the reconnection potentials, respectively. A proxy to measure the overall effect of these potentials is to measure the cross polar potential (CPP). The CPP is defined as the difference between the maximum and the minimum of the potential in a given polar ionosphere. I will show results from the LFM simulation showing saturation of the CPP during periods with purely northward IMF of sufficiently large magnitude. I will further show that the viscous potential, which was assumed to be independent of IMF orientation until this work, is reduced during periods of northward IMF. Furthermore, I will also discuss the implications of these results for a simulation of an entire solar rotation.

  7. Project ARGO: The design and analysis of an all-propulsive and an aeroassisted version of a manned space transportation vehicle (United States)

    Wang, H.; Seifert, D.; Waidelich, J.; Mileski, M.; Herr, D.; Wilks, M.; Law, G.; Folz, A.


    The Senior Aerospace System Design class at the University of Michigan undertook the design of a manned space transportation vehicle (STV) that would transport payloads between low earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO). Designated ARGO after the ship of the Greek adventurer Jason, two different versions of an STV that would be based, refueled, and serviced at the Space Station Freedom were designed and analyzed by the class. With the same 2-man/7-day nominal mission of transporting a 10,000-kg payload up to GEO and bringing a 5000-kg payload back to LEO, the two versions of ARGO differ in the manner in which the delta V is applied to insert the vehicle into LEO upon return from GEO. The all-propulsive ARGO (or CSTV for chemical STV) uses thrust from its LH2/LOX rocket engines to produce the delta V during all phases of its mission. While the aeroassisted ARGO (or ASTV for aeroassisted STV) also uses the same engines for the majority of the mission, the final delta V used to insert the ASTV into LEO is produced by skimming the Earth's atmosphere and using the drag on the vehicle to apply the required delta V. This procedure allows for large propellant, and thus cost, savings, but creates many design problems such as the high heating rates and decelerations experienced by a vehicle moving through the atmosphere at hypersonic velocities. The design class, consisting of 43 senior aerospace engineering students, was divided into one managerial and eight technical groups. The technical groups consisted of spacecraft configuration and integration, mission analysis, atmospheric flight, propulsion, power and communications, life support and human factors, logistics and support, and systems analysis. Two committees were set up with members from each group to create the scale models of the STV's and to produce the final report.

  8. Plasma in outer space and in laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podgornyj, I.


    The problems of modelling a plasma in interplanetary space, in the Earth magnetosphere and in the atmospheres of other planets are discussed. Particular attention is devoted to solar wind behaviour. (B.S.)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusto, C. R. A.; Kopenkin, V.; Navia, C. E.; Tsui, K. H.; Shigueoka, H. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, 24210-346, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil); Fauth, A. C.; Kemp, E.; Manganote, E. J. T. [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wathagin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Leigui de Oliveira, M. A. [Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas da Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Miranda, P.; Ticona, R.; Velarde, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas, UMSA, La Paz Bolivia (United States)


    We present the results of an ongoing survey on the association between the muon flux variation at ground level (3 m above sea level) registered by the Tupi telescopes (Niteri-Brazil, 22.{sup 0}9S, 43.{sup 0}2W, 3 m) and the Earth-directed transient disturbances in the interplanetary medium propagating from the Sun (such as coronal mass ejections (CME), and corotating interaction regions (CIRs)). Their location inside the South Atlantic Anomaly region enables the muon telescopes to achieve a low rigidity of response to primary and secondary charged particles. The present study is primarily based on experimental events obtained by the Tupi telescopes in the period from 2010 August to 2011 December. This time period corresponds to the rising phase of solar cycle 24. The Tupi events are studied in correlation with data obtained by space-borne detectors (SOHO, ACE, GOES). Identification of interplanetary structures and associated solar activity was based on the nomenclature and definitions given by the satellite observations, including an incomplete list of possible interplanetary shocks observed by the CELIAS/MTOF Proton Monitor on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft. Among 29 experimental events reported in the present analysis, there are 15 possibly associated with the CMEs and sheaths, and 3 events with the CIRs (forward or reverse shocks); the origin of the remaining 11 events has not been determined by the satellite detectors. We compare the observed time (delayed or anticipated) of the muon excess (positive or negative) signal on Earth (the Tupi telescopes) with the trigger time of the interplanetary disturbances registered by the satellites located at Lagrange point L1 (SOHO and ACE). The temporal correlation of the observed ground-based events with solar transient events detected by spacecraft suggests a real physical connection between them. We found that the majority of observed events detected by the Tupi experiment were delayed in

  10. 75 FR 5056 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Space Vehicle and Test... (United States)


    ... vehicle programs use VAFB to launch satellites into polar orbit: Delta II, Taurus, Atlas V, Delta IV... II STSS ATRR 5-May 1324 PDT SLC-2W VAFB/SMI Delta II Worldview- 8-Oct 1151 PDT SLC-2W SMI II Atlas V... high swell that was present on the monitored beach. High swells and tides are one of the major causes...

  11. An electromagnetic method for removing the communication blackout with a space vehicle upon re-entry into the atmosphere (United States)

    Cheng, Jianjun; Jin, Ke; Kou, Yong; Hu, Ruifeng; Zheng, Xiaojing


    When a hypersonic vehicle travels in the Earth and Mars atmosphere, the surface of the vehicle is surrounded by a plasma layer, which is an envelope of ionized air, created from the compression and heat of the atmosphere by the shock wave. The vehicles will lose contact with ground stations known as the reentry communication blackout. Based on the magnetohydrodynamic framework and electromagnetic wave propagation theory, an analytical model is proposed to describe the effect of the effectiveness of electromagnetic mitigation scheme on removing the reentry communication blackout. C and Global Positioning System (GPS) bands, two commonly used radio bands for communication, are taken as the cases to discuss the effectiveness of the electromagnetic field mitigation scheme. The results show that the electron density near the antenna of vehicles can be reduced by the electromagnetic field, and the required external magnetic field strength is far below the one in the magnetic window method. The directions of the external electric field and magnetic field have a significant impact on the effectiveness of the mitigation scheme. Furthermore, the effect of electron collisions on the required applied electromagnetic field is discussed, and the result indicates that electron collisions are a key factor to analyze the electromagnetic mitigation scheme. Finally, the feasible regions of the applied electromagnetic field for eliminating blackout are given. These investigations could have a significant benefit on the design and optimization of electromagnetic mitigation scheme for the blackout problem.

  12. The Profile Envision and Splicing Tool (PRESTO): Developing an Atmospheric Wind Analysis Tool for Space Launch Vehicles Using Python (United States)

    Orcutt, John M.; Barbre, Robert E., Jr.; Brenton, James C.; Decker, Ryan K.


    Launch vehicle programs require vertically complete atmospheric profiles. Many systems at the ER to make the necessary measurements, but all have different EVR, vertical coverage, and temporal coverage. MSFC Natural Environments Branch developed a tool to create a vertically complete profile from multiple inputs using Python. Forward work: Finish Formal Testing Acceptance Testing, End-to-End Testing. Formal Release

  13. Environmental charging of spacecraft-tests of thermal control materials for use on the global positioning system flight space vehicle. Part 2: Specimen 6 to 9 (United States)

    Stevens, N. J.; Berkopec, F. D.; Blech, R. A.


    The NASA/USAF program on the Environmental Charging of Spacecraft Surfaces consists, in part, of experimental efforts directed toward evaluating the response of materials to the environmental charged particle flux. Samples of thermal blankets of the type to be used on the Global Positioning System Flight Space Vehicles were tested to determine their response to electron flux. The primary result observed was that no discharges were obtained with the quartz-fiber-fabric-covered multilayer insulation specimen. The taped aluminized polyester grounding system used on all specimens did not appear to grossly deteriorate with time; however, the specimens require specific external pressure to maintain constant grounding system resistance.

  14. Interplanetary sector boundaries 1971--1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, L.; Burlaga, L.F.


    Eighteen interplanetary sector boundary crossings observed at 1 AU during the period January 1971 to January 1974 by the magnetometer on the Imp 6 spacecraft was discussed. The events were examined on many different time scales ranging from days on either side of the boundary to high-resolution measurements of 12.5 vectors per second. Two categories of boundaries were found, one group being relatively thin (averaging approx. =10 4 km) and the other being thick (averaging approx. =10 6 km). In many cases the field vector rotated in a plane from polarity to the other. Only two of the transitions were null sheets. Using the minimum variance analysis to determine the normals to the plane of rotationa and assuming that this is the same as the normal to the sector boundary surface, it was found that the normals were close to ( 0 ) the ecliptic plane. The high inclination of the sector boundary surfaces during 1971--1973 verifies a published prediction and may be related to the presence of large equatorial coronal holes at this time. An analysis of tangential discontinuities contained in 4-day periods about our events showed that their orientations were generally not related to the orientations of the sector boundary surface, but rather their characteristics were about the same as those for discontinuities outside the sector boundaries. Magnetic holes were found in thick sector boundaries, at a rate about 3 times that elsewhere. The holes were especially prevalent near stream interfaces, suggesting that they might be related to the convergence and/or slip of adjacent solar wind streams

  15. An Integrated Tool for Low Thrust Optimal Control Orbit Transfers in Interplanetary Trajectories (United States)

    Dargent, T.; Martinot, V.

    In the last recent years a significant progress has been made in optimal control orbit transfers using low thrust electrical propulsion for interplanetary missions. The system objective is always the same: decrease the transfer duration and increase the useful satellite mass. The optimum control strategy to perform the minimum time to orbit or the minimum fuel consumption requires the use of sophisticated mathematical tools, most of the time dedicated to a specific mission and therefore hardly reusable. To improve this situation and enable Alcatel Space to perform rather quick trajectory design as requested by mission analysis, we have developed a software tool T-3D dedicated to optimal control orbit transfers which integrates various initial and terminal rendezvous conditions - e.g. fixed arrival time for planet encounter - and engine thrust profiles -e.g. thrust law variation with respect to the distance to the Sun -. This single and quite versatile tool allows to perform analyses like minimum consumption for orbit insertions around a planet from an hyperbolic trajectory, interplanetary orbit transfers, low thrust minimum time multiple revolution orbit transfers, etc… From a mathematical point of view, the software relies on the minimum principle formulation to find the necessary conditions of optimality. The satellite dynamics is a two body model and relies of an equinoctial formulation of the Gauss equation. This choice has been made for numerical purpose and to solve more quickly the two point boundaries values problem. In order to handle the classical problem of co-state variables initialization, problems simpler than the actual one can be solved straight forward by the tool and the values of the co-state variables are kept as first guess for a more complex problem. Finally, a synthesis of the test cases is presented to illustrate the capacities of the tool, mixing examples of interplanetary mission, orbit insertion, multiple revolution orbit transfers

  16. NASA's Internal Space Weather Working Group (United States)

    St. Cyr, O. C.; Guhathakurta, M.; Bell, H.; Niemeyer, L.; Allen, J.


    Measurements from many of NASA's scientific spacecraft are used routinely by space weather forecasters, both in the U.S. and internationally. ACE, SOHO (an ESA/NASA collaboration), STEREO, and SDO provide images and in situ measurements that are assimilated into models and cited in alerts and warnings. A number of years ago, the Space Weather laboratory was established at NASA-Goddard, along with the Community Coordinated Modeling Center. Within that organization, a space weather service center has begun issuing alerts for NASA's operational users. NASA's operational user community includes flight operations for human and robotic explorers; atmospheric drag concerns for low-Earth orbit; interplanetary navigation and communication; and the fleet of unmanned aerial vehicles, high altitude aircraft, and launch vehicles. Over the past three years we have identified internal stakeholders within NASA and formed a Working Group to better coordinate their expertise and their needs. In this presentation we will describe this activity and some of the challenges in forming a diverse working group.

  17. Prospective Out-of-ecliptic White-light Imaging of Interplanetary Corotating Interaction Regions at Solar Maximum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Ming; Yang, Liping; Liu, Ying D.; Keiji, Hayashi; Li, Huichao [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Davies, Jackie A.; Harrison, Richard A. [RAL Space, STFC-Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell Campus, Didcot (United Kingdom); Li, Bo; Xia, Lidong, E-mail: [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Optical Astronomy and Solar-Terrestrial Environment, Institute of Space Sciences, Shandong University, Weihai (China)


    Interplanetary corotating interaction regions (CIRs) can be remotely imaged in white light (WL), as demonstrated by the Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) on board the Coriolis spacecraft and Heliospheric Imagers (HIs) on board the twin Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory ( STEREO ) spacecraft. The interplanetary WL intensity, due to Thomson scattering of incident sunlight by free electrons, is jointly determined by the 3D distribution of electron number density and line-of-sight (LOS) weighting factors of the Thomson-scattering geometry. The 2D radiance patterns of CIRs in WL sky maps look very different from different 3D viewpoints. Because of the in-ecliptic locations of both the STEREO and Coriolis spacecraft, the longitudinal dimension of interplanetary CIRs has, up to now, always been integrated in WL imagery. To synthesize the WL radiance patterns of CIRs from an out-of-ecliptic (OOE) vantage point, we perform forward magnetohydrodynamic modeling of the 3D inner heliosphere during Carrington Rotation CR1967 at solar maximum. The mixing effects associated with viewing 3D CIRs are significantly minimized from an OOE viewpoint. Our forward modeling results demonstrate that OOE WL imaging from a latitude greater than 60° can (1) enable the garden-hose spiral morphology of CIRs to be readily resolved, (2) enable multiple coexisting CIRs to be differentiated, and (3) enable the continuous tracing of any interplanetary CIR back toward its coronal source. In particular, an OOE view in WL can reveal where nascent CIRs are formed in the extended corona and how these CIRs develop in interplanetary space. Therefore, a panoramic view from a suite of wide-field WL imagers in a solar polar orbit would be invaluable in unambiguously resolving the large-scale longitudinal structure of CIRs in the 3D inner heliosphere.

  18. Relationships between interplanetary quantities and the global auroral electrojet index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meloni, A.; Wolfe, A.; Lanzerotti, L.J.


    We have studied, using linear cross correlation and multilinear regression analyses, statistical relations between the magnetospheric auroral electrojet intensity index AE and various parameters characterizing the interplanetary plasma and magnetic field. We also consider the recently proposed epsilon parameter as an independent variable. The analyses were carried out separately for twenty-eight days in mid 1975 and for each of five individual magnetic storm intervals that have been previously discussed extensively in the literature. We find that when the interplanetary data set is not distinguished as to the direction of the north-south component B/sub z/, the interplanetary electric field -VB/sub z/ carried to the front of the magnetosphere correlates with AE substantially better than does epsilon. Considering only data during which B/sub z/ is negative gives a slightly better correlation of epsilon with AE than of the electric field with AE. The correlations are valid for the specific storm periods as well as for the unrestricted twenty-eight days of data. Our results suggest that the physical processes involved in energy transfer to the nightside magnetosphere depend upon the direction of the north-south component of the interplanetary magnetic field: the interplanetary electric field plays an important role during northward B/sub z/ and the epsilon parameter and the electric field both provide an indication of energy transfer and substorm activity during southward B/sub z/

  19. Study of the suit inflation effect on crew safety during landing using a full-pressure IVA suit for new-generation reentry space vehicles (United States)

    Wataru, Suzuki

    Recently, manned space capsules have been recognized as beneficial and reasonable human space vehicles again. The Dragon capsule already achieved several significant successes. The Orion capsule is going to be sent to a high-apogee orbit without crews for experimental purposes in September 2014. For such human-rated space capsules, the study of acceleration impacts against the human body during splashdown is essential to ensure the safety of crews. Moreover, it is also known that wearing a full pressure rescue suit significantly increases safety of a crew, compared to wearing a partial pressure suit. This is mainly because it enables the use of a personal life support system independently in addition to that which installed in the space vehicle. However, it is unclear how the inflation of the full pressure suit due to pressurization affects the crew safety during splashdown, especially in the case of the new generation manned space vehicles. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to investigate the effect of the suit inflation on crew safety against acceleration impact during splashdown. For this objective, the displacements of the safety harness in relation with the suit, a human surrogate, and the crew seats during pressurizing the suit in order to determine if the safety and survivability of a crew can be improved by wearing a full pressure suit. For these tests, the DL/H-1 full pressure IVA suit, developed by Pablo de Leon and Gary L. Harris, will be used. These tests use image analysis techniques to determine the displacements. It is expected, as a result of these tests, that wearing a full pressure suit will help to mitigate the impacts and will increase the safety and survivability of a crew during landing since it works as a buffer to mitigate impact forces during splashdown. This work also proposes a future plan for sled test experiments using a sled facility such as the one in use by the Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (CAMI) for experimental validation

  20. Shielding from cosmic radiation for interplanetary missions Active and passive methods

    CERN Document Server

    Spillantini, P; Durante, M; Müller-Mellin, R; Reitz, G; Rossi, L; Shurshakov, V; Sorbi, M


    Shielding is arguably the main countermeasure for the exposure to cosmic radiation during interplanetary exploratory missions. However, shielding of cosmic rays, both of galactic or solar origin, is problematic, because of the high energy of the charged particles involved and the nuclear fragmentation occurring in shielding materials. Although computer codes can predict the shield performance in space, there is a lack of biological and physical measurements to benchmark the codes. An attractive alternative to passive, bulk material shielding is the use of electromagnetic fields to deflect the charged particles from the spacecraft target. Active shielding concepts based on electrostatic fields, plasma, or magnetic fields have been proposed in the past years, and should be revised based on recent technological improvements. To address these issues, the European Space Agency (ESA) established a Topical Team (TT) in 2002 including European experts in the field of space radiation shielding and superconducting magn...

  1. Compression of the Venusian ionosphere on May 10, 1979, by the interplanetary shock generated by the solar eruption of May 8, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryer, M.; Perez-de-Tejada, H.; Taylor, H.A. Jr.; Intriligator, D.S.; Mihalov, J.D.; Rompolt, B.


    An interplanetary shock wave that was produced by a solar eruption and its associated coronal transient on May 8, 1979, has been 'tracked' through interplanetary space to a rendezvous 2 days later with Venus. The interaction of the shock wave with the ionospheric obstacle at Venus produced a significant compression of the dayside ionosphere. It is believed that the tracking, as it were, was accomplished for the first time via the diagnostic observations provided by Hα and white light imagery near the sun and the plasma and field measurements of two, nearly radially aligned, spacecraft

  2. The use of various interplanetary scintillation indices within geomagnetic forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Lucek

    Full Text Available Interplanetary scintillation (IPS, the twinkling of small angular diameter radio sources, is caused by the interaction of the signal with small-scale plasma irregularities in the solar wind. The technique may be used to sense remotely the near-Earth heliosphere and observations of a sufficiently large number of sources may be used to track large-scale disturbances as they propagate from close to the Sun to the Earth. Therefore, such observations have potential for use within geomagnetic forecasts. We use daily data from the Mullard Radio Astronomy Observatory, made available through the World Data Centre, to test the success of geomagnetic forecasts based on IPS observations. The approach discussed here was based on the reduction of the information in a map to a single number or series of numbers. The advantages of an index of this nature are that it may be produced routinely and that it could ideally forecast both the occurrence and intensity of geomagnetic activity. We start from an index that has already been described in the literature, INDEX35. On the basis of visual examination of the data in a full skymap format modifications were made to the way in which the index was calculated. It was hoped that these would lead to an improvement in its forecasting ability. Here we assess the forecasting potential of the index using the value of the correlation coefficient between daily Ap and the IPS index, with IPS leading by 1 day. We also compare the forecast based on the IPS index with forecasts of Ap currently released by the Space Environment Services Center (SESC. Although we find that the maximum improvement achieved is small, and does not represent a significant advance in forecasting ability, the IPS forecasts at this phase of the solar cycle are of a similar quality to those made by SESC.

  3. Probabilistic Design Analysis (PDA) Approach to Determine the Probability of Cross-System Failures for a Space Launch Vehicle (United States)

    Shih, Ann T.; Lo, Yunnhon; Ward, Natalie C.


    Quantifying the probability of significant launch vehicle failure scenarios for a given design, while still in the design process, is critical to mission success and to the safety of the astronauts. Probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) is chosen from many system safety and reliability tools to verify the loss of mission (LOM) and loss of crew (LOC) requirements set by the NASA Program Office. To support the integrated vehicle PRA, probabilistic design analysis (PDA) models are developed by using vehicle design and operation data to better quantify failure probabilities and to better understand the characteristics of a failure and its outcome. This PDA approach uses a physics-based model to describe the system behavior and response for a given failure scenario. Each driving parameter in the model is treated as a random variable with a distribution function. Monte Carlo simulation is used to perform probabilistic calculations to statistically obtain the failure probability. Sensitivity analyses are performed to show how input parameters affect the predicted failure probability, providing insight for potential design improvements to mitigate the risk. The paper discusses the application of the PDA approach in determining the probability of failure for two scenarios from the NASA Ares I project

  4. Heliomagnetic cycle of magneto-ionospheric and interplanetary activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaretskij, N.S.; Krymskij, P.F.; Maksimov, Ya.Ya.


    The difference in frequency distributions of geomagnetic- and ionospheric disturbance levels are revealed within generalized intervals: odd-even- and even-odd 11-year solar activity cycles. The interplanetary medium of the first half of the 20th cycle (before reversal of the general heliomagnetic field polarity) is characterized by the background vertical component of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) in the north direction, rather small variability of the interplanetary field and low solar wind velocity. The south field component, higher field dispersion and high-velocity corpuscular fluxes are characteristic of the second half of the cycle. The 22-year variation in the number of small and moderate values of the geomagnetic activity within the limits of the 20th cycle is satisfactorily described by the behaviour of the quantities of the corresponding values of the IMF north-south component, field variability and solar wind velocity

  5. Variations of interplanetary parameters and cosmic-ray intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geranios, A.


    Observations of cosmic ray intensity depressions by earth bound neutron monitors and measurements of interplanetary parameter's variations aboard geocentric satellites in the period January 1972-July 1974 are analysed and grouped according to their correlation among them. From this analysis of about 30 cases it came out that the majority of the depressions correlates with the average propagation speed of interplanetary shocks as well as with the amplitude of the interplanetary magnetic field after the eruption of a solar flare. About one fourth of the events correlates with corotating fast solar wind streams. As the recovery time of the shock-related depressions depends strongly on the heliographic longitude of the causitive solar flare, it seems that the cosmic ray modulation region has a corotative-like feature. (Auth.)

  6. Radiation risk from the nuclear power installation of space vehicle in case of reentry to the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikheenko, S.G.


    Main directions of space using of nuclear power are considered. Nuclear energy has found many applications in space projects. The first application is the use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity in space and the second main application is the use of nuclear power for propulsion purposes in space flight. History of usage nuclear power systems in space technic is shown. Today there are 54 satellites with NPS in space near the Earth. The main principle of radical solution of the problem of radiation safety is based on the accommodation of space objects with nuclear units in orbits, such that the ballistic lifetime is greater than the time necessary for complete decay of the accumulated radioactivity. Radiation safety on various stages of space nuclear systems exploitation is discussed. If Main System Ensuring Radiation Safety is failed, it must operates Reserved System Ensuring Radiation Safety. Concrete development of a booster system for nuclear unit and a system for the reactor destruction in order to ensure aerodynamic destruction of fuel has been realized in satellite of 'Cosmos' series. The investigations on reserved system ensuring radiation safety in Moscow Physical - Engineering Institute are discussed. The results show that we can in principle ensure the radiation safety in accordance to ICRP recommendations. (author)

  7. Extreme interplanetary rotational discontinuities at 1 AU (United States)

    Lepping, R. P.; Wu, C.-C.


    This study is concerned with the identification and description of a special subset of four Wind interplanetary rotational discontinuities (from an earlier study of 134 directional discontinuities by Lepping et al. (2003)) with some "extreme" characteristics, in the sense that every case has (1) an almost planar current sheet surface, (2) a very large discontinuity angle (ω), (3) at least moderately strong normal field components (>0.8 nT), and (4) the overall set has a very broad range of transition layer thicknesses, with one being as thick as 50 RE and another at the other extreme being 1.6 RE, most being much thicker than are usually studied. Each example has a well-determined surface normal (n) according to minimum variance analysis and corroborated via time delay checking of the discontinuity with observations at IMP 8 by employing the local surface planarity. From the variance analyses, most of these cases had unusually large ratios of intermediate-to-minimum eigenvalues (λI/λmin), being on average 32 for three cases (with a fourth being much larger), indicating compact current sheet transition zones, another (the fifth) extreme property. For many years there has been a controversy as to the relative distribution of rotational (RDs) to tangential discontinuities (TDs) in the solar wind at 1 AU (and elsewhere, such as between the Sun and Earth), even to the point where some authors have suggested that RDs with large ∣Bn∣s are probably not generated or, if generated, are unstable and therefore very rare. Some of this disagreement apparently has been due to the different selection criteria used, e.g., some allowed eigenvalue ratios (λI/λmin) to be almost an order of magnitude lower than 32 in estimating n, usually introducing unacceptable error in n and therefore also in ∣Bn∣. However, we suggest that RDs may not be so rare at 1 AU, but good quality cases (where ∣Bn∣ confidently exceeds the error in ∣Bn∣) appear to be uncommon, and further

  8. On the twists of interplanetary magnetic flux ropes observed at 1 AU (United States)

    Wang, Yuming; Zhuang, Bin; Hu, Qiang; Liu, Rui; Shen, Chenglong; Chi, Yutian


    Magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) are one kind of fundamental structures in the solar/space physics and involved in various eruption phenomena. Twist, characterizing how the magnetic field lines wind around a main axis, is an intrinsic property of MFRs, closely related to the magnetic free energy and stableness. Although the effect of the twist on the behavior of MFRs had been widely studied in observations, theory, modeling, and numerical simulations, it is still unclear how much amount of twist is carried by MFRs in the solar atmosphere and in heliosphere and what role the twist played in the eruptions of MFRs. Contrasting to the solar MFRs, there are lots of in situ measurements of magnetic clouds (MCs), the large-scale MFRs in interplanetary space, providing some important information of the twist of MFRs. Thus, starting from MCs, we investigate the twist of interplanetary MFRs with the aid of a velocity-modified uniform-twist force-free flux rope model. It is found that most of MCs can be roughly fitted by the model and nearly half of them can be fitted fairly well though the derived twist is probably overestimated by a factor of 2.5. By applying the model to 115 MCs observed at 1 AU, we find that (1) the twist angles of interplanetary MFRs generally follow a trend of about 0.6l/R radians, where l/R is the aspect ratio of a MFR, with a cutoff at about 12π radians AU-1, (2) most of them are significantly larger than 2.5π radians but well bounded by 2l/R radians, (3) strongly twisted magnetic field lines probably limit the expansion and size of MFRs, and (4) the magnetic field lines in the legs wind more tightly than those in the leading part of MFRs. These results not only advance our understanding of the properties and behavior of interplanetary MFRs but also shed light on the formation and eruption of MFRs in the solar atmosphere. A discussion about the twist and stableness of solar MFRs are therefore given.

  9. High Power Orbit Transfer Vehicle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gulczinski, Frank


    ... from Virginia Tech University and Aerophysics, Inc. to examine propulsion requirements for a high-power orbit transfer vehicle using thin-film voltaic solar array technologies under development by the Space Vehicles Directorate (dubbed PowerSail...

  10. Flare-generated clouds as compact force-free toroidal configurations: magnetic measurements by the Vega-1 and Vega-2 space probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, K.G.; Kharshiladze, A.F.; Eroshenko, E.G.; Styazhkin, V.A.


    Magnetic field experimental profiles, obtained during Vega-I and Vega-2 space vehicles passing through interplanetary cloud on the 16.02.1986, are compared with approximate theoretical profiles, taken from different hypotheses about such clouds structure. Maximum correlation of the theory and experiment is obtained with cloud presentation as flattened compact force-free toroid, which equatorial plane is approximately parallel to great circle plane, passing through flare on the 14.02.86 parallel to magnetic axis nearest to bipolar group flare

  11. Search Coil vs. Fluxgate Magnetometer Measurements at Interplanetary Shocks (United States)

    Wilson, L.B., III


    We present magnetic field observations at interplanetary shocks comparing two different sample rates showing significantly different results. Fluxgate magnetometer measurements show relatively laminar supercritical shock transitions at roughly 11 samples/s. Search coil magnetometer measurements at 1875 samples/s, however, show large amplitude (dB/B as large as 2) fluctuations that are not resolved by the fluxgate magnetometer. We show that these fluctuations, identified as whistler mode waves, would produce a significant perturbation to the shock transition region changing the interpretation from laminar to turbulent. Thus, previous observations of supercritical interplanetary shocks classified as laminar may have been under sampled.

  12. Space engineering (United States)

    Alexander, Harold L.


    Human productivity was studied for extravehicular tasks performed in microgravity, particularly including in-space assembly of truss structures and other large objects. Human factors research probed the anthropometric constraints imposed on microgravity task performance and the associated workstation design requirements. Anthropometric experiments included reach envelope tests conducted using the 3-D Acoustic Positioning System (3DAPS), which permitted measuring the range of reach possible for persons using foot restraints in neutral buoyancy, both with and without space suits. Much neutral buoyancy research was conducted using the support of water to simulate the weightlessness environment of space. It became clear over time that the anticipated EVA requirement associated with the Space Station and with in-space construction of interplanetary probes would heavily burden astronauts, and remotely operated robots (teleoperators) were increasingly considered to absorb the workload. Experience in human EVA productivity led naturally to teleoperation research into the remote performance of tasks through human controlled robots.

  13. Public school teachers in the U.S. evaluate the educational impact of student space experiments launched by expendable vehicles, aboard Skylab, and aboard Space Shuttle. (United States)

    Burkhalter, B B; McLean, J E; Curtis, J P; James, G S


    Space education is a discipline that has evolved at an unprecedented rate over the past 25 years. Although program proceedings, research literature, and historical documentation have captured fragmented pieces of information about student space experiments, the field lacks a valid comprehensive study that measures the educational impact of sounding rockets, Skylab, Ariane, AMSAT, and Space Shuttle. The lack of this information is a problem for space educators worldwide which led to a national study with classroom teachers. Student flown experiments continue to offer a unique experiential approach to teach students thinking and reasoning skills that are imperative in the current international competitive environment in which they live and will work. Understanding the history as well as the current status and educational spin-offs of these experimental programs strengthens the teaching capacity of educators throughout the world to develop problem solving skills and various higher mental processes in the schools. These skills and processes enable students to use their knowledge more effectively and efficiently long after they leave the classroom. This paper focuses on student space experiments as a means of motivating students to meet this educational goal successfully.

  14. Automated trajectory planning for multiple-flyby interplanetary missions (United States)

    Englander, Jacob

    Many space mission planning problems may be formulated as hybrid optimal control problems (HOCP), i.e. problems that include both real-valued variables and categorical variables. In interplanetary trajectory design problems the categorical variables will typically specify the sequence of planets at which to perform flybys, and the real-valued variables will represent the launch date, ight times between planets, magnitudes and directions of thrust, flyby altitudes, etc. The contribution of this work is a framework for the autonomous optimization of multiple-flyby interplanetary trajectories. The trajectory design problem is converted into a HOCP with two nested loops: an "outer-loop" that finds the sequence of flybys and an "inner-loop" that optimizes the trajectory for each candidate yby sequence. The problem of choosing a sequence of flybys is posed as an integer programming problem and solved using a genetic algorithm (GA). This is an especially difficult problem to solve because GAs normally operate on a fixed-length set of decision variables. Since in interplanetary trajectory design the number of flyby maneuvers is not known a priori, it was necessary to devise a method of parameterizing the problem such that the GA can evolve a variable-length sequence of flybys. A novel "null gene" transcription was developed to meet this need. Then, for each candidate sequence of flybys, a trajectory must be found that visits each of the flyby targets and arrives at the final destination while optimizing some cost metric, such as minimizing ▵v or maximizing the final mass of the spacecraft. Three different classes of trajectory are described in this work, each of which requireda different physical model and optimization method. The choice of a trajectory model and optimization method is especially challenging because of the nature of the hybrid optimal control problem. Because the trajectory optimization problem is generated in real time by the outer-loop, the inner

  15. Fail-Safe, Controllable Liquid Spring/Damper System for Improved Rover Space Vehicle Mobility, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA is planning to return to the moon in 2020 to explore thousands of miles of the moon?s surface with individual missions, lasting six months or longer. Surface...

  16. Relations between turbulent regions of interplanetary magnetic field and Jovian decametric radio wave emissions from the main source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oya, H.; Morioka, A.


    Jovian decametric radio wave emissions that were observed at Goddard Space Flight Center, U.S.A. for a period from 1 October to 31 December, 1974 and data obtained at Mt. Zao observatory, Tohoku University, Japan, for a period from 14 July to 6 December, 1975 have been used to investigate the relationship of the occurrence of the Jovian decametric radio waves (JDW), from the main source, to the geomagnetic disturbance index, ΣKAPPA sub(rho). The dynamic cross-correlation between JDW and ΣKAPPAsubrho indicates an enhanced correlation for certain values of delay time. The delay time is consistent with predicted values based on a model of rotating turbulent regions in interplanetary space associated with two sector boundaries of the interplanetary magnetic field, i.e. the rotating sector boundaries of the interplanetary magnetic field first encounter the Earth's magnetosphere producing the geomagnetic field disturbances, and after a certain period, they encounter the Jovian magnetosphere. There are also cases where the order of the encounter is opposite, i.e. the sector boundaries encounter first Jovian magnetosphere and encounter the Earth's magnetosphere after a certain period. (author)

  17. Multi-spacecraft Observations of the Coronal and Interplanetary Evolution of a Solar Eruption Associated with Two Active Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Huidong; Liu, Ying D.; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Xiaowei; Zhu, Bei; Yang, Zhongwei, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)


    We investigate the coronal and interplanetary evolution of a coronal mass ejection (CME) launched on 2010 September 4 from a source region linking two active regions (ARs), 11101 and 11103, using extreme ultraviolet imaging, magnetogram, white-light, and in situ observations from SDO , STEREO , SOHO , VEX , and Wind . A potential-field source-surface model is employed to examine the configuration of the coronal magnetic field surrounding the source region. The graduated cylindrical shell model and a triangulation method are applied to determine the kinematics of the CME in the corona and interplanetary space. From the remote sensing and in situ observations, we obtain some key results: (1) the CME was deflected in both the eastward and southward directions in the low corona by the magnetic pressure from the two ARs, and possibly interacted with another ejection, which caused that the CME arrived at VEX that was longitudinally distant from the source region; (2) although VEX was closer to the Sun, the observed and derived CME arrival times at VEX are not earlier than those at Wind , which suggests the importance of determining both the frontal shape and propagation direction of the CME in interplanetary space; and (3) the ICME was compressed in the radial direction while the longitudinal transverse size was extended.

  18. Research in space science and technology. Semiannual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckley, L.E.


    Progress in various space flight research programs is reported. Emphasis is placed on X-ray astronomy and interplanetary plasma physics. Topics covered include infrared astronomy, long base line interferometry, geological spectroscopy, space life science experiments, atmospheric physics, and space based materials and structures research. Analysis of galactic and extra-galactic X-ray data from the Small Astronomy Satellite (SAS-3) and HEAO-A and interplanetary plasma data for Mariner 10, Explorers 47 and 50, and Solrad is discussed

  19. Safe Laser Beam Propagation for Interplanetary Links (United States)

    Wilson, Keith E.


    Ground-to-space laser uplinks to Earth–orbiting satellites and deep space probes serve both as a beacon and an uplink command channel for deep space probes and Earth-orbiting satellites. An acquisition and tracking point design to support a high bandwidth downlink from a 20-cm optical terminal on an orbiting Mars spacecraft typically calls for 2.5 kW of 1030-nm uplink optical power in 40 micro-radians divergent beams.2 The NOHD (nominal ocular hazard distance) of the 1030nm uplink is in excess of 2E5 km, approximately half the distance to the moon. Recognizing the possible threat of high power laser uplinks to the flying public and to sensitive Earth-orbiting satellites, JPL developed a three-tiered system at its Optical Communications Telescope Laboratory (OCTL) to ensure safe laser beam propagation through navigational and near-Earth space.

  20. A Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing and Analysis Platform for Validation of Mission and Fault Management Algorithms to Reduce Risk for NASAs Space Launch System (United States)

    Trevino, Luis; Johnson, Stephen B.; Patterson, Jonathan; Teare, David


    The engineering development of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) new Space Launch System (SLS) requires cross discipline teams with extensive knowledge of launch vehicle subsystems, information theory, and autonomous algorithms dealing with all operations from pre-launch through on orbit operations. The nominal and off-nominal characteristics of SLS's elements and subsystems must be understood and matched with the autonomous algorithm monitoring and mitigation capabilities for accurate control and response to abnormal conditions throughout all vehicle mission flight phases, including precipitating safing actions and crew aborts. This presents a large and complex systems engineering challenge, which is being addressed in part by focusing on the specific subsystems involved in the handling of off-nominal mission and fault tolerance with response management. Using traditional model-based system and software engineering design principles from the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and Systems Modeling Language (SysML), the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms for the vehicle are crafted and vetted in Integrated Development Teams (IDTs) composed of multiple development disciplines such as Systems Engineering (SE), Flight Software (FSW), Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) and the major subsystems and vehicle elements such as Main Propulsion Systems (MPS), boosters, avionics, Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC), Thrust Vector Control (TVC), and liquid engines. These model-based algorithms and their development lifecycle from inception through FSW certification are an important focus of SLS's development effort to further ensure reliable detection and response to off-nominal vehicle states during all phases of vehicle operation from pre-launch through end of flight. To test and validate these M&FM algorithms a dedicated test-bed was developed for full Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing (VMET). For addressing fault management (FM

  1. Hydromagnetic waves, turbulence, and collisionless processes in the interplanetary medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, A.


    The solar wind does not flow quietly. It seethes and undulates, fluctuating on time scales that range from the solar rotation period down to fractions of milliseconds. Most of the power in interplanetary waves and turbulence lies at hydromagnetic scales. These fluctuations are normally of large amplitude, containing enough energy to affect solar and galactic cosmic rays, and may be the remnants of a coronal turbulence field powerful enough to play a major role in accelerating the solar wind itself. The origin and evolution of interplanetary hydromagnetic waves and turbulence, and their influence on the large-scale dynamics of the solar wind are among the most fundamental questions of solar-terrestrial physics. First hydrodynamic waves and turbulences in the interplanetary medium are discussed in two sections, respectively. Because the length and time scales for hydromagnetic fluctuations are very much smaller than the corresponding Coulomb collision scales of the plasma ions and electrons, the interplanetary variations are modelled as fluctuations in a magnetohydrodynamic fluid. In the last section, collisionless phenomena are discussed. They are of qualitative significance. (Auth.)

  2. Observations of interplanetary dust by the Juno magnetometer investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Mathias; Jørgensen, John Leif; Denver, Troelz


    One of the Juno magnetometer investigation's star cameras was configured to search for unidentified objects during Juno's transit en route to Jupiter. This camera detects and registers luminous objects to magnitude 8. Objects persisting in more than five consecutive images and moving with an appa...... on the distribution and motion of interplanetary (>μm sized) dust....

  3. Automated interplanetary shock detection and its application to Wind observations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krupařová, Oksana; Maksimovic, M.; Šafránková, J.; Němeček, Z.; Santolík, Ondřej; Krupař, Vratislav


    Roč. 118, č. 8 (2013), 4793–4803 ISSN 2169-9380 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/12/2394 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Interplanetary shocks * instruments and techniques Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 3.440, year: 2013

  4. Automated thin-film analyses of hydrated interplanetary dust particles in the analytical electron microscope (United States)

    Germani, M. S.; Bradley, J. P.; Brownlee, D. E.


    A 200 keV electron microscope was used to obtain elemental analyses from over 4000 points on thin sections of eight 'layer silicate' class interplanetary dust particles (IDPs). Major and minor element abundances from a volume approaching that of a cylinder 50 nm in diameter were observed. Mineral phases and their relative abundances in the thin sections were identified and petrographic characteristics were determined. Three of the particles contained smectite (1.0-1.2 nm basal spacing) and two contained serpentine (0.7 nm basal spacing). The point count analyses and Mg-Si-Fe ternary diagrams show that one of the serpentine-containing IDPs is similar to CI and CM chondritic meteorites. The IDPs exhibit evidence of aqueous processing, but they have typically experienced only short range, submicrometer scale alteration. The IDPs may provide a broad sampling of the asteroid belt.

  5. Initial Validation of Robotic Operations for In-Space Assembly of a Large Solar Electric Propulsion Transport Vehicle (United States)

    Komendera, Erik E.; Dorsey, John T.


    Developing a capability for the assembly of large space structures has the potential to increase the capabilities and performance of future space missions and spacecraft while reducing their cost. One such application is a megawatt-class solar electric propulsion (SEP) tug, representing a critical transportation ability for the NASA lunar, Mars, and solar system exploration missions. A series of robotic assembly experiments were recently completed at Langley Research Center (LaRC) that demonstrate most of the assembly steps for the SEP tug concept. The assembly experiments used a core set of robotic capabilities: long-reach manipulation and dexterous manipulation. This paper describes cross-cutting capabilities and technologies for in-space assembly (ISA), applies the ISA approach to a SEP tug, describes the design and development of two assembly demonstration concepts, and summarizes results of two sets of assembly experiments that validate the SEP tug assembly steps.

  6. Activities of the Center for Space Construction (United States)


    The Center for Space Construction (CSC) at the University of Colorado at Boulder is one of eight University Space Engineering Research Centers established by NASA in 1988. The mission of the center is to conduct research into space technology and to directly contribute to space engineering education. The center reports to the Department of Aerospace Engineering Sciences and resides in the College of Engineering and Applied Science. The college has a long and successful track record of cultivating multi-disciplinary research and education programs. The Center for Space Construction is prominent evidence of this record. At the inception of CSC, the center was primarily founded on the need for research on in-space construction of large space systems like space stations and interplanetary space vehicles. The scope of CSC's research has now evolved to include the design and construction of all spacecraft, large and small. Within this broadened scope, our research projects seek to impact the underlying technological basis for such spacecraft as remote sensing satellites, communication satellites, and other special purpose spacecraft, as well as the technological basis for large space platforms. The center's research focuses on three areas: spacecraft structures, spacecraft operations and control, and regolith and surface systems. In the area of spacecraft structures, our current emphasis is on concepts and modeling of deployable structures, analysis of inflatable structures, structural damage detection algorithms, and composite materials for lightweight structures. In the area of spacecraft operations and control, we are continuing our previous efforts in process control of in-orbit structural assembly. In addition, we have begun two new efforts in formal approach to spacecraft flight software systems design and adaptive attitude control systems. In the area of regolith and surface systems, we are continuing the work of characterizing the physical properties of lunar

  7. Air-Conditioning for Electric Vehicles (United States)

    Popinski, Z.


    Combination of ammonia-absorption refrigerator, roof-mounted solar collectors, and 200 degrees C service electric-vehicle motor provides evaporative space-heating/space cooling system for electric-powered and hybrid fuel/electric vehicles.

  8. Autonomous rendezvous and docking operations of unmanned expendable cargo transfer vehicles (e.g. Centaur) with Space Station Freedom (United States)

    Emmet, Brian R.


    This paper describes the results of the feasibility study using Centaur or other CTV's to deliver payloads to the Space Station Freedom (SSF). During this study was examined the requirements upon unmanned cargo transfer stages (including Centaur) for phasing, rendezvous, proximity operations and docking/berthing (capture).

  9. Accumulation patterns of proper point defects in thermo-regulating coatings based on ZnO for space vehicles under electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhajlov, M.M.; Sharafutdinova, V.V.


    The expansion of the band of the induced absorption of zinc oxide powders and thermo-regulating coatings based on ZnO for space vehicles is carried out after the 30 keV electron irradiation. Singularities of the growth of the intensity of individual components as a function of the accelerated electron flow are studied. It is found that power and exponential dependences with one or two components are characteristic for different color centers and different thermo-regulating coatings. The kinetics of the accumulation of free electrons is characterized by the maximum value of the electron flows at which the generation of color centers on pre-radiation defects is realized by the radiolysis of the pigment lattice

  10. Scaling exponents of the velocity structure functions in the interplanetary medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Carbone

    Full Text Available We analyze the scaling exponents of the velocity structure functions, obtained from the velocity fluctuations measured in the interplanetary space plasma. Using the expression for the energy transfer rate which seems the most relevant in describing the evolution of the pseudo-energy densities in the interplanetary medium, we introduce an energy cascade model derived from a simple fragmentation process, which takes into account the intermittency effect. In the absence and in the presence of the large-scale magnetic field decorrelation effect the model reduces to the fluid and the hydromagnetic p-model, respectively. We show that the scaling exponents of the q-th power of the velocity structure functions, as obtained by the model in the absence of the decorrelation effect, furnishes the best-fit to the data analyzed from the Voyager 2 velocity field measurements at 8.5 AU. Our results allow us to hypothesize a new kind of scale-similarity for magnetohydrodynamic turbulence when the decorrelation effect is at work, related to the fourth-order velocity structure function.

  11. Are Polar Field Magnetic Flux Concentrations Responsible for Missing Interplanetary Flux? (United States)

    Linker, Jon A.; Downs, C.; Mikic, Z.; Riley, P.; Henney, C. J.; Arge, C. N.


    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations are now routinely used to produce models of the solar corona and inner heliosphere for specific time periods. These models typically use magnetic maps of the photospheric magnetic field built up over a solar rotation, available from a number of ground-based and space-based solar observatories. The line-of-sight field at the Sun's poles is poorly observed, and the polar fields in these maps are filled with a variety of interpolation/extrapolation techniques. These models have been found to frequently underestimate the interplanetary magnetic flux (Riley et al., 2012, in press, Stevens et al., 2012, in press) near the minimum part of the cycle unless mitigating correction factors are applied. Hinode SOT observations indicate that strong concentrations of magnetic flux may be present at the poles (Tsuneta et al. 2008). The ADAPT flux evolution model (Arge et al. 2010) also predicts the appearance of such concentrations. In this paper, we explore the possibility that these flux concentrations may account for a significant amount of magnetic flux and alleviate discrepancies in interplanetary magnetic flux predictions. Research supported by AFOSR, NASA, and NSF.

  12. Optical Filter Assembly for Interplanetary Optical Communications (United States)

    Chen, Yijiang; Hemmati, Hamid


    Ground-based, narrow-band, high throughput optical filters are required for optical links from deep space. We report on the development of a tunable filter assembly that operates at telecommunication window of 1550 nanometers. Low insertion loss of 0.5 decibels and bandwidth of 90 picometers over a 2000 nanometers operational range of detectors has been achieved.

  13. Solar sails a novel approach to interplanetary travel

    CERN Document Server

    Vulpetti, Giovanni; Matloff, Gregory L


    The reality of sunlight-based sailing in space began in May 2010,  and solar sail technology and science have continued to evolve rapidly through new space missions. Using the power of the Sun's light for regular travel propulsion will be the next major leap forward in our journey to other worlds. This book is the second edition of the fascinating explanation of solar sails, how they work and how they will be used in the exploration of space. Updated with 35% new material, this second edition includes three new chapters on missions operated by Japan and the US, as well as projects that are in progress. The remainder of the book describes the heritage of exploration in water-borne sailing ships and the evolution to space-vehicle propulsion; as well as nuclear, solar-electric, nuclear-electric and antimatter rocket devices. It also discusses various sail systems that may use either sunlight or solar wind, and the design, fabrication and steering challenges associated with solar sails. The first edition was me...

  14. A Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing and Analysis Platform for Validation of Mission and Fault Management Algorithms to Reduce Risk for NASA's Space Launch System (United States)

    Trevino, Luis; Johnson, Stephen B.; Patterson, Jonathan; Teare, David


    The development of the Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle requires cross discipline teams with extensive knowledge of launch vehicle subsystems, information theory, and autonomous algorithms dealing with all operations from pre-launch through on orbit operations. The characteristics of these systems must be matched with the autonomous algorithm monitoring and mitigation capabilities for accurate control and response to abnormal conditions throughout all vehicle mission flight phases, including precipitating safing actions and crew aborts. This presents a large complex systems engineering challenge being addressed in part by focusing on the specific subsystems handling of off-nominal mission and fault tolerance. Using traditional model based system and software engineering design principles from the Unified Modeling Language (UML), the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms are crafted and vetted in specialized Integrated Development Teams composed of multiple development disciplines. NASA also has formed an M&FM team for addressing fault management early in the development lifecycle. This team has developed a dedicated Vehicle Management End-to-End Testbed (VMET) that integrates specific M&FM algorithms, specialized nominal and off-nominal test cases, and vendor-supplied physics-based launch vehicle subsystem models. The flexibility of VMET enables thorough testing of the M&FM algorithms by providing configurable suites of both nominal and off-nominal test cases to validate the algorithms utilizing actual subsystem models. The intent is to validate the algorithms and substantiate them with performance baselines for each of the vehicle subsystems in an independent platform exterior to flight software test processes. In any software development process there is inherent risk in the interpretation and implementation of concepts into software through requirements and test processes. Risk reduction is addressed by working with other organizations such as S

  15. Understanding and Mitigating Adverse Health Effects in Space Using A System Physiology Software, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's vision for Space Exploration aims for human interplanetary missions that have significant challenges on crew health and safety including fluid shifts, and...

  16. Deep Space Network Antenna Monitoring Using Adaptive Time Series Methods and Hidden Markov Models (United States)

    Smyth, Padhraic; Mellstrom, Jeff


    The Deep Space Network (DSN)(designed and operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) provides end-to-end telecommunication capabilities between earth and various interplanetary spacecraft throughout the solar system.

  17. A Vehicle Management End-to-End Testing and Analysis Platform for Validation of Mission and Fault Management Algorithms to Reduce Risk for NASA's Space Launch System (United States)

    Trevino, Luis; Patterson, Jonathan; Teare, David; Johnson, Stephen


    The engineering development of the new Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle requires cross discipline teams with extensive knowledge of launch vehicle subsystems, information theory, and autonomous algorithms dealing with all operations from pre-launch through on orbit operations. The characteristics of these spacecraft systems must be matched with the autonomous algorithm monitoring and mitigation capabilities for accurate control and response to abnormal conditions throughout all vehicle mission flight phases, including precipitating safing actions and crew aborts. This presents a large and complex system engineering challenge, which is being addressed in part by focusing on the specific subsystems involved in the handling of off-nominal mission and fault tolerance with response management. Using traditional model based system and software engineering design principles from the Unified Modeling Language (UML) and Systems Modeling Language (SysML), the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms for the vehicle are crafted and vetted in specialized Integrated Development Teams (IDTs) composed of multiple development disciplines such as Systems Engineering (SE), Flight Software (FSW), Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) and the major subsystems and vehicle elements such as Main Propulsion Systems (MPS), boosters, avionics, Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC), Thrust Vector Control (TVC), and liquid engines. These model based algorithms and their development lifecycle from inception through Flight Software certification are an important focus of this development effort to further insure reliable detection and response to off-nominal vehicle states during all phases of vehicle operation from pre-launch through end of flight. NASA formed a dedicated M&FM team for addressing fault management early in the development lifecycle for the SLS initiative. As part of the development of the M&FM capabilities, this team has developed a dedicated testbed that

  18. Performance Evaluation of Engineered Structured Sorbents for Atmosphere Revitalization Systems On Board Crewed Space Vehicles and Habitats (United States)

    Howard, David F.; Perry, Jay L.; Knox, James C.; Junaedi, Christian; Roychoudhury, Subir


    Engineered structured (ES) sorbents are being developed to meet the technical challenges of future crewed space exploration missions. ES sorbents offer the inherent performance and safety attributes of zeolite and other physical adsorbents but with greater structural integrity and process control to improve durability and efficiency over packed beds. ES sorbent techniques that are explored include thermally linked and pressure-swing adsorption beds for water-save dehumidification and sorbent-coated metal meshes for residual drying, trace contaminant control, and carbon dioxide control. Results from sub-scale performance evaluations of a thermally linked pressure-swing adsorbent bed and an integrated sub-scale ES sorbent system are discussed.

  19. Results of investigations conducted in the LaRC 4-foot unitary plan wind tunnel leg no. 1 using the 0.010-scale 72-OTS model of the space shuttle integrated vehicle (IA94A) (United States)

    Nichols, M. E.


    Aero-loads investigations were conducted on the updated configuration-5 space shuttle launch vehicle at Mach numbers 2.50, 3.50, and 4.50. Six-component vehicle forces and moments, base and sting-cavity pressures, elevon hinge moments, wing-root bending and torsion moments, and normal shear force data were obtained. Full simulation of updated vehicle protuberances and attach hardware was employed. Various elevon deflection angles were tested, with two different forward orbiter-to-external-tank attach-strut configurations. The entire vehicle model 72-OTS was supported by means of a balance mounted in the orbiter through its base and suspended from an appropriate sting for the specific tunnel.

  20. Manual Optical Attitude Re-initialization of a Crew Vehicle in Space Using Bias Corrected Gyro Data (United States)

    Gioia, Christopher J.

    NASA and other space agencies have shown interest in sending humans on missions beyond low Earth orbit. Proposed is an algorithm that estimates the attitude of a manned spacecraft using measured line-of-sight (LOS) vectors to stars and gyroscope measurements. The Manual Optical Attitude Reinitialization (MOAR) algorithm and corresponding device draw inspiration from existing technology from the Gemini, Apollo and Space Shuttle programs. The improvement over these devices is the capability of estimating gyro bias completely independent from re-initializing attitude. It may be applied to the lost-in-space problem, where the spacecraft's attitude is unknown. In this work, a model was constructed that simulated gyro data using the Farrenkopf gyro model, and LOS measurements from a spotting scope were then computed from it. Using these simulated measurements, gyro bias was estimated by comparing measured interior star angles to those derived from a star catalog and then minimizing the difference using an optimization technique. Several optimization techniques were analyzed, and it was determined that the Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (BFGS) algorithm performed the best when combined with a grid search technique. Once estimated, the gyro bias was removed and attitude was determined by solving the Wahba Problem via the Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) approach. Several Monte Carlo simulations were performed that looked at different operating conditions for the MOAR algorithm. These included the effects of bias instability, using different constellations for data collection, sampling star measurements in different orders, and varying the time between measurements. A common method of estimating gyro bias and attitude in a Multiplicative Extended Kalman Filter (MEKF) was also explored and disproven for use in the MOAR algorithm. A prototype was also constructed to validate the proposed concepts. It was built using a simple spotting scope, MEMS grade IMU, and a Raspberry

  1. A study of the inferred interplanetary magnetic field polarity periodicities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xanthakis, J.; Tritakis, V.P.; Zerefos, Ch.


    A detailed Power Spectrum Analysis applied on the daily polarities of the inferred interplanetary magnetic field, published by Svalgaard, has pointed out that the main periodicity apparent in these data is 27-28 days, which suggests a recurrency of a 2-sector structure. There is also a secondary periodicity of 13-14 days which mainly appears in the yers of the descending branch of the solar cycle and superimposes on the 2-sector structure, transforming it into a 4-sector structure. A strict statistical study of the correlation between the predominant polarity of the interplanetary magnetic field and the heliographic latitude of the Earth, also known as the Rosenberg-Coleman effect, pointed out that perhaps there is a faint correspondence between these two elements, but one cannot speak of a systematic effect. (Auth.)

  2. Interplanetary sources of magnetic storms: A statistical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne


    Magnetic storms are mainly caused by the occurrence of intense southward magnetic fields in the interplanetary medium. These fields can be formed directly either by ejection of magnetic structures from the Sun or by stream interaction processes during solar wind propagation. In the present study we...... examine 30 years of satellite measurement of the solar wind during magnetic storms, with the aim of estimating the relative importance of these two processes. We use the solar wind proton temperature relative to the temperature expected from the empirical relation to the solar wind speed T......-p/T-exp, together with the speed gradient, and the interplanetary magnetic field azimuth in the ecliptic, in order to distinguish between the two processes statistically. We find that compression due to stream interaction is at least as important as the direct effect of ejection of intense fields, and probably more...

  3. Interplanetary sources to magnetic storms - A statistical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vennerstrøm, Susanne


    Magnetic storms are mainly caused by the occurrence of intense southward magnetic fields in the interplanetary medium. These fields can be formed directly either by ejection of magnetic structures from the Sun or by stream interaction processes during solar wind propagation. In the present study we...... examine 30 years of satellite measurement of the solar wind during magnetic storms, with the aim of estimating the relative importance of these two processes. We use the solar wind proton temperature relative to the temperature expected from the empirical relation to the solar wind speed Tp/Texp, together...... with the speed gradient, and the interplanetary magnetic field azimuth in the ecliptic, in order to distinguish between the two processes statistically. We find that compression due to stream interaction is at least as important as the direct effect of ejection of intense fields, and probably more so. Only...

  4. The role of automatic control in future interplanetary spaceflight (United States)

    Scull, J. R.; Moore, J. W.


    The paper reviews the guidance and automatic control techniques used in previous U.S. and Soviet lunar and planetary exploration spacecraft, and examines the objectives and requirements of potential future interplanetary missions from the viewpoint of their further demands on automatic control technology. These missions include the Venus orbital imaging radar mission, the Pioneer Mars penetrator mission, the Mars surface sample return mission, Pioneer Saturn/Uranus/Titan probe missions, the Mariner Jupiter orbiter with daughter satellite, and comet and asteroid missions.

  5. Orbital and angular motion construction for low thrust interplanetary flight (United States)

    Yelnikov, R. V.; Mashtakov, Y. V.; Ovchinnikov, M. Yu.; Tkachev, S. S.


    Low thrust interplanetary flight is considered. Firstly, the fuel-optimal control is found. Then the angular motion is synthesized. This motion provides the thruster tracking of the required by optimal control direction. And, finally, reaction wheel control law for tracking this angular motion is proposed and implemented. The numerical example is given and total operation time for thrusters is found. Disturbances from solar pressure, thrust eccentricity, inaccuracy of reaction wheels installation and errors of inertia tensor are taken into account.

  6. The thickness of the interplanetary collisionless shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinter, S.


    The thicknesses of magnetic structures of the interplanetary shock waves related to the upstream solar wind plasma parameters are studied. From this study the following results have been obtained: the measured shock thickness increases for decreasing upstream proton number density and decreases for increasing proton flux energy. The shock thickness strongly depends on the ion plasma β, i.e. for higher values of the β the thickness decreases. (author)

  7. 3rd Interplanetary Network Gamma-Ray Burst Website (United States)

    Hurley, Kevin


    We announce the opening of the 3rd Interplanetary Network web site at This site presently has four parts: 1. A bibliography of over 3000 publications on gamma-ray bursts, 2. IPN data on all bursts triangulated up to February 1998, 3. A master list showing which spacecraft observed which bursts, 4. Preliminary IPN data on the latest bursts observed.

  8. Turbulence in the solar atmosphere and in the interplanetary plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chashei, I.V.; Shishov, V.I.


    Analysis of the basic properties of the turbulence in the solar chromosphere, corona, and supercorona (the plasma acceleration zone) indicates that the energy of acoustic disturbances generated at the photospheric level will be conveyed outward into the interplanetary plasma jointly by nonlinear wave interactions and wave propagation effects. Above the chromosphere, damping will be strongest at heights Rroughly-equal0.4 R/sub sun/ for acoustic-type waves and at Rroughly-equalR/sub sun/ for Alfven waves

  9. The engineering of a nuclear thermal landing and ascent vehicle utilizing indigenous Martian propellant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zubrin, R.M.


    The following paper reports on a design study of a novel space transportation concept known as a ''NIMF'' (Nuclear rocket using Indigenous Martian Fuel.) The NIMF is a ballistic vehicle which obtains its propellant out of the Martian air by compression and liquefaction of atmospheric CO 2 . This propellant is subsequently used to generate rocket thrust at a specific impulse of 264 s by being heated to high temperature (2800 K) gas in the NIMFs' nuclear thermal rocket engines. The vehicle is designed to provide surface to orbit and surface to surface transportation, as well as housing, for a crew of three astronauts. It is capable of refueling itself for a flight to its maximum orbit in less than 50 days. The ballistic NIMF has a mass of 44.7 tonnes and, with the assumed 2800 K propellant temperature, is capable of attaining highly energetic (250 km by 34000 km elliptical) orbits. This allows it to rendezvous with interplanetary transfer vehicles which are only very loosely bound into orbit around Mars. If a propellant temperature of 2000 K is assumed, then low Mars orbit can be attained; while if 3100 K is assumed, then the ballistic NIMF is capable of injecting itself onto a minimum energy transfer orbit to Earth in a direct ascent from the Martian surface

  10. Geomagnetic response to solar and interplanetary disturbances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maris Georgeta


    Full Text Available The space weather discipline involves different physical scenarios, which are characterised by very different physical conditions, ranging from the Sun to the terrestrial magnetosphere and ionosphere. Thanks to the great modelling effort made during the last years, a few Sun-to-ionosphere/thermosphere physics-based numerical codes have been developed. However, the success of the prediction is still far from achieving the desirable results and much more progress is needed. Some aspects involved in this progress concern both the technical progress (developing and validating tools to forecast, selecting the optimal parameters as inputs for the tools, improving accuracy in prediction with short lead time, etc. and the scientific development, i.e., deeper understanding of the energy transfer process from the solar wind to the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system. The purpose of this paper is to collect the most relevant results related to these topics obtained during the COST Action ES0803. In an end-to-end forecasting scheme that uses an artificial neural network, we show that the forecasting results improve when gathering certain parameters, such as X-ray solar flares, Type II and/or Type IV radio emission and solar energetic particles enhancements as inputs for the algorithm. Regarding the solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere interaction topic, the geomagnetic responses at high and low latitudes are considered separately. At low latitudes, we present new insights into temporal evolution of the ring current, as seen by Burton’s equation, in both main and recovery phases of the storm. At high latitudes, the PCC index appears as an achievement in modelling the coupling between the upper atmosphere and the solar wind, with a great potential for forecasting purposes. We also address the important role of small-scale field-aligned currents in Joule heating of the ionosphere even under non-disturbed conditions. Our scientific results in


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krupar, V.; Eastwood, J. P. [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Kruparova, O.; Santolik, O.; Soucek, J., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Institute of Atmospheric Physics CAS, Prague (Czech Republic); and others


    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are large-scale eruptions of magnetized plasma that may cause severe geomagnetic storms if Earth directed. Here, we report a rare instance with comprehensive in situ and remote sensing observations of a CME combining white-light, radio, and plasma measurements from four different vantage points. For the first time, we have successfully applied a radio direction-finding technique to an interplanetary type II burst detected by two identical widely separated radio receivers. The derived locations of the type II and type III bursts are in general agreement with the white-light CME reconstruction. We find that the radio emission arises from the flanks of the CME and are most likely associated with the CME-driven shock. Our work demonstrates the complementarity between radio triangulation and 3D reconstruction techniques for space weather applications.

  12. Latitudinal Dependence of the Radial IMF Component - Interplanetary Imprint (United States)

    Suess, S. T.; Smith, E. J.; Phillips, J.; Goldstein, B. E.; Nerney, S.


    Ulysses measurements have confirmed that there is no significant gradient with respect to heliomagnetic latitude in the radial component, B(sub r,), of the interplanetary magnetic field. There are two processes responsible for this observation. In the corona, the plasma beta is much less than 1, except directly above streamers, so both longitudinal and latitudinal (meridional) gradients in field strength will relax, due to the transverse magnetic pressure gradient force, as the solar wind carries magnetic flux away from the Sun. This happens so quickly that the field is essentially uniform by 5 solar radius. Beyond 10 solar radius, beta is greater than 1 and it is possible for a meridional thermal pressure gradient to redistribute magnetic flux - an effect apparently absent in Ulysses and earlier ICE and Interplanetary Magnetic Physics (IMP) data. We discuss this second effect here, showing that its absence is mainly due to the perpendicular part of the anisotropic thermal pressure gradient in the interplanetary medium being too small to drive significant meridional transport between the Sun and approx. 4 AU. This is done using a linear analytic estimate of meridional transport. The first effect was discussed in an earlier paper.

  13. Relativistic electron dropout echoes induced by interplanetary shocks (United States)

    Schiller, Q.; Kanekal, S. G.; Boyd, A. J.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; Spence, H. E.


    Interplanetary shocks that impact Earth's magnetosphere can produce immediate and dramatic responses in the trapped relativistic electron population. One well-studied response is a prompt injection capable of transporting relativistic electrons deep into the magnetosphere and accelerating them to multi-MeV energies. The converse effect, electron dropout echoes, are observations of a sudden dropout of electron fluxes observed after the interplanetary shock arrival. Like the injection echo signatures, dropout echoes can also show clear energy dispersion signals. They are of particular interest because they have only recently been observed and their causal mechanism is not well understood. In the analysis presented here, we show observations of electron drift echo signatures from the Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescope (REPT) and Magnetic Electron and Ion Sensors (MagEIS) onboard NASA's Van Allen Probes mission, which show simultaneous prompt enhancements and dropouts within minutes of the associated with shock impact. We show that the observations associated with both enhancements and dropouts are explained by the inward motion caused by the electric field impulse induced by the interplanetary shock, and either energization to cause the enhancement, or lack of a seed population to cause the dropout.

  14. Electron Dropout Echoes Induced by Interplanetary Shock: A Statistical Study (United States)

    Liu, Z.; Zong, Q.; Hao, Y.; Zhou, X.; Ma, X.; Liu, Y.


    "Electron dropout echo" as indicated by repeated moderate dropout and recovery signatures of the flux of energetic electron in the out radiation belt region has been investigated systematically. The electron dropout and its echoes are usually found for higher energy (> 300 keV) channels fluxes, whereas the flux enhancements are obvious for lower energy electrons simultaneously after the interplanetary shock arrives at the Earth's geosynchronous orbit. 104 dropout echo events have been found from 215 interplanetary shock events from 1998 to 2007 based on LANL satellite data. In analogy to substorm injections, these 104 events could be naturally divided into two categories: dispersionless (49 events) or dispersive (55 events) according to the energy dispersion of the initial dropout. It is found that locations of dispersionless events are distributed mainly in the duskside magnetosphere. Further, the obtained locations derived from dispersive events with the time-of-flight technique of the initial dropout regions are mainly located at the duskside as well. Statistical studies have shown that the effect of shock normal, interplanetary magnetic field Bz and solar wind dynamic pressure may be insignificant to these electron dropout events. We suggest that the electric field impulse induced by the IP shock produces a more pronounced inward migration of electrons at the dusk side, resulting in the observed dusk-side moderate dropout of electron flux and its consequent echoes.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Temmer, Manuela; Rollett, Tanja; Moestl, Christian; Veronig, Astrid M. [Kanzelhoehe Observatory-IGAM, Institute of Physics, University of Graz, Universitaetsplatz 5, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Vrsnak, Bojan [Hvar Observatory, Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb, Kaciceva 26, HR-10000 Zagreb (Croatia); Odstrcil, Dusan [Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO (United States)


    We study three coronal mass ejection (CME)/interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) events (2008 June 1-6, 2009 February 13-18, and 2010 April 3-5) tracked from Sun to 1 AU in remote-sensing observations of Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Heliospheric Imagers and in situ plasma and magnetic field measurements. We focus on the ICME propagation in interplanetary (IP) space that is governed by two forces: the propelling Lorentz force and the drag force. We address the question: which heliospheric distance range does the drag become dominant and the CME adjust to the solar wind flow. To this end, we analyze speed differences between ICMEs and the ambient solar wind flow as a function of distance. The evolution of the ambient solar wind flow is derived from ENLIL three-dimensional MHD model runs using different solar wind models, namely, Wang-Sheeley-Arge and MHD-Around-A-Sphere. Comparing the measured CME kinematics with the solar wind models, we find that the CME speed becomes adjusted to the solar wind speed at very different heliospheric distances in the three events under study: from below 30 R{sub Sun }, to beyond 1 AU, depending on the CME and ambient solar wind characteristics. ENLIL can be used to derive important information about the overall structure of the background solar wind, providing more reliable results during times of low solar activity than during times of high solar activity. The results from this study enable us to obtain greater insight into the forces acting on CMEs over the IP space distance range, which is an important prerequisite for predicting their 1 AU transit times.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temmer, Manuela; Rollett, Tanja; Möstl, Christian; Veronig, Astrid M.; Vršnak, Bojan; Odstrčil, Dusan


    We study three coronal mass ejection (CME)/interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) events (2008 June 1-6, 2009 February 13-18, and 2010 April 3-5) tracked from Sun to 1 AU in remote-sensing observations of Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory Heliospheric Imagers and in situ plasma and magnetic field measurements. We focus on the ICME propagation in interplanetary (IP) space that is governed by two forces: the propelling Lorentz force and the drag force. We address the question: which heliospheric distance range does the drag become dominant and the CME adjust to the solar wind flow. To this end, we analyze speed differences between ICMEs and the ambient solar wind flow as a function of distance. The evolution of the ambient solar wind flow is derived from ENLIL three-dimensional MHD model runs using different solar wind models, namely, Wang-Sheeley-Arge and MHD-Around-A-Sphere. Comparing the measured CME kinematics with the solar wind models, we find that the CME speed becomes adjusted to the solar wind speed at very different heliospheric distances in the three events under study: from below 30 R ☉ , to beyond 1 AU, depending on the CME and ambient solar wind characteristics. ENLIL can be used to derive important information about the overall structure of the background solar wind, providing more reliable results during times of low solar activity than during times of high solar activity. The results from this study enable us to obtain greater insight into the forces acting on CMEs over the IP space distance range, which is an important prerequisite for predicting their 1 AU transit times.

  17. Vehicle to Vehicle Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønsted, Jeppe Rørbæk


    location aware infotainment, increase safety, and lessen environmental strain. This dissertation is about service oriented architecture for pervasive computing with an emphasis on vehicle to vehicle applications. If devices are exposed as services, applications can be created by composing a set of services...... be evaluated. Service composition mechanisms for pervasive computing are categorized and we discuss how the characteristics of pervasive computing can be supported by service composition mechanisms. Finally, we investigate how to make pervasive computing systems capable of being noticed and understood...

  18. Systems Challenges for Hypersonic Vehicles (United States)

    Hunt, James L.; Laruelle, Gerard; Wagner, Alain


    This paper examines the system challenges posed by fully reusable hypersonic cruise airplanes and access to space vehicles. Hydrocarbon and hydrogen fueled airplanes are considered with cruise speeds of Mach 5 and 10, respectively. The access to space matrix is examined. Airbreathing and rocket powered, single- and two-stage vehicles are considered. Reference vehicle architectures are presented. Major systems/subsystems challenges are described. Advanced, enhancing systems concepts as well as common system technologies are discussed.

  19. Observations of energetic particles in the near and far interplanetary medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloeckler, G.


    Recent experimental results suggest that acceleration of particles to energies as high as 30 MeV/nucleon is commonplace in the interplanetary medium beyond several AU, and that most of the > or approx. =10 MeV/nucleon particles observed near earth, especially at solar minimum, are predominantly interplanetary in origin. We review experimental observations of the anomalous ''cosmic-ray'' component and of corotating particle streams with an emphasis on the composition of these interplanetary particles. These direct observations, although still rudimentary, are already providing constraints necessary for developing realistic theoretical descriptions of interplanetary acceleration mechanisms and should thus help us to understand similar processes in other astrophysical objects

  20. Effects of the interplanetary conditions on the magnetic activity observed in the southern auroral zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazeneuve, H.A.; Tabocchini, H.


    The relationship between the interplanetary conditions and the magnetic activity recorded at Belgrano is examined. H-component magnetograms, rheometer records and the concurrent interplanetary data are used. It is found that the geomagnetic activity is generated by the combined effect of a variety of interplanetary conditions. The data distinctly show that each physical entity of the interplanetary medium has a specific and precise role in the development of active periods. The reversal of the IMF polarity appears to be the critical step in the generation of geomagnetic activity. (author)

  1. Ground Vehicle Convoying (United States)

    Gage, Douglas W.; Pletta, J. Bryan


    Initial investigations into two different approaches for applying autonomous ground vehicle technology to the vehicle convoying application are described. A minimal capability system that would maintain desired speed and vehicle spacing while a human driver provided steering control could improve convoy performance and provide positive control at night and in inclement weather, but would not reduce driver manpower requirements. Such a system could be implemented in a modular and relatively low cost manner. A more capable system would eliminate the human driver in following vehicles and reduce manpower requirements for the transportation of supplies. This technology could also be used to aid in the deployment of teleoperated vehicles in a battlefield environment. The needs, requirements, and several proposed solutions for such an Attachable Robotic Convoy Capability (ARCC) system will be discussed. Included are discussions of sensors, communications, computers, control systems and safety issues. This advanced robotic convoy system will provide a much greater capability, but will be more difficult and expensive to implement.

  2. Results of investigations conducted in the LaRC 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel using the 0.010-scale 72-OTS model of the space shuttle integrated vehicle (IA93) (United States)

    Nichols, M. E.


    Test procedures, history, and data from the wind tunnel test are presented. Aero-loads were investigated on the updated configuration-5 space shuttle launch vehicle at Mach numbers from 0.600 to 1.205. Six-component vehicle forces and moments, base and sting-cavity pressures, elevon hinge moments, wing-root bending and torsion moments, and normal shear force data were obtained. Full simulation of updated vehicle protuberances and attach hardware was employed. Various elevon deflection angles were tested with two different forward orbiter-to-external-tank attach-strut configurations. The entire model was supported by means of a balance mounted in the orbiter through its base and suspended from a sting.

  3. Interplanetary Magnetic Flux Ropes as Agents Connecting Solar Eruptions and Geomagnetic Activities (United States)

    Marubashi, K.; Cho, K.-S.; Ishibashi, H.


    We investigate the solar wind structure for 11 cases that were selected for the campaign study promoted by the International Study of Earth-affecting Solar Transients (ISEST) MiniMax24 Working Group 4. We can identify clear flux rope signatures in nine cases. The geometries of the nine interplanetary magnetic flux ropes (IFRs) are examined with a model-fitting analysis with cylindrical and toroidal force-free flux rope models. For seven cases in which magnetic fields in the solar source regions were observed, we compare the IFR geometries with magnetic structures in their solar source regions. As a result, we can confirm the coincidence between the IFR orientation and the orientation of the magnetic polarity inversion line (PIL) for six cases, as well as the so-called helicity rule as regards the handedness of the magnetic chirality of the IFR, depending on which hemisphere of the Sun the IFR originated from, the northern or southern hemisphere; namely, the IFR has right-handed (left-handed) magnetic chirality when it is formed in the southern (northern) hemisphere of the Sun. The relationship between the orientation of IFRs and PILs can be taken as evidence that the flux rope structure created in the corona is in most cases carried through interplanetary space with its orientation maintained. In order to predict magnetic field variations on Earth from observations of solar eruptions, further studies are needed about the propagation of IFRs because magnetic fields observed at Earth significantly change depending on which part of the IFR hits the Earth.

  4. August 1972 solar-terrestrial events: interplanetary magnetic field observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E J [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, Calif. (USA)


    A review is presented of the interplanetary magnetic field observations acquired in early August 1972 when four solar flares erupted in McMath Plage region 1976. Measurements of the interplanetary field were obtained by Earth satellites, HEOS-2 and Explorer 41, and by Pioneers 9 and 10 which, by good fortune, were radially aligned and only 45/sup 0/ east of the Earth-Sun direction. In response to the four flares, four interplanetary shocks were seen at Earth and at Pioneer 9, which was then at a heliocentric distance of 0.78 AU. However, at Pioneer 10, which was 2.2 AU from the Sun, only two forward shocks and one reverse shock were seen. The available magnetic field data acquired in the vicinity of the shocks are presented. Efforts to identify corresponding shocks at the several locations and to deduce their velocities of propagation between 0.8 and 2.2 AU are reviewed. The early studies were based on average velocities between the Sun and Pioneer 9, the Sun and Earth and the Sun and Pioneer 10. A large deceleration of the shocks between the Sun and 0.8 AU as well as between 0.8 and 2.2 AU was inferred. More recently the local velocities of the shocks at Pioneers 9 and 10 have become available. A comparision of these velocities shows little, if any, deceleration between 0.8 and 2.2 AU and implies that most or all of the deceleration actually occurred nearer the Sun. Evidence is also presented that shows a significant departure of the flare-generated shock fronts from spherical symmetry.

  5. Interplanetary electrons: what is the strength of the Jupiter source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillius, W.; Ip, Wing-Huen; Knickerbocker, P.


    Because there is not enough information to support a rigorous answer, we use a phenomenological approach and conservative assumptions to address the source strength of Jupiter for interplanetary electrons. We estimate that Jupiter emits approximately 10 24 - 10 26 electrons s -1 of energy > 6 MeV, which source may be compared with the population of approximately 3 x 10 28 electrons of the same energy in Jupiter's outer magnetosphere. We conclude that Jupiter accelerates particles at a rate exceeding that of ordinary trapped particle dynamical processes. (author)

  6. Pioneer Venus and near-earth observations of interplanetary shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalov, J.D.; Russell, C.T.; Knudsen, W.C.; Scarf, F.L.


    Twenty-three transient interplanetary shocks observed near earth during 1978-1982, and mostly reported in the literature, have also been identified at the Pioneer Venus Orbiter spacecraft. There seems to be a fairly consistent trend for lower shock speeds, farther from the sun. Shock normals obtained using the Pioneer Venus data correspond well with published values from near earth. By referring to the portion of the Pioneer Venus plasma data used here from locations at longitudes within 37 degree of earth, it is found that shocks are weaker at earth, compared with closer to the sun

  7. Dayside auroras in relation to the interplanetary magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandholt, P.E.; Egeland, A.; Lybekk, B.; Deehr, C.S.


    Dynamics of dayside auroras, including cusp emissions, and their relation to the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) have been investigated by optical ground-based observations from Svalbard, Norway, and IMF data from various satellites. Combined with the Svalbard program, simultaneous night-side observations from Alaska provide information on the large-scale behaviour of the auroral oval. Drift characteristics, spatial scale, time of duration and repetition frequency of auroral structures on the day-side, occuring at the time of large-scale oval expansions (IMF B z z positive and negative values

  8. Modeling in the State Flow Environment to Support Launch Vehicle Verification Testing for Mission and Fault Management Algorithms in the NASA Space Launch System (United States)

    Trevino, Luis; Berg, Peter; England, Dwight; Johnson, Stephen B.


    Analysis methods and testing processes are essential activities in the engineering development and verification of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) new Space Launch System (SLS). Central to mission success is reliable verification of the Mission and Fault Management (M&FM) algorithms for the SLS launch vehicle (LV) flight software. This is particularly difficult because M&FM algorithms integrate and operate LV subsystems, which consist of diverse forms of hardware and software themselves, with equally diverse integration from the engineering disciplines of LV subsystems. M&FM operation of SLS requires a changing mix of LV automation. During pre-launch the LV is primarily operated by the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Ground Systems Development and Operations (GSDO) organization with some LV automation of time-critical functions, and much more autonomous LV operations during ascent that have crucial interactions with the Orion crew capsule, its astronauts, and with mission controllers at the Johnson Space Center. M&FM algorithms must perform all nominal mission commanding via the flight computer to control LV states from pre-launch through disposal and also address failure conditions by initiating autonomous or commanded aborts (crew capsule escape from the failing LV), redundancy management of failing subsystems and components, and safing actions to reduce or prevent threats to ground systems and crew. To address the criticality of the verification testing of these algorithms, the NASA M&FM team has utilized the State Flow environment6 (SFE) with its existing Vehicle Management End-to-End Testbed (VMET) platform which also hosts vendor-supplied physics-based LV subsystem models. The human-derived M&FM algorithms are designed and vetted in Integrated Development Teams composed of design and development disciplines such as Systems Engineering, Flight Software (FSW), Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) and major subsystems and vehicle elements

  9. The Swedish Interplanetary Society (1950-1969) and the formation of IAF and IAA (United States)

    Ingemar Skoog, A.


    With a growing interest for rocket technology and space travel after WW II a number of new "space societies" were formed in the period 1948-1951 in addition to the ones already existing in Germany, the UK and the US since before WW II. Soon came the need for a common international platform for exchange of information and experience, and the concept of an international federation of astronautical societies emerged. Sweden was one of the 8 countries to sign the original declaration to create an International Astronautical Federation on October 2, 1950 in Paris at the 1st International Astronautical Congress. The Swedish Society for Space Research (Svenska Sällskapet för Rymdforskning) was formed a few days after the historical event in Paris. The name was soon to be changed to the Swedish Interplanetary Society (Svenska Interplanetariska Sällskapet, SIS). Sweden was one of the 10 countries to sign the IAF foundation in 1951 in London and in the following year the first Constitution of IAF in Stuttgart. The SIS quickly grow to a membership of several hundred persons and its membership in IAF promoted an intensive exchange of journals, and the annual participation at the IAC gave growth to start study projects on spacecraft and sounding rockets, and the publication of astronautical journals in Swedish. In 1957 the first Swede was elected vice-president of IAF. Not too long after the IAF foundation the idea of an international body of distinguished individuals emerged, in addition to the body of "member societies" (IAF). Upon the initiative of Theodor von Karman, Eugen Sänger and Andrew Haley the IAF council approval of an International Academy of Astronautical was given on August 15, 1960 during the 11th IAC in Stockholm. This IAC in Stockholm gave a large publicity to space research and astronautics in Sweden, and put the activities of the SIS in the focus of the general public. This paper presents the Swedish involvement in the foundation of IAF and IAA. It also

  10. Intelligent Vehicle Health Management (United States)

    Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.


    As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission

  11. Results of investigations with an 0.015-scale model (49-0) of the Rockwell International space shuttle vehicle 140A/B configuration with modified OMS pods and elevons in the AEDC VKF tunnel B (0A79) (United States)

    Esparza, V.; Lindsay, A. I.


    Aerodynamic data obtained from wind tunnel tests of an 0.015-scale space shuttle vehicle Orbiter model of a 140A/B configuration with modified orbital manuevering system pods and elevons are documented. Force data was obtained at various control surface settings and Reynolds numbers in the angle of attack range of 15 deg to 45 deg and at angles of sideslip of -5 deg to +5 deg. Control surface variables included elevon, rudder, speed brake, and body flap configurations.

  12. Aerodynamic results of wind tunnel tests on a 0.010-scale model (32-QTS) space shuttle integrated vehicle in the AEDC VKF-40-inch supersonic wind tunnel (IA61) (United States)

    Daileda, J. J.


    Plotted and tabulated aerodynamic coefficient data from a wind tunnel test of the integrated space shuttle vehicle are presented. The primary test objective was to determine proximity force and moment data for the orbiter/external tank and solid rocket booster (SRB) with and without separation rockets firing for both single and dual booster runs. Data were obtained at three points (t = 0, 1.25, and 2.0 seconds) on the nominal SRB separation trajectory.

  13. Manifestation of interplanetary medium parameters in development of a geomagnetic storm initial phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chkhetiya, A.M.


    The role of solar wind plasma parameters in formation of a geomagnetic storm initial phase is refined. On the basis of statistical analysis an empirical formula relating the interplanetary medium parameters (components of interplanetary magnetic field, proton velocity and concentration) and D st -index during the geomagnetic storm initial phase is proposed

  14. Path Planning for Unmanned Underwater Vehicle in 3D Space with Obstacles Using Spline-Imperialist Competitive Algorithm and Optimal Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Zakeri

    Full Text Available Abstract In this research, generation of a short and smooth path in three-dimensional space with obstacles for guiding an Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV without collision is investigated. This is done by utilizing spline technique, in which the spline control points positions are determined by Imperialist Competitive Algorithm (ICA in three-dimensional space such that the shortest possible path from the starting point to the target point without colliding with obstacles is achieved. Furthermore, for guiding the UUV in the generated path, an Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Logic Controller (IT2FLC, the coefficients of which are optimized by considering an objective function that includes quadratic terms of the input forces and state error of the system, is used. Selecting such objective function reduces the control error and also the force applied to the UUV, which consequently leads to reduction of energy consumption. Therefore, by using a special method, desired signals of UUV state are obtained from generated three-dimensional optimal path such that tracking these signals by the controller leads to the tracking of this path by UUV. In this paper, the dynamical model of the UUV, entitled as "mUUV-WJ-1" , is derived and its hydrodynamic coefficients are calculated by CFD in order to be used in the simulations. For simulation by the method presented in this study, three environments with different obstacles are intended in order to check the performance of the IT2FLC controller in generating optimal paths for guiding the UUV. In this article, in addition to ICA, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO and Artificial Bee Colony (ABC are also used for generation of the paths and the results are compared with each other. The results show the appropriate performance of ICA rather than ABC and PSO. Moreover, to evaluate the performance of the IT2FLC, optimal Type-1 Fuzzy Logic Controller (T1FLC and Proportional Integrator Differentiator (PID controller are designed

  15. A theoretical perspective on particle acceleration by interplanetary shocks and the Solar Energetic Particle problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verkhoglyadova, Olga P. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL35899 (United States); Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA91109 (United States); Zank, Gary P.; Li, Gang [Department of Space Science, UAH, Huntsville, AL35899 (United States); Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL35899 (United States)


    Understanding the physics of Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events is of importance to the general question of particle energization throughout the cosmos as well as playing a role in the technologically critical impact of space weather on society. The largest, and often most damaging, events are the so-called gradual SEP events, generally associated with shock waves driven by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). We review the current state of knowledge about particle acceleration at evolving interplanetary shocks with application to SEP events that occur in the inner heliosphere. Starting with a brief outline of recent theoretical progress in the field, we focus on current observational evidence that challenges conventional models of SEP events, including complex particle energy spectra, the blurring of the distinction between gradual and impulsive events, and the difference inherent in particle acceleration at quasi-parallel and quasi-perpendicular shocks. We also review the important problem of the seed particle population and its injection into particle acceleration at a shock. We begin by discussing the properties and characteristics of non-relativistic interplanetary shocks, from their formation close to the Sun to subsequent evolution through the inner heliosphere. The association of gradual SEP events with shocks is discussed. Several approaches to the energization of particles have been proposed, including shock drift acceleration, diffusive shock acceleration (DSA), acceleration by large-scale compression regions, acceleration by random velocity fluctuations (sometimes known as the “pump mechanism”), and others. We review these various mechanisms briefly and focus on the DSA mechanism. Much of our emphasis will be on our current understanding of the parallel and perpendicular diffusion coefficients for energetic particles and models of plasma turbulence in the vicinity of the shock. Because of its importance both to the DSA mechanism itself and to the


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitňa, A.; Šafránková, J.; Němeček, Z.; Goncharov, O.; Němec, F.; Přech, L. [Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holešovičkách 2, 180 00 Prague 8 (Czech Republic); Chen, C. H. K. [Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Zastenker, G. N., E-mail: [Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, Profsoyuznaya ul. 84/32, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation)


    Interplanetary (IP) shocks as typical large-scale disturbances arising from processes such as stream–stream interactions or Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejection (ICME) launching play a significant role in the energy redistribution, dissipation, particle heating, acceleration, etc. They can change the properties of the turbulent cascade on shorter scales. We focus on changes of the level and spectral properties of ion flux fluctuations upstream and downstream of fast forward oblique shocks. Although the fluctuation level increases by an order of magnitude across the shock, the spectral slope in the magnetohydrodynamic range is conserved. The frequency spectra upstream of IP shocks are the same as those in the solar wind (if not spoiled by foreshock waves). The spectral slopes downstream are roughly proportional to the corresponding slopes upstream, suggesting that the properties of the turbulent cascade are conserved across the shock; thus, the shock does not destroy the shape of the spectrum as turbulence passes through it. Frequency spectra downstream of IP shocks often exhibit “an exponential decay” in the ion kinetic range that was earlier reported at electron scales in the solar wind or at ion scales in the interstellar medium. We suggest that the exponential shape of ion flux spectra in this range is caused by stronger damping of the fluctuations in the downstream region.

  17. The Ring Current Response to Solar and Interplanetary Storm Drivers (United States)

    Mouikis, C.; Kistler, L. M.; Bingham, S.; Kronberg, E. A.; Gkioulidou, M.; Huang, C. L.; Farrugia, C. J.


    The ring current responds differently to the different solar and interplanetary storm drivers such as coronal mass injections, (CME's), corotating interaction regions (CIR's), high-speed streamers and other structures. The resulting changes in the ring current particle pressure, in turn, change the global magnetic field, controlling the transport of the radiation belts. To quantitatively determine the field changes during a storm throughout the magnetosphere, it is necessary to understand the transport, sources and losses of the particles that contribute to the ring current. Because the measured ring current energy spectra depend not only on local processes, but also on the history of the ions along their entire drift path, measurements of ring current energy spectra at two or more locations can be used to strongly constrain the time dependent magnetic and electric fields. In this study we use data predominantly from the Cluster and the Van Allen Probes, covering more than a full solar cycle (from 2001 to 2014). For the period 2001-2012, the Cluster CODIF and RAPID measurements of the inner magnetosphere are the primary data set used to monitor the storm time ring current variability. After 2012, the Cluster data set complements the data from the Van Allen Probes HOPE and RBSPICE instruments, providing additional measurements from different MLT and L shells. Selected storms from this periods, allow us to study the ring current dynamics and pressure changes, as a function of L shell, magnetic local time, and the type of interplanetary disturbances.

  18. The topology of intrasector reversals of the interplanetary magnetic field (United States)

    Kahler, S. W.; Crooker, N. U.; Gosling, J. T.


    A technique has been developed recently to determine the polarities of interplanetary magnetic fields relative to their origins at the Sun by comparing energetic electron flow directions with local magnetic field directions. Here we use heat flux electrons from the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) plasma detector on the ISEE 3 spacecraft to determine the field polarities. We examine periods within well-defined magnetic sectors when the field directions appear to be reversed from the normal spiral direction of the sector. About half of these intrasector field reversals (IFRs) are cases in which the polarities match those of the surrounding sectors, indicating that those fields have been folded back toward the Sun. The more interesting cases are those with polarity reversals. We find no clear cases of isolated reverse polarity fields, which suggests that islands of reverse polarity in the solar source dipole field probably do not exist. The IFRs with polarity reversals are strongly associated with periods of bidirectional electron flows, suggesting that those fields occur only in conjunction with closed fields. We propose that both those IFRs and the bidirectional flows are signatures of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In that case, many interplanetary CMEs are larger and more complex than previously thought, consisting of both open and closed field components.

  19. Solar sail time-optimal interplanetary transfer trajectory design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Shengpin; Gao Yunfeng; Li Junfeng


    The fuel consumption associated with some interplanetary transfer trajectories using chemical propulsion is not affordable. A solar sail is a method of propulsion that does not consume fuel. Transfer time is one of the most pressing problems of solar sail transfer trajectory design. This paper investigates the time-optimal interplanetary transfer trajectories to a circular orbit of given inclination and radius. The optimal control law is derived from the principle of maximization. An indirect method is used to solve the optimal control problem by selecting values for the initial adjoint variables, which are normalized within a unit sphere. The conditions for the existence of the time-optimal transfer are dependent on the lightness number of the sail and the inclination and radius of the target orbit. A numerical method is used to obtain the boundary values for the time-optimal transfer trajectories. For the cases where no time-optimal transfer trajectories exist, first-order necessary conditions of the optimal control are proposed to obtain feasible solutions. The results show that the transfer time decreases as the minimum distance from the Sun decreases during the transfer duration. For a solar sail with a small lightness number, the transfer time may be evaluated analytically for a three-phase transfer trajectory. The analytical results are compared with previous results and the associated numerical results. The transfer time of the numerical result here is smaller than the transfer time from previous results and is larger than the analytical result.

  20. North-South asymmetry of interplanetary plasma and solar parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Borie, M. A.


    Data of interplanetary plasma (field magnitude, solar wind speed, ion plasma density and temperature) and solar parameters (sunspot number, solar radio flux, and geomagnetic index) over the period 1965-1991, have been used to examine the asymmetry between the solar field north and south of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS). The dependence of N-S asymmetry of field magnitude (B) upon the interplanetary solar polarities is statistically insignificant. There is no clear indication for the presence of N-S asymmetry in the grand-average field magnitude over the solar cycles. During the period 1981-89 (qA<0; negative solar polarity state), the solar plasma was more dense and cooler south of the HCS than north of it. The solar flux component of toward field vector is larger in magnitude than those of away field vector during the qA<0 epoch, and no asymmetry observed in the qA<0 epoch. Furthermore, the sign of the N-S asymmetry in the solar activity depends positively upon the solar polarity state. In addition, it was studied the N-S asymmetry of solar parameters near the HCS, throughout the periods of northern and southern hemispheres were more active than the other. Some asymmetries (with respect to the HCS) in plasma parameters existed during the periods of southern hemisphere predominance

  1. Positive and negative sudden impulses caused by fast forward and reverse interplanetary shocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrioli, Vania Fatima; Savian, Jairo Francisco, E-mail:, E-mail: [Space Science Laboratory of Santa Maria - LACESM/CT - UFSM, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria - UFSM, Centro Tecnologico, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Echer, Ezequiel, E-mail: [National Institute for Space Research - INPE - MCT, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Schuch, Nelson Jorge, E-mail: [Southern Regional Space Research Center - CRSPE/INPE - MCT, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria - UFSM, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)


    Fast forward interplanetary shocks (FFS) are characterized by positive jump in all interplanetary plasma parameters (solar wind speed, temperature and density) and interplanetary magnetic field. However the fast reverse interplanetary shocks (FRS) are characterized by negative jump in all mentioned parameters except solar wind speed. Observations show that FFS cause positive sudden impulses (SI) while FRS cause negative SI in the H-component of the geomagnetic field. In this work we investigate the SI caused by interplanetary shocks. We use the observed plasma parameters, upstream and downstream, to calculate the variation of dynamic pressure. We observe that the SI amplitude is larger for positive SI than for negative ones, as a consequence of the fact that FFS have larger dynamic pressure variations as compared to FRS. (author)

  2. Criteria of interplanetary parameters causing intense magnetic storms (Dsub(st) < -100 nT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, W.D.; Tsurutani, B.T.


    Ten intense magnetic storms (Dsub(st) 5 mV m -1 , that last for intervals > 3 h. Because we find a one-to-one relationship between these interplanetary events and intense storms, we suggest that these criteria can, in the future, be used as predictors of intense storms by an interplanetary monitor such as ISEE-3. The close proximity of the Bsub(z) events and magnetic storms to the onset of high speed streams or density enhancement events is in sharp contrast to interplanetary Alfven waves and HILDCAA events previously reported and thus the two interplanetary features and corresponding geomagnetic responses can be thought of as being complementary in nature. An examination of opposite polarity (northward) Bsub(z) events with the same criteria shows that their occurrence is similar both in number as well as in their relationship to interplanetary disturbances, and that they lead to low levels of geomagnetic activity. (author)

  3. Atomic Power in Space: A History (United States)


    "Atomic Power in Space," a history of the Space Isotope Power Program of the United States, covers the period from the program's inception in the mid-1950s through 1982. Written in non-technical language, the history is addressed to both the general public and those more specialized in nuclear and space technologies. Interplanetary space exploration successes and achievements have been made possible by this technology, for which there is no known substitue.

  4. BIRDY - Interplanetary CubeSat for planetary geodesy of Small Solar System Bodies (SSSB). (United States)

    Hestroffer, D.; Agnan, M.; Segret, B.; Quinsac, G.; Vannitsen, J.; Rosenblatt, P.; Miau, J. J.


    We are developing the Birdy concept of a scientific interplanetary CubeSat, for cruise, or proximity operations around a Small body of the Solar System (asteroid, comet, irregular satellite). The scientific aim is to characterise the body's shape, gravity field, and internal structure through imaging and radio-science techniques. Radio-science is now of common use in planetary science (flybys or orbiters) to derive the mass of the scientific target and possibly higher order terms of its gravity field. Its application to a nano-satellite brings the advantage of enabling low orbits that can get closer to the body's surface, hence increasing the SNR for precise orbit determination (POD), with a fully dedicated instrument. Additionally, it can be applied to two or more satellites, on a leading-trailing trajectory, to improve the gravity field determination. However, the application of this technique to CubeSats in deep space, and inter-satellite link has to be proven. Interplanetary CubeSats need to overcome a few challenges before reaching successfully their deep-space objectives: link to ground-segment, energy supply, protection against radiation, etc. Besides, the Birdy CubeSat — as our basis concept — is designed to be accompanying a mothercraft, and relies partly on the main mission for reaching the target, as well as on data-link with the Earth. However, constraints to the mothercraft needs to be reduced, by having the CubeSat as autonomous as possible. In this respect, propulsion and auto-navigation are key aspects, that we are studying in a Birdy-T engineering model. We envisage a 3U size CubeSat with radio link, object-tracker and imaging function, and autonomous ionic propulsion system. We are considering two case studies for autonomous guidance, navigation and control, with autonomous propulsion: in cruise and in proximity, necessitating ΔV up to 2m/s for a total budget of about 50m/s. In addition to the propulsion, in-flight orbit determination (IFOD

  5. Concept for a shuttle-tended reusable interplanetary transport vehicle using nuclear electric propulsion (United States)

    Nakagawa, R. Y.; Elliot, J. C.; Spilker, T. R.; Grayson, C. M.


    NASA has placed new emphasis on the development of advanced propulsion technologies including Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). This technology would provide multiple benefits including high delta-V capability and high power for long duration spacecraft operations.

  6. Using The Global Positioning System For Earth Orbiter and Deep Space Network (United States)

    Lichten, Stephen M.; Haines, Bruce J.; Young, Lawrence E.; Dunn, Charles; Srinivasan, Jeff; Sweeney, Dennis; Nandi, Sumita; Spitzmesser, Don


    The Global Positioning System (GPS) can play a major role in supporting orbit and trajectory determination for spacecraft in a wide range of applications, including low-Earth, high-earth, and even deep space (interplanetary) tracking.

  7. Inspection vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masaki; Omote, Tatsuyuki; Yoneya, Yutaka; Tanaka, Keiji; Waki, Tetsuro; Yoshida, Tomiji; Kido, Tsuyoshi.


    An inspection vehicle comprises a small-sized battery directly connected with a power motor or a direct power source from trolly lines and a switching circuit operated by external signals. The switch judges advance or retreat by two kinds of signals and the inspection vehicle is recovered by self-running. In order to recover the abnormally stopped inspection vehicle to the targeted place, the inspection vehicle is made in a free-running state by using a clutch mechanism and is pushed by an other vehicle. (T.M.)

  8. Interplanetary Magnetic Field and Plasma Values Related to Hildcaas Events (United States)

    Prestes, A.; Serra, S. L.; Vieira, L. A.


    In this work we investigate the interplanetary conditions during the occurrence of 150 HILDCAAs/QUASI-HILDCAAs events occurred between 1998 and 2007. These events were chosen by following strictly the selection criteria for this kind of phenomena and with some criteria flexible. Among the criteria used to characterize events HILDCAAs, the criterion that considers "the AE values never dropped below 200 nT for more than 2 h at a time" was more restrictive, thus only this was modified by changing from 2 to 4 hours the period in which the AE value can't be below 200 nT. In the interplanetary medium, HILDCAAs are associated with high speed solar wind streams, which are frequently embedded with alfvénic fluctuations. At the Sun, these high speed streams are originated in coronal holes. The distribution of events HILDCAAs/quasi-HILDCAAs along the solar cycle shows a pattern of double peak, a less intense around the maximum of the sunspot cycle and other intense in the descending phase, similar to the distribution of low-latitude coronal holes. For each one of the selected events we have found the most probable value of interplanetary magnetic field and plasma. The average values of AE, AU, AL and Dst indices, the density and temperature of the solar wind protons, the solar wind speed, the Bz component of the IMF, the IMF intensity, dynamic pressure and factor beta, among all the 150 events HILDCAAs/quasi-HILDCAAs, were: AE (344.5 ± 65.0 nT), AU (131.0 ± 33.0 nT), AL (-213.7 ± 51.2 nT), Dst (-25.8 ± 12.2 nT), Density (5,0 ± 1,8 cm-3), Temperature (151269.5 ± 48907.7 K), |V| (538.2 ± 83.3 km/s) Bz (-0.71 ± 1.02 nT), |B| (6.7 ± 1.4 nT) pressure (2.6 ± 0.7 nPa) and Beta (0.66 ± 0.27).

  9. The interplanetary magnetic field observed by Juno enroute to Jupiter (United States)

    Gruesbeck, Jacob R.; Gershman, Daniel J.; Espley, Jared R.; Connerney, John E. P.


    The Juno spacecraft was launched on 5 August 2011 and spent nearly 5 years traveling through the inner heliosphere on its way to Jupiter. The Magnetic Field Investigation was powered on shortly after launch and obtained vector measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) at sample rates from 1 to 64 samples/second. The evolution of the magnetic field with radial distance from the Sun is compared to similar observations obtained by Voyager 1 and 2 and the Ulysses spacecraft, allowing a comparison of the radial evolution between prior solar cycles and the current depressed one. During the current solar cycle, the strength of the IMF has decreased throughout the inner heliosphere. A comparison of the variance of the normal component of the magnetic field shows that near Earth the variability of the IMF is similar during all three solar cycles but may be less at greater radial distances.

  10. Enhanced interplanetary panspermia in the TRAPPIST-1 system. (United States)

    Lingam, Manasvi; Loeb, Abraham


    We present a simple model for estimating the probability of interplanetary panspermia in the recently discovered system of seven planets orbiting the ultracool dwarf star TRAPPIST-1 and find that panspermia is potentially orders of magnitude more likely to occur in the TRAPPIST-1 system compared with the Earth-to-Mars case. As a consequence, we argue that the probability of abiogenesis is enhanced on the TRAPPIST-1 planets compared with the solar system. By adopting models from theoretical ecology, we show that the number of species transferred and the number of life-bearing planets are also likely to be higher because of the increased rates of immigration. We propose observational metrics for evaluating whether life was initiated by panspermia on multiple planets in the TRAPPIST-1 system. These results are also applicable to habitable exoplanets and exomoons in other planetary systems.

  11. Observations of interplanetary energetic ion enhancements near magnetic sector boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briggs, P.R.; Armstrong, T.P.


    We have examined all energetic medium nuclei (carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen) flux increases observed all the satellites IMP 7 and IMP 8 at 1 AU during Bartels rotations 1906-1974. After removing flare-related increases, the remaining 14 ''events'' were compared to interplanetary magnetic field and solar wind parameters. We have discovered a class of flux enhancements in which the ion increases occur close to the onset of magnetic sector boundary crossings. We interpret this observation as a facilitated access to 1 AU of energetic ions from the corona or chromopshere via the magnetic sector structure. It appears that this access is more significant for medium than for lighter nuclei, ''suggesting a possible charge- or rigidity-dependent transport mechanism

  12. Stochastic diffusion of dust grains by the interplanetary magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.H.A.; Wallis, M.K.


    The effects of the sectored Interplanetary Magnetic Field on charged dust grains orbiting around the sun under radiation pressure and Poynting-Robertson drag forces are examined for initially circular and non-inclined orbits. The distribution function of the charged grains satisfies a Fokker-Planck equation in which the sectored field is taken as a source of stochastic impulses. By adopting the integrals of the impulse-free motion as variable parameters, the Fokker-Planck equation can be properly treated as a diffusion equation. Analytic solutions of the resulting diffusion equation show that dust grains injected near the ecliptic plane are scattered strongly to high helio-latitudes. The scattering is more pronounced for small grains injected at large distances from the Sun. (author)


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurley, K. [University of California, Berkeley, Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Svinkin, D. S.; Aptekar, R. L.; Golenetskii, S. V.; Frederiks, D. D. [Ioffe Physical Technical Institute, Politekhnicheskaya 26, St. Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Boynton, W. [University of Arizona, Department of Planetary Sciences, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Mitrofanov, I. G.; Golovin, D. V.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Litvak, M. L.; Sanin, A. B. [Space Research Institute, 84/32, Profsoyuznaya, Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Rau, A.; Kienlin, A. von; Zhang, X. [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse, Postfach 1312, Garching, D-85748 Germany (Germany); Connaughton, V.; Meegan, C. [University of Alabama in Huntsville, NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Cline, T.; Gehrels, N., E-mail: [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)


    We have performed a blind search for a gamma-ray transient of arbitrary duration and energy spectrum around the time of the LIGO gravitational-wave event GW150914 with the six-spacecraft interplanetary network (IPN). Four gamma-ray bursts were detected between 30 hr prior to the event and 6.1 hr after it, but none could convincingly be associated with GW150914. No other transients were detected down to limiting 15–150 keV fluences of roughly 5 ×10{sup −8}–5 × 10{sup −7} erg cm{sup −2}. We discuss the search strategies and temporal coverage of the IPN on the day of the event and compare the spatial coverage to the region where GW150914 originated. We also report the negative result of a targeted search for the Fermi -GBM event reported in conjunction with GW150914.

  14. Transport of solar electrons in the turbulent interplanetary magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ablaßmayer, J.; Tautz, R. C., E-mail: [Zentrum für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstraße 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany); Dresing, N., E-mail: [Institut für Experimentelle und Angewandte Physik, Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel, Leibnizstraße 11, D-24118 Kiel (Germany)


    The turbulent transport of solar energetic electrons in the interplanetary magnetic field is investigated by means of a test-particle Monte-Carlo simulation. The magnetic fields are modeled as a combination of the Parker field and a turbulent component. In combination with the direct calculation of diffusion coefficients via the mean-square displacements, this approach allows one to analyze the effect of the initial ballistic transport phase. In that sense, the model complements the main other approach in which a transport equation is solved. The major advancement is that, by recording the flux of particles arriving at virtual detectors, intensity and anisotropy-time profiles can be obtained. Observational indications for a longitudinal asymmetry can thus be explained by tracing the diffusive spread of the particle distribution. The approach may be of future help for the systematic interpretation of observations for instance by the solar terrestrial relations observatory (STEREO) and advanced composition explorer (ACE) spacecrafts.

  15. The Interplanetary Magnetic Field Observed by Juno Enroute to Jupiter (United States)

    Gruesbeck, Jacob R.; Gershman, Daniel J.; Espley, Jared R.; Connerney, John E. P.


    The Juno spacecraft was launched on 5 August 2011 and spent nearly 5 years traveling through the inner heliosphere on its way to Jupiter. The Magnetic Field Investigation was powered on shortly after launch and obtained vector measurements of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) at sample rates from 1 to 64 samples/second. The evolution of the magnetic field with radial distance from the Sun is compared to similar observations obtained by Voyager 1 and 2 and the Ulysses spacecraft, allowing a comparison of the radial evolution between prior solar cycles and the current depressed one. During the current solar cycle, the strength of the IMF has decreased throughout the inner heliosphere. A comparison of the variance of the normal component of the magnetic field shows that near Earth the variability of the IMF is similar during all three solar cycles but may be less at greater radial distances.

  16. Carbon Raman Spectroscopy of 36 Inter-Planetary Dust Particles (United States)

    Busemann, H.; Nittler, L. R.; Davidson, J.; Franchi, I. A.; Messenger, S.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Palma, R. L.; Pepin, R. O.


    Carbon Raman spectroscopy is a useful tool to determine the degree of order of organic material (OM) in extra-terrestrial matter. As shown for meteoritic OM [e.g., 2], peak parameters of D and G bands are a measure of thermal alteration, causing graphitization (order), and amorphization, e.g. during protoplanetary irradiation, causing disorder. Th e most pristine interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) may come from comets. However, their exact provenance is unknown. IDP collection during Earth?s passage through comet Grigg-Skjellerup?s dust stream ("GSC" collectors) may increase the probability of collecting fresh IDPs from a known, cometary source. We used Raman spectroscopy to compare 21 GSC-IDPs with 15 IDPs collected at different periods, and found that the variation among GSC-IDPs is larger than among non-GSC IDPs, with the most primitive IDPs being mostly GSC-IDPs.

  17. Experimental Determination of Infrared Extinction Coefficients of Interplanetary Dust Particles (United States)

    Spann, J. F., Jr.; Abbas, M. M.


    This technique is based on irradiating a single isolated charged dust particle suspended in balance by an electric field, and measuring the scattered radiation as a function of angle. The observed scattered intensity profile at a specific wavelength obtained for a dust particle of known composition is compared with Mie theory calculations, and the variable parameters relating to the particle size and complex refractive index are adjusted for a best fit between the two profiles. This leads to a simultaneous determination of the particle radius, the complex refractive index, and the scattering and extinction coefficients. The results of these experiments can be utilized to examine the IRAS and DIRBE (Diffuse Infrared Background Experiment) infrared data sets in order to determine the dust particle physical characteristics and distributions by using infrared models and inversion techniques. This technique may also be employed for investigation of the rotational bursting phenomena whereby large size cosmic and interplanetary particles are believed to fragment into smaller dust particles.

  18. Langmuir waveforms at interplanetary shocks: STEREO statistical analysis (United States)

    Briand, C.


    Wave-particle interactions and particle acceleration are the two main processes allowing energy dissipation at non collisional shocks. Ion acceleration has been deeply studied for many years, also for their central role in the shock front reformation. Electron dynamics is also important in the shock dynamics through the instabilities they can generate which may impact the ion dynamics.Particle measurements can be efficiently completed by wave measurements to determine the characteristics of the electron beams and study the turbulence of the medium. Electric waveforms obtained from the S/WAVES instrument of the STEREO mission between 2007 to 2014 are analyzed. Thus, clear signature of Langmuir waves are observed on 41 interplanetary shocks. These data enable a statistical analysis and to deduce some characteristics of the electron dynamics on different shocks sources (SIR or ICME) and types (quasi-perpendicular or quasi-parallel). The conversion process between electrostatic to electromagnetic waves has also been tested in several cases.

  19. On interplanetary coronal mass ejection identification at 1 AU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulligan, T.; Russell, C.T.; Gosling, J.T.


    Coronal mass ejections are believed to be produced in the corona from closed magnetic regions not previously participating in the solar wind expansion. At 1 AU their interplanetary counterparts (ICMEs) generally have a number of distinct plasma and field signatures that distinguish them from the ambient solar wind. These include heat flux dropouts, bi-directional streaming, enhanced alpha particle events, times of depressed proton temperatures, intervals of distorted or enhanced magnetic field, and times of large magnetic field rotations characteristic of magnetic clouds. The first three of these signatures are phenomena that occur at some point within the ICME, but do not necessarily persist throughout the entire ICME. The large scale magnetic field rotations, distortions and enhancements, and the proton temperature depressions tend to mark more accurately the beginning and end of the ICME proper. We examine herein the reliability with which each of these markers identifies ICMEs utilizing ISEE-3 data from 1978 - 1980. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  20. Multielement analysis of interplanetary dust particles using TOF-SIMS (United States)

    Stephan, T.; Kloeck, W.; Jessberger, E. K.; Rulle, H.; Zehnpfenning, J.


    Sections of three stratospheric particles (U2015G1, W7029*A27, and L2005P9) were analyzed with TOF-SIMS (Time Of Flight-Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) continuing our efforts to investigate the element distribution in interplanetary dust particles (IDP's) with high lateral resolution (approximately 0.2 micron), to examine possible atmospheric contamination effects, and to further explore the abilities of this technique for element analysis of small samples. The samples, previously investigated with SXRF (synchrotron X-ray fluorescence analysis), are highly enriched in Br (Br/Fe: 59 x CI, 9.2 x CI, and 116 x CI, respectively). U2015G1 is the IDP with the by far highest Zn/Fe-ratio (81 x CI) ever reported in chondritic particles.

  1. Interplanetary fast shock diagnosis with the radio receiver on Ulysses (United States)

    Hoang, S.; Pantellini, F.; Harvey, C. C.; Lacombe, C.; Mangeney, A.; Meuer-Vernet, N.; Perche, C.; Steinberg, J.-L.; Lengyel-Frey, D.; Macdowall, R. J.


    The radio receiver on Ulysses records the quasi-thermal noise which allows a determination of the density and temperature of the cold (core) electrons of the solar wind. Seven interplanetary fast forward or reverse shocks are identified from the density and temperature profiles, together with the magnetic field profile from the Magnetometer experiment. Upstream of the three strongest shocks, bursts of nonthermal waves are observed at the electron plasma frequency f(peu). The more perpendicular the shock, the longer the time interval during which these upstream bursts are observed. For one of the strongest shocks we also observe two kinds of upstream electromagnetic radiation: radiation at 2 f(peu), and radiation at the downstream electron plasma frequency, which propagates into the less dense upstream regions.

  2. The characteristic response of whistler mode waves to interplanetary shocks (United States)

    Yue, C.; Chen, L.; Bortnik, J.; Ma, Q.; Thorne, R. M.; Angelopoulos, V.; Li, J.; An, X.; Zhou, C.


    Magnetospheric whistler mode waves play a key role in regulating the dynamics of the electron radiation belts. Recent satellite observations indicate a significant influence of interplanetary (IP) shocks on whistler mode wave power in the inner magnetosphere. In this study, we statistically investigate the response of whistler mode chorus and plasmaspheric hiss to IP shocks based on Van Allen Probes and THEMIS satellite observations. Immediately after the IP shock arrival, chorus wave power is usually intensified, often at dawn, while plasmaspheric hiss wave power predominantly decreases near the dayside but intensifies near the nightside. We conclude that chorus wave intensification outside the plasmasphere is probably associated with the suprathermal electron flux enhancement caused by the IP shock. On the other hand, the solar wind dynamic pressure increase changes the magnetic field configuration to favor ray penetration into the nightside and promote ray refraction away from the dayside, explaining the magnetic local time (MLT) dependent responses of plasmaspheric hiss waves following IP shock arrivals.

  3. The acceleration of particles at propagating interplanetary shocks (United States)

    Prinsloo, P. L.; Strauss, R. D. T.


    Enhancements of charged energetic particles are often observed at Earth following the eruption of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) on the Sun. These enhancements are thought to arise from the acceleration of those particles at interplanetary shocks forming ahead of CMEs, propagating into the heliosphere. In this study, we model the acceleration of these energetic particles by solving a set of stochastic differential equations formulated to describe their transport and including the effects of diffusive shock acceleration. The study focuses on how acceleration at halo-CME-driven shocks alter the energy spectra of non-thermal particles, while illustrating how this acceleration process depends on various shock and transport parameters. We finally attempt to establish the relative contributions of different seed populations of energetic particles in the inner heliosphere to observed intensities during selected acceleration events.

  4. Heliocentric distance dependence of the interplanetary magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behannon, K.W.


    Recent and ongoing planetary missions have provided and are continuing to provide extensive observations of the variations of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) both in time and with heliocentric distance from the sun. Large time variations in both the IMF and its fluctuations are observed. These are produced predominantly by dynamical processes in the interplanetary medium associated with stream interactions. Magnetic field variations near the sun are propagated to greater heliocentric distances, a process also contributing to the observed variability of the IMF. Temporal variations on a time scale comparable to or less than the corotation period complicate attempts to deduce radial gradients of the field and its fluctuations from the various observations. However, recent measurements inward to 0.46 AU and outward to 5 AU suggest that the radial component of the field on average decreases approximately as r -2 , as was predicted by Parker, while the azimuthal component decreases more rapidly than the r -1 dependence predicted by simple theory. Three sets of observations are consistent with r/sup -1.3/ dependence for vertical-barB/sub phi/vertical-bar. The temporal variability of solar wind speed is most likely the predominant contributor to this latter observational result. The long-term average azimuthal component radial gradient is probably consistent with the Parker r -1 dependence when solar wind speed variations are taken into account. The observations of the normal component magnitude vertical-barB/sub theta/vertical-bar are roughly consistent with a heliocentric distance dependence of r/sup -1.4/. The observed radial distance dependence of the total magnitude of the IMF is well described by the Parker formulation. There is observational evidence that amplitudes of fluctuations of the vector field with periods less than 1 day vary with heliocentric distance as approximately r/sup -3/2/, in agreement with theoretical models by Whang and Hollweg

  5. An Alternative Method for Identifying Interplanetary Magnetic Cloud Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ojeda-Gonzalez, A.; Prestes, A.; Klausner, V. [Laboratory of Physics and Astronomy, IP and D/Universidade do Vale do Paraíba—UNIVAP, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Mendes, O. [Division of Space Geophysics, National Institute for Space Research, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Calzadilla, A. [Department of Space Geophysics, Institute of Geophysics and Astronomy, Havana (Cuba); Domingues, M. O., E-mail: [Associate Laboratory of Applied Computing and Mathematics, National Institute for Space Research, São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil)


    Spatio-temporal entropy (STE) analysis is used as an alternative mathematical tool to identify possible magnetic cloud (MC) candidates. We analyze Interplanetary Magnetic Field (IMF) data using a time interval of only 10 days. We select a convenient data interval of 2500 records moving forward by 200 record steps until the end of the time series. For every data segment, the STE is calculated at each step. During an MC event, the STE reaches values close to zero. This extremely low value of STE is due to MC structure features. However, not all of the magnetic components in MCs have STE values close to zero at the same time. For this reason, we create a standardization index (the so-called Interplanetary Entropy, IE, index). This index is a worthwhile effort to develop new tools to help diagnose ICME structures. The IE was calculated using a time window of one year (1999), and it has a success rate of 70% over other identifiers of MCs. The unsuccessful cases (30%) are caused by small and weak MCs. The results show that the IE methodology identified 9 of 13 MCs, and emitted nine false alarm cases. In 1999, a total of 788 windows of 2500 values existed, meaning that the percentage of false alarms was 1.14%, which can be considered a good result. In addition, four time windows, each of 10 days, are studied, where the IE method was effective in finding MC candidates. As a novel result, two new MCs are identified in these time windows.

  6. Equatorial storm sudden commencements and interplanetary magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rastogi, R.G.


    A comparison is made of the signatures of interplanetary (IP) shocks in the B and theta plots of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) data of satellites Explorer 33, 34 and 35 and in the H magnetograms at ground observatories within the equatorial electrojet belt, Huancayo, Addis Ababa and Trivandrum associated with major storm sudden commencements during 1967-70. The IP shocks showing sudden increase of the scalar value of IMF, i.e. B without any change of the latitude theta or with the southward turning of theta, were followed by a purely positive sudden increase of H, at any of the magnetic observatories, either on the dayside or the nightside of the earth. The IP shocks identified by a sudden increase of B and with the northward turning of the latitude theta (positive ΔBsub(z)) were associated with purely positive sudden commencement (SC) at the observatories in the nightside, but at the equatorial observatories in the dayside of the earth the signature of the shock was a SC in H with a preliminary negative impulse followed by the main positive excursion (SC-+). It is suggested that the SCs in H at low latitudes are composed of two effects, viz. (i) one due to hydromagnetic pressure on the magnetosphere by the solar plasma and (ii) the other due to the induced electric field associated with the solar wind velocity, V and the Z-component of the IP magnetic field (E = - V x Bsub(z)). The effect of magnetosphere electric field is faster than the effect due to the compression of the magnetosphere by the impinging solar plasma. The negative impulse of SC-+ at low latitude is seen at stations close to the dip equator and only during daytime due to the existence of high ionospheric conductivities in the equatorial electrojet region. (author)

  7. Microcharacterization of interplanetary dust collected in the earth's stratosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraundorf, P.B.


    This thesis involved an examination of the internal structure of thirteen 10 μm aggregates using selected techniques from the field now known as analytical electron microscopy. The aggregates were collected in the earth's stratosphere at 20 km altitude by impactors mounted on NASA U-2 aircraft. Eleven of them exhibited relative major element abundances similar to those found in chondritic meteorities. For this and other reasons, these eleven particles are believed to represent relatively-unaltered interplanetary dust. Interplanetary dust is thought to be of cometary origin, and comets in turn provide the most promising reservoir for unaltered samples of materials present during the collapse of the solar nebula. This thesis shows that the chondritic aggregates probably contain important information on a wide range of processes in the early solar system. In the course of this study, significant developments were necessary in the techniques of analysis for: (i) selected area electron diffraction (SAED) data; (ii) energy dispersive x-ray spectra; and (iii) spatial heterogeneity in geological materials. These developments include a method for analysing single crystal SAED patterns using spherical geometry. The method makes possible much more efficient use of diffraction data taken with a goniometer specimen stage. It allows major portions of the analysis to be done by a microprocessor, and it has potential for a wide range of on-line applications. Also, a comprehensive approach to the study of point-to-point heterogeneity in geological materials was developed. Some statistical, comparative, petrographic, and physical applications are described in the thesis

  8. Electric vehicles (United States)


    Quiet, clean, and efficient, electric vehicles (EVs) may someday become a practical mode of transportation for the general public. Electric vehicles can provide many advantages for the nation's environment and energy supply because they run on electricity, which can be produced from many sources of energy such as coal, natural gas, uranium, and hydropower. These vehicles offer fuel versatility to the transportation sector, which depends almost solely on oil for its energy needs. Electric vehicles are any mode of transportation operated by a motor that receives electricity from a battery or fuel cell. EVs come in all shapes and sizes and may be used for different tasks. Some EVs are small and simple, such as golf carts and electric wheel chairs. Others are larger and more complex, such as automobile and vans. Some EVs, such as fork lifts, are used in industries. In this fact sheet, we will discuss mostly automobiles and vans. There are also variations on electric vehicles, such as hybrid vehicles and solar-powered vehicles. Hybrid vehicles use electricity as their primary source of energy, however, they also use a backup source of energy, such as gasoline, methanol or ethanol. Solar-powered vehicles are electric vehicles that use photovoltaic cells (cells that convert solar energy to electricity) rather than utility-supplied electricity to recharge the batteries. These concepts are discussed.

  9. Two-dimensional, time-dependent MHD description of interplanetary disturbances: simulation of high speed solar wind interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, S.T.; Han, S.M.; Dryer, M.


    A two-dimensional, time-dependent, magnetohydrodynamic, numerical model is used to investigate multiple, transient solar wind flows which start close to the Sun and then extend into interplanetary space. The initial conditions are assumed to be appropriate for steady, homogeneous solar wind conditions with an average, spiral magnetic field configuration. Because both radial and azimuthal dimensions are included, it is possible to place two or more temporally-developing streams side-by-side at the same time. Thus, the evolution of the ensuing stream interaction is simulated by this numerical code. Advantages of the present method are as follows: (1) the development and decay of asymmetric MHD shocks and their interactions are clearly indicated; and (2) the model allows flexibility in the specification of evolutionary initial conditions in the azimuthal direction, thereby making it possible to gain insight concerning the interplanetary consequences of real physical situations more accurately than by use of the one-dimensional approach. Examples of such situations are the occurrence of near-simultaneous solar flares in adjacent active regions and the sudden appearance of enlargement of coronal holes as a result of a transient re-arrangement from a closed to an open magnetic field topology. (author)

  10. Use of Faraday-rotation data from beacon satellites to determine ionospheric corrections for interplanetary spacecraft navigation (United States)

    Royden, H. N.; Green, D. W.; Walson, G. R.


    Faraday-rotation data from the linearly polarized 137-MHz beacons of the ATS-1, SIRIO, and Kiku-2 geosynchronous satellites are used to determine the ionospheric corrections to the range and Doppler data for interplanetary spacecraft navigation. The JPL operates the Deep Space Network of tracking stations for NASA; these stations monitor Faraday rotation with dual orthogonal, linearly polarized antennas, Teledyne polarization tracking receivers, analog-to-digital converter/scanners, and other support equipment. Computer software examines the Faraday data, resolves the pi ambiguities, constructs a continuous Faraday-rotation profile and converts the profile to columnar zenith total electron content at the ionospheric reference point; a second program computes the line-of-sight ionospheric correction for each pass of the spacecraft over each tracking complex. Line-of-sight ionospheric electron content using mapped Faraday-rotation data is compared with that using dispersive Doppler data from the Voyager spacecraft; a difference of about 0.4 meters, or 5 x 10 to the 16th electrons/sq m is obtained. The technique of determining the electron content of interplanetary plasma by subtraction of the ionospheric contribution is demonstrated on the plasma torus surrounding the orbit of Io.

  11. Space Weather: The Solar Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwenn Rainer


    Full Text Available The term space weather refers to conditions on the Sun and in the solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere that can influence the performance and reliability of space-borne and ground-based technological systems and that can affect human life and health. Our modern hi-tech society has become increasingly vulnerable to disturbances from outside the Earth system, in particular to those initiated by explosive events on the Sun: Flares release flashes of radiation that can heat up the terrestrial atmosphere such that satellites are slowed down and drop into lower orbits, solar energetic particles accelerated to near-relativistic energies may endanger astronauts traveling through interplanetary space, and coronal mass ejections are gigantic clouds of ionized gas ejected into interplanetary space that after a few hours or days may hit the Earth and cause geomagnetic storms. In this review, I describe the several chains of actions originating in our parent star, the Sun, that affect Earth, with particular attention to the solar phenomena and the subsequent effects in interplanetary space.

  12. Space Weather: The Solar Perspective (United States)

    Schwenn, Rainer


    The term space weather refers to conditions on the Sun and in the solar wind, magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere that can influence the performance and reliability of space-borne and ground-based technological systems and that can affect human life and health. Our modern hi-tech society has become increasingly vulnerable to disturbances from outside the Earth system, in particular to those initiated by explosive events on the Sun: Flares release flashes of radiation that can heat up the terrestrial atmosphere such that satellites are slowed down and drop into lower orbits, solar energetic particles accelerated to near-relativistic energies may endanger astronauts traveling through interplanetary space, and coronal mass ejections are gigantic clouds of ionized gas ejected into interplanetary space that after a few hours or days may hit the Earth and cause geomagnetic storms. In this review, I describe the several chains of actions originating in our parent star, the Sun, that affect Earth, with particular attention to the solar phenomena and the subsequent effects in interplanetary space.

  13. Investigations of the 0.020-scale 88-OTS Integrated Space Shuttle Vehicle Jet-Plume Model in the NASA/Ames Research Center 11 by11-Foot Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (IA80). Volume 1 (United States)

    Nichols, M. E.


    The results are documented of jet plume effects wind tunnel test of the 0.020-scale 88-OTS launch configuration space shuttle vehicle model in the 11 x 11 foot leg of the NASA/Ames Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. This test involved cold gas main propulsion system (MPS) and solid rocket motor (SRB) plume simulations at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 1.4. Integrated vehicle surface pressure distributions, elevon and rudder hinge moments, and wing and vertical tail root bending and torsional moments due to MPS and SRB plume interactions were determined. Nozzle power conditions were controlled per pretest nozzle calibrations. Model angle of attack was varied from -4 deg to +4 deg; model angle of sideslip was varied from -4 deg to +4 deg. Reynolds number was varied for certain test conditions and configurations, with the nominal freestream total pressure being 14.69 psia. Plotted force and pressure data are presented.

  14. 33 CFR 127.1311 - Motor vehicles. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Motor vehicles. 127.1311 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Operations § 127.1311 Motor vehicles. (a) When LHG is... operator shall ensure that no person— (1) Stops or parks a motor vehicle in a space other than a designated...

  15. Vehicle systems design optimization study (United States)

    Gilmour, J. L.


    The optimum vehicle configuration and component locations are determined for an electric drive vehicle based on using the basic structure of a current production subcompact vehicle. The optimization of an electric vehicle layout requires a weight distribution in the range of 53/47 to 62/38 in order to assure dynamic handling characteristics comparable to current internal combustion engine vehicles. Necessary modification of the base vehicle can be accomplished without major modification of the structure or running gear. As long as batteries are as heavy and require as much space as they currently do, they must be divided into two packages, one at front under the hood and a second at the rear under the cargo area, in order to achieve the desired weight distribution. The weight distribution criteria requires the placement of batteries at the front of the vehicle even when the central tunnel is used for the location of some batteries. The optimum layout has a front motor and front wheel drive. This configuration provides the optimum vehicle dynamic handling characteristics and the maximum passenger and cargo space for a given size vehicle.

  16. A Database of Interplanetary and Interstellar Dust Detected by the Wind Spacecraft (United States)

    Malaspina, David M.; Wilson, Lynn B., III


    It was recently discovered that the WAVES instrument on the Wind spacecraft has been detecting, in situ, interplanetary and interstellar dust of approximately 1 micron radius for the past 22 years. These data have the potential to enable advances in the study of cosmic dust and dust-plasma coupling within the heliosphere due to several unique properties: the Wind dust database spans two full solar cycles; it contains over 107,000 dust detections; it contains information about dust grain direction of motion; it contains data exclusively from the space environment within 350 Earth radii of Earth; and it overlaps by 12 years with the Ulysses dust database. Further, changes to the WAVES antenna response and the plasma environment traversed by Wind over the lifetime of the Wind mission create an opportunity for these data to inform investigations of the physics governing the coupling of dust impacts on spacecraft surfaces to electric field antennas. A Wind dust database has been created to make the Wind dust data easily accessible to the heliophysics community and other researchers. This work describes the motivation, methodology, contents, and accessibility of the Wind dust database.

  17. The thermal history of interplanetary dust particles collected in the Earth's stratosphere (United States)

    Nier, A. O.; Schlutter, D. J.


    Fragments of 24 individual interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the Earth's stratosphere were obtained from NASA's Johnson Space Center collection and subjected to pulse-heating sequences to extract He and Ne and to learn about the thermal history of the particles. A motivation for the investigation was to see if the procedure would help distinguish between IDPs of asteroidal and cometary origin. The use of a sequence of short-duration heat pulses to perform the extractions is an improvement over the employment of a step-heating sequence, as was used in a previous investigation. The particles studied were fragments of larger parent IDPs, other fragments of which, in coordinated experiments, are undergoing studies of elemental and mineralogical composition in other laboratories. While the present investigation will provide useful temperature history data for the particles, the relatively large size of the parent IDPs (approximately 40 micrometers in diameter) resulted in high entry deceleration temperatures. This limited the usefulness of the study for distinguishing between particles of asteroidal and cometary origin.

  18. Sharp Trapping Boundaries in the Random Walk of Interplanetary Magnetic Field Lines (United States)

    Ruffolo, D.; Chuychai, P.; Meechai, J.; Pongkitiwanichkul, P.; Kimpraphan, N.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Rowlands, G.


    Although magnetic field lines in space are believed to undergo a diffusive random walk in the long-distance limit, observed dropouts of solar energetic particles, as well as computer simulations, indicate sharply defined filaments in which interplanetary magnetic field lines have been temporarily trapped. We identify mechanisms that can explain such sharp boundaries in the framework of 2D+slab turbulence, a model that provides a good explanation of solar wind turbulence spectra and the parallel transport of solar energetic particles. Local trapping boundaries (LTBs) are empirically defined as trajectories of 2D turbulence where the mean 2D field is a local maximum. In computer simulations, the filaments (or ``islands'' in the two dimensions perpendicular to the mean field) that are most resistant to slab diffusion correspond closely to the mathematically defined LTBs, that is, there is a mathematical prescription for defining the trapping regions. Furthermore, we provide computational evidence and a theoretical explanation that strong 2D turbulence can inhibit diffusion due to the slab component. Therefore, while these filaments are basically defined by the small-scale topology of 2D turbulence, there can be sharp trapping boundaries where the 2D field is strongest. This work was supported by the Thailand Research Fund, the Rachadapisek Sompoj Fund of Chulalongkorn University, and NASA Grant NAG5-11603. G.R. thanks Mahidol University for its hospitality and the Thailand Commission for Higher Education for travel support.

  19. Flexible Composites for Space (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Payload mass reduction and packaging efficiency in launch vehicles are essential for deep space exploration.  Inflatable softgoods have been identified as attractive...

  20. Possible mechanism of the interplanetary medium effect on the diurnal rotation rate of the Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krymskij, P.F.


    Mechanism is proposed for effect of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field on the Earth rotation. In the mechanism base is Hall current generation in the plasma layer of the magnetosphere tail


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chian, Abraham C.-L.; Loew, Murray H. [Department of Biomedical Engineering, George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Feng, Heng Q. [Institute of Space Physics, Luoyang Normal University, Luoyang (China); Hu, Qiang [Department of Space Science and CSPAR, University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Miranda, Rodrigo A. [UnB-Gama Campus, and Plasma Physics Laboratory, Institute of Physics, University of Brasília (UnB), Brasília DF 70910-900 (Brazil); Muñoz, Pablo R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of La Serena, Av. Juan Cisternas 1200, La Serena (Chile); Sibeck, David G. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Wu, De J., E-mail: [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)


    In a recent paper, the relation between current sheet, magnetic reconnection, and turbulence at the leading edge of an interplanetary coronal mass ejection was studied. We report here the observation of magnetic reconnection at the interface region of two interplanetary magnetic flux ropes. The front and rear boundary layers of three interplanetary magnetic flux ropes are identified, and the structures of magnetic flux ropes are reconstructed by the Grad–Shafranov method. A quantitative analysis of the reconnection condition and the degree of intermittency reveals that rope–rope magnetic reconnection is the most likely site for genesis of interplanetary intermittency turbulence in this event. The dynamic pressure pulse resulting from this reconnection triggers the onset of a geomagnetic storm.

  2. Vehicle regulations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    In the Netherlands, all vehicles using public roads must meet so-called permanent requirements. This is enforced by the police and, for some categories, also during the MOT. In the Netherlands, most types of motor vehicle1 can only be introduced to the market if they meet the entry requirements. For

  3. On the solar origin of interplanetary disturbances observed in the vicinity of the Earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Vilmer

    Full Text Available The solar origin of 40 interplanetary disturbances observed in the vicinity of the Earth between January 1997 and June 1998 is investigated in this paper. Analysis starts with the establishment of a list of Interplanetary Mass Ejections or ICMEs (magnetic clouds, flux ropes and ejecta and of Interplanetary Shocks measured at WIND for the period for which we had previously investigated the coupling of the interplanetary medium with the terrestrial ionospheric response. A search for associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs observed by LASCO/SOHO is then performed, starting from an estimation of the transit time of the inter-planetary perturbation from the Sun to the Earth, assumed to be achieved at a constant speed (i.e. the speed measured at 1 AU. EIT/SOHO and Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH observations are also used as proxies in this identification for the cases when LASCO observations do not allow one to firmly establish the association. The last part of the analysis concerns the identification of the solar source of the CMEs, performed using a large set of solar observations from X-ray to radio wavelengths. In the present study, this association is based on a careful examination of many data sets (EIT, NRH and H images and not on the use of catalogs and of Solar Geophysical Data reports. An association between inter-planetary disturbances and LASCO/CMEs or proxies on the disk is found for 36 interplanetary events. For 32 events, the solar source of activity can also be identified. A large proportion of cases is found to be associated with a flare signature in an active region, not excluding of course the involvement of a filament. Conclusions are finally drawn on the propagation of the disturbances in the interplanetary medium, the preferential association of disturbances detected close to the Earth’s orbit with halos or wide CMEs and the location on the solar disk of solar sources of the interplanetary disturbances during that period

  4. The Modern Space Domain: On the Eve of Weaponization (United States)


    Space Warfighting Domain; Weaponization of Space; Space history UNCLAS UNCLAS UNCLAS UNCLAS; Unlimited 59 Mark A. Hauser 618-795-3900 NATIONAL DEFENSE...humans have traced history and made scientific discoveries. Man has touched the moon and seeks interplanetary journeys. Space has inspired to national security engagement. The United States responded to the Soviet advances by developing technology for satellite employment, space

  5. Space Science in Project SMART: A UNH High School Outreach Program (United States)

    Smith, C. W.; Broad, L.; Goelzer, S.; Lessard, M.; Levergood, R.; Lugaz, N.; Moebius, E.; Schwadron, N.; Torbert, R. B.; Zhang, J.; Bloser, P. F.


    Every summer for the past 25 years the University of New Hampshire (UNH) has run a month-long, residential outreach program for high school students considering careers in mathematics, science, or engineering. Space science is one of the modules. Students work directly with UNH faculty performing original work with real spacecraft data and hardware and present the results of that effort at the end of the program. Recent research topics have included interplanetary waves and turbulence as recorded by the ACE and Voyager spacecraft, electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves seen by the RBSP spacecraft, interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICME) acceleration and interstellar pickup ions as seen by the STEREO spacecraft, and prototyping CubeSat hardware. Student research efforts can provide useful results for future research efforts by the faculty while the students gain unique exposure to space physics and a science career. In addition, the students complete a team project. Since 2006, that project has been the construction and flight of a high-altitude balloon payload and instruments. The students typically build the instruments they fly. In the process, students learn circuit design and construction, microcontroller programming, and core atmospheric and space science. Our payload design has evolved significantly since the first flight of a simple rectangular box and now involves a stable descent vehicle that does not require a parachute, an on-board flight control computer, in-flight autonomous control and data acquisition of multiple student-built instruments, and real-time camera images sent to ground. This is a program that can be used as a model for other schools to follow and that high schools can initiate. More information can be found at .

  6. Interplanetary medium and geomagnetic activity after compact flare triplets 1966-1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, K.G.; Mikerina, N.V.; Pavlov, P.P.


    The interplanetary medium state and geomagnetic activity when the Earth is getting into this or that interplanetary disturbance zone after flare triplets, i.e. trains of three solar flares out of an active zone, are considered. There are the following conditionally differentiated zones in the interplanetary disturbance configuration: a forbidden (F), a perturbed (P) and a normal (N) zones of interplanetary disturbance. The interplanetary medium disturbances and geomagnetic activity after trains of three flares of class 2 and higher out of one of active zones depend on the following factors: the magnetic axis orientation of a bipolar group of active zone spots appeared after flares, time interval between the first and second flares in the train, flare intensity. The conditions of maximum disturbance occurrence pointed out. The interplanetary and geomagnetic disturbance intensity in the N zone is higher than that of the F and P zones (i.e. in the proximity of the great circle planes passing through the flares parallel with tha active zone magnetic axes), and it is higher after quasicompact rather than after compact triplets (i.e. it considerably grows when passing over the critical value of the time interval betwenn the first and second triplet flares, τ 12 =16 h)

  7. The problems of cosmic ray particle simulation for the near-Earth orbital and interplanetary flight conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nymmik, R.A.


    A wide range of the galactic cosmic ray and SEP event flux simulation problems for the near-Earth satellite and manned spacecraft orbits and for the interplanetary mission trajectories are discussed. The models of the galactic cosmic ray and SEP events in the Earth orbit beyond the Earth's magnetosphere are used as a basis. The particle fluxes in the near-Earth orbits should be calculated using the transmission functions. To calculate the functions, the dependences of the cutoff rigidities on the magnetic disturbance level and on magnetic local time have to be known. In the case of space flights towards the Sun and to the boundary of the solar system, particular attention is paid to the changes in the SEP event occurrence frequency and size. The particle flux gradients are applied in this case to galactic cosmic ray fluxes

  8. Motion of the sources for type 2 and type 4 radio bursts and flare-associated interplanetary disturbances (United States)

    Sakurai, K.; Chao, J. K.


    Shock waves are indirectly observed as the source of type 2 radio brusts, whereas magnetic bottles are identified as the source of moving metric type 4 radio bursts. The difference between the expansion speeds of these waves bottles is examined during their generation and propagation near the flare regions. It is shown that, although generated in the explosive phase of flares, the behavior of the bottles is quite different from that of the waves and that the speed of the former is generally much lower. It is shown that the transit times of disturbances between the sun and the earth give information about the deceleration of shock waves to their local speeds observed near the earth's orbit. A brief discussion is given on the relationship among magnetic bottles, shock waves near the sun, and flare-associated disturbances in interplanetary space.

  9. Results of investigations on the 0.004-scale model 74-0 of the configuration 4 (modified) space shuttle vehicle orbiter in the NASA/MSFC 14-by-14-inch trisonic wind tunnel (oa131) (United States)

    Nichols, M. E.


    The results of an oil flow boundary-layer visualization wind tunnel test of an 0.004-scale model of the Space Shuttle Vehicle Orbiter in the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center 14-by-14-inch Trisonic Wind Tunnel are presented. The model was tested at Mach numbers from 0.60 through 2.75, at angles-of-attack from 0 through 25 degrees, and at unit Reynolds numbers from 5.0 to 7.0 million per foot. The test program involved still and motion picture photography of oil-paint flow patterns on the orbiter, during and immediately after tunnel flow, to determine areas of boundary layer separation and regions of potential auxiliary power unit exhaust recirculation during transonic and low supersonic re-entry flight.

  10. Physical and chemical characteristics of interplanetary dust particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruen, E.


    For the first time, the micrometeoroid experiment on board of Helios allowed the measurement of physical and chemical characteristics of interplanetary dust particles between 0.3AU and 1AU solar distance. During the first 10 orbits of Helios 1,235 impacts of micrometeoroids have been detected. 83 particles have been registered by the ecliptic sensor and 152 by the south sensor. Most of the particles detected by the ecliptic sensor had masses 10 -13 g -10 g and impacted the sensor from the apex direction. The particles observed by the south sensor had masses 10 -15 g -9 g and impacted the sensor from all directions with a slightly enhanced flux from solar direction. The average impact speed of particles with masses 10 -13 g -10 g was 15km/s. From 1AU to.3AU, the observed paritcle flux increased by a factor 5-10. The orbits of the registered particles are highly eccentric, e approx. >= 0.6, and some are hyperbolic. The mass spectra measured upon impact allow the classification of chondritic and iron-rich particles. Approx. 20% of the particles had low densities rho 3 . On 4 particles, a positive electric charge has been observed. (orig.) [de

  11. Reference Design for a Simple, Durable and Refuelable Interplanetary Spacecraft (United States)

    McConnell, B. S.; Tolley, A. M.

    This article describes a reference design for interplanetary vessels, composed mostly of water, that utilize simplified RF engines for low thrust, long duration propulsion, and hydrogen peroxide for short duration, high thrust burns. The electrothermal engines are designed to heat a wide range of liquid materials, possibly also milled solids or surface dusts. The system emphasizes simple components and processes based on older technologies, many well known since the 1960s, that are understandable, can process a variety of materials, and are easily serviced in flight. The goal is to radically simplify systems and their inter-dependencies, to a point where a reasonably skilled person can learn to operate these vessels, not unlike a sailboat, and to eliminate many design and testing bottlenecks in their construction. The use of water, or hydrogen peroxide generated in situ from that water, is multiply advantageous because it can be used for structure, consumption, irrigation, radiation and debris shielding, and thermal regulation, and thus greatly reduce dead weight by creating an almost fully consumable ship. This also enables the ship to utilize a wide range of in situ materials, and eventually obtain reaction mass from lower gravity sites. The ability to switch between low thrust, constant power and high thrust, short duration maneuvers will enable these ships to travel freely and reach many interesting destinations throughout the solar system. One can think of them as “spacecoaches”, not unlike the prairie schooners of the Old West, which were rugged, serviceable by tradesmen, and easily maintained.

  12. Shock parameter calculations at weak interplanetary shock waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Gloag


    Full Text Available A large set of interplanetary shock waves observed using the Ulysses spacecraft is analysed in order to determine their local parameters. For the first time a detailed analysis is extended to the thermodynamic properties of a large number of events. The intention is to relate the shock parameters to the requirements set by MHD shock theory. A uniform approach is adopted in the selection of up and downstream regions for this analysis and applied to all the shock waves. Initially, the general case of a 3 component adiabatic plasma is considered. However, the calculation of magnetosonic and Alfvénic Mach numbers and the ratio of downstream to upstream entropy produce some unexpected results. In some cases there is no clear increase in entropy across the shock and also the magnetosonic Mach number can be less than 1. It is found that a more discerning use of data along with an empirical value for the polytropic index can raise the distribution of downstream to upstream entropy ratios to a more acceptable level. However, it is also realised that many of these shocks are at the very weakest end of the spectrum and associated phenomena may also contribute to the explanation of these results.

  13. Evidence linking coronal mass ejections with interplanetary magnetic clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, R.M.; Hildner, E.


    Using proxy data for the occurrence of those mass ejections from the solar corona which are directed earthward, we investigate the association between the post-1970 interplanetary magnetic clouds of Klein and Burlaga and coronal mass ejections. The evidence linking magnetic clouds following shocks with coronal mass ejections is striking. Six of nine clouds observed at Earth were preceded an appropriate time earlier by meter-wave type II radio bursts indicative of coronal shock waves and coronal mass ejections occurring near central meridian. During the selected periods when no clouds were detected near Earth, the only type II bursts reported were associated with solar activity near the limbs. Where the proxy solar data to be sought are not so clearly suggested, that is, for clouds preceding interaction regions and clouds within cold magnetic enhancements, the evidence linking the clouds and coronal mass ejections is not as clear proxy data usually suggest many candidate mass-ejection events for each cloud. Overall, the data are consistent with and support the hypothesis suggested by Klein and Burlaga that magnetic clouds observed with spacecraft at 1 AU are manifestations of solar coronal mass ejection transients

  14. GEMS Revealed: Spectrum Imaging of Aggregate Grains in Interplanetary Dust (United States)

    Keller, L. P.; Messenger, S.; Christoffersen, R.


    Anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) of cometary origin contain abundant materials that formed in the early solar nebula. These materials were transported outward and subsequently mixed with molecular cloud materials and presolar grains in the region where comets accreted [1]. GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides) grains are a major component of these primitive anhydrous IDPs, along with crystalline Mg-rich silicates, Fe-Ni sulfides, carbonaceous material, and other trace phases. Some GEMS grains (5%) are demonstrably presolar based on their oxygen isotopic compositions [2]. However, most GEMS grains are isotopically solar and have bulk chemical compositions that are incompatible with inferred compositions of interstellar dust, suggesting a solar system origin [3]. An alternative hypothesis is that GEMS grains represent highly irradiated interstellar grains whose oxygen isotopic compositions were homogenized through processing in the interstellar medium (ISM) [4]. We have obtained the first quantitative X-ray maps (spectrum images) showing the distribution of major and minor elements in individual GEMS grains. Nanometer-scale chemical maps provide critical data required to evaluate the differing models regarding the origin of GEMS grains.

  15. Quasilinear simulations of interplanetary shocks and Earth's bow shock (United States)

    Afanasiev, Alexandr; Battarbee, Markus; Ganse, Urs; Vainio, Rami; Palmroth, Minna; Pfau-Kempf, Yann; Hoilijoki, Sanni; von Alfthan, Sebastian


    We have developed a new self-consistent Monte Carlo simulation model for particle acceleration in shocks. The model includes a prescribed large-scale magnetic field and plasma density, temperature and velocity profiles and a self-consistently computed incompressible ULF foreshock under the quasilinear approximation. Unlike previous analytical treatments, our model is time dependent and takes full account of the anisotropic particle distributions and scattering in the wave-particle interaction process. We apply the model to the problem of particle acceleration at traveling interplanetary (IP) shocks and Earth's bow shock and compare the results with hybrid-Vlasov simulations and spacecraft observations. A qualitative agreement in terms of spectral shape of the magnetic fluctuations and the polarization of the unstable mode is found between the models and the observations. We will quantify the differences of the models and explore the region of validity of the quasilinear approach in terms of shock parameters. We will also compare the modeled IP shocks and the bow shock, identifying the similarities and differences in the spectrum of accelerated particles and waves in these scenarios. The work has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637324 (HESPERIA). The Academy of Finland is thanked for financial support. We acknowledge the computational resources provided by CSC - IT Centre for Science Ltd., Espoo.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connick, David E.; Smith, Charles W.; Schwadron, Nathan A.


    We examine near-Earth solar wind observations as assembled within the Omni data set over the past 15 years that constitute the latest solar cycle. We show that the interplanetary magnetic field continues to be depleted at low latitudes throughout the protracted solar minimum reaching levels below previously predicted minima. We obtain a rate of flux removal resulting in magnetic field reduction by 0.5 nT yr -1 at 1 AU when averaged over the years 2005-2009 that reduces to 0.3 nT yr -1 for 2007-2009. We show that the flux removal operates on field lines that follow the nominal Parker spiral orientation predicted for open field lines and are largely unassociated with recent ejecta. We argue that the field line reduction can only be accomplished by ongoing reconnection of nominally open field lines or very old closed field lines and we contend that these two interpretations are observationally equivalent and indistinguishable.

  17. Laser Technology in Interplanetary Exploration: The Past and the Future (United States)

    Smith, David E.


    Laser technology has been used in planetary exploration for many years but it has only been in the last decade that laser altimeters and ranging systems have been selected as flight instruments alongside cameras, spectrometers, magnetometers, etc. Today we have an active laser system operating at Mars and another destined for the asteroid Eros. A few years ago a laser ranging system on the Clementine mission changed much of our thinking about the moon and in a few years laser altimeters will be on their way to Mercury, and also to Europa. Along with the increased capabilities and reliability of laser systems has came the realization that precision ranging to the surface of planetary bodies from orbiting spacecraft enables more scientific problems to be addressed, including many associated with planetary rotation, librations, and tides. In addition, new Earth-based laser ranging systems working with similar systems on other planetary bodies in an asynchronous transponder mode will be able to make interplanetary ranging measurements at the few cm level and will advance our understanding of solar system dynamics and relativistic physics.

  18. Vehicle systems design optimization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilmour, J. L.


    The optimization of an electric vehicle layout requires a weight distribution in the range of 53/47 to 62/38 in order to assure dynamic handling characteristics comparable to current production internal combustion engine vehicles. It is possible to achieve this goal and also provide passenger and cargo space comparable to a selected current production sub-compact car either in a unique new design or by utilizing the production vehicle as a base. Necessary modification of the base vehicle can be accomplished without major modification of the structure or running gear. As long as batteries are as heavy and require as much space as they currently do, they must be divided into two packages - one at front under the hood and a second at the rear under the cargo area - in order to achieve the desired weight distribution. The weight distribution criteria requires the placement of batteries at the front of the vehicle even when the central tunnel is used for the location of some batteries. The optimum layout has a front motor and front wheel drive. This configuration provides the optimum vehicle dynamic handling characteristics and the maximum passsenger and cargo space for a given size vehicle.

  19. Astrionic system optimization and modular astrionics for NASA missions after 1974. Preliminary definition of astrionic system for space tug Mission Vehicle Payload (MVP) (United States)


    Results of preliminary studies to define the space tug astrionic system, subsystems, and components to meet requirements for a variety of missions are reported. Emphasis is placed on demonstration of the modular astrionics approach in the design of the space tug astrionic system.

  20. Abandoned vehicles

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service


    The services in charge of managing the CERN site have recently noted an increase in the number of abandoned vehicles. This poses a risk from the point of view of safety and security and, on the eve of several important events in honour of CERN's fiftieth anniversary, is detrimental to the Organization's image. Owners of vehicles that have been left immobile for some time on the CERN site, including on the external car park by the flags, are therefore invited to contact the Reception and Access Control Service ( before 1st October 2004 and, where appropriate, move their vehicle to a designated long-term parking area. After this date, any vehicle whose owner has failed to respond to this request and which is without a number plate, has been stationary for several weeks or is out of service, may be impounded at the owner's risk and expense. Relations with the Host States Service Tel. 72848

  1. Space storms as natural hazards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Dorman


    Full Text Available Eruptive activity of the Sun produces a chain of extreme geophysical events: high-speed solar wind, magnetic field disturbances in the interplanetary space and in the geomagnetic field and also intense fluxes of energetic particles. Space storms can potentially destroy spacecrafts, adversely affect astronauts and airline crew and human health on the Earth, lead to pipeline breaking, melt electricity transformers, and discontinue transmission. In this paper we deal with two consequences of space storms: (i rise in failures in the operation of railway devices and (ii rise in myocardial infarction and stroke incidences.

  2. Distributed Propulsion Vehicles (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Dae


    Since the introduction of large jet-powered transport aircraft, the majority of these vehicles have been designed by placing thrust-generating engines either under the wings or on the fuselage to minimize aerodynamic interactions on the vehicle operation. However, advances in computational and experimental tools along with new technologies in materials, structures, and aircraft controls, etc. are enabling a high degree of integration of the airframe and propulsion system in aircraft design. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been investigating a number of revolutionary distributed propulsion vehicle concepts to increase aircraft performance. The concept of distributed propulsion is to fully integrate a propulsion system within an airframe such that the aircraft takes full synergistic benefits of coupling of airframe aerodynamics and the propulsion thrust stream by distributing thrust using many propulsors on the airframe. Some of the concepts are based on the use of distributed jet flaps, distributed small multiple engines, gas-driven multi-fans, mechanically driven multifans, cross-flow fans, and electric fans driven by turboelectric generators. This paper describes some early concepts of the distributed propulsion vehicles and the current turboelectric distributed propulsion (TeDP) vehicle concepts being studied under the NASA s Subsonic Fixed Wing (SFW) Project to drastically reduce aircraft-related fuel burn, emissions, and noise by the year 2030 to 2035.


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vincent, Frédéric E.; Quémerais, Eric; Koutroumpa, Dimitra; Katushkina, Olga; Izmodenov, Vladislav; Ben-Jaffel, Lotfi; Harris, Walter M.; Clarke, John


    Observations of interstellar helium atoms by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) spacecraft in 2009 reported a local interstellar medium (LISM) velocity vector different from the results of the Ulysses spacecraft between 1991 and 2002. The interplanetary hydrogen (IPH), a population of neutrals that fills the space between planets inside the heliosphere, carries the signatures of the LISM and its interaction with the solar wind. More than 40 yr of space-based studies of the backscattered solar Lyα emission from the IPH provided limited access to the velocity distribution, with the first temporal evolution map of the IPH line-shift during solar cycle 23. This work presents the results of the latest IPH observations made by the Hubble Space Telescope's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph during solar cycle 24. These results have been compiled with previous measurements, including data from the Solar Wind Anisotropies instrument on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. The whole set has been compared to physically realistic models to test both sets of LISM physical parameters as measured by Ulysses and IBEX, respectively. This comparison shows that the LISM velocity vector has not changed significantly since Ulysses measurements


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, Frédéric E.; Quémerais, Eric; Koutroumpa, Dimitra [Université Versailles St.-Quentin, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CRNS/INSU, LATMOS-IPSL, 11 boulevard d' Alembert, 78280 Guyancourt (France); Katushkina, Olga; Izmodenov, Vladislav [Space Research Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Ben-Jaffel, Lotfi [UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR7095, Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014, Paris (France); Harris, Walter M. [University of Arizona, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, 1629 E. University Blvd., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Clarke, John [Center for Space Physics, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)


    Observations of interstellar helium atoms by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) spacecraft in 2009 reported a local interstellar medium (LISM) velocity vector different from the results of the Ulysses spacecraft between 1991 and 2002. The interplanetary hydrogen (IPH), a population of neutrals that fills the space between planets inside the heliosphere, carries the signatures of the LISM and its interaction with the solar wind. More than 40 yr of space-based studies of the backscattered solar Lyα emission from the IPH provided limited access to the velocity distribution, with the first temporal evolution map of the IPH line-shift during solar cycle 23. This work presents the results of the latest IPH observations made by the Hubble Space Telescope's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph during solar cycle 24. These results have been compiled with previous measurements, including data from the Solar Wind Anisotropies instrument on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. The whole set has been compared to physically realistic models to test both sets of LISM physical parameters as measured by Ulysses and IBEX, respectively. This comparison shows that the LISM velocity vector has not changed significantly since Ulysses measurements.

  5. Space space space

    CERN Document Server

    Trembach, Vera


    Space is an introduction to the mysteries of the Universe. Included are Task Cards for independent learning, Journal Word Cards for creative writing, and Hands-On Activities for reinforcing skills in Math and Language Arts. Space is a perfect introduction to further research of the Solar System.

  6. Connected vehicle applications : safety. (United States)


    Connected vehicle safety applications are designed to increase situational awareness : and reduce or eliminate crashes through vehicle-to-infrastructure, vehicle-to-vehicle, : and vehicle-to-pedestrian data transmissions. Applications support advisor...

  7. Visiting Vehicle Ground Trajectory Tool (United States)

    Hamm, Dustin


    The International Space Station (ISS) Visiting Vehicle Group needed a targeting tool for vehicles that rendezvous with the ISS. The Visiting Vehicle Ground Trajectory targeting tool provides the ability to perform both realtime and planning operations for the Visiting Vehicle Group. This tool provides a highly reconfigurable base, which allows the Visiting Vehicle Group to perform their work. The application is composed of a telemetry processing function, a relative motion function, a targeting function, a vector view, and 2D/3D world map type graphics. The software tool provides the ability to plan a rendezvous trajectory for vehicles that visit the ISS. It models these relative trajectories using planned and realtime data from the vehicle. The tool monitors ongoing rendezvous trajectory relative motion, and ensures visiting vehicles stay within agreed corridors. The software provides the ability to update or re-plan a rendezvous to support contingency operations. Adding new parameters and incorporating them into the system was previously not available on-the-fly. If an unanticipated capability wasn't discovered until the vehicle was flying, there was no way to update things.

  8. Combat Vehicle Technology Report (United States)


    reducing fuel storage under armor , and using manual instead of automatic transmissions, these decisions involve definite operational trade-offs...turn. 20 The application of ceramic materials has made possible the adiabatic -aiesel concept that reduces under - armor cooling system size will eliminate all conventional torsion bar suspension volume under armor space claim, and will have a very direct effect on reducing vehicle

  9. CME Interaction with Coronal Holes and Their Interplanetary Consequences (United States)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Makela, P.; Xie, H.; Akiyama, S.; Yashiro, S.


    A significant number of interplanetary (IP) shocks (-17%) during cycle 23 were not followed by drivers. The number of such "driverless" shocks steadily increased with the solar cycle with 15%, 33%, and 52% occurring in the rise, maximum, and declining phase of the solar cycle. The solar sources of 15% of the driverless shocks were very close the central meridian of the Sun (within approx.15deg), which is quite unexpected. More interestingly, all the driverless shocks with their solar sources near the solar disk center occurred during the declining phase of solar cycle 23. When we investigated the coronal environment of the source regions of driverless shocks, we found that in each case there was at least one coronal hole nearby suggesting that the coronal holes might have deflected the associated coronal mass ejections (CMEs) away from the Sun-Earth line. The presence of abundant low-latitude coronal holes during the declining phase further explains why CMEs originating close to the disk center mimic the limb CMEs, which normally lead to driverless shocks due to purely geometrical reasons. We also examined the solar source regions of shocks with drivers. For these, the coronal holes were located such that they either had no influence on the CME trajectories. or they deflected the CMEs towards the Sun-Earth line. We also obtained the open magnetic field distribution on the Sun by performing a potential field source surface extrapolation to the corona. It was found that the CMEs generally move away from the open magnetic field regions. The CME-coronal hole interaction must be widespread in the declining phase, and may have a significant impact on the geoeffectiveness of CMEs.

  10. Severe geomagnetic storms and Forbush decreases: interplanetary relationships reexamined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Kane


    Full Text Available Severe storms (Dst and Forbush decreases (FD during cycle 23 showed that maximum negative Dst magnitudes usually occurred almost simultaneously with the maximum negative values of the Bz component of interplanetary magnetic field B, but the maximum magnitudes of negative Dst and Bz were poorly correlated (+0.28. A parameter Bz(CP was calculated (cumulative partial Bz as sum of the hourly negative values of Bz from the time of start to the maximum negative value. The correlation of negative Dst maximum with Bz(CP was higher (+0.59 as compared to that of Dst with Bz alone (+0.28. When the product of Bz with the solar wind speed V (at the hour of negative Bz maximum was considered, the correlation of negative Dst maximum with VBz was +0.59 and with VBz(CP, 0.71. Thus, including V improved the correlations. However, ground-based Dst values have a considerable contribution from magnetopause currents (several tens of nT, even exceeding 100 nT in very severe storms. When their contribution is subtracted from Dst(nT, the residue Dst* representing true ring current effect is much better correlated with Bz and Bz(CP, but not with VBz or VBz(CP, indicating that these are unimportant parameters and the effect of V is seen only through the solar wind ram pressure causing magnetopause currents. Maximum negative Dst (or Dst* did not occur at the same hour as maximum FD. The time evolutions of Dst and FD were very different. The correlations were almost zero. Basically, negative Dst (or Dst* and FDs are uncorrelated, indicating altogether different mechanism.

  11. Search for interplanetary shock signals using the Tupi telescope at the ascending phase of the solar cycle 24

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Augusto, C.R.A.; Kopenkin, V.; Navia, C.E.; Tsui, K.H.; Shigueoka, H.; Fauth, A.C.; Kemp, E.; Manganote, E.J.T.; Oliveira, M.A. Leigui de; Miranda, P.; Ticona, R.; Velarde, A.


    Full text: This paper presents the results of an on-going survey on the association between the muon flux variation at ground level registered by the Tupi telescopes (Niteroi-Brazil, 22.9 deg S; 43.2 deg W, 3 m above sea level) in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region and interplanetary shocks detected by space-borne detectors (SOHO, ACE, GOES). The SAA provides favorable conditions for observation of shock driven geomagnetic storms, including those of very small scale. Geomagnetic storms are usually originated by the transient events such as solar flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and corotating interaction regions (CIRs). In most cases scientific research showed variation in the cosmic particle flux at ground level in correlation with large scale CMEs solar flares characterized by high absolute values of geomagnetic activity Kp index. In our analysis we found that the muon flux associated with the interplanetary shock signals changes also in response to low solar activity and to fast rise in Kp index. We report experimental data obtained by the Tupi telescopes in the period from June 2010 to December 2011. This time period corresponds to the rising phase of the solar cycle 24. These observations are compared with publicly available observations from the CELIAS/MTOF Proton Monitor on SOHO satellite in order to study the origin of the shocks. Among 28 interplanetary shocks reported in present analysis, there are 12 possibly associated with the CMEs and solar flares, 2 events - with the CIR related shocks (forward or reverse shocks), and the origin of the remaining 13 events has not been determined by the satellite detectors. By comparing the observed time (delayed or anticipated) of the shock related signal on Earth (the Tupi telescopes) with the trigger time of the shock registered by satellites located at the Lagrange point L1 (SOHO, ACE), we find that it is possible to estimate the type of the shock (forward or reverse). This method can be useful in

  12. Search for interplanetary shock signals using the Tupi telescope at the ascending phase of the solar cycle 24

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augusto, C.R.A.; Kopenkin, V.; Navia, C.E.; Tsui, K.H.; Shigueoka, H. [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Fauth, A.C.; Kemp, E.; Manganote, E.J.T. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IFGW/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Gleb Wataghin; Oliveira, M.A. Leigui de [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Santo Andre, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Humanas; Miranda, P.; Ticona, R.; Velarde, A. [Universidad Mayor de San Andres (UMSA), La Paz (Bolivia, Plurinational State of). Inst. de Investigaciones Fisicas


    Full text: This paper presents the results of an on-going survey on the association between the muon flux variation at ground level registered by the Tupi telescopes (Niteroi-Brazil, 22.9 deg S; 43.2 deg W, 3 m above sea level) in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region and interplanetary shocks detected by space-borne detectors (SOHO, ACE, GOES). The SAA provides favorable conditions for observation of shock driven geomagnetic storms, including those of very small scale. Geomagnetic storms are usually originated by the transient events such as solar flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and corotating interaction regions (CIRs). In most cases scientific research showed variation in the cosmic particle flux at ground level in correlation with large scale CMEs solar flares characterized by high absolute values of geomagnetic activity Kp index. In our analysis we found that the muon flux associated with the interplanetary shock signals changes also in response to low solar activity and to fast rise in Kp index. We report experimental data obtained by the Tupi telescopes in the period from June 2010 to December 2011. This time period corresponds to the rising phase of the solar cycle 24. These observations are compared with publicly available observations from the CELIAS/MTOF Proton Monitor on SOHO satellite in order to study the origin of the shocks. Among 28 interplanetary shocks reported in present analysis, there are 12 possibly associated with the CMEs and solar flares, 2 events - with the CIR related shocks (forward or reverse shocks), and the origin of the remaining 13 events has not been determined by the satellite detectors. By comparing the observed time (delayed or anticipated) of the shock related signal on Earth (the Tupi telescopes) with the trigger time of the shock registered by satellites located at the Lagrange point L1 (SOHO, ACE), we find that it is possible to estimate the type of the shock (forward or reverse). This method can be useful in

  13. Effects of future space vehicle operations on a single day in the National Airspace System : a fast-time computer simulation. (United States)


    This document describes the objectives, methods, analyses, and results of a study used to quantify the effects of future space operations : on the National Airspace System (NAS), and to demonstrate the possible benefits of one proposed strategy to mi...

  14. Study on a nuclear spaceship for interplanetary cruise. Core design of a small fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Taku; Yoshida, Yutaka; Honma, Yuji; Narabayashi, Tadashi; Shimazu, Yoichiro; Tsuji, Masashi


    In 21st century, the field which needs nuclear power plant systems are not just on the Earth. We considered that the nuclear power is proper for the energy source of the manned spaceship for interplanetary cruise. In this study, we considered the system configuration of the spaceship, the design of power generating system, some navigational plans to reach the Mars. The system configuration of the spaceship studied in our laboratory has one or two Fast Reactor with liquid sodium coolant as main heat source, dozens of Stirling Engines as main power generators and some Plasma Rockets called VASIMR as propulsion system. Because the Fast Reactor need not thick and heavy pressure vessel and the sodium has high performance of heat transfer, they are the best suited to the space nuclear reactor system. In addition, Stirling Engine has high theoretical thermal efficiency and need not water, steam generators, steam condenser and so on. This results in absence of sodium-water reaction and significant weight saving of power generator system. The VASIMR studied at ASPL is an advanced electric propulsion device which is able to convert large amount of electric power into great propulsion force. At reactor designing, we are using the SRAC2006 code developed at JAEA and pursuing the optimal fast reactor design for spaceship. We think that smaller reactor is better. To realize a system which has inherent safety, sodium void reactivity should be negative. We adopted the design of the small fast reactor named 4S (Super Safe, Small and Simple) as a reference design. As a result, we verified that a void reactivity had negative value in some of calculation cases and we realized safe, small and simple space fast reactor. In addition, to piece out power generator system in space, we need to consider if the budget of exhaust heat from radiator panels to space needed at this case is realistic. To obtain the optimal trajectory of rapid Mars transit, we made some analysis calculation codes

  15. Urban planning for autonomous vehicles


    Fourie, Pieter J.; Ordoñez Medina, Sergio A.; Maheshwari, Tanvi; Wang, Biyu; Erath, Alexander; Cairns, Stephen; Axhausen, Kay W.


    In land-scarce Singapore, population growth and increasingly dense development are running up against limited remaining space for mobility infrastructure expansion. Autonomous Vehicles (AV) promise to relieve some of this pressure, through more efficient use of road space through platooning and intersection coordination, reducing the need for parking space, and reducing overall reliance on privately owned cars, realising Singapore’s vision of a “car-lite” future. In a collaborative resear...

  16. 12th Reinventing Space Conference

    CERN Document Server


    The 2014 Reinventing Space conference presented a number of questions in the context of a constantly innovating space industry, from addressing the future of global cooperation, investigating the impact of cuts in US government spending on the private space sector, and probing the overall future of the commercial launch sector. Space tourism and new technology promise the revival of interest in space development (the Apollo Era was the first period of intense space activity and growth). The need to create dramatically lower cost, responsive and reliable launch systems and spacecraft has never been more vital. Advances in technology are allowing smaller and cheaper satellites to be orbited - from cubesats to nanosatellites to femtosatellites. Thanks to more efficient new launch possibilities, low cost access to space is becoming ever more achievable. Commercial companies and countries are targeting the industry with new funding. Organised by the British Interplanetary Society, the presentations at this confere...

  17. electric vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. R. Lee


    Full Text Available A major problem facing battery-powered electric vehicles is in their batteries: weight and charge capacity. Thus, a battery-powered electric vehicle only has a short driving range. To travel for a longer distance, the batteries are required to be recharged frequently. In this paper, we construct a model for a battery-powered electric vehicle, in which driving strategy is to be obtained such that the total travelling time between two locations is minimized. The problem is formulated as an optimization problem with switching times and speed as decision variables. This is an unconventional optimization problem. However, by using the control parametrization enhancing technique (CPET, it is shown that this unconventional optimization is equivalent to a conventional optimal parameter selection problem. Numerical examples are solved using the proposed method.

  18. Automation for Vehicle and Crew Operations, Phase I (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Modern space systems such as the International Space Station (ISS) and the proposed Constellation vehicles and habitats are complex entities with hundreds of...


    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laitinen, T.; Dalla, S.; Huttunen-Heikinmaa, K.; Valtonen, E.


    To understand the origin of Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs), we must study their injection time relative to other solar eruption manifestations. Traditionally the injection time is determined using the Velocity Dispersion Analysis (VDA) where a linear fit of the observed event onset times at 1 AU to the inverse velocities of SEPs is used to derive the injection time and path length of the first-arriving particles. VDA does not, however, take into account that the particles that produce a statistically observable onset at 1 AU have scattered in the interplanetary space. We use Monte Carlo test particle simulations of energetic protons to study the effect of particle scattering on the observable SEP event onset above pre-event background, and consequently on VDA results. We find that the VDA results are sensitive to the properties of the pre-event and event particle spectra as well as SEP injection and scattering parameters. In particular, a VDA-obtained path length that is close to the nominal Parker spiral length does not imply that the VDA injection time is correct. We study the delay to the observed onset caused by scattering of the particles and derive a simple estimate for the delay time by using the rate of intensity increase at the SEP onset as a parameter. We apply the correction to a magnetically well-connected SEP event of 2000 June 10, and show it to improve both the path length and injection time estimates, while also increasing the error limits to better reflect the inherent uncertainties of VDA

  20. The location and rate of dayside reconnection during an interval of southward interplanetary magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pinnock


    Full Text Available Using ionospheric data from the SuperDARN radar network and a DMSP satellite we obtain a comprehensive description of the spatial and temporal pattern of day-side reconnection. During a period of southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF, the data are used to determine the location of the ionospheric projection of the dayside magnetopause reconnection X-line. From the flow of plasma across the projected X-line, we derive the reconnection rate across 7 h of longitude and estimate it for the total length of the X-line footprint, which was found to be 10 h of longitude. Using the Tsyganenko 96 magnetic field model, the ionospheric data are mapped to the magnetopause, in order to provide an estimate of the extent of the reconnection X-line. This is found to be ~ 38 RE in extent, spanning the whole dayside magnetopause from dawn to dusk flank. Our results are compared with previously reported encounters by the Equator-S and Geotail spacecraft with a reconnecting magnetopause, near the dawn flank, for the same period. The SuperDARN observations allow the satellite data to be set in the context of the whole magnetopause reconnection X-line. The total potential associated with dayside reconnection was ~ 150 kV. The reconnection signatures detected by the Equator-S satellite mapped to a region in the ionosphere showing continuous flow across the polar cap boundary, but the reconnection rate was variable and showed a clear spatial variation, with a distinct minimum at 14:00 magnetic local time which was present throughout the 30-min study period.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers; magnetosphere-ionoshere interactions – Space plasma physics (magnetic reconnection